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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 4 - "Aram, Eugene" to "Arcueil"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

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          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME II, SLICE IV

          Aram, Eugene to Arcueil



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  ARAM, EUGENE                     ARCH, JOSEPH
  ARAMAIC LANGUAGES                ARCH
  ARANDA, PEDRO PABLO DE BOLEA     ARCHAEOLOGY
  ARAN ISLANDS                     ARCHAEOPTERYX
  ARANJUEZ                         ARCHAISM
  ARANY, JÁNOS                     ARCHANGEL (government of Russia)
  ARAPAHO                          ARCHANGEL (town of Russia)
  ARARAT (mountains)               ARCHBALD
  ARARAT (town of Australia)       ARCHBISHOP
  ARAROBA POWDER                   ARCHCHANCELLOR
  ARAS                             ARCHDEACON
  ARASON, JON                      ARCHDUKE
  ARATOR                           ARCHEAN SYSTEM
  ARATUS (Greek statesman)         ARCHELAUS OF CAPPADOCIA
  ARATUS (Greek didactic poet)     ARCHELAUS (king of Judaea)
  ARAUCANIA                        ARCHELAUS (king of Macedonia)
  ARAUCANIANS                      ARCHELAUS OF MILETUS
  ARAUCARIA                        ARCHENHOLZ, JOHANN WILHELM VON
  ARAUCO                           ARCHER, WILLIAM
  ARAVALLI HILLS                   ARCHERMUS
  ARAWAK                           ARCHERY
  ARBACES                          ARCHES, COURT OF
  ARBE                             ARCHESTRATUS
  ARBELA                           ARCHIAC, ÉTIENNE JULES DE SAINT SIMON
  ARBER, EDWARD                    ARCHIAS, AULUS LICINIUS
  ARBITRAGE                        ARCHIDAMUS
  ARBITRATION                      ARCHIL
  ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL       ARCHILOCHUS
  ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION     ARCHIMANDRITE
  ARBOGAST                         ARCHIMEDES
  ARBOIS                           ARCHIMEDES, SCREW OF
  ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, HENRI D'  ARCHIPELAGO
  ARBOR DAY                        ARCHIPPUS
  ARBORETUM                        ARCHITECTURE
  ARBORICULTURE                    ARCHITRAVE
  ARBOR VITAE                      ARCHIVE
  ARBOS, FERNANDEZ                 ARCHIVOLT
  ARBOUR                           ARCHIVOLT
  ARBROATH                         ARCHPRIEST
  ARBUTHNOT, ALEXANDER             ARCHYTAS
  ARBUTHNOT, JOHN                  ARCIS-SUR-AUBE
  ARCACHON                         ARCOLA
  ARCADE                           ARCOS DE LA FRONTERA
  ARCADELT                         ARCOSOLIUM
  ARCADIA                          ARCOT
  ARCADIUS (Roman emperor)         ARCTIC
  ARCADIUS (Greek grammarian)      ARCTINUS
  ARCELLA                          ARCTURUS
  ARCESILAUS                       ARCUEIL



ARAM, EUGENE (1704-1759), English scholar, but more famous as the
murderer celebrated by Hood in his ballad, the _Dream of Eugene Aram_,
and by Bulwer Lytton in his romance of _Eugene Aram_, was born of humble
parents at Ramsgill, Yorkshire, in 1704. He received little education at
school, but manifested an intense desire for learning. While still
young, he married and settled as a schoolmaster at Netherdale, and
during the years he spent there, he taught himself both Latin and Greek.
In 1734 he removed to Knaresborough, where he remained as schoolmaster
till 1745. In that year a man named Daniel Clark, an intimate friend of
Aram, after obtaining a considerable quantity of goods from some of the
tradesmen in the town, suddenly disappeared. Suspicions of being
concerned in this swindling transaction fell upon Aram. His garden was
searched, and some of the goods found there. As, however, there was not
evidence sufficient to convict him of any crime, he was discharged, and
soon after set out for London, leaving his wife behind. For several
years he travelled through parts of England, acting as usher in a number
of schools, and settled finally at Lynn, in Norfolk. During his travels
he had amassed considerable materials for a work he had projected on
etymology, to be entitled a _Comparative Lexicon of the English, Latin,
Greek, Hebrew and Celtic Languages_. He was undoubtedly an original
philologist, who realized, what was then not yet admitted by scholars,
the affinity of the Celtic language to the other languages of Europe,
and could dispute the then accepted belief that Latin was derived from
Greek. Aram's writings show that he had grasped the right idea on the
subject of the Indo-European character of the Celtic language, which was
not established till J.C. Prichard published his book, _Eastern Origin
of the Celtic Nations_, in 1831. But he was not destined to live in
history as the pioneer of a new philology. In February 1758 a skeleton
was dug up at Knaresborough, and some suspicion arose that it might be
Clark's. Aram's wife had more than once hinted that her husband and a
man named Houseman knew the secret of Clark's disappearance. Houseman
was at once arrested and confronted with the bones that had been found.
He affirmed his innocence, and, taking up one of the bones, said, "This
is no more Dan Clark's bone than it is mine." His manner in saying this
roused suspicion that he knew more of Clark's disappearance than he was
willing to admit. He was again examined, and confessed that he had been
present at the murder of Clark by Aram and another man, Terry, of whom
nothing further is heard. He also gave information as to the place where
the body had been buried in St Robert's Cave, a well-known spot near
Knaresborough. A skeleton was dug up here, and Aram was immediately
arrested, and sent to York for trial. Houseman was admitted as evidence
against him. Aram conducted his own defence, and did not attempt to
overthrow Houseman's evidence, although there were some discrepancies in
that; but made a skilful attack on the fallibility of circumstantial
evidence in general, and particularly of evidence drawn from the
discovery of bones. He brought forward several instances where bones had
been found in caves, and tried to show that the bones found in St
Robert's Cave were probably those of some hermit who had taken up his
abode there. He was found guilty, and condemned to be executed on the
6th of August 1759, three days after his trial. While in his cell he
confessed his guilt, and threw some light on the motives for his crime,
by asserting that he had discovered a criminal intimacy between Clark
and his own wife. On the night before his execution he made an
unsuccessful attempt at suicide by opening the veins in his arm.



ARAMAIC LANGUAGES, a class of languages so called from Aram, a
geographical term, which in old Semitic usage designates nearly the same
districts as the Greek word Syria. Aram, however, does not include
Palestine, while it comprehends Mesopotamia (Heb. Aram of two rivers), a
region which the Greeks frequently distinguish from Syria proper. Thus
the Aramaic languages may be geographically defined as the Semitic
dialects originally current in Mesopotamia and the regions extending
south-west from the Euphrates to Palestine. (See SEMITIC LANGUAGES;
SYRIAC; TARGUM.)



ARANDA, PEDRO PABLO ABARCA DE BOLEA, COUNT OF (1719-1798), Spanish
minister and general, was born at the castle of Siétamo, a lordship of
his family near Huesca in Aragon, on the 1st of August 1719. The house
of Abarca was very ancient, a fact of which Don Pedro, who never forgot
that he was a "rico hombre" (noble) of Aragon, was deeply conscious. He
was educated partly at Bologna and partly at the military school of
Parma. In 1740 he entered the army as captain in the regiment
"Castilla," of which his father was proprietary colonel. On the death of
his father he became colonel, and served in the Italian campaigns of the
War of the Austrian Succession. In 1749 he married Doña Ana, daughter of
the 9th duke of Hijar, by whom he had one son, who died young, and a
daughter. During the following years he travelled and visited the camp
of Frederick the Great, whose system of drill he admired and afterwards
introduced into the Spanish army. After a short period of diplomatic
service in Portugal, where his exacting temper made it impossible for
him to agree with the premier, Pombal, he returned to Madrid, was made a
knight of the Golden Fleece, and director-general of artillery--a post
which he threw up, together with his rank of lieutenant-general, because
he was not allowed to punish certain fraudulent contractors. The king,
Ferdinand VI., exiled him to his estates, but Charles III. on his
accession took him into favour. He was again employed in diplomacy, and
then appointed to command an army against Portugal in 1763. In 1764 he
was made governor of Valencia. When in 1766 the king was driven from his
capital in a riot, he summoned Aranda to Madrid and made him president
of the council, and captain-general of New Castile. Until 1773 Aranda
was the most important minister in Spain. He restored order and aided
the king most materially in his work of administrative reform. But his
great achievements, which gave him a high reputation throughout Europe
with the philosophical and anti-clerical parties, were his expulsion of
the Jesuits, whom the king considered responsible for the riot of 1766,
and the active part he took in the suppression of the order. Aranda had
come much under foreign influence by his education and his travels, and
had acquired the reputation of being a confirmed sceptic. By Voltaire
and the Encyclopaedists he was erected into a hero from whom great
things were expected. His ability, his remarkable capacity for work,
and his popularity made him indispensable to the king. But he was a
trying servant, for his temper was captious and his tongue sarcastic,
while his aristocratic arrogance led him to display an offensive
contempt for the _golillas_ (the stiff collars), as he called the
lawyers and public servants whom the king preferred to choose as
ministers, and he permitted himself an amazing freedom of language with
his sovereign. At last Charles III. sent him as ambassador to Paris in a
disguised disgrace. Aranda held this position till 1787, but in Paris he
was chiefly known for his oddities of manner and for perpetual wrangling
with the French on small points of etiquette. He resigned his post for
private reasons. In the reign of Charles IV., with whom he had been on
familiar terms during the life of the old king, he was for a very short
time prime minister in 1792. In reality he was merely used as a screen
by the queen Maria Louisa and her favourite Godoy. His open sympathy
with the French Revolution brought him into collision with the violent
reaction produced in Spain by the excesses of the Jacobins, while his
temper, which had become perfectly uncontrollable with age, made him
insufferable to the king. After his removal from office he was
imprisoned for a short time at Granada, and was threatened with a trial
by the Inquisition. The proceedings did not go beyond the preliminary
stage, and Aranda died at Epila on the 9th of January 1798.

  See Don Jacobo de la Pezuela in the _Revista de España_, vol. xxv.
  (1872); Don Antonio Ma. Fabié, in the _Diccionario general de politica
  y administration_ of Don E. Suarez Inclan (Madrid, 1868), vol. i.; M.
  Morel Fatio, _Études sur l'Espagne_ (2nd series, Paris, 1890).
       (D. H.)



ARAN ISLANDS, or SOUTH ARAN, three islands lying across Galway Bay, on
the west coast of Ireland, in a south-easterly direction, forming a kind
of natural breakwater. They belong to the county Galway, and their
population in 1901 was 2863. They are called respectively--beginning
with the northernmost--Inishmore (or Aranmore), the Great Island;
Inishmaan, the Middle Island; and Inisheer, the Eastern Island. The
first has an elevation of 354 ft., the second of 259, and the third of
202. Their formation is carboniferous limestone. These islands are
remarkable for a number of architectural remains of a very early date.
In Inishmore there stand, on a cliff 220 ft. high, large remains of a
circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or
Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus,
Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st
century A.D. There are seven other similar structures in the group.
Inishmore also bears the name of _Aran-na-naomh_, Aran-of-the-Saints,
from the number of religious recluses who took up their abode in it, and
gave a celebrity to the holy wells, altars and shrines, to which many
are still attracted. No less, indeed, than twenty buildings of
ecclesiastical or monastic character have been enumerated in the three
islands. On Inishmore are remains of the abbey of Killenda. Christianity
was introduced in the 5th century, and Aran soon became one of the most
famous island-resorts of religious teachers and ascetics. The
extraordinary fame of the foundations here has been inferred from the
inscription "VII. Romani" on a stone in the church Teampull Brecain on
Inishmore, attributed to disciples from Rome. The total area of the
islands is 11,579 acres. The Congested Districts Board made many efforts
to improve the condition of the inhabitants, especially by introducing
better methods of fishing. A curing station is established at Killeany,
the harbour of Inishmore.



ARANJUEZ (perhaps the ancient _Ara Jovis_), a town of central Spain, in
the province of Madrid, 30 m. S. of Madrid, on the left bank of the
river Tagus, at the junction of the main southern railways to Madrid,
and at the western terminus of the Aranjuez-Cuenca railway. Pop. (1900)
12,670. Aranjuez occupies part of a wide valley, about 1500 ft. above
the sea. Its formal, straight streets, crossing one another regularly at
right angles, and its uniform, two-storeyed houses were built in
imitation of the Dutch style, under the direction of Jerónimo, marquis
de Grimaldi (1716-1788), ambassador of Charles III. at the Hague. A
rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders
irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the
barren plateau of New Castile. On every side the town is surrounded by
royal parks and woods of sycamores, plane-trees and elms, often of
extraordinary size. The prevalence of the dark English elms, first
introduced into the country and planted here by order of Philip II.
(1527-1598), gives to the Aranjuez district a character wholly distinct
from that of other Spanish landscapes; and at an early period, despite
the unhealthy climate, and especially the oppressive summer heat, which
often approaches 100° F., Aranjuez became a favourite residence of the
Spanish court. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the master of the Order
of Santiago had a country seat here, which passed, along with the
mastership, into the possession of the crown of Spain in 1522. Its
successive occupants, from the emperor Charles V. (1500-1558) down to
Ferdinand VII. (1784-1833), modified it according to their respective
tastes. The larger palace was built by Pedro Caro for Philip V.
(1683-1746), in the French style of the period. It overlooks the Jardin
de la Isla, a beautiful garden laid out for Philip II. on an island in
the Tagus, which forms the scene of Schiller's famous drama _Don
Carlos_. The Casa del Labrador, or Labourer's Cottage, as it is called,
is a smaller palace built by Charles IV. in 1803, and full of elaborate
ornamentation. The chief local industry is farming, and an annual fair
is held in September for the sale of live stock. Great attention is
given to the rearing of horses and mules, and the royal stud used to be
remarkable for the beauty of its cream-coloured breed. The treaty of
1772 between France and Spain was concluded at Aranjuez, which
afterwards suffered severely from the French during the Peninsular War.
Here, also, in 1808, the insurrection broke out which ended in the
abdication of Charles IV.

  For a fuller description of Aranjuez see D.S. Viñas y Rey, _Aranjuez_
  (Madrid, 1890); F. Nard, _Guia de Aranjuez, su historia y descripcion_
  (Madrid, 1851), (illustrated); Alvarez de Quindos, _Descripcion
  historica del real basque y casa de Aranjuez_ (Madrid, 1804).



ARANY, JÁNOS (1817-1882), the greatest poet of Hungary after Petöfi, was
born at Nagy-Szalontá on the 2nd of March 1817, the son of György Arany
and Sara Mégyeri; his people were small Calvinist yeomen of noble
origin, whose property consisted of a rush-thatched cottage and a tiny
plot of land. An only son, late born, seeing no companions of his own
age, hearing nothing but the voices of his parents and the hymns and
prayers in the little Calvinist chapel, Arany grew up a grave and
gentle, but by no means an ignorant child. His precocity was remarkable.
At six years of age he went to school at Szalontá, where he read
everything he could lay his hands upon in Hungarian and Latin. From 1832
to 1836 Arany was a preceptor at Kis-Ujszállás and Debreczen, still a
voracious reader with a wider field before him, for he had by this time
taught himself French and German. Tiring of the monotony of a scholastic
life, he joined a troupe of travelling actors. The hardships he suffered
were as nothing compared with the pangs of conscience which plagued him
when he thought of the despair of his father, who had meant to make a
pastor of this prodigal son, to whom both church and college now seemed
for ever closed. At last he borrowed sixpence from the stage-manager and
returned home, carrying all his property tied up in a handkerchief.
Shortly after his home-coming his mother died and his father became
stone-blind. Arany at once resolved that it was his duty never to leave
his father again, and a conrectorship which he obtained at this time
enabled them to live in modest comfort. In 1840 he obtained a notaryship
also, and the same year married Juliana Ercsey, the penniless orphan
daughter of an advocate. The next few happy years were devoted to his
profession and a good deal of miscellaneous reading, especially of
Shakespeare (he learnt English in order to compare the original with his
well-thumbed German version) and Homer. Meanwhile the reactionaries of
Vienna were goading the Magyar Liberals into revolt, and Arany found a
safety-valve for his growing indignation by composing a satirical poem
in hexameters, entitled "The Lost Constitution." The Kisfaludy Society,
the great literary association of Hungary, about this time happened to
advertise a prize for the best satire on current events. Arany sent in
his work, and shortly afterwards was awarded the 25-gulden prize (7th of
February 1846) by the society, which then advertised another prize for
the best Magyar epic poem. Arany won this also with his _Toldi_ (the
first part of the present trilogy), and immediately found himself
famous. All eyes were instantly turned towards the poor country notary,
and Petöfi was the first to greet him as a brother. In February of the
following year Arany was elected a member of the Kisfaludy Society. In
the memorable year 1848 the people of Szalontá elected him their deputy
to the Hungarian parliament. But neither now nor subsequently (1861,
1869) would he accept a parliamentary mandate. He wrote many articles,
however, in the gazette _Népbarátja_, an organ of the Magyar government,
and served in the field as a national guard for eight or ten weeks. In
1849 he was in the civil service of the revolutionary government, and
after the final catastrophe returned to his native place, living as best
he could on his small savings till 1850, when Lajos Tisza, the father of
Kálmán Tisza, the future prime minister, invited him to his castle at
Geszt to teach his son Domokos the art of poetry. In the following year
Arany was elected professor of Hungarian literature and language at the
Nagy-Körös gymnasium. He also attempted to write another epic poem, but
the time was not favourable for such an undertaking. The miserable
condition of his country, and his own very precarious situation, weighed
heavily upon his sensitive soul, and he suffered severely both in mind
and body. On the other hand reflection on past events made clear to him
not only the sufferings but the defects and follies of the national
heroes, and from henceforth, for the first time, we notice a bitterly
humorous vein in his writings. Thus _Bolond Istók_, the first canto of
which he completed in 1850, is full of sub-acrid merriment. During his
nine years' residence at Nagy-Körös, Arany first seriously turned his
attention to the Magyar ballad, and not only composed some of the most
beautiful ballads in the language, but wrote two priceless dissertations
on the technique of the ballad in general: "Something concerning
assonance" (1854), and "On Hungarian National Versification" (1856).

When the Hungarian Academy opened its doors again after a ten years'
cessation, Arany was elected a member (15th of December 1858). On the
15th of July 1860 he was elected director of the revived Kisfaludy
Society, and went to Pest. In November, the same year, he started
_Szépirodalmi Figyelö_, a monthly review better known by its later name,
_Koszeru_, which did much for Magyar criticism and literature. He also
edited the principal publications of the society, including its notable
translation of _Shakespeare's Dramatic Works_, to which he contributed
the _Midsummer Night's Dream_ (1864), _Hamlet_ and _King John_ (1867).
The same year he won the Nádasdy prize of the Academy with his poem
"Death of Buda." From 1865 to 1879 he was the secretary of the Hungarian
Academy.

Domestic affliction, ill-health and his official duties made these years
comparatively unproductive, but he issued an edition of his collected
poems in 1867, and in 1880 won the Karácsonyi prize with his translation
of the _Comedies of Aristophanes_ (1880). In 1879 he completed his epic
trilogy by publishing _The Love of Toldi_ and _Toldi's Evening_, which
were received with universal enthusiasm. He died suddenly on the 24th of
October 1882. The first edition of his collected works, in 8 volumes,
was published in 1884-1885.

Arany reformed Hungarian literature. Hitherto classical and romantic
successively, like other European literatures, he first gave it a
national direction. He compelled the poetry of art to draw nearer to
life and nature, extended its boundaries and made it more generally
intelligible and popular. He wrote not for one class or school but for
the whole nation. He introduced the popular element into literature, but
at the same time elevated and ennobled it. What Petöfi had done for
lyrical he did for epic poetry. Yet there were great differences between
them. Petöfi was more subjective, more individual; Arany was more
objective and national. As a lyric poet Petöfi naturally gave expression
to present moods and feelings; as an epic poet Arany plunged into the
past. He took his standpoint on tradition. His art was essentially
rooted in the character of the whole nation and its glorious history.
His genius was unusually rich and versatile; his artistic conscience
always alert and sober. His taste was extraordinarily developed and
absolutely sure. To say nothing of his other great qualities, he is
certainly the most artistic of all the Magyar poets.

  See _Posthumous Writings and Correspondence of Arany_, edited by
  László Arany (Hung.), (Budapest, 1887-1889); article "Arany," in _A
  Pallas Nagy Lexikona_, Kot 2 (Budapest, 1893); Mór Gaal, _Life of
  János Arany_ (Hung.), (Budapest, 1898); L. Gyöngyösi, _János Arany's
  Life and Works_ (Hung.), (Budapest, 1901). Translations from Arany:
  _The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt_ (canto 6 of _Buda's Death_), by D.
  Butler (London, 1881); _Toldi, poème en 12 chants_ (Paris, 1895);
  _Dichtungen_ (Leipzig, 1880); _Konig Buda's Tod_ (Leipzig, 1879);
  _Balladen_ (Vienna, 1886).     (R. N. B.)



ARAPAHO (possibly from the Pawnee for "trader"), a tribe of North
American Indians of Algonquian stock. They formerly ranged over the
central portion of the plains between the Platte and Arkansas. They were
a brave, warlike, predatory tribe. With the Sioux and Cheyennes they
waged unremitting warfare upon the Utes. The southern divisions of the
tribe were placed (1867) on a reservation in the west of Indian
Territory (now Oklahoma), while the northern are in western Wyoming. The
southern section sold their reservations in 1892 and became American
citizens. The Arapahos number in all some 2000.

  See INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN; H.R. Schoolcraft, _History of the Indian
  Tribes of the United States_ (1851-1837, 6 vols.); _Handbook of
  American Indians_, ed. F.W. Hodge (Washington, 1907).



ARARAT (Armen. _Massis_, Turk. _Egri Dagh_, i.e. "Painful Mountain,"
Pers. _Koh-i-Nuh_, i.e. "Mountain of Noah,"), the name given to the
culminating point of the Armenian plateau which rises to a height of
17,000 ft. above the sea. The _massif_ of Ararat rises on the north and
east out of the alluvial plain of the Aras, here from 2500 ft. to 3000
ft. above the sea, and on the south-west sinks into the plateau of
Bayezid, about 4500 ft. It is thus isolated on all sides but the
north-west, where a _col_ about 6900 ft. high connects it with a long
ridge of volcanic mountains. Out of the _massif_ rise two peaks, "their
bases confluent at a height of 8800 ft., their summits about 7 m.
apart." The higher, Great Ararat, is "a huge broad-shouldered mass, more
of a dome than a cone"; the lower, Little Ararat, 12,840 ft. on which
the territories of the tsar, the sultan, and the shah meet, is "an
elegant cone or pyramid, rising with steep, smooth, regular sides into a
comparatively sharp peak" (Bryce). On the north and west the slopes of
Great Ararat are covered with glittering fields of unbroken _névé_. The
only true glacier is on the north-east side, at the bottom of a large
chasm which runs into the heart of the mountain. The great height of the
snow-line, 14,000 ft., is due to the small rainfall and the upward rush
of dry air from the plain of the Araxes. The middle zone of Ararat,
5000-11,500 ft., is covered with good pasture, the upper and lower zones
are for the most part sterile. Whether the tradition which makes Ararat
the resting-place of Noah's Ark is of any historical value or not, there
is at least poetical fitness in the hypothesis, inasmuch as this
mountain is about equally distant from the Black Sea and the Caspian,
from the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. Another tradition--accepted
by the Kurds, Syrians and Nestorians--fixes on Mount Judi, in the south
of Armenia, on the left bank of the Tigris, near Jezire, as the Ark's
resting-place. There so-called genuine relics of the ark were exhibited,
and a monastery and mosque of commemoration were built; but the
monastery was destroyed by lightning in 776 A.D., and the tradition has
declined in credit. Round Mount Ararat, however, gather many traditions
connected with the Deluge. The garden of Eden is placed in the valley of
the Araxes; Marand is the burial-place of Noah's wife; at Arghuri, a
village near the great chasm, was the spot where Noah planted the first
vineyard, and here were shown Noah's vine and the monastery of St James,
until village and monastery were overwhelmed by a fall of rock, ice and
snow, shaken down by an earthquake in 1840. According to the Babylonian
account, the resting-place of the Ark was "on the Mountain of Nizir,"
which some writers have identified with Mount Rowanduz, and others with
Mount Elburz, near Teheran.

From the Armenian plateau, Ararat rises in a graceful isolated cone far
into the region of perennial snow. It was long believed by the Armenian
monks that no one was permitted to reach the "secret top" of Ararat with
its sacred remains, but on the 27th of September 1829, Dr. Johann Jacob
Parrot (1792-1840) of Dorpat, a German in the employment of Russia, set
foot on the "dome of eternal ice." Ararat has since been ascended by S.
Aftonomov (1834 and 1843); M. Wagner and W.H. Abich (1845); J. Chodzko,
N.W. Chanykov, P.H. Moritz and a party of Cossacks in the service of the
Russian government (1850); Stuart (1856); Monteith (1856); D.W.
Freshfield (1868); James Bryce (1876); A.V. Markov (1888); P. Pashtukhov
and H.B. Lynch (1893). Mr Freshfield thus described the mountain:--"It
stands perfectly isolated from all the other ranges, with the still more
perfect cone of Little Ararat (a typical volcano) at its side. Seen thus
early in the season (May), with at least 9000 ft. of snow on its slopes,
from a distance and height well calculated to permit the eye to take in
its true proportions, we agreed that no single mountain we know
presented such a magnificent and impressive appearance as the Armenian
Giant." There are a number of glaciers in the upper portion, and the
climate of the whole district is very severe. The greater part of the
mountain is destitute of trees, but the lower Ararat is clothed with
birches. The fauna and flora are both comparatively meagre.

Both Great and Little Ararat consist entirely of volcanic rocks, chiefly
andesites and pyroxene andesites, with some obsidian. No crater now
exists at the summit of either, but well-formed parasitic cones occur
upon their flanks. There are no certain historic records of any
eruption. The earthquake and fall of rock which destroyed the village of
Arghuri in 1840 may have been caused by a volcanic explosion, but the
evidence is unsatisfactory.

The name of Ararat also applies to the Assyrian _Urardhu_, the country
in which the Ark rested after the Deluge (Gen. viii. 4), and to which
the murderers of Sennacherib fled (2 Kings xix. 37; Isaiah xxxvii. 38).
The name Urardhu, originally that of a principality which included Mount
Ararat and the plain of the Araxes, is given in Assyrian inscriptions
from the 9th century B.C. downwards to a kingdom that at one time
included the greater part of the later Armenia. The native name of the
kingdom was _Biainas_, and its capital was _Dhuspas_, now Van. The first
king, Sarduris I. (c. 833 B.C.), subdued the country of the Upper
Euphrates and Tigris. His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in
Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own
language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas
extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians
and Hittites. But Sarduris II. was overthrown by Tiglath Pileser III.
(743 B.C.), and driven north of the Araxes, where he made Armavir,
_Armauria_, his capital. Interesting specimens of Biainian art have been
found on the site of the palace of Rusas II., near Van. Shortly after
645 B.C. the kingdom fell, possibly conquered by Cyaxares, and a way was
thus opened for the immigration of the Aryan Armenians. The name Ararat
is unknown to the Armenians of the present day. The limits of the
Biblical Ararat are not known, but they must have included the lofty
Armenian plateau which overlooks the plain of the Araxes on the north,
and that of Mesopotamia on the south. It is only natural that the
highest and most striking mountain in the district should have been
regarded as that upon which the Ark rested, and that the old name of the
country should have been transferred to it.

  See also H.B. Lynch, _Armenia_ (1901); Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions
  of Lake Van," in _Journal of Royal Asiatic Society_, vols. xiv., xx.
  and xxvi.; Maspero, _Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient
  classique_, tome iii., _Les Empires_ (Paris, 1899); J. Bryce,
  _Transcaucasia and Ararat_ (4th ed., 1896); D.W. Freshfield, _Travels
  in the Central Caucasus and Bashan_ (1869); Parrot, _Reise zum Ararat_
  (1834); Wagner, _Reise nach dem Ararat_ (1848); Abich, _Die Besteigung
  des Ararat_ (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' _Dictionary of the
  Bible_, and the _Encyclopaedia Biblica_.     (C. W. W.)



ARARAT, a municipal town of Ripon county, Victoria, Australia, 130 m. by
rail W.N.W. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 3580. It lies at an elevation of
1028 ft. towards the western extremity of the Great Dividing range. It
is the commercial centre of the north-western grain and wool-producing
district and is also noted for its quartz and alluvial gold-mines.
Excellent wine is made, and flour-milling, leather-working, brick and
candle making and soap-boiling are the chief industries. The district
also yields the best timber in great quantity. Granite, bluestone,
limestone and slate abound in the neighbourhood.



ARAROBA POWDER, a drug occurring in the form of a yellowish-brown
powder, varying considerably in tint, which derives an alternative
name--Goa powder--from the Portuguese colony of Goa, where it appears to
have been introduced about the year 1852. The tree which yields it is
the _Andira Araroba_ of the natural order Leguminosae. It is met with in
great abundance in certain forests in the province of Bahia, preferring
as a rule low and humid spots. The tree is from 80 to 100 ft. high and
has large imparipinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are oblong, about
1½ in. long and ¾ in. broad, and somewhat truncate at the apex. The
flowers are papilionaceous, of a purple colour and arranged in panicles.
The Goa powder or araroba is contained in the trunk, filling crevices in
the heartwood. It is a morbid product in the tree, and yields to hot
chloroform 50% of a substance known officially as chrysarobin, which has
a definite therapeutic value and is contained in most modern
pharmacopoeias. It occurs as a micro-crystalline, odourless, tasteless
powder, very slightly soluble in either water or alcohol; it also occurs
in rhubarb root. This complex mixture contains pure chrysarobin
(C15H12O3), di-chrysarobin methylether (C30H23O7·OCH3), di-chrysarobin
(C30H24O7). Chrysarobin is a methyl trioxyanthracene and exists as a
glucoside in the plant, but is gradually oxidized to chrysophanic acid
(a dioxy-methyl anthraquinone) and glucose. This strikes a blood-red
colour in alkaline solutions, and may therefore cause much alarm if
administered to a patient whose urine is alkaline. The British
pharmacopoeia has an ointment containing one part of chrysarobin and 24
of benzoated lard.

Both internally and externally the drug is a powerful irritant. The
general practice amongst modern dermatologists is to use only
chrysophanic acid, which may be applied externally and given by the
mouth in doses of about one grain in cases of psoriasis and chronic
eczema. The drug is a feeble parasiticide, and has been used locally in
the treatment of ringworm. It stains the skin--and linen--a deep yellow
or brown, a coloration which may be removed by caustic alkali in weak
solution.



ARAS, the anc. _Araxes_, and the _Phasis_ of Xenophon (Turk. and Arab.
_Ras_, Armen. _Yerash_, Georg. _Rashki_), a river which rises south of
Erzerum, in the Bingeul-dagh, and flows east through the province of
Erzerum, across the Pasin plateau, and then through Russian Armenia,
passing between Mount Ararat and Erivan, and forming the Russo-Persian
frontier. Its course is about 600 m. long; its principal tributary is
the Zanga, which flows by Erivan and drains Lake Gokcha or Sevanga. It
is a rapid and muddy stream, dangerous to cross when swollen by the
melting of the snows in Armenia, but fordable in its ordinary state. It
formerly joined the Kura; but in 1897 it changed its lower course, and
now runs direct to the Kizil-agach Bay of the Caspian. On an island in
its bed stood Artaxata, the capital of Armenia from 180 B.C. to A.D. 50.



ARASON, JON (1484-1551), Icelandic bishop and poet, became a priest
about 1504, and having attracted the notice of Gottskalk, bishop of
Holar, was sent by that prelate on two missions to Norway. In 1522 he
succeeded Gottskalk in the see of Holar, but he was soon driven out by
the other Icelandic bishop, Ogmund of Skalholt. His exile, however, was
brief, and some years after his return he became involved in a dispute
with his sovereign, Christian III., king of Denmark, because he refused
to further the progress of Lutheranism in the island. Then in 1548, when
a large number of the islanders had accepted the reformed doctrines,
Arason and Ogmund joined their forces and attacked the Lutherans. Civil
war broke out, and in 1551 the bishop of Holar and two of his sons were
captured and executed. Arason, who was the last Roman Catholic bishop in
Iceland, is celebrated as a poet, and as the man who introduced printing
into the island.



ARATOR, of Liguria, a Christian poet, who lived during the 6th century.
He was an orphan, and owed his early education to Laurentius, archbishop
of Milan, and Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, who took great interest in him.
After completing his studies, he practised with success as an advocate,
and was appointed to an influential post at the court of Athalaric, king
of the Ostrogoths. About 540, he quitted the service of the state, took
orders and was elected sub-deacon of the Roman Church. He gained the
favour of Pope Vigilius, to whom he dedicated his _De Actibus
Aposlolorum_ (written about 544), which was much admired in the middle
ages. The poem, consisting of some 2500 hexameters, is of little merit,
being full of mystical and allegorical interpretations and long-winded
digressions; the versification, except for certain eccentricities in
prosody, is generally correct.

  Text by Hübner, 1850. See Leimbach, "Der Dichter Arator," in
  _Theologische Studien und Kritik_ (1873); Manitius, _Geschichte der
  christlich-lateinischen Poesie_ (1891).



ARATUS, Greek statesman, was born at Sicyon in 271 B.C., and educated at
Argos after the death of his father, at the hands of Abantidas, tyrant
of Sicyon. When twenty years old Aratus delivered Sicyon from its tyrant
by a bold _coup de main_. By enrolling it in the Achaean League (q.v.)
he secured it against Macedonia, and with funds received from Ptolemy
Philadelphus he pacified the returned exiles. Ever anxious to extend the
league, in which after 245 he was general almost every second year,
Aratus took Corinth by surprise (243), and with mingled threats and
persuasion won over other cities, notably Megalopolis (233) and Argos
(229), whose tyrants abdicated voluntarily. He fought successfully
against the Aetolians (241), and in 228 induced the Macedonian commander
to evacuate Attica. But when Cleomenes III. (q.v.) opened hostilities,
Aratus sustained several reverses, and was badly defeated near Dyme (226
or 225). Rather than admit Cleomenes as chief of the league, where he
might have upset the existing timocracy, Aratus opposed all attempts at
mediation. As plenipotentiary in 224 he called in Antigonus Doson of
Macedonia, and helped to recover Corinth and Argos and to crush
Cleomenes at Sellasia, but at the same time sacrificed the independence
of the league. In 220-219 the Aetolians defeated him in Arcadia and
harried the Peloponnese unchecked. When Philip V. of Macedon came to
expel these marauders, Aratus became the king's adviser, and averted a
treacherous attack on Messene (215); before long, however, he lost
favour and in 213 was poisoned. The Sicyonians accorded him hero-worship
as a "son of Asclepius." To Aratus is due the credit of having made the
Achaean League an effective instrument against tyrants and foreign
enemies. But his military incapacity and his blind hatred of democratic
reform went far to undo his work.

  Polybius (ii.-viii.) follows the _Memoirs_ which Aratus wrote to
  justify his statesmanship,--Plutarch (_Aratus_ and _Cleomenes_) used
  this same source and the hostile account of Phylarchus; Paus. ii. 10;
  see Neumeyer, _Aralos von Sikyon_ (Leipzig, 1886).     (M. O. B. C.)



ARATUS, of Soli in Cilicia, Greek didactic poet, a contemporary of
Callimachus and Theocritus, was born about 315 B.C. He was invited
(about 276) to the court of Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, where he
wrote his most famous poem, [Greek: Phainomena] (Appearances, or
Phenomena). He then spent some time with Antiochus I. of Syria; but
subsequently returned to Macedonia, where he died about 245. Aratus's
only extant works are two short poems, or two fragments of his one poem,
written in hexameters; an imitation of a prose work on astronomy by
Eudoxus of Cnidus, and [Greek: Diosaemeia] (on weather signs), chiefly
from Theophrastus. The work has all the characteristics of the
Alexandrian school of poetry. Although Aratus was ignorant of astronomy,
his poem attracted the favourable notice of distinguished specialists,
such as Hipparchus, who wrote commentaries upon it. Amongst the Romans
it enjoyed a high reputation (Ovid, _Amores_, i. 15, 16). Cicero, Caesar
Germanicus and Avienus translated it; the two last versions and
fragments of Cicero's are still extant. Quintilian (_Instit._ x. i, 55)
is less enthusiastic. Virgil has imitated the _Prognostica_ to some
extent in the _Georgics_. One verse from the opening invocation to Zeus
has become famous from being quoted by St Paul (Acts xvii. 28). Several
accounts of his life are extant, by anonymous Greek writers.

  Editio princeps, 1499; Buhle, 1793; Maass, 1893; _Aratea_ (1892),
  _Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae_ (1898), by the same. English
  translations: Lamb, 1848; Poste, 1880; R. Brown, 1885; Prince, 1895.
  On recently discovered fragments, see H.I. Bell, in _Classical
  Quarterly_, April 1907; also _Berliner Klassikertexte_, Heft v. 1, pp.
  47-54.



ARAUCANIA, the name of a large territory of Chile, South America, S. of
the Bio-bio river, belonging to the Araucanian Indians (see below) at
the time of their independence of Spanish and Chilean authority. The
loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the
greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the
Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the
Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the
three provinces last named.



ARAUCANIANS (or AUCA), a tribal group of South American Indians in
southern Chile (see above). Physically a fine race, their hardiness and
bravery enabled them successfully to resist the Incas in the 15th
century. Their government was by four _toquis_ or princes, independent
of one another, but confederates against foreign enemies. Each tetrarchy
was divided into five provinces, ruled by five chiefs called
_apo-ulmen_; and each province into nine districts, governed by as many
_ulmen_, who were subject to the apo-ulmen, as the latter were to the
toquis. These various chiefs (who all bore the title of ulmen) composed
the aristocracy of the country. They held their dignities by hereditary
descent in the male line, and in the order of primogeniture. The supreme
power of each tetrarchy resided in a council of the ulmen, who assembled
annually in a large plain. The resolutions of this council were subject
to popular assent. The chiefs, indeed, were little more than leaders in
war; for the right of private revenge limited their authority in
judicial matters; and they received no taxes. Their laws were merely
traditional customs. War was declared by the council, messengers bearing
arrows dipped in blood being sent to all parts of the country to summon
the men to arms. From the time of the first Spanish invasion (1535) the
Araucanians made a vigorous resistance, and after worsting the best
soldiers and the best generals of Spain for two centuries obtained an
acknowledgment of their independence. Their success was due as much to
their readiness in adopting their enemy's methods of warfare as to their
bravery. Realizing the inefficiency of their old missiles when opposed
to musket balls, they laid aside their bows, and armed themselves with
spears, swords or other weapons fitted for close combat. Their practice
was to advance rapidly within such a distance of the Spaniards as would
not leave the latter time to reload after firing. Here they received
without shrinking a volley, which was certain to destroy a number of
them, and then rushing forward in close order, fought their enemies hand
to hand.

The Araucanians believe in a supreme being, and in many subordinate
spirits, good and bad. They believe also in omens and divination, but
they have neither temples nor idols, nor religious rites. Very few have
become Roman Catholics. They believe in a future state, and have a
confused tradition respecting a deluge, from which some persons were
saved on a high mountain. They divide the year into twelve months of
thirty days, and add five days by intercalation. They esteem poetry and
eloquence, but can scarcely be induced to learn reading or writing.

The tribal divisions have little or no organization. Some 50,000 in
number, they spend a nomad existence wandering from pasture to pasture,
living in low skin tents, their herds providing their food. They still
preserve their warlike nature, though in 1870 they formally recognized
Chilean rule. In 1861 Antoine de Tounens (1820-1878), a French
adventurer in Chile, proclaimed himself king of Araucania under the
title of Orélie Antoine I., and tried to obtain subscriptions from
France to support his enterprise. But his pretensions were ludicrous; he
was quickly captured by the Chileans and sent back to France (1862) as a
madman; and though he made one more abortive effort in 1874 to recover
his "kingdom," and occupied his pen in magnifying his achievements,
nobody took him seriously except a few of the deluded Indians.

  See Domeyko, _Araucania y sus habitantes_ (Santiago, 1846); de Ginoux,
  "Le Chili et les Araucans," in _Bull, de la soc, de géogr._ (1852);
  E.R. Smith, _Araucamans_ (New York, 1855); J.T. Medina, _Los aborjenes
  de Chile_ (Santiago, 1882); A. Polakowsky, _Die heutigen Araukanen_,
  Globus No. 74 (Brunswick, 1898).



ARAUCARIA, a genus of coniferous trees included in the tribe
_Araucarineae_. They are magnificent evergreen trees, with apparently
whorled branches, and stiff, flattened, pointed leaves, found in Brazil
and Chile, Polynesia and Australia. The name of the genus is derived
from Arauco, the name of the district in southern Chile where the trees
were first discovered. _Araucaria imbricata_, the Chile pine, or "monkey
puzzle," was introduced into Britain in 1796. It is largely cultivated,
and usually stands the winter of Britain; but in some years, when the
temperature fell very low, the trees have suffered much. Care should be
taken in planting to select a spot somewhat elevated and well drained.
The tree grows to the height of 150 ft. in the Cordilleras of Chile. The
cones are from 8 to 8½ in. broad, and 7 to 7½ in. long. The wood of the
tree is hard and durable. This is the only species which can be
cultivated in the open air in Britain. _Araucaria brasiliana_, the
Brazil pine, is a native of the mountains of southern Brazil, and was
introduced into Britain in 1819. It is not so hardy as _A. imbricata_,
and requires protection during winter. It is grown in conservatories for
half-hardy plants. _Araucaria excelsa_, the Norfolk Island pine, a
native of Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, was discovered during
Captain Cook's second voyage, and introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph
Banks in 1793. It cannot be grown in the open air in Britain, as it
requires protection from frost, and is more tender than the Brazilian
pine. It is a majestic tree, sometimes attaining a height of more than
220 ft. The scales of its cones are winged, and have a hook at the apex.
_Araucaria Cunninghami_, the Moreton Bay pine, is a tall tree abundant
on the shores of Moreton Bay, Australia, and found through the littoral
region of Queensland to Cape York Peninsula, also in New Guinea. It
requires protection in England during the winter. _Araucaria Bidwilli_,
the Bunya-Bunya pine, found on the mountains of southern Queensland,
between the rivers Brisbane and Burnett, at 27° S. lat., is a noble
tree, attaining a height of 100 to 150 ft., with a straight trunk and
white wood. It bears cones as large as a man's head. Its seeds are very
large, and are used as food by the natives. _Araucaria Rulei_, which is
a tree of New Caledonia, attains a height of 50 or 60 ft. _Araucaria
Cookii_, also a native of New Caledonia, attains a height of 150 ft. It
is found also in the Isle of Pines, and in the New Hebrides. The tree
has a remarkable appearance, due to shedding its primary branches for
about five-sixths of its height and replacing them by a small bushy
growth, the whole resembling a tall column crowned with foliage,
suggesting to its discoverer, Captain Cook, a tall column of basalt.



ARAUCO, a coast province of southern Chile, bounded N., E. and S. by the
provinces of Concepción, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin. Area, 2458 sq. m.;
pop. (est. 1902) 70,635. The province originally covered the once
independent Indian territory of Araucania (q.v.), but this was
afterwards divided into four provinces. It is devoted largely to
agricultural pursuits. The capital Lebú (pop. in 1902, 3178) is situated
on the coast about 55 m. south of Conceptión, with which it is connected
by rail.



ARAVALLI HILLS, a range of mountains in India, running for 300 m. in a
north-easterly direction, through the Rajputana states and the British
district of Ajmere-Merwara, situated between 24° and 27° 10' N. lat.,
and between 72° and 75° E. long. They consist of a series of ridges and
peaks, with a breadth varying from 6 to 60 m. and an elevation of 1000
to 3000 ft., the highest point being Mount Abu, rising to 5653 ft., near
the south-western extremity of the range. Geologically they belong to
the primitive formation--granite, compact dark blue slate, gneiss and
syenite. The dazzling white effect of their peaks is produced, not by
snow, as among the Himalayas, but by enormous masses of vitreous
rose-coloured quartz. On the north their drainage forms the Luni and
Sakhi rivers, which fall into the Gulf of Cutch. To the south, their
drainage supplies two distinct river systems, one of which debouches in
comparatively small streams on the Gulf of Cambay, while the other
unites to form the Chambal river, a great southern tributary of the
Jumna, flowing thence via the Ganges, into the Bay of Bengal on the
other side of India. The Aravalli hills are for the most part bare of
cultivation, and even of jungle. Many of them are mere heaps of sand and
stone; others consist of huge masses of quartz. The valleys between the
ridges are generally sandy deserts, with an occasional oasis of
cultivation. At long intervals, however, a fertile tract marks some
great natural line of drainage, and among such valleys Ajmere city, with
its lake, stands conspicuous. The hills are inhabited by a very sparse
population of Mhairs, an aboriginal race. For long these people formed a
difficult problem to the British government. Previously to the British
occupation of India they had been accustomed to live, almost destitute
of clothing, by the produce of their herds, by the chase and by plunder.
But Ajmere having been ceded to the East India Company in 1818, the
Mhair country was soon afterwards brought under British influence, and
the predatory instincts of the people were at the same time controlled
and utilized by forming them into a Merwara battalion. As the peaceful
results of British rule developed, and the old feuds between the Mhairs
and their Rajput neighbours died out, the Mhair battalion was
transformed into a police force. The Aravalli mountaineers strongly
objected to this change, and pleaded a long period of loyal usefulness
to the state. They were accordingly again erected into a military
battalion and brought upon the roll of the British army. Under Lord
Kitchener's scheme of 1903 they were entitled the 50th Merwara Infantry.
The Aravalli hills send off rocky ridges in a north-easterly direction
through the states of Alwar and Jaipur, which from time to time reappear
in the form of isolated hills and broken rocky elevations to near Delhi.



ARAWAK ("meal-eaters," in reference to cassava, their staple food), a
tribe of South American Indians of Dutch and British Guiana. The Arawaks
have given their name to a linguistic stock of South America, the
Arawakan, which includes many once powerful tribes. The Arawakans were
once numerous, their tribes stretching from southern Brazil and Bolivia
to Central America, occupying the whole of the West Indies and having
settlements on the Florida seaboard. They were found by the Spaniards in
Haiti and possibly in the Bahamas, but the Caribs had expelled them from
most of the islands. The Arawaks proper were physically an undersized,
weakly people, peaceable agriculturists, by far the most civilized of
all Guiana peoples, being skilful weavers and workers in stone and gold.
The chief tribes which may be called Arawakan are the Anti, Arawak,
Barre, Goajiro, Guana, Manaos, Maneteneri, Maipuri, Maranho, Moxo,
Passé, Piro and Taruma.

  See Everard F. im Thurn, _Among the Indians of Guiana_ (London, 1883).



ARBACES, according to Ctesias (Diodor. ii. 24 ff. 32), one of the
generals of Sardanapalus, king of Assyria and founder of the Median
empire about 830 B.C. But Ctesias's whole history of the Assyrian and
Median empires is absolutely fabulous; his Arbaces and his successors
are not historical personages. From the inscriptions of Sargon of
Assyria we know one "Arbaku Dynast of Arnashia" as one of forty-five
chiefs of Median districts who paid tribute to Sargon in 713 B.C. See
MEDIA.     (Ed. M.)



ARBE (Serbo-Croatian _Rab_), an island in the Adriatic Sea, forming the
northernmost point of Dalmatia, Austria. Pop. (1900) 4441. Arbe is 13 m.
long; its greatest breadth is 5 m. The capital, which bears the same
name, is a walled town, remarkable, even among the Dalmatian cities, for
its beauty. It occupies a steep ridge jutting out from the west coast.
At the seaward end of this promontory is the 13th-century cathedral;
behind which the belfries of four churches, at least as ancient, rise in
a row along the crest of the ridge; while behind these, again, are the
castle and a background of desolate hills. Many of the houses are
roofless and untenanted; for, after five centuries of prosperity under
Venetian or Hungarian rule, an outbreak of plague in 1456 swept away the
majority of the townsfolk, and ruined the survivors. Some of the old
palaces are, nevertheless, of considerable interest; one especially as
the birthplace of the celebrated philosopher, Marc Antonio de Dominis.
Fishing and agriculture constitute the chief resources of the islanders,
whose ancient silk industry is still maintained. In 1018 the yearly
tribute due to Venice was fixed at ten pounds of silk or five pounds of
gold.



ARBELA (ARBA'IL, i.e. "Four-god-city"), an ancient town in Adiabene, the
capital in Assyrian and pre-Assyrian times of the country between the
greater and lesser Zab, and seat of an important cult of Ishtar. The
battle in which Alexander overthrew Darius in 331 B.C., though named in
the old books after Arbela, was probably fought at Gaugamela, some 60 m.
away (Yorck von Wartenburg, _Kurze Übersicht der Feldzüge A. des Gr._).
The modern town of Erbil or Arbil, in the vilayet of Mosul, is about 40
m. from Mosul on the road to Bagdad. The greater part of the town, which
seems at one time to have been very large, is situated on an artificial
mound about 150 ft. high. It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan
Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was
plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in
1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah. In the 14th century the
Christians were almost exterminated. The population, which varies from
2000 to 6000, is chiefly composed of Kurds.

The ruins of another ARBELA (Irbid, Beth-Arbel) in Palestine, situated
near the west shore of the Sea of Galilee, a little north of its centre,
are not in themselves of high interest, but the site is noteworthy
through its connexion with the neighbouring caves in the lofty flank of
the Wadi Hamam, above which Arbela stood. These caves (called by the
Arabs Kulat ibn Ma'an) are apparently natural, but were enlarged and
fortified. They were used by the inhabitants of Arbela as a place of
refuge from the army of Bacchides, general of Demetrius III., king of
Syria, and were the resort of bandits in the reign of Herod the Great.
He laid siege to them, and his men could only gain access to the caves
by being let down from above. The caves were also fortified against the
Romans by Josephus.



ARBER, EDWARD (1836-   ), English man of letters, was born in London on
the 4th of December 1836. From 1854 to 1878 he was a clerk in the
admiralty; from 1878 to 1881 lecturer on English, under Prof. H. Morley,
at University College; and from 1881 to 1894 professor of English at
Mason College, Birmingham. From 1894 he lived in London as emeritus
professor, being also a fellow of King's College. In 1905 he received
the honorary degree of D. Litt. at Oxford. He married in 1869, and had
two sons, one of them, E.A.N. Arber, becoming demonstrator in
palaeobotany at Cambridge. As a scholarly editor Professor Arber's
services to English literature are memorable. His name is associated
particularly with the series of "English Reprints" (1868-1880), by which
an accurate text of the works of many English authors, formerly only
accessible in rare or expensive editions, was placed within reach of the
general public. Among the thirty volumes of the series were Gosson's
_School of Abuse_, Ascham's _Toxophilus_, _Tottel's Miscellany_,
Naunton's _Fragmenta Regalia_, &c. It was followed by the "English
Scholar's Library" (16 vols.) which included the _Works_ (1884) of
Captain John Smith, governor of Virginia, and the _Poems_ (1882) of
Richard Barnfield. In his _English Garner_ (8 vols. 1877-1896) he made
an admirable collection of rare old tracts and poems; in 1899-1901 he
issued _British Anthologies_ (10 vols.), and in 1907 began a series
called _A Christian Library_. He also accomplished single-handed the
editing of two vast, and invaluable, English bibliographies: _A
Transcript of the Registers of the Stationers' Company, 1553-1640_
(1875-1894), and _The Term Catalogues, 1668-1709; with a number for
Easter Term 1711_ (1904-1906), edited from the quarterly lists of the
booksellers.



ARBITRAGE, the term applied to the system of equalizing prices in
different commercial centres by buying in the cheaper market and selling
in the dearer. These transactions, or their converse, are mainly
confined to stocks and shares, foreign exchanges and bullion; and are
for the most part carried on between London and other European capitals
and largely with New York. When prices in London are affected by
financial or political causes, all other markets are sooner or later
influenced, as London is the banking and financial centre for the
commerce of the world. It may, however, also occur that some local event
of importance initiates a rise or fall in a particular market which must
ultimately affect other countries. For instance, a crisis in France
would immediately depress all French securities, and by exciting the
fears of capitalists would stimulate transfers of funds and raise all
the exchanges against France.

In ordinary times those engaged in arbitrage operate with a very small
margin of profit. The great improvement in postal, telegraphic and
telephonic communication enables operators to close transactions with
amazing rapidity, while competition reduces the margin of profit to a
minimum. Operations in American stocks and shares are carried on between
London and New York on a vast scale, while transactions in African
mining shares are undertaken to a considerable extent between London and
Paris. The frequent fluctuations in the prices of the latter securities
offer a large and fruitful field to bold operators possessed of large
resources, while those who have small means often succumb in a
commercial crisis. As regards foreign exchange and bullion, arbitrage
operators stand on a fairly safe foundation, the fluctuations being
slight and involving little or no risk, although they yield a very small
margin of profit. Arbitrage operations are for these reasons resorted to
frequently by one country in supplying the requirements of another. The
slightest advantage in any market is put to profit, and as the margin in
ordinary exchange transactions is minute, the ability to operate in this
cross fashion renders business possible, which would otherwise be
impracticable. To give concrete instances of the working of arbitrage
the following may be cited:--

On the 21st of May 1906 the exchange on London in Vienna was telegraphed
from that city 24 kronen 4¾ cents; London, requiring to purchase
remittances, found that Antwerp had some Vienna to sell, and arranged to
buy there. The transactions worked out as follows:--The direct exchange
in Antwerp on London being 25.25½, and Antwerp's selling price of Vienna
being 105 francs for 100 kronen, on dividing 25.25½ by 105 an exchange
of 24.05¼ was obtained or ½ cent cheaper than the direct exchange
between Vienna and London.

Again a portion of the proceeds of the Russian loan of 1906 had to be
remitted to Berlin from Paris. Having exhausted local balances in
Berlin, Paris on one side, and Berlin on the other, sought to prevent
gold shipments from Berlin, and thus cause stringency in that money
market. On the 21st of May 1906 Berlin was therefore seeking to sell
Paris in London at 81.35 marks for 100 francs, and draw on London for
the proceeds at 20.50. This transaction produced a parity between the
exchanges of 25.20, which left a small margin in London.

Two instances of arbitrage of stocks are the following:--On the 24th of
March 1906, Japanese exchequer bonds, series 2 and 3, were bought in
Tokio at 93¼ and were paid for by telegraphic transfer at 24-3/8 pence
per yen, and were sold in London the same day at 94 for payment on
arrival of bonds. It took five weeks for the transmission of the bonds
to London, where they were dealt in on the fixed basis of exchange,
namely 24½ pence per yen. The London price works out thus:

  93.25 × 24.375
  -------------- = 92.77,
      24.50

to which must be added the loss of interest, as the firm in London paid
cash on the 24th of March for the telegraphic transfer, and did not
recover payment until the arrival of the bonds from Tokio five weeks
later. The following is a computation of the transaction:--

  London price                         92.77
  Five weeks at 5%                       .45
  English stamp ½% on nominal amount     .50
  Insurance 1/8%                         .12
                                       -----
                                       93.84

This sum represents the net cost to the arbitrage house in London, and
the money paid on the 28th of April left a profit of about 3/16%. The
bonds being "to bearer" insurance was necessary for the safety in this,
as in all similar transactions.

In the next example, however, this expense was unnecessary, the bonds
being "inscribed." On the 21st of May 1906 American Steel common shares
were sold for cash in New York at 41-3/16 dollars per share, and were
bought in London at 42-7/32 for the account day, May 31st. These figures
are explained by the fact that transactions in the United States stocks
and shares are on the fixed basis of five dollars per pound sterling,
while as regards payments in New York the exchange varies daily. Railway
shares are generally 100 dollars each. In the London market, however,
five shares of 100 dollars would be £100 nominal. These shares,
therefore, cost in London, at the purchase price of 42-7/32, £42:4:5.
The money realized in New York for five shares at 41-3/16 was 205·93
dollars. A cheque on London was bought at 4 dollars 85¼ cents, realizing
£42:8:9. It should be noted that the shares in these cases are generally
lent by the New York correspondent, thus saving loss of interest. The
resulting profit in this particular instance was 4s. 4d. for each five
shares, divided between the London and New York arbitrage firms.
Arbitrage operations with distant countries such as India are large and
mainly profitable. Arbitrage with India consists chiefly in buying bills
of exchange in London, such as India Council rupee bills amounting to
about 16 millions sterling annually, and commercial bills drawn against
goods exported to India. The counter-operation consists in purchasing in
India, for short or long delivery, sterling bills drawn against exports
to Great Britain of Indian produce, such as cotton, tea, indigo, jute
and wheat. These operations greatly facilitate trade and the moving of
produce from the interior of India to the seaports. Without this
assistance Great Britain's enormous trade could not be carried on, and
she would have to revert to the primitive system of barter. The same
advantages are afforded to her vast trade with China and Japan, with the
material difference that the supply of government council bills is
confined to the Indian trade. The balance of trade with all countries is
generally settled by specie shipments; hence, with the Far East, silver
and gold play an important part in arbitrage.

It will thus be seen that arbitrage fills a useful place in commerce;
the profits are small because the competition is great; nevertheless
huge transactions employing thousands of clerks result from this system.

  The literature of the subject is extremely meagre. Lord Goschen's
  _Theory of Foreign Exchanges_ (London, 1866) is general and
  theoretical, but throws great light upon particular aspects of the
  philosophy of arbitrage, without touching specially on the details of
  the subject itself. The principal other works are: Kelly's _Cambist_
  (1811, 1835); Otto Swoboda, _Die kaufmannische Arbitrage_ (Berlin,
  1873), and _Borse und Actien_ (Cologne, 1869); Coquelin et Guillaumin,
  _Dictionnaire de l'économie politique_ (Paris, 1851-1853); Ottomar
  Haupt, _London Arbitrageur_ (London, 1870); Charles le Touzé, _Traité
  théorique et pratique du change_ (Paris, 1868); Tate, _Modern Cambist_
  (London, 1868); Simon Spitzer, _Ueber Munz- und Arbiragenrechnung_
  (Vienna, 1872); J.W. Gilbart, _Principles and Practice of Banking_
  (London, 1871); G. Clare, _The A B C of Foreign Exchanges_ (2nd ed.,
  1895); _Money Market Primer and Key to the Exchanges_ (2nd ed., 1900);
  J. Pallain, _Les Changes étrangers et les prix_ (Paris, 1905).
       (Sw.)



ARBITRATION (Lat. _arbitrari_, to examine or judge), a term derived from
the nomenclature of Roman law, and applied to an arrangement for taking,
and abiding by, the judgment of a selected person in some disputed
matter, instead of carrying it to the established courts of justice. In
disputes between states, arbitration has long played an important part
(see ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL). The present article is restricted to
arbitration under municipal law; but a separate article is also devoted
to the use of arbitration in labour disputes (see ARBITRATION AND
CONCILIATION).

_Roman Law._--Arrangements for avoiding the delay and expense of
litigation, and referring a dispute to friends or neutral persons, are a
natural practice, of which traces may be found in any state of society;
but it is from Roman Law that we derive arbitration as a system which
has found its way into the practice of European nations in general, and
has even evaded the dislike of the English common lawyers to the civil
law. The praetor, who had the arrangement of all trials or private suits
and the formal appointment of judges for them, referred the great
majority of such cases for decision to a judge who was styled usually
_judex_ but sometimes _arbiter_. The phrase _judex arbiterve_ frequently
occurs. The _judex_ and the _arbiter_ had the same functions, and
apparently the only express basis for the distinction between the two
words is that there might be several _arbitri_ but never more than one
_judex_ in a cause. The term _arbiter_ seems, however, to have been
sometimes used when the referee had a certain degree of latitude, and
was entitled to give weight to equitable considerations (Roby, _Inst.
Rom. Law_, i. 318; Hunter, _Roman Law_ (1897), p. 48; and see Cicero
_pro Rosc. Com._ 4, ss. 10-13; Gaius, _Inst._ iv. s. 163). Apart from
this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized
a voluntary reference (_compromissum_) to an _arbiter_ or arbitrator by
the parties themselves. The arbitrator _ex compromisso sumptus_ had no
coercive jurisdiction, and in order to make his award effective, the
agreement of reference was confirmed by a stipulation and usually
provided a penalty (_poena, pecunia compromissa_) in case of
disobedience. The sum agreed on by way of penalty might be either
specific or unliquidated, e.g. "whatever the matter may be worth"
(_Dig._ iv., tit. 8, s. 28). The arbitrator _ex compromisso sumptus_,
like the judicial _arbiter_, was expected to take account of equitable
considerations in coming to a decision. If three arbitrators were
appointed, a majority could decide; in case of two being appointed and
not agreeing, the praetor would compel them to choose a third (Roby,
_ubi sup._, i. 320, 321; _Dig._ iv., tit. 8, s. 17). As in English law,
it was necessary that the award should cover all the points submitted
(_Dig._ iv., tit. 8, s. 21).

_Law of England._--The law of England as to arbitration is now
practically summed up in the Arbitration Act of 1889. This statute is an
express code as to proceedings in all arbitration, but "criminal
proceedings by the crown" cannot be referred under it (ss. 13, 14). The
statute subdivides its subject-matter into two headings. I. References
by consent out of court; II. References under order of court.


  References by consent of the court.

(1) Here the first matter to be dealt with is the submission. A
submission is defined as a written agreement (it need not be signed by
both parties) to submit present or future differences to arbitration,
whether a particular arbitrator is named in it or not. The capacity of a
person to agree to arbitration, or to act as arbitrator, depends on the
general law of contract. A submission by an infant is not void, but is
voidable at his option (see INFANT). A counsel has a general authority
to deal with the conduct of an action, which includes authority to refer
it to arbitration, but he has no authority to refer an action against
the wishes of his client, or on terms different from those which his
client has sanctioned; and if he does so, the reference may be set
aside, although the limit put by the client on his counsel's authority
is not made known to the other side when the reference is agreed upon
(_Neale v. Gordon Lennox_, 1902, A.C. 465). The committee of a lunatic,
with the sanction of the judge in lunacy, may refer disputes to
arbitration. As an arbitrator is chosen by the parties themselves the
question of his eligibility is of comparatively minor importance; and
where an arbitrator has been chosen by both parties, the courts are
reluctant to set the appointment aside. This question has arisen chiefly
in contracts, for works, which frequently contain a provision that the
engineer shall be the arbitrator, in any dispute between the contractor
and his own employer. The practical result is to make the engineer judge
in his own cause. But the courts will not in such cases prevent the
engineer from acting, where the contractor was aware of the facts when
he signed the contract, and there is no reason to believe that the
engineer will be unfair (_Ives and Barker v. Willans_, 1894, 2 Ch. 478).
Even the fact that he has expressed an opinion on matters in dispute
will not of itself disqualify him (_Halliday v. Hamilton's Trustees_,
1903, 5 Fraser, 800). So, too, where a barrister was appointed
arbitrator, the court refused to stop the arbitration on the mere
ground that he was the client of a firm of solicitors, the conduct of
one of whom was in question (_Bright_ v. _River Plate Construction Co._,
1900, 2 Ch. 835).

Under the law prior to the act of 1889 (a) an agreement to refer
disputes generally, without naming the arbitrators, was always
irrevocable, and an action lay for the breach of it, although the court
could not compel either of the parties to proceed under it; (b) an
agreement to refer to a particular arbitrator was revocable, and if one
of the parties revoked that particular arbitrator's authority he could
not be compelled to submit to it; (c) when, however, the parties had got
their tribunal fixed, and were proceeding to carry out the agreement to
refer, the act 9 and 10 Will. III. c. 15 provided that the submission
might be made a rule of court, a provision which gave the court power to
assist the parties in the trial of the case, and to enforce the award of
the arbitrators; (d) the statute 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 42 (s. 39) put an
end to the power to revoke the authority of a particular arbitrator
after the reference to him had been made a rule of court; and--a
liability which existed also under the act of 9 and 10 Will. III. c.
15--any person revoking the appointment of an arbitrator after the
submission had been made a rule of court might be attached. The
Arbitration Act 1889 provides that a submission, unless a contrary
intention is expressed in it, is irrevocable except by leave of the
court or a judge, and is to have the same effect in all respects as if
it had been made an order of court. The object of this enactment was to
save the expense of making a submission a rule of court by treating it
as having been so made, and it leaves the law in this position, that
while the authority of an arbitrator, once appointed, is irrevocable,
there is no power--any more than there was under the old law--to compel
an unwilling party to proceed to a reference, except in cases specially
provided for by sections 5 and 6 of the act of 1889. The former of these
sections deals with the power of the court, the latter with the power of
the parties to a reference, to appoint an arbitrator in certain
circumstances. Section 5 provides that where a reference is to be to a
single arbitrator, and all the parties do not concur in appointing one,
or an appointed arbitrator refuses to act or becomes incapable of
acting, or where the parties or two arbitrators fail, when necessary, to
appoint an umpire or third arbitrator, or such umpire or arbitrator when
appointed refuses to act, or becomes incapable of acting, and the
default is not rectified after seven clear days' notice, the court may
supply the vacancy. Under section 6, where a reference is to two
arbitrators, one to be appointed by each party, and either the appointed
arbitrator refuses to act, or becomes incapable of acting, and the party
appointing him fails, after seven clear days' notice, to supply the
vacancy, or such party fails, after similar notice, to make an original
appointment, a binding appointment (subject to the power of the court to
set it aside) may be made by the other party to the reference. The court
may compel parties to carry out an arbitration, not only in the above
cases by directly appointing an arbitrator, &c., or by allowing one
appointed by a party to proceed alone with the reference, but also
indirectly by staying any proceedings before the legal tribunals to
determine matters which come within the scope of the arbitration. Where
the agreement to refer stipulates that the submission of a dispute to
arbitration shall be a condition precedent to the right to bring an
action in regard to it, an action does not lie until the arbitration has
been held and an award made, and it is usual in such cases not to apply
for a stay of proceedings, but to plead the agreement as a bar to the
action (_Viney_ v. _Bignold_, 1887, 20 Q.B.D. 172). The court will
refuse to stay proceedings where the subject-matter of the litigation
falls outside the scope of the reference, or there is some serious
objection to the fitness of the arbitrator, or some other good reason of
the kind exists.

An arbitrator is not liable to be sued for want of skill or for
negligence in conducting the arbitration (_Pappa_ v. _Rose_, 1872, L.R.
7 C.P. 525). When a building contract provides that a certificate of the
architect, showing the final balance due to the contractor, shall be
conclusive evidence of the works having been duly completed, the
architect occupies the position of an arbitrator, and enjoys the same
immunity from liability for negligence in the discharge of his functions
(_Chambers_ v. _Goldthorpe_, 1901, 1 Q.B. 624). An arbitrator cannot be
compelled to act unless he is a party to the submission.

An arbitrator (and the following observations apply _mutatis mutandis_
to an umpire after he has entered on his duties) has power to administer
oaths to, or take the affirmations of, the parties and their witnesses;
and any person who wilfully and corruptly gives false evidence before
him may be prosecuted and punished for perjury (Arbitration Act 1889,
sched. i. and s. 22). At any stage in the reference he may, and shall if
he be required by the court, state in the form of a special case for the
opinion of the court any question of law arising in the arbitration. The
arbitrator may also state his award in whole or in part as a special
case (ib. s. 19), and may correct in an award any clerical mistake or
error arising from an accidental slip or omission. The costs of the
reference and the award--which, under sched. i. of the act, must be in
writing, unless the submission otherwise provides--are in the
arbitrator's discretion, and he has a lien on the award and the
submission for his fees, for which--if there is an express or implied
promise to pay them--he can also sue (_Crampton_ v. _Ridley_, 1887, 20
Q.B.D. 48). An arbitrator or umpire ought not, however, to state his
award in such a way as to deprive the parties of their right to
challenge the amount charged by him for his services; and accordingly
where an umpire fixed for his award a lump sum as costs, including
therein his own and the arbitrators' fees, the award was remitted back
to him to state how much he allotted to himself and how much to the
arbitrators (in _Re Gilbert_ v. _Wright_, 1904, 20 _Times_ L.R. 164).
But in the absence of evidence to show that the fees charged by
arbitrators or umpire are extortionate, or unfair and unreasonable, the
courts will not interfere with them (_Llandrindod Wells Water Co._ v.
_Hawksley_, 1904, 20 _Times_ L.R. 241).

If there is no express provision on the point in the submission, an
award under the Arbitration Act 1889 must be made within three months
after the arbitrator has entered on the reference, or been called upon
to act by notice in writing from any party to the submission. The time
may, however, be extended by the arbitrator or by the court. An umpire
is required to make his award within one month after the original or
extended time appointed for making the award of the arbitrators has
expired, or any later day to which he may enlarge it. The court may by
order remit an award to the arbitrators or umpire for reconsideration,
in which case the reconsidered award must be made within three months
after the date of the order.

An award must be _intra vires_: it must dispose of all the points
referred; and it must be final, except as regards certain matters of
valuation, &c. (see in _Re Stringer and Riley Brothers_, 1901, 1 K.B.
105). An award may, however, be set aside where the arbitrator has
misconducted himself (an arbitrator may also be removed by the court on
the ground of misconduct), or where it is _ultra vires_, or lacks any of
the other requisites--above mentioned--of a valid award, or where the
arbitrator has been wilfully deceived by one of the parties, or some
such state of things exists. An award may, by leave of the court, be
enforced in the same manner as a judgment or decree to the same effect.
Under the Revenue Act 1906, s. 9, a uniform duty of ten shillings is
payable on awards in England or Ireland, and on decreets arbitral in
Scotland.

  Provisions for the arbitration of special classes of disputes are
  contained in many acts of parliament, e.g. the Local Government Acts
  1888, 1894, the Agricultural Holdings (England) Acts 1883 to 1906, the
  Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1907, the Light Railways Act 1896,
  the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, the Workmen's
  Compensation Act 1906, &c.

  The Conciliation Act 1896 provides machinery for the prevention and
  settlement of trade disputes, and in 1892 a chamber of arbitration for
  business disputes was established by the joint action of the
  corporation of the city of London and the London chamber of commerce.
  At the time when the London chamber of arbitration was established,
  there was considerable dissatisfaction among the mercantile community
  with the delays that occurred in the disposal of commercial cases
  before the ordinary tribunals. But the special provision made by the
  judges in 1895 for the prompt trial of commercial causes to a large
  extent destroyed the _raison d'être_ of the chamber of arbitration,
  and it did not attain any great measure of success.


  References under order of court.

(2) The court or a judge may refer any question arising in any cause or
matter to an official or special referee, whose report may be enforced
like a judgment or order to the same effect. This power may be exercised
whether the parties desire it or not. The official referees are salaried
officers of court. The remuneration of special referees is determined by
the court or judge. An entire action may be referred, if all parties
consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or
scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters
of account.

  _Scots Law._--The Arbitration (Scotland) Act 1894, unlike the English
  Arbitration Act 1889, did not codify the previously existing law, and
  it becomes necessary, therefore, to deal with that law in some detail.
  It differs in important particulars from the law of England. Although
  (as in England apart from the Arbitration Act 1889) there is nothing
  to prevent a verbal reference, submissions are generally not merely
  written but are effected by deed. The deed of submission first defines
  the terms of the reference, the name or names of the arbiters or
  arbitrators, and the "oversman" or umpire, whose decision in the event
  of the arbiters differing in opinion is to be final. Formerly, where
  no oversman was named in the submission, and no power given to the
  arbiters to name one, the proceedings were abortive if the arbiters
  disagreed, unless the parties consented to a nomination. But under the
  Arbitration (Scotland) Act 1894, s. 4, here arbiters differ in
  opinion, they, or, if they fail to agree on the point, the court, on
  the application of either party, may nominate an oversman whose
  decision is to be final. The deed of submission next gives to the
  arbiters the necessary powers for disposing of the matters referred
  (e.g. powers to summon witnesses, to administer oaths and to award
  expenses), and specifies the time within which the "decreet arbitral"
  is to be pronounced. If this date is left blank, practice has limited
  the arbiter's power of deciding to a year and a day, unless, having
  express or clearly implied power in the submission, he exercises this
  power, or the parties expressly or tacitly agree to its prorogation.
  The deed of submission then goes on to provide that the parties bind
  themselves, under a stipulated penalty to abide by the decreet
  arbitral, that, in the event of the death of either of them, the
  submission shall continue in force against their heirs and
  representatives, and that they consent to the registration, for
  preservation and execution, both of the deed itself and of the decreet
  arbitral. The power to enforce the award depends on this last
  provision. Under the common law of Scotland, a submission of future
  disputes or differences to an arbiter, or arbiters, unnamed, was
  ineffectual except where the agreement to refer did not contemplate
  the decision of proper disputes between the parties but the adjustment
  of some condition, or the liquidation of some obligation, contained in
  the contract of which the agreement to submit formed a part. And by
  the Arbitration (Scotland) Act 1894, s. 1, an agreement to refer to
  arbitration is not invalid by reason of the reference being to a
  person not named, or to be named by another, or to a person merely
  described as the holder for the time being of any office or
  appointment. An arbiter who has accepted office may be compelled by an
  action in court of session to proceed with his duty unless he has
  sufficient cause, such as ill-health or supervening interest, for
  renouncing. The court may name a sole arbiter, where provision is made
  for one only and the parties cannot agree (Arbitration [Scotland] Act
  1894, s. 2); and may name an arbiter where a party having the right or
  duty to nominate one of two arbiters will not exercise it (_ib._ s.
  3). Scots law as to the requisites of a valid award is practically
  identical with the law of England. The grounds of reduction of a
  decreet arbitral are "corruption," "bribery," "false hold" (Scots Act
  of Regulations 1695, s. 25). An attempt was made to include, under the
  expression "constructive corruption," among these statutory grounds of
  reduction, irregular conduct on the part of an arbitrator, with no
  suggestion of any corrupt motive. But it was definitely overruled by
  the House of Lords (_Adams_ v. _Great North of Scotland Railway Co._,
  1891, A.C. 31). The statutory definition of the grounds of reduction
  was intended, however, merely to put an end to the practice which had
  previously obtained of reviewing awards on their merits, and it does
  not prevent the courts from setting aside an award where the
  arbitrator has exceeded his jurisdiction, or disregarded any one of
  the expressed conditions of the submission, or been guilty of
  misconduct. A private arbiter cannot demand remuneration except in
  virtue of contract, or by implication from the nature of the work
  done, or if the reference is in pursuance of some statutory enactment
  (e.g. the Lands Clauses [Scotland] Act 1845, s. 32).

  _Judicial References_ have been long known to the law of Scotland.
  When an action is in court the parties may at any stage withdraw it
  from judicial determination, and refer it to arbitration. This is done
  by minute of reference to which the court interpones its authority.
  When the award is issued it becomes the judgment of the court. The
  court has no power to compel parties to enter into a reference of this
  kind, and it is doubtful whether counsel can bind their clients in
  such a matter. A judicial reference falls like the other by the elapse
  of a year; and the court cannot review the award on the ground of
  miscarriage. By the Court of Session Act 1850, s. 50, a provision is
  introduced whereby parties to an action in the supreme court may refer
  judicially any issue for trial to one, three, five or seven persons,
  who shall sit as a jury, and decide by a majority.

  _Law of Ireland._--The Common Law Procedure Act (Ireland) 1856, which
  is incorporated by s. 60 of the Supreme Court of Judicature Act
  (Ireland) 1877, and thereby made applicable to all divisions of the
  High Court of Justice, provides, on the lines of the English Common
  Law Procedure Act 1854, for the conduct of arbitrations and the
  enforcement of awards. Irish statute law, like that of England and
  Scotland, contains numerous provisions for arbitration under special
  enactments.

  _Indian and Colonial Law._--The provisions of the English Arbitration
  Act 1889 have in substance been adopted by the Indian Legislature (see
  Act ix. of 1899), and by many of the colonies (see, e.g., Act No. 13
  of 1895, Western Australia; No. 24 of 1898, Natal; c. 20 of 1899,
  Bahamas; No. 10 of 1895, Gibraltar; No. 29 of 1898, Cape of Good Hope:
  s. 7 of this last statute excludes from submission to arbitration
  criminal cases, so far as prosecution and punishment are concerned,
  and, without the special leave of the court, matters relating to
  status, matrimonial causes, and matters affecting minors or other
  perons under legal disability; Trinidad and Tobago, No. 35 of 1898).

_United States._--The common law and statute law of the United States as
to arbitration bear a general resemblance to the law of England.


  Voluntary submissions.

All controversies of a civil nature, and any question of personal injury
on which a suit for damages will lie, although it may also be
indictable, may be referred to arbitration; but crimes, and perhaps
actions on penal statutes by common informers may not. The submission
may be effected sometimes by parol, sometimes by written instrument,
sometimes by deed or deed poll. Capacity to refer depends on the general
law of contractual capacity. The law of England as to the capacity to
act as an arbitrator and as to objections to an arbitrator on the ground
of interest has been closely followed by the American courts. The same
observation applies as to the requisites of an award, the mode of its
enforcement and the grounds on which it will be set aside. The
arbitrator has a lien on the award for his fees; and--a point of
difference from the English law--he may sue for them without an express
promise to pay (cf. _Goodall_ v. _Cooley_, 1854, 29 New Hamp. 48). At
common law, a submission is generally revocable at any time before
award; and it is also, in the absence of stipulation to the contrary,
revoked by the death of one of the parties. Provision has been made in
Pennsylvania for compulsory arbitration by an act of the 16th of June
1836 (see Pepper and Lewis, _Pennsylvania Digest, tit._ "arbitration").


  References by rule of court.

The rules of court also of many of the states of the United States
provide for reference through the intervention of the court at any stage
in the progress of a litigation. Such submissions are usually declared
irrevocable by the rules providing for them.


  Statutory arbitrations.

In addition to voluntary submissions and references by rules of court
there are in America, as in the United Kingdom, various statutes which
provide for arbitration in particular cases. Most of these statutes are
founded on the 9 and 10 Will. III., c. 15, and 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 42,
s. 49, "by which it is allowed to refer a matter in dispute (not then in
court) to arbitrators, and agree that the submission be made a rule of
court. This agreement, being proved on the oath of one of the witnesses
thereto, is enforced as if it had been made at first a rule of court"
(Bouvier, _Law Dict_. s.v. "Arbitration").

Ample provision is made in America for the arbitration of labour
disputes.

  _Law of France._--Voluntary arbitration has always been recognized in
  France. In cases of mercantile partnerships, arbitration was formerly
  compulsory; but in 1856 (law of the 17th of July 1856) jurisdiction in
  disputes between parties was conferred on the Tribunals of Commerce
  (as to which see _Code de Commerce_, arts. 615 et seq.), and
  arbitration at the present time is purely voluntary. The subject is
  very fully dealt with in the _Code de Procédure Civile_ (arts.
  1003-1028). The submission to arbitration (_compromis_) must, on pain
  of nullity, be acted upon within three months from its date (art.
  1007). The submission terminates (i.) by the death, refusal,
  resignation or inability to act of one of the arbitrators; (ii.) by
  the expiration of the period agreed upon, or of three months if no
  time had been fixed; (iii.) by the disagreement of two arbitrators,
  unless power be reserved to them to appoint an umpire (art. 1012). An
  arbitrator cannot resign if he has once commenced to act, and can only
  be relieved on some ground arising subsequently to the submission
  (art. 1014). Each party to the arbitration is required to produce his
  evidence at least fifteen days before the expiration of the period
  fixed by the submission (art. 1016). If the arbitrators, differing in
  opinion, cannot agree upon an umpire (_tiers arbitre_), the president
  of the Tribunal of Commerce will appoint one, on the application of
  either party (art. 1017). The umpire is required to give his decision
  within one month of his acceptance of the appointment; before making
  his award, he must confer with the previous arbitrators who disagreed
  (art. 1018). Arbitrators and umpire must proceed according to the
  ordinary rules of law, unless they are specially empowered by the
  submission to proceed as _amiables compositeurs_ (art. 1019). The
  award is rendered executory by an order of the president of the Civil
  Tribunal of First Instance (art. 1020). Awards cannot be set up
  against third parties (art. 1022), or attacked by way of opposition.
  An appeal against an award lies to the Civil Tribunal of First
  Instance, or to the court of appeal, according as the subject-matter,
  in the absence of arbitration, would have been within the jurisdiction
  of the justice of the peace, or of the Civil Tribunal of First
  Instance (art. 1023). In the manufacturing towns of France, there are
  also boards of umpires (_Conseils de Prud'hommes_) to deal with trade
  disputes between masters and workmen belonging to certain specified
  trades.

  _Other Foreign Laws._--The provisions of French law as to arbitration
  are in force in Belgium (_Code de Proc. Civ._, arts. 1003 et seq.);
  and a convention (8th of July 1899) between France and Belgium
  regulates, _inter alia_, the mutual enforcement of awards. The law of
  France has also been reproduced in substance in the Netherlands (Code
  of Civil Procedure, arts. 620 et seq.). The German Imperial Code of
  Procedure did not create any system of arbitration in civil cases. But
  this omission was supplied in Prussia by a law of the 29th of March
  1879, which provided for the appointment, in each commune, of an
  arbitrator (_Schiedsmann_) before whom conciliation proceedings in
  contentious matters might be conducted. The procedure was gratuitous
  and voluntary; and the functions of the arbitrator were not judicial;
  he merely recorded the arrangement arrived at, or the refusal of
  conciliation. This law was followed in Brunswick by a law of the 2nd
  of July 1896, and in Baden by a law of the 16th of April 1886. In
  Luxemburg, compulsory arbitration in matters affecting commercial
  partnerships was abolished in 1879 (law of the 16th of April 1879). A
  system of conciliation, similar to the Prussian, exists in Italy (laws
  of the 16th of June 1892, and the 26th of December 1892) and in some
  of the Swiss cantons (law of the 29th of April 1883). Spain (Code of
  Civil Proc., arts. 1003-1028; Civil Code, arts. 1820-1821) and Sweden
  and Norway (law of the 28th of October 1887) have followed the French
  law. In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in
  important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative
  corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August
  1889, and the 18th of May 1893).

  AUTHORITIES.--Russell, _Arbitration_ (London, 1906); _Annual Practice_
  (London, yearly); Redman, _Arbitration_ (London, 1897); Crewe,
  _Arbitration Act of 1889_ (London, 1898); Pollock, _On Arbitrators_
  (London, 1906). As to Scots law: Bell, _On Arbitration_ (2nd ed.,
  Edinburgh, 1877); Erskine, _Principles_ (20th ed., Edinburgh, 1903).
  As to American law: Morse, _Law of Arbitration_ (Boston, 1872). As to
  foreign law generally: the texts of the laws cited, and the _Annuaire
  de législation étrangère_.     (A. W. R.)



ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL. International arbitration is a proceeding in
which two nations refer their differences to one or more selected
persons, who, after affording to each party an opportunity of being
heard, pronounce judgment on the matters at issue. It is understood,
unless otherwise expressed, that the judgment shall be in accordance
with the law by which civilized nations have agreed to be bound,
whenever such law is applicable. Some authorities, notably the eminent
Swiss jurist, J.K. Bluntschli, consider that unless this tacit condition
is complied with, the award may be set aside. This would, however, be
highly inconvenient since international law has never been codified. A
fresh arbitration might have to be entered on to decide (1) what the law
was, (2) whether it applied to the matter in hand. Arbitration differs
from Mediation (q.v.) in so far as it is a judicial act, whereas
Mediation involves no decision, but merely advice and suggestions to
those who invoke its aid.

_Arbitral Tribunals._--An international arbitrator may be the chief of a
friendly power, or he may be a private individual. When he is an
emperor, a king, or a president of a republic, it is not expected that
he will act personally; he may appoint a delegate or delegates to act on
his behalf, and avail himself of their labours and views, the ultimate
decision being his only in name. In this respect international
arbitration differs from civil arbitration, since a private arbitrator
cannot delegate his office without express authority. The analogy
between the two fails to hold good in another respect also. In civil
arbitration, the decision or award may be made a rule of court, after
which it becomes enforceable by writ of execution against person or
property. An international award cannot be enforced directly; in other
words it has no legal sanction behind it. Its obligation rests on the
good faith of the parties to the reference, and on the fact that, with
the help of a world-wide press, public opinion can always be brought to
bear on any state that seeks to evade its moral duty. The obligation of
an ordinary treaty rests on precisely the same foundations. Where there
are two or any other even number of arbitrators, provision is usually
made for an umpire (French _sur-arbitre_). The umpire may be chosen by
the arbitrators themselves or nominated by a neutral power. In the
"Alabama" arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president
of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the
president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil
respectively. In the Bering Sea arbitration there were seven
arbitrators, two nominated by Great Britain, two by the United States,
and the remaining three by the president of the French Republic, the
king of Italy, and the king of Sweden and Norway respectively. In
neither of these cases was there an umpire; nor was any necessary, since
the decision, if not unanimous, lay with the majority. (See separate
articles on BERING SEA ARBITRATION and "ALABAMA" ARBITRATION.)

Arbitral tribunals may have to deal with questions either of law or
fact, or of both combined. When they have to deal with law only, that is
to say, to lay down a principle or decide a question of liability, their
functions are judicial or quasi-judicial, and the result is arbitration
proper. Where they have to deal with facts only, e.g. the evaluation of
pecuniary claims, their functions are administrative rather than
judicial, and the term commission is applied to them. "Mixed
commissions," so called because they are composed of representatives of
the parties in difference, have been frequently resorted to for
delimitation of frontiers, and for settling the indemnities to be paid
to the subjects of neutral powers in respect of losses sustained by
non-combatants in times of war or civil insurrection. The two earliest
of these were nominated in 1794 under the treaty negotiated by Lord
Grenville with Mr John Jay, commonly called the "Jay Treaty," their
tasks being (1) to define the boundary between Canada and the United
States which had been agreed to by the treaty signed at Paris in 1783;
(2) to estimate the amount to be paid by Great Britain and the United
States to each other in respect of illegal captures or condemnation of
vessels during the war of the American Revolution.

Although arbitrations proper may be thus distinguished from "mixed
commissions," it must not be supposed that any hard or fast theoretical
line can be drawn between them. Arbitrators strictly so called may (as
in the "Alabama" case) proceed to award damages after they have decided
the question of liability; whilst "mixed commissions," before awarding
damages, usually have to decide whether the pecuniary claims made are or
are not well founded.

_Awards._--International awards, as already pointed out, differ from
civil awards in having no legal sanction by which they can be enforced.
On the other hand, they resemble civil awards in that they may be set
aside, i.e. ignored, for sufficient reason, as, for example, if the
tribunal has not acted in good faith, or has not given to each party an
opportunity of being heard, or has exceeded its jurisdiction. An
instance under the last head occurred in 1831, when it was referred to
the king of the Netherlands as sole arbitrator to fix the north-eastern
boundary of the state of Maine. The king's representatives were unable
to draw the frontier line by reason of the imperfection of the maps then
in existence, and he therefore directed a further survey. This direction
was beyond the terms of the reference, and the award, when made, was
repudiated by the United States as void for excess. The point in dispute
was only finally disposed of by the Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842.

_Subject-matter._--The history of international arbitration is dealt
with in the article PEACE, where treaties of general arbitration are
discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to
arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited
conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in
regard to particular subjects, e.g. commerce or navigation. The rapid
growth of international arbitration in recent times may be gathered from
the following figures. Between 1820 and 1840, there were eight such
instances; between 1840 and 1860, there were thirty; between 1860 and
1880, forty-four; between 1880 and 1900, ninety. Of the governments
which were parties in these several cases Great Britain heads the list
in point of numbers, the United States of America being a good second.
France, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands are the European states next
in order. The present article is concerned exclusively with arbitration
in regard to such existing differences as are capable of precise
statement and of prompt adjustment. These differences may be arranged in
two main groups:--

  (a) Those which have arisen between state and state in their sovereign
    capacities;

  (b) Those in which one state has made a demand upon another state,
    ostensibly in its sovereign capacity, but really on behalf of some
    individual, or set of individuals, whose interests it was bound to
    protect.

To group (a) belong territorial differences in regard to ownership of
land and rights of fishing at sea; to group (b) belong pecuniary claims
in respect of acts wrongfully done to one or more subjects of one state
by, or with the authority of, another state. To enumerate even a tenth
part of the successful arbitrations in recent times would occupy too
much space. Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their
appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great
Britain respecting the "Alabama" and other vessels employed by the
Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872);
that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering
Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting
the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great
Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway
(award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States
respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903). The long-standing
Newfoundland fishery dispute with France (finally settled in 1904) is
dealt with under Newfoundland. Other examples are shortly noticed in the
tables on p. 329, which although by no means exhaustive, sufficiently
indicate the scope and trend of arbitration during the years covered.
The cases decided by the permanent tribunal at the Hague established in
1900 are not included in these tables. They are separately discussed
later.

_The Hague Tribunal._--The establishment of a permanent tribunal at the
Hague, pursuant to the Peace convention of 1899, marks a momentous epoch
in the history of international arbitration. This tribunal realized an
idea put forward by Jeremy Bentham towards the close of the 18th
century, advocated by James Mill in the middle of the 19th century, and
worked out later by Mr Dudley Field in America, by Dr Goldschmidt in
Germany, and by Sir Edmund Hornby and Mr Leone Levi in England. The
credit of the realization is due, in the first place, to the tsar of
Russia, who initiated the Hague Conference of 1899, and, in the second
place to Lord Pauncefote (then Sir Julian Pauncefote, British ambassador
at Washington), who urged before a committee of the conference the
importance of organizing a permanent international court, the service of
which should be called into requisition at will, and who also submitted
an outline of the mode in which such a court might be formed. The result
was embodied in the following articles of the Convention, signed on
behalf of sixteen of the assembled powers on the 29th of July 1899.

  (Art. 23). Each of the signatory powers is to designate within three
  months from the ratification of the convention four persons at the
  most, of recognized competence in international law, enjoying the
  highest moral consideration, and willing to accept the duties of
  arbitrators. Two or more powers may agree to nominate one or more
  members in common, or the same person may be nominated by different
  powers. Members of the court are to be appointed for six years and may
  be re-nominated. (Art. 25). The signatory powers desiring to apply to
  the tribunal for the settlement of a difference between them are to
  notify the same to the arbitrators. The arbitrators who are to
  determine this difference are, unless otherwise specially agreed, to
  be chosen from the general list of members in the following
  manner:--each party is to name two arbitrators, and these are to
  choose a chief arbitrator or umpire (_sur-arbitre_). If the votes are
  equally divided the selection of the chief arbitrator is to be
  entrusted to a third power to be named by the parties. (Art. 26). The
  tribunal is to sit at the Hague when practicable, unless the parties
  otherwise agree. (Art. 27). "The signatory powers consider it a duty
  in the event of an acute conflict threatening to break out between two
  or more of them to remind these latter that the permanent court is
  open to them. This action is only to be considered as an exercise of
  good offices." Several of the powers nominated members of the
  permanent court pursuant to Art. 25, quoted above, those nominated on
  behalf of Great Britain being Lord Pauncefote, Sir Edward Malet, Sir
  Edward Fry and Professor Westlake. On the death of Lord Pauncefote,
  Major-General Sir John C. Ardagh was appointed in his place.


    The pious fund of the Californias.

  _Hague Cases._--(1) The first case decided by the Hague court was
  concerned with the "Pious Fund of the Californias." A fund bearing
  this name was formed in the 18th century for the purpose of converting
  to the Catholic faith the native Indians of Upper and Lower
  California, both of which then belonged to Mexico, and of maintaining
  a Catholic priesthood there. By a decree of 1842 this fund was
  transferred to the public treasury of Mexico, the Mexican government
  undertaking to pay interest thereon in perpetuity in furtherance of
  the design of the original donors. After the sale of Upper California
  to the United States, effected by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  (1848), the Mexican government refused to pay the proportion of the
  interest to which Upper California was entitled. The question of
  liability was then referred to commissioners appointed by each state,
  and, on their failing to agree, to Sir Edward Thornton, British
  minister at Washington, who by his award, in 1875, found there was due
  from Mexico to Upper California, or rather to the bishops there as
  administrators of the fund, an arrear of interest amounting to nearly
  $100,000, which was directed to be paid in gold. This award was
  carried out, but payment of the current interest was again withheld as
  from the 24th of October 1868. Claim was thereupon made on Mexico by
  the United States on behalf of the bishops, but without success.
  Ultimately, in May 1902, an agreement was come to between the two
  governments which provided for the settlement of the dispute by the
  Hague tribunal. The points to be determined were (1) whether the
  matter was _res judicata_ by reason of Sir E. Thornton's award; (2)
  whether, if not, the claim for the interest was just. The arbitrators
  selected by the United States were Sir E. Fry and Professor F. de
  Martens, and by Mexico, Professor Asser and Professor de Savornin
  Lohman, both of Amsterdam. These four (none of whom, it will be
  observed, was of the nationality of either party in difference) chose
  for their umpire Professor Matzen, of Copenhagen, president of the
  Landsthing there. In October 1902, the court decided both questions in
  the affirmative, awarding the payment by Mexico of the annual sum
  claimed, not in gold, but _en monnaie ayant cours légal au Mexique_.
  The direction to pay in gold made by Sir E. Thornton was held to be
  referable only to the mode of the execution of the award, and
  therefore not to be _chose jugée_.


    Great Britain, Germany and Italy versus Venezuela.

  (2) The second arbitration before the Hague court was more important
  than the first, not only because so many of the great powers were
  concerned in it, but also because it brought about the discontinuance
  of acts of war. The facts may be stated shortly thus. By three several
  protocols signed at Washington in February 1903, it was agreed that
  certain claims by Great Britain, Germany and Italy, on behalf of their
  respective subjects against the Venezuelan government should be
  referred to three mixed commissions, and that for the purpose of
  securing the payment of these claims 30 percent of the customs
  revenues at the ports of La Guayra and Puerto Caballo should be
  remitted in monthly instalments to the representative of the Bank of
  England at Caracas. Prior to the date of these protocols, an attempt
  had been made by Great Britain, Germany and Italy to enforce their
  claims by blockade, and a further question arose as between these
  three powers on the one hand, and the United States of America,
  France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, and Mexico
  (all of whom had claims against Venezuela, but had abstained from
  hostile action) on the other hand, as to whether the blockading powers
  were entitled to preferential treatment. By three several protocols
  signed in May 1903 this question was agreed to be submitted to the
  Hague court, three members of which were to be named as arbitrators by
  the tsar of Russia, but no arbitrator was to be a subject or citizen
  of any of the signatory or creditor powers. The arbitrators named by
  the tsar were M. Muraviev, minister of justice and attorney-general of
  the Russian empire; Professor Lammasch, member of the Upper House of
  the Austrian parliament; and M. de Martens, then member of the council
  of the ministry of foreign affairs at St Petersburg. The arbitrators
  by their award in February 1904 decided unanimously in favour of the
  blockading powers and ordered payment of their claims out of the 30%
  of the receipts at the two Venezuelan ports which had been set apart
  to meet them.

  +------+----------------------------+--------------------------+-----------------------------------+------+
  |Dates |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  |  of  |                            |                          |                                   | Date |
  |agree-|          Parties.          |  Arbitrating Authority.  |          Subject-Matter.          |  of  |
  |ments |                            |                          |                                   |award.|
  |  to  |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  |refer.|                            |                          |                                   |      |
  |                                                                                                         |
  |                                             TABLE I.                                                    |
  |                               _Territorial Disputes_ (_Ownership_)                                      |
  |                                                                                                         |
  | 1857 | Holland and Venezuela      | Queen of Spain           | Island of Aves in Venezuela       | 1865 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1869 | Great Britain and Portugal | President of United      | Island of Bulama on West Coast of | 1870 |
  |      |                            |   States                 |   Africa                          |      |
  | 1872 | Great Britain and Portugal | President of French      | Delagoa Bay (part of), Inyack and | 1875 |
  |      |                            |   Republic               |   Elephant Is., S.E. Africa       |      |
  | 1876 | Argentine Republic and     | President of United      | Territory between the Verde and   | 1878 |
  |      |  Paraguay                  |   States                 |   Pilcomayo river of Paraguay     |      |
  | 1885 | Great Britain and Germany  | Mixed Commission         | Islets and guano deposits on S.W. | 1886 |
  |      |                            |                          |   Coast of Africa                 |      |
  | 1886 | Bulgaria and Servia        | Mixed Commission         | Territory near the village of     | 1887 |
  |      |                            |                          |   Bergovo                         |      |
  | 1902 | Austria and Hungary        | Mixed Commission (with   | Territory in the district of Upper| 1902 |
  |      |                            |   President of Swiss     |   Tatra                           |      |
  |      |                            |   Federal tribunal as    |                                   |      |
  |      |                            |   umpire)                |                                   |      |
  |                                                                                                         |
  |                                             TABLE II.                                                   |
  |                                   _Delimitation of Frontiers._                                          |
  |                                                                                                         |
  | 1869 | Great Britainand the       | Lieutenant Governor of   | The southern boundary of the S.   | 1870 |
  |      |   Transvaal                |   Natal                  |   African Republic                |      |
  | 1871 | Great Britain and the      | The German Emperor       | The San Juan water boundary       | 1872 |
             United States            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1873 | Italy and Switzerland      | Mixed Commission (with   | The Canton of Ticino              | 1874 |
  |      |                            |   U.S. Minister at Rome  |                                   |      |
  |      |                            |   as umpire)             |                                   |      |
  | 1885 | Great Britain and Russia   | Mixed Commission         | North-western Afganistan          | 1887 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1890 | France and Holland         | Tsar of Russia           | French Guiana and Dutch Guiana    | 1891 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1895 | Great Britain and Portugal | President of the Italian | Manicaland    1897                |      |
  |      |                            |   Court of Appeal        |                                   |      |
  | 1897 | France and Brazil          | President of the Swiss   | River Yapoe named in the Treaty   | 1900 |
  |      |                            |   Confederation          |   of Utrecht 1813                 |      |
  | 1901 | Great Britain and Brazil   | King of Italy            | British Guiana                    | 1904 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1903 | Great Britain and Portugal | King of Italy            | Barotseland                       | 1905 |
  |                                                                                                         |
  |                                             TABLE III.                                                  |
  |                        _Pecuniary Claims in respect of Seizures and Arrests._                           |
  |                                                                                                         |
  | 1851 | United States and Portugal | President of French      | Seizure of the American privateer | 1852 |
  |      |                            |   Republic               |   "General Armstrong"             |      |
  | 1863 | Great Britain and Brazil   | King of the Belgians     | Arrest of three British officers  | 1863 |
  |      |                            |                          |   of the ship "La Forte"          |      |
  | 1863 | Great Britain and Peru     | Sentate of Hamburg       | Arrest at Callao of Capt. Melville| 1864 |
  |      |                            |                          |   White, a British subject        |      |
  | 1870 | United States and Spain    | Mixed Commission         | The American S.S. "Col. Lloyd     | 1870 |
  |      |                            |                          |   Aspinwall"                      |      |
  | 1873 | Japan and Peru             | Tsar of Russia           | The Peruvian barque "Maria Luz"   | 1875 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1874 | United States and Colombia | Mixed Commission         | The American S.S. "Montijo"       | 1875 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1879 | France and Nicaragua       | French Court of Cassation| The French ship "La Phare"        | 1880 |
  |      |                            |                          |                                   |      |
  | 1885 | United States an Spain     | Italian Minister at      | The American S.S. "The Masonic"   | 1885 |
  |      |                            |   Madrid                 |                                   |      |
  | 1888 | The United States and      | British Minister at      | The S.S. "Benjamin Franklin" and  | 1890 |
  |      |   Denmark                  |   Athens                 |   the barque "Catherine Augusta"  |      |
  | 1895 | Great Britain and          | Tsar of Russia, who      | Arrest of the master of the "Costa| 1897 |
  |      |   Netherlands              |   delegated his duties to|   Rica" packet (a British subject)|      |
  |      |                            |   Professor F. de Martens|                                   |      |
  +------+----------------------------+--------------------------+-----------------------------------+------+


    Great Britain, France and Germany versus Japan.

  (3) The third case before the Hague court was heard in 1904-1905. A
  controversy not amenable to ordinary diplomatic methods arose between
  Great Britain, France and Germany on the one hand and Japan on the
  other hand as to the legality of a house-tax imposed by Japan on
  certain subjects of those powers who held leases in perpetuity. The
  question upon the true construction of certain treaties between the
  European powers and Japan which had been made a few years previously.
  By three protocols signed at Tokyo in August 1902 this question was
  agreed to be submitted to arbitrators, members of the court at the
  Hague, one to be chosen by each party with power to name an umpire.
  The arbitrators chosen were M. Renault, professor of the law faculty
  in Paris, and M. Montono, the Japanese envoy to the French capital.
  They named as their umpire and president M. Gram, ex-minister of the
  state of Norway. In May 1905, an award was pronounced by the majority
  (M. Gram and M. Renault) in favour of the European contention, M.
  Montono dissenting both from the conclusion of his colleagues and from
  the reasons on which it was based.


    Great Britain and the French flag at Muscat.

  (4) Barely two months had elapsed since the date of the last award
  when the Hague court was again called into requisition. The scene of
  dispute this time was on the S.E. coast of Arabia. Muscat, the capital
  of the kingdom of Oman on that coast, is ruled by a sultan, whose
  independence both Great Britain and France had, in March 1862,
  "reciprocally engaged to respect." Notwithstanding this, the French
  republic had issued to certain native dhows, owned by subjects of the
  sultan, papers authorizing them to fly the French flag, not only on
  the Oman littoral but in the Red Sea. A question thereupon arose as to
  the manner in which the privileges thereby purported to be conferred
  affected the jurisdiction of the sultan over such dhows, the masters
  of which, as was alleged, used their immunity from search for the
  purpose of carrying on contraband trade in slaves, arms and
  ammunition. In October 1904 the two governments agreed to refer this
  question to the Hague court. Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, of the
  Supreme Court of the United States, was named as arbitrator on the
  part of Great Britain, M. de Savornin Lohrnan, who had acted in the
  case of the Californias (No. 1), as arbitrator on the part of France.
  The choice of an umpire was entrusted to the king of Italy. He named
  Professor Lammasch, who, as we have seen, had acted in the arbitration
  with Venezuela in 1903.

  A unanimous award was made in August 1905. It was held that although
  generally speaking every sovereign may decide to whom he will accord
  the right to fly his flag, yet in this case such right was limited by
  the general act of the Brussels conference of July 1890 relative to
  the African slave trade, an act which was ratified by France on the
  2nd of June 1892; that accordingly the owners and master of dhows who
  had been authorized by France to fly the French flag before the
  last-named date retained this authorization so long as France chose
  to renew it, but that after that date such authorization was improper
  unless the guarantees could establish that they had been treated by
  France as her protégés within the meaning of that term as explained in
  a treaty of 1863 between France and Morocco. A further point decided
  was that the owners or master of dhows duly authorized to fly the
  French flag within the ruling of the first point, did not enjoy, in
  consequence of that fact, any such right of extra-territoriality as
  would exempt them from the sovereignty and jurisdiction of the sultan.
  Such exemption would be contrary to the engagement to respect the
  independence of the sultan solemnly made in 1862.

_Arbitral Procedure._--Not the least of the benefits of the Hague
convention of 1899 (strengthened by that of 1907) is that it contains
rules of procedure which furnish a guide for all arbitrations whether
conducted before the Hague court or not. These may be summarized as
follows:--The initial step is the making by the parties of a special
agreement clearly defining the subject of the dispute. The next is the
choice of the arbitrators and of an umpire if the number of arbitrators
is even. Each party then by its agents prepares and presents its case in
a narrative or argumentative form, annexing thereto all relevant
documents. The cases so presented are interchanged by transmission to
the opposite party. The hearing consists in the discussion of the
matters contained in the several cases, and is conducted under the
direction of the president who is either the umpire, or, if there is no
umpire, one of the arbitrators. The members of the tribunal have the
right of putting questions to the counsel and agents of the parties and
to demand from them explanation of doubtful points. The arbitral
judgment is read out at a public sitting of the tribunal, the counsel
and agents having been duly summoned to hear it. Any application for a
revision of the award must be based on the discovery of new evidence of
such a nature as to exercise a decisive influence on the judgment and
unknown up to the time when the hearing was closed, both to the tribunal
itself and to the party asking for the revision. These general rules are
universally applicable, but each case may require that special rules
should be added to them. These each tribunal must make for itself.

One special and necessary rule is in regard to the language to be
employed. This rule must vary according to convenience and is therefore
made _ad hoc_. In case No. 1 noted above, the court allowed English or
French to be spoken according to the nationality of the counsel engaged.
The judgment was delivered in French only. In case No. 2 it was agreed
that the written and printed memoranda should be in English but might be
accompanied by a translation into the language of the power on whose
behalf they were put in. The oral discussion was either in English or
French as happened to be convenient. The judgment was drawn up in both
languages. In case No. 3 French was the official language throughout,
but the parties were allowed to make any communication to the tribunal,
in French, English, German or Japanese. In case No. 4 French was again
the official language, but the counsel and agents of both parties were
allowed to address the tribunal in English. The protocols and the
judgment were drawn up in French accompanied by an official English
translation.

_Limits of International Arbitration._--Of the numerous treaties for
general arbitration which have been made during the 20th century that
between Great Britain and France (1903) is a type. This treaty contains
reservations of all questions involving the vital interests, the
independence or the honour of the contracting parties. The language of
the reservation is open to more interpretations than one. What, for
instance, is meant by the phrase "national independence" in this
connexion? If it be taken in its strict acceptation of autonomous state
sovereignty, the exception is somewhat of a truism. No self-respecting
power would, of course, consent to submit to arbitration a question of
life or death. This would be as if two men were to agree to draw lots as
to which should commit suicide in order to avoid fighting a duel. On the
other hand, if the exception be taken to exclude all questions which,
when decided adversely to a state, impose a restraint on its freedom of
action, then the exception would seem to exclude such a question as the
true interpretation of an ambiguous treaty, a subject with which
experience shows international arbitration is well fitted to deal.
Again, we may ask, what is meant by the phrase "national honour"? It was
thought at one time that the honour of a nation could only be vindicated
by war, though all that had happened was the slighting of its flag, or
of its accredited representative, during some sudden ebullition of local
feeling. France once nearly broke off peaceful relations with Spain
because her ambassador at London was assigned a place below the Spanish
ambassador, and on another occasion she despatched troops into Italy
because her ambassador at Rome had been insulted by the friends and
partisans of the pope. The truth is that the extent to which national
honour is involved depends on factors which have nothing to do with the
immediate subject of complaint. So long as general good feeling subsists
between two nations, neither will easily take offence at any
discourteous act of the other. But when a deep-seated antagonism is
concealed beneath an unruffled surface, the most trivial incident will
bring it to the light of day. "Outraged national honour" is a highly
elastic phrase. It may serve as a pretext for a serious quarrel whether
the alleged "outrage" be great or small.

The prospects of the expansion of international arbitration will be more
clearly perceived if we classify afresh all state differences under two
heads:--(1) those which have a legal character, (2) those which have a
political character. Under "legal differences" may be ranged such as are
capable of being decided, when once the facts are ascertained, by
settled, recognized rules, or by rules not settled nor recognized, but
(as in the "Alabama" case) taken so to be for the purpose in hand.
Boundary cases and cases of indemnity for losses sustained by
non-combatants in time of war, of which several instances have already
been mentioned, belong to this class. To the same class belong those
cases in which the arbitrators have to adapt the provisions of an old
treaty to new and altered circumstances, somewhat in the way in which
English courts of justice apply the doctrine of "cy-près." "Political
differences" on the other hand, are such as affect states in their
external relations, or in relation to their subjects or dependants who
may be in revolt against them. Some of these differences may be slight,
while others may be vital, or (which amounts to the same thing) may seem
to the parties to be so. All differences falling under the first of
these two general heads appear to be suitable for international
arbitration. Differences falling under the second general head are, for
the most part, unsuitable, and may only be adjusted (if at all) through
the mediation of a friendly power.

The interesting problem of the future is--are we to regard this
classification as fixed or as merely transitory? The answer depends on
several considerations which can only be glanced at here. It may be
that, just as the usages of civilized nations have slowly crystallized
into international law, so there may come a time when the political
principles that govern states in relation to each other will be so
clearly defined and so generally accepted as to acquire something of a
legal or quasi-legal character. If they do, they will pass the line
which at present separates arbitrable from non-arbitrable matter. This
is the juridical aspect of the problem. But there is also an economic
side to it by reason of the conditions of modern warfare. Already the
nations are groaning under the burdens of militarism, and are for ever
diverting energies that might be employed in the furtherance of useful
productive work to purposes of an opposite character. The interruption
of maritime intercourse, the stagnation of industry and trade, the rise
in the price of the necessaries of life, the impossibility of adequately
providing for the families of those--call them reservists, "landwehr,"
or what you will--who are torn away from their daily toil to serve in
the tented field,--these are considerations that may well make us pause
before we abandon a peaceful solution and appeal to brute force. Lastly,
there is the moral aspect of the problem. In order that international
arbitration may do its perfect work, it is not enough to set up a
standing tribunal, whether at the Hague or elsewhere, and to equip it
with elaborate rules of procedure. Tribunals and rules are, after all,
only machinery. If this machinery is to act smoothly we must improve our
motive power, the source of which is human passion and sentiment.
Although religious animosities between Christian nations have died out,
although dynasties may now rise and fall without raising half Europe to
arms, the springs of warlike enterprise are still to be found in
commercial jealousies, in imperialistic ambitions and in the doctrine of
the survival of the fittest which lends scientific support to both.
These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era
of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia
declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments
should be directed. Meanwhile it is legitimate to share the hope
expressed by President Roosevelt in his message to Congress of December
1905 that some future Hague conference may succeed in making arbitration
the customary method of settling international disputes in all save the
few classes of cases indicated above, and that--to quote Mr Roosevelt's
words--"these classes may themselves be as sharply defined and rigidly
limited as the governmental and social development of the world will for
the time being permit."

  AUTHORITIES.--Among special treatises are: Kamarowsky, _Le Tribunal
  international_ (traduit par Serge de Westman) (Paris, 1887); Rouard de
  Card, _Les Destinées de l'arbitrage international, depuis la sentence
  rendue par le tribunal de Genève_ (Paris, 1892); Michel Revon,
  _L'Arbitrage international_ (Paris, 1892); Ferdinand Dreyfus,
  _L'Arbitrage international_ (Paris, 1894) (where the earlier
  authorities are collected); A. Merignhac, _Traité de l'arbitrage
  international_ (Paris, 1895); Le Chevalier Descamps, _Essai sur
  l'organisation de l'arbitrage international_ (Bruxelles, 1896);
  Feraud-Giraud, _Des Traités d'arbitrage international général et
  permanent, Revue de droit international_ (Bruxelles. 1897);
  _Pasicrisie International_, by Senator H. Lafontaine (Berne, 1902);
  _Recueils d'actes et protocols de la cour permanente d'Arbitrage_,
  Langenhuysen Frères, the Hague.

  Of works in English there is a singular dearth. The most important is
  by an American, J.B. Moore, _History of the International Arbitrations
  to which the United States has been a Party_ (Washington, 1898). The
  appendices to this work (which is in six volumes) contain, with much
  other matter of great value, full historical notes of arbitrations
  between other powers. Arbitration and mediation will be found briefly
  noticed in Phillimore's _International Law_; in Sir Henry Maine's
  _Lectures_, delivered in Cambridge in 1887; in W.E. Hall's
  _International Law_, and more at length in an interesting paper
  contributed by John Westlake to the _International Journal of Ethics_,
  October 1896, which its author has reprinted privately. A London
  journal, _The Herald of Peace and International Arbitration_, issued
  some years ago a list of instances in which arbitration or mediation
  had been successfully resorted to during the 19th century. David
  Dudley Field, of New York, subsequently enlarged this list, which has
  been continued under the title _International Tribunals_, by Dr W.
  Evans Darby, and is published, along with the texts of several
  projects for general arbitration, at the offices of the Peace Society,
  47 New Broad Street, London.     (M. H. C.)



ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION. The terms "arbitration and conciliation"
as employed in this article, are used to describe a group of methods of
settling disputes between employers and work-people or among two or more
sets of work-people, of which the common feature is the intervention of
some outside party not directly affected by the dispute. If the parties
agree beforehand to abide by the award of the third party, the mode of
settlement is described as "arbitration." If there be no such agreement,
but the offices of the mediator are used to promote an amicable
arrangement between the parties themselves, the process is described as
"conciliation." The third party may be one or more disinterested
individuals, or a joint-board representative of the parties or of other
bodies or persons.

The process here termed "arbitration" is rarely an arbitration in the
strict legal sense of the term (at least in the United Kingdom), because
of the defective legal personality of the associations or groups of
individuals who are usually parties to labour disputes, and the
consequent absence in the great majority of cases of a valid legal
"submission" of the difference to arbitration. Whether or not trade
unions of employers or workmen in the United Kingdom are capable of
entering through their agents into contracts which are legally binding
on their members it is fairly certain that the great majority of the
agreements actually made by the representatives of employers and workmen
to submit a dispute to the decision of a third party are of no legal
force except as regards the actual signatories. Broadly speaking,
therefore, the provisions of the Arbitration Act 1889, which
consolidated the law relating to arbitration in general, would as a rule
have no application to the settlement of collective disputes between
employers and workmen, even if the act had not been expressly excluded
by section 3 of the Conciliation Act of 1896 in the case of disputes to
which that act applies. Besides the absence of a legal "submission,"
labour arbitrations differ from ordinary arbitrations in the fact that
the questions referred often (though by no means always) relate to the
terms on which future contracts shall be made, whereas the vast majority
of ordinary arbitrations relate to questions arising out of existing
contracts. The defective "personality" of the parties to labour disputes
also prevents the enforcement of an award by legal penalties. Since,
however, difficulties of enforcement affect not only settlements arrived
at by arbitration, but all agreements between bodies of employers and
work-people with regard to the terms of employment, they are most
appropriately considered at a later stage of this article.

The term "conciliation" is ordinarily used to cover a large number of
methods of settlement, shading off in the one direction into
"arbitration" and in the other into ordinary direct negotiation between
the parties. In some cases conciliation only differs from arbitration in
the absence of a previous agreement to accept the award. The German
"_Gewerbegerichten_," when dealing with labour disputes, communicate a
decision to both parties, who must notify their acceptance or otherwise
(see below). Some of the state boards in America take similar action.
The conciliation boards established under the New Zealand Arbitration
Act of 1894 (see below) make recommendations, though either side may
decline to accept them and may appeal to the court of arbitration, which
in that colony has compulsory powers. Most frequently, however, in Great
Britain, the mediating party abstains from pronouncing a definite
judgment of his own, but confines himself to friendly suggestions with a
view of removing obstacles to an agreement between the parties. On the
other hand, it is not easy to define how far the "outside party" must be
independent of the parties to the dispute, in order that the method of
settlement may be properly described as "conciliation." There is a sense
in which a friendly conversation between an employer or his manager and
a deputation of aggrieved workmen is rightly described as
"conciliation," but such an interview would certainly not be covered by
the term as ordinarily used at the present day. Again, when the parties
are represented by agents (e.g. the officials of an employers'
association and of a trade union) the actual negotiators or some of them
may not personally be affected by the particular dispute, and may often
exercise some of the functions of the mediator or conciliator in a
manner not clearly to be distinguished from the action of an outside
party. It seems best, however, to exclude such negotiations from our
purview so long as those between whom they are carried on merely act as
the authorized agents for the parties affected. In the same way, a
meeting arranged _ad hoc_ between delegates of an employers' association
and a trade union, for the purpose of arranging differences as to the
terms on which the members of the association shall employ members of
the union is not usually classed as "conciliation," unless the meeting
is held in the presence of an independent chairman or conciliator, or in
pursuance of a permanent agreement between the associations laying down
the procedure for the settlement of disputes. If, however, the dispute
is considered and arranged not by a casual meeting between two
committees and deputations appointed _ad hoc_, but by a permanently
organized "joint committee" or board with a constitution, rules of
procedure and officers of its own, the process of settlement is by
ordinary usage described as "conciliation," even though the board be
entirely representative of the persons engaged in the industry. Such
joint boards, as will be seen, play a most important part in
conciliation at the present day, and they almost always have attached to
them some machinery for the ultimate decision by arbitration of
questions on which they fail to agree. Another form of conciliation is
that in which the mediating board represents a wider group of industries
than those affected by the dispute (e.g. the London and other
"district" boards referred to below). Moreover, in some of the most
important cases of settlement of disputes by conciliation, the mediating
party has not been a permanent board but a disinterested individual,
e.g. the mayor, county court judge, government official or member of
parliament. As will be seen below, the Conciliation Act now provides for
the appointment of "conciliators" by the Board of Trade.

Voluntary trade boards, however (i.e. permanent joint boards
representing employers and work-people in particular trades), are at
once the most firmly established and the most important agencies in
Great Britain for the prevention and settlement of labour disputes.
Among the earliest of such bodies was the board of arbitration in the
Macclesfield silk trade, formed in 1849, in imitation of the French
"_Conseils de Prud'hommes_," but which only lasted four years. The first
board, however, which attained any degree of permanent success was that
established for the hosiery and glove trade in Nottingham in 1860,
through the efforts of A.J. Mundella. In 1864 a board was established in
the Wolverhampton building trades, with Rupert Kettle as chairman, and
in 1868 boards were formed for the pottery trade, the Leicester hosiery
trade and the Nottingham lace trade. In 1869 there was formed one of the
most important of the still existing boards, viz. the board of
arbitration and conciliation in the manufactured iron and steel trades
of the north of England, with which the names of Rupert Kettle, David
Dale and others are associated. In 1872 and 1873 joint committees were
formed in the Durham and Northumberland coal trades to deal with local
questions. The Leicester boot and shoe trade board, the first of an
elaborate system of local boards in this trade, was founded in 1875.
From about 1870 onwards there was a great movement for the establishment
of "sliding scales" in the coal and iron and steel trades, which by
regulating wages automatically rendered unnecessary the settlement of
general wages by conciliation or arbitration. These sliding scales,
however, usually had attached to them joint committees for dealing with
disputed questions. A sliding scale arranged by David Dale was attached
to the manufactured iron trade board in 1871. A sliding scale for the
Cleveland blast furnacemen came into force in 1879. Sliding scales were
also adopted in the coal trade in many districts, e.g. South Wales
(1875), Durham (1877) and Northumberland (1879). The movement was,
however, followed by a reaction, and several of the sliding scales in
the coal trade were terminated between 1887 and 1889. In 1902 the last
surviving sliding scale in the coal trade, viz. in South Wales, ceased
to exist and was replaced by a conciliation board.

The formation on a large scale of conciliation boards in the coal trade
to fix the rate of wages dates from the great miners' dispute of 1893,
one of the terms of settlement agreed to at the conference held at the
foreign office under Lord Rosebery being the formation of a conciliation
board covering the districts affected. Northumberland followed in 1894,
Durham in 1895, Scotland in 1900 and South Wales in 1903.

In 1907 an important scheme for the formation of conciliation boards for
railway companies and their employees was adopted as the result of the
action taken by the president of the Board of Trade to prevent a general
strike of railway servants in that year. Under this scheme separate
boards (sectional and general) were to be formed for the employees of
each railway company which adhered to the scheme, with provision for
reference in case of a deadlock to an umpire.

The first general district board to be formed was that established in
London in 1890, through the London chamber of commerce, as a sequel to
the Mansion House committee which mediated in the great London dock
strike of 1889. The example was followed by several large towns, but the
action taken by the boards in most of these provincial districts has
been very limited.

In addition there are two boards composed of representatives of
co-operators and trade-unionists for the settlement of disputes arising
between co-operative societies and their employees.


  Constitution and functions of voluntary conciliation boards.

The most typical form of machinery for the settlement of disputes by
voluntary conciliation is a joint board consisting of equal numbers of
representatives of employers and employed. The members of the board are
usually elected by the associations of employers and workmen, though in
some cases (e.g. in the manufactured iron trade board) the workmen's
representatives are elected not by their trade union but by meetings of
workmen employed at the various works. The chairman may be an
independent person, or, more usually, a representative of the employers,
the vice-chairman being a representative of the workmen. In the
arbitration and conciliation boards in the boot and shoe trade,
provision is made by which the chair may be occupied by representatives
of the employers and workmen in alternate years. An independent chairman
usually has a casting vote, which practically makes him an umpire in
case of equal voting, but where there is no outside chairman there is
often provision for reference of cases on which the board cannot agree
to an umpire, who may either be a permanent officer of the board elected
for a period of time (as in the case of several of the boards in the
boot and shoe trade), or selected _ad hoc_ by the board or appointed by
some outside person or body. Thus the choice of the permanent chairman
or umpire of the miners' conciliation board, formed in pursuance of the
settlement of the coal dispute of 1893 by Lord Rosebery, was left to the
speaker of the House of Commons. The nomination of umpires under the
Railway Agreement of 1907 was left to the speaker and the master of the
rolls. Since the passing of the Conciliation Act, several conciliation
boards have provided in their rules for the appointment of umpires by
the Board of Trade.

Conciliation boards constituted as described above usually have rules
providing that there shall always be equality of voting as between
employer and workmen, in spite of the casual absence of individuals on
one side or the other. In order to expedite business it is sometimes
provided that all questions shall be first considered by a
sub-committee, with power to settle them by agreement before coming
before the full board. Boards of conciliation and arbitration conforming
more or less to the above type exist in the coal, iron and steel, boot
and shoe and other industries in the United Kingdom. A somewhat
different form of organization has prevailed in the cotton-spinning
trade (since the dispute of 1892-1893) and in the engineering trade
(since the engineering dispute of 1897-1898). In these important
industries there are no permanent boards for the settlement of general
questions, but elaborate agreements are in force between the employers'
and workmen's organizations which among other things prescribe the mode
in which questions at issue shall be dealt with and if possible settled.
In the first place, if the question cannot be settled between the
employer and his workmen, it is dealt with by the local associations or
committees or their officials, and failing a settlement in this manner,
is referred to a joint meeting of the executive committees of the two
associations. In neither agreement is there any provision for the
ultimate decision of unsettled questions by arbitration. The agreement
in the cotton trade is known as the "Brooklands Agreement," and a large
number of questions have been amicably settled under its provisions. In
the building trade, it is very customary for the local "working rules,"
agreed to mutually by employers and employed in particular districts, to
contain "conciliation rules" providing for the reference of disputed
questions to a joint committee with or without an ultimate reference to
arbitration. Yet another form of voluntary board is the "district
board," consisting in most cases of representatives elected in equal
numbers by the local chamber of commerce and trades council
respectively. In the case, however, of the London Conciliation Board the
workmen's representatives are elected, twelve by specially summoned
meetings of trade union delegates and two by co-optation. The functions
of district boards are to deal with disputes in any trade which may
occur within their districts, and of course they can only take action
with the consent of both parties to the dispute, in this respect
differing from the majority of "trade" boards, which, as a rule, are
empowered by the agreement under which they are constituted to deal
with questions on the application of either party. Another interesting
type of board is that representing two or more groups of workmen and
sometimes their employers, with the object of settling "demarcation"
disputes between the groups of workmen (i.e. questions as to the limits
of the work which each group may claim to perform). Examples of such
boards are those representing shipwrights and joiners on the Clyde, Tyne
and elsewhere. While the arrangements for voluntary conciliation and
arbitration differ in this way in various industries, there is an
equally wide variation in the character and range of questions which the
boards are empowered to determine. For example, some boards in the coal
trade (e.g. the conciliation boards in Northumberland and the so-called
"Federated Districts") deal solely with the general rate of wages.
Others, e.g. the "joint committee" in Northumberland and Durham, confine
their attention solely to local questions not affecting the counties as
a whole. The Durham conciliation board deals with any general or county
questions. This distinction between "general" and "local" questions
corresponds nearly, though not entirely, to the distinction often drawn
between questions of the terms of future employment and of the
interpretation of existing agreements. Some conciliation boards are
unlimited as regards the scope of the questions which they may consider.
This was formerly the case with the boards in the boot and shoe trade,
but under the "terms of settlement" of the dispute in 1895 drawn up at
the Board of Trade, certain classes of questions (e.g. the employment of
particular individuals, the adoption of piece-work or time-work, &c.)
were wholly or partially withdrawn from their consideration, and any
decision of a board contravening the "terms of settlement" is null and
void. A special feature in the procedure for conciliation and
arbitration in the boot and shoe trade, is the deposit by each party of
£1000 with trustees, as a financial guarantee for the performance of
agreements and awards. A certain class of conciliation boards, mostly in
the Midland metal trades, were attached to "alliances" of employers and
employed, having for their object the regulation of production and of
prices (e.g. the Bedstead Trade Wages Board). None of these alliances,
however, have survived.


  Legislation in the United Kingdom.

At all events up to the year 1896, the development of arbitration and
conciliation as methods of settling labour disputes in the United
Kingdom was entirely independent of any legislation. Previously to the
Conciliation Act of 1896 several attempts had been made by parliament to
promote arbitration and conciliation, but with little or no practical
result, and the act of 1896 repealed all previous legislation on the
subject, at the same time excluding the operation of the Arbitration Act
of 1889 from the settlement of "any difference or dispute to which this
act applies." The laws repealed by the Conciliation Act need only a few
words of mention. During the 18th century the fixing of wages by
magistrates under the Elizabethan legislation gradually decayed, and
acts of 1745 and 1757 gave summary jurisdiction to justices of the peace
to determine disputes between masters and servants in certain
circumstances, although no rate of wages had been fixed that year by the
justices of the peace of the shire. These and other laws, relating
specially to disputes in the cotton-weaving trade, were consolidated and
amended by the Arbitration Act of 1824. This act seems chiefly to have
been aimed at disputes relating to piece-work in the textile trades,
though applicable to other disputes arising out of a wages contract. It
expressly excluded, however, the fixing of a rate of wages or price of
labour or workmanship at which the workmen should in future be paid
unless with the mutual consent of both master and workmen. The act gave
compulsory powers of settling the disputes to which it relates on
application of either party to a court of arbitrators representing
employers and workmen nominated by a magistrate. The award could be
enforced by distress or imprisonment. The act was subsequently amended
in detail, and by the "Councils of Conciliation" Act of 1867 power was
given to the home secretary to license "equitable councils of
conciliation and arbitration" equally representative of masters and
workmen, who should thereupon have the powers conferred by the act of
1824. The act contains provisions for the appointment of conciliation
committees, and other details which are of little interest seeing that
the act was never put into operation. Another amendment of the act of
1824 was made by the Arbitration (Masters and Workmen) Act of 1872,
which contemplated the conclusion of agreements between employers and
employed, designating some board of arbitration by which disputes
included within the scope of the former acts should be determined. A
master or workman should be deemed to be bound by an agreement under the
act, if he accepted a printed copy of the agreement and did not
repudiate it within forty-eight hours. Like the previous legislation,
however, the act of 1872 was inoperative. The evidence given before the
Royal Commission on Labour (1891-1894) disclosed the existence of a
considerable body of opinion in favour of some further action by the
state for the prevention or settlement of labour disputes, and some
impetus was given to the movement by the settlement through official
mediation of several important disputes, e.g. the great coal-miners'
dispute of 1893 by a conference presided over by Lord Rosebery, the
cab-drivers' dispute of 1894 by the mediation of the home secretary
(H.H. Asquith), and the boot and shoe trade dispute of 1895 by a Board
of Trade conference under the chairmanship of Sir Courtenay Boyle. In
these, and a few other less important cases, the intervention of the
Board of Trade or other department took place without any special
statutory sanction. The Conciliation Act passed in 1896 was framed with
a view to giving express authorization to such action in the future.

This act is of a purely voluntary character. Its most important
provisions are those of section 2, empowering the Board of Trade in
cases "where a difference exists or is apprehended between any employer,
or any class of employers, and workmen, or between different classes of
workmen," to take certain steps to promote a settlement of the
difference. They may of their own initiative hold an inquiry or
endeavour to arrange a meeting between the parties under a chairman
mutually agreed on or appointed from the outside, and on the application
of either party they may appoint a conciliator or a board of
conciliation who shall communicate with the parties and endeavour to
bring about a settlement and report their proceedings to the Board of
Trade. On the application of both parties the Board of Trade may appoint
an arbitrator. In all cases the Board of Trade has discretion as to the
action to be taken, and there is no provision either for compelling the
parties to accept their mediation or to abide by any agreement effected
through their intervention. There are other provisions in the act
providing for the registration of voluntary conciliation boards, and for
the promotion by the Board of Trade of the formation of such boards in
districts and trades in which they are deficient. During the first
eleven years after the passage of the act the number of cases arising
under section 2 (providing for action by the Board of Trade for the
settlement of actual or apprehended disputes) averaged twenty-one per
annum, and the number of settlements effected fifteen. In the remaining
cases the Board of Trade either refused to entertain the application or
failed to effect a settlement, or the disputes were settled between the
parties during the negotiations. About three-quarters of the settlements
were effected by arbitration and one-quarter by conciliation. A number
of voluntary conciliation boards formed or reorganized since the passing
of the act provide in their rules for an appeal to the Board of Trade to
appoint an umpire in case of a deadlock. At least thirty-six trade
boards are known to have already adopted this course. The figures given
above show that the Conciliation Act of 1896 has not, like previous
legislation, been a dead letter, though the number of actual disputes
settled is small compared with the total number annually recorded.


  Proposals for compulsion.

Arbitration and conciliation in labour disputes as practised in the
United Kingdom are entirely voluntary, both as regards the initiation
and conduct of the negotiations and the carrying out of the agreement
resulting therefrom, In all these respects arbitration, though
terminating in what is called a binding award, is on precisely the same
legal footing as conciliation, which results in a mutual agreement.
Various proposals have been made (and in some cases carried into effect
in certain countries) for introducing an element of compulsion into this
class of proceeding. There are three stages at which compulsion may
conceivably be introduced, (1) The parties may be compelled by law to
submit their dispute to some tribunal or board of conciliation; (2) the
board of conciliation or arbitration may have power to compel the
attendance of witnesses and the production of documents; (3) the parties
may be compelled to observe the award of the board of arbitration. The
most far-reaching schemes of compulsory arbitration in force in any
country are those in force in New Zealand and certain states in
Australia. Bills have been introduced into the British House of Commons
for clothing voluntary boards of conciliation and arbitration, under
certain conditions, with powers to require attendance of witnesses and
production of documents, without, however, compelling the parties to
submit their disputes to these boards or to abide by their decisions. In
the United Kingdom, however, more attention has recently been given to
the question of strengthening the sanction for the carrying out of
awards and agreements than of compelling the parties to enter into such
arrangements. An interesting step towards the solution of the difficulty
of enforcement in certain cases is perhaps afforded by the provisions of
the terms of settlement of the dispute in the boot and shoe trade drawn
up at the Board of Trade in 1895. Under this agreement £1000 was
deposited by each party with trustees, who were directed by the
trust-deed to pay over to either party, out of the money deposited by
the other, any sum which might be awarded as damages by the umpire named
in the deed, for the breach of the agreement or of any award made by an
arbitration board in consonance with it. Very few claims for damages
have been sustained under this agreement. Nevertheless it cannot be
doubted that the pecuniary liability of the parties has given stability
to the work of the local arbitration boards, and the satisfaction of
both sides with the arrangement is shown by the fact that the trust-deed
which lapsed in 1900 has been several times renewed by common agreement
for successive periods of two years, and is now in force for an
indefinite period subject to six months' notice from either side.
Theoretically a trust-deed of this kind can only offer a guarantee up to
the point at which the original deposit on one side or the other is
exhausted, as it is impossible to compel either party to renew the
deposit. A proposal was made by the duke of Devonshire and certain of
his colleagues on the Royal Commission on Labour for empowering
associations of employers and employed to acquire, if they desired it,
sufficient legal personality and corporate character to enable them to
sue each other or their own members for breach of agreement. This would
give the association aggrieved by a breach of award the power of suing
the defaulting organization to recover damages out of their corporate
funds, while each association could exact penalties from its members for
such a breach. For this reason the suggestion has met with a good deal
of support by many interested in arbitration and conciliation, but has
been steadily opposed by representatives of the trade unions.

The question is not free from difficulties. The object of the change
would be to convert what are at present only morally binding
understandings into legally enforceable contracts. But apart from the
possibility that some of such contracts would be held by the courts to
be void as being "in restraint of trade," the tendency might be to give
a strict legal interpretation to working agreements which might deprive
them of some of their effectiveness for the settlement of the conditions
of future contracts between employers and workmen, while possibly
deterring associations from entering into such agreements for fear of
litigation. Individuals, moreover, could avoid liability by leaving
their associations. In practice the cases of repudiation or breach of an
award or agreement are not common. In countries like New Zealand, where
the parties are compelled to submit their differences to arbitration,
some of the above objections do not apply.


  Statistics of existing agencies.

The following statistics are based on the reports of the Labour
department of the Board of Trade. The number of boards of conciliation
and arbitration known to be in existence in the United Kingdom is nearly
200, but a good many of these do little or no active work. Only about
one-third of these boards deal with actual cases in any one year, the
active boards being mainly connected with mining, iron and steel,
engineering and shipbuilding, boot and shoe and building trades. During
the ten years 1897-1906 the total number of cases considered by these
boards averaged about 1500 annually, of which they have settled about
half, the remainder having been withdrawn, referred back or otherwise
settled. About three-quarters of the cases settled were determined by
the boards themselves and only one-quarter by umpires. The great
majority of the cases settled were purely local questions. Thus more
than half the total were dealt with by the "joint committees" in the
Northumberland and Durham coal trades, which confine their action to
local questions, such as fixing the "hewing prices" for new seams. The
great majority of the cases settled did not actually involve stoppage of
work, the most useful work of these permanent boards being the
prevention rather than the settlement of strikes and lockouts. A certain
number of disputes are settled every year by the mediation or
arbitration of disinterested individuals, e.g. the local mayor or county
court judge.


  Future scope and limits.

The extent to which the methods of arbitration and conciliation can be
expected to afford a substitute for strikes and lockouts is one on which
opinions differ very widely. The difficulties arising from the
impossibility of enforcing agreements or awards by legal process have
already been discussed. Apart from these, however, it is evident that
both methods imply that the parties, especially the work-people, are
organized at least to the extent of being capable of negotiating through
agents. In some industries (e.g. agriculture or domestic service) this
preliminary condition is not satisfied; in others the men's leaders
possess little more than consultative powers, and employers may hesitate
to deal either directly or through a third party with individuals or
committees who have so little authority over those whom they claim to
represent. And even where the trade organizations are strong, some
employers refuse in any way to recognize the representative character of
the men's officials. The question of the "recognition" of trade unions
by employers is a frequent cause of disputes (see STRIKES AND
LOCK-OUTS.) It may be observed, however, that it often occurs that in
cases in which both employers and employed are organized into
associations which are accustomed to deal with each other, one or both
parties entertain a strong objection to the intervention of any outside
mediator, or to the submission of differences to an arbitrator. Thus the
engineering employers in 1897 were opposed to any outside intervention,
though ready to negotiate with the delegates chosen by the men. On the
other hand, the cotton operatives have more than once opposed the
proposal of the employers to refer the rate of wages to arbitration, and
throughout the great miners' dispute of 1893 the opposition to
arbitration came from the men. Naturally, the party whose organization
is the stronger is usually the less inclined to admit outside
intervention. But there have also been cases in which employers, who
refused to deal directly with trade union officials, have been willing
to negotiate with a mediator who was well known to be in communication
with these officials, e.g. in the case of the Railway Settlement of
1907.

Apart, however, from the disinclination of one or both parties to allow
of any outside intervention, we have to consider how far the nature of
the questions in dispute may in any particular case put limits to the
applicability of conciliation or arbitration as a method of settlement.
Since conciliation is only a general term for the action of a third
party in overcoming the obstacles to the conclusion of an agreement by
the parties themselves, there is no class of questions which admit of
settlement by direct negotiation which may not equally be settled by
this method, provided of course that there is an adequate supply of
sufficiently skilful mediators. As regards arbitration the case is
somewhat different, seeing that in this case the parties agree to be
bound by the award of a third party. For the success of arbitration,
therefore, it is important that the general principles which should
govern the settlement of the particular question at issue should be
admitted by both sides. Thus in the manufactured iron trade in the north
of England, it has throughout been understood that wages should depend
on the prices realized, and the only question which an arbitrator has
usually had to decide has been how far the state of prices at the time
warranted a particular change of wage. On the other hand, there are many
questions on which disputes arise (e.g. the employment of non-union
labour, the restriction of piece-work, &c.) on which there is frequently
no common agreement as to principles, and an arbitrator may be at a loss
to know what considerations he is to take into account in determining
his award. Generally speaking, employers are averse from submitting to a
third party questions involving discipline and the management of their
business, while in some trades workmen have shown themselves opposed to
allowing an arbitrator to reduce wages beyond a certain point which they
wish to regard as a guaranteed "minimum."

Another objection on the part of some employers and workmen to
unrestricted arbitration is its alleged tendency to multiply disputes by
providing an easy way of solving them without recourse to strikes or
lock-outs, and so diminishing the sense of responsibility in the party
advancing the claims. It is also sometimes contended that arbitrators,
not being governed in their decisions by a definite code of principles,
may tend to "split the difference," so as to satisfy both sides even
when the demands on one side or the other are wholly unwarranted. This,
it is said, encourages the formulation of demands purposely put high in
order to admit of being cut down by an arbitrator. One of the chief
practical difficulties in the way of the successful working of permanent
boards of conciliation, consisting of equal numbers of employers and
employed, with an umpire in case of deadlock, is the difficulty of
inducing business men whose time is fully occupied to devote the
necessary time to the work of the boards, especially when either side
has it in its power to compel recourse to the umpire, and so render the
work of the conciliation board fruitless. In spite of all these
difficulties the practice of arranging differences by conciliation and
arbitration is undoubtedly spreading, and it is to be remembered that
even in cases in which theoretically a basis for arbitration can
scarcely be said to exist, recourse to that method may often serve a
useful purpose in putting an end to a deadlock of which both parties are
tired, though neither cares to own itself beaten.

_New Zealand._--The New Zealand Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration
Act 1894 is important as the first practical attempt of any importance
to enforce compulsory arbitration in trade disputes. The original act
was amended by several subsequent measures, and the law has been more
than once consolidated. The law provides for the incorporation of
associations of employers or workmen under the title of industrial
unions, and for the creation in each district of a joint conciliation
board, elected by these industrial unions, with an impartial chairman
elected by the board, to which a dispute may be referred by any party, a
strike or lock-out being thenceforth illegal. If the recommendation of
the conciliation board is not accepted by either party, the matter goes
to a court of arbitration consisting of two persons representing
employers and workmen respectively, and a judge of the supreme court. Up
to 1901 disputes were ordinarily required to go first to a board of
conciliation except by agreement of the parties, but now either party
may carry a dispute direct to the arbitration court. The amendment was
adopted because it was found in practice that the great majority of
cases went ultimately to the arbitration court, and conciliation board
proceedings were often mere waste of time. The award of the court is
enforceable by legal process, financial penalties up to £500 being
recoverable from defaulting associations or individuals. If the property
of an association is insufficient to pay the penalty, its members are
individually liable up to £10 each. It is the duty of factory inspectors
to see that awards are obeyed. The law provides for the extension of
awards to related trades, to employers entering the industry hereafter,
and in some cases to a whole industry.

The above is only an outline of the principal provisions of this law,
under which questions of wages, hours and the relations of employers and
workmen generally in New Zealand (q.v.) industries became practically
the subject of state regulation. The act must more properly be judged as
a measure for the state regulation of industry, but as a method of
putting an end to labour disputes its success has only been partial.

_Australia._--The laws which are practically operative in Australia with
respect to arbitration and conciliation are all based with modifications
on the New Zealand system. The first compulsory arbitration act passed
in Australia was the New South Wales Act of 1901. The principal points
of difference between this and the New Zealand act are that the
conciliation procedure is entirely omitted, the New South Wales measure
being purely an arbitration act. The arbitration court has greater power
over unorganized trades than in New Zealand, and the scope of its awards
is greatly enlarged by its power to declare any condition of labour to
be common rule of an industry, and thus binding on all existing and
future employers and work-people in that industry. In Western Australia
laws were passed in 1900 and 1902 which practically adopted the New
Zealand legislation with certain modifications in detail.

In 1904 the commonwealth of Australia passed a compulsory arbitration
law based mainly on those in force in New Zealand and New South Wales,
and applicable to disputes affecting more than one Australian state. The
arbitration court is empowered to require any dispute within its
cognizance to be referred to it by the state authority proposing to deal
with it. There are other Australian laws which, though unrepealed (e.g.
the South Australian Act of 1894), are a dead-letter. Generally
speaking, the Australasian laws on arbitration and conciliation are more
stringent and far-reaching than any others in the world.

_Canada._--In 1900 a conciliation act was passed by the Dominion
parliament resembling the United Kingdom act in most of its features,
and in 1903 the Canadian Railway Labour Disputes Act made special
provision for the reference of railway disputes to a conciliation board
and (failing settlement) to a court of arbitration.

This act was consolidated with the Conciliation Act 1900 during 1906 in
an act respecting conciliation and labour, and in March 1907 the
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act became law by which machinery is
set up for the constitution of a board, on the application of either
side to a dispute in mines and industries connected with public
utilities, whenever a strike involving more than ten employees is
threatened. The provisions of the act may be extended to other
industries and railway companies, and their employees may take action
under either the Conciliation and Labour Act or the Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act. Under the Investigation Act it is unlawful for any
employer to cause a lock-out, or for an employee to go on strike on
account of any dispute prior to or during a reference of such dispute to
a board constituted under the act, or prior to or during a reference
under the provisions concerning railway disputes under the Conciliation
and Labour Act. There is nothing, however, in the act to prevent a
strike or lock-out taking place after the dispute has been investigated.

_France._--The French Conciliation and Arbitration Law of December 1892
provides that either party to a labour dispute may apply to the _juge de
paix_ of the canton, who informs the other party of the application. If
they concur within three days, a joint committee of conciliation is
formed of not more than five representatives of each party, which meets
in the presence of the _juge de paix_, who, however, has no vote. If no
agreement results the parties are invited to appoint arbitrators. If
such arbitrators are appointed and cannot agree on an umpire, the
president of the civil tribunal appoints an umpire. In the case of an
actual strike, in the absence of an application from either party it is
the duty of the _juge de paix_ to invite the parties to proceed to
conciliation or arbitration. The results of the action of the _juge de
paix_ and of the conciliation committee are placarded by the mayors of
the communes affected. The law leaves the parties entirely free to
accept or reject the services of the _juge de paix_.

During the ten years 1897-1906 the act was put in force in 1809
cases--viz. 916 on application of workmen; 49 of employers; 40 of both
sides; and 804 without application. Altogether 616 disputes were
settled--549 by conciliation and 67 by arbitration.

_Germany._--In several continental European countries, courts or boards
are established by law to settle cases arising out of existing labour
contracts; e.g. the French "_Conseils de Prud'hommes_," the Italian
"_Probi-Viri_," and the German "_Gewerbegerichten_,"--and some of the
questions which come before these bodies are such as might be dealt with
in England by voluntary boards or joint committees. The majority,
however, are disputes between individuals as to wages due, &c., which
would be determined in the United Kingdom by a court of summary
jurisdiction. It is noteworthy, however, that the German industrial
courts (_Gewerbegerichten_) are empowered under certain conditions to
offer their services to mediate between the parties to an ordinary
labour dispute. The main law is that of 1890 which was amended in 1901.
In the case of a strike or lock-out the court must intervene on
application of both parties, and may do so of its own initiative or on
the invitation of one side. The conciliation board for this purpose
consists under the amending law of 1901 of the president of the court
and four or more representatives named by the parties in equal numbers
but not concerned in the dispute. Failing appointment by the parties the
president appoints them. Failing a settlement at a conference between
the parties in the presence of the president and assessors of the court,
the court arrives at a decision on the merits of the dispute which is
communicated to the parties, who are allowed a certain time within which
to notify their acceptance or rejection. The court has no power to
compel the observance of its decision, but in certain cases it may fine
a witness for non-attendance. In the first five years after the passage
of the amending law of 1901 (viz. 1902-1906) there were 1139
applications for the intervention of the industrial courts: 492
agreements were brought about and 107 decisions were pronounced by the
courts, of which 64 were accepted by both parties.

_Switzerland._--The canton of Geneva enacted a law in 1900 providing for
the settlement by negotiation, conciliation or arbitration of the
general terms of employment in a trade, subject, however, to special
arrangements between employers and workmen in particular cases. The
negotiations take place between delegates chosen by the associations of
employers and employed, or failing them, by meetings summoned by the
council of state on sufficient applications. Failing settlement, the
council of state, on application from either party, is to appoint one or
more conciliators from its members, and if this fail the central
committee of the _Prud'hommes_, together with the delegates of employers
and workmen, is to form a board of arbitration, whose decision is
binding. Any collective suspension of work is illegal during the period
covered by the award or agreement. Up to the end of 1904 only seven
cases occurred of application of the law to industrial differences. In
Basel (town) a law providing for voluntary conciliation by means of
boards of employers and workmen with an independent chairman appointed
_ad hoc_ by the council of state of the canton, has been in force since
1897, but it remained practically unused until 1902. In the period from
January 1902 to May 1905, 18 disputes were dealt with and 10 settled
under this law. A similar law was adopted in St Gall in 1902. In the
three years 1902-1904, 10 disputes were dealt with and 3 settled.

_Sweden._--By a law which came into force on the 1st of January 1907,
Sweden was divided into seven districts and in each district a
conciliator was appointed by the crown. The conciliator must reside
within his district and his principal duty is to promote the settlement
of disputes between employers and work-people or between members of
either class among themselves. He is also on request to advise and
otherwise assist employers and work-people in framing agreements
affecting the conditions of labour if and so far as agreements are
designed to promote good relations between the two classes and to
obviate stoppages of work.

_United States._--In the United States several states have legislated on
the subject of conciliation and arbitration, among the first of such
acts being the "Wallace" Act of 1883, in Pennsylvania, which, however,
was almost inoperative. Altogether, 24 states have made constitutional
or statutory provision for mediation in trade disputes, of which 17
contemplate the formation of permanent state boards. The only state laws
which require notice are those of Massachusetts and New York providing
for the formation of state boards of arbitration. The Massachusetts
board, founded in 1886, consists of one employer, one employed and one
independent person chosen by both. The New York board (1886) consists of
two representatives of different political parties, and one member of a
_bona fide_ trade organization within the state. In both states it is
the duty of the board, with or without application from the parties, to
proceed to the spot where a labour dispute has occurred, and to
endeavour to promote a settlement. The parties may decline its services,
but the board is empowered to issue a report, and on application from
either side to hold an inquiry and publish its decision, which (in
Massachusetts) is binding for six months, unless sixty days' notice to
the contrary is given by one side to the other. Several states,
including Massachusetts and New York, provide not only for state boards,
but also for local boards.

In Massachusetts, during 1906, the state board dealt with 158 disputes.
Of these the board was appealed to as arbitrator in 95 cases. Awards
were rendered in 80 cases, 12 cases were withdrawn and 3 cases were
still pending at the end of the year. In New York the number of cases
dealt with is much smaller.

Federal legislation can only touch the question of arbitration and
conciliation so far as regards disputes affecting commerce between
different states. Thus an act of June 1898 provides that in a dispute
involving serious interruption of business on railways engaged in
inter-state commerce, the chairman of the Inter-State Commerce
Commission and the commissioner of labour shall, on application of
either party, endeavour to effect a settlement, or to induce the parties
to submit the dispute to arbitration. While an arbitration under the act
is pending a strike or lock-out is unlawful.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the recent development of arbitration and
  conciliation in the United Kingdom, see the _Annual Reports of the
  Labour Department of the Board of Trade on Strikes and Lock-outs_ from
  1888 onwards. Since 1890 these reports have contained special
  appendices on the work of arbitration boards. See also the _Labour
  Gazette_ (the monthly journal of the Labour Department) from 1893
  onward, and the _Report on Rules of Voluntary Conciliation and
  Arbitration Boards and Joint Committees_. The _Reports of the Royal
  Commission on Labour_ (1891-1894) contain much valuable information on
  the subject. For the working of the Conciliation Act see the _Reports_
  of the Board of Trade on their proceedings under the Conciliation Act
  1896. For the earlier history in the United Kingdom: Crompton,
  _Industrial Conciliation_ (1876); Price, _Industrial Peace_ (1887).
  For foreign and colonial developments: the third _Abstract of Foreign
  Labour Statistics_ (1906), issued by the Board of Trade; _Report on
  Government Industrial Arbitration_, by L.W. Hatch (Bulletin of Bureau
  of Labour of United States Department of Commerce and Labour,
  September 1905); the report of the French _Office du Travail_, _De la
  conciliation et de l'arbitrage dans les conflits collectifs entre
  patrons et ouvriers en France et à l'étranger_ (1893); the Annual
  Reports of the same Department on _Strikes, Lockouts and Arbitration_;
  the _Reports of the Massachusetts and New York State Arbitration
  Boards_, and of the _New Zealand Department of Labour_; and the
  _Labour Gazette_. See also the following general works: N.P. Gilman,
  _Methods of Industrial Peace_ (Boston, 1904); A.C. Pigou, _Principles
  and Methods of Industrial Peace_ (1905).     (X.)



ARBOGAST (d. 394), a barbarian officer in the Roman army, at the end of
the 4th century. His nationality is uncertain, but Zosimus, Eunapius and
Sulpicius Alexander (a Gallo-Roman historian quoted by Gregory of Tours)
all refer to him as a Frank. Having served with distinction against the
Goths in Thrace, he was sent by Theodosius in 388 against Maximus, who
had usurped the empire of the west and had murdered Gratian. His
complete success, which resulted in the destruction of Maximus and his
sons and the pacification of Gaul, led Theodosius to appoint him chief
minister for his young brother-in-law Valentinian II. His rule was most
energetic; but while he favoured the barbarians in the imperial service,
and appointed them to high office, Valentinian, openly jealous of his
minister, sought to surround himself with Romans. As an offset to this,
Arbogast allied himself with the pagan element in Rome, while
Valentinian was strictly orthodox. In 392 Valentinian was secretly put
to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor
Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition
which Theodosius was heading against him. He proclaimed himself the
champion of the old Roman gods, and as a response to the appeal of
Ambrose, is said to have threatened to stable his horses in the
cathedral of Milan, and to force the monks to fight in his army. His
defeat in the hard-fought battle of the Frigidus saved Italy from these
dangers. Theodosius, after a two days' fight, gained the victory by the
treachery of one of Arbogast's generals, sent to cut off his retreat.
Eugenius was captured and executed, but Arbogast escaped to the
mountains, where however he slew himself three days afterwards (8th of
September 394). Although we have only most distorted narratives upon
which to rely--pagan eulogy and Christian denunciation--Arbogast appears
to have been one of the greatest soldiers of the later empire, and a
statesman of no mean rank. His energy, and his apparent disdain for the
effete civilization which he protected, but which did not affect his
character, make his personality one of the most interesting of the 4th
century.

  See T. Hodgkin, _Italy and her Invaders_ (1880), vol. i. chap. ii.



ARBOIS, a town of eastern France, in the department of Jura, on the
Cuisance, 29 m. N.N.E. of Lons-le-Saunier by rail. Pop. (1906) 3454. The
town is the seat of the tribunal of first instance of the arrondissement
of Poligny, and has a communal college. The church of St Just, founded
in the 10th century, has good wood-carving. An Ursuline convent, built
in 1764, serves as hôtel de ville and law court, and a church of the
14th century is used as a market. There is an old château of the dukes
of Burgundy. Arbois is well known for its red and white wines, and has
saw-mills, tanneries and market gardens, and manufactures paper, oil and
casks.



ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, MARIE HENRI D' (1827-1910), French historian and
philologist, was born at Nancy on the 5th of December 1827. In 1851 he
left the École des Chartes with the degree of palaeographic archivist.
He was placed in control of the departmental archives of Aube, and
remained in that position until 1880, when he retired on a pension. He
published several volumes of inventorial abstracts, a _Répertoire
archéologique du département_ in 1861; a valuable _Histoire des ducs et
comtes de Champagne depuis le VI^e siècle jusqu'à la fin du XI^e_, which
was published between 1859 and 1869 (8 vols.), and in 1880 an
instructive monograph upon _Les Intendants de Champagne_. But already he
had become attracted towards the study of the most ancient inhabitants
of Gaul; in 1870 he brought out an _Étude sur la déclinaison des noms
propres dans la langue franque à l'époque mérovingienne_; and in 1877 a
learned work upon _Les Premiers Habitants de l'Europe_ (2nd edition in 2
vols. 1889 and 1894). Next he concentrated his efforts upon the field of
Celtic languages, literature and law, in which he soon became an
authority. Appointed in 1882 to the newly founded professorial chair of
Celtic at the Collège de France, he began the _Cours de littérature
celtique_ which in 1908 extended to twelve volumes. For this he himself
edited the following works: _Introduction a l'étude de la littérature
celtique_ (1883); _L'Épopée celtique en Irlande_ (1892); _Études sur le
droit celtique_ (1895); and _Les Principaux Auteurs de l'antiquité à
consulter sur l'histoire des Celtes_ (1902). He was among the first in
France to enter upon the study of the most ancient monuments of Irish
literature with a solid philological preparation and without empty
prejudices. We owe to him also _Les Celtes depuis les temps les plus
reculés jusqu'à l'an 100 avant noire ère_ (1904), and a study of
comparative law in _La Famille celtique_ (1905). Numerous detailed
studies upon the Gaulish names of persons and places took synthetic form
in the _Recherches sur l'origine de la propriété foncière_ (1890), which
illumined one of the most interesting aspects of the Roman occupation of
Gaul. _The Recueil de mémoires concernant la littérature et l'histoire
celtiques_, made by the most notable among his disciples on the occasion
of his seventy-eighth birthday (1906), was a well-deserved tribute to
his persevering and fruitful industry. He died in February 1910.
     (C. B.*)



ARBOR DAY, the name applied in the United States of America to a day
appointed for the public planting of trees (see ARBOUR). Originating, or
at least being first successfully put into operation, in Nebraska in
1872 through the instrumentality of J. Sterling Morton, then president
of the state Board of Agriculture, it received the official sanction of
the state by the proclamation of Governor R.W. Furnas in 1874 and by the
enactment in 1885 of a law establishing it as a legal holiday in
Nebraska. The movement spread rapidly throughout the United States until
with hardly an exception every state and territory celebrates such a day
either as a legal or a school holiday. The time of celebration varies in
different states--sometimes even in different localities in the same
state--but April or early May is the rule in the northern states, and
February, January and December are the months in various southern
states. A like practice has been introduced in New Zealand.

  See N.H. Egleston, _Arbor Day: Its History and Observance_
  (Washington, 1896), Robert W. Furnas, _Arbor Day_ (Lincoln, Neb.,
  1888), and R.H. Schauffler (ed.), _Arbor Day_ (New York, 1909).



ARBORETUM, the name given to that part of a garden or park which is
reserved for the growth and display of trees. The term, in this
restricted sense, was seemingly first so employed in 1838 by J.C.
Loudon, in his book upon arboreta and fruit trees. Professor Bayley
Balfour, F.R.S., the Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden in
Edinburgh, has described an arboretum as a living collection of species
and varieties of trees and shrubs arranged after some definite
method--it may be properties, or uses, or some other principle--but
usually after that of natural likeness. The plants are intended to be
specimens showing the habit of the tree or shrub, and the collection is
essentially an educational one. According to another point of view, an
arboretum should be constructed with regard to picturesque beauty rather
than systematically, although it is admitted that for scientific
purposes a systematic arrangement is a _sine qua non_. In this more
general respect, an arboretum or woodland affords shelter, improves
local climate, renovates bad soils, conceals objects unpleasing to the
eye, heightens the effect of what is agreeable and graceful, and adds
value, artistic and other, to the landscape. What Loudon called the
"gardenesque" school of landscape naturally makes particular use of
trees. By common consent the arboretum in the Royal Botanical Gardens at
Kew is one of the finest in the world. Its beginnings may be traced back
to 1762, when, at the suggestion of Lord Bute, the duke of Argyll's
trees and shrubs were removed from Whitton Place, near Hounslow, to
adorn the princess of Wales's garden at Kew. The duke's collection was
famous for its cedars, pines and firs. Most of the trees of that date
have perished, but the survivors embrace some of the finest of their
kind in the gardens. The botanical gardens at Kew were thrown open to
the public in 1841 under the directorate of Sir William Hooker.
Including the arboretum, their total area did not then exceed 11 acres.
Four years later the pleasure grounds and gardens at Kew occupied by the
king of Hanover were given to the nation and placed under the care of
Sir William for the express purpose of being converted into an
arboretum. Hooker rose to the occasion and, zealously reinforced by his
son and successor, Sir Joseph, established a collection which rapidly
grew in richness and importance. It is perhaps the largest collection of
hardy trees and shrubs known, comprising some 4500 species and botanical
varieties. A large proportion of the total acreage (288) of the Gardens
is monopolized by the arboretum. Of the more specialized public arboreta
in the United Kingdom the next to Kew are those in the Royal Botanic
Garden in Edinburgh and the Glasnevin Garden in Dublin. The collection
of trees in the Botanic Garden at Cambridge is also one of respectable
proportions. There is a small but very select collection of trees at
Oxford, the oldest botanical garden in Great Britain, which was founded
in 1632. In the United States the Arnold Arboretum at Boston ranks with
Kew for size and completeness. It takes its name from its donor, the
friend of Emerson. It was originally a well-timbered park, which, by
later additions, now covers 222 acres. Practically, it forms part of the
park system so characteristic of the city, being situated only 4 m. from
the centre of population. There is a fine arboretum in the botanical
gardens at Ottawa, in Canada (65 acres). On the continent of Europe the
classic example is still the _Jardin des Plantes_ in Paris, where,
however, system lends more of formality than of beauty to the general
effect. The collection of trees and shrubs at Schönbrunn, near Vienna,
is an extensive one. At Dahlem near Berlin the new _Kgl. Neuer
Botanischer Garten_ has been laid out with a view to the accommodation
of a very large collection of hardy trees and shrubs. There are now many
large collections of hardy trees and shrubs in private parks and gardens
throughout the British Islands, the interest taken in them by their
proprietors having largely increased in recent years. Rich men collect
trees, as they do paintings or books. They spare neither pains nor money
in acquiring specimens, even from distant lands, to which they often
send out expert collectors at their own expense. This, too, the Royal
Horticultural Society was once wont to do, with valuable results, as in
the case of David Douglas's remarkable expedition to North America in
1823-1824. It will be remembered that when the laird of Dumbiedikes lay
dying (Scott's _Heart of Midlothian_, chap, viii.) he gave his son one
bit of advice which Bacon himself could not have bettered. "Jock," said
the old reprobate, "when ye hae naething else to do; ye may be aye
sticking in a tree; it will be growing, Jock, when ye're sleeping." Sir
Walter assures us that a Scots earl took this maxim so seriously to
heart that he planted a large tract of country with trees, a practice
which in these days is promoted by the English and Royal Scottish
Arboricultural Societies.



ARBORICULTURE (Lat. _arbor_, a tree), the science and art of
tree-cultivation. The culture of those plants which supply the food of
man or nourish the domestic animals must have exclusively occupied his
attention for many ages; whilst the timber employed in houses, ships and
machines, or for fuel, was found in the native woods. Hence, though the
culture of fruit-trees, and occasionally of ornamental trees and shrubs,
was practised by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, the cultivation of
timber-trees on a large scale only took place in modern times. In the
days of Charlemagne, the greater part of France and Germany was covered
with immense forests; and one of the benefits conferred on France by
that prince was the rooting up of portions of these forests throughout
the country, and substituting orchards or vineyards. Artificial
plantations appear to have been formed in Germany sooner than in any
other country, apparently as early as the 15th century. In Britain
planting was begun, though sparingly, a century later. After the
extensive transfers of property on the seizure of the church lands by
Henry VIII., much timber was sold by the new owners, and the quantity
thus thrown into the market so lowered its price, as Hollingshed informs
us, that the builders of cottages, who had formerly employed willow and
other cheap and common woods, now built them of the best oak. The demand
for timber constantly increased, and the need of an extended surface of
arable land arising at the same time, the natural forests became greatly
circumscribed, till at last timber began to be imported, and the
proprietors of land to think, first of protecting their native woods,
afterwards of enclosing waste ground and allowing it to become covered
with self-sown seedlings, and ultimately of sowing acorns and mast in
such enclosures, or of filling them with young plants collected in the
woods--a practice which exists in Sussex and other parts of England even
now. Planting, however, was not general in England till the beginning of
the 17th century, when the introduction of trees was facilitated by the
interchange of plants by means of botanic gardens, which, in that
century, were first established in different countries. Evelyn's
_Sylva_, the first edition of which appeared in 1664, rendered an
extremely important service to arboriculture; and there is no doubt that
the ornamental plantations in which England surpasses all other
countries are in some measure the result of his enthusiasm. In
consequence of a scarcity of timber for naval purposes, and the
increased expense during the Napoleonic war of obtaining foreign
supplies, planting received a great stimulus in Britain in the early
part of the 19th century. After the peace of 1815 the rage for planting
with a view to profit subsided; but there was a growing taste for the
introduction of trees and shrubs from foreign countries, and for their
cultivation for ornament and use. The profusion of trees and shrubs
planted around suburban villas and country mansions, as well as in town
squares and public parks, shows how much arboriculture is an object of
pleasure to the people. While isolated trees and old hedgerows are
disappearing before steam cultivation, the advantages of shelter from
well-arranged plantations are more fully appreciated; and more attention
is paid to the principles of forest conservancy both at home and abroad.
In all thickly peopled countries the forests have long ceased to supply
the necessities of the inhabitants by natural reproduction; and it has
become needful to form plantations either by government or by private
enterprise, for the growth of timber, and in some cases for climatic
amelioration. This subject is, however, dealt with more fully under
FORESTS AND FORESTRY (q.v.); and the separate articles on the various
sorts of tree may be consulted for details as to each.



ARBOR VITAE (Tree of Life), a name given by Clusius to species of
_Thuja_. The name _Thuja_, which was adopted by Linnaeus from the
_Thuya_ of Tournefort, seems to be derived from the Greek word [Greek:
thuos], signifying sacrifice, probably because the resin procured from
the plant was used as incense. The plants belong to the natural order
Coniferae, tribe Cupressineae (Cypresses). _Thuja occidentalis_ is the
Western or American arbor vitae, the _Cupressus Arbor Vitae_ of old
authors. It is a native of North America, and ranges from Canada to the
mountains of Virginia and Carolina. It is a moderate-sized tree, and was
introduced into Britain before 1597, when it was mentioned in Gerard's
_Herbal_. In its native country it attains a height of about 50 ft. The
leaves are small and imbricate, and are borne on flattened branches,
which are apt to be mistaken for the leaves. When bruised the leaves
give out an aromatic odour. The flowers appear early in spring, and the
fruit is ripened about the end of September. In Britain the plant is a
hardy evergreen, and can only be looked upon as a large shrub or low
tree. It is often cut so as to form hedges in gardens. The wood is very
durable and useful for outdoor work, such as fencing, posts, etc.
Another species of arbor vitae is _Thuja orientalis_, known also as
_Biota orientalis_. The latter generic name is derived from the Greek
adjective [Greek: biotos], formed from [Greek: bios], life, probably in
connexion with the name "tree of life." This is the Eastern or Chinese
arbor vitae. It is a native of China. It was cultivated in the Chelsea
Physick Garden in 1752, and was believed to have been sent to Europe by
French missionaries. It has roundish cones, with numerous scales and
wingless seeds. The leaves, which have a pungent aromatic odour, are
said to yield a yellow dye. There are numerous varieties of this plant
in cultivation, one of the most remarkable of which is the variety
_pendula_, with long, flexible, hanging, cord-like branches; it was
discovered in Japan about 1776 by Carl Peter Thunberg, a pupil of
Linnaeus, who made valuable collections at the Cape of Good Hope, in the
Dutch East Indies and in Japan. The variety _pygmaea_ forms a small bush
a few inches high.

_Thuja gigantea_, the red or canoe cedar, a native of north-western
America from southern Alaska to north California, is the finest species,
the trunk rising from a massive base to the height of 150 to 200 ft. It
was not introduced to Britain till 1853. It is one of the handsomest of
conifers, forming an elongated cone of foliage, which in some gardens
has already reached 70 or 80 ft. in height. It thrives in most kinds of
soils. The timber is easily worked and used for construction, especially
where exposed to the weather.



ARBOS, FERNANDEZ (1863-   ), Spanish violinist and composer, was born in
Madrid, and trained at the conservatoire there, and later at Brussels
and at Berlin under Joachim. He became a professor at Hamburg and then
at Madrid, becoming famous meanwhile as one of the finest violinists of
the day; and after visiting England in 1890 and establishing his
reputation there, he became professor at the Royal College of Music in
London. As a composer he is best known by his violin pieces, and by a
comic opera, _El Centro de la Tierra_ (1895).



ARBOUR, or ARBOR (originally "herber" or "erber," O. Fr. _herbier_, from
Lat. _herbarium_, a collection of herbs, _herba_, grass; the word came
to be spelt "arber" through its pronunciation, as in the case of Derby,
and by the 16th century was written "arbour," helped by a confusion of
derivation from Lat. _arbor_, a tree, and by change of meaning), a
grass-plot or lawn, a herb-garden, or orchard, and a shady bower of
interlaced trees, or climbing plants trained on lattice-work. The
application of the word has shifted from the grass-covered ground, the
proper meaning, to the covering of trees overhead. "Arbor" (from the
Latin for "tree") is a term applied to the spindle of a wheel,
particularly in clock-making.



ARBROATH, or ABERBROTHOCK, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and
seaport of Forfarshire, Scotland. It is situated at the mouth of
Brothock water, 17 m. N.E. of Dundee by the North British railway, which
has a branch to Forfar, via Guthrie, on the Caledonian railway. Pop.
(1891) 22,821; (1901) 22,398. The town is under the jurisdiction of a
provost, bailies and council, and, with Brechin, Forfar, Inverbervie and
Montrose, returns one member to parliament. The leading industries
include the manufacture of sailcloth, canvas and coarse linens, tanning,
boot and shoe making, and bleaching, besides engineering works, iron
foundries, chemical works, shipbuilding and fisheries. The harbour,
originally constructed and maintained by the abbots, by an agreement
between the burgesses and John Gedy, the abbot in 1394, was replaced by
one more commodious in 1725, which in turn was enlarged and improved in
1844. The older portion was converted into a wet dock in 1877, and the
entrance and bar of the new harbour were deepened. A signal tower, 50
ft. high, communicates with the Bell Rock (q.v.) lighthouse on the
Inchcape Rock, 12 m. south-east of Arbroath, celebrated in Southey's
ballad. The principal public buildings are the town-hall, a somewhat
ornate market house, the gildhall, the public hall, the infirmary, the
antiquarian museum (including some valuable fossil remains) and the
public and mechanics' libraries. The parish church dates from 1570, but
has been much altered, and the spire was added in 1831. The ruins of a
magnificent abbey, once one of the richest foundations in Scotland,
stand in High Street. It was founded by William the Lion in 1178 for
Tironesian Benedictines from Kelso, and consecrated in 1197, being
dedicated to St Thomas Becket, whom the king had met at the English
court. It was William's only personal foundation, and he was buried
within its precincts in 1214. Its style was mainly Early English, the
western gable Norman. The cruciform church measured 276 ft. long by 160
ft. wide, and was a structure of singular beauty and splendour. The
remains include the vestry, the southern transept (the famous rose
window of which is still entire), part of the chancel, the southern wall
of the nave, part of the entrance towers and the western doorway. It was
here that the parliament met which on the 6th of April 1320 addressed to
the pope the notable letter, asserting the independence of their country
and reciting in eloquent terms the services which their "lord and
sovereign" Robert Bruce had rendered to Scotland. The last of the abbots
was Cardinal Beaton, who succeeded his uncle James when the latter
became archbishop of St Andrews. At the Reformation the abbey was
dismantled and afterwards allowed to go to ruin. Part of the secular
buildings still stand, and the abbot's house, or Abbey House as it is
now called, is inhabited. Arbroath was created a royal burgh in 1186,
and its charter of 1599 is preserved. King John exempted it from "toll
and custom" in every part of England excepting London. Arbroath is
"Fairport" of Scott's _Antiquary_, and Auchmithie, 3 m. north-east
("Musselcrag" of the same romance), is a quaint old-fashioned place,
where the men earn a precarious living by fishing. On each side of the
village the coast scenery is remarkably picturesque, the rugged
cliffs--reaching in the promontory of Red Head, the scene of a thrilling
incident in the _Antiquary_, a height of 267 ft.--containing many
curiously shaped caves and archways which attract large numbers of
visitors. At the 14th-century church of St Vigeans, 1 m. north of
Arbroath, stands one of the most interesting of the sculptured stones of
Scotland, with what is thought to be the only legible inscription in the
Pictish tongue. The parish--originally called Aberbrothock and now
incorporated with Arbroath for administrative purposes--takes its name
from a saint or hermit whose chapel was situated at Grange of Conon, 3½
m. north-west. Two miles west by south are the quarries of Carmyllie,
the terminus of a branch line from Arbroath, which was the first light
railway in Scotland and was opened in 1900.



ARBUTHNOT, ALEXANDER (1538-1583), Scottish ecclesiastic and poet,
educated at St Andrews and Bourges, was in 1569 elected principal of
King's College, Aberdeen, which office he retained until his death. He
played an active part in the stirring church politics of the period, and
was twice moderator of the kirk, and a member of the commission of
inquiry into the condition of the university of St Andrews (1583). The
"correctness" of his attitude on all public questions won for him the
commendation of Catholic writers; he is not included in Nicol Burne's
list of "periurit apostatis"; but his policy and influence were misliked
by James VI., who, when the Assembly had elected Arbuthnot to the charge
of the church of St Andrews, ordered him to return to his duties at
King's College. He had been for some time minister of Arbuthnott in
Kincardineshire. His extant works are (_a_) three poems, "The Praises of
Wemen" (224 lines), "On Luve" (10 lines), and "The Miseries of a Pure
Scholar" (189 lines), and (_b_) a Latin account of the Arbuthnot family,
_Originis et Incrementi Arbuthnoticae Familiae Descriptio Historica_
(still in MS.), of which an English continuation, by the father of Dr
John Arbuthnot, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. The
praise of the fair sex in the first poem is exceptional in the
literature of his age; and its geniality may help us to understand the
author's popularity with his contemporaries. Arbuthnot must not be
confused with his contemporary and namesake, the Edinburgh printer, who
produced the first edition of Buchanan's _History of Scotland_ in 1582.
Some have discovered in the publication of this work a false clue to
James's resentment against the principal of King's College.

  The particulars of Arbuthnot's life are found in Calderwood,
  Spottiswood, and other Church historians, and in Scott's _Fasti
  Ecclesiae Scoticanae_. The poems are printed in Pinkerton's _Ancient
  Scottish Poems_ (1786), i. pp. 138-155.



ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735), British physician and author, was born at
Arbuthnott, Kincardineshire, and baptized on the 29th of April 1667. His
father, Alexander Arbuthnot, was an episcopalian minister who was
deprived of his living in 1689 by his patron, Viscount Arbuthnott, for
refusing to conform to the Presbyterian system. After his death, in
1691, John went to London, where he lived in the house of a learned
linen-draper, William Pate, and supported himself by teaching
mathematics. In 1692 he published _Of the Laws of Chance_ ..., based on
the Latin version, _De Ratociniis in ludo aleae_, of a Dutch treatise by
Christiaan Huygens. In 1692 he entered University College, Oxford, as a
fellow-commoner, acting as private tutor to Edward Jefferys; and in 1696
he graduated M.D. at St Andrews university. In _An Examination of Dr
Woodward's Account of the Deluge_ (1697) he confuted an extraordinary
theory advanced by Dr William Woodward. An _Essay on the Usefulness of
Mathematical Learning_ followed in 1701, and in 1704 he became a fellow
of the Royal Society. He had the good fortune to be called in at Epsom
to prescribe for Prince George of Denmark, and in 1705 he was made
physician extraordinary to Queen Anne. Four years later he became royal
physician in ordinary, and in 1710 he was elected fellow of the Royal
College of Physicians. Arbuthnot's ready wit and varied learning made
him very valuable to the Tory party. He was a close friend of Jonathan
Swift and of Alexander Pope, and Lord Chesterfield says that even the
generous acknowledgment they made of his assistance fell short of their
real indebtedness. He had no jealousy of his fame as an author, and his
abundant imagination was always at the service of his friends. In 1712
appeared "Law is a Bottomless Pit, Exemplify'd in the case of the Lord
Strutt, John Bull, Nicholas Frog and Lewis Baboon, who spent all they
had in a law-suit. Printed from a Manuscript found in the Cabinet of the
famous Sir Humphrey Polesworth." This was the first of a series of five
pamphlets advocating the conclusion of peace. Arbuthnot describes the
confusion after the death of the Lord Strutt (Charles II. of Spain), and
the quarrels between the greedy tradespeople (the allies). These put
their cause into the hands of the attorney, Humphrey Hocus (the duke of
Marlborough), who does all he can to prolong the struggle. The five
tracts are printed in two parts as the "History of John Bull" in the
_Miscellanies in Prose and Verse_ (1727, preface signed by Pope and
Swift). Arbuthnot fixed the popular conception of John Bull, though it
is not certain that he originated the character, and the lively satire
is still amusing reading. It was often asserted at the time that Swift
wrote these pamphlets, but both he and Pope refer to Arbuthnot as the
sole author. In the autumn of the same year he published a second
satire, "Proposals for printing a very Curious Discourse in Two Volumes
in Quarto, entitled, [Greek: Psendologia Politikae]; or, A Treatise of
the Art of Political Lying," best known by its sub-title. This ironical
piece of work was not so popular as "John Bull." "'Tis very pretty,"
says Swift, "but not so obvious to be understood." Arbuthnot advises
that a lie should not be contradicted by the truth, but by another
judicious lie. "So there was not long ago a gentleman, who affirmed that
the treaty with France for bringing popery and slavery into England was
signed the 15th of September, to which another answered very
judiciously, not by opposing truth to his lie, that there was no such
treaty; but that, to his certain knowledge, there were many things in
that treaty not yet adjusted."

Arbuthnot was one of the leading spirits in the Scriblerus Club, the
members of which were to collaborate in a universal satire on the abuses
of learning. _The Memoirs of the extraordinary Life, Works, and
Discoveries of Martinus Scriblerus_, of which only the first book was
finished, first printed in Pope's _Works_ (1741), was chiefly the work
of Arbuthnot, who is at his best in the whimsical account of the birth
and education of Martin. Swift, writing on the 3rd of July 1714 to
Arbuthnot, says:--"To talk of Martin in any hands but yours, is a folly.
You every day give better hints than all of us together could do in a
twelvemonth: and to say the truth, Pope who first thought of the hint
has no genius at all to it, to my mind; Gay is too young: Parnell has
some ideas of it, but is idle; I could put together, and lard, and
strike out well enough, but all that relates to the sciences must be
from you."

The death of Queen Anne put an end to Arbuthnot's position at court, but
he still had an extensive practice, and in 1727 he delivered the
Harveian oration before the Royal College of Physicians. Lord
Chesterfield and William Pulteney were his patients and friends; also
Mrs Howard (Lady Suffolk) and William Congreve. His friendship with
Swift was constant and intimate; he was friend and adviser to Gay; and
Pope wrote (2nd of August 1734) that in a friendship of twenty years he
had found no one reason of complaint from him. Arbuthnot's youngest son,
who had just completed his education, died in December 1731. He never
quite recovered his former spirits and health after this shock. On the
17th of July 1734 he wrote to Pope: "A recovery in my case, and at my
age, is impossible; the kindest wish of my friends is Euthanasia." In
January 1735 was published the "Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot," which forms
the prologue to Pope's satires. He died on the 27th of February 1735 at
his house in Cork Street, London.

Among Arbuthnot's other works are:--_An Argument for Divine Providence,
taken from the constant regularity observed in the Births of both sexes_
(Phil. Trans. of the Royal Soc., 1710); "Virgilius Restauratus," printed
in the second edition of Pope's _Dunciad_ (1729); _An Essay concerning
the Effects of Air on Human Bodies_ (1733); _An Essay concerning the
Nature of Ailments_ ... (1731); and a valuable _Table of Ancient Coins,
Weights and Measures_ (1727), which is an enlargement of an earlier
treatise (1705). He had a share in the unsuccessful farce of _Three
Hours after Marriage_, printed with Gay's name on the title-page (1717).
Some pieces printed in _A Supplement to Dr Swift's and Mr Pope's
Works_ ... (1739) are there asserted to be Arbuthnot's. _The
Miscellaneous Works of the late Dr Arbuthnot_ were published at Glasgow
in an unauthorized edition in 1751. This includes many spurious pieces.

  See _The Life and Works of John Arbuthnot_ (1892), by George A.
  Aitken.



ARCACHON, a coast town of south-western France, in the department of
Gironde, 37 m. W.S.W. of Bordeaux on the Southern railway. Pop. (1906)
9006. Arcachon is situated on the southern border of the lagoon of
Arcachon at the foot of dunes covered with splendid pine-woods. It
comprises two distinct parts, the summer town, extending for 2½ m. along
the shore, and bordered by a firm sandy beach, frequented by bathers,
and the winter town, farther inland, consisting of numerous villas
scattered amongst the pines.

Owing to the mildness of its climate the winter town is a resort for
consumptive patients. The principal industries are oyster-breeding,
which is conducted on a very large scale, and fishing. The port has
trade with Spain and England.



ARCADE, in architecture, a range of arches, supported either by columns
or piers; isolated in the case of those separating the nave of a church
from the aisles, or forming the front of a covered ambulatory, as in the
cloisters in Italy and Sicily, round the Ducal Palace or the Square of
St Mark's, Venice, round the courts of the palaces in Italy, or in Paris
round the Palais-Royal and the Place des Vosges. The earliest examples
known are those of the Tabularium, the theatre of Marcellus, and the
Colosseum, in Rome. In the palace of Diocletian at Spalato the principal
street had an arcade on either side, the arches of which rested direct
on the capital without any intervening entablature or impost block. The
term is also applied to the galleries, employed decoratively, on the
façades of the Italian churches, and carried round the apses where they
are known as eaves-galleries. Sometimes these arcades project from the
wall sufficiently to allow of a passage behind, and sometimes they are
built into and form part of the wall; in the latter case, they are known
as blind or wall arcades; and they were constantly employed to decorate
the lower part of the walls of the aisles and the choir-aisles in
English churches. Externally, blind arcades are more often found in
Italy and Sicily, but there are examples in England at Canterbury, Ely,
Peterborough, Norwich, St John's (Chester), Colchester and elsewhere.
Internally, the oldest example is that of the old refectory in
Westminster Abbey (fig. 1). Sometimes the design is varied with
interlacing arches as in St John's Devizes (fig. 2), and Beverley
Minster (fig. 3). In Sicily and the south of Italy these interlacing
arcades are the special characteristic of the Saracenic work there
found, and their origin may be found in the interlaced arches of the
Mosque of Cordova in Spain. In the cathedral of Palermo and at Monreale
they are carried round the apses at the east end. At Caserta-Vecchia, in
South Italy, they decorate the lantern over the crossing, and at Amain
the turrets on the north-west campanile.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Arcade, Westminster Abbey.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Arcade, St John's, Devizes.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Triforium at Beverley.

From Rickman's _Styles of Architecture_, by permission of Parker & Co.]

The term is also applied to the covered passages which form
thoroughfares from one street to another, as in the Burlington Arcade,
London; in Paris such an arcade is usually called _passage_, and in
Italy _galleria_.     (R. P. S.)



ARCADELT, or ARCHADELT, JACOB (c. 1514-c. 1556), a Netherlands composer,
of the early part of the Golden Age. In 1539 he left a position at
Florence to teach the choristers of St Peter's, Rome, and became one of
the papal singers in 1540. He was a prolific church composer, but the
works published in his Italian time consist entirely of madrigals, five
books of which, published at Venice, probably gave a great stimulus to
the beginnings of the Venetian school of composition. In 1555 he left
Italy and entered the service of Cardinal Charles of Lorraine, duke of
Guise, and after this published three volumes of masses, besides
contributing motets to various collections. The _Ave Maria_, ascribed to
him and transcribed as a pianoforte piece by Liszt, does not seem to be
traced to an earlier source than its edition by Sir Henry Bishop, which
has possibly the same kind of origin in Arcadelt as the hymn tune
"Palestrina" has in the delicate and subtle _Gloria_ of Palestrina's
_Magnificat Quinti Toni_, the fifth in his first _Book of Magnificats_.



ARCADIA, a district of Greece, forming the central plateau of
Peloponnesus. Shut off from the coast lands on all sides by mountain
barriers, which rise in the northernpeaks of Erymanthus (mod. _Olonos_)
to 7400, of Cyllene (Ziria) to 7900, in the southern corner buttresses
of Parthenium and Lycaeum to more than 5000 ft., this inland plateau is
again divided by numerous subsidiary ranges. In eastern or "locked"
Arcadia these heights run in parallel courses intersected by
cross-ridges, enclosing a series of upland plains whose waters have no
egress save by underground channels or _zerethra_. The western country
is more open, with isolated mountain-groups and winding valleys, where
the Alpheus with its tributaries the Ladon and Erymanthus drains off in
a complex river-system the overflow from all Arcadia. The ancient
inhabitants were a nation of shepherds and huntsmen, worshipping Pan,
Hermes and Artemis, primitive nature-deities. The difficulties of
communication and especially the lack of a seaboard seriously hindered
intercourse with the rest of Greece. Consequently the same population,
whose origins Greek tradition removed back into the world's earliest
days, held the land throughout historic times, without even an admixture
of Dorian immigrants. Their customs and dialect persisted, the latter
maintaining a peculiar resemblance to that of the equally conservative
Cypriotes. Thus Arcadia lagged behind the general development of Greece,
and its political importance was small owing to chronic feuds between
the townships (notably between Mantineia and Tegea) and the readiness of
its youth for mercenary service abroad.

The importance of Arcadia in Greek history was due to its position
between Sparta and the Isthmus. Unable to force their way through
Argolis, the Lacedaemonians early set themselves to secure the passage
through the central plateau. The resistance of single cities, and the
temporary union of the Arcadians during the second Messenian war, did
not defer the complete subjugation of the land beyond the 6th century.
In later times revolts were easily stirred up among individual cities,
but a united national movement was rarely concerted. Most of these
rebellions were easily quelled by Sparta, though in 469 and again in 420
the disaffected cities, backed by Argos, formed a dangerous coalition
and came near to establishing their independence. A more whole-hearted
attempt at union in 371 after the battle of Leuctra resulted in the
formation of a political league out of an old religious synod, and the
foundation of a federal capital in a commanding strategic position (see
MEGALOPOLIS). But a severe defeat at the hands of Sparta in 368 (the
"tearless battle") and the recrudescence of internal discord soon
paralysed this movement. The new fortress of Megalopolis, instead of
supplying a centre of national life, merely accentuated the mutual
jealousy of the cities. During the Hellenistic age Megalopolis stood
staunchly by Macedonia; the rest of Arcadia rebelled against Antipater
(330, 323) and Antigonus Gonatas (266). Similarly the various cities
were divided in their allegiance between the Achaean and the Aetolian
leagues, with the result that Arcadia became the battleground of these
confederacies, or fell a prey to Sparta and Macedonia. These conflicts
seem to have worn out the land, which already in Roman times had fallen
into decay. An influx of Slavonic settlers in the 8th century A.D.
checked the depopulation for a while, but Arcadia suffered severely from
the constant quarrels of its Frankish barons (1205-1460). The succeeding
centuries of Turkish rule, combined with an Albanian immigration, raised
the prosperity of the land, but in the Wars of Independence the
strategic importance of Arcadia once more made it a centre of conflict.
In modern times the population remains sparse, and pending the complete
restoration of the water conduits the soil is unproductive. The modern
department of Arcadia extends to the Gulf of Nauplia with a sea-coast of
about 40 m.

  AUTHORITIES.--Strabo pp. 388 sq.; Pausanias viii.; W.M. Leake,
  _Travels in the Morea_ (London, 1830), chs. iii., iv., xi.-xviii.,
  xxiii.-xxvi.; E. Curtius, _Peloponnesos_ (Gotha, 1851), i. 153-178;
  H.F. Tozer, _Geography of Greece_ (London, 1873), pp. 287-292; E.A.
  Freeman, _Federal Government_ (ed. 1893, London), ch. iv. § 3; B.V.
  Head, _Historia Numorum_ (Oxford, 1887), pp. 372-373; B. Niese in
  _Hermes_ (1899), pp. 520 f.     (M. O. B. C.)



ARCADIUS (378-408), Roman emperor, the elder son of Theodosius the
Great, was created Augustus in 383, and succeeded his father in 395
along with his brother Honorius. The empire was divided between them,
Honorius governing the two western prefectures (Gaul and Italy),
Arcadius the two eastern (the Orient and Illyricum). Both were feeble,
and, in Gibbon's phrase, slumbered on their thrones, leaving the
government to others. Arcadius submitted at first to the guidance of the
praetorian prefect Rufinus, and, after his murder (end of 395) by the
troops, to the counsels of the eunuch Eutropius (executed end of 399).
His consort Eudoxia (daughter of a Frank general, Bauto), a woman of
strong will, exercised great influence over him; she died in 404. In the
last year of his reign, Anthemius (praetorian prefect) was the chief
adviser and support of the throne. The first years of the reign were
marked by the ravaging of the Greek peninsula by the West Goths under
Alaric (q.v.) in 395-396. The movement of the Goth Gainas (who held the
post of master of soldiers) in 399-400 is less famous but was more
dangerous. At that time there were two rival political parties at
Constantinople, the "Roman" party led by Aurelian (son of Taurus),
praetorian prefect, and supported by the empress and a Germanizing and
Arianizing party led by Aurelian's brother (possibly Caesarius,
praetorian prefect in 400). Gainas entered into a close league with the
latter; fomented a Gothic rebellion in Phrygia; and forced the emperor
to put Eutropius to death. For some months he and the party which he
supported were supreme in Constantinople. He was, however, finally
forced to leave, and having plundered for some time in Thrace was
captured and killed by the loyal Goth Fravitta. The Roman party
recovered its power; Aurelian was again praetorian prefect in 402; and
the Germanization which was to befall the western world was averted from
the east. Another important question was decided in this reign, the
relation of the patriarch of Constantinople to the emperor. The struggle
between the court and the patriarch John Chrysostom (q.v.), who assumed
an independent attitude and gravely offended the empress by his sermons
against the worldliness and frivolity of the court, with open allusions
to herself, resulted in his fall and exile (404). This virtually
determined the subordination of the patriarch of Constantinople to the
emperor. The rivalry of the see of Alexandria with Constantinople was
also displayed in the contest, Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria,
assisting the court in bringing about the fall of Chrysostom. Throughout
the reign of Arcadius there was estrangement and jealousy between the
two brothers or their governments. The principal ground of this
hostility was probably dissatisfaction on both sides with the
territorial partition. The line had been drawn east of Dalmatia. The
ministers of Arcadius desired to annex Dalmatia to his portion, while
the general Stilicho, who was supreme in the west, wished to wrest from
the eastern realm the prefecture of Illyricum or a considerable part of
it. His designs were unsuccessful, and during the reign of Theodosius
II., son of Arcadius (who died in 408), Dalmatia was transferred to the
dominion of the eastern ruler.

  AUTHORITIES.--Ancient: Fragments of Eunapius and Olympiodorus (in
  Müller's _Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum_, vol. iv.); fragments of
  Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozomen, Zosimus, Synesius of Cyrene ("The
  Egyptian"), Claudian. Modern: Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, vol. iii.,
  ed. Bury; J.B. Bury, _Later Roman Empire_, vol. i. (1889); T. Hodgkin,
  _Italy and her Invaders_, vol. i. (ed. 2, 1892); Güldenpenning,
  _Geschichte des ostromischen Reiches unter den Kaisern Arcadius und
  Theodosius II._ (1885).



ARCADIUS, of Antioch, Greek grammarian, flourished in the 2nd century
A.D. According to Suidas, he wrote treatises on orthography and syntax,
and an onomaticon (vocabulary), described as a wonderful production. An
epitome of the great work of Herodian on general prosody in twenty
books, wrongly attributed to Arcadius, is probably the work of
Theodosius of Alexandria or a grammarian named Aristodemus. This epitome
([Greek: Peri Tonon]) only includes nineteen books of the original work;
the twentieth is the work of a forger of the 16th century. Although
meagre and carelessly put together, it is valuable, since it preserves
the order of the original and thus affords a trustworthy foundation for
its reconstruction.

  Text by Barker, 1823; Schmidt, 1860; see also Galland, _De Arcadii qui
  fertur libra de accentibus_ (1882).



ARCELLA (C.G. Ehrenberg), a genus of lobose Rhizopoda, characterized by
a chitinous plano-convex shell, the circular aperture central on the
flat ventral face, and more than one nucleus and contractile vacuole. It
can develop vacuoles, or rather fine bubbles of carbonic acid gas in its
cytoplasm, to float up to the surface of the water.



ARCESILAUS (316-241 B.C.), a Greek philosopher and founder of the New,
or Middle, Academy (see ACADEMY, GREEK). Born at Pitane in Aeolis, he
was trained by Autolycus, the mathematician, and later at Athens by
Theophrastus and Crantor, by whom he was led to join the Academy. He
subsequently became intimate with Polemon and Crates, whom he succeeded
as head of the school. Diogenes Laërtius says that he died of excessive
drinking, but the testimony of others (e.g. Cleanthes) and his own
precepts discredit the story, and he is known to have been much
respected by the Athenians. His doctrines, which must be gathered from
the writings of others (Cicero, _Acad._ i. 12, iv. 24; _De Orat._ iii.
18; Diogenes Laërtius iv. 28; Sextus Empiricus, _Adv. Math._ vii. 150,
_Pyrrh. Hyp._ i. 233), represent an attack on the Stoic [Greek:
phantasia katalaeptikae] (_Criterion_) and are based on the sceptical
element (see SCEPTICISM) which was latent in the later writings of
Plato. He held that strength of intellectual conviction cannot be
regarded as valid, inasmuch as it is characteristic equally of
contradictory convictions. The uncertainty of sensible _data_ applies
equally to the conclusions of reason, and therefore man must be content
with _probability_ which is sufficient as a practical guide. "We know
nothing, not even our ignorance"; therefore the wise man will be content
with an agnostic attitude. He made use of the Socratic method of
instruction and left no writings. His arguments were marked by incisive
humour and fertility of ideas.

  See R. Brodeisen, _De Arcesila philosopho_ (1821); Aug. Geffers, _De
  Arcesila_ (1842); Ritter and Preller, _Hist, philos. graec._ (1898);
  Ed. Zeller, _Phil. d. Griech._ (iii. 1448); and general works under
  SCEPTICISM.



ARCH, JOSEPH (1826-   ), English politician, founder of the National
Agricultural Labourers' Union, was born at Barford, a village in
Warwickshire, on the 10th of November 1826. His parents belonged to the
labouring class. He inherited a strong sentiment of independence from
his mother; and his objections to the social homage expected by those
whom the catechism boldly styled his "betters" made him an "agitator."
Having educated himself by unremitting exertions, and acquired fluency
of speech as a Methodist local preacher, he founded in 1872 the National
Agricultural Labourers' Union, of which he was president. A rise then
came in the wages of agricultural labourers, but this had the unforeseen
effect of destroying the union; for the labourers, deeming their object
gained, ceased to "agitate." Mr Arch nevertheless retained sufficient
popularity to be returned to parliament for north-west Norfolk in 1885;
and although defeated next year owing to his advocacy of Irish Home
Rule, he regained his seat in 1892, and held it in 1895, retiring in
1900. He was deservedly respected in the House of Commons; seldom has an
agitator been so little of a demagogue.

  A biography written by himself or under his direction, and edited by
  Lady Warwick (1898), tells the story of his career.



ARCH,[1] in building, a constructional arrangement of blocks of any hard
material, so disposed on the lines of some curve that they give mutual
support one to the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The blocks, which are technically known as voussoirs, should be of a
wedge shape, the centre or top block (see fig. 1, A) being the keystone
A; the lower blocks B B which rest on the supporting pier are the
springers, the upper surface of which is called the skewback, C C; the
side blocks, as D, are termed the haunches. The lower surface or soffit
of the arch is the intrados, E, and the upper surface the extrados, F.
The rise of the arch is the distance from the springing to the soffit,
G, the width between the springers is called the span, H, and the radius
I. The triangular spaces between the arches are termed spandrils, K.

The arch is employed for two purposes:--(1) to span an opening in a wall
and support the superstructure; (2) when continuous to form a vault
known as a barrel or waggon vault.

The arch has been used from time immemorial by every nation, but owing
to the tendency of the upper portion to sink, especially when bearing
any superincumbent weight, it requires strong lateral support, and it is
for this reason that in the earliest examples in unburnt brick at Nippur
in Chaldaea, _c._ 4000 B.C., and at Rakakna (Requaqna) and Dendera in
Egypt, 3500-3000 B.C., it was employed only below the level of the
ground which served as an abutment on either side.

In the building of an arch, the voussoirs have to be temporarily
supported, until the keystone is inserted. This at the present day is
effected by means of centreing an assemblage of timbers framed together,
with its upper surface of the same form as the arch required; the
voussoirs are laid on the centreing till the ring of the arch is
completed. In the case of arches of small span, such as the early
examples referred to, limited to about 6 ft., such centreing might be
dispensed with in various ways, but it is difficult to see how the
arches of the great entrance gateways, shown in the Assyrian
bas-reliefs, could have been built without temporary support of some
kind. In those days, when any amount of labour could be obtained, even
the erection of a temporary wall might have been less costly than the
employment of timber, of which there was great scarcity.

The Assyrian tradition would seem to have descended first to the
Parthian builders, who in the palace of El Hadr built semicircular
arches with regular voussoirs decoratively treated. The Sassanians who
followed them employed the elliptical or egg-shaped arch, of which the
lower part was built in horizontal courses up to about one-third of the
height, which lessened the span of the arched portion.

In Europe the earliest arches were those built by the Etruscans, either
over canals (see article ARCHITECTURE: _Etruscan_), or in the entrance
gateways of their towns. The skew-arch in the gateway at Perugia shows
great knowledge in its execution. From the Etruscans the adoption of the
arch passed to the Romans, who certainly employed centreing of some
kind, but always economized its use, as is clearly shown by Choisy.
Although their walls from the Augustan age were built in concrete,
arches of brick were always turned over their entrance doorways,
sometimes in two or three rings. The Romans utilized the arch in other
ways, sometimes burying it in their concrete construction, as in their
vaults, and sometimes introducing it as a veneer only, as in the
Pantheon. In their monumental structures in stone, the arch was
sometimes built with regular voussoirs, i.e. with a semicircular
extrados, and sometimes with the joint carried far beyond. The latter
was not done in the early examples of the Tabularium and the Theatre of
Marcellus, but in the Colosseum and all the arches of triumph the joints
run through the spandrils, notwithstanding the recognition of the arch
proper by its moulded archivolt.

Although the value of the pointed arch as a stronger constructional
feature than the semicircular (owing to the tendency to sink in the
keystone of the latter) had been recognized by the Assyrian builders,
who employed it in their drains, it was not used systematically as an
architectural feature till the 9th century, in the mosque of Tulun at
Cairo; it seems to have been regarded by the Mahommedans as an emblem of
their faith, and its use spread through Syria to Persia, was brought to
Sicily from Egypt, and was taken back by the Sicilian masons to
Palestine and employed throughout the Crusaders' churches during the
12th century. As the pointed arch had already, for constructional
reasons, been employed in Périgord from the commencement of the 11th
century, it does not follow that the Crusaders brought it from
Palestine, but there is no doubt that its universal employment in France
early in the 12th century may have been partly due to its adoption in
the Crusaders' churches. At first in Gothic work both the semicircular
and pointed arches were used simultaneously in the same building, the
larger arches being pointed, the smaller ones and windows being
semicircular. The great value of the pointed arch in vaulting is
described in the article VAULT.

We have suggested that the pointed arch became an emblem of Mahommedan
faith, and it was introduced in India but not as a constructive feature,
for the Hindus objected to the arch, which they say _never sleeps_,
meaning that it is always exerting a thrust which tends to its
destruction. In India therefore it was built in horizontal courses with
vertical slabs leaning against one another to form the apex. The Moors
of north Africa, however, never employed it, preferring the horseshoe
arch which they brought into Spain and developed in the mosque of
Cordova. In the additions made to this mosque the prayer chamber was
enriched by the caliph Mansur, who, to eke out the height, raised arch
upon arch. In the Alhambra it appears in the decorative plaster work,
and travels northwards into the south of France, where at Le Puy and
elsewhere it is found decorating doorways and windows; in England it was
employed towards the end of the 12th century.

About the middle of the 14th century at Gloucester the four-centred
pointed arch was introduced, which became afterwards the leading
characteristic feature of the Tudor style. In France they adopted the
three-centred arch in the 15th century.

The ogee arch was the natural result of the development of tracery in
the commencement of the 14th century, and in Gloucester (about 1310) the
foliations were run one into the other without the enclosing circles.
About the middle of the 14th century, in the arcade of the first storey
of the ducal palace in Venice, flowing tracery is found, from which the
ogee arch there was probably derived, as throughout Venice it becomes
the favourite feature in domestic architecture of that and the
succeeding century.

The arches are of various forms as follows:--

[Illustration:

  2. Semicircular arch, the centre of which is in the same line with its
  springers.

  3. Segmental arch, where the centre is below the springing.

  4. Horseshoe arch, with the centre above the springing; employed in
  Moorish architecture.

  5. Stilted arches, where the centre is below the springing, but the
  sides are carried down vertically.

  6. Equilateral pointed arches, described from two centres, the radius
  being the whole width of the arch.

  7. Drop arches, with centres within the arch.

  8. Lancet arches, with centres outside the arch.

  9. Three centre arches, employed in French Flamboyant.

  10. Four centre arches, employed in the Perpendicular and Tudor
  periods.

  11. Ogee arches, with curves of counter flexure, found in English
  Decorated and French Flamboyant.

  12. Pointed horseshoe arches, found in the mosque of Tulun, Cairo, 9th
  century.

  13. Pointed foiled arches, in the arcades of Beverley Minster (_c_.
  1230) and Netley Abbey.

  14. Cusped arch; Christchurch Priory, Hants.

  15. Multifoil cusped arch, invented by the Moors at Cordova in the
  10th century.

  16. Flat arch, where the soffit is horizontal and sometimes slightly
  cambered (dotted line).

  17. Upright elliptical arch, sometimes called the egg-shaped arch,
  employed in Egyptian and Sassanian architecture.

  18. The Tuscan arch, where the extrados takes the form of a pointed
  arch.

  19. The joggled arch used in medieval chimneypieces and in Mahommedan
  architecture.

  20. The discharging or relieving arch, built above the architrave or
  lintel to take off the weight of the superstructure.

  21. The relieving arch as used in Egypt, in the pyramid of Cheops; and
  in Saxon architecture, where it was built with Roman bricks or tiles,
  or consisted of two sloping slabs of stone.]
      (R. P. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The ultimate derivation of "arch" is the Latin _arcus_, a bow, or
    arch, in origin meaning something bent, from which through the French
    is also derived "arc," a curve. In French there are two words
    _arche_, one meaning a chest or coffer, from Latin _arca_ (_arcere_,
    to keep close), hence the English "ark"; the other meaning a vaulted
    arch, such as that of a bridge, and derived from a Low Latin
    corruption of _arcus_, into arca (du Cange, _Glossarium_, s.v.). The
    word "arch," prefixed to names of offices, seen in "archbishop,"
    "archdeacon," "archduke," &c., means "principal" or "chief," and
    comes from the Greek prefix [Greek: arx-] or [Greek: arxi-] from
    [Greek: arxein], to begin, lead, or rule; it is also prefixed to
    other words, and usually with words implying hatred or detestation,
    such as "arch-fiend", "arch-scoundrel"; it is from an adaptation of
    this use, as seen in such expressions as "arch-rogue," extended to
    "arch-look," "arch-face," that the word comes to mean a mischievous,
    roguish expression of face or demeanour.



ARCHAEOLOGY (from Gr. [Greek: archaia], ancient things, and [Greek:
logos], theory or science), a general term for the study of antiquities.
The precise application of the term has varied from time to time with
the progress of knowledge, according to the character of the subjects
investigated and the purpose for which they were studied. At one time it
was thought improper to use it in relation to any but the artistic
remains of Greece and Rome, i.e. the so-called _classical archaeology_
(now dealt with in this encyclopaedia under the headings of GREEK ART
and ROMAN ART); but of late years it has commonly been accepted as
including the whole range of ancient human activity, from the first
traceable appearance of man on the earth to the middle ages. It may thus
be conceived how vast a field archaeology embraces, and how intimately
it is connected with the sciences of geology (q.v.) and anthropology
(q.v.), while it naturally includes within its borders the consideration
of all the civilizations of ancient times.

In dealing with so vast a subject, it becomes necessary to distinguish.
The archaeology of zoological species constitutes the sphere of
palaeontology (q.v.), while that of botanical species is dealt with as
palaeobotany (q.v.); and every different science thus has its
archaeological side. For practical purposes it is now convenient to
separate the sphere of archaeology in its relation to the study of the
purely _artistic_ character of ancient remains, from that of the
investigation of these remains as an instrument for arriving at
conclusions as to the political and social _history_ of the nations of
antiquity; and in this work the former is regarded primarily as "art"
and dealt with in the articles devoted to the history of art or the
separate arts, while "archaeology" is particularly regarded as the study
of the evidences for the history of mankind, whether or not the remains
are themselves artistically and aesthetically valuable. In this sense a
knowledge of the archaeology is part of the materials from which every
historical article in this encyclopaedia is constructed, and in recent
years no subject has been more fertile in yielding information than
"archaeology," as representing the work of trained excavators and
students of antiquity in all parts of the world, but notably in the
countries round the Mediterranean. It is for its services in
illuminating the days before those of documentary history and for
checking and reinforcing the evidence of the raw material (the
"unwritten history" of architecture, tombs, art-products, &c.), that
recent archaeological work has been so notable. The work of the literary
critic and historian has been amplified by the spade-work of the expert
excavator and explorer to an extent undreamt of by former generations;
and ancient remains, instead of being treated merely as interesting
objects of art, have been forced to give up their secret to the
historian, as evidence for the period, character and affiliations of the
peoples who produced and used them. The increase of precise knowledge of
the past, due to greater opportunities of topographical research, more
care and observation in dealing with ancient remains and improved
methods of studying them in museums (q.v.) and collections, has led to
more accurate reading of results by a comparison of views, under the
auspices of learned societies and institutions, thus raising archaeology
from among the more empirical branches of learning into the region of
the more exact sciences. This change has improved not only the status of
archaeology but also its material, for the higher standard of work now
demanded necessarily acts as a deterrent on the poorly equipped worker,
and the tendency is for the general result to be of a higher quality.

The archaeological details concerning all subjects which have their
"unwritten history" are dealt with in the separate articles in this
work, including the ancient civilizations of Assyria, Egypt and other
countries and peoples, while the articles on separate sites where
excavations have been particularly noteworthy may be referred to for
their special interest; see also ANTHROPOLOGY; ETHNOLOGY, &c. It remains
here to deal generally with the early conditions of the prehistoric
ancient world in their broader aspects, which constitute the
starting-place for the archaeologist in various parts of the world at
different times, and the foundations of our present understanding of the
primitive epochs in the history of man.


  Quaternary period.

The beginning of archaeology, as the study of pre-documentary history,
may be broadly held to follow on the last of the geological periods,
viz., the Quaternary, though it is claimed, and with some reason, that
traces of man have been found in deposits of the preceding or Tertiary
period. Although there is no valid reason against the existence of
Tertiary man, it must be confessed that the evidence in favour of the
belief is of a very inconclusive and unconvincing kind. The discussion
has been mainly confined to the two questions (1) whether the deposit
containing the relics was without doubt of Tertiary times, and (2)
whether the objects found showed undoubted signs of human workmanship.
Vast quantities of material have been brought forward, and endless
discussions have taken place, but hitherto without carrying entire
conviction to the minds of the more serious and cautious students of
prehistoric archaeology. A chronic difficulty, and one which can never
be entirely removed, is our ignorance of the precise methods of nature's
working. It is an obvious fact, that natural forces, such as glacial
action, earthquakes, landslips and the like, must crush and chip flints
and break up animal remains, grinding and scratching them in masses of
gravel or sand. If it were possible to determine with precision what'
were the peculiarities of the flint or bone, thus altered by natural
agencies, it would be easy to separate them from others purposely made
by man to serve some useful end. Our present knowledge, however, does
not allow us to go so far in dealing with the ruder early attempts of
man to fabricate weapons or implements. Even the one feature that is
commonly held to determine human agency, the "bulb of percussion,"
cannot be considered satisfactory, without collateral evidence of some
kind. Flint breaks with what is called a conchoidal fracture, as do many
other substances, such as glass. Thus on the face of a flint flake, at
the end where the blow was delivered to detach it from the nodule, is
seen a lump or bulb, which is usually regarded as evidence of human
workmanship. To produce such a bulb it is necessary to deliver a
somewhat heavy blow of a peculiar kind at a particular point of a
flattened surface; and the operation requires a certain amount of
practice. The fulfilment of all the necessary conditions might well be a
rare occurrence in nature, and the bulb of percussion has come to be
regarded as the hall-mark of human manufacture; but recent
investigations have shown that the intervention of man is not necessary
and that natural forces frequently produce a similar result. When,
therefore, it is a question whether or no a group of rude flints are of
human workmanship, evidence of design or purpose in their forms must be
established. If this be found, and in addition if a number of flints,
all having this character of design, be found together, then and then
only is it safe to admit them into the domain of archaeology. There can
be no doubt that much time and energy have been wasted, and a number of
intelligent workers have been fruitlessly occupied in following up
archaeological will-o'-the-wisps, through neglecting this elementary
precaution.


  Eolithic.

Whether or no man produced flint implements before Quaternary times, it
would seem to be a necessity that he should have passed through an
earlier stage, before arriving at the precision of workmanship and the
fixed types found in the old Stone Age deposits known as palaeolithic.
It is now claimed that this earlier and ruder stage has actually been
discovered in what are known as the Plateau-gravels of Kent, in Belgium,
and even in Egypt, and the name of eolithic ([Greek: eos], dawn, [Greek:
lithos], stone) has been bestowed upon them. The controversy as to the
human character has been very keen, some alleging that the fractured
edges and even the definite and fairly constant types are entirely
produced by natural forces. Sir Joseph Prestwich in England, and Alfred
Rutot in Belgium, the latter arguing from his own discoveries in that
country, have strongly supported the artificial character of the relics.
On the other hand it is pointed out that the existence of these
implements on the high levels of Kent furnished confirmation of Sir
Joseph Prestwich's theory of the submergence of the district, and that
his support was thus somewhat biassed, while the geological conditions
in Belgium are not quite comparable with those of the Kent plateau; and
the Belgian evidence, whatever it may be worth in itself, is of no avail
as corroboration of the Kentish case. It is to be regretted that the
conditions are not more convincing, for, as stated above, they agree
fairly well with the evolution theory of man's handiwork, and if they
could be accepted, would carry back the evidences to a more remote time
when the physical features of Kent were of a very different character.
The critics of eoliths have brought forward some facts that at first
sight would seem to be of a very damaging nature. It was observed that
in the process of cement manufacture the flints that had passed through
a rotary machine in which they were violently struck by its teeth or
knocked against each other, possessed just those features that were
claimed as indisputable proof of man's handiwork, and that even the
forms were the same. These statements have, of course, been met by
counter-statements equally forcible, and the matter may still be
considered to be in suspense. The great struggle, therefore, is now more
closely restricted to the nature of the chipping than as to the
quasi-geological question, and if the solution is ever to be found, it
will be by means of a closer examination and a better understanding of
the difference between intentional and accidental flaking.


  Palaeolithic.

On reaching the Palaeolithic period we come to firmer ground and to
evidence that is more certain and generally accepted. This evidence is
fundamentally geological, inasmuch as the age of the archaeological
remains is dependent upon that of the beds in which they are found. That
they were deposited at the same time is now no longer questioned. The
flints are found to have the same colour and surface characteristics as
the unworked nodules among which they lie, and are generally rolled and
abraded in the same way. This in itself suffices to show that the worked
and unworked flints were deposited in their present stratigraphical
position at the same time. The remote age of the beds themselves is
demonstrated by the presence of bones of animals either now extinct or
found only in far distant latitudes, such as the mammoth, reindeer,
rhinoceros, &c., and in some cases these bones are found in such
relative positions as to prove they were deposited with the flesh still
adhering to them, and also that the animal was contemporary with the
makers of the flint implements. Evidence of a somewhat different kind is
provided for the palaeolithic period by certain caverns that have been
discovered in England and on the continent. In these limestone caves
palaeolithic man has lived, slept, eaten his food and made his tools and
weapons. Much of his handiwork has been left, with the bones of animals
on which he lived, scattered upon the floor of the cave, and has been
sealed up by the infiltration of lime-charged water, so that the deposit
remains, untouched to our own day, below an impermeable bed of
stalagmite. In such circumstances there can be no doubt of the
contemporaneous character of the remains, natural or artificial, if
found on the same level. Moreover, so far as type is a criterion of age,
the flint tools found in the cave deposits tend to confirm the date
assigned to those of the river-gravels.

It is fairly certain that about the middle of the Tertiary period the
northern hemisphere possessed a temperate climate, such that even the
polar regions were habitable. But the physical aspect of northern Europe
was very different from that of Quaternary times. North of a line drawn
roughly from southern England to St Petersburg all was sea. It was
during the latter half of the Tertiary period that the continent assumed
its present general form, though even in Pleistocene (Quaternary) times
England and Ireland formed part of it. The great change of climate from
temperate to arctic conditions during the latter half of the Tertiary
period has been interpreted in various ways, no one of which is yet
universally accepted. There can be little doubt, however, that no single
cause was responsible for so complete a change. There may have been some
alteration in the relative positions of the earth and the sun, which
would conceivably have produced it; but what is practically certain is
that the physical geography of northern Europe was affected by
considerable difference in level, and it is clear that the raising of
mountain ranges and the general elevation of the continent must
necessarily have reacted on the climatic conditions. If in the later
Tertiary time we find that the Alps, the Carpathians and the Caucasus
have come into existence, it is not surprising to find that these huge
condensers have brought about a humid condition of the continent to such
an extent that this phase has been called the Pluvial Age. The humidity,
however, was in some ways only a secondary result of the protrusion of
high mountain ranges. The primary cause of the physical conditions that
we now find in the valleys and plains was the formation of glaciers.
These rivers of ice descending far into the lower levels during the
winter months, melted during the summer, causing enormous volumes of
water to rush through the valleys and over the plains, carrying with it
masses of mud and boulders which were left stranded sometimes at immense
distances. The intensity and force of the rivers thus formed would
depend upon two factors, first the extent of the watershed, and
secondly, the height of the mountains from which the water was derived.
The result of increasing cold was that in course of time the northern
hemisphere was surmounted by a cap of ice, of immense thickness (about
6000 ft.) in the Scandinavian area and gradually becoming thinner
towards the south, but at no time does it seem to have extended quite to
the south of England. This is proved by the absence of boulder-clay
(glacial mud) in the districts south of London. These arctic conditions
were not, however, continuous, but alternated with periods of a much
less rigorous temperature during what has been called the Ice Age.
Remains both of mammals and plants have been found, under conditions
that are held to prove this alternation.

Such being the natural forces at work remodelling the surface of the
earth; forces of such gigantic power as to be almost inconceivable in
these more placid times, it can easily be understood how, in the course
of the many thousands of years before the Quaternary period, when the
surface of the globe attained its present aspect, the powerful
river-systems of Europe wore their beds deep into the solid rocks. In
some cases in Europe the erosive power of the river has worn through its
bed to such an extent that the present stream is some hundreds of feet
lower than its forerunner in palaeolithic times. From various causes,
however, the rivers did not always wear for themselves a deep channel,
but spread themselves over a wide area. This seems to have been the case
with the Thames near London: the river-bed is not of any great depth,
but at various periods it has occupied the space between Clapton on the
north-east and Clapham on the south-west. It must not be assumed that
the whole of this area of 7 m. or more was filled by the river at any
one time, but rather that during the course of the palaeolithic period
the river had its bed somewhere between these two limits. For instance,
it is probable that at one period the bank of the Thames was at a point
nearly midway between the northern and southern limits, where Gray's Inn
Road now stands. It was here that the earliest recorded palaeolithic
implement (now in the British Museum) was found towards the close of
the 17th century in association with mammoth bones. But it is safe to
say that the Thames was a very much wider and more imposing river in
palaeolithic times than it is now, when its average width at London is
under 300 yds. As, in the course of ages, it changed its bed and by
degrees lessened in size and volume, it would leave, on the terraces
formed on its banks, the deposits of brick-earth and gravel brought down
by the stream, and it is on these terraces that the relics of
palaeolithic man are found, sometimes in great quantities. It will be
obvious from the nature of the case that the highest terraces, and those
farthest apart, should contain the earliest implements; but it is by no
means easy in the present state of the land surface and with our present
knowledge, to place the remains in their relative sequence. More
accurate observation, and a better understanding of the conditions under
which these deposits were made, should solve many such problems. Much
light has been thrown upon many points by Worthington Smith, who has
excavated with great care two palaeolithic floors at Clapton and at
Caddington near Dunstable. The latter discovery was of quite exceptional
interest as confirming the geological evidence by that of archaeology.
In this case the original level at which palaeolithic man had worked was
clearly defined, and was prolific of dark-grey implements, which had
evidently been made on the spot, as Smith found that many of the flakes
could be replaced on the blocks or cores from which they had been struck
by palaeolithic man; there were also the flint hammers that had been
used in the operation. Above the floor was a layer of brick-earth, again
covered by contorted drift, in which also implements occurred, but of a
very different kind from those found below. In place of being sharp and
unabraded, and with the refuse flakes accompanying them, they were
rolled and disfigured, of an ochreous tint, and evidently had been
transported in the drift from a much higher level now no longer
existing, as the site where they occurred is the highest in the
vicinity, about 500-600 ft. above sea-level. Here then we have a clear
case of palaeolithic man being compelled to abandon his working place on
the lower level by the descent of the waters containing the products of
his own forerunners, probably then very remote. In this case the
sequence of the various strata may be considered certain, and the
remains thus accurately determined and correlated are naturally of
extreme value and importance. But even this does not enable us to
diagnose another discovery unless the internal evidence is equally clear
and conclusive. One point of importance that may be noted is that the
older abraded implements were mostly of the usual drift type, while the
more recent ones from the "floor" contained forms more highly developed
and elaborated, such as occur in the French caves. Explorations of this
kind, carefully conducted in a strictly scientific spirit by men of
training and intelligence, are the only means by which real progress
will be made in this puzzling branch of archaeology.

Although many problems yet remain to be solved in England, its small
area, and the relatively large number of workers, have together sufficed
to put the main facts of the earlier stages of man's existence on a
fairly satisfactory basis. In France, owing to the richness of the
results, a great number of trained and ardent workers have made equal,
if not better, progress. But unfortunately the real scientific spirit is
not invariably found. Not so long ago an apparently serious writer in a
well-known scientific magazine gave a detailed account of his studies in
primitive methods and explained at great length his attempts at the
manufacture of flint and stone implements. He found by the processes he
adopted that it was much more easy for him to produce a polished
implement than one merely flaked. From this fact he seriously argued
that a great mistake had been made in the relative ages of the neolithic
and palaeolithic periods, and that the former must necessarily be the
older of the two. The evidence of geological position and of the
mammalian remains accompanying the obviously older flints was entirely
disregarded, just as on the other hand it was forgotten that in regard
to neolithic remains the proofs were in every way in favour of a
relatively modern origin. Such attempts not only bring the serious study
of early man into disrepute, but tend to retard the progress of real
knowledge and are therefore to be deplored and when possible
discouraged.


  Cave Period.

Caves (q.v.) have been at all periods regarded as something uncanny and
mysterious, with perhaps a tinge of the supernatural. In classical times
they were associated with semi-divine beings, with oracles, and even
with the gods themselves, while half the legends of dwarfs and gnomes
that run through the folk-lore of medieval and modern Europe are
associated with caves. They have been used as shelters or habitations at
all times, and in examining them it is fully as necessary to sift the
evidence of age as it would be in dealing with the river-gravels. Their
exploration in the first instance may well have been due to chance, but
it is fairly certain that during the 16th century the search for the
horn of the unicorn as an antidote to disease, was responsible for the
opening up of a certain number. Among the finds were no doubt the fossil
bones of Quaternary animals to which mythical names and imaginary
properties were attached, and the popular belief in such amulets
naturally gave a great impetus to the search. It is, however, only a
little more than a century ago that these investigations took anything
like a scientific turn, and even then they had only a palaeontological
end in view. The idea that archaeology entered into the matter was not
at all realized for some years. The remains of many extinct or migrated
animals, such as the hyena, grizzly bear, reindeer and bison, were found
in quantities in the now famous cave at Gailenreuth in Franconia; and
later, William Buckland explored the equally well-known hyena-cave at
Kirkdale in Yorkshire, where he demonstrated that these animals had
lived on the spot, feeding on the mammoth, rhinoceros and other
creatures that had been their prey. The remains of man, however, had not
been found, nor were they even looked for. It was not until Kent's
cavern, near Torquay, was examined by the Rev. J. McEnery, that man was
clearly proved to have been contemporary with these extinct beasts. So
contrary was this contention to the ideas prevalent in the second
quarter of the 19th century, that the pioneer in this work had died (in
1841) before the immense importance of his discovery was admitted. To
Godwin Austen in the first place and to W. Pengelley in the second, with
the aid of the British Association, was due the vindication of McEnery's
veracity and accuracy.

Several circumstances conspire to give a special interest to Kent's
cavern, and not the least is the fact that the age and appearance of the
various strata indicate that it has been the home or the refuge of human
beings at all ages even up to medieval times, and perhaps from a period
even more remote than is the case elsewhere. In the black mould that
formed the uppermost layer were found fragments of medieval pottery, and
relatively in close proximity were ancient British and Roman remains as
well as relics of the earliest days of metallurgy, in the shape of
bronze fragments. The two thousand years or more that may have separated
the oldest from the most modern of these later products, is as nothing
in comparison with the immense intervals that lie between the earliest
of them and the infinitely more remote period when gigantic mammals
first inhabited the cave. Attempts have been made from time to time to
express in years what the interval must have been: but as the
computations have differed by hundreds of thousands of years, according
to the method adopted, it is scarcely wise to do more than speculate.
Beneath the black mould, containing what may be called the recent
remains, was a layer of stalagmite, some feet in thickness; and under
this at one place was a great quantity of charcoal, which has been with
good reason assumed to show the site of fireplaces. A quantity of
implements of palaeolithic type was found, but the main layer at this
level consisted of a reddish clay known as cave-earth, and in this
deposit were implements both of flint and horn, as well as bones of
extinct animals. The flint implements were mostly of the usual
river-drift type, but some were of types generally confined to
cave-deposits of this period; while the barbed harpoon heads, and more
especially a bone needle, were definitely of the cave class, so well
represented in the caves of Dordogne. Again, below the cave-earth was a
_breccia_ formed of limestone and sandstone pebbles cemented together by
a calcareous paste. In this also were found implements and bones of
bears.

The succession of strata indicated above may be taken as typical of the
caverns used by palaeolithic man, the breccia and stalagmite flooring
being in themselves proof of a very considerable age, while the
association in the former, or under the latter, of remains of human
handiwork, with bones of extinct animals, may be safely taken to show
contemporaneous existence.

Once the mind has fairly grasped the fact that man was living at so
remote a time, it is a simple and natural conclusion that he should have
provided himself with weapons and tools more or less rudely fashioned
from the stones he found ready to his hand. The analogy of the recently
extinct Tasmanian is sufficient to show that even the meanest savage is
not without such aids. But the caves of France, of the same palaeolithic
period, and used by men theoretically in the same stage of culture,
bring before us a race of artists of first-rate capacity, who for
accuracy of observation, and for skill in indicating the character and
peculiarities of the animals around them, have never been surpassed.
Such a statement sounds like a contradiction in terms. We are dealing
with human beings whose intellect, to judge by their physical
characters, should be on a level with that of the Fuegian or the
Australian black, and far below that of the Maori or the Sandwich
Islander. Yet none of these gentle and relatively cultured brown races
produced anything in the nature of art that can in any sense be compared
with the masterly drawings or sculptures of the cave-men of France. The
best-known of the engravings, that of the mammoth on a piece of ivory,
is in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. It is evidently intended to be
nothing more than a sketch, the lines of the finely curved tusks being
repeated several times in the desire for accuracy. But the heavy
lumbering walk of the ponderous beast, his attitude, and even the
character of the hairy hide, are all shown or suggested with a skill and
freedom that not only denotes daily familiarity with the thing
represented, but a most complete mastery of the art of translating the
idea into simple line. This mammoth-drawing is probably the most
important and monumental of its class, but there are many others that
possess artistic qualities not less remarkable, while they have in
addition a grace and beauty of line not less astonishing. One of these,
in the British Museum, the head of an ibex-like creature, is outlined
with a decision and refinement that can scarcely be surpassed, and many
other sketches in horn or stone in the same collection show a keen
appreciation of the characteristic features of the different animals as
well as a masterly deftness in the handling of the graving-tool. If we
are forced to marvel at the graphic skill of the cave-men, their
sculptures in the round are on a still higher plane, as may be seen in
the figures of reindeer in ivory in the British Museum. While they are
not highly finished, they show a complete understanding of the animal's
peculiar forms and contours, which are rendered in a direct,
unhesitating way that should betoken a long period of artistic training
and an executive power uncommon at any time. These drawings and
sculptures have always been appreciated and even regarded as being of a
much more advanced style than was to be expected among men who are
always classed in the lower grades of culture. But enough stress has not
hitherto been laid on the artistic quality of the work, which would be
considered fine at any time in the world's history. This high artistic
level was attained by a race of men whom we cannot credit with any great
intellectual equipment; men, moreover, who were engaged in a daily
struggle for the barest necessaries of life, in a trying climate and
surrounded by a fauna whose means of attack and defence were infinitely
superior to their own. There are many astonishing problems in
archaeology, but none so badly in need of solution. Had the discovery
been confined to a single drawing or even to a single site, fraud or a
misreading of the conditions might have been alleged, but the case is
very different. The drawings and sculptures have been found generally
enough in France to demonstrate that such artistic power was fairly
common, while the question of the authenticity and period of the
discoveries has long since been satisfactorily settled. It is true that
the climatic conditions in pleistocene France were more favourable to
man than was the case farther north, but even an agreeable climate does
not necessarily produce an artistic race; if it were so, the Polynesians
would probably be the greatest artists the world has ever seen. The
physical remains of palaeolithic man, even when found under
unquestionable conditions, are, however, so scanty, that it is unlikely
that the important question of the race or races inhabiting central and
northern Europe will ever be settled by their means. The evidence at
present is in favour of two very different types, one dwarfish and
brutal (Canstadt), the other more advanced and noble in physical
character (Cro-Magnon). To the latter were due the artistic productions,
and until further physical evidence is forthcoming recourse must be had
to the most minute examination of the objects themselves and to accurate
observation of the conditions under which they are found. So far as our
present materials go, these are the only means by which more light may
be thrown on the many problems of early man.

In spite of the unquestioned and unquestionable character of
palaeolithic discoveries in general, it must not be assumed that there
has been an absence of falsification, forgery, and what the French call
"mystification"; on the contrary, such attempts to meet the demand have
been common enough. Apart from Edward Simpson, who was notorious as
"Flint Jack" in the middle of the 19th century, many others, both in
England and on the continent of Europe, have devoted themselves to this
peculiar industry. Boucher de Perthes tried to conquer the scepticism of
some of his friends who doubted the human origin of the Abbeville
flints, by unwisely offering his workmen a reward for the discovery of
human bones in the same beds. The Moulin Quignon jaw was accordingly
produced, and became the subject of much controversy; but the evidence
finally showed that it had originally come from elsewhere. The cave
drawings also have found their imitators in modern times. One Meillet, a
man of education, took a special pleasure in the production of spurious
examples, and even published an account of his pretended discoveries.
But here, as in all the attempts at imitation of the cave drawings, the
modern efforts were betrayed by their poor artistic quality, and a
comparison of the new discoveries with the old was generally enough to
disclose the forgery. Two drawings on bone of a wolf and a bear,
declared to have been found in a cave at Thayingen in Switzerland, were
afterwards shown to have been copied from a child's picture-book. In
Switzerland also a brisk trade was carried on some years ago in false
antiquities said to come from the Lake-dwellings; and fantastic types of
tools and implements were placed on the market. In Italy, too, a lively
discussion has taken place of late years over the authenticity of
curiously shaped flint implements from the neighbourhood of Verona;
while America has provided similar food for discussion in the well-known
Lenapé stone and the Calaveras skull. The former bears drawings of the
French cave type, while the latter if genuine would carry back the story
of man in the American continent before Pliocene times.


  Mesolithic.

An apparent break in the continuity of man's history in Europe occurs at
the end of the palaeolithic period. Attempts have been made to bridge
the gap by means of a "mesolithic" period ([Greek: mesos], middle); but
it would not seem probable that the missing links will occur at all
events so far north as Britain. We leave palaeolithic man in a cold
climate, surrounded by a somewhat mixed fauna that formed his prey. We
know him as a hunter and artist, but the remains show that he had no
knowledge of pottery till towards the close of the period. Among the
humbler arts he practised at least sewing, and lived in caves or took
shelter at the base of overhanging rocks; but like the Australian, he
frequently camped in the open. His successor of the later Stone Age
(neolithic) we find to be a very different character and with very
different surroundings. The configuration of the land in which he lived
is practically the same as we now see it. The severe arctic conditions
with the appropriate fauna had entirely disappeared, and the
introduction of new arts must have radically changed his daily life. The
most important of these are the training of domestic animals,
agriculture, and the development of pottery. What were the burial rites
of palaeolithic man we have at present no means of knowing, but for his
neolithic successor we know that these were matters of great moment. The
abundance of arrowheads of flint indicate the common use of the bow and
arrow as a weapon, while the art of weaving marks an immense stride in
the direction of comfort and civilization. Of the form and construction
of his dwelling we have only a limited knowledge, derived with some
uncertainty from the analogy of the dwellings for the dead (barrows) and
more certainly from the remains of the villages found erected on piles
on the shores of lakes.

A much-debated question arises here that cannot be passed over. The
changes just mentioned are not such as would be produced by internal
causes alone. Much of the evidence is in favour of neolithic man being
an immigrant, coming into northern and central Europe long after
palaeolithic man and his characteristic fauna had disappeared. Where did
the earlier race go and who are its modern representatives, if any? The
answers to this question are many. W. Boyd Dawkins is of opinion that
the reindeer was followed by man in its journey to the north after the
retreating glaciers, and that the modern representative of palaeolithic
man is the Eskimo. His arguments are ingenious but unconvincing; they
mainly consist in the similarity of the habits of both races in using
harpoons and implements of similar form and make, their power of carving
and drawing on bone, the absence of pottery, disregard of the dead, &c.
As to the positive evidence, it is almost enough to say that the Eskimo,
like the cave-men, used the material nearest to hand that served their
purpose, and that nothing is more remarkable than the similarity of
primitive weapons used by widely separated peoples; while the negative
evidence as to the absence of pottery is of little value; their
conditions of life would allow them neither to make it nor keep it. Till
recently we had no evidence at all of the treatment of the dead by
palaeolithic man, but this is no longer the case; the discoveries in the
Grottes de Grimaldi, Monaco, show several methods of burial, near a
hearth, or in rude stone cists (see Dr Verneau in _L'Anthropologie_,
xvii. 291). A stronger argument would be furnished if it could be shown
that by his physical character the Eskimo is an intruder in his present
home, and is unrelated to his neighbours. But this has not yet been
done, and the skulls of the Eskimo do not resemble any of those hitherto
found in the caves. In fact, what evidence there is on the subject is
rather against than in favour of the wanderings northward of the
inhabitants of the caves. There are indications, on the other hand, that
in the south of France, in the Pyrenees, the reindeer was in existence,
with man, at a later period than that of the caves, while the type of
skull is that of Cro-Magnon. Here, therefore, it may be that something
like a bridging of the gap between palaeolithic and neolithic times may
be forthcoming. But it still remains to be found, and for the present we
must be content with uncertainty.


  Neolithic.

The neolithic period has often been loosely called the age of polished
stone, from the fact that in no case has a polished or ground stone
implement been found in a palaeolithic deposit. The term is not only
loose but inaccurate. In the first place, there is no reason why the
cave-men should not be found to have polished a stone implement on
occasion, for they habitually polished their weapons of bone. Secondly,
neolithic man was by no means uniform in his methods; he polished or
ground the surfaces of such tools or weapons as would be improved by the
process; but to take a common instance, he found that the efficacy of
his arrow-point was sufficient when chipped only, and polishing is only
occasionally found, as in Ireland. Many other implements also are found
in neolithic times with no trace of grinding and yet with every
appearance of being complete.

The most trustworthy evidence with regard to this and the succeeding
archaeological periods is to be found in the grave-mounds. For the
earlier part of the neolithic age, however, these are by no means
fruitful of relics. From their shape they are called in England "long
barrows" to distinguish them from the round barrows which belong to a
succeeding time, though evidence is being accumulated to show that this
division is not of universal application. Long barrows are by no means
of such frequent occurrence in Britain as the round variety; they are
most common in Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Dorset, and occur as far
north as Caithness. Some of them contain within the mound a stone
chamber, at times with a gallery leading to it, and in the chamber the
interment or interments took place. Similar barrows have been found on
the continent of Europe, and both in Britain and abroad have one feature
in common, viz. that no metal, with possibly the exception of gold, has
ever been found in them. This similarity of burial custom, though it may
conceivably indicate intercourse, certainly does not prove identity of
race, as has been sometimes claimed. The type of skulls found in the
interment is clear evidence against such an assumption.

In Britain, the burials were at times by inhumation only, and
occasionally a great number of bodies were interred in the same barrow:
at others, cremation had preceded burial. Another remarkable feature is
that in many instances it is certain from the relative position of the
bones of the unburnt burials that the corpse had been allowed to decay
before the burial took place. This curious practice is known among many
savage tribes of the present day. Its occurrence in Britain has been
adduced in favour of the prevalence of cannibalism at this time, and not
altogether without reason. While metal is entirely absent in the long
barrows (and in fact relics of any kind are very rarely found), it is
significant that in the succeeding round barrows also metal occurs but
seldom, and then always of the types attributed to the earliest part of
the Bronze Age. When, therefore, the mound pottery is of a class that
may well be anterior to metal, and no metal is found with the burial, it
is not unreasonable to assign such barrows to the Stone Age. A similar
argument may be applied to the stone implements, but in the opposite
direction. Many stone implements are found either isolated, or perhaps
with no other relics that serve to fix their period. The material alone
is often considered sufficient evidence of their being before the age of
metals; but it is at any rate quite certain that a large number of stone
axes, more particularly those with a socket for the handle, belong
really to the Bronze Age. This uncertainty makes any account of the
neolithic age difficult, unless the material is taken as the main basis.

Neolithic man, like his forerunners, still recognized that flint and
allied stones provided the best material for his cutting and piercing
implements, though he made use to a great extent of other hard stones
that came ready to his hand. The mining of flint was undertaken on a
large scale, and great care was taken to get down to the layer
containing the best quality. In Norfolk, at Grime's Graves, and in
Sussex, at Cissbury near Worthing, the flint shafts have been carefully
explored by William Greenwell, General Pitt-Rivers and others. The
system was to sink two shafts some little distance apart and deep enough
to reach the desired flint-bed, and the two shafts were then joined by a
gallery at the bottom. At Grime's Graves large numbers of deer's horns
were found, which had evidently been used as picks, as is proved by the
marks found in the chalk walls; and the horn had been trimmed for the
purpose. Cups of chalk were also found in the galleries and were
believed to have been used as lamps. At Cissbury great quantities of
unfinished and defective implements were found in the work, as well as
horn tools, as in Norfolk. At such factories the primitive appliances
correspond very closely with those in use among existing savages. The
pebble was used as a hammer or an anvil, and the more delicate flaking
was done by pressure with a piece of horn rather than by blows.
Naturally enough the number of completed implements found in these
factories is small; the finished tools would be bartered at once and
carried away from the factory. All the animal remains found in these
pits belong to present geological conditions, thus emphasizing what has
been stated above, that the absence of polished implements is no
evidence for great age. Many other factories have been found in Britain,
in Ireland and on the continent of Europe: at Grovehurst in Kent, at
Stourpaine near Blandford, at Whitepark Bay, county Antrim, and in
Belgium at Spiennes. Among the North American Indians the method would
seem to have been somewhat different. After journeying to the site of a
suitable quality of stone, they did not always complete the implements
on the spot, but made a number of oval chipped disks of good stone which
they carried away and worked up into the required implements at their
leisure. These disks bear a strong likeness to some of the ovate
implements from the Drift in Europe; in fact, but for the difference of
surface condition or patina, they would be identical.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  PALAEOLITHIC PERIOD

  1. French Drift
  2. English Drift.
  3. French transition (Le Moustier).
  4. French Cave Period.
  5. English Cave Period.]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  SCULPTURE AND ENGRAVINGS OF THE CAVE PERIOD. FROM DORDOGNE, FRANCE.]

[Illustration: PLATE III.

  WALL PAINTINGS OF THE CAVE PERIOD CAVERN OF ALTAMIRA, SANTANDER,
  SPAIN.

  OUTLINE OF WALL-PAINTINGS, ALTAMIRA, LENGTH ABOUT 45½ FT (_cf_
  PAINTING, Plate 1.)

  By permission, from _La Caverne d'Altamira_ by Cartaulhac and Breuil
  Monaco 1906.]

[Illustration: PLATE IV.

  NEOLITHIC PERIOD.

  1. Flint and stone implements, England.
  2. Flint arrow-heads, England.
  3. Arrow-heads, Ireland.
  4. Flint and stone implements, Denmark.
  5. Flint implements, France.
  6. Flint implements, Egypt.]

While the severe climatic conditions that preceded the neolithic age
restricted the presence of man to the more temperate parts of the globe,
it may be assumed that in neolithic times there was nothing to prevent
him from occupying the greater part of the earth's surface, short of the
neighbourhood of the two poles. Thus it may be expected that an age of
stone will be found, if looked for, in every part of the globe. So far
as our present knowledge goes, all is in favour of the use of stone
before metals, in all countries. The one material requires no special
treatment before being adapted to man's use, while the other demands
considerable knowledge, even if reasoning power have but little place in
the process. Thus the probabilities are here borne out by the facts. In
the extensive "kitchen-middens" of Japan are found great numbers of
chert implements mixed with pottery of a primitive type, recalling that
of European early Bronze Age barrows, while the succeeding periods of
metal are equally clear. Even in the Far East, therefore, the same
sequence is to be observed. In China, the conditions are more obscure.
The superstitious regard for ancestors has prevented the exploration of
ancient tombs in that country, and thus systematic search has been
impossible, while the precise details of the discovery of such relics as
have come to light are difficult to obtain. In spite of the assertion
that China had no Stone Age, it is surely more probable, in the absence
of exact knowledge, that she followed the normal course. Modern
territorial divisions, more especially if they are independent of the
natural physical conditions of the land, such as mountain ranges, great
rivers and the like, have but little value in considering the race
problems of remote ages. If, therefore, we find that, in the countries
bordering on what is now the Chinese empire, the ancient inhabitants
followed the same broad lines of culture that are evident elsewhere, it
is easy to believe that China too was normal in this respect. The
negroes and Bantu races of Africa also were thought to have passed
direct to the use of iron, perhaps owing to the existence on the Nile of
a civilization of great antiquity, which enabled them to pass over the
intervening stages. Inherently improbable, this is now known not to have
been the case. Stone implements, whether ground or merely chipped, have
been discovered on the Congo, and more recently on the Zambezi. It is
quite true that in both cases they are found in superficial deposits,
and may be of any age. But here again the probabilities are greatly in
favour of their having been in use before iron was known. While stone
tools, such as knives or arrow-heads, may possess qualities that render
them superior to bronze or copper, it is certain that once the working
of iron was understood, its superiority to stone would at once be
perceived, and the stone tools be discarded. There can be little doubt
that investigations in Central Africa will demonstrate that the same
course was followed there as elsewhere. In South Africa, in Egypt and in
Somaliland large quantities of stone implements have been discovered,
and of the great age of most of them there can be no doubt. Some from
the banks of the Nile have even been claimed as "eolithic"; but here, as
in Europe, We can only say that the case is not proven: General
Pitt-Rivers did good service in Egypt by discovering among the
stratified gravels near Thebes a number of rude flints bearing
unmistakeable signs of human workmanship, but he described them merely
as of "palaeolithic type," and deplored the absence of mammalian remains
in the gravels. At the same time he pointed out that the bulk of the
implements claimed as palaeolithic (and, it may be, correctly) are found
on the surface, and therefore cannot be dissociated from the surface
types; hence form alone cannot be trusted to determine age. Further, we
are by no means well informed as to the value of patination in flints
found on the surface in Egypt. The depth and intensity of the patination
would no doubt have a direct relation to the age of the implement, if
only it could be proved that all of them had been equally subjected to
the conditions that produced the discoloration. But this is clearly
impossible. Some implements may conceivably have been continuously on
the surface of the desert from the time they were made, and have been
acted upon by the sun and air for many thousands of years, while others,
though of equal age, may have been covered by sand or otherwise
protected for a large part of the intervening centuries. Patination,
therefore, like form, can only claim a conditional value. It is at the
best an uncertain indication of age, as great age may be possible
without it. Similarly, in Somaliland, the condition of the implements is
very curious, and in some respects puzzling, while their forms resemble
those from the Drift in Europe. But as to the climatic conditions we
know nothing, and it is therefore useless to speculate on the condition
of the stones; as to the geology we know next to nothing, and no
mammalian remains give us a helping hand, while the form alone is a
dangerous foundation for argument.


  Europe and America.

Investigations in the more remote parts of the world, though they may
occasionally produce some startling novelty in the history of mankind,
can scarcely be expected to furnish the same trustworthy continuous
story as is to be found in the European area. Here history provides us
with a fairly truthful account of what has happened for a period varying
from two to three thousand years, or in some places even longer, and we
are thus able to judge whether particular discoveries come into the
historical stage or not. In more primitive lands where history (if there
be any) partakes more of the character of mythical tradition, the task
of defining the period to which particular discoveries belong is
rendered much more difficult. In America, where history may be said to
have begun five hundred years ago, such a feat is of course impossible,
until a great deal of work on comparative lines has been accomplished.
The accounts of the civilization of Mexico and Peru at the time of the
Spanish conquest show a state of culture which in some respects must
have put the Spaniards to shame, while in others it was primitive in the
extreme. As regards internal communications, the working of gold and
copper, and the manufacture and decoration of pottery, these American
kingdoms were on a level with all but the most advanced nations; but of
history in the true sense of the word they have none. In spite of this,
it is by no means a hopeless task to disentangle the apparent confusion
of their archaeology. It is now fairly well known what were the races or
tribes that inhabited particular districts, and it is thus easy to make
a _corpus_ of the types adopted by the various peoples. This is the
first certain step in the application of archaeological method. By
degrees, as these types become familiar to the trained eye, it will not
be difficult to arrange them in a progressive series, from the earliest
in style to the latest. That this will be done by the archaeologists of
the American continent, even with the present scanty materials, there
can be little doubt. Numbers of young and enthusiastic workers have now
had a good training in exploration in historical lands, and will
usefully employ their experience on the antiquities of their own
country. But if once a key be found to the ancient Mexican inscriptions,
so plentifully scattered through the ancient monuments, it may be that
enlightenment will come even more suddenly and more surely. The one
problem that is of the greatest interest still awaits solution, viz.
whether there is any relation, in culture or more remotely in race,
between the inhabitants of ancient America and those of Europe or Asia.
One thing is certain, that if there be any connexion, it is of infinite
remoteness. But it is at any rate noteworthy that the same designs,
patterns and even games are found in ancient Mexico and in India or
China; and whether these resemblances arise from relations between the
peoples using them or from accident, is a problem well worth
investigation.

In countries like Scandinavia or Switzerland, the story of the early
ages is clear and comparatively free from complications. The one by its
remoteness was left to develop with but little help from the rest of
Europe up to historical times; the other, protected on so many sides by
its mountain ranges, seems to have enjoyed a peaceful existence during
the Stone and Bronze Ages. A community of fishermen and agriculturists,
they led a calm domestic life on the edges of their many lakes where
they constructed dwellings on piles with only a gangway to the shore, to
prevent the attacks of predatory animals. The practice of building
houses in lakes was a common one not only in Switzerland, but also in
Britain and in Ireland, as in modern times among the natives of New
Guinea. Besides securing the safety of the inhabitants, it had the not
unimportant advantage of being more healthy; all refuse of food and
other useless matter could at once be thrown into the water where it
would be harmless. A similar form of dwelling is the Irish "crannog,"
constructed on an island or shoal in a lake, in some cases artificially
heightened so as to bring it above water. These crannogs were probably
inhabited in Ireland up to comparatively recent times, if one may judge
by the remains found on the sites.

It must not be forgotten that although the neolithic period had many
phases, yet its duration is in no way comparable to the incalculable
length of the palaeolithic age. For a variety of reasons it is thought
that one of the earliest stages of neolithic times is represented by the
now well-known kitchen-middens (refuse-heaps) of Denmark. These heaps
are often of great size, sometimes reaching 10 ft. in height, and nearly
350 yds. in length. Here along the coast line the natives of Denmark
lived, apparently building their huts upon the mounds and cooking their
food upon hearths of stone. The conditions of their daily life would
seem to have resembled those of the natives of Tierra del Fuego. Their
implements of flint seem to have been chipped only, and it is
conjectured that the few polished and more highly finished implements
that have been found in the middens are importations from more cultured
tribes living inland. Their food was in very great part composed of
shell-fish, though they evidently caught and ate various kinds of deer,
boar and a variety of carnivorous animals. The race which made these
mounds is believed to have been akin to the Lapps, and their dwellings
can hardly have been anything more than the rudest protection from the
weather. The Swiss lake-dwellers were far more advanced, even in the
Stone Age; their dwellings were elaborately planned and constructed, and
remains of them have been plentifully found in the various Swiss lakes.
Various forms of construction were adopted: in one the foundations
consisted of poles driven into the bed of the lake; in others a kind of
framework simply rested on the bottom, and in a third, the substructure
was formed of layers of sticks reaching from the bottom of the lake up
to the surface. The walls were of wattle, closed up with clay to keep
out the weather; the hearths were of stone slabs, and the floors of clay
well trodden down. Practically the same type of dwelling seems to have
continued through the Stone and Bronze Ages, though on some sites no
metal whatever is found and it is therefore assumed that these are of
the earlier period. These people cultivated the land, growing wheat and
barley; they were also hunters and fishermen, capable of manufacturing
pottery without the aid of the wheel, which had not yet come into use so
far north; and they wove mats and garments, while ropes and netting are
plentiful. Their tools and weapons were made of stone, and to a great
extent of deer's horn. Human remains are hardly ever found on the sites
of the lake-dwellings, and it is therefore uncertain what were the
social affinities of the people; but the evidence of the sites is in
favour of the same race being continuous into the Bronze Age, when their
condition was more comfortable, as is shown by the abundant remains of
domesticated animals.


  Stone Age relics.

Among the most notable and obvious relics of prehistoric times, both in
Britain and in many other countries such as Spain, Portugal, France and
even India, are gigantic circles and avenues of stone and dolmens (see
STONE MONUMENTS). These enduring monuments have excited the wonder of
countless generations, and lent themselves to superstitious practices
down to modern times. But the precise purpose for which they were
erected and even the period to which they belonged, had never been
definitely settled. They had been called burial places of great chiefs,
and not unnaturally had been thought by others to have been temples or
places of primitive worship used by the Druids, who moreover were often
credited with their erection. Obviously such a question called for
settlement, and the British Association in the year 1898 appointed a
committee to investigate these stone circles with a view to ascertaining
their age. Operations were begun at the well-known circle of Arbor Low,
south of Buxton in Derbyshire; careful excavations were made through the
ditch and the encircling mound and also within the circle, and although
the evidence was not of the most complete kind, yet the committee came
to the conclusion that the circle belonged to the end of the neolithic
age. At Arbor Low all the stones are now lying on the ground (although,
to judge from the other circles in England, they were certainly once
upright), and the opportunities for surveying were thereby much
diminished. It is a fortunate circumstance, therefore, that the fall of
one of the stones at Stonehenge (q.v.) at the end of the 19th century,
and the increasingly perilous state of some of the others, caused the
owner, with the advice of the Society of Antiquaries of London, to
undertake the raising of the great leaning stone in the interior of the
circle. The work was superintended by W. Gowland, F.S.A., who made
special investigations during the necessary digging, for the purpose of
recovering any remains of man's handiwork that had been left by the
builders of the monument. In this he was very successful, finding in the
course of the very limited excavation at the base of the monolith, a
great number of stone mauls or hammers that corresponded so nearly with
the bruised surfaces of the monoliths, that there can be no doubt of
their having been used to dress the standing stones.

From a review of all the evidence of an archaeological nature that was
to be obtained, Gowland came to the conclusion that the construction of
Stonehenge belonged to the latter part of the neolithic age. No trace of
a metal implement occurred in any of the debris. This would of itself be
an interesting fact, but it became infinitely more interesting from
researches in quite another direction, which brought corroborative
evidence of a curious kind. For many years Sir Norman Lockyer and Prof.
Penrose were engaged in examining the orientation of temples in Egypt
and Greece, with a view to determining on what astronomical principle,
if any, the plans had been laid down. With a rectangular plan, and with
portions of the interior still well defined, they were able by elaborate
calculation to determine that the temples had been definitely planned
with relation to the rising or setting of the sun or of a particular
star. Having been successful in these investigations they proceeded to
apply the test to Stonehenge. The experiment was made on the longest day
in the year 1901. Owing to a gradual change in the obliquity of the
earth's orbit, the point of sunrise on corresponding days of each year
is not constant; and though the difference is hardly perceptible from
year to year, in the course of centuries it becomes great enough for use
as a measure of time. Enough remains of the monument to show the
direction of sunrise at the time that Stonehenge was erected, it being
always assumed that the coincidence of the main axis with the central
line of the Avenue was designed with reference to sunrise on the longest
day of the year. At the date of the experiment it was found that the sun
had shifted nearly two diameters in the interval, and this variation
gives a date of about 1680 B.C., which practically confirms the verdict
of archaeology and seems to prove, moreover, that Stonehenge was a
temple of the sun.

Stonehenge therefore may be taken as marking for Britain the close of
the neolithic period and heralding the dawn of a new era, in which the
inhabitants of the British Isles first acquired the art of working
metal.


  Bronze Age.

There is reason to believe that the transition from the use of stone to
that of bronze was not due to the peaceful advance of civilization, but
rather to the irruption of an Aryan race from the south-east of Europe
into the countries to the west and north. Of these people the Celts are
to some extent the representatives at a somewhat more recent period.
Here, however, we are dealing with terms the precise meaning of which is
not yet generally admitted, and which, moreover, have too intimate a
relation to the problems of philology to be fully discussed here (see
INDO-EUROPEAN). The term Aryan (q.v.) itself is not free from
objections. It was held by Max Müller to relate to a language and a
civilization that took its rise in Central Asia, while others now
contend that, although it is the mother language of the Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, Teutonic and Celtic languages, it might equally well have
originated in Europe. However this may be, and even this brief statement
shows how wide a field the arguments would cover, there can be little
doubt that the Bronze Age Celts were of this stock, and that in course
of time they gradually spread their language and culture over a large
part of Europe. Whether or no the knowledge of bronze started from one
or more centres, it gradually spread from the south-east of Europe until
it reached Scandinavia; the dates being roughly in Crete, 3000 B.C.; in
Sicily, 2500 B.C.; in central France, 2000 B.C.; in Britain and in
Scandinavia 1800 B.C. The appearance of the Celts in Britain is
indicated by the presence of the round barrows. They were a fairly tall,
short-headed race, using cremation and also inhumation in their burials,
skilful in the manufacture of pottery and of the simpler forms of bronze
implements, and freely using bone, jet, and at times amber, while gold
was well known and evidently greatly esteemed. In the early centuries of
the Bronze Age, swords, spears and shields were apparently quite
unknown, the principal metallic products being flat axes, simple knives
or daggers, and small tools or ornaments. In the burial places the
bodies, if unburnt, are nearly always found in a crouching position, as
if in the attitude of sleep; if cremated, the burnt bones are generally
enshrined in an urn under the tumulus, the burial being sometimes in a
cist formed of large stones. The pottery vessels are remarkable in more
ways than one. In the first place they would seem to have been specially
made for the burial rites, for whenever domestic pottery has been found,
it is of quite a different character, unornamented and simple in
outline. It must be confessed, however, that this latter is by no means
common. The sepulchral vessels are at times highly decorated, and
sometimes of great size. They are invariably hand made, and though they
are by no means well fired they are never sun-dried, as is often said to
be the case. A common kind of decoration is produced by impressing
twisted cords in the damp clay, and this is believed with some reason to
have had its origin in the practice of winding cords round the unbaked
vessel to prevent distortion before or during the process of firing.
That operation would of course burn away the cord and leave only its
impression on the urn. Other forms of ornament are also used, incised
lines in rudely geometrical designs, impressions of the end of a stick,
and at times rows of hollows produced by the finger or thumb. The method
of the burial, beyond giving an insight into the art of the period, also
helps us to realize to some extent the ideas of primitive man. The
underlying reason for careful and ceremonial burial is not always
readily understood, apart from a knowledge of the ritual, such as
existed in ancient Egypt. But in the Bronze Age in Britain it was the
custom to bury with the dead not only carefully made vessels which
doubtless contained food for the journey to the lower world, but also
the ornaments and weapons of the deceased. Often the bonea of a pig have
been found in the grave, doubtless representing part of the provender
which could not conveniently be placed in the so-called food-vessel.
Such practices indicate with a fair amount of certainty a belief in a
future life in another world, where probably the conditions were thought
to be much the same as in this. The burial of the weapons and other
property of a dead man is, however, not always due to the belief that he
may need them in some future state. The reason may well be that it would
be thought unlucky for a survivor to use them.

Just as the neolithic age was immeasurably shorter than the
palaeolithic, but was notable for great improvements in the arts of
life, so the Bronze Age in its turn was shorter than the neolithic age,
and again witnessed even more marked advance in culture. It is in fact
an illustration of the truism that each step in knowledge renders all
that follow less laborious; but it is not easy to understand how the
transition from stone to metal came about, nor why bronze came to be the
chosen metal rather than iron. Bronze, in the first place, is a
composite metal, a mixture of copper and tin, while iron can be at once
reduced from its ores; indeed, in the form of meteoric iron, it is
already metallic, and needs but a hammer to produce whatever form may be
wanted. From the archaeological point of view, there is, however, good
reason for believing that bronze preceded iron. The forms of axes that
are without doubt the earliest, are in outline much the same as the
stone prototype, being only thinner in proportion. Then again, iron
implements are never found on the earlier sites, and if they had been in
existence some of them certainly would remain: further, at the end of
the Bronze Age it is found that the forms of weapons in that metal are
exactly copied in iron, as, for instance, at Hallstatt (q.v.) in the
Salzkammergut, the famous cemetery which best illustrates the passage
from the use of bronze to that of iron. It has been claimed that bronze
was preceded by copper, a sequence which seems inherently probable; and
whether or no it was general enough or enduring enough to constitute a
period, there can be no reasonable doubt that in the Mediterranean area,
and in central Europe, as well as in Ireland, great numbers of
implements were made of copper alone without any appreciable admixture
of tin. The casting of pure copper presents certain difficulties, in
that the metal is not adapted for anything but a mould open to the air,
and this would limit its utility, until the discovery that tin in a
certain proportion (roughly 1:9) not only made the resulting metal much
harder and better fitted for cutting-tools and weapons, but at the same
time rendered possible the use of closed moulds.

There are thus two problems in connexion with the history of the Bronze
Age. How was the metal discovered? And by whom or where? As to the
first, it must be remembered that in some parts of the world, e.g. in
China and in Cornwall, copper and tin are found together, and it may
well be that tin was first accidentally included as an impurity, which,
had it been noticed, would have been eliminated. Once it was found to
produce a more useful metal, the blend would be deliberately made, and
repeated trials would eventually demonstrate the most suitable
proportion of one metal to the other. The question of where it was first
discovered is one that is not likely to be answered with certainty, but
the one essential is the presence of the two metals in one and the same
locality. Tin does not exist in either Egypt or Mesopotamia, although
bronze articles from the fourth and third millennium respectively B.C.
have been found in these countries. The tin to produce the mere metal
must have come from some foreign country; and the choice seems to be
very small. Spain at the other end of the Mediterranean is unlikely, and
Britain still more so; central Asia, Asia Minor, or China again seem too
remote; for the spread of metallurgy from these centres would imply a
trade connexion nearly 4000 B.C. In later times, later perhaps by 3000
years, Spain and Britain were undoubtedly among the chief sources of the
tin supply of Europe and of the Mediterranean generally; but it will
long remain a problem where bronze was first produced. There is indeed,
no real necessity for confining its origin to a single locality; it is
easily conceivable that the invention occurred independently in more
places than one.

The history of early metallurgy has been carefully studied by W.
Gowland, who communicated the results of his researches to the Society
of Antiquaries of London in 1899. In his opinion the ores from which
copper was first obtained by smelting were originally found as pebbles
or boulders in the beds of streams, where man in the Stone Age had been
accustomed to search for stones to convert into implements; and in the
same way the beds of rivers were for a long subsequent period the only
sources of tin. Actual mining belongs in his opinion to a far later
period, and naturally had its origin in the discovery of outcrops of the
metal on the surface. By the simple application of fire, lumps of ore
were reduced to a smaller size, and were then prepared for smelting by
further reduction to the condition of a coarse powder. This latter
process was carried out in the same way that grain was crushed between
two stones; and stone-mills, doubtless used for the purpose, have been
found in ancient workings in Wales. The next stage would be the furnace,
and there can be little doubt that this would be of the simplest kind,
merely a hole in the ground with the fire covering the metal, and with
nothing but a natural draught. But Gowland holds that even with these
singularly inadequate appliances, copper could be smelted from the
surface ores, though the output would naturally be of the most uncertain
and intermittent character, depending, as it must have done, on the
wind. And until the discovery of bellows or some other method of
increasing the draught of air, no progress could be made in this
direction. With regard to the resulting metal, viz. copper, we have
certain knowledge. From time to time there are found in the earth in
Britain and elsewhere, hoards of fragmentary or imperfect bronze
implements, portions of axes, swords, rings, &c., all of which have been
failures in castings. These hoards are assumed to have been gathered
together by the bronze founders to be recast into perfect and useful
implements. Now, frequently associated with these hoards are portions of
cakes of pure copper, originally circular in shape, flat on one face and
convex on the other, like a lens with one flat face. The form of these
cakes is in itself a fair proof of the prevalence of the method of
smelting described above, as it is quite clear that the convex face of
the cake followed the contour of the hole in the ground above which the
fire was placed. The cakes are generally found broken up into small
handy blocks. This can only be done in one way, viz. by watching the
cake, after the fire and slag has been raked off it, until it is on the
point of becoming solid, when it is quickly pulled out of the hole and
broken up. It will be noted that while the implements in these founders'
hoards are invariably of bronze, the cakes are as invariably of copper.
This is at first sight puzzling, until it is realized that these
founders probably carried the tin necessary for forming bronze in the
form of ore, and that tin ore in its pure state is a snuff-coloured
powder very easily overlooked when lying on the earth, which it might
very nearly resemble in colour, though it would be much heavier. Thus it
is probable that in many such discoveries the tin ore has accompanied
the copper cakes and bronze fragments, but has hitherto eluded the eyes
of the finder. Not only have we this conclusive evidence of the methods
by which Bronze Age man produced his raw material, but the discovery of
crucibles and moulds takes us a step further towards the finished
implements. The crucibles are generally simple bowls of thick clay with
an extension of the lip at one side to pour out the molten metal.
Several of these, with plentiful traces of metal still remaining in
them, were found by the brothers Siret in the Bronze Age settlement at
El Argar in Murcia. In the same place also were found moulds of stone
for the casting of simple triangular axes. These were of the class known
as open moulds, one stone being hollowed to the desired form, the other
half being simply a flat cover, with no relation to the form of the
implement to be produced. From the nature of the metal, such a mould is
the only kind in which the casting of an efficient copper implement
would be possible; and among the objects discovered by the Sirets were
articles in plenty of pure copper.

Much has been written in support of the theory that the bronze tools and
implements found in this or that country must have been importations
from southern and more highly civilized lands. More particularly has
this been alleged with regard to Britain, which, lying as it did on the
extreme limit of the ancient world, was regarded as being dependent on
the continent for the more complex weapons. The constant discovery,
however, of these hoards of rough metal, as well as of moulds of the
highest finish for casting swords, daggers, celts, and almost every kind
of ancient bronze implement and weapon known to us, provides a
conclusive proof of the contrary. The occurrence of a foreign type of
implement is so rare as to be a source of especial gratification to the
collector who secures it; and it may be taken that, in general terms,
all the bronze swords, daggers and spears found in Britain were of home
manufacture. Relations with the continent, however, did exist, as is
shown by the occurrence of an Irish type of gold ornament in France and
Scandinavia, and by the similarity of ornamental motives in the British
Isles and elsewhere. Among the continental races it is natural to find
intercommunication more common, owing to the absence of natural
barriers. The weapons of the Bronze Age were swords, spears, daggers and
axes (celts), though the last would be equally well adapted for more
peaceful purposes. The swords were usually of a narrow leaf shape, cast
with the handle in one piece, the mounting of the grip and the pommel
being added. For perfection of workmanship the weapons of this period
have never been surpassed, and the skill of adjustment in the moulds,
the fine and equal quality of the metal, and the flawless condition of
the surfaces still excite wonder among the most expert of modern
founders. The cutting edges of swords and "celts" were often, if not
always, hammered to serve the double purpose of hardening that part of
the weapon and sharpening the edge. In the case of the axe-heads
(celts), this hammering had a distinct influence on the evolution of the
form of the implement. The earliest celts, whether of copper or bronze,
were in form, copies of their stone prototypes, and curiously enough
exactly like the ordinary woodman's axe of to-day, but of course without
the socket for the handle. Hammering rendered the cutting edge both
broader and thinner, giving it at the same time a curved outline. This
widened curve eventually became an ornamental feature, the two ends of
the cutting edge becoming curved points and adding greatly to the
elegance of the outline. Later, the other edges were finished by
hammering also, at times in a simple ornamental fashion; and whether for
greater rigidity or for some other reason, flanges were produced in the
same way on those edges, which again affected the ultimate form of the
celt. The early flat celt was no doubt simply fixed in a perforated
wooden handle, which would naturally tend to split if wielded with any
vigour. The side-flanges were in course of time utilized to prevent
this, by allowing the use of a different form of handle. In place of the
simple straight handle, a branch was cut with an elbow-joint, and its
shorter limb then divided into two prongs, between which the metal
passed, while the flanges, beaten up from the edges, overlapped the two
forks; and no doubt a lashing of sinew was added to render the whole
secure. This made a good serviceable tool or weapon, and prevented the
splitting of the handle; but still another step was taken. The flanges
on the edges met over the prong of the handle on either side, while the
upper end of the celt itself eventually became a mere septum dividing
the two openings. This septum was finally judged to be useless, and done
away with; and the celt was cast with one hollow only for the reception
of the ends of the handle; thus the flat celt became, by a natural
process of evolution and improvement, a socketed celt. It is a curious
fact, however, that the modern form of axe where the handle passes
through a socket in the metal itself does not seem to have been much in
favour in the Bronze Age, although it was a stone form that certainly
survived into the succeeding period.

This and other shortcomings in what must have been the universal weapon
and implement of the race, were remedied from time to time by various
improvements in the form of the bronze axe-head and the method of
hafting; and the various stages of development, from the flat blade of
copper or bronze to the socketed implement and even to a pattern now in
use, can still be traced in the Bronze Age specimens that have come down
to us.

[Illustration: PLATE V.

  SEPULCHRAL POTTERY, BRITISH ISLES (BRONZE AGE).

  1-3, Drinking cups or beakers. 4-9, Food vessels. 10-12, Cinerary
  urns.

  SEPULCHRAL POTTERY FROM THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE (NEOLITHIC, BRONZE,
  AND IRON AGES).

  STAGES IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE CELT OR IMPLEMENT OF CHISEL FORM.

  (1) From stone to metallic form.
  (2) Growth of the stop ridge to palstave.
  (3) Growth of the wings to socket-celt.

  By permission, from the British Museum _Guide to the Bronze Age._]

[Illustration: PLATE VI.

  1. Bronze shield with red enamel ornaments, found in the Thames near
  Battersea; about 31 in. long.

  Chariot burial of a Gaulish chief, Somme Bionne, Marne, France.

  Bronze mounted wooden bucket found in a pit burial at Aylesford.

  Early Iron Age.

  Horned bronze helmet with traces of enamel ornament, found in the
  Thames near Waterloo Bridge.

  The objects here represented are all in the British Museum.

  By permission, from the British Museum _Guide to the Early Iron Age._]


  Iron age.

With the discovery of iron as the ideal metal for cutting implements and
weapons, we enter into the millennium before the Christian era; for
roughly speaking, the development of the civilization associated with
the gradual substitution of iron for bronze began about 1000 B.C. Again
we look towards the south-east of Europe for the earliest evidence of
this great advance; from that quarter it gradually spread over the whole
continent, reaching the more northern parts about five hundred years
later. In Egypt, the home of a marvellous civilization at a very early
time, the conditions were different, and there is reason to suppose that
iron was known there long before it was in use on the northern side of
the Mediterranean. Our knowledge of the dates at which iron was first
known in parts of Asia is still very limited, and further discoveries
must be awaited.


  Ireland.

The archaeology of Ireland presents features in many respects different
from those of the rest of the British Islands in the Stone and Bronze
Ages. Such affinities in style as are traceable connect it rather with
Scotland than with any part of the south, a fact doubtless due to
proximity as well as in part to race connexions. A special feature is
the astonishing quantity of gold that was produced in Ireland during the
early Bronze Age. The frequent discovery of gold ornaments of this time
has enriched to a surprising degree the museum of the Royal Irish
Academy in Dublin, while many private and public collections both in
Ireland and elsewhere contain a considerable number of similar relics.
If these represented the total wealth of gold of the Bronze Age the
amount would probably exceed that of any ancient period in any country,
except perhaps the republic of Colombia in South America. But the known
remains can only be a small proportion of the original wealth. Vast
quantities must have been discovered from medieval times onwards, nearly
all of which would be melted down, owing to the ignorance of the finders
or to the uncertainty of ownership. Further, it may be taken as certain
that there still remains in the earth a great mass of the metal which
may or may not be discovered at some future time. If it were by any
means possible to estimate what these united categories would amount to,
the result would scarcely be credited. It is well known that gold has
been, and still is, found in Ireland; but it is hard to believe that
there were no richer deposits than are now known. It is at any rate
certain that the rivers were worked as late as the opening centuries of
our era. In the Bronze Age the most characteristic ornaments were
penannular objects of all sizes from a small finger ring up to an
armlet, generally known as "ring money" from the difficulty of assigning
a definite use to the whole series; and the flat, crescent-shaped,
diadem-like objects called "lunulae," which are perhaps even more
definitely characteristic of Ireland. Such objects of gold, if
ornamented at all, are, like some of the flat axe-heads, engraved with
simple geometrical patterns, lozenge-shaped chequers and the like, a
type of decoration in itself easily determined as being of the Bronze
Age, but bearing at the same time an interesting and very curious
analogy to remains of the same period from the Iberian Peninsula, more
especially from Portugal. If any overland culture-relations existed
between the two countries, it would be only reasonable to expect the
occurrence of the objects in question in the intervening districts. But
so far nothing of the kind has been discovered. Moreover, had it been an
isolated instance of resemblance it might be negligible, but an equally
odd similarity is found in the fact that the Irish were in the habit of
grinding the faces of their flint arrow-heads, an apparently useless
refinement, while the Portuguese of the early Bronze Age did the same.
Again, the dolmens of Ireland bear a distinct resemblance to those of
Spain and Portugal, while the French dolmens, with few exceptions in the
north, have a different character. These curious points are in favour of
the tradition that the original inhabitants of Ireland were of Iberian
origin, and further, that they did not come overland but by sea, and
there are indeed signs of extensive navigation in the Bronze Age of
northern Europe. It was perhaps in the middle of our Bronze Age, say
about 1000 B.C., that this Iberian race was supplanted by the Celts, who
took a considerable time to emerge from their native barbarism. It is,
at any rate, fairly certain that for some hundreds of years previous to
this Celtic invasion, Ireland was an enormously rich country, supplying
not only herself, but also Britain and part of the Atlantic seaboard
with gold. The fact became eventually an ingrained tradition in the
history of the country, subsisting in Irish literature for centuries
after the Christian era. Such natural wealth must have produced in these
early times a marked effect on the relations and culture of these
Iberian Irish, and one might reasonably expect a much higher level of
luxury and wealth than is indicated by the remains commonly found. With
the opportunities provided by communication with the continent, and the
interchange of goods, with all the chances of benefiting by ideas
current among other races, it is astonishing that Ireland did not play a
more prominent part in Europe, more than a thousand years before the
Christian era.


  Mediterranean area.

While gold as a metal was known in Europe, even before copper, it is a
curious fact that silver was almost unknown, and hardly ever used. One
of the most interesting sites for the metal, at about the same period of
which we have just been speaking in Ireland, was the Mediterranean coast
of Spain. Here in the neighbourhood of Almeria have been found remains
of a large and apparently prosperous population ranging from the Stone
Age to the end of the Bronze Age, with houses and tombs, besides the
fortifications rendered necessary, in the later period, by their
possession of the rare and precious metal, silver. Rare it certainly
was, for the quantity found was exceedingly small, tiny slender rings
for the fingers or the ears, and rivets to hold the axe-blade in its
handle; but nothing to compare with the lavish richness of the American
mines. The interesting race who occupied these dwellings and finally
were laid to rest in the adjoining graves were evidently connected more
or less closely with the peoples inhabiting the eastern coasts of the
Mediterranean.

Recent discoveries in the central Mediterranean area not only furnish
new and trustworthy (though none the less surprising) dates in ancient
history, but may also bridge the distance between the Levant and the
Pillars of Hercules. The results achieved by Arthur Evans and other
distinguished explorers in Crete (q.v.) opened a new chapter in the
history of European civilization, and may fitly be compared with the
excavation of Troy, Mycenae and Tiryns by Schliemann some thirty years
before. The progress of archaeology in the interval can be well tested
by a comparison of the discussions to which the two series of
discoveries gave rise. The mistaken attributions and unfortunate
animosities in connexion with earlier excavations are almost forgotten,
while the brilliant discoveries in the island of King Minos have not
only themselves been made on scientific principles, but are illumined by
the splendid revelation of the civilizations of the Mycenaean and the
pre-Mycenaean era.


  Classical.

A great change indeed took place in the methods of classical study
during the last decade of the 19th century, a change which affected the
entire character of future classical research. It was formerly the
common habit among students and professors of archaeology to confine
their attention and their interests entirely to classical texts and even
to classical sites, rejecting as outside the scope of their studies
anything that was not manifestly beautiful as art. Whatever was
primitive in its aspect, or wanting in the familiar characteristics that
had for centuries been associated with Greek art, was either rejected
entirely or at any rate relegated to a second place, as having but a
poor claim to be classed with objects of the finer periods. The result
was necessarily misleading. The uninstructed majority very naturally
regarded the art of Pheidian times as a thing of supernatural growth,
which had been bestowed by divine favour upon a chosen spot on the
earth, without a human parentage, and almost without leaving any
descendants. The evolutionary methods of other branches of science,
however, were by degrees brought to bear upon the sacred precincts of
pure Greek art. It was found that the crude products of the second
millennium B.C., the formless images evolved by the uncultured dwellers
in the Mediterranean area more than a thousand years before the time of
Pheidias, were in truth the prototypes of the creations of himself and
his contemporaries. This step being taken, the rest became easy. The
most commonplace and ordinary relics were collected with as much avidity
as they had formerly been rejected, in the belief that their simple
forms would aid in the elucidation of their more complex and highly
elaborated descendants. This minute attention, moreover, was not only
given to the works of man, but even the remains of humanity received the
attention they merited. It has been rightly thought, during recent
years, that the question of race was a factor that deserved treatment in
dealing with works of art of early times; and that natural evolution due
to man's tendency to change with time, might not be sufficient to
account for the differences of type observed in human remains from the
same country. For this reason, not only the objects associated with the
burial have been preserved, but also the skeleton itself. This has been
examined, measurements taken and recorded for comparison, and inferences
made, sometimes of a surprising character. For example, if a cemetery be
found with a preponderance of tall, long-headed skeletons in a district
where the prevailing type of skeleton is short and brachycephalic
(short-headed), the observer may reasonably expect a different kind of
burial-furniture, and suspect an intruding race. In this particular
respect, archaeology owes a signal debt to physical anthropology and to
anthropological methods in general. The combination of the two is far
more likely to lead to a reasonable and satisfactory conclusion than
would be possible if the one branch of science had been pursued alone.


  Value of ethnology.

When once the existence of abundant remains of prehistoric man had been
admitted, and their study had received recognition as a branch of
science, the evidence supplied by the relics themselves and by their
relation to extinct or existing animals would have sufficed to give a
considerable insight into the conditions of primitive life. But,
fortunately, corroborative evidence of the most useful kind was at hand,
and has been of the greatest service in solving what might otherwise
have been insoluble problems. Though the progress of civilization, and
more especially the ever increasing rapidity of communication are
rapidly changing the habits of life among the primitive peoples in
various parts of the world, yet till past the middle of the 19th
century, a certain number of tribes, if not races, were still in the
Stone Age. Even at the present day stone-using tribes still exist,
although by chance metal may be known to them. The importance of the
study of their conditions of life and their technical processes, and of
the collecting of their implements for the express purpose of
illustrating prehistoric man, was recognized by Henry Christy
(1810-1865), who had made extensive investigations and collected relics
in conjunction with Edouard Lartet in the now famous caverns of the
Dordogne, at a time when such explorations were somewhat of a novelty;
and concurrently he formed a large collection of the productions of
existing savage peoples, both collections after his death passing to the
British Museum, his intention being that the one should elucidate the
ether. (It is only fair to his memory, however, to state here that, by
his express wish, the most important of the relics that he had obtained
from the Dordogne caves were returned to France where they now are. Such
instances of international courtesy are rare enough to deserve mention.)
The value and interest of such a series can scarcely be over-rated.
Almost till the 20th century, the Indians of North America, the
Australian and Tasmanian natives, as well as those of New Zealand and
the many archipelagoes of the Pacific, were, if not ignorant of the use
of metals, at least habitually using stone where civilized man would use
metal. The Maori made his war club of jade and the pounders for
preparing his food of stone. The Australian had his stone axe-blade; and
low as he stands in the culture scale, his spear-heads are chipped with
an exquisite precision. The Papuan of inland New Guinea is still making
his weapons of stone and wood; while until quite recently the North
American Indian was making his delicate stone arrow points, and the
Solomon islander his beautiful polished stone axe-blades. The knowledge
gained by the study of a large series of such objects enables us to fill
up very many gaps in the story of early man as told by his own remains.
In fact, in this respect, the value of the comparison is much greater
than could reasonably be expected; for, whatever may be the reason,
nothing is more marked than the extraordinary similarity of stone
implements at all times and over the whole world. An arrow-point made by
a Patagonian Indian, one from a Japanese shell mound, and a third of the
Stone Age from Ireland, are found to be practically identical. Whether
it is that the same material and the same necessity naturally produce a
like result, or whether there has existed throughout a continuity of
type, is a question that will never be satisfactorily answered. The
results, however, are of eminently practical value. The arrow-heads of
neolithic man, which are found by hundreds all over Europe, may be seen
fixed in their shafts in the hands of an American Indian; rude pieces of
quartz, which unmounted would escape notice as implements, are seen to
make excellent tools when mounted in a handle by the Australian black,
while flakes of slate find a use when mounted as skinning knives by the
Eskimo.


  Organized study.

Now that the narrower conception of archaeology as a minor branch of
classical studies has been given up, the new science has gradually won
its way to universal recognition; and anthropology, a still wider
subject but in many points closely allied to the scientific study of
ancient remains, has still more recently found favour at all the leading
universities, and practical measures have been taken to establish the
study on a firm and scientific basis. Apart from this official
encouragement, much has been done towards the systematization and
teaching of archaeology by practical excavators, whose pupils have
attained considerable numbers and celebrity. Something has been done,
too, in the national and provincial museums, to present the relics of
past ages in an intelligible manner, so that the collections no longer
consist of curiosities but of documents rich in instruction and interest
even to the general visitor. The progress of photography, as well as the
improvement and cheapening of methods of illustration, have also
assisted enormously in the advance of archaeology; and similarly, the
antiquities exhibited in museums and private collections to illustrate
and amplify written records, have in the last generation received much
attention on their own account, and have reacted in various ways on the
teaching of ancient history. In some countries a further step in general
education has been taken, and the lamentable waste of archaeological
material arrested to some extent by the distribution of pictures and
diagrams among schools and institutions, to call attention to the more
ordinary local types, and to encourage those who are likely to discover
them in the soil to save them from destruction and render them available
for scientific study. A certain familiarity on the part of the young
with the mere appearance of antiquities that come to light continually
and are almost as often discarded or destroyed, would probably result in
valuable additions being made to the available data.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The most useful general works are the
  following:--Salomon Reinach, _Epoque des alluvions et des cavernes_
  (Musée de St Germain); Hoernes, _Der diluviale Mensch in Europa;_ Sir
  John Evans, _Stone Implements of Great Britain_, and _Bronze
  Implements of Great Britain;_ Boyd Dawkins, _Cave-hunting_, and _Early
  Man in Britain;_ Greenwell, _British Barrows;_ W.G. Smith, _Man the
  Primeval Savage;_ James Geikie, _Prehistoric Europe;_ Mortillet, _Le
  Préhistorique;_ Robert Munro, _Lake Dwellings of Europe;_ Ridgeway,
  _Early Age of Greece;_ Jos. Anderson, _Scotland in Pagan Times;_ the
  works of Oscar Montelius and Sophus Müller; _L'Anthropologie,
  Matériaux pour l'histoire primitive de l'homme;_ Christy and Lartet,
  _Reliquiae Aquitanicae;_ A. Michaelis, _A Century of Archaeological
  Discovery_ (Eng. trans., 1908). See also ANTHROPOLOGY, and authorities
  mentioned there; STONE AGE; BRONZE AGE; IRON AGE, &c.; GEOLOGY; and
  the articles on different countries and sites.     (C. H. Rd.)



ARCHAEOPTERYX. The name of _Archaeopteryx lithographica_ was based by
Hermann von Meyer upon a feather (Gr. [Greek: pteryx], wing) found in
1861 in the lithographic slate quarries of Solenhofen in Bavaria, the
geological horizon being that of the Kimmeridge clay of the Upper Oolite
or Jurassic system. In the same year and at the same place was
discovered the specimen (figs. 1 and 3) now in the British Museum,
named by Andreas Wagner _Griphosaurus._ Sir R. Owen has described it as
_A. macroura._ Stimulated by the high price paid by the British Museum,
the quarry owners diligently searched, and in 1872 another, much finer,
preserved specimen was found. This was bought by K.W. v. Siemens, who
presented it to the Berlin Museum. The late W. Dames has written an
excellent monograph on it.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The British Museum specimen.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--The specimen in the Museum für Naturkunde,
Berlin. After a photograph taken from a cast.]

_Archaeopteryx_ was a bird, without any doubt, but still with so many
low, essentially reptilian characters that it forms a link between these
two classes. About the size of a rook, its most obvious peculiarity is
the long reptilian tail, composed of 20 vertebrae and not ending in a
pygostyle. The last dozen vertebrae each carry a pair of well-developed
typical quills. Upon these features of the tail E. Haeckel established
the subclass Saururae, containing solely Archaeopteryx, in opposition to
the Ornithurae, comprising all the other birds. Herein he has been
followed by many zoologists. However, the fact that various recent birds
possess the same kind of caudal skeleton, likewise without a pygostyle,
although reduced to at least 13 vertebrae, shows that the two terms do
not express a fundamental difference.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Tail of British Museum specimen.]

The importance of _Archaeopteryx_ justifies the following descriptive
detail. Vertebral column composed of about 50 vertebrae, viz. 10-11
cervical, 12-11 thoracic, 2 lumbar, 5-6 sacral, and 20 or 21 caudal,
with a total caudal length of the Berlin specimen of 7 in. The cervical
and thoracic vertebrae seem to be biconcave; the cervical ribs are much
reduced and were apparently still movable; the thoracic ribs are devoid
of uncinate processes. Paired abdominal ribs are doubtful. Scarcely
anything is known of the sternum, and little of the shoulder-girdle,
except the very stout furcula; scapula typically bird-like. Humerus
about 2½ in. long, with a strong crista lateralis, which indicates a
strongly developed great pectoral muscle and hence, by inference, the
presence of a keel to the sternum. Radius and ulna typically avine, 2.1
in. in length. Carpus with two separate bones. The hand skeleton
consists of 3 completely separate metacarpals, each carrying a complete,
likewise free, finger; the shortened thumb with 2, the index with 3, the
third with 4 phalanges; each finger with a curved claw. The whole wing
is consequently, although essentially avine, still reptilian in the
unfused state of the metacarpals and the numbers of the phalanges. The
pelvis is imperfectly known. The preacetabular portion of the ilium is
shorter than the posterior half. The hind-limb is typically avine, with
intertarsal joint, distally reduced fibula, and the three elongated
metatarsals which show already considerable anchylosis; reduction of the
toes to four, with 2, 3, 4 and 5 phalanges; the hallux is separate, and
as usual in recent birds posterior in position. Skull bird-like, except
that the short bill cannot have been enclosed in a horny rhamphotheca,
since the upper jaw shows a row of 13, the lower jaw 3 conical teeth,
all implanted in distinct sockets.

The remiges and rectrices indicate perfect feathers, with shaft and
complete vanes which were so neatly finished that they must have
possessed typical radii and hooklets. Some of the quills measure fully 5
in. in length. Six or seven remiges were attached to the hand, ten to
the ulna.

It is idle to speculate on the habits of this earliest of known birds.
That it could fly is certain, and the feet show it to have been well
adapted to arboreal life. The clawed slender fingers did not make
_Archaeopteryx_ any more quadrupedal or bat-like in its habits than is a
kestrel hawk, with its equally large, or even larger thumb-claw.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--H. v. Meyer, _Neues Jahrb.f. Mineralog._ (1861), p.
  679; Sir R. Owen, "On the Archaeopteryx von Meyer ..." _Phil. Trans._,
  1863, pp. 33-47, pls. i.-iv.; T.H. Huxley, "Remarks on the Skeleton of
  the Archaeopteryx and on the relations of the bird to the reptile,"
  _Geol. Mag. i._, 1864, pp. 55-57; C. Vogt, "L'Archaeopteryx macrura,"
  _Revue scient. de la France et de l'étranger_, 1879, pp. 241-248; W.
  Dames, "Über Archaeopteryx," _Palaeontol. Abhandl._ ii. (Berlin,
  1884); _Idem_, "Über Brustbein Schulter- und Beckengürtel der
  Archaeopteryx," _Math. naturw. Mitth._ Berlin. vii. (1897), pp.
  476-492.     (H. F. G.)



ARCHAISM (adj. "archaic"; from Gr. [Greek: harchaios], old), an
old-fashioned usage, or the deliberate employment of an out-of-date and
ancient mode of expression.



ARCHANGEL (ARCHANGELSK), a government of European Russia, bounded N. by
the White Sea and Arctic Ocean, W. by Finland and Olonets, S. by
Vologda, and E. by the Ural mountains. It comprehends the islands of
Novaya-Zemlya, Vaygach and Kolguev, and the peninsula of Kola. Its area
is 331,505 sq. m., and its population in 1867 was 275,779 and in 1897,
349,943. The part which lies within the Arctic Circle is very desolate
and sterile, consisting chiefly of sand and reindeer moss. The winter is
long and severe, and even in summer the soil is frozen. The rivers
(Tuloma, Onega, Dvina, Mezen and Pechora) are closed in September and
scarcely thaw before July. The Kola peninsula is, however, diversified
by hills exceeding 3000 ft. in altitude and by large lakes (e.g.
Imandra), and its coast enjoys a much more genial climate. South of the
Arctic Circle the greater part of the country is covered with forests,
intermingled with lakes and morasses, though in places there is
excellent pasturage. Here the spring is moist, with cold, frosty nights;
the summer a succession of long foggy days; the autumn again moist. The
rivers are closed from October to April. The inhabitants of the northern
districts--nomad tribes of Samoyedes, Zyryans, Lapps, and the Finnish
tribes of Karelians and Chudes--support themselves by fishing and
hunting. In the southern districts hemp and flax are raised, but grain
crops are little cultivated, so that the bark of trees has often to be
ground up to eke out the scanty supply of flour. Potatoes are grown as
far north as 65°. Shipbuilding is carried on, and the forests yield
timber, pitch and tar. Excellent cattle are raised in the district of
Kholmogory on the Dvina, veal being supplied to St Petersburg. Gold is
found in the districts of Kola, naphtha and salt in those of Kem and
Pinega, and lignite in Mezen. Sulphurous springs exist in the districts
of Kholmogory and Shenkursk. The industry and commerce are noticed below
in the article on the town Archangel, which is the capital. The
government is divided into nine districts, the chief towns of which
are--Alexandrovsk or Kola (pop. 300), Archangel (q.v.), Kem (1825),
Kholmogory (1465), Mezen (2040), Novaya-Zemlya (island), Pechora, Pinega
(1000) and Shenkursk (1308).

  See A.P. Engelhardt, _A Russian Province of the North_ (Eng. trans.,
  by H. Cooke, 1899).



ARCHANGEL (ARCHANGELSK), chief town of the government of Archangel,
Russia, at the head of the delta of the Dvina, on the right bank of the
river, in lat. 64° 32' N. and long. 40° 33' E. Pop. (1867) 19,936;
(1897) 20,933. As early as the 10th century, if not earlier, the
Norsemen frequented this part of the world (Bjarmeland) on trading
expeditions; the best-known is that made by Ottar or Othere between 880
and 900 and described (or translated) by Alfred the Great, king of
England. The modern town dates, however, from the visit of the English
voyager, Richard Chancellor, in 1553. An English factory was erected on
the lower Dvina soon after that date, and in 1584 a fort was built,
around which the town grew up. Archangel was for long the only seaport
of Russia (or Muscovy). The tsar Boris Godunov (1598-1605) threw the
trade open to all nations; and the chief participants in it were
England, Holland and Germany. In 1668-1684 the great bazaar and trading
hall was built, principally by Tatar prisoners. In 1691-1700 the exports
to England averaged £112,210 annually. After Peter the Great made St
Petersburg the capital of his dominions (1702), he placed Archangel
under vexatious commercial disabilities, and consequently its trade
declined. In 1762 it was granted the same privileges as St Petersburg,
and since then it has gradually recovered its former prosperity. It is
the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral (1709-1743), a museum, the
monastery of the Archangel Michael (whence the city gets its name), an
ecclesiastical seminary, a school of navigation and a naval hospital.
Linen, leather, canvas, cordage, mats, tallow, potash and beer are
manufactured. There is a lively trade with St Petersburg, and the
sea-borne exports, which consist chiefly of timber, flax, linseed, oats,
flour, pitch, tar, skins and mats, amount in value to about 1½ millions
sterling annually (82½ % for timber), but the imports (mostly fish) are
worth only about £200,000. A fish fair is held every year on the 1st
(15th) of September. Archangel communicates with the interior of Russia
by river and canal, and has a railway line (522 m.) to Yaroslavl. The
harbour, deepened to 18¼ ft., is about a mile below the city, and is
accessible from May to October. About 12 m. lower down there are a
government dockyard and merchants' warehouses. A new military harbour,
Alexandrovsk or Port Catherine, has been made on Catherine
(Ekaterininsk) Bay, on the Murman coast of the Kola peninsula. The
shortest day at Archangel has only 3 hrs. 12 min., the longest 21 hrs.
48 min. of daylight.



ARCHBALD, a borough of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., in the
N.E. part of the state, 10 m. N.E. of Scranton. Pop. (1890) 4032; (1900)
5396; (1869 foreign-born); (1910) 7194. It is served by the Delaware &
Hudson, and the New York, Ontario & Western railways, and by an
interurban electric line. It is about 900 ft. above sea-level; in the
vicinity are extensive deposits of anthracite coal, the mining and
breaking of which is the principal industry; silk throwing and weaving
is another industry of the borough. At Archbald is a large glacial "pot
hole," about 20 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. in depth. Archbald, named in
honour of James Archbald, formerly chief engineer of the Delaware &
Hudson railway, was a part of Blakely township (incorporated in 1818)
until 1877, when it became a borough.



ARCHBISHOP (Lat. _archiepiscopus_, from Gr. [Greek: harchiepiskopos]),
in the Christian Church, the title of a bishop of superior rank,
implying usually jurisdiction over other bishops, but no superiority of
order over them. The functions of the archbishop, as at present
exercised, developed out of those of the metropolitan (q.v.); though the
title of archbishop, when it first appeared, implied no metropolitan
jurisdiction. Nor are the terms interchangeable now; for not all
metropolitans are archbishops,[1] nor all archbishops metropolitans. The
title seems to have been introduced first in the East, in the 4th
century, as an honorary distinction implying no superiority of
jurisdiction. Its first recorded use is by Athanasius, bishop of
Alexandria, who applied it to his predecessor Alexander as a mark of
respect. In the same way Gregory of Nazianzus bestowed it upon
Athanasius himself. In the next century its use would seem to have been
more common as the title of bishops of important sees; for several
archbishops are stated to have been present at the council of Chalcedon
in 451. In the Western Church the title was hardly known before the 7th
century, and did not become common until the Carolingian emperors
revived the right of the metropolitans to summon provincial synods. The
metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their
pre-eminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation
imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive the
_pallium_ (q.v.) from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim
to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.

At the present day, the title of archbishop is retained in the Roman
Catholic Church, the various oriental churches, the Anglican Church, and
certain branches of the Lutheran (Evangelical) Church.


  Roman Catholic Church.

In the Roman Catholic Church the powers of the archbishop are
considerably less extensive than they were in the middle ages. According
to the medieval canon law, based on the decretals, and codified in the
13th century in the _Corpus juris canonici_, by which the earlier powers
of metropolitans had been greatly curtailed, the powers of the
archbishop consisted in the right (1) to confirm and consecrate
suffragan bishops; (2) to summon and preside over provincial synods; (3)
to superintend the suffragans and visit their dioceses, as well as to
censure and punish bishops in the interests of discipline, the right of
deprivation, however, being reserved to the pope; (4) to act as a court
of appeal from the diocesan courts; (5) to exercise the _jus
devolutionis_, i.e. present to benefices in the gift of bishops, if
these neglect their duty in this respect. These rights were greatly
curtailed by the council of Trent. The confirmation and consecration of
bishops (q.v.) is now reserved to the Holy See. The summoning of
provincial synods, which was made obligatory every three years by the
council, was long neglected, but is now more common wherever the
political conditions, e.g. in the United States, Great Britain and
France, are favourable. The disciplinary powers of the archbishop, on
the other hand, can scarcely be said to survive. The right to hold a
visitation of a suffragan's diocese or to issue censures against him
was, by Sess. xxiv. c. 3 _de ref._, of the council of Trent, made
dependent upon the consent of the provincial synod after cause shown
(_causa cognita et probata_); and the only two powers left to the
archbishop in this respect are to watch over the diocesan seminaries and
to compel the residence of the bishop in his diocese. The right of the
archbishop to exercise a certain disciplinary power over the regular
orders is possessed by him, not as archbishop, but as the delegate _ad
hoc_ of the pope. Finally, the function of the archbishop as judge in a
court of appeal, though it still subsists, is of little practical
importance now that the clergy, in civil matters, are universally
subject to the secular courts.

Besides archbishops who are metropolitans there are in the Roman
Catholic Church others who have no metropolitan jurisdiction. Such are
the titular archbishops _in partibus_, and certain archbishops of
Italian sees who have no bishops under them. Archbishops rank
immediately after patriarchs and have the same precedence as primates.
The right to wear the _pallium_ is confined to those archbishops who are
not merely titular. It must be applied for, either in person or by
proxy, at Rome by the archbishop within three months of his consecration
or enthronement, and, before receiving it, he must take the oaths of
fidelity and obedience to the Holy See. Until the _pallium_ is granted,
the archbishop is known only as archbishop-elect, and is not empowered
to exercise his _potestas ordinis_ in the archdiocese nor to summon the
provincial synod and exercise the jurisdiction dependent upon this. He
may, however, exercise his purely _episcopal_ functions. The special
ensign of his office is the cross, _crux erecta_ or _gestatoria_,
carried before him on solemn occasions (see CROSS).


  Eastern Church.

In the Orthodox and other churches of the East the title of archbishop
is of far more common occurrence than in the West, and is less
consistently associated with metropolitan functions. Thus in Greece
there are eleven archbishops to thirteen bishops, the archbishop of
Athens alone being metropolitan; in Cyprus, where there are four bishops
and only one archbishop, all five are of metropolitan rank.


  Lutheran church.

In the Protestant churches of continental Europe the title of archbishop
has fallen into almost complete disuse. It is, however, still borne by
the Lutheran bishop of Upsala, who is metropolitan of Sweden, and by the
Lutheran bishop of Åbo in Finland. In Prussia the title has occasionally
been bestowed by the king on general superintendents of the Lutheran
church, as in 1829, when Frederick William III. gave it to his friend
and spiritual adviser, the celebrated preacher, Ludwig Ernst Borowski
(1740-1831), general superintendent of Prussia (1812) and bishop (1816).


  Church of England.

In the Church of England and its sister and daughter churches the
position of the archbishop is defined by the medieval canon law as
confirmed or modified by statute since the Reformation. It is,
therefore, as regards both the _potestas ordinis_ and jurisdiction,
substantially the same as in the Roman Catholic Church, save as modified
on the one hand by the substitution of the supremacy of the crown for
that of the Holy See, and on the other by the restrictions imposed by
the council of Trent.

The ecclesiastical government of the Church of England is divided
between two archbishops--the archbishop of Canterbury, who is "primate
of all England" and metropolitan of the province of Canterbury, and the
archbishop of York, who is "primate of England" and metropolitan of the
province of York. The jurisdiction of the archbishop of Canterbury as
primate of all England extends in certain matters into the province of
York. He exercised the jurisdiction of _legatus natus_ of the pope
throughout all England before the Reformation, and since that event he
has been empowered, by 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21, to exercise certain powers
of dispensation in cases formerly sued for in the court of Rome. Under
this statute the archbishop continues to grant special licences to
marry, which are valid in both provinces; he appoints notaries public,
who may practise in both provinces; and he grants dispensations to
clerks to hold more than one benefice, subject to certain restrictions
which have been imposed by later statutes. The archbishop also continues
to grant degrees in the faculties of theology, music and law, which are
known as Lambeth degrees. His power to grant degrees in medicine,
qualifying the recipients to practise, was practically restrained by the
Medical Act 1858.

The archbishop of Canterbury exercises the twofold jurisdiction of a
metropolitan and a diocesan bishop. As metropolitan he is the guardian
of the spiritualities of every vacant see within the province, he
presents to all benefices which fall vacant during the vacancy of the
see, and through his special commissary exercises the ordinary
jurisdiction of a bishop within the vacant diocese. He exercises also an
appellate jurisdiction over each bishop, which, in cases of licensed
curates, he exercises personally under the Pluralities Act 1838; but his
ordinary appellate jurisdiction is exercised by the judge of the Arches
court (see ARCHES, COURT OF). The archbishop had formerly exclusive
jurisdiction in all causes of wills and intestacies, where parties died
having personal property in more than one diocese of the province of
Canterbury, and he had concurrent jurisdiction in other cases. This
jurisdiction, which he exercised through the judge of the Prerogative
court, was transferred to the crown by the Court of Probate Act 1857.
The Arches court was also the court of appeal from the consistory courts
of the bishops of the province in all testamentary and matrimonial
causes. The matrimonial jurisdiction was transferred to the crown by the
Matrimonial Causes Act 1857. The court of Audience, in which the
archbishop presided personally, attended by his vicar-general, and
sometimes by episcopal assessors, has fallen into desuetude. The
vicar-general, however, exercises jurisdiction in matters of ordinary
marriage licences and of institutions to benefices. The master of the
faculties regulates the appointment of notaries public, and all
dispensations which fall under 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21.

A right very rarely exercised by the archbishop of Canterbury, but one
of great importance, is that of the visitation and deprivation of
inferior bishops. Since there is no example of the archbishop of York
exercising or being reputed to have such disciplinary jurisdiction over
his suffragans,[2] and this right could, according to the canon law
cited above, in the middle ages only be exercised normally in concert
with the provincial synod, it would seem to be a survival of the special
jurisdiction enjoyed by the pre-Reformation archbishop as _legatus
natus_ of the pope. It was somewhat freely exercised by Cranmer and his
successors immediately after the Reformation; but the main precedent now
relied upon is that of Dr Watson, bishop of St Davids, who was deprived
in 1695 by Archbishop Tennison for simony and other offences, the
legality of the sentence being finally confirmed by the House of Lords
on the 25th of January 1705. It was proved in the course of the long
argument in this case that the archbishop of Canterbury had undoubtedly
exercised such independent power of visitation both before and after the
Reformation; and it was on this precedent that in 1888 the judicial
committee of the privy council mainly relied in deciding that the
archbishop had the right to cite before him the bishop of Lincoln (Dr
Edward King), who was accused of certain irregular ritual practices. The
trial began on the 12th of February 1889 before the archbishop and
certain assessors, the protest of Dr King, based on the claim that he
could only be tried in a provincial synod, being overruled by Archbishop
Benson on the grounds above stated. The main importance of the "Lincoln
Judgment," delivered on the 21st of November 1890, is that it set a new
precedent for the effective jurisdiction of the archbishop, based on the
ancient canon law, and so did something towards the establishment of a
purely "spiritual" court, the absence of which had been one of the main
grievances of a large body of the clergy.

It is the privilege of the archbishop of Canterbury to crown the kings
and queens of England. He is entitled to consecrate all the bishops
within his province and was formerly entitled, upon consecrating a
bishop, to select a benefice within his diocese at his option for one of
his chaplains, but this practice was indirectly abolished by 3 and 4
Vict. c. III, § 42. He is entitled to nominate eight chaplains, who had
formerly certain statutory privileges, which are now abolished. He is
_ex officio_ an ecclesiastical commissioner for England, and has by
statute the right of nominating one of the salaried ecclesiastical
commissioners.

The archbishop exercises the ordinary jurisdiction of a bishop over his
diocese through his consistory court at Canterbury, the judge of which
court is styled the commissary-general of the city and diocese of
Canterbury. The archbishop holds a visitation of his diocese personally
every three years, and he is the only diocesan who has kept up the
triennial visitation of the dean and chapter of his cathedral.[3] The
archbishop of Canterbury takes precedence immediately after princes of
the blood royal and over every peer of parliament, including the lord
chancellor.

The archbishop of York has immediate spiritual jurisdiction as
metropolitan in the case of all vacant sees within the province of York,
analogous to that which is exercised by the archbishop of Canterbury
within the province of Canterbury. He has also an appellate jurisdiction
of an analogous character, which he exercises through his provincial
court, whilst his diocesan jurisdiction is exercised through his
consistorial court, the judges of both courts being nominated by the
archbishop. His ancient testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction was
transferred to the crown by the same statutes which divested the see of
Canterbury of its jurisdiction in similar matters. It is the privilege
of the archbishop of York to crown the queen consort and to be her
perpetual chaplain. The archbishop of York takes precedence over all
subjects of the crown not of royal blood, but after the lord high
chancellor of England. He is ex officio an ecclesiastical commissioner
for England (see further ENGLAND, CHURCH OF).

The Church of Ireland had at the time of the Act of Union four
archbishops, who took their titles from Armagh, Dublin, Cashel and Tuam.
By acts of 1833 and 1834, the metropolitans of Cashel and of Tuam were
reduced to the status of diocesan bishops. The two archbishoprics of
Armagh and Dublin are maintained in the disestablished Church of
Ireland.

The title archbishop has been used in certain of the colonial churches,
e.g. Australia, South Africa, Canada, and the West Indies, since 1893,
when it was assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land
(see ANGLICAN COMMUNION). Archbishops have the title of His (or Your)
Grace and Most Reverend Father in God.

  See Hinschius, _System des katholischen Kirchenrechts_ (Berlin, 1869),
  also article "Erzbischof," in Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_ (1898);
  Phillimore, _The Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England_, and
  authorities there cited.     (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In the Roman Church it is safe to say that all metropolitans are
    archbishops. In, e.g., the Scottish and American episcopal churches,
    however, the metropolitan is the senior bishop _pro tem._

  [2] Unless the case of the claim of Mark, bishop of Carlisle, to be
    tried by his ordinary instead of by a temporal court, be a precedent
    (Phillimore, _Eccles. Law_, p. 74, ed. 1895).

  [3] The court of Peculiars is no longer held, inasmuch as the
    peculiars have been placed by acts of parliament under the ordinary
    jurisdiction of the bishops of the respective dioceses in which they
    are situated.



ARCHCHANCELLOR (Lat. _Archicancellarius_; Ger. _Erzkanzler_), or chief
chancellor, a title given to the highest dignitary of the Holy Roman
Empire, and also used occasionally during the middle ages to denote an
official who supervised the work of chancellors or notaries.

In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, _De ordine
palatii et regni_, speaks of a _summus cancellarius_, evidently an
official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings. A charter
of the emperor Lothair I. dated 844 refers to Agilmar, archbishop of
Vienne, as archchancellor, and there are several other references to
archchancellors in various chronicles. This office existed in the German
kingdom of Otto the Great, and about this time it appears to have become
an appanage of the archbishopric of Mainz. When the Empire was restored
by Otto in 962, a separate chancery seems to have been organized for
Italian affairs, and early in the 11th century the office of
archchancellor for the kingdom of Italy was in the hands of the
archbishop of Cologne. The theory was that all the imperial business in
Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the
elector of Cologne. However, the duties of archchancellor for Italy were
generally discharged by deputy, and after the virtual separation of
Italy and Germany, the title alone was retained by the elector. When the
kingdom of Burgundy or Arles was acquired by the emperor Conrad II. in
1032 it is possible that a separate chancery was established for this
kingdom. However this may be, during the 12th century the elector of
Trier took the title of archchancellor for the kingdom of Arles,
although it is doubtful if he ever performed any duties in connexion
with this office. This threefold division of the office of imperial
archchancellor was acknowledged in 1356 by the Golden Bull of the
emperor Charles IV., but the duties of the office were performed by the
elector of Mainz. The office in this form was part of the constitution
of the Empire until 1803 when the archbishopric of Mainz was
secularized. The last elector, Karl Theodor von Dalberg, however,
retained the title of archchancellor until the dissolution of the Empire
in 1806. H. Reincke in _Der alte Reichstag und der neue Bundesrat_
(Tübingen, 1906) points out a marked resemblance between the medieval
archchancellor and the German imperial chancellor of the present day.

  See du Cange, _Glossarium_, s. "Archicancellarius"; and CHANCELLOR.



ARCHDEACON (Lat. _archidiaconus_, Gr. [Greek: archidiakonos]), a high
official of the Christian Church. The office of archdeacon is of great
antiquity. So early as the 4th century it is mentioned as an established
office, and it is probable that it was in existence in the 3rd.
Originally the archdeacon was, as the name implies, the chief of the
deacons attached to the bishop's cathedral, his duty being, besides
preaching, to supervise the deacons and their work, i.e. more especially
the care of the sick and the arrangement of the externals of divine
worship. Even thus early their close relation to the bishop and their
employment in matters of episcopal administration gave them, though only
in deacons' orders, great importance, which continually developed. In
the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with
the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they
attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as
their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during
a vacancy. In the West, in the 6th and 7th centuries, besides the
original functions of their office, archdeacons had certain well-defined
rights of visitation and supervision, being responsible for the good
order of the lower clergy, the upkeep of ecclesiastical buildings and
the safe-guarding of the church furniture--functions which involved a
considerable disciplinary power. During the 8th and 9th centuries the
office tended to become more and more exclusively purely administrative,
the archdeacon by his visitations relieving the bishop of the minutiae
of government and keeping him informed in detail of the condition of his
diocese. The archdeacon had thus become, on the one hand, the _oculus
episcopi_, but on the other hand, armed as he was with powers of
imposing penance and, in case of stubborn disobedience, of
excommunicating offenders, his power tended more and more to grow at the
bishop's expense. This process received a great impulse from the
erection in the 11th and 12th centuries of defined territorial
jurisdictions for the archdeacons, who had hitherto been itinerant
representatives of the central power of the diocese. The dioceses were
now mapped out into several archdeaconries (_archidiaconatus_), which
corresponded with the political divisions of the countries; and these
defined spheres, in accordance with the prevailing feudal tendencies of
the age, gradually came to be regarded as independent centres of
jurisdiction.[1] The bishops, now increasingly absorbed in secular
affairs, were content with a somewhat theoretical power of control,
while the archdeacons rigorously asserted an independent position which
implied great power and possibilities of wealth. The custom, moreover,
had grown up of bestowing the coveted office of archdeacon on the
provosts, deans and canons of the cathedral churches, and the
archdeacons were thus involved in the struggle of the chapters against
the episcopal authority. By the 12th century the archdeacon had become
practically independent of the bishop, whose consent was only required
in certain specified cases.

The power of the archdeacon reached its zenith at the outset of the 13th
century. Innocent III. describes him as _judex ordinarius_, and he
possesses in his own right the powers of visitation, of holding courts
and imposing penalties, of deciding in matrimonial causes and cases of
disputed jurisdiction, of testing candidates for orders, of inducting
into benefices. He has the right to certain procurations, and to appoint
and depose archpriests and rural deans. And these powers he may exercise
through delegated _officiales_. His jurisdiction has become, in fact,
not subordinate to, but co-ordinate with that of the bishop. Yet, so far
as orders were concerned, he remained a deacon; and if archdeacons were
often priests, this was because priests who were members of chapters
were appointed to the office.

From the 13th century onward a reaction set in. The power of the
archdeacons rested upon custom and prescription, not upon the canon law;
and though the bishops could not break, they could circumvent it. This
they did by appointing new officials to exercise in their name the
rights still reserved to them, or to which they laid claim. These were
the _officiales:_ the _officiales foranei_, whose jurisdiction was
parallel with that of the archdeacons, and the _officiales principales_
and vicars-general, who presided over the courts of appeal. The clergy
having thus another authority, and one moreover more canonical, to
appeal to, the power of the archdeacons gradually declined; and, so far
as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, it received its death-blow
from the council of Trent (1564), which withdrew all matrimonial and
criminal causes from the competence of the archdeacons, forbade them to
pronounce excommunications, and allowed them only to hold visitations in
connexion with those of the bishop and with his consent. These decrees
were not, indeed, at once universally enforced; but the convulsions of
the Revolutionary epoch and the religious reorganization that followed
completed the work. In the Roman Church to-day the office of archdeacon
is merely titular, his sole function being to present the candidates for
ordination to the bishop. The title, indeed, hardly exists save in
Italy, where the archdeacon is no more than a dignified member of a
chapter, who takes rank after the bishop. The ancient functions of the
archdeacon are exercised by the vicar-general. In the Lutheran church
the title _Archidiakonus_ is given in some places to the senior
assistant pastor of a church.

In the Church of England, on the other hand, the office of archdeacon,
which was first introduced at the Norman conquest, survives, with many
of its ancient duties and prerogatives. Since 1836 there have been at
least two archdeaconries in each diocese, and in some dioceses there are
four archdeacons. The archdeacons are appointed by their respective
bishops, and they are, by an act of 1840, required to have been six full
years in priest's orders. The functions of the archdeacon are in the
present day ancillary in a general way to those of the bishop of the
diocese. It is his especial duty to inspect the churches within his
archdeaconry, to see that the fabrics are kept in repair, and to hold
annual visitations of the clergy and churchwardens of each parish, for
the purpose of ascertaining that the clergy are in residence, of
admitting the newly elected churchwardens into office, and of receiving
the presentments of the outgoing churchwardens. It is his privilege to
present all candidates for ordination to the bishop of the diocese. It
is his duty also to induct the clergy of his archdeaconry into the
temporalities of their benefices after they have been instituted into
the spiritualities by the bishop or his vicar-general. Every archdeacon
is entitled to appoint an official to preside over his archidiaconal
court, from which there is an appeal to the consistory court of the
bishop. The archdeacons are _ex officio_ members of the convocations of
their respective provinces.

It is the privilege of the archdeacon of Canterbury to induct the
archbishop and all the bishops of the province of Canterbury into their
respective bishoprics, and this he does in the case of a bishop under a
mandate from the archbishop of Canterbury, directing him to induct the
bishop into the real, actual, and corporal possession of the bishopric,
and to install and to enthrone him; and in the case of the archbishop,
under an analogous mandate from the dean and chapter of Canterbury, as
being guardians of the spiritualities during the vacancy of the
archiepiscopal see. In the colonies there are two or more archdeacons in
each diocese, and their functions correspond to those of English
archdeacons. In the Episcopal church of America the office of archdeacon
exists in only one or two dioceses.

  See Hinschius, _Kirchenrecht_, ii., §§ 86. 87; Schröder, _Die
  Entwicklung des Archdiakonats bis zum 11. Jahrhundert_ (Munich, 1890);
  Wetzer and Welte, _Kirchenlexikon_ (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1882-1901);
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_ (ed. 1896); Phillimore,
  _Ecclesiastical Law_, part ii. chap. v. (London, 1895).     (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Archdeaconries were, indeed, sometimes treated as ordinary fiefs
    and were held as such by laymen. Thus Ordericus Vitalis says that
    "(Fulk) granted to the monks the archdeaconry which he and his
    predecessors held in fee of the archbishop of Rouen" (_Hist. Eccl._
    iii. 12).



ARCHDUKE (Lat. _archidux_, Ger. _Erzherzog_,) a title peculiar now to
the Austrian royal family. According to Selden it denotes "an excellency
or pre-eminence only, not a superiority or power over other dukes, as in
archbishop it doth over other bishops." Yet in this latter sense it
would seem to have been assumed by Bruno of Saxony, archbishop of
Cologne, and duke of Lorraine (953-965), when he divided his duchy into
the dukedoms of Upper and Lower Lorraine. The designation was, however,
exceedingly rare during the middle ages. The title of archduke of
Lorraine ceased with the circumstances which had produced it. The later
dynasties of Brabant and Lorraine, when these fiefs became hereditary,
bore only the title of duke. The house of Habsburg, therefore, did not
acquire this title with the inheritance of the dukes of Lorraine. Nor
does it occur in any of the charters granted to the dukes of Austria by
the emperors; though in that creating the first duke of Austria the
_archiduces palatii, i.e._ the principal dukes of the court, are
mentioned. The "Archidux Austriae, seu Austriae inferioris" is spoken of
by Abbot Rudolph (d. 1138) in his chronicles of the abbey of St Trond
(_Gesta Abbatum Trudonensium_) but this is no more than a rhetorical
flourish, and the title of "archduke palatine" (Pfalz-Erzherzog) was, in
fact, assumed first by Duke Rudolph IV. (d. 1365), and was one of the
rights and privileges included in his famous forgery of the year 1358,
the _privilegium maius_, which purported to have been bestowed by the
emperor Frederick I. on the dukes of Austria in extension of the genuine
_privilegium minus_ of 1156, granted to the margrave Henry II. Rudolph
IV. used the title on his seals and charters till he was compelled to
desist by the emperor Charles IV. The title was also assumed for a time,
probably on the strength of the _privilegium maius_, by Duke Ernest of
Styria (d. 1424); but it did not legally belong to the house of
Habsburg until 1453, when Duke Ernest's son, the emperor Frederick III.
(Frederick V., duke of Styria and Carinthia, 1424-1493, of Austria,
1463-1493), confirmed the _privilegium maius_ and conferred the title of
archduke of Austria on his son Maximilian and his heirs. The title
archduke (or archduchess) is now borne by all members of the Austrian
imperial house.

  See John Selden, _Titles of Honor_ (1672); Antonius Matthaeus, _De
  nobilititate, de principibus, deducibus, &c., libriquatuor_ (Amsterdam
  and Leiden, 1696, lib. i. cap. 6); Pfeffel, _Abrégé chronologique de
  l'hist, el du droit public d'Allemagne_ (Paris, 1766); Brinckmeier,
  _Glossarium diplomaticum, &c._ (1850-1863, 2 vols.); J.F. Joachim,
  "Abhandlung von dem Titel 'Erzherzog,' welchen das Haus Oesterreich
  fuhrt." in _Prufende Gesellschaft zu Halle, 7_; F. Wachter, art.
  "Erzherzog," in _Allgem. Encykl. der Wissenschiften u. Kunste_ (1842,
  pub. by Ersch and Gruber); A. Huber, _Ueber die Entstehungszeit der
  oesterreichischen Freiheitsbriefe_ (Vienna, 1860); W. Erben, _Das
  Privilegium Friedrichs I. für das Herzogtum Österreich_ (Vienna,
  1902).



ARCHEAN SYSTEM (from [Greek: archae], beginning), in geology. Below the
lowest distinctly fossiliferous strata, that is, below those Cambrian
rocks which bear the _Olenellus_ fauna, there lies a great mass of
stratified, metamorphic and igneous rock, to which the non-committal
epithet "pre-Cambrian" is often applied; and indeed in not a few
instances this general term is sufficiently precise for the present
state of our knowledge. Nevertheless there are large tracts, both in the
Old World and in the New, in which a subdivision of this assemblage of
ancient rocks is not only possible but desirable. It is quite clear in
certain regions that there is a lowermost group with a prevailing
granitoid, gneissic and schistose facies, mainly of igneous origin,
above which there are one or several groups bearing a distinctly
sedimentary aspect. It is to this lowermost gneissic group that the term
"Archean" may be conveniently limited.

[Illustration: Distribution of Archean Rocks.]

Thus, while the name "pre-Cambrian" may be used to indicate all these
very old rocks whenever there is still any difficulty in subdividing
them further, it is an advantage to have a special appellation for the
oldest group where this can be distinguished.

It must be pointed out that the term "Archean" has been used as a
synonym for pre-Cambrian; and that the expressions _Azoic_ (from
[alpha]-, privative; [Greek: zoae], life), _Eozoic_ (from [Greek: aeos],
dawn), and _Fundamental Complex_, have been employed in somewhat the
same sense. _Archeozoic_ has been proposed by American writers to apply
to the lowest pre-Cambrian rocks with the same significance as "Archean"
in the restricted sense employed here; but it is perhaps safer to avoid
any reference to the supposed stage of life development where all direct
evidence is non-existent. The so-called "Azoic" rocks have already been
made to yield evidence of life, and there is no reason to presuppose the
impossibility of finding other records of still earlier organisms.

The prevailing rocks of the Archean system are igneous, with
metamorphosed varieties of the same; sedimentary rocks, distinctly
recognizable as such, are scarce, though highly metamorphosed rocks
supposed to be sediments, in some regions, take an important place.

There are several features which are peculiarly characteristic of the
Archean rocks:--(1) the extraordinary complexity of the assemblage of
igneous materials; (2) the extreme metamorphism and deformation which
nearly all the rocks have suffered; and (3) the inextricable
intermixture of igneous rocks with those for which a sedimentary origin
is postulated. Wherever the Archean rocks have been closely examined two
great groups of rocks are distinguishable, an older, schistose group and
a younger, granitoid and gneissic group. For many years the latter was
supposed to be the older, hence the epithets "primitive" or
"fundamental" were applied to it. Now, however, it has been shown, both
in Europe and in North America, that in certain regions a schistose
series is penetrated by a gneissose series and when this occurs the
schists must be the older. But bearing in mind the difficulties of
interpretation, it is not at all unreasonable to assume that there may
yet be regions where the gneissose rocks are the oldest; for where no
schistose series is present there may be no criterion for estimating the
age of the granites and gneisses. The exceedingly great difficulties
which lie in the way of every attempt to unravel the history of an
Archean rock-complex cannot be too forcibly emphasized; for to be able
to demonstrate the order of events and succession of rocks we should at
least know whether we are dealing with sediments, flows of volcanic
material, or intrusions, yet in many instances this cannot be done. In
some areas the gradual passage of highly foliated and metamorphosed
schists may be traced into comparatively unaltered arkoses, greywackes,
conglomerates; or into volcanic lava-flows, pyro-clastic rocks or dikes;
or again through a gneissose rock into a granite or a gabbro; but the
districts wherein these relationships have been thoroughly worked out
are very few.

This much may be said, that where the Archean system has been most
carefully studied, there appears to be (1) a schistose series, of itself
by no means simple but containing the foliated equivalents of
sedimentary and igneous rocks; into this series a gneissose group (2)
has been intruded in the form of batholites, great sheets and sills with
accompanying intrusional prolongations into the schists; subsequently,
into the gneisses and schists, after they had been further deformed,
sheared and foliated, another set (3) of dikes or thin sheet-like
intrusions penetrated. All this, namely, the formation of sediments, the
outpouring of volcanic rocks, their repeated deformation by powerful
dynamic agencies and then their penetration by dikes and sheets had been
completed and erosion had been at work upon the hardened and exposed
rocks, before the earliest pre-Cambrian sediment was deposited.

There has been much premature speculation as to the nature and origin of
these very ancient rocks. The prevalence of regular foliation with
layers of different mineral composition, producing a close resemblance
to bedding, has led some to imagine that the gneisses and schists were
themselves the product of the primeval oceans, a supposition that is no
longer worthy of further discussion. Others have supposed that the
gneisses were largely produced by the resorption and fusion of older
sediments in the molten interior of the earth; there is no evidence that
this has taken place upon an extended scale, though there is reason to
believe that something of this kind has happened in places, and there is
in the hypothesis nothing radically untenable. In one way the
sedimentary schists have undoubtedly been incorporated within the
gneissose mass, namely, by the extremely thorough and intimate
penetration of the former by the latter along planes of foliation; and
when a complex mass such as this has been further sheared and
metamorphosed, a uniform gneiss appears to result from the intermixture.

A not uncommon cause of the apparently bedded arrangement of layers of
different mineralogical composition may be traced to the original
differentiation of the granitoid magma into different mineral-sheets.
When these mineralogically different layers were forced into other
rocks, sometimes before the complete consolidation of the former and
sometimes subsequent to it, in the generally metamorphosed condition of
the whole, it is easy to see a superficial resemblance to bedding.

The Archean rocks have frequently been spoken of as the original crust
of the earth; but even granting a cooling molten globe with a
first-formed stony surface, it is tolerably clear that such a crust has
nowhere yet been found, nor is it ever likely to be discovered. The very
earliest recognizable sediments are the result of the destruction of
still earlier exposures of rock; the oldest known volcanic rocks were
poured upon a surface we can no longer distinguish, and as for the great
granitoid masses, they could only have been formed under the pressure of
superincumbent masses of material. The earliest known sediments must
have been deep in the zones of shearing and rock flowage before the
first pre-Cambrian denudation. The time required for these changes is
difficult to conceive.

As regards the life of the Archean, or, as some call it, the
"Archeozoic" period, we know nothing. The presence of carbonaceous shale
and graphitic schists as well as of the altered sedimentary iron ores
has been taken as indicative of vegetable life. Similarly, the
occurrence of limestones suggests the existence of organic activity, but
direct evidence is wanting. Much interest naturally attaches to this
remote period, and when Sir William E. Logan in 1854 found the
foraminifera-like _Eozoon Canadense_, high hopes of further discoveries
were entertained, but the inorganic nature of this structure has since
been clearly proved.

_Distribution._--It is generally assumed that the Archean rocks underlie
all the younger formations over the whole globe, and presumably this is
the only system that does so. Naturally, the area of its outcrop is
limited, for, directly or indirectly, all the younger rock groups must
rest upon it.

It has been estimated that Archean rocks appear at the surface over
one-fifth of the land area (omitting coverings of superficial drifts).
This estimate is no more than the roughest approximation, and is liable
at any time to revision as our knowledge of little-known regions is
increased. It must ever be borne in mind that the presence of a
gneissose or schistose complex does not in itself imply the Archean age
of such a set of rocks. Local manifestations of a similar petrological
facies may and do appear which are of vastly inferior geological age;
and unless there is unequivocal evidence that such rocks lie beneath the
oldest fossil-bearing strata, there can be no absolute certainty as to
their antiquity. It is more than likely that certain occurrences of
gneiss and schist, at present regarded as Archean, may prove on fuller
examination to be metamorphosed representatives of younger periods.

  _Britain._--The most important exposure of Archean rocks in Britain is
  in the north-west of Scotland, where they form the mainland in
  Sutherland and Ross-shire, and appear also in the outer Hebrides.
  Their great development in the isle of Lewis has given rise to the
  term "Lewisian" (Hebridean), by which the gneisses of this region are
  now generally known. The Lewisian series comprises two great groups of
  rocks, (1) the so-called "fundamental complex," an assemblage of acid,
  basic and intermediate irruptive rocks, associated together in a
  complex of extraordinary intricacy, and (2) a series of dikes, which
  like the rocks they traverse, show every gradation from ultra-basic to
  ultra-acid types. But the above bald statement conveys no idea of the
  complexity of the series, for before the "fundamental complex" had
  been pierced by the later dike system it had been subjected to severe
  dynamo-metamorphism and many of the massive rocks had been folded,
  thrust and sheared, and a very general state of foliation had been
  produced. Nor was this all, for after the intrusion of the dikes,
  great movements brought about vertical dislocations, and thrust
  planes, which traversed the rocks at all angles, accompanied by still
  further internal shearing and superinduced foliation.

  In the valley of Loch Maree and thence south-westward into Glenelg, a
  series of mica-schists, quartz-schists, saccharoid limestones and
  graphitic schists has been regarded as a group of sedimentary origin
  through which the Lewisian rocks have been irrupted.

  In England several small masses of gneiss, notably at Primrose Hill on
  the Wrekin, Shropshire, in the Malvern hills, and on the island of
  Anglesey in North Wales, are supposed to correspond with the Lewisian
  of Scotland.

  _North America._--In this continent there is a great development of
  Archean rocks in Canada. On the eastern side it covers nearly the
  whole of the Labrador peninsula, and extends into Baffin Bay and
  possibly over much of Greenland; a broad tract unites the great lake
  region with Labrador, and from the same region, by way of the
  Mackenzie valley, a similar tract extends in a north-westerly
  direction to the Arctic Ocean. This northern (Canadian) area of
  Archean includes portions of the states of Minnesota, Michigan,
  Wisconsin and the Adirondack region of New York. On the western side
  of the continent a series of disconnected exposures of Archean rocks
  runs downwards in a narrow belt from Alaska to New Mexico; and on the
  eastern side a similar belt reaches from Newfoundland to Alabama.

  Much attention is now being given to the more scattered exposures of
  Archean rocks, but the best-known area is the classical ground in the
  vicinity of Lake Superior and Lake Huron and in the Ottawa gneiss
  region of Canada. Some of the more important districts are the
  following:--

  Rainy Lake district, Canada: The Archean rocks here consist of altered
  diorites and diabases (the lower Keewatin series) and black hornblende
  schists (probably altered igneous rocks), with mica gneisses which are
  perhaps of sedimentary origin.

  The Mona and Kiticni schists; metamorphosed lava and tuffs, with
  serpentine and dolomite, probably derived from peridotites; there are
  also gneissic granites and syenites.

  In the Menominee region of Michigan and Wisconsin, the Quinnesec
  schist series mainly consist of schistose quartz porphyry with
  associated gneisses.

  In the Mesaba district of Minnesota the Archean consists of a complex
  of more or less foliated igneous rocks mostly basic in character.

  The Archean of the Vermilion district of Minnesota comprises the
  Soudan formation, an altered sedimentary series with banded cherts,
  jasper and magnetite schists; the iron ores are extensively mined. At
  the base is a conglomerate containing pebbles from the formation
  below, the Ely greenstone, which is made up of altered basalts and
  andesites, generally in a schistose condition, but occasionally
  exhibiting spherulitic structures. Into these two formations a series
  of granites have been intruded.

  _Europe._--In Scandinavia, as in Scotland, the pre-Cambrian is
  represented by an earlier and a later series of rocks of which the
  former (Grundfjeldet, Urberget) may be taken to be the equivalent of
  the Lewisian gneisses. This assemblage of coarse red and grey banded
  gneisses, with associated granulites and many varieties of acid, basic
  and intermediate rocks in a gneissose condition, is intimately related
  to a highly metamorphosed sedimentary series comprising limestones,
  quartzites and schists, which, as in Scotland, is apparently older
  than the gneisses. Similar rocks occur in Sweden and Finland.

  In Bavaria and Bohemia the Archean is divisible into a lower red
  gneiss, a comparatively simple series, called by C.W. von Gümbel the
  "gneiss of Bojan"; and an upper, grey gneiss with other schistose
  rocks, serpentine and graphitic limestone, termed by the same author
  the "Hercynian gneiss."

  In Brittany a gneissose and schistose igneous series lies at the base
  of the pre-Cambrian. The pre-Cambrian cores of the eastern and central
  Pyrenees, consisting of gneiss, schists and altered limestones, are
  presumably of Archean age.

  _Asia, Australia, &c._--In northern China, mica-gneisses and
  granite-gneisses with associated schists may be regarded as Archean.
  In India the system is represented by the Bundelkhand gneiss and the
  central older gneisses of the Himalayas. In Japan, in the Abukuma
  plateau, there is much granite, gneiss and schist which may be of this
  age. In Australia, similar rocks are recognized as Archean in South
  Australia and Westralia, and they are estimated to cover an area of no
  less than 20,000 sq. m.; in Tasmania they are well developed on the
  western side. Although a great area is occupied by crystalline rocks
  in New Zealand, the Archean age of any portion of the series is not
  yet satisfactorily established; the lower granites and gneisses may
  belong to this period. Africa contains enormous tracts of crystalline
  gneisses, granites and schists, and some of these are almost certainly
  of Archean age; but in the present state of our knowledge it is
  impossible to speak more exactly.

  REFERENCES.--A good general account of the Archean system will be
  found in Sir A. Geikie's _Text Book of Geology_, vol. ii., 4th ed.
  (1903), and in T.C. Chamberlin and R.D. Salisbury's _Geology_, vol.
  ii. (1906); these volumes contain references to all important
  literature.     (J. A. H.)



ARCHELAUS OF CAPPADOCIA (1st century B.C.), general of Mithradates the
Great in the war against Rome. In 87 B.C. he was sent to Greece with a
large army and fleet, and occupied the Peiraeus after three days'
fighting with Bruttius Sura, prefect of Macedonia, who in the previous
year had defeated Mithradates' fleet under Metrophanes and captured the
island of Sciathus. Here he was besieged by Sulla, compelled to withdraw
into Boeotia, and completely defeated at Chaeroneia (86). A fresh army
was sent by Mithradates, but Archelaus was again defeated at Orchomenus,
after a two days' battle (85). On the conclusion of peace, Archelaus,
finding that he had incurred the suspicion of Mithradates, deserted to
the Romans, by whom he was well received. Nothing further is known of
him.

  Appian, _Mithrid_. 30, 49, 56, 64; Plutarch, _Sulla_, 11, 16-19, 20,
  23; _Lucullus_, 8.

ARCHELAUS, king of Egypt, was his son. In 56 B.C. he married Berenice,
daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, queen of Egypt, but his reign only lasted
six months. He was defeated by Aulus Gabinius and slain (55).

  See Strabo xii. p. 558, xvii. p. 796; Dio Cassius xxxix. 57-58;
  Cicero, _Pro Rabirio_, 8; Hirtius (?), _Bell. Alex_. 66; also
  PTOLEMIES.

ARCHELAUS, king of Cappadocia, was grandson of the last named. In 41
B.C. (according to others, 34), he was made king of Cappadocia by Mark
Antony, whom, however, he deserted after the battle of Actium. Octavian
enlarged his kingdom by the addition of part of Cilicia and Lesser
Armenia. He was not popular with his subjects, who even brought an
accusation against him in Rome, on which occasion he was defended by
Tiberius. Subsequently he was accused by Tiberius, when emperor, of
endeavouring to stir up a revolution, and died in confinement at Rome
(A.D. 17). Cappadocia was then made a Roman province. Archelaus was said
to have been the author of a geographical work, and to have written
treatises _On Stones_ and _Rivers_.

  Strabo xii. p. 540; Suetonius, _Tiberius_, 37, _Caligula_, 1; Dio
  Cassius xlix. 32-51; Tacitus, _Ann_. ii. 42.



ARCHELAUS, king of Judaea, was the son of Herod the Great. He received
the kingdom of Judaea by the last will of his father, though a previous
will had bequeathed it to his brother Antipas. He was proclaimed king by
the army, but declined to assume the title until he had submitted his
claims to Augustus at Rome. Before setting out, he quelled with the
utmost cruelty a sedition of the Pharisees, slaying nearly 3000 of them.
At Rome he was opposed by Antipas and by many of the Jews, who feared
his cruelty; but Augustus allotted to him the greater part of the
kingdom (Judaea, Samaria, Ituraea) with the title of ethnarch. He
married Glaphyra, the widow of his brother Alexander, though his wife
and her second husband, Juba, king of Mauretania, were alive. This
violation of the Mosaic law and his continued cruelty roused the Jews,
who complained to Augustus. Archelaus was deposed (A.D. 7) and banished
to Vienne. The date of his death is unknown.

Archelaus is mentioned in Matt. ii. 22, and the parable of Luke xix. 11
f. probably refers to his journey to Rome.

  See Schürer, _Gesch. des jüdischen Volkes_, i. 449-453.
       (J. H. A. H.)



ARCHELAUS, king of Macedonia (413-399 B.C.), was the son of Perdiccas
and a slave mother. He obtained the throne by murdering his uncle, his
cousin and his half-brother, the legitimate heir, but proved a capable
and beneficent ruler. He fortified cities, constructed roads and
organized the army. He endeavoured to spread among his people the
refinements of Greek civilization, and invited to his court, which he
removed from Aegae to Pella, many celebrated men, amongst them Zeuxis,
Timotheus, Euripides and Agathon. In 399 he was killed by one of his
favourites while hunting; according to another account he was the victim
of a conspiracy.

  Diodorus Siculus xiii. 49, xiv. 37; Thucydides ii. 100. See MACEDONIA.



ARCHELAUS OF MILETUS, Greek philosopher of the 5th century B.C., was
born probably at Athens, though Diogenes Laërtius (ii. 16) says at
Miletus. He was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and is said by Ion of Chios
(_ap_. Diog. Laërt. ii. 23) to have been the teacher of Socrates. Some
argue that this is probably only an attempt to connect Socrates with the
Ionian school; others (e.g. Gomperz, _Greek Thinkers_) uphold the story.
There is similar difference of opinion as regards the statement that
Archelaus formulated certain ethical doctrines. In general, he followed
Anaxagoras, but in his cosmology he went back to the earlier Ionians. He
postulated primitive Matter, identical with air and mingled with Mind,
thus avoiding the dualism of Anaxagoras. Out of this conscious "air," by
a process of thickening and thinning, arose cold and warmth, or water
and fire, the one passive, the other active. The earth and the heavenly
bodies are formed from mud, the product of fire and water, from which
springs also man, at first in his lower forms. Man differs from animals
by the possession of the moral and artistic faculty. No fragments of
Archelaus remain; his doctrines have to be extracted from Diogenes
Laërtius, Simplicius, Plutarch and Hippolytus.

  See IONIAN SCHOOL; for his ethical theories see T. Gomperz, _Greek
  Thinkers_ (Eng. trans., 1901), vol. i. p. 402.



ARCHENHOLZ, JOHANN WILHELM VON (1743-1812), German historian, was born
at Langfuhr, a suburb of Danzig, on the 3rd of September 1743. From the
Berlin Cadet school he passed into the Prussian army at the age of
sixteen, and took part in the last campaigns of the Seven Years' War.
Retiring from military service, on account of his wounds, with the rank
of captain in 1763, he travelled for sixteen years and visited nearly
all the countries of Europe, and resided in England for ten years
(1769-1779). Returning to Germany in 1780, he obtained a lay canonry at
the cathedral of Magdeburg, and immediately entered upon a literary
career by publishing the periodical _Litteratur- und Völkerkunde_
(Leipzig, 1782-1791). This was followed in 1785 by _England und Italien_
(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1787), in which he gives a remarkably unprejudiced
appreciation of English political and social institutions. Between 1789
and 1798 he published his _Annalen der britischen Geschichte_ (20 vols).
But the work by which he is best known to fame is his brilliantly
written history of the Seven Years' War, _Geschichte des siebenjährigen
Krieges_ (first published in the _Berliner historisches Taschenbuch_ of
1787, and later in 2 vols., Berlin, 1793; 13th ed., Leipzig, 1892). This
work, though as regards the main facts and details it only follows other
writers, is still a useful source of information upon the epoch with
which it deals. In 1792 Archenholz removed to Hamburg, and there, from
1792 to 1812, edited the journal _Minerva_, which had a great reputation
for its literary, historical and political information. Archenholz died
at his country seat, Oyendorf, near Hamburg, on the 28th of February
1812.



ARCHER, WILLIAM (1856-   ), English critic, was born at Perth on the
23rd of September 1856, and was educated at Edinburgh University. He
became a leader-writer on the _Edinburgh Evening News_ in 1875, and
after a year in Australia returned to Edinburgh. In 1879 he became
dramatic critic of the _London Figaro_, and in 1884 of the _World_. In
London he soon took a prominent literary place. Mr Archer had much to do
with introducing Ibsen to the English public by his translation of _The
Pillars of Society_, produced at the Gaiety Theatre, London, in 1880. He
also translated, alone or in collaboration, other productions of the
Scandinavian stage: Ibsen's _Doll's House_ (1889), _Master Builder_
(1893); Edvard Brandes's _A Visit_ (1892); Ibsen's _Peer Gynt_ (1892);
_Little Eyolf_ (1895); and _John Gabriel Borkman_ (1897); and he edited
_Henrik Ibsen's Prose Dramas_ (5 vols., 1890-1891). Among his critical
works are:--_English Dramatists of To-day_ (1882); _Masks or Faces?_
(1888); five vols. of critical notices reprinted, _The Theatrical World_
(1893-1897); _America To-day, Observations and Reflections_; _Poets of
the Younger Generation_ (1901); _Real Conversations_ (1904).



ARCHERMUS, a Chian sculptor of the middle of the 6th century B.C. His
father Micciades, and his sons, Bupalus and Athenis, were all sculptors
of marble, using doubtless the fine marble of their native land. The
school excelled in draped female figures. Archermus is said by a
scholiast (on Aristophanes' _Birds_, v. 573) to have been the first to
represent Victory and Love with wings. This statement gives especial
interest to a discovery made at Delos of a basis signed by Micciades and
Archermus which was connected with a winged female figure in rapid
motion (see GREEK ART), a figure naturally at first regarded as the
Victory of Archermus. Unfortunately further investigation has
discredited the notion that the statue belongs to the basis, which seems
rather to have supported a sphinx.



ARCHERY,

  History in war.

the art and practice of shooting with the bow (_arcus_) and arrow, or
with crossbow and bolts. Though these weapons are by no means widely
used amongst savage tribes of the present day, their origin is lost in
the mists of antiquity. Amongst the great peoples of ancient history
the Egyptians were the first and the most famous of archers, relying on
the bow as their principal weapon in war. Their bows were somewhat
shorter than a man, and their arrows varied between 2 ft. and 2 ft. 8
in. in length. Here, as elsewhere, flint heads for arrows were by no
means rare, but bronze was the usual material employed. The Biblical bow
was of reed, wood or horn, and the Israelites used it freely both in war
(Gen. xlviii. 22) and in the chase (xxi. 20). The Assyrians also were a
nation of archers. Amongst the Greeks of the historic period archery was
not much in evidence, in spite of the tradition of Teucer, Ulysses and
many other archers of the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_. The Cretans, however,
supplied Greek armies with the bowmen required. In the "Ten Thousand"
figured two hundred Cretan bowmen of Sosias' corps. Rüstow and Köchly
(_Geschichte des griechischen Kriegwesens_, p. 131) estimate the range
of the Cretan bow at eighty to one hundred paces, as compared with the
sling-bullet's forty or fifty, and the javelin's thirty to forty. The
Romans as a nation were, equally with the Greeks, indifferent to
archery; in their legions the archer element was furnished by Cretans
and Asiatics. On the other hand nearly all Asiatic and derived nations
were famous bowmen, from the nations who fought under Xerxes' banner
onwards. The Persian, Scythian and Parthian bow was far more efficient
than the Cretan, though the latter was not wanting in the heterogeneous
armies of the East. The _sagittarii_, three thousand strong, who fought
in the Pharsalian campaign, were drawn from Crete, Pontus, Syria, &c.
But the Roman view of archery was radically altered when the old
legionary system perished at Adrianople (A.D. 378). After this time the
armies of the empire consisted in great part of horse-archers. Their
missiles, we are told, pierced cuirass and shield with ease, and they
shot equally well dismounted and at the gallop. These troops, combined
with heavy cavalry and themselves not unprovided with armour, played a
decisive part in the Roman victories of the age of Belisarius and
Narses. The destruction of the Franks at Casilinum (A.D. 554) was
practically the work of the horse-archers.

In the main, the nations whose migrations altered the face of Europe
were not archers. Only with the Welsh, the Scandinavians, and the
peoples in touch with the Eastern empire was the bow a favourite weapon.
The edicts of Charlemagne could not succeed in making archery popular in
his dominions, and Abbot Ebles, the defender of Paris in 886, is almost
the only instance of a skilled archer in the European records of the
time. The sagas, on the other hand, have much to say as to the feats of
northern heroes with the bow. With English, French and Germans the bow
was the weapon of the poorest military classes. The Norman archers, who
doubtless preserved the traditions of their Danish ancestors, were in
the forefront of William's line at Hastings (1066), but contemporary
evidence points conclusively to the short bow, drawn to the chest, as
the weapon used on this occasion. The combat of Bourgthéroulde in 1124
shows that the Normans still combined heavy cavalry and archers as at
Hastings. Horse-archers too (contrary to the usual belief) were here
employed by the English.

Yet the "Assize of Arms" of 1181 does not mention the bow, and Richard
I. was at great pains to procure crossbowmen for the Crusades. The
crossbow had from about the 10th century gradually become the principal
missile weapon in Europe, in spite of the fact that it was condemned by
the Lateran Council of 1139. As early as 1270 in France, and rather
later in Spain, the master of the crossbowmen had become a great
dignitary, and in Spain the weapon was used by a _corps d'élite_ of men
of gentle birth, who, with their gay apparel, were a picturesque feature
of continental armies of the period. But the Genoese, Pisans and
Venetians were the peoples which employed the crossbow most of all. Many
thousand Genoese crossbowmen were present at Creçy.

It was in the Crusades that the crossbow made its reputation, opposing
heavier weight and greater accuracy to the missiles of the
horse-archers, who invariably constituted the greatest and most
important part of the Asiatic armies. So little change in warfare had
centuries brought about that a crusading force in 1104 perished at
Carrhae, on the same ground and before the same mounted-archer tactics,
as the army of Crassus in 55 B.C. But individually the crusading
crossbowman was infinitely superior to the Turkish or Egyptian
horse-archer.


  English use.

England, which was to become the country of archers _par excellence_,
long retained the old short bow of Hastings, and the far more efficient
crossbow was only used as a rule by mercenaries, such as the celebrated
Falkes de Breauté and his men in the reign of John. South Wales, it
seems certain, eventually produced the famous long-bow. In Ireland, in
Henry II.'s time, Strongbow made great use of Welsh bowmen, whom he
mounted for purposes of guerrilla warfare, and eventually the prowess of
Welsh archers taught Edward I. the value of the hitherto discredited
arm. At Falkirk (q.v.), once for all, the long-bow proved its worth, and
thenceforward for centuries it was the principal weapon of English
soldiers. By 1339, archers had come to be half of the whole mass of
footmen, and later the proportion was greatly increased. In 1360 Edward
III. mounted his archers, as Strongbow had done. The long-bow was about
5 ft., and its shaft a cloth-yard long. Shot by a Welsh archer, a shaft
had penetrated an oak door (at Abergavenny in 1182) 4 in. thick and the
head stood out a hand's breadth on the inner side. Drawn to the right
ear, the bow was naturally capable of long shooting, and in Henry
VIII.'s time practice at a less range than one furlong was forbidden. In
rapidity it was the equal of the short bow and the superior of the
crossbow, which weapon, indeed, it surpassed in all respects. Falkirk,
and still more Creçy, Poitiers and Agincourt, made the English archers
the most celebrated infantry in Europe, and the kings of England, in
whatever else they differed from each other, were, from Edward II. to
Henry VIII., at one in the matter of archery. In 1363 Edward III.
commanded the general practice of archery on Sundays and holidays, all
other sports being forbidden. The provisions of this act were from time
to time re-issued, particularly in the well-known act of Henry VIII. The
price of bows and arrows was also regulated in the reign of Edward III.,
and Richard III. ordained that for every ton of certain goods imported
ten yew-bows should be imported also, while at the same time long-bows
of unusual size were admitted free of duty. In order to prevent the too
rapid consumption of yew for bow-staves, bowyers were ordered to make
four bows of wych-hazel, ash or elm to one of yew, and only the best and
most useful men were allowed to possess yew-bows. Distant and exposed
counties were provided for by making bowyers, fletchers, &c., liable
(unless freemen of the city of London) to be ordered to any point where
their services might be required. In Scotland and Ireland also,
considerable attention was paid to archery. In 1478 archery was
encouraged in Ireland by statute, and James I. and James IV. of
Scotland, in particular, did their best to stimulate the interest of
their subjects in the bow, whose powers they had felt in so many battles
from Falkirk to Homildon Hill.


  Decline as weapon.

The introduction of hand-firearms was naturally fatal to the bow as a
warlike weapon, but the conservatism of the English, and the
non-professional character of wars waged by them, added to the technical
deficiencies of early firearms, made the process of change in England
very gradual. The mercenary or professional element was naturally the
first to adopt the new weapons. At Pont de l'Arche in 1418 the English
had "_petits canons_" (which seem to have been hand guns), and during
the latter part of the Hundred Years' War their use became more and more
frequent. The crossbow soon disappeared from the more professional
armies of the continent. Charles the Bold had, before the battle of
Morat (1476), ten thousand _coulevrines à main_. But in the hands of
local forces the crossbow lingered on, at least in rural France, until
about 1630. Its last appearance in war was in the hands of the Chinese
at Taku (1860). But the long-bow, an incomparably finer weapon, endured
as one of the principal arms of the English soldier until about 1590.
Edward IV. entered London after the battle of Barnet with 500 "smokie
gunners" (foreign mercenaries), but at that engagement Warwick's centre
consisted solely of bows and bills (1471). The new weapons gradually
made their way, but even in 1588, the year of the Armada, the local
forces of Devonshire comprised 800 bows to 1600 "shot," and 800 bills to
800 pikes. But the Armada year saw the last appearance of the English
archer, and the same county in 1598 provides neither archers nor
billmen, while in the professional army in Ireland these weapons had
long given way to musket and caliver, pike and halberd. Archers appeared
in civilized warfare as late as 1807, when fifteen hundred "baskiers,"
horse-archers, clad in chain armour, fought against Napoleon in Poland.

As a weapon of the chase the bow was in its various forms employed even
more than in war. The rise of archery as a sport in England was, of
course, a consequence of its military value, which caused it to be so
heartily encouraged by all English sovereigns.


  Japan.

The Japanese were from their earliest times great archers, and the bow
was the weapon _par excellence_ of their soldiers. The standard length
of the bow (usually bamboo) was 7 ft. 6 in., of the arrow 3 ft. to 3 ft.
9 in. Numerous feats of archery are recorded to have taken place in the
"thirty-three span" halls of Kioto and Tokyo, where the archer had to
shoot the whole length of a very low corridor, 128 yds. long. Wada
Daihachi in the 17th century shot 8133 arrows down the corridor in
twenty-four consecutive hours, averaging five shots a minute, and in
1852 a modern archer made 5583 successful shots in twenty hours, or over
four a minute.


  History of Sport.

_The Pastime of Archery._--The use of the bow and arrow as a pastime
naturally accompanied their use as weapons of war, but when the gun
began to supersede the bow the pastime lost its popularity. Charles II.,
however, and his queen, Catherine of Braganza, interested themselves in
English archery, the queen in 1676 presenting a silver badge or shield
to the "Marshall of the Fraternity of Archers," which badge, once the
property of the Finsbury Archers, was transferred to the keeping of the
Royal Toxophilite Society, when in 1841 the two clubs combined. The
Toxophilite Society was founded in 1781; for though in the north archery
had long been practised, its resuscitation in the south really dates
from the formation of this club by Sir Ashton Lever. This society
received the title of "Royal" in 1847, though it had long been
patronized by royalty. It is an error to suppose that the Finsbury
Archers were connected with the Archers' division of the Hon. Artillery
Company, but many members of the Toxophilite Society joined that
division, and used its ground for shooting, securing, however, a London
ground of their own in the district where Gower Street, W.C., now is.
When this ground became unavailable, the shooting probably took place at
Highbury, and later in 1820, on Lord's cricket ground, the present
ground in the Inner Circle of Regent's Park, near the Botanical Gardens,
not being acquired till 1833. The society may be regarded as the most
important body connected with archery, most of the leading archers
belonging to it, though the Grand National Archery Society controls the
public meetings. Among its more important events is the shooting of 144
arrows at 100 yds. for the Crunder Cup and Bugle. In the early days of
the club targets of different sizes were used at the different ranges,
and the scores were recorded in money (e.g. "Mr Elwin, 86 hits,
£5:5:6"). The Woodmen of Arden can claim an almost equal antiquity,
having been founded--some say "revived"--in 1785. The number of members
is limited to 80; at one time there were 81, Sir Robert Peel having been
elected as a supernumerary by way of compliment. The headquarters of the
Woodmen are at Meriden in Warwickshire; the club has a nominal authority
over vert and venison, whence its officers bear appropriate
names-warden, master-forester and verderers; and the annual meeting is
called the Wardmote. The master-forester, or captain for the year, is
the maker of the first "gold" at the annual target; he who makes the
second is the senior verderer. The club devotes itself to the
old-fashioned clout-shooting at long ranges, reckoned by "scores," nine
score meaning 180 yds., and so on. (_Vide_ "Clout-shooting" _infra_.)
The chief matches in which the Woodmen engage are those against the
Royal Company of Scottish Archers. The Royal British Bowmen date back to
the end of the 18th century. Like many others, during the Napoleonic war
they suspended operations, revived when peace was made. The club was
finally dissolved in 1880. The Royal Kentish Bowmen were founded in
1785, but did not survive the war. John O'Gaunt's Bowmen, who still meet
at Lancaster, were revived, not created, at the same time, and still
flourish. The Herefordshire Bowmen only shoot at 60 yds., while the West
Berks Society is limited to twelve members, who meet at each other's
houses, except for their Autumn Handicap, shot on the Toxophilite
Grounds--216 arrows at 100 yds. The Royal Company of Archers is the
chief Scottish society. Originally a semi-military body constituted in
1676, it practised archery as a pastime from the time of its foundation,
several meetings being held in the first few years of its existence. It
devoted itself to "rovers," or long-range shooting at the "clout," among
its most interesting trophies being the "Musselburgh Arrow," first shot
for in 1603, possibly even earlier, in that town; the competition was
then open to all comers, for archery was long popular in Scotland,
especially at Kilwinning, the headquarters of popinjay (q.v.) shooting.
Other prizes are the "Peebles Silver Arrow," dating back to 1626, the
"Edinburgh Silver Arrow" (1709), the "Selkirk Arrow," a very ancient
prize, the "Dalhousie Sword," the "Hopetoun Royal Commemoration Prize,"
and others, shot for at ranges of 180 or 200 yds. The most curious is
the "Goose Medal." Originally a goose was buried in a butt with only its
head visible, and this was the archers' mark; now a small glass globe is
substituted. The "Popingo (Popinjay) Medal," for which a stuffed parrot
was once used as the mark, is now contested at the ordinary butts. The
Kilwinning Society of Archers, founded in 1688, did not disband till
1870; the Irvine Toxophilites flourished from 1814 till about 1867. But
of all societies the Grand National Archery Society, regulating the
great meetings, though comparatively young, is the most important.
Various open meetings were already in existence, but in 1844 a few
leading archers projected a Grand National Meeting, which was held in
York in that year and in 1845 and 1846, and subsequently in other
places. But the society did not exist as such till 1861, after the
meeting held at Liverpool, since when, notwithstanding some financial
troubles, it has been the legislative and managing body of English
archery. The chief meetings are the "Championship," the "Leamington and
Midland Counties," the "Crystal Palace," the "Grand Western" and the
"Grand Northern." For some years a "Scottish Grand National" was held,
but fell into abeyance. The "Scorton Arrow" is no longer shot for in the
Yorkshire village of that name, but the meeting, held regularly in the
county, dates back to 1673 by record, and is probably far older. The
silver arrow and the captaincy are awarded to the man who makes the
first gold; the silver bugle and lieutenancy to the first red; the gold
medal to most hits, and a horn spoon to the last white.

In the United States archery has had a limited popularity. The only one
of the early clubs that lasted long was the "United Bowmen of
Philadelphia," founded in 1828, but defunct in 1859. There was a revival
twenty years later, when a National Association was formed; and various
meetings were held annually and championships instituted, but there was
never any popular enthusiasm for the sport, though it showed signs of
increasing favour towards the end of the 19th century. The longer ranges
are not greatly favoured by American archers, though at some meetings
the regulation "York Round" (_vide infra_ under "Targets") and the
"National" are shot. Other rounds are the "Potomac," 24 arrows at 80, 24
at 70, and 24 at 60 yds.; the "Double American," 60 arrows each at 60,
50 and 40 yds.; and the "Double Columbia," for ladies, 48 each at 50, 40
and 30 yds. In team matches ladies shoot 96 arrows at 50 yds., gentlemen
96 at 60.

  _The Bow._--As used in the pastime of archery the length of the bows
  does not vary much, though it bears some relation to the length of
  the arrow and the length of the arrow to the strength of the archer,
  to which the weight of the bow has to be adapted. The proper weight of
  a bow is the number of lb. which, attached to the string, will draw a
  full-length arrow to its head. For men's bows the drawing-power varies
  from 40 to 60 lb., anything above this being extreme; ladies' bows
  draw from 24 to 32 lb. Estimating 50 lb. as a fair average, such a bow
  would be 6 ft. 1 in. long for a 30-in., 6 ft. for a 28-in., and 5 ft.
  11 in. for a 27-in. arrow, but the height as well as the strength of
  the archer have to be considered. Similarly a lady's bow on the
  average measures about 5 ft. 6 in. and her arrows 25 in. Modern bows
  are either made entirely of yew (occasionally of other woods), when
  they are called "self-bows," or of a combination of woods, when they
  are called "backed-bows." Self-bows are rarely or never made in a
  single stave, owing to the difficulty of obtaining true and flawless
  wood of the necessary length; hence two staves joined by a double
  fish-joint, which forms the centre of the bow, are used, tested and
  adjusted so that they may be as equally elastic as possible. The best
  yew is imported from Italy and Spain, and is allowed to season for
  three years before it is made into a bow, which again is not used till
  it is two years older. In backed-bows the belly, the rounded part
  nearest to the string, is generally but not necessarily made of yew,
  the back, or flat part, of yew (the best), hickory, lance or other
  woods, glued together in strips. The centre of the bow, for about 18
  in., should be stiff and resisting, then tapering off gradually to the
  horns in which the string is fitted, the greatest care being taken
  that the two limbs are uniform. The bow of self-yew is generally
  considered more agreeable to handle and has a better "cast," throwing
  the arrow more smoothly and with less jar, and since no glued parts
  are exposed, it is less liable to injury from wet. On the other hand,
  "crysals" (tiny cracks, which are apt to extend) are more frequent in
  this class of bow. Self-yew bows cost £8 or £10, where a good
  backed-bow can be bought for about half that. The self-bow is more
  sensitive than other bows, and its work is mostly done during the last
  few inches of the pull, where the backed-bow pulls evenly throughout.
  The backed-bow should be perfectly straight in the back, but after use
  often loses its shape either by "following the string," i.e. getting
  bent inwards on the string-side, or by becoming "reflex" (bending the
  opposite way). Self-bows are even more apt to lose their shape than
  backed-bows, as there is no hard wood to counteract the natural grain.
  A bow that is strongly reflexed at the ends is known as a "Cupid's
  bow." To form the handle the wood of the bow is left thick in the
  centre, and braid, leather or indiarubber is wound round it to give a
  better grip.

  _The String and Stringing._--The string is made of three strands of
  hemp, dressed with a preparation of glue, and should be perfectly
  round, smooth and not frayed, as a broken string may result in a
  broken bow. The string, at its centre, is 6 in. from the belly of the
  man's bow; 5 in. in the lady's bow. The clenched fist with the thumb
  upright was the old, rough and ready estimate, known as "fist-mele."
  For a few inches above and below the nocking point the string is
  lapped with carpet-thread to save it from fraying by contact with the
  arm; the nocking point being made by another lapping of filoselle
  silk, so that the string may exactly fit the nock of the arrow. When a
  bow is properly strung the string should be longitudinally along the
  middle of the belly.

  _Arrows and Nocking._--The parts of the arrow are the shaft, the
  "nock" or notch, the "pile" or point, and the feathers. The shaft is
  made of seasoned red deal, and may be "self" or "footed." Most arrows
  are "footed," i.e. a piece of hard wood to which the pile is attached
  is spliced to the deal shaft, which should be perfectly straight and
  stiff. The shaft is made in several shapes. Most archers prefer the
  "parallel" pattern--the shaft being the same size from nock to pile;
  the next is the "barrelled," the shape being thick in the centre and
  tapering towards the ends. The "bob-tail" diminishes from the pile to
  the nock; the "chested" tapers from the middle to the pile. The pile
  should not be taper but cylindrical, "broadshouldered" where the point
  begins. The nock is cut square. There are three feathers, the body
  feathers of a turkey or peacock being the best. They should all curve
  the same way, are about 1½ in. long and ½ in. deep, with the ends near
  the nock either square, or balloon-shaped. The weight of an arrow is
  its weight in new English silver; a five-shilling arrow is heavy for a
  man's bow, while four-shillings is light. A 28-in. arrow for a 50-lb.
  bow may weigh four-and-ninepence; a 27-in. arrow four-and-sixpence.
  This may serve as a rough standard.

  _Other Implements._--The archer uses finger-tips, or a "tab" of
  leather, to protect the fingers against the string, and a leather
  "bracer" to protect the left arm from its blow. Quivers are not now
  used except by ladies. A special box for carrying bows and arrows
  about; a proper cupboard, known as an "ascham," in which they may be
  kept at home in a dry, even temperature, not too hot; and a baize or
  leather case for use on the ground, are important minor articles of
  equipment.

  _Targets, Scoring and Handicapping._--The targets, 4 ft. in diameter,
  are made of straw 3 to 4 in. thick, and are supported sloping slightly
  backwards by an iron stand. The faces are of floor-cloth painted with
  concentric rings, 4-4/5 in. each in breadth. The outer ring, white,
  counts one point; the next, black, three; the next, blue, five; the
  next, red, seven; and the next, gold--a complete circle of 4-4/5 in.
  radius--nine. The exact centre of the gold is called the "pin-hole."
  The targets are set up in pairs, facing each other, the distances for
  men being 100, 80 and 60 yds.; for ladies, 60 and 50; for convenience,
  5 yds. are added to allow for a shooting-line that distance in front
  of each target. The centre of the gold should be 4 ft. from the
  ground. Each archer shoots three arrows--an "end"--at one target; they
  then cross over and mark the scores. If an arrow cuts two rings, the
  archer is credited with the value of the higher one. In matches a
  "York Round" or a "St George's Round" is usually shot by men, the
  former consisting of 144 arrows, 72 at 100 yds., 48 at 80 yds., and 24
  at 60 yds., the latter of 36 arrows at each of these distances. One
  York Round only is shot on a day; a double York Round is shot, one on
  each day, at the more important meetings. Ladies usually shoot the
  "National Round" of 48 arrows at 60 yds. and 24 at 50 yds. At most
  meetings the prizes are awarded on the gross scores; at others,
  including the Championship meeting, on points, two points for the
  highest score on the round and two for most hits on the round, one
  point each for highest score and most hits at each of the three
  ranges, ten points in all. Ladies' scores are calculated similarly. To
  decide the Championship, the Grand National Archery Society passed a
  rule in 1894 that "The Champion prizes shall be awarded to the archer
  gaining the greatest number of points, provided that those for gross
  hits or gross score are included; any points won by other archers
  shall be redistributed among those gaining the points for gross hits
  or gross score." Handicapping may be done by "rings," the winner of a
  first prize not being allowed to count "whites" at subsequent
  meetings, and "blacks" and "blues" being lost for further successes.
  Better methods are (1) to deduct a percentage from the gross score of
  successful shooters, (2) to handicap by points, as in other pastimes,
  or (3) to rate a shooter according to the average of his last year's
  performances, re-rating him monthly, or at convenient intervals, the
  system being to add his average of the current year to his average of
  last year, and divide the sum by two to form his new rating.

  _Clout and Long Distance Shooting._--This form of archery is chiefly
  supported by the Woodmen of Arden and the Royal Company. At 100 yds.,
  the target (smaller by 4 in. than the usual one, but with an inner
  white circle instead of the blue) is set up against a butt only 18 in.
  from the ground, but for nine-score, ten-score, and twelve-score
  shooting it is a white target, 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with a black
  centre. The target, the centre and the arrow that hits the centre are
  each known as a "clout." Hits and misses are signalled by a marker
  stationed, rather perilously, by the side of the butt. The target is
  sloped backwards to an angle of 60°, with rings marked round it on the
  ground at distances of 1½ ft., 3 ft., 6 ft. and 9 ft., a hit in the
  outer ring counting one, and in the next two, and so on, the clout or
  centre counting six. For the longer ranges lighter arrows are used.
  The Scottish clout was a piece of canvas, stretched on a frame; the
  range 180 or 200 yds.; all arrows counted one that were within 24 ft.
  of the target, the clout counting two. Modern archers have paid scant
  attention to mere distance-shooting, which is an art of its own, but
  their experiments prove that with a fairly heavy bow, say 60 lb. or 63
  lb., and a long light arrow, known as a "flight arrow," a good archer
  should be able to reach 300 or 310 yds. With a heavier bow, properly
  under control, 50 or 60 yds. might be added to this by a strong man.
  These experiments seem to be verified by a quotation from Shakespeare
  (Henry IV. Act iii. Sc. 2): "A' would have clapped i' the clout and
  twelve score, and carried you a forehand shaft a fourteen and fourteen
  and a half," i.e. 280 or 290 yds. Instances are recorded of Englishmen
  shooting 340 and 360 yds., but in 1795 Mahmoud Effendi of the Turkish
  embassy shot 482 yds. with a Turkish bow, and Sultan Selim 972. The
  Turk, however, used a Turkish bow and a 14-in. arrow, with a grooved
  rest on his left arm along which the arrow passed, to compensate for
  the difference between the draw of the bow and the shortness of the
  arrow. The diplomatist's shot is supported by good evidence, but the
  sultan's is regarded as improbable at least.

  _Championship and Scores._--The British championship meetings,
  instituted in 1844, are conducted under the laws of the Grand National
  Archery Society: the prizes, apart from the Challenge prizes, are
  given in money, there being also a rule that any one who makes three
  golds at one end receives a shilling from all others of the same sex
  who are shooting. The most notable champion was Horace A. Ford (d.
  1880), who held the title for eleven consecutive years, 1849 to 1859
  inclusive, and again in 1867. He made a four-figure score at four
  other championship meetings, his highest, 1251 (in 1857) for 245 hits
  being unapproached. To him the modern scientific practice of archery
  must largely be attributed, together with its improvement and its
  popularity. The names of G. Edwards, Major C. Hawkins Fisher, H.H.
  Palairet, C.E. Nesham, and G.E.S. Fryer, are also notable as
  champions. Among ladies Mrs Horniblow was champion for eleven years
  between 1852 and 1881, Miss Legh for nineteen years between 1880 and
  1908; Mrs Piers Legh, Miss Betham and Mrs Bowly claim the title on
  four occasions. Mrs Bowly's score of 823 (1894) was the highest made
  for the championship till Miss Legh made 825 with 143 hits--only one
  arrow missed altogether--in 1898; beating her own record with a score
  of 841 (143 hits) in 1904. It should not be forgotten that as the
  championship is awarded by points, the highest score does not
  necessarily win.

  See Roger Ascham, _Toxophilus_ (1545), edited by Edward Arber (London,
  1868); _The Arte of Warre_, by William Garrard (London 1591); _The
  Arte of Archerie_, by Gervase Markham (London, 1634); _Ancient and
  Modern Methods of Arrow Release_, by E.S. Morse (1885); _The English
  Bowman_, by T. Roberts (London, 1801); _A Treatise on Archery_, by
  Thomas Waring (London, 9th ed., 1832); _The Theory and Practice of
  Archery_, by Horace A. Ford (new ed., London, 1887); _Archery_, by
  C.J. Longman and H. Walrond (Badminton Library, London, 1894).
       (W. J. F.)



ARCHES, COURT OF, the English ecclesiastical court of appeal of the
archbishop of Canterbury, as metropolitan of the province of Canterbury,
from all the consistory and commissary courts in the province. It
derives its name from its ancient place of judicature, which was in the
church of _Beata Maria de Arcubus_ --St Mary-le-Bow or St Mary of the
Arches, "by reason of the steeple thereof raised at the top with stone
pillars in fashion like a bow bent archwise." This parish was the chief
of thirteen locally situated within the diocese of London but exempt
from the bishop's jurisdiction, and it was no doubt owing to this
circumstance that it was selected originally as the place of judicature
for the archbishop's court. The proper designation of the judge is
official principal of the Arches court, but by custom he came to be
styled the dean of the Arches, a title belonging formerly to the chief
official of the subordinate court. Originally, the official principal
exercised metropolitan jurisdiction, while the dean of the Arches
exercised the "peculiar" jurisdiction. The jurisdictions called
"peculiars" at one time numbered nearly 300 in England. They were
originally introduced by the pope for the purpose of curtailing the
bishop's legitimate authority within his diocese; "an object which,"
says Phillimore, "they certainly attained, to the great confusion of
ecclesiastical jurisdiction for many years." The dean of the Arches
originally had jurisdiction over the thirteen London parishes above
mentioned, but as the official principal was often absent as ambassador
on the continent, he became his substitute, and gradually the two
offices were blended together. The original office of the dean of the
Arches may now be regarded as extinct, though the title is still
popularly used, for no dean of the Arches has been appointed _eo nomine_
for several centuries, and by an act of 1838 bishops have jurisdiction
over all peculiars within their diocese. The judge of the Arches court
was until 1874 appointed by the archbishop of Canterbury by patent
which, when confirmed by the dean and chapter of Canterbury, conferred
the office for the life of the holder. He took the oaths of office
required by the 127th canon. But by the Public Worship Regulation Act
1874 the two archbishops were empowered, subject to the approval of the
sovereign by sign-manual, from time to time to appoint a practising
barrister of ten years' standing, or a person who had been a judge of
one of the superior courts (being a member of the Church of England) to
be, during good behaviour, a judge for the purpose of exercising
jurisdiction under that act, and it was enacted (sec. 7) that on a
vacancy occurring in the office of official principal of the Arches
court the judge should become _ex officio_ such official principal. In
this way the late Lord Penzance became dean on the retirement of Sir
Robert Phillimore in 1875. Lord Penzance received in 1878 a supplemental
patent as dean from Archbishop Tait, but did not otherwise fulfil the
conditions observed on the appointment of his predecessors. On Lord
Penzance's retirement in 1899, his successor, Sir Arthur Charles,
received a patent from the archbishop of Canterbury as official
principal of the Arches court, and he took the oaths of office according
to the practice before the Public Worship Regulation Act. He was
subsequently and separately appointed judge under that act. Sir A.
Charles resigned in 1903 and was succeeded by Sir L.T. Dibdin, who
qualified in the same way as his immediate predecessor. The official
principal of the Arches court is the only ecclesiastical judge who is
empowered to pass a sentence of deprivation against a clerk in holy
orders. The appeals from the decisions of the Arches court were formerly
made to the king in chancery, but they are now by statute addressed to
the king in council, and they are heard before the judicial committee of
the privy council. By an act of Henry VIII. (Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction
Act 1532) the Arches court is empowered to hear, in the first instance,
such suits as are sent up to it by letters of request from the
consistorial courts of the bishops of the province of Canterbury, and by
the Church Discipline Act 1840, this jurisdiction is continued to it,
and it is further empowered to accept letters of request from the
bishops of the province of Canterbury after they have issued commissions
of inquiry under that statute, and the commissioners have made their
report.

The Arches court was also the court of appeal from the consistory courts
of the bishops of the province in all testamentary and matrimonial
causes. The matrimonial jurisdiction was transferred to the crown by the
Matrimonial Causes Act 1857. Under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892 an
appeal lies from the judgment of a consistory court under that act, in
respect of fact by leave of the appellate court, and in respect of law
without leave, to either the Arches court or the judicial committee of
the privy council at the option of the appellant. Under the Benefices
Act 1898 the official principal of the archbishop is required to
institute a presentee to a benefice if the tribunal constituted under
that act decides that there is no valid ground for refusing institution
and the bishop of the diocese notwithstanding fails to institute him.
After the College of Advocates was incorporated and had established
itself in Doctors' Commons, the archbishop's court of appeal, as well as
his prerogative court, were usually held in the hall of the College of
Advocates, but after the destruction of the buildings of the college,
the court of appeal held its sittings, for the most part, in Westminster
Hall. For many years past there has been but little business in the
Arches court, mainly owing to the unwillingness of a large number of the
clergy to recognize the jurisdiction of what they deny to be any longer
a spiritual court, and the consistent use by the bishops of their right
of veto in the case of prosecutions under the Public Worship Regulation
Act. On the rare occasions when a sitting of the court is necessary, it
is held in the library of Lambeth Palace, or at the Church House,
Westminster.



ARCHESTRATUS, of Syracuse or Gela, a Greek poet, who flourished about
330 B.C. After travelling extensively in search of foreign delicacies
for the table, he embodied the result in a humorous poem called [Greek:
Hedupatheta], afterwards freely translated by Ennius under the title
_Heduphagetica_. About 300 lines of this gastronomical poem are
preserved in Athenaeus. The writer, who has been styled the Hesiod or
Theognis of gluttons, parodies the style of the old gnomic poets; chief
attention is paid to details concerning fish.

  Ribbeck, _Archestrati Reliquiae_ (1877); Brandt, _Corpusculum Poesis
  Epicae Graecae ludibundae_, i. 1888; Schmid, _De Archestrati Gelensis
  Fragmentis_ (1896).



ARCHIAC, ÉTIENNE JULES ADOLPHE DESMIER DE SAINT SIMON, VICOMTE D'
(1802-1868), French geologist and palaeontologist, was born at Reims on
the 24th of September 1802. He was educated in the Military School of St
Cyr, and served for nine years as a cavalry officer until 1830, when he
retired from the service. Prior to this he had published an historical
romance; but now geology came to occupy his chief attention. In his
earlier scientific works, which date from 1835, he described the
Tertiary and Cretaceous formations of France, Belgium and England, and
dealt especially with the distribution of fossils geographically and in
sequence. Later on he investigated the Carboniferous, Devonian and
Silurian formations. His great work, _Histoire des progrès de la
géologie_, 1834-1859, was published in 8 volumes at Paris (1847-1860).
In 1853 the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society was awarded to
him. In the same year, with Jules Haime (1824-1856), he published a
monograph on the Nummulitic formation of India. In 1857 he was elected a
member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1861 he was appointed
professor of palaeontology in the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris.
Of later works his _Paléontologie stratigraphique_, in 3 vols.
(1864-1865); his _Géologie et paléontologie_ (1866); and his
palaeontological contributions to de Tchihatcheff's _Asie mineure_
(1866), may be specially mentioned.

He died on the 24th of December 1868.

  See _Notice sur les travaux scientifiques du vicomte d'Archiac_, par
  A. Gaudry (Meulan, 1874); _Extrait du Bull. Soc. Géol. de France_,
  ser. 3, t. ii. p. 230 (1874).



ARCHIAS, AULUS LICINIUS, Greek poet, was born at Antioch in Syria 120
B.C. In 102, his reputation having been already established, especially
as an improvisatore, he came to Rome, where he was well received amongst
the highest and most influential families. His chief patron was
Lucullus, whose gentile name he assumed. In 93 he visited Sicily with
his patron, on which occasion he received the citizenship of Heracleia,
one of the federate towns, and indirectly, by the provisions of the lex
Plautia Papiria, that of Rome. In 61 he was accused by a certain Gratius
of having assumed the citizenship illegally; and Cicero successfully
defended him in his speech _Pro Archia_. This speech, which furnishes
nearly all the information concerning Archias, states that he had
celebrated the deeds of Marius and Lucullus in the Cimbrian and
Mithradatic wars, and that he was engaged upon a poem of which the
events of Cicero's consulship formed the subject. The Greek Anthology
contains thirty-five epigrams under the name of Archias, but it is
doubtful how many of these (if any) are the work of the poet of Antioch.

  Cicero, _Pro Archia_; T. Reinach, _De Archia Poeta_ (1890).



ARCHIDAMUS, the name of five kings of Sparta, of the Eurypontid house.

1. The son and successor of Anaxidamus. His reign, which began soon
after the close of the second Messenian War, is said to have been quiet
and uneventful (Pausanias iii. 7. 6).

2. The son of Zeuxidamus, reigned 476-427 B.C. (but see LEOTYCHIDES). He
succeeded his grandfather Leotychides upon the banishment of the latter,
his father having already died. His coolness and presence of mind are
said to have saved the Spartan state from destruction on the occasion of
the great earthquake of 464 (Diodorus xi. 63; Plutarch, _Cimon_, 16),
but this story must be regarded as at least doubtful. He was a friend of
Pericles and a man of prudence and moderation. During the negotiations
which preceded the Peloponnesian War he did his best to prevent, or at
least to postpone, the inevitable struggle, but was overruled by the war
party. He invaded Attica at the head of the Peloponnesian forces in the
summers of 431, 430 and 428, and in 429 conducted operations against
Plataea. He died probably in 427, certainly before the summer of 426,
when we find his son Agis on the throne.

  Herod, vi. 71; Thuc. i. 79-iii. 1; Plut. _Pericles_, 29. 33; Diodorus
  xi. 48-xii. 52.

3. The son and successor of Agesilaus II., reigned 360-338 B.C. During
his father's later years he proved himself a brave and capable officer.
In 371 he led the relief force which was sent to aid the survivors of
the battle of Leuctra. Four years later he captured Caryae, ravaged the
territory of the Parrhasii and defeated the Arcadians, Argives and
Messenians in the "tearless battle," so called because the victory did
not cost the Spartans a single life. In 364, however, he sustained a
severe reverse in attempting to relieve a besieged Spartan garrison at
Cromnus in south-western Arcadia. He showed great heroism in the defence
of Sparta against Epaminondas immediately before the battle of Mantineia
(362). He supported the Phocians during the Sacred War (355-346), moved,
no doubt, largely by the hatred of Thebes which he had inherited from
his father; he also led the Spartan forces in the conflicts with the
Thebans and their allies which arose out of the Spartan attempt to break
up the city of Megalopolis. Finally he was sent with a mercenary army to
Italy to protect the Tarentines against the attacks of Lucanians or
Messapians; he fell together with the greater part of his force at
Mandonion[1] on the same day as that on which the battle of Chaeronea
was fought.

  Xen. _Hell._ v. 4, vi. 4, vii. 1. 4, 5; Plut. _Agis_, 3, _Camillus_,
  19, _Agesilaus._ 25, 33, 34, 40; Pausanias iii. 10, vi. 4; Diodorus
  xv. 54, 72, xvi. 24, 39, 59, 62, 88.

4. The son of Eudamidas I., grandson of Archidamus III. The dates of his
accession and death are unknown. In 294 B.C. he was defeated at
Mantineia by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who invaded Laconia, gained a second
victory close to Sparta, and was on the point of taking the city itself
when he was called away by the news of the successes of Lysimachus and
Ptolemy in Asia Minor and Cyprus.

  Plut. _Agis_, 3, _Demetrius_, 35; Pausanias, i. 13. 6, vii. 8. 5;
  Niese, _Gesch. der griech. u. makedon. Slaalen_, i. 363.

5. The son of Eudamidas II., grandson of Archidamus IV., brother of Agis
IV. On his brother's murder he fled to Messenia (241 B.C.). In 227 he
was recalled by Cleomenes III., who was then reigning without a
colleague, but shortly after his return he was assassinated. Polybius
accuses Cleomenes of the murder, but Plutarch is probably right in
saying that it was the work of those who had caused the death of Agis,
and feared his brother's vengeance.

  Plutarch, _Cleomenes_, i. 5; Polybius v. 37, viii. I; Niese, _op.
  cit._ ii. 304, 311.     (M. N. T.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] So Plut. _Agis_, 3 (all MSS.). Following Cellarius, some
    authorities read Manduria or Mandyrium.



ARCHIL (a corruption of "orchil," Ital. _oricello_, the origin of which
is unknown), a purple dye obtained from various species of lichens.
Archil can be extracted from many species of the genera _Roccella_,
_Lecanora_, _Umbilicaria_, _Parmelia_ and others, but in practice two
species of _Roccella_--_R. tinctoria_ and _R. fuciformis_--are almost
exclusively used. These, under the name of "orchella weed" or "dyer's
moss," are obtained from Angola, on the west coast of Africa, where the
most valuable kinds are gathered; from Cape Verde Islands; from Lima, on
the west coast of South America; and from the Malabar coast of India.
The colouring properties of the lichens do not exist in them ready
formed, but are developed by the treatment to which they are subjected.
A small proportion of a colourless, crystalline principle, termed
orcinol (a dioxytoluene), is found in some, and in all a series of acid
substances, erythric, lecanoric acids, &c. Orcinol in presence of oxygen
and ammonia takes up nitrogen and becomes changed into a purple
substance, orceine (C7H7NO3), which is essentially the basis of all
lichen dyes. Two other colouring-matters, azoerythin and erythroleinic
acid, are sometimes present. Archil is prepared for the dyer's use in
the form of a "liquor" (archil) and a "paste" (persis), and the latter,
when dried and finely powdered, forms the "cudbear" of commerce, a dye
formerly manufactured in Scotland from a native lichen, _Lecanora
tartarea_. The manufacturing process consists in washing the weeds,
which are then ground up with water to a thick paste. If archil paste is
to be made this paste is mixed with a strong ammoniacal solution, and
agitated in an iron cylinder heated by steam to about 140° F. till the
desired shade is developed--a process which occupies several days. In
the preparation of archil liquor the principles which yield the dye are
separated from the ligneous tissue of the lichens, agitated with a hot
ammoniacal solution, and exposed to the action of air. When potassium or
sodium carbonate is added, a blue dye known as litmus, much used as an
"indicator," is produced. French purple or lime lake is a lichen dye
prepared by a modification of the archil process, and is a more
brilliant and durable colour than the other. The dyeing of worsted and
home-spun cloth with lichen dyes was formerly a very common domestic
employment in Scotland; and to this day, in some of the outer islands,
worsted continues to be dyed with "crottle," the name given to the
lichens employed.



ARCHILOCHUS, Greek lyric poet and writer of lampoons, was born at Paros,
one of the Cyclades islands. The date of his birth is uncertain, but he
probably flourished about 650 B.C.; according to some, about forty years
earlier but certainly not before the reign of Gyges (687-652), whom he
mentions in a well-known fragment. His father, Telesicles, who was of
noble family, had conducted a colony to Thasos, in obedience to the
command of the Delphic oracle. To this island Archilochus himself, hard
pressed by poverty, afterwards removed. Another reason for leaving his
native place was personal disappointment and indignation at the
treatment he had received from Lycambes, a citizen of Paros, who had
promised him his daughter Neobule in marriage, but had afterwards
withdrawn his consent. Archilochus, taking advantage of the licence
allowed at the feasts of Demeter, poured out his wounded feelings in
unmerciful satire. He accused Lycambes of perjury, and his daughters of
leading the most abandoned lives. Such was the effect produced by his
verses, that Lycambes and his daughters are said to have hanged
themselves. At Thasos the poet passed some unhappy years; his hopes of
wealth were disappointed; according to him, Thasos was the meeting-place
of the calamities of all Hellas. The inhabitants were frequently
involved in quarrels with their neighbours, and in a war against the
Saians--a Thracian tribe--he threw away his shield and fled from the
field of battle. He does not seem to have felt the disgrace very keenly,
for, like Alcaeus and Horace, he commemorates the event in a fragment in
which he congratulates himself on having saved his life, and says he can
easily procure another shield. After leaving Thasos, he is said to have
visited Sparta, but to have been at once banished from that city on
account of his cowardice and the licentious character of his works
(Valerius Maximus vi. 3, _externa_ 1). He next visited Siris, in lower
Italy, a city of which he speaks very favourably. He then returned to
his native place, and was slain in a battle against the Naxians by one
Calondas or Corax, who was cursed by the oracle for having slain a
servant of the Muses.

The writings of Archilochus consisted of elegies, hymns--one of which
used to be sung by the victors in the Olympic games (Pindar, _Olympia_,
ix. i)--and of poems in the iambic and trochaic measures. To him
certainly we owe the invention of iambic poetry and its application to
the purposes of satire. The only previous measures in Greek poetry had
been the epic hexameter, and its offshoot the elegiac metre; but the
slow measured structure of hexameter verse was utterly unsuited to
express the quick, light motions of satire. Archilochus made use of the
iambus and the trochee, and organized them into the two forms of metre
known as the iambic trimeter and the trochaic tetrameter. The trochaic
metre he generally used for subjects of a serious nature; the iambic for
satires. He was also the first to make use of the arrangement of verses
called the epode. Horace in his metres to a great extent follows
Archilochus (_Epistles_, i. 19. 23-35). All ancient authorities unite in
praising the poems of Archilochus, in terms which appear exaggerated
(Longinus xiii. 3; Dio Chrysostom, _Orationes_, xxxiii.; Quintilian x.
i. 60; Cicero, _Orator_, i.). His verses seem certainly to have
possessed strength, flexibility, nervous vigour, and, beyond everything
else, impetuous vehemence and energy. Horace (_Ars Poetica_, 79) speaks
of the "rage" of Archilochus, and Hadrian calls his verses "raging
iambics." By his countrymen he was reverenced as the equal of Homer, and
statues of these two poets were dedicated on the same day.

  His poems were written in the old Ionic dialect. Fragments in Bergk,
  _Poetae Lyrici Graeci_; Liebel, _Archilochi Reliquiae_ (1818); A.
  Hauvette-Besnault, _Archiloque, sa vie et ses poésies_ (1905).



ARCHIMANDRITE (from Gr. [Greek: archon], a ruler, and [Greek: mandra], a
fold or monastery), a title in the Greek Church applied to a superior
abbot, who has the supervision of several abbots and monasteries, or to
the abbot of some specially great and important monastery, the title for
an ordinary abbot being hegumenos. The title occurs for the first time
in a letter to Epiphanius, prefixed to his _Panarium_ (c. 375), but the
_Lausiac History_ of Palladius may be evidence that it was in common use
in the 4th century as applied to Pachomius (q.v.). In Russia the bishops
are commonly selected from the archimandrites. The word occurs in the
_Regula Columbani_ (c. 7), and du Cange gives a few other cases of its
use in Latin documents, but it never came into vogue in the West. Owing
to intercourse with Greek and Slavonic Christianity, the title is
sometimes to be met with in southern Italy and Sicily, and in Hungary
and Poland.

  See the article in the _Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de
  liturgie_.



ARCHIMEDES (c. 287-212 B.C.), Greek mathematician and inventor, was born
at Syracuse, in Sicily. He was the son of Pheidias, an astronomer, and
was on intimate terms with, if not related to, Hiero, king of Syracuse,
and Gelo his son. He studied at Alexandria and doubtless met there Conon
of Samos, whom he admired as a mathematician and cherished as a friend,
and to whom he was in the habit of communicating his discoveries before
publication. On his return to his native city he devoted himself to
mathematical research. He himself set no value on the ingenious
mechanical contrivances which made him famous, regarding them as beneath
the dignity of pure science and even declining to leave any written
record of them except in the case of the [Greek: sphairopoiia]
(_Sphere-making_), as to which see below. As, however, these machines
impressed the popular imagination, they naturally figure largely in the
traditions about him. Thus he devised for Hiero engines of war which
almost terrified the Romans, and which protracted the siege of Syracuse
for three years. There is a story that he constructed a burning mirror
which set the Roman ships on fire when they were within a bowshot of the
wall. This has been discredited because it is not mentioned by Polybius,
Livy or Plutarch; but it is probable that Archimedes had constructed
some such burning instrument, though the connexion of it with the
destruction of the Roman fleet is more than doubtful. More important, as
being doubtless connected with the discovery of the principle in
hydrostatics which bears his name and the foundation by him of that
whole science, is the story of Hiero's reference to him of the question
whether a crown made for him and purporting to be of gold, did not
actually contain a proportion of silver. According to one story,
Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and
observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of
bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by
putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel
filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow. He was so
overjoyed when this happy thought struck him that he ran home without
his clothes, shouting [Greek: euraeka, euraeka], "I have found it, I
have found it." Similarly his pioneer work in mechanics is illustrated
by the story of his having said [Greek: dos moi pon sto kai kino taen
gaen] (or as another version has it, in his dialect, [Greek: pa bo kai
kino tan gan]), "Give me a place to stand and I (will) move the earth."
Hiero asked him to give an illustration of his contention that a very
great weight could be moved by a very small force. He is said to have
fixed on a large and fully laden ship and to have used a mechanical
device by which Hiero was enabled to move it by himself: but accounts
differ as to the particular mechanical powers employed. The water-screw
which he invented (see below) was probably devised in Egypt for the
purpose of irrigating fields.

Archimedes died at the capture of Syracuse by Marcellus, 212 B.C. In the
general massacre which followed the fall of the city, Archimedes, while
engaged in drawing a mathematical figure on the sand, was run through
the body by a Roman soldier. No blame attaches to the Roman general,
Marcellus, since he had given orders to his men to spare the house and
person of the sage; and in the midst of his triumph he lamented the
death of so illustrious a person, directed an honourable burial to be
given him, and befriended his surviving relatives. In accordance with
the expressed desire of the philosopher, his tomb was marked by the
figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder, the discovery of the
relation between the volumes of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder
being regarded by him as his most valuable achievement. When Cicero was
quaestor in Sicily (75 B.C.), he found the tomb of Archimedes, near the
Agrigentine gate, overgrown with thorns and briers. "Thus," says Cicero
(_Tusc. Disp._, v. c. 23, § 64), "would this most famous and once most
learned city of Greece have remained a stranger to the tomb of one of
its most ingenious citizens, had it not been discovered by a man of
Arpinum."

  _Works._--The range and importance of the scientific labours of
  Archimedes will be best understood from a brief account of those
  writings which have come down to us; and it need only be added that
  his greatest work was in geometry, where he so extended the method of
  _exhaustion_ as originated by Eudoxus, and followed by Euclid, that it
  became in his hands, though purely geometrical in form, actually
  equivalent in several cases to _integration_, as expounded in the
  first chapters of our text-books on the integral calculus. This remark
  applies to the finding of the area of a parabolic segment (mechanical
  solution) and of a spiral, the surface and volume of a sphere and of a
  segment thereof, and the volume of any segments of the solids of
  revolution of the second degree.

  The extant treatises are as follows:--

  (1) _On the Sphere and Cylinder_ (Greek: Peri sphairas kai
  kylindron]). This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus,
  and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and
  cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method. The
  first book contains forty-four propositions, and those in which the
  most important results are finally obtained are: 13 (surface of right
  cylinder), 14, 15 (surface of right cone), 33 (surface of sphere), 34
  (volume of sphere and its relation to that of circumscribing
  cylinder), 42, 43 (surface of segment of sphere), 44 (volume of sector
  of sphere). The second book is in nine propositions, eight of which
  deal with segments of spheres and include the problems of cutting a
  given sphere by a plane so that (a) the surfaces, (b) the volumes,
  of the segments are in a given ratio (Props. 3, 4), and of
  constructing a segment of a sphere similar to one given segment and
  having (a) its volume, (b) its surface, equal to that of another
  (5, 6).

  (2) _The Measurement of the Circle_ ([Greek: Kuklou metraesis]) is a
  short book of three propositions, the main result being obtained in
  Prop. 2, which shows that the circumference of a circle is less than
  3-1/7 and greater than 3-10/71 times its diameter. Inscribing in and
  circumscribing about a circle two polygons, each of ninety-six sides,
  and assuming that the perimeter of the circle lay between those of the
  polygons, he obtained the limits he has assigned by sheer calculation,
  starting from two close approximations to the value of [root]3, which
  he assumes as known (265/153 < [root]3 < 1351/780).

  (3) _On Conoids and Spheroids_ ([Greek: Peri konoeideon kai
  sphairoeideon]) is a treatise in thirty-two propositions, on the
  solids generated by the revolution of the conic sections about their
  axes, the main results being the comparisons of the volume of any
  segment cut off by a plane with that of a cone having the same base
  and axis (Props. 21, 22 for the paraboloid, 25, 26 for the
  hyperboloid, and 27-32 for the spheroid).

  (4) _On Spirals_ ([Greek: Peri helikon]) is a book of twenty-eight
  propositions. Propositions 1-11 are preliminary, 13-20 contain
  tangential properties of the curve now known as the spiral of
  Archimedes, and 21-28 show how to express the area included between
  any portion of the curve and the radii vectores to its extremities.

  (5) _On the Equilibrium of Planes or Centres of Gravity of Planes_
  ([Greek: Peri hepipedon isorropion ae kentra baron hepipedon]). This
  consists of two books, and may be called the foundation of theoretical
  mechanics, for the previous contributions of Aristotle were
  comparatively vague and unscientific. In the first book there are
  fifteen propositions, with seven postulates; and demonstrations are
  given, much the same as those still employed, of the centres of
  gravity (1) of any two weights, (2) of any parallelogram, (3) of any
  triangle, (4) of any trapezium. The second book in ten propositions is
  devoted to the finding the centres of gravity (1) of a parabolic
  segment, (2) of the area included between any two parallel chords and
  the portions of the curve intercepted by them.

  (6) _The Quadrature of the Parabola_ ([Greek: Tetragonisaeos
  parabolaes]) is a book in twenty-four propositions, containing two
  demonstrations that the area of any segment of a parabola is 4/3 of
  the triangle which has the same base as the segment and equal height.
  The first (a mechanical proof) begins, after some preliminary
  propositions on the parabola, in Prop. 6, ending with an integration
  in Prop. 16. The second (a geometrical proof) is expounded in Props.
  17-24.

  (7) _On Floating Bodies_ ([Greek: Peri ochoumenon]) is a treatise in
  two books, the first of which establishes the general principles of
  hydrostatics, and the second discusses with the greatest completeness
  the positions of rest and stability of a right segment of a paraboloid
  of revolution floating in a fluid.

  (8) The _Psammites_ ([Greek: Psammitaes], Lat. _Arenarius_, or sand
  reckoner), a small treatise, addressed to Gelo, the eldest son of
  Hiero, expounding, as applied to reckoning the number of grains of
  sand that could be contained in a sphere of the size of our
  "universe," a system of naming large numbers according to "orders" and
  "periods" which would enable any number to be expressed up to that
  which we should write with 1 followed by 80,000 ciphers!

  (9) _A Collection of Lemmas_, consisting of fifteen propositions in
  plane geometry. This has come down to us through a Latin version of an
  Arabic manuscript; it cannot, however, have been written by Archimedes
  in its present form, as his name is quoted in it more than once.

  Lastly, Archimedes is credited with the famous _Cattle-Problem_,
  enunciated in the epigram edited by G.E. Lessing in 1773, which
  purports to have been sent by Archimedes to the mathematicians at
  Alexandria in a letter to Eratosthenes. Of lost works by Archimedes we
  can identify the following: (1) investigations on _polyhedra_
  mentioned by Pappus; (2) [Greek: Harchai], _Principles_, a book
  addressed to Zeuxippus and dealing with the _naming of numbers_ on the
  system explained in the _Sand Reckoner_; (3) [Greek: Peri zygon], _On
  balances or levers_; (4) [Greek: Kentrobarika], _On centres of
  gravity_; (5) [Greek: Katoptrika], an optical work from which Theon of
  Alexandria quotes a remark about refraction; (6) [Greek: Hephodion], a
  _Method_, mentioned by Suidas; (7) [Greek: Peri sphairopoiias], _On
  Sphere-making_, in which Archimedes explained the construction of the
  sphere which he made to imitate the motions of the sun, the moon and
  the five planets in the heavens. Cicero actually saw this contrivance
  and describes it (_De Rep._ i. c. 14, §§ 21-22).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The _editio princeps_ of the works of Archimedes, with
  the commentary of Eutocius, is that printed at Basel, in 1544, in
  Greek and Latin, by Hervagius. D. Rivault's edition (Paris, 1615) gave
  the enunciations in Greek and the proofs in Latin somewhat retouched.
  A Latin version of them was published by Isaac Barrow in 1675 (London,
  4to); Nicolas Tartaglia published in Latin the treatises on _Centres
  of Gravity_, on the _Quadrature of the Parabola_, on the _Measurement
  of the Circle_, and on _Floating Bodies_, i. (Venice, 1543); Trojanus
  Curtius published the two books on _Floating Bodies_ in 1565 after
  Tartaglia's death; Frederic Commandine edited the Aldine edition of
  1558, 4to, which contains _Circuli Dimensio_, _De Lineis Spiralibus_,
  _Quadratura Paraboles_, _De Conoidibus et Spheroidibus_, and _De
  numero Arenae_; and in 1565 the same mathematician published the two
  books _De iis quae vehuntur in aqua_. J. Torelli's monumental edition
  of the works with the commentaries of Eutocius, published at Oxford in
  1792, folio, remained the best Greek text until the definitive text
  edited, with Eutocius' commentaries, Latin translation, &c., by J.L.
  Heiberg (Leipzig, 1880-1881) superseded it. The _Arenarius_ and
  _Dimensio Circuli_, with Eutocius' commentary on the latter, were
  edited by Wallis with Latin translation and notes in 1678 (Oxford),
  and the _Arenarius_ was also published in English by George Anderson
  (London, 1784), with useful notes and illustrations. The first modern
  translation of the works is the French edition published by F. Peyrard
  (Paris, 1808, 2 vols. 8vo.). A valuable German translation with notes,
  by E. Nizze, was published at Stralsund in 1824. There is a complete
  edition in modern notation by T.L. Heath (_The Works of Archimedes_,
  Cambridge, 1897). On Archimedes himself, see Plutarch's _Life of
  Marcellus_.     (T. L. H.)



ARCHIMEDES, SCREW OF, a machine for raising water, said to have been
invented by Archimedes, for the purpose of removing water from the hold
of a large ship that had been built by King Hiero II. of Syracuse. It
consists of a water-tight cylinder, enclosing a chamber walled off by
spiral divisions running from end to end, inclined to the horizon, with
its lower open end placed in the water to be raised. The water, while
occupying the lowest portion in each successive division of the spiral
chamber, is lifted mechanically by the turning of the machine. Other
forms have the spiral revolving free in a fixed cylinder, or consist
simply of a tube wound spirally about a cylindrical axis. The same
principle is sometimes used in machines for handling wheat, &c. (see
CONVEYORS).



ARCHIPELAGO, a name now applied to any island-studded sea, but
originally the distinctive designation of what is now generally known as
the Aegean Sea ([Greek: Aigaion pelagos]), its ancient name having been
revived. Several etymologies have been proposed: e.g. (1) it is a
corruption of the ancient name, _Egeopelago_; (2) it is from the modern
Greek, [Greek: Hagio pelago], the Holy Sea; (3) it arose at the time of
the Latin empire, and means the Sea of the Kingdom (_Archi_); (4) it is
a translation of the Turkish name, Ak Denghiz, _Argon Pelagos_, the
White Sea; (5) it is simply _Archipelagus_, Italian, _arcipelago_, the
chief sea. For the Grecian Archipelago see AEGEAN SEA. Other
archipelagoes are described in their respective places.



ARCHIPPUS, an Athenian poet of the Old Comedy, who flourished towards
the end of the 5th century B.C. His most famous play was the _Fishes_,
in which he satirized the fondness of the Athenian epicures for fish.
The Alexandrian critics attributed to him the authorship of four plays
previously assigned to Aristophanes. Archippus was ridiculed by his
contemporaries for his fondness for playing upon words (Schol. on
Aristophanes, _Wasps_, 481).

  Titles and fragments of six plays are preserved, for which see T.
  Kock, _Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta_, i. (1880); or A. Meineke,
  _Poetarum Comicorum Graecorum Fragmenta_ (1855).



ARCHITECTURE (Lat. _architectura_, from the Gr. [Greek: harchitekton], a
master-builder), the art of building in such a way as to accord with
principles determined, not merely by the ends the edifice is intended to
serve, but by high considerations of beauty and harmony (see FINE ARTS).
It cannot be defined as the art of building simply, or even of building
well. So far as mere excellence of construction is concerned, see
BUILDING and its allied articles. The end of building as such is
convenience, use, irrespective of appearance; and the employment of
materials to this end is regulated by the mechanical principles of the
constructive art. The end of architecture as an art, on the other hand,
is so to arrange the plan, masses and enrichments of a structure as to
impart to it interest, beauty, grandeur, unity, power. Architecture thus
necessitates the possession by the builder of gifts of imagination as
well as of technical skill, and in all works of architecture properly
so called these elements must exist, and be harmoniously combined.

Like the other arts, architecture did not spring into existence at an
early period of man's history The ideas of symmetry and proportion which
are afterwards embodied in material structures could not be evolved
until at least a moderate degree of civilization had been attained,
while the efforts of primitive man in the construction of dwellings must
have been at first determined solely by his physical wants. Only after
these had been provided for, and materials amassed on which his
imagination might exercise itself, would he begin to plan and erect
structures, possessing not only utility, but also grandeur and beauty.
It may be well to enumerate briefly the elements which in combination
form the architectural perfection of a building. These elements have
been very variously determined by different authorities. Vitruvius, the
only ancient writer on the art whose works have come down to us, lays
down three qualities as indispensable in a fine building: _Firmitas,
Utilitas, Venustas_, stability, utility, beauty. From an architectural
point of view the last is the principal, though not the sole element;
and, accordingly, the theory of architecture is occupied for the most
part with aesthetic considerations, or the principles of beauty in
designing. Of such principles or qualities the following appear to be
the most important: size, harmony, proportion, symmetry, ornament and
colour. All other elements may be reduced under one or other of these
heads.

With regard to the first quality, it is clear that, as the feeling of
power is a source of the keenest pleasure, size, or vastness of
proportion, will not only excite in the mind of man the feelings of awe
with which he regards the sublime in nature, but will impress him with a
deep sense of the majesty of human power. It is, therefore, a double
source of pleasure. The feelings with which we regard the Pyramids of
Egypt, the great hall of columns at Karnak, the Pantheon, or the
Basilica of Maxentius at Rome, the Trilithon at Baalbek, the choir of
Beauvais cathedral, or the Arc de l'Étoile at Paris, sufficiently attest
the truth of this quality, _size_, which is even better appreciated when
the buildings are contemplated simply as masses, without being disturbed
by the consideration of the details.

Proportion itself depends essentially upon the employment of
mathematical ratios in the dimensions of a building. It is a curious but
significant fact that such proportions as those of an exact cube, or of
two cubes placed side by side--dimensions increasing by one-half (e.g.,
20 ft. high, 30 wide and 45 long)--or the ratios of the base,
perpendicular and hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle (e.g. 3, 4, 5,
or their multiples)--please the eye more than dimensions taken at
random. No defect is more glaring or more unpleasant than want of
proportion. The Gothic architects appear to have been guided in their
designs by proportions based on the equilateral triangle.

By harmony is meant the general balancing of the several parts of the
design. It is proportion applied to the mutual relations of the details.
Thus, supported parts should have an adequate ratio to their supports,
and the same should be the case with solids and voids. Due attention to
proportion and harmony gives the appearance of stability and repose
which is indispensable to a really fine building. Symmetry is uniformity
in plan, and, when not carried to excess, is undoubtedly effective. But
a building too rigorously symmetrical is apt to appear cold and
tasteless. Such symmetry of general plan, with diversity of detail, as
is presented to us in leaves, animals, and other natural objects, is
probably the just medium between the excesses of two opposing schools.

Next to general beauty or grandeur of form in a building comes
architectural ornament. Ornament, of course, may be used to excess, and
as a general rule it should be confined to the decoration of
constructive parts of the fabric; but, on the other hand, a total
absence or a paucity of ornament betokens an unpleasing poverty.
Ornaments may be divided into two classes--mouldings and the sculptured
representation of natural or fanciful objects. Mouldings, no doubt,
originated, first, in simply taking off the edge of anything that might
be in the way, as the edge of a square post, and then sinking the
chamfer in hollows of various forms; and thence were developed the
systems of mouldings we now find in all styles and periods. Each of
these has its own system; and so well are their characteristics
understood, that from an examination of them a skilful architect will
not only tell the period in which any building has been erected, but
will even give an estimate of its probable size, as professors of
physiology will construct an animal from the examination of a single
bone. Mouldings require to be carefully studied, for nothing offends an
educated eye like a confusion of mouldings, such as Roman forms in Greek
work, or Early English in that of the Tudor period. The same remark
applies to sculptured ornaments. They should be neither too numerous nor
too few, and above all, they should be consistent. The carved ox skulls,
for instance, which are appropriate in a temple of Vesta or of Fortune
would be very incongruous on a Christian church.

Colour must be regarded as a subsidiary element in architecture, and
although it seems almost indispensable and has always been extensively
employed in interiors, it is doubtful how far external colouring is
desirable. Some contend that only local colouring, i.e. the colour of
the materials, should be admitted; but there seems no reason why any
colour should not be used, provided it be employed with discretion and
kept subordinate to the form or outline.

_Origin of the Art._--The origin of the art of architecture is to be
found in the endeavours of man to provide for his physical wants; in the
earliest days the cave, the hut and the tent may have given shelter to
those who devoted themselves to hunting and fishing, to agriculture and
to a pastoral and nomadic life, and in many cases still afford the only
shelter from the weather. There can be no doubt, however, that climate
and the materials at hand affect the forms of the primitive buildings;
thus, in the two earliest settlements of mankind, in Chaldaea and Egypt,
where wood was scarce, the heat in the day-time intense, and the only
material which could be obtained was the alluvial clay, brought down by
the rivers in both those countries, they shaped this into bricks, which,
dried in the sun, enabled them to build rude huts, giving them the
required shelter. These may have been circular or rectangular on plan,
with the bricks laid in horizontal courses, one projecting over the
other, till the walls met at the top. The next advance in Egypt was made
by the employment of the trunks of the palm tree as a lintel over the
doorway, to support the wall above, and to cover over the hut and carry
the flat roof of earth which is found down to the present day in all hot
countries. Evidence of this system of construction is found in some of
the earliest rock-cut tombs at Giza, where the actual dwelling of the
deceased was reproduced in the tomb, and from these reproductions we
gather that the corners, or quoins of the hut were protected by stems of
the douva plant, bound together in rolls by the leaves, which, in the
form of torus rolls, were also carried across the top of the wall. Down
to the present day the huts of the fellahs are built in the same way,
and, surmounted as they are by pigeon-cots, bear so strong a resemblance
to the pylons and the walls of the temples as at all events to suggest,
if not to prove, that in their origin these stone erections were copies
of unburnt brick structures. From long exposure in the sun, these bricks
acquire a hardness and compactness not much inferior to some of the
softer qualities of stone, but they are unable to sustain much pressure;
consequently it is necessary to make the walls thicker at the bottom
than at the top, and it is this which results in the batter or raking
sides of all the unburnt brick walls. The same raking sides are found in
all their _mastabas_, or tombs, sometimes built in unburnt brick and
sometimes in stone, in the latter case being simple reproductions of the
former. In some of the early mastabas, built in brick, either to vary
the monotony of the mass and decorate the walls, or to ensure greater
care in their construction, vertical brick pilasters are provided,
forming sunk panels. These form the principal decoration, as reproduced
in stone, of an endless number of tombs, some of which are in the
British Museum. At the top of each panel they carve a portion of trunk
necessary to support the walls of brick, and over the doorway a similar
feature. In Chaldaea the same decorative features are found in the stage
towers which constituted their temples, and broad projecting buttresses,
indented panels and other features, originally constructive, form the
decorations of the Assyrian palaces. There also, built in the same
material, unburnt brick, the walls have a similar batter, though they
were faced with burnt bricks. In later times in Greece and Asia Minor,
where wood was plentiful, the stone architecture suggests its timber
origin, and though unburnt brick was still employed for the mass of the
walls, the remains in Crete and the representations in painting, &c.,
show that it was encased in timber framing, so that the raking walls
were no longer a necessary element in their structure. The clearest
proofs of original timber construction are shown in the rock-cut tombs
of Lycia, where the ground sill, vertical posts, cross beams, purlins
and roof joists are all direct imitations of structures originally
erected in wood.

The numerous relics of structures left by primeval man have generally
little or no architectural value; and the only interesting problem
regarding them--the determination of their date and purpose and of the
degree of civilization which they manifest--falls within the province of
archaeology (see ARCHAEOLOGY; BARROW; LAKE-DWELLINGS; STONE MONUMENTS).

Technical terms in architecture will be found separately explained under
their own headings in this work, and in this article a general
acquaintance with them is assumed. A number of architectural subjects
are also considered in detail in separate articles; see, for instance,
CAPITAL; COLUMN; DESIGN; ORDER; and such headings as ABBEY; AQUEDUCT;
ARCH; BASILICA; BATHS; BRIDGES; CATACOMB; CRYPT; DOME; MOSQUE; PALACE;
PYRAMID; TEMPLE; THEATRE; &c., &c. Also such general articles on
national art as CHINA: _Art_; EGYPT: _Art and Archaeology_; GREEK ART;
ROMAN ART; &c., and the sections on architecture and buildings under the
headings of countries and towns.

In the remainder of this article the general history of the evolution of
the art of architecture will be considered in various sections,
associated with the nations and periods from which the leading historic
styles are chronologically derived, in so far as the dominant influences
on the art, and not the purely local characteristics of countries
outside the main current of its history, are concerned; but the
opportunity is taken to treat with some attempt at comprehensiveness the
leading features of the architectural history of those countries and
peoples which are intimately connected with the development of modern
architecture.

These consecutive sections are as follows:--

  Egyptian
  Assyrian
  Persian
  Greek
  Parthian
  Sassanian
  Etruscan
  Roman
  Byzantine
  Early Christian
  Early Christian Work in Central Syria
  Coptic Church in Egypt
  Romanesque and Gothic in--
    Italy
    France
    Spain
    England
    Germany
    Belgium and Holland
  Renaissance: Introduction
    Italy
    France
    Spain
    England
    Germany
    Belgium and Holland
  Mahommedan

  Finally, a section on what can only be collectively termed _Modern_
  architecture deals with the main lines of the later developments down
  to the present day in the architectural history of different
  countries.     (R. P. S.)


  EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE

  Although structures discovered in Chaldaea, at Tello and Nippur,
  seeming to date back to the fifth millennium B.C., suggest that the
  earlier settlements of mankind were in the valley of the Tigris and
  Euphrates, north of the Persian Gulf, it is to Egypt that we must turn
  for the most ancient records of monumental architecture (see also
  EGYPT: _Art and Archaeology_). The proximity of the ranges of hills
  (the Arabian and Libyan chains) to the Nile, and the facilities which
  that river afforded for the transport of the material quarried in
  them, enabled the Egyptians at a very early period to reproduce in
  stone those structures in unburnt brick to which we have already
  referred.

  Although the great founder of the first Egyptian monarchy is reputed
  to be Menes, the Thinite who traditionally founded the capital at
  Memphis, he was preceded, according to Flinders Petrie, by an earlier
  invading race coming from the south, who established a monarchy at
  This near Abydos, having entered the country by the Kosseir road from
  the Red Sea; and this may account for the early tradition that it was
  the Ethiopians who founded the earliest dynastic race, "Ethiopians"
  being a wide term which may embrace several races.

  Egyptian architecture is usually described under the principal periods
  in which it was developed. They are as follows[1]:--(A) the Memphite
  kingdom, whose capital was at Memphis, south-west of Cairo, the Royal
  Domain extending south some 30 to 40 m.; (B) the first Theban kingdom
  with Thebes as the capital; this covers three dynasties. Then follows
  an interregnum of five dynasties, when the invasion of the Hyksos took
  place; this was architecturally unproductive. On the expulsion of the
  Hyksos there followed (C) the second Theban kingdom, consisting of
  three dynasties, under whose reign the finest temples were erected
  throughout the country. After 1102 followed six dynasties (1102-525
  B.C.), with capitals at Sais, Tanis and Bubastis, when the decadence
  of art and power took place. Then followed the Persian invasion,
  525-331 B.C., which was destructive instead of being reproductive. On
  the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great, and after his death
  in 323 B.C., was founded (D) the Ptolemaic kingdom, with Alexandria as
  the capital. A great revival of art then took place, which to a
  certain extent was carried on under the Roman occupation from 27 B.C.,
  and lasted about 300 years.

  With the exception of a small temple, found by Petrie in front of the
  temple of Medum, and the so-called "Temple of the Sphinx," the only
  monuments remaining of the Memphite kingdom are the Pyramids, which
  were built by the kings as their tombs, and the _mastabas_, in which
  the members of the royal family and of the priests and chiefs were
  buried. The mastaba (Arabic for "bench") was a tomb, oblong in plan,
  with battering side and a flat roof, containing various chambers, of
  which the principal were (1) the Chapel for offerings, (2) the Serdab,
  in which the Ka or double of the deceased was deposited, and (3) the
  well, always excavated in the rock, in which the mummy was placed.

  The three best-known pyramids are those situated about 7 m. south-west
  of Cairo, which were built by the second, third and fourth kings of
  the fourth dynasty,--Khufu (c. 3969-3908 B.C.), Khafra (c. 3908-3845
  B.C.), and Menkaura (c. 3845-3784 B.C.), who are better known as
  Cheops, Cephren and Mycerinus. The first of these is the largest and
  most remarkable in its construction and setting out. The pyramid of
  Cephren was slightly smaller, and that of Mycerinus still more so,
  compensated for by a casing in granite. The dimensions and other
  details are given in the article PYRAMIDS. From the purely
  architectural point of view they are the least impressive of masses,
  and their immense size is not realized until on a close approach.

  The temple of the Sphinx, attributed to Cephren, is T-shaped in plan,
  with two rows of square piers down the vertical and one row down the
  cross portion. These carried a flat roof of stone. The temple is
  remarkable for the splendid finish given to the granite piers, and to
  the alabaster slabs which cased the rock in which it had been
  partially excavated (but see EGYPT: _History_, I.).

  The Serapeum at Sakkara, in which the sacred bulls were embalmed and
  buried, the tomb of Ti (a fifth dynasty courtier), and the tombs of
  the kings and queens of Thebes, have no special architectural features
  which call for description here.

  We pass on to the first Theban kingdom, the eighth king of which,
  Nebhepre Menthotp III., built the temple lately discovered on the
  south side of the temple at Deir-el-Bahri, of which it is the
  prototype. It was a sepulchral temple, and being built on rising
  ground was approached by flights of steps. In the centre was a solid
  mass of masonry which, it is thought by some authorities, was crowned
  by a pyramid. This was surrounded by a double portico with square
  piers in the outer range, and octagonal piers in the inner range,
  there being a wall between the two ranges.

  The earliest tombs in which the _column_ (q.v.) appears, as an
  architectural feature, are those at Beni Hasan, attributed to the
  period of Senwosri (formerly read Usertesen) I., the second king of
  the twelfth dynasty. These are carved in the solid rock. There are two
  types, the Polygonal column, sometimes in error called the
  Protodoric, which was cut in the rock in imitation of a wooden column,
  and a second variety known as the Lotus column, which is employed
  inside, supporting the rock-cut roof, but having such slender
  proportions as to suggest that it was copied from the posts of a
  porch, round which the Lotus plant had been tied.

  The culminating period of the Egyptian style begins with the kings of
  the eighteenth dynasty, their principal capital being Thebes,
  described by Herodotus as the "City with the Hundred Gates"; and
  although the execution of the masonry is inferior to that of the older
  dynasties, the grandeur of the conception of their temples, and the
  wealth displayed in their realization entitle Thebes to the most
  important position in the history of the Egyptian style, especially as
  the temples there grouped on both sides of the river exceed in number
  and dimensions the whole of the other temples throughout Egypt. This
  to a certain extent may possibly be due to the distance of Thebes from
  the Mediterranean, which has contributed to their preservation from
  invaders. We have already referred to the probable origin of the
  peculiar batter or raking side given to the walls of the pylons and
  temples, with the Torus moulding surrounding the same and crowned with
  the cavetto cornice. What, however, is more remarkable is the fact
  that, once accepted as an important and characteristic feature, it
  should never have been departed from, and that down to and during the
  Roman occupation the same batter is found in all the temples, though
  constructively there was no necessity for it. The strict adherence to
  tradition may possibly account for this, but it has resulted in a
  magnificent repose possessed by these structures, which seem built to
  last till eternity.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Plan of the Temple of Chons.

    A, Pylon.
    B, Great court.
    C, Hall of columns.
    D, Priest's hall.
    E, Sanctuary.]

  An avenue with sphinxes on both sides forms the approach to the
  temple. These avenues were sometimes of considerable length, as in the
  case of that reaching from Karnak to Luxor, which is 1½ m. long. The
  leading features of the temple (see fig. 1) were:--(A) The pylon,
  consisting of two pyramidal masses of masonry crowned with a cavetto
  cornice, united in the centre by an immense doorway, in front of which
  on either side were seated figures of the king and obelisks. (B) A
  great open court surrounded by peristyles on two or three sides. (C) A
  great hall with a range of columns down the centre on either side,
  forming what in European architecture would be known as nave and
  aisles, with additional aisles on each side; these had columns of less
  height than those first mentioned, so as to allow of a clerestory,
  lighting the central avenue. (D) Smaller halls with their flat roofs
  carried by columns. And finally (E) the sanctuary, with passage round
  giving access to the halls occupied by the priest.

  Broadly speaking, the temples bear considerable resemblance to one
  another (see TEMPLE), except in dimensions. There is one important
  distinction, however, to be drawn between the Theban temples and those
  built under the Ptolemaic rule. In these latter the halls are not
  enclosed between pylons, but left open on the side of the entrance
  court with screens in between the columns, the hall being lighted from
  above the screens. The temples of Edfu, Esna and Dendera are thus
  arranged.

  The great temple of Karnak (fig. 2) differs from the type just
  described, in that it was the work of many successive monarchs. Thus
  the sanctuary, built in granite, and the surrounding chambers, were
  erected by Senwosri (Usertesen) I. of the twelfth dynasty. In front of
  this, on the west side, pylons were added by Tethmosis (Thothmes,
  Tahutmes) I. (1541-1516), enclosing a hall, in the walls of which were
  Osirid figures. In front of this a third pylon was added, which Seti
  (Sethos) I. utilized as one of the enclosures of the great hall of
  columns (fig. 3), measuring 170 ft. deep by 329 ft. wide, having added
  a fourth pylon on the other side to enclose it. Again in front of this
  was the great open court with porticoes on two sides, and a great
  pylon, forming the entrance. In the rear of all these buildings, and
  some distance beyond the sanctuary, Tethmosis III. (1503-1449) built a
  great colonnaded hall with other halls round, considered to have been
  a palace. All these structures form a part only of the great temple,
  on the right and left of which (i.e. to the north-east and south-west)
  were other temples preceded by pylons and connected one with the other
  by avenues of sphinxes. Though of small size comparatively, one of the
  best preserved is the temple of Chons, built by Rameses III. It was
  from this temple that an avenue of sphinxes led to the temple of
  Luxor, which was begun by Amenophis III. (1414-1379 B.C.), and
  completed by Rameses II. (1300-1234).

  On the opposite or west bank of the Nile are the temple of Medinet
  Abu, the Ramesseum, the temples of Kurna and of Deir-el-Bahri; the
  last being a sepulchral temple, which, built on rising ground, had
  flights of steps leading to the higher level (fig. 4), and porticoes
  with square piers at the foot of each terrace. In the rear on the
  right-hand side was found an altar, the only example of its kind known
  in Egypt. The halls behind this and the portico of the right flank had
  polygonal columns.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.

  PLAN OF KARNAK.

  From Murray's Handbook for Egypt, by permission of Mr. Edward
  Stanford.]

  In the palace of Tell el-Amarna, built shortly before 1350 B.C. by the
  heretic king Akhenaton (whose name was originally Amenophis IV.), and
  discovered by Petrie, there were no special architectural
  developments, but the painted decoration of the walls and pavements
  assumed a literal interpretation of natural forms of plants and
  foliage and of birds and animals, recalling to some extent that found
  at Cnossus in Crete.

  Ascending the river from Cairo, the first temples of which important
  remains exist are the two at Abydos. One of these has an exceptional
  plan, with seven sanctuaries in the rear. It was built by Seti I., and
  consists of an outer portico with square piers, a hall with two rows
  of columns down to the centre, and a second hall with three rows of
  columns. These halls are placed longitudinally to give access to the
  seven sanctuaries. The second temple is of the ordinary type, with
  pylon, court with portico on all four sides, two halls of columns, and
  three sanctuaries in the rear. The next temple is that of Dendera,
  commenced under the second Ptolemy but not completed until the reign
  of Nero. It has been completely excavated, and retains the whole of
  its external walls. Above Thebes is the temple of Esna, of which the
  hall of columns only has been cleared out. The capitals of the front
  belong to the lotus-bud type, and those of the interior are carved
  with many varieties of river plant. The temple of Edfu is the best
  preserved in Egypt. Its plan (fig. 5) would seem to have been
  determined from the first, and it is singular to note that it presents
  the traditional type of plan, which in the Theban examples was evolved
  from additions made by successive monarchs. In dimensions it is but
  little inferior to these. Its pylon (fig. 6) is 250 ft. wide and 150
  ft. high; the first court has porticoes on three sides. The great hall
  of columns, all of which here are of the same height, is lighted from
  above (fig. 7), the screen facing the court. Then follow the second
  hall of columns, two vestibules, and the sanctuary, surrounded by a
  passage giving access to the priest's rooms round. The temple of Kom
  Ombo, which comes next, was dedicated to two deities, and had
  therefore two sanctuaries.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Section through Hall of Columns, Karnak. a,
  Clerestory window.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Temple of Deir-el-Bahri, conjectural
  restoration by Prof. E. Brune.]

  The temples of Philae owe much of their beauty and picturesqueness to
  the island on which they are situated; their plans, and that of the
  long porticoes in front of the pylons of the great temple, being
  fitted to the irregularity of the site. In the first court is a
  well-preserved example of the Mammeisi temple (see TEMPLE), the
  sanctuary and other rooms in which are entirely enclosed in a
  peristyle. It was built by Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.). A second
  monarch of the same name (about 125 B.C.) built the pavilion on the
  north side of the island, known as "Pharaoh's bed," the roof of which
  was covered with stone slabs, resting on timber beams. In consequence
  of the building of the Assuan dam all these temples are submerged for
  the greater part of the year. The principal temples between Philae and
  the second cataract are:--Dabod, of which little remains; Kartassi;
  Kalabsha, still preserving its pylon and great hall of columns; the
  Bet el-Wali, in which are two ancient polygonal columns; Gerf Husen,
  partially cut in the rock; Dakka; Wadi es-Sebu'a; and lastly Abu
  Simbel. Owing to the proximity of the ranges of hills to the Nile,
  there was no room for the ordinary type of temple at Abu Simbel, so
  that those founded here by Rameses the Great (c. 1300-1234 B.C.) were
  excavated in the rock. In the place of the pylon the side of the cliff
  was worked off, leaving in relief four immense seated figures, 66 ft.
  high. The first hall had three aisles, divided by four piers on each
  side, in front of which Osirid figures (18 ft. high) were carved;
  beyond was a second hall, vestibule and sanctuary. The long
  rectangular chambers on each side are provided with benches cut in the
  rock. The depth of the temple is 90 ft. There is a second temple of
  smaller size which faces the Nile.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plan of the Temple of Edfu.

    AA, Pylon.
    B, Entrance door.
    C, Great Court.
    D, Hall of Columns.
    E, Second Hall.
    F, Hall of the Altar.
    G, Hall of the Centre.
    H, Sanctuary.
    KK, Storerooms.]

  We have already referred to the lotus columns at Beni Hasan; these,
  when employed constructionally to carry stone roofs, assumed a far
  more solid appearance, and the stems of the lotus plant carved in the
  earlier examples were omitted in the later, in order to give more
  surface for intaglio carving. The capital and its neck still retain
  the lotus buds and the bands which tied them round the column. In the
  central avenues of the great halls the columns had bell capitals, the
  decoration of which was based on the flower of the papyrus. There are
  a few examples of the palm capital, often carved in granite, which
  date from an early period. Commencing with the Ptolemaic revival the
  capitals assume a much greater variety of form, their decoration being
  based on river plants; but here again the lotus plant, which seems
  still to be the favourite type, predominates, the buds in various
  degrees of their growth alternating one with the other. All these
  varieties of form are described in the article CAPITAL, but two or
  three may be mentioned here, as they depart from the usual type. The
  Hathor-headed capital, with faces on all four sides, and surmounted
  with a miniature shrine, is found at Dendera, Philae and other temples
  of the Ptolemaic or Roman periods; one of the earliest examples, but
  without the shrine, dates back to Tethmosis III. (1503-1449 B.C.). As
  a distinct type of pier decoration, the Osirid figures at Medinet Abu,
  at Karnak, Gerf Husen, Abu Simbel and other temples, constitute
  important features: the figure is carved in front of the pier and does
  not serve any constructive function.

  With the exception of the great building in the rear of the temple at
  Karnak, built by Tethmosis III., and the pavilion of Medinet Abu on
  the west bank of the Nile at Thebes, no palatial residences of any
  importance have yet been found, from which it might be inferred that
  the king, being the head of the Egyptian religion, occupied with his
  family the sacred precincts of the temple; but large as these temple
  enclosures are, there would have been no room for the immense army of
  attendants and servants required in an Oriental court. Moreover, the
  darkness of the halls and the rigid enclosures would have made a
  residence in them anything but cheerful. There are two instances
  where, in consequence of the subsequent desertion of the site, remains
  have been found of ancient towns. At Tell el-Amarna, built by the
  heretic king, Akhenaton, portions of the houses remain, and at Kahun,
  in the Fayum, Petrie discovered the walls of a town which, erected for
  the overseers and workmen employed in the construction of the pyramid
  of Illahun, built by Senwosri (Usertesen) II. (2684-2666 B.C.), was
  abandoned when the pyramid was completed. The houses were all built in
  unburnt brick, and in those cases where the rooms exceeded 8 or 9 ft.
  in width, columns in stone or wood were employed to assist in carrying
  the roof, which was constructed of beams carrying smaller timbers
  covered over with a flat roof of mud. The plans of the houses were not
  unlike those found in Pompeii, with open courts and porticoes and no
  external windows. The streets ran at right angles to one another, and
  the houses varied in size from the workman's hut, of one room, to the
  overseer's house with several rooms and courts; the principal
  residence, in the centre, occupied by the governor of the town, being
  of still larger dimensions.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--Exterior of the Pylon of the Temple of Edfu.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--Façade of the Great Hall of Columns of the
  Ptolemaic temple at Edfu.]

  Further knowledge of the Egyptian dwellings is chiefly derived from
  the "soul-houses" recently discovered by Petrie, and from the
  paintings in the tombs, which suggest that they corresponded to that
  class of residence which in Rome was known as a villa, viz. a series
  of detached buildings built in immense enclosures, with porticoes
  round, groves of trees, artificial lakes, &c. The walls, gates and
  buildings were all built probably in unburnt brick, and the whole
  site, if on the borders of the river, raised on great mounds. In this
  respect they accord with the houses of the fellah at the present day,
  which are raised on the accumulation of centuries, for when, owing to
  the rise of the Nile, the houses succumb to the moisture creeping up,
  another house is built on the top. The representations in paintings
  show that the houses were chiefly built in unburnt brick, and they
  sometimes were of two or three storeys with windows in the upper
  floors, and a flat roof with a kind of dormer known as the Mulhuf,
  turned towards the north-west to ventilate the house. The paintings
  frequently represent the store-rooms, or granaries; and the
  preservation of those built by Rameses the Great, in the rear of the
  Ramesseum at Thebes, as granaries to hold corn, enables us to follow
  their construction. These granaries consist of a series of long
  cellars, about 12 to 14 ft. wide, placed side by side, and roofed over
  with elliptical barrel vaults. The reason for the elliptical form and
  the method of their construction is given in the article VAULT (q.v.).

  The pavilion of Medinet Abu was built in stone, and consequently has
  been preserved more or less complete to our day. It consisted of three
  storeys with a flat roof and battlement round, said to be in imitation
  of those on a Syrian fortress, as they are quite unlike anything else
  in Egypt. The floors were in wood, but there are traces of a stone
  staircase. The windows, of large size, were filled with thin stone
  slabs pierced with vertical slits, like those of the hall of columns
  at Karnak.     (R. P. S.)


  ASSYRIAN ARCHITECTURE

  About 3800 B.C. the earlier inhabitants of Chaldaea or Babylonia were
  invaded and absorbed by a Semitic race, whose first monarch was Sargon
  of Agade (Akkad). 1800 years later, emigrations took place northward,
  and founded Nineveh on the banks of the Tigris, about 250 m. north of
  Babylon. 1200 years later, the Assyrians began building the
  magnificent series of palaces from which were brought the winged
  man-headed bulls and the sculptured slabs now in the British Museum.
  The leading characteristics of the style, and the nature of the
  structures, temples and palaces, evolved by the Chaldaeans (or first
  Babylonian empire), the Assyrians, and the new Babylonian empire, are
  similar; they are best known by those which represent a culmination of
  the style in north Mesopotamia, and are therefore described here.

  By a singular coincidence the remains of the oldest building found at
  Nippur (Niffar), in lower Mesopotamia, bear a close resemblance to the
  oldest pyramid in Egypt, Medum, before it received its final casing.
  The latter, however, is known to have been a tomb, whereas the
  structure at Nippur was a temple, which took the form of a _ziggurat_
  or stage tower. It consisted of several storeys built one over the
  other, the upper storey in each case being set back behind the lower,
  in order to leave a terrace all round. In some cases the terrace was
  wider in front, to give space for staircases ascending from storey to
  storey. In consequence of the extreme flatness of the country and its
  liability to sudden inundations, it became necessary, when erecting
  buildings of any kind, to raise them on mounds of earth. The more
  important the structure, the higher was it deemed necessary to raise
  it, so as to make it the most conspicuous feature in the landscape.
  The result is that from Abu Shahrain, the most southern town, to
  Akarkuf (Aqarquf), 220 m. north, there are a series of immense mounds,
  sometimes nearly a mile in diameter, and rising to a height of 200
  ft., crowned with the remains of towns, which, notwithstanding the
  thirty centuries more or less during which they have been exposed to
  the torrential rains and the destructive agencies of man, form still
  the most prominent features in the country. The structures which were
  raised on the mound, i.e. the temples and palaces with their enclosure
  walls, were all built with bricks made of the alluvial clay of the
  country, shaped in wooden moulds and dried in the heat of the sun, a
  heat so intense that they acquired sometimes the hardness of the
  inferior qualities of stone. The walls of the temples, palaces and
  enclosures had the same batter as that already referred to in the
  preceding section on Egypt. In the latter country they were reproduced
  in stone, of which there were many quarries on either side of the
  Nile; in Chaldaea they were obliged to content themselves with the
  preservation of their ziggurats by outer casings of burnt brick and
  with pavements of tiles for their terraces. In order to vary the
  monotony of their temple walls, and perhaps to give them greater
  strength, they built vertical bands or buttresses at intervals, or
  they sank panels in the walls to two depths, a natural decoration to
  which brick work lends itself; and these two methods, which were
  employed in early times, were followed by the Assyrians in the palaces
  of Nimrud, Nineveh and Khorsabad.

  The earlier settlements were those founded between the mouths of the
  Tigris and the Euphrates, on what was then the shore of the Persian
  Gulf, now some 140 m. farther south. The principal towns where the
  remains of ziggurats have been found, all on the borders of the
  Euphrates, beginning with the most southern, are:--Abu Shahrain
  (Eridu); Mugheir (Ur of the Chaldees); Senkera (? Ellasar or Larsa);
  Warka (Erech); Tello (Eninnu); Nippur; Birs Nimrud (Borsippa); Babil
  (Babylon); El Ohemir (Kish); Abu Habba (Sippara); and Akarkuf
  (Durkurigalsu).

  Although the ziggurats at Warka, Nippur and Tello are probably of
  older foundation, the great temple of Borsippa at Birs Nimrud is in
  better preservation, having been restored or rebuilt by
  Nebuchadrezzar, and may be taken as a typical example. The ground
  storey was 272 ft. square, and, according to Fergusson, 45 ft. high.
  The upper storeys or stages receded back, one behind the other, so as
  to leave a terrace all round. Although it is not possible to trace
  more than four storeys, it is known from the description on a cylinder
  found on the site that there were seven storeys, dedicated to the
  planets, each coloured with the special tint prescribed. The total
  height was about 160 ft., and on the top was a shrine dedicated to the
  god Nebo. An invaluable record of the researches which have been made
  during the last three centuries or more is given in H.V. Hilprecht's
  _Explorations in Bible Lands during the 19th Century_. Two or three of
  them might be mentioned here. At Warka Mr Kenneth Loftus uncovered a
  wall, strengthened by buttresses 15 ft. wide and projecting 18 in.,
  between which were panels filled with a series of semicircular shafts
  side by side, both buttresses and shafts being decorated with
  geometrical patterns consisting of small earthenware cones embedded in
  the wall, the ends of which were enamelled in various colours. The
  design of these patterns is so unlike anything found in Assyrian work,
  but bears so close a resemblance to the geometrical designs carved on
  the columns at Diarbekr ascribed to the Parthians, that this wall may
  have been built at a much later period; and this becomes the more
  probable in view of the discoveries made subsequently at Tello and
  Nippur, where Parthian palaces have been found, crowning the summits
  of the ancient Chaldaean mounds. In both these towns the researches
  made in later years have been carried out far more methodically than
  previously, and, following the example of Schliemann, excavations have
  been made to great depths, careful notes being taken of the strata
  shown by the platforms at different levels. At Tello, de Sarzac
  discovered the magnificent collection of statues of diorite now in the
  Louvre, one of them (unfortunately headless) of Gudea, priest-king and
  architect of Lagash, seated and carrying on his lap a tablet, on which
  is engraved the plan of a fortified enclosure, whilst a divided scale
  and a stylos are carved in relief near the upper and right-hand side.
  A silver inlaid vase of Entemena, also priest-king of Lagash (about
  3950 B.C.), and other treasures, were found on the same site.

  At Nippur (the ancient Calneh) the research undertaken by the
  university of Pennsylvania resulted in the discovery, under a ziggurat
  dated from 4000-4500 B.C., of a barrel-vaulted tunnel, in the floor of
  which were found terra-cotta drain pipes with flanged mouths. At a
  later date (3750 B.C.) Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, had built over
  the older ziggurat a loftier and larger temple, above which was a
  third built by Ur Gur (2500 B.C.), which still retained its burnt
  brick casing, 5 ft. thick. Crowning all these was the Parthian palace
  mentioned in the section on Parthian architecture below. The result of
  these researches has not only carried back the date of the earlier
  settlements to a prehistoric period quite unknown, but has suggested
  that if similar researches are carried out in other well-known mounds,
  among which the great city of Babylon should be counted as the most
  important, further revelations may still be made.

  [Illustration: From _The History of Art in Chaldaea and Assyria_, by
  permission of Chapman & Hill, Ltd.

  FIG. 8--Plan of the Palace at Khorsabad.

    A, Principal courtyard.
    B, The harem.
    C, The offices.
    DD, The halls of state.
    E, Official residences.
    F, The king's residence.
    G, The ziggurat or temple.]

  But we have now to pass to the principal cities of the Assyrian
  monarchy on the river Tigris. At Nineveh, the capital, which is about
  250 m. north of Babylon, the remains of three palaces have been found,
  those of Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.), Esarhaddon (681-668 B.C.), and
  Assurbampal (668-626 B.C.). At Nimrud (the ancient Calah, founded by
  Assur), 20 m. south of Nineveh, are also three palaces, one (the
  earliest known) built by Assurnazirpal (885-860 B.C.), the others by
  Shalmaneser II. (860-825 B.C.) and Esarhaddon. At Balawat, 10 m. east
  of Niniveh, was a second palace of Shalmaneser II., and at Khorsabad,
  10 m. north-east of Nineveh, the palace (fig. 8) built by Sargon
  (722-705 B.C.), which was situated on the banks of the Khanser, a
  tributary of the Tigris. As this palace is one of the most extensive
  of those hitherto explored, its description will best give the general
  idea of the plan and conception of an Assyrian palace.

  The palace was built on an immense platform, made of sun-dried bricks,
  enclosed in masonry, and covering an area of nearly one million square
  feet, raised 48 ft. above the town level. The principal front of the
  palace measured 900 ft., there being a terrace in front. The approach
  was probably by a double inclined ramp which chariots and horses could
  mount. A central and two side portals (fig. 9), flanked with winged
  human-headed bulls (now in the British Museum), led to the principal
  courtyard (A), measuring 300 ft. by 240 ft. The block (B) on the left
  of the court, containing smaller courts and rooms, constituted the
  harem; that on the right the offices (C); those in the rear the halls
  of state (DDD), the residences of the officers of the court (E), the
  king's private apartments (F) being on the left, facing the ziggurat
  or temple (G). In the extreme rear were other state rooms with
  terraces probably laid out as gardens and commanding a view of the
  river and country beyond.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--Entrance gateway, Palace of Khorsabad.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Bas-relief of group of buildings at Kuyunjik.
  (After Layard.)]

  As there must have been nearly 700 rooms in the palace, the
  destination of the greater number of which it would be difficult to
  determine, it will be sufficient to refer only to those state rooms in
  which the principal sculptured slabs were found, and which decorated
  the lower 9 ft. of the walls. The two chief factors to be noted are
  (1) the great length of the halls compared with their width, the chief
  hall being 150 ft. long and 30 ft. wide, and (2) the immense thickness
  of the walls, which measured 28 ft. The only reason for walls of this
  thickness would be to resist the thrust of a vault, and as La Place,
  the French explorer, found many blocks of earth of great size, the
  soffits of which were covered with stucco and had apparently fallen
  from a height, he was led to the conclusion, now generally accepted,
  that these halls were vaulted. These discoveries, and the fact that in
  none of the palaces excavated has a single foundation of the base of
  any column been found, quite dispose of Fergusson's restoration, which
  was based on the palaces of Persepolis. Moreover, the two climates are
  entirely different. In the mountainous country of Persia the breezes
  might be welcomed, but in Mesopotamia the heat is so intense that
  every precaution has to be taken to protect the inmates of the house
  or palace. Thick walls and vaults were a necessity in Nineveh, and
  even the windows or openings must have been of small dimensions. No
  windows have been found, nor are any shown on the bas-reliefs, except
  on the upper parts of towers. It is possible therefore that the light
  was admitted through terra-cotta pipes or cylinders, of which many
  were found on the site, and this is the modern system of lighting the
  dome in the East. Although no remains have ever been found of domes in
  any of the Assyrian palaces, the representation of many domical forms
  is given in a bas-relief found at Kuyunjik (fig. 10), suggesting that
  the dome was often employed to roof over their halls.

  Reference has already been made to the bas-reliefs which decorated the
  lower portion of the great halls; the less important rooms had their
  walls covered with stucco and painted. Externally the architectural
  decoration was of the simplest kind; the lower portion of the walls
  was faced with stone; and the monumental portals, in addition to the
  winged bulls which flanked them, had deep archivolts in coloured
  enamels on glazed brick, with figures and rosettes in bright colours.
  A similar decoration would seem to have been applied to the
  crenellated battlements, which crowned all the exterior walls, as also
  those of the courts. The buttresses inside the courts, and the towers
  which flanked the chief entrance, were decorated with vertical
  semicircular mouldings of brick. This system of decoration is also
  found in the ziggurats or observatories behind the harem, where the
  three lower storeys still exist. A winding ramp was carried round this
  tower, the storeys of which were set back one behind the other, the
  burnt brick paving of the ramp and the crenellated battlements forming
  a parapet, portions of which are still _in situ_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Plan of Persepolis.]

  Although not unknown in either Chaldaea or Assyria, the stone column,
  according to Perrot and Chipiez, found no place in those structures of
  crude brick of which the real architecture of Mesopotamia consisted.
  Only one example in stone, in which the shaft and capital together are
  3 ft. 4 in. in height, has been found. Two bases of similar design to
  the capital are supposed to have supported wooden columns carrying an
  awning. There are representations in the bas-reliefs of kiosks in a
  garden, the columns in which, with volute capitals, are supposed to
  have been of wood sheathed in metal, and on the bronze bands of the
  Balawat gates in the British Museum are representations of the
  interior of a house with wood columns and bracket capitals, and
  several awnings carried by posts. Small windows are shown in some of
  the bas-reliefs, with balustrades of small columns, which were
  doubtless copied from the ivory plaques found at Nimrud and now in the
  British Museum.     (R. P. S.)


  PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE

  The origin of Persian architecture must be sought for in that of the
  two earlier dynasties,--the Assyrian and Median, to whose empire the
  Persian monarchy succeeded by conquest in 560 B.C. From the former, it
  borrowed the raised platform on which their palaces were built, the
  broad flights of steps leading up to them and the winged human-headed
  bulls which flank the portals of the propylaea. From Media it would
  seem to have derived the great halls of columns and the porticoes of
  the palaces, so clearly described by Polybius (x. 24) as existing at
  Ecbatana; the principal difference being that the columns of the stoas
  and peristyle, which there consisted of cedar and cypress covered with
  silver plates, were in the Persian palaces built of stone. The
  ephemeral nature of the one material, and the intrinsic value of the
  other, are sufficient to account for their entire disappearance; but
  as Ecbatana was occupied by Darius and Xerxes as one of their
  principal cities, the stone column, bases and capitals, which still
  exist there, may be regarded as part of the restoration and rebuilding
  of the palace; and as they are similar to those found at Persepolis
  and Susa, it is fair to assume that the source of the first
  inspiration of Persian architecture came from the Medians, especially
  as Cyrus, the first king, was brought up at the court of Astyages, the
  last Median monarch.

  The earliest Persian palace, of which but scanty remains have been
  found, was built at Pasargadae by Cyrus. There is sufficient, however,
  to show that it was of the simplest kind, and consisted of a central
  hall, the roof of which was carried by two rows of stone columns, 30
  ft. high, and porticoes _in antis_ on two if not on three sides.

  The great platform, also at Pasargadae, known as the Takht-i-Suleiman,
  or throne of Solomon, covered an area of about 40,000 sq. ft., and is
  remarkable for the beauty of its masonry and the large stones of which
  it is built. These are all sunk round the edge, being the earliest
  example of what is known as "drafted masonry," which at Jerusalem and
  Hebron gives so magnificent an effect to the great walls of the temple
  enclosures. No remains have ever been traced on this platform of the
  palace which it was probably built to support.

  We pass on therefore to Persepolis, the most important of the Persian
  cities, if we may judge by the remains still existing there. Here, as
  at Pasargadae, builders availed themselves of a natural rocky
  platform, at the foot of a range of hills, which they raised in parts
  and enclosed with a stone wall. Here the masonry is not drafted, and
  the stones are not always laid in horizontal courses, but they are
  shaped and fitted to one another with the greatest accuracy, and are
  secured by metal clamps. The plan (fig. 11) shows the general
  configuration of the platform on which the palaces of Persepolis are
  built, which covered an area of about 1,600,000 sq. ft. The principal
  approach to it was at the north-west end, up a magnificent flight of
  steps (A) with a double ramp, the steps being 22 ft. wide, with a
  tread of 15 in. and a rise of 4, so that they could be ascended by
  horses. The first building opposite this staircase was the entrance
  gateway or propylaea (B), a square hall, with four columns carrying
  the roof and with portals in the front and rear flanked by winged
  bulls. The earliest palace on the platform (D) is that which was built
  by Darius, 521 B.C. It was rectangular on plan, raised on a platform
  approached by two flights of steps, and consisted of an entrance
  portico of eight columns, in two rows of four placed _in antis_,
  between square chambers, in which were probably staircases leading to
  the roof. This portico led to the great hall, square on plan, whose
  roof was carried by sixteen columns in four rows. This hall was
  lighted by two windows on each side of the central doorway, all of
  which, being in stone, still exist, the lintels and jambs of both
  doors and windows being monolithic. The walls between these features,
  having been built in unburnt brick, or in rubble masonry with clay
  mortar, have long since disappeared. There were other rooms on each
  side of the hall and an open court in the rear. The bases of the
  columns of the portico still remain _in situ_, as also one of the
  antae in solid masonry; and as these in their relative position and
  height are in exact accordance with those represented on the tomb of
  Darius (fig. 12) and other tombs carved in the rock near Persepolis
  (q.v.), there is no difficulty in forming a fairly accurate
  conjectural restoration of the same. In the representation of this
  palace, as shown on the tomb, and above the portico, has been
  sculptured the great throne of Darius, on which he sat, rendering
  adoration to the Sun god.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--The Tomb of Darius, cut in the cliff at
  Nakshi Rustam, near Persepolis.]

  All the other palaces on the site, built or added to by various
  monarchs and at different periods, preserve very much the same plan,
  consisting always of a great square hall, the roof of which was
  carried by columns, with one or more porticoes round, and smaller
  rooms and courts in the rear. In one of the palaces (G) the roof was
  carried by 100 columns in ten rows of ten each. The most important
  building, however, and one which from its extent, height and
  magnificence, is one of the most stupendous works of antiquity, is the
  great palace of Xerxes (C), which, though it consists only of a great
  central hall and three porticoes, covered an area of over 100,000 sq.
  ft., greater than any European cathedral, those of Milan and St
  Peter's at Rome alone excepted.

  It was built on a platform raised 10 ft. above the terrace and
  approached by four flights of steps on the north side, the principal
  entrance. The columns of the porticoes and of the great hall were 65
  ft. high, including base and capital. In the east and west porticoes
  the capitals consist only of the double bull or griffin; the cross
  corbels on their backs, similar to those shown on the tomb of Darius,
  have disappeared, being probably in wood. In the north or entrance
  portico, and in the great hall, the capitals are of a much more
  elaborated nature, as under the double capital was a composition of
  Ionic capitals set on end, and below that the calix and pendant leaves
  of the lotus plant. It can only be supposed that Xerxes, thinking the
  columns of the east portico required more decoration, instructed his
  architects to add some to those of the entrance portico and hall, and
  that they copied some of the spoils brought from Branchidae and others
  from Egypt.

  Fig. 13 shows the plan of the palace according to the researches of Mr
  Weld Blundell, who found the traces of the walls surrounding the great
  hall and of the square chambers at the angles, and also proved that
  the lines of the drains as shown in Coste's and Texier's plans were
  incorrect. M. Dieulafoy also traced the existence of walls enclosing
  the Apadana at Susa from the paving of the hall and the portico which
  stopped on the lines of the wall. The plan of the palace at Susa was
  similar to that of the palace of Xerxes, except that on the side
  facing the garden facing south the apadana or throne room was left
  open. M. Dieulafoy's discoveries at Susa of the frieze of archers, the
  frieze of the lions, and other decorations of the walls flanking the
  staircase, all executed in bright coloured enamels on concrete blocks,
  revealed the exceptional beauty of the decoration both externally and
  internally applied to the Persian palaces.

  [Illustration: From R.P. Spier's _Architecture, East and West_.

  FIG. 13.--Plan of the Hall of Xerxes.]

  The only other monumental works of Persian architecture are the tombs;
  to those cut in the solid rock, of which there are some examples, we
  have already referred. The most ancient tomb is that erected to Cyrus
  the Elder at Pasargadae, and consists of a small shrine or cella in
  masonry raised on a series of steps, inspired (according to Fergusson)
  by the ziggurat or terrace-temples of Assyria, but on a small scale.
  The tomb was surrounded on three sides by porticoes of columns. There
  are two other tombs, one at Persepolis and one at Pasargadae--small
  square towers with an entrance opening high up on one side, sunk
  panels in the stone, and a dentil cornice, copied from early Ionian
  buildings.     (R. P. S.)


  GREEK ARCHITECTURE

  _Prehistoric Period._--We have now to retrace our steps and go back to
  the prehistoric period of Greek architecture, to the origin and early
  development of that style which sowed the seed and determined the
  future form and growth of all subsequent European art.

  The discoveries in Crete and Argolis have shown that Greek
  architecture owes much less than was at one time supposed to Egyptian
  and Chaldaean architecture; and although from very early times there
  may have been a commercial exchange between the several countries, the
  objects imported suggested only new and various schemes of decorative
  design, and exercised no influence on the development of architectural
  style. The remains of the palace at Cnossus in Crete, together with
  the representations in fresco painting and other decorative objects,
  show that whilst the lower part of the walls under the level of the
  ground and up to a height of 5 ft. above were all built in well-worked
  masonry, the upper portions were constructed in unburnt brick with
  timber framing, which not only gave strength and solidity to the
  walls, but carried the cross beams and timbers of intermediate floors
  and the roof, and further, that the walls were always vertical, which
  was not the case in Egypt or Chaldaea.

  The principal remains discovered by Dr Arthur J. Evans (see CRETE) are
  described by him as belonging to the later Minoan age, from which it
  may be inferred they are the result of same centuries of previous
  development. What, however, is most remarkable is the admirable
  planning of the whole palace, the bringing together, under one roof
  and in proper and regular intercommunication, of the numerous
  services, which in a palace are somewhat complicated. The palace
  measured about 400 ft. square, and was built round an open court,
  nearly 200 ft. long by 90 ft. wide; as the same arrangement was found
  at Phaestus, excavated by the Italian archaeologists, it may be
  assumed to have been the Cretan plan. It was built on the crest of a
  hill, and in the western or highest portion was the court entrance
  from the agora to the megaron or throne-room, and the halls of the
  officers of the state. In the lower portion facing the east (the rooms
  in which were two storeys below the level of the court on account of
  the slope of the hill) was the private suite of apartments of the king
  and queen. All the services of the palace were at the north end of the
  palace, where the entrance gateway to the central court was situated.
  This northern entrance, Dr Evans points out, "represents the main
  point of intercourse between the palace and the city on the one hand
  and the port on the other." This is the only part of the palace in
  which there is evidence of some kind of fortification, as the road of
  access is dominated by a tower or bastion. Other provisions also in
  the plan of the western entrance suggest that its passage was guarded
  to some extent. In this respect the palace of Tiryns, excavated by Dr
  Schliemann, presents an entirely different aspect; the whole
  stronghold bears a singular resemblance to a fortified castle of the
  middle ages; a high wall from 24 to 50 ft. thick surrounded the
  acropolis, and the inclined paths of approach and the double gateways
  gave that protection at Tiryns which at Cnossus was assured, as Dr
  Evans remarks, by the bulwarks of the Minoan navy. The area on the
  spur of the hill, on which the citadel of Tiryns was placed, was very
  much smaller, but if we accept the forecourt at Tiryns as equivalent
  to the great central court at Cnossus, there are great similarities in
  the plans of the two palaces. The propylaea, the altar court, the
  portico, and the megaron are found in both, and those details which
  are missing in the one are found in the other. The discoveries at
  Cnossus have enabled Dr Evans to reconstitute the timber columns, of
  which the bases only were found at Tiryns, and the spur walls of the
  portico of the megaron and the sills of the doorways at Tiryns give
  some clue to the restoration of similar features at Cnossus; and if in
  the latter palace we find the origin of the Doric column, at Tiryns is
  found that of the antae and of the door linings, further substantiated
  by the careful analysis made by Dr Dörpfeld of the Heraeum at Olympia.

  The reconstruction by Dr Evans of the timber columns at Cnossus, which
  tapered from the top downwards, the lower diameter being about
  six-sevenths of the upper, has little historical importance (see
  ORDER), so that we may now pass on to the next early monument of
  importance, the tomb of Agamemnon, the principal and the best
  preserved of the beehive tombs found at Mycenae and in other parts of
  Greece. This tomb consists of three parts, the _dromos_ or open
  entrance passage, the _tholos_ or circular portion domed over, and a
  smaller chamber excavated in the rock and entered from the larger one.
  The tomb was subterranean, the masonry being concealed beneath a large
  mound of earth. The domed part, 48 ft. 6 in. in diameter and 45 ft.
  high, is built in horizontal courses of stone, which project one over
  the other till they meet at the top. Subsequently the projecting edges
  were dressed down, so that the section through the dome is nearly that
  of an equilateral triangle. Notwithstanding the great thickness of the
  lintel (3 ft.) over the entrance doorway, the Mycenaeans left a
  triangular void over, to take off the superincumbent weight,
  subsequently (it is supposed) filled with sculpture, as in the Lions'
  Gate at Mycenae. The doorway was flanked by semi-detached columns 20
  ft. high, the shafts of which tapered downwards like those
  reconstituted at Cnossus; the shafts rested on a base of three steps,
  and carried a capital with echinus and abacus. These shafts carried a
  lintel which has now disappeared; the wall above was set back, and was
  at one time faced with stone slabs carved with spiral and other
  patterns, of which there are fragments in various museums, the most
  important remains being those of the shafts, of which the greater
  part, which was brought over to England in the beginning of the 19th
  century by the 2nd marquess of Sligo, was presented by the 5th
  marquess to the British Museum in 1905. These shafts, as also the
  echinus moulding of the capitals, are richly carved with the chevron
  and spirals, probably copied from the brass sheathing of wood columns
  and doorways referred to by Homer.

  _The Archaic Period._--The buildings just referred to belong to what
  is known as the prehistoric age in Greece; the dispersion of the
  tribes by invaders from the north about 1100 B.C. destroyed the
  Mycenaean civilization, and some centuries have to pass before we
  reach the results of the new development. Among the invaders the
  Dorians would seem to have been the chief leaders, who eventually
  became supreme. They brought with them from Olympus the worship of
  Apollo, so that henceforth the sanctuary of the god takes the place of
  the megaron of the king. From Greece the Dorians spread their colonies
  through the Greek islands and southern Italy. Later they passed on to
  Sicily and founded Syracuse, and subsequently Selinus and Agrigentum
  (Acragas). The prosperity of all these colonies is shown in the
  splendid temples which they built in stone, the remains of many of
  which have lasted to our day.

  [Illustration: From Curtius and Adler's _Olympia_, by permission of
  Behrend & Co.

  FIG. 14.--Plan of the Heraeum. A, Peristyle; B, Pronaos; C, Naos; D,
  Opisthodomus; E, Base of statue of Hermes.]

  The earliest Greek temple of which remains have been discovered[2] is
  that of the Heraeum at Olympia, ascribed to about 1000 B.C. Its plan
  (fig. 14) shows that the enclosure of the sanctuary and its porticoes
  in a peristyle had already been found necessary, if only to protect
  the walls of the cella, built in unburnt brick on a stone plinth;
  further, that the antae of the portico and the dressings of the
  entrance were in wood; and, following Pausanias' statement relative to
  the wood column in the opisthodomos, all the columns of the peristyle
  were in that material, gradually replaced by stone columns as they
  decayed, evidenced by the character of their capitals, which in style
  date from the 6th century B.C. to Roman times. The ephemeral nature of
  the materials employed in this and other early temples, and the risk
  of fire, must have naturally led to the desire to render the Greek
  sanctuaries more permanent by the employment of stone. But the Greeks
  were always timid as regards the bearing value of that material, and
  would seem to have imagined that unless the blocks were of megalithic
  dimensions it was impossible to build in stone. This may be gathered
  from the remains of the earliest example found, the temple of Apollo
  in the island of Ortygia, Syracuse, where the monolith columns had
  widely projecting capitals, the abaci of which were set so close
  together that the intercolumniation was less than one diameter of the
  column.

  Following the temple of Apollo at Syracuse is the temple of Corinth,
  ascribed to 650 B.C., of which seven columns remain _in situ_, all
  monoliths, and the Olympieum at Syracuse. Nearly contemporary with the
  latter is one of the temples at Selinus in Sicily, 630 B.C.,
  remarkable for the archaic nature of its sculptured metopes. Of later
  date there are five or six other temples in Selinus, all overthrown by
  earthquakes; the temple of Athena at Syracuse, which having been
  converted into a church is in fair preservation; an unfinished temple
  at Segesta; and six at Agrigentum, built on the brow of a hill facing
  the sea, one of which was so large that it was necessary to build in
  walls between the columns.

  In Magna Graecia, in the acropolis at Tarentum, are the remains of a
  7th century temple and three at Paestum about a century later in date.
  In one of these, the temple of Poseidon (figs. 15 and 16) the columns
  which carried the ceiling and roof over the cella are still standing;
  these are in two stages superimposed with an architrave between them,
  and although there are no traces in this instance of a gallery, they
  serve to render more intelligible Pausanias' description of that which
  existed in the temple of Zeus at Olympia.

  The temple of Assus in Asia Minor is an early example remarkable for
  its sculptured architrave, the only one known, and in the temple of
  Aphaea in Aegina (q.v.) we find the immediate predecessor of the
  Parthenon, if we may judge by its sculpture and the proportions of its
  columns.

  So far we have only referred to the early temples of the Doric order;
  of the origin and development of those of the Ionic order far less is
  known. The earliest examples are those of the temple of Apollo at
  Naucratis in Egypt, and of the archaic temple of Diana at Ephesus,
  both about 560 B.C. The remains of the latter, discovered by Wood, are
  now in the British Museum; they consist of two capitals, one with a
  portion of a shaft in good preservation; the sculptured drum and the
  base of one of the columns, inscribed with the name of Croesus, who is
  known to have contributed to it; two other bases, and the cornice or
  cymatium. The treasury of the Cnidians at Delphi was Ionic, judging by
  the carved ornament enriching the cornice and architraves, and in the
  Naxian votive column we have another early example of an early voluted
  capital.

  The tombs of Tantalais, near Smyrna, and of Alyattes, near Sardis,
  belong to the same date as those we shall find in Etruria. The Harpy
  tomb, now in the British Museum, built after 547 B.C., is the
  predecessor of many other Lycian tombs of the 5th and 4th centuries,
  to which we return.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Plan of the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum.]

  As already pointed out, in the temple of Hera at Olympia (10th century
  B.C.), we find the complete plan of an hexastyle peripteral Greek
  temple, where columns originally in wood supported a wood architrave
  and superstructure protected by terra-cotta plaques and roofed over
  with tiles. The temple of Apollo at Syracuse, and the temple at
  Corinth (7th century B.C.) represent the earliest examples in stone,
  and in the temple of Poseidon at Paestum (6th century) are preserved
  the columns of the cella which carried the ceiling and roof. The
  structural development therefore of the temple was completed, and no
  great constructional improvements reveal themselves after 550 B.C. The
  next century would seem to have been chiefly directed to the
  beautifying and refining of the features already prescribed, and it
  was the traditional respect for, and the conservative adherence to,
  the older type, which led the architects to the production of such
  masterpieces as the Parthenon and the Erechtheum, which would have
  been impossible but for the careful and logical progression of
  preceding centuries.

  The Parthenon (q.v.) at Athens represents the highest type of
  perfection, not only in its conception but in its realization. It is
  only necessary here to give a general description. It was designed by
  Ictinus in collaboration with Callicrates, and built on the south side
  of the Acropolis on a foundation carried down to the solid rock. The
  temple, commenced in 454 B.C. and completed in 438 B.C., was of the
  Doric order and raised on a stylobate of three steps; it had eight
  columns in front and rear and was surrounded by a peristyle, there
  being twenty columns on the flanks. It contained two divisions; the
  eastern chamber was originally known as the Hekatompedos (temple of
  100 ft.), that being the dimension of the cella of the ancient temple
  which it was built to replace. The chamber on the western side was
  called the Parthenon (i.e. chamber of the virgin). All the principal
  lines of the building had delicate curves. The entablature rose about
  3 in. in the middle to correct an optical illusion caused by the
  sloping lines of the pediment, which gave to the horizontal cornice
  the appearance of having sunk in the centre. The stylobate had
  therefore to be similarly curved so that the columns should be all of
  the same height. The columns are not all equidistant, those nearer the
  angle being closer together than the others, which gave a greater
  appearance of strength to the temple; this was increased by a slight
  inclination inwards of all the columns. In order to correct another
  optical illusion, which causes the shaft of a column, when it
  diminishes as it rises, and is formed with absolute straight lines, to
  appear hollow or concave, an increment known as the entasis was given
  to the column, about one-third up the shaft. The columns were not
  monoliths, like those of the earliest stone temples mentioned above;
  they were built in several drums, so closely fitted together that the
  joint would be imperceptible but for the slight discoloration of the
  marble. The setting of the lowest drum of these columns on the curved
  stylobate, with the slight inclination of the column, must have been a
  work of an extraordinary nature, only possible with such a material as
  Pentelic marble. The cella or naos was built to enshrine the
  chryselephantine statue of Athena by Pheidias. In order to carry the
  ceiling and roof there was a range of columns on each side of the
  cella returning round the end. These columns probably carried an upper
  range as in the temple of Poseidon at Paestum. The tympana of the two
  pediments and all the metopes were enriched with the finest sculpture,
  and were realized, designed, and executed by Pheidias and his pupils.
  On the upper part of the cella wall and under the peristyle was the
  Panathenaic frieze, of which, as also of the other sculptures, the
  British Museum possesses the finest examples.

  The Propylaea (q.v.), designed by Mnesicles and built 437-432 B.C.,
  was the only entrance to the Acropolis. It was of the Doric order, and
  consisted of a portico of six columns, the two centre ones being wider
  apart, to allow of the road through, up which the chariots and beasts
  for sacrifices ascended. The columns carrying the marble ceiling of
  the vestibule were of the Ionic order; beyond them the wall was
  pierced by three doorways, and on the other side and facing east was
  another portico of six columns. The front entrance was flanked on the
  left hand by a chamber known as the Pinacotheca, and on the right by a
  chamber intended probably to be a replica but subsequently curtailed
  in size in consequence of the proximity of another temple.

  The Erechtheum on the north side of the Acropolis occupied the site of
  three older shrines, which may account for its irregular plan. The
  eastern portion was the temple of Athena Polias, with a portico of six
  columns of the Ionic order. At a lower level on the north side was a
  portico of six columns (four in front and two at the sides) leading to
  the shrine of Erechtheus; the west front of this shrine had originally
  a frontispiece of four columns _in antis_raised on a podium;
  subsequently during the Roman occupation these columns were taken down
  and reproduced as semi-detached columns with windows between. On the
  west side was a court in which was the olive tree and the shrine of
  Pandrosus (Pandroseion). At the south-west angle was the well-known
  portico or tribune of the Caryatides. There was a small entrance
  through the podium at the side, and stairs leading down to the shrine
  of Erechtheus.

  [Illustration: From a photo by Brogi.

  FIG. 16.--Temple of Poseidon at Paestum.]

  The only other building remaining on the Acropolis is the temple of
  Niké Apteros, raised on a lofty substructure south-west of the
  propylaea. It also was of the Ionic order, and belonged to the type
  known as "amphiprostyle," with a portico of four columns in the front
  and rear but no peristyle. The term "apteros" applied to the temple
  and not to the goddess of victory.

  In 430 B.C., shortly after the completion of the Parthenon, Ictinus
  was employed to design the temple of Apollo Epicurius, at Bassae, in
  Arcadia. This temple externally was of the Doric order, but, being
  built in local stone, no attempt was made to introduce those
  refinements which are found in the Parthenon. In the rear of the cella
  is a second sanctuary with a doorway facing east; it was probably the
  site of an ancient temple which had to be preserved, and this may
  account for the fact that the temple runs north and south. The cella
  is flanked by five columns of the Ionic order which are conntected by
  spur walls to the cella wall. These columns carry an architrave,
  frieze richly sculptured with figure subjects, cornice and wall above
  rising to the roof. There was no ceiling therefore, and the interior
  was probably lighted through pierced Parian marble tiles, of which
  three examples were found. The Corinthian capital found on the site is
  supposed by Cockerell to have belonged to the shaft between the two
  cellas.

  The same architect, Ictinus, was employed in 420 B.C. to rebuild the
  hall of the mysteries at Eleusis on a larger scale. The hall was 185
  ft. square, and its ceiling and roof were carried by seven rows of
  columns with six in each row. The propylaea, which gave access to the
  sacred enclosure at Eleusis, was copied from the propylaea at Athens.
  The so-called lesser propylaea had some connexion with the mysteries.

  The temple of Zeus at Olympia had much in common with the Parthenon,
  being nearly contemporaneous, built to enshrine a second
  chryselephantine statue by Pheidias, and in plan having a similar
  arrangement of columns inside the cella; the lower range of columns
  (according to Pausanias) supported a gallery round, so that privileged
  visitors could approach nearer to the statue. The temple, however, was
  built in the local conglomerate stone covered with a thin coat of
  stucco and painted.

  Of circular temples there are two examples known, the Philippeion at
  Olympia and the Tholos at Epidaurus. The latter had, inside the cella,
  a peristyle of Corinthian columns, the capitals of which are of great
  beauty and represent in their design the transition between those of
  the monument of Lysicrates and the temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens.

  In the sacred enclosures of the Greek sanctuaries were other smaller
  temples or shrines, altars, statues and treasuries, the latter being
  built by the various cities, from which pilgrimages were made, to
  contain their treasures. At Olympia there were ten or eleven, the
  remains of some of which are of great interest. Of the treasury of the
  Cnidians at Delphi, discovered by the French, so much has been found
  that it has been possible to evolve a complete conjectural restoration
  in plaster, now in the Louvre. Its sculpture and the rich carving of
  its architectural features show that it was Ionian in character. In
  front was a portico-in-antis, in which the caryatide figures standing
  on pedestals took the place of columns. These are the earliest
  examples known of caryatide figures, and they precede those of the
  Erechtheum by about a century.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--Lycian Tomb of Telmessus.]

  The most important temple in Asia Minor was the temple of Diana
  (Artemis) at Ephesus (356-334 B.C.). The archaic temple was burnt in
  356, and was immediately rebuilt with greater splendour from the
  designs of Paeonius. The site of the temple was discovered by Wood in
  1869, and the remains brought over to the British Museum in 1875.
  There were 100 columns, 36 of which (according to Pliny) were
  sculptured, and it was probably on account of the magnificence of the
  sculpture that this temple was included among the seven wonders of the
  world. The sculptured bases are of two kinds, square and circular, in
  the latter case being the lower drums of the columns. Examples of both
  are in the British Museum, and several conjectural restorations have
  been made, among which that of Dr A.S. Murray has been generally
  accepted, but recent researches (1905) suggest that it remains still
  an unsolved problem.

  The temple of Apollo Didymaeus, near Miletus, was the largest temple
  in Asia Minor, and its erection followed that of the temple at
  Ephesus, Paeonius and Daphnis of Miletus being the architects. The
  temple was decastyle, dipteral, with pronaos and vestibule, but no
  opisthodomos. The cella was so wide (75 ft.) that it remained open to
  the sky. The bases of the columns were elaborately carved with
  ornament, as if in rivalry with the temple of Diana. Both these
  temples were of the Ionic order, as also were those of Athena Polias
  at Priene (340 B.C.), many of the capitals of which are in the British
  Museum, and the temples of Aphrodite at Aphrodisias and Cybele at
  Sardis.

  The mausoleum at Halicarnassus, also of the Ionic order, built by
  Queen Artemisia in memory of her husband Mausolus, who died in 353
  B.C., was, according to Pliny, recorded as one of the seven wonders of
  the world, probably on account of the eminence of the sculptors
  employed, Bryaxis, Leochares, Timotheus, Scopas and Pythius. Pliny's
  description is somewhat vague, so that its actual design is a problem
  not yet solved. Professor Cockerell's restoration is in accord with
  the description, but does not quite agree with the actual remains
  brought over by Newton and deposited in the British Museum. If the
  Nereid monument and the tombs at Cnidus and Mylasa be taken as
  suggesting the design, the peristyle (pteron) of thirty-six columns of
  the Ionic order with entablature stood on a lofty podium, richly
  decorated with bands of sculpture, and was crowned by a pyramid which,
  according to Pliny, "contracted itself by twenty-four steps into the
  summit of a meta." The steps found are not high enough to constitute a
  meta, and it is possible therefore that, according to Mr J.J.
  Stevenson, these steps were over the peristyle only, and that the
  lofty steps which constituted the meta were in the centre, carried by
  the inner row of columns. The magnificent sculpture of the Macedonian
  period has in recent times been demonstrated by the discovery of the
  marble sarcophagi found at Sidon by Hamdi Bey and now in the museum at
  Constantinople.

  The Lycian tombs, of which there are many hundreds carved in the rock
  in the south of Asia Minor, are copies of timber structures, based on
  the stone architecture of the neighbouring Greek cities (fig. 17). The
  Paiafaor Payava tomb (375-362 B.C.), found at Xanthus and now in the
  British Museum, is apparently a copy, cut in the solid rock, of a
  portable shrine, in which the wood construction is clearly defined.

  Capitals of the Greek Corinthian order have been found at Bassae,
  Epidaurus, Olympia and Miletus, but the earliest example of the
  complete order is represented in the Choragic monument of Lysicrates
  at Athens.

  The most important example of the Greek Corinthian order is that of
  the temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, begun in 174 B.C., but not
  completed till the time of Hadrian, A.D. 117. The temple was 135 ft.
  wide and 354 ft. long, built entirely in Pentelic marble, the columns
  being 56 ft. high. There were eight columns in front and a double
  peristyle round.

  The two porches of the Tower of the Winds at Athens (_c_. 75 B.C.) had
  Corinthian capitals. The upper part of the tower, which was octagonal
  in plan, was sculptured with figures representing the winds.

  The Greek houses discovered at Delosand Priene were very simple and
  unpretentious, but the palace near Palatitza in Macedonia, discovered
  by Messrs Heuzey and Daumet, would seem to have been of a very
  sumptuous character. The front of the palace measured 250 ft. In the
  centre was a vestibule flanked with Ionic columns on either side,
  leading to a throne room at one time richly decorated with marble, and
  with numerous other halls on either side. The date is ascribed to the
  middle of the 4th century B.C.

  In selecting the sites for their theatres, the Greeks always utilized
  the slope of a hill, in which they could cut out the cavea, and thus
  save the expense of raising a structure to carry the seats, at the
  same time obtaining a beautiful prospect for the background. The
  theatre of Dionysus at Athens was discovered and excavated in 1864,
  and has fortunately preserved all the seats round the orchestra,
  sixty-seven in number, all in Pentelic marble, with the names
  inscribed thereon of the priests and dignitaries who occupied them.
  The largest theatre was at Megalopolis, with an auditorium 474 ft. in
  diameter. The most perfect, so far as the seats are concerned, is the
  theatre at Epidaurus, with a diameter of 415 ft. Other theatres are
  known at Dodona in Greece, Pergamum and Tralles in Asia Minor, and
  Syracuse and Segesta in Sicily.     (R. P. S.)


  PARTHIAN ARCHITECTURE

  The architecture of the Parthian dynasty, who from 250 B.C. to A.D.
  226 occupied the greater part of Mesopotamia, their empire in 160 B.C.
  extending over 480,000 sq. m., was quite unknown until Sir A.H.
  Layard, following in the steps of Ross and Ainsworth, visited and
  measured the plan of the palace at Hatra (el Hadr) about 30 m. south
  of Mosul; the architecture of this palace shows that, on the one hand,
  the Parthians carried on the traditions of the barrel vault of the
  Assyrian palace, and on the other, from their contact with Hellenistic
  methods of building, had acquired considerable knowledge in the
  working of ashlar masonry.

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.--Plan of Palace of el Hadr.

    A, Throne or reception room.
    B, Large hall, or
    C, Entrance hall of temple.
    D, Temple.]

  El Hadr is first mentioned in history as having been unsuccessfully
  besieged by Trajan in A.D. 116, and it is recorded to have been a
  walled town containing a temple of the sun, celebrated for the value
  of its offerings. The temple referred to is probably the large square
  building at the back of the palace, as above the doorway is a rich
  frieze carved with griffins, similar to those found at Warka by
  Loftus, together with large quantities of Parthian coins. The remains
  (fig. 18) consist of a block of 380 ft. frontage, facing east, and 128
  ft. deep, subdivided by walls of great thickness, running at right
  angles to the main front, and built in an immense court, divided down
  the centre by a wall, separating that portion on the south side, where
  the temple was situated, from that on the north side, which
  constituted the king's palace. The seven subdivisions of the different
  widths were all covered with semi-circular barrel vaults which, being
  built side by side, mutually resisted the thrust, the outer walls
  being of greater thickness, with the same object. In the centre of the
  south block was an immense hall 49 ft. wide and 98 ft. deep, which
  formed the vestibule to the temple in the rear; this vestibule was
  flanked by a series of three smaller halls on either side, over which
  there was probably a second floor. On the palace or north side were
  two great aiwans or reception halls. The main front (fig. 19) was
  built in finely jointed ashlar masonry with semicircular attached
  shafts between the entrance doorways, which had semicircular heads,
  every third voussoir of the three larger doors being decorated by
  busts in strong relief with a headgear similar to that shown on
  Parthian coins; other carvings, with the acanthus leaf, belonged to
  that type of Syrio-Greek work, of which Loftus found so many examples
  at Warka (Loftus, _Chaldaea, Susiana_, p. 225). In the great mosque of
  Diarbekr are two wings at the north and south ends respectively, which
  are said to have been Parthian palaces built by Tigranes, 74 B.C.;
  they have evidently been rearranged or rebuilt at various times, the
  columns with their capitals and the entablature having been utilized
  again. The shafts of the columns of the upper storey are richly carved
  with geometrical patterns similar to those found by Loftus at Warka.

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.--Portion of front of Palace of el Hadr.]

  [Illustration: From Prof H V. Hilprecht's _Exploration in Bible
  Lands_, by permission of A.J. Holman & Co. and T. & T. Clark.

  FIG. 20.--Plan of the Parthian Palace at Nippur.]

  The American researches at Nippur have resulted in the discovery on
  the top of the mounds of the remains of a Parthian palace; and the
  disposition of its plan (fig. 20), and the style of the columns of the
  peristylar court, show so strong a resemblance to Greek work as to
  suggest the same Hellenistic influence as in the palace of el Hadr.
  Having no stone, however, they were obliged to build up these columns
  at Nippur with sections in brick, covered afterwards with stucco. The
  columns diminished at the top to about one-fifth of the lower
  diameter, and would seem to have had an entasis, as the lower portion
  up to one-third of the height is nearly vertical. A similar palace was
  discovered at Tello by the French archaeologists, and the bases of
  some of the brick columns are in the Louvre.     (R. P. S.)


  SASSANIAN ARCHITECTURE

  [Illustration: FIG. 21 and FIG. 22.--The Palace of Serbistan.

  Plan.

  Section in lines BC, DE, FG of plan.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.--Plan of the Palace at Firuzabad.]

  Although, on the overthrow of the Parthian dynasty in A.D. 226, the
  monarchs of the Sassanian dynasty succeeded to the immense Parthian
  empire, the earliest building found, according to Fergusson, is that
  at Serbistan, to which he ascribes the date A.D. 380. The palace (fig.
  21), which measures 130 ft. frontage and 143 ft. deep, with an
  internal court, shows so great an advance in the arrangements of its
  plan as to suggest considerable acquaintance with Roman work. The fine
  ashlar work of el-Hadr is no longer adhered to, and in its place we
  find rubble masonry with thick mortar joints, the walls being covered
  afterwards, both externally and internally, with stucco. While the
  barrel vault is still retained for the chief entrance porches, it is
  of elliptical section, and the central hall is covered with a dome, a
  feature probably handed down from the Assyrians, such as is shown in
  the bas-relief (fig. 10) from Kuyunjik, now in the British Museum. In
  order to carry a dome, circular on plan, over a square hall, it was
  necessary to arch across the angles, and here to a certain extent the
  Sassanians were at fault, as they did not know how to build
  pendentives, and the construction of these are of the most irregular
  kind. As, however, their mortar had excellent tenacious properties,
  these pendentives still remain _in situ_ (fig. 22), and their defects
  were probably hidden under the stucco. In the halls which flank the
  building on either side, however, they displayed considerable
  knowledge of construction. Instead of having enormously thick walls to
  resist the thrust of their vaults, to which we have already drawn
  attention in the Assyrian work and at el Hadr, they built piers at
  intervals, covering over the spaces between them, with semi-domes on
  which the walls carrying the vaults are supported, so that they
  lessened the span of the vault and brought the thrust well within the
  wall. This, however, lessened the width of the hall, so they replaced
  the lower portions of the piers by the columns, leaving a passage
  round. It is possible that this idea was partly derived from the great
  Roman halls of the thermae (baths), where the vault is brought forward
  on columns; but it was an improvement to leave a passage behind. The
  elliptical sections given to all the barrel vaults may have been the
  traditional method derived from Assyria, of which, however, no remains
  exist. In the article VAULT there will be found a reason why these
  elliptical sections were adopted (see also below in the description of
  the great hall at Ctesiphon). In the palace of Firuzabad, attributed
  by Fergusson to Peroz (Firuz) (A.D. 459-485), the plan (fig. 23)
  follows more closely the disposition of the Assyrian palaces, and we
  return again to the thick walls, which might incline us to give a
  later date to Serbistan, except that in the pendentives carrying the
  three great domes in the centre of the palace at Firuzabad they show
  greater knowledge in their construction. The angles of the square hall
  are vaulted, with a series of concentric arches, each ring as it rises
  being brought forward, the object being to save centreing, because
  each ring rested on the ring beneath it. The plan is a rectangular
  parallelogram with a frontage of 180 ft. and a depth of 333 ft., more
  than double, therefore, of the size of Serbistan. An immense entrance
  hall in the centre of the main front is flanked on each side by two
  halls placed at right angles to it, so as to resist the thrust of the
  elliptical barrel vaults of the entrance hall. This hall leads to a
  series of three square halls, side by side, each surmounted by a dome
  carried on pendentives. Beyond is an open court, the smaller rooms
  round all covered with barrel vaults. Here, as in Serbistan, the
  material employed is rubble masonry with thick joints of mortar, and
  fortunately portions of the stucco with which this Sassanian masonry
  was covered remain both externally and internally. As there are no
  windows of any sort, the wall surface of the exterior has been
  decorated with semi-circular attached shafts and panelling between,
  which recall the primitive decorations found in the early Chaldaean
  temples, except that arches are carried at the top across the sunk
  panels. Internally an attempt has been made to copy the decoration of
  the Persian doorway, which represents a kind of renaissance of the
  ancient style. But instead of the lintel the arch has been introduced,
  and the ornament in stucco representing the Persian cavetto cornice
  shows imperfect knowledge of the original and is clumsily worked. The
  niches also, in the main front, have been copied from the windows
  which flank the doorway in the Persian palace. But they are decorative
  only, and are too shallow to serve any purpose.

  [Illustration: From Dieulafoy's _L'Art Antique_ by permission of Morel
  et Cie.

  FIG. 24.--The Great Hall at Ctesiphon.]

  If there has been some difficulty in determining the exact date of
  Firuzabad, that of the third great palace, at Ctesiphon, on the
  borders of the Tigris, is known to have been built by Chosroes I. in
  A.D. 550. Owing probably to its proximity to Bagdad, from which it
  lies about 25 m. distant, it is much better known than the other
  examples we have quoted; but while they are constructed in rubble
  masonry, Ctesiphon is built of brick, because we have now returned to
  the alluvial plain where no stone could be procured. The only portion
  of the palace which still exists is that which was built in burnt
  brick, and this far exceeds in dimensions Serbistan and Firuzabad. Its
  main front measured 312 ft.; its height was about 115 ft.; and its
  depth 175 ft. The plan is very simple, and consisted of an _aiwan_ or
  immense hall, 86 ft. in width and 163 ft. long, covered with an
  elliptical barrel vault, the thrust of which is counteracted by five
  long halls on each side, also covered with barrel vaults and probably
  used as guard chambers or stores. The great hall was open in the
  front, and constituted an immense portal, 83 ft. wide and 95 ft. to
  the crown of the arch. The springing of the vault is 40 ft. from the
  ground, but up to about 26 ft. above the springing the walls are built
  in horizontal courses projecting inwards as they rise, so that the
  actual width of the vaulted portion (fig. 24) has been diminished
  one-sixth and measures only about 71 ft. The crown of the vault is 9
  ft. thick, the walls at the base being 23 ft. The bricks or tiles of
  which the vault is built are, like those at Thebes, laid flat-wise,
  and there is also a similar inclination of the rings of brick-work,
  which are about 10° out of the vertical. This leads to the conclusion
  that this immense vault was built without centreing, as the tenacious
  quality of the mortar would probably be sufficient to hold each tile
  in its position until the ring was complete. In the building of the
  arch of the great portal other precautions were taken; bond timbers 23
  ft. long and in five rows, one above the other, were carried through
  the wall from front to back. The lower portion of the arch (5 ft. in
  height) was built with bricks placed flat-wise; the upper portion (4
  ft. in height) in the usual way, viz. right angles to the face. The
  reason for this change was probably that the upper portions might be
  carved, as they have been, with a series of semi-circular cusps.

  The decoration of the flanks of this great central portal is of the
  most bewildering description. There has evidently been a desire to
  give a monumental character to the main front. With this idea in view
  they would seem to have attempted to reproduce Roman features, such as
  are found decorating the fronts of the various amphitheatres of the
  Empire. But the semi-circular shafts which form the decoration do not
  come one over the other on the several storeys, and there is a
  reckless employment of blank arcades distributed over the surface.

  There are remains of two other palaces at Imamzade and Tag Iran, and
  in Moab a small example, the Hall of Rabboth Ammon, supposed to have
  been erected for Chosroes II. during the subjugation of Palestine,
  which is richly decorated with carving, probably by Syrio-Greek
  artists, with a mixture of Greek, Jewish and Sassanian details. At
  Takibostan and Behistun (Bisutun), some 200 m. north-east of
  Ctesiphon, are some remarkable Sassanian capitals and panels
  (published in Flandin and Coste's _Voyage en Perse_, 1851, Paris).
       (R. P. S.)


  ETRUSCAN ARCHITECTURE

  Although our acquaintance with Etruscan architecture is confined
  chiefly to the entrance gateways and the walls of towns, and to tombs,
  it forms a very important link between the East and the West. Though
  little is known of the history of Etruria (q.v.), the influence which
  her people exerted on Roman architecture, lasting down to the period
  when Greece was overrun and plundered of her treasures, was so great
  that it would be difficult to follow the origin of Roman architecture
  without some inquiry into the work of its immediate predecessor. The
  theory put forward by Fergusson, as to the migration of the Etruscans
  from Asia Minor in the 12th or 11th century B.C., is substantiated by
  the resemblance of the tumuli in the latter country, such as those at
  Tantalais, on the northern shore of the gulf of Smyrna, and that of
  Alyattes near Sardis, as compared with the Regulini Galeassi tomb at
  Cervetri and the Cucumella tomb at Vulci, in all cases consisting of a
  sepulchral chamber buried under an immense mound surrounded by a
  podium in stone. The chamber was covered over with masonry, laid in
  horizontal courses, each stone projecting slightly over the one below.
  The same system of construction prevailed in the bee-hive tombs of
  Greece, except that the latter were always circular on plan, whilst
  these cited above were rectangular. Similar methods of construction
  are found at Tusculum and in a gateway at Arpino. In all these cases
  the projecting courses were worked off on the completion of the tomb,
  in Greece and at Tusculum and Arpino following a curve, and in the
  Regulini Galeassi tomb a raking line.

  The earliest example known of the arched vault, with regular voussoirs
  in stone, is found in the canal of the Marta near Graviscae, ascribed
  to the 7th century. The vault is 14 ft. in span, with voussoirs from 5
  to 6 ft. in depth. In the tomb of Pythagoras near Cortona, with a span
  of about 10 ft., only four voussoirs were employed. In the Cloaca
  Maxima at Rome the vault (now ascribed by Commendatore Boni to the 1st
  century B.C.) is built with three concentric rings of voussoirs. In
  all these cases the thrust of the arch was amply resisted as they were
  constructed under ground, and in the entrance gateways at Volterra,
  Perugia and Falerii a similar resistance was given by the immense
  walls in which they were built.

  We have already referred to one class of tomb in which the sepulchral
  chamber, built above the ground, was covered over with a mound of
  earth; there is a second class, carved out of the solid rock, in which
  we find the same treatment as that described in connexion with Egypt.
  The tomb represents, in its internal arrangements and in its
  decorations, the earthly dwelling of the defunct (compare the Egyptian
  "soul-houses"). The ceilings are carved in imitation of the horizontal
  beams and slanting rafters of the roof, the former carried by square
  piers with capitals; one well-known tomb at Corneto (fig. 25)
  represents the atrium of an Etruscan house, which corresponds with the
  description given by Vitruvius of the _cavaedia displuviata_, in which
  there was a small opening at the top, known as the compluvium, the
  roof sloping down on all four sides.

  The paintings which decorate these tombs have very much the same
  character as those which are found on what were thought to have been
  Etruscan, but are now generally considered as Greek vases, the
  principal difference being that instead of allegorical subjects,
  domestic scenes recalling the life of the deceased are represented. In
  a tomb at Cervetri the walls and piers were carved with
  representations of the helmets, swords and other accoutrements of a
  soldier, and also the mirrors and jewelry of his wife, even the
  kitchen utensils being included, so as to give the complete fittings
  of the house they occupied. In two examples at Castel D'Asso the rock
  has been cut away on all sides, leaving a rectangular block, crowned
  with reverse mouldings.

  Scarcely any remains _in situ_ of Etruscan temples have been found,
  and the description given by Vitruvius is very scanty. Of late years,
  however, in the British Museum and in the museums at Florence and
  Rome, a large amount of material has been brought together, from which
  it is possible to make some kind of conjectural restoration. This has
  been facilitated by the discoveries made at Olympia, Delphi and
  elsewhere in Greece, showing the important function which terra-cotta
  served in the protection and decoration of the timber roofs of the
  Greek temples and treasuries. The cornices, antefixae, pendant slabs
  and other decorative features in terra-cotta, found on the sites of
  the Etruscan temples, show that the timber construction of their roofs
  was protected in the same way; and although Vitruvius (bk. iii. ch. 2)
  considered the temple of Ceres at Rome to be clumsy and heavy, and its
  roofs low and wide, in comparison with the purer examples of Greek
  architecture, the remains of terra-cotta found at Civita Castellana
  (the ancient Falerii), at Luna, Telamon and Lanuvium (the latter in
  the British Museum), show that in their modelling and colour they must
  have possessed considerable decorative effect, and when raised on an
  eminence, as in the case of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol,
  formed striking features of importance, enriched as they were with
  gilding. There is one feature in the Etruscan examples which seems to
  have been peculiar to their temples, viz. the pendant slabs hung round
  the eaves to protect the walls; these latter were probably covered
  with stucco and decorated with paintings. The lower portions of many
  of these slabs were decorated in relief and in colour at the back,
  showing that they were exposed to view below the soffit of the
  projecting eaves.

  [Illustration: FIG. 25.--The Corneto Tomb.]

  Owing to the ephemeral nature of the materials employed in the
  building of the walls of Etruscan temples, viz. unburned brick or
  rubble masonry with clay mortar, the roofs being in timber, little is
  known of their general design; the terra-cotta decorations are,
  however, fortunately in good preservation, and suggest that although
  the Etruscan temple, architecturally speaking, was not of a very
  monumental character, its external decoration and colour added
  considerably to its effect. (R. P. S.)


  ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

  The rebuilding of Rome, which began in the reign of Augustus, and was
  carried on by his successors to a much greater extent, has caused the
  destruction of nearly all those examples of early work to which the
  student, working out the history of a style, would turn. There are,
  however, a few early buildings still existing, and these are of value
  as showing the extremely simple nature of their design. The temple of
  Fortuna Virilis (so-called) in the Forum Boarium, attributed to the
  beginning of the 1st century B.C., shows the great difference between
  Greek and Roman temples. Like the Etruscan temple, it is raised on a
  podium, and approached by a flight of steps. The Etruscan cella is
  dispensed with; and what may be looked upon as the semblance of a
  Greek peristyle is retained in the semi-detached columns which are
  carried round the walls of the cella. To the entrance portico,
  however, the Roman architect attached great importance, and we find
  here that one-third of the whole length of the temple is given up to
  the portico. The Tabularium built by Lutatius Catulas (78 B.C.) is a
  second example of early work. On a lofty substructure, built of
  peperino stone, was raised an arcade, which formed a passage from one
  side of the capitol to the other, and here we find the earliest
  example of the use of the Classic order, as a decorative feature only,
  applied to the face of a wall. The arcade consists of a series of
  arches with intermediate semi-detached Doric columns carrying an
  entablature. The architectural design of the substructure is of the
  simplest kind, depending for its effect only on the size of the stones
  employed and the finish given to the masonry. The same remark applies
  to the few remains left of the Forum Julium (47 B.C.), where an
  additional decorative effect was produced by the bevelled edge worked
  round all the stones, producing the effect of rusticated masonry.

  If, however, the remains are few, the records of classical writers
  show that already before the beginning of the 1st century B.C. the
  influence of Greece had been shown in the transformation of the Forum,
  the embanking of the river Tiber, the erection of numerous porticoes
  throughout the Campus Martius, and of basilicas, one of which, rebuilt
  by Paulus Aemilius in 50 B.C., was remarkable for its monolithic
  columns of pavonazetto marble; and further that on the Palatine hill
  were various mansions, the courts and peristyles of which were richly
  decorated with marble.

  The boast of Augustus that he found Reme built of brick and left it in
  marble is true in a sense, but not in the way it is usually
  interpreted. He greatly encouraged the use of marble--the temple of
  Venus in the forum of Julius Caesar is said to have been built
  entirely of that material--but as a rule marble was only used as a
  facing. This, however, led to the substitution of solid concrete for
  the core of walls, in place of the unburnt brick which up to that time
  had been employed. On this subject the writings of Vitruvius, the
  Roman architect, are of the greatest value, as they describe clearly
  not only the materials used at this time (about 30 B.C.), but the
  different methods of building walls (see ROME). The material which
  contributed more than any other to the magnificent conceptions of the
  Roman Imperial style was that known as pozzolana, a volcanic earth
  which, mixed with lime, formed an hydraulic cement of great cohesion
  and strength. Not only the walls but the vaults were built in this
  pozzolana concrete, and formed one solid mass. Bricks were employed in
  arches, on the quoins of walls, occasionally in bond courses, and in
  the constructional vaults as ribs, in order to relieve the centreing
  of the weight until the pozzolana concrete had been poured in and had
  consolidated. The bricks employed in these ribs, and for the voussoirs
  of arches, were of the kind we should describe as tiles, being about 2
  ft. square and 2 in. thick. Bricks also of smaller size and triangular
  in shape were used for the facing of walls, the triangular portions
  being embedded into the concrete walls.

  The Romans themselves do not seem to have realized the tenacious
  properties of this pozzolana cement which, when employed for the
  foundation of temples, formed a solid mass capable of bearing as much
  weight as the rock itself. They feared also the thrust of the immense
  vaults over their halls, and always provided crosswalls to counteract
  the same, as shown in the plan of all the thermae; when, however, they
  had discovered the secret of covering over large spaces with a
  permanent casing indestructible by fire, it not only gave an impetus
  to the great works in Rome, but led to a new type of plan, which
  spread all through the Empire, varied only by the difference in
  materials and in labour. In this respect the Romans always availed
  themselves of the resources of the country, which they turned to the
  best account. As pozzolana was not to be found in North Africa or
  Syria, they had to trust to the excellent qualities of the Roman
  mortar, but even in Syria, where stone was plentiful and could be
  obtained in great dimensions, when they attempted to erect vaults of
  great span similar to those in Rome, these probably collapsed before
  the building was finished, and were replaced by roofs in wood.

  In the styles hitherto described the gradual development has been
  traced to their primitive, culminating and decadent periods. This is
  not called for in a description of the Roman style of architecture,
  which to a certain extent appeared phoenix-like in its highest
  development under Augustus. Roman orders in the Augustan age had
  reached their culminating development. The capitals of the portico of
  the Pantheon (27 B.C.), or of the temple of Mars Ultor (2 B.C.),
  constitute the finest examples of the Corinthian order, whilst those
  of later temples show a falling off in style. It was only in the
  application of the orders that new combinations presented themselves,
  and this can be better understood when we refer to the monuments
  themselves. The description of the Roman orders, with the subsequent
  modifications, is given in the article ORDER. It is necessary,
  however, here to draw attention to two very important developments
  which the Roman architect introduced as regards the orders: firstly,
  their employment as decorative features in combination with the
  arcade, known as composite arcades, and secondly, their superposition
  one above the other in storeys. The earliest example of the first
  class is that found in the Tabularium as it now exists; of the second
  class the Colosseum and the theatre of Marcellus are the best known
  examples. In principle the practice must be condemned, for the
  employment of the column and entablature, which was designed by the
  Greek architect as an independent constructive feature, in a purely
  decorative sense stuck on the face of a wall, is contrary to good
  taste, but it is impossible not to recognize in its application to the
  Colosseum the value of the scale which it has given to the whole
  structure, a scale which would have been entirely lost if the building
  had been treated as one storey. The superposition of the orders as
  exemplified in the Roman theatres and amphitheatres throughout the
  Empire constitutes the greatest development made in the style, and it
  is one which, from the Italian revivalists down to our time, has had
  more influence in the design of monumental work than any other Roman
  innovation.

  In the preceding sections it has been necessary to confine our
  descriptions, in the case of Egypt and Greece, more or less to temples
  and tombs, and in that of Assyria to palaces, but in Roman
  architecture the monuments are not only of the most extensive and
  varied kinds, but in some parts of the Empire they become modified by
  the requirements of the country, so that a tabulated list alone would
  occupy a considerable space. The following are the principal
  subdivisions: The Roman forum (see ROME); the colonnaded streets in
  Syria and elsewhere, and temple enclosures; temples (q.v.),
  rectangular and circular; basilicas (q.v.); theatres (q.v.) and
  amphitheatres (q.v.); thermae or baths (q.v.); entrance gateways and
  triumph arches (see TRIUMPHAL ARCH); memorial buildings and tombs,
  aqueducts (q.v.) and bridges (q.v.), palatial architecture (see
  PALACE); domestic architecture (see HOUSE).

  The _Forum Romanum_ under the Republic would seem to have served
  several purposes. The principal temples and important public buildings
  occupied sites round it, and up to the time of Julius Caesar there
  were shops on both sides: it was also used as a hippodrome and served
  for combats and other displays. Under the Empire, however, these were
  relegated to the amphitheatre and the theatre, markets were provided
  for elsewhere, and the forum became the chief centre for the temples,
  basilicas, courts of law and exchanges. But already in the time of
  Julius Caesar the Forum Romanum had become too small, and others were
  built by succeeding emperors. In order to find room for these, not
  only were numerous crowded sites cleared, but vast portions of the
  Quirinal hill were cut away to make place for them. The Fora added
  were those of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Trajan, Nerva and Vespasian.
  Outside Rome, in provincial towns and in Africa and Syria, the Forum
  was generally built on the intersection of the two main streets, and
  was surrounded by porticoes, temples and civic monuments.

  _Colonnaded Streets._--We gather from some Roman authors that in early
  days the Campus Martius was laid out with porticoes. All these
  features have disappeared, but there are still some existing in Syria,
  North Africa and Asia Minor, which are known as colonnaded streets.
  The most important of these are found in Palmyra, where the street was
  70 ft. wide with a central avenue open to the sky and side avenues
  roofed over with stone. The columns employed were of the Corinthian
  order, 31 ft. high, and formed a peristyle on each side of the street,
  which was nearly a mile in length. The triple archway in this street
  is still one of the finest examples of Roman architecture. At Gerasa,
  the colonnaded streets had columns of the Ionic order, the street
  being 1800 ft. long, with other streets at right angles to it; similar
  streets are found at Amman, Bosra, Kanawat, &c. At Pompeiopolis, in
  Asia Minor, are still many streets of columns, and in North Africa the
  French archaeologists have traced numerous others.

  _Temple Enclosures._--In Rome the great cost, and the difficulty of
  obtaining large sites, restricted the size of the enclosures of the
  temples; this was to a certain extent compensated for by the
  magnificence of the porticoes surrounding them. The most important was
  that built by Hadrian, measuring 480 ft. by 330 ft., to enclose the
  double temples of Venus and Rome. The portico of Octavia measures 400
  ft. by 370 ft., enclosing two temples, and the portico of the
  Argonauts, which enclosed the temple of Neptune, was about 300 ft.
  square. These dimensions, however, are far exceeded by those of the
  enclosures in Syria and Asia Minor. The court of the temple of the Sun
  at Palmyra was raised on an artificial platform 16 ft. high, and
  measured 735 ft. by 725 ft., with an enclosure wall of 74 ft. on the
  west and 67 ft. high on the other three sides.

  At Baalbek the platform was raised 25 ft. above the ground, the
  dimensions being 400 ft. wide and 900 ft. deep. At Damascus the
  enclosure of the temple of the Sun has been traced, and it extended to
  about 1000 ft. square. Similar enclosures are found at Gerasa, Amman
  and other Syrian towns. In Asia Minor, at Aizani the platform was 520
  by 480 ft., raised about 20 ft., and in Africa the French have found
  the remains of similar enclosures.

  _Roman Temples._--The Romans, following the Etruscan custom,
  invariably raised their temples on a podium with a flight of steps on
  the main front. Their temples were not orientated, and being regarded
  more as monuments than religious structures occupied prominent sites
  facing the Forum or some great avenue. Much importance was attached to
  the entrance portico, which was deeper than those in Greek temples,
  and the peristyle when it existed was rarely carried round the back.
  On the other hand the cella exceeded in span those of the Greek
  temples, as the Roman, being acquainted with the principle of trussing
  timbers, could roof over wider spaces. The principal temples in Rome,
  of which remains still exist, are those of Fortuna Virilis, Mars
  Ultor, Castor, Neptune, Antoninus and Faustina, Concord, Vespasian,
  Saturn and portions of the double temples of Venus and Rome. At
  Pompeii are the temples of Jupiter and Apollo, at Cora the temple of
  Mercury, and in France, the Maison Carrée at Nîmes and the temple at
  Vienne. In Syria are the temples of Jupiter at Baalbek, of the Sun at
  Palmyra and Gerasa, and in Spalato the temple of Aesculapius.

  Of circular temples the chief are the Pantheon at Rome, the temple of
  Vesta on the Forum, of Mater Matuta, so-called, on the Forum Boarium,
  the temple of Vesta at Tivoli, of Jupiter at Spalato and of Venus at
  Baalbek.

  Of the rectangular temples the Maison Carrée at Nîmes is the most
  perfect example existing (fig. 26). It was built by Antoninus Pius,
  and dedicated to his adopted sons Lucius and Martius. This temple, 59
  ft. by 117 ft., is of the Corinthian order, hexastyle,
  pseudoperipteral, with a portico three columns deep, and is raised on
  a podium 12 ft. high. The next best preserved example is the temple of
  Jupiter at Baalbek, also of the Corinthian order, octastyle,
  peripteral, with a deep portico, and a cella richly decorated with
  three-quarter detached shafts of the Corinthian order.

  Of the circular temples the Pantheon is the most remarkable. It was
  built by Hadrian, and consists of an immense rotunda 142 ft. in
  diameter, covered with a hemispherical dome 140 ft. high. Its walls
  are 20 ft. thick, and have alternately semicircular and rectangular
  recesses in them. In the centre of the dome is a circular opening 30
  ft. in diameter open to the sky, the only source from which the light
  is obtained. The rotunda is preceded by a portico, originally built by
  Agrippa as the front of the rectangular temple erected by him, taken
  down and re-erected after the completion of the rotunda, with the
  omission of the two outer columns. In other words Agrippa's portico
  was decastyle; the actual portico is octastyle.

  _Basilicas._--The earliest example of which remains exist is that of
  the Basilica Julia on the Forum, the complete plan of which is now
  exposed to view. It consisted of a central hall measuring 255 ft. by
  60 ft., surrounded by a double aisle of arches carried on piers, which
  were covered with groined vaults. The Basilica Ulpia built by Trajan
  was similar in plan, but in the place of the piers were monolith
  columns, with Corinthian capitals carrying an entablature, with an
  upper storey forming a gallery round.

  [FIG. 26.--Elevation and plan of the Maison Carrée, Nîmes.]

  The third great basilica, commenced by Maxentius and completed by
  Constantine, differs entirely from the two above mentioned. It
  followed the design and construction of the Tepidarium of the Roman
  thermae, and consisted of a hall 275 ft. long by 82 ft. wide and 114
  ft. high, covered with an intersecting barrel vault with deep recesses
  on each side which communicated one with the other by arched openings
  and constituted the aisles.

  _Theatres._--The only example in Rome is the theatre of Marcellus,
  built by Augustus 13 B.C., and one of the purest examples of Roman
  architecture. Amongst the best preserved examples is the theatre of
  Orange in the south of France, the stage of which was 203 ft. long. In
  the theatre at Taormina in Sicily are still preserved some of the
  columns which decorated the rear wall of the stage. The theatre of
  Herodes Atticus at Athens (A.D. 160) retains portions of its enclosure
  walls and some of the marble seats. There are two theatres in Pompeii
  where the seats and the stage are in fair preservation. Other examples
  in Asia Minor are at Aizani, Side, Telmessus, Alinda, and in Syria at
  Amman, Gerasa, Shuhba and Beisan.

  _Amphitheatres._--The largest amphitheatre is that known as the
  Colosseum, commenced by Vespasian in A.D. 72, continued by Titus and
  dedicated by the latter in A.D. 80. This refers to the three lower
  storeys, for the topmost storey was not erected until the first part
  of the 3rd century, when it was completed by Severus Alexander and
  Gordianus. The building is elliptical in plan and measures 620 ft. for
  the major axis and 513 ft. for the minor axis. There were eighty
  entrances, two of which were reserved for the emperor and his suite.
  The Cavea (q.v.) was divided into four ranges of seats; the whole of
  the exterior and the principal corridors were built in travertine
  stone, and all other corridors, staircases and substructures in
  concrete. Externally the wall was divided into four storeys, the three
  lower ones with arcades divided by semi-detached columns of the
  Tuscan, the Ionic and the Corinthian orders respectively. The walls of
  the topmost storey were decorated with pilasters of the Corinthian
  order, the only openings there being small windows, to light the
  corridors and the upper range of seats. Among other amphitheatres the
  best preserved are those found at Capua, Verona, and Pompeii in Italy;
  at El Jem in North Africa; at Pola in Istria, and at Aries and Nîmes
  in France.

  _The Thermae_ or _Imperial Baths._--The term thermae is given to the
  immense bathing establishments which were built by the emperors to
  ingratiate themselves with the people. Of the ordinary baths
  (_Balneae_) there were numerous examples not only in Rome but at
  Pompeii and throughout the Empire. The thermae were devoted not only
  to baths but to gymnastic pursuits of every kind, and being the
  resorts of the poets, philosophers and statesmen of the day, contained
  numerous halls where discussions and orations could take place. The
  plans of these thermae were measured by Palladio about 1560, at a time
  when they were in far better preservation and more extensive than they
  are to-day. They have, however, been measured since by some of the
  French Grand Prix students; and Blouet's work on the _Thermae of
  Caracalla_(1828) and Paulin's on the _Thermae of Diocletian_(1890)
  give accurate drawings as well as conjectural restorations which are
  of the greatest value. The earliest thermae were those built by
  Agrippa (20 B.C.) in the Campus Martius, and of others those of Titus
  and Trajan are the best preserved; plans can be found in Cameron's
  _Baths_(1775).

  _Entrance Gateways_ and _Arches of Triumph._--As the entrance gateways
  were sometimes erected to commemorate some important event, we have
  grouped these together, the real difference being that the arch of
  triumph was an isolated feature and served no utilitarian purpose,
  whereas the entrance gateway constituted part of the external walls of
  the city and could be opened and closed at will. Of the latter those
  at Verona, Susa, Perugia and Aosta in Italy, Autun in France, and the
  Porta Nigra at Trèves (Trier) are the best known, but there are also
  numerous examples throughout Syria and North Africa. The arches of
  triumph offered a fine scope for decoration with bas-reliefs setting
  forth the principal events of the campaign; the representation on
  coins also suggests that they were looked upon as pedestals to carry
  large groups of sculpture. The best known examples are those of Titus,
  Septimius Severus and Constantine at Rome, of Trajan at Ancona, and,
  in France, at Orange, St Remi and Reims. There were numerous examples
  throughout North Africa and Syria, of which the arch of Caracalla at
  Tebessa in the former and the great gateway of Palmyra in Syria are
  the best preserved.

  _Memorial Buildings and Tombs._--Columns of victory constituted
  another type of memorial, and the shafts of the columns of Trajan and
  Marcus Aurelius in Rome lent themselves to a better representation of
  the records of victory than those which could be obtained in the
  panels of a triumphal arch. Other columns erected are those of
  Antoninus Pius in Rome, a column at Alexandria, and others in France
  and Italy.

  If the Romans derived from the Etruscans a custom of erecting tombs in
  memory of the dead, they did not follow on the same lines, for whilst
  the Etruscans always excavated the tomb in the solid rock,
  constituting a more lasting memorial, the Romans regarded them as
  monumental features and lined the routes of the _via sacra_ of their
  towns with them. The earliest example remaining is that of Caecilia
  Metella (58 B.C.), of which the upper portion, consisting of a
  circular drum 93 ft. in diameter, remains. Of the tomb of Hadrian the
  core only exists in the castle of Sant' Angelo. From the descriptions
  given it must have been a work of great magnificence. The tombs known
  as Columbaria (q.v.) were always below ground, but in some cases an
  upper storey was built above them consisting of a small temple, and
  these flanked the Via Appia in large numbers. At Pompeii outside the
  Herculaneum Gate the Via Appia was lined on both sides with tombs of
  varied design, and with exedrae or circular seats in marble, provided
  for the use of those visiting the tombs. The tombs in Syria form a
  very large and important series, the earliest perhaps being those in
  Palmyra, where they took the form of lofty towers, from 70 to 90 ft.
  high, externally simple as regards their design, but in the several
  storeys inside profusely decorated with Corinthian pilasters and
  coffered ceilings in stone. The tombs in Jerusalem built in the 1st
  century of our era are partly excavated in the rock and partly
  erected. The most important were those known as the tomb of Absalom,
  the tomb of St James, and the tombs of the judges and the kings, all
  cut in the solid rock. In central Syria some of the tombs are
  excavated in the rock, and over them are built a group of two or more
  columns held together by their entablatures. The most important series
  are the tombs at Petra, all cut in the side of cliffs and of elaborate
  design. The sculptor, being free from the restriction of construction,
  realized his conception much in the same way as a scene-painter
  produces a theatrical background.

  _Aqueducts_ and _Bridges._--Although at the present day aqueducts and
  bridges would be classed under the head of engineering works, those
  built by the Romans are so fine in their conception and design that
  they take their place as monuments. The Pont-du-Gard near Nîmes, and
  the aqueducts of Segovia, Tarragona and Merida in Spain, and some of
  those in or near Rome, are of the simplest design, depending for their
  effect on their magnificent construction, their dimensions both in
  length and height, and the scale given in the ranges of arches one
  above the other. Few of the Roman bridges have lasted to our day; the
  bridges of Augustus at Rimini and of Alcantara in Spain may be taken
  as types of the design, in which we note that there are no
  architectural superfluities; the quality of the design depends on the
  graceful proportion of the arches and the fine masonry in which they
  are built.

  _Palatial Architecture._--By far the most magnificent group of palaces
  are those which were erected by the Caesars on the Palatine hill at
  Rome. Commenced by Augustus and added to by his successors down to the
  reign of Severus, they cover an area considerably over 1,000,000 sq.
  ft., and comprise an immense series of great halls, throne room,
  banqueting hall, basilicas, peristylar courts, temple, libraries,
  schools, barracks, a stadium and separate suites for princes and
  courtiers. The service of the palace would seem to have been carried
  on in vaulted corridors in several storeys, some of which on the north
  side, overlooking the Circus Maximus, must have been over 100 ft. in
  height. Except under the Villa Mills, the greater part of the plan has
  been traced; and large remains of mosaic pavements have been found _in
  situ_, and in the approaches, vaulted halls, some still retaining
  their stucco decoration.

  A similar variety of groups of every description of structure is found
  at Tivoli, but spread over a very much larger area. The villa of
  Hadrian extended over 7 m.; the works there were probably begun about
  A.D. 123, the first portion being his own residential palace. In
  addition to the numerous halls, courts, libraries, &c., Hadrian
  attempted to reproduce some of the most remarkable monuments which he
  had seen during his long travels; the Stadium, Palaestra, Odeum, the
  two theatres, the artificial lake, Canopus and other features were,
  however, constructed in the Roman style. Built on a ridge between two
  valleys, the several buildings occupied various levels, so that
  immense terraces and flights of stairs existed throughout the site
  and, combined with the natural scenery, must have been of
  extraordinary beauty.

  The palace of Diocletian at Spalato, to which he retired after his
  abdication, constituted a fortress, three of its walls being protected
  by towers, the fourth on the south by the sea. For an account of its
  well-preserved remains see SPALATO. The emperor's own residence was on
  the south side, and had a gallery 520 ft. long overlooking the sea.
  The two main streets, with arcades on each side and crossing one
  another, divided the whole palace into four sections. One of these
  streets crossed from gate to gate, the other from the north gate led
  to the entrance into the palace of the emperor.

  _Private Houses_.-The entire absence of the remains of the private
  houses of Rome, with the single exception of the house of Livia on the
  Palatine, would have left us with a very poor insight into their
  design were it not for the discovery of Pompeii (q.v.) and Herculaneum
  (q.v.). The descriptions given by Pliny of the lavish extravagance in
  the Roman houses, and the employment of various Greek marbles in the
  shape of monolith columns and panelling of walls, are substantiated by
  those which are found in the Pantheon, in the palaces on the Palatine,
  and in Hadrian's villa at Tivoli; and these compared with what is
  found at Pompeii show that the latter was only a provincial town of
  second or third-rate importance, where painted imitations took the
  place of real marbles, and where the wall paintings were very inferior
  to those which have been discovered in Rome.     (R. P. S.)


  BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE

  The term "Byzantine" is applied to the style of architecture which was
  developed in Byzantium after Constantine had transferred the capital
  of the Roman empire to that city in A.D. 324.

  It is not possible, in the early ages of any style which is based on
  preceding or contemporaneous styles, to draw any hard and fast line of
  demarcation; and already before the Peace of the Church, a gradual
  transformation in the Roman style had been taking place, even in Rome
  itself. Thus the arch had gradually been taking the place of the
  lintel, either frankly as a relieving arch above it (portico of
  Pantheon), or introduced in the frieze just above the architrave (San
  Lorenzo), or by the conversion of the architrave into a flat arch by
  dividing it into voussoirs, as in the Forum Julium at Rome or in the
  temple of Jupiter at Baalbek. In the palace built by Diocletian at
  Spalato, the architrave or lintel of the Golden Gate is built with
  several voussoirs, and the pressure is further relieved by an arch
  thrown across above it. Long before this, however, and already in the
  2nd century A.D. in Syria, this relieving arch had been moulded and
  decorated, with the result of emphasizing it as a new architectural
  feature. In this same palace at Spalato, in order to obtain a wider
  opening in the centre of the portico, leading to the throne room, it
  was spanned by an arch, round which were carried the mouldings of the
  whole entablature, viz. architrave, frieze and cornice. At a still
  earlier date in Syria the same had been done in the Propylaea of the
  temple at Damascus (A.D. 151) and other examples are found in North
  Africa.

  Now when Constantine transferred the capital to Byzantium, he is said
  to have imported immense quantities of monolith columns from Rome, and
  also workmen to carry out the embellishments of the new capital; for
  his work there was not confined to churches, but included
  amphitheatres, palaces, thermae and other public buildings. Owing to
  the haste with which these were built, and in some cases probably to
  the ephemeral materials employed, for the roofs of the churches were
  only in timber, all these early works have been swept away; but there
  remain two structures at least, which are said to date from
  Constantine's time, viz. the Binbirderek or cistern of a thousand
  columns, and the Yeri-Batan-Serai, both in Constantinople. As one of
  the first tasks a Roman emperor set himself to perform was the
  provision of an ample supply of water, of which Byzantium was much in
  need, there is every reason to suppose that they are correctly
  attributed to Constantine's time. If so, as the construction of their
  vaults is quite different from that employed by the Romans, it
  suggests that there already existed in the East a traditional method
  of building vaults of which the emperor availed himself; and, although
  it is not possible to trace all the earlier developments, the
  traditional art of the East, found throughout Syria and Asia Minor,
  must from the first have wrought great changes in the architectural
  style, and in some measure this would account for the comparatively
  short period of two centuries which elapsed between the foundation of
  the new empire and the culminating period of the style under Justinian
  in AD. 532-558.

  Constantine is said to have built three churches in Palestine, but
  these have either disappeared or have been reconstructed since; an
  early basilican church is that of St John Studius (the Baptist) in
  Constantinople, dating from A.D. 463, and though it shows but little
  deviation from classic examples, in the design and vigorous execution
  of the carving in the capitals and the entablature we find the germ of
  the new style. The next typical example is that found in the church of
  St Demetrius at Salonica, a basilican church with atrium in front, a
  narthex, nave and double aisles, with capacious galleries on the first
  floor for women, and an apsidal termination to the nave. Instead of
  the classic entablature, the monolithic columns of the nave carry
  arches both on the ground and upper storeys; above the capitals,
  however, we find a new feature known as the _dosseret_, already
  employed in the two cisterns referred to, a cubical block projecting
  beyond the capital on each side and enabling it to carry a thicker
  wall above. In later examples, when the aisles were vaulted, the
  dosseret served a still more important purpose, in carrying the
  springing of the vaults. The nave and aisles of this church of St
  Demetrius were covered with timber roofs, as the architects had
  neither the knowledge, the skill, nor perhaps the materials to build
  vaults, so as to render the whole church indestructible by fire.

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.--Plan of SS. Sergius and Bacchus.]

  One of the first attempts at this (though the early date given is
  disputed) would seem to have been made at Hierapolis, on the borders
  of Phrygia in Asia Minor, where there are two churches covered with
  barrel vaults carried on transverse ribs across the nave, the thrust
  of which was met by carrying up solid walls on each side, these walls
  being pierced with openings so as to form aisles on the ground floor
  and galleries above. The same system was carried out a century earlier
  in central Syria, where, in consequence of the absence of timber, the
  buildings had to be roofed with slabs of stone carried on arches
  across the nave. It is probable that in course of time other examples
  will be found in Asia Minor, giving a more definite clue to the next
  development, which we find in the work of Justinian, who would seem to
  have recognized that the employment of timber or combustible materials
  was fatal to the long duration of such buildings. Accordingly in the
  first church which he built (fig. 27), that of SS. Sergius and Bacchus
  (A.D. 527), the whole building is vaulted; the church is about 100 ft.
  square, with a narthex on one side. The central portion of the church
  is octagonal (52 ft. wide), and is covered by a dome, carried on
  arches across the eight sides, which are filled in with columns on two
  storeys. These are recessed on the diagonal lines, forming apses. The
  vault is divided into thirty-two zones, the zones being alternately
  flat and concave.

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--Plan of St Sophia.]

  We now pass to Justinian's greatest work, the church of St Sophia
  (fig. 28), begun in 532 and dedicated in 537, which marks the highest
  development of the Byzantine style and became the model on which all
  Greek churches, and even the mosques built by the Mahommedans in
  Constantinople, from the 15th century onwards, were based. The
  architects employed were Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus,
  and the problem they had to solve was that of carrying a dome 107 ft.
  in diameter on four arches. The four arches formed a square on plan,
  and between them were built spherical pendentives, which, overhanging
  the angles, reduced the centre to a circle on which the dome was
  built. This dome fell down in 555, and when rebuilt was raised higher
  and pierced round its lower part with forty circular-headed windows,
  which give an extraordinary lightness to the structure. At the east
  and west ends are immense apses, the full width of the dome, which are
  again subdivided into three smaller apses. The north and south arches
  are filled with lofty columns carrying arches opening into the aisle
  on the ground storey and a gallery on the upper storey, the walls
  above being pierced with windows of immense size. The church was built
  in brick, and internally the walls were encased with thin slabs of
  precious marble up to a great height (fig. 29). The walls and vault
  above were covered with mosaics on a gold ground, which, as they
  represented Christian subjects, were all covered over with stucco by
  the Turks after the taking of Constantinople. During the restoration
  in the middle of the 19th century, when it became necessary to strip
  off the stucco, these mosaics were all drawn and published by
  Salzenburg, and they were covered again with plaster to prevent their
  destruction by the Turks. The columns of the whole church on the
  ground floor are of porphyry, and on the upper storey of verd antique.
  The length of the church from entrance door to eastern apse is 260
  ft.; in width, including the aisles, it measures 238 ft., and it
  measures 175 ft. to the apex of the dome. The columns and arches give
  scale to the small apses, the small apses to the larger ones, and the
  latter to the dome, so that its immense size is grasped from the
  first. The lighting is admirably distributed, and the rich decoration
  of the marble slabs, the monolith columns, the elaborate carving of
  the capitals, the beautiful marble inlays of the spandrils above the
  arches, and the glimpse here and there of some of the mosaic, which
  shows through the stucco, give to this church an effect which is
  unparalleled by any other interior in the world. The narthex or
  entrance vestibule forms a magnificent hall 240 ft. in length, equally
  richly decorated. Externally the building has little pretensions to
  architectural beauty, but its dimensions and varied outline, with the
  groups of smaller and larger apses and domes, make it an impressive
  structure, to which the Turkish minarets, though ungainly, add
  picturesqueness.

  In A.D. 536 a second important church was begun by Theodora, the
  church of the Holy Apostles, which was destroyed in 1454 by order of
  Mahommed II. to build his mosque. The design of this church is known
  only from the clear description given by Procopius, the historian who
  has transmitted to us the record of Justinian's work, and its chief
  interest to us now is that it forms the model on which the church of
  St Mark at Venice was based, when it was restored, added to, and
  almost rebuilt about 1063.

  The church of St Sophia was not only the finest of its kind at the
  time of its erection, but no building approaching it has ever been
  built since in the Byzantine style, nor does much seem to have been
  done for two or three centuries afterwards. At the same time the
  erection of new churches must have been going on, because there are
  certain changes in design, the results probably of many trials. The
  difficulty of obtaining sufficient light in domes of small diameter
  led to the windows being placed in vertical drums, of which the
  earliest example is that of the western dome of St Irene at
  Constantinople, rebuilt A.D. 718-740. This simplified the construction
  and externally added to the effect of the church. The greatest change,
  however, which took place, arose in consequence of the comparatively
  small dimensions given to the central dome, which rendered it
  necessary to provide more space in another way, by increasing the area
  on each side, so that the plan developed into what is known as the
  Greek cross, in which the four arms are almost equal in dimensions to
  the central dome, and were covered with barrel vaults which amply
  resisted its thrust. In front of the church a narthex and sometimes an
  exonarthex was added, which was of greater width than the church
  itself, as in the churches (both in Constantinople) of the Theotokos
  and of Chora (A.D. 1080). The latter, better known as the "mosaic
  mosque," on account of its splendid decoration in that material, is of
  special interest, because in the five arches of its façade we find the
  same design as that which originally constituted the front of the
  lower part of St Mark's at Venice, before it was encrusted with the
  marble casing and the plethora of marble columns and capitals brought
  over from Constantinople.

  [Illustration: FIG. 29.--Cross section of the interior of St Sophia.]

  Sometimes an additional church was built adjoining the first church
  and dedicated to the immaculate Virgin, as in the church of St Mary
  Panachrantos, Constantinople, the church of St Luke of Stiris, Phocis,
  and the church in the island of Paros. In the last-named church the
  apse still retains its marble seats, rising one above the other, with
  the bishop's throne in the centre. In addition to the churches already
  mentioned in Constantinople, there are still some which have been
  appropriated by the Turks and utilized as mosques. At Mount Athos
  there are a large number of Greek churches, ranging from the 10th to
  the 16th centuries, which are attached to the monasteries. At Athens
  one of the most beautiful examples is preserved in the Catholicon or
  cathedral, the materials of which were taken from older classical
  buildings. This cathedral measures only 40 ft. by 25 ft., and is now
  overpowered by the new cathedral erected close by.

  The external design of the Byzantine churches, as a rule, is extremely
  simple, but it owes its quality to the fact that its features are
  those which arise out of the natural construction of the church. The
  domes, the semi-domes over the apses, and the barrel vaults over other
  parts of the church, appear externally as well as internally, and as
  they are all covered with lead or with tiles, laid direct on the
  vaults, they give character to the design and an extremely picturesque
  effect. The same principle is observed in the doorways and windows, to
  which importance is given by accentuating their constructive features.
  The arches, always in brick, are of two orders or rings of arches set
  one behind the other, and the voussoirs, alternately in brick and
  stone, have the most pleasing effect. The same simple treatment is
  given to the walls by the horizontal courses of bricks or tiles,
  alternating with the stone courses. In the apse of the church of the
  Apostles at Salonica, variety is given by the interlacing of brick
  patterns. This elaboration of the surface decoration is carried still
  further in the palace of Hebdomon at Blachernae, in Constantinople,
  built by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (913-949), where the spandrils of
  the arches are inlaid with a mosaic of bricks in various colours
  arranged in various patterns.

  There would seem to have been a revival in the 11th century, possibly
  a reflex of that which was taking place in Europe, and it is to this
  period we owe the churches of St Luke in Phocis, the church at Daphne,
  and the churches of St Nicodemus and St Theodore in Athens. The finest
  example of brick patterns is that which is found in the church of St
  Luke of Stiris, attached to the monastery in the province of Phocis,
  north of the Gulf of Corinth, of which an admirable monograph was
  published in 1901 by the committee of the British School at Athens,
  illustrated by measured drawings of the plans, elevations, sections
  and mosaics by Messrs Schultz and Barnsley, with a detailed
  description. The church of St Luke of Stiris is one of those already
  referred to, where a second church dedicated to the Holy Virgin has
  been added, but in this case, according to Messrs Schultz and
  Barnsley, on the site of a more ancient church of which the narthex
  alone was retained. The plan of the great church differs from the
  ordinary Greek cross in that the arms of the cross are of much less
  width than the central domed square, and arches being thrown across
  the angles carry eight pendentives instead of four. On the east side
  the Diaconicon and Prothesis are included in the width of the domed
  portion instead of forming the eastern termination of the aisles. The
  churches at Daphne in Attica and of St Nicodemus at Athens have a
  similar plan.

  The decoration of the smaller church of St Luke of Stiris is of the
  most elaborate character, bright patterns of infinite variety
  alternating with the brick courses, and as blocks of marble, removed
  from the site of the old city near, were available, they have been
  utilized in various parts of the structure and richly carved. The
  church at Mistra in the Peloponnesus, 13th century, built in the side
  of a hill, is one of the most picturesque examples, and is almost the
  only example in which a tower is to be found.

  _Armenia._--One other phase of the Byzantine style has still to be
  mentioned, the development of church architecture in Armenia, which
  follows very much on the same lines as that of the Greek church, with
  a central dome on the crossing, a narthex at the west end and a
  triapsal east end. In two churches at Echmiadzin and Kutais there are
  transeptal apses in addition to those at the east end. One of the
  differences to be noted is that the domes and roofs are generally in
  stone externally, and this has led to another change; the domes,
  though hemispherical inside, have conical roofs over them. There is
  also a greater admixture of styles, the Persian, Byzantine and
  Romanesque phases entering into the design; the last was probably
  derived from the churches of central Syria, as the Armenians were the
  only race who seem to have penetrated there, and the finest example,
  at Kalat Seman, was at one time in their possession. The church at
  Dighur near Ani, of the 7th century, also probably owes its classical
  details to the work in central Syria. The most important example of
  the Armenian style is found in the cathedral at Ani, the capital of
  Armenia, dating from A.D. 1010. In this church pointed arches and
  coupled piers are found, with all the characteristics of a complete
  pointed-arch style, which, as Fergusson remarks, "might be found in
  Italy or Sicily in the 12th or 14th century." Externally the walls are
  decorated with lofty blind arcades similar to those in the cathedral
  at Pisa and other churches in the same town, which are probably fifty
  years later. The elaborate fret carving of the window dressings and
  hood moulds are probably borrowed from the tile decoration found in
  Persia.

  _Russia._--The architecture of Russia is only a somewhat degraded
  version of the style of the Byzantine empire. The earliest buildings
  of importance are the cathedrals of Kiev and Novgorod, 1019-1054. The
  original church of Kiev consisted of nave, with triple aisles each
  side, the piers in which are of enormous size, a transept and square
  bays of the choir beyond, each with deep apsidal chapels. Externally
  the chief features are the bulbous domes adopted from the Tatars,
  which sometimes assume great dimensions. Internally, the chief feature
  is the Iconostasis, which corresponds to the English rood screen,
  except that in Russia it forms a complete separation between the
  church and the sanctuary with its altar.

  One of the most remarkable churches is that of St Basil at Moscow
  (1534-1584), which in plan looks like a central hall, surrounded by
  eight other halls of smaller dimensions, all separated one from the
  other by vaulted corridors; this arrangement is not intelligible
  until one sees the exterior view, which accounts for the plan; each
  one of these halls is crowned by lofty towers with bulbous domes, the
  centre one rising above all the others and terminated with an
  octagonal roof, probably derived from the Armenian conical roof. The
  oldest and most interesting church in Moscow is the church of the
  Assumption (1479), where the tsars are always crowned; but as it
  measures only 74 ft. by 50 ft., it is virtually little more than a
  chapel; the plan is that of a Greek cross with central dome and four
  others over the angles. One other church deserves mention--at Curtea
  de Argesh, in Rumania. It was built in 1517-1526, and though small (90
  by 50 ft.), is built entirely of stone, instead of brick covered with
  stucco, as is the case with the churches in Moscow. The interior has
  been entirely sacrificed to the exterior, the domes being raised to an
  extravagant height. The relative proportion of width of nave to height
  of dome in St Sophia at Constantinople is about one to two; in the
  church at Curtea de Argesh it is about one to five; and yet there can
  be little doubt the design was made by one of those Armenian
  architects who seem to have been always employed at Constantinople,
  and who presumably based their designs there on St Sophia as regards
  its principal features. Here, however, he was working for Tatar
  employers who attached more importance to display than to good
  proportion. In general design the church is based on Armenian work.
  The elaborately carved panels and disks are copied from the inlays in
  the mosques in Damascus and of Sultan Hassan at Cairo, and the
  stalactite cornices and capitals of the columns are transcripts of the
  Mahommedan style of Constantinople, which was derived from the style
  developed by the Seljuks.

  We were only able to point to a single example of a tower in the
  Byzantine style, but in Russia the towers not only constitute the
  principal accessory to the church but were necessary adjuncts, in
  order to provide accommodation for bells, the casting of which has at
  all times formed one of the most important crafts in Russia. The chief
  examples, all in Moscow, are the tower attached to the church of the
  Assumption; the tower of Boris, inside the Kremlin; and that erected
  over the sacred gate of the same. But they abound throughout Russia
  and in some cases form important features in the principal elevations
  on either side of the narthex.     (R. P. S.)


  EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE

  Of the earliest examples of the housing of the Christian church few
  remains exist, owing partly to their destruction from time to time by
  imperial edicts, and partly to the fact that in most cases they were
  only oratories of a small and unpretending nature, which, immediately
  after the Peace of the Church, were rebuilt of greater size and with
  increased magnificence. In Rome itself, the principal religious centre
  was that which was found in the catacombs (q.v.), almost the only
  resort in times of persecution. In the houses of the wealthy Romans
  who had been converted, rooms were set apart for the reception of the
  faithful, and these may have been increased in size by the addition of
  side aisles. At all events, either in Rome or in the East, where
  greater freedom of worship was observed, the requirements of the
  religious had already resulted in a traditional type of plan, which
  may account for the similarity of all the great churches built by
  Constantine. It has often been assumed that the great Roman basilicas,
  if not actually utilized by the Christians, were copied so far as
  their design is concerned. This, however, is not borne out by the
  facts, there being very little similarity between the first churches
  built and the two great Roman basilicas, the Ulpian basilica and that
  built by Constantine; the latter was roofed with an immense vault, an
  imperishable covering, not attempted till two centuries later in
  Byzantium, and the former had its entrance in the centre of the longer
  side, and the tribunes at either end were divided off from the
  basilica by a double aisle of columns. The basilica plan was adopted
  because it was the simplest and most economical building of large size
  which could be erected, having an immense central area or nave well
  lighted by clerestory windows, and single or double aisles to divide
  the two sexes, and further because the immense supply of columns which
  could be taken from existing temples or porticoes enabled the
  architect to provide at small cost the colonnades or arcades between
  the nave and the aisles. On the other hand, there is no doubt that the
  temples, for which there was no further use, were largely
  appropriated, not only in Italy but in Greece, Sicily and elsewhere,
  and it is to this appropriation that we owe the preservation of the
  Parthenon, the Erechtheum and the temple of Theseus at Athens. There
  are some cases in which it is interesting to note the changes which
  were made to convert the temple into a church. In the temple of Athena
  at Syracuse, walls were built in between the columns of the peristyle,
  the cella was appropriated for the nave, and arcades were cut through
  the cella walls to communicate with the peristyle, so as to constitute
  the aisles. In the temple of Aphrodisias, in Asia Minor, a further
  development occurred. The walls of the cella were taken down, a wall
  was built outside the columns of the peristyle to form aisles, and the
  columns of the east and west end were taken down and placed in line
  with the others, in order to increase the length of the church.

  The earliest Christian basilica built in Rome was the Lateran, which
  has, however, been so completely transformed in subsequent rebuildings
  as to have lost its original character. The next in date was that of
  the old St Peter's, which was taken down in 1506, in consequence of
  its ruinous condition, in order to make way for the present cathedral,
  begun by Pope Julius II. It was of considerable size, covering an area
  of 73,000 ft. Its plan consisted of an atrium, or open court, having a
  fountain in the centre, and arcades round; a nave, 275 ft. long and 77
  ft. wide, with double aisles on each side; a transept, 270 ft. long by
  54 ft. wide; and a semi-circular apse or tribune with a radius of 27
  ft.; the high altar being in the centre of its choir, and ranges of
  marble seats and the papal throne in the middle, corresponding to the
  benches and the judge's seat of the Roman tribune. The nave,
  therefore, with its double aisles, was similar to that of the Ulpian
  basilica, but the aisles were not returned across the east end, and at
  the west end, in their place, was the great triumphal arch opening
  into the transept. The monolith columns of the nave and their capitals
  (together 40 ft. high) were all taken from ancient buildings, as also
  were those of the aisle arcades and in the atrium.

  The basilica of St Paul, outside the walls, was originally of
  comparatively small dimensions, with its apse at the west end; in A.D.
  386 the church was rebuilt on a plan similar to St Peter's, with nave
  and double aisles, divided by columns carrying arches, transept and
  apse. In the Lateran basilica, St Peter's, Santa Maria Maggiore, and
  St Lawrence (outside the walls), the columns of the nave were
  close-set (i.e. with narrow intercolumniations) and supported
  architraves, but in St Paul (outside the walls) the columns of the
  second church (A.D. 386) were wider apart and carried arches. The same
  feature is found in the church of St Agnes, founded A.D. 324, but
  rebuilt 620-640; here the arcade is carried across the west end and
  there are galleries above, the arches being carried on dosseret blocks
  above the capitals; these are also found in the galleries over the
  western end of St Lawrence, added by Honorius (A.D. 620-640); the
  dosseret, a Byzantine feature, being derived either from Ravenna or
  from the East. In the church of Santa Maria-in-Cosmedin (A.D. 772-795)
  another Byzantine feature appears in the triple apse at the east end,
  the earliest example in Europe. In this church, as also in those of
  San Clemente and San Prassede, piers are built at intervals to carry
  the arcades separating the nave and aisles. Those in the latter,
  however, were probably added when the great arches were thrown across
  the nave. The church of San Clemente was built in 1108, above a much
  older church dating from 385 and restored later; it is almost the only
  church in Rome which has preserved its atrium intact; the internal
  arrangement of the church also is different from that found elsewhere,
  the choir, enclosed with marble piers and screens removed from the
  lower church and erected in front of the tribune, dating from A.D.
  514-523. The mosaics executed in 1112 are in fine preservation.

  Other early churches in Rome are those of Santa Pudenziana (335); San
  Pietro-in-Vincoli (442), with Doric columns in the nave; SS. Quattro
  Coronati (450); Santa Sabina (450), an interesting church on account
  of the marble inlaid decoration in the arch spandrils of the nave,
  which date from 824; San Prassede (817), with arches thrown across the
  nave later; San Vincenzo ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (626); and
  Santa Maria in Domnica, where there are galleries over the aisles and
  across the east end as in St Agnes.

  Hitherto we have said little about the architectural design, the fact
  being that externally these churches had the appearance of barns; it
  is only in a few cases, notably in St Peter's, that the principal
  fronts were decorated with mosaics. The magnificent materials employed
  internally, the monolith marble columns, the enrichment of the apse
  and the triumphal arch with mosaics, and probably the painting and
  gilding of the ceiling or roof, gave to the early basilican churches
  in Rome that splendour which characterizes those in Byzantium and in
  Ravenna.

  With the exception of the baptistery attached to St John Lateran, and
  the so-called tomb of Santa Constantia, both erected by Constantine,
  the circular form of church was not adopted in Rome; there is one
  remarkable circular building of great size, San Stefano Rotondo, at
  one time thought to have been a Roman market, but now known to have
  been erected by Pope Simplicius (468-482). It consisted of a central
  circular nave, 44 ft. in diameter, and double aisles round. In the
  arcade dividing the aisles the arches are carried on dosserets, the
  earliest known example of this feature in Rome.

  Although inferior in size, the two churches of S. Appollinare Nuovo,
  built by Theodoric (493-525) and Sant' Apollinare-in-Classe (538-549),
  both in Ravenna, have the special advantage that they were constructed
  in new materials, there being no ancient Roman temples there to pull
  down. The ordinary basilican plan was adhered to, but as the
  architects and workmen came from Constantinople, they incorporated in
  the building various details of the Byzantine style, with which they
  were best acquainted. Thus the contour of the mouldings, the carrying
  of the capitals and imposts, the dosseret above the capital, and the
  scheme of decoration of the interior with marble casing on the lower
  portion of the walls and mosaic above, are all Byzantine. Externally
  the churches are extremely plain, the wall surfaces of the nave and
  aisle walls being varied by blind arcades.

  The earliest building in Ravenna is the tomb of Galla Placidia, built
  450, a small cruciform structure with a dome on pendentives over the
  centre, perhaps the earliest example known. The baptistery of St John,
  which was attached to the cathedral built by Archbishop Ursus (380),
  now destroyed, is a plain octagonal building, 40 ft. in diameter,
  originally with a timber roof; when in 451 it was determined to
  replace this by a vault, in order to resist the thrust, the upper part
  of the walls was brought forward on arches and corbels, and the
  interior richly decorated with paintings, stucco reliefs and mosaics
  in the dome. The most interesting building in Ravenna, however, from
  many points of view, is the church of San Vitale (fig. 30), built
  539-547, its plan and design being based on the church of SS. Sergius
  and Bacchus at Constantinople. The proportions of the interior of St
  Sergius are much finer than those in San Vitale, where the dome is
  raised too high; the timber roofs also of San Vitale have deprived the
  church externally of that fine architectural effect found in Byzantine
  churches. In order to lighten the dome, its shell was built with
  hollow pots, the end of one fitted into the mouth of the other. The
  interior of the church is of great beauty, owing to the alternating of
  the piers carrying the eight arches with the columns set back in
  apsidal recesses. Unfortunately the church has been much restored, but
  the magnificent mosaics in the choir and the variety of design shown
  in the capitals and dosserets render this church, though small, one of
  the most attractive in Italy. One other Ravenna building must be
  mentioned, though it would be difficult to know under what style to
  class it. The tomb of Theodoric, having a decagonal plan in two
  storeys, the lower one vaulted at the upper storey, set back to allow
  of a "terrace" round, once sheltered by a small arcade, and covered by
  a single stone 35 ft. in diameter, belongs to no definite style; the
  mouldings of the upper portion have some resemblance to the mouldings
  of some of the Etruscan tombs at Castel d'Asso, which was probably
  known to Theodoric.

  [Illustration: FIG. 30.--Plan of S. Vitale, Ravenna.]

  As Dalmatia and Istria both formed part of Theodoric's kingdom, we
  find there the same Byzantine influence as that which was asserted in
  Ravenna, in both cases the work being done by artists and masons from
  Constantinople. There is not much left in Dalmatia, but in Istria are
  two important examples,--the churches at Parenzo (535-543) and Grado
  (571-586). Like the two churches in Ravenna, they are basilican in
  plan, with apses, semi-circular internally and polygonal externally,
  the latter being a characteristic found in all the churches in Europe
  which were influenced directly by Byzantine custom. Although the
  monolith columns were derived from ancient Roman buildings, all the
  capitals were specially carved for the two churches, and they have the
  same variety of design and in many cases are identical with those in
  San Vitale, Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, Sant' Apollinare-in-Classe, and
  those brought over from Constantinople, which now decorate St Mark's
  at Venice internally as well as externally. The decoration of the
  lower part of the walls internally with marble slabs, and the upper
  portion and apsidal vaults with mosaic, follows on the same lines as
  those at Ravenna and Constantinople. The church at Parenzo still
  retains its baptistery and atrium, from which fragments of the mosaics
  which originally decorated the west front can be seen. The church at
  Aquileia was rebuilt in the 11th century, and the Duomo of Trieste has
  been so altered as to lose its original Byzantine character.
       (R. P. S.)


  EARLY CHRISTIAN WORK IN CENTRAL SYRIA

  Contemporaneously with the early developments of the Christian
  churches just described, another line of treatment was being evolved
  in central Syria, which would seem to have been quite independent of
  the others, though at first sight it bears considerable resemblance to
  the Byzantine style, and for that reason was probably classed and
  described under that head by Fergusson. But the leading characteristic
  of the Byzantine style is the dome over the centre of the church round
  which all other features are grouped, whereas in central Syria, with
  the exception of two examples--one a circular, the other a polygonal
  church--there are no domes. There is considerable Greek feeling in the
  mouldings and carvings of the capitals, but that is probably due to
  the fact that the masons were originally of Greek extraction. A
  comparison, for instance, of the design and carving of the largest
  church in central Syria, the famous building erected round the column
  of St Simeon Stylites at Kalat-Seman, dating from the 6th century,
  with any Byzantine church of the same date, shows very little
  resemblance, because the former was inspired more or less directly by
  the Roman remains in the country. A similar inspiration is found in
  the churches of St Trophime at Arles and St Gilles in the south of
  France, and at Autun and Langres in Burgundy. Both were founded on
  Roman work, and the mouldings of the pediments and archivolts and the
  fluting of the pilasters at Kalat-Seman, of the 6th century, are
  identical with what is found, quite independently, in Provence and
  Burgundy in the 11th and 12th centuries. There is, however, another
  special characteristic found in the masonry of the churches in central
  Syria, which is peculiar to the whole of Palestine, and is found in
  the earliest remains there, as also in Roman work, and to a certain
  extent in much of the Mahommedan construction and in that of the
  Crusaders, viz. its megalithic qualities. Instead of building an arch
  in several voussoirs, they preferred to do it in three or five only,
  and sometimes would cut the whole arch out of a single vertical slab.
  If they employed voussoirs, they were not content with ordinary depth,
  shown by the archivolt mouldings, but made them three or four times as
  deep.

  The masons, in fact, would seem to have retained the traditional
  Phoenician custom of the country to employ the largest stones they
  were able to quarry, transport and raise on the building.
  Subsequently, in working down the masonry, they reproduced the
  architectural features they found in Roman buildings; this was done,
  however, without any knowledge as to their constructional origin or
  meaning; thus, in copying a Roman pilaster, the capital and part of
  the shaft would be worked out of one stone, and the lower part of the
  shaft and the base out of another. It is only from this point of view
  that we can account for the peculiar development given to the
  decoration of their later work, where archivolts, wood mouldings and
  window dressings are looked upon as simply surface decoration to be
  applied round doorways and windows, without any reference to the
  jointing of the masonry.

  The immense series of monuments, civil as well as religious existing
  throughout central Syria, were almost entirely unknown before the
  publication of the marquis of Vogüé's work, _La Syrie centrale_, in
  1865-1867. This work, illustrated with measured plans, sections and
  elevations, with perspective views, and accompanied by detailed
  descriptions of the various buildings, forms an invaluable record of
  an architectural style, more or less completely developed, which
  flourished from the 3rd to the beginning of the 7th century. An
  American archaeological expedition made further investigations in
  1899-1900, and its report, written by Mr H.C. Butler, contains
  additional plans and a large number of photogravures, which bear
  testimony to the truth and accuracy of the engraved plates of the
  marquis de Vogüé. The preservation of these central Syrian remains,
  more or less intact, is considered to have been due either to the
  desertion of all the towns in which they were situated by the
  inhabitants at the time of the Mahommedan invasion, or, according to
  Mr H.C. Butler, to the deforesting of the whole country about the
  commencement of the 7th century.

  The monuments and buildings illustrated may be divided into three
  classes,--ecclesiastical, including monasteries; civil and domestic;
  and tombs. It is in the two first that the principal interest is
  centred.

  _Churches._--The earliest of these date from the end of the 4th
  century, and the latest inscription on a church is 609, so that a
  little over 200 years includes the whole series. With one or two small
  exceptions all the churches follow the basilican plan, with nave and
  aisles separated by arcades, the arches of which are carried by
  columns, four arches on each side in the smaller churches, ten in the
  largest. The churches are all orientated, and have generally a
  semi-circular apse, and occasionally a square or rectangular sanctuary
  at the east end, on either side of which are square chambers,--the
  _diaconicon_, reserved for the priests, on the south side, and the
  _prothesis_, on the north side, in which the offerings of the faithful
  were deposited. Except in the earliest churches, the entrance was
  generally at the west end, and was sometimes preceded by a porch. In
  addition to the west entrance, there were sometimes doorways leading
  direct into the north and south aisles, with projecting porticoes.
  About the middle of the 6th century a change was made in the design of
  the arcades in the nave, and rectangular piers with arches of wide
  span were substituted for the ordinary arcade with columns. The effect
  as shown in the engravings and photogravures is so fine that it is
  strange that the scheme was never adopted in the earlier Romanesque
  churches of Europe. The two more important examples are at Kalb-Lauzeh
  (fig. 31) and Ruweiha, but three or four others are known, and this
  plan was adopted in the basilica erected in the great court of the
  temple at Baalbek. All the churches are built in fine ashlar masonry,
  with moulded archivolts and architraves to doorways and windows, and
  moulded string courses and cornices of simple design. The principal
  decoration externally is found in the hood-mould or label round the
  windows, continued as a string-course and carried round other windows,
  and sometimes terminating in a disk with cross in centre. These
  hood-moulds are occasionally richly carved. All the churches in
  central Syria had open timber roofs which have now disappeared; this
  is proved by the sinkings in the end walls to receive the purlins, and
  the corbels provided to carry the tie beams. The apses were always
  covered with semi-domes. The three most important churches were those
  of Turmanin, Kalb-Lauzeh and Kalat-Seman. The plans of the two first
  are similar, except that in Turmanin the nave arcade is of the
  ordinary type, with seven arches carried on columns, while in
  Kalb-Lauzeh (fig. 32) there are three wide arches on each side carried
  on two rectangular piers and responds. Both have entrance porches
  (fig. 33), which are flanked by angle buildings carried up as towers
  in three storeys; these probably contained wooden staircases to ascend
  to an open gallery, which consisted of four columns in-antis between
  the angle towers above the porch. The north and south walls were quite
  plain, except for window and door dressings and string courses; the
  apse was richly decorated, with wall shafts superimposed between the
  windows, and carrying a projecting cornice with alternate corbels. The
  church at Ruweiha has a similar plan to that at Kalb-Lauzeh, but two
  transverse arches in stone are thrown across the nave, resting on
  abutments attached to the nave piers.

  [Illustration: FIG. 31.--Plan of Church of Kalb-Lauzeh.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 32.--Interior of the Church of Kalb-Lauzeh.]

  The most remarkable example and by far the largest is the great
  basilica at Kalat-Seman (fig. 34), which was erected round the pillar
  on which St. Simeon Stylites spent thirty years of his life. The base
  of the pillar stands in the centre of an immense octagonal court open
  to the sky. The plan consists of nave, transept and choir, all with
  side aisles, separated in the centre by the octagonal court which
  constitutes the crossing. The nave built on the side of a hill is
  raised on a crypt, and the principal entrance would seem to have been
  through the porch of the north transept, which occupies the full width
  of transept and aisles. There were, however, in addition two doorways
  with porches to each aisle, as well as portico and doors to the north
  transept. At the eastern end were three apses, the two outer ones,
  facing the aisles, being additions in the second half of the 6th
  centurv. St. Simeon died in 459, and the church was probably begun
  shortly afterwards, but not completed till the 6th century. The
  archivolts of the great arches on each side of the octagonal court
  consist of architrave, frieze and cornice, copied from the arch of the
  propylaca at Baalbek or other Roman work. Here, as in the great
  southern porch, the classic nature of the details is remarkable, the
  pilasters are all fluted, and the modillion and dentil, derived from
  Roman models, exist throughout. On the other hand, the carving of the
  foliage was certainly executed by Greek artists, and the well-known
  Byzantine capital, with the leaves bending under the influence of the
  wind, is here reproduced. The great apse externally retains its
  decoration with superimposed shafts and cornice, as in Turmanin and
  Kalb-Lauzeh.

  [Illustration: FIG. 33.--Church of Turmanin.]

  The monastery of Kalat-Seman was built on the south side of the great
  church, and many of the rooms had roofs of slabs of stone carried on
  arches across the room, a method of construction universally found in
  the Hauran, where the absence of timber necessitated this more
  permanent method of construction. The monasteries differ from the
  domestic work in being much plainer, and, instead of columns in the
  porticoes, having invariably square piers of stone.

  [Illustration: FIG. 34.--Plan of Church of Kalat-Seman.]

  Among circular churches, the walls of the cathedral at Bozra are gone,
  so that the conjectural restoration shown in de Vogué's work is purely
  speculative, but in the church at Ezra (510) the central octagon is
  covered by a high dome of elliptical section. An aisle is carried
  round the octagon with similar recesses on the diagonal lines, the
  whole being enclosed in a square; in the apse at the east end the
  seats of the tribune are still preserved.

  _Domestic Work._--The domestic work in central Syria is, in a way,
  even more remarkable than the ecclesiastical. Broadly speaking, there
  are two types of plan--those found in the towns and grouped together,
  and those which, with increased area, constituted a villa. At El Barah
  the average house occupied a site of about 80 ft. by 60 ft., of which
  about 30 ft. in width was occupied by an open court; facing this
  court, which was enclosed with high walls, is an open colonnade on two
  floors, which always faces south, occupies the whole front (80 ft.) of
  the house, and is the only means of approach to the rooms in the rear,
  three on each floor, side by side. In the centre of these rooms, 14
  ft. wide each, an arch is thrown across on each floor, which carries
  slabs of stone covering the first floor and the roof; the upper storey
  was reached probably by a timber staircase, now gone, but in poorer
  dwellings an external flight of steps in stone led to an upper floor.
  All the houses face the same way. The colonnade of the house consisted
  of about fifteen columns on each storey. Each column, including its
  capital and base, was cut out of a single stone; on the upper storey,
  between the columns, are stone vertical slabs forming a balustrade;
  the houses are all built in fine ashlar masonry with architraves and
  cornices to doors and windows, a luxury which in England could rarely
  be indulged in for ordinary houses. At El Barah, in an area of about
  250 ft. by 150 ft. as shown by de Vogüé, there are about 100 monolith
  columns, 12 ft. high, on the ground storey alone. In a villa at El
  Barah the open court is surrounded on three sides by buildings, those
  at the east end of considerable extent and in three storeys. A smaller
  example at Mujeleia has two courts, one of them being for stables and
  other services; otherwise the residence of the proprietor is similar
  to the one above described. Here and there the fantasy of the artist
  has been allowed to revel in the carving of the balustrades, door
  lintels, &c. The capitals are of endless design, and show
  interpretations of Ionic and Corinthian capitals, in some cases not
  dissimilar to the Byzantine versions in St Mark's at Venice.

  Hostelries and public baths are amongst other civil buildings which
  are recognizable, the hostelries in some cases being attached to the
  monasteries.

  _Tombs._--The principal tombs are either excavated in the rock, with
  an open court in front and an entrance portico, like the tombs of the
  kings at Jerusalem, and sometimes a superstructure of columns or a
  podium raised above them; or again they are built in masonry, and take
  the form of sepulchral chapels; in the latter case, if many sarcophagi
  have to be deposited, and the chapel is of great length, arches are
  thrown across, about 6 ft. centre to centre, to support the slabs of
  stone with which they are covered. This carries on the traditional
  custom of the Roman temples in Syria, the roofs of which, in stone,
  were similarly supported. Sometimes there will be two storeys, the
  upper one covered with a dome. Those which are peculiar to the country
  are square tombs, with a pyramidal stone roof all built in horizontal
  courses, and either enclosed with a peristyle all round, on one or two
  storeys, or having a portico in front with flat stone roof. The
  cornices, string courses and lintels of the doors of these tombs of
  the 4th and 5th centuries, are enriched with carving, showing strong
  Byzantine influence, though probably due to the employment of Greek
  artists.     (R. P. S.)


  THE COPTIC CHURCH IN EGYPT

  The earliest places of Christian worship in Egypt were probably only
  chapels or oratories of small dimensions attached to the monasteries,
  which were spread throughout the country; a wholesale destruction of
  these took place at various times, more especially by the order of
  Severus, about 200 B.C., so that no remains have come down to us. The
  most ancient examples known are those which are attributed to the
  empress Helena, of which there are important portions preserved in the
  churches of the White and Red monasteries at the foot of the Libyan
  hills near Suhag.

  Although the plan of the Coptic church is generally basilican, i.e.
  consists of nave and aisles, it is probable that they were not copied
  from Roman examples, but were based on expansions of the first
  oratories built, to which aisles had afterwards been added. There are
  no long transepts, as in the early Christian basilicas of St Peter's
  at Rome, and of St Paul outside the walls, and there is only one
  example of a cruciform church with a dome in the centre following the
  Byzantine plan. Even at an early period the nave and aisles were
  covered sometimes with barrel vaults, either semicircular or
  elliptical. The Coptic church was always orientated with the
  sanctuaries at the east end. The aisles were returned round the west
  end and had galleries above for women. Sometimes the western aisle has
  been walled up to form a narthex; in many cases a narthex was built,
  but, in consequence of the persecution to which the Copts were subject
  at the hands of the Moslems, its three doors have been blocked up and
  a separate small entrance provided. The narthex was the place for
  penitents, but was sometimes used for baptism by total immersion,
  there being epiphany tanks sunk in the floor of the churches at Old
  Cairo, known as Abu Serga, Abu-s-Sifain (Abu Sefen) and El Adra; these
  are now boarded over, as total immersion is no longer practised.

  There are a few exceptions to the basilican plan; and in four examples
  (two in Cairo and two at Deir-Mar-Antonios in the eastern desert by
  the Gulf of Suez) there are three aisles of equal widths, divided one
  from the other by two rows of columns with three in each row, thus
  dividing the roof into twelve square compartments, each of which is
  covered with a dome.

  The sanctuaries at the east end, as developed in the Coptic church,
  differ in some particulars from those of any other religious
  structures. There are always three chapels or sanctuaries, with an
  altar in each, the central chapel being known as the Haikal. The
  chapels are more often square than apsidal, and are always surmounted
  by a complete dome, a peculiarity not found out of Egypt. The seats of
  the tribune are still preserved in a large number of the sanctuaries,
  and there are probably more examples in Egypt than in all Europe, if
  Russia and Mount Athos be excepted. Those of Abu-Serga, El Adra and
  Abu-s-Sifain, with three concentric rows of seats and a throne in the
  centre, are the most important; but even in the square sanctuaries the
  tradition is retained, and seats are ranged against the east wall, and
  in one case (at Anba-Bishôi) three steps are carried across, and
  behind them is a segmental tribune of three steps, with throne in the
  centre.

  The most remarkable Coptic churches in Egypt are those of the
  Deir-el-Abiad (the White monastery) and the Deir-el-Akhmar (the Red
  monastery) at Suhag. These were of great size, measuring about 240 ft.
  by 130 ft. with vaulted narthex, nave and aisles separated by two rows
  of monolith columns taken from ancient buildings, twelve in each row
  and probably roofed over in timber, and three apses, directed
  respectively towards the east, north and south. These apses are
  unusually deep and have five niches in each, in two storeys separated
  by superimposed columns. In the church of St John at Antinoe there are
  seven niches. A similar arrangement is found in the three apses,
  placed side by side, in the more ancient portion of St Mark's, Venice,
  built A.D. 820, and said to have been copied from St Mark's at
  Alexandria. There is no external architecture in the Coptic churches;
  they are all masked with immense enclosure walls, so as to escape
  attention. The walls of the interior still preserve a great portion of
  the paintings of scriptural subjects; the screens dividing off the
  Haikal and other chapels from the choir are of great beauty, and
  evidently formed the models from which the panelled woodwork, doors
  and pulpits of the Mahommedan mosques have been copied and reproduced
  by Copts.

  Illustrations are given in A.J. Butler's _Ancient Coptic Churches of
  Egypt_(1884); Wladimir de Bock's _Matériaux archéologiques de l'Égypte
  chrétienne_(1901); and A. Gayet's _L'art coptique_.     (R. P. S.)


ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY

"Romanesque" is the broad generic term adopted about the beginning of
the 19th century by French archaeologists in order to bring under one
head all the various phases of the round-arched Christian style,
hitherto known as Lombard and Byzantine Romanesque in Italy, Rhenish in
Germany, "Romane" and Norman in France, Saxon and Norman in England, &c.
In character, as well as in time, the Romanesque lies between the Roman
and the Gothic or Pointed style, but its first manifestation in Italy
has already been described in the section on "Early Christian
Architecture," and it only remains to deal with the subsequent
development from the age of Charlemagne, which marks an epoch in the
history of architecture, and from which period examples are to be found
in every country.

In consequence of the lack of homogeneousness in the Romanesque style as
developed in Italy, owing to the mixture of styles, and the difficulty
of tracing the precise influence of any one race in buildings frequently
added to, restored or rebuilt, their description will be more easily
followed if a geographical subdivision be made, the simplest being
Northern or Lombard Romanesque, Central Romanesque and Southern
Romanesque; after the latter would follow the Sicilian Romanesque,
which, owing to the Saracenic craftsman, constitutes a type by itself.
This leaves still one other phase to be noted, the influence recognized
in northern Italy of the architectural style of the Eastern Empire at
Byzantium, either direct or through Istria and Dalmatia. In the churches
at Ravenna, this influence has already been referred to in the section
on "Early Christian Architecture," but it appears again in the church of
St. Mark at Venice, and in much of its domestic architecture, so that it
is necessary to recognize another term,, that of "Byzantine Romanesque."

  _Northern or Lombard Romanesque._--Although the materials for forming
  an adequate notion of the earlier work of the Lombards are very
  scanty, after their conversion to the Catholic faith the Church
  probably exercised a powerful influence in their architectural work.
  Under Liutprand, towards the close of the 8th century, an order known
  as the Magistri Commacini was established, to whom were given the
  privileges of freemen in the Lombard State. These Commacini, so named
  from the island in the lake of Como whence they sprang, were trained
  masons and builders, who in the 9th and 10th century would seem to
  have carried the Lombard style through north and south Italy, Germany
  and portions of France. It was at one time assumed that they had
  influenced the church architecture throughout Europe, but this is not
  borne out by the evidence of the buildings themselves, except in the
  Rhenish provinces and in the districts on the slope of the Harz
  Mountains, where in sculpture a strange mixture is found of monstrous
  animals with Scandinavian interlaced patterns and Byzantine foliage,
  bearing a close resemblance to the early sculpture in Sant Ambrogio at
  Milan and San Michele at Pavia (Plate V, fig. 72). Although the
  earliest Lombard buildings in Italy (such as those of San Salvatore in
  Brescia, San Vincenzo in Prato at Milan the church of Agliate and
  Santa Maria delle Caccie at Pavia) were basilican in plan with nave
  and aisles, there are some instances in which the adoption of a
  transept has produced the Latin cross plan (e.g. San Michele at Pavia,
  Sant' Antonino at Piacenza, San Nazaro-Grande at Milan, and the
  cathedrals of Parma and Modena), though to what extent this is due to
  subsequent rebuilding is not known. In the early basilicas above
  mentioned the columns, carrying the arcades between nave and aisles,
  were taken from earlier buildings, while the capitals, where not
  Roman, were either rude imitations of Roman, or Byzantine in style.
  The roofs were always in wood, and the exteriors of the simplest
  description. In the external decoration, however, of the apses of the
  churches of San Vincenzo in Prato, Santa Maria delle Caccie, the
  church at Agliate and the ancient portion of S. Ambrogio at Milan, we
  find the germ of that decorative feature which (afterwards developed
  into the eaves gallery) became throughout Italy and on the Rhine the
  most beautiful and characteristic element of the Lombard style. In
  order to lighten the wall above the hemispherical vault of the apse, a
  series of niches was sunk within the arches of the corbel table, which
  gave to the cornice that deep shadow where it was most wanted for
  effect. In addition to the churches above named, similar niches are
  found in the baptisteries of Novara and Arsago, the Duomo Vecchio at
  Brescia and the church of San Nazaro Grande at Milan. Towards the
  close of the 11th century, the imposts of these niches take the form
  of isolated piers, with a narrow gallery behind, and eventually small
  shafts with capitals are substituted for the piers, producing the
  eaves-galleries of the apses, which in Santa Maria Maggiore at Bergamo
  (1137) and the cathedral of Piacenza are the forerunners of numerous
  others in Italy, and in the churches of Cologne, Bonn, Bacharach and
  other examples on the Rhine, constitute their most important external
  decoration.

  [Illustration: FIG. 35.--Plan of S. Ambrogio.]

  In the apses of San Vincenzo in Prato and of the church at Agliate
  (both of the 9th century) there is another decorative feature,
  destined afterwards to become one of the most important methods of
  breaking up or subdividing the wall surface, i.e. the thin pilaster
  strips, which, at regular intervals, rise from the lower part of the
  wall to the corbel table of the cornice.

  The two most important churches of the Lombard Romanesque style are
  those of Sant' Ambrogio at Milan and S. Michele at Pavia, their
  importance being increased by the fact that they probably represent
  the earliest examples of the solution of the great problem which was
  exercising the minds of the church builders towards the end of the
  11th century, the vaulting of the nave. In the original church, of the
  9th century, the nave and aisles of Sant' Ambrogio were divided in the
  usual way with arcades, and were covered with open timber roofs. In
  the rebuilding of the church (fig 35) the nave (38 ft. wide) was
  divided into four square bays, and compound piers of large dimensions
  were built, to carry the transverse and diagonal ribs of the new
  vault. To resist the thrust, the walls across the aisles were built up
  to the roof, and had external buttresses, the diagonal ribs instead of
  following the elliptical curve which the intersection of the Roman
  semicircular barrel vault gave to the groin, were made semicircular,
  so that the web or vaulting surface which rested on these ribs rose
  upwards towards the centre of the bay, giving a distinct domical form
  to the vault. The aisles, being half the width of the nave, were
  divided into eight compartments, two to each bay of the nave, and were
  covered both in the ground storey and the triforium with intersecting
  groin vaults. When this rebuilding took place, the front of the church
  was brought forward, bearing a narthex, and the arcades of the atrium
  were rebuilt in the first years of the 12th century. The triple apse,
  to the external decoration of which we have called attention, the
  crypt underneath, and the south campanile, are the only remains of the
  9th century church. The campanile on the north side was built
  1125-1149, and the decoration with pilaster strips, semi-detached
  shafts, and arched corbel table, is repeated on the façade of the
  church and on the arcade round the atrium. In the rebuilding, portions
  of the sculptural decoration of the 9th century church were utilized,
  this would appear to have been a Lombard custom, as in the church of
  San Michele the lower part of the main front is encrusted with
  sculptured decoration taken from the earlier churches built on the
  site. These ancient sculptures are of special interest, as they
  constitute the best records of the rude Lombard work of the 8th and
  9th centuries, and are intermingled with Byzantine scroll work and
  interlaced patterns. If the plan of Sant' Ambrogio, with its
  comparatively thin enclosure walls suggests its original construction
  as an ordinary basilica, this is not the case with San Michele (fig
  36), where all the external walls are of great thickness, showing that
  from the first it was intended to vault the whole structure The church
  is much smaller than Sant Ambrogio, there being originally only two
  square bays to the nave (in the 15th century the vaults were rebuilt
  with four bays), the transept, however projects widely beyond the
  aisles, and as there is another bay given to the choir in front of the
  apse, the area of the two churches is about the same. The existing
  church was probably begun shortly after the destructive earthquake of
  1117, and was consecrated in 1132. In Sant' Ambrogio the transverse
  and diagonal arches spring from just above the triforium floor, so
  that there was no room for clerestory windows, and consequently the
  interior is dark. In San Michele the ribs rise from the level of the
  top of the triforium arcades and two clerestory windows are provided
  to each bay. The crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a
  dome carried on squinches, which dates from the first building. The
  dome over the fourth bay of Sant' Ambrogio replaced the original vault
  about the beginning of the 13th century.

  [Illustration: FIG. 36.--Plan of San Michele Pavia.]

  The cathedral of Novara, originally of the ordinary basilica type of
  the 10th century with timber roofs, was reconstructed in the 11th
  century, compound piers being built to carry the transverse and
  diagonal ribs and walls built across the outer aisles to resist the
  thrust, on the other hand SS. Pietro and Paolo at Bologna is a 12th
  century church which was designed from the first to be vaulted. To
  these, and still belonging to the basilican plan, must be added San
  Pietro in Cielo d'oro (1136) and San Teodoro, both in Pavia; S. Evasio
  at Casale Monferrato, having a comparatively narrow nave with double
  aisles on either side and a very remarkable narthex or porch. S.
  Lorenzo at Verona (lately restored), which in the 12th century was
  rebuilt with compound piers to carry a vault (the apse and the two
  remarkable circular towers in the west front belong to the ancient
  church), and Sant' Abbondio at Como often restored and partly rebuilt,
  retaining however, some of the original sculpture of the early Lombard
  period.

  Of churches built on the plan of the Latin cross, examples are Sant'
  Antonino at Piacenza, with an octagonal lantern tower over the
  crossing, Parma cathedral (_c._ 1175), with an octagonal pointed dome
  over the crossing, Modena cathedral, rebuilt and consecrated in
  1184; San Nazaro-Grande at Milan; and San Lanfranco at Pavia, the two
  latter without aisles.

  [Illustration: PLATE I.

    BAPTISTRY. CAMPO SANTO. CATHEDERAL CAMPANILE

    Photo, Brogi.

    FIG. 62.--PISA

    FIG. 63--ST MARK'S, VENICE.

    Photo, Anderson.]

  [Illustration: PLATE II.

    FIG. 64.--AMIENS CATHEDRAL.

    Photo, Neurdean.

    FIG. 65.--BURGOS CATHEDRAL.

    Photo, F. Frith & Co.

    FIG. 66.--ST PAUL'S, LONDON.

    Photo, F. Frith & Co.

    FIG. 67.--ELY CATHEDRAL.

    Photo, F. Frith & Co.]

  Reference has already been made to the eaves-galleries of the apses of
  the Lombard churches. A similar gallery was carried across the main
  front, rising with the slope of the roof, as in San Michele, Pavia;
  also on the west fronts of San Pietro in Cielo d'oro and San
  Lanfranco, at Pavia; and in the cathedrals of Parma and Piacenza. In
  all these cases the galleries are not quite continuous, vertical
  buttresses or groups of shafts or single shafts being carried up
  through them to the corbel tables. In S. Ambrogio at Milan the central
  original lantern is surrounded with two tiers of galleries. The finest
  example of their employment, however, is in the magnificent central
  tower of the Cistercian church at Chiaravalle, near Milan, where the
  two lower storeys form the drum of the internal dome, the two storeys
  above are set back, and the upper storey consists of a lofty octagonal
  tower with conical spire.

  One of the serious defects in the front of the church of San Michele
  at Pavia is that it forms a mask, and takes no cognizance of the aisle
  roofs, which are at a lower level, and the same is found in San
  Pietro-in-Cielo d'oro at Pavia. This mask is carried to an absurd
  extent in the church of Santa Maria della Pieve at Arezzo, in which,
  above the ground storey of the arcades, are three galleries forming
  strong horizontal lines, which suggest the numerous floors of a civic
  building instead of the vertical subdivisions of a church. This defect
  is not found in the church of San Zeno at Verona, which is one of the
  finest of the Lombard churches; the church is basilican in plan, the
  nave being divided into five bays with compound piers, as in Sant'
  Ambrogio, as if it were intended to vault it; this, however, was never
  done, but stone arches arc thrown across the two westernmost bays of
  the nave as if to carry the roof (now concealed by a wooden ceiling).
  The façade is of marble and sandstone, with pilaster-strips rising
  from the base to the arched corbel table, and the outline of the nave
  and aisles is preserved in the front, in which all the mouldings and
  carving arc of the utmost delicacy. Both here and in the cathedral are
  fine examples of those projecting porches, the columns of which are
  carried on the backs of lions or other beasts. At Piacenza, Parma,
  Mantua, Bergamo and Modena are porches of a similar kind, and in the
  cathedral of Modena the columns which support the balcony on the
  entrance to the crypt are all carried on the backs of lions. The
  cathedral of Verona has suffered so much from rebuilding and
  restoration that little remains of the earlier structure, but the apse
  of the choir, decorated with a close set range of pilaster-strips,
  with bases and Corinthian capitals and crowned with a highly enriched
  entablature, is quite unique in its design.

  Among circular buildings, the Rotonda at Brescia was at one time
  considered to date from the 8th century, owing to its massive
  construction and the simplicity and plainness of its external design.
  Later discoveries, however, have shown that the early date can only be
  given to the crypt of San Filasterio situated to the eastward of the
  Rotonda. The church of Santo Sepolcro at Bologna, as its name implies,
  is one of those reproductions of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at
  Jerusalem which were built by the Templars during the crusades. Of
  much earlier date is the circular church of San Tommaso-in-Limine, an
  early Lombard work of the 9th century, to which period belong also the
  baptisteries of Albenga, Arsago, Biella, Galliano and Asti. One of the
  most beautiful examples is the baptistery of Santa Maria at Gravedona,
  at the northern end of the lake of Como, built in black and white
  marble. The plan is unusual, and consists of a square with circular
  apses on three sides.

  _Byzantine Romanesque._--Although in the first basilican church of St
  Mark at Venice, erected in 929 to receive the relics of the saint
  recovered from St Mark's in Alexandria, the capitals of the columns
  and other decorative accessories showed Greek influence, its
  transformation into a five-domed Byzantine structure was not begun
  till about the middle of the 11th century. The date given by Cattanco
  is 1063, the same year in which the cathedral of Pisa was begun; it is
  probable, however, that the scheme had already been in contemplation
  for some years, as the problem was not an easy one to solve, owing to
  the restrictions of the site, and to the desire to reproduce in some
  way the leading features of the church of the Holy Apostles at
  Constantinople. This church was destroyed in 1464, but its description
  by Procopius is so clear, and corresponds so closely with St Mark's,
  completed towards the end of the 11th century, as to leave little
  doubt about the source of its inspiration. From what has already been
  said with reference to the great changes made when it was proposed to
  vault the early Lombard basilican churches, those of equal importance
  which were carried out in St Mark's will be better understood. The
  nave was divided into three square bays (fig. 37), with additional
  bays on the north and south to form transepts; the five square bays
  thus obtained were covered with domes carried on pendentives, as in St
  Sophia at Constantinople, and on wide transverse barrel vaults; the
  domes over the north and south transepts and the choir were of
  slightly less dimensions than those over the nave and crossing, in
  consequence of the limitations in area caused by the chapel of St
  Theodore on the north, the ducal palace on the south, and the ancient
  apse of the original basilica which it was desired to retain. In the
  reconstruction, many of the old columns, capitals and parapets were
  utilized again in the arcades carrying the galleries and in the
  balustrades over them. Externally the brick walls were decorated with
  blind arcades and niches of Lombard style, and all the roof vaults
  were covered with lead as in Constantinople. The subsequent decoration
  of the exterior took two centuries to carry out, not including the
  florid work of later date. There is no precedent in the East for the
  superimposed columns and capitals exported from Constantinople and
  Syria which now decorate the north, south and west fronts (Plate I.,
  fig. 63), though the materials were all of the finest Byzantine type.
  Internally, the mosaic decoration of the domes, vaults and the upper
  part of the walls, was carried out by Greek artists from
  Constantinople, who probably also were employed for the marble
  panelling of the lower part of the walls. The marble casing of the
  front was certainly executed by Constantinopolitan artists, since the
  moulded string known as the "Venetian dentil" is a direct reproduction
  of that in St Sophia. At a later date the domes were all surmounted by
  lanterns in wood, covered with lead, and the roofs were all raised. So
  far, therefore, the building departs from its prototype, the church of
  the Apostles. A similar transformation took place in the church of
  Santa Fosca at Torcello, where a single large dome was contemplated
  over the centre of the original basilican church, but was never built.
  The cathedral of Torcello and the church at Murano are richly
  decorated with carved panels, capitals, choir screens and other
  features, either imported from the East or reproduced by Greek artists
  or Italians trained in the style. The influence of St Mark's in this
  respect extended far and wide on the east coast of Italy; and at
  Pomposa, Ancona, and as far south as Brindisi, Byzantine details can
  be traced everywhere. The designs of the churches of San Ciriaco at
  Ancona and of Sant' Antonio at Padua were both based on St Mark's.
  Sant' Antonio's had six domes, there being two over the nave; and in
  all cases the domes were surmounted by domes in timber like those of
  St Mark's.

  [Illustration: FIG. 37.--Plan of St Mark's, Venice.

  From R.P. Spiers's _Architecture, East and West_.]

  In domestic work, Venice is richer in Byzantine architecture than
  Constantinople, for with the exception of the Hebdomon palace the
  continual fires there have destroyed all the earlier palaces and
  houses. The Fondaco-dei-Turchi, built probably in the 11th century, is
  one of the most remarkable; the front on the great canal is 160 ft.
  long, having a lofty arcade with ten stilted arches on the ground
  storey and an arcade of eighteen arches above; the pavilion wings at
  the east end are in three storeys, with blind arcades and windows
  pierced in the central arcade. The whole was built in brick encased
  with marble, with panels or disks enriched with bas-reliefs or
  coloured marbles. A second example is found in the Palazzo Loredan,
  having similar arcades, stilted arches and marble panelling; and
  there are two others, one on the Grand Canal and the other on the
  Rio-Cà-Foscari. Throughout Venice the decoration of these Byzantine
  palaces would seem to have influenced those of later date; for the
  Venetian dentil, interlaced scroll-work and string courses, with the
  Byzantine pendant leaf, are found intermingled with Gothic work, even
  down to the 15th century, and the same to a certain extent is found at
  Padua, Verona and Vicenza.

  _Central Romanesque._--The builders in the centre of Italy would seem
  to have followed more closely the Roman basilican plan, for in two of
  the earliest churches, Santa Maria Fuorcivitas at Lucca and San Paolo
  a Ripa d'Arno at Pisa, the T-shaped plan of St Peter's and St Paul's,
  with widely projecting transepts, was adopted; the difference also
  between the north and central developments is very marked, as in the
  place of the massive stone walls, compound piers, and internal and
  external buttresses deemed necessary to resist the thrusts of the
  great vaults, and the low clerestory of the northern churches, those
  in the south retain the light arcades with classic columns, the wooden
  roofs, and the high clerestory of the Roman basilicas. Instead of the
  vigorous sculpture of the Lombards in the Tuscan churches, marbles of
  various colours take its place, the carving being more refined in
  character and much quieter in effect.

  The earliest church now existing is that of San Frediano at Lucca,
  dating from the end of the 7th century. Originally it was a
  five-aisled basilica, with an eastern apse, but when it was included
  within the walls in the 11th century the apse and the entrance doorway
  changed places, and a fine eaves-gallery was carried round the new
  apse; the outer aisles were also transformed into chapels. So many of
  the churches in Pisa and Lucca had new fronts given to them in the
  11th or 12th century, that it is interesting to find, in the church of
  San Pietro-in-Grado at Pisa, an example in which the external
  decoration with pilaster strips and arched corbel tables is retained,
  showing that in the 9th century, when that church was built, the
  Lombard style prevailed there. Other early churches are those of San
  Casciano (9th century), San Nicola and San Frediano (1007), all in
  Pisa.

  Of early foundation, but probably rebuilt in the 11th century, are two
  interesting churches in Toscanella, Santa Maria and San Pietro; they
  are both basilican on plan, but the easternmost bay is twice the width
  of the other arches of the arcade, and is divided from the nave by a
  triumphal arch. In both churches the floor of the transept is raised
  some feet above the nave, and a crypt occupies the whole space below
  it.

  One of the earliest and most perfect examples of this subdivision is
  the church of San Miniato, on a hill overlooking Florence. The church
  was rebuilt in 1013, and some of the Roman capitals of the earlier
  building are incorporated in the new one. It is divided into nave and
  aisles by an arcade of nine arches, and every third support consists
  of a compound pier with four semi-detached shafts, one of which, on
  each side of the nave, rises to the level of the summit of the arcade
  and carries a massive transverse arch to support the roof. The east
  end of the church, occupying the last three bays of the arcade, is
  raised 11 ft. above the floor of the nave, over a vaulted crypt
  extending the whole width of the church and carried under the eastern
  apse. The interior of the church, which is covered over with an open
  timber roof, painted in colour and gilded, is decorated with inlaid
  patterns of black and white marble of conventional design, and the
  same scheme is adopted in the main façade, enriching the panels of the
  blind arcade on the lower storey, and above an extremely classic
  design of Corinthian pilasters, entablature and pediment.

  As none of the façades of the Pisan churches was built before the
  middle of the 11th century, it is possible that Buschetto, the
  architect of the cathedral of Pisa, may have profited by the scheme
  suggested in the lower storey of San Miniato; if so he departed from
  its classic proportions. There are seven blind arcades in the lower
  storey of the Pisan cathedral, the arcades are loftier, and the
  position of the side doors which open into the inner aisle on each
  side is of much better effect. The cathedral was begun in 1063, the
  year following the brilliant capture of Palermo by the Pisans, when
  they returned in triumph with immense spoils. In plan it consists of a
  Latin cross, with double aisles on either side of the nave extending
  to the east end, a central apse, transepts with single aisles on each
  side, and north and south transepted apses (fig. 38). The nave arcade,
  with its Corinthian capitals and monolith stone columns, is of
  exceptional boldness, and as it is carried across the transept up to
  the east end (a length of 320 ft.) it forms a continuous line greater
  than that in any other cathedral. The crossing is covered by a dome,
  elliptical on plan, being from east to west the length of the transept
  and aisles. The result is unfortunate, and detracts both externally
  and internally from its beauty, otherwise the exterior decoration,
  which must have been schemed out in its entirety from the beginning
  (with the exception of the dome, which is of later design), has the
  most satisfactory and pleasing effect. The lofty blind arcade of the
  lower storey and the open gallery above on the façade (the latter
  represented by a blind arcade), are carried round the whole building,
  and the horizontal lines of the galleries of the upper storeys accord
  with the roofs of the aisles and nave respectively and the blind
  arcade of the clerestory. The walls are faced within and without with
  white and grey marble, and the combination of sculpture and inlay
  which enriches the arcades of the façades gives an additional
  attraction to the building. The cathedral is sometimes quoted as
  Byzantine in style, but its plan and design are of widely different
  character from those of any building found in the East, and the
  mosaics, which constitute the finest decorative element in that style,
  were not added till the 14th century, and formed no part of the
  architect Buschetto's scheme.

  The Baptistery, begun in 1153, was not completed till towards the
  close of the 13th century, when important alterations were made in the
  design to bring it into accordance with the new Gothic style. The
  crocketed gables, and the upper gallery, substituted for the arcades,
  which followed on the lines of those in the cathedral, have taken away
  the quiet repose found in the latter; the lower storey, however, with
  its lofty blind arcades, similar to those of the cathedral, and the
  principal doorway, are of great beauty. The central area of the
  baptistery, which is surrounded by aisles and triforium gallery, is
  covered by a conical dome; internally as well as externally this can
  never have been a beautiful feature, and the additions of the 13th
  century have made it one of the ugliest roofs in existence.

  [Illustration: FIG. 38. PISA

    Companile, or Leaning Tower, 1174-1350
    Cathedral, 1067-1250, restored after fire 1596.
    Bapistery St Jean, 1153-c 1300.
    Cemetery (Campo Santo), 1278-1465.]

  The Campanile or leaning tower was begun in 1174. Owing, however, to
  the treacherous nature of the ground, the piles driven in to support
  the tower gave way on the south side, so that, when only 35 ft. above
  the ground, a settlement was noticed, and slight additions in height
  were made from time to time in order to obtain a horizontal level for
  the stone courses; but this was without avail, and on the completion
  of the third gallery above the ground storey the work was suspended
  for many years. In 1350 it was recommenced, three more gallery storeys
  were added, and the upper or belfry stage was set back in the inner
  wall. The tower is now 178 ft. high, and overhangs nearly 14 ft. on
  the south side; its design is made to harmonize with the cathedral,
  but shows much less refinement and grace.

  The Campo Santo, an immense rectangular court 350 ft. long by 70 ft.
  wide, surrounded by a cloister 35 ft. wide, was begun in 1280; the
  details are refined, but the poverty in the design of the tracery with
  which the arcades were fitted in at a much later date detracts from
  its interest, which is now mainly concerned with the beautiful
  frescoes which decorate its walls.

  As might have been expected, the cathedral of Pisa set the model not
  only for the restoration of existing churches but also for new ones,
  in Pisa itself and also at Lucca, Pistoia and Prato. In Pisa, the
  church of San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno was rebuilt about 1060, possibly by
  the architect of the cathedral; San Pietro-in-Vincoli and San Nicola
  date from the early years of the 12th century. At Lucca the churches
  of Santa Giuha, San Giusto, San Martino, San Michele, and the restored
  front of Santa Maria Fuorcivitas, are the principal examples in which
  the Pisan cathedral has suggested the design, and at Pistoia we can
  point to the cathedral, Sant' Andrea, San Pietro and San Giovanni
  Fuorcivitas, the latter with a south wall decorated with three stages
  of blind arcades of great richness. The cathedral of Lucca was either
  restored or rebuilt at the beginning of the 14th century, and has a
  distinctly Gothic effect. The lower storey of the façade presents the
  unusual feature of an open porch across the whole front with three
  great archways. This porch with the three galleries above was added to
  the cathedral at the beginning of the 13th century.

  _Southern Romanesque._--The influences exerted in the early
  development of the Romanesque style in the south of Italy are much
  more complicated than in the north, since two new elements come into
  the field, the Norman and Saracenic. Of early work very little
  remains, owing to the general rebuilding in the 11th century; what is
  more remarkable, there is scarcely any trace of the result of the
  Byzantine occupation for so many centuries; the only exception being
  the church of San Gregorio at Bari, a small basilican structure in
  which the arches of the arcades separating the nave from the aisles
  are stilted like those of the Fondaco-dei-Turchi at Venice.

  [Illustation: FIG. 39.--Plan of S. Nicola at Bari.]

  One of the chief characteristics noticeable in the plan is the almost
  universal adoption of a transept projecting north and south slightly
  beyond the aisle walls, and in some cases raised over a crypt, as in
  the churches at Toscanella. Since, however, there is no choir bay, and
  the central apse opens direct into the transept, the plan is not that
  of the Latin cross. The most complete development of this arrangement
  is found in the cathedral and in the church of San Nicola at Bari
  (fig. 39); both being basilican churches with a triumphal arch opening
  into the transept,--in this respect similar to the churches of St
  Peter and St Paul at Rome, except that the transepts project only
  slightly, beyond the aisles. There is one peculiarity in both these
  churches, as also in that of the cathedral at Molfetta. East of the
  transept, and at the north and south sides, are towers, between which
  is carried a wall which hides the apse, the only indication of its
  existence being the round arched window which lights it. A similar
  arrangement exists in the cathedrals of Giovenazzo, Bitetto and
  Bitonto. The central bay of the transept of the cathedral at Bari is
  surmounted by an octagonal drum, the dome within which is carried on
  squinches; a similar dome was projected in San Nicola, but never
  built. In the cathedral at Bari, as also in San Nicola, the lofty nave
  is covered with a timber roof, and has an arcade on the ground storey
  and a fine triforium and clerestory windows above.

  Externally these churches depend for their effect more on their fine
  masonry than on any decorative treatment; the blind arcades of the
  lower storey have very little projection, and the pilaster strips
  which in the Lombard churches break up the wall surface are not found
  here; the arched corbel table is freely employed but rarely the open
  gallery. There is one remarkable example in Bitonto cathedral; above
  the aisle chapels, and approached from the triforium, is an open
  gallery, the arches of which rest on widely projecting capitals
  sculptured with animals and foliage, half Lombardic and half Byzantine
  in style. The small shafto supporting these capitals are of infinite
  variety of design, with spirals, chevrons, fluting and vertical
  mouldings of many kinds.

  The cathedral at Molfetta is in plan quite different from those
  already described, and consists of square bays with aisles, transept
  and apse, having domes over the nave and crossing. The Byzantine
  influence here comes in, but it is much more pronounced in La Cattohca
  at Stilo, a small church square on plan with four columns carrying the
  superstructure, which consists of a central and four domes on the
  angles. Other domed churches are those of the Immaculata at Trani; San
  Sabino, Canosa; and San Marco, Rossano. The lower part of the
  cathedral at Troja shows the direct influence of the cathedral at
  Pisa. The cathedral at Trani has the same plan as the churches at
  Bari, except that the earlier apses are not enclosed. The cathedral of
  Salerno retains still the fine atrium by Robert Guiscard in 1077. In
  the cathedrals of Acerenza, Aversa and Venosa, the French chevet was
  introduced towards the end of the 12th century.

  In the magnificent octagonal tower which encloses the dome on the
  crossing in the cathedral of Caserta-Vecchia, we find the interlacing
  blind arcades of the Norman architecture in Sicily, as also in the
  cathedral at Amalfi. The porches, entrance doorways and windows being
  the chief decorative feature of the south Italian churches, were
  enriched with splendid sculptures. So were the pulpits of the
  cathedrals of Sessa, Ravello, Salerno and Troja, the rich mosaic
  inlays at Sessa, Ravello and Salerno according in design with the
  Cosmati work in Rome, though they possibly had an earlier origin in
  Sicily.

  _Sicilian Romanesque._--Although the earliest remains in Sicily date
  from the Norman occupation of the island, they are so permeated with
  Saracenic detail as to leave no doubt that the conqueror employed the
  native workmen, who for two centuries at all events had been building
  for the Mahommedans, and therefore, whether Arab or Greek, had been
  reproducing the same style as that found in Egypt or North Africa.

  It is possible that, so far as the Norman palaces of the 12th century
  are concerned, they were based on those built under the Saracenic
  rule, but the requirements of a mosque and of a church are entirely
  different, and therefore in the earliest church existing (San
  Giovanni-dei-Leprosi, at Palermo, built by Robert Guiscard in A.D.
  1071) we find a completely developed Christian structure, having nave,
  aisles and transepts, with a dome over the crossing and three apses.
  The next church, at Troina (1078), was similar on plan, but had three
  square wings at the east end instead of apses. The next two churches,
  La Martorana and San Cataldo (1129), at Palermo, followed the plan of
  the Greek church, with four columns carrying the superstructure and
  three domes over the nave bays carried on Saracenic squinches, similar
  to those in San Giovanni-dei-Leprosi. San Giovanni-degli-Eremiti
  (T-shaped on plan) has no aisles, but carries domes over the nave and
  three smaller domes on the transept. The most important feature found
  in all these churches is the pointed arch, of Saracenic origin
  imported from the East, which was employed for the nave, arcades, the
  crossing, and in the squinches carrying the domes. The blind arcades
  which decorate the walls of San Cataldo and of the Norman palaces--La
  Favara, the Torre della Ninfa, La Ziza and La Cuba (all in or near
  Palermo),--in two or three orders, and sometimes (as in the Favara
  palace) of great height, have all pointed arches and no impost
  mouldings or capitals. The distinguishing characteristic of these
  blind arcades (and the same is found in the open arcades) is the very
  slight projection of the outer order of arch.

  The finest early example of Norman architecture in Sicily is the
  Cappella Palatina, at Palermo, consecrated in 1140, and attached to
  the palace. The plan consists of nave, aisles, transept and triple
  apse, the arches, all pointed and stilted, being carried on monolith
  columns of granite and marble alternately. The nave is covered over
  with a timber roof with stalactitic coves and coffered ceiling, richly
  decorated in colour and gilded, the borders of the panels bearing
  Arabic inscriptions in Cufic characters. Similar inscriptions exist on
  the upper part of the walls of the Cuba and Ziza palaces, proving that
  they were built by Saracenic workmen. The plans of the cathedrals of
  Palermo, Messina (destroyed 1908), Cefalu and Monreale are all
  similar, with nave and aisles separated by arcades, in which the
  arches are all pointed and stilted, transepts projecting north and
  south beyond the aisle walls, and square bays beyond, with apsidal
  terminations. That of Palermo has much suffered from restorations, but
  the cathedral of Monreale is in perfect condition. It was begun in
  1176 and consecrated in 1182. The proportions of the arcade are much
  finer than in the Cappella Palatina, where the stilted arch was of the
  same height as the shaft of the columns, whereas here it is only half
  the height. The columns are all of granite with extremely fine
  capitals, some of which were taken from ancient buildings. All the
  roofs are in wood, with coffered ceilings richly decorated in gold and
  colour. The walls to a height of 22 ft. are all lined with slabs of
  marble with mosaic friezes, and all the surfaces of walls and arches
  are covered above with mosaics representing scenes from the Old and
  New Testaments, while in the apse at the east end a gigantic figure of
  Christ dominates the whole church. The same is found at Cefalu, where
  the mosaic decorations, however, are confined to the apses. Externally
  the walls are comparatively plain, the decoration being confined to
  the east end, where the three apses are covered with a series of blind
  intersecting arcades of pointed arches. This class of enrichment
  prevails throughout the great Sicilian churches, and extends sometimes
  to the smaller churches, as that of the Chiesa-dei-Vespri. Of the
  conventual buildings attached to the cathedral of Monreale, which
  occupied an immense site, there remain only the cloisters, about 140
  ft. square, enclosed by an arcade with pointed arches carried on
  coupled columns, the shafts of which are elaborately carved and inlaid
  with mosaic; the capitals are of the most varied design and of
  exquisite execution.

  _Italian Gothic._--Italy is poorer than any other country in examples
  of the transition from round arched to pointed arched buildings. The
  use of the pointed arch was accepted at last as a necessity, and
  cannot be said ever to have been welcomed. The first buildings in
  which it is seen worked out fully in detail are those of Niccola
  Pisano, and but few examples exist of good Gothic work earlier than
  his time. The elaborately arcaded and sculptured west front of Ferrara
  cathedral is a screen to an early building. The cathedral and other
  churches at Genoa are certainly exquisite works, but they appear to
  owe their internal design rather to the influence of (perhaps)
  Sicilian taste than north Italian, and the exquisite beauty of the
  west front owes a good deal, at any rate, to French influence,
  softened, refined and decorated by the extreme taste of an Italian
  architect. The feature which most marks all Italian Gothic is the
  indifference to the true use of the pointed arch. Everywhere arches
  were constructed which could not have stood for a day had they not
  been held together by iron rods. There was none of that sense of the
  unities of art which made a northerner so jealous to maintain the
  proper relations of all parts of his structure. In Niccola Pisano's
  works the arch mould rarely fits the capital on which it rests. The
  proportions of buttresses to the apparent work to be done by them are
  bad and clumsy. The window traceries look like bad copies of some
  northern tracery, only once seen in a hurry by an indifferent workman.
  There is no life, or development, or progress in the work. If we look
  at the ground-plans of Italian Gothic churches, we shall find nothing
  whatever to delight us. The columns are widely spaced, so as to
  diminish the number of vaulting bays, and to make the proportions of
  the oblong aisle vaulting bay very ungainly. Clustered shafts are
  almost unknown, the columns being plain cylinders with poorly
  sculptured capitals. There are no triforium galleries, and the
  clerestory is generally very insignificant. In short, a comparison of
  the best Gothic works in Italy with the most moderate French or
  English work would show at once how vast its inferiority must be
  allowed to be. Still there were beauties which ought not to be
  forgotten or passed over. Such were the beautiful cloisters, whose
  arcades are carried on delicate coupled shafts,--e.g. in St John
  Lateran and St Paul's at Rome. Such also were the porches and
  monuments at Verona and elsewhere; and the campaniles,--both those in
  Rome, divided by a number of string-courses into a number of storeys,
  and those of the north, where there are hardly any horizontal
  divisions, and the whole effort is to give an unbroken vertical
  effect; or that unequalled campanile, the tower of the cathedral at
  Florence by Giotto, where one sees in ordered proportion, accurately
  adjusted, line upon line, and storey upon storey, perhaps the most
  carefully wrought-out work in all Europe.

  The Italian architects were before all others devoted to the display
  of colour in their works. St Mark's had led the way in this, but,
  throughout the peninsula, the bountiful plenty of nature in the
  provision of materials was seconded by the zeal of the artist. They
  were also distinguished for their use of brick. Just as in parts of
  Germany, France, Spain and England, there were large districts in
  which no stone could be had without the greatest labour and trouble;
  and here the reality and readiness which always marked the medieval
  workman led to his at once availing himself of the natural material,
  and making a feature of his brickwork.

  The Gothic of Italy has, it must be admitted, no such grand works to
  show as more northern countries have. Allowance has to be made at
  every turn for some incompleteness or awkwardness of plan, design or
  construction. There is no attempt to emulate the beauties of the best
  French plans. Milan cathedral, magnificent as its scale and material
  make it, is clumsy and awkward both in plan and section, though its
  vast size makes it impressive internally. San Francesco, Assisi, is
  only a moderately good early German Gothic church, converted into
  splendour by its painted decorations. At Orvieto a splendid west front
  is put, without any proper adjustment, against a church whose merit is
  mainly that it is large and in parts beautifully coloured.

  The finest Gothic interiors are of the class of which the Frari at
  Venice and Sant' Anastasia at Verona are examples. They are simple
  vaulted cruciform churches, with aisles and chapels on the east side
  of the transepts. But even in these the designs of the various parts
  in detail are poor and meagre, and only redeemed from failure by the
  picturesque monuments built against their walls, by the work of the
  painter, and by their furniture. In fine, Gothic art was never really
  understood in Italy, and, consequently, never reached to perfection.

  Whilst the Pointed style was almost exclusively known and practised in
  northern Europe, the Italians were but slowly improving in their
  Gothic style; and the improvement was more evinced in their secular
  than in their ecclesiastical structures. Florence, Bologna, Vicenza,
  Udine, Genoa, and, above all, Venice, contain palaces and mansions of
  the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, which for simplicity, utility
  and beauty far excel most of those in the same and other places of the
  three following centuries. The contemporary churches do not exhibit
  the same degree of improvement in style that is conspicuous in these
  domestic works, for there are no works in Europe more worthy of study
  and admiration than the Ducal Palace at Venice, and some of the older
  works of the same class, and even of earlier date. The town halls of
  Perugia, Piacenza and Siena, and many houses in these cities, and at
  Corneto, Amalfi, Asti, Orvieto and Lucca, the fountains of Perugia and
  Viterbo, and the monuments at Bologna, Verona and Arezzo, may be named
  as evidence of the interest which the national art affords to the
  architectural student even in Italy, as late as the end of the 14th
  century; but after this it gradually gave way to the new style, though
  in some instances its influence may be traced even when it had been
  overborne by it.     (R. P. S.)


ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN FRANCE

Most generally, Romanesque art is thought of as that period of art which
followed and partook of the nature of Roman art and yet was too far
removed from it to be classed as Roman. The difference, however, was not
merely one of decay; it is rather in positive factors that we shall find
the true characteristics of the style. Its formation was parallel to the
development of the Romance languages, and like them it acquired barbaric
elements.

In Rome itself hardly any, if any, contributions were made to its
growth, and there as late as the 12th century the early Christian form
of basilican church continued to be built. It may, perhaps, best be
conceived as a Germano-Roman product, for even in Spain and north Italy,
which became such strong centres of the art, the Visigoths and Lombards
provided the Teutonic element. Besides this change of "blood" in the
style, there is another element of change in the influences obtained
from the more rapidly developed art of the East. This influence indeed
was so strong and constant that, having it in view, we might almost
describe the Romanesque style as Germano-Byzantine.

In the 6th and 7th centuries we have, on the one hand, the almost pure
traditional early Christian art of Rome and indeed of western Europe,
and on the other the direct establishment of matured Byzantine art at
Ravenna, Parenzo, Naples and even in Rome. Then followed the mixture of
these and of barbaric elements in the formation of several
pre-Romanesque varieties, one of which has been named Italo-Byzantine.
It was not until the age of Charlemagne that a centre was established
strong enough for the formation of a new western school which should
persist. From this time a progressive style was developed which led
straight forward to the Gothic, and it is this movement which is best
called Romanesque. This art was a perfect ferment of striving and
experiment, of gathering and even of research; Roman, Byzantine and
Saxon elements entered into its composition. It is probable also, as a
result of Saracenic pressure on Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa and
Spain, that artists, "bringing their crafts with them," drew together
from still remoter parts to gain the protection of the great ruler of
the West and to help in the formation of Carolingian art. With the
disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne many local schools arose in
Germany, France and Lombardy, which--especially after the year 1000,
when there appears to have been a renewed burst of building
energy--resulted in considerable differentiation of styles. The centre
of energy seems to have been now here, now there, yet with all the
differences there was a general resemblance over the whole field. Until
the exact date of a very large number of monuments is more perfectly
established, it will be impossible to trace out exactly the intricate
windings of the line of advance. In fact there are two conflicting sides
to the question presented by Romanesque art. In the first place we have
to consider the several schools in regard to a standard of absolute
attainment, and in the second as relative to the line of persistence and
to the formation of Gothic, which was so largely the culmination, and
then the decay, of the forces present in Romanesque art. Some of the
most beautiful and complete of the Romanesque schools contributed least,
some of the most inchoate gave the most, to that which was to be.

  The most important existing monument of the age of Charlemagne is the
  cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (see fig. 44), which was being built in
  the year 800. It has an octagonal central area, covered by a dome and
  surrounded with two storeys of aisles both completely vaulted. The
  interior surface of the dome was encrusted with mosaic. Another
  important work of about the same time is the church of
  Germigny-des-Prés near Orleans, which also is of the "central type,"
  having a square tower above four piers surrounded by an aisle with
  semicircular apses in the centre of each external wall, the apse to
  the east having a mosaic.

  [Illustration: PLATE III.

    FIG. 68.--ST PETERS, ROME.

    _Photo, Brogi._

    FIG. 69.--INTERIOR OF ST PETER'S, ROME.

    _Photo, Alinari._]

  [Illustration: PLATE IV.

    FIG. 70.--TOWN HALL, BREMEN.

    _Photo, Koch._

    FIG. 7l.--VENDRAMINI PALACE, VENICE.

    _Photo, Brogi._]

  From the 9th to the 11th century the great problem worked out was that
  of perfecting the standard plans of large churches. In the MS. plan of
  the monastic church of St Gall, drawn about 820, we find a great nave
  with aisles, apsidal terminations both to the east and the west,
  transepts and probably a central tower (cf. the abbey church of
  Saint-Riquier near Abbeville, built _c_. 800, of which a slight
  representation has been preserved). In St Martin at Tours was probably
  evolved the most perfect type of plan, that with an ambulatory and
  radiating chapels surrounding the eastern apse. A magnificent church
  of this form was built here at the beginning of the 11th century, but
  not for the first time. Excavations have shown that the plan was
  probably suggested by a still earlier church in which five tomb-niches
  surrounded the central apse and tomb of St Martin. At Jumièges (begun
  1040) it has recently been found that the plan terminated to the east
  with parallel apses, as at St Albans in England; this is a second
  important type. A third type is that in which the transepts as well as
  the east end are finished with apses, like St Mary-in-the-Capitol at
  Cologne.

  When we come to the developed Romanesque of the end of the 11th
  century, we find not only several French varieties, but strong schools
  in Lombardy and on the Rhine. Without distinguishing too minutely,
  four broad types representing schools of the east and west, north and
  south (or rather north-east, north-west, south-east and south-west) of
  France, may be spoken of, and all of these were engaged in the task of
  completely covering with vaults large churches of basilican plan--the
  typical problem of this period. In the east of France we have a school
  represented by the monastic church of Tournus, where the nave was
  vaulted by a series of compartments placed transversely to the axis of
  the church. This church, which has a plan of the type of St Martin's
  at Tours, was begun in 1019, but the nave vaults were not reached
  until after 1066. This style of vaulting persisted in Burgundy, and
  from thence it spread to Fountains Abbey in England, where it is found
  over the aisles. The most beautiful class of buildings in eastern
  France is that of which the church at Issoire is the most perfect
  example. The external walls are here ornamented with patterns
  countercharged in light and dark stone. The wonderful church at Le Puy
  also belongs to this group, but here strong Moorish influence is to be
  traced. The inlays were probably derived from a late Gallo-Roman
  source. Countercharging of stones of two colours was a favourite
  method of building in Romanesque churches erected between 1100 and
  1150. We find it at Vézelay, a magnificent abbey church of Burgundy,
  at Le Mans cathedral, and as far north-west as Exeter and Worcester.
  In the west (south-west) the most prominent school was that of
  Perigord, of which the church of St Front, Périgueux, may be taken as
  the example. St Front was rebuilt after a fire in 1120, but there are
  many earlier specimens, two of the most important being at Angoulême
  (1105-1128) and Fontevrault. This school applied a series of domes of
  eastern fashion not only at the centre but over the whole extent of
  the church. St Front so closely resembles St Mark's, Venice, that it
  must be derived from it or from some similar eastern church. The
  method largely influenced the Angevin school of vaulting, but it does
  not seem to have been effective as a protection from the weather. Some
  examples were covered by external roofs, as was St Front itself at a
  late time. St Ours at Loches, originally a small church covered by
  domes, had spire-like pyramids substituted for them when the church
  was enlarged about 1168.

  The third class of vaulting we may for symmetry's sake associate with
  the south, though it is found widely distributed. The chapel in the
  Tower of London is an example, and its true centre seems to be the
  Auvergne. The vaults of this type run along with the axis of the space
  to be covered. In the case of large churches the central span is
  frequently supported by quadrant vaults leaning against it on either
  side. One of the most noble churches in which the central span is
  covered by such a barrel vault is that of St Savin near Poitiers,
  where very much has been preserved of the complete series of paintings
  which once adorned it and the walls beneath.

  The most characteristic buildings of the south are the churches of
  Moissac, St Trophime at Aries, St Gilles near Nîmes and St James of
  Compostella, where there is much sculpture of a Lombardic type. There
  was a great revival of sculpture, going together with a study of the
  antique, in Lombardy at the end of the 11th century. Wiligelmus, who
  later worked at San Zeno, Verona, signed some sculptures at Modena in
  1099.

  Of the schools of the north, Normandy took the lead. It was
  adventurous, if somewhat barbaric. It derived much from Germany and
  gave much to the Gothic style. About the middle of the 11th century
  the Normans began to experiment with cross-groined vaults and their
  application to the church problem. This from the first contained an
  important possibility of future development, in that it allowed of
  windows of considerable height being placed in the lunettes of these
  vaults. Soon a very great step in advance was made by the invention or
  application of diagonal ribs under the intersection of the plain
  groined vault. This association of strengthening ribs in a cross form
  to each bay of the structure forms the _ogive_, the characteristic
  form from which the alternative name to Gothic, "ogival," has been
  derived. The first instance we know of the use of this system is at
  Durham cathedral, where the aisles of the east end were so covered
  about 1093, and where the high vault erected about 1104 was almost
  certainly of the same kind. Another outcome of the genius of Norman
  builders seems to have been the donjon or keep type of castle.

The word "Gothic" was applied by Italian writers of the Renaissance to
buildings later than Roman, which in some cases (e.g. Theodoric's works
at Ravenna) might be properly so named. What we now call Gothic the same
writers called Modern. Later the word came to mean the art which filled
the whole interval between the Roman period and the Renaissance, and
then last of all, when the Byzantine and Romanesque forms of art were
defined, Gothic became the art which intervened between the Romanesque
era and the Renaissance.

As remarked above, Gothic architecture is to a large extent the crown of
Romanesque. It is agreed that its chief element of construction was the
ogival vaulting which was being widely used by Romanesque builders in
the first half of the 12th century; and pointed arches appeared as
early.

The eminent architect, G.E. Street, writing[3] of what we have called
the standard plan of great 12th-century churches, says, "In whatever way
the early _chevets_ (as the French term them) grew up there is no doubt
that they contain the germ of the magnificent _chevets_ in the complete
Gothic churches of the north of France." Architecture of the middle ages
having been continuously developed, it is necessarily somewhat arbitrary
to mark off any given period; all are agreed, however, that about the
year 1150 there was a time of rapid change towards a slenderer and more
energetic type of building, and the forms which followed for about four
centuries we now call Gothic. The special character which the
architecture of this period took was partially conditioned by the fact
that the expanding power of the French kingdom, with its centre at
Paris, was situated in a particular artistic environment. The body of
ideas on which it for the most part worked was furnished by the
Romanesque art of north France, the German borderland and Burgundy. A
great contributory cause was the immense monastic activity of the time,
and the need of accomplishing large results with limited means resulted
in a casting aside of old ornamental commonplaces and in innovations of
planning and structure. This was especially the case with the Cistercian
order, which carried certain transitional Gothic forms of building into
England, Germany, Italy and Spain. If, however, we make the transition
to Gothic date from the first use of "ogival" vaults in north-west
Europe, then Durham cathedral is, so far as we now know, the earliest
example of the transitional style. The next step, the appearance of
Gothic itself, may best be held to date from the systematic but not
exclusive use of pointed arches in association with ogival vaults about
the middle of the 12th century.

At this time was waged a war of domination amongst the styles, a war
which resulted not necessarily in the victory of the most beautiful nor
even of the strongest, but one in which political and geographical
considerations had much to do with the decision. When the French kingdom
took the lead in western civilization, it was settled that a northern
form of art, one which had perforce to make a chief element of the
window, should be followed out. The consequent development of the window
is, after all, as the first observers thought, the great mark of the
mature style. As to the position of France in the movement, Mr Street
may again be quoted:--"When once the Gothic style was well established,
the zeal with which the work of building was pursued in France was
almost incredibly great. A series of churches exists there within short
distances of each other, so superb in all their features that it is
impossible to contest their superiority to any corresponding group of
buildings. The old Domaine Royale is that in which French art is seen in
its perfection. Notre Dame, Paris, is a monument second to nothing in
the world; but for completeness in all its parts it would be better to
cite the cathedral of Chartres, a short description of which must
suffice as an explanation of what French art at its zenith was. The plan
has a nave with aisles, transepts with aisles on each side, a choir with
two aisles all round it, and chapels beyond them. There are two immense
steeples at the west end, two towers to each transept and two towers at
the junction of the choir with its apse. The doorways are triple at the
west end, whilst to each transept is a vast triple porch in front of the
three doorways. The whole of these doorways are covered with sculpture,
much of it refined, spirited and interesting in the highest degree. You
enter and find the interior surpassing even the exterior. The order of
the columns and arches, and of all the details, is so noble and simple
that no fault can be found with it. The whole is admirably executed;
and, finally, every window throughout its vast interior is full of the
richest glass coeval with the fabric. As compared with English churches
of the same class, there are striking differences. The French architects
aimed at greater height, greater size, but much less effect of length.
Their roofs were so lofty that it was almost impossible for them to
build steeples which should have the sort of effect that ours have. The
turret on Amiens cathedral is nearly as lofty as Salisbury spire, but is
only a turret; and so throughout. Few French churches afford the
exquisite complete views of the exterior which English churches do; but,
on the other hand, their interiors are more majestic, and man feels
himself smaller and more insignificant in them than in ours. The palm
must certainly be given to them above all others. There is no country
richer in examples of architecture than France. The student who wishes
to understand what it was possible for a country to do in the way of
creating monuments of its grandeur, would find in almost every part of
the country, at every turn and in great profusion, works of the rarest
interest and beauty. The 19th century may be the consummation of all,
but the evidences of its existence to posterity will not be one-tenth in
number of those which such a reign as that of Philip Augustus has left
us, whilst none of them will come up to the high standard which in his
time was invariably reached."

The remarks which have been made as to the variation in style visible in
various parts of the same country, apply with more force, perhaps, in
what we now call France than to any other part of Europe. For the
purposes of complete study it would be necessary to keep distinct from
each other in the mind the following important divisions:--(1) Provence
and Auvergne; (2) Aquitaine; (3) Burgundy; (4) Anjou and Poitou, (5)
Brittany; (6) Normandy; (7) the Île-de-France and Picardy; (8)
Champagne; and, finally, (9) the eastern border-land (neither quite
German nor quite French in its character), the meeting-point of the two
very different developments of French and German art. Speaking
generally, it is safe to say that Gothic architecture was never brought
to its highest perfection in any portion of the south of France.
Aquitaine, Auvergne and Provence were too wedded to classic traditions
to excel in an art which seems to have required for its perfection no
sort of looking back to such a past. Hence there is no Gothic work in
the south for which it is possible to feel the same admiration and
enthusiasm as must be felt by every artist in presence of the great
works of the north. In Anjou this is less the case; but even there the
art is extremely inferior to that which is seen in Normandy and the
Île-de-France. Brittany may be dismissed from consideration, as being,
like Cornwall, so provincial and so cut off from neighbours, that its
art could not fail to be very local, and without much influence outside
its own borders.

There are examples of true Gothic outside its proper habitat, almost
pure French works being found as far south as Laon and Burgos, as far
east as Strassburg and Lausanne and as far north as Canterbury and
Cologne. Westminister Abbey was profoundly influenced by direct study of
French work. Normandy, Burgundy, and the land as far north as Tournay
seem to have shared in the work of transition; but the Gothic area
proper is the Île-de-France with Picardy and Champagne, then Burgundy,
Normandy and England.

  Four remarkable buildings best represent the early phase of the Gothic
  style, the abbey church of St Denis, and the cathedrals of Noyon,
  Senlis and Sens. The first was begun in 1137, and the choir was
  consecrated in 1143. The few parts of this work which remain are
  sufficient to show how stately and yet fresh the whole work must have
  been. Noyon cathedral, begun after a fire which occurred in 1131, had
  its choir consecrated in 1157. The cathedral of Senlis was begun in
  1155. Sens cathedral, begun about the same time, or even earlier, is
  the first of the great cathedrals. Many other buildings belong to the
  first years of the style; such are the abbey churches of St Remi at
  Reims, Notre Dame at Châlons and St Germain-des-Prés, Paris. The choir
  of this last was consecrated in 1163, and in the same year Notre Dame,
  Paris, was begun. This mighty building, although very complete, was
  altered as to its effect by the substitution, early in the 13th
  century, of large two-light windows for the earlier lancets of the
  clerestory. The sculptures of the west front are exquisite. Laon
  cathedral, another of the great churches, is of about the same age as
  Notre Dame. It also has beautiful sculpture in its western porches,
  but its most marked characteristic is the group of six great and
  romantic towers which flank the fronts to the west, the north and the
  south. In the 13th century, the church was extended to the east and
  the original _chevet_ was destroyed. From the evidence furnished by
  fine double-staged chapels to the transepts, it is most probable that
  three similar chapels were set about the ambulatory of the apse, the
  upper chapels opening from the fine vaulted triforium. Such an
  arrangement existed at the noble church of Valenciennes, now
  destroyed, but well recorded. At the end of the 12th century Chartres
  cathedral was begun, perhaps its most notable constructive feature
  being the high development that the flying buttresses have here
  attained. It was followed in the early years of the 13th century by
  Rouen cathedral, which derived much from its prototype. St Omer, a
  fine early church, in turn, followed Rouen.

  [Illustration: FIG. 40.--Plan of Cathedral at Amiens.]

  The second stage of Gothic, introducing the traceried window, was
  opened by the building of the cathedral of Reims, begun in 1211. This
  is in every way one of the most perfect of cathedrals, as well for its
  sculpture and glass as for its structure. Reims was followed by the
  still greater cathedral at Amiens (fig. 40), which was begun in 1220
  at the west front, so that the superb sculpture (Plate II., fig. 64)
  of the porches is earlier than that of Reims. Beauvais cathedral was
  begun in 1247 on a still vaster scale, and with an ambition that
  o'erleaped itself. Auxerre cathedral, and the very beautiful
  collegiate churches of St Quentin and Semur, also followed Reims. Two
  other cathedrals of the first rank which must be mentioned are those
  of Bourges and Le Mans, each of these having double aisles about the
  apse, with a large clerestory to the inner one of the two, above which
  rises the great clerestory. This scheme is one of the great feats of
  Gothic construction. Le Mans again furnished the most highly developed
  form of _chevet_ planning (fig. 41). On this point Mr Street may again
  be cited. "It was in the planning of the apse, with its surrounding
  aisles and chapels, that all their ingenuity and science were
  displayed. A simple apse is easy enough of construction, but directly
  it is surrounded by an aisle or aisles, with chapels again beyond
  them, the difficulties are great. The bays of the circular aisle,
  instead of being square, are very much wider on one side than the
  other, and it is most difficult to fit the vaulting to the unequal
  space. In order to get over this, various plans were tried. At Notre
  Dame, Paris, the vaulting bays were all triangular on plan, so that
  the points of support might be twice as many on the outside line of
  the circle as on the inside. But this was rather an unsightly
  contrivance, and was not often repeated, though at Bourges there is
  something of the same sort. At Le Mans the aisle vaulting bays are
  alternately triangular and square; and this is, perhaps, the best
  arrangement of all, as the latter are true and square, and none of the
  lines of the vault are twisted or distorted in the slightest degree.
  The arrangement of the chapels round the apse was equally varied.
  Usually they are too crowded in effect; and, perhaps, the most
  beautiful plan is that of Rouen cathedral, where there are only three
  chapels with unoccupied bays between, affording much greater relief
  and variety of lighting than the commoner plan which provided a chapel
  to every bay. The planning and design of the _chevet_ is the great
  glory of the French medieval school. When the same thing was
  attempted, as at Westminster, or by the Germans at Cologne, it was
  evidently a copy, and usually an inferior copy, of French work. No
  English works led up to Westminster Abbey, and no German works to the
  cathedral at Cologne."

  The variety in the planning of the _chevets_ must be remarked. There
  might be only one chapel opening from the semicircular ambulatory, as
  at Langres, Sens, Auxerre, Bayeux and Lausanne. Canterbury cathedral,
  designed by William of Sens, is perhaps the most perfect example.
  There were three separated chapels, as at Rouen, St Omer, Semur, &c.,
  or there might be five filling the whole space, which became the
  general later scheme. Chartres furnishes an intermediate plan, in
  having the alternate chapels much shallower than the others. The
  chapels might be circular or polygonal or alternately square and
  round. Of the last the cathedral of Toledo is a wonderful example. The
  plan with parallel apses also continued in use, as at the beautiful
  abbey church at Dijon and St Urbain at Troyes. Apsidal transepts were
  built at Noyon, Soissons and Valenciennes.

  Another stage of development was reached with the building of the
  Sainte Chapelle in Paris, begun in 1244. With this work the Gothic
  system reached complete maturity. Here for the first time large
  traceried windows seem to have been perfected, and, moreover, the
  structure was so organized into a series of wide window spaces, only
  divided by strong far-projecting buttress piers, that the stained
  glass ideal found full expression and the building became a lantern
  for its display.

  [Illustration: FIG. 41.--Cathedral of Le Mans. East end and Chevet.]

  During the next half-century the influence of the Sainte Chapelle is
  to be traced everywhere, and its system of construction was developed
  to the furthest possible point in St Urbain at Troyes, begun in 1260.
  Exploration of the Gothic theory of structure could be carried no
  further. From this point the style turned in on itself, becoming more
  unreasonably intricate, artificial and mannerized. One of the finest
  examples of the style of the early 14th century is the eastern limb of
  St Ouen, Rouen; Troyes cathedral is also an important example of later
  work. As Mr Street says: "Later French architecture ran a very similar
  course to that in England. The 13th century was that in which it was
  seen at its best. In the 14th the same sort of change took place as
  elsewhere; and art was beautiful, but it was too much an evidence of
  skilfulness and adroitness. It was harder and colder also than English
  work of the same age; and when it fell, it did so before the inroads
  of a taste for what has been called Flamboyant architecture,--a gay
  and meretricious style which trusted to ornament for all its effect,
  and, in spite of many beauties, had none of the sturdy magnificence of
  much of our English Perpendicular style."

  M. Enlart has recently accepted the view that the germs of flamboyancy
  in the later French Gothic are to be found in the flowing curvilinear
  forms of early 14th-century work in England.

  Up to the middle of the 16th century, magnificent works in the
  national style were still being executed. St Vulfran at Abbeville, St
  Maclou in Rouen, and the façade of the cathedral of Rouen, may be
  mentioned; some of the last works were the immense transepts of
  Beauvais cathedral and the façade of Tours.

  We have necessarily spoken most of churches, but the palaces, castles
  and civic buildings form another great class hardly less interesting.
  The castles of Coucy and Château Gaillard may rival any cathedral.
  Among civic buildings may be mentioned the palais de justice at Rouen
  and the hôtel de ville at Compiègne, both late but beautiful and
  impressive types. The royal palace of Paris is now represented by the
  Sainte Chapelle, but accounts of its splendid hall and general
  arrangements have been preserved. At Poitiers is still extant the hall
  of the palace of the counts of Poitou; at Laon the episcopal palace is
  almost entire; there are considerable remains of the bishops' palaces
  of Beauvais, Evreux, Rouen, Reims: and the pope's palace at Avignon
  must also be mentioned in this connexion. The most perfect existing
  great houses of the middle ages are those of Jacques Coeur at Bourges
  and of the abbot of Cluny in Paris. A large number of fine houses on a
  small scale, dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, are still
  preserved at Beauvais, Auxerre, Chartres, Cordes, &c. The house of the
  musicians at Reims, c. 1280, is adorned by a series of seated
  life-sized figures playing instruments, in sculpture of a very high
  order. A good and concise account of the smaller houses in France is
  given in Hudson Turner's _Some Account of Domestic Architecture_, and
  in C. Enlart's _Manuel d'archéologie_, the best and most recent survey
  of the whole field of medieval antiquities in France.     (W. R. L.)


ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN

What strikes the architectural student most forcibly in Spain is the
concurrent existence of two schools of art during the best part of the
middle ages. The Moors invaded Spain in 711, and were not finally
expelled from Granada until 1492. During the whole of this period they
were engaged, with more or less success, in contests for superiority
with the Christian natives. In those portions of the country which they
held longest, and with the firmest hand, they enforced their own customs
and taste in art almost to the exclusion of all other work. Where their
rule was not permanent their artistic influence was still felt, and even
beyond what were ever the boundaries of their dominion, there are still
to be seen in Gothic buildings some traces of acquaintance with Arabic
art not seen elsewhere in Europe, with the exception, perhaps, of the
southern part of the Italian peninsula, and there differing much in its
development. The mosque of Cordova in the 9th century, the Alcazar and
Giralda at Seville in the 13th, the Court of Lions in the Alhambra in
the 14th, several houses in Toledo in the 15th century, are examples of
what the Moors were building during the period of the middle ages in
which the best Gothic buildings were being erected. Some portions of
Spain were never conquered by the Moors. These were the greater part of
Aragon, Navarre, Asturias, Biscay and the northern portion of Galicia.
Toledo was retaken by the Christians in 1085, Tarragona in 1089,
Saragossa in 1118, Lerida in 1149, Valencia in 1238 and Seville in 1248.
In the districts occupied by the Moors Gothic architecture had no
natural growth, whilst even in those which were not held by them the
arts of war were of necessity so much more thought of than those of
peace, that the services of foreign architects were made use of to an
extent unequalled in any other part of Europe.

  Of early Christian buildings erected from the 9th to the 11th century
  remains of some twenty to thirty are known, and there are probably
  others which will be found when the communications in the country
  become more extended. The most interesting of these is Santa Maria de
  Naranco near Oviedo, originally built in 848 as part of a palace. It
  consisted of a rectangular hall, 42 ft. long and 16 ft. wide, with
  entrance doorways in the centre of each side, and at each end an
  arcade of three arches, carried on piers and coupled columns, which
  led to an open loggia from which the hall was lighted. Fifty to sixty
  years later it was converted into a church by blocking up the end of
  the east loggia. The church is remarkable for its barrel vault, built
  in fine masonry, and for the knowledge that is displayed in meeting
  its thrust. Internally, in order to lessen the span, the upper part of
  the walls is brought forward and carried on a series of arches on each
  side, which are supported on piers consisting of four coupled columns,
  virtually constituting an interior abutment. Externally, the thrust is
  met by buttresses, features not found in France until about a century
  and a half later. All the columns are spiral-fluted, and a
  twisted-cord torus-moulding decorates the capitals and other features
  in the church. The transverse ribs of the hall, which are of slight
  projection, are carried on broad bands with disks in the spandrils of
  the arches, the disks having badges in the centre, and being bordered,
  as well as the bands, with twisted cords. Underneath the church is a
  spacious vaulted crypt, which was built as a cellar or basement
  storey, to raise and give more importance to the palace. The twisted
  cord seems to have been a favourite device in all the early churches,
  and is extensively employed in the decoration of San Miguel de Lino, a
  small church about a quarter of a mile from Santa Maria de Naranco and
  coeval with that church. Externally the church of San Miguel has all
  the character of a Byzantine church; the windows in the front are
  pierced with Moorish tracery, probably brought there by those
  Christians who were flying to the sanctuaries of Asturias from the
  incursions of the Moors. In another church, about 15 m. south of
  Oviedo, Santa Christina de Leon, all the attached staffs are decorated
  with spiral fluting. The choir is raised, and approached by steps on
  either side through a screen of three arches, of the type known as
  Transennae in the earlier Christian of Rome. Here, as in Santa Maria
  de Naranco, the church is covered with a barrel vault with similar
  constructive and decorative features. Externally the buttresses are in
  great profusion, there being two to each bay. The screen, the pierced
  marble slabs between the columns carrying it, and the decoration of
  the capitals, all show Byzantine influence. Other early churches are
  those of San Pablo del Campo (930) and San Pedro de las Puellas, both
  in Barcelona, the fine church at the village of Priesca near
  Villaviciosa (915), the monastery of Valdedios (893) and that of San
  Salvador (1218), in which, notwithstanding its late date, there is a
  distinct Moorish influence. This influence is also to be noticed in
  the north of Spain, although it was never occupied by the Moors. Thus
  in the earliest church known, at Banos de Cerrato near Palencia
  (founded in 662, but restored in 711), there is a horse-shoe barrel
  vault over the square apse. Again in San Miguel de Escalada (913) near
  Leon, there are horse-shoe arches in the nave, and the three apses are
  horse-shoe on plan. San Pedro at Zamora is a vaulted church with
  horse-shoe arches in the nave, but otherwise Byzantine in style. In
  the church of Corpus Christi at Segovia the nave is Moorish in style,
  and the octagonal columns of the nave have capitals with fir cones, as
  in the well-known Santa Maria la Blanra at Toledo, originally a
  synagogue. The most remarkable church of all, so far as Moorish style
  is concerned, is the church of the monastery of Santiago de Peñalva,
  near Villafranca del Vierzo, built between 931 and 951, and therefore
  coeval with Cordova. The church is 40 ft. long by 20 ft. wide, covered
  by a barrel vault with transverse horse-shoe arch in the centre
  carrying the same. At each end is an apse with horse-shoe arches
  carried on marble shafts with Byzantine capitals. Though of later
  date, there is another interesting Romanesque example in the Templars'
  church of La Vera Cruz at Segovia (1204), which is twelve-sided with
  three apses, and in the centre has a chapel built in imitation of the
  Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.

  The buildings which come next in point of date are all evidently
  derived from or erected by the architects of those which were at the
  time being built in the south of France. These churches are uniform in
  plan, with central lanterns and three eastern apses. The nave has
  usually a waggon or barrel vault, supported by quadrant vaults in the
  aisles, and the steeples are frequently polygonal in plan. If these
  churches are compared with examples like that of the cathedral at
  Carcassonne on the other side of the Pyrenees, their identity in style
  will at once be seen. A still more remarkable evidence of similarity
  has been pointed out between the church of St Sernin, Toulouse, and
  the cathedral of Santiago. The plan, proportions and general design of
  the two churches are identical. Here we see a noble ground-plan,
  consisting of nave with aisles, transepts, central lantern and chevet,
  consisting of an apsidal choir, with a surrounding aisle and chapels
  opening into it at intervals. This example is the more remarkable,
  inasmuch as the early Spanish architects very rarely built a regular
  _chevel_, and almost always preferred the simpler plan of apsidal
  chapels on either side of the choir. And its magnificent scale and
  perfect preservation to the present day combine to make it one of the
  most interesting architectural relics in the country.

  Among the more remarkable buildings of the 12th and the beginning in
  the 13th century are San Isidore, Leon; San Vicente, Avila; several
  churches in Segovia; and the old cathedral at Lerida. They are much
  more uniform in character than are the churches of the same period in
  the various provinces of France, and the developments in style, where
  they are seen at all, seldom have much appearance of being natural
  local developments. This, indeed, is the most marked feature of
  Spanish architecture in all periods of its history. In such a country
  it might have been expected that many interesting local developments
  would have been seen; but of these there are but one or two that
  deserve notice. One of them is illustrated admirably in the church of
  San Millan, Segovia, where beyond the aisles of the nave are open
  cloisters or aisles arcaded on the outside, and opening by doors into
  the aisles of the nave. A similar external south portico exists in San
  Miguel de Escalada, already referred to, Santo Domingo, Burgos, and
  San Estéban at Segovia. It would be difficult to devise a more
  charming arrangement for buildings in a hot country, whilst at the
  same time the architectural effect is in the highest degree beautiful.
  The universality of the central tower and lantern has been already
  mentioned. This was often polygonal, and its use led to the erection
  of some lanterns or domes of almost unique beauty and interest. The
  old cathedral at Salamanca, the church at Toro and the cathedral of
  Zamora, all deserve most careful study on this score. Their lanterns
  are almost too lofty in proportion to be properly called domes, and
  yet their treatment inside and outside suggests a very beautiful form
  of raised dome. They are carried on pointed arches, and are circular
  in plan internally and octagonal on the exterior, the angles of the
  octagon being filled with large turrets, which add much to the beauty
  of the design, and greatly also to its strength. Between the
  supporting arches and the vault there are, at Salamanca, two tiers of
  arcades continued all round the lantern, the lower one pierced with
  four, and the upper with twelve lights, and the vault or dome is
  decorated with ribs radiating from the centre. On the exterior the
  effect is rather that of a low steeple covered with a stone roof with
  spherical sides than of a dome, but the design is so novel and so
  suggestive, that it is well worth detailed description. Nothing can be
  more happy than the way in which the light is admitted, whilst it is
  also to be noted that the whole work is of stone, and that there is
  nothing in the design but what is essentially permanent and monumental
  in construction. The only other Spanish development is the
  introduction, to a very moderate extent, of features derived from the
  practice of the Moorish architects. This is, however, much less seen
  than might have been expected, and is usually confined to some small
  feature of detail, such, e.g. as the carving of a boss, or the filling
  in of small tracery in circular windows, where it would in no way
  clash with the generally Christian character of the art.

  The debateable period of transition which is usually so interesting is
  very sterile in Spain. A good model once adopted from the French was
  adhered to with but little modification, and it was not till the
  13th-century style was well established in France and England that any
  introduction of its features is seen here; and then, again, it is the
  work of foreign architects imported for the work and occasion,
  bringing with them a fully developed style to which nothing whatever
  in Spain itself led up by a natural or evident development. The three
  great Spanish churches of this period are the cathedrals of Toledo,
  Leon and Burgos (Plate II., fig. 65). Those of Siguënza, Lerida and
  Tarragona, fine as they are, illustrate the art of the 12th rather
  than of the 13th century, but these three great churches are perfect
  Early Pointed works, and most complete in all their parts. The
  cathedral of Toledo is one of the most nobly designed churches in
  Europe. In dimensions it is surpassed only by the cathedrals of Milan
  and Seville, whilst in beauty of plan it leaves both those great
  churches far behind. The _chevet_, in which two broad aisles are
  carried round the apse with chapels alternately square and apsidal
  opening out of them, is perhaps the most perfect of all the schemes we
  know. It is as if the French _chevets_, all of which were more or less
  tentative in their plan, had culminated in this grand work to which
  they had led the way. The architectural detail of this great church is
  generally on a par with the beauty and grandeur of its plan, but is
  perhaps surpassed by the somewhat later church at Leon. Here we have a
  church built by architects whose sole idea was the erection of a
  building with as few and small points of support as possible, and with
  the largest possible amount of window opening. It was the work of men
  whose art had been formed in a country where as much sun and light as
  possible were necessary, and is quite unsuited for such a country as
  Spain. Nevertheless it is a building of rare beauty and delicacy of
  design. Burgos, better known than either of the others, is inferior in
  scale and interest, and its character has been much altered by added
  works more or less Rococo in character, so that it is only by analysis
  and investigation that the 13th-century church is still seen under and
  behind the more modern excrescences.

  The next period is again marked by work which seems to be that of
  foreigners. The fully developed Middle Pointed or Geometrical Gothic
  is indeed very uniform all over Europe. Here, however, its efforts
  were neither grand in scale nor interesting. Some of the church
  furniture, as, e.g. the choir screens at Toledo, and some of the
  cloisters, are among the best features. The work is all correct, tame
  and academical, and has none of the dignity, power and interest which
  marked the earlier Spanish buildings. Towards the end of the 14th
  century the work of Spanish architects becomes infinitely more
  interesting. The country was free from trouble with the Moors; it was
  rich and prosperous, and certainly its buildings at this period were
  so numerous, so grand and so original, that they cannot be too much
  praised. Moreover, they were carefully designed to suit the
  requirements of the climate, and also with a sole view to the
  accommodation conveniently of enormous congregations, all within sight
  of the preacher or the altar. This last development seems to have been
  very much the work of a great architect of Majorca, Jayme Fabre by
  name. The grandest works of his school are still to be seen in
  Catalonia. Their churches are so vast in their dimensions that the
  largest French and English buildings seem to be small by comparison,
  and being invariably covered with stone vaults, they cannot be
  compared to the great wooden-roofed churches of the preaching orders
  in Italy and elsewhere, in which the only approach is made to their
  magnificent dimensions. The cathedral of Gerona is the most remarkable
  example. Here the choir is planned like the French _chevet_ with an
  aisle and chapels round it, and opens with three lofty arches into the
  east wall of a nave which measures no less than 73 ft. in the clear,
  and is covered with a stone vaulted ceiling. In Barcelona there are
  several churches of very similar description; at Manresa another, but
  with aisles to its nave; and at Palma in Majorca one of the same plan
  as the last, but of even much larger dimensions. Perhaps there is no
  effort of any local school of architects more worthy of study and
  respect than this Catalonian work of the 14th and 15th centuries. Such
  a happy combination of noble design and proportions with entirely
  practical objects places its author among the very greatest architects
  of any time. It is one thing to develop patiently step by step from
  the work of one's fathers in art, quite another to strike out an
  entirely new form by a new combination of the old elements. In
  comparison with the works just mentioned the other great Spanish
  churches of the 15th century are uninteresting. But still their scale
  is grand and though their detail is over-elaborated and not beautiful,
  it is impossible to deny the superb effect of the interior of such
  churches as those of Seville, Segovia and Salamanca (new cathedral).
  They are very similar in their character, their columns are formed
  by the prolongation of the reedy mouldings of the arches, their window
  traceries are poorly designed, and their roofs are covered with a
  complex multitude of lierne ribs. Yet the scale is fine, the admission
  of light, generally high up and in sparing quantity, is artistic, and
  much of the furniture is either picturesque or interesting. The _tout
  ensemble_ is generally very striking, even where the architectural
  purist is apt to grumble at the shortcomings of most of the detail.

  [Illustration: PLATE V.

    FIG. 72.--DOOR OF SAN MICHELE, PAVIA.

    _Photo, Alinari._

    FIG. 73.--UNIVERSITY, SALAMANCA.

    _Photo, Lacoste._

    FIG. 74.--TOWN HALL, SEVILLE.

    _Photo, Lacoste._]

  [Illustration: PLATE VI.

    FIG. 75.--BANQUETING HOUSE, WHITEHALL.

    _Photo, F. Frith & Co._

    FIG. 76.--WOLLATON HALL.

    _Photo, F. Frith & Co._

    FIG. 77.--HAMPTON COURT.

    _Photo, Stuart._]

  The remarks which have been made so far have been confined to the
  fabrics of the churches of Spain. It would be easy to add largely to
  them by reference to the furniture which still so often adorns them,
  unaltered even if uncared for; to the monuments of the mighty dead; to
  the sculpture which frequently adorns the doorways and screens; and to
  the cloisters, chapter-houses and other dependent buildings, which add
  so much charm in every way to them. Besides this, there are very
  numerous castles, often planned on the grandest scale, and some, if
  not very many, interesting remains of domestic houses and palaces; and
  most of these, being to some extent flavoured by the neighbourhood of
  Moorish architects, have more character of their own than has been
  accorded to the churches. Finally, there are considerable tracts of
  country in which brick was the only material used; and it is curious
  that this is almost always more or less Moorish in the character of
  its detail. The Moors were great brickmakers. Their elaborate
  reticulated enrichments were easily executed in it, and the example
  set by them was, of course, more likely to be followed by Spaniards
  than that of the nearest French brick building district in the region
  of Toulouse. The brick towers are often very picturesque; several are
  to be seen at Toledo, others at Saragossa, and, perhaps the most
  graceful of all, in the old city of Tarazona in Aragon, where the
  proportions are extremely lofty, the face of the walls everywhere
  adorned with sunk panels, arcading, or ornamental brickwork, and at
  the base there is a bold battered slope which gives a great air of
  strength and stability to the whole. On the whole, it must be
  concluded that the medieval architecture of Spain from the 12th
  century is of less interest than that of most other countries, because
  its development was hardly ever a national one. The architects were
  imported at one time from France, at another from the Low Countries,
  and they brought with them all their own local fashions, and carried
  them into execution in the strictest manner; and it was not till the
  end of the 14th century, and even then only in Catalonia, that any
  buildings which could be called really Spanish in their character were
  erected.     (R. P. S.)


ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND

_Pre-Conquest._--The history of English architecture before the Norman
Conquest is still only imperfectly known. Its parentage is triple:
Roman, Celtic and Teutonic. To the first belongs the general building
tradition of the Romanized West, and the influence of the mission of
Augustine at the end of the 6th century, and of such men as Wilfrid in
the 7th. The Celtic element is due to the Scottish (Irish) church, which
never gained much hold on the south of England, while the Teutonic
influence shows itself in the later developments, which are allied to
the early buildings of kindred peoples in Germany. Fragments of existing
early churches have been attributed to the time of the Roman occupation,
but all are doubtful, with the exception of the remains of what is
believed to have been a Christian church excavated at Silchester in
1892. This was a basilica of ordinary form, comprising an apse with
western orientation, nave and aisles, transepts of slight projection,
and narthex. Augustine's cathedral church of Canterbury, which he had
learned was originally constructed by the labours of Roman believers
(Bede), was also a basilica with western apse; its eastern apse and
_confessio_ beneath were probably a later addition. Remains of early
churches are found on several sites where churches are recorded to have
been built during the missionary period. Of these, Reculver (c. 670) and
Brixworth (c. 680) have aisled naves and eastern apses. At Brixworth a
square bay intervenes between the apse and the nave. St Pancras,
Canterbury, of the time of Augustine, Rochester (604), and Lyminge
(founded 633), show unaisled naves of relatively wide proportion, with
eastern apses of stilted curve. In some of these churches there was a
triple arcade in front of the sanctuary, in place of the usual
"triumphal arch." The technique shows Roman influence, and Roman
materials are largely used. The existing crypts of Hexham and Ripon were
built by Wilfrid, c. 675. The description of Wilfrid's church at Hexham
gives the impression of an elaborate structure (_columnis variis et
porticibus multis suffultam_). Wilfrid also built at Hexham a church of
central plan, with projections (_porticus_) on the four sides, a type of
which no example has survived in England. Escomb (Durham) and parts of
Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, which are attributed to the same period, have
plans of an entirely different type--a relatively long and narrow nave,
with small square-ended chancel--a plan, usually attributed to Celtic
influence, which is most extensively represented in churches recognized
as Saxon.

  The evolution of the characteristic features of pre-Conquest
  architecture was slow, and was doubtless greatly hindered by the
  invasions of the Northmen from the end of the 8th century onward, but
  germs of the fully developed style are to be found in the earliest
  buildings. The western tower, usually of tall and slender proportion,
  was developed from the western porch found at St Pancras, Canterbury,
  and Monkwearmouth; sometimes, as in the latter church, actually raised
  over the older porch. The lateral chapels of St Pancras, which existed
  also in the Saxon cathedral of Canterbury, were developed into a
  transept, culminating in the cruciform plan with central tower. The
  characteristic "long-and-short" work, which consists of tall upright
  stones alternating with stones bedded flat bonding into the rubble
  work of the wall, has its prototype in the western arch of the porch
  of Monkwearmouth, and in the jambs of the chancel arch at Escomb.
  Sometimes the flat stones are cut back on the face, so that the
  plaster which covered the rubble extended up to the line of the
  upright stones, thus giving the quoin the appearance of a narrow
  pilaster. The repetition of these pilasters on the face of the walling
  constitutes rib-work, and these ribs are frequently connected by
  semicircular or so-called "triangular" arches, forming a land of rude
  arcading (Earls Barton, Barton-on-Humber.) Windows in the earliest
  Saxon work are generally wide in proportion, and splayed on the inside
  only; in the later work they commonly have splays both on the inside
  and outside. Doorways have square jambs, without splay or rebate;
  sometimes the jambs of doorways and windows are inclined, as in early
  buildings in Ireland. Imposts to doorways, tower arches or chancel
  arches are often square projecting blocks, sometimes chamfered on the
  lower edge. The mid-wall shaft is a characteristic feature in the
  belfry openings of Saxon towers; it supports an impost or
  through-stone, of the full thickness of the wall, which receives the
  semicircular arches over the openings. The method is analogous to that
  commonly found in northern Italy and the Rhineland. Sometimes the
  mid-wall shaft is a baluster, turned in a lathe. In some of the later
  belfry openings, a capital intervenes between the mid-wall shaft and
  the impost. The dating of buildings of this style is at present a
  matter of considerable difficulty, but certain points, such as the
  development of the cruciform plan, are useful for comparison. A fully
  developed cross church was built at Romsey in 969, having also a
  single axial western tower, and this seems to have been the normal
  type of a large church in the later years of the style. Cruciform
  plans, not yet fully developed, are found at Deerhurst, Breamore and
  St Mary in the castle at Dover, and fully developed at Norton (Durham)
  and Stow (Lincolnshire). The most advanced detail which occurs in
  pre-Conquest buildings is the recessing of arches in orders. But for
  the Conquest, English architecture might have developed somewhat on
  the lines of contemporary work in Germany. It must be remembered,
  however, that, although the Norman Conquest marks the beginning of a
  new epoch in English architecture, the Norman manner had already been
  introduced into England under Edward the Confessor, as is proved by
  the considerable remains of that king's work at Westminster Abbey.

The succeeding periods of English architecture have been divided into
so-called "styles" or "periods," though it should be recognized that all
such hard and fast divisions are purely artificial, and that, apart from
the objection that they exaggerate the importance of mere details, they
tend to obscure the fact that the history of Gothic architecture is a
history of continuous development. The following classifications, those
of Thomas Rickman and Edmund Sharpe, are in most general use for the
present by such students as are not content with a nomenclature based on
simple chronology:--

      Rickman.                      Sharpe.
  1066-1189 Norman.           1066-1145 Norman.
                              1145-1190 Transitional.
  1189-1307 Early English.    1190-1245 Lancet.
                              1245-1315 Geometrical.
  1307-1377 Decorated.        1315-1360 Curvilinear.
  1377-1546 Perpendicular.    1360-1550 Rectilinear.

_Norman Conquest to c. 1150._--At the time of the Conquest of England,
the Norman school was already one of the most advanced Romanesque
schools of western Europe. Its marked individuality and logical
character are clearly expressed in the abbey churches of Jumièges and St
Étienne and Sainte-Trinité at Caen, and it quickly supplanted the less
advanced Romanesque manner of the conquered English. As soon as the
conqueror had made himself master in his new kingdom, cathedral and
abbey churches were rebuilt on a scale hitherto unknown either in
Normandy or England. As the effect of the Norman Conquest was to
incorporate the church in England more closely with western Christendom,
so its effect on architecture was to bring it into line with the best
continental achievement of its time. The immense energy of the Norman
bishops and abbots gave such a stimulus to architecture that by the
close of the 11th century, England, rather than Normandy, had become the
real _foyer_ of the Norman school.

  The plans of the larger churches show greater development in the
  length of choir, transept and nave than was usual in Normandy. Many
  follow the type of choir plan generally represented in the
  contemporary churches of Normandy which have survived--a central apse,
  flanked by an apse terminating each aisle, but the two bays usual in
  the Norman churches frequently became four in England. The Confessor's
  church of Westminster seems to have had an ambulatory with radiating
  chapels, a plan which, although rare in the surviving churches of
  Normandy, was adopted in several of the more important English
  churches (St Augustine's, Canterbury; Winchester; Worcester;
  Gloucester; Bury St Edmunds; Norwich; Tewkesbury). Some of these have
  great vaulted crypts extending under the choir and its aisles. The
  transept, generally of considerable length, has one or more apsidal
  chapels on the east side of each arm, or an eastern aisle, or even (as
  at Winchester and Ely) both eastern and western aisles. The
  lantern-tower over the crossing was a characteristic feature in
  England, as in Normandy. Frequently the nave was of great length,
  extending to twelve bays at Winchester, thirteen at Ely, and fourteen
  at Norwich. Some churches, as Ely, Bury St Edmunds, and later
  Peterborough (Plate VIII., fig. 81), show a western transept, with
  corresponding development of the west front. Two western towers are
  most usual, but Ely (Plate II., fig. 67), and originally Winchester,
  had the single western tower, a survival from pre-Conquest times,
  which is found also in numberless parish churches. In their general
  design, the Norman churches show great skill in composition, and in
  the logical expression of structure, and sure grasp of the problems to
  be solved. The subordination of arches (arches built in rings, or
  orders, recessed one within the other) was carried further than in
  other Romanesque schools, and with this went the subordination of the
  pier, planned with a shaft to receive each order of the semicircular
  arch. Sometimes the shafted piers of the great arcades alternate with
  cylindrical (or later with octagonal) pillars; sometimes, as at
  Gloucester and Tewkesbury, all the pillars are cylindrical. The
  triforium usually has a single wide semicircular arched opening,
  enclosing two or more minor semicircular arches springing from
  detached shafts. Usually the aisle wall is carried up to form a
  complete triforium storey, unvaulted, and lighted by windows in the
  outer wall. The clerestory has a single window in each bay, with a
  wall passage between the window and an internal arcade, usually of
  three semicircular arches on shafts, the central arch being wider than
  the side arches. Most frequently naves and transepts were unvaulted,
  and finished with wood ceilings, while the aisles were covered with
  groined vaults of rubble, on transverse arches. The general design of
  the greater churches indicates, however, that the Norman builders were
  aiming at a completely vaulted structure. The half-barrel vault over
  the triforium of Gloucester, and the transverse arches over the
  triforium of Chichester, seem to be constructed to afford the
  necessary abutment to vaults over the choir, such indeed as still
  exist over some choirs in Normandy built before the end of the 11th
  century. The problem was only successfully solved by the introduction
  of the diagonal rib, which completed the structural membering of the
  vault. Durham, begun in 1093 (fig. 42), is the earliest example in
  England of this important innovation, and it precedes by some quarter
  of a century the earliest ribbed vaults of the Île-de-France. The
  abutting arches under the roof of its triforium are actually
  rudimentary flying-buttresses, and we have here all the essential
  elements of Gothic architecture, except the pointed arch, which is
  only systematically used in English vaulted construction from about
  the middle of the 12th century. The decorative forms of the earlier
  buildings of the Norman school are severely simple. Arches, which at
  first were usually unmoulded, soon received effective mouldings of
  rolls and hollows, continuing a tradition of the latest pre-Conquest
  architecture. Two types of capitals are found in the earlier buildings
  after the Conquest; the volute capital, descended from the Corinthian,
  which was the normal type in Normandy; and the cubic or cushion
  capital, formed by the penetration of a segment of a sphere, or
  segments of cones, with a cube, a type which, appearing earlier in
  England than in Normandy, was doubtless derived from pre-Conquest
  models, and in the 12th century developed into the scalloped capital.
  The decoration of wall-surfaces by arcades, frequently of intersecting
  semicircular arches, is characteristic of the Norman school. Windows
  are splayed in the interior, and in the more important buildings are
  enriched with shafts and moulded arches. Ornamentation is frequently
  concentrated on the doorways, which are often of many orders, with a
  shaft under each order. Based chiefly on geometric forms, such as the
  chevron or zigzag, star, fret and cable, the decoration becomes richer
  and more refined as the 12th century advances, though in sculpture the
  Norman was less advanced than some other Romanesque schools.

  [Illustration: FIG. 42.--Plan of Durham Cathedral.

  From Rickman's _Styles of Architecture_, by permission of Parker &
  Co.]

  The foregoing generalization applies more particularly to the greater
  churches, but numberless parish churches present similar
  characteristics. Chancels are sometimes apsidal, but by far the most
  prevalent type of plan is the aisleless oblong nave and square-ended
  chancel, with or without a western tower. Other types of aisleless
  plans are the cruciform church with central tower, or simply nave and
  chancel with central tower. Even where subsequent alterations and
  rebuildings have destroyed almost everything, the influence of these
  plans on the later work is the key to a right understanding of the
  history of the greater number of English medieval churches.

_12th Century (second half)._--The second half of the 12th century is
the period of transition _par excellence_--of transition from Romanesque
to Gothic. The school of the Île-de-France, which up to c. 1120 was one
of the most backward of the Romanesque schools, had made enormous
progress when the ambulatory of Suger's church of Saint-Denis was built
(1140-1144), and thenceforth it continued to lead the way. There is no
doubt that, from the middle of the 12th century, English architecture
was continuously influenced by the Île-de-France, for the most part
through Normandy, but it must be considered to be a development on
parallel lines, with strongly marked characteristics of its own, and not
merely as an importation of forms already developed elsewhere. At the
same time, the influence of the Cistercian revival was considerable, not
so much in the introduction of foreign forms as in the direction of
simplicity and severity, which acted as a valuable check to the
prevalent tendency to exaggerate the importance of surface decoration.

  The substitution of the square east-end for the apse in the plans of
  the greater churches, already effected at Romsey, was furthered by the
  simple plans of the Cistercian churches. The altar spaces provided by
  the radiating chapels of the French chevet were in England obtained by
  returning the aisles across the square east-end of the choir, or by an
  eastern transept. The latter occurs first here in "the glorious choir
  of Conrad" of the beginning of the 12th century at Canterbury which
  affords also the first example of the eastward extension of the choir
  which became so characteristic a feature of English planning. The
  reconstruction of Conrad's choir after the fire of 1174 led to a
  further extension eastward with the eastern chapel which was adopted
  in many of the greater churches, either in the form of a lower
  building, sometimes of three spans eastward of the east gable or of an
  extension of the choir itself to its full height. The work of William
  of Sens at Canterbury (1175-1178) was naturally more French in
  character than other contemporary works in England, but the work of
  his successor, William the Englishman (1179-1184) shows the beginnings
  of what became the characteristically English manner of the 13th
  century.

  The second half of the 12th century was a period of rapid development
  of architectural forms in the direction of increased elegance and
  refinement. The pointed arch employed at first for the arches of
  construction entirely superseded the semicircular arch in doorways,
  windows and arcades by the end of the century and its adoption finally
  solved the problem of vaulted construction. The abutting arches under
  the triforium roofs of the earlier churches were developed into flying
  buttresses above the roofs springing from buttresses of increased
  projection and weighted by pinnacles. Mouldings became more graceful
  and subtle in their profiles. Capitals reverted to the volute type,
  transformed and refined. The massive Romanesque pier was gradually
  developed into the lighter Gothic pier in which detached shafts were
  extensively adopted. The use of Purbeck marble for these shafts must
  be considered in relation to the painted decoration of the wall
  surfaces which although now almost entirely lost was an important
  factor in the internal effect.

_13th Century_ (_first half_).--The last decade of the 12th century
marks the achievement of a fully developed Gothic style, with strongly
marked national individuality. During the 13th century, English Gothic
follows the same general course of evolution as that of northern France,
but the parallelism is less close than in the preceding century.

St Hugh's choir at Lincoln (begun 1192) had indeed an apse, with
ambulatory and radiating chapels though its plan does not appear to have
been controlled by the vaulting as in the French chevets and what there
is of French influence seems to have come rather through Canterbury than
by a more direct route. This choir has the eastern transept which
characterizes several of the greater churches of the first half of the
13th century--Salisbury (fig 43), Beverley, Worcester, Rochester,
Southwell. The square eastern termination, the less ambitious height,
and the comparatively simple buttress-system combine to give the English
Gothic cathedral an air of greater repose than is found in the
magnificent triumphs of French Gothic art. In its structural system,
too, English Gothic retained something of the Romanesque treatment of
wall surface, the suppression of the wall and the concentration of the
masonry in the pier was never carried so far as in the complete Gothic
of France. The general tendency during the 13th century, as in the 12th,
was in the direction of increased lightness and elegance. The employment
of detached shafts and the extensive use of marble (generally Purbeck)
for these shafts is a distinguishing feature of the first half of the
century. The vaulting system is fully developed, the most usual form is
the simple quadripartite but the tendency to introduce additional ribs
(tiercerons) and ridge ribs already makes its appearance in the nave of
Lincoln and the presbytery of Ely (Plate VIII., fig. 82) to be yet
further developed in the second half of the century. Capitals are either
simply moulded an elaboration of the plain bell capitals of the latter
part of the 12th century, or finely sculptured, with conventional or
stiff leaved, foliage of the crocket type. The use of the circular
abacus begun in the preceding century entirely supersedes the square
abacus which was retained in France. Mouldings are profiled with great
refinement, the alternation of rounds and hollows producing effective
contrasts of light and shade, and the far more complicated profiles of
arch mouldings provide another feature which distinguishes English work
of this period from French. Windows of single pointed lights the so
called "lancet," though frequently by no means sharply pointed are the
prevalent type, grouped in pairs triplets &c. and arranged in tiers in
the large gables or sometimes with only a single group of tall lights,
like the "five sisters" of the north transept of York. Few works are
more admirably designed than some of the towers of this period. Probably
the greatest excellence ever attained in English art of the 13th century
was reached in the great Yorkshire abbeys, for purity of general design
excellence of construction, and beauty of detail, they are unsurpassed
by the work of any other period.

_13th Century_ (_second half_).--The grouping together of "lancet"
windows, the piercing of the wall above them with foiled circles, and
the combination of the whole under an enclosing arch, soon led to the
introduction of tracery, for which the design of earlier triforium
arcades had also afforded a suggestion.

[Illustration: FIG. 43--Plan of Salisbury Cathedral.]

  Bar-tracery appears just before the middle of the 13th century, and
  the great tracery window filling the whole width of a bay, or the
  entire gable end, soon becomes a most characteristic feature. The
  earlier tracery windows show only simple geometrical forms, foiled
  arches to the heads of the lights and foiled circles above, of which
  the abbey church and the chapter houses of Westminster and Salisbury
  afford most beautiful examples. In some particulars, such as its
  chevet plan and its comparatively great height, Westminster approaches
  more nearly to the French type than other English churches of the 13th
  century, but its details are characteristically English and of great
  beauty. In the last quarter of the century, pointed trefoils or
  quatrefoils are largely used in tracery, and the foliations frequently
  form the lines of the tracery, without enclosing circles. Contemporary
  with this change is the gradual absorption of the triforium into the
  clerestory, of which Southwell and Pershore are precocious examples.
  Contemporary also was the adoption of an excessively naturalistic type
  of foliage. The art of masonry and stone cutting was rapidly
  developed. The detached shaft, always structurally weak, was abandoned
  for the pier with engaged shafts separated by mouldings. The mouldings
  of arches become less deeply undercut, and the greater use of the
  fillet tends to give a more liney effect. The whole practice of art
  was growing more scholarly, perhaps but at the same time it was more
  conscious, and the cleverness of the mason was almost as often
  suggested as the noble character of his work.

_14th Century_ (_first half_).--The juxtaposition of the foliations
without enclosing circles in tracery windows produced curves of
contraflexure, which led insensibly to the complete substitution of
flowing lines for geometrical forms in tracery.

  Flowing tracery makes its appearance in England about 1310, and lasts
  some fifty years. Up to the end of the 13th century, window tracery
  had developed in France and England on parallel lines though the
  English work was always slightly behind France in point of date. All
  this is changed with the adoption of flowing tracery in England its
  development was purely national, and owed nothing to France. Indeed,
  the French flamboyant only makes its appearance at the time when
  flowing tracery was being abandoned in England. Not only window
  traceries, but mouldings, carvings and other details are changed in
  character. The ogee form is used in arches in wall arcades of great
  beauty and elaboration, as in the Lady chapel at Ely, and in the
  canopies of tombs, such as the magnificent Percy tomb at Beverley.
  Niches and arcades are richly ornamented, and small decorative
  buttresses are used in the jambs of doorways, windows and niches. The
  moulded capital is still used, along with the capital with a
  continuous convex band of wavy foliage. Many of the most beautiful
  English towers and spires date from this period, the work of which is
  perhaps seen at its best in the parish churches of south Lincolnshire.

_From Middle of 14th Century._--The over-elaboration of flowing tracery
inevitably led to a reaction. The beauty of the lines of the tracery had
controlled everything, and the resulting forms of the openings, which
presented serious difficulties for the glass painter, had been a
secondary consideration. Hence an endeavour to return to a simpler and
more dignified, if more mechanical, style of building. The splendid
exuberance of the earlier 14th century style gave way to the
introduction of vigorous, straight, vertical and horizontal lines.

  The beginnings of the new manner are to be seen in the south transept
  of Gloucester before 1337. After the great interruption of building
  works caused by the Black Death of 1349 and its recurrence in
  following years, the so-called "Perpendicular" style became general
  all over the country. The preference for straight in place of flowing
  lines became more and more developed. Doorways and arches were
  enclosed within well-defined square outlines; walls were decorated by
  panelling in rectangular divisions; vertical lines were emphasized by
  the addition of pinnacles, and buttresses were used as mere
  decorations, while horizontal lines were multiplied in string-courses,
  parapets and window transoms. Capitals were frequently omitted, and
  the mouldings of arches were continued down the piers. The use of the
  depressed "four-centred" arch became common. Vaulting, which had
  already been enriched by the multiplication of ribs, was further
  complicated by cross-ribs (liernes), subdividing the simple spaces
  naturally produced by the intersection of necessary ribs into panels;
  these, again, were filled with tracery. The fan-vault was developed by
  giving to all the ribs the same curvature; the outline of the fan is
  bounded by a horizontal circular rib, and its effect is that of a
  solid of revolution upon whose surface panels are sunk. The cloister
  of Gloucester presents the earliest and perhaps the most beautiful
  example. Finally, the builders displayed their mechanical skill by
  introducing pendants, as in Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster. This
  latest period of English Gothic was a purely national development of
  which it has been too much the fashion to speak disparagingly; for it
  is futile to call such works as the nave of Winchester or the choir
  and Lady-chapel of Gloucester "debased." Perhaps the worst that can be
  said of this period is that there was too great a love of display, and
  too much mechanical repetition, but it is none the less true that it
  is to the 15th century that a very large number of English parish
  churches owe their fine effect. East Anglia and Somersetshire possess
  some of the choicest examples, and few things can be more beautiful
  than the central towers of Gloucester and Canterbury, and the towers
  of the Somersetshire churches. The open timber roofs, as, for
  instance, those of the East Anglian churches, are superb, while many
  of the churches of this period are still full of interesting furniture
  and decoration. Finally, a word must be said of the wealth of
  interesting examples of domestic architecture, which yet count among
  the ornaments of the country.

  After the middle of the 16th century the practice of Gothic
  architecture virtually died out, though traces of its influence,
  especially in rural districts, were hardly lost until the end of the
  17th century. Good, sound, solid and simple forms, well constructed by
  men who respected themselves and their work, and did not build only
  for the passing hour, were still popular and general, so that the
  vernacular architecture to a late period was often good and never
  absolutely uninteresting.

  _Scotland._--A few words will suffice for Scottish and Irish
  architecture, since the development in these countries followed much
  the same course of change as in England.

  The earliest ecclesiastical structures which still survive in Scotland
  follow the same general type as those of Ireland. The monastic
  foundations of Queen Margaret and her sons introduced into Scotland
  the Norman manner then universal in England. The best examples, such
  as the nave of Dunfermline, which is an obvious inspiration from
  Durham, Kelso of the later 12th century, and the parish churches of
  Dalmeny and Leuchars, present the same characteristics as are found in
  English churches of somewhat earlier dates than the buildings in
  question, and some Romanesque forms survive to a later period than in
  England. In the 13th century, too, the style of the Scottish churches
  corresponds very closely with that of England, though the details are
  generally simpler, and the structures are smaller. It is naturally
  allied most closely with the north of England, where Cistercian
  influence in the direction of simplicity and severity had been
  exercised with the best results. The transept of Dryburgh, the choir
  and crypt of Glasgow cathedral, the nave of Dunblane, the choir of
  Brechin, and later Elgin cathedral, exhibit the style at its purest
  and best. The disturbed condition of the country during the 14th
  century was unfavourable to architecture, and when building revived at
  the beginning of the 15th century its style became more national.
  During the first half of the 15th century, it shows a certain
  borrowing from English architecture of the flowing-tracery period.
  Later, many features are borrowed both from England and France, and
  architecture develops in picturesque and interesting fashion. Melrose
  is one of the most characteristic, as it certainly is one of the most
  charming of Scottish buildings; its earlier parts bear a close
  resemblance to the earlier 14th-century work at York, while its later
  parts show more similarity to English "Perpendicular" than is common
  in Scotland. One of the most characteristic features of Scottish
  architecture in the 15th century is the pointed barrel vault, which
  directly supports the stone flagged roof. French influence is seen in
  the employment of the polygonal apse for the termination of choirs,
  and in some approaches to Flamboyant tracery. The details of the later
  Gothic churches have but slight connexion either with France or
  England, and show a curious revival of earlier motives. The
  semicircular arch is in frequent use, and the "nail-head" and
  "dog-tooth" ornament, as well as the use of detached shafts, are
  revived. One of the most remarkable buildings of the 15th century in
  Scotland is the collegiate church of Roslin, which has a pointed
  barrel vault over its choir, with transverse barrel vaults over the
  aisles, and is distinguished by the extreme richness of its
  decoration.

  The domestic remains in Scotland are full of picturesque beauty and
  magnificence. They are a distinctly national class of buildings of
  great solidity, and much was sacrificed by their builders to the
  genius of the picturesque. They can only be classed with the latest
  Gothic buildings of other countries, but the mode of design shown in
  them lasted much later than the late Gothic style did in England. The
  vast height to which their walls were carried, the picturesque use
  made of circular towers, the freedom with which buildings were planned
  at various angles of contact to each other, and the general simplicity
  of the ordinary wall, are their most distinct characteristics.

  _Ireland._--The chief interest of the medieval architecture of Ireland
  belongs to the buildings which were erected before the English
  conquest of the 12th century. The early monastic settlements seem to
  have resembled the primitive Celtic fortresses, and consisted of a
  series of huts or cells, surrounded by an enclosing wall. The
  so-called "bee-hive" cell, which goes back to pre-Christian times, was
  built of rough stone rubble without mortar, and roofed in the same
  manner by corbelling over the courses of masonry. Some of these were
  certainly dwellings, but others were oratories. The largest of those
  in Skellig Michael is four-sided, and from this type the stone-roofed
  church of oblong plan was developed. The later type, with oblong nave
  and small square-ended chancel, retained much of the character of
  these primitive structures, and their barrel vaults were sometimes
  independent of the stone roof-covering, a system which lasted into the
  12th and 13th centuries. A certain megalithic character, and the
  inclined jambs of doorway openings, are marked features of these early
  churches. The round towers so frequently associated with them are
  believed to be not earlier than the 9th century. Before the
  introduction of Norman forms, Ireland possessed a Romanesque style of
  her own, characterized by the survival of horizontal forms and their
  incorporation into the round-arched style, the retention of the
  inclined jambs of doorways, rich surface decoration, and the use of
  certain ornamental motives of earlier Celtic origin. King Cormac's
  chapel at Cashel is one of the best examples of the imported Norman
  manner of the 12th century, and here we find much of the influence of
  the earlier native style. The English conquest may be said to have
  been the introduction to Ireland of Gothic art, and it was the local
  variety of western England and south Wales which the conquerors
  introduced. Among the buildings erected by the English in Ireland,
  Kilkenny cathedral and the two 13th-century cathedrals of
  Dublin--Christ Church and St Patrick's--are the most remarkable, but
  there are many others. Their style is most plainly that of the English
  conqueror, with no concession to, or consideration of, earlier Irish
  forms of art. The result of the conquest was that the native style of
  construction was never applied to large buildings, though it did not
  at once disappear, as is witnessed by the church St Doulough near
  Malahide, which appears to be a 14th-century building. The
  characteristic features of later medieval Irish buildings, such as the
  stepped battlements, the retention of flowing lines in the tracery,
  and the peculiar treatment of crockets, are matters of no great
  importance in the history of architecture, and indeed it is hardly to
  be expected that a country with so stormy a history could have given
  rise to any systematic developments. Of the monastic remains those of
  the friaries are the most numerous, Ireland having many more friars'
  churches to show than England, but such peculiarities as they possess
  belong rather to the order than to any local influences.     (J. Bn.)


  ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN GERMANY

  With the exception of the church built at Trèves (Trier) by the
  empress Helena, of which small portions can still be traced in the
  cathedral, there are no remains of earlier date than the tomb-house
  built by Charlemagne at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), which, though much
  restored in the 19th century, is still in good preservation. It
  consists (fig. 44) of an octagonal domed hall surrounded by aisles in
  two storeys, both vaulted; externally the structure is a polygon of
  sixteen sides, about 105 ft. in diameter, and it was preceded by a
  porch flanked by turrets. It is thought to have been copied from S.
  Vitale at Ravenna, but there are many essential differences. The same
  design was repeated at Ottmarsheim and Essen, and a simpler version
  exists at Nijmwegen in the Netherlands, also built by Charlemagne.
  Although no remains exist of the monastery of St Gall in Switzerland
  (see ABBEY), built in the beginning of the 9th century, a valuable
  manuscript plan was found in the 17th century, in its library, which
  would seem to have been a design for a complete monastery. It
  contains features which are peculiar to the early German churches and
  are rarely found elsewhere, and is therefore of considerable interest,
  suggesting that some of the accessories of a monastery, supposed to
  have been the result of subsequent development, were all clearly set
  forth at this early period. The plan shows an eastern apse with a
  crypt, and a choir in front; a western apse, nave and aisles, with a
  series of altars down the latter; and on the west side, but detached
  from the apse, two circular towers with staircases in them.
  Unfortunately there are no churches remaining of the same date from
  which we might judge how far these arrangements were followed; but
  there are three early churches in the island of Reichenau on the Lake
  of Constance, in one of which, Mittelzell, is a western apse with
  staircases (here built up into a central tower), nave, and aisles with
  altars at the side between every window. The eastern portion has been
  rebuilt. At Oberzell, at the south end of the island, is a vaulted
  crypt, which dates from the end of the 10th century. In the third and
  much smaller church, Unterzell, there was no crypt, but three eastern
  apses and a western apse, which was destroyed when the present nave
  was built. At Gernrode in the Harz is a church with western and
  eastern apses with vaulted crypts underneath (one of which dates from
  960 when the church was founded), and circular towers with staircases
  in them on either side of the western apse. The church was completed
  about a century later. In the arcade between the nave and aisles piers
  alternate with the columns. Alternating piers are found also in
  Quedlinburg (the crypt of which dates from 936 and the church above
  about 1030) and many other early churches. Western apses exist at
  Drubeck, Ilbenstadt, Trèves, Huyseberg, St Michael and St Godehard at
  Hildesheim, Mainz, the Obermunster at Regensburg, Laach, Worms, and at
  a later date at Naumbergand Bamberg, showing that it was a feature
  generally accepted in early and late periods. It has, however, one
  great defect, that of depriving the west end of the church of those
  magnificent porches which are the glory of the churches of France, the
  cathedral of Spires (Speyer), the church at Limburg near Durkheim, the
  cathedrals of Erfurt and Regensburg, being the few examples where a
  dignified entrance is given; and further, that on entering the church
  from the side, one is distracted by the rivalry of the two apses, and
  it is only when turning the back on one or the other that one is able
  to judge of the monumental effect of the interior.

  [Illustration: FIG. 44.--Plan of Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 45.--Plan of Cathedral at Mainz.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 46.--Plan of Cathedral at Worms.]

  The greater number of the churches above mentioned were covered over
  with open timber roofs or flat ceilings; but the problem to be solved
  in Germany, as well as in Italy, was that of vaulting over the nave,
  and the cathedrals of Spires, Worms and Mainz (fig. 45) are the three
  most important churches in which this was accomplished. The dates of
  their vaults have never been quite settled; that of Spires would seem
  to have been the earliest built, probably after 1162, when the church
  was seriously damaged by a conflagration, and the vault is groined
  only. In Worms (fig. 46) and Mainz there are diagonal moulded ribs,
  which suggest a later date. Although of great height and width, the
  absence of a triforium gallery in these cathedrals is a serious
  defect, as it deprives the interior of that scale which the smaller
  arcades in such a gallery give to the nave arcade below and the
  clerestory above, and of those horizontal lines given by string
  courses which are entirely wanting in these churches. Seeing that in
  some of the earlier churches, as at Gernrode, St Ursula (Cologne), and
  Nieder-Lahnstem, the triforium had already been introduced, and that
  it was repeated in the later examples at Limburg on the Lahn,
  Bacharach, Andernach, Bonn, Sinzig, and St Gereon (Cologne), it is
  difficult to understand why, in the three great typical German
  Romanesque churches, they should have been omitted. Externally the
  design is extremely fine, owing to the grouping of the many towers at
  the west and on either side of the transept or choir. In this respect
  the cathedral of Mainz is the most superb structure in Germany, and to
  the cathedral of Spires with its fine entrance porch (fig. 47) must be
  given the second place.

  [Illustration: FIG. 47.--Plan of Cathedral in Spires.]

  One of the most perfect examples of the Rhenish-Romanesque styles is
  the church of the abbey of Laach, completed shortly after the middle
  of the 12th century. The eastern part of the church resembles the
  ordinary type, but at the west end there is a narrow transept flanked
  by circular towers, and a western apse enclosed in an atrium with
  cloisters round, which forms the entrance to the church. The
  sculptures in the capitals of the atrium are of the finest description
  and represent the perfected type of the German Romanesque style. In
  addition to the two circular towers flanking the west transept, a
  square tower rises in the centre of the west front, two square towers
  flank the choir and a crystal lantern crowns the crossing of the main
  transept, and the grouping of all these features is very fine and
  picturesque in effect. A small church at Rosheim in Alsace is quite
  Lombardic in its exterior design, the pilaster strips and arched
  corbel tables being almost identical. The same applies to the church
  at Marmoutier, but the towers flanking the main front and the square
  tower on the crossing of the western transept produce a composition
  which one looks for in vain in the greater number of the churches in
  Italy.

  In describing the Lombardic churches of North Italy, reference has
  been made to the probable origin of the eaves-gallery, best
  represented in the eastern apse of Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo. This
  feature was largely adopted throughout the Rhine churches, and in the
  Apostles' church and St Martin's at Cologne receives its fullest
  development, being in addition to the eastern apse carried round the
  apses of the north and south transepts, which in these two churches
  and in St-Mary-in-the-Capitol, also in Cologne, constitute a special
  treatment. In the Apostles' church, where round towers are built at
  the junction of the three apses, the effect is extremely pleasing. In
  the church at Bonn, the single apse is flanked by two lofty towers
  which give great importance to the east front.

  The steeples of the same period have a character of their own. They
  are either square or octangular in plan, arcaded or pierced with
  windows, and roofed with gables or with spires rising out of the
  gables.

  One peculiarity found in some of the German churches, and specially
  those in the north-east, is that the nave and aisles are of the same
  height. To these the term _Hallenkirchen_ is given. This type of
  design is very grand internally, owing to the vast height of the piers
  and arches. It also dispenses with the necessity for flying
  buttresses, as the aisles, which are only half the width of the nave,
  carry the thrust of the vault direct to the external buttresses. The
  nave, however, is not so well lighted, though the aisle windows are
  sometimes of stupendous height. The principal examples are those of
  the church of St Stephen, Vienna, where both nave and aisles are
  carried over with one vast root; at Munster, the _Wiesenkirche_ at
  Soest; St Lawrence, Nuremberg; St Martin's, Landshut; Munich
  cathedral, and others.

  St Gereon (1200-1227) and St Cunibert (1205-1248), in Cologne, besides
  churches at Naumburg, Limburg and Gelnhausen, in which the pointed
  arch is employed, are almost the only transitional examples in
  Germany, and respond to work of a century earlier in France. Toward
  the end of the 13th century the Romanesque style was supplanted by a
  style which in no way grew out of it, but was rather an imitation of
  a foreign style, the earliest examples being in the _Liebfrauenkirche_
  at Trèves (1227-1243), and the churches at Marburg (1235-1283) and
  Altenberg (1255-1301). In the latter church is a French chevet with
  seven apsidal chapels. This brings us to the great typical cathedral
  of Germany at Cologne (fig. 48), which had the advantages of having
  been designed at the best age and completed on the original design, so
  that with small exceptions a uniformity of style reigns throughout it.
  It was begun in 1270 and apparently based on the plan of Amiens, the
  transepts however having an additional bay each, and the two first
  bays of the nave having thicker piers so as to carry the enormous
  towers and spires which flank the chief façade. The principal defect
  of the building is its relative shortness, owing to its
  disproportionate height. This has always been felt in the interior,
  and now that the lofty buildings all round have been taken down,
  isolating the cathedral on all sides, it has the appearance of an
  overgrown monster. The length of the cathedral is 468 ft., 17 ft. less
  than the cathedral at Ulm, the longest in Germany. The height of the
  nave vault is 155 ft., and as the width is only 41.6 (about one in
  four) the proportion is very unpleasing. There is also a certain
  mechanical finish throughout the design, which renders it far less
  poetical than the great French cathedrals. Where, however, it excels
  is in the extraordinary vigour of its execution, the depth of the
  mouldings, and the projection given to the leading architectural
  features; and in this respect, when compared with St Ouen at Rouen,
  about fifty years later, the latter (which is even more mechanical in
  its setting out) looks wire-drawn and poor. The twin spires of the
  façade rise to the height of 510 ft.; they were completed only in the
  latter part of the 19th century, and would have gained in breadth of
  effect if there had been some plain surfaces left. In this respect the
  spire of Freiburg cathedral, which is simple in outline and detail, is
  finer, and gains in contrast on account of the simpler masonry of the
  lower part of the tower. The spire at Ulm cathedral, only recently
  terminated, rises to the height of 530 ft. In both these cases the
  single tower is preferable to the double towers of Cologne, when
  elaborated to the same extent, as they are in all these examples; and
  perhaps that is one of the reasons why the spires of Strassburg and
  Antwerp cathedrals are more satisfactory, as the twin towers were
  never built. The front of Strassburg cathedral (1277-1318), by Erwin
  von Steinbach, is too much cut up by vertical lines of masonry, owing
  to the _tours-de-force_ in tracery of which the German mason was so
  fond. On the whole the most beautiful of German spires is that of St
  Stephen's at Vienna, and one of its advantages would seem to be that
  its transition from the square base to the octagon is so well marked
  in the design that it is difficult to say where the tower ends and the
  spire begins. The strong horizontal courses under the spires of
  Strassburg or Freiburg are defects from this point of view.

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.--Plan of Cathedral at Cologne.]

  In domestic architecture nothing remains of the palace at
  Aix-la-Chapelle, but at Lorsch near Mannheim is the entrance gateway
  of the convent which was dedicated by Charlemagne in 774. It is in two
  storeys, in the lower one three semicircular arches flanked by columns
  with extremely classic capitals. The upper storey is decorated with
  what might have been described as a blind arcade, except that instead
  of arches are triangular spaces similar to some windows found in Saxon
  architecture; the whole gateway being crowned with a classic cornice.
  The palaces at Goslar (1050) and Dankwarderode in Brunswick
  (1150-1170) still preserve their great halls, and in the palace built
  (1130-1150) by the emperor Frederick I. at Gelnhausen there remain
  portions extremely fine and vigorous in style, and showing a strong
  Byzantine influence. The largest and most important castle is that of
  the Wartburg at Eisenach, which is in complete preservation.

  To sum up, the German Complete Gothic is essentially national in its
  complete character. It has many and obvious defects. From the first
  there is conspicuous in it that love of lines, and that desire to play
  with geometrical figures, which in time degenerated into work more
  full of conceit and triviality than that of any school of medieval
  artists. These conceits are worked out most elaborately in the
  traceries of windows and panelling. The finest early examples are in
  the cathedral at Minden; a little later, perhaps, the best series is
  in the cloister of Constance cathedral; and of the latest description
  the examples are innumerable. But it is worth observing that they
  rarely at any time have any ogee lines. They are severely geometrical
  and regular in their form, and quite unlike our own late Middle
  Pointed, or the French Flamboyant. In sculpture the Germans did not
  shine. They, like the English, did not introduce it with profusion,
  though they were very prone to the representations of effigies of the
  deceased as monuments.

  In one or two respects, however, Germany is still possessed of a
  wealth of medieval examples, such as is hardly to be paralleled in
  Europe. The vast collection of brick buildings, for instance, is
  unequalled. If a line be drawn due east and west, and passing through
  Berlin, the whole of the plain lying to the north, and extending from
  Russia to Holland, is destitute of stone, and the medieval architects,
  who always availed themselves of the material which was most natural
  in the district, built all over this vast extent of country almost
  entirely in brick. The examples of their works in this humble material
  are not at all confined to ecclesiastical works; houses, castles,
  town-halls, town walls and gateways, are so plentiful and so
  invariably picturesque and striking in their character, that it is
  impossible to pass a harsh verdict on the architects who left behind
  them such extraordinary examples of their skill and fertility of
  resource.

  This development is largely due to the fact that all these countries
  in north-east Germany were connected and very much influenced by the
  confederation of the Hanse towns, and hence the similarity in the
  design of all their buildings. Although some of the earliest buildings
  date from the 12th century, the chief development took place in the
  14th and 15th centuries, and in the 16th century formed the basis of
  the transitional works of the Renaissance. The principal Hanse towns
  are Hamburg, Lübeck and Danzig. The chief buildings in Hamburg were
  destroyed by the fire in 1842, and it is in Lübeck that the most
  important churches are to be found. The church of St Mary
  (Marienkirche), 1304, is the most striking on account of its
  dimensions, 346 ft. in length, the nave being 123 ft. high, with two
  western towers 407 ft. high. Great scale is given to the building in
  consequence of the small material (brick) used, and some of the
  windows in this or other churches are nearly 100 ft. in height, with
  lofty mullions, all in moulded brick. The _Dom_ or cathedral of
  Lübeck, though slightly larger, is not so good in design, but has a
  remarkable north porch in richly moulded brick, with marble shafts and
  carved capitals. In the church of St Catherine the choir is raised
  above a lofty vaulted crypt, similar to examples in some of the
  Italian churches. The _Marienkirche_ at Danzig (1345-1503), built by a
  grand master of the Teutonic knights, to whom the chief development of
  the architecture of north-east Germany is largely due, is one of those
  examples already mentioned as _Hallenkircken_. The nave, aisles, side
  chapels, transept and aisles, and choir with square east end, are all
  of the same height; as the church is 280 ft. long and 125 ft. wide,
  with a transept 200 ft. long, the effect is that of one stupendous
  hall, but as the light is only obtained through the windows of the
  side chapels, the interior, though impressive, is somewhat gloomy. The
  same is found in the choir of the Franciscan church at Salzburg, where
  five slender piers, 70 ft. in height and 4 ft. in diameter, carry the
  vault over an area 160 ft. long by 66 ft. wide. Right up in the north
  of Germany, in Pomerania, are many fine examples in brick and
  sometimes of great size, such as those at Stralsund, Stettin,
  Stargard, Pasewalk, and in the island of Rugen. The _Marienkirche_ at
  Stralsund, owing to its massive construction and picturesque grouping,
  is an interesting example. Its western transept or narthex with tower
  in centre is a common type of the churches in Pomerania, and though
  very inferior in design is a version of those which in England are
  seen in Ely and Peterborough cathedrals.

  In the entrance gateways to the towns and in domestic architecture
  north Germany is very rich; the palace of the grand master of the
  Teutonic Order at Marienburg is a vast and imposing structure in brick
  (1276-1335), in which the chapter house of the grand master, with its
  fan-vaulted roof, resting on a single pillar of granite in the centre,
  and the entrance porch of the church richly carved in brick, are among
  the finest examples executed in that material.     (R. P. S.)


  ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC IN BELGIUM AND HOLLAND

  [Illustration: FIG. 49.--Plan of Cathedral at Tournai.]

  Of early Romanesque work neither Belgium nor Holland retains any
  examples; for with the exception of the small building at Nijmwegen
  built by Charlemagne, there are no churches prior to the 11th century,
  and at first the influence in Belgium would seem to have come from
  Lombardy, through the Rhine Provinces. As all her large churches are
  built in the centres of her most important towns, it is probable that
  the older examples were pulled down to make way for others more in
  accordance with the increasing wealth and population. In the 13th
  century they came under the influence of the great Gothic movement in
  France, and two or three of their cathedrals compare favourably with
  the French cathedrals. The finest example of earlier date is that of
  the cathedral of Tournai (fig. 49), the nave of which was built in the
  second half of the 11th century, to which a transept with north and
  south apses and aisles round them was added about the middle of the
  12th century. These latter features are contemporaneous with similar
  examples at Cologne, and the idea of the plan may have been taken from
  them; externally, however, they differ so widely that the design may
  be looked upon as an original conception, though the nave arcades,
  triforium storey, and clerestory resemble the contemporaneous work in
  Normandy. The original choir was pulled down in the 14th century, and
  a magnificent _chevet_ of the French type erected in its place. The
  grouping of the towers which flank the transept, with the central
  lantern, the apses, and lofty choir, is extremely fine (fig. 50). The
  sculptures on the west front, dating from the 12th to the 16th
  century, protected by a portico of the late 15th century, are of
  remarkable interest and in good preservation. They are in three tiers,
  the two lowest consisting of bas-reliefs, the upper tier with
  life-size figures in niches, resting on corbels. The Romanesque tower
  of the church of St Jacques in the same town, with angle turrets, is a
  picturesque and well-designed structure.

  Other early examples are those of St Bartholomew at Liége (A.D. 1015)
  and the churches at Roermonde and St Servais at Maastricht, both
  belonging to Holland. The latter is an extremely fine example, which
  recalls the work at Cologne, and in its great western narthex follows
  on the lines of the German churches at Gernrode, Corvey and Brunswick.

  Among other churches of later date are St Gudule at Brussels, with
  Gothic 13th century choir and a 14th century nave with great circular
  pillars, the west front of later date, approached by a lofty flight of
  steps, having a very fine effect; Ste Croix at Liége, with a western
  apse; St Martin at Ypres and St Bavon at Ghent, both with 13th-century
  choir and 14th-century nave; Tongres, 13th century with great circular
  pillars and an early Romanesque cloister; Notre Dame de Pamele at
  Oudenarde; and Notre Dame at Bruges, 14th century. Of 15th and 16th
  century work (for the Gothic style lasted without any trace of the
  Renaissance till the middle of the 16th century) are St Gommaire at
  Lierre (1425-1557); St Martin, Alost (1498), St Jacques, Antwerp; and
  St Martin and St Jacques, both at Liége. The largest in area, and in
  that sense the most important church in Belgium, is Notre Dame at
  Antwerp (misnamed the cathedral). It was begun in 1352, but not
  completed till the 16th century, so that it possesses many
  transitional features. It is one of the few churches with three aisles
  on each side of the nave, the outer aisle being nearly as wide as the
  nave, which is too narrow to have a fine effect. Only one of the two
  spires of the west front is built, perhaps to its advantage; the upper
  portion presents in its pierced stone spires one of those remarkable
  _tours-de-force_ of which masons are so proud, and having a simple
  substructure it gains by contrast with and is much superior to the
  spires of Cologne, Vienna and Ulm.

  [Illustration: FIG. 50.--Tournai Cathedral.]

  Among the most remarkable features in these Belgian churches are the
  rood screens, the earliest of which is in the church of St Peter at
  Louvain, dating from 1400, in rich Flamboyant Gothic, retaining all
  its statues. In the church at Dixmuiden, St Gommaire at Lierre (1534),
  and in Notre Dame, Walcourt (1531), are other examples all in perfect
  preservation; the last is said to have been given by the emperor
  Charles V., and in the same church is a lofty tabernacle in Flamboyant
  Gothic.

  Owing to the comparatively late date of many of the Belgian churches,
  they are all more or less unfinished, as the religious fervour of the
  citizens who built them would seem to have changed in favour of their
  town halls and civic buildings immediately connected with trade. The
  Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200-1334) with a frontage of 460 ft., three
  storeys high with a lofty central tower and a hall on the upper storey
  435 ft. long, one of the finest buildings of the period in Europe; Les
  Halles at Bruges, originally built as a cloth hall, also with a lofty
  central tower; and a simple example at Malines, are the earliest
  buildings of this type.

  There follow a series of magnificent town halls, of which that at
  Brussels is the largest, but the tower not being quite in the centre
  of its façade gives it a lopsided appearance. There is no tower to the
  town hall at Louvain (1448-1469), but this is compensated for by the
  angle turrets, and the design is far bolder. In both these examples
  the vertical lines are too strongly accentuated, and seeing that they
  are in two or three storeys, the latter should have been maintained in
  the design of the façades. In this respect the town hall of Oudenarde
  (1527-1535) is more truthful, and as a result is far superior to them;
  the tower also is in the centre of the principal front, which at all
  events is better than at Brussels, though as a matter of composition
  it would have been more effective and picturesque if it had been
  placed at one end of the façade. In the town hall at Mons there is no
  tower, but a fine upper storey with ten windows filled with good
  tracery. Of the town hall at Ghent only one half is Gothic
  (1480-1482), as it was not completed till a century later, and though
  overladen with Flamboyant ornament it has fine qualities in its
  design. Although but few examples still exist of the Gothic structures
  belonging to the various gilds, owing to their having been rebuilt in
  the Renaissance style, those of the Bateliers at Ghent (1531), and of
  the Fishmongers at Malines (1519), bear witness in the rich decoration
  to the wealth of these corporations.

  Holland is extremely poor in church architecture, but there are two
  examples which should be noted, at Utrecht and Bois-le-Duc ('s
  Hertogenbosch). Of the former only the choir exists. It is of great
  height (115 ft.), and belongs to the finest period of Gothic
  architecture (1251-1267). The nave was destroyed by a hurricane in
  1674, and so seriously damaged that it was all taken down (a wall
  being built to enclose the choir) and an open square left between it
  and the lofty west tower. The cathedral of St John at Bois-le-Duc,
  though founded in 1300, was rebuilt in the Flamboyant period
  (1419-1497). It is of great length (400 ft.) with a fine _chevet_, and
  possessed originally a magnificent rood screen in the early
  Renaissance style (1625); this seemed to the burghers to be out of
  keeping with the Gothic church, so it was taken down and sold to the
  South Kensington Museum, being replaced by a very poor example in
  Modern Gothic.

  There is only one Gothic town hall of importance in Holland, that at
  Middleburg (1468), a fine example, and quite equal to those in
  Belgium. The ground and upper floors are kept distinct, and as the
  wall surface of these lower storeys is in plain masonry, the traceried
  windows and the canopied niches (all of which retain their statues)
  gain by the contrast. There is a small picturesque specimen at Gouda,
  and at Leeuwarden in the house of correction (Kanselary) a rich
  example in brick and stone, with a remarkable stepped gable in the
  centre having statues on its steps.

  Both in Belgium and Holland there are numerous examples of domestic
  architecture in brick with quoins and tracery in stone, in both cases
  alternating with brick courses and arch voussoirs and with infinite
  variety of design.     (R. P. S.)


THE RENAISSANCE STYLE: INTRODUCTION

The causes which led to the evolution of the Renaissance style in Italy
in the 15th century were many and diverse. The principal impulse was
that derived from the revival of classical literature. Already in the
14th century the coming movement was showing itself in the works of the
painters and sculptors, especially the latter, owing to the influence of
the classic sculpture which abounded throughout Italy. Thus in the tomb
of St Dominic (1221) at Bologna, the pulpits of Pisa (1260) and Siena
(1268), and in the fountain of Perugia (1277-1280) by Niccola Pisano and
his son Giovanni, all the figures would seem to have been inspired in
their character by those found in Roman sarcophagi. A classic treatment
is noticeable in the doorway of the Baptistery of Florence by Andrea
Pisano (1330), probably influenced by Giotto, in whose paintings are
found the representation of imaginary buildings in which Gothic and
Classic details are mixed up together. The time for its full
development, however, did not come till the following century, when,
with the papal throne again firmly established under Martin V., the
amelioration of the city of Rome was commenced, and discoveries were
made which awakened an archaeological interest fostered by the Medici at
Florence, who not only became enthusiastic collectors of ancient works
of art, but promoted the study of the antique figure. In addition to the
acquisition of marbles and bronzes, ancient manuscripts of classic
writers were sought for and supplied by Greek exiles who seemed to have
foreseen the breaking up of the eastern empire; everything, therefore,
at the beginning of the 15th century fostered the spread of the new
movement. Accordingly, when a great architect like Brunelleschi, who for
fifteen years had been making a special study of the ancient monuments
in Rome and who possessed in addition great scientific knowledge,
brought forward his proposals for the completion of the cathedral built
by Arnolfo di Lapo, and showed how the existing substructure could be
covered over with a dome like the Pantheon at Rome, his designs were
accepted by the town council of Florence, and in 1420 he was entrusted
with the work. Subsequently he carried out other works, in which pure
classic architectural forms are the chief characteristics. There were,
however, other causes which not only promoted the encouragement of the
revival, but extended it to other countries, though at a later period;
the most important of these was the invention of printing (1453), which
in a sense revolutionized art, not so much in its enabling classical
literature to be more extensively studied and known, as in its taking
away to a certain extent from the painter and sculptor and indirectly
the architect one of their principal missions, so far as ecclesiastical
architecture is concerned. Henceforth these who had hitherto taught
their lessons in sculpture, painting, stained glass and fresco, could,
through the printed book, bring them more immediately before and
directly to mankind. Victor Hugo's pithy saying, "_ceci tuera cela; le
livre tuera l'église_," expressed not only the fall of architecture from
the position it occupied as the principal teacher, but to a certain
extent the change in the channel by which religious teachers and the
writers of the day, the poets and philosophers, could best make their
works known.

With the invention of printing came the partial cessation of fresco
painting, stained glass and sculpture, which subsequently came to be
regarded more as decorative adjuncts than as having educational
functions. But this transfer from the Church to the Book, the extinction
of the one by the other, led to another important change. Henceforth the
architect or master-mason, as he was then known, could no longer count
on the co-operation of the various craftsmen, men often of greater
culture than himself; and the individuality of the man, which has
sometimes been put forward as a gain to humanity, was a loss so far as
architecture is concerned, since it was scarcely possible that the
imagination and conceptions of a single individual, however brilliant
they might be, could ever reach to the high level of the joint product
of many minds, or that there could be the same natural expression in
what had hitherto been the traditional work of centuries.

In France the introduction of the Revival resulted at first in a
transitional period during which classic details gradually crept in,
displacing the Gothic. In Italy this does not seem to have been the case
to the same extent. It is true that in Florence and Venice, where an
independent style existed, the new buildings in their general principles
of design were, copied from the old, but with no mixture of details as
in France; in Brunelleschi's church, Santo Spirito at Florence, the
capitals and details are all pure Italian, as pure as if they had been
carried out in the 3rd or 4th century, the fact being that already
before the 15th century the craftsman's work was approaching the new
movement, and this was facilitated by the numerous remains still
existing of Roman architecture. In the four or five years Brunelleschi
spent in Rome, he had the opportunity of studying a far larger number of
Roman buildings than are preserved at the present day, so that the
purity of style in the work which he carried out in Florence was due to
his previous training; the same is found in Alberti's work, and with
these two great men leading the way it is not surprising that throughout
the earlier Renaissance period in Italy we find a classic perfection of
detail which it took half a century to develop in other countries.

It is difficult to say what might have been its ultimate development if
another discovery had not been made about 1452, that of the manuscript
of Vitruvius, a Roman architect who lived in the time of the emperor
Augustus; his work on architecture gives an admirable description of the
building materials employed in his day (_c_. 25 B.C.), and among other
subjects, a series of rules regulating the employment of the various
orders and their correct proportions. These rules were based on the
descriptions which Vitruvius had studied of Greek temples, but as he was
not acquainted with the examples quoted, never having been in Greece or
even in south Italy at Paestum, his knowledge was confined to the
architectural monuments then existing in Rome. Vitruvius's manuscript,
entitled _De re aedificatoria_, was illustrated by drawings, none of
which have however been preserved; when therefore in subsequent years
translations of the architectural portion of the manuscript were printed
and published by various Italian architects, among whom Vignola and
Palladio were the more important, they were accompanied by woodcuts
representing their interpretation of the lost illustrations, and thus
copybooks of the orders were published, with more or less fidelity to
those of existing Roman monuments, in which attempts were made to adhere
to the rules laid down by Vitruvius. In Rome and other parts of Italy,
where ancient monuments or portions of them still remained _in situ_,
architects could study their details and base their designs on them, but
in other countries they were bound to follow the copybook, and thus they
lost that originality and freedom of design which characterizes the
earlier work of the Renaissance.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that the publications of Vignola
and Palladio, based as they were on the remains of ancient Rome, then
much better preserved than at the present day, tended to maintain a high
standard in the employment of the Classic orders, with correct
proportions and details; so much so, that in referring to the influence
which those works exerted from the middle of the 16th century in France
and Spain, and during the 17th and 18th centuries in England and to a
certain extent in Spain, Germany and the Netherlands, it is generally
spoken of as the introduction of the pure Italian style. The tendency,
however, of such hard and fast rules leads eventually to an excess in
the opposite direction, and the works of Borromini in Italy and
Churriguera in Spain in the middle of the 17th century resulted in the
production of what is generally referred to as the Rococo style. This
style was fostered in France by the attempts to reproduce, externally
and in stone, ornamental decoration of a type which is only fitted for
internal work in stucco, and in Germany and the Netherlands by
reproductions of fantastic designs published in copybooks, which led to
the bastard style of the Zwinger palace in Dresden and the Dutch
architecture of the 18th century. Vignola's work on the five orders was
published in 1563, and Palladio's in 1570; they were preceded by a
publication of Serlio's in 1540, giving examples of various
architectural compositions, and to him is probably due the introduction
of the pure Italian style in the Louvre in 1546. They were followed by
other authors, as Scamozzi in Italy, Philibert de l'Orme in France, and,
at a later date, Sir William Chambers in England.

The term given to the earlier Renaissance or transition work in Italy is
the Cinque cento style, though sometimes that title is given to
buildings erected in the 16th century; in France it is known as the
François I. style, in Spain as the Plateresque or Silversmiths' style,
and in England as the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles.

There is still another and very important difference to be noted between
the styles of the middle ages and those of the Renaissance. Although the
names of the designers in the former are occasionally known and have
been handed down to us, they were only partially responsible, as the
works were carried out by other craftsmen working on traditional lines,
whereas in the latter they are of much more importance because of the
independent thought and study of the individual; and though to a certain
extent the development of each man's work may have been influenced by
others working in the same direction, his special object was to acquire
personal fame and by his own fancy or predilection to produce what he
conceived to be an original work peculiar to himself. Consequently in
our description the name of the architect who designed a particular
building, as well as the date of its erection, are necessarily given to
show the progress made In his studies or otherwise.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY

In the styles hitherto described a chronological order has been
followed, as far as possible, in order to show the gradual development
of the style; that course is adopted here to a certain extent, when
dealing with the Renaissance, though the introduction of the personal
element, to which reference has been made, brings in a change of some
importance. Henceforth the career of the individual has to be taken into
consideration, and at times it may be an advantage when describing a
building by an architect of eminence to mention other works by him, and
so depart from the chronological sequence.

  _Ecclesiastical._--The classic revival in Italy, though foreshadowed
  in other branches of art, as in painting and sculpture, and also to a
  marked degree in literature, was virtually introduced by one great
  man, Filippo Brunelleschi of Florence, who, trained as a sculptor, and
  disappointed with his want of success in the competition held in 1403
  for the bronze gates of the baptistery at Florence, determined to
  devote himself to architecture, possibly in the hope that he might
  some day be able to solve the great problem of erecting over the
  crossing of Arnolfo di Lapo's great cathedral the dome projected by
  the latter but never executed. Having spent some years in Rome,
  Brunelleschi returned to his native town about 1410, with a profound
  knowledge of classic architecture and of Roman construction, as shown
  in the Pantheon, the thermae, Colosseum and other remains, then in
  much better preservation than at the present day. Some years passed in
  the production of various schemes and in deliberations with the
  council of Florence, but eventually in 1420 the completion of the
  cathedral was entrusted to him, and he undertook to construct the dome
  without centreing, and to raise it on a drum so as to give it greater
  importance than Arnolfo had contemplated, as shown in the fresco of
  the Spanish chapel of Santa Maria Novella, Florence. The dome as
  projected by Brunelleschi was of considerable size, being 130 ft. in
  diameter and 135 ft. from the cornice to the eye of the dome,
  including the drum on which it was raised; it was octagonal in plan,
  and built with an inner and outer casing partly in brick, with angle
  and two intermediate ribs on each face, which were in stone. The
  construction of the dome was completed in 1434; but the lantern, built
  on the basis of the model he had made, was not carried out till 1462,
  some years after his death. Brunelleschi's other works in Florence
  consisted of the church of San Lorenzo, which he rebuilt in 1425 after
  a fire, and the church of Santo Spirito (1433), a very remarkable
  building, the design of which was based on the medieval basilicas of
  Rome, with such modifications in plan and section as his knowledge of
  ancient Roman work suggested. This church consists of nave, transept
  and choir, with aisles all round, the centre or crossing being covered
  with a dome on pendentives, which henceforth became the chief
  characteristic in all the Renaissance churches. Brunelleschi's
  earliest work was the Pazzi chapel, an original conception which is
  more remarkable for the pure classic feeling and refinement in all its
  details than for the design. The weakness of the archivolt round the
  central archway, and the mass of panelled wall carried on columns (far
  too slight in their dimensions), detract seriously from the effect of
  the façade; internally the structural function of the pilasters is not
  sufficiently maintained, and instead of a simple hemispherical dome,
  as in the cathedral, a quasi-Gothic type was built, with twelve ribs
  and scalloped cells, which destroys its dignity.

  Brunelleschi was followed by another great Florentine architect, Leon
  Battista Alberti, who was also a great mathematician and a scholar,
  and further promoted the study of classic architecture by writing a
  treatise in Latin, _Opus praestantissimum de re aedificatoria_, which
  was based partly on that of Vitruvius and was published in 1485, after
  his death, accompanied by illustrations. The first building with which
  he was connected was the church of San Francesco at Rimini, to which
  in 1440 he added the front. In this he was evidently inspired by the
  Roman triumphal arch in that city, and his interpretation of it, to
  meet the requirements in its façade which were imposed upon him by the
  existing nave, was admirable. Unfortunately the principal front was
  never completed, but on the south side he designed a series of
  recesses to hold the sarcophagi containing the remains of the friends
  of his client, Sigismondo Malatesta, the effect of which is simple and
  grand. Alberti's largest work, the church of Sant' Andrea at Mantua
  (1472), in which the nave, transept and choir are all covered with
  barrel vaults, recalls the vaulted corridors of the Colosseum. There
  are no aisles, but a series of rectangular chapels on each side, the
  division walls of which act as buttresses to resist the thrust of the
  great vault. The lofty arched openings to the chapels, separated by
  Corinthian pilasters with entablature supporting the coffered vault
  and a central dome (since rebuilt), complete the structure, which has
  served since as the model for all the Renaissance churches of the same
  type. The principal front is not satisfactory, as it takes no
  cognizance of the width of the nave, and the side doors have no use or
  meaning; here Alberti seems to have been led astray in his triumphal
  arch treatment, which is inferior to his scheme for the church at
  Rimini.

  In 1462 Michelozzo, another Florentine architect, built the chapel of
  St Peter at the east end of the church of Sant' Eustorgio, Milan.
  Externally it has little attraction, but internally the dome, with its
  magnificent frieze of winged angels in relief with a painted
  background of arcades and other accessories, is the most beautiful
  composition of the Renaissance. Michelozzo's first work was the
  Dominican monastery and church of San Marco at Florence (1439-1452),
  but he is better known for his secular work, to which we shall return.

  The next great architect chronologically is Bramante d' Urbino, to
  whom was entrusted the commencement of the church of St Peter at Rome.
  His first important work was the church of Santa Maria della
  Consolazione at Todi (1472), which consists of a square nave with
  immense semicircular apses, one on each side. The nave is covered with
  a dome raised on a drum, and carried on pendentives, and the apses
  with hemispherical vaults butt against the nave walls and form
  externally a very fine group. Bramante was the architect of the chapel
  in the cloisters of San Pietro-in-Montorio, Rome (1472), a small
  circular building covered with a dome and surrounded with a peristyle
  of columns of the Doric order; and of the dome of the church of Santa
  Maria delle Grazie in Milan, as also of the three apses, which are
  decorated with pilasters and baluster shafts with circular medallions
  enclosing busts, all in terra cotta. Before passing to his work at St
  Peter's there are some other early churches we must notice. The
  Certosa, near Pavia, was begun in 1396, and in one sense suggests the
  revival of classic architecture, in that all its arches have
  semicircular heads. The magnificent façade of the church was commenced
  in 1473 from the designs of Borgognone, a Milanese architect: it is
  one of the few examples in Italy of large size in which the transition
  is noticeable, for although there are no Gothic details the design
  follows that of the middle ages, and instead of great pilasters of the
  Corinthian order, buttresses with niches containing statues divide the
  façade and accentuate the internal divisions of the church; the open
  galleries above the entrance doorway crossing the upper storey of the
  central portion are all derived from well-known Lombardic features.
  The upper part of the façade is inferior to the lower, Borgognone's
  design having been departed from. The enrichment of the whole front,
  from the lower plinth to the string course under the first gallery,
  with bas-reliefs, panelled pilasters, niches, medallions and other
  decorative accessories, all in white marble, so completely covers the
  whole surface that scarcely any portion is left plain, which to a
  certain extent detracts from its effect as a whole; but there is an
  endless variety of design, and the baluster or candelabrum shafts
  dividing the windows and the friezes and cresting above their
  cornices, are of great beauty. The circular rose window above, with
  its enclosing frontispiece of later date, shows the coming influence
  of the later Italian style. The cloisters adjoining are surrounded
  with a light arcade, with enrichments in the spandrils and frieze, all
  in terra cotta.

  The cathedral of Como is also a transitional example, where buttresses
  are employed all round the church, and it is only in the finials which
  surmount them, the great projecting cornice which crowns the
  structure, and the doorways and windows, that we find classical
  details; the doorways recall the porches of the Lombard churches, and
  are of great beauty in design, the south doorway being said to be by
  Bramante. Another example, remarkable for its elaborately carved front
  and porch, is the church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli at Brescia
  (1487-1490) by Ludovici Beretta, which both externally and internally
  is one of the richest specimens of the early Italian Renaissance. The
  church dedicated to Santa Maria dei Miracoli in Venice (1481-1489), by
  Pietro Lombardo, is another transitional example in which the
  Byzantine influence of St Mark's is recognizable in the semicircular
  pediments of its façade and of the exterior of the chancel, and
  Lombardic influence in its external decorations with pilaster strips
  and blind arcades. The interior is one of the gems of the Renaissance,
  on account of its splendid decoration with marble linings and fine
  cinque-cento carving. Similar semicircular pediments are found in the
  façade of the church of San Zaccharia at Venice (1515), but are purely
  decorative because the roof behind is not semicircular like that of
  the Miracoli. The decoration of the main front, here all in marble, is
  of an entirely different design, and is subdivided into a series of
  storeys, the lower panelled, the first storey with arcades and the
  upper ones with pilasters. An earlier example (1461) in San Bernardino
  at Perugia is of a far higher standard, and its enrichment with
  bas-reliefs by the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio (c. 1418-c.
  1490) gives it the first place for its conception and execution. Among
  others, the church of Spirito Santo, Bologna, in terra cotta; the
  church of Santa Giustina, Padua (1532); the sacristy of San Satiro,
  Milan (1479), by Bramante; and the sacristy of the church of Santo
  Spirito, Florence (1489-1496), by Sangallo, are all interesting
  examples of the early Renaissance in Italy.

  [Illustration: FIG. 51.--Plan of St Peter's at Rome.]

  In 1505, on the advice of Michelangelo, Bramante was instructed to
  prepare designs for a new church in Rome dedicated to St Peter, to
  take the place of the early basilica, which, built in haste, began to
  show serious signs of failure. Already, fifty years earlier, Pope
  Nicholas V. had commenced a new building, the erection of which was
  stopped by his death in 1454. The scheme was revived by Julius II.,
  and the foundation stone of the new structure was laid in 1506. On
  Bramante's death in 1514, Raphael, Peruzzi and Sangallo were
  successively appointed, and the last named prepared a new design,
  which, however, was not carried out, as he found it necessary first to
  strengthen the piers of the dome provided by Bramante and to remedy
  the defects of his successors. In 1546 Michelangelo, then seventy-two
  years of age, was entrusted with the continuance of the work, and he
  made radical changes, chiefly in the design of the dome. Comparison of
  the plans of Bramante and Sangallo with that actually carried out by
  Michelangelo shows that he not only increased the size of the piers to
  carry his dome, but the outer walls of the north, south and west
  apses, and omitted the aisles which surrounded the latter (fig. 51).
  He would seem to have availed himself of the foundation walls already
  built and of Bramante's piers to carry the dome, which had been raised
  up to the cornice, but otherwise the architectural features of the
  whole building externally and internally were carried out from
  Michelangelo's own designs. Sangallo had suggested for the exterior a
  series of superimposed orders with three storeys; Michelangelo elected
  to have one order only with an attic storey. The building gained
  thereby in dignity, but it lost in scale, for the huge pilasters of
  the Corinthian order (87 ft. high) look considerably smaller, in spite
  of the two storeys of windows between them. These windows also, which
  from their design are apparently about 10 to 12 ft. high, actually
  measure 20 ft. in height. The same defect exists in the interior,
  where the Corinthian order, over 100 ft. in height to the top of the
  cornice (Plate III., fig. 69), calls for a similar increase in the
  dimensions of all the sculptured decorations; the figures in the
  spandrils being 20 ft. high, and the cherubs supporting the holy water
  spouts 10 ft. Otherwise the scheme realizes the conception which
  Bramante proposed from the first, viz. to raise the dome of the
  Pantheon on the top of the basilica of Constantine; the latter being
  represented by the magnificent barrel vault (75 ft. in span) of the
  nave, transepts and choir; the former by the great hemispherical dome,
  140 ft. in diameter, which, including the drum, is 162 ft. from the
  top of the cornice above the pendentives to the soffit of the dome.
  The dome is built in two shells with connecting ribs on the same
  principle as Brunelleschi's dome in Florence, and was nearly completed
  before Michelangelo's death in 1563, and the lantern in 1590 from the
  model which he had made. In 1605 the east end of the old basilica was
  taken down, and three more bays were added, thus converting the Greek
  cross of Michelangelo's design into the Latin cross originally
  conceived by Bramante. The nave and the eastern vestibule were
  completed in 1620, and the great semicircular portico was added by
  Bernini in 1667. The immense height of the east façade, and its
  prolongation in front of Michelangelo's chief feature, the dome, hides
  the design of a great portion of the latter, so that it can only be
  seen either from a great distance (Plate III., fig. 68), or from
  behind the western apse, where the relative grouping with the great
  apses can be properly appreciated. A second well-known work by
  Michelangelo is the new sacristy of the church of San Lorenzo,
  Florence (1523-1529), designed to contain the monuments of Giuliano
  and Lorenzo de' Medici, the architectural design of which is poor.

  Antonio di Sangallo was the architect of the church of San Biagio at
  Montepulciano (1518), with a cruciform plan, and dome in the centre,
  and a campanile at the south-west angle somewhat similar to those of
  Wren in London.

  The church of Santa Maria-di-Carignano (1552) at Genoa, by Galeazzo
  Alessi, is finely situated but unsatisfactory in its design, the lower
  part being stunted in its proportions and its order to a different
  scale from that in the campanile towers and the dome. The most
  beautiful interior is that of the Annunziata in the same town, by
  Giacomo della Porta (1587); the arches of its nave arcade are carried
  on Corinthian columns of marble, of fine proportion, and the nave is
  covered with a barrel vault with penetrations admitting the light from
  clerestory windows. The churches of San Giorgio Maggiore (1556-1579),
  San Francesco della Vigna (1562), and II Redentore (1577), all in
  Venice, were designed by Palladio, the interior of the latter being
  the finest; the façade of the first named is the best-proportioned,
  but whether its design is due to Palladio, or to Scamozzi, who built
  it in 1610, is not known. A far finer church in its picturesque
  grouping and the originality of its design is that of Santa Maria
  della Salute on the Grand Canal (1631), by Baldassare Longhena; the
  church is octagonal on plan, with aisles round, giving access to six
  recesses with altars and to an important eastern chapel with central
  dome. The central octagon is covered with a lofty dome with immense
  corbel buttresses of vigorous and fine design. The entrance portal of
  the west front is perhaps the best example of the period in Italy.
  Longhena also designed the Santa Maria degli Scalzi (1680), completed
  by Sardi in 1689, the latter being responsible for the heavy front of
  San Salvatore (1663), as also of the rich but somewhat debased church,
  in the Jesuit style, Santa Maria Zobenigo (1680-1683).

  _Secular Architecture._--In the application of the leading features of
  classical architectural design to palaces and mansions, the Italians
  had a much easier field on which to exercise their originality, as the
  requirements were very different from those which obtained in the
  middle ages. Moreover, the classic style lent itself more readily to
  the horizontal lines given by string courses, cornices and ranges of
  windows, which naturally exist in dwelling-houses on account of the
  various storeys. As in ecclesiastical, so in secular architecture, the
  first introduction of the Revival takes place in Florence, which was
  then the principal art centre of Italy, and the earliest examples are
  in a sense transitional, in that they are based on the earlier
  medieval work. As in the Palazzo Vecchio (1298) in Florence, and the
  Ricciarelli palace at Volterra (c. 1320), the rusticated masonry which
  gives them so fine a character forms the chief characteristic of the
  Riccardi and Strozzi palaces, the only changes being the substitution
  of a classic cornice of considerable projection in the place of the
  machicolations of the Palazzo Vecchio, and the employment of circular
  arches in the windows in the place of the pointed and curved arches.

  The earliest example, the Riccardi palace (1430), by Michelozzo (fig.
  52), built for Cosimo de' Medici, is certainly the finest, owing
  partly to its size but more especially to the magnificent bossed and
  rusticated masonry of the ground storey and the bold projecting
  cornice, which crowns so admirably the whole structure. The lower two
  storeys of the main front of the Pitti palace were built by
  Brunelleschi in 1435, the return wings and court not being carried out
  till after 1550 from the designs of Ammanati; compared with the other
  Tuscan palaces the cornice is extremely poor and the whole front too
  monotonous. The beautiful court of the Palazzo Vecchio was
  reconstructed and decorated by Michelozzo in 1434. The Strozzi palace
  (1489), by Benedetto da Maiano and S. Pollajuolo, (Cronaca), comes
  next to the Riccardi as regards general design, but in comparison with
  it the windows are too small, and the want of a much bolder
  rustication, as provided in the latter, is much felt. Other examples
  of the same type are the Gondi (1481) and the Antinori palaces, by G.
  di Sangallo, and the Casa Larderel, all in Florence; the Spanochi
  (1470) and the Piccolomini (1460) palaces in Siena, and the
  Piccolomini palace (1490) in Pienza. In the Guadagni palace at
  Florence, by S. Pollajuolo, there is a third storey, consisting of an
  open gallery, which gives the depth of shadow otherwise afforded by
  the projecting cornice. In the Ruccellai palace (1460), by Alberti,
  the design is spoilt by the introduction of the classic pilasters at
  regular intervals on each storey, which suggest no structural object
  and have too little projection to give any effect of light and shade,
  so that it is only on account of the purity of their details that they
  are worth notice. The Pandolphini palace, the design of which is
  attributed to Raphael, carried out after his death by Sangallo, is a
  simple and unpretentious building of fine proportions: the Pall Mall
  façade of Sir Charles Barry's Travellers' Club in London is a
  reproduction of this palace. The Bartolini palace (1520), by Baccio d'
  Agnolo, is said to have been the first astylar example in which the
  Classic orders were employed only to decorate the entrance door and
  windows, but this had already been done in 1488 in the Scuola di San
  Marco in Venice.

  Throughout the greater part of the 15th century, the Venetian Gothic
  style still held its own in the palaces of Venice, so that it is only
  towards the close of the century we find the first actual results of
  the Classic Revival. The earlier palaces may be looked upon as
  transitional work, in which Gothic principles rule the design while
  the details are borrowed from classic sources. The intimate
  acquaintance with the proportions of the Classic orders and their
  ornamental detail shows that the designers of the earliest Renaissance
  palaces must have acquired their knowledge outside Venice. Among these
  designers we find the names of members of the Lombardi family (which,
  as the name suggests, come from Lombardy), who for three or four
  generations, either as architects or sculptors, would seem to have
  been the chief founders of the Renaissance style in Venice. One of
  these, Pietro Lombardo, has already been referred to as the designer
  of the church of the Miracoli, and to him is due the
  Vendramini-Calerghi palace on the Grand Canal (Plate IV., fig. 71),
  built in 1481, which in some respects is the finest example in Venice.
  It should be observed that all these palaces on the Grand Canal have
  an architectural frontage only, the flanks being built in plain
  masonry or brick stuccoed over, and with very poor, if any, dressings
  to the windows. This is well exemplified in the Vendramini palace,
  where there are gardens on each side, showing the total want of
  correlation between the rich architectural front and the poverty of
  the flanks.

  [Illustration: FIG. 52.--Riccardi Palace, Florence.

  From a photo by Almari.]

  In a still earlier example, the Dario palace, one of the flanks
  borders on a side canal, so that its brick construction, partly
  covered with stucco, contrasts strangely with the rich marbles
  encrusting the main front. In the Dario palace the transition from
  Gothic to Renaissance is more clearly seen, as the only changes made
  are the substitution of circular window-heads for the Ogee Venetian
  arch, the projecting cornice with modillions, and more or less pure
  classic details. In the Vendramini palace the employment of the
  orders, to break up or subdivide the wall surface, has become a
  recognized treatment, based on the theatre of Marcellus and the
  Colosseum at Rome. On the ground storey there are panelled pilasters
  only, but on the first and second storeys three-quarter detached
  columns of the Corinthian order are employed, and the entablature is
  doubled in height with a bold projecting cornice, so as to crown
  properly the whole building.

  The semicircular-headed windows of the palace are filled with moulded
  tracery carried on columns in the centre of each, which must be looked
  upon as the classic version of the arcade of the Ducal palace. This
  feature is found in other early Renaissance work in Venice, as in the
  Scuola de San Rocco (1517), and the Cornaro Spinelli palace (1480). In
  the latter, probably also by Pietro Lombardo, there are pilasters only
  on the groins of the main front, and the window-heads are enclosed in
  square-headed frames. In the Scuola de San Marco (1488), by Lombardo,
  we find another type of window, single and lofty, with pilaster strips
  each side carrying an entablature with pediment. The same window
  decoration is found on the south and west fronts of the court of the
  Ducal palace and the external south front, and also in the Camerlenghi
  palace (1525), by Bergamasco and in other examples of early
  16th-century work. In the Scuola de San Rocco the columnar decoration
  assumes much greater importance, and, in imitation of the triumphal
  arches of Septimus Severus and Constantine in Rome, the column is
  completely detached, with a wall-respond behind. Among other examples
  to be noted are the Cornaro-della-Grande palace (1532), by Sansovino,
  which is very inferior to his other work in Venice; the Grimani palace
  (1554), by San Michele (who also designed the fortifications of the
  Lido); the Zecca or mint (1537), the small loggetta (1540) at the foot
  of the campanile of St Mark's and now destroyed, and the Procuratie
  Nuove (completed by Scamozzi in 1584), all by Sansovino; the Balbi
  palace (1582), by Vittoria; and the Ponte Rialto (1588), by Antonio da
  Ponte. Sansovino's greatest work in Venice was the library of St
  Mark's, which was commenced in 1531; in this he has shown not only
  remarkable powers of design but great boldness in the projection of
  his columns, cornices and other architectural features. The upper
  frieze has been increased in height, so as to admit of the
  introduction of small windows to light an upper storey, and this gives
  much greater importance and dignity to the entablature crowning the
  whole structure. Two of the most imposing palaces on the Grand Canal,
  but of later date, are the Pesaro (1679) and the Rezzonico (1680),
  both by Longhena, the architect of the Salute church. The former is
  too much overcharged with ornament, but it has one advantage, the
  classic superimposed orders of the main front being repeated on the
  flank overlooking the side canal, with pilasters substituted for the
  detached columns of the main front. The Rezzonico palace is much
  quieter in design, and finer in its proportions, but even there the
  cherubs in the spandrils are too pronounced in their relief.

  In Rome there are no important examples of the 15th century, with the
  exception of the so-called "Venetian palace," which still retains
  externally the features of the feudal castle, such as machicolations,
  small windows and rusticated masonry. This was owing probably to the
  comparative poverty of the city, which had to recover from the
  disasters of the 14th century. The earliest example of the Renaissance
  is that of the Cancellaria palace (1495-1505), by Bramante, the
  architect of the church at Todi; this was followed by a second and
  less important example, the Giraud or Torlonia palace (1506). The
  former is an immense block, 300 ft. long and 76 ft. high, in three
  storeys, with coursed masonry and slightly bevelled joints, the upper
  two storeys decorated with Corinthian pilasters of slight projection
  and crowned with a poor cornice, so that its general effect is very
  monotonous, and the design is only relieved by the purity of its
  details, such as those of the window and balcony on the return flank.
  In 1506 Bramante was instructed to carry out the court of the Vatican,
  of which the great hemicycle at one end, designed in imitation of
  similar features in the Roman thermae, is an extremely fine example;
  to what extent he was responsible for the court of the Loggie,
  decorated by Raphael, is not known. The Villa Farnesina (1506), best
  known for its fresco decorations by Raphael and his pupils; the Ossoli
  palace (1525); and the Massimi palace (1532-1536), with magnificent
  interiors, were all built by Baldassare Peruzzi. The finest example in
  Rome is the Farnese palace, commenced in 1530 from the designs of
  Antonio di Sangallo; the design is astylar, as the employment of the
  orders is confined to the window dressings, the angles of the front
  having rusticated quoins; the upper storey, with the magnificent
  cornice which crowns the whole building, was designed by Michelangelo,
  and in the upper storey he introduced a feature borrowed from the
  Roman thermae, brackets supporting the three-quarter detached columns
  flanking the windows. The brilliance of the design is not confined to
  the exterior, and the entrance vestibule and the great central court
  are the finest examples in Rome. Here the upper storey added by
  Michelangelo is inferior to the two lower storeys by Sangallo.

  The museum in the Capitol at Rome, by Michelangelo (1546), is one of
  those examples in which the principles of design are violated by the
  suppression of the horizontal divisions of the storeys which it should
  have been an object to emphasize. By carrying immense Corinthian
  pilasters, through the ground and first storeys, Michelangelo, it is
  true, obtained the entablature of the order as the chief crowning
  feature, and so far the result is a success, but in other hands it led
  to the decadence of the style. Among other examples in Rome which
  should be mentioned are the Villa Madama by Giulio Romano (1524); the
  Nicolini palace (1526) by Giacomo Sansovino; the Villa Medici (1540)
  by Annibale Lippi; the Chigi palace (1562) by G. de la Porta; the
  Spada palace (1564) by Mazzoni; the Quirinal palace (1574) by Fontana
  (the architect who raised the obelisk in the Piazza di San Pietro);
  and the Borghese palace (1590) by Martino Lunghi.

  We now return to about the middle of the 16th century, to the period
  when the great architects Barozzi da Vignola and Andrea Palladio of
  Vicenza commenced their career, and by their works and publications
  exercised a great and important influence on European architecture.

  The villa of Pope Julius (1550), and the Costa palace, Rome, are good
  examples of Vignola's style, always very pure and of good proportions,
  but his principal work was that of the Caprarola palace (1555-1559),
  about 30 m. from Rome, which he built for the cardinal Alessandro
  Farnese. The plan is pentagonal with a central circular court, and it
  is raised on a lofty terrace; the palace is in two storeys with
  rusticated quoins to the angle wings, and the Doric and Ionic orders,
  superimposed, separating arcades on the lower storeys and windows on
  the upper. The arcade of the central court is of admirable proportions
  and detail, second only to that of the Farnese palace.

  Palladio in his earlier career measured and drew many of the remains
  of ancient Rome, and more particularly the thermae (the drawings of
  which are in the Burlington-Devonshire Collection), but he does not
  seem to have carried out any buildings there. His most important work,
  and the one which established his reputation, is that known as the
  basilica at Vicenza (1545-1549), which he enclosed with an arcaded
  loggia in two storeys of fine design and proportion, and extremely
  vigorous in its details. He built a large number of palaces in his
  native town, among which the Tiene (1550) and the Colleone Porto are
  the simplest and best, the latter being the model on which the front
  of Old Burlington House (London) was rebuilt in 1716. In the
  Valmarana, the Consiglio and the Casa del Diavolo he departed from his
  principles, in carrying the Corinthian pilasters through two floors,
  and by returning the cornice round the order he destroyed its value as
  a crowning feature. Among other works of his are the Chiericate
  (1560), Trissino (1582) and Barbarano (1570) palaces; the Olympic
  theatre (1580), which was completed after his death; and the Rotonda
  Capra near Vicenza, reproduced by Lord Burlington at Chiswick.

  Though he laid down no rules for the guidance of others, the works of
  San Michele are superior to those of Palladio, with the exception,
  perhaps, of the basilica at Vicenza and the library at Venice. In the
  Bevilacqua palace (1527), at Verona, there is far greater variety of
  design than in Palladio's work, and the Pompei palace (1530) and the
  two gateways at Verona (1533 and 1552) are all bold and simple
  designs. In the same town is an extremely beautiful example of the
  early Renaissance, the Loggia del Consiglio (1476) by Fra Giocondo; a
  similar example with open gallery on the ground storey exists at
  Padua, where there is also the Giustiniani palace (1524) by
  Falconetto, an interesting example of a master not much known. The
  town hall of Brescia (1492) was built from the designs of Tommaso
  Formentone, who employed for the carving of the medallions on the
  lower storey, and the pilasters with their capitals and the friezes,
  various artists of high merit, so that the building takes its rank as
  one of the finest in north Italy, but independently of their
  collaboration the design of the first floor is in design and execution
  equal to Greek work. The upper storey and its circular windows are
  said to have been added by Palladio, and they are so commonplace and
  out of scale that by contrast they increase the artistic value of
  Formentone's work.

  The so-called Palazzo de' Diamanti at Ferrara, built in 1493 for
  Sigismondo d'Este, is decorated externally with a peculiar kind of
  rustication, in which the square face of the stones is bevelled
  towards the centre in imitation of diamond facets: the quoins of the
  palace have panelled pilasters richly carved, and similar pilasters
  flank the entrance door; the windows, with simple architrave mouldings
  and cornices on ground storey and pediments on the first storey,
  constitute the only architectural features of a novel treatment.

  At Bologna there are two or three palaces of interest,--the Bevilacqua
  by Nardi (1484), chiefly remarkable for its central court surrounded
  with arcades, there being two arches on the upper storey to one on the
  lower, which presents a pleasant contrast and gives scale to the
  latter; the Fava palace (1484), in which on one side of the court are
  elaborately carved corbels carrying arches supporting an upper wall;
  and the Albergati palace (1521), by Peruzzi, in which the
  architectural decoration is confined to the entrance doorway windows
  flanked with pilasters and cornices in pediments and the entablatures
  of the ground and upper storeys, all the features being in stone on a
  background of simple brick construction. The Casa Tacconi is similarly
  treated. Many of the streets in Bologna have arcades on which the
  upper part of the house is built, and there is an endless variety in
  the capitals of these arcades.

  If the palaces of Genoa are disappointing as regards their external
  design, this is in some measure compensated for by the magnificence of
  their entrance vestibules, which (with the staircases and the arcades
  in the courts beyond) are built in white marble, and have probably
  suggested the title of the "marble palaces of Genoa." Many of these
  palaces are situated in narrow streets, so that no general view can be
  obtained of them, which may account for their exterior being erected
  in inferior materials with stucco facing. The ground storey of the
  palaces is almost always raised about 6 to 8 ft. above the street
  level, so that the first flight of steps leading up to the court
  forms a prominent feature in every palace; the ceilings of the
  entrance vestibule are also mostly decorated with arabesque work in
  stucco, or with painted devices, &c. The palaces in the town are
  lofty, and as a rule crowned with fine cornices, and there are no
  examples of pilasters being carried through the floors; the palaces
  and villas in the vicinity of Genoa are of less height, and owe much
  of their magnificence to the terraces on which they are erected. They
  have no special qualities except in slight variations of the external
  wall surface decoration, consisting of the applied orders on the
  several storeys. Among the best examples are the Palazzo Cataldi,
  formerly Palazzo Carega (1560), in which there are no pilasters, but
  rusticated quoins at the angles and windows with moulded dressings and
  pediments. The entrance vestibules of the Durazzo-Pallavicini, Rosso
  (1558) and Balbi (1610) palaces are in each case their finest
  features. The Pallavicini palace, and the Pallavicini, Spinola,
  Giustiniani and Durazzo villas, are all fairly well designed and in
  good proportions, but with no original treatment. Two of the palaces
  are flanked by open loggias with arcades, from which fine views are
  obtained, giving them a special character; that of the Durazzo palace
  being on the first floor, and of the Doria Tursi on the ground storey.
  The University (1623) and the Ducal palaces have very magnificent
  entrance vestibules, the former with lions on the lower ramp of the
  staircase.

  Many of the finest palaces at Genoa are by Galeazzo Alessi, but in
  none of them has he approached the design of the Marino or municipal
  palace at Milan, in which he produced a remarkable work; the internal
  courtyard surrounded with arcades carried on coupled columns is an
  original combination which is not excelled in any other court in
  Italy, and the exterior façades are very fine.

  The internal courtyard of the hospital at Milan (243 ft. by 220 ft.),
  with an arcade in two storeys, was designed by Bramante and begun in
  1457; only one side was completed by him, but in 1621, in consequence
  of a large benefaction, the remainder was completed by Ricchini
  according to the original design; the proportions of the arcade are
  extremely pleasing, and it forms now one of the chief monuments of the
  town. Ricchini was the architect of the Litta palace, one of the
  largest in Milan.

  There still remains to be mentioned one of the early examples of the
  Renaissance, the triumphal arch which was erected in 1470 at Naples to
  commemorate the entry of Alphonso of Aragon into the town. It is built
  against the walls of the old castle in four storeys, and connected
  with bas-reliefs and statues. The largest palace in Italy, that of the
  Caserta at Naples, with a frontage of 766 ft., built in 1752 by
  Vanvitelli, is one of the most monotonous designs, rivalled in that
  respect only by the Escurial in Spain.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN FRANCE

The classical revival of the 15th century in Italy was too important a
movement to have remained long without its influence extending to other
countries. In France this was accelerated by the campaigns of Charles
VIII., Louis XII. and Francis I., which led to the revelation of the
artistic treasures in Italy; the result being the importation of great
numbers of Italian craftsmen, who would seem to have been employed in
the carving of decorative architectural accessories, such as the panels
and capitals of pilasters, niches and canopies, corbels, friezes, &c.,
either in tombs, as for instance in those of Charles of Anjou at Le Mans
(1472) and at Solesmes (1498), of Francis, duke of Brittany (1501), and
of the children of Charles VIII. (1506) at Tours, and of Cardinal
d'Amboise in Rouen cathedral, the figures in all these cases being
carved by French sculptors. They were also employed in architectural
buildings, where the design and execution were by French master-masons,
and the Italians were called in to carve the details, as in the choir
screens of Chartres, Albi and Limoges cathedrals, the portal of St.
Michel at Dijon, the eastern chapels of St Pierre at Caen, and numerous
other churches throughout France; or for mansions like the Hôtel
d'Alluye at Blois, the Hôtel d'Allemand at Bourges, and the châteaux of
Meillant (1503), Châteaudun and Nantouillet (1519). The great centre of
the artistic regeneration was at first at Tours, so that in Touraine,
and generally on the borders of the Loire and the Cher at Amboise,
Blois, Gaillon, Chenonceaux, Azay-le-Rideau and Chambord, are found the
principal examples; later, Francis I. transferred the court to Paris,
and the château of Madrid, and the palaces of Fontainebleau, St
Germain-en-Laye, and the Louvre, follow the change. In all these
châteaux the Italian craftsman would seem to have been under the
direction of the master-mason or architect, because the whole scheme of
the design and its execution is French, and only the decoration Italian.
In cases where the Italian was not called in, the Gothic flamboyant
style flourishes in full vigour with no suggestion of foreign influence,
as in the palais de justice at Rouen, the church of Brou (Ain),
1505-1532, the Hôtel de Cluny, Paris, and the rood-screen of the church
of the Madeleine at Troyes (1531).

Between the last phase of Flamboyant Gothic and the introduction of the
pure Italian Revival there existed a transitional period, known
generally as the "Francis I. style," which may be subdivided under three
heads:--the Valois period, comprising the reigns of Charles VIII. and
Louis XII. (1483-1515); the Francis I. period (1515-1547); and the Henry
II. and Catherine de' Medici period (1547-1589). The first two are
characterized by the lofty roofs, dormers and chimneys, by circular or
square towers at the angles of the main building with decorative
machicolations and hourds, by buttresses set anglewise, which run up
into the cornice, and square-headed windows with mullions and transoms.
In the second period the machicolations are converted into corbels
carrying semicircular arcaded niches in which shells are carved; the
buttresses become pilasters with Renaissance capitals; and the Gothic
detail, which in the first period is mixed up with the Renaissance,
disappears altogether. In the third period Italian design begins to
exert its influence in the regular interspacing of the pilasters or
columns with due proportion of height to diameter, in the completion of
the order with the regular entablature, and its employment generally in
a more structural manner than in the earlier work.

  The two first periods are well represented in the château of Blois,
  where, in the east wing built by Louis XII., square-headed windows
  alternate with three central arches, the buttresses are set anglewise
  running into the cornice, and pillars and angle shafts are carved with
  chevrons, spiral flirtings, or cinque-cento arabesque; the cornices of
  the towers containing staircases project and are carried on arched
  niches supported on corbels (the new interpretation of the
  machicolations of the feudal castle); above the cornice is a
  balustrade with pierced flamboyant tracery, and the dormer windows
  retain their Gothic detail. In the north wing of Francis I. all these
  Gothic ornamental details disappear, and are replaced by the
  Renaissance. Panels and pilasters take the place of the
  buttresses--the panels sometimes enriched with cinque-cento arabesque;
  shells are carved in the arched niches of the cornice, and modillions
  and dentil courses are introduced; the balustrade is pierced with
  flowing Renaissance foliage interspersed with the salamanders and
  coronets; the same high roofs are maintained, but the dormer windows
  and chimneys, still Gothic in design, are entirely clothed with
  Renaissance detail.

  The finest feature of the façade of this north wing, facing the court,
  is the magnificent polygonal staircase tower in its centre (Plate
  VIII., fig. 84); four great piers rise from ground to cornice, between
  which the rising balustrade is fitted; the whole feature Gothic in
  design, but Renaissance in all its details. The splendid carving of
  the panels of the piers and the niches with their canopies was
  probably done by Italian artists. The figures in these niches are said
  to be by Jean Goujon. The great dormers and chimneys have not the
  refinement in their design which characterizes the lower portion, and
  may be of later date. The north front of the château is raised on the
  foundation walls of the old castle, part of which is encased in it,
  and this may account for the slight irregularities in the widths of
  the bays. The design differs from that of the south front, the windows
  all being recessed behind three-centre arched openings; the open
  loggia at the top, which is admirable in effect, is a subsequent
  alteration.

  Before passing to the Louvre and Tuileries, representing the third
  period, we must refer to some other important early châteaux and
  buildings. Some of these, such as the châteaux of Madrid and Gaillon,
  are known chiefly from du Cerceau's work, as they were destroyed at
  the Revolution. Of the latter building, the entrance gateway is still
  _in situ_; there are some portions in the court of the École des
  Beaux-Arts at Paris, consisting of a second entrance gateway, a
  portico and some large panels. The gateway shows a singular mixture of
  Gothic and Renaissance; the centre portion, with the gateway and great
  niche over, is debased classic, the side portions retaining the
  buttresses, mouldings, panels and other features belonging to the
  latest phase of Flamboyant Gothic.

  Of buildings still existing, the hôtel de ville of Orleans (1497) is a
  good example of early transition work, in which Gothic and Renaissance
  work is intermingled, and it is interesting to compare it with the
  hôtel de ville at Beaugency, built by the same architect, Viart, some
  twenty-five years later. There is the same principle in design, much
  improved in the later example, but all the Gothic details have
  disappeared.

  In the château of Chenonceaux (1515-1524) we find a compromise between
  the two styles; Gothic corbels, piers and three-centre arches are
  employed, varied with debased classic mouldings, shells and capitals;
  here, as at Azay-le-Rideau (1520), the château was not transformed
  like those at Langeais and Rochefoucauld, where what was externally a
  14th-century castle developed internally into a 16th-century mansion;
  both Chenonceaux and Azay-le-Rideau were built as residences, and yet
  in both are displayed those features which belong to the fortified
  castle; at the angles of the main structure in both cases are circular
  towers, in the latter case crowned with machicolations and hourds,
  which, however, are purely decorative, pierced with windows, and
  broken at intervals with dormer windows, a feature which gives it the
  aspect of an attic storey. The lofty roofs and conical terminations to
  these angle towers, with dormer and chimney, give the same picturesque
  aspect to the grouping as that which was afforded in the fortified
  castle, where, however, they originated in the necessity for defence.
  The entrance portals of both chateaux are beautiful features,
  absolutely Gothic in design, and only transformed by cinque-cento
  detail.

  In the château of Chambord (1526) we find the same defensive features
  introduced, in the shape of great circular towers at the angles, but
  here with more reason, as the chateau was intended more for display
  than habitation. The chateau itself, about 200 ft. square, has
  circular towers at the angles, and in the centre a spiral staircase
  with double flight, leading to great halls on each side, which give
  access to the comparatively small rooms in the angles of the square
  and the towers beyond, and to the roof, which would seem to have been
  the chief attraction, as there is a fine view therefrom; and the
  elaborate octagonal lantern over the staircase, the dormer windows,
  chimneys and lanterns on the conical roofs of the towers, are all
  elaborately carved. There are three storeys to the building,
  subdivided horizontally by string courses, and terminated with a fine
  cornice carrying a balustrade, and vertically by a series of pilasters
  of the Corinthian order. The varied outline of this building, with the
  alternation of blank panels and windows between the pilasters,
  relieves what might otherwise have been its monotony. The château is
  situated on the east side of a great court measuring about 500 ft. by
  370 ft., with a moat all round. To the right and left of the central
  block the walls are carved up three storeys, and an attic, with open
  arcades inside, leading to the angle towers of the enclosure. At a
  later period Louis XIV. continued the unfinished structure by a
  one-storey building round. The carving of the capitals, corbels and
  other decorative work was all done by Italian artists, under the
  direction of some architect whose name is not known.

  One of the gems of Francis I.'s work is the small hunting lodge
  originally built at Moret near Fontainebleau, to which at one time the
  king thought of adding, before he began his great palace there. This
  was taken down in 1826, and re-erected in the Cours-la-Reine at Paris.
  Though small, it is the purest example of the first Renaissance. Other
  examples are the hôtel de ville of Paray-le-Monial (1526); the Hôtel
  d'Anjou at Angers (1530), built by Pierre de Pincé; the Hôtel Bernuy
  at Toulouse (1530); the Hôtel d'Ecoville at Caen (1532); the Manoir of
  Francis I. at Orleans; the Hotel Bourgthéroulde at Rouen (1520-1532)
  and other buildings opposite Rouen cathedral, and what remains of the
  château known as the Manoir d'Ango (1525) at Varengeville, near
  Dieppe. The château of St Germain-en-Laye (1539-1544), the upper half
  of which is built in brick, belongs also to the early period, as also
  the hôtel de ville at Paris, built in 1533 by Domenico da Cortona, an
  Italian, who after spending some thirty years in France would seem to
  have caught the spirit of the French Renaissance so well as to be able
  to produce one of the most remarkable examples of the Francis I.
  style. In the existing building the original design has been copied
  from the building burnt down by the Communists in 1871.

  From this we pass to the palace at Fontainebleau, begun by Francis I.
  in 1526, to which there have been so many subsequent additions and
  alterations that it is difficult to differentiate between them. The
  building owes its picturesque effect more to its irregular plan (as
  portions of an earlier structure were enclosed in it) than to any
  brilliant conceptions on the part of its architect. There is an
  endless variety of charming detail in the capitals, corbels and other
  decorative features, but the employment of pilaster strips purely as
  decorative features (without any such structural property as that in
  the Porte Dorée at the Cour Ovale) suggests that the Italian architect
  Serlio, to whom sometimes the work is ascribed, certainly had nothing
  to do with it.

  On the other hand, there is every reason to believe that the designs
  made by Pierre Lescot for the Louvre, begun in 1546, were, as regards
  their style, largely based on the principles set forth in Serlio's
  work on architecture, published in 1540. The south-west angle of the
  court of the Louvre is the earliest example of the third period of the
  Renaissance, in which the orders are employed in correct proportions
  with columns or pedestals carrying entablatures with mouldings based
  on classic precedent. The portion built from Lescot's designs (Plate
  VIII., fig. 83) consists of the nine bays on the east and north sides,
  the latter not being completed till 1574, as the workmen would seem to
  have been transferred to the building of the Tuileries, begun in 1564.

  The Corinthian order is employed for the ground and first storeys and
  an attic storey above, in which the pilaster capitals run into the
  bedmold of the upper cornice. Of the nine bays, the central and side
  bays are twice the width of the others, and project slightly with the
  cornices breaking round them; this feature, and the crowning of the
  western bays with a segmental pediment, give a variety to the design,
  which otherwise might have become monotonous by its repetition of
  similar features. The balustrade also is replaced by the _chêneau_, a
  cresting in stone, which hereafter is found in nearly all French
  buildings. The sculptor, Jean Goujon, would seem to have worked in
  complete harmony with the architect, thus producing what will always
  be considered as one of the _chef-d'oeuvres_ of French architecture.

  The architect employed by Catherine de' Medici for the Tuileries was
  Philibert de l'Orme, who combined the taste of the architect with the
  scientific knowledge of the engineer. Only a portion of his design was
  carried out, and of that much disappeared in the 17th century, when
  his dormer windows were taken down and replaced by a second storey and
  an attic. Bullant and du Cerceau also added buildings on each side.

  The Tuileries were built about 500 yds. from the Louvre, and Catherine
  de' Medici conceived the idea of connecting the two. The work, which
  began with the "Petite Galerie," with the south wing, as far as the
  Pavilion Lesdiguieres, was started in 1566, being of one storey only.
  The mezzanine and upper storey were not completed till the beginning
  of the 17th century. In 1603 the remainder of the south front and the
  Pavillon-de-Flore were completed by Jacques Androuet du Cerceau.

  Of Philibert de l'Orme's work at Anet (1549), only the entrance
  gateway, the left-hand side of court, and the chapel remain,
  sufficient, however, to show that he had already at that early date
  mastered the principles of the Italian Revivalists. The chapel is in
  its way a remarkable design, but the hemispherical dome, pierced by
  elliptical winding arches inside, is not happy in its effect. The
  frontispiece which he created opposite the entrance, now in the court
  of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, shows great refinement in its
  details, but proportionally errs in many points. De l'Orme built also
  the bridge and gallery on the river Cher, forming an addition to the
  château of Chenonceaux.

  Amongst other work of this period are the additions made by Bullant to
  the château de Chantilly, where he traversed the principles of classic
  design by running Corinthian pilasters through two storeys and cutting
  through the cornice of his dormer windows. At Écouen (1550) he
  destroyed the scale of the earlier buildings of 1532 by raising in
  front of the left wing of the court four lofty Corinthian columns with
  entablature complete, which he copied from the temple of Castor in
  Rome.

  Among the early Renaissance work are the chateau of Ancy le Franc
  (Yonne), Italian in character, which may be by Serlio (1546); the
  Hôtel d'Assézat at Toulouse (1555), in which there is a strong
  resemblance to the court of the Louvre; the houses at Orleans, known
  as those of Agnes Sorel, Jeanne d'Arc and Diane de Poitiers (1552);
  and there is other work at Caen, Rouen, Toulouse, Dijon, Chinon,
  Périgueux, Cahors, Rodez, Beauvais and Amiens, dating up to the close
  of the 16th century. In this list might also be included the fine town
  hall of La Rochelle, the Hôtel Lamoignon in the rue des
  Francs-Bourgeois, Paris (1580), and the Hôtel de Vogüé at Dijon, which
  retained the Renaissance character, though built in the first year of
  the 17th century.

  In the reigns of Henry IV. and Louis XIII. the first work of
  importance in Paris is that of the Place Royale, now the Place des
  Vosges; in this brick was largely employed, and the conjunction of
  brick and stone gave a decorative effect which dispensed with the
  necessity of employing the Classic orders. At Fontainebleau, where
  Henry IV. made large additions, the same mixture of brick and stone is
  found in the Galerie des Cerfs, and in the great service court (_cour
  des cuisines_). The example set was followed largely through the
  country, and numerous mansions and private houses in brick and stone
  still exist. Henry IV.'s most important work at Fontainebleau is the
  Porte Dauphine, of which the lower part, with rusticated columns and
  courses of masonry, does not quite accord in scale or character with
  the superstructure, in which is put some of the best work of the
  century.

  Except perhaps for the monotony of the rusticated masonry which is
  spread all over the building, the palace of the Luxembourg, by Salomon
  de Brosse (1615), is an important work, in which he was probably
  instructed by Marie de'Medici to reproduce the general effect of the
  Pitti palace at Florence. The three storeys of the main block are well
  proportioned, but the absence of a boldly projecting cornice, such as
  is found in the Riccardi and Strozzi palaces, is a defect; the same
  architect reconstructed the great hall of the palace of justice at
  Paris, burnt in 1871 but now rebuilt to the same design.

  In 1629 the building subsequently known as the Palais Royal was begun
  from the designs of Lemercier; but it has been so materially altered
  since that scarcely anything remains of his design, though the works
  carried out from his designs at the Louvre were of the greatest
  possible importance. The court of the latter, as begun by Pierre
  Lescot, was of small dimensions, corresponding with that of the palace
  of Philip Augustus, but Lemercier proposed to quadruple its
  dimensions. It is not certain whether he built the lower portion of
  the Pavilion d'Horloge, but he designed the upper part, with the
  caryatid figures sculptured by Jacques Sarrazin. On the north side of
  this pavilion he built a wing similar in length and design to that of
  Pierre Lescot, and continued the wing along the north side to the
  centre pavilion; this was continued by Levau, the architect of Louis
  XIV., round the other sides of the court. His design for the east
  front, however, did not recommend itself to the king or to his
  minister Colbert, and a competition was held, the first place being
  given to the design by a physician, Dr Perrault. Prior to its being
  begun, however, Bernini was sent for, and he submitted other designs,
  fortunately not carried out, as they would have destroyed the court of
  the Louvre. In 1665 the works were begun on the design of Perrault, a
  grandiose frontispiece which appealed to Louis XIV., but in which no
  cognizance had been taken of the various rooms against which it was
  built; consequently no windows could be opened, and it forms now a
  useless peristyle. Moreover it was so much wider than the original
  building that on the north side it became necessary to add a new
  front. Fortunately the example set by Perrault of coupling columns
  together has rarely been followed since in France, so that in the
  Garde-Meuble on the south side of the Place de la Concorde, by
  Gabriel, we return again to the original classic peristyle. The works
  undertaken at the Louvre progressed but slowly, in consequence of the
  greater interest taken by Louis XIV. in the palace he was building at
  Versailles, an extension of the hunting-box built by his father Louis
  XIII., which he insisted should be maintained and incorporated as the
  central feature in the new building. But as it was comparatively small
  in dimensions, of simple design, and in brick and stone, it was quite
  unfit to become the central feature of the main front of the largest
  palace in Europe. To make it worse, the new wings built on either side
  were lofty and of more importance architecturally, and as they
  projected some 300 ft. in advance of the earlier building, they
  reduced it to still greater insignificance. But even then the
  architect, Jules Hardouin Mansart, might have redeemed his reputation
  by buildings of greater interest than those which now exist. The back
  elevation of the central block is 330 ft. wide, the returns 280 ft.,
  and the length of the wings on each side 500 ft.; in other words he
  had nearly 1900 ft. run of façade, and it is simply a repetition of
  the same bays from one end to the other, in three storeys all of the
  same height, the lower one with semicircular arched openings, the
  first floor decorated with pilasters on columns of the Ionic order,
  and an attic storey above with balustrade. The slight projection given
  to the central and side bays of each block, just sufficient to allow
  of columns in the first floor as decorative features instead of
  pilasters, is of no value in fronts of such great dimensions. The
  great galleries inside have the same monotonous design as in the
  façades, relieved only by the rich decoration in the first case and
  the splendid masonry in the latter. There is one saving clause in the
  main front, the chapel by R. de Cotte on the right-hand side being
  externally and internally a fine structure, and the best
  ecclesiastical example of the period.

  Among other buildings of the 17th century are those begun by Cardinal
  Mazarin in the rue de Richelieu, which now constitute the National
  library; the Hôtel de Toulouse (1626), now the Bank of France; the
  Hôtel de Sully (1630), by du Cerceau; the Hôtel de Beauvais (1654), by
  le Pautre; the Hôtel Lambert (also by le Pautre), in the Île St Louis;
  the château at Maisons, near St Germain-en-Laye, by François Mansart
  (1656); the Institute of France (1662), by Levau; two triumphal
  arches, of St Denis (1672), by Blondel, and St Martin (1674) by
  Bullet; the Hôtel des Invalides (1670), by Bruant; the Place des
  Victoires and the Place Vendôme (1695-1699), by Jules Hardouin
  Mansart, in which a series of large houses are grouped together in one
  design; the Trianon at Versailles (1676), and the château of Marly
  (1682), both by J.H. Mansart; and important monumental buildings in
  the principal provincial cities, such as Lyons, Bordeaux, Nantes and
  Tours.

  In the 18th century those which are worthy of note are the Hôtel
  Soubise (1706), now the "Archives Nationales"; the fountain in the rue
  de Crenelle, a fine composition; the École Militaire (1752), by
  Gabriel; the Êcole de Médecine (1769), by Gondouin; the mint (1772),
  by Antoine; the Place de la Concorde, with the Garde-Meuble, by
  Gabriel (1765); the Hôtel de Salm, now the Legion of Honour; the Place
  Stanislas at Nancy (1738-1766), in which are grouped the town hall,
  archbishop's palace, theatre and other public buildings, with
  triumphal arch and avenues leading to the palace of the duke
  Stanislaus (with magnificent wrought-iron enclosures and gates by Jean
  Lamour, the greatest craftsman of the century); the theatre at
  Bordeaux by Louis; and the Odéon, Paris (1789).

  The ecclesiastical architecture of the French Renaissance comes at the
  end of our description owing to the far greater importance of the
  palaces, mansions and public monuments, and also because in the
  beginning of the 16th century France found herself in possession of a
  much larger number of cathedrals and large churches than she could
  maintain. Some of these are still unfinished, so that her first
  efforts would seem to have been directed to the completion of those
  already begun rather than to the erection of new ones, St Eustache in
  Paris being nearly the only exception of importance prior to the 17th
  century.

  We have from time to time dwelt upon the important consideration which
  must not be lost sight of, viz. that nearly all the buildings erected
  in France up to the accession of Henry IV. were conceived and carried
  out in the spirit of the Flamboyant Gothic style, cinque-cento details
  mixed up with Gothic at first, then superseding them, and even when
  the influence of the Italian revivalists began to exert itself, still
  retaining much of her traditional methods of design. If this was the
  case in civil architecture, it was naturally more pronounced in the
  additions made to ecclesiastical structures, and the gradual
  development of the style may be more easily followed in the latter.
  These are, however, so numerous, and they are so universally spread
  throughout France, that only a few of the most interesting examples
  can be here given; for instance, the porch of St Michel at Dijon; the
  upper part of the western towers of the cathedrals of Orleans and
  Tours; the three eastern chapels of St Jacques, Dieppe, built at the
  cost of Jean Ango, a celebrated merchant-prince of Dieppe, to whose
  chateau at Varengeville we have already referred; the eastern chapels
  of St Peter's, Caen, from the designs of Hector Sohier (1521), both
  internally and externally of great interest; the west end of the
  church at Vétheuil (Seine-et-Oise); the magnificent work of the west
  front and tower of the church at Gisors; the upper part of the west
  front of the cathedral at Angers; the portals of the church at Auxonne
  (Fichot); the choir at Tillières; the lantern of the church of St
  Peter, Coutances (1541); the porch of the Dalbade at Toulouse; and the
  north front of the church of Ste Clotilde at Les Andelys, which dates
  from the age of Henry II.

  The church of St Eustache at Paris, begun in 1533, but not completed
  till the end of the century, is a large cruciform Gothic structure
  with lofty double aisles on each side and carried round the choir, and
  rectangular chapels round the whole building, excepting the west end.
  Structurally also it possesses all the most characteristic features of
  the Gothic church, with nave arcades carried on compound piers,
  triforium and clerestory, vaulted throughout, and flying buttresses
  outside. Close examination shows that all the details are of the early
  cinque-cento work, panelled pilasters of varying proportions, but with
  Renaissance capitals, corbels, niches and canopies all grouped
  together in a Gothic manner, and quite opposed to the principles of
  the Italian revivalists; what is more remarkable is that though long
  before its completion these principles had already borne fruit in the
  Louvre and Tuileries, the original conception was adhered to, and the
  portals of the north and south transepts (the last features added,
  with the exception of the ugly west front of the 18th century) still
  retain the character of the early French Renaissance.

  In St Étienne-du-Mont, sometimes claimed as a second example, the
  church is Flamboyant Gothic throughout, the chief additions being the
  magnificent rood-screen of 1600, and the west portal, in which the
  banded columns of the Bourbon period form the chief features.

  Coming to churches of later date, Salomon de Brosse (_c_. 1565-1627),
  the architect of the Luxembourg palace, added in 1616 a fresh front to
  the church of St Gervais, finely proportioned and of pure Italian
  design, which contrasts favourably with the Jesuits' church of St Paul
  and St Louis (1627-1641), overladen with rococo ornament; then came
  the churches of the Sorbonne (1629), by Jacques Lemercier, and of the
  Val-de-Grace (1645), by François Mansart, the dome of the latter,
  though small, being a fine design; the church of the Invalides, also
  by Mansart, the dome of which is the most graceful in France; the
  cathedral of Nancy (1703-1742), by Jules Hardouin Mansart and Germain
  Boffrand (1667-1754), the principal front of which is flanked by two
  towers with octagonal lanterns which group so well with the central
  portion (of the usual design, in two stages with pilasters and coupled
  columns, carrying a third stage with circular pediment) that it is
  unfortunate it should be almost the only example of its kind; and
  lastly the church of Ste Geneviève, better known as the Panthéon
  (1755), by Jacques Germain Soufflot (1713-1780), the dome of which is
  based largely on that of St Peter's in Rome. The main building with
  its great portico is a simple and fine piece of design, and unlike St
  Peter's the dome is well seen from every point of view; the decoration
  of its walls with paintings by Puvis de Chavannes and other French
  artists has now rendered the interior one of the most interesting in
  France.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN

In Spain, as in France, the revival of classic architecture was
engrafted on the Flamboyant style of the country, influenced here and
there by Moorish work, so that the earlier examples of Spanish
Renaissance constitute a transitional style which lasted till the
accession of Philip II. (1558), who introduced what was then considered
to be the purer Italian style of Palladio and Vignola. This, however,
did not seem to have had much attraction for the Spaniards, owing to its
coldness and formality, so that in the latter half of the 17th century a
reaction took place in favour of the most depraved and decadent
architecture in existence.

The magnificence of the earlier Renaissance work, which was introduced
into Spain when she was at the zenith of her power, and (owing to the
discovery of a new world) the possessor of enormous wealth, has scarcely
yet been recognized, in consequence of the greater attraction of the
Moorish architecture; there is no doubt that its exuberant richness in
the 16th century derives its inspiration from the latter, and especially
so in patios or courts found in every class of building, ecclesiastical
as well as civil. There is still, however, another characteristic in the
early Renaissance of Spain, which is not found in Italy or France, and
which again owes its source to Moorish work, where the external walls
and towers consist of simple plain masonry, and the rich decoration,
generally in stucco brilliantly coloured and gilded, is confined to the
courts and to the interiors of their magnificent halls. The Italian
method of decorating the external front of the palaces with flat
pilasters of the various orders placed at regular intervals, the windows
and doors forming features of second-rate importance, was not followed
by the architects of the Spanish Renaissance, who retained the simple
plain masonry and reserved their decorations for the entrance doorways
and windows, emphasizing therefore these features, and by contrast
increasing their value and interest.

Instead also of the huge _cornicione_ which the Italians employed to
give the shadows required to emphasize the crowning features of their
palaces, the Spanish architects preferred to obtain a similar effect by
an open arcaded upper storey, which, as Fergusson remarks, "forms one of
the most pleasing architectural features that can be applied to palatial
architecture, giving lightness combined with shadow exactly where wanted
for effect and where they can be applied without any apparent
interference with solidity." These galleries would seem to have been
provided to serve as promenades to the occupants of the palace, and more
especially for the ladies when it would have been unwise or imprudent
for them to venture into the streets. There is one well-known example in
France, in the château of Blois, which is so attractive a feature that
it is singular it has not been more often adopted.

Instead also of the monotonous balustrade, which is invariably found in
Italy, the Spanish architects introduced richly carved crestings, with
finials at regular intervals, a feature probably borrowed from
Flamboyant Gothic and Moorish.

The three periods into which the architectural phases of the Renaissance
style in Spain are divided are:--(1) The Plateresque or Silversmiths'
work, from the conquest of Granada to the reign of Philip II. (2) The
purer Italian style, called by the Spanish the Greco-Roman, though it
has no Greek elements in its design, being based on the work of Palladio
and Vignola. This style prevailed until the end of the 17th century. (3)
The Rococo or Churrigueresque style, so called from the name of the
architect, José Churriguera (d. 1725), the chief leader of the movement,
which lasted for about 100 years.

  _Ecclesiastical Architecture._--The cathedral of Granada, built from
  the designs of Diego de Siloé, is the earliest example of the
  Renaissance in Spain, and in some respects the most remarkable, not
  only for its plan, in which there is an entirely new feature, but for
  the scheme adopted in the vaulting, which covers the whole church, and
  shows that its architect had studied the earlier Gothic churches, and
  was well acquainted with the principles of thrust and counter-thrust
  developed in them. The cathedral is 400 ft. long by 230 ft. wide, and
  therefore of the first class as far as size is concerned. The western
  portion consists of nave and double aisles on each side, the outer
  aisle being carried round the whole church and giving access to the
  chapels which enclose the building. The principal feature of the
  cathedral is at the east end, where the place of the ordinary apse is
  occupied by a great circular area, 70 ft. in diameter, crowned by a
  lofty dome, in the centre of which in a flood of light stands the high
  altar. The vista from the nave through the great arch (37 ft. 6 in.
  wide and 97 ft. high) is extremely fine, and it is strange that it
  should be the only example of its kind. The west front was completed
  at a later date; the only feature of it belonging to the original
  church being the north-west tower, which, in its design, resembles the
  south-west tower of the church at Gisors in France. There are two
  other important Renaissance cathedrals at Jaen and Valladolid. The
  latter was built from a design of Juan de Badajoz in 1585 but never
  completed. On the south side of the cathedral is the chapel in which
  the Catholic kings lie buried, where there are two fine marble tombs
  enclosed by the _reja_ or wrought-iron screen partly gilt, forged in
  1522 by Maestre Bartholome. The _sagrario_ or parish church, also on
  the south side, is a small version of the scheme of design employed in
  the cathedral.

  In Spain, as in France, magnificent portals have been added to
  cathedrals and churches, and these are amongst the finest works of the
  Renaissance period. The more remarkable of these are the portals of
  the cathedral of Malaga, a deeply recessed porch, enriched with
  slender shafts and niches between; of Santa Engracia at Saragossa; and
  of Santo Domingo and the cathedral at Salamanca. Externally the
  Renaissance domes over the crossings of Spanish cathedrals are poor,
  but this is compensated for by the lofty steeples which form striking
  features. The western towers of the cathedral at Valladolid; the tower
  of the Seo in Saragossa, which bears some resemblance to Wren's
  steeples in the setting back of the several storeys and the crowning
  with octagonal lanterns; the tower of the cathedral Del Pilar at
  Saragossa, and that at Santiago, are all interesting examples of the
  Spanish Renaissance.

  One of the most beautiful features of the Spanish Renaissance is found
  in the magnificent _rejas_ or wrought-iron grilles, richly gilt, which
  form the enclosures of the chapels. Besides the example at Granada,
  others are found at Seville, where is the masterpiece of Sancho Muñoz
  (1528); at Palencia (1582); Cuenca (1557), where there are three fine
  examples; Toledo; Salamanca; and other cathedrals. The iron pulpit at
  Avila, the eagle lectern at Cuenca and the staircase railing at Burgos
  are all remarkable works in metal.

  _Secular Architecture._--With the exception of the magnificent
  portals, the finest works of the Renaissance in Spain as in France are
  to be found in the secular buildings, but with this difference, that
  the best examples in France are those built in the country or in
  comparatively small provincial towns, whereas in Spain they are all in
  the midst of the larger towns, and further they are not confined to
  palaces and chateaux; monasteries and universities coming in for an
  equal share in the great architectural development.

  The characteristic style of the Spanish architecture of the
  Renaissance period is due probably to the influence of the earlier
  Moorish work, where the value of the rich Alhambresque decorations in
  the entrance doorways and windows, and the patios or courts, is
  enhanced by contrast with the plain masonry of their walls and towers.
  This influence had already been felt in the Spanish flamboyant Gothic
  panelling and tracery; when translated into Renaissance, and probably,
  at first, executed by Italian artists, it displayed a variety and
  beauty in its design scarcely inferior to some of the best work in
  Italy. And this development, taking place at a time when Spain was
  overflowing with wealth, resulted in that exuberant richness we find
  in the entrance doorways and windows, the external galleries of the
  upper storey, and the rich cresting surmounting the cornice.

  Comparison with the contemporary and even earlier work in Italy, where
  the principal thought of the architect would seem to have been to
  break the wall surface by an unmeaning series of flat pilasters, and
  then fill in the windows as features of secondary importance, will
  show that the Spanish architect recognized more fully the true
  principle of design, and although, in the profiles of their mouldings,
  and the execution of the sculpture decorating their pilasters and
  friezes, Spanish work in contrast with Italian looks somewhat coarse,
  in general picturesqueness it is far in advance of the palaces of
  Rome, Florence, and even Venice, and has not yet received the
  recognition which it deserves.

  The earliest palace built in the Renaissance style is that which
  adjoins the Alhambra at Granada, and was begun by the emperor Charles
  V. for his own residence in 1527, but never completed. The building is
  nearly an exact square of 205 ft., with a great circular court in the
  centre, nearly 100 ft. in diameter. This central court was enclosed by
  a colonnade with Doric columns, and an upper storey with columns of
  the Ionic order. From the unfinished condition of the palace and the
  absence of roofs, it is difficult to decide what the form of the
  latter might have been. But the design, begun by Pedro Machuca and
  continued by Alonso Berruguete (1480-1561), is so remarkable that it
  ought to be better known. Its proximity to the Alhambra, however,
  deprives it of the attention which otherwise it deserves for the
  purity of its details and for its good proportion.

  A second palace, the Alcazar at Toledo, was begun in 1540 by Charles
  II., but little else than the bare walls remain, as it was destroyed
  by fire in 1886, after having been twice rebuilt. In its design it
  belongs to the true Spanish type of the Renaissance, with the simple
  ashlar masonry of its walls and the accentuation of the principal
  entrance doorway and the windows. In this palace also the plan is
  square, about 110 ft., with a square courtyard (240 ft.).

  The third palace built, the Escorial, some 20 m. to the north-east of
  Madrid, is the most renowned--more, however, on account of its immense
  size than for its design. It was built for Philip II. and begun in
  1563 from the designs of Juan Bautista de Toledo, being completed by
  his pupil, Juan de Herrera, in 1584. The principal front is 680 ft. in
  width, the depth of the palace 540 ft., with the king's residence in
  the rear. The plan is a fine conception, and consists of a large
  entrance court in the centre, with the church in the rear, having on
  the right the Colegio and on the left the monastery, with numerous
  courts in each case. The church is 320 ft. long by 220 ft. wide, the
  principal portion being the intersection of the nave and transept,
  which is covered by a dome. The coro is placed above the entrance
  vestibule, which is 100 ft. long and 27 ft. high, imperfectly lighted,
  but by contrast emphasizing the dimensions and the splendour of the
  church beyond. Externally the grouping is fine; the lofty towers at
  the angles, the central composition of the main front, and at the rear
  of the court the front of the church with its corner towers and the
  great dome, all form an exceedingly picturesque group, and it is only
  when one begins to examine the work in detail that its poverty in
  design reveals itself. Instead of accentuating the windows of the
  principal storeys and giving them appropriate dressings, the fronts
  are pierced with innumerable windows, which give the appearance of a
  factory, and the angle towers, nine storeys high, look like ordinary
  "sky-scrapers," without any of the dignity and importance which the
  architectural design of a palace requires. The same applies to the
  great entrance courts five storeys high with an attic, all of the most
  commonplace design. Internally the church is fine, but it is dwarfed
  by the immense size of the Doric pilasters, 62 ft. high, all in plain
  stone masonry, the coldness of which is emphasized by the rich
  colouring of the vaulted ceilings and the elaboration of the pavement,
  all in coloured marbles. The palace is regarded by the Spaniards as
  the Versailles of Spain, and if it had been possible to have
  interchanged some of the features, to transfer to Versailles some of
  the towers, and to break up the wall surface of the Escorial with the
  superimposed order of pilasters, which became monotonous by their
  repetition at Versailles, both palaces would have gained.

  The palace at Madrid is the last of the series, and although it was
  begun at a much later period, by Philip V. in 1737, from the designs
  of the Italian architect Sachetti, it is a fine and simple
  composition, consisting of a lofty ground storey with coursed masonry,
  carrying semi-detached columns of the Ionic order, rising through
  three storeys, the whole crowned by an entablature and a bold
  balustrade. The slightly projecting wings at each end of the main
  front and the central frontispiece give that variety and play of light
  and shade of which one regrets the absence in the Cancellaria palace
  at Rome.

  We must, however, retrace our steps to the beginning of the 16th
  century, to take up the early buildings of the style; the palace of
  the Conde de Monterey at Salamanca, built in 1530 from the designs of
  Alonso de Covarrubias, is a fine example. The masonry of the ground
  and first floors is of the simplest character, the decoration being
  confined to the entrance doorways and to the windows of the important
  rooms. It is on the second floor that the design becomes enriched with
  an open arcade and entablature above, crowned with a rich cresting. In
  the wings at the angles, and in the central block, the buildings are
  carried up an additional storey, the plain masonry of which gives
  value to the open galleries between. On these wings and the central
  block are other galleries crowned with entablature and cresting. These
  features therefore form towers, which break the sky-line. There is
  still another treatment peculiar to the Spanish Renaissance, in which
  the example of the Moorish palaces would seem to have been followed,
  viz. the elaborate carving of the pilasters and their capitals, of the
  panelling and the horizontal friezes, which is extremely minute and
  finished in the lower storeys, but increases in scale and projection
  towards the upper storeys. This is very notable in the entrance
  gateway of the university of Salamanca (Plate V., fig. 73), where the
  carved arabesque in the panelling above the doors is of the finest
  description, equal to what might be found in cabinet work, whilst that
  of the upper portion immediately under the cornice is at least twice
  the scale of that below and is in bold relief.

  The principal buildings characteristic of the Spanish Renaissance, in
  chronological order, are:--the hospital of Santa Cruz at Toledo, built
  in 1504-1514, and the Hospicio de los Reyes at Santiago (1504), both
  from the designs of Enrique de Egas, the former with a magnificent
  portal rising through two storeys and a gallery with an open arcade
  above; the Irish college at Salamanca, built (1521) from the designs
  of Pedro de Ibarra, Alonso de Covarrubias, and Berruguete; the convent
  of San Marcos, Leon, by Juan de Badajoz (1514-1545)--here, however,
  the whole façade is panelled out in imitation of late Gothic work,
  Renaissance pilasters and devices taking the place of the buttresses
  set angle-wise and flamboyant panelling; the Colegio de San Ildefonso
  at Alcalá de Henares (formerly the seat of the university), built in
  1557-1584 by Rodrigo Gil de Ontañon.

  Of municipal buildings the Lonja or exchange at Toledo (1551), built
  in brick-work, is somewhat Florentine in style.

  The town hall of Seville (1527-1532), by Diego de Riaño and Martin
  Garuza, may be taken as the most gorgeous example in Spain (Plate V.,
  fig. 74). The front facing the square is very simple, compared with
  the façade in the street at the rear, and here again we find, in the
  ornamental carving of the windows and door mouldings on the ground
  floor, a different scale from that adopted on the first floor, where
  the shafts are enriched with a superabundance of carved ornament in
  strong relief. There is still one other feature of great importance in
  Spain, the magnificent galleries of the patios or courts found in all
  the important buildings. It is from these galleries that access is
  obtained to the rooms on the first floor. They have sometimes arcades
  on the first floor, and columns with bracket-capitals on the upper
  storey. There is an infinite variety of design in these capitals, the
  brackets on each side of which lessen the bearing of the architrave.

  The earliest Renaissance example of these patios (1525) is in the
  Irish college at Salamanca; it was carved by Berruguete, Alonso de
  Covarrubias being the architect. In the same town is the Casa de la
  Salinas, another example with fine sculpture. In the Casa Polentina
  (1550) at Avila, and the Casa de Miranda at Burgos, columns with
  bracket-capitals are employed on both storeys. Rich examples are found
  in the Casa de la Infanta and Casa Zaporta (1580), both at Saragossa.
  Of late examples the patio of the Lonja at Seville by Juan de Herrera
  resembles in its style the courtyard of the Farnese palace at Rome;
  and the same style obtains in the court of the Escorial, built at a
  time when the purer Italian style was introduced into Spain. These
  courts, though cold in design, compared with the earlier Renaissance
  type, are of fine proportion. Two other examples are found in the
  bishop's palace at Alcala de Henares, one of which has a magnificent
  staircase.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND

In England, as in France, the influence of the Classic Revival was first
seen in connexion with tombs and church work, though not nearly to the
same extent as in France, where throughout the country the work of the
Italian sculptor is to be found not only in churches but in country
mansions. On the other hand, two if not three of the Italian artists who
came over to England were men of some reputation, such as Pietro
Torrigiano, a Florentine sculptor who was invited over by Henry VIII.
and entrusted with the tomb of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey
(1512-1518), and executed the tomb of John Young (in terra-cotta) in the
Rolls chapel (1516). Another Italian was Giovanni da Maiano, who was
also a Florentine, who modelled the busts of the emperors in the
terra-cotta medallions over the entrance gates at Hampton Court, and
probably the panel flanked by Corinthian pilasters, in which are
modelled the arms of Cardinal Wolsey, also in terra-cotta. Benedetto da
Rovezzano (1478-_c._ 1552), and Toto del Nunziata, Italian artists of
note, were also employed in England, the first on the tomb of Cardinal
Wolsey (now destroyed), and the second on the palace of Nonsuch, built
by Henry VIII., which was pulled down in 1670. Other early Renaissance
work is found at Christchurch Priory, in the Salisbury Chantry (1529),
the design of which is Gothic and some of the details Italian, and in
the tombs of the countess of Richmond in Westminster Abbey (1519), of
the earl of Arundel in Arundel church, Sussex, of Henry, Lord Marney, at
Layer Marney (1525), of the duke of Richmond (1537) and the duchess of
Norfolk (1572) in Framlingham church; and of Queen Anne of Cleves (1557)
in Westminster Abbey, attributed to Haveus of Cleves. The sedilia (in
terra-cotta) of Wymondham church, Norfolk, the choir screen at St Cross,
and Bishop Gardiner's chantry, Winchester, and the vaulted roof of
Bishop West's chapel at Ely, all show the direct influence of the
Italian cinque-cento style. The most beautiful example in England of
Italian woodwork is the organ screen in King's College chapel, Cambridge
(1534-1539), which, except for the coats of arms, the roses, portcullis
and other English emblems, might be in some Italian church, so perfect
is its design and execution. Of early domestic work, Sutton Place
(1523-1525), near Guildford, Surrey, is a good example of transition
work. The design is Tudor, but the window mullions and panels inserted
throughout the structure, which is built in brick, are all enriched with
cinque-cento details in terra-cotta, and probably executed by Italian
craftsmen. Similar enrichments in the same material are found decorating
the entrance tower (1522-1525) at Layer Marney, Essex.

Nearly all the examples above mentioned come within the first half of
the 16th century. Passing into the second half and dealing with domestic
architecture, we find the history of the introduction of classic work
into England more complicated than in other countries, because in
addition to the Italian, we have French, Flemish and German influences
to reckon with, and it is sometimes difficult to decide from which
source the features are borrowed. There were, however, two still more
important considerations to be taken into account--firstly, the
extremely conservative character of the English people, who were
satisfied with the traditional work of the country, and the methods by
which it was carried out, and secondly, the great progress in design
which was made during the Elizabethan period, resulting in a phase which
was peculiarly English and did not lend itself easily to classic
embellishment.

Already in the last phase of Gothic work, to which the title of Tudor is
generally given, important changes were being made in the planning of
the larger country mansions, and features were introduced which seemed
to give an impetus towards their further development.

  The most important of these features were the following:--the bow
  window, rectangular or polygonal, of which the earliest examples date
  from the reign of Edward IV. (1461-1483), such as Eltham Palace in
  Kent, Cowdray Castle in Sussex, and Thornbury Castle in
  Gloucestershire, and at a later period at Hampton Court; octagonal
  towers or turrets flanking the entrance gateway at each end of the
  main front; the projecting forward of the side wings so as to get
  better light to the rooms in them by having windows on both sides,
  such projections varying the otherwise monotonous effect of a uniform
  façade without breaks; the long gallery (generally on an upper floor),
  which was an important characteristic of the Elizabethan house; and
  last but not least, the adherence to the type of old Tudor window,
  with its moulded mullions and transoms but with square head.

  One of the first modifications was the introduction of semicircular
  bow windows, as in Kirby Hall, Northamptonshire, followed by a second
  example at Burton Agnes in Yorkshire (1602-1610), and a third at
  Lilford Hall in Northamptonshire (1635). They were carried up through
  three storeys at Kirby Hall, the upper storey in the roof; three
  storeys at Burton Agnes with balcony and balustrade; and two storeys
  at Lilford Hall--these features being extremely simple but fine in
  effect, and the windows with moulded mullions and transoms lending
  themselves naturally to the curve.

  The projecting bays and bow windows seemed to have such an attraction
  for the builders of these country mansions that at Burton Agnes (with
  a rectangular plan of 120 ft. by 80 ft.) there are no fewer than
  thirteen of them, which break up the wall surface and give a
  picturesque group externally, whilst internally they add to the fine
  effect of the rooms. At Barlborough Hall, Derbyshire, with a frontage
  of 80 ft., there is a central rectangular bay forming the entrance
  porch and carried up above the roof, and two large octagonal bow
  windows which rise as towers with an extra storey. In all these
  mansions the only influence which the Revival seems to have exerted
  was in the introduction of an entablature, which sometimes takes the
  place of the Gothic string course, balustrades which crown the
  building, but with no projecting cornice, and gables with curved
  outlines and Renaissance panels or scrolls. The fact is that, with
  prominent features so widely differing from those which were
  represented on the perspective drawings attached to the earlier
  publications of the five orders, such as those of Serlio (1537) and
  Vredeman de Vries of Antwerp (1577), the only course left open to the
  master-mason was to decorate the principal entrance with columns and
  pilasters of the Classic orders, sometimes superposed one upon the
  other.

  To the further development of this singular introduction of the
  Classic orders we shall return; for the moment it will be better to
  follow a chronological sequence and take up the principal examples of
  the country mansion, some of which were from the first intended to be
  Classic buildings. Of the house built at Gorhambury in Hertfordshire
  (1563) for Sir Nicholas Bacon, the father of Lord Bacon, too little
  remains to render its design intelligible, except that it still
  retains in its lofty window the Tudor pointed arch; but in Longleat in
  Wiltshire, built by Sir John Thynne (1567-1580), we have a typical
  example, the design of which departs from the English type, though it
  would seem to have been carried out according to the traditional
  custom of entrusting the whole work to a master-mason, and furnishing
  him with sketch designs of some kind suggesting the required
  arrangements of the plan, the principal features of the exterior
  elevation and the internal disposition. This custom was adhered to far
  into the 18th century at Oxford and Cambridge, where the alterations
  and additions to some of the colleges, such as the chapel of Clare
  College, Cambridge (1763), were carried out by master-masons or
  builders who were supplied with sketch designs and sometimes even the
  materials for the buildings they had to carry out, notwithstanding the
  existence of properly trained architects, who from the first half of
  the 17th century were usually entrusted with the preparation of the
  necessary designs for new structures of any considerable importance.

  The name of the designer of Longleat is not known; the master-mason
  was Robert Smithson, who in 1580 went to Wollaton in Nottinghamshire
  and constructed the mansion there. Longleat is so Italian in style
  that it must have been conceived by some one who had been in Italy,
  because it departs from the usual English type. The plan is
  rectangular, with a frontage of 220 ft. by 180 ft. deep, an entrance
  porch in the centre, with two projecting bays on each side carried up
  through the three storeys, and three similar bays on the flanks. The
  whole block is crowned with a parapet, the centre portion of which is
  pierced with a balustrade, but the main cornice bears no resemblance
  to the Italian feature, being only that of the entablature of the
  upper order. The projecting bays are decorated with pilasters of the
  Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders, each with its proper entablature.
  These classic features would seem to have been copied from a work by
  John Shute, painter and architect, who had been sent to Italy by the
  duke of Northumberland in 1551, and in 1563 brought out his _Chief
  Groundes of Architecture_, the first practical work published in
  English on architecture. Shute died in the same year, but two other
  editions appeared in 1579 and 1584, which shows that it must have had
  an extensive circulation and probably exercised the greatest influence
  on English architecture. A second book on the orders, already referred
  to as published in 1577 by Jan Vredeman de Vries of Antwerp, was not
  of the same type, for instead of confining his work, like Shute and
  Serlio, to a simple representation of the Classic orders, he
  introduced, on the shafts of his columns and on the pedestals, designs
  of the most debased rococo type, with additional plates suggesting
  their application to various buildings. Robert Smithson, or his client
  Sir Fr. Willoughby, apparently obtained a copy of this book, and the
  result is seen (Plate VI., fig. 76) in the mansion built at Wollaton
  (1580-1588), in which we find the first examples of elaborately
  decorated pedestals; crestings on the angle towers, the design of
  which is known as strap-work; and medallions with busts in them,
  enclosed with twisted curves similar to those which flowers and leaves
  take when thrown into the fire. The plan and the scheme of the design
  of Wollaton is, however, so far superior to the usual type, that it
  may fairly be ascribed to John Thorpe, an architect or surveyor, of
  whose drawings there is a large collection in the Soane Museum,
  representing many of the more important mansions of the Elizabethan
  era; some of his own design, others either plans measured from
  existing buildings upon which he was called in to report or copies
  from other sources, and some reproduced from published works such as
  Vredeman de Vries's pattern book and Androuet du Cerceau's _Des plus
  excellents bastiments de France_ (1576).

  To John Thorpe is also attributed the design of Kirby Hall (1570-1572)
  in Northamptonshire, in which the plan of the feudal castle with great
  central court is still retained. This court is symmetrically designed,
  and was evidently considered to be the principal feature, the
  decoration being far richer than that of the exterior of the building.

  Amongst other important mansions are Moreton Old Hall (1550-1559,
  partly rebuilt in 1602; see HOUSE, Plate III., fig. 11) in Cheshire, a
  fine house in half-timber; Knole House, Kent (1570), possibly also
  designed by John Thorpe; Charlecote Hall (1572) near
  Stratford-on-Avon; Burleigh House, Northamptonshire (1575), the most
  remarkable feature in which is the great tower in the courtyard,
  decorated with the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders superposed, the
  design apparently suggested by a similar feature in the château of
  Anet, France (published in du Cerceau); Apethorpe Hall,
  Northamptonshire (1580); Montacute House, Somersetshire (1580-1600);
  Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire (1583-1589); Brereton Hall, Cheshire
  (1575-1586), in brick and stone; Westwood Park, Worcestershire (1590);
  Wakehurst Place, Sussex (1590); Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire (1590-1597);
  Longford Castle, Wiltshire (1591-1612); Cobham Hall, Kent (1594);
  Dorton House, Buckinghamshire (1596); Speke Hall, Lancashire (1598),
  partly in half-timber work; Holland House, Kensington (1606; wings and
  arcades, 1624); Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire (1607-1613); Charlton
  House, Kent (1607); Bramshill, Hampshire (1607-1612), an interesting
  example of Jacobean architecture; Hatfield, Hertfordshire (1608-1611),
  with an extremely fine courtyard (north side in brick and stone,
  1621); Audley End, Essex (1610-1616), a great portion of which was
  afterwards pulled down; Ham House, Surrey (1610), chiefly in brick;
  Pinkie House, at Musselburgh in Midlothian (1613); Aston Hall near
  Birmingham (1618-1635); Blickling Hall, Norfolk (1619); Heriot's
  hospital, Edinburgh (1628-1659); and Lanhydroc, Cornwall (1636-1641),
  which brings us down to the period of the pure Italian Revival
  introduced by Inigo Jones.

  We have already referred to the reproduction of the Classic orders,
  superposed as an enrichment of the principal entrance doorways. In
  addition to Burton Agnes and Burleigh House, there are endless
  examples in mansions and country houses, but the most remarkable are
  those at Oxford: in the old Schools, where coupled columns flank the
  entrance gateway with the five orders superposed, and in Merton and
  Wadham Colleges, with four orders (the Tuscan being omitted), in
  neither case taking any cognizance of the levels of windows or string
  courses of the earlier building to which they were applied, or serving
  any structural purpose. The orders were all taken from one of the
  pattern books, and in the Schools and in Merton College the rococo
  ornament and strap-work found in Vredeman de Vries's work were copied
  with more or less fidelity to the original. There are, however, two or
  three buildings in Northamptonshire which are free from rococo work,
  and in their design form a pleasant contrast, as much to the
  elaboration of the buildings just described as to the cold formality
  of the works of the later Italian style. Lyveden new buildings (1577),
  the Triangular Lodge at Rushton, and the Market House at Rothwell, are
  all examples in which the orders from Serlio or John Shute are
  faithfully represented, and are of a refined character; in the first
  named the entablatures only of the orders are introduced. In Rushton
  Hall (1595) the cresting of the bow windows shows the evil influence
  of Vredeman de Vries's pattern-book and of numerous designs by him and
  other Belgian artists, which were printed at the Plantin press. Two
  other publications of a similar rococo type were brought out in
  Germany, one by Cammermayer (1564) and the other by Dietterlin (1594),
  both at Nuremberg; neither of them would seem to have been much known
  in England, but indirectly through German craftsmen they may have
  influenced some of the work of the Jacobean period, and more
  particularly the chimney pieces and the ceilings of the gallery and
  other important rooms in which strap-work is found. Among the finer
  examples of ceilings of early date are those of Knole, Kent; Haddon
  Hall, Derbyshire; Sizergh Hall, Westmorland; South Wraxall Manor
  House, Wiltshire; the Red Lodge, Bristol; Chastleton House; and Canons
  Ashby--in the last three with pendants. Two of the best-designed
  ceilings of modest dimensions are those of the Reindeer Inn at Banbury
  and the Star Inn at Great Yarmouth. The principal decorative feature
  of the reception rooms was the chimney-piece, rising from floor to
  ceiling, in early examples being very simple--as those at Broughton
  House and Lacock Abbey--but at a later date overlaid with rococo
  strap-work ornament and misshapen figures, as at South Wraxall and
  Castle Ashby. One of the most beautiful chimney-pieces is in the
  ballroom at Knole, probably of Flemish design, but at Cobham Hall,
  Hardwick, Hatfield and Bolsover Castle are fine examples in which
  different-coloured marbles are employed, there being a remarkable
  series at the last-named place.

  The long gallery has already been incidentally mentioned. Its origin
  has never been clearly explained; it was generally situated in an
  upper storey, and may have been for exercise, like the eaves galleries
  in Spain. The dimensions were sometimes remarkable; one at Ampthill
  (no longer existing) was 245 ft. long; and a second at Audley End, 220
  ft. long and 34 ft. wide. Of moderate length, the best known are those
  of Haddon Hall, with rich wainscotting carried up to the ceiling,
  Hardwick, Knole, Longleat, Blickling Hall and Sutton Place, Surrey.

  In early work the staircases were occasionally in stone with circular
  or rectangular newels, but the more general type was that known as the
  open well staircase, with balustrade and newels in timber. Of these
  the more remarkable examples are those at Hatfield; Benthall Hall,
  Shropshire; Sydenham House, Devonshire; Charterhouse, London; Ockwells
  Manor House, Berkshire; Blickling, Norfolk; and the Old Star Inn at
  Lewes, Sussex.

  One of the important features in the old halls was the screen
  separating the hall from the passage, over the latter being a gallery;
  the front of the screen facing the hall was considered to be its chief
  decoration, and was accordingly enriched with columns of the Classic
  orders, and balustrade or cresting over. The screens of Charterhouse
  (London), Trinity College (Cambridge), Wadham College (Oxford), and
  the Middle Temple Hall (London), are remarkable for their design and
  execution. The great hammer-beam roof (1562-1572) in the last named is
  the finest example of the Renaissance in existence (see ROOFS, Plate
  I., fig. 25).

  With the exception of chantry or other chapels added to existing
  buildings, there was only one church built in the period we are now
  describing, St John's at Leeds. This church is divided down the centre
  by an arcade of pointed arches, virtually constituting a double nave,
  and the rood-screen is carried through both. The window tracery and
  the arcade show how the master-mason adhered to the traditional Gothic
  style, but the rood-screen, notwithstanding its rococo decoration, is
  a fine Jacobean work, eclipsed only by the magnificent example at
  Croscombe, which, with the pulpit and other church accessories, dating
  from 1616, constitutes the most complete example of that period.


  Inigo Jones.

The pure Italian style, as it is sometimes called, was introduced into
France probably by Serlio, and the result of its first influence is
shown in the Louvre, begun in 1546. It entered Spain about 20 years
later, under the rule of Philip II., and Germany about the same time,
creating about 100 years later a reaction in Spain in favour of a less
cold and formal style, and scarcely taking any root in Germany. In
England its first appearance does not take place till 1619, when Inigo
Jones, after his second visit to Rome, designed an immense palace,
measuring 1150 ft. by 900 ft., of which the only portion built was the
Banqueting House in Whitehall (Plate VI., fig. 75); a fine design, in
which the emphasizing of the central portion by columns in place of
pilasters is an original treatment not found in Italy, but of excellent
effect. Unfortunately many subsequent designs of Inigo Jones were either
not carried out or have since been destroyed; but nothing approached
this admirable work in Whitehall.

  Among his buildings still remaining are St Paul's, Covent Garden
  (1631), a simple and massive structure which requires perhaps an
  Italian sun to make it cheerful; York Stairs Water-gate (1626); the
  front of Wilton House, near Salisbury (1633); the Queen's House,
  Greenwich (1617), a very poor design; Coleshill, Berkshire; Raynham
  Park, Norfolk, with weakly-designed gables and an entrance doorway
  with curved broken pediment, which can scarcely be regarded as pure
  Italian; and Ashburnham House, Westminster (the staircase of which is
  extremely fine), carried out after his death by his pupil John Webb,
  who, at Thorpe Hall, near Peterborough (1656), shows that he possessed
  some of his master's qualities in his employment of simple and bold
  details.


  Wren.

Sir Christopher Wren, who follows, was by far the greatest architect of
the Italian school, though curiously enough he had never been in Italy.
His first work was the library of Pembroke College, Cambridge
(1663-1664), followed by the Sheldonian theatre at Oxford, in the
construction of the roof of which, with a span of 68 ft., he showed his
great scientific knowledge. In 1665 he went to Paris, where he stopped
six months studying the architectural buildings there and in its
vicinity, and where he came across Bernini, whose designs for destroying
the old Louvre (fortunately not carried out) were being started. On his
return Wren occupied himself with designs for the rebuilding of the old
St Paul's, but these were rendered useless by the great fire of the 22nd
of September 1666, which opened out his future career. His plan for the
reconstruction of the city was not followed, owing to the opposition of
the owners of the sites, but he began plans for the rebuilding of the
churches and of St Paul's cathedral. In his treatment of the former,
where he was obliged to limit himself to the old sites, often very
irregular, and in most cases to the old foundations, he adopted, perhaps
quite unconsciously, one of the principles of ancient Roman
architecture, and made the central feature the key of his plan, fitting
the aisles, vestries, porches, &c., into what remained of the site; this
central feature varied according to its extent and proportions, and
sometimes from a desire to work out a new problem. The central dome was
a favourite conception, the finest example of which is that of St
Stephen's, Walbrook (1676); other domed churches are St Mary-at-Hill, St
Mildred's, Bread Street, St Mary Abchurch (1681), where the dome
virtually covers the whole area of the church, and St Swithin's, Cannon
Street, an octagonal example. In St Anne and St Agnes, Aldersgate, the
crossing is covered with an intersecting barrel vault; and in this small
church, about 52 ft. square with four supporting columns, he manages to
get nave, transept and choir with aisles in the angles. In those
churches where there was sufficient length, the ordinary arrangement of
nave and aisle is adopted, with an elliptical barrel vault over the
nave, sometimes intersected and lighted from clerestory windows, the
finest example of these being St Bride's, Fleet Street; other examples
are St Mary-le-Bow (Cheapside), Christchurch (Newgate) and St Andrew's
(Holborn). In St James's, Piccadilly, of which the site was a new one,
the plan of nave and aisles with galleries over, and a fine internal
design with barrel-vaulted ceiling, was adopted; the exterior is very
simple, which suggests that Wren attached much more importance to the
interior. It should be pointed out that in all these cases, the vaults,
to which we have referred, were in lath and plaster, and consequently
covered over with slate roofs, and as a rule the exteriors (which are
rarely visible) were deemed to be of less importance. This is, however,
made up for by the position selected for the towers, and in their varied
design those of St Mary-le-Bow, St Bride's (Fleet Street) and St Magnus
(London Bridge) are perhaps the finest of a most remarkable series.

  The foundation stone of St Paul's cathedral was laid in 1675, and the
  lantern was finished in 1710. The silhouette of the dome (Plate II.,
  fig. 66), which is, of course, its principal feature, is far superior
  to those of St Peter's at Rome, or the Invalides or Panthéon at Paris,
  and the problem of its construction with the central lantern was
  solved much more satisfactorily than in any other example. Wren
  realized that the attempt to render a dome beautiful internally as
  well as externally could only be obtained by having three shells in
  its construction; the inner one for inside effect, the outer one to
  give greater prominence externally, and the third, of conical form, to
  support the lantern.

  In plan, Wren's design (fig. 53) was in accordance with the
  traditional arrangement of an English cathedral, with nave, north and
  south transepts and choir, in all cases with side aisles, and a small
  apse to the choir. The great dome over the crossing is, like the
  octagon at Ely, of the same width as nave and aisles together. It
  resembles the plan of that cathedral also in the four great arches
  opening into nave, transepts and choir, with smaller arches between.
  Instead of the great barrel vault of St Peter's, Rome, Wren introduced
  a series of cupolas over the main arms of the cathedral, which enabled
  him to light the same with clerestory windows; these are not visible
  on the exterior, as they are masked by the upper storey which Wren
  carried round the whole structure, in order, probably, to give it
  greater height and importance; by its weight, however, it serves to
  resist the thrust of the vaults transmitted by buttresses across the
  aisles. The grouping of the two lanterns on the west front with the
  central dome is extremely fine; the west portico is not satisfactory,
  but the semicircular porticoes of the north and south transepts are
  very beautiful features. Greater importance is given to the cathedral
  by raising it on a podium about 12 ft. above the level of the pavement
  outside, which enables the crypt under the whole cathedral to be
  lighted by side windows.

  The principal examples of the churches which followed are those of St
  George's, Bloomsbury; St Mary Woolnoth; Christ Church, Spitalfields,
  by Nicholas Hawksmoor; and St Mary-le-Strand (1714), and St
  Martin's-in-the-Fields (1721), by James Gibbs. Gibbs's interiors are
  second only to those of Wren, while Hawksmoor's are very weak; in both
  cases, however, the exteriors are finely designed. Amongst subsequent
  works are St John's, Westminster, and St Philips, Birmingham (1710),
  by Thomas Archer; St George's, Hanover Square (1713-1714), by John
  James; All Saints' church, Oxford, by Dean Aldrich; St
  Giles-in-the-Fields (1731), by Henry Flitcroft; and St Leonard's,
  Shoreditch (1736), by George Dance.

  [Illustration: FIG. 53.--Plan of St Paul's Cathedral, London.]

  Sir Christopher Wren's chief monumental work was Greenwich hospital,
  in the arrangement of which he had to include the Queen's House, and a
  block already begun on the west side. His solution was of the most
  brilliant kind, and seen from the river the grouping of the several
  blocks with the colonnade and cupolas of the two central ones is
  admirable.

  Wren's next great work was the alterations and additions to Hampton
  Court palace, begun in 1689, the east front facing the park (Plate
  VI., fig. 77), the south front facing the river, the fountain court
  and the colonnade opposite the great hall. Chelsea hospital
  (1682-1692), the south front (now destroyed) to Christ's hospital
  (1692), and Winchester school (1684-1687), are all examples in brick
  with stone quoins, cornices, door and window dressings, which show how
  Wren managed with simple materials to give a monumental effect. The
  library which he built in Trinity College, Cambridge (1678), with
  arcades on two storeys divided by three-quarter detached columns of
  the Doric and Ionic orders, is based on the same principle of design
  as those in the court of the Farnese palace at Rome by Sangallo, a
  part of the palace which is not likely to have been known by him.

  The results of the Italian Revival in domestic architecture were not
  altogether satisfactory, for although it is sometimes claimed that the
  style was adapted by its architects to the traditional requirements
  and customs of the English people, the contrary will be found if they
  are compared with the work of the 16th century. The chief aim seems to
  have been generally to produce a great display of Classic features,
  which, even supposing they followed more closely the ancient models,
  were quite superfluous and generally interfered with the lighting of
  the chief rooms, which were sacrificed to them. In fact there are many
  cases in which one cannot help feeling how much better the effect
  would be if the great porticoes rising through two storeys were
  removed. This is specially the case in Sir John Vanbrugh's mansion,
  Seaton Delaval, in Northumberland (1720); his other works, Blenheim
  (1714) and Castle Howard (1702), are vulgarized also by the employment
  of the large orders. The same defect exists in Stoneleigh Abbey,
  Leamington, where the orders carried up through two and three storeys
  respectively destroy the scale of the whole structure.

  Among other mansions, the principal examples are Houghton in Norfolk
  (1723), a fine work, the villa at Mereworth in imitation of the Villa
  Capra near Vicenza, and the front of old Burlington House (1718),
  copied from the Porto palace at Vicenza, by Colin Campbell; Holkham in
  Norfolk and Devonshire House, London, by William Kent; Ditchley in
  Oxfordshire, and Milton House near Peterborough, by Gibbs;
  Chesterfield House, London, by Isaac Ware; Wentworth House in
  Yorkshire (1740), and Woburn Abbey in Bedfordshire (1747), by Henry
  Flitcroft; Spencer House, London (1762), by John Vardy; Prior Park and
  various works in Bath by John Wood; the Mansion House, London, by
  George Dance; Wardour in Wiltshire, Kedleston Hall in Derbyshire, and
  Worksop in Nottinghamshire (1763), by James Paine; Gopsall Hall, Ely
  House, Dover Street, London (1772), and Heveringham Hall in Suffolk,
  by Sir Robert Taylor, to whose munificence we owe the Taylor Buildings
  at Oxford; Harewood House in Yorkshire (1760), Lytham Hall in
  Lancashire, and (part of) Wentworth House in Yorkshire, by John Carr;
  and Luton Hoo (1767), now largely reconstructed, and Sion House
  (1761), the best-known mansions by Robert Adam, who with his brothers
  built the Adelphi and many houses in London. Adam designed a type of
  decoration in stucco for ceilings and mantelpieces, the dies of which
  are still in existence and are utilized extensively in modern houses.
  His labours were not confined to buildings, but extended to their
  decoration, furniture and fittings.

  The works of Sir William Chambers were of a most varied nature, but
  his fame is chiefly based on Somerset House in the Strand, London
  (1776), with its façade facing the river, a magnificent work second
  only to Inigo Jones's Whitehall, but infinitely more extensive and
  difficult to design. He was also the author of a work on _The
  Decorative Part of Civil Architecture_, which is still the standard
  work on the subject in England. His pupil, James Gandon, won the first
  gold medal given by the Royal Academy in 1769, and his principal work
  was the Custom House in Dublin (1781). Newgate prison (1770), a
  remarkable building now destroyed, was the chief work carried out by
  George Dance, jun.

  Other buildings not yet mentioned are the Alcove and Banqueting Hall
  (Orangery) of Kensington Palace, by Wren; the Radcliffe library,
  Oxford, by Gibbs, an extremely fine work both externally and
  internally; Queen's College, Oxford, by Hawksmoor; the county hall,
  Northampton, by Sir Roger Norwich; the town hall, Abingdon (1677),
  designer unknown; the Ashmolean museum, Oxford (1677), by T. Wood;
  Clare College, Cambridge, and St Catherine's Hall, Cambridge
  (1640-1679), by Thomas and Robert Grumboll, master-masons; the custom
  house, King's Lynn (1681), by Henry Bell; Nottingham Castle, designed
  by the duke of Newcastle in 1674 and carried out by March, his clerk
  of works--the central portion is finely proportioned, and it is only
  in the pilasters at the quoins that one recognizes the amateur; two
  houses in Cavendish Square, London (1717), on the north side, by John
  James; Lord Burlington's villa (1740) at Chiswick, by William Kent,
  which with its internal decorations is still perfect; the celebrated
  Palladian Bridge at Wilton, by R. Morris; and last but not least, in
  consequence of its great influence on modern architecture, Sparrowe's
  house at Ipswich (1567-1662), the timber oriel windows of which are
  now so often reproduced.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN GERMANY

The classical revival does not seem to have taken root in Germany much
before the middle of the 16th century, some forty to fifty years later
than in France, from which country it is said to have been introduced,
and in some of the early work there is a great similarity to French
examples, but without the refinement and variety of detail which one
finds in the châteaux of the Loire and in many of the French towns. In
the rood-screen of the cathedral at Hildesheim (1546), the court of the
town hall at Görlitz (1534), the portal of the Petershof at Halberstadt
(1552), and the entrance gateway of the castle at Brieg (1553), one is
able to recognize certain ornamental details and a similar superposition
of pilasters in several storeys to that which is found in various towns
in Normandy and on the Loire. In both countries the new style was
engrafted on the last phase of the Gothic period, so forming at first a
transitional style, which lasted about fifty years. Thus the lofty roofs
which prevailed in the 15th century are developed further, but with this
great divergence in the two countries. In France there are rarely gable
ends, in Germany they are not only the chief characteristic feature of
the main front, but are introduced in the side elevations in the shape
of immense dormers with two or three storeys and rising the full height
of the roof, as in the castle at Hämelschenburg near Hameln. Throughout
Germany, therefore, the gable end and the dormer gable became the chief
features on which they lavished all their ornamental designs, the main
walls of the building being as a rule either in plain masonry, rubble
masonry with stucco facing, or brick and stone. Other prominent features
are the octagonal and circular oriel windows rising through two or three
storeys at the corners of their buildings--rectangular bow windows in
two or three storeys, which were allowed apparently to encroach on the
pavement, and octagonal turrets or towers instead of circular as in
France. In the vicinity of the Harz mountains, where timber was
plentiful, a large proportion of the factories, houses and even public
buildings, are erected in half-timber work with elaborate carving of the
door and window jambs, projecting corbels, &c. At Hildesheim,
Wernigerode, Goslar, &c., these structures are sometimes of immense size
and richly decorated. Among early examples in stone, the porch added to
the town hall of Cologne (1571), the projecting wings of the town halls
at Halberstadt and Lemgo (1565), and the town halls at Posen (1550),
Altenburg (1562-1567) and Rothenburg (1572-1590), are all picturesque
examples more or less refined in design. In the last-named example the
purer Italian style has exercised its influence in the principal doorway
and in the arcaded gallery on the east front. This same influence shows
itself in the courtyard of the town hall at Nuremberg, where the arcades
of the two upper storeys might be taken for those of the courts of the
palaces at Rome.

  Amongst other 16th-century work there are two entrance gates at
  Danzig, the Hohe Tor (1588), a fine massive structure, and the
  Langgasse Tor (1600), more or less pure Italian in style. At Augsburg,
  the arsenal (1603-1607), by the architect Elias Holl (1573-1646), is
  of a bold and original design, and the town hall has magnificent
  ceilings and wainscotting round the walls of the principal halls. This
  brings us to the castle of Heidelberg (Plate VII., figs. 78, 79 and
  80), which is looked upon by the Germans as the chef d'oeuvre of the
  Renaissance in Germany. As seen from the great court it forms an
  interesting study, there being the work of three periods: in the
  centre the picturesque group of the older building (c. 1525), on the
  right the Otto-Heinrichs-Bau (1556-1559), and on the left the
  Friedrichs-Bau (1602-1607). Of the two the latter is the finer. The
  architect of the Otto-Heinrichs-Bau would seem to have been undecided
  whether to give greater prominence and projection to his pilasters and
  cornices or to his windows with their dressings and pediments, so he
  has compromised the matter by making them both about the same, and the
  effect is most monotonous. In the Friedrichs-Bau, which is a
  remarkable work, the pilasters are of great projection, with bold
  cornices and simple windows well set back, while the tracery of the
  ground-floor windows is a pleasant relief from the constant repetition
  of pilaster window dressings. The gables also of the Friedrichs-Bau
  break the horizontal sky-line agreeably. A more minute examination of
  the decorative details, however, betrays the advent of a peculiar
  rococo style of a most debased type, which throughout the 17th century
  spread through Germany, and the repetition of the same details
  suggests that it was copied from some of the pattern books which were
  published towards the end of the 16th century, comprising
  heterogeneous designs for title pages, door heads, frontispieces, and
  even extending to new versions of the orders, which apparently
  appealed to the German mason and saved him the trouble of invention.
  These books, compiled by de Vries and Dietterlin, emanated from the
  Low Countries, and their influence extended to England during the
  Elizabethan period. At all events in Germany it would seem to have
  arrested the purer Italian work, which we have already noticed, and
  henceforth in the gable ends one finds the most extraordinary
  accumulation of distorted forms which, though sometimes picturesque,
  disfigure the German work of the 17th century. An exception might
  perhaps be made in favour of the Peller'sche Haus in Nuremberg (1625),
  one of the best houses of modest dimensions in Germany. The façade in
  the Aegidien-Platz is a fine composition; inside is a very picturesque
  court and staircase, and the painted ceiling and the wainscotting of
  one of the rooms in woods of different colours, though not very pure
  in style, are of excellent design and execution.

  Some of the most characteristic work of this type exists at Hameln,
  where the façades of the Rattenfängerhaus (1602), the Hochzeitshaus
  (1610), and many other buildings, are covered with the most
  extraordinary devices, leaving scarcely a foot of plain masonry as a
  relief. The south front of the town hall of Bremen (1612) is in the
  same style (Plate IV., fig. 70), relieved, however, by the fine large
  windows of the great hall and the arcade in front, in which there is
  some picturesque detail. Later in the century the degradation
  increases until it reaches its climax in the Zwinger palace at Dresden
  (1711), the most terrible rococo work ever conceived, if we except
  some of the Churrigueresque work in Spain.

  Among the most pleasing features in Germany are the fountains which
  abound in every town; of these there are good examples at Tübingen,
  Prague, Hildesheim, Ulm, Nuremberg, already famed for its Gothic
  fountains, Mainz and Rothenburg. In the latter town, built on an
  eminence, they are of great importance for the supply of the town, and
  some of them are extremely picturesque and of good design.

  Up to the present we have said nothing about the ecclesiastical
  buildings in Germany, for the reason that the period between the
  Reformation and the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War was not
  favourable to church building. The only example worth mentioning is
  the church of St Michael at Munich (1583-1597), and that more for its
  plan than for its architecture. It has a wide nave covered with a
  barrel vault, and a series of chapels forming semicircular recesses on
  each side, the walls between acting as buttresses to the great vault.
  The transept is not deep enough to have any architectural value, but
  if at the east end there had been only an apse it would have been a
  better termination than the long choir. The Liebfrauenkirche at
  Dresden (1726-1745) has a good plan, but internally is arranged like a
  theatre with pit, tiers of boxes, and a gallery, all in the worst
  possible taste, and externally the dome is far too high and destroys
  the scale of the lower part of the church. An elliptical dome is never
  a pleasing object, and in the church of St Charles Borromeo, at
  Vienna, there are no other features to redeem its ugliness. The
  Marienkirche at Wolfenbüttel (1608-1622) has a fine Italian portal;
  its side elevation is spoilt by the series of gable dormers, which are
  of no possible use, as the church (of the _Hallenkirchen_ type) is
  well lighted through the aisle windows. The portal of the
  Schlosskapelle (1555) at Dresden is a fine work in the Italian style;
  and lastly the church at Bückeburg, in a late debased style, is
  redeemed only by the fact that it is built in fine masonry and that
  the joints run through all the rococo details.     (R. P. S.)


RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN BELGIUM AND HOLLAND

The Gothic development in the 15th century in Belgium, as evidenced in
her magnificent town halls and other public buildings, not only supplied
her requirements in the century following, but hindered the introduction
of the Classic Revival, so that it is not till the second half of the
16th century that we find in the town hall of Antwerp a building which
is perhaps more Italian in design than any work in Germany. There are,
however, a few instances of earlier Renaissance, such as the Salm Inn
(1534) at Malines; the magnificent chimneypiece, by Conrad van
Noremberger of Namur, in the council chamber of the palais de justice at
Bruges (1529); and the palais de justice of Liége (1533), formerly the
bishop's palace, in the court of which are features suggesting a Spanish
influence. The influence of the cinque-cento style of Italy may be
noticed in the tomb of the count de Borgnival (1533) in the cathedral of
Breda, and in the choir stalls of the church at Enkhuisen on the borders
of the Zuyder Zee, both in Holland, and in the choir stalls of the
cathedral of Ypres in Belgium; the carving of these bears so close a
resemblance to cinque-cento work in design and execution that one might
conclude they were the work of Italian artists, but their authors are
known to have been Flemish, who must, however, have studied in Italy.
Again, in the stained-glass windows of the church of St Jacques at
Liége, the details are all cinque-cento, with circular arches on
columns, festoons of leaves and other ornament, all apparently derived
from Italian sources, but necessarily executed by Flemish painters, as
stained-glass windows of that type are not often found in Italian
churches.

  Of public buildings in Belgium, the most noted example is that of the
  town hall at Antwerp, designed by Cornelius de Vriendt (1564). It has
  a frontage of over 300 ft. facing the Grande Place, and is an imposing
  structure in four storeys, arcaded on the lower storey and the classic
  orders above, with mullioned windows between on the three other
  storeys, the uppermost storey being an open loggia, which gives that
  depth of shadow obtained in Italy by a projecting cornice. It is
  almost the only building in Belgium without the usual gable, the
  centre block being carried up above the eaves and terminated with an
  entablature supporting at each end a huge obelisk, and in the centre
  what looks like the miniature representation of a church. The only
  other classic building is the Renaissance portion of the town hall at
  Ghent, which is very inferior to the older Gothic portion.

  What is wanting in the town halls, however, is amply replaced by the
  magnificence of the houses built for the various gilds, as for
  instance those of the Fishmongers at Malines (1580), of the Brewers,
  the Archers, the Tanners and the Cordeliers (rope-makers) at Antwerp,
  and, in the Grande Place at Brussels, the gilds of the Butchers, the
  Archers, the Skippers (the gable end of which represents the stern of
  a vessel with four cannons protruding), the Carpenters and others.
  Besides these, and especially in Antwerp, are to be found a very large
  series of warehouses, which in the richness of their decoration and
  their monumental appearance vie with the gilds in the evolution of a
  distinct style of Renaissance architecture--a type from which the
  architect of the present day might derive more inspiration than from
  the modest brick houses of Queen Anne's time.

  In domestic architecture, the best-preserved example of the 16th and
  17th centuries is the Musée Plantin at Antwerp, the earliest portion
  of which dates from 1535. This was bought by Ch. Plantin, who was
  employed by Philip of Spain to print all the breviaries and missals
  for Spain and the Netherlands; the fortune thus acquired enabled him
  and his successors to purchase from time to time adjoining properties
  which they rebuilt in the style of the earlier buildings. After 1637
  the buildings followed the style of the period, but up to that date
  they were all erected in brick with stone courses and window dressings
  round a central court. Internally the whole of the ancient fittings
  are retained, including those of the old shop, the show-rooms,
  reception rooms and the residential portion of the house, with the
  wainscotting and Spanish leather on the walls above, panelled
  ceilings, chimney-pieces, stained glass, &c., the most complete
  representation of the domestic style of Belgium.

  Of ecclesiastical architecture in the Renaissance style there are
  scarcely any examples worth noting. The tower of the church of St
  Charles Borromeo at Antwerp (1595-1610) is a fine composition similar
  in many respects to Wren's steeples, and the nave of St Anne's church
  at Bruges is of simple design and good proportion. The Belgian
  churches are noted for their immense pulpits, sometimes in marble and
  of a somewhat degraded style. The finest features in them are the
  magnificent rood-screens, in which the tradition of the Gothic
  examples already quoted seems to have been handed down. In the
  cathedral at Tournai is a fine specimen by Cornelius de Vriendt of
  Antwerp (1572), and there is a second at Nieuport, both similar in
  design to the example from Bois-le-Duc now in the Victoria and Albert
  Museum; and in the church of St Leonard at Léau is a tabernacle in
  stone, over 50 ft. high, in seven stages, with numerous figures by
  Cornelius de Vriendt (1550).

  In Holland, nearly all the principal buildings of the Renaissance date
  from the time of her greatest prosperity when the Dutch threw off
  their allegiance to the Spanish throne (1565). With the exception of
  the palace at Amsterdam (1648-1655), an immense structure in stone
  with no architectural pretensions, there are no buildings in Holland
  in which the influence of the purer style of the Italian revival can
  be traced. Internally the great hall of the palace and the staircase
  in the Louis XIV. style are fine examples of that period.

  The earliest Renaissance town hall is that of the Hague (1564),
  situated at the angle of two streets, which is an extremely
  picturesque building, in fact one of the few in which the architect
  has known how to group the principal features of his design. The
  Renaissance addition made to the old town hall of Haarlem is a
  characteristic example of the Dutch style. The walls are in red brick,
  the decorative portions, consisting of superimposed pilasters with
  mullioned and transomed windows, cornices and gable end, all being in
  stone. Inside this portion of the town hall, which is now a gallery
  and museum, is an ancient hall (not often shown to visitors) in which
  all the decorations and fittings date from the 17th century. There is
  a second example of an ancient hall in the Stadthuis at Kampen, one of
  the dead cities of the Zuyder Zee, which served originally as a court
  of justice, and retains all its fittings of the 16th century,
  including a magnificent chimneypiece in stone, some 25 ft. high and
  dated 1543.

  The town hall at Bolsward in Friesland is another typical specimen of
  Dutch architecture, in which the red brick, alternating with stone
  courses running through the semi-detached columns which decorate the
  main front, has given variety to the usual treatment of such features.
  The external double flight of steps with elaborate balustrade, and the
  twisted columns which flank the principal doorway, are extremely
  picturesque, if not quite in accordance with the principles of
  Palladio or Vignola.

  A similar flight of steps with balustrade forms the approach to the
  entrance doorway (on the first floor) of the town hall at Leiden,
  where the rich decoration of the centre block and its lofty gable is
  emphasized by contrast with the plain design of the chief front.

  In the three chief cities in Holland, the Hague, Amsterdam and
  Rotterdam, there are few buildings remaining of 17th-century work, so
  that they must be sought in the south at Dordrecht and Delft, or in
  the north at Leiden, Haarlem, Alkmaar, Hoorn, Enkhuisen, or, crossing
  the Zuyder Zee into Friesland, in Leeuwarden, Bolsward, Kampen and
  Zwolle, the dead cities. In all these towns ancient buildings have
  been preserved, there being no reason to pull them down. Of the
  entrance gateways at Hoorn there is an example left, of which the
  lower portion might be taken for a Roman triumphal arch, so closely
  does it adhere to the design of those monuments, extending even to a
  long Latin inscription in the frieze. The tower (1531-1652), built to
  protect the entrance to the harbour, has no gateway. There are some
  old buildings in Kampen, in one of which the entrance gateway is a
  simple and fine composition in brick and stone, the chief
  characteristics of the gateways here being the enormously high roofs
  of the circular towers flanking them. A finer and more picturesque
  grouping of roofs exists in the entrance gateway (Amsterdam Gate) at
  Haarlem, which is perhaps, however, eclipsed by those of the Waaghuis
  at Amsterdam with its seven conical roofs.

  The Waaghuisen, or weighing-houses for cheeses, are, next to the town
  halls, the most important buildings in Holland, and in fact vie with
  them in richness of design. The example at Alkmaar possesses not only
  an imposing front with gable in three storeys, but a lofty tower with
  belfry. At Deventer the main building is late Gothic (1528), in brick
  and stone, with an external double flight of steps and balustrades
  added in 1643.

  The Fleesch Halle (meat-market) at Haarlem, also in brick and stone,
  is of a very rococo style, but notwithstanding all its vagaries
  presents a most picturesque appearance.

  The domestic architecture of Holland and the shop fronts retain more
  of their original dispositions than will be found in any other
  country. At Hoorn, Enkhuisen and other towns, there has virtually been
  no change during the last 200 years. In the more flourishing towns as
  Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the increasing prosperity of the inhabitants
  led them in the latter portion of the 17th and in the 18th centuries
  to adapt features borrowed from the French work of Louis XIV. and
  Louis XV., without, however, their refinement, luxuriance or variety,
  so that although substantial structures they are extremely monotonous
  in general effect.     (R. P. S.)


MAHOMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE

Before proceeding with "modern architecture," to which the styles now
discussed have gradually led us, we have still another important
architectural style to describe, in Mahommedan architecture. The term
"Mahommedan" has been selected in preference to "Saracenic," because it
includes a much wider field, and enables us to bring in many
developments which could not well come under the latter title. It was
the Mahommedan religion which prescribed the plan and the features of
the mosques, and it was the restriction of that faith which led to the
principal characteristics of the style. The term "Saracenic" could
hardly be applied to the architecture of Spain, Persia or Turkey.

  The earliest mosques at Mecca and Medina, which have long since passed
  away, were probably of the simplest kind; there were no directions on
  the subject in the Koran, and, as Fergusson remarks, had the religion
  been confined to its native land, it is probable that no mosques
  worthy of the name would have ever been erected. In the first
  half-century of their conquest in Egypt and Syria the Mahommedans
  contented themselves with desecrated churches and other buildings, and
  it was only when they came among the temple-building nations that they
  seemed to have felt the necessity of providing some visible monument
  of their religion. The first requirement was a structure of some kind,
  which should indicate to the faithful the direction of Mecca, towards
  which, at stated times, they were to turn and pray. The earliest
  mosque, built by Omar at Jerusalem, no longer exists, but in the
  mosque of 'Amr at Cairo (fig. 54), founded in 643 and probably
  restored or added to at various times, we find the characteristic
  features which form the base of the plans of all subsequent mosques.
  These features consist of (a) a wall built at right angles to a line
  drawn towards Mecca, in which, sunk in the wall, was a niche
  indicating the direction towards which the faithful should turn; (b)
  a covered space for shelter from the sun or inclement weather, which
  was known as the prayer chamber; (c) in front of the prayer chamber,
  a large open court, in which there was a fountain for ablution; and
  (d) a covered approach on either side of these courts and from the
  entrance. The materials employed in the earlier mosque were all taken
  from ancient structures, Egyptian, Roman and Byzantine, but so
  arranged as to constitute the elements of a new style. The columns
  employed were not always of sufficient size, and therefore in order to
  obtain a greater height, above the capitals were square dies, carrying
  ranges of arches, all running in the direction of Mecca; to resist the
  thrust, wood ties were built in under the arches, so that the
  structure was of the lightest appearance. The same principle was
  observed in the mosque of Kairawan, in Tunisia (675), and in the
  mosque of Cordova (786-985), copied from it. Similar wooden ties are
  found in the mosque of El Aksa and the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem
  (built 691), so that they became one of the characteristics of the
  style. For constructional reasons, however, this method of building
  was not always adhered to, and in the mosque of Tulun (fig 55) in
  Cairo (879), the first mosque in Egypt, built of original materials,
  we find an important departure. The arcades, instead of running at
  right angles to the Mecca wall, are built parallel with it, on account
  of the great thrust of the arches, all built in brick (fig. 56). The
  wood ties would have been quite insufficient to resist the thrust, and
  in the case of this mosque were probably used to carry lanterns.

  [Illustration: FIG. 54.--Plan of Mosque of 'Amr. Old Cairo.

    1. Kibla.          5. Fountain for Ablution
    2. Mimbar.         6. Rooms built later.
    3. Tomb of 'Amr.   7. Minaret
    4. Dakka.          8. Latrines.]

  The mosque of Tulun is the earliest example in which the pointed arch
  appears throughout, and it forms the leading and most characteristic
  constructional feature of the style in its subsequent developments in
  every country, except in Barbary and Spain, where the circular-headed
  horse-shoe arch seems to be preferred. As it is also the earliest
  mosque in which the decoration applied is that which was by inference
  laid down in the Koran, some allusion to the restrictions therein
  contained, and the consequent result, may not be out of place. The
  representation of nature in any form was absolutely forbidden, and
  this applied generally to foliage of all kinds, and plants, the
  representation of birds or animals, and above all of the human figure.
  The only exceptions to the rule would seem to be those found in the
  very conventional representations of lions carved over the gateways of
  Cairo and Jerusalem and in the courts of the Alhambra. It was this
  restriction which produced the extremely beautiful conventional
  patterns which are carried round the arches of the mosque of Tulun,
  and are found in the friezes, string-courses and the capitals of the
  shafts, and when these patterns form the background of the text of the
  Koran in high relief, in the splendid Arabic characters, it would be
  difficult to find a more beautiful decorative scheme in the absence of
  natural forms. As the mosque of Tulun was built by a Coptic architect,
  and its decoration is evidently the result of many years of previous
  developments, it is probably to the Copts that its evolution was due.
  The second type of decoration is that which is given by geometrical
  forms, and either in pavements or wall decorations in marble, or in
  the framing of woodwork in ceilings, or in doorways, the most
  elaborate and beautiful combinations were produced. The third type of
  decoration is one which in a sense is found in the origin of most
  styles, but which, restricted as the Mahommedans were to conventional
  representations, received a development of far greater importance, and
  in one of its forms--that known as stalactite vaulting--constitutes
  the one feature in the style which is not found in any other, and
  which, from the western coast of Spain to the east of India, at once
  differentiates it from any other style.

  A complete account, with illustrations of the origin of the stalactite
  will be found in the _Journal of the Royal Institute of British
  Architects_ (1898) The earliest example is found in the tomb of
  Zobeide, the favourite wife of Harun al-Rashid, at Bagdad, built at
  the end of the 8th century. This tomb, octagonal in plan, and of
  modest dimensions, was vaulted over by a series of niches in nine
  stages or levels rising one above the other, and brought forward on
  the inside, so that the ninth course completed the covering of the
  tomb. It was built in this way to save centreing, each niche when
  completed being self-supporting. There is a second tomb at Bagdad, of
  later date--the tomb of Ezekiel,--constructed in the same way, except
  that in each stage the niches are built not one over the other but
  astride between the two, and this is the way in which in subsequent
  developments it always appears to have been built. Its application to
  the pendentives of the portals of the mosque at Tabriz and Sultaniya
  was the next development; and when some two centuries later it is
  found in Europe, in the palaces of the Ziza at Palermo, dating from
  about the beginning of the 11th century, it has lost its brick
  constructive origin, and, being cut in slabs of stone, has become
  simply a decorative feature. Its earliest example in Egypt is in the
  tomb of ash-Shafi'i at Cairo, built by Saladin about 1240. Here and in
  all subsequent examples throughout Egypt and Syria it is always carved
  in stone. In the Alhambra another material was employed, the elaborate
  vaults being built with a series of small moulds in stucco. In the
  ceilings of the mosques at Cairo it was frequently carved in wood, and
  consequently lost all trace of its origin.

  [Illustration: FIG. 55.--Plan of Mosque of Tulun, Cairo.

  From Coste's _Architecture Arabe en Caire_]

  Two other decorative features, but having a constructive origin, are
  (1) the alternating of courses of stone of different colour, probably
  derived from Byzantine work, where bands of brick were employed; and
  (2) the elaborate forms given to the voussoirs of the arches of the
  Mecca niche.

  Having now described the principles which ruled the plans of the
  mosques and formed the _motifs_ of their architectural design, it
  remains to take the principal examples in the various countries where
  the style was developed.

  Although the tendency of modern research points to Persia as the
  country in which the first development of the art took place, and we
  have already referred to two tombs at Bagdad, in which the earliest
  examples of a stalactite vault are found, so far as remains are
  concerned nothing can be traced earlier than the work of Ghazan Khan
  (1294), whose mosque at Tabriz, half in ruins, is the earliest
  example.

  It is to Egypt therefore we turn first. There still exist--and
  sometimes in good preservation--mosques and other buildings in Cairo
  of every period showing the development of the Mahommedan style, from
  the 9th to the 17th century. Owing to the magnificent material at
  their command--for unfortunately more of it was taken from the ancient
  Egyptian monuments than from the quarries--a much purer style was
  evolved than in Persia; and owing to the absence of rain those
  ephemeral structures built in brick and covered with stucco, which in
  other countries would long have passed away, retained the crispness of
  their flowing ornament, which is still as sharp and well defined as
  when executed. We have already referred to two of the earlier
  mosques, those of 'Amr in Old Cairo and of Tulun. The next in date,
  and built also in brick, is the mosque El Hakim (c. 1003). The mosque
  of El Azhar ("the Splendid") was founded about 970, but entirely
  rebuilt in 1270 and enlarged in 1470. It is the university, and its
  Liwan or prayer chamber is the largest in Cairo, there being 380
  columns carrying its roof.

  The mosque of al-Zahir (founded 1264) is now occupied as barracks. In
  one of its entrance porches the arches are decorated with the
  well-known zigzag or chevron ornament, and a second porch with cushion
  voussoirs, features found elsewhere only in Sicily, so that the mosque
  was probably built by masons brought from thence. Then follows a
  series of mosques: Kalaun (1287); al-Nasir (1299-1303); Merdani
  (1338); all based on the same plan as those described with a large
  courtyard surrounded by porticoes. The mosque of al-Nasir has a portal
  with clustered piers and pointed and moulded orders. This is said to
  have been brought over as a trophy from Acre, but it is more probable
  that Syrian masons were imported to carry on the style introduced by
  the Crusaders.

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.--Court of the Mosque of Tulun, Cairo. (From
  Coste.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 57.--Plan of the Mosque of the Sultan Hasan.]

  The mosque of Sultan Hasan (1357-1360) marks an important change in
  the scheme of its plan, which served afterwards as a future model
  (fig. 57). It consists of a central court, 117 ft. by 105 ft. open to
  the sky, and instead of the covered porticoes on each side there are
  immense recesses covered over with pointed vaults. The prayer chamber
  is 90 ft. deep, 90 ft. high to the apex of the vault and 69 ft. wide,
  a greater span than any Gothic cathedral, and only exceeded in
  dimensions by the great hall of the palace at Ctesiphon built by the
  Sassanian dynasty. The mosque covers a large area, and would seem to
  have been occupied by four religious sects, whose rooms, situated on
  the outer side, are lighted by windows in eight or ten storeys, giving
  the appearance of a factory. Its entrance portal, 60 ft. to 70 ft.
  high, is the finest in Egypt, and is only exceeded in dimensions by
  those of the Persian and Indian mosques. The vestibule is covered by a
  dome with stalactite pendentives, and is perhaps the most complete and
  perfect example in Cairo. Beyond the prayer chamber is the tomb of the
  founder, which is covered by a dome. This, according to Poole, was not
  originally a feature in Saracenic mosques. A dome, he says, has
  nothing to do with prayer and therefore nothing with a mosque. It is
  simply the roof of a tomb, and only exists when there is at least a
  tomb to be covered. The greater number of the mosques in and outside
  Cairo are mausoleums, which accounts for the large number of domes
  found there.

  Of the tombs of the caliphs, outside Cairo, the most important is the
  tomb of ash-Shafi'i, reputed to have been built by Saladin but now
  quite changed by restoration. The tomb of Barkuk, in which the
  courtyard plan of Sultan Hasan is retained, has porticoes round it,
  which are of much more solid construction than those in earlier
  examples, and carry small domes. The two great domes on the east side
  and the minarets on the west are among the finest in Cairo. The
  tomb-mosque of Kait Bey (c. 1470), though comparatively small, is the
  finest in design and most elegant of its type in Egypt. Here the
  central court is covered by a cupola lantern (fig. 58), and the
  ceiling over the prayer chamber and other recesses is framed in timber
  and elaborately painted and gilded. The tomb is at the south-east
  corner, and is covered with a dome in stone, beautifully carved with
  conventional designs. In some of the mosques by the side of the portal
  is a fountain enclosed with bronze grilles, and above it a small room
  sometimes used as a school with open arcades on two sides. This
  feature in the mosque of Kait Bey, with the portal on its right, the
  lofty minaret beyond, and the great dome at the farther end, makes it
  the most picturesque in aspect of any Cairene mosque. (For plan see
  MOSQUE, fig. 3.)

  [Illustration: PLATE VII.

    FIG 78.--HEIDELBERG CASTLE, FRIEDRICHSBAU.

    _Photo L.L. Paris._

    FIG 79.--HEIDELBERG CASTLE, OTTO HEINRICHSBAU.

    _Photo L.L. Paris._

    FIG. 80.--HEIDELBERG CASTLE, OTTO-HEINRICHSBAU.

    _Photo L.L. Paris._]

  [Illustration: PLATE VII.

    FIG. 81.--PORCH, PETERBORO' CATHEDRAL.

    _Photo, J. Valentine, Ltd._

    FIG. 82.--ELY CATHEDRAL.

    _Photo, G.W. Wilson & Co._

    FIG. 83.--THE LOUVRE--PAVILLON HENRI II.

    (_Portion of Lescot's work on left._)

    _Photo, Neurdein._

    FIG. 84.--GRAND STAIRWAY, CHATEAU OF BLOIS.

    _Photo, Neurdein._]

  It was in Egypt that the minaret received its highest development. The
  earliest example is that of the mosque of Tulun, which is of unusual
  shape, and has winding round it an inclined plane or staircase of easy
  ascent which can be made on horseback. The original design of this
  scheme was probably derived from the mosque of Samara, a town 60 m.
  north of Bagdad, where the minaret built c. 850 has a spiral ascent
  round it, recalling that of the Assyrian ziggurat as at Khorsabad. The
  general design of the Cairo minarets would seem to have been
  universally adhered to from the 12th century onwards, but the upper
  storeys are all varied in detail, there being virtually no two alike.
  As a rule the lower portion of the minaret forms part of the main wall
  of the mosque, and was carried up square a few feet above the
  cresting. It then became octagonal on plan, the sides decorated with
  niches or geometrical ornaments in bold relief. This, the first
  independent storey, was crowned by a stalactite cornice carrying the
  balcony (fig. 59), from which the _muezzin_ (call-to-prayer) was
  chanted. In the early and fine examples the balustrade round it
  consisted of vertical posts with panels between, pierced with
  geometric ornaments, and all in stone. The second storey, also
  octagonal, was set back sufficiently to allow a passage round, and
  this was crowned by a similar stalactite cornice and balustrade. A
  third storey, sometimes circular on plan, completed the tower, which
  was crowned with a bulbous terminal. In one of the mosques, that of El
  Azhar, the first storey is square on plan, and the second storey has
  twin towers with lofty bulbous finials. The elaboration of the carved
  ornament on the various storeys of the minarets is of considerable
  beauty. Among the most remarkable, other than those already referred
  to, are the minarets of the mosque of al-Bordeni, of Kalaun, al-Nazir,
  Mu'ayyad (built on the semicircular bastion wall of the Zuwela Gate),
  Sultan Barkuk (1348), and numerous other mosques or tombs outside
  Cairo.

  [Illustration: FIG. 58.--Interior of Kait Bey Mosque. (From Coste.)]

  The earlier domes were quite plain, hemispherical, with buttresses
  round the base, similar to those of St Sophia at Constantinople. In
  the later domes it was found that by raising the upper portion so as
  to take the form in section of a pointed arch, they could be built in
  horizontal courses of masonry up to about two-thirds of their height,
  the upper portion forming a lid without any thrust. It is probably
  owing to this method of construction that they still exist in such
  large numbers. The outer surfaces are decorated in various ways with
  geometrical designs, star patterns, chevrons, diapers, &c. Domes built
  in brick were covered with stucco and divided up into godroons.

  We have already referred to the lofty portal of the mosque of Sultan
  Hasan; portals of smaller dimensions form the principal entrance to
  all the mosques and private houses. The recessed portion rises to
  twice or three times the height of the door, and its pointed or cusped
  head is always filled by a rich stalactite vault.

  The descriptions of the disposition of plan, and the principles which
  have governed the plans of the Cairene mosques, apply equally to those
  in Syria, so that it now only remains necessary to quote the chief
  examples. Of these the earliest is the Dome of the Rock, incorrectly
  called the mosque of Omar, which was built by Abdalmalik in 691,
  partly with materials taken from the buildings destroyed by Chosroes.
  At first it consisted of a central area enclosing the sacred rock,
  covered with a dome and with aisles round carried on columns and
  piers, and like the smaller Dome of the Chain open all round, but the
  climate of Syria is very different from that in Egypt, and
  consequently at a later period (813-833) the sultan Mamun built the
  walls which now enclose the whole structure. Many restorations have
  taken place since, and the dome with its rich internal decoration is
  attributed to Saladin (1189). The magnificent Persian tiles which
  encase the walls, the marble casing of some of the piers, and the
  stained glass, form part of the works of Suleiman (1520-1560).

  The great mosque of Damascus occupied the site of an ancient church
  dedicated to St John the Baptist, which for a time was divided between
  the Christians and the Mahommedans. But in 705 the caliph al-Walid
  took possession of the whole church, which he rebuilt, retaining,
  however, the whole of the south wall, portions of which belonged to a
  Roman temple. This, which by chance happened to face south, became the
  Mecca wall, the niche being sunk in one of the doorways of the
  original temple. Its plan, therefore, is a variation of those we have
  already described. It consists of a transept with dome over the
  centre, three aisles of equal width, running both east and west, and a
  great court on the north side surrounded by arcades. The great
  transept is virtually the prayer chamber. The new building was erected
  by Byzantine masons sent from Constantinople, and decorated with
  marbles and mosaic by Greek artists. The mosque was almost entirely
  destroyed by fire in 1893, but has since been rebuilt.

  [Illustration: FIG. 59.--Exterior of Kait Bey Mosque, Cairo. (From
  Coste.)]

  The mosque of El Aksa in the sacred enclosure in Jerusalem, and south
  of the Dome of the Rock, was commenced by Abdalmalik (691), who used
  up materials taken from the church of St Mary, built by Justinian on
  Mount Sion, which had been destroyed by Chosroes. There have been so
  many restorations and rebuildings since, owing to destructive
  earthquakes and other causes, that it is difficult to give the precise
  dates of the various portions. The columns of the nave and aisles are
  extremely stunted in proportion, and their capitals are of a very
  debased type, copied by inferior artists from Byzantine models. They
  carry immense wood beams cased, and above them a range of pointed
  arches, among the earliest examples used throughout a mosque, and
  probably dating from the rebuilding (774-785). The Crusaders made
  various additions in the rear, but the great entrance porch is said to
  have been added by Saladin, after 1187, and was built probably by
  Christian masons who were allowed to remain in the country.

  The numerous minarets at Jerusalem and Damascus in general design
  follow those of Egypt, but instead of the incised work are generally
  encased with marble in geometric patterns.

  The great mosque at Mecca, from which it was thought at one time the
  plan of the Egyptian and other mosques was taken, is necessarily
  different from all others, because the Ka'ba or Holy Stone, towards
  which all the niches in all other mosques turn, stood in its centre.
  The arcades which surround the court were nearly all rebuilt in the
  17th century, as the whole mosque was washed away by a torrent in
  1626.

  The mosque of Kairawan in Tunisia was built in 675. It occupies an
  area of 427 ft. deep and 225 ft. wide, with a prayer chamber at the
  Mecca end of 17 aisles and 11 bays deep, more than twice, therefore,
  that of 'Amr in Old Cairo. The columns to the prayer chamber, all
  taken from ancient buildings, are 22 ft. high in the central aisle and
  15 ft. in all the others. They carry horse-shoe arches, which, as in
  the mosque of 'Amr, are all tied together by wood beams inserted at
  the springing of the arches.

  The mosque of Cordova was built by Abdarrahman (Abd-ar-Rahman) in
  786-789 in imitation of the mosque of Kairawan. There were eleven
  aisles of twenty-one bays, the centre one slightly wider than the
  other. The materials were taken from earlier buildings, and, as the
  columns and caps were not considered high enough, above the horse-shoe
  arches are built a second row of arches which carry the barrel vaults.
  To this mosque Hakim added twelve more bays in depth at the Mecca end
  (962), and in 985 Mansur added eight more aisles of thirty-three bays
  on the east side. Part of the open court on the north side dates from
  Abdarrahman's foundation (690) and part from Mansur.

  [Illustration: FIG. 60.--Capital and Springing of Arch, from the Hall
  of Abencarrages, Alhambra.]

  In the mosque of Cordova we find the earliest example of the cusped
  arch, in the additions made by Hakim in 961; in order to obtain a
  greater height above the columns, it became necessary to employ the
  expedient of raising arch above arch in order to obtain the height
  they required for the ceilings; and as these arches formed purely
  decorative features, which might otherwise have become monotonous,
  variety was given by introducing the cusped form of arch and
  interlacing them one within the other. It is probably this elaborate
  design which suggested the plaster decorations of the screens above
  the arches in the court of the Alhambra. Though commenced in 1245, the
  existing palace of the Alhambra was built in the first half of the
  14th century, at a time when the style was fully developed. There are
  two great courts at right angles to one another, the most important of
  which was the Court of the Lions, so called from the fountain in the
  centre, with twelve conventional representations of that animal
  carrying the basins. This court is surrounded by an arcade with
  stilted arches carried on slender marble columns with extremely rich
  decoration above, partly in stucco painted and gilt. The hall of the
  Abencerrages (35 ft. square) has a polygonal dome covered with
  arabesque (fig. 60). Two other halls are roofed with lofty stalactite
  vaults of great intricacy, richly gilded and of remarkable effect
  (fig. 61), but the employment of stucco instead of stone, as in Egypt,
  has led to an abuse in the wealth of enrichment, which is only partly
  redeemed by the plain masonry of the towers and walls enclosing the
  palace. The Giralda at Seville is the only example of a tower, but it
  does not seem to have served the purpose of a minaret.

  With the exception of the tombs of Zobeide and Ezekiel near Bagdad,
  and a hospital at Erzerum of the 12th century, built by the Seljukian
  dynasty, the Mahommedan style in Persia dates from the 13th century, i
  e. if Ghazan Khan built the mosque at Tabriz in 1294. The plan is that
  of a Byzantine church with a central dome, aisles and sanctuary. The
  portal consists of a lofty niche vaulted with semi-domes and
  stalactite pendentives, similar in many respects to the well-known
  example of Sultan Hasan in Cairo, built sixty years later. It is built
  in brick and covered internally and externally with glazed bricks of
  various colours, wrought into most intricate patterns with interlacing
  ornament and with Cufic inscriptions. The dazzling and perfect beauty
  in point of colour is not to be surpassed, but from the architectural
  point of view it possesses the fatal sin of not showing its
  construction. The bricks and tiles are only a veneer, and though in
  certain features (such as the portal and the dome) the construction is
  at least suggested, the tendency is to trust to decoration alone to
  produce architectural effects. (But see TABRIZ.)

  The great mosque at Isfahan (1585) is a good illustration of the
  danger attending a too free use of surface decoration. Strip the walls
  of their tiles, and nothing is left except square box-like forms with
  pointed arched openings of different form. The interior, however,
  owing to the variety of its features, and the varied play of light and
  shade given in the hemispherical vaults of its transepts and niches
  and the vaulted aisles, constitutes one of the most beautiful
  monuments of Mahommedan art.

  Apart from the great development of Mahommedan architecture in India
  (see INDIAN ARCHITECTURE), there remains now to be described only one
  other phase of the style, that found in Constantinople.

  Prior to the conquest of Constantinople in 1445, two mosques were
  built by the Turks at Brusa in Asia Minor. The plan of Ulu Jami, the
  great mosque, follows the original courtyard type. Yeshil Jami, the
  Green mosque (1430), built on the site of a Byzantine church, is
  cruciform on plan. In both of them the Persian influence is shown, in
  the magnificent towers with which they are covered, the marble casing
  and the stalactite vaults.

  [Illustration: FIG. 61.--Pendentive, from the Court of the Lions,
  Alhambra.]

  After the conquest of Constantinople, the supreme beauty of St Sophia,
  and the adaptability of its plan to the requirements of the Mahommedan
  faith, caused it to be accepted as the model on which all the new
  mosques were based. The first two erected were the Bayezid (1497-1515)
  and the Selim mosques (1520-1526). In the former the dome and its
  pendentives are carried on octagonal piers, and the dome, 108 ft. in
  diameter, is greater than in any subsequent example. The finest
  mosque, and the example in which we find the complete development of
  the Turkish style, is that erected by Suleiman the Magnificent in
  1550-1555. This mosque, designed by Sinan, an Armenian architect, is
  still quite perfect. The plan follows very closely its model, St
  Sophia, and consists of a central dome, 86 ft. in diameter and 156 ft.
  high, carried on pendentives, resting on great arches which are
  slightly pointed, with great apses on the east and west sides, and
  three smaller apses in each, the arches of which ate all circular. The
  principal change in design is that found in the north and south walls,
  under the arches carrying the dome; in St Sophia they were subdivided
  into two storeys with galleries overlooking the church, but in the
  Suleimanic mosque the galleries are set back in the outer aisles, and
  the screen walls consist of a wide central and two side pointed
  arches, and voussoirs alternately of black and white marble. The
  tympana above this is pierced with eighteen windows filled with
  geometric tracery. Stalactite work is employed in the pendentive of
  the smaller apses and in the capitals of the columns carrying the
  pointed arches. The columns are of porphyry, the shafts, 28 ft. high,
  being taken from the Hippodrome and probably brought originally from
  Egypt. The walls are cased with marble up to the springing of the
  dome, but the magnificent mosaics of St Sophia are here replaced by
  vulgar colouring and plaster decoration of a rococo style, due
  probably to recent restorations. The mosque is preceded by a
  forecourt, surrounded by an arcade on all sides and containing a
  fountain, and in the garden in the rear is the tomb of the founder and
  his wife.

  The Shah-Zadeh mosque, known as the prince's mosque, was also built by
  Sultan Suleiman, from the designs of Sinan, the same Armenian
  architect who built the Suleimanic mosque. Here, instead of confining
  the great apses to the east and west sides, they are introduced on the
  north and south sides in place of the screen, and produce a monotonous
  and poor effect. The same design is found in the Ahmedin mosque, built
  1608, and with the same result. Externally, however, they are both
  fine, owing to the variety of domes, semi-domes and other curved forms
  of roof.

  The minarets of the Turkish mosques are very inferior to those of
  Cairo. They are of great height, generally semicircular, with narrow
  balconies round the upper part, and crowned with extinguisher roofs.
  To a certain extent, however, they contrast very well with the domes
  and semi-domes of St Sophia and those of the mosques built by the
  Turks.

  In the mosque of Osman, built 1748-1757, we find the first trace of
  Western influence in its rococo design, but here, as in the mosque of
  Mehemet Ali in Cairo, built in 1837, the scheme is so good that,
  notwithstanding the great falling off in design, and, in the latter
  mosque, the construction, the effect of the interior is very fine.

  Amongst other architectural features, the fountains in the courtyards
  of the mosques and those which decorate the public squares are
  extremely pleasing in design. The latter are square on plan with
  polygonal angles elaborate niches with stalactite heads, with
  overhanging eaves on each side; the ornament is very varied and the
  colour sometimes very attractive. The roofs have sometimes most
  picturesque outlines.     (R. P. S.)


MODERN ARCHITECTURE

The beginning of the 19th century may be considered to mark the
beginning of the modern era in architecture. The 19th century is the
period _par excellence_ of architectural "revivals." The great
Renaissance movement in Italy already described was something more than
a mere revival. It was a new spirit affecting the whole of art and
literature and life, not an architectural movement only; and as far as
architecture is concerned it was not a mere imitative revival. The great
Italian architects of the Renaissance, as well as Wren, Vanbrugh and
Hawksmoor in England, however they drew their inspiration from antique
models, were for the most part original architects; they put the ancient
materials to new uses of their own. The tendency of the 19th-century
revivals, on the other hand, except in France, was distinctly imitative
in a sense in which the architecture of the great Renaissance period was
not. Correctness of imitation, in the English Gothic revival especially,
was an avowed object; and conformity to precedent became, in fact,
except with one or two individual architects, almost the admitted test
of excellence.

[Illustration: FIG. 85--Bank of Ireland, Dublin.]


  Classical revival in British architecture.

The earliest classical London building of note in the 19th century is
Soane's Bank of England, which as a matter of date belongs in fact to
the end of the 18th century; but its architect lived well into the 19th
century, and the bank may be classed with this section of the subject.
Soane had to make something architectural out of the walls of a very
extended building of only one storey, in which external windows were not
admissible; and he did so by applying a classical columnar order to the
walls and introducing sham window architraves. The latter are
indefensible, and weaken the expression of the building; the columnar
order was the received method at the time of making a building (as was
supposed) "architectural," and the building has grace and dignity, and
could hardly be taken for anything except a bank, although a more robust
and massive treatment would have been more expressive of the function of
the building, as a kind of fortress for the storage of money. It was
only some years later that the Greek revival took some hold of English
architects (the Bank of England is rather Roman than Greek); the impetus
to it was probably given by the "Elgin marbles"; Stuart and Revett's
great work on the _Antiquities of Athens_ had been issued a good while
previously, the three first volumes being dated respectively 1762, 1787
and 1794; but the appearance of the fourth volume in 1816 was no doubt
influenced by the transportation to London of the Elgin marbles, and the
sensation created by them. One of the first architectural results was
the erection, at an immense cost in comparison with its size, of the
church of St Pancras in London (1819-1822), designed by Inwood, who
published a fine and still valuable monograph on the Erechtheum, and
showed his enthusiasm for Greek architecture by copying the Erechtheum
order and doorways for his façade, and erecting over it a tower composed
of the Temple of the Winds with an octagonal imitation of the monument
of Lysicrates imposed above it. This use of Greek monuments was
architecturally absurd, though at the time it was no doubt the offspring
of a genuine enthusiasm.

A better use was made of the study of Greek architecture by William
Wilkins (1778-1839), who was in his way a great architect, and whose
University College (1827-1828), as designed by him, was a noble and
dignified building, of which he only carried out the central block with
the cupola and portico. The wings were somewhat altered from his design
but not materially spoiled, but the university authorities permitted the
vandalism of erecting a low building as a partial return of the
quadrangle on the fourth side, for the purposes of a mechanical
laboratory, which ruined the appearance of the building.[4] Wilkins's
other well-known work is the National Gallery (1832-1838), which he was
not allowed to carry out exactly as he wished, and in which the cupola
and the "pepperpots" are exceedingly poor and weak. But his details,
especially the profiles of his mouldings, are admirably refined, and
show the influence of a close study of Greek work. Among other prominent
English architects of the classic revival in England are Sir Robert
Smirke and Decimus Burton (1800-1881). To Burton we owe the Constitution
Hill arch and the Hyde Park screen. The latter is a very graceful
erection of its kind; the arch has never been completed by the quadriga
group which the architect intended as its crowning feature, though for
many years it was allowed to be disfigured by the colossal equestrian
statue of Wellington, completely out of scale and crushing the
structure. Smirke is kept in memory by his fine façade of the British
Museum, which has been much criticized for its "useless" colonnades and
the wasted space under them. The criticism is hardly just; for classic
colonnades have at least some affinity with the purposes of a museum of
antique art, and it conveys the impression of being a frontispiece to a
building containing something of permanent value and importance. The
early classic revival set its mark also, in a very fine and unmistakable
manner, on the capital of the sister island. Dublin is almost a museum
of fine classic buildings of the period, among which the most remarkable
is the present Bank of Ireland (fig. 85), originally begun as the
Parliament House. The beginning of the building belongs to the 18th
century, but it was not completed in its present form till 1805, and
was the work of five successive architects, only one of them, James
Gandon (1743-1823), a man of the first importance; but it was Gandon who
in 1790 did most to give the building its effective outline on plan, by
introducing one of the curved quadrant walls, the building being
subsequently finished in accordance with this suggestion. It is a
remarkable combination of symmetry and picturesqueness, and as a
one-storey classic building is far superior to Soane's Bank of England,
with which a comparison is naturally suggested. Gandon's custom house,
with its fine central cupola, is another notable example. Edinburgh too
can show examples of the classic revival, and bears the title of "modern
Athens" as much from her architectural experiments as from her
intellectual claims; she illustrates the application of Greek
architecture to modern buildings in two really fine examples, the Royal
Institution by W.H. Playfair (1780-1857), and the high school by Thomas
Hamilton (1784-1858). It was a pity that she added to these the
collection of curiosities on the Calton Hill.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--Liverpool Branch of the Bank of England.
(Cockerell.)]

But before we quit the classic revival in England, there are two
architects to be named who came a little later in the day, living in
fact into the time of the Gothic revival, who were superior to any of
the earlier classic practitioners: Harvey Lonsdale Elmes and C.R.
Cockerell. Elmes, who died very young, seems to have been as completely
a born architectural genius as Wren, and his great work, St. George's
Hall at Liverpool, has done more than any other building in the world to
glorify the memory of the classic revival. Granting all that may be said
as to the unsuitability of Greek architecture to the English climate,
one can hardly complain of any movement in architecture which gave the
opportunity for the production of so grand an architectural monument. It
is true that it is badly planned and lighted, and the exterior and
interior do not agree with each other (the exterior is Greek, and the
great hall is Roman); but if from our present point of view it is a
mistake, it is certainly one of the finest mistakes ever made in
architecture. Cockerell, who completed the interior of the building
after Elmes's death, was an architect permeated with the principles and
feeling of Greek architecture, who brought to his work a refinement of
taste and perception in regard to detail which has rarely been equalled
and never surpassed. Perhaps the very best example of his scholarly
taste in the application of classic architecture to modern uses is to be
found in his façade to the branch Bank of England at Liverpool (fig.
86).

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--Royal Theatre, Berlin. (Schinkel.)

From a photo by W A Manseli & Co.]

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--Nikolai Kirche, Potsdam. (Schinkel.)

From a photograph by W.A. Manseli & Co.]

[Illustration: PLATE IX.

  FIG. 115.--PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, BUDAPEST. (STEINDL.)

  _Photo, Seer._

  FIG. 116.--PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, VIENNA. (HANSEN.)

  _Photo, Lowy._

  FIG. 117.--PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, BERLIN. (WALLOT.)

  _Photo, Linde._]

[Illustration: PLATE X.

  FIG. 118.--HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, LONDON. (BARRY.)

  _Photo, F.G.O. Stuart._

  FIG. 119.--SCOTLAND YARD, LONDON. (SHAW.)

  _Photo, Emery Walker._]


  Classical revival in Germany.

In Germany, and especially at Berlin and Munich, the Greek revival took
hold of architecture in the early part of the century in a more decisive
but also in a more academical spirit than in England. The movement is
connected more especially with the name of one eminent architect, Karl
Friedrich Schinkel, who must have been a man of genius to have so
impressed his taste on his generation as he did in Berlin, where he was
regarded as the great and central power in the architecture of his day;
yet his buildings are marked by learning and academical correctness
rather than original genius. Elmes's St George's Hall, already referred
to as one great English work of the classic revival, is by no means a
mere piece of academical architecture; it exhibits in some of its
details a great deal of originality, and in its general design a
remarkably fine feeling for architectural grouping. In particular, the
solid masses and the heavy square columns at the ends of his
building, which seem like Greek architecture treated with Egyptian
feeling, give support to, while they form a most effective contrast
with, the richer and more delicate Corinthian order of the central
portion. The only work of Schinkel's which shows something of the same
feeling for contrast in architectural composition is one of his smaller
buildings, the Konigswache or Royal Guard-house, in which a Doric
colonnaded portico is effectively flanked and supported by two great
masses of plain wall. But in general Schinkel does not seem to have
known what to do with the angles of his buildings, or to have realized
the value of mass as a support to his colonnades. This is strikingly
exemplified in his museum at Berlin, where the tall narrow piers at the
angles have a very weak effect, and are quite inadequate as a support to
the long open colonnade. His Royal theatre also (fig. 87), though the
central portico is fine, is monotonous and weak in its two-storeyed
repetition of the small order in the wings, and it has also the fault
(which it shares, no doubt, with a great many theatres, large and small)
that its exterior design gives no hint of the theatre form; it might
just as well be a museum. His. Nikolai Kirche (1830-1837) at Potsdam
(fig. 88), which has considerable celebrity, though not so merely
academical in character, and in fact possessed of a certain originality,
has a fault of another kind, in its entire lack of architectural unity;
the dome does not seem to belong to or to have any connexion with the
substructure, while the portico is quite out of scale with the great
block of building in its rear, and looks like a subsequent addition. The
fault of the Schinkel school of architecture is an almost total want of
what may be called architectural life; it is an artificial production of
the studio. The same kind of cold classicism prevailed at Munich, where
Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), though a lesser man than Schinkel, played
somewhat the same part as the latter played at Berlin. His Propylaea
(fig. 89), in which Greek and Egyptian influences are combined, is a
characteristic example of his cold and scholastic style. His well known
_Ruhmeshalle_, with its boldly projecting colonnaded wings and the
colossal statue of Bavaria in front of it, is in its way a fine
architectural conception--perhaps finer and more consistent in its kind
than any one work of Schinkel, though he evidently did not exercise so
wide an influence on the German art of his day. A third eminent name in
the German classic revival is that of Gottfried Semper (1803-1879),
somewhat later in date (Schinkel was born in 1781), but more or less of
the same school. Semper practised successively at Dresden and at Zurich,
but finally settled in Vienna, where, however, he did not live to see
the execution of his two most important designs, the museum and the
Hofburg theatre, which were carried out by Baron Karl von Hasenauer
(1833-1894) from his designs, or approximately so. Semper's theatre at
Dresden, however, shows that he could recognize the practical basis of
architecture, as the expression of plan, in a way that Schinkel could
not; for in that building he frankly adopted the curve of the auditorium
as the _motif_ for his exterior design, thus producing a building which
is obviously a theatre, and could not be taken for anything else, and
putting some of that life into it which is so much wanting in Schinkel's
rigid classicalities.

[Illustration: FIG. 89.--Propylaea at Munich. (Von Klenze.)

From a photograph by Ferd. Finsterlin.]


  French Classicism.

In spite of the Romanizing influence of the First Empire, the classic
revival did not leave by any means so academical a stamp on French as on
German architecture of the early period of the century. French
architects in the main have always had too much original genius to be
entirely taken captive by a general movement of this kind. There is the
weak classicism of Bernard Poyet's façade to the chamber of deputies, a
very poor affair; and there are two important buildings in the guise of
Roman peripteral temples, devoted respectively to business and to
religion--the Bourse, by Alexandre Théodore Brongniart (1739-1813), and
the Madeleine, begun under Napoleon, as a "Temple de la Gloire," by
Pierre Vignon (1763-1828), and completed as a church in 1841 by Jean
Jacques Huve (1783-1852). Both of these are very well carried out
externally, and enable us to judge of what would be the effect of a
Roman temple of the kind. It must be admitted that the plain oblong mass
of the Bourse has really been very much improved by the recent addition
of the two wings, carried out by Cavel, though there was a great deal of
opposition at first to meddling with so celebrated a building.
Unfortunately, the exterior of the Bourse is a mere piece of
architectural scenery, quite unconnected with the internal object and
arrangement of the building. The Madeleine is a really fine exterior in
its way; if a modern church was to put on the guise of a pagan temple,
the task could hardly have been better carried out; and the interior
might have been as fine if properly treated, but it has little artistic
relation with the noble exterior, and is spoiled by poor architectural
treatment and bad ornament. The church of St Vincent de Paul, by Jacques
Ignace Hittorff (1792-1867), an architect who was one of the most
learned students of Greek architecture of his day, is another important
example of the French classical church of the period (Plate XII., fig.
125). In this the interior is more consistent with the exterior than is
the case in the Madeleine; and by adding a tower at each angle of the
façade, above the colonnaded portico, the architect gave it more the
expression of a church, which the Madeleine wants. In the Arc de
l'Étoile, by Jean François T. Chalgrin (1739-1811), we have a really
great, even sublime work, which, though suggested by the Roman triumphal
arches, is no mere copy, but bears the impress of the French genius in
its details as well as in François Rude's grand sculptures on the east
face, while its great scale places it above everything else of the kind
in the world. It is only after ascending the interior and seeing the
vaults carrying the roof that one fully realizes what a stupendous piece
of work this is. Under Napoleon there was at least no jerry-building.[5]

[Illustration: FIG. 90.--Halifax Town Hall. (Barry.)]


  Barry's "common-sense" style, in England.

Returning to the consideration of architecture in England, we come, at
about the close of the classic revival, to the name of the man who was
undoubtedly the most remarkable English architect since Wren, Sir
Charles Barry. To class him, as some would do, with the classic revival,
would be a misapprehension. Barry was no revivalist; he never attempted
to recreate Greek architecture on English soil. He adopted for most of
his works what has been called, for want of a better name, the Italian
style, which may really rather be called the common-sense style of a
civilized society. The two first works which brought him into notice,
the Travellers' and Reform clubs in London, were no doubt based on
special Italian models, the Pandolfini and Farnese palaces; but a
consideration of his whole career shows that he was in fact anything but
a copyist. The comparison of him with Wren is justified by the fact that
he was, like Wren, a born architect, in the sense that he grasped every
problem presented to him from the true architect's point of view; with
both of them architecture was not the dressing up of an exterior, but
the fashioning of a building as a conception based on plan and section
as well as on the desire to secure a certain external appearance; and,
like Wren, he never failed to grasp the true requirements of a site and
to adapt his architectural conception to it; a power perfectly different
from that of merely producing agreeable elevations in this or that
adopted style. Though very careful of his detail, he did not rely on
detail, but on the general conception of an architectural scheme. This
power was never so remarkably shown as in his grand scheme, unhappily
never carried out, for the concentration of all the British government
offices in one great architectural _ensemble_, which was to extend, on
the west of Parliament Street and Whitehall, from Great George Street
nearly to Charing Cross, the whole of the buildings to be carried out as
one design, distributed into quadrangles, each of which was to be
connected with one department of the administration, while all would
have internal communication. Had this great idea been carried out we
might at the present day have found some of the detail of the building
unsatisfying to our taste, as we often find the detail in some of Wren's
buildings, but we should have had a grand architectural achievement
which would have made London pre-eminent among the capitals of the
world. Nothing so great had been proposed in England since Inigo Jones's
plan for Whitehall Palace, which also survives only in drawings, except
the one noble bit of classic architecture known as the Banqueting House
(Plate VI., fig. 75). It was one of the greatest misfortunes to London
as a capital city that the government of the day could not rise to the
height of Barry's ambitious scheme, in which there was nothing
financially insuperable, since it was all designed to be carried out by
portions at a time, as funds could be spared; but each government office
built would in that way have been one step towards the completion of a
great central idea; whereas the nation now spends the same money in
erecting detached government buildings wh