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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8 - "Atherstone" to "Austria"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8 - "Atherstone" to "Austria"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical error has been corrected:

    ARTICLE ATTICA: "The place in Attica which has been the chief scene
      of excavations (independently of Athens and its vicinity) is
      Eleusis ..." 'vicinity' amended from 'vicinty'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME II, SLICE VIII

           Atherstone to Austria



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  ATHERSTONE, WILLIAM GUYBON      AUDEBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE
  ATHERSTONE                      AUDEFROI LE BATARD
  ATHERTON                        AUDIENCE
  ATHETOSIS                       AUDIFFRET-PASQUIER, EDMÉ ARMAND GASTON
  ATHIAS, JOSEPH                  AUDIT and AUDITOR
  ATHLETE                         AUDLEY, SIR JAMES
  ATHLETIC SPORTS                 AUDLEY, THOMAS AUDLEY
  ATHLONE                         AUDOUIN, JEAN VICTOR
  ATHOL                           AUDRAN
  ATHOLL, EARLS AND DUKES OF      AUDRAN, EDMOND
  ATHOLL                          AUDREHEM, ARNOUL D'
  ATHOS                           AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES
  ATHY                            AUE
  ATINA                           AUERBACH, BERTHOLD
  ATITLÁN                         AUERSPERG, ANTON ALEXANDER
  ATKINSON, EDWARD                AUFIDENA
  ATKINSON, SIR HARRY ALBERT      AUGEAS
  ATLANTA                         AUGER
  ATLANTIC                        AUGEREAU, PIERRE FRANÇOIS CHARLES
  ATLANTIC CITY                   AUGHRIM
  ATLANTIC OCEAN                  AUGIER, GUILLAUME VICTOR ÉMILE
  ATLANTIS                        AUGITE
  ATLAS                           AUGMENT
  ATLAS MOUNTAINS                 AUGMENTATION
  ATMOLYSIS                       AUGSBURG
  ATMOSPHERE                      AUGSBURG, CONFESSION OF
  ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY         AUGSBURG, WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF
  ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY             AUGURS
  ATOLL                           AUGUST
  ATOM                            AUGUSTA (Georgia, U.S.A.)
  ATONEMENT and DAY OF ATONEMENT  AUGUSTA (Maine, U.S.A.)
  ATRATO                          AUGUSTA (Sicily)
  ATREK                           AUGUSTA BAGIENNORUM
  ATREUS                          AUGUSTAN HISTORY
  ATRI                            AUGUSTA PRAETORIA SALASSORUM
  ATRIUM                          AUGUSTI, JOHANN CHRISTIAN WILHELM
  ATROPHY                         AUGUSTINE, SAINT (354-430)
  ATROPOS                         AUGUSTINE, SAINT (archbishop)
  ATTA, TITUS QUINCTIUS           AUGUSTINIAN CANONS
  ATTACAPA                        AUGUSTINIAN HERMITS
  ATTACHMENT                      AUGUSTINIANS
  ATTAINDER                       AUGUSTOWO
  ATTAINT, WRIT OF                AUGUSTUS
  ATTALIA                         AUGUSTUS I
  ATTAR OF ROSES                  AUGUSTUS II
  ATTEMPT                         AUGUSTUS III
  ATTENTION                       AUGUSTUSBAD
  ATTERBOM, PER DANIEL AMADEUS    AUK
  ATTERBURY, FRANCIS              AULARD, FRANÇOIS VICTOR ALPHONSE
  ATTESTATION                     AULIC COUNCIL
  ATTHIS                          AULIE-ATA
  ATTIC                           AULIS
  ATTICA                          AULNOY, MARIE CATHERINE DE LA MOTTE
  ATTIC BASE                      AULOS
  ATTICUS, TITUS POMPONIUS        AUMALE, HENRI EUGÈNE D'ORLÉANS
  ATTICUS HERODES, CLAUDIUS       AUMALE
  ATTILA                          AUMONT
  ATTIS                           AUNCEL
  ATTLEBOROUGH                    AUNDH
  ATTOCK                          AUNGERVYLE, RICHARD
  ATTORNEY                        AUNT SALLY
  ATTORNEY-GENERAL                AURA
  ATTORNMENT                      AURANGABAD
  ATTRITION                       AURANGZEB
  ATTWOOD, THOMAS (composer)      AURAY
  ATTWOOD, THOMAS (reformer)      AURELIA, VIA
  ATWOOD, GEORGE                  AURELIAN
  AUBADE                          AURELIANUS, CAELIUS
  AUBAGNE                         AURELLE DE PALADINES, LOUIS JEAN D'
  AUBE                            AUREOLA
  AUBENAS                         AURICH
  AUBER, DANIEL FRANÇOIS ESPRIT   AURICLE
  AUBERGINE                       AURICULA
  AUBERVILLIERS                   AURIFABER
  AUBIGNAC, FRANÇOIS HÉDELIN      AURIGA
  AUBIGNÉ, CONSTANT D'            AURILLAC
  AUBIGNÉ, JEAN HENRI MERLE D'    AURISPA, GIOVANNI
  AUBIGNÉ, THÉODORE AGRIPPA D'    AUROCHS
  AUBIN                           AURORA (Roman goddess)
  AUBREY, JOHN                    AURORA (Illinois, U.S.A.)
  AUBURN (Maine, U.S.A.)          AURORA (Missouri, U.S.A.)
  AUBURN (New York, U.S.A.)       AURORA (New York, U.S.A.)
  AUBURN (colour)                 AURORA POLARIS
  AUBUSSON, PIERRE D'             AURUNCI
  AUBUSSON                        AUSCULTATION
  AUCH                            AUSONIUS, DECIMUS MAGNUS
  AUCHMUTY, SIR SAMUEL            AUSSIG
  AUCHTERARDER                    AUSTEN, JANE
  AUCHTERMUCHTY                   AUSTERLITZ
  AUCKLAND, GEORGE EDEN           AUSTIN, ALFRED
  AUCKLAND, WILLIAM EDEN          AUSTIN, JOHN
  AUCKLAND                        AUSTIN, SARAH
  AUCKLAND ISLANDS                AUSTIN, STEPHEN FULLER
  AUCTION PITCH                   AUSTIN (Minnesota, U.S.A.)
  AUCTIONS and AUCTIONEERS        AUSTIN (Texas, U.S.A.)
  AUCUBA                          AUSTRALASIA
  AUDAEUS                         AUSTRALIA
  AUDE (river of France)          AUSTRASIA
  AUDE (department of France)     AUSTRIA



ATHERSTONE, WILLIAM GUYBON (1813-1898), British geologist, one of the
pioneers in South African geology, was born in 1813, in the district of
Uitenhage, Cape Colony. Having qualified as M.D. he settled in early
life as a medical practitioner at Grahamstown, subsequently becoming
F.R.C.S. In 1839 his interest was aroused in geology, and from that date
he "devoted the leisure of a long and successful medical practice" to
the pursuit of geological science. In 1857 he published an account of
the rocks and fossils of Uitenhage (the latter described more fully by
R. Tate, _Quart. Journal Geol. Soc._, 1867). He also obtained many
fossil reptilia from the Karroo beds, and presented specimens to the
British Museum. These were described by Sir Richard Owen. Atherstone's
identification in 1867 as a diamond of a crystal found at De Kalk near
the junction of the Riet and Vaal rivers, led indirectly to the
establishment of the great diamond industry of South Africa. He
encouraged the workings at Jagersfontein, and he also called attention
to the diamantiferous neck at Kimberley. He was one of the founders of
the Geological Society of South Africa at Johannesburg in 1895; and for
some years previously he was a member of the Cape parliament. He died at
Grahamstown, on the 26th of June 1898.

  See the obituary by T. Rupert Jones, _Natural Science_, vol. xiv.
  (January 1899).



ATHERSTONE, a market-town in the Nuneaton parliamentary division of
Warwickshire, England, 102½ m. N.W. from London by the London &
North-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 5248. It lies in the upper valley of
the Anker, under well-wooded hills to the west, and is on the Roman
Watling Street, and the Coventry canal. The once monastic church of St
Mary is rebuilt, excepting the central tower and part of the chancel.
The chief industry is hat-making. On the high ground to the west lie
ruins of the Cistercian abbey of Merevale, founded in 1149; they include
the gatehouse chapel, part of the refectory and other remains exhibiting
beautiful details of the 14th century. Coal is worked at Baxterley, 3 m.
west of Atherstone.

  Atherstone (_Aderestone, Edridestone, Edrichestone_), though not
  mentioned in any pre-Conquest record, is of unquestionably ancient
  origin. A Saxon barrow was opened near the town in 1824. It is
  traversed by Watling Street, and portions of the ancient Roman road
  have been discovered in modern times. Atherstone is mentioned in
  Domesday among the possessions of Countess Godiva, the widow of
  Leofric. In the reign of Henry III. it passed to the monks of Bec in
  Normandy, who in 1246 obtained the grant of an annual fair at the
  feast of the Nativity of the Virgin, and the next year of a market
  every Tuesday. This market became so much frequented that in 1319 a
  toll was levied upon all goods coming into the town, in order to
  defray the cost of the repair to the roads necessitated by the
  constant traffic, and in 1332 a similar toll was levied on all goods
  passing over the bridge called Feldenbrigge near Atherstone. The
  September fair and Tuesday markets are still continued. In the reign
  of Edward III. a house of Austin Friars was founded at Atherstone by
  Ralph Lord Basset of Drayton, which, however, never rose to much
  importance, and at its dissolution in 1536 was valued at 30 shillings
  and 3 pence only.



ATHERTON, or CHOWBENT, an urban district in the Leigh parliamentary
division of Lancashire, England, 13 m. W.N.W. of Manchester on the
London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways. Pop. (1901)
16,211. The cotton factories are the principal source of industry; there
are also iron-works and collieries. The manor was held by the local
family of Atherton from John's reign to 1738, when it passed by marriage
to Robert Gwillym, who assumed that name. In 1797 his eldest daughter
and co-heiress married Thomas Powys, afterwards the second Lord Lilford.
Up to 1891 the lord of the manor held a court-leet and court-baron
annually in November, but in that year Lord Lilford sold to the local
board the market tolls, stallages and pickages, and since this sale the
courts have lapsed. The earliest manufactures were iron and cotton.
Silk-weaving, formerly an extensive industry, has now almost entirely
decayed. The first chapel or church was built in 1645. James Wood, who
became Nonconformist minister in the chapel at Atherton in 1691, earned
fame and the familiar title of "General" by raising a force from his
congregation, uncouthly armed, to fight against the troops of the
Pretender (1715).



ATHETOSIS (Gr. [Greek: hathetos], "without place"), the medical term
applied to certain slow, purposeless, deliberate movements of the hands
and feet. The fingers are separately flexed and extended, abducted and
adducted in an entirely irregular way. The hands as a whole are also
moved, and the arms, toes and feet may be affected. The condition is
usually due to some lesion of the brain which has caused hemiplegia, and
is especially common in childhood. It is occasionally congenital (so
called), and is then due to some injury of the brain during birth. It is
more usually associated with hemiplegia, in which condition there is
first of all complete voluntary immobility of the parts affected: but
later, as there is a return of a certain amount of power over the limbs
affected, the slow rhythmic movements of athetosis are first noticed.
This never develops, however, where there is no recovery of voluntary
power. Its distribution is thus nearly always hemiplegic, and it is
often associated with more or less mental impairment. The movements may
or may not continue during sleep. They cannot be arrested for more than
a moment by will power, and are aggravated by voluntary movements. The
prognosis is unsatisfactory, as the condition usually continues
unchanged for years, though improvement occasionally occurs in slight
cases, or even complete recovery.



ATHIAS, JOSEPH (d. 1700), Jewish rabbi and printer, was born in Spain
and settled in Amsterdam. His editions of the Hebrew Bible (1661, 1667)
are noted for beauty of execution and the general correctness of the
text. He also printed a Judaeo-German edition of the Bible in 1679, a
year after the appearance of the edition by Uri Phoebus.



ATHLETE (Gr. [Greek: athletes]; Lat. _athleta_), in Greek and Roman
antiquities, one who contended for a prize ([Greek: athlon]) in the
games; now a general term for any one excelling in physical strength.
Originally denoting one who took part in musical, equestrian, gymnastic,
or any other competitions, the name became restricted to the competitors
in gymnastic contests, and, later, to the class of professional
athletes. Whereas in earlier times competitors, who were often persons
of good birth and position, entered the lists for glory, without any
idea of material gain, the professional class, which arose as early as
the 5th century B.C., was chiefly recruited from the lower orders, with
whom the better classes were unwilling to associate, and took up
athletics entirely as a means of livelihood. Ancient philosophers,
moralists and physicians were almost unanimous in condemning the
profession of athletics as injurious not only to the mind but also to
the body. The attack made upon it by Euripides in the fragment of the
_Autolycus_ is well known. The training for the contests was very
rigorous. The matter of diet was of great importance; this was
prescribed by the _aleiptes_, whose duty it also was to anoint the
athlete's body. At one time the principal food consisted of fresh
cheese, dried figs and wheaten bread. Afterwards meat was introduced,
generally beef, or pork; but the bread and meat were taken separately,
the former at breakfast, the latter at dinner. Except in wine, the
quantity was unlimited, and the capacity of some of the heavy-weights
must have been, if such stories as those about Milo are true, enormous.
In addition to the ordinary gymnastic exercises of the palaestra, the
athletes were instructed in carrying heavy loads, lifting weights,
bending iron rods, striking at a suspended leather sack filled with sand
or flour, taming bulls, &c. Boxers had to practise delving the ground,
to strengthen their upper limbs. The competitions open to athletes were
running, leaping, throwing the discus, wrestling, boxing and the
pancratium, or combination of boxing and wrestling. Victory in this last
was the highest achievement of an athlete, and was reserved only for men
of extraordinary strength. The competitors were naked, having their
bodies salved with oil. Boxers wore the _caestus_, a strap of leather
round the wrists and forearms, with a piece of metal in the fist, which
was sometimes employed with great barbarity. An athlete could begin his
career as a boy in the contests set apart for boys. He could appear
again as a youth against his equals, and though always unsuccessful,
could go on competing till the age of thirty-five, when he was debarred,
it being assumed that after this period of life he could not improve.
The most celebrated of the Greek athletes whose names have been handed
down are Milo of Crotona, Hipposthenes, Polydamas, Promachus and
Glaucus. Cyrene, famous in the time of Pindar for its athletes, appears
to have still maintained its reputation to at least the time of
Alexander the Great; for in the British Museum are to be seen six prize
vases carried off from the games at Athens by natives of that district.
These vases, found in the tombs, probably, of the winners, are made of
clay, and painted on one side with a representation of the contest in
which they were won, and on the other side with a figure of Pallas
Athena, with an inscription telling where they were gained, and in some
cases adding the name of the eponymous magistrate of Athens, from which
the exact year can be determined.

Amongst the Romans athletic contests had no doubt taken place from the
earliest times, but according to Livy (xxxix. 22) professional Greek
athletes were first introduced at Rome by M. Fulvius Nobilior in 186
B.C. After the institution of the Actian games by Augustus, their
popularity increased, until they finally supplanted the gladiators. In
the time of the empire, gilds or unions of athletes were formed, each
with a temple, treasury and exercise-ground of its own. The profession,
although it ranked above that of a gladiator or an actor, was looked
upon as derogatory to the dignity of a Roman, and it is a rare thing to
find a Roman name amongst the athletes on inscriptions. The system was
entirely, and the athletes themselves nearly always, Greek. (See also
GAMES, CLASSICAL.)

  Krause, _Gymnastik und Agonistik der Hellenen_ (1841); Friedländer,
  _Sittengeschichte Roms_, ii.; Reisch, in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyc_.



ATHLETIC SPORTS. Various sports were cultivated many hundred years
before the Christian era by the Egyptians and several Asiatic races,
from whom the early Greeks undoubtedly adopted the elements of their
athletic exercises (see ATHLETE), which reached their highest
development in the Olympic games, and other periodical meetings of the
kind (see GAMES, CLASSICAL). The original Celtic inhabitants of Great
Britain were an athletic race, and the earliest monuments of Teutonic
literature abound in records of athletic prowess. After the Norman
conquest of England the nobles devoted themselves to the chase and to
the joust, while the people had their games of ball, running at the
quintain, fencing with club and buckler, wrestling and other pastimes on
green and river. The chroniclers of the succeeding centuries are for the
most part silent concerning the sports of the folk, except such as were
regarded as a training for war, as archery, while they love to record
the prowess of the kings and their courts. Thus it is told of Henry V.
that he "was so swift a runner that he and two of his lords, without bow
or other engine, would take a wild buck in a large park." Several
romances of the middle ages, quoted by Strutt (_Sports and Pastimes of
the People of England_), chronicle the fact that young men of good
family were taught to run, leap, wrestle and joust. In spite of the
general silence of the historians concerning the sports of the people,
it is evident that they were indulged in very largely, since several
English sovereigns found it necessary to curtail, and even prohibit,
certain popular pastimes, on the ground that they seduced the people
from the practice of archery. Thus Edward III. prohibited weight-putting
by statute. Nevertheless a variety of this exercise, "casting of the
barre," continued to be a popular pastime, and was afterwards one of the
favourite sports of Henry VIII., who attained great proficiency at it.
The prowess of the same monarch at throwing the hammer is a matter of
history, and his reign seems to have been at a time of general athletic
revival. We even find his secretary, Richard Pace, advising the sons of
noblemen to practise their sports and "leave study and learning to the
children of meaner people," and Sir William Forest, in his _Poesye of
Princeelye Practice_, thus admonishes his high-born readers:--

  "In featis of maistries bestowe some diligence.
   Too ryde, runne, lepe, or caste by violence
   Stone, barre or plummett, or such other thinge,
   It not refuseth any prince or kynge."

Mr Montague Shearman, to whose volume on _Athletics_ in the Badminton
series the reader is referred, notes that Sir Thomas Elyot, who wrote at
about the same period, deprecated too much study and flogging for
schoolboys, saying: "A discrete master may with as much or more ease
both to himself and his scholler lead him to play at tennis or shoote."
Elyot recommends the perusal of Galen's _De sanitate tuenda_, and
suggests as suitable athletic exercises within doors "deambulations,
labouryng with poyses made of ledde, lifting and throwing the heavy
stone or barre, playing at tennis," and dwells upon "rennyng" as a "good
exercise and laudable solace." It is probable that the disciples of the
"new learning," who had become prominent in Sir Thomas's time,
endeavoured to combat the influence of athletic exercises, their point
of view being exemplified by the dictum of Roger Ascham, who, in his
_Toxophilus_, declares that "running, leaping and quoiting be too vile
for scholars."

In the 16th century the great football match played annually at Chester
was abolished in favour of a series of foot-races, which took place in
the presence of the mayor. A list of the common sports of that time is
contained in some verses by Randel Holme, a minstrel of the North
country, and makes mention of throwing the sledge, jumping, "wrastling,"
stool-ball (cricket), running, pitching the bar, shooting, playing
loggets, "nine holes or ten pins," "football by the shinnes," leap-frog,
morris, shove-groat, leaping the bonfire, stow-ball (golf), and many
other outdoor and indoor sports, some of them now obsolete. Shakespeare
and the other Elizabethan poets abound in allusions to sport, which
formed an important feature in school life and at every fair. The Stuart
kings were warm encouragers of sport, the _Basilikon Doron_ of James I.,
written for his son, containing a recommendation to the young prince to
practise "running, leaping, wrestling, fencing, dancing, and playing at
the caitch, or tennise, archerie, palle-malle, and such like other fair
and pleasant field games."

An extraordinary variety of sports has been popular in Great Britain
with high and low for the past five centuries, no other country
comparing with it in this respect. Nor have Ireland and Scotland lagged
behind England in athletic prowess. Indeed, so far as history and legend
record, Ireland boasts of by far the most ancient organized sports
known, the Tailtin Games, or Lugnasad, traditionally established by
Lugaid of the Long Arm, one of the gods of Dia and Ana, in honour of his
foster-mother Tailti, some three thousand years ago. For many centuries
these games, and others like them, were kept up in Ireland, and though
the almost constant wars which harried the country finally destroyed
their organization, yet the Irish have always been, and still are, a
very important factor in British athletics, as well as in America and
the colonies.

The Scottish people have, like the Irish, ever delighted in feats of
strength and skill, especially the Celtic highlanders, the character of
whose country and mode of life have, however, prevented organized
athletics from attaining the same prominence as in England.
Nevertheless, the celebrated Highland games held at Braemar, Bridge of
Allan, Luss, Aboyne and other places have served to bring into
prominence many athletes of the first class, although the records, on
account of the roughness of the grounds, have not generally vied with
those made farther south.

The Briton does not lose his love of sport upon leaving his native soil,
and the development of athletics in the United States and the British
colonies has kept step with that of the mother-land. Upon the continent
of Europe sports have occupied a more or less prominent place in the
life of the nations, but their development has been but an echo of that
in Great Britain. A great advance, however, has been made since the
institution of the modern Olympic games.

About the year 1812 the Royal Military College at Sandhurst inaugurated
regular athletic sports, but the example was not followed until about
1840, when Rugby, Eton, Harrow, Shrewsbury and the Royal Military
Academy at Woolwich came to the front, the "Crick Run" at Rugby having
been started in 1837. At the two great English universities there were
no organized sports of any kind until 1850, when Exeter College, Oxford,
held a meeting; this example has been followed, one after the other, by
the other colleges of both institutions. The first contest between
Oxford and Cambridge occurred at Oxford in 1864, the programme
consisting of eight events, of which four were won by each side. The
same year saw the first contest of the Civil Servants, still an annual
event.

In 1866 the Amateur Athletic Club was formed in London for "gentlemen
amateurs," most of its members being old university men. Its first
championship meeting, held in that year, was the beginning of a series
afterwards continued to the present day by the Amateur Athletic
Association, founded in 1880, which has jurisdiction over British
athletic sports. The most important individual English athletic
organization is the London Athletic Club, which antedated the Amateur
Athletic Club, and whose meetings have always been the most important
events except the championships.

In America a revival of interest in athletic sports took place about the
year 1870. Ten years later was formed the National Association of
Amateur Athletes of America, which, in 1888, became the Amateur Athletic
Union. This body controls athletics throughout the United States, and is
allied with the Canadian Amateur Athletic Association. It is supreme in
matters of amateur status, records and licensing of meetings, and has
control over the following branches of sport: basket-ball, billiards,
boxing, fencing (in connexion with the Amateur Fencers' League of
America), gymnastics, hand-ball (fives), running, jumping, walking,
weight-putting (hammer, shot, discus, weights), hurdle-racing, lacrosse,
pole-vaulting, swimming, tugs-of-war and wrestling. The Amateur Athletic
Union has eight sectional groups, and is allied with the Intercollegiate
Association of Amateur Athletes of America (founded 1876) and the
Western Intercollegiate Association. The first American intercollegiate
athletic meeting took place at Saratoga in 1873, only three universities
competing, though the next year there were eight and in 1875 thirteen.
Professional athletes in America are confined almost entirely to
base-ball, boxing, bicycling, wrestling and physical training.

The Canadian athletic championships are held independently of the
American. Annual championship meetings are also held in South Africa,
New Zealand and the different states of Australia. For the Australasian
championships New Zealand joins with Australia.

The organization of university sports in America differs from that at
Oxford and Cambridge, where there is no official control on the part of
the university authorities, and where a man is eligible to represent his
college or university while in residence. In nearly all American
universities and colleges athletic and other sports are under the
general control of faculty committees, to which the undergraduate
athletic committees are subordinate, and which have the power to forbid
the participation of any student who has not attained a certain standard
of scholarship. For some years prior to 1906 no student of an American
university was allowed to represent his university in any sport for
longer than four years. Early in that year, however, many of the most
important institutions, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton and
Pennsylvania, entered upon a new agreement, that only students who have
been in residence one year should play in 'varsity teams in any branch
of athletics and that no student should play longer than three years.
This, together with many other reformatory changes, was directly due to
a widespread outcry against the growing roughness of play exhibited in
American football, basket-ball, hockey and other sports, the too evident
desire to win at all hazards, the extraordinary luxury of the training
equipment, and the enormous gate-receipts of many of the large
institutions--the Yale Athletic Association held a surplus of about
$100,000 (£20,000) in December 1905, after deducting immense amounts for
expenses. The new rule against the participation of freshmen in 'varsity
sports was to discourage the practice of offering material advantages of
different kinds to promising athletes, generally those at preparatory
schools, to induce them to become students at certain universities.

At the present day athletic sports are usually understood to consist of
those events recognized in the championship programmes of the different
countries. Those in the competitions between Oxford and Cambridge are
the 100 yards, 440 yards, 880 yards, 1-mile and 3-mile runs; 120 yards
hurdle-race; high and long jumps; throwing the hammer; and putting the
weight (shot). To the above list the English A.A.A. adds the 4-mile and
10-mile runs; the 2-mile and 7-mile walking races; the 2-mile
steeplechase; and the pole-vault. The American intercollegiate programme
is identical with that of the Oxford-Cambridge meeting, except that a
2-mile run takes the place of the 3-mile, and the pole-vault is added.
The American A.A.U. programme includes the 100 yards, 220 yards, 440
yards, 880 yards, 1-mile and 5-mile runs; 120 yards high-hurdle race;
220 yards low-hurdle race; high and broad (long) jumps; throwing the
hammer; throwing 56-lb. weight; putting 16-lb. shot; throwing the
discus; and pole-vault. Of these the running contests are called "track
athletics," and the rest "field" events.

International athletic contests of any importance have, with the
exception of the modern Olympic games, invariably taken place between
Britons, Americans and Canadians, the continental European countries
having as yet produced few track or field athletes of the first class,
although the interest in sports in general has greatly increased in
Europe during the last ten years. In 1844 George Seward, an American
professional runner, visited England and competed with success against
the best athletes there; and in 1863 Louis Bennett, called "Deerfoot," a
full-blooded Seneca Indian, repeated Seward's triumphs, establishing
running records up to 12 miles. In 1878 the Canadian, C.C. McIvor,
champion sprinter of America, went to England, but failed to beat his
British professional rivals. In 1881 L.E. Myers of New York and E.E.
Merrill of Boston competed successfully in England, Myers winning every
short-distance championship except the 100-yards, and Merrill all the
walking championships save the 7-miles. The same year W.C. Davies of
England won the 5-mile championship of America, but, like several other
British runners who have had success in America, he competed under the
colours of an American club. In 1882 the famous English runner, W.G.
George, ran against Myers in America in races of 1 mile, ¾ mile and ½
mile, winning over the first two distances. In 1884 Myers again went to
England and made new British records over 500, 600, 800 and 1000 yards,
and world's records over ½ mile and 1200 yards. The next year he won
both the British ¼-mile and ½-mile championships. The same year a team
of Irish athletes, among them W.J.M. Barry, won several Canadian
championships. In 1888 a team of the Manhattan Athletic Club, New York,
competed in England with fair success, and during the same season an
Irish team from the Gaelic Athletic Association visited America without
much success. In 1890 a team from the Salford Harriers was invited to
America by the Manhattan Athletic Club, but the evidently commercial
character of the enterprise caused its failure. One of the Harriers,
E.W. Parry, won the American steeplechase championship. The next year
saw another visit to Europe of the Manhattan athletes, who had fair
success in England and won every event at Paris. In 1895 the London
Athletic Club team competed in New York against the New York Athletic
Club, but lost every one of the eleven events, several new records being
established. During the previous summer (1894) occurred the first of the
international matches between British and American universities which
still retain their place as the most interesting athletic event. In that
contest, which took place at Queen's Club, London, Oxford beat Yale by
5½ to 3½ events. The next summer Cambridge, as the champion English
university, visited America and was beaten by Yale (3 to 8). In 1899
both British universities competed at Queen's Club against the combined
athletes of Harvard and Yale, who were beaten by the odd event. The
return match took place between the same universities at New York in the
summer of 1901, the Americans winning 6 to 3 events. In 1904 Harvard and
Yale beat Oxford and Cambridge at Queen's Club by the same score.

Outside Great Britain and America the most important athletic events are
undoubtedly the revived Olympic games. They were instituted by delegates
from the different nations who met in Paris on the 16th of June 1894,
principally at the instigation of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the result
being the formation of an International Olympic Games Committee with
Baron de Coubertin at its head, which resolved that games should be held
every fourth year in a different country. The first modern Olympiad took
place at Athens, 6th to 12th April 1896, in the ancient stadium, which
was rebuilt through the liberality of a Greek merchant and seated about
45,000 people. The programme of events included the usual field and
track sports, gymnastics, wrestling, pole-climbing, lawn tennis,
fencing, rifle and revolver shooting, weight-lifting, swimming, the
Marathon race and bicycle racing. Among the contestants were
representatives of nearly every European nation, besides Americans and
Australians. Great Britain took little direct interest in the occasion
and was inadequately represented, but the United States sent five men
from Boston and four from Princeton University, who, though none of them
held American championships, succeeded in winning every event for which
they were entered. The Marathon race of 42 kilometres (26 miles),
commemorative of the famous run of the Greek messenger to Athens with
the news of the victory of Marathon, was won by a Greek peasant. The
second Olympiad was held in Paris in June 1900. Again Great Britain was
poorly represented, but American athletes won eighteen of the
twenty-four championship events. The third Olympiad was held at St Louis
in the summer of 1904 in connexion with the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, its success being due in great measure to James E. Sullivan,
the physical director of the Exposition, and Caspar Whitney, the
president of the American Olympic Games Committee. The games were much
more numerous than at the previous Olympiads, including sports of all
kinds, handicaps, inter-club competitions, and contests for aborigines.
In the track and field competitions the American athletes won every
championship except weight-throwing (56 lb.) and lifting the bar. The
sports of the savages, among whom were American Indians, Africans of
several tribes, Moros, Patagonians, Syrians, Ainus and Filipinos, were
disappointing; their efforts in throwing the javelin, shooting with bow
and arrow, weight-lifting, running and jumping, proving to be feeble
compared with those of white races. The Americanized Indians made the
best showing.

The Greeks, however, were not altogether satisfied with the cosmopolitan
character of the revival of these celebrated games of their ancestors,
and resolved to give the revival a more definitely Hellenic stamp by
intercalating an additional series, to take place at Athens, in the
middle of the quadrennial period. Their action was justified by the
success which attended the first of this additional series at Athens in
1906. This success may have been partly due to the personal interest
taken in the games by the king and royal family of Greece, and to the
presence of King Edward VII., Queen Alexandra, and the prince and
princess of Wales; but to whatever cause it should be assigned it was
generally acknowledged that neither in France nor in America had the
games acquired the same prestige as those held on the classical soil of
Greece. In 1906 the governments of Germany, France and the United States
made considerable grants of money to defray the expenses of the
competitors from those countries. These games aroused much more interest
in England than the earlier ones in the series, but though upwards of
fifty British competitors took part in the contests, they were by no
means representative in all cases of the best British athletics. The
American representatives were slightly less numerous, but they were more
successful. It was noteworthy that no British or Americans took part in
the rowing races in the Bay of Phalerum, nor in the tennis, football or
shooting competitions. The Marathon race, by far the most important
event in the games, was won in 1906 by a British athlete, M.D. Sherring,
a Canadian by birth. The Americans won a total of 75 prizes, the British
39, and the Swedes and Greeks each 28.

The games of the 4th Olympiad (1908) were held in London in connexion
with the Franco-British Exhibition of that year. An immense sensation
was caused by the finish for the Marathon race from Windsor Castle to
the stadium in the Exhibition grounds in London. The first competitor to
arrive was the Italian, Dorando Pietri, whose condition of physical
collapse was such that, appearing to be on the point of death, he had to
be assisted over the last few yards of the course. He was therefore
disqualified, and J. Hayes, an American, was adjudged the winner; a
special prize was presented to the Italian by Queen Alexandra. In the
whole series of contests the United Kingdom made 38 wins, the Americans
22, and the Swedes 7. In the Olympic games proper, British athletes,
including two wins by colonials from Canada and Africa, scored 25
successes, and the Americans 18. In the track events 8 wins fell to the
British, including two Colonials, and 6 to American athletes; but the
latter gained complete supremacy in the field events, of which they won
9, while British competitors secured only two of minor importance.

  For records, &c., see the annual _Sporting and Athletic Register_; for
  the Olympic games see Theodore Andrea Cook's volume, published in
  connexion with the Olympiad of 1908.



ATHLONE, a market-town of Co. Westmeath, Ireland, on both banks of the
Shannon. Pop. of urban district (1901) 6617. The urban district, under
the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1900, is wholly in county Westmeath,
but the same area is divided by the Shannon between the parliamentary
divisions of South Westmeath and South Roscommon. Athlone is 78 m. W.
from Dublin by the Midland Great Western railway, and is also served by
a branch from Portarlington of the Great Southern & Western line,
providing an alternative and somewhat longer route from the capital. The
main line of the former company continues W. to Galway, and a branch
N.W. serves counties Roscommon and Mayo. The Shannon divides the town
into two portions, known as the Leinster side (east), and the Connaught
side (west), which are connected by a handsome bridge opened in 1844.
There is a swivel railway bridge. The rapids of the Shannon at this
point are obviated by means of a lock communication with a basin, which
renders the navigation of the river practicable above the town. The
steamers of the Shannon Development Company ply on the river, and some
trade by water is carried on with Limerick, and with Dublin by the river
and the Grand and Royal canals. Athlone is an important agricultural
centre, and there are woollen factories. The salmon fishing both
provides sport and is a source of commercial wealth. There are two
parish churches, St Mary and St Peter, both erected early in the 19th
century, of which the first has near it an isolated church tower of
earlier date. There are three Roman Catholic chapels, a court-house and
other public offices. Early remains include portions of the castle, of
the town walls (1576), of the abbey of St Peter and of a Franciscan
foundation. On several islands of the picturesque Lough Ree, to the
north, are ecclesiastical and other remains.

The military importance of Athlone dates from the erection of the castle
and of a bridge over the river by John de Grey, bishop of Norwich and
justiciar of Ireland, in 1210. It became the seat of the presidency of
Connaught under Elizabeth, and withstood a siege by the insurgents in
1641. In the war of 1688 the possession of Athlone was considered of the
greatest importance, and it consequently sustained two sieges, the first
by William III. in person, which failed, and the second by General
Godart van Ginkel (q.v.), who, on the 30th of June 1691, in the face
of the Irish, forded the river and took possession of the town, with the
loss of only fifty men. Ginkel was subsequently created earl of Athlone,
and his descendants held the title till it became extinct in 1844. In
1797 the town was strongly fortified on the Roscommon side, the works
covering 15 acres and containing two magazines, an ordnance store, an
armoury with 15,000 stands of arms and barracks for 1500 men. The works
are now dismantled. Athlone was incorporated by James I., and returned
two members to the Irish parliament, and one member to the imperial
parliament till 1885.



ATHOL, a township of Worcester county, northern Massachusetts, U.S.A.,
having an area of 35 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 7061, of whom 986 were
foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 8536. Its surface is irregular and
hilly. The village of Athol is on Miller's river, and is served by the
Boston & Albany and the Boston & Maine railways. The streams of the
township furnish good water-power, and manufactures of varied character
are its leading interests. Athol was first settled in 1735, and was
incorporated as a township in 1762. It was named by its largest
landowner Col. James Murray, after the ancestral home of the Murrays,
dukes of Atholl.

  See L.B. Caswell, _Athol, Mass., Past and Present_ (Athol, 1899).



ATHOLL, EARLS AND DUKES OF. The Stewart line of the Scottish earls of
Atholl, which ended with the 5th Stewart earl in 1595, the earldom
reverting to the crown, had originated with Sir John Stewart of Balveny
(d. 1512), who was created earl of Atholl about 1457 (new charter 1481).
The 5th earl's daughter, Dorothea, married William Murray, earl of
Tullibardine (cr. 1606), who in 1626 resigned his earldom in favour of
Sir Patrick Murray, on condition of the revival of the earldom of Atholl
in his wife and her descendants. The earldom thus passed to the Murray
line, and John Murray, their only son (d. 1642), was accordingly
acknowledged as earl of Atholl (the 1st of the Murrays) in 1629.

JOHN STEWART, 4th earl of Atholl, in the Stewart line (d. 1579), son of
John, 3rd earl, and of Grizel, daughter of Sir John Rattray, succeeded
his father in 1542. He supported the government of the queen dowager,
and in 1560 was one of the three nobles who voted in parliament against
the Reformation and the Confession of Faith, and declared their
adherence to Roman Catholicism. Subsequently, however, he joined the
league against Huntly, whom with Murray and Morton he defeated at
Corrichie in October 1562, and he supported the projected marriage of
Elizabeth with Arran. On the arrival of Mary from France in 1561 he was
appointed one of the twelve privy councillors, and on account of his
religion obtained a greater share of the queen's favour than either
Murray or Maitland. He was one of the principal supporters of the
marriage with Darnley, became the leader of the Roman Catholic nobles,
and with Lennox obtained the chief power in the government, successfully
protecting Mary and Darnley from Murray's attempts to regain his
ascendancy by force of arms. According to Knox he openly attended mass
in the queen's chapel, and was especially trusted by Mary in her project
of reinstating Roman Catholicism. The fortress of Tantallon was placed
in his keeping, and in 1565 he was made lieutenant of the north of
Scotland. He is described the same year by the French ambassador as
"très grand catholique hardi et vaillant et remuant, comme l'on dict,
mais de nul jugement et expérience." He had no share in the murders of
Rizzio or Darnley, and after the latter crime in 1567, he joined the
Protestant lords against Mary, appeared as one of the leaders against
her at Carberry Hill, and afterwards approved of her imprisonment at
Lochleven Castle. In July he was present at the coronation of James, and
was included in the council of regency on Mary's abdication. He,
however, was not present at Langside in May 1568, and in July became
once more a supporter of Mary, voting for her divorce from Bothwell
(1569). In March 1570 he signed with other lords the joint letter to
Elizabeth asking for the queen's intercession and supporting Mary's
claims, and was present at the convention held at Linlithgow in April in
opposition to the assembly of the king's party at Edinburgh. In 1574 he
was proceeded against as a Roman Catholic and threatened with
excommunication, subsequently holding a conference with the ministers
and being allowed till midsummer to overcome his scruples. He had failed
in 1572 to prevent Morton's appointment to the regency, but in 1578 he
succeeded with the earl of Argyll in driving him from office. On the
24th of March James took the government into his own hands and dissolved
the regency, and Atholl and Argyll, to the exclusion of Morton, were
made members of the council, while on the 29th Atholl was appointed lord
chancellor. Subsequently, on the 24th of May, Morton succeeded in
getting into Stirling Castle and in regaining his guardianship of James.
Atholl and Argyll, who were now corresponding with Spain in hopes of
assistance from that quarter, then advanced to Stirling with a force of
7000 men, when a compromise was arranged, the three earls being all
included in the government. While on his way from a banquet held on the
20th of April 1579 on the occasion of the reconciliation, Atholl was
seized with sudden illness, and died on the 25th, not without strong
suspicions of poison. He was buried at St. Giles's cathedral in
Edinburgh. He married (1) Elizabeth, daughter of George Gordon, 4th earl
of Huntly, by whom he had two daughters, and (2) Margaret, daughter of
Malcolm Fleming, 3rd Lord Fleming, by whom, besides three daughters, he
had John, 5th earl of Atholl, at whose death in 1595 the earldom in
default of male heirs reverted to the crown.

JOHN MURRAY, 1st earl of Atholl in the Murray line (see above), died in
1642. On the outbreak of the civil war he called out the men of Atholl
for the king, and was imprisoned by the marquess of Argyll in Stirling
Castle in 1640.

JOHN MURRAY, 2nd earl and 1st marquess of Atholl (1631-1703), son of the
1st earl and of Jean, daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, was
born on the 2nd of May 1631. In 1650 he joined in the unsuccessful
attempt to liberate Charles II. from the Covenanters, and in 1653 was
the chief supporter of Glencairn's rising, but was obliged to surrender
with his two regiments to Monk on the 2nd of September 1654. At the
restoration Atholl was made a privy councillor for Scotland and sheriff
of Fife, in 1661 lord justice-general of Scotland, in 1667 a
commissioner for keeping the peace in the western Highlands, in 1670
colonel of the king's horseguards, in 1671 a commissioner of the
exchequer, and in 1672 keeper of the privy seal in Scotland and an
extraordinary lord of session. In 1670 he became earl of Tullibardine by
the death of his cousin James, 4th earl, and on the 7th of February 1676
he was created marquess of Atholl, earl of Tullibardine, viscount of
Balquhidder, Lord Murray, Balvenie and Cask. He at first zealously
supported Lauderdale's tyrannical policy, but after the raid of 1678,
called the "Highland Host," in which Atholl was one of the chief
leaders, he joined in the remonstrance to the king concerning the
severities inflicted upon the Covenanters, and was deprived of his
office of justice-general and passed over for the chancellorship in
1681. In 1679, however, he was present at the battle of Bothwell Brig;
in July 1680 he was made vice-admiral of Scotland, and in 1681 president
of parliament. In 1684 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Argyll, and
invaded the country, capturing the earl of Argyll after his return from
abroad in June 1685 at Inchinnan. The excessive severities with which he
was charged in this campaign were repudiated with some success by him
after the Revolution.[1] The same year he was reappointed lord privy
seal, and in 1687 was made a knight of the Thistle on the revival of the
order. At the Revolution he wavered from one side to the other, showing
no settled purpose but waiting upon the event, but finally in April 1689
wrote to William to declare his allegiance, and in May took part in the
proclamation of William and Mary as king and queen at Edinburgh. But on
the occasion of Dundee's insurrection he retired to Bath to drink the
waters, while the bulk of his followers joined Dundee and brought about
in great measure the defeat of the government troops at Killiecrankie.
He was then summoned from Bath to London and imprisoned during August.
In 1690 he was implicated in the Montgomery plot and subsequently in
further Jacobite intrigues. In June 1691 he received a pardon, and acted
later for the government in the pacification of the Highlands. He died
on the 6th of May 1703. He married Amelia, daughter of James Stanley,
7th earl of Derby (through whom the later dukes of Atholl acquired the
sovereignty of the Isle of Man), and had, besides one daughter, six
sons, of whom John became 2nd marquess and 1st duke of Atholl; Charles
was made 1st earl of Dunmore, and William married Margaret, daughter of
Sir Robert Nairne, 1st Lord Nairne, becoming in her right 2nd Lord
Nairne.

JOHN MURRAY, 2nd marquess and 1st duke of Atholl (1660-1724), was born
on the 24th of February 1660, and was styled during his father's
lifetime Lord Murray, till 1696, when he was created earl of
Tullibardine. He was a supporter of William and the Revolution in 1688,
taking the oaths in September 1689, but was unable to prevent the
majority of his clan, during his father's absence, from joining Dundee
under the command of his brother James. In 1693 as one of the
commissioners he showed great energy in the examination into the
massacre of Glencoe and in bringing the crime home to its authors. In
1694 he obtained a regiment, in 1695 was made sheriff of Perth, in 1696
secretary of state, and from 1696 to 1698 was high commissioner. In the
latter year, however, he threw up office and went into opposition. At
the accession of Anne he was made a privy councillor, and in 1703 lord
privy seal for Scotland. The same year he succeeded his father as 2nd
marquess of Atholl, and on the 30th of June he was created duke of
Atholl, marquess of Tullibardine, earl of Strathtay and Strathardle,
Viscount Balquhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, and Lord Murray, Balvenie
and Gask. In 1704 he was made a knight of the Thistle. In 1703-1704 an
unsuccessful attempt was made by Simon, Lord Lovat, who used the duke of
Queensberry as a tool, to implicate him in a Jacobite plot against Queen
Anne; but the intrigue was disclosed by Robert Ferguson, and Atholl sent
a memorial to the queen on the subject, which resulted in Queensberry's
downfall. But he fell nevertheless into suspicion, and was deprived of
office in October 1705, subsequently becoming a strong antagonist of the
government, and of the Hanoverian succession. He vehemently opposed the
Union during the years 1705-1707, and entered into a project for
resisting by force and for holding Stirling Castle with the aid of the
Cameronians, but nevertheless did not refuse a compensation of £1000.
According to Lockhart, he could raise 6000 of the best men in the
kingdom for the Jacobites. On the occasion, however, of the invasion of
1708 he took no part, on the score of illness, and was placed under
arrest at Blair Castle. On the downfall of the Whigs and the advent of
the Tories to power, Atholl returned to office, was chosen a
representative peer in the Lords in 1710 and 1713, in 1712 was an
extraordinary lord of session, from 1713 to 1714 was once more keeper of
the privy seal, and from 1712 to 1714 was high commissioner. On the
accession of George I. he was again dismissed from office, but at the
rebellion of 1715, while three of his sons joined the Jacobites, he
remained faithful to the government, whom he assisted in various ways,
on the 4th of June 1717 apprehending Robert Macgregor (Rob Roy), who,
however, succeeded in escaping. He died on the 14th of November 1724. He
married (1) Catherine, daughter of William Douglas, 3rd duke of
Hamilton, by whom, besides one daughter, he had six sons, of whom John
was killed at Malplaquet in 1709, William was marquess of Tullibardine,
and James succeeded his father as 2nd duke on account of the share
taken by his elder brother in the rebellion; and (2) Mary, daughter of
William, Lord Ross, by whom he had three sons and several daughters.

The _Atholl Chronicles_ have been privately printed by the 7th duke of
Atholl (b. 1840). See also S. Cowan, _Three Celtic Earldoms_ (1909).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A. Lang, _Hist. of Scotland_, iii. 407.



ATHOLL, or ATHOLE, a district in the north of Perthshire, Scotland,
covering an area of about 450 sq. m. It is bounded on the N. by
Badenoch, on the N.E. by Braemar, on the E. by Forfarshire, on the S. by
Breadalbane, on the W. and N.W. by Lochaber. The Highland railway
bisects it diagonally from Dunkeld to the borders of Inverness-shire. It
is traversed by the Grampian mountains and watered by the Tay, Tummel,
Garry, Tilt, Bruar and other streams. Glen Garry and Glen Tilt are the
chief glens, and Loch Rannoch and Loch Tummel the principal lakes. The
population mainly centres around Dunkeld, Pitlochry and Blair Atholl.
The only cultivable soil occurs in the valleys of the large rivers, but
the deer-forest and the shootings on moor and mountain are among the
most extensive in Scotland. It is said to have been named Athfotla
(Atholl) after Fotla, son of the Pictish king Cruithne, and was under
the rule of a Celtic _mormaer_ (thane or earl) until the union of the
Picts and Scots under Kenneth Macalpine in 843. The duke of Atholl's
seats are Blair Castle and Dunkeld House. What is called Atholl brose is
a compound, in equal parts, of whisky and honey (or oatmeal), which was
first commonly used in the district for hoarseness and sore throat.



ATHOS (Gr. [Greek: Agion Oros]; Turk. _Aineros_; Ital. _Monte Santo_),
the most eastern of the three peninsular promontories which extend, like
the prongs of a trident, southwards from the coast of Macedonia
(European Turkey) into the Aegean Sea. Before the 19th century the name
Athos was usually confined to the terminal peak of the promontory, which
was itself known by its ancient name, _Acte_. The peak rises like a
pyramid, with a steep summit of white marble, to a height of 6350 ft.,
and can be seen at sunset from the plain of Troy on the east, and the
slopes of Olympus on the west. On the isthmus are distinct traces of the
canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The
peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a
peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with
their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine
art and rich collections of documents. It is about 40 m. in length, with
a breadth varying from 4 to 7 m.; its whole area belongs to the various
monasteries. It was inhabited in the earliest times by a mixed Greek and
Thracian population; of its five cities mentioned by Herodotus few
traces remain; some inscriptions discovered on the sites were published
by W.M. Leake (_Travels in N. Greece_, 1835, iii. 140) and Kinch. The
legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the
age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in
historical documents of the 9th century. It is conjectured that the
mountain was at an earlier period the abode of anchorites, whose numbers
were increased by fugitives from the iconoclastic persecutions
(726-842). The "coenobian" rule to which many of the monasteries still
adhere was established by St Athanasius, the founder of the great
monastery of Laura, in 969. Under a constitution approved by the emperor
Constantine Monomachos in 1045, women and female animals were excluded
from the holy mountain. In 1060 the community was withdrawn from the
authority of the patriarch of Constantinople, and a monastic republic
was practically constituted. The taking of Constantinople by the Latins
in 1204 brought persecution and pillage on the monks; this reminded them
of earlier Saracenic invasions, and led them to appeal for protection to
Pope Innocent III., who gave them a favourable reply. Under the
Palaeologi (1260-1453) they recovered their prosperity, and were
enriched by gifts from various sources. In the 14th century the
peninsula became the chosen retreat of several of the emperors, and the
monasteries were thrown into commotion by the famous dispute over the
mystical Hesychasts.

Owing to the timely submission of the monks to the Turks after the
capture of Salonica (1430), their privileges were respected by
successive sultans: a tribute is paid to the Turkish government, which
is represented by a resident _kaimakam_, and the community is allowed to
maintain a small police force. Under the present constitution, which
dates from 1783, the general affairs of the commonwealth are entrusted
to an assembly ([Greek: oynaxis]) of twenty members, one from each
monastery; a committee of four members, chosen in turn, styled
_epistatae_ ([Greek: epistatai]), forms the executive. The president of
the committee ([Greek: ho protos]) is also the president of the
assembly, which holds its sittings in the village of Karyes, the seat of
government since the 10th century. The twenty monasteries, which all
belong to the order of St Basil, are: Laura ([Greek: ae Laura]), founded
in 963; Vatopédi ([Greek: Batopedios]), said to have been founded by the
emperor Theodosius; Rossikon ([Greek: 'Rossikon]), the Russian monastery
of St Panteleïmon; Chiliándari ([Greek: Chiliantarios]: supposed to be
derived from [Greek: chilioi andres] or [Greek: chilia leontaria]),
founded by the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya (1159-1195); Iveron
([Greek: ae monae ton Ibaeron]), founded by Iberians, or Georgians;
Esphigmenu ([Greek: tou Esphigmenou]: the name is derived from the
confined situation of the monastery); Kutlumush ([Greek:
Koutloumousae]); Pandocratoros ([Greek: tou Pantokratoros]); Philotheu
([Greek: Philotheou]); Caracallu ([Greek: tou Karakallou]); St Paul
([Greek: tou agiou Paulou]); St Denis ([Greek: tou agiou Dionusiou]); St
Gregory ([Greek: tou agiou Graegoriou]); Simópetra ([Greek: Simopetra]);
Xeropotámu ([Greek: tou Xaeropotamou]); St Xenophon ([Greek: tou agiou
Xenophontos]); Dochiaríu ([Greek: Docheiareiou]); Constamonítu ([Greek:
Konstamonitou]); Zográphu ([Greek: tou Zographou]); and Stavronikítu
([Greek: tou Stavronikitou], the last built, founded in 1545). The
"coenobian" monasteries ([Greek: koinobia]), each under the rule of an
abbot ([Greek: aegoumenos]), are subjected to severe discipline; the
brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread
and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property. In
the "idiorrhythmic" monasteries ([Greek: idiorrythma]), which are
governed by two or three annually elected wardens ([Greek: epitropoi]),
a less stringent rule prevails, and the monks are allowed to supplement
the fare of the monastery from their private incomes. Dependent on the
several monasteries are twelve _sketae_ ([Greek: skaetai]) or monastic
settlements, some of considerable size, in which a still more ascetic
mode of life prevails: there are, in addition, several farms ([Greek:
metochia]), and many hundred sanctuaries with adjoining habitations
([Greek: kellia]) and hermitages ([Greek: askaetaeria]). The
monasteries, with the exception of Rossikón (St Panteleïmon) and the
Serbo-Bulgarian Chiliándari and Zográphu, are occupied exclusively by
Greek monks. The large _skete_ of St Andrew and some others belong to
the Russians; there are also Rumanian and Georgian _sketae_. The great
monastery of Rossikón, which is said to number about 3000 inmates, has
been under a Russian abbot since 1875; it is regarded as one of the
principal centres of the Russian politico-religious propaganda in the
Levant. The tasteless style of its modern buildings is out of harmony
with the quaint beauty of the other monasteries. Furnished with ample
means, the Russian monks neglect no opportunity of adding to their
possessions on the holy mountain; their encroachments are resisted by
the Greek monks, whose wealth, however, was much diminished by the
secularization of their estates in Rumania (1864). The population of the
holy mountain numbers from 6000 to 7000; about 3000 are monks ([Greek:
kalogeroi]), the remainder being lay brothers ([Greek: kosmikoi]). The
monasteries, which are all fortified, generally consist of large
quadrangles enclosing churches; standing amid rich foliage, they present
a wonderfully picturesque appearance, especially when viewed from the
sea. Their inmates, when not engaged in religious services, occupy
themselves with husbandry, fishing and various handicrafts; the standard
of intellectual culture is not high. A large academy, founded by the
monks of Vatopedi in 1749, for a time attracted students from all parts
of the East, but eventually proved a failure, and is now in ruins. The
muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of
documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes,
_sigilla_ of the patriarchs, _typica_, iradés and other documents, the
study of which will throw an important light on the political and
ecclesiastical history and social life of the East from the middle of
the 10th century. Up to comparatively recent times a priceless
collection of classical manuscripts was preserved in the libraries; many
of them were destroyed during the War of Greek Independence (1821-1829)
by the Turks, who employed the parchments for the manufacture of
cartridges; others fell a prey to the neglect or vandalism of the monks,
who, it is said, used the material as bait in fishing; others have been
sold to visitors, and a considerable number have been removed to Moscow
and Paris. The library of Simopetra was destroyed by fire in 1891, and
that of St Paul in 1905. There is now little hope of any important
discovery of classical manuscripts. The codices remaining in the
libraries are for the most part theological and ecclesiastical works. Of
the Greek manuscripts, numbering about 11,000, 6618 have been catalogued
by Professor Spyridion Lambros of Athens; his work, however, does not
include the MSS. in some of the _sketae_, or those in the libraries of
Laura and Vatopedi, of which catalogues (hitherto unpublished) have been
prepared by resident monks. The canonic MSS. only of Vatopedi and Laura
have been catalogued by Benessevich in the supplement to vol. ix. of the
_Bizantiyskiy Vremennik_ (St Petersburg, 1904). The Slavonic and
Georgian MSS. have not been catalogued. Apart from the illuminated MSS.,
the mural paintings, the mosaics, and the goldsmith's work of Mount
Athos are of infinite interest to the student of Byzantine art. The
frescoes in general date from the 15th or 16th century: some are
attributed by the monks to Panselinos, "the Raphael of Byzantine
painting," who apparently flourished in the time of the Palaeologi. Most
of them have been indifferently restored by local artists, who follow
mechanically a kind of hieratic tradition, the principles of which are
embodied in a work of iconography by the monk Dionysius, said to have
been a pupil of Panselinos. The same spirit of conservatism is manifest
in the architecture of the churches, which are all of the medieval
Byzantine type. Some of the monasteries were seriously damaged by an
earthquake in 1905.

  AUTHORITIES.--R.N.C. Curzon, _Visits to Monasteries in the Levant_
  (London, 1849); J.P. Fallmerayer, _Fragmenta aus dem Orient_
  (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1845); V. Langlois, _Le Mont Athos et ses
  monastères_, with a complete bibliography (Paris, 1867); Duchesne and
  Bayet, _Mémoirs sur une mission en Macédoine et au Mont Athos_ (Paris,
  1876); Texier and Pullan, _Byzantine Architecture_ (London, 1864); H.
  Brockhaus, _Die Kunst in den Athosklöstern_ (Leipzig, 1891); A. Riley,
  _Athos, or the Mountain of the Monks_ (London, 1887); S. Lambros,
  _Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount Athos_ (2 vols.,
  Cambridge, 1895 and 1900); M.I. Gedeon, [Greek: o Athos]
  (Constantinople, 1885); P. Meyer, "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der neueren
  Geschichte und des gegenwärtigen Zustandes der Athosklöster," in
  _Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_, 1890; _Die Haupturkunden für die
  Geschichte der Athosklöster_ (Leipzig, 1894); G. Millet, J. Pargoire
  and L. Petit, _Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de l'Athos_
  (Paris, 1904); H. Gelzer, _Vom Heiligen Berge und aus Makedonien_
  (Leipzig, 1904); K. Vlachu (Blachos), [Greek: Ae Chersonaesos tou
  Hagiou Orous] (Athens, 1903); G. Smurnakes, [Greek: To Hagiou
  Archaiologia Orous Atho], (Athens, 1904).     (J. D. B.)



ATHY (pronounced Athý), a market-town of Co. Kildare, Ireland, in the
south parliamentary division, 45 m. S.W. of Dublin on a branch of the
Great Southern & Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3599. It
is intersected by the river Barrow, which is here crossed by a bridge of
five arches. The crossing of the river here was guarded and disputed
from the earliest times, and the name of the town is derived from a king
of Munster killed here in the 2nd century. There are picturesque remains
of Woodstock Castle of the 12th or 13th century, and White Castle built
in 1506, and rebuilt in 1575 by a member of the family whose name it
bears, and still occupied. Both were erected to defend the ford of the
Barrow. There are also an old town gate, and an ancient cemetery with
slight monastic remains. Previous to the Union Athy returned two members
to the Irish parliament. The trade, chiefly in grain, is aided by
excellent water communication, by a branch of the Grand Canal to Dublin,
and by the river Barrow, navigable from here to Waterford harbour.



ATINA, the name of three ancient towns of Italy.

1. A town (mod. _Àtena_) of Lucania, upon the Via Popillia, 7 m. N. of
Tegianum, towards which an ancient road leads, in the valley of the
river now known as Diano. Its ancient importance is vouched for by its
walls of rough cyclopean work, which may have had a total extent of some
2 m. (see G. Patroni in _Notizie degli scavi_, 1897, 112; 1901, 498).
The date of these walls has not as yet been ascertained, recent
excavations, which led to the discovery of a few tombs in which the
earliest objects showing Greek influence may go back to the 7th century
B.C., not having produced any decisive evidence on the point. To the
Roman period belong the remains of an amphitheatre and numerous
inscriptions.

2. A town (mod. _Atina_) of the Volsci, 12 m. N. of Casinum, and about
14 m. E. of Arpinum, on a hill 1607 ft. above sea-level. The walls, of
carefully worked polygonal blocks of stone, are still preserved in
parts, and the modern town does not fill the whole area which they
enclose. Cicero speaks of it as a prosperous country town, which had not
as yet fallen into the hands of large proprietors; and inscriptions show
that under the empire it was still flourishing. One of these last is a
boundary stone relating to the assignation of lands in the time of the
Gracchi, of which six other examples have been found in Campania and
Lucania.

3. A town of the Veneti, mentioned by Pliny, _H.N._ iii. 131.



ATITLÁN, or SANTIAGO DE ATITLÁN, a town in the department of Sololá,
Guatemala, on the southern shore of Lake Atitlán. Pop. (1905) about
9000, almost all Indians. Cotton-spinning is the chief industry. Lake
Atitlán is 24 m. long and 10 m. broad, with 64 m. circumference. It
occupies a crater more than 1000 ft. deep and about 4700 ft. above
sea-level. The peaks of the Guatemala Cordillera rise round it,
culminating near its southern end in the volcanoes of San Pedro (7000
ft.) and Atitlán (11,719 ft.). Although the lake is fed by many small
mountain torrents, it has no visible outlet, but probably communicates
by an underground channel with one of the rivers which drain the
Cordillera. Mineral springs abound in the neighbourhood. The town of
Sololá (q.v.) is near the north shore of the lake.



ATKINSON, EDWARD (1827-1905), American economist, was born at Brookline,
Massachusetts, on the 10th of February 1827. For many years he was
engaged in managing various business enterprises, and became, in 1877,
president of the Boston Manufacturers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, a
post which he held till his death. He was a strong controversialist and
a prolific writer on such economic subjects as banking, railways, cotton
manufacture, the tariff and free trade, and the money question. He was
appointed in 1887 a special commissioner to report upon the status of
bimetallism in Europe. He also made a special study of mill construction
and fire prevention, and invented an improved cooking apparatus, called
the "Aladdin oven." He was an active supporter of anti-imperialism. He
died at Boston on the 11th of December 1905.

  His principal works were _Right Methods of Preventing Fires in Mills_
  (1881); _Distribution of Products_ (1885); _Industrial Progress of the
  Nation_ (1889); _Taxation and Work_ (1892); _Science of Nutrition_
  (10th ed., 1898).



ATKINSON, SIR HARRY ALBERT (1831-1892), British colonial statesman,
prime minister and speaker of the legislative council, New Zealand, was
born at Chester in 1831, and in 1855 emigrated to Taranaki, New Zealand,
where he became a farmer. In 1860 the Waitara war broke out, and from
its outset Atkinson, who had been selected as a captain of the New
Plymouth Volunteers, distinguished himself by his contempt for
appearances and tradition, and by the practical skill, energy and
courage which he showed in leading his Forest Rangers in the tiresome
and lingering bush warfare of the next five years. For this work he was
made a major of militia, and thanked by the government. Elected to the
house of representatives in 1863, he joined Sir Frederick Weld's
ministry at the end of November 1864 as minister of defence, and, during
eleven months of office, was identified with the well-known
"self-reliance" policy, a proposal to dispense with imperial regulars,
and meet the Maori with colonials only. Parliament accepted this
principle, but turned out the Weld ministry for other reasons. For four
years Atkinson was out of parliament; in October 1873 he re-entered it,
and a year later became minister of lands under Sir Julius Vogel. Ten
months later he was treasurer, and such was his aptitude for finance
that, except during six months in 1876, he thenceforth held that post
whenever his party was in power. From October 1874 to January 1891
Atkinson was only out of office for about five years. Three times he was
premier, and he was always the most formidable debater and fighter in
the ranks of the Conservative opponents of the growing Radical party
which Sir George Grey, Sir Robert Stout and John Ballance led in
succession. It was he, who was mainly responsible for the abolition of
the provinces into which the colony was divided from 1853 to 1876. He
repealed the Ballance land-tax in 1879, and substituted a property-tax.
He greatly reduced the cost of the public service in 1880, and again in
1888. In both these years he raised the customs duties, amongst other
taxes, and gave them a quasi-protectionist character. In 1880 he struck
10% off all public salaries and wages; in 1887 he reduced the salary of
the governor by one-third, and the pay and number of ministers and
members of parliament. By these resolute steps revenue was increased,
expenditure checked, and the colony's finance reinstated. Atkinson was
an advocate of compulsory national assurance, and the leasing as opposed
to the selling of crown lands. Defeated in the general election of
December 1890, he took the appointment of speaker of the legislative
council. There, while leaving the council chamber after the sitting of
the 28th of June 1892, he was struck down by heart disease and died in a
few minutes. Though brusque in manner and never popular, he was esteemed
as a vigorous, upright and practical statesman. He was twice married,
and had seven children, of whom three sons and a daughter survived him.
     (W. P. R.)



ATLANTA, the capital and the largest city of Georgia, U.S.A., and the
county-seat of Fulton county, situated at an altitude of 1000-1175 ft.,
in the N.W. part of the state, near the Chattahoochee river. Pop. (1860)
9554; (1880) 37,409; (1890) 65,533; (1900) 89,872, of whom 35,727 were
negroes and 2531 were foreign-born; (1910) 154,839. It is served by the
Southern, the Central of Georgia, the Georgia, the Seaboard Air Line,
the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis (which enters the city over the
Western & Atlantic, one of its leased lines), the Louisville &
Nashville, the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, and the Atlanta & West
Point railways. These railway communications, and the situation of the
city (on the Piedmont Plateau) on the water-parting between the streams
flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of
Mexico, have given Atlanta its popular name, the "Gate City of the
South." Atlanta was laid out in the form of a circle, the radius being
1¾ m. and the centre the old railway station, the Union Depot (the new
station is called the Terminal); large additions have been made beyond
this circle, including West End, Inman Park on the east, and North
Atlanta. Among the best residence streets are Peachtree and West
Peachtree streets to the north, and the older streets to the south of
the business centre of the city--Washington Street, Whitehall, Pryor and
Capitol Avenues. Among the principal office buildings are the Empire,
the Equitable, the Prudential, the Fourth National, the Austell, the
Peters, the Century, the English-American and the Candler buildings; and
there are many fine residences, particularly in Peachtree and Washington
streets, Inman Park and Ponce de Leon Circle. Among prominent public
buildings are the State Capitol (completed 1889), containing a law
library of about 65,000 volumes and a collection of portraits of famous
Georgians, the north-west front of the Capitol grounds containing an
equestrian statue (unveiled in 1907) of John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), a
distinguished Confederate general in the American Civil War and governor
of Georgia in 1887-1890; the court house; the Carnegie library, in which
the young men's library, organized in 1867, was merged in 1902; the post
office building; and the Federal prison (about 4 m. south of the city).
The principal parks are: the Piedmont (189 acres), the site of the
Piedmont Exposition of 1887 and of the Cotton States and International
Exposition of 1895; the Grant, given to the city by L.P. Grant, an
Atlanta railroad builder, in 1882, and subsequently enlarged by the city
(in its south-east corner is Fort Walker); the Lakewood, 6 m. south of
the city; and Ponce de Leon Park, owned by an electric railway company
and having mineral springs and a fine baseball ground. Four miles south
of the centre of Atlanta is Fort McPherson, an important United States
military post, occupying a reservation of 40 acres and having barracks
for the accommodation of 1000 men. In Oakland Cemetery is a large
monument to Confederate soldiers; another monument in Oakland, "To the
unknown Confederate Dead," is a reproduction of the Lion of Lucerne; in
West View Cemetery (4 m. west of the city) is a memorial erected by the
United Confederate Veterans. The city obtains its water-supply from the
Chattahoochee river (above the mouth of Peachtree Creek), whence the
water is pumped by four pumps, which have a daily capacity of 55,000,000
gallons. Atlanta is widely known for its public spirit and enterprise,
to which the expositions of 1881, 1887 and 1895 bear witness. The air is
bracing, largely because of the city's altitude; the mean annual
temperature is 60.8° F. (winter 44.1°, spring 60.5°, summer 77°, autumn
61.5°).

Atlanta is an important educational centre. Its public-school system was
organized in 1871. Here are the Georgia School of Technology, founded in
1885 (opened 1888) as a branch of the university of Georgia; the Atlanta
College of Physicians and Surgeons (established in 1898 by the union of
the Atlanta Medical College, organized in 1855, and the Southern Medical
College, organized in 1878); the Atlanta School of Medicine (1905); the
Georgia College of Eclectic Medicine; the Atlanta Theological Seminary
(1901, Congregational), the only theological school of the denomination
in the South in 1908; the Atlanta Dental College; the Southern College
of Pharmacy (1903); Washington Seminary (1877) for girls; and the
following institutions for negroes--Atlanta University, founded in 1869,
which is one of the best institutions in the country for the higher
education of negroes, standing particularly for "culture" education (as
opposed to industrial training), which has done particularly good work
in the department of sociology, under the direction of Prof. W.E.B. du
Bois (b. 1868), one of the most prominent teachers of negro descent in
the country, and which had in 1908 339 students; Clark University,
founded in 1870 by the Freedman's Aid and Southern Educational Society
of the Methodist Episcopal Church; the Atlanta Baptist College, founded
in 1867; Morris Brown College (African Methodist Episcopal, founded in
1882, and opened in 1885), which has college preparatory, scientific,
academic, normal and missionary courses, correspondence courses in
English and theology, an industrial department, and departments of law,
theology (Turner Theological Seminary), nurse-training, music and art;
the Gammon Theological Seminary (Methodist Episcopal, chartered in
1888), which has its buildings just outside the city limits; and the
Spelman Seminary for women and girls (Baptist) opened in 1881 as the
Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary--the present name being adopted in 1883
in honour of the parents of Mrs John D. Rockefeller--and incorporated in
1888. At Decatur (pop. 1418 in 1900), a residential suburb, 6 m.
east-north-east of Atlanta, is the Agnes Scott College (1890) for white
girls; connected with the college is a school of music, art and
expression, and an academy.

The city's principal charitable institutions are the Grady Memorial
hospital (opened in 1892), supported by the city and named in honour of
Henry W. Grady; the Presbyterian hospital; the Baptist Tabernacle
Infirmary; the Wesley Memorial hospital; St Joseph's infirmary; the
Municipal hospital for contagious diseases; the Florence Crittenden
home. Three miles south-east of the city is a (state) soldiers' home,
for aged, infirm and disabled Confederate veterans. The Associated
Charities of Atlanta was organized in 1905.

The principal newspapers are the _Constitution_ (morning), edited from
1880 until 1889 by Henry W. Grady (1851-1889),[1] one of the most
eloquent of Southern orators, who did much to promote the reconciliation
of the North and the South after the Civil War, and whose statue stands
opposite the post office; the _Journal_ (evening), of which Hoke Smith
(b. 1855), a prominent political leader, secretary of the interior in
President Cleveland's cabinet in 1893-1896, and later governor of
Georgia, was long the proprietor; and the _Georgian_ (evening), founded
in 1906 as a Prohibition organ.

As regards commerce and manufactures, Atlanta ranks first among the
cities of Georgia. In 1907 its whosesale and retail trade was estimated
at $100,000,000. The city is said to receive two-fifths of the total
freight delivered in the state of Georgia. From 1895 to 1907 the bank
clearings increased from about $65,000,000 to about $260,000,000. In
recognition of the city's financial strength, Atlanta has been
designated by the secretary of the treasury as one of the cities whose
bonds will be accepted as security for Federal deposits. Atlanta is the
Southern headquarters for a number of fire and life insurance companies,
and is the third city of the United States in the amount of insurance
business written and reported to resident agents, the annual premium
receipts averaging about $10,000,000. It is an important horse and mule
market, and handles much tobacco.

The development of manufactures has been especially notable. In 1880 the
capital invested in manufacturing industries was approximately
$2,468,000; in 1890 it was $9,508,962; in 1900 it had increased to
$16,045,156; and in 1905, when only establishments under the "factory
system" were counted in the census, to $21,631,162. In 1900 the total
product was valued at $16,707,027, and the factory product at
$14,418,834; and in 1905 the factory product was valued at $25,745,650,
an increase of 78.6% in five years. Among the products are cotton goods
(the product value of which in 1905 was 14% of the total value of the
city's manufactures), foundry and machine-shop products, lumber, patent
medicines, confectionery, men's clothing, mattresses, spring-beds and
other furniture. Since 1904 part of the power utilized for manufacturing
has been obtained from the Chattahoochee river, 15 m. from the city.
There are many manufactories just outside the city limits.

_History._--Atlanta owes its origin to the development of pioneer
railroads of Georgia. In 1836 the Western & Atlantic, the first road
built into North Georgia, was chartered, and the present site of Atlanta
was chosen as its southern terminal, which it reached in 1843, and which
was named "Terminus." The Georgia and the Central of Georgia then
projected branches to Terminus in order to connect with the Western &
Atlantic, and completed them in 1845 and 1846. The town charter of 1843
changed the name to Marthasville, in honour of the daughter of Governor
Wilson Lumpkin; and the city charter of 1847 changed this to Atlanta.
The population in 1850 was 2572; in 1860, 9554. Manufacturing interests
soon became important, and during the Civil War Atlanta was the seat of
Confederate military factories and a depot of supplies. In 1864 it was
the objective point of the first stage of General William T. Sherman's
invasion of Georgia (see AMERICAN CIVIL WAR), which is therefore
generally known as the "Atlanta campaign."

After the battles around Marietta (q.v.), and the crossing of the
Chattahoochee river on the 8th and 9th of July, Sherman continued his
advance against Atlanta. His plan of operations was directed primarily
to the seizure of the Decatur railway, by which the Confederate
commander, General J.E. Johnston, might receive support from Virginia
and the Carolinas. The three Union armies under Sherman's command,
outnumbering the Confederates about 3 to 2, began their movement on the
16th of July; the Army of the Cumberland (Gen. G.H. Thomas) on the right
marching from Marietta by the fords of the Upper Chattahoochee on
Atlanta, the Army of the Ohio (Gen. J.M. Schofield) in the centre direct
on Decatur, and the Army of the Tennessee (Gen. J.B. McPherson) still
farther east towards Stone Mountain. At the moment of marching out to
meet the enemy, Johnston was relieved of his command and was replaced by
Gen. J.B. Hood (July 17). Hood at once prepared to attack Thomas as soon
as that general should have crossed Peachtree Creek (6 m. north of the
city) and thus isolated himself from Schofield and McPherson. Sherman's
confidence in Thomas and his troops was, however, justified. Hood's
attack (battle of Peachtree Creek, July 20) was everywhere repulsed, and
Schofield and McPherson closed up at the greatest speed. Hood had to
retire to Atlanta, with a loss of more than 4000 men, and the three
Union armies gradually converged on the north and east sides of the
city. But Hood, who had been put in command as a fighting general, was
soon ready to attack afresh. This time he placed Gen. W.J. Hardee's
corps, the largest of his army, to the south of Atlanta, facing the left
flank of McPherson's army. As Hardee's attack rolled up the Union army
from left to right, the remainder of the Confederate army was to issue
from the Atlanta fortifications and join in the battle. Hardee opened
his attack at noon on the 22nd of July (battle of Atlanta). The troops
of the Army of the Tennessee were swiftly driven back, and their
commander, McPherson, killed; but presently the Federals re-formed and a
severe struggle ensued, in which most of Hood's army joined. The
veterans of the Army of the Tennessee, led by Gen. J.A. Logan, offered a
stubborn resistance, however, and Schofield's army now intervened. After
prolonged attacks lasting to nightfall, Hood had once more to draw off,
with about 10,000 men killed and wounded. The Confederates now abandoned
all idea of regaining the Decatur line, and based themselves on
Jonesboro' and the Macon railway. Sherman quickly realized this, and the
Army of the Tennessee, now commanded by Gen. O.O. Howard, was
counter-marched from left to right, until it formed up on the right of
the Union line about Ezra Church (about 4 m. west of Atlanta). The
railway from Chattanooga to Atlanta, destroyed by Johnston as he fell
back in May and June, was now repaired and working up to Thomas's camps.
Hood had meanwhile extended his entrenchments southwards to cover the
Macon railway, and Howard's movement led to another engagement (battle
of Ezra Church, July 28) in which the XV. corps under Logan again bore
the brunt of Hood's attack. The Confederates were once more
unsuccessful, and the losses were so heavy that the "fighting" policy
ordered by the Confederate government was countermanded. Sherman's
cavalry had hitherto failed to do serious damage to the railway, and the
Federal general now proceeded to manoeuvre with his main body so as to
cut off Hood from his Southern railway lines (August). Covered by Howard
at Ezra Church, Schofield led this advance, but the new Confederate
lines baffled him. A bombardment of the Atlanta fortifications was then
begun, but it had no material result. Another cavalry raid effected but
slight damage to the line, and Sherman now decided to take his whole
force to the south side. This apparently dangerous movement (August 25)
is a remarkable illustration of Sherman's genius for war, and in fact
succeeded completely. Only a small force was left to guard the
Chattanooga railway, and the Union forces, Howard on the right, Thomas
in the centre, and Schofield on the left, reached the railway after some
sharp fighting (action of Jonesboro', September 1). The defence of
Atlanta was now hopeless; Hood's forces retreated southward the same
evening, and on the 2nd of September the Union detachment left behind on
the north side entered Atlanta unopposed.

All citizens were now ordered to leave, the place was turned into a
military camp, and when Sherman started on his "March to the Sea," on
the 15th of November, a large part of the city was burned. Consequently
the present city is a product of the post-bellum development of Georgia.
The military government of Georgia was established here in 1865. In 1868
Atlanta was made the capital of the state.

In 1881 an International Cotton Exposition was held in Atlanta. This was
American, even local, in character; its inception was due to a desire to
improve the cultivation and manufacture of cotton; but it brought to the
notice of the whole country the industrial transformation wrought in the
Southern states during the last quarter of the 19th century. In 1887 the
Piedmont Exposition was held in Atlanta. The Cotton States and
International Exposition, also held at Atlanta, in 1895, attracted
widespread attention, and had exhibits from thirty-seven states and
thirteen foreign countries.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Grady was succeeded as managing editor by Clark Howell (b. 1863);
    and Joel Chandler Harris was long a member of the editorial staff.



ATLANTIC, a city and the county-seat of Cass county, Iowa, U.S.A., on
East Nishnabatna river, about 80 m. W. by S. of Des Moines. Pop. (1890)
4351; (1900) 5046; (1905, state census) 5180 (625 foreign-born); (1910)
4560. It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railway, and by
an inter-urban electric line connecting with Elkhorn and Kimballton, and
is the trade centre of a fine agricultural country; among its
manufactures are machine-shop products, canned corn, flour, umbrellas,
drugs and bricks. The municipality owns the water-works and
electric-lighting plant. Atlantic was chartered as a city in 1869.



ATLANTIC CITY, a city of Atlantic county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the
Atlantic Ocean, 58 m. S.E. of Philadelphia and 137 m. S. by W. of New
York. Pop. (1890) 13,055; (1900) 27,838, of whom 6513 were of negro
descent and 3189 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 46,150. It is served
by the Atlantic City (Philadelphia & Reading) and the West Jersey &
Seashore (Pennsylvania system) railways. Atlantic City is the largest
and most popular all-the-year-round resort in the United States, and has
numerous fine hotels. The city extends for 3 m. along a low sandy island
(Absecon Beach), 10 m. long by ¾ m. wide, separated from the mainland by
a narrow strip of salt water and 4 or 5 m. of salt marshes, partly
covered with water at highest storm tide. There are good bathing,
boating, sailing, fishing and wild-fowl shooting. A "Board Walk"
stretches along the beach for about 5 m.--the newest part of it is of
concrete--and along or near this walk are the largest hotels, and
numerous shops, and places of amusement; from the walk into the ocean
extend several long piers. Other features of the place are the broad
driveway (Atlantic Avenue) and an automobile boulevard. There are
several seaside sanitoriums and hospitals, including the Atlantic City
hospital, the Mercer Memorial home, and the Children's Seashore home. On
the north end of the beach is Absecon Lighthouse, 160 ft. high. The
municipality owns the water-works. Oysters are dredged here and are
shipped hence in large quantities. There was a settlement of fishermen
on the island in the latter part of the 18th century. In 1852 a movement
was made to develop it as a seaside resort for Philadelphia, and after
the completion of the Camden & Atlantic City railway in 1854 the growth
of the place was rapid. A heavy loss occurred by fire on the 3rd of
April 1902.



ATLANTIC OCEAN,


  Extent.

a belt of water, roughly of an S-shape, between the western coasts of
Europe and Africa and the eastern coasts of North and South America. It
extends northward to the Arctic Basin and southward to the Great
Southern Ocean. For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are
taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the
configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to
these limits. The Atlantic Ocean consists of two characteristic
divisions, the geographical equator forming a fairly satisfactory line
of division into North and South Atlantic. The North Atlantic, by far
the best-known of the main divisions of the hydrosphere, is remarkable
for the immense length of its coast-line and for the large number of
enclosed seas connected with it, including on the western side the
Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St Lawrence and Hudson
Bay, and on the eastern side the Mediterranean and Black Sea, the North
Sea and the Baltic. The North Atlantic is connected with the Arctic
Basin by four main channels: (1) Hudson Strait, about 60 m. wide,
communicating with the gulfs and straits of the North American Arctic
archipelago; (2) Davis Strait, about 200 m. wide, leading to Baffin Bay;
(3) Denmark Strait, between Greenland and Iceland, 130 m. wide; and (4)
the "Norwegian Sea," about 400 m. wide, extending from Iceland to the
Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands and the coast of Norway. The width
of the North Atlantic in lat. 60°, approximately where it breaks up into
the branches just named, is nearly 2000 m.; in about lat. 50° N. the
coasts of Ireland and Newfoundland approach to 1750 m.; the breadth then
increases rapidly to lat. 40° N., and attains its maximum of 4500 m. in
lat. 25° N.; farther south the minimum breadth is reached between Africa
and South America, Cape Palmas being only 1600 m. distant from Cape St
Roque. In marked contrast to this, the South Atlantic is distinguished
by great simplicity of coast-line; inland seas there are none, and it
attains its greatest breadth as it merges with the Southern Ocean; in
lat. 35° S. the width is 3700 m.

The total area of the North Atlantic, not counting inland seas connected
with it, is, according to G. Karstens, 36,438,000 sq. kilometres, or
10,588,000 sq. m.; including the inland seas the area is 45,641,000 sq.
kilometres or 13,262,000 sq. m. The area of the South Atlantic is
43,455,000 sq. kilometres, or 12,627,000 sq. m. Although not the most
extensive of the great oceans, the Atlantic has by far the largest
drainage area. The "long slopes" of the continents on both sides are
directed towards the Atlantic, which accordingly receives the waters of
a large proportion of the great rivers of the world, including the St
Lawrence, the Mississippi, the Orinoco, the Amazon, the rivers of the La
Plata, the Congo, the Niger, the Loire, the Rhine, the Elbe and the
great rivers of the Mediterranean and the Baltic. Sir J. Murray
estimates the total area of land draining to the Atlantic to be
13,432,000 sq. m., or with the Arctic area nearly 20,000,000 sq. m.,
nearly four times the area draining to the Pacific Ocean, and almost
precisely four times the area draining to the Indian Ocean. Murray's
calculations give the amount of precipitation received on this area at
15,800 cub. m. annually, and the river discharge from it at 3900 cub. m.


  Relief of the bed.

The dominant feature of the relief of the Atlantic basin is a submarine
ridge running from north to south from about lat. 50° N. to lat. 40° S.,
almost exactly in the central line, and following the S-shape of the
coasts. Over this ridge the average depth is about 1700 fathoms. Towards
its northern end the ridge widens and rises to the plateau of the
Azores, and in about 50° N. lat. it merges with the "Telegraph Plateau,"
which extends across nearly the whole ocean from Ireland to
Newfoundland. North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards
the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend
north-eastwards to the south-west of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands,
and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge
connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with
North-western Scotland and the continental mass of Europe. The mean
depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth
nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut
off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has
complete deep-water communication. This intermediate region, which has
Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths
belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of
Norwegian Sea. On both sides of the central ridge deep troughs extend
southwards from the Telegraph plateau to the Southern Ocean, the deep
water coming close to the land all the way down on both sides. In these
troughs the depth is seldom much less than 3000 fathoms, and this is
exceeded in a series of patches to which Murray has given the name of
"Deeps." In the eastern trough the Peake Deep lies off the Bay of Biscay
in 20° W. long., Monaco Deep and Chun Deep off the north-west of Africa,
Moseley Deep off the Cape Verde Islands, Krech Deep off the Liberian
coast, and Buchanan Deep off the mouth of the Congo. The western trough
extends northwards into Davis Strait, forming a depression in the
Telegraph plateau; to the south of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia are
Sigsbee Deep, Libbey Deep and Suhm Deep, each of small area; north-east
of the Bahamas Nares Deep forms the largest and deepest depression in
the Atlantic, in which a sounding of 4561 fathoms was obtained (70 m.
north of Porto Rico) by the U.S. ship "Blake" in 1883. Immediately to
the south of Nares Deep lies the smaller Makarov Deep; and off the coast
of South America are Tizard Deep and Havergal Deep.

Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form
of the sea bottom south of 40° S. lat. was almost wholly derived from
the soundings of the expedition of Sir J.C. Ross in the "Erebus" and
"Terror" (1839-1843), and the bathymetrical maps published were largely
the result of deductions based on one sounding taken by Ross in 68° 34'
S. lat., 12° 49' W. long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000
fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be
erroneous; the "Scotia" obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same
spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent
soundings, Dr W.S. Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds
that there is a ridge "extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet
Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a
forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through
South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
Again, the central ridge of the South Atlantic extends a thousand miles
farther south than was supposed, joining the east and west ridge, just
described, between the Bouvet Islands and the Sandwich group.

The foundations of our knowledge of the relief of the Atlantic basin may
be said to have been laid by the work of H.M.S. "Challenger"
(1873-1876), and the German ship "Gazelle" (1874-1876), the French
expedition in the "Travailleur" (1880), and the U.S. surveying vessel
"Blake" (1877 and later). Large numbers of additional soundings have
been made in recent years by cable ships, by the expeditions of H.S.H.
the prince of Monaco, the German "Valdivia" expedition under Professor
Chun (1898), and the combined Antarctic expeditions (1903-1904).


  Islands.

The Atlantic Ocean contains a relatively small number of islands. The
only continental groups, besides some islands in the Mediterranean, are
Iceland, the British Isles, Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the
Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the
Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha
and Bouvet Island.


  Mean depth, and bottom deposits.

The mean depth of the North Atlantic is, according to G. Karstens, 2047
fathoms. If we include the enclosed seas, the North Atlantic has a mean
depth of 1800 fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of 2067
fathoms.

The greater part of the bottom of the Atlantic is covered by a deposit
of Globigerina ooze, roughly the area between 1000 and 3000 fathoms, or
about 60% of the whole. At a depth of about 3000 fathoms, i.e. in the
"Deeps," the Globigerina ooze gradually gives place to red clay. In the
shallower tropical waters, especially on the central ridge, considerable
areas are covered by Pteropod ooze, a deposit consisting largely of the
shells of pelagic molluscs. Diatom ooze is the characteristic deposit in
high southern latitudes. The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds,
red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of
organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter
brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and
sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.

The question of the origin of the Atlantic basin, like that of the other
great divisions of the hydrosphere, is still unsettled. Most geologists
include the Atlantic with the other oceans in the view they adopt as to
its age; but E. Suess and M. Neumayr, while they regard the basin of the
Pacific as of great antiquity, believe the Atlantic to date only from
the Mesozoic age. Neumayr finds evidence of the existence of a continent
between Africa and South America, which protruded into the central North
Atlantic, in Jurassic times. F. Kossmat has shown that the Atlantic had
substantially its present form during the Cretaceous period.


  Distribution of temperature.

In describing the mean distribution of temperature in the waters of the
Atlantic it is necessary to treat the northern and southern divisions
separately. The heat equator, or line of maximum mean surface
temperature, starts from the African coast in about 5° N. lat., and
closely follows that parallel to 40° W. long., where it bends northwards
to the Caribbean Sea. North of this line, near which the temperature is
a little over 80° F., the gradient trends somewhat to the east of north,
and the temperature is slightly higher on the western than on the
eastern side until, in 45° N. lat., the isothermal of 60° F. runs nearly
east and west. Beyond this parallel the gradient is directed towards the
north-west, and temperatures are much higher on the European than on the
American side. From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the
isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial
maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern
coast of the United States. This focus occupies a larger area and
becomes of greater relative intensity as the depth increases until, at
500 fathoms, it becomes an elongated belt extending right across the
ocean in about 30° N. lat. Below 500 fathoms the western centres of
maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic
off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000
fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and
more uniform. The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins
being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms,
the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially
Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where
the distribution is modified by the surface circulation. The isothermals
of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower
latitudes of an ~-shape, temperatures being higher on the American than
on the African side. In latitudes south of 30° S. the curved form tends
to disappear, the lines running more and more directly east and west.
Below the surface a focus of maximum temperature appears off the coast
of South America in about 30° S. lat., and of minimum temperature north
and north-east of this maximum. This distribution is most marked at
about 300 fathoms, and disappears at 500 fathoms, beyond which depth the
lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient
slowly diminishing.


  Salinity.

The Atlantic is by far the saltest of the great oceans. Its saltest
waters are found at the surface in two belts, one extending east and
west in the North Atlantic between 20° and 30° N. lat., and another of
almost equal salinity extending eastwards from the coast of South
America in 10° to 20° S. lat. In the equatorial region between these
belts the salinity is markedly less, especially in the eastern part.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher
as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin
are reached. In all of these water of relatively high salinity usually
appears for a long distance towards the north on the eastern side of the
channel, while on the western side the water is comparatively fresh; but
great variations occur at different seasons and in different years. In
the higher latitudes of the South Atlantic the salinity diminishes
steadily and tends to be uniform from east to west, except near the
southern extremity of South America, where the surface waters are very
fresh. Our knowledge of the salinity of waters below the surface is as
yet very defective, large areas being still unrepresented by a single
observation. The chief facts already established are the greater
saltness of the North Atlantic compared with the South Atlantic at all
depths, and the low salinity at all depths in the eastern equatorial
region, off the Gulf of Guinea.


  Meteorology.

The wind circulation over the Atlantic is of a very definite character.
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South
America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal
planetary circulation. The tropical belt of high atmospheric pressure is
very marked in winter; it is weaker during the summer months, and at
that season the greater relative fall of pressure over the land cuts it
off into an oval-shaped anticyclone, the centre of which rests on the
coolest part of the sea surface in that latitude, near the Gulf of
Guinea. South of this anticyclone, from about the latitude of the Cape,
we find the region where, on account of the uninterrupted sea surface
right round the globe, the planetary circulation is developed to the
greatest extent known; the pressure gradient is steep, and the region is
swept continuously by strong westerly winds--the "roaring forties."

In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind
circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and
frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides. The tropical belt of
high pressure persists all the year round, but the immense demand for
air to supply the ascending currents over the heated land surfaces in
summer causes the normal descending movement to be largely reinforced;
hence the "North Atlantic anticyclone" is much larger, and its
circulation more vigorous, in summer than in winter. Again, during the
winter months pressure is relatively high over North America, Western
Eurasia and the Arctic regions; hence vast quantities of air are brought
down to the surface, and circulation must be kept up by ascending
currents over the ocean. The Atlantic anticyclone is, therefore, at its
weakest in winter, and on its polar side the polar eddy becomes a trough
of low pressure, extending roughly from Labrador to Iceland and Jan
Mayen, and traversed by a constant succession of cyclones. The net
effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal
variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its
type. In the intermediate belt between the two high-pressure areas the
meteorological equator remains permanently north of the geographical
equator, moving between it and about 11° N. lat.


  Currents.

The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its
action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in
producing drift movement of the surface waters. The trade winds give
rise, in the region most exposed to their influence, to two
westward-moving drifts--the equatorial currents, which are separated in
parts of their course by currents moving in the opposite direction along
the equatorial belt. These last may be of the nature of "reaction"
currents; they are collectively known as the equatorial counter-current.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current
splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current,
is deflected southwards and follows the coast as a true stream current
at least as far as the river Plate. The second branch proceeds
north-westwards towards the West Indies, where it mingles with the
waters of the northern equatorial; and the two drifts, blocked by the
<-shape of the land, raise the level of the surface in the Gulf of
Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and in the whole area outside the West
Indies. This congestion is relieved by what is probably the most rapid
and most voluminous stream current in the world, the Gulf Stream, which
runs along the coast of North America, separated from it by a narrow
strip of cold water, the "cold wall," to a point off the south-east of
Newfoundland. At this point the Gulf Stream water mixes with that from
the Labrador current (see below), and a drift current eastwards is set
up under the influence of the prevailing westerly winds: this is
generally called the Gulf Stream drift. When the Gulf Stream drift
approaches the eastern side of the Atlantic it splits into two parts,
one going southwards along the north-west coast of Africa, the Canaries
current, and another turning northwards and passing to the west of the
British Isles. Most of the Canaries current re-enters the northern
equatorial, but a certain proportion keeps to the African coast, unites
with the equatorial return currents, and penetrates into the Gulf of
Guinea. This last feature of the circulation is still somewhat obscure;
it is probably to be accounted for by the fact that on this part of the
coast the prevailing winds, although to a considerable extent monsoonal,
are off-shore winds, blowing the surface waters out to sea, and the
place of the water thus removed is filled up by the water derived either
from lower levels or from "reaction" currents.

The movements of the northern branch of the Gulf Stream drift have been
the object of more careful and more extended study than all the other
currents of the ocean put together, except, perhaps, the Gulf Stream
itself. The cruises of the "Porcupine" and "Lightning" which led
directly to the despatch of the "Challenger" expedition, were altogether
within its "sphere of influence"; so also was the great Norwegian
Atlantic expedition. More recently, the area has been further explored
by the German expedition in the ss. "National," the Danish "Ingolf"
expedition, and the minor expeditions of the "Michael Sars," "Jackal,"
"Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the
International Council for the Study of the Sea. Much has also been done
by the discussion of observations made on board vessels belonging to the
mercantile marine of various countries. It may now be taken as generally
admitted that the current referred to breaks into three main branches.
The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland
Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which,
as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth. The second, the Irminger
stream, passes up the west side of Iceland; and the third goes up to the
Greenland side of Davis Strait to Baffin Bay. These branches are
separated from one another at the surface by currents moving southwards:
one passes east of Iceland; the second, the Greenland current, skirts
the east coast of Greenland; and the third, the Labrador current already
mentioned, follows the western side of Davis Strait.

The development of the equatorial and the Brazil currents in the South
Atlantic has already been described. On the polar side of the
high-pressure area a west wind drift is under the control of the
"roaring forties," and on reaching South Africa part of this is
deflected and sent northwards along the west coast as the cold Benguella
current which rejoins the equatorial. In the central parts of the two
high-pressure areas there is practically no surface circulation. In the
North Atlantic this region is covered by enormous banks of gulf-weed
(_Sargassum bucciferum_), hence the name Sargasso Sea. The Sargasso Sea
is bounded, roughly, by the lines of 20°-35° N. lat. and 40°-75° W.
long.

The sub-surface circulation in the Atlantic may be regarded as
consisting of two parts. Where surface water is banked up against the
land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to
penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are
at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their
sources has a downward movement. In the case of the Gulf Stream, which
is not much impeded by the land, this descending motion is relatively
slight, being perhaps largely due to the greater specific gravity of the
water; it ceases to be perceptible beyond about 500 fathoms. On the
European-African side the descending movement is more marked, partly
because the coast-line is much more irregular and the northward current
is deflected against it by the earth's rotation, and partly because of
the outflow of salt water from the Mediterranean; here the movement is
traceable to at least 1000 fathoms. The northward movement of water
across the Norwegian Sea extends down from the surface to the
Iceland-Shetland ridge, where it is sharply cut off; the lower levels of
the Norwegian Sea are filled with ice-cold Arctic water, close down to
the ridge. The south-moving currents originating from melting ice are
probably quite shallow. The second part of the circulation in the depth
is the slow "creep" of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and
the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically
non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the
Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the
equator and even beyond.

The tides of the Atlantic Ocean are of great complexity. The tidal wave
of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from
the east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South
America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of
the ocean. With this "free" wave is combined a "forced" wave, generated,
by the direct action of the sun and moon, within the Atlantic area
itself. Nothing is known about the relative importance of these two
waves.     (H. N. D.)

  See also OCEANS AND OCEANOGRAPHY.



ATLANTIS, ATLANTIS, or ATLANTICA, a legendary island in the Atlantic
Ocean, first mentioned by Plato in the _Timaeus_. Plato describes how
certain Egyptian priests, in a conversation with Solon, represented the
island as a country larger than Asia Minor and Libya united, and
situated just beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar).
Beyond it lay an archipelago of lesser islands. According to the
priests, Atlantis had been a powerful kingdom nine thousand years before
the birth of Solon, and its armies had overrun the lands which bordered
the Mediterranean. Athens alone had withstood them with success. Finally
the sea had overwhelmed Atlantis, and had thenceforward become
unnavigable owing to the shoals which marked the spot. In the _Critias_
Plato adds a history of the ideal commonwealth of Atlantis. It is
impossible to decide how far this legend is due to Plato's invention,
and how far it is based on facts of which no record remains. Medieval
writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers,
believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous
traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points
of resemblance to Atlantis. Such in particular were the Greek Isles of
the Blest, or Fortunate Islands, the Welsh Avalon, the Portuguese
Antilia or Isle of Seven Cities, and St Brendan's island, the subject of
many sagas in many languages. These, which are described in separate
articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which
had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon
were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the
object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until
the 18th century. In early legends, of whatever nationality, they are
almost invariably described in terms which closely resemble Homer's
account of the island of the Phaeacians (_Od._ viii.)--a fact which may
be an indication of their common origin in some folk-tale current among
several races. Somewhat similar legends are those of the island of
Brazil (q.v.), of Lyonnesse (q.v.), the sunken land off the Cornish
coast, of the lost Breton city of Is, and of Mayda or Asmaide--the
French _Isle Verte_ and Portuguese _Ilha Verde_ or "Green Island"--which
appears in many folk-tales from Gibraltar to the Hebrides, and until
1853 was marked on English charts as a rock in 44° 48' N. and 26° 10' W.
After the Renaissance, with its renewal of interest in Platonic studies,
numerous attempts were made to rationalize the myth of Atlantis. The
island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries
and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of
the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th
and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously
debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.

  For the theory that Atlantis is to be identified with Crete in the
  Minoan period, see "The Lost Continent" in _The Times_ (London) for
  the 19th of February 1909. See also "Dissertation sur l'Atlantide" in
  T.H. Martin's _Études sur le Timée_ (1841).



ATLAS, in Greek mythology, the "endurer," a son of the Titan Iapetus and
Clymene (or Asia), brother of Prometheus. Homer, in the _Odyssey_ (i.
52) speaks of him as "one who knows the depths of the whole sea, and
keeps the tall pillars which hold heaven and earth asunder." In the
first instance he seems to have been a marine creation. The pillars
which he supported were thought to rest in the sea, immediately beyond
the most western horizon. But as the Greeks' knowledge of the west
increased, the name of Atlas was transferred to a hill in the north-west
of Africa. Later, he was represented as a king of that district, rich in
flocks and herds, and owner of the garden of the Hesperides, who was
turned into a rocky mountain when Perseus, to punish him for his
inhospitality, showed him the Gorgon's head (Ovid, _Metam._ iv. 627).
Finally, Atlas was explained as the name of a primitive astronomer, who
was said to have made the first celestial globe (Diodorus iii. 60). He
was the father of the Pleiades and Hyades; according to Homer, of
Calypso. In works of art he is represented as carrying the heavens or
the terrestrial globe. The Farnese statue of Atlas in the Naples museum
is well known.

The plural form ATLANTES is the classical term in architecture for the
male sculptured figures supporting a superstructure as in the baths at
Pompeii, and in the temple at Agrigentum in Sicily. In 18th-century
architecture half-figures of men with strong muscular development were
used to support balconies (see CARYATIDES and TELAMONES).

A figure of Atlas supporting the heavens is often found as a
frontispiece in early collections of maps, and is said to have been
first thus used by Mercator. The name is hence applied to a volume of
maps (see MAP), and similarly to a volume which contains a tabular
conspectus of a subject, such as an atlas of ethnographical, subjects or
anatomical plates. It is also used of a large size of drawing paper.

The name "atlas," an Arabic word meaning "smooth," applied to a smooth
cloth, is sometimes found in English, and is the usual German word, for
"satin."



ATLAS MOUNTAINS, the general name for the mountain chains running more
or less parallel to the coast of North-west Africa. They extend from
Cape Nun on the west to the Gulf of Gabes on the east, a distance of
some 1500 m., traversing Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. To their south
lies the Saharan desert. The Atlas consist of many distinct ranges, but
they can be roughly divided into two main chains: (1) the Maritime
Atlas, i.e. the ranges overlooking the Mediterranean from Ceuta to
Cape Bon; (2) the inner and more elevated ranges, which, starting from
the Atlantic at Cape Ghir in Sús, run south of the coast ranges and are
separated from them by high plateaus. This general disposition is seen
most distinctly in eastern Morocco and Algeria. The western inner ranges
are the most important of the whole system, and in the present article
are described first as _the Moroccan Ranges_. The maritime Atlas and the
inner ranges in Algeria and Tunisia are then treated under the heading
_Eastern Ranges_.

_The Moroccan Ranges._--This section of the Atlas, known to the
inhabitants of Morocco by its Berber name, Idráren Dráren or the
"Mountains of Mountains," consists of five distinct ranges, varying in
length and height, but disposed more or less parallel to one another in
a general direction from south-west to north-east, with a slight
curvature towards the Sahara.

1. The main range, that known as the Great Atlas, occupies a central
position in the system, and is by far the longest and loftiest chain. It
has an average height of over 11,000 ft., whereas the loftiest peaks in
Algeria do not exceed 8000 ft., and the highest in Tunisia are under
6000 ft. Towards the Dahra district at the north-east end the fall is
gradual and continuous, but at the opposite extremity facing the
Atlantic between Agadir and Mogador it is precipitous. Although only one
or two peaks reach the line of perpetual snow, several of the loftiest
summits are snowclad during the greater part of the year. The northern
sides and tops of the lower heights are often covered with dense forests
of oak, cork, pine, cedar and other trees, with walnuts up to the limit
of irrigation. Their slopes enclose well-watered valleys of great
fertility, in which the Berber tribes cultivate tiny irrigated fields,
their houses clinging to the hill-sides. The southern flanks, being
exposed to the hot dry winds of the Sahara, are generally destitute of
vegetation.

At several points the crest of the range has been deeply eroded by old
glaciers and running waters, and thus have been formed a number of
devious passes. The central section, culminating in Tizi n 'Tagharat or
Tinzár, a peak estimated at 15,000 ft. high, maintains a mean altitude
of 11,600 ft., and from this great mass of schists and sandstones a
number of secondary ridges radiate in all directions, forming divides
between the rivers Dra'a, Sús, Um-er-Rabía, Sebú, Mulwíya and Ghír,
which flow respectively to the south-west, the west, north-west, north,
north-east and south-east. All are swift and unnavigable, save perhaps
for a few miles from their mouths. With the exception of the Dra'a, the
streams rising on the side of the range facing the Sahara do not reach
the sea, but form marshes or lagoons at one season, and at another are
lost in the dry soil of the desert.

For a distance of 100 m. the central section nowhere presents any passes
accessible to caravans, but south-westward two gaps in the range afford
communication between the Tansíft and Sús basins, those respectively of
Gindáfi and Bíbáwan. A few summits in the extreme south-west in the
neighbourhood of Cape Ghir still exceed 11,000 ft., and although the
steadily rising ground from the coast and the prominence of nearer
summits detract from the apparent height, this is on an average greater
than that of the European Alps. The most imposing view is to be obtained
from the plain of Marrákesh, only some 1000 ft. above sea-level,
immediately north of the highest peaks. Besides huge masses of old
schists and sandstones, the range contains extensive limestone, marble,
diorite, basalt and porphyry formations, while granite prevails on its
southern slopes. The presence of enormous glaciers in the Ice Age is
attested by the moraines at the Atlantic end, and by other indications
farther east. The best-known passes are: (1) The Bíbáwan in the upper
Wad Sús basin (4150 ft.); (2) the Gindáfi, giving access from Marrákesh
to Tárudánt, rugged and difficult, but low; (3) the Tagharat, difficult
and little used, leading to the Dra'a valley (11,484 ft.); (4) the Gláwi
(7600 ft.); (5) Tizi n 'Tilghemt (7250 ft.), leading to Tafilet
(Tafílált) and the Wad Ghír.

2. The lower portion of the Moroccan Atlas (sometimes called the Middle
Atlas), extending north-east and east from an undefined point to the
north of the Great Atlas to near the frontier of Algeria, is crossed by
the pass from Fez to Tafílált. Both slopes are wooded, and its forests
are the only parts of Morocco where the lion still survives. From the
north this range, which is only partly explored, presents a somewhat
regular series of snowy crests.

3. The Anti-Atlas or Jebel Saghru, also known as the Lesser Atlas,
running parallel to and south of the central range, is one of the least
elevated chains in the system, having a mean altitude of not more than
5000 ft., although some peaks and even passes exceed 6000 ft. At one
point it is pierced by a gap scarcely five paces wide with walls of
variegated marbles polished by the transport of goods. As to the
relation of the Anti-Atlas to the Atlas proper at its western end
nothing certain is known.

The two more or less parallel ranges which complete the western system
are less important:--(4) the Jebel Bani, south of the Anti-Atlas, a low,
narrow rocky ridge with a height of 3000 ft. in its central parts; and
(5) the Mountains of Ghaiáta, north of the Middle Atlas, not a
continuous range, but a series of broken mountain masses from 3000 to
3500 ft. high, to the south of Fez, Táza and Tlemçen.

_The Eastern Ranges._--The eastern division of the Atlas, which forms
the backbone of Algeria and Tunisia, is adequately known with the
exception of the small portion in Morocco forming the province of
Er-Ríf. The lesser range, nearer the sea, known to the French as the
Maritime Atlas, calls for little detailed notice. From Ceuta, above
which towers Jebel Músa--about 2800 ft.--to Melilla, a distance of some
150 m., the Ríf Mountains face the Mediterranean, and here, as along the
whole coast eastward to Cape Bon, many rugged rocks rise boldly above
the general level. In Algeria the Maritime Atlas has five chief ranges,
several mountains rising over 5000 ft. The Jurjura range, extending
through Kabylia from Algiers to Bougie, contains the peaks of Lalla
Kedija (7542 ft.), the culminating point of the maritime chains, and
Babor (6447 ft.). (See further ALGERIA.) The Mejerda range, which
extends into Tunisia, has no heights exceeding 3700 ft. It was in these
coast mountains of Algeria that the Romans quarried the celebrated
Numidian marbles.

The southern or main range of the Eastern division is known by the
French as the Saharan Atlas. On its western extremity it is linked by
secondary ranges to the mountain system of Morocco. The Saharan Atlas is
essentially one chain, though known under different names: Jebel K'sur
and Jebel Amur on the west, and Jebel Aures in the east. The central
part, the Záb Mountains, is of lower elevation, the Saharan Atlas
reaching its culminating point, Jebel Shellia (7611 ft. above the sea),
in the Aures. This range sends a branch northward which joins the
Mejerda range of the Maritime Atlas, and another branch runs south by
Gafsa to the Gulf of Gabes. Here Mount Sidi Ali bu Musin reaches a
height of 5700 ft., the highest point in Tunisia. In the Saharan Atlas
the passes leading to or from the desert are numerous, and in most
instances easy. Both in the east (at Batna) and the west (at Ain Sefra)
the mountains are traversed by railways, which, starting from
Mediterranean seaports, take the traveller into the Sahara.

_History and Exploration._--The name Atlas given to these mountains by
Europeans--but never used by the native races--is derived from that of
the mythical Greek god represented as carrying the globe on his
shoulders, and applied to the high and distant mountains of the west,
where Atlas was supposed to dwell. From time immemorial the Atlas have
been the home of Berber races, and those living in the least accessible
regions have retained a measure of independence throughout their
recorded history. Thus some of the mountain districts of Kabylia had
never been visited by Europeans until the French military expedition of
1857. But in general the Maritime range was well known to the Romans.
The Jebel Amur was traversed by the column which seized El Aghuat in
1852, and from that time dates the survey of the mountains.

The ancient caravan route from Mauretania to the western Sudan crossed
the lower Moroccan Atlas by the pass of Tilghemt and passed through the
oasis of Tafílált, formerly known as Sajilmása ["Sigilmassa"], on the
east side of the Anti-Atlas. The Moroccan system was visited, and in
some instances crossed, by various European travellers carried into
slavery by the Salli rovers, and was traversed by René Caillé in 1828 on
his journey home from Timbuktu, but the first detailed exploration was
made by Gerhard Rohlfs in 1861-1862. Previous to that almost the only
special report was the misleading one of Lieut. Washington, attached to
the British embassy of 1837, who from insufficient data estimated the
height of Mount Tagharat, to which he gave the indefinite name of
Miltsin (i.e. _Mul et-Tizin_, "Lord of the Peaks"), as 11,400 ft.
instead of about 15,000 ft.

In 1871 the first scientific expedition, consisting of Dr (afterwards
Sir) J.D. Hooker, Mr John Ball and Mr G. Maw, explored the central part
of the Great Atlas with the special object of investigating its flora
and determining its relation to that of the mountains of Europe. They
ascended by the Ait Mízan valley to the Tagharat pass (11,484 ft.), and
by the Amsmiz valley to the summit of Jebel Tezah (11,972 ft.). In the
Tagharat pass Mr Maw was the only one of the party who reached the
watershed; but from Jebel Tezah a good view was obtained southward
across the great valley of the Sús to the Anti-Atlas, which appeared to
be from 9000 to 10,000 ft. high. Dr Oskar Lenz in 1879-1880 surveyed a
part of the Great Atlas north of Tárudant, determined a pass south of
Iligh in the Anti-Atlas, and penetrated thence across the Sahara to
Timbuktu. He was followed in 1883-1884 by Vicomte Ch. de Foucauld, whose
extensive itineraries include many districts that had never before been
visited by any Europeans. Such were parts of the first and middle
ranges, crossed once; three routes over the Great Atlas, which was,
moreover, followed along both flanks for nearly its whole length; and
six journeys across the Anti-Atlas, with a general survey of the foot of
this range and several passages over the Jebel Bani. Then came Joseph
Thomson, who explored some of the central parts, and made the highest
ascent yet achieved, that of Mount Likimt, 13,150 ft., but broke little
new ground, and failed to cross the main range (1888); and Walter B.
Harris, who explored some of the southern slopes and crossed the Atlas
at two points during his expedition to Tafílált in 1894. In 1901 and
again in 1905 the marquis de Segonzac, a Frenchman, made extensive
journeys in the Moroccan ranges. He crossed the Great Atlas in its
central section, explored its southern border, and, in part, the Middle
and Anti-Atlas ranges. A member of his expeditions, de Flotte
Rocquevaire, made a triangulation of part of the western portion of the
main Atlas, his labours affording a basis for the co-ordination of the
work of previous explorers. (See also MOROCCO, ALGERIA, TUNISIA and
SAHARA.)

  AUTHORITIES.--Vicomte Ch. de Foucauld, _Reconnaissance au Maroc
  1883-1884_ (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography
  of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is
  illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball
  and Maw, _Marocco and the Great Atlas_ (London, 1879, a most valuable
  contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to
  botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, _Travels in the Atlas and
  Southern Morocco_ (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological
  data); Louis Gentil, _Mission de Segonzac, &c._ (Paris, 1906; the
  author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs,
  _Adventures in Morocco_ (London, 1874); Walter B. Harris, _Tafilet, a
  Journey of Exploration in the Atlas Mountains, &c._ (London, 1895),
  full of valuable information; Budgett Meakin, _The Land of the Moors_
  (London, 1901), first and last chapters; Dr Oskar Lenz _Timbuktu:
  Reise durch Marokko_, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1884).



ATMOLYSIS (Gr. [Greek: atmos], vapour: [Greek: lyein], to loosen), a
term invented by Thomas Graham to denote the separation of a mixture of
gases by taking advantage of their different rates of diffusion through
a porous septum or diaphragm (see DIFFUSION).



ATMOSPHERE (Gr. [Greek: atmos], vapour; [Greek: sphaira], a sphere), the
aeriform envelope encircling the earth; also the envelope of a
particular gas or gases about any solid or liquid. Meteorological
phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early
recognition; thus Hesiod, in his _Works and Days_, speculated on the
origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the
air. Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of
pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air. Anaximenes
made air the primordial substance, and it was one of the Aristotelian
elements. A direct proof of its material nature was given by Galileo,
who weighed a copper ball containing compressed air.

Before the development of pneumatic chemistry, air was regarded as a
distinct chemical unit or element. The study of calcination and
combustion during the 17th and 18th centuries culminated in the
discovery that air consists chiefly of a mixture of two gases, oxygen
and nitrogen. Cavendish, Priestley, Lavoisier and others contributed to
this result. Cavendish made many analyses: from more than 500
determinations of air in winter and summer, in wet and clear weather,
and in town and country, he discerned the mean composition of the
atmosphere to be, oxygen 20.833% and nitrogen 79.167% The same
experimenter noticed the presence of an inert gas, in very minute
amount; this gas, afterwards investigated by Rayleigh and Ramsay, is now
named argon (q.v.).

The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric
air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and
oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all
observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining
weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in
the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation
of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the
gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e. by taking
advantage of the different rates of diffusion of the two gases; the
solubility of air in water corresponds with the "law of partial
pressures," each gas being absorbed in amount proportional to its
pressure and coefficient of absorption, and oxygen being much more
soluble than nitrogen (in the ratio of .04114 to .02035 at 0°); air
expelled from water by boiling is always richer in oxygen.

Various agencies are at work tending to modify the composition of the
atmosphere, but these so neutralize each other as to leave it
practically unaltered. Minute variations, however, do occur. Bunsen
analysed fifteen examples of air collected at the same place at
different times, and found the extreme range in the percentage of oxygen
to be from 20.97 to 20.84. Regnault, from analyses of the air of Paris,
obtained a variation of 20.999 to 20.913; country air varied from 20.903
to 21.000; while air taken from over the sea showed an extreme variation
of 20.940 to 20.850. Angus Smith determined London air to vary in oxygen
content from 20.857 to 20.95, the air in parks and open spaces showing
the higher percentage; Glasgow air showed similar results, varying from
20.887 in the streets to 20.929 in open spaces.

In addition to nitrogen and oxygen, there are a number of other gases
and vapours generally present in the atmosphere. Of these, argon and its
allies were the last to be definitely isolated. Carbon dioxide is
invariably present, as was inferred by Dr David Macbride (1726-1778) of
Dublin in 1764, but in a proportion which is not absolutely constant; it
tends to increase at night, and during dry winds and fogs, and it is
greater in towns than in the country and on land than on the sea. Water
vapour is always present; the amount is determined by instruments termed
hygrometers (q.v.). Ozone (q.v.) occurs, in an amount supposed to be
associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning,
&c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring,
and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.
Hydrogen dioxide occurs in a manner closely resembling ozone. Nitric
acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical
discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone. The
amount of nitric acid varies from place to place; rain-water, collected
in the country, has been found to contain an average of 0.5 parts in a
million, but town rain-water contains more, the greater amounts being
present in the more densely populated districts. Ammonia is also
present, but in very varying amounts, ranging from 135 to 0.1 parts
(calculated as carbonate) in a million parts of air. Ammonia is carried
back to the soil by means of rain, and there plays an important part in
providing nitrogenous matter which is afterwards assimilated by
vegetable life.

The average volume composition of the gases of the atmosphere may be
represented (in parts per 10,000) as follows:--

  Oxygen          2065.94      Ozone             0.015
  Nitrogen        7711.60      Aqueous vapour  140.00
  Argon (about)     79.00      Nitric acid       0.08
  Carbon dioxide     3.36      Ammonia           0.005

In addition to these gases, there are always present in the atmosphere
many micro-organisms or bacteria (see BACTERIOLOGY); another invariable
constituent is dust (q.v.), which plays an important part in
meteorological phenomena.

Reference should be made to the articles BAROMETER, CLIMATE and
METEOROLOGY for the measurement and variation of the pressure of the
atmosphere, and the discussion of other properties.



ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. 1. It was not until the middle of the 18th
century that experiments due to Benjamin Franklin showed that the
electric phenomena of the atmosphere are not fundamentally different
from those produced in the laboratory. For the next century the rate of
progress was slow, though the ideas of Volta in Italy and the
instrumental devices of Sir Francis Ronalds in England merit
recognition. The invention of the portable electrometer and the
water-dropping electrograph by Lord Kelvin in the middle of the 19th
century, and the greater definiteness thus introduced into observational
results, were notable events. Towards the end of the 19th century came
the discovery made by W. Linss (6)[1] and by J. Elster and H. Geitel (7)
that even the most perfectly insulated conductors lose their charge, and
that this loss depends on atmospheric conditions. Hard on this came the
recognition of the fact that freely charged positive and negative ions
are always present in the atmosphere, and that a radioactive emanation
can be collected. Whilst no small amount of observational work has been
done in these new branches of atmospheric electricity, the science has
still not developed to a considerable extent beyond preliminary stages.
Observations have usually been limited to a portion of the year, or to a
few hours of the day, whilst the results from different stations differ
much in details. It is thus difficult to form a judgment as to what has
most claim to acceptance as the general law, and what may be regarded as
local or exceptional.

2. _Potential Gradient._--In dry weather the electric potential in the
atmosphere is normally positive relative to the earth, and increases
with the height. The existence of _earth currents_ (q.v.) shows that the
earth, strictly speaking, is not all at one potential, but the natural
differences of potential between points on the earth's surface a mile
apart are insignificant compared to the normal potential difference
between the earth and a point one foot above it. What is aimed at in
ordinary observations of atmospheric potential is the measurement of the
difference of potential between the earth and a point a given distance
above it, or of the difference of potential between two points in the
same vertical line a given distance apart. Let a conductor, say a
metallic sphere, be supported by a metal rod of negligible electric
capacity whose other end is earthed. As the whole conductor must be at
zero (i.e. the earth's) potential, there must be an induced charge on
the sphere, producing at its centre a potential equal but of opposite
sign to what would exist at the same spot in free air. This neglects any
charge in the air displaced by the sphere, and assumes a statical state
of conditions and that the conductor itself exerts no disturbing
influence. Suppose now that the sphere's earth connexion is broken and
that it is carried without loss of charge inside a building at zero
potential. If its potential as observed there is -V (volts), then the
potential of the air at the spot occupied by the sphere was +V. This
method in one shape or another has been often employed. Suppose next
that a fixed insulated conductor is somehow kept at the potential of the
air at a given point, then the measurement of its potential is
equivalent to a measurement of that of the air. This is the basis of a
variety of methods. In the earliest the conductor was represented by
long metal wires, supported by silk or other insulating material, and
left to pick up the air's potential. The addition of sharp points was a
step in advance; but the method hardly became a quantitative one until
the sharp points were replaced by a flame (fuse, gas, lamp), or by a
liquid jet breaking into drops. The matter leaving the conductor,
whether the products of combustion or the drops of a liquid, supplies
the means of securing equality of potential between the conductor and
the air at the spot where the matter quits electrical connexion with the
conductor. Of late years the function of the collector is discharged in
some forms of apparatus by a salt of radium. Of flame collectors the two
best known are Lord Kelvin's portable electrometer with a fuse, or F.
Exner's gold leaf electroscope in conjunction with an oil lamp or gas
flame. Of liquid collectors the representative is Lord Kelvin's
water-dropping electrograph; while Benndorf's is the form of radium
collector that has been most used. It cannot be said that any one form
of collector is superior all round. Flame collectors blow out in high
winds, whilst water-droppers are apt to get frozen in winter. At first
sight the balance of advantages seems to lie with radium. But while
gaseous products and even falling water are capable of modifying
electrical conditions in their immediate neighbourhood, the "infection"
produced by radium is more insidious, and other drawbacks present
themselves in practice. It requires a radium salt of high radioactivity
to be at all comparable in effectiveness with a good water-dropper.
Experiments by F. Linke (8) indicated that a water-dropper having a
number of fine holes, or having a fine jet under a considerable
pressure, picks up the potential in about a tenth of the time required
by the ordinary radium preparation protected by a glass tube. These fine
jet droppers with a mixture of alcohol and water have proved very
effective for balloon observations.

  TABLE I.--_Annual Variation Potential Gradient._

  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Place and Period.               | Jan.| Feb.|March|April| May | June|July|Aug.|Sept.| Oct.| Nov.| Dec.|
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Karasjok (10), 1903-1904        | 143 | 150 | 137 |  94 |  74 |  65 | 70 | 67 |  67 |  87 | 120 | 126 |
  | Sodankylä (31), 1882-1883       |  94 | 133 | 148 | 155 | 186 |  93 | 53 | 77 |  47 |  72 |  71 |  71 |
  | Potsdam (9), 1904               | 167 |  95 | 118 |  88 |  93 |  72 | 73 | 65 |  97 | 101 | 108 | 123 |
  | Kew (12), 1898-1904             | 127 | 141 | 113 |  87 |  77 |  70 | 61 | 72 |  76 |  96 | 126 | 153 |
  | Greenwich (13), 1893-1894, 1896 | 110 | 112 | 127 | 107 |  83 |  71 | 76 | 84 |  83 | 104 | 104 | 139 |
  | Florence (14), 1883-1886        | 132 | 110 |  98 |  84 |  86 |  81 | 77 | 90 |  89 |  99 | 129 | 125 |
  | Perpignan (15), 1886-1888       | 121 | 112 | 108 |  89 |  91 |  92 | 89 | 82 |  74 |  99 | 122 | 121 |
  | Lisbon (16), 1884-1886          | 104 | 105 | 104 |  92 |  91 |  93 | 87 | 92 | 100 |  99 | 115 | 117 |
  | Tokyo (17), 1897-1898, 1900-1901| 165 | 145 | 117 |  86 |  62 |  58 | 41 | 59 |  59 |  97 | 134 | 176 |
  | Batavia (18)(2 m.), 1887-1890   |  97 | 115 | 155 | 127 | 129 | 105 | 79 | 62 |  69 |  79 |  90 |  93 |
  |     "     (7.8 m.)  1890-1895   | 100 |  89 | 103 | 120 |  98 | 103 | 85 | 99 |  73 | 101 | 117 | 112 |
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

3. Before considering observational data, it is expedient to mention
various sources of uncertainty. Above the level plain of absolutely
smooth surface, devoid of houses or vegetation, the equipotential
surfaces under normal conditions would be strictly horizontal, and if we
could determine the potential at one metre above the ground we should
have a definite measure of the potential gradient at the earth's
surface. The presence, however, of apparatus or observers upsets the
conditions, while above uneven ground or near a tree or a building the
equipotential surfaces cease to be horizontal. In an ordinary climate a
building seems to be practically at the earth's potential; near its
walls the equipotential surfaces are highly inclined, and near the
ridges they may lie very close together. The height of the walls in the
various observatories, the height of the collectors, and the distance
they project from the wall vary largely, and sometimes there are
external buildings or trees sufficiently near to influence the
potential. It is thus futile to compare the absolute voltages met with
at two stations, unless allowance can be made for the influence of the
environment. With a view to this, it has become increasingly common of
late years to publish not the voltages actually observed, but values
deduced from them for the potential gradient in the open in volts per
metre. Observations are made at a given height over level open ground
near the observatory, and a comparison with the simultaneous results
from the self-recording electrograph enables the records from the latter
to be expressed as potential gradients in the open. In the case,
however, of many observatories, especially as regards the older records,
no data for reduction exist; further, the reduction to the open is at
best only an approximation, the success attending which probably varies
considerably at different stations. This is one of the reasons why in
the figures for the annual and diurnal variations in Tables I., II. and
III., the potential has been expressed as percentages of its mean value
for the year or the day. In most cases the environment of a collector is
not absolutely invariable. If the shape of the equipotential surfaces
near it is influenced by trees, shrubs or grass, their influence will
vary throughout the year. In winter the varying depth of snow may exert
an appreciable effect. There are sources of uncertainty in the
instrument itself. Unless the insulation is perfect, the potential
recorded falls short of that at the spot where the radium is placed or
the water jet breaks. The action of the collector is opposed by the
leakage through imperfect insulation, or natural dissipation, and this
may introduce a fictitious element into the apparent annual or diurnal
variation. The potentials that have to be dealt with are often hundreds
and sometimes thousands of volts, and insulation troubles are more
serious than is generally appreciated. When a water jet serves as
collector, the pressure under which it issues should be practically
constant. If the pressure alters as the water tank empties, a
discontinuity occurs in the trace when the tank is refilled, and a
fictitious element may be introduced into the diurnal variation. When
rain or snow is falling, the potential frequently changes rapidly. These
changes are often too rapid to be satisfactorily dealt with by an
ordinary electrometer, and they sometimes leave hardly a trace on the
photographic paper. Again rain dripping from exposed parts of the
apparatus may materially affect the record. It is thus customary in
calculating diurnal inequalities either to take no account of days on
which there is an appreciable rainfall, or else to form separate tables
for "dry" or "fine" days and for "all" days. Speaking generally, the
exclusion of days of rain and of negative potential comes pretty much to
the same thing, and the presence or absence of negative potential is not
infrequently the criterion by reference to which days are rejected or
are accepted as normal.

  4. The potential gradient near the ground varies with the season of
  the year and the hour of the day, and is largely dependent on the
  weather conditions. It is thus difficult to form even a rough estimate
  of the mean value at any place unless hourly readings exist, extending
  over the whole or the greater part of a year. It is even somewhat
  precipitate to assume that a mean value deduced from a single year is
  fairly representative of average conditions. At Potsdam, G. Lüdeling
  (9) found for the mean value for 1904 in volts per metre 242. At
  Karasjok in the extreme north of Norway G.C. Simpson (10) in 1903-1904
  obtained 139. At Kremsmünster for 1902 P.B. Zölss(11) gives 98. At Kew
  (12) the mean for individual years from 1898 to 1904 varied from 141
  in 1900 to 179 in 1899, the mean from the seven years combined being
  159. The large difference between the means obtained at Potsdam and
  Kremsmünster, as compared to the comparative similarity between the
  results for Kew and Karasjok, suggests that the mean value of the
  potential gradient may be much more dependent on local conditions than
  on difference of latitude.

  At any single station potential gradient has a wide range of values.
  The largest positive and negative values recorded are met with during
  disturbed weather. During thunderstorms the record from an
  electrograph shows large sudden excursions, the trace usually going
  off the sheet with every flash of lightning when the thunder is near.
  Exactly what the potential changes amount to under such circumstances
  it is impossible to say; what the trace shows depends largely on the
  type of electrometer. Large rapid changes are also met with in the
  absence of thunder during heavy rain or snow fall. In England the
  largest values of a sufficiently steady character to be shown
  correctly by an ordinary electrograph occur during winter fogs. At
  such times gradients of +400 or +500 volts per metre are by no means
  unusual at Kew, and voltages of 700 or 800 are occasionally met with.

  5. Annual Variation.--Table I. gives the annual variation of the
  potential gradient at a number of stations arranged according to
  latitude, the mean value for the whole year being taken in each case
  as 100. Karasjok as already mentioned is in the extreme north of
  Norway (69° 17' N.); Sodankylä was the Finnish station of the
  international polar year 1882-1883. At Batavia, which is near the
  equator (6° 11' S.) the annual variation seems somewhat irregular.
  Further, the results obtained with the water-dropper at two
  heights--viz. 2 and 7.8 metres--differ notably. At all the other
  stalions the difference between summer and winter months is
  conspicuous. From the European data one would be disposed to conclude
  that the variation throughout the year diminishes as one approaches
  the equator. It is decidedly less at Perpignan and Lisbon than at
  Potsdam, Kew and Greenwich, but nowhere is the seasonal difference
  more conspicuous than at Tokyo, which is south of Lisbon.


    TABLE II.--_Diurnal Variation Potential Gradient_.

    +-------+--------+---------+-------------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+-------------+---------+
    |Station|Karasjok|Sodankylä| Kew(19, 12).|Greenwich|Florence|Perpignan| Lisbon.| Tokyo.|   Batavia.  |  Cape   |
    |       |        |         |             |         |        |         |        |       |             |Horn(20).|
    +-------+--------+---------+------+------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+------+------+---------+
    |Period | 1903-4.| 1882-83 | 1862-| 1898-| 1893-96.|1883-85.| 1886-88.|1884-86.|1897-98| 1887-| 1890-| 1882-83.|
    |       |        |         | 1864.| 1904.|         |        |         |        |1900-1.| 1890.| 1895.|         |
    +-------+--------+---------+------+------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+------+------+---------+
    | Days. |        |   All.  | All. |Quiet.|   All.  |  All.  |  Fine.  |  All.  |  All. | Dry. | Dry. |   Pos.  |
    +-------+--------+---------+------+------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+------+------+---------+
    |   h   |  5.5   |   3.0   | 3.5  | 3.35 |   3.0   |        |   8.4   |   3.0  |  1.7  |   2  |  7.8 |   3.5   |
    |   l   |        |   2.5   | 1.0  | 1.3  |   1.8   |        |   1.5   |   0.5  |  2.0  |      |  7.8 |   2.0   |
    +-------+--------+---------+------+------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+------+------+---------+
    |  Hour |        |         |      |      |         |        |         |        |       |      |      |         |
    |   1   |   83   |    91   |   87 |   93 |    97   |    92  |    78   |    84  |  101  |  147 |  125 |    82   |
    |   2   |   73   |    85   |   79 |   88 |    89   |    83  |    72   |    80  |   98  |  141 |  114 |    73   |
    |   3   |   66   |    82   |   74 |   84 |    87   |    77  |    71   |    78  |   97  |  135 |  109 |    85   |
    |   4   |   63   |    84   |   72 |   83 |    86   |    75  |    72   |    81  |   99  |  128 |  102 |    81   |
    |   5   |   60   |    89   |   71 |   85 |    86   |    74  |    77   |    83  |  121  |  127 |  101 |    85   |
    |   6   |   68   |    91   |   77 |   93 |    92   |    82  |    92   |    92  |  154  |  137 |  117 |    95   |
    |   7   |   81   |    97   |   92 |  103 |   100   |   100  |   107   |   101  |  167  |  158 |  147 |   106   |
    |   8   |   87   |   100   |  106 |  112 |   102   |   112  |   114   |   105  |  149  |  104 |  119 |   118   |
    |   9   |   94   |    98   |  107 |  115 |   100   |   113  |   111   |   104  |  117  |   67 |   82 |   119   |
    |  10   |  101   |   102   |  100 |  112 |   101   |   107  |   100   |   104  |   87  |   42 |   55 |   123   |
    |  11   |   99   |    98   |   90 |  101 |    96   |   100  |    96   |   102  |   70  |   35 |   46 |   123   |
    | Noon. |  103   |   102   |   92 |   94 |    97   |    95  |    99   |   108  |   61  |   30 |   43 |   115   |
    |   1   |  106   |   105   |   90 |   89 |    96   |    92  |    99   |   111  |   54  |   30 |   42 |   112   |
    |   2   |  108   |   107   |   91 |   87 |    94   |    90  |    97   |   114  |   49  |   30 |   43 |    94   |
    |   3   |  108   |   108   |   92 |   88 |    95   |    89  |    99   |   109  |   53  |   33 |   46 |    89   |
    |   4   |  109   |   108   |   98 |   93 |    97   |    89  |   105   |   108  |   61  |   41 |   53 |    88   |
    |   5   |  110   |   108   |  108 |   99 |   102   |    94  |   113   |   108  |   76  |   67 |   73 |    84   |
    |   6   |  119   |   110   |  121 |  108 |   108   |   113  |   126   |   111  |   95  |   91 |  108 |   110   |
    |   7   |  129   |   102   |  134 |  115 |   111   |   121  |   131   |   116  |  107  |  120 |  145 |   107   |
    |   8   |  136   |   111   |  139 |  118 |   115   |   129  |   129   |   114  |  114  |  137 |  155 |   123   |
    |   9   |  139   |   111   |  138 |  119 |   117   |   132  |   120   |   109  |  119  |  146 |  155 |   112   |
    |  10   |  133   |   104   |  128 |  115 |   117   |   127  |   109   |   102  |  120  |  148 |  147 |    99   |
    |  11   |  121   |   108   |  113 |  108 |   111   |   114  |    97   |    92  |  119  |  151 |  143 |    85   |
    |  12   |  102   |    93   |   99 |   99 |   104   |   100  |    86   |    85  |  112  |  147 |  130 |    98   |
    +-------+--------+---------+------+------+---------+--------+---------+--------+-------+------+------+---------+


    TABLE III.--_Diurnal Variation Potential Gradient_.

    +--------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+
    |Station.| Karasjok. | Sodankylä.|       Kew.      | Greenwich.|  Bureau   | Eiffel  | Perpignan |  Batavia  |
    |        |           |           |                 |           |Central(21)|Tower(21)|   (21).   |  (2 m.)   |
    +--------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+-----------+-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+
    | Period.|  1903-4.  |  1882-83. |    1898-1904.   |1894, 1896.|  1894-99. | 1896-98.|  1885-95. |  1887-90. |
    +--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |        | Win-| Sum-| Win-| Sum-| Win-|Equi-| Sum-| Win-| Sum-| Win-| Sum-| Summer. | Win-| Sum-| Win | Sum-|
    |        | ter.| mer.| ter.| mer.| ter.| nox.| mer.| ter.| mer.| ter.| mer.|         | ter.| mer.| ter.| mer.|
    +--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |  Hour. |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |         |     |     |     |     |
    |    1   |  76 | 104 |  90 |  99 |  91 |  93 |  96 |  87 | 110 |  79 | 102 |    90   |  72 |  88 | 145 | 149 |
    |    2   |  66 |  96 |  79 |  84 |  86 |  88 |  90 |  84 | 101 |  71 |  92 |    83   |  67 |  83 | 139 | 142 |
    |    3   |  57 |  89 |  78 |  90 |  82 |  85 |  85 |  76 |  98 |  70 |  88 |    79   |  66 |  81 | 137 | 135 |
    |    4   |  55 |  83 |  74 |  99 |  81 |  84 |  84 |  77 |  96 |  69 |  84 |    76   |  67 |  83 | 131 | 127 |
    |    5   |  50 |  79 |  74 | 111 |  82 |  87 |  90 |  78 |  94 |  75 |  94 |    78   |  72 |  92 | 132 | 123 |
    |    6   |  61 |  83 |  80 | 114 |  86 |  97 | 101 |  82 | 101 |  83 | 106 |    87   |  84 | 107 | 138 | 136 |
    |    7   |  78 |  89 |  86 | 117 |  95 | 109 | 113 |  94 | 107 |  98 | 118 |    97   | 104 | 114 | 166 | 153 |
    |    8   |  82 |  93 |  95 | 122 | 104 | 118 | 120 |  97 | 111 | 111 | 120 |   103   | 122 | 108 | 118 |  92 |
    |    9   |  90 |  93 |  91 | 109 | 111 | 119 | 119 |  98 | 102 | 113 | 106 |   110   | 126 | 100 |  74 |  64 |
    |   10   | 104 |  93 | 106 | 101 | 114 | 110 | 110 | 102 |  98 | 111 |  94 |   109   | 114 |  93 |  43 |  40 |
    |   11   | 102 |  92 |  98 |  97 | 107 |  95 |  97 | 103 |  86 | 108 |  84 |   107   |  98 |  90 |  35 |  36 |
    |  Noon. | 119 |  90 |  98 | 100 | 102 |  86 |  87 | 107 |  94 | 106 |  77 |   104   |  99 |  95 |  31 |  30 |
    |    1   | 116 |  94 | 116 |  97 |  99 |  81 |  80 | 107 |  85 | 112 |  79 |   107   |  96 |  93 |  29 |  33 |
    |    2   | 118 |  97 | 113 |  97 |  97 |  80 |  76 | 109 |  82 | 112 |  81 |   110   |  94 |  90 |  28 |  32 |
    |    3   | 119 | 100 | 121 |  93 |  99 |  82 |  76 | 111 |  78 | 111 |  78 |   107   |  95 |  88 |  24 |  41 |
    |    4   | 115 |  99 | 111 |  96 | 103 |  88 |  80 | 116 |  81 | 113 |  80 |   105   | 102 |  92 |  30 |  49 |
    |    5   | 120 | 106 | 105 | 106 | 108 |  96 |  87 | 112 |  93 | 120 |  85 |   106   | 115 |  98 |  60 |  74 |
    |    6   | 131 | 104 | 115 |  92 | 111 | 109 |  98 | 114 |  98 | 124 |  97 |   109   | 128 | 110 |  88 |  94 |
    |    7   | 136 | 110 | 118 | 102 | 114 | 120 | 111 | 117 |  99 | 124 | 123 |   113   | 133 | 122 | 119 | 122 |
    |    8   | 134 | 113 | 117 | 106 | 112 | 124 | 123 | 113 | 108 | 116 | 134 |   110   | 131 | 127 | 138 | 135 |
    |    9   | 137 | 125 | 115 |  90 | 111 | 123 | 129 | 111 | 118 | 104 | 130 |   109   | 124 | 125 | 145 | 147 |
    |   10   | 125 | 135 | 112 |  90 | 108 | 118 | 125 | 110 | 124 |  97 | 122 |   105   | 111 | 117 | 148 | 148 |
    |   11   | 114 | 126 | 113 | 103 | 103 | 109 | 116 | 102 | 120 |  90 | 115 |   101   |  96 | 108 | 149 | 152 |
    |   12   |  96 | 111 |  95 |  85 |  96 |  99 | 105 |  93 | 116 |  83 | 108 |    94   |  83 |  95 | 148 | 146 |
    +--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  At the temperate stations the maximum occurs near midwinter; in the
  Arctic it seems deferred towards spring.

  6. _Diurnal Variation._--Table II. gives the mean diurnal variation
  for the whole year at a number of stations arranged in order of
  latitude, the mean from the 24 hourly values being taken as 100. The
  data are some from "all" days, some from "quiet," "fine" or "dry"
  days. The height, h, and the distance from the wall, l, were the
  potential is measured are given in metres when known. In most cases
  two distinct maxima and minima occur in the 24 hours. The principal
  maximum is usually found in the evening between 8 and 10 P.M., the
  principal minimum in the morning from 3 to 5 A.M. At some stations the
  minimum in the afternoon is indistinctly shown, but at Tokyo and
  Batavia it is mu	ch more conspicuous than the morning minimum.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  7. In Table III. the diurnal inequality is shown for "winter" and
  "summer" respectively. In all cases the mean value for the 24 hours is
  taken as 100. By "summer" is meant April to September at Sodankylä,
  Greenwich and Batavia; May to August at Kew, Bureau Central (Paris),
  Eiffel Tower and Perpignan; and May to July at Karasjok. "Winter"
  includes October to March at Sodankylä, Greenwich and Batavia;
  November to February at Kew and Bureau Central; November to January at
  Karasjok, and December and January at Perpignan. Mean results from
  March, April, September and October at Kew are assigned to "Equinox."

  At Batavia the difference between winter and summer is comparatively
  small. Elsewhere there is a tendency for the double period, usually so
  prominent in summer, to become less pronounced in winter, the
  afternoon minimum tending to disappear. Even in summer the double
  period is not prominent in the arctic climate of Karasjok or on the
  top of the Eiffel Tower. The diurnal variation in summer at the latter
  station is shown graphically in the top curve of fig. 1. It presents a
  remarkable resemblance to the adjacent curve, which gives the diurnal
  variation at mid-winter at the Bureau Central. The resemblance between
  these curves is much closer than that between the Bureau Central's own
  winter and summer curves. All three Paris curves show three peaks, the
  first and third representing the ordinary forenoon and afternoon
  maxima. In summer at the Bureau Central the intermediate peak nearly
  disappears in the profound afternoon depression, but it is still
  recognizable. This three-peaked curve is not wholly peculiar to Paris,
  being seen, for instance, at Lisbon in summer. The December and June
  curves for Kew are good examples of the ordinary nature of the
  difference between midwinter and midsummer. The afternoon minimum at
  Kew gradually deepens as midsummer approaches. Simultaneously the
  forenoon maximum occurs earlier and the afternoon maximum later in the
  day. The two last curves in the diagram contrast the diurnal variation
  at Kew in potential gradient and in barometric pressure for the year
  as a whole. The somewhat remarkable resemblance between the diurnal
  variation for the two elements, first remarked on by J.D. Everett
  (19), is of interest in connexion with recent theoretical conclusions
  by J.P. Elster and H.F.K. Geitel and by H. Ebert.

  In the potential curves of the diagram the ordinates represent the
  hourly values expressed--as in Tables II. and III.--as percentages of
  the mean value for the day. If this be overlooked, a wrong impression
  may be derived as to the absolute amplitudes of the changes. The Kew
  curves, for instance, might suggest that the range (maximum less
  minimum hourly value) was larger in June than in December. In reality
  the December range was 82, the June only 57 volts; but the mean value
  of the potential was 243 in December as against 111 in June. So again,
  in the case of the Paris curves, the absolute value of the diurnal
  range in summer was much greater for the Eiffel Tower than for the
  Bureau Central, but the mean voltage was 2150 at the former station
  and only 134 at the latter.

  8. _Fourier Coefficients._--Diurnal inequalities such as those of
  Tables II. and III. and intended to eliminate irregular changes, but
  they also to some extent eliminate regular changes if the hours of
  maxima and minima or the character of the diurnal variation alter
  throughout the year. The alteration that takes place in the regular
  diurnal inequality throughout the year is best seen by analysing it
  into a Fourier series of the type

    c1 sin(t + a1) + c2 sin(2t + a2) + c3 sin(3t + a3) +
       + c4 sin(4t + a4) + ...

  where t denotes time counted from (local) midnight, c1, c2, c3, c4,
  ... are the amplitudes of the component harmonic waves of periods 24,
  12, 8 and 6 hours; a1, a2, a3, a4, are the corresponding phase angles.
  One hour of time t is counted as 15°, and a delay of one hour in the
  time of maximum answers to a diminution of 15° in a1, of 30° in a2,
  and so on. If a1, say, varies much throughput the year, or if the
  ratios of c2, c3, c4, ... to c1, vary much, then a diurnal inequality
  derived from a whole year, or from a season composed of several
  months, represents a mean curve arising from the superposition of a
  number of curves, which differ in shape and in the positions of their
  maxima and minima. The result, if considered alone, inevitably leads
  to an underestimate of the average amplitude of the regular diurnal
  variation.

  It is also desirable to have an idea of the size of the irregular
  changes which vary from one day to the next. On stormy days, as
  already mentioned, the irregular changes hardly admit of satisfactory
  treatment. Even on the quietest days irregular changes are always
  numerous and often large.

  Table IV. aims at giving a summary of the several phenomena for a
  single station, Kew, on electrically quiet days. The first line gives
  the mean value of the potential gradient, the second the mean excess
  of the largest over the smallest hourly value on individual days. The
  hourly values are derived from smoothed curves, the object being to
  get the mean ordinate for a 60-minute period. If the actual crests of
  the excursions had been measured the figures in the second line would
  have been even larger. The third line gives the range of the _regular_
  diurnal inequality, the next four lines the amplitudes of the first
  four Fourier waves into which the regular diurnal inequality has been
  analysed. These mean values, ranges and amplitudes are all measured in
  volts per metre (in the open). The last four lines of Table IV. give
  the phase angles of the first four Fourier waves.


    TABLE IV.--_Absolute Potential Data at Kew_ (12).

    +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |                                | Jan.| Feb.| Mar.| Apr.| May | June| July| Aug.| Sep.| Oct.| Nov.| Dec.|
    +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | Mean Potential Gradient        | 201 | 224 | 180 | 138 | 123 | 111 |  98 | 114 | 121 | 153 | 200 | 243 |
    | Mean of individual daily ranges| 203 | 218 | 210 | 164 | 143 | 143 | 117 | 129 | 141 | 196 | 186 | 213 |
    | Range in Diurnal inequality    |  73 |  94 |  83 |  74 |  71 |  57 |  55 |  60 |  54 |  63 |  52 |  82 |
    |                           / c1 |  22 |  22 |  17 |  13 |  18 |   9 |   6 |   6 |   9 |   7 |  14 |  30 |
    | Amplitudes of Fourier     | c2 |  21 |  33 |  34 |  31 |  22 |  23 |  24 |  26 |  23 |  30 |  17 |  21 |
    |   waves                  <  c3 |   7 |  10 |   5 |   5 |   3 |   1 |   3 |   2 |   3 |   6 |   5 |   7 |
    |                           \ c4 |   2 |   3 |   5 |   6 |   4 |   1 |   4 |   3 |   4 |   3 |   2 |   3 |
    |                                +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |                                |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °  |  °     °  |  °  |  °  |
    |                           / a1 | 206 | 204 | 123 |  72 |  86 |  79 |  48 | 142 | 154 | 192 | 202 | 208 |
    | Phase angles of Fourier   | a1 | 170 | 171 | 186 | 193 | 188 | 183 | 185 | 182 | 199 | 206 | 212 | 175 |
    |  waves                   <  a3 |  11 |   9 |  36 |  96 | 100 | 125 | 124 | 107 |  16 |  18 |  38 |  36 |
    |                           \ a1 | 235 | 225 | 307 | 314 | 314 | 277 | 293 | 313 | 330 | 288 | 238 | 249 |
    +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  It will be noticed that the difference between the greatest and least
  hourly values is, in all but three winter months, actually larger than
  the mean value of the potential gradient for the day; it bears to the
  range of the regular diurnal inequality a ratio varying from 2.0 in
  May to 3.6 in November.

  At midwinter the 24-hour term is the largest, but near midsummer it is
  small compared to the 12-hour term. The 24-hour term is very variable
  both as regards its amplitude and its phase angle (and so its hour of
  maximum). The 12-hour term is much less variable, especially as
  regards its phase angle; its amplitude shows distinct maxima near the
  equinoxes. That the 8-hour and 6-hour waves, though small near
  midsummer, represent more than mere accidental irregularities, seems a
  safe inference from the regularity apparent in the annual variation of
  their phase angles.


    TABLE V.--_Fourier Series Amplitudes and Phase Angles._

    +------------------+---------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
    |                  |         |         Winter.         |         Summer .        |
    |      Place.      | Period. +------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-----+-----+
    |                  |         |  c1. |  c2. | a1. | a2. |  c1. |  c2. | a1. | a2. |
    +------------------+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-----+-----+
    |                  |         |      |      |  °  |  °  |      |      |  °  |  °  |
    | Kew              | 1862-64 |0.283 |0.160 | 184 | 193 |0.127 |0.229 | 111 | 179 |
    |  "               |1898-1904| .102 | .103 | 206 | 180 | .079 | .213 |  87 | 186 |
    | Bureau Central   | 1894-98 | .220 | .104 | 223 | 206 | .130 | .200 |  95 | 197 |
    | Eiffel Tower     | 1896-98 |  ..  |  ..  | ..  | ..  | .133 | .085 | 216 | 171 |
    | Sonnblick (22)   | 1902-03 |  ..  |  ..  | ..  | ..  | .208 | .120 | 178 | 145 |
    | Karasjok         | 1903-04 | .356 | .144 | 189 | 155 | .165 | .093 | 141 | 144 |
    | Kremsmünster (23)|  1902   | .280 | .117 | 224 | 194 | .166 | .153 | 241 | 209 |
    | Potsdam          |  1904   | .269 | .101 | 194 | 185 | .096 | .152 | 343 | 185 |
    +------------------+---------+------+------+-----+-----+------+------+-----+-----+

  9. Table V. gives some data for the 24-hour and 12-hour Fourier
  coefficients, which will serve to illustrate the diversity between
  different stations. In this table, unlike Table IV., amplitudes are
  all expressed as decimals of the mean value of the potential gradient
  for the corresponding season. "Winter" means generally the four
  midwinter, and "summer" the four midsummer, months; but at Karasjok
  three, and at Kremsmünster six, months are included in each season.
  The results for the Sonnblick are derived from a comparatively small
  number of days in August and September. At Potsdam the data represent
  the arithmetic means derived from the Fourier analysis for the
  individual months comprising the season. The 1862-1864 data from
  Kew--due to J.D. Everett (19)--are based on "all" days; the others,
  except Karasjok to some extent, represent electrically quiet days. The
  cause of the large difference between the two sets of data for c1 at
  Kew is uncertain. The potential gradient is in all cases lower in
  summer than winter, and thus the reduction in c1 in summer would
  appear even larger than in Table V. if the results were expressed in
  absolute measure. At Karasjok and Kremsmünster the seasonal variation
  in a1 seems comparatively small, but at Potsdam and the Bureau Central
  it is as large as at Kew. Also, whilst the winter values of a1 are
  fairly similar at the several stations the summer values are widely
  different. Except at Karasjok, where the diurnal changes seem somewhat
  irregular, the relative amplitude of the 12-hour term is considerably
  greater in summer than in winter. The values of a2 at the various
  stations differ comparatively little, and show but little seasonal
  change. Thus the 12-hour term has a much greater uniformity than the
  24-hour term. This possesses significance in connexion with the view,
  supported by A.B. Chauveau (21), F. Exner (24) and others, that the
  12-hour term is largely if not entirely a local phenomenon, due to the
  action of the lower atmospheric strata, and tending to disappear even
  in summer at high altitudes. Exner attributes the double daily
  maximum, which is largely a consequence of the 12-hour wave, to a thin
  layer near the ground, which in the early afternoon absorbs the solar
  radiation of shortest wave length. This layer he believes specially
  characteristic of arid dusty regions, while comparatively non-existent
  in moist climates or where foliage is luxuriant. In support of his
  theory Exner states that he has found but little trace of the double
  maximum and minimum in Ceylon and elsewhere. C. Nordmann (25)
  describes some similar results which he obtained in Algeria during
  August and September 1905. His station, Philippeville, is close to the
  shores of the Mediterranean, and sea breezes persisted during the day.
  The diurnal variation showed only a single maximum and minimum,
  between 5 and 6 P.M. and 4 and 5 A.M. respectively. So again, a few
  days' observations on the top of Mont Blanc (4810 metres) by le Cadet
  (26) in August and September 1902, showed only a single period, with
  maximum between 3 and 4 P.M., and minimum about 3 A.M. Chauveau points
  to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term
  on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the
  former at no great height. The close approach in the values for c1 in
  Table V. from the Bureau Central and the Eiffel Tower, and the
  reduction of c2 at the latter station, are unquestionably significant
  facts; but the summer value for c2 at Karasjok--a low level
  station--is nearly as small as that at the Eiffel Tower, and notably
  smaller than that at the Sonnblick (3100 metres). Again, Kew is
  surrounded by a large park, not devoid of trees, and hardly the place
  where Exner's theory would suggest a large value for c2, and yet the
  summer value of c2 at Kew is the largest in Table V.

  10. Observations on mountain tops generally show high potentials near
  the ground. This only means that the equipotential surfaces are
  crowded together, just as they are near the ridge of a house. To
  ascertain how the increase in the voltage varies as the height in the
  free atmosphere increases, it is necessary to employ kites or
  balloons. At small heights Exner (27) has employed captive balloons,
  provided with a burning fuse, and carrying a wire connected with an
  electroscope on the ground. He found the gradient nearly uniform for
  heights up to 30 to 40 metres above the ground. At great heights free
  balloons seem necessary. The balloon carries two collectors a given
  vertical distance apart. The potential difference between the two is
  recorded, and the potential gradient is thus found. Some of the
  earliest balloon observations made the gradient increase with the
  height, but such a result is now regarded as abnormal. A balloon may
  leave the earth with a charge, or become charged through discharge of
  ballast. These possibilities may not have been sufficiently realized
  at first. Among the most important balloon observations are those by
  le Cadet (1) F. Linke (28) and H. Gerdien (29). The following are
  samples from a number of days' results, given in le Cadet's book. h is
  the height in metres, P the gradient in volts per metre.

    Aug. 9, 1893  / h  824  830 1060 1255 1290 1745 1940 2080 2310 2520
                  \ P   37   43   43   41   42   34   25   21   18   16

    Sep. 11, 1897 / h 1140 1378 1630 1914 2370 2786 3136 3364 3912 4085
                  \ P   43   38   33   25   22   21   19   19   14   13

  The ground value on the last occasion was 150. From observations
  during twelve balloon ascents, Linke concludes that below the
  1500-metre level there are numerous sources of disturbance, the
  gradient at any given height varying much from day to day and hour to
  hour; but at greater heights there is much more uniformity. At heights
  from 1500 to 6000 metres his observations agreed well with the formula

    dV/dh = 34 - 0.006h,

  V denoting the potential, h the height in metres. The formula makes
  the gradient diminish from 25 volts per metre at 1500 metres height to
  10 volts per metre at 4000 metres. Linke's mean value for dV/dh at the
  ground was 125. Accepting Linke's formula, the potential at 4000
  metres is 43,750 volts higher than at 1500 metres. If the mean of the
  gradients observed at the ground and at 1500 metres be taken as an
  approximation to the mean value of the gradient throughout the lowest
  1500 metres of the atmosphere, we find for the potential at 1500
  metres level 112,500 volts. Thus at 4000 metres the potential seems of
  the order of 150,000 volts. Bearing this in mind, one can readily
  imagine how close together the equipotential surfaces must lie near
  the summit of a high sharp mountain peak.

  11. At most stations a negative potential gradient is exceptional,
  unless during rain or thunder. During rain the potential is usually
  but not always negative, and frequent alternations of sign are not
  uncommon. In some localities, however, negative potential gradient is
  by no means uncommon, at least at some seasons, in the absence of
  rain. At Madras, Michie Smith (30) often observed negative potential
  during bright August and September days. The phenomenon was quite
  common between 9.30 A.M. and noon during westerly winds, which at
  Madras are usually very dry and dusty. At Sodankylä, in 1882-1883,
  K.S. Lemström and F.C. Biese (31) found that out of 255 observed
  occurrences of negative potential, 106 took place in the absence of
  rain or snow. The proportion of occurrences of negative potential
  under a clear sky was much above its average in autumn. At Sodankylä
  rain or snowfall was often unaccompanied by change of sign in the
  potential. At the polar station Godthaab (32) in 1882-1883, negative
  potential seemed sometimes associated with aurora (see AURORA
  POLARIS).

  Lenard, Elster and Geitel, and others have found the potential
  gradient negative near waterfalls, the influence sometimes extending
  to a considerable distance. Lenard (33) found that when pure water
  falls upon water the neighbouring air takes a negative charge. Kelvin,
  Maclean and Gait (34) found the effect greatest in the air near the
  level of impact. A sensible effect remained, however, after the
  influence of splashing was eliminated. Kelvin, Maclean and Galt regard
  this property of falling water as an objection to the use of a
  water-dropper indoors, though not of practical importance when it is
  used out of doors.

  12. Elster and Geitel (35) have measured the charge carried by
  raindrops falling into an insulated vessel. Owing to observational
  difficulties, the exact measure of success attained is a little
  difficult to gauge, but it seems fairly certain that raindrops usually
  carry a charge. Elster and Geitel found the sign of the charge often
  fluctuate repeatedly during a single rain storm, but it seemed more
  often than not opposite to that of the simultaneous potential
  gradient. Gerdien has more recently repeated the experiments,
  employing an apparatus devised by him for the purpose. It has been
  found by C.T.R. Wilson (36) that a vessel in which freshly fallen rain
  or snow has been evaporated to dryness shows radioactive properties
  lasting for a few hours. The results obtained from equal weights of
  rain and snow seem of the same order.

  13. W. Linss (6) found that an insulated conductor charged either
  positively or negatively lost its charge in the free atmosphere; the
  potential V after time t being connected with its initial value V0 by
  a formula of the type V = V0e^(-at) where a is constant. This was
  confirmed by Elster and Geitel (7), whose form of dissipation
  apparatus has been employed in most recent work. The percentage of the
  charge which is dissipated per minute is usually denoted by a+ or a-
  according to its sign. The mean of a+ and a- is usually denoted by a±
  or simply by a, while q is employed for the ratio a-/a+. Some
  observers when giving mean values take [Sigma](a-/a+) as the mean
  value of q, while others take [Sigma](a-)/[Sigma](a+). The Elster
  and Geitel apparatus is furnished with a cover, serving to protect the
  dissipator from the direct action of rain, wind or sunlight. It is
  usual to observe with this cover on, but some observers, e.g. A.
  Gockel, have made long series of observations without it. The loss of
  charge is due to more than one cause, and it is difficult to attribute
  an absolutely definite meaning even to results obtained with the cover
  on. Gockel (37) says that the results he obtained without the cover
  when divided by 3 are fairly comparable with those obtained under the
  usual conditions; but the appropriate divisor must vary to some extent
  with the climatic conditions. Thus results obtained for a+ or a-
  without the cover are of doubtful value for purposes of comparison
  with those found elsewhere with it on. In the case of q the
  uncertainty is much less.


    TABLE VI.--_Dissipation. Mean Values._

    +--------------------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+------+------+
    |           Place.         |Period.|    Season.   |     Observer or     |  a±  |  q   |
    |                          |       |              |      Authority.     |      |      |
    +--------------------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+------+------+
    | Karasjok                 | 1903-4|     Year     | Simpson (10)        | 3.57 | 1.15 |
    | Wolfenbüttel             |             Year     | Elster & Geitel (39)| 1.33 | 1.05 |
    | Potsdam                  |  1904 |     Year     | Lüdeling (40)       | 1.13 | 1.33 |
    | Kremsmüster              |  1902 |     Year     | Zölss (42)          | 1.32 | 1.18 |
    |     "                    |  1903 |     Year     | Zölss (41)          | 1.35 | 1.14 |
    | Freiburg                 |       |     Year     | Gockel (43)         |  ..  | 1.41 |
    | Innsbruck                |  1902 |              | Czermak (44)        | 1.95 | 0.94 |
    |     "                    |  1905 | Jan. to June | Defant (45)         | 1.47 | 1.17 |
    | Mattsee (Salzburg)       |  1905 | July to Sept.| von Schweidler (46) |  ..  | 0.99 |
    | Seewalchen               |  1904 | July to Sept.| von Schweidler (38) |  ..  | 1.18 |
    | Trieste                  | 1902-3|     Year     | Mazelle (47)        | 0.58 | 1.09 |
    | Misdroy                  |  1902 |              | Lüdeling (40)       | 1.09 | 1.58 |
    | Swinemünde               |  1904 |Aug. and Sept.| Lüdeling (40)       | 1.23 | 1.37 |
    | Heligoland (sands)       |  1903 |    Summer    | Elster & Geitel (40)| 1.14 | 1.71 |
    |     "      plateau       |   "   |      "       |    "        "   (40)| 3.07 | 1.50 |
    | Juist (Island)           |       |      "       |    "        "   (48)| 1.56 | 1.56 |
    | Atlantic and German Ocean|  1904 |    August    | Boltzmann (49)      | 1.83 | 2.69 |
    | Arosa (1800 m.)          |  1903 |Feb. to April | Saake (50)          | 1.79 | 1.22 |
    | Rothhorn (2300 m.)       |  1903 |   September  | Gockel (43)         |  ..  | 5.31 |
    | Sonnblick (3100 m.)      |  1903 |   September  | Conrad (22)         |  ..  | 1.75 |
    | Mont Blanc (4810 m.)     |  1902 |   September  | le Cadet (43)       |  ..  |10.3  |
    +--------------------------+-------+--------------+---------------------+------+------+

  Table VI. gives the mean values of a± and q found at various places.
  The observations were usually confined to a few hours of the day, very
  commonly between 11 A.M. and 1 P.M., and in absence of information as
  to the diurnal variation it is impossible to say how much this
  influences the results. The first eight stations lie inland; that at
  Seewalchen (38) was, however, adjacent to a large lake. The next five
  stations are on the coast or on islands. The final four are at high
  levels. In the cases where the observations were confined to a few
  months the representative nature of the results is more doubtful.

  On mountain summits q tends to be large, i.e. a negative charge is
  lost much faster than a positive charge. Apparently q has also a
  tendency to be large near the sea, but this phenomenon is not seen at
  Trieste. An exactly opposite phenomenon, it may be remarked, is seen
  near waterfalls, q becoming very small. Only Innsbruck and Mattsee
  give a mean value of q less than unity. Also, as later observations at
  Innsbruck give more normal values for q, some doubt may be felt as to
  the earlier observations there. The result for Mattsee seems less open
  to doubt, for the observer, von Schweidler, had obtained a normal
  value for q during the previous year at Seewalchen. Whilst the average
  q in at least the great majority of stations exceeds unity, individual
  observations making q less than unity are not rare. Thus in 1902 (51)
  the percentage of cases in which q fell short of 1 was 30 at Trieste,
  33 at Vienna, and 35 at Kremsmünster; at Innsbruck q was less than 1
  on 58 days out of 98.

  In a long series of observations, individual values of q show usually
  a wide range. Thus during observations extending over more than a
  year, q varied from 0.18 to 8.25 at Kremsmünster and from 0.11 to 3.00
  at Trieste. The values of a+, a- and a± also show large variations.
  Thus at Trieste a+ varied from 0.12 to 4.07, and a- from 0.11 to 3.87;
  at Vienna a+ varied from 0.32 to 7.10, and a- from 0.78 to 5.42; at
  Kremsmünster a± varied from 0.14 to 5.83.

  14. _Annual Variation._--When observations are made at irregular
  hours, or at only one or two fixed hours, it is doubtful how
  representative they are. Results obtained at noon, for example,
  probably differ more from the mean value for the 24 hours at one
  season than at another. Most dissipation results are exposed to
  considerable uncertainty on these grounds. Also it requires a long
  series of years to give thoroughly representative results for any
  element, and few stations possess more than a year or two's
  dissipation data. Table VII. gives comparative results for winter
  (October to March) and summer at a few stations, the value for the
  season being the arithmetic mean from the individual months composing
  it. At Karasjok (10), Simpson observed thrice a day; the summer value
  there is nearly double the winter both for a+ and a-. The Kremsmünster
  (42) figures show a smaller but still distinct excess in the summer
  values. At Trieste (47), Mazelle's data from all days of the year show
  no decided seasonal change in a+ or a-; but when days on which the
  wind was high are excluded the summer value is decidedly the higher.
  At Freiburg (43), q seems decidedly larger in winter than in summer;
  at Karasjok and Trieste the seasonal effect in q seems small and
  uncertain.


    TABLE VII.--_Dissipation._

    +--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
    |                    |           Winter.         |           Summer.         |
    +--------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |       Place.       |  a+  |  a-  |  a±  |  q   |  a+  |  a-  |  a±  |  q   |
    +--------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    | Karasjok 1903-1904 | 2.28 | 2.69 | 2.49 | 1.18 | 4.38 | 4.94 | 4.65 | 1.13 |
    | Kremsmüster 1903   | 1.14 | 1.30 | 1.22 | 1.14 | 1.38 | 1.56 | 1.47 | 1.12 |
    | Freiburg           |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  | 1.57 |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  | 1.26 |
    | Trieste 1902-1903  | 0.56 | 0.59 | 0.58 | 1.07 | 0.55 | 0.61 | 0.58 | 1.13 |
    |   "     calm days  |  ..  |  ..  | 0.35 |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  | 0.48 |  ..  |
    +--------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

  15. _Diurnal Variation._--P.B. Zölss (41, 42) has published diurnal
  variation data for Kremsmünster for more than one year, and
  independently for midsummer (May to August) and midwinter (December to
  February). His figures show a double daily period in both a+ and a-,
  the principal maximum occurring about 1 or 2 P.M. The two minima
  occur, the one from 5 to 7 A.M., the other from 7 to 8 P.M.; they are
  nearly equal. Taking the figures answering to the whole year, May 1903
  to 1904, a+ varied throughout the day from 0.82 to 1.35, and a- from
  0.85 to 1.47. At midsummer the extreme hourly values were 0.91 and
  1.45 for a+, 0.94 and 1.60 for a-. The corresponding figures at
  midwinter were 0.65 and 1.19 for a+, 0.61 and 1.43 for a-. Zölss' data
  for q show also a double daily period, but the apparent range is
  small, and the hourly variation is somewhat irregular. At Karasjok,
  Simpson found a+ and a- both larger between noon and 1 P.M. than
  between either 8 and 9 A.M. or 6 and 7 P.M. The 6 to 7 P.M. values
  were in general the smallest, especially in the case of a+; the
  evening value for q on the average exceeded the values from the two
  earlier hours by some 7%.

  Summer observations on mountains have shown diurnal variations very
  large and fairly regular, but widely different from those observed at
  lower levels. On the Rothhorn, Gockel (43) found a+ particularly
  variable, the mean 7 A.M. value being 4½ times that at 1 P.M. q (taken
  as [Sigma](a-/a+)) varied from 2.25 at 5 A.M. and 2.52 at 9 P.M. to
  7.82 at 3 P.M. and 8.35 at 7 P.M. On the Sonnblick, in early
  September, V. Conrad (22) found somewhat similar results for q, the
  principal maximum occurring at 1 P.M., with minima at 9 P.M. and 6
  A.M.; the largest hourly value was, however, scarcely double the
  least. Conrad found a- largest at 4 A.M. and least at 6 P.M., the
  largest value being double the least; a+ was largest at 5 A.M. and
  least at 2 P.M., the largest value being fully 2½ times the least. On
  Mont Blanc, le Cadet (43) found q largest from 1 to 3 P.M., the value
  at either of these hours being more than double that at 11 A.M. On the
  Patscherkofel, H. von Ficker and A. Defant (52), observing in
  December, found q largest from 1 to 2 P.M. and least between 11 A.M.
  and noon, but the largest value was only 1½ times the least. On
  mountains much seems to depend on whether there are rising or falling
  air currents, and results from a single season may not be fairly
  representative.

  16. Dissipation seems largely dependent on meteorological conditions,
  but the phenomena at different stations vary so much as to suggest
  that the connexion is largely indirect. At most stations a+ and a-
  both increase markedly as wind velocity rises. From the observations
  at Trieste in 1902-1903 E. Mazelle (47) deduced an increase of about
  3% in a+ for a rise of 1 km. per hour in wind velocity. The following
  are some of his figures, the velocity v being in kilometres per
  hour:--

    +-----+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |  v  | 0 to 4. | 20 to 24. | 40 to 49. | 60 to 69. |
    +-----+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |  a  |  0.33   |    0.64   |    1.03   |    1.38   |
    |  q  |  1.13   |    1.19   |    1.00   |    0.96   |
    +-----+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

  For velocities from 0 to 24 km. per hour q exceeded unity in 74 cases
  out of 100; but for velocities over 50 km. per hour q exceeded unity
  in only 40 cases out of 100. Simpson got similar results at Karasjok;
  the rise in a+ and a- with increased wind velocity seemed, however,
  larger in winter than in summer. Simpson observed a fall in q for wind
  velocities exceeding 2 on Beaufort's scale. On the top of the
  Sonnblick, Conrad observed a _slight_ increase of a± as the wind
  velocity increased up to 20 km. per hour, but for greater velocities
  up to 80 km. per hour no further decided rise was observed.

  At Karasjok, treating summer and winter independently, Simpson (10)
  found a+ and a- both increase in a nearly linear relation with
  temperature, from below -20° to +15° C. For example, when the
  temperature was below -20° mean values were 0.76 for a+ and 0.91 for
  a-; for temperatures between -10° and -5° the corresponding means were
  2.45 and 2.82; while for temperatures between +10° and +15° they were
  4.68 and 5.23. Simpson found no certain temperature effect on the
  value of q. At Trieste, from 470 days when the wind velocity did not
  exceed 20 km. per hour, Mazelle (47) found somewhat analogous results
  for temperatures from 0° to 30° C.; a-, however, increased faster than
  a+, i.e. q increased with temperature. When he considered all days
  irrespective of wind velocity, Mazelle found the influence of
  temperature obliterated. On the Sonnblick, Conrad (22) found a±
  increase appreciably as temperature rose up to 4° or 5° C.; but at
  higher temperatures a decrease set in.

  Observations on the Sonnblick agree with those at low-level stations
  in showing a diminution of dissipation with increase of relative
  humidity. The decrease is most marked as saturation approaches. At
  Trieste, for example, for relative humidities between 90 and 100 the
  mean a± was less than half that for relative humidities under 40. With
  certain dry winds, notably Föhn winds in Austria and Switzerland,
  dissipation becomes very high. Thus at Innsbruck Defant (45) found the
  mean dissipation on days of Föhn fully thrice that on days without
  Föhn. The increase was largest for a+, there being a fall of about 15%
  in q. In general, a+ and a- both tend to be less on cloudy than on
  bright days. At Kiel (53) and Trieste the average value of q is
  considerably less for wholly overcast days than for bright days. At
  several stations enjoying a wide prospect the dissipation has been
  observed to be specially high on days of great visibility when distant
  mountains can be recognized. It tends on the contrary to be low on
  days of fog or rain.

  The results obtained as to the relation between dissipation and
  barometric pressure are conflicting. At Kremsmünster, Zölss (42) found
  dissipation vary with the absolute height of the barometer, a± having
  a mean value of 1.36 when pressure was below the normal, as against
  1.20 on days when pressure was above the normal. He also found a± on
  the average about 10% larger when pressure was falling than when it
  was rising. On the Sonnblick, Conrad (22) found dissipation increase
  decidedly as the absolute barometric pressure was larger, and he found
  no difference between days of rising and falling barometer. At
  Trieste, Mazelle (47) found no certain connexion with absolute
  barometric pressure. Dissipation was above the average when cyclonic
  conditions prevailed, but this seemed simply a consequence of the
  increased wind velocity. At Mattsee, E.R. von Schweidler (46) found no
  connexion between absolute barometric pressure and dissipation, also
  days of rising and falling pressure gave the same mean. At Kiel, K.
  Kaehler (53) found a+ and a- both greater with rising than with
  falling barometer.

  V. Conrad and M. Topolansky (54) have found a marked connexion at
  Vienna between dissipation and ozone. Regular observations were made
  of both elements. Days were grouped according to the intensity of
  colouring of ozone papers, 0 representing no visible effect, and 14
  the darkest colour reached. The mean values of _a+_ and _a-_ answering
  to 12 and 13 on the ozone scale were both about double the
  corresponding values answering to 0 and 1 on that scale.

  17. A charged body in air loses its charge in more than one way. The
  air, as is now known, has always present in it ions, some carrying a
  positive and others a negative charge, and those having the opposite
  sign to the charged body are attracted and tend to discharge it. The
  rate of loss of charge is thus largely dependent on the extent to
  which ions are present in the surrounding air. It depends, however, in
  addition on the natural mobility of the ions, and also on the
  opportunities for convection. Of late years many observations have
  been made of the ionic charges in air. The best-known apparatus for
  the purpose is that devised by Ebert. A cylinder condenser has its
  inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative
  potential. Air is drawn by an aspirator between the surfaces, and the
  ions having the opposite sign to the inner cylinder are deposited on
  it. The charge given up to the inner cylinder is known from its loss
  of potential. The volume of air from which the ions have been
  extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on
  the ions, whether positive or negative. The conditions must, of
  course, be such as to secure that no ions shall escape, otherwise
  there is an underestimate. I+ is used to denote the charge on positive
  ions, I- that on negative ions. The unit to which they are ordinarily
  referred is 1 electrostatic unit of electricity per cubic metre of
  air. For the ratio of the mean value of I+ to the mean value of I-,
  the letter Q is employed by Gockel (55), who has made an unusually
  complete study of ionic charges at Freiburg. Numerous observations
  were also made by Simpson (10)--thrice a day--at Karasjok, and von
  Schweidler has made a good many observations about 3 P.M. at Mattsee
  (46) in 1905, and Seewalchen (38) in 1904. These will suffice to give
  a general idea of the mean values met with.

    +------------+-----------------+------+------+------+
    | Station.   |    Authority.   |  I+  |  I-  |   Q  |
    +------------+-----------------+------+------+------+
    | Freiburg   | Gockel          | 0.34 | 0.24 | 1.41 |
    | Karasjok   | Simpson         | 0.38 | 0.33 | 1.17 |
    | Mattsee    | von Schweidler  | 0.35 | 0.29 | 1.19 |
    | Seewalchen |        "        | 0.45 | 0.38 | 1.17 |
    +------------+-----------------+------+------+------+

  Gockel's mean values of I+ and Q would be reduced to 0.31 and 1.38
  respectively if his values for July--which appear abnormal--were
  omitted. I+ and I- both show a considerable range of values, even at
  the same place during the same season of the year. Thus at Seewalchen
  in the course of a month's observations at 3 P.M., I+ varied from 0.31
  to 0.67, and I- from 0.17 to 0.67.

  There seems a fairly well marked annual variation in ionic contents,
  as the following figures will show. Summer and winter represent each
  six months and the results are arithmetic means of the monthly values.

    +--------+--------------------+--------------------+
    |        |      Freiburg.     |      Karasjok.     |
    +--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |        |  I+  |  I-  |  Q   |  I+  |  I-  |  Q   |
    +--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    | Winter | 0.29 | 0.21 | 1.49 | 0.33 | 0.27 | 1.22 |
    | Summer | 0.39 | 0.28 | 1.34 | 0.44 | 0.39 | 1.13 |
    +--------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

  If the exceptional July values at Freiburg were omitted, the summer
  values of I+ and Q would become 0.33 and 1.25 respectively.

  18. _Diurnal Variation._--At Karasjok Simpson found the mean values of
  I+ and I- throughout the whole year much the same between noon and 1
  P.M. as between 8 and 9 A.M. Observations between 6 and 7 P.M. gave
  means slightly lower than those from the earlier hours, but the
  difference was only about 5% in I+ and 10% in I-. The evening values
  of Q were on the whole the largest. At Freiburg, Gockel found I+ and
  I- decidedly larger in the early afternoon than in either the morning
  or the late evening hours. His greatest and least mean hourly values
  and the hours of their occurrence are as follows:--

    +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
    |            Winter.            |            Summer.            |
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    |      I+       |      I-       |      I+       |      I-       |
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    |  Max. |  Min. |  Max. |  Min. |  Max. |  Min. |  Max. |  Min. |
    | 0.333 | 0.193 | 0.242 | 0.130 | 0.430 | 0.244 | 0.333 | 0.192 |
    | 2 P.M.| 7 P.M.| 2 P.M.| 8 P.M.| 4 P.M.| 9 to  | 4 P.M.| 9 to  |
    |       |       |       |       |       |10 P.M.|       |10 P.M.|
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

  Gockel did not observe between 10 P.M. and 7 A.M.

  19. Ionization seems to increase notably as temperature rises. Thus at
  Karasjok Simpson found for mean values:--

    Temp. less than -20°        -10° to -5°             10° to 15°
    I+ = 0.18, I- = 0.36    I+ = 0.36, I- = 0.30   I+ = 0.45, I- = 0.43

  Simpson found no clear influence of temperature on Q. Gockel observed
  similar effects at Freiburg--though he seems doubtful whether the
  relationship is direct--but the influence of temperature on I+ seemed
  reduced when the ground was covered with snow. Gockel found a
  diminution of ionization with rise of relative humidity. Thus for
  relative humidities between 40 and 50 mean values were 0.306 for I+
  and 0.219 for I-; whilst for relative humidities between 90 and 100
  the corresponding means were respectively 0.222 and 0.134. At
  Karasjok, Simpson found a slight decrease in I- as relative humidity
  increased, but no certain change in I+. Specially large values of I+
  and I- have been observed at high levels in balloon ascents. Thus on
  the 1st of July 1901, at a height of 2400 metres, H. Gerdien (29)
  obtained 0.86 for I+ and 1.09 for I-.

  20. In 1901 Elster and Geitel found that a radioactive emanation is
  present in the atmosphere. Their method of measuring the radioactivity
  is as follows (48): A wire not exceeding 1 mm. in diameter, charged to
  a negative potential of at least 2000 volts, is supported between
  insulators in the open, usually at a height of about 2 metres. After
  two hours' exposure, it is wrapped round a frame supported in a given
  position relative to Elster and Geitel's dissipation apparatus, and
  the loss of charge is noted. This loss is proportional to the length
  of the wire. The radioactivity is denoted by A, and A=1 signifies that
  the potential of the dissipation apparatus fell 1 volt in an hour per
  metre of wire introduced. The loss of the dissipation body due to the
  natural ionization of the air is first allowed for. Suppose, for
  instance, that in the absence of the wire the potential falls from 264
  to 255 volts in 15 minutes, whilst when the wire (10 metres long) is
  introduced it falls from 264 to 201 volts in 10 minutes, then

    10A = (254 - 201)×6 - (264 - 255)×4 = 342; or A = 34.2.

  The values obtained for A seem largely dependent on the station. At
  Wolfenbüttel, a year's observations by Elster and Geitel (56) made A
  vary from 4 to 64, the mean being 20. In the island of Juist, off the
  Friesland coast, from three weeks' observations they obtained only 5.2
  as the mean. On the other hand, at Altjoch, an Alpine station, from
  nine days' observations in July 1903 they obtained a mean of 137, the
  maximum being 224, and the minimum 92. At Freiburg, from 150 days'
  observations near noon in 1903-1904, Gockel (57) obtained a mean of
  84, his extreme values being 10 and 420. At Karasjok, observing
  several times throughout the day for a good many months, Simpson (10)
  obtained a mean of 93 and a maximum of 432. The same observer from
  four weeks' observations at Hammerfest got the considerably lower mean
  value 58, with a maximum of 252. At this station much lower values
  were found for A with sea breezes than with land breezes. Observing on
  the pier at Swinemünde in August and September 1904, Lüdeling (40)
  obtained a mean value of 34.

  Elster and Geitel (58), having found air drawn from the soil highly
  radioactive, regard ground air as the source of the emanation in the
  atmosphere, and in this way account for the low values they obtained
  for A when observing on or near the sea. At Freiburg in winter Gockel
  (55) found A notably reduced when snow was on the ground, I+ being
  also reduced. When the ground was covered by snow the mean value of A
  was only 42, as compared with 81 when there was no snow.

  J.C. McLennan (59) observing near the foot of Niagara found A only
  about one-sixth as large as at Toronto. Similarly at Altjoch, Elster
  and Geitel (56) found A at the foot of a waterfall only about
  one-third of its normal value at a distance from the fall.

  21. _Annual and Diurnal Variations._--At Wolfenbüttel, Elster and
  Geitel found A vary but little with the season. At Karasjok, on the
  contrary, Simpson found A much larger at midwinter--notwithstanding
  the presence of snow--than at midsummer. His mean value for November
  and December was 129, while his mean for May and June was only 47. He
  also found a marked diurnal variation, A being considerably greater
  between 3 and 5 A.M. or 8.30 to 10.30 P.M. than between 10 A.M. and
  noon, or between 3 and 5 P.M.

  At all seasons of the year Simpson found A rise notably with increase
  of relative humidity. Also, whilst the mere absolute height of the
  barometer seemed of little, if any, importance, he obtained larger
  values of A with a falling than with a rising barometer. This last
  result of course is favourable to Elster and Geitel's views as to the
  source of the emanation.

  22. For a wire exposed under the conditions observed by Elster and
  Geitel the emanation seems to be almost entirely derived from radium.
  Some part, however, seems to be derived from thorium, and H.A.
  Bumstead (60) finds that with longer exposure of the wire the relative
  importance of the thorium emanation increases. With three hours'
  exposure he found the thorium emanation only from 3 to 5% of the
  whole, but with 12 hours' exposure the percentage of thorium emanation
  rose to about 15. These figures refer to the state of the wire
  immediately after the exposure; the rate of decay is much more rapid
  for the radium than for the thorium emanation.

  23. The different elements--potential gradient, dissipation,
  ionization and radioactivity--are clearly not independent of one
  another. The loss of a charge is naturally largely dependent on the
  richness of the surrounding air in ions. This is clearly shown by the
  following results obtained by Simpson (10) at Karasjok for the mean
  values of a± corresponding to certain groups of values of I±. To
  eliminate the disturbing influence of wind, different wind strengths
  are treated separately.


    TABLE VIII.--_Mean Values of a±._

    +----------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |   Wind   |I±0 to 0.1.|0.1 to 0.2|0.2 to 0.3|0.3 to 0.4|0.4 to 0.5|
    | Strength.|           |          |          |          |          |
    +----------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |  0 to 1  |   0.45    |   0.60   |   1.26   |   2.04   |   3.03   |
    |  1 "  2  |   0.65    |   1.08   |   1.85   |   2.92   |   3.83   |
    |  2 "  3  |    ..     |    ..    |   2.70   |   3.88   |   5.33   |
    +----------+-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

  Simspon concluded that for a given wind velocity dissipation is
  practically a linear function of ionization.

  24. Table IX. will give a general idea of the relations of potential
  gradient to dissipation and ionization.


    TABLE IX.--_Potential, Dissipation, Ionization._

    +------------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+
    | Potential  |             q              |      Karasjok (Simpson (10)).    |
    | gradients  |                            |                                  |
    | volts per  +----------+--------+--------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |   metre.   | Kremsmün-| Freibu-| Rothho-|  a+  |  a-  |  I+  |  I-  |   Q  |
    |            | ster(41).|rg (43).| rn(43).|      |      |      |      |      |
    +------------+----------+--------+--------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |   0 to  50 |    ..    |  1.12  |   ..   |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |
    |  50 "  100 |   1.14   |  1.31  |   ..   | 4.29 | 4.67 | 0.43 | 0.39 | 1.11 |
    | 100 "  150 |   1.24   |  1.69  |   ..   | 3.38 | 3.93 | 0.37 | 0.32 | 1.15 |
    | 150 "  200 |   1.48   |  1.84  |   ..   | 1.85 | 2.58 | 0.36 | 0.28 | 1.28 |
    | 200 "  300 |    ..    |   ..   |  3.21  | 1.37 | 1.58 | 0.26 | 0.19 | 1.42 |
    | 300 "  400 |    ..    |   ..   |  4.33  | 0.60 | 0.85 |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |
    | 400 "  500 |    ..    |   ..   |  5.46  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |
    | 500 "  700 |    ..    |   ..   |  8.75  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |  ..  |
    +------------+----------+--------+--------+------+------+------+------+------+

  If we regard the potential gradient near the ground as representing a
  negative charge on the earth, then if the source of supply of that
  charge is unaffected the gradient will rise and become high when the
  operations by which discharge is promoted slacken their activity. A
  diminution in the number of positive ions would thus naturally be
  accompanied by a rise in potential gradient. Table IX. associates with
  rise in potential gradient a reduced number of both positive and
  negative ions and a diminished rate of dissipation whether of a
  negative or a positive charge. The rise in q and Q indicates that the
  diminished rate of dissipation is most marked for positive charges,
  and that negative ions are even more reduced then positive.

  At Kremsmünster Zölss (41) finds a considerable similarity between the
  diurnal variations in q and in the potential gradient, the hours of
  the forenoon and afternoon maxima being nearly the same in the two
  cases.

  No distinct relationship has yet been established between potential
  gradient and radioactivity. At Karasjok Simpson (10) found fairly
  similar mean values of A for two groups of observations, one confined
  to cases when the potential gradient exceeded +400 volts, the other
  confined to cases of negative gradient.

  At Freiburg Gockel (55, 57) found that when observations were grouped
  according to the value of A there appeared a distinct rise in both a-
  and I+ with increasing A. For instance, when A lay between 100 and 150
  the mean value of a- was 1.27 times greater than when A lay between 0
  and 50; while when A lay between 120 and 150 the mean value of I+ was
  1.53 times larger than when A lay between 0 and 30. These apparent
  relationships refer to mean values. In individual cases widely
  different values of a- or I+ are associated with the same value of A.

  25. If V be the potential, [rho] the density of free electricity at a
  point in the atmosphere, at a distance r from the earth's centre, then
  assuming statical conditions and neglecting variation of V in
  horizontal directions, we have

    r^(-2)(d/dr)(r² dV/dr) + 4[pi][rho] = 0.

  For practical purposes we may treat r² as constant, and replace d/dr
  by d/dh, where h is height in centimetres above the ground.

  We thus find    [rho] = -(1/4[pi]) d²V/dh².

  If we take a tube of force 1 sq. cm. in section, and suppose it cut by
  equipotential surfaces at heights h1 and h2 above the ground, we have
  for the total charge M included in the specified portion of the tube

    4[pi]M = (dV/dh)h1 - (dV/dh)h2.

  Taking Linke's (28) figures as given in § 10, and supposing h1 = 0, h2
  = 15 × 10^4, we find for the charge in the unit tube between the
  ground and 1500 metres level, remembering that the centimetre is now
  the unit of length, M = (1/(4[pi])) (125.25)/100. Taking 1 volt equal
  1/300 of an electrostatic unit, we find M = 0.000265. Between 1500 and
  4000 metres the charge inside the unit tube is much less, only
  0.000040. The charge on the earth itself has its surface density given
  by [sigma] = - (1/(4[pi])) × 125 volts per metre, = 0.000331 in e
  ectrostatic units. Thus, on the view now generally current, in the
  circumstances answering to Linke's experiments we have on the ground a
  charge of -331 × 10^(-6) C.G.S. units per sq. cm. Of the corresponding
  positive charge, 265 × 10^(-6) lies below the 1500 metres level, 40 ×
  10^(-6) between this and the 4000 metres level, and only 26 × 10^(-6)
  above 4000 metres.

  There is a difficulty in reconciling observed values of the ionization
  with the results obtained from balloon ascents as to the variation of
  the potential with altitude. According to H. Gerdien (61), near the
  ground a mean value for d²V/dh² is - (1/10) volt/(metre)². From this
  we deduce for the charge [rho] per cubic centimetre (1/(4[pi])) ×
  10^(-5) (volt/cm²), or 2.7 × 10^(-9) electrostatic units. But taking,
  for example, Simpson's mean values at Karasjok, we have observed

    [rho] [equivalent] I+ - I1 = 0.05 × (cm./metre)^3 = 5 × 10^(-8),

  and thus (calculated [rho])/(observed [rho]) = 0.05 approximately.
  Gerdien himself makes I+ - I- considerably larger than Simpson, and
  concludes that the observed value of [rho] is from 30 to 50 times that
  calculated. The presumption is either that d²V/dh² near the ground is
  much larger numerically than Gerdien supposes, or else that the
  ordinary instruments for measuring ionization fail to catch some
  species of ion whose charge is preponderatingly negative.

  26. Gerdien (61) has made some calculations as to the probable average
  value of the vertical electric current in the atmosphere in fine
  weather. This will be composed of a conduction and a convection
  current, the latter due to rising or falling air currents carrying
  ions. He supposes the field near the earth to be 100 volts per metre,
  or 1/300 electrostatic units. For simplicity, he assumes I+ and I-
  each equal 0.25 × 10^(-6) electrostatic units. The specific velocities
  of the ions--i.e. the velocities in unit field--he takes to be 1.3 ×
  300 for the positive, and 1.6 × 300 for the negative. The positive and
  negative ions travel in opposite directions, so the total current is
  (1/300)(0.25 × 10^(-6))(1.3 × 300 + 1.6 × 300), or 73 × 10^(-8) in
  electrostatic measure, otherwise 2.4 × 10^(-16) amperes per sq. cm. As
  to the convection current, Gerdien supposes--as in § 25--[rho] = 2.7 ×
  10^(-9) electrostatic units, and on fine days puts the average
  velocity of rising air currents at 10 cm. per second. This gives a
  convection current of 2.7 × 10^(-8) electrostatic units, or about 1/27
  of the conduction current. For the total current we have approximately
  2.5 × 10^(-16) amperes per sq. cm. This is insignificant compared to
  the size of the currents which several authorities have calculated
  from considerations as to terrestrial magnetism (q.v.). Gerdien's
  estimate of the convection current is for fine weather conditions.
  During rainfall, or near clouds or dust layers, the magnitude of this
  current might well be enormously increased; its direction would
  naturally vary with climatic conditions.

  27. H. Mache (62) thinks that the ionization observed in the
  atmosphere may be wholly accounted for by the radioactive emanation.
  If this is true we should have q = [alpha] n², where q is the number
  of ions of one sign made in 1 cc. of air per second by the emanation,
  [alpha] the constant of recombination, and n the number of ions found
  simultaneously by, say, Ebert's apparatus. Mache and R. Holfmann, from
  observations on the amplitude of saturation currents, deduce q = 4 as
  a mean value. Taking for [alpha] Townsend's value 1.2 × 10^(-6), Mache
  finds n = 1800. The charge on an ion being 3.4 × 10^(-10) Mache
  deduces for the ionic charge, I+ or I-, per cubic metre 1800 × 3.4 ×
  10^(-10) × 10^6, or 0.6. This is at least of the order observed, which
  is all that can be expected from a calculation which assumes I+ and I-
  equal. If, however, Mache's views were correct, we should expect a
  much closer connexion between I and A than has actually been observed.

  28. C.T.R. Wilson (63) seems disposed to regard the action of rainfall
  as the most probable source of the negative charge on the earth's
  surface. That great separation of positive and negative electricity
  sometimes takes place during rainfall is undoubted, and the charge
  brought to the ground seems preponderatingly negative. The difficulty
  is in accounting for the continuance in extensive fine weather
  districts of large positive charges in the atmosphere in face of the
  processes of recombination always in progress. Wilson considers that
  convection currents in the upper atmosphere would be quite inadequate,
  but conduction may, he thinks, be sufficient alone. At barometric
  pressures such as exist between 18 and 36 kilometres above the ground
  the mobility of the ions varies inversely as the pressure, whilst the
  coefficient of recombination [alpha] varies approximately as the
  pressure. If the atmosphere at different heights is exposed to
  ionizing radiation of uniform intensity the rate of production of ions
  per cc., q, will vary as the pressure. In the steady state the number,
  n, of ions of either sign per cc. is given by n = [root](q/[alpha]),
  and so is independent of the pressure or the height. The conductivity,
  which varies as the product of n into the mobility, will thus vary
  inversely as the pressure, and so at 36 kilometres will be one hundred
  times as large as close to the ground. Dust particles interfere with
  conduction near the ground, so the relative conductivity in the upper
  layers may be much greater than that calculated. Wilson supposes that
  by the fall to the ground of a preponderance of negatively charged
  rain the air above the shower has a higher positive potential than
  elsewhere at the same level, thus leading to large conduction currents
  laterally in the highly conducting upper layers.

  29. _Thunder._--Trustworthy frequency statistics for an individual
  station are obtainable only from a long series of observations, while
  if means are taken from a large area places may be included which
  differ largely amongst themselves. There is the further complication
  that in some countries thunder seems to be on the increase. In
  temperate latitudes, speaking generally, the higher the latitude the
  fewer the thunderstorms. For instance, for Edinburgh (64) (1771 to
  1900) and London (65) (1763 to 1896) R.C. Mossman found the average
  annual number of thunderstorm days to be respectively 6.4 and 10.7;
  while at Paris (1873-1893) E. Renou (66) found 27.3 such days. In some
  tropical stations, at certain seasons of the year, thunder is almost a
  daily occurrence. At Batavia (18) during the epoch 1867-1895, there
  were on the average 120 days of thunder in the year.

  As an example of a large area throughout which thunder frequency
  appears fairly uniform, we may take Hungary (67). According to the
  statistics for 1903, based on several hundred stations, the average
  number of days of thunder throughout six subdivisions of the country,
  some wholly plain, others mainly mountainous, varied only from 21.1 to
  26.5, the mean for the whole of Hungary being 23.5. The antithesis of
  this exists in the United States of America. According to A.J. Henry
  (68) there are three regions of maximum frequency: one in the
  south-east, with its centre in Florida, has an average of 45 days of
  thunder in the year; a second including the middle Mississippi valley
  has an average of 35 days; and a third in the middle Missouri valley
  has 30. With the exception of a narrow strip along the Canadian
  frontier, thunderstorm frequency is fairly high over the whole of the
  United States to the east of the 100th meridian. But to the west of
  this, except in the Rocky Mountain region where storms are numerous,
  the frequency steadily diminishes, and along the Pacific coast there
  are large areas where thunder occurs only once or twice a year.

  30. The number of thunderstorm days is probably a less exact measure
  of the relative _intensity_ of thunderstorms than statistics as to the
  number of persons killed annually by lightning per million of the
  population. Table X. gives a number of statistics of this kind. The
  letter M stands for "Midland."


    TABLE X.--_Deaths by Lightning, per annum, per million Inhabitants._

    Hungary                  7.7     Upper Missouri and Plains   15
    Netherlands              2.8     Rocky Mountains and Plateau 10
    England, N. M.           1.8     South Atlantic               8
       "     E.              1.3     Central Mississippi          7
       "     S. M.           1.2     Upper    "                   7
       "     York and W. M.  1.1     Ohio Valley                  7
       "     N.              1.0     Middle Atlantic              6
    Wales                    0.9     Gulf States                  5
    England, S. E.           0.8     New England                  4
       "     N. W.           0.7     Pacific Coast               <1*
       "     S. W.           0.6     North and South Dakota      20
    London                   0.1     California                   0

    * Note in case of Pacific coast, Table X., "<1" means "less than 1."

  The figure for Hungary is based on the seven years 1897-1903; that for
  the Netherlands, from data by A.J. Monné (69) on the nine years
  1882-1890. The English data, due to R. Lawson (70), are from
  twenty-four years, 1857-1880; those for the United States, due to
  Henry (68), are for five years, 1896-1900. In comparing these data
  allowance must be made for the fact that danger from lightning is much
  greater out of doors than in. Thus in Hungary, in 1902 and 1903, out
  of 229 persons killed, at least 171 were killed out of doors. Of the
  229 only 67 were women, the only assignable explanation being their
  rarer employment in the fields. Thus, _ceteris paribtis_, deaths from
  lightning are much more numerous in a country than in an industrial
  population. This is well brought out by the low figure for London. It
  is also shown conspicuously in figures given by Henry. In New York
  State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths
  per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.
  In states such as Wyoming and the Dakotas the population is largely
  rural, and the deaths by lightning rise in consequence. The frequency
  and intensity of thunderstorms are unquestionably greater in the Rocky
  Mountain than in the New England states, but the difference is not so
  great as the statistics at first sight suggest.


    TABLE XI.--_Annual Variation of Thunderstorms._

    +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |              | Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May. | June | July | Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | Dec. |
    +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    | Ediburgh     |  1.8 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  3.8 | 12.3 | 20.8 | 28.2 | 19.1 |  7.0 |  2.3 |  1.1 |  0.8 |
    | London       |  0.6 |  0.5 |  1.6 |  6.6 | 12.7 | 18.3 | 25.5 | 19.2 |  9.3 |  3.1 |  1.7 |  0.9 |
    | Paris        |  0.2 |  0.4 |  2.3 |  7.5 | 14.9 | 21.6 | 22.0 | 17.0 |  9.9 |  3.5 |  0.4 |  0.4 |
    | Netherlands  |  2.2 |  1.8 |  3.7 |  6.5 | 14.0 | 14.7 | 15.6 | 14.7 | 10.3 | 10.1 |  3.8 |  2.5 |
    | France       |  2.2 |  2.8 |  4.1 |  8.4 | 13.8 | 18.7 | 14.6 | 13.5 | 10.0 |  6.3 |  3.1 |  2.4 |
    | Switzerland  |  0.2 |  0.3 |  0.5 |  4.9 | 11.9 | 22.9 | 29.9 | 18.0 |  9.8 |  1.1 |  0.3 |  0.2 |
    | Hungary (a)  |  0.0 |  0.1 |  1.6 |  5.7 | 20.9 | 25.0 | 23.2 | 15.9 |  5.7 |  1.3 |  0.4 |  0.2 |
    |    "    (b)  |  0.0 |  0.0 |  1.0 |  3.2 | 11.8 | 20.6 | 30.7 | 25.3 |  6.9 |  0.5 |  0.0 |  0.0 |
    | United States|  0.1 |  0.1 |  1.2 |  4.0 | 14.3 | 25.0 | 27.2 | 20.4 |  5.8 |  1.4 |  0.3 |  0.1 |
    | Hong-Kong    |  0.0 |  2.1 |  4.3 |  8.5 | 12.8 | 23.4 | 14.9 | 21.3 | 10.6 |  2.1 |  0.0 |  0.0 |
    | Trevandrum   |  3.2 |  3.8 | 13.1 | 20.9 | 18.6 |  4.9 |  1.2 |  3.5 |  2.5 | 12.9 | 12.0 |  3.3 |
    | Batavia      | 10.4 |  9.2 | 11.1 | 10.5 |  7.9 |  5.5 |  4.3 |  3.8 |  5.4 |  8.8 | 12.2 | 10.9 |
    +--------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

  31. Even at the same place thunderstorms vary greatly in intensity and
  duration. Also the times of beginning and ending are difficult to
  define exactly, so that several elements of uncertainty exist in data
  as to the seasonal or diurnal variation. The monthly data in Table XI.
  are percentages of the total for the year. In most cases the figures
  are based on the number of days of thunder at a particular station, or
  at the average station of a country; but the second set for Hungary
  relates to the number of lightning strokes causing fire, and the
  figures for the United States relate to deaths by lightning. The data
  for Edinburgh, due to R.C. Mossman (64), refer to 130 years, 1771 to
  1900. The data for London (1763-1896) are also due to Mossman (65);
  for Paris (1873-1893) to Renou (66); for the Netherlands (1882-1900)
  to A.J. Monné (69); for France(71) (1886-1899) to Frou and Hann; for
  Switzerland to K. Hess (72); for Hungary (67) (1896-1903) to L. von
  Szalay and others; for the United States (1890-1900) to A.J. Henry
  (68); for Hong-Kong (73) (1894-1903) to W. Doberck. The Trevandrum
  (74) data (1853-1864) were due originally to A. Broun; the Batavia
  data (1867-1895) are from the Batavia _Observations_, vol. xviii.

  Most stations in the northern hemisphere have a conspicuous maximum at
  midsummer with little thunder in winter. Trevandrum (8° 31' N.) and
  Batavia (6° 11' S.), especially the former, show a double maximum and
  minimum.


    TABLE XII.--_Diurnal Variation of Thunderstorms._

    +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+
    |         Hour.      | 0-2.| 2-4.| 4-6.| 6-8.|8-10.|10-12.|0'-2'.|2'-4'.|4'-6'.|6'-8'.|8'-10'|10'-12'|
    +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+
    | Finland (76)       | 2.3 | 2.0 | 2.2 | 3.0 | 4.6 | 12.1 | 18.9 | 19.2 | 16.1 | 10.1 |  6.1 |  3.4  |
    | Edinburgh (64)     | 1.7 | 2.0 | 1.4 | 1.7 | 4.7 | 14.2 | 22.4 | 23.7 | 11.9 |  9.2 |  5.1 |  2.0  |
    | Belgium (77)       | 3.0 | 2.9 | 1.7 | 1.8 | 2.0 |  6.4 | 12.9 | 21.6 | 19.4 | 15.8 |  8.4 |  4.1  |
    | Brocken (78)       | 1.6 | 2.5 | 1.3 | 1.3 | 4.2 |  3.1 | 12.1 | 28.6 | 22.4 | 10.1 |  7.2 |  5.6  |
    | Switzerland (72)   | 3.1 | 2.3 | 2.1 | 1.6 | 2.0 |  7.3 | 13.8 | 20.9 | 20.8 | 14.6 |  8.0 |  3.5  |
    | Italy (77)         | 1.3 | 1.6 | 1.4 | 2.0 | 3.0 |  8.5 | 19.5 | 26.5 | 16.6 |  9.8 |  8.3 |  1.5  |
    | Hungary (i.) (67)  | 2.1 | 1.9 | 1.9 | 2.1 | 2.9 | 11.5 | 18.1 | 22.0 | 17.9 | 10.7 |  6.2 |  2.8  |
    |    "    (ii.) (67) | 6.9 | 4.2 | 2.3 | 2.0 | 2.0 |  5.0 |  9.9 | 16.9 | 18.2 | 10.7 | 11.7 | 10.0  |
    |    "    (iii.) (75)| 2.3 | 1.9 | 2.0 | 2.4 | 2.7 |  7.9 | 16.1 | 22.1 | 19.1 | 12.7 |  7.6 |  3.2  |
    |    "    (iv.) (75) | 2.6 | 2.2 | 1.9 | 1.9 | 3.6 | 13.3 | 19.9 | 20.7 | 15.2 |  9.2 |  6.2 |  3.3  |
    | Trevandrum (74)    | 5.6 | 4.9 | 4.3 | 1.3 | 1.4 |  2.0 | 13.3 | 24.5 | 15.9 | 13.3 |  7.6 |  5.9  |
    | Agustia (74)       | 2.9 | 2.9 | 0.3 | 0.0 | 1.7 |  2.9 | 15.1 | 36.1 | 22.2 |  9.3 |  4.6 |  2.0  |
    +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+------+------+------+------+------+-------+

  32. _Daily Variation._--The figures in Table XII. are again
  percentages. They are mostly based on data as to the hour of
  commencement of thunderstorms. Data as to the hour when storms are
  most severe would throw the maximum later in the day. This is
  illustrated by the first two sets of figures for Hungary (67). The
  first set relate as usual to the hour of commencement, the second to
  the hours of occurrence of lightning causing fires. Of the two other
  sets of figures for Hungary (75), (iii.) relates to the central plain,
  (iv.) to the mountainous regions to north and south of this. The hour
  of maximum is earlier for the mountains, thunder being more frequent
  there than in the plains between 8 A.M. and 4 P.M., but less frequent
  between 2 and 10 P.M. Trevandrum (8° 31' N., 76° 59' E., 195 ft. above
  sea-level) and Agustia (8° 37' N., 77° 20' E., 6200 ft. above
  sea-level) afford a contrast between low ground and high ground in
  India. In this instance there seems little difference in the hour of
  maximum, the distinguishing feature being the great concentration of
  thunderstorm occurrence at Agustia between noon and 6 P.M.


    TABLE XIII.

    +------+-------------+--------+---------+-------+
    | Year.| Netherlands.| France.| Hungary.| U.S.A.|
    +------+-------------+--------+---------+-------+
    | 1882 |      98     |   ..   |   141   |  ..   |
    | 1883 |     117     |   ..   |   195   |  ..   |
    | 1884 |      95     |   ..   |   229   |  ..   |
    | 1885 |      93     |   ..   |   192   |  ..   |
    | 1886 |     102     |   251  |   319   |  ..   |
    | 1887 |      78     |   292  |   236   |  ..   |
    | 1888 |      94     |   286  |   232   |  ..   |
    | 1889 |     126     |   294  |   258   |  ..   |
    | 1890 |      93     |   299  |   265   |  ..   |
    | 1891 |      98     |   317  |   302   |  204  |
    | 1892 |      86     |   324  |   350   |  251  |
    | 1893 |     102     |   288  |   233   |  209  |
    | 1894 |     111     |   300  |   333   |  336  |
    | 1895 |     119     |   309  |   280   |  426  |
    | 1896 |     109     |   266  |   299   |  341  |
    | 1897 |     119     |   297  |   350   |  362  |
    | 1898 |      95     |   299  |   386   |  367  |
    | 1899 |     112     |   299  |   368   |  563  |
    | 1900 |     108     |   ..   |   401   |  713  |
    | 1901 |     ..      |   ..   |   502   |  ..   |
    | 1902 |     ..      |   ..   |   322   |  ..   |
    | 1903 |     ..      |   ..   |   256   |  ..   |
    +------+-------------+--------+---------+-------+

  33. Table XIII. gives some data as to the variability of thunder from
  year to year. The figures for the Netherlands (69) and France (71) are
  the number of days when thunder occurred somewhere in the country. Its
  larger area and more varied climate give a much larger number of days
  of thunder to France. Notwithstanding the proximity of the two
  countries, there is not much parallelism between the data. The figures
  for Hungary (67) give the number of lightning strokes causing fire;
  those for the United States (68) give the number of persons killed by
  lightning. The conspicuous maximum in 1901 and great drop in 1902 in
  Hungary are also shown by the statistics as to the number of days of
  thunder. This number at the average station of the country fell from
  38.4 in 1901 to 23.1 in 1902. On the whole, however, the number of
  destructive lightning strokes and of days of thunder do not show a
  close parallelism.


    TABLE XIV.

    +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | Decade ending  | 1810| 1820| 1830| 1840| 1850| 1860| 1870| 1880| 1890| 1900|
    +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | Edinburgh      |  4.9|  5.7|  7.7|  6.7|  5.7|  6.5|  5.4| 10.6|  9.4|  9.2|
    | London         |  9.5|  8.3| 11.5| 11.8| 10.5| 11.9|  9.6| 15.7| 13.0|  .. |
    | Tilsit         |  .. |  .. | 12.5| 12.1| 16.1| 15.3| 11.9| 17.6| 21.8|  .. |
    | Germany, South |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  49 |  66 |  91 | 143 | 175 |
    |    "     West  |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  92 | 106 | 187 | 244 | 331 |
    |    "     North |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. | 124 | 135 | 245 | 288 | 352 |
    |    "     East  |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. | 102 | 143 | 186 | 210 | 273 |
    |    "     Whole |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  .. |  90 | 116 | 189 | 254 | 318 |
    +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  34. Table XIV. deals with the variation of thunder over longer
  periods. The data for Edinburgh (64) and London (65) due to Mossman,
  and those for Tilsit, due to C. Kassner (79), represent the average
  number of days of thunder per annum. The data for Germany, due to O.
  Steffens (80), represent the average number of houses struck by
  lightning in a year per million houses; in the first decade only seven
  years (1854-1860) are really included. Mossman thinks that the
  apparent increase at Edinburgh and London in the later decades is to
  some extent at least real. The two sets of figures show some
  corroborative features, notably the low frequency from 1860 to 1870.
  The figures for Germany--representing four out of six divisions of
  that country--are remarkable. In Germany as a whole, out of a million
  houses the number struck per annum was three and a half times as great
  in the decade 1890 to 1900 as between 1854 and 1860. Von Bezold (81)
  in an earlier memoir presented data analogous to Steffens', seemingly
  accepting them as representing a true increase in thunderstorm
  destructiveness. Doubts have, however, been expressed by others--e.g.
  A. Gockel, _Das Gewitter_, p. 106--as to the real significance of the
  figures. Changes in the height or construction of buildings, and a
  greater readiness to make claims on insurance offices, may be
  contributory causes.

  35. The fact that a considerable number of people sheltering under
  trees are killed by lightning is generally accepted as a convincing
  proof of the unwisdom of the proceeding. When there is an option
  between a tree and an adjacent house, the latter is doubtless the
  safer choice. But when the option is between sheltering under a tree
  and remaining in the open it is not so clear. In Hungary (67), during
  the three years 1901 to 1903, 15% of the total deaths by lightning
  occurred under trees, as against 57% wholly in the open. In the United
  States (68) in 1900, only 10% of the deaths where the precise
  conditions were ascertained occurred under trees, as against 52% in
  the open. If then the risk under trees exceeds that in the open in
  Hungary and the United States, at least five or six times as many
  people must remain in the open as seek shelter under trees. An
  isolated tree occupying an exposed position is, it should be
  remembered, much more likely to be struck than the average tree in the
  midst of a wood. A good deal also depends on the species of tree. A
  good many years' data for Lippe (82) in Germany make the liability to
  lightning stroke as follows--the number of each species being supposed
  the same:--Oak 57, Fir 39, Pine 5, Beech 1. In Styria, according to K.
  Prohaska (83), the species most liable to be struck are oaks, poplars
  and pear trees; beech trees again are exceptionally safe. It should,
  however, be borne in mind that the apparent differences between
  different species may be partly a question of height, exposure or
  proximity to water. A good deal may also depend on the soil. According
  to Hellmann, as quoted by Henry (82), the liability to lightning
  stroke in Germany may be put at chalk 1, clay 7, sand 9, loam 22.

  36. Numerous attempts have been made to find periodic variations in
  thunderstorm frequency. Among the periods suggested are the 11-year
  sun-spot period, or half this (cf. v. Szalay (67)). Ekholm and
  Arrhenius (84) claim to have established the existence of a tropical
  lunar period, and a 25.929-day period; while P. Polis (85) considers a
  synodic lunar period probable. A.B. MacDowall (86) and others have
  advanced evidence in favour of the view that thunderstorms are most
  frequent near new moon and fewest near full moon. Much more evidence
  would be required to produce a general acceptance of any of the above
  periods.

  37. _St Elmo's Fire._--Luminous discharges from masts, lightning
  conductors, and other pointed objects are not very infrequent,
  especially during thunderstorms. On the Sonnblick, where the
  phenomenon is common, Elster and Geitel (87) have found St Elmo's fire
  to answer to a discharge sometimes of positive sometimes of negative
  electricity. The colour and appearance differ in the two cases, red
  predominating in a positive, blue in a negative discharge. The
  differences characteristic of the two forms of discharge are described
  and illustrated in Gockel's _Das Gewitter_. Gockel states (l.c. p. 74)
  that during snowfall the sign is positive or negative according as the
  flakes are large or are small and powdery. The discharge is not
  infrequently accompanied by a sizzling sound.

  38. Of late years many experiments have been made on the influence of
  electric fields or currents on plant growth. S. Lemström (88), who was
  a pioneer in this department, found an electric field highly
  beneficial in some but not in all cases. Attempts have been made to
  apply electricity to agriculture on a commercial scale, but the exact
  measure of success attained remains somewhat doubtful. Lemström
  believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the
  natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special rôle to the
  needles of fir and pine trees.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The following abbreviations are here used:--M.Z.,
  _Meteorologische Zeitschrift_; P.Z., _Physikalische Zeitschrift_; S.,
  _Sitzungsberichte k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturw. Klasse_, Theil
  ii. 2; P.T., "Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of London";
  T.M., _Terrestrial Magnetism_, edited by Dr L.A. Bauer.

  Text-books:--(1) G. le Cadet, _Étude du champ électrique de
  l'atmosphère_ (Paris, 1898); (2) Svante A. Arrhenius, _Lehrbuch der
  kosmischen Physik_ (Leipzig, 1903); (3) A. Gockel, _Das Gewitter_
  (Cologne, 1905).

  Lists of original authorities:--(4) F. Exner, M.Z., vol. 17, 1900, p.
  529 (especially pp. 542-3); (5) G.C. Simpson, _Q.J.R. Met. Soc._, vol.
  31, 1905, p. 295 (especially pp. 305-6). References in the text:--(6)
  M.Z., vol. 4, 1887, p. 352; (7) T.M., vol. 4, 1899, p. 213; (8) P.Z.,
  vol. 4, p. 661; (9) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, p. 114; (10) P.T., vol. 205
  A, 1906, p. 61; (11) P.Z., vol. 5, p. 260; (12) C. Chree, P.T., vol.
  206 A, p. 299; (13) Annual volumes, _Greenwich Magnetical and
  Meteorological Observations_; (14) M.Z., vol. 8, 1891, p. 357; (15)
  M.Z., vol. 7, 1890, p. 319 and vol. 8, 1891, p. 113; (16) Annual
  volumes, _Annaes do Obs. do Infante D. Luiz_; (17) _Annual Reports_,
  Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan; (18) _Observations made
  at the Mag. and Met. Obs. at Batavia_, vol. 18, 1895; (19) J.D.
  Everett, P.T., vol. 158, 1868, p. 347; (20) M.Z., vol. 6, 1889, p. 95;
  (21) A.B. Chauveau, _Ann. bureau central météorologique, Paris, année
  1900_, "Mémoires," p. C1; (22) V. Conrad, S., 113, p. 1143; (23) P.B.
  Zölss, P.Z., vol. 5, p. 260; (24) T.M., vol. 7, 1902, p. 89; (25)
  _Revue générale des sciences_, 1906, p. 442; (26) T.M., vol. 8, 1903,
  p. 86. and vol. 9, 1904, p. 147; (27) S., 93, p. 222; (28) M.Z., vol.
  22, 1905, p. 237; (29) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 632; (30) _Phil. Mag._, vol.
  20, 1885, p. 456; (31) _Expédition polaire finlandaise_, vol. 3
  (Helsingfors, 1898); (32) A. Paulsen, _Bull. de l'Acad. ... de
  Danemarke_, 1894, p. 148; (33) _Wied. Ann._, vol. 46, 1892, p. 584;
  (34) P.T., vol. 191 A, p. 187; (35) M.Z., vol. 5, 1888, p. 95; S., 99,
  p. 421; T.M., vol. 4, 1899, p. 15; (36) _Camb. Phil. Soc. Proc._, vol.
  11, p. 428, and vol. 12, pp. 17 and 85; (37) P.Z., vol. 4, pp. 267 and
  873; (38) E.R. v. Schweidler, S., 113, p. 1433; (39) S., 111, July
  1902; (40) _Veröffentl. des Kg. Preuss. Met. Inst._, 1904; (41) P.Z.,
  vol. 5, p. 106; (42) S., 114, p. 198; (43) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 871; (44)
  P.Z., vol. 4, p. 93; (45) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, p. 229; (46) S., 114,
  p. 1705; (47) S., 114, p. 399; (48) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 522; (49) S.,
  113, p. 1455; (50) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 627; (51) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 90;
  (52) S., 114, p. 151; (53) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, p. 253; (54) P.Z.,
  vol. 5, p. 749; (55) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, pp. 53 and 339; (56) P.Z.,
  vol. 5, p. 11; (57) P.Z., vol. 5, p. 591; (58) T.M., vol. 9, 1904, p.
  49; (59) P.Z., vol. 4, p. 295; (60) P.Z., vol. 5, p. 504; (61) T.M.,
  vol. 10, 1905, p. 65; (62) S., 114, p. 1377; (63) _Camb. Phil. Soc.
  Proc._, vol. 13, p. 363; (64) _Trans. R.S. Edin._, vol. 39, p. 63, and
  vol. 40, p. 484; (65) _Q.J.R. Met. Soc._, vol. 24, 1898, p. 31; (66)
  M.Z., vol. 11, 1894, p. 277; (67) _Jahrbücher der Konigl. Ung.
  Reichsanstalt für Met. und Erdmag._, vol. 33, 1903, III. Theil with
  appendix by L. von Szalay; (68) U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, _Weather
  Bureau Bulletin_, No. 30, 1901; (69) M.Z., vol. 19, 1902, p. 297; (70)
  _Q.J.R. Met. Soc._, vol. 15, 1889, p. 140; (71) M.Z., vol. 20, 1903,
  p. 227; (72) M.Z., vol. 20, 1903, p. 522; (73) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, p.
  367; (74) M.Z., vol. 22, 1905, p. 175; (75) J. Hegyfoky, M.Z., vol.
  20, 1903, p. 218; (76) M.Z., vol. 22, 1905, p. 575; (77) S. Arrhenius,
  M.Z., vol. 5, 1888, p. 348; (78) G. Hellmann, M.Z., vol. 22, 1905, p.
  223; (79) M.Z., vol. 11, 1894, p. 239; (80) M.Z., vol. 23, 1906, p.
  468; (81) _Berlin Sitz._, 1889, No. 16; (82) A.J. Henry, _U.S. Dept.
  of Agriculture Bull._, No. 26, 1899; (83) M.Z., vol. 16, 1899, p. 128;
  (84) _K. Sven. Vet. Akad. Hand._, Bd. 19, No. 8, Bd. 20, No. 6, Bd.
  31, Nos. 2 and 3; (85) M.Z., vol. 11, 1894, p. 230; (86) _Nature_,
  vol. 65, 1902, p. 367; (87) M.Z., vol. 8, 1891, p. 321; (88) _Brit.
  Assoc. Report_ for 1898, p. 808, also _Electricity in Agriculture and
  Horticulture_ (London, 1904).     (C. Ch.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] see _Authorities_ below.



ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. About 1840-1845 great interest was excited by a
method of propelling railway trains through the agency of atmospheric
pressure. Various inventors worked at the realization of this idea. On
the system worked out in England by Jacob Samuda and S. Clegg, a
continuous pipe or main was laid between the rails, and in it a partial
vacuum was maintained by means of air pumps. A piston fitting closely in
it was connected to the leading vehicle of the train by an iron plate
which passed through a longitudinal groove or aperture running the whole
length of the pipe. This aperture was covered by a valve consisting of a
continuous strip of leather, strengthened on each side with iron plates;
one edge was fastened, while the other was free to rise, and was closed
against a composition of beeswax and tallow placed in the groove, the
surface of which was slightly melted by a heater, carried on each train,
in order to secure an air-tight joint. Connected behind the piston was a
frame carrying four wheels which lifted and sustained the continuous
valve for a distance of about 15 ft. Thus the piston having atmospheric
pressure on one side of it and a vacuum equal to 15 or 16 in. of mercury
on the other, was forced along the tube, taking the train with it.
Various advantages were claimed by the advocates of the system,
including cheapness of operation as compared with steam locomotives, and
safety from collision, because the main was divided into sections by
separating valves and only one train could be in each section at a given
time. It was installed on about 2 m. of line between Kingstown and
Dalkey (Ireland) in 1843 and worked till 1855; it was also tried on the
London and Croydon and on the South Devon lines, but was soon abandoned.
The same principle is applied in the system of pneumatic despatch (q.v.)
to the transmission of small parcels in connexion with postal and
telegraph work.

  For further particulars see three papers by J. Samuda, P.W. Barlow and
  G. Berkeley, with reports of the discussions upon them, in _Proc.
  Inst. C.E._, 1844 and 1845.



ATOLL (native name _atollon_ in the Maldive Islands), a horse-shoe or
ring shaped coral reef enclosing a lagoon. The usual shape is that of a
partly submerged dish with a broken edge, forming the ring of islands,
standing upon a conical pedestal. The dish is formed of coral rock and
the shells of various reef-dwelling mollusca, covered, especially at the
seaward edges, with a film of living coral polyps that continually
extend the fringe, and enlarge the diameter of the atoll. The lagoon
tends to deepen when the land is stationary by the death of the coral
animals in the still water, and the patchy disintegration of the "hard"
coral, while waves and storms tear off blocks of rock and pile them up
at the margin, increasing the height of the islands, which become
covered by vegetation. The lagoon entrance in the open part of the
horse-shoe is always to leeward of prevailing winds, since the coral
growth is there slower than where the waves constantly renew the polyps'
food supply. The conical pedestal rising from the depths is frequently a
submarine volcanic cone or island, though any submerged peak may be
crowned by an atoll. For the theory of atoll formation see CORAL-REEFS.



ATOM

  Theories of matter.

(Gr. [Greek: atomos], indivisible, from [Greek: a-] privative, and
[Greek: temnein], to cut), the term given in physical science to the
ultimate indivisible particle of matter, and so by analogy to something
minutely small in size. If we examine such a substance as sugar we find
that it can be broken up into fine grains, and these again into finer,
the finest particles still appearing to be of the same nature as sugar.
The same is true in the case of a liquid such as water; it can be
divided into drops and these again into smaller drops, or into the
finest spray the particles of which are too small to be detected by our
unaided vision. In fact, so far as the direct evidence of our senses
tells us, matter appears to be indefinitely divisible. Moreover, small
particles do not seem to exist in the water until it is broken up; so
far as we can see, the material of the water is continuous not granular.
This conception of matter, _as infinitely divisible and continuous_, was
taught by Anaxagoras more than four centuries before the Christian era,
and in the philosophy of Aristotle the same ideas are found. But some
phenomena are difficult to reconcile with this view; for example, a
cubic foot of air can be compressed into less than one five-hundredth of
a cubic foot, or, if allowed to expand, the air originally occupying the
cubic foot can be made to fill, apparently uniformly, a space of a
million cubic feet or more. This enormous capacity for expansion and
contraction is astonishing if we believe matter to be continuous, but if
we imagine air to be made up of little particles separated by relatively
large empty spaces the changes in volume are more easily conceivable.
Moreover, if we attribute such a structure to gases, we are led to
attribute it to liquids and to solids also, since gases can be liquefied
without any abrupt change, and many substances usually solid can be
converted into gases by heating them. This conception of the _grained_
structure of matter is very ancient; traces of it are to be found in
Indian philosophy, perhaps twelve centuries before the Christian era,
and the Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus, in the 3rd and 4th
centuries B.C., taught it very definitely. Their view was that "matter
is not indefinitely divisible, but that all substances are formed of
indivisible particles or atoms which are eternal and unchangeable, that
the atoms are separated from one another by void, and that these atoms,
by their combinations, form the matter we are conscious of." The Roman
poet Lucretius (_De Rerum Natura_) was an eloquent exponent of this
theory, but throughout the middle ages, indeed until the 17th century,
it was eclipsed by the prestige of Aristotle. In the time, however, of
Boyle[1] and Newton, we again find an atomic theory of matter; Newton[2]
regarded a gas as consisting of small separate particles which repelled
one another, the tendency of a gas to expand being attributed to the
supposed repulsion between the particles.

Let us consider some common phenomena in the light of these rival
theories as to the nature of matter. When a few lumps of sugar are added
to a glass of water and stirred, the sugar soon disappears and we are
left with a uniform liquid resembling water, except that it is sweet.
What has become of the sugar? Does it still exist? The atomist would
say, "Yes, it is broken up into its atoms, and these are distributed
throughout the spaces between the particles of water." The rival
philosopher, who believes water to be continuous and without spaces
between its particles, has a greater difficulty in accounting for the
disappearance of the sugar; he would probably say that the sugar, and
the water also, had ceased to exist, and that a new continuous substance
had been formed from them, but he could offer no picture of how this
change had taken place. Or consider a well-marked case of what we are in
the habit of calling _chemical combination_. If 127 parts of iodine,
which is an almost black solid, and 100 parts of mercury, which is a
white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a
mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a
brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the
only property that is unchanged is the weight. The question again
arises, what has become of the original substances? The atomist has an
easy answer; he says that the new body is made up by the juxtaposition
of the atoms of iodine and mercury, which still exist in the red powder.
His opponent would be disposed to say that the iodine and the mercury
ceased to exist when the red powder was formed, that they were
_components_ but not _constituents_ of it. The fact that the two
components can be recovered from the compound by destroying it does not
decide the question. It is remarkable that pure chemistry, even to-day,
has no very conclusive arguments for the settlement of this controversy;
but the sister science of physics is steadily accumulating evidence in
favour of the atomic conception.

[Illustation: From Dalton's _New System of Chemical Philosophy_.]

  Hydrogen Gas.
  Nitrous Gas.
  Carbonic Acid Gas.]

[Illustation:

        (·) hydrogen.
        ( ) oxygen.
        (|) nitrogen.
        (O) carbon.
     (·)( ) water.
     (·)(|) ammonia.
     (·)(O) ethylene.
     (O)( ) carbon monoxide.
  ( )(O)( ) carbon dioxide.
     (|)( ) nitric oxide (nitous gas).
  (|)( )(|) nitrous oxide.
  ( )(|)( ) nitrogen peroxide.]


  Dalton.

Until the time of John Dalton, the atomic conception remained purely
qualitative, and until then it does not appear to have advanced
chemistry or to have found further confirmation in the facts of
chemistry. Dalton (1803) gave the atomic theory a quantitative form, and
showed that, by means of it, a vast number of the facts of chemistry
could be predicted or explained. In fact, he did so much to make the
atomic theory of matter probable that he is popularly regarded as its
originator. Dalton lived in a period marked by great advances in
experimental chemistry. Rather before the commencement of the 19th
century the work of Lavoisier had rendered it very probable that
chemical changes are not accompanied by any change in weight, and this
principle of the conservation of matter was becoming universally
accepted; chemists were also acquiring considerable skill in chemical
analysis, that is, in the determination of the nature and relative
amounts of the elements contained in compounds. But Sir H.E. Roscoe and
A. Harden, _New View of the Atomic Theory_ (1896), have shown, from a
study of Dalton's manuscript notes, that we do not owe his atomic theory
to such experiments. If their view is correct, the theory appears to be
a remarkable example of deductive reasoning. Dalton, who was a
mathematical physicist even more than a chemist, had given much thought
to the study of gases. Following Newton, he believed a gas to be made up
of particles or atoms, separated from one another by considerable
spaces. Certain difficulties that he met with in his speculations led
him to the conclusion that the particles of any one kind of gas, though
all of them alike, must differ from those of another gas both in _size_
and _weight_. He thus arrived at the conception of a definite atomic
weight peculiar to the particles of each gas, and he thought that he
could determine these atomic weights, in terms of one of them, by means
of the quantitative analysis of compounds. The conclusion that each
element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea
that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative
deduction and verification. He drew simple diagrams, three of which,
taken from Dalton's _New System of Chemical Philosophy_, part ii.
(1810), are reproduced here, in which gases are represented as composed
of atoms. Knowing that the gas which he called "nitrous gas" was
composed of oxygen and nitrogen, and believing it to be the simplest
compound of these two elements, he naturally represented its atom as
formed of an atom of oxygen and an atom of nitrogen in juxtaposition.
When two elements form more than one compound, as is the case with
oxygen and carbon, he assigned to the compound which he thought the more
complex an atom made up of two atoms of the one element and one atom of
the other; the diagram for carbonic acid illustrates this, and an
extension of the same plan enabled him to represent any compound,
however complex its structure. The table here given contains some of
Dalton's diagrams of atoms. They are not all considered to be correct at
the present time; for example, we now think that the ultimate particle
of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, and that
that of ammonia contains three atoms of hydrogen to one of nitrogen. But
these differences between Dalton's views and our present ones do not
impair the accuracy of the arguments which follow. The diagrams show
that Dalton formed a very definite conception of the nature of chemical
combination; it was the union of a small number of atoms of one kind
with a small number of another kind to form a compound atom, or as we
now say a "molecule," this identical process being repeated millions of
times to form a perceptible amount of a compound. The conceptions of
"element," "compound" and "mixture" became more precise than they had
been hitherto; in an element all the atoms are alike, in a compound all
the molecules are alike, in a mixture there are different kinds of
molecules. If we accept the hypothesis that each kind of atom has a
specific and invariable weight, we can, with the aid of the above
theory, make most important inferences concerning the proportions by
weight in which substances combine to form compounds. These inferences
are often summarized as the laws of _constant, multiple and reciprocal
proportions_.


  Law of constant proportions.

The law of _constant proportions_ asserts that _when two elements unite
to form a compound the weights that combine are in an invariable ratio,
a ratio that is characteristic of that compound._ Thus if Dalton's
diagram for the molecule, or compound atom, of water be correct, it
follows that in all samples of water the total number of the hydrogen
atoms is equal to that of the oxygen atoms; consequently, the ratio of
the weight of oxygen to that of hydrogen in water is the same as the
ratio of the weights of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom, and _this is
invariable_. Different samples of water cannot therefore differ ever so
little in percentage composition, and the same must be true for every
compound as distinguished from a mixture. Apart from the atomic theory
there is no obvious reason why this should be so. We give the name bread
to a substance containing variable proportions of flour and water.
Similarly the substance we call wine is undeniably variable in
composition. Why should not the substance we call water also vary more
or less? The Aristotelian would find no difficulty in such a
variability; it is only the disciple of Dalton to whom it seems
impossible. It is evident that we have in this law a definite prediction
that can be tested by experiment.


  Law of multiple proportions.

The law of _multiple proportions_ asserts that _if two elements form
more than one compound, then the weights of the one element which are
found combined with unit weight of the other in the different compounds,
must be in the ratio of two or more whole numbers._ If we compare
Dalton's diagrams of the two oxides of carbon or of the three oxides of
nitrogen that are given in the preceding table, we at once see the
necessity of this law; for the more complex molecule has to be formed
from the simpler one by the addition of one or more whole atoms. In the
oxides of carbon the same weight of carbon must be combined with weights
of oxygen that are as 1 : 2, and in the oxides of nitrogen a fixed
weight of nitrogen must be in union with weights of oxygen that are as 1
: 2 : ½, which are the same ratios as 2 : 4 : 1. This law has been
abundantly verified by experiment; for example, five oxides of nitrogen
are known, and independent analyses show that, if we consider the same
weight of nitrogen in every case, the weights of oxygen combined with it
are to one another as 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5. The discovery of this law is
due to Dalton; it is a direct deduction from his atomic theory. Here
again, apart from this theory, there is no obvious reason why the
composition of different substances should be related in so simple a
way. As Dalton said, "The doctrine of definite proportions appears
mysterious unless we adopt the atomic hypothesis." "It appears like the
mystical ratios of Kepler which Newton so happily elucidated." The
chemists of Dalton's time were not unanimous in accepting these laws;
indeed C.L. Berthollet (_Essai de statique chimique_, 1803) expressly
controverted them. He maintained that, under varying conditions, two
substances could combine in an indefinitely large number of different
ratios, that there could in fact be a continuous variation in the
combining ratio. This view is clearly inconsistent with the atomic
theory, which requires that when the combining ratio of two substances
changes it should do so, _per saltum_, to quite another value.


  Law of reciprocal proportions.

The law of _reciprocal proportions_, or, as it might well be named, the
law of _equivalence_, cannot be adequately enunciated in a few words.
The following gives a partial statement of it. _If we know the weights a
and b of two elements that are found in union with unit weight of a
third element, then we can predict the composition of the compounds
which the first two elements can form with each other; either the
weights a and b will combine exactly, or if not, these weights must be
multiplied by integers to obtain the composition of a compound._ To see
how this law follows from Dalton's theory let us consider his diagrams
for the molecules of water, ethylene and the oxides of carbon. In water
and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6
parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen;
also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of
the atomic weights of oxygen and carbon. We can therefore predict that
all oxides of carbon will have compositions represented by the ratio of
8m parts of oxygen to 6n parts of carbon, where m and n are whole
numbers. This prediction is verified by the result of analysis.
Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of
ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of
nitrogen. Experiment shows that, in water and ammonia, we have,
respectively, 8 parts of oxygen and 4.67 parts of nitrogen in union with
one part of hydrogen; we can therefore infer that the oxides of nitrogen
will all have the composition of 8m parts of oxygen to 4.67n parts of
nitrogen. Experiment alone can tell us the values of m and n; all that
the theory tells us is that they are whole numbers. In this particular
case, n turns out to be 3, and m has in succession the values 1, 2, 3,
4, 5.

It is evident that these laws all follow from the idea that a compound
molecule can only alter through the addition or subtraction of one or
more complete atoms, together with the idea that all the molecules in a
pure substance are alike. Fortunately, the compounds at first examined
by the chemists engaged in verifying these laws were comparatively
simple, so that the whole numbers referred to above were small. The
astonishing variety of ratios in which carbon and hydrogen combine was
not at first realized. Otherwise Berthollet's position would have been a
much stronger one, and the atomic theory might have had to wait a long
while for acceptance. Even at the present time, it would be too much to
say that all the complex organic substances have been proved by analysis
to obey these laws; all we can assert is that their composition and
properties can be satisfactorily explained on the assumption that they
do so.

The above statement does not by any means exhaust the possible
predictions that can be made from the atomic theory, but it shows how to
test the theory. If chemical compounds can be proved by experiment to
obey these laws, then the atomic theory acquires a high degree of
probability; if they are contradicted by experiment then the atomic
theory must be abandoned, or very much modified. Dalton himself made
many analyses with the purpose of establishing his views, but his skill
as an analyst was not very great. It is in the work of the great Swedish
chemist J.J. Berzelius, and somewhat later, in the experiments of the
Belgian chemist J.S. Stas, that we find the most brilliant and vigorous
verification of these laws, and therefore of the atomic theory.

We shall now give an outline of the experimental evidence for the truth
of these laws.


  Experimental evidence.

The law of the conservation of matter, an important element in the
atomic theory, has been roughly verified by innumerable analyses, in
which, a given weight of a substance having been taken, each ingredient
in it is isolated and its weight separately determined; the total weight
of the ingredients is always found to be very nearly equal to the weight
of the original substance. But on account of experimental errors in
weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of
substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely
trustworthy to more than one part in about 500; so that small changes in
weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be
proved or disproved. A few experimenters have carried the verification
much further. Stas, in his syntheses of silver iodide, weighed the
silver and the iodine separately, and after converting them into the
compound he weighed this also. In each of a number of experiments he
found that the weight of the silver iodide did not differ by one
twenty-thousandth of the whole from the sum of the weights of the silver
and the iodine used. His analyses of another compound, silver iodate,
confirm the law to one part in 78,000. In E.W. Morley's experiments on
the synthesis of water the hydrogen, the oxygen and the water that had
been formed were separately determined; taking the mean of his results,
the sum of the weights of the ingredients is not found to differ from
the weight of the product by one part in 10,000. It is evident that if
our experiments are solely directed to the verification of this law,
they should, if possible, be carried out in a hermetically closed
vessel, the vessel and its contents being weighed before and after the
chemical change. The extremely careful experiments of this kind, by H.
Landolt and others, made it at first appear that the change in weight,
if there is any, consequent on a chemical change can rarely exceed
one-millionth of the weight of the reacting substances, and that it must
often be much less. The small discrepancies found are so easily
accounted for by attributing them to experimental errors that, until
recently, every chemist would have regarded the law as sufficiently
verified. Landolt's subsequent experiments showed, what was already
noticed in the earlier ones, that these minute changes in weight are
nearly always losses, the products weigh less than the components, while
if they had been purely experimental errors, due to weighing, they might
have been expected to be as frequently gains as losses. Landolt was
disposed to attribute these losses in weight to the containing vessel,
which was of glass or quartz, not being absolutely impervious, but in
1908 he showed that, by making allowance for the moisture adsorbed on
the vessel, the errors were both positive and negative, and were less
than one in ten million. He concluded that _no change of weight can be
detected._ Modern researches (see RADIOACTIVITY) on the complex nature
of the atom have a little shaken the belief in the absolute permanence
of matter. But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in
weight consequent on chemical change, it is _too minute to be of
importance to the chemist_, though the methods of modern physics may
settle the question. (See ELEMENT.)

The law of constant proportions is easily verified to a moderate degree
of accuracy by such experiments as the following. We can prepare, in the
laboratory, a white powder that proves to be calcium carbonate, that is,
it appears to be wholly composed of carbon dioxide and lime. We find in
nature two other unlike substances, marble and Iceland spar, each of
which is wholly composed of carbon dioxide and lime. Thus these three
substances, unlike in appearance and origin, are composed of the same
ingredients: if small variations in the combining ratio of the
components were possible, we might expect to find them in such a case as
this. But analysis has failed to find such differences; the ratio of the
weights of lime and carbon dioxide is found to be the same in all three
substances. Such analyses, which do not always admit of great accuracy,
have been confirmed by a few carefully planned experiments in which two
components were brought together under very varied conditions, and the
resulting compound analysed. Stas carried out such experiments on the
composition of silver chloride and of ammonium chloride, but he never
found a variation of one part in 10,000 in the composition of the
substances.

The two laws discussed above were more or less accepted before the
promulgation of the atomic theory, but the law of multiple proportions
is the legitimate offspring of this theory. Berzelius saw at once that
it afforded an admirable test for the correctness of Dalton's views, and
he made numerous experiments expressly designed to test the law. One of
these experiments may be described. Two chlorides of copper are known,
one a highly coloured substance, the other quite white. Berzelius took 8
grams of copper, converted it into the coloured chloride, and sealed up
the whole of this in solution, together with a weighed strip of copper.
After some time the colour entirely disappeared; the strip of copper was
then taken out and reweighed, and it was found to have lost 8.03 grams.
Thus the chlorine, which in the coloured compound was in union with 8
grams of copper, appears, in the colourless chloride, to be combined
with 16.03 grams, or almost exactly double the amount. It is easy to
verify this result. In a series of repetitions of the experiment, by
different observers, the following numbers were obtained for the ratio
of the copper in the two chlorides: 1.98, 1.97, 2.03, 2.003, the mean
value being 1.996. It will be noticed that the ratio found is sometimes
above and sometimes below the number 2, which is required by the atomic
theory, and therefore the deviations may not unreasonably be attributed
to experimental errors. Such experiments--and numerous ones of about
this degree of accuracy have been made on a variety of substances--give
a high degree of probability to the law, but leave it an open question
whether it has the exactitude of the law of the conservation of matter,
or whether it is only approximately true. The question is, however,
vital to the atomic theory. It is, therefore, worth while to quote a
verification of great exactitude from the work of Stas and J.B.A.
Dumas[3] on the composition of the two oxides of carbon. From their work
it follows that the ratio of the weights of oxygen combined with unit
weight of carbon in the two oxides is 1.99995, or with somewhat
different data, 1.9996.

The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been
already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies
most of our chemical methods and calculations. One section of the law
expresses the fact that the weights of two substances, not necessarily
elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be
equivalent in a number of other reactions. The neutralization of acids
by bases affords many illustrations, known even before the atomic
theory, of the truth of the statement. It is universally found that the
weights of two bases which neutralize the same weight of one acid are
equivalent in their power of neutralizing other acids. Thus 5 parts by
weight of soda, 7 of potash and 3.5 of quicklime will each neutralize
4.56 parts of hydrochloric acid or 7.875 of nitric or 6.125 parts of
sulphuric acid; these weights, in fact, are mutually equivalent to one
another. The Daltonian would say that each of these weights represents a
certain group of atoms, and that these groups can replace, or combine
with, each other, to form new molecules. The change from a binary
compound, that is, one containing two elements, to a ternary compound in
which these two elements are associated with a third, sometimes affords
a very good test for the theory. The atomic theory can picture the
change from the binary to the ternary compound simply as the addition of
one or more atoms of the third element to the previously existing
molecule; in such a case the combining ratio of the first two elements
should be absolutely the same in both compounds. Berzelius tested this
prediction. He showed that lead sulphide, a black substance containing
only lead and sulphur, could be _converted_ by oxidation into lead
sulphate, a white compound containing oxygen as well as lead and
sulphur. The whole of the lead and sulphur of the sulphide was found to
be present in the sulphate; in other words, the combining ratio of the
lead and sulphur was not altered by the addition of the oxygen. This is
found to be a general rule. It was verified very exactly by Stas's
experiments, in which he removed the oxygen from the ternary compound
silver iodate and found that the whole of the silver and the iodine
remained in combination with each other as silver iodide; his results
prove, to one part in ten millions, that the combining ratio of the
silver and the iodine is unaltered by the removal of the oxygen.

The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in
favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced
from the atomic theory. Whenever any of these laws, or indeed any
prediction from the theory, can be tested it has so far proved to be in
harmony with experiment. The existence of the periodic law (see
ELEMENT), and the researches of physicists on the constitution of
matter (q.v.), also furnish very strong support to the theory.


  Atomic weight.

Dalton was of the opinion that it was possible to determine the weights
of the elementary atoms in terms of any one by the analysis of
compounds. It is evident that this is practicable if the number and kind
of atoms contained in the molecule of a compound can be determined. To
take the simplest possible case, if Dalton had been correct in assuming
that the molecule of water was made up of one atom of oxygen and one of
hydrogen, then the experimental fact that water contains eight parts by
weight of oxygen to one part of hydrogen, would at once show that the
atom of oxygen is eight times as heavy as the atom of hydrogen, or that,
taking the atomic weight of hydrogen as the unit, the atomic weight of
oxygen is 8. Similarly, Dalton's diagram for ammonia, together with the
fact that ammonia contains 4.67 parts of nitrogen to one of hydrogen, at
once leads to the conclusion that the atomic weight of nitrogen is 4.67.
But, unfortunately, the assumption as to the number of atoms in the
molecules of these two compounds was an arbitrary one, based on no valid
evidence. It is now agreed that the molecule of water contains two atoms
of hydrogen and one of oxygen, so that the atomic weight of oxygen
becomes 16, and similarly that the molecule of ammonia contains three
atoms of hydrogen and one of nitrogen, and that consequently the atomic
weight of nitrogen is 14. On account of this difficulty, the atomic
weights published by Dalton, and the more accurate ones of Berzelius,
were not always identical with the values now accepted, but were often
simple multiples or submultiples of these.


  Formulae.

The "symbols" for the elements used by Dalton, apparently suggested by
those of the alchemists, have been rejected in favour of those which
were introduced by Berzelius. The latter employed the first letter, or
the first two letters, of the name of an element as its symbol. The
symbol, like that of Dalton, always stands for the atomic weight of the
element, that is, while H stands for one part by weight of hydrogen, O
stands for 16 parts of oxygen, and so on. The symbols of compounds
become very concise, as the number of atoms of one kind in a molecule
can be expressed by a sub-index. Thus the symbol or formula H2O for
water expresses the view that the molecule of water consists of one atom
of oxygen and two of hydrogen; and if we know the atomic weights of
oxygen and hydrogen, it also tells us the composition of water by
weight. Similarly, the modern formula for ammonia is NH3.

The superiority of this notation over that of Dalton is not so obvious
when we consider such simple cases as the above, but chemists are now
acquainted with very complex molecules containing numerous atoms; cane
sugar, for example, has the formula C12H22O11. It would be a serious
business to draw a Daltonian diagram for such a molecule.

Dalton believed that the molecules of the elementary gases consisted
each of one atom; his diagram for hydrogen gas makes the point clear. We
now believe that the molecule of an element is frequently made up of two
or more atoms; thus the formulae for the gases hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen are H2, O2, N2, while gaseous phosphorus and sulphur are
probably P4 and S6, and gaseous mercury is Hg1,--that is, the molecule
of this element is monatomic. This view, as to the frequently complex
nature of the elementary molecule, is logically and historically
connected with the striking hypothesis of Amadeo Avogadro and A.M.
Ampère. These natural philosophers suggested that equal volumes of all
gaseous substances must contain, at the same temperature and pressure,
the same number of molecules. Their hypothesis explains so many facts
that it is now considered to be as well established as the parts of the
theory due to Dalton.[4] This principle at once enables the weights of
molecules to be compared even when their composition is unknown; it is
only necessary to determine the specific gravities of the various gases
referred to some one of them, say hydrogen; the numbers so obtained
giving the weights of the molecules referred to that of the hydrogen
molecule.


  Present position of the atomic theory.

The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has
more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis,
after having been useful in the discovery and the co-ordination of
knowledge, has been abandoned and replaced by one more in harmony with
later discoveries. Some distinguished chemists have thought that this
fate may be awaiting the atomic theory, and that in future chemists may
be able to obtain all the guidance they need from the science of the
transformations of energy. But modern discoveries in radioactivity[5]
are in favour of the existence of the atom, although they lead to the
belief that the atom is not so eternal and unchangeable a thing as
Dalton and his predecessors imagined, and in fact, that the atom itself
may be subject to that eternal law of growth and decay of which
Lucretius speaks.     (F. H. Ne.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Robert Boyle, _The Sceptical Chymist_ (1661); _The Usefulness of
    Natural Philosophy_ (1663).

  [2] Sir Isaac Newton, _Principia_, bk. ii. prop. 23.

  [3] Freund, _The Study of Chemical Composition_.

  [4] It will be seen that in the three gas diagrams of Dalton that are
    reproduced above, equal numbers of molecules are contained in equal
    volumes, but if Dalton held this view at one time he certainly
    afterwards abandoned it.

  [5] Rutherford, _Radioactivity_.



ATONEMENT and DAY OF ATONEMENT.

  The religious doctrine.

"Atone" (originally--see below--"at one") and "atonement" terms
ordinarily used as practically synonymous with satisfaction, reparation,
compensation, with a view to reconciliation. As the English technical
terms representing a theological doctrine which plays an important part
not only in Christianity but in most religions, the underlying ideas
require more detailed analysis. A doctrine of atonement makes the
following presuppositions. (a) There is a natural relation between God
and man in which God looks favourably upon man. (b) This relation has
been disturbed so that God regards man's character and conduct with
disapproval, and inflicts suffering upon him by way of punishment. In
the higher religions the disturbance is due, as just implied, to
unsatisfactory conduct on man's part, i.e. sin. (c) The normal
relation may be restored, i.e. sin may be forgiven; and this
restoration is the atonement.

The problem of the atonement is the means or condition of the
restoration of man to God's favour; this has been variously found (a) in
the endurance of punishment; (b) in the payment of compensation for the
wrong done, the compensation consisting of sacrifices and other
offerings; (c) in the performance of magical or other ritual, the
efficacy of the ritual consisting in its being pleasing to or appointed
by God, or even in its having a coercive power over the deity; (d) in
repentance and amendment of life. Most theories of atonement would
combine two or more of these, and would include repentance and
amendment. Some or all of the conditions of atonement may be fulfilled,
according to various views, either by the sinner or vicariously on his
behalf by some kinsman; or by his family, clan or nation; or by some one
else.


  Old Testament.

In the Old Testament, "atonement," "make an atonement" represent the
Hebrew _kippur_ and its derivatives. It is doubtful whether this root
meant originally to "cover" or "wipe out"; but probably it is used as a
technical term without any consciousness of its etymology. The Old
Testament presents very varied teaching on this subject without
attempting to co-ordinate its doctrines in a harmonious system. In some
cases there is no suggestion of any forgiveness; sinners are "cut off"
from the chosen people; individuals and nations perish in their
iniquity.[1] Some passages refer exclusively to the endurance of
punishment as a condition of pardon;[2] others to the penitence and
amendment of the sinner.[3] In Ezekiel xxxvi. 25-31, repentance is
called forth by the divine forgiveness.

Sacrifice and other rites are also spoken of as conditions of the
restoration of man to happy relations with God. The Priestly Code
(Leviticus and allied passages) seems to confine the efficacy of
sacrifice to ritual, venial and involuntary sins,[4] and requires that
the sacrifices should be offered at Jerusalem by the Aaronic priests;
but these limitations did not belong to the older religion; and even in
later times popular faith ascribed a larger efficacy to sacrifice. On
the other hand, other passages protest against the ascription of great
importance to sacrifice; or regard the rite as a consequence rather than
a cause of forgiveness.[5] The Old Testament has no theory of sacrifice;
in connexion with sin the sacrifice was popularly regarded as payment of
penalty or compensation. Lev. xvii. 11 suggests a mystic or symbolic
explanation by its statement "the life of the flesh is in the blood; and
I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your
lives:[6] for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the
life." The Old Testament nowhere explains why this importance is
attached to the blood, but the passage is often held to mean that the
life of the victim represented the forfeited life of the offerer.


  Jewish day of atonement.

The atoning ritual reached its climax on the Day of Atonement [Hebrew:
yom hakipurim] [Greek: aemera exilasmon], in the Mishna simply "the
Day," (_Yoma_), observed annually on the 10th day of the 7th month
(Tisri), in the autumn, about October, shortly before the Feast of
Tabernacles or vintage festival. At one time the year began in Tisri.
The laws of the Day of Atonement belong to the Priestly Code.[7] There
is no trace of this function before the exile; the earliest reference to
any such special time of atonement being the proposal of Ezek. xlv.
18-20 to establish two days of atonement, in the first and seventh
months.[8] No doubt, however, both the principles and ritual are partly
derived from earlier times. The object of the observances was to cleanse
the sanctuary, the priesthood and the people from all their sins, and to
renew and maintain favourable relations between Yahweh and Israel. The
ritual includes features found on other holy days, sacrifices,
abstinence from work, &c.; and also certain unique acts. The Day of
Atonement is the only fast provided in the Law; it is only on this
occasion that (a) the Jews are required to "afflict their souls," (b)
the High Priest enters the Holy of Holies, (c) the High Priest offers
incense before the mercy seat and sprinkles it with blood, and (d) the
scapegoat or Azazel is sent away into the wilderness, bearing upon him
all the iniquities of the people. In later Judaism, especially from
about 100 B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is
now the most important religious function of the Jews. On that day many
attend the synagogues who are seldom or never seen in them at other
times.

The idea of vicarious atonement appears in the Old Testament in
different forms. The nation suffers for the sin of the individual;[9]
and the individual for the sin of his kinsfolk[10] or of the nation.[11]
Above all the Servant of Yahweh[12] appears as atoning for sinners by
his sufferings and death. Again, the Old Testament speaks of the
restoration of heathen nations, and of the salvation of the heathen;[13]
but does not formulate any theory of atonement in this connexion. The
Old Testament, however, only prepares the way for the Christian doctrine
of the atonement; this is clear, inasmuch as its teaching is largely
concerned with the nation, and hardly touches on the future life.
Moreover, it could not define the relation of Christ to the atonement.
Later Judaism emphasized the idea of vicarious atonement for Israel
through the sufferings of the righteous, especially the martyrs; but it
is very doubtful whether the idea of the atonement through the death of
the Messiah is a pre-Christian Jewish doctrine.[14]


  New Testament.

In the New Testament, the English version uses "atonement" once, Rom. v.
11, for [Greek: katallagae] (R.V. here and elsewhere "reconciliation").
This Greek word corresponds to the idea suggested by the etymology of
at-one-ment, the re-uniting in amity of those at variance, a sense which
the word had in the 17th century but has since lost. But the idea which
is now usually expressed by "atonement" is rather represented in the New
Testament by [Greek: ilasmos] and its cognates, e.g. 1 John ii. 2 R.V.,
"He (Jesus) is the propitiation ([Greek: ilasmos]) for our sins." But
these words are rare, and we read more often of "salvation" ([Greek:
sotaeria]) and "being saved," which includes or involves that
restoration to divine favour which is called atonement. The leading
varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine
writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ
especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with
repentance and amendment of life.[15]

These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally. The New
Testament, however, does not indicate that its writers were agreed as to
any formal dogma of the atonement, as regards the relation of the death
of Christ to the sinner's restoration to God's favour; but various
suggestions are made as to the solution of the problem. St Paul's
teaching connects with the Jewish doctrine of vicarious suffering,
represented in the Old Testament by Is. liii., and probably, though not
expressly, with the ritual sacrifices. Christ suffering on behalf of
sinners satisfies the divine righteousness, which was outraged by their
sin.[16] His work is an expression of God's love to man;[17] the
redeeming power of Christ's death is also explained by his solidarity
with humanity as the second Adam,[18]--the redeemed sinner has "died
with Christ."[19] Some atoning virtue seems also attributed to the
Resurrection;[20] Christ's sayings connect admission to the kingdom of
God with susceptibility to the influence of His personality, faith in
Himself and His mission, and the loyalty that springs from faith.[21] In
John, Christ is a "propitiation" ([Greek: ilasmos]) provided by the love
of God that man may be cleansed from sin; He is also their advocate
([Greek: Paraklaetos]) with God that they may be forgiven, for His
name's sake.[22] _Hebrews_ speaks of Christ as transcending the rites
and officials of the law; He accomplishes the realities which they could
only foreshadow; in relation to the perfect, heavenly sacrifice which
atones for sin, He is both priest and victim.[23]


  Later interpretation.

The subsequent development of the Christian doctrine has chiefly shaped
itself according to the Pauline formula of vicarious atonement; the
sufferings of Christ were accepted as a substitute for the punishment
which men deserved, and so the divine righteousness was satisfied--a
formula, however, which left much room for controversy. The creeds and
confessions are usually vague. Thus the Apostles' Creed, "I believe in
the forgiveness of sins"; the Nicene Creed, "I believe in one Lord Jesus
Christ ... who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven
... I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins"; the Athanasian
Creed, "Who (Christ) suffered for our salvation." In the Thirty-nine
Articles of the Church of England we have (ii.) "Christ suffered ... to
reconcile his Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original
guilt, but also for all actual sins of men"; and (xxxi.) "The offering
of Christ once made is that perfect redemption, propitiation, and
satisfaction, for all the sins of the whole world." The council of Trent
declared that "_Christus ... nobis sua sanctissima passione ligno crucis
justificationem meruit et pro nobis deo patri satisfecit_," "Christ
earned our justification by His most holy passion and satisfied God the
Father for us." The Confession of Augsburg uses words equivalent to the
Articles quoted above which were based upon it. The Westminster
Confession declares: "The Lord Jesus Christ, by His perfect obedience
and sacrifice of Himself, which He through the Eternal Spirit once
offered up to God, hath fully satisfied the justice of His Father, and
purchased not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the
kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father hath given unto Him."

Individual theologians have sought to define more exactly the points on
which the standards are vague. For instance, how was justice satisfied
by Christ? The early Fathers, from Irenaeus (d. c. 200) to Anselm (d.
1109),[24] held, _inter alia_, that Christ paid a ransom to Satan to
induce him to release men from his power. Anselm and the scholastics
regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as
to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the "Commerical
Theory."[25] The leading reformers emphasized the idea that Christ bore
the punishment of sin, sufferings equivalent to the punishments deserved
by men, a view maintained later on by Jonathan Edwards junior. But the
intellectual activity of the Reformation also developed other views; the
Socinians, with their humanitarian theory of the Person of Christ,
taught that He died only to assure men of God's forgiving love and to
afford them an example of obedience--"Forgiveness is granted upon the
ground of repentance and obedience."[26] Grotius put forward what has
been called the _Governmental_ Theory, viz. that the atonement took
place not to satisfy the wrath of God, but in the practical interests of
the divine government of the world, "The sufferings and death of the Son
of God are an exemplary exhibition of God's hatred of moral evil, in
connexion with which it is safe and prudent to remit that penalty, which
so far as God and the divine attributes are concerned, might have been
remitted without it."[27]


  Modern views.

The formal legal view continued to be widely held, though it was
modified in many ways by various theologians. For instance, it has been
held that Christ atoned for mankind not by enduring the penalty of sin,
but by identifying Himself with the sinner in perfect sympathy, and
feeling for him an "equivalent repentance" for his sin. Thus McLeod
Campbell (q.v.) held that Christ atoned by offering up to God a perfect
confession of the sins of mankind and an adequate repentance for them,
with which divine justice is satisfied, and a full expiation is made for
human guilt. A similar view was held by F.D. Maurice.[28] Others hold
that the effect of the atoning death of Christ is not to propitiate God,
but to reconcile man to God; it manifests righteousness, and thus
reveals the heinousness of sin; it also reveals the love of God, and
conveys the assurance of His willingness to forgive or receive the
sinner; thus it moves men to repentance and faith, and effects their
salvation; so substantially Ritschl.[29] In England much influence has
been exerted by Dr R.W. Dale's _Atonement_ (1875), the special point of
which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand
of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law
of righteousness; thus, "the death of Christ is the objective ground on
which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission
to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was
condemned ... and because in consequence of the relation between Him and
us--His life being our own--His submission is the expression of ours,
and carries ours with it ... (and) because in His submission to the
awful penalty of sin ... there was a revelation of the righteousness of
God, which must otherwise have been revealed in the infliction of the
penalties of sin on the human race."[30] This view, however, leads to a
dilemma; if the law of righteousness is simply an expression of the
divine will, satisfaction to law is equivalent to propitiation offered
to God; if the law has an independent position, the view is inconsistent
with pure monotheism.

The present position may be illustrated from a work representing the
more liberal Anglican theology. Bishop Lyttelton in _Lux Mundi_[31]
stated that the death of Christ is propitiatory towards God because it
expressed His perfect obedience, it manifested God's righteous wrath
against sin, and in virtue of Christ's human nature involved man's
recognition of the righteousness of God's condemnation of sin; also
because in some mysterious way death has a propitiatory value; and
finally because Christ is the representative of the human race. Towards
man, the death of Christ has atoning efficacy because it delivers from
sin, bestows the divine gift of life and conveys the assurance of
pardon. The benefits of the atonement are appropriated by "the
acceptance of God's forgiveness in Christ, our self-identification with
Christ's atoning attitude, and then working out, by the power of the
life bestowed upon us, all the (moral and spiritual) consequence of
forgiveness."

At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held;
whether in the form of penal theories--the old forensic view that the
death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin--or in the
form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of
divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness. But
there is also a widespread inclination to minimize, ignore or deny the
objective aspect of the atonement, the effect of the death of Christ on
God's attitude towards men; and to follow the moral theories in
emphasizing the subjective aspect of the atonement, the influence of the
Passion on man. There is a tendency to eclectic views embracing the more
attractive features of the various theories; and attempts are made to
adapt, interpret and qualify the imagery and language of older formulae,
in order so to speak, to issue them afresh in new editions, compatible
with modern natural science, psychology and historical criticism. Such
attempts are necessary in a time of transition, but they involve a
measure of obscurity and ambiguity.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Atonement: H. Bushnell, _Vicarious Sacrifice_ (1871);
  J. McLeod Campbell, _Nature of the Atonement_ (1869); T.J. Crawford,
  _Doctrine of the Holy Spirit respecting the Atonement_ (1871); R.W.
  Dale, _Atonement_ (1875); J. Denney, _Death of Christ_, _Atonement and
  the Modern Mind_ (1903); A. Lyttelton, _Lux Mundi_, pp. 201 ff.
  (Atonement), (1889); R. Moberly, _Atonement and Personality_; A.
  Ritschl, _Die christliche Lehre van der Rechtfertigung und Versohnung_
  (1870-1874); G.B. Stevens, _Christian Doctrine of Salvation_ (1905).

  Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' _Bible Dictionary_, and in the
  _Encyclopaedia Biblica_.     (W. H. Be.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Cf. Exodus xii. 15, &c.; Josh. vii. 24 (Achan); Jer. li. 62
    (Babylon).

  [2] 2 Sam. xii. 13, 14 (David); Isaiah xl. 2 (Jerusalem): in such
    cases, however, the context implies repentance.

  [3] Ezek. xviii., Micah vi.

  [4] Lev. iv. 2, "sin unwittingly," _bishegag[=a]_, c. 450 B.C., &c.

  [5] Psalm l. 10, li. 16-19; Isaiah i. 11; Micah vi. 6-8.

  [6] Heb. _nephesh_, also translated "soul."

  [7] Lev. xvi., xxiii. 27-32; Numb. xxix. 7-11.

  [8] So Davidson, &c. with LXX. The A.V. with Hebrew text has "seventh
    day of the month."

  [9] e.g. Achan, Josh. vii. 10-15.

  [10] 2 Sam. xxi. 1-9; Deut. v. 9, 10.

  [11] Ezek. xxi. 3, 4.

  [12] Isaiah liii.

  [13] Isaiah xix. 25, xlix. 6.

  [14] Köberle, _Sunde und Gnade_, pp. 592 ff.

  [15] Mark x. 45; Matt. xxvi. 28; 1 Cor. xv. 3; John xi. 48-52; Heb.
    ii. 9.

  [16] Rom. iii. 25.

  [17] Rom. v. 8.

  [18] Rom. v. 15-19.

  [19] Rom. vi. 8.

  [20] Rom. iv. 25.

  [21] Matt. xxv. 34 f.; Mark viii. 34 ff., ix. 36 f., x. 21.

  [22] 1 John ii. 1, 2, 12, iii. 5, 8, iv. 10.

  [23] Heb. ii. 17, ix. 14.

  [24] Stevens, _Christian Doctrine of Salvation_, p. 138.

  [25] _Ibid._ p. 151.

  [26] Shedd, _Hist. of Christ. Doctr._ ii. 385 ff.; cf. van Oosterzee,
    _Christ. Dogmatics_, 611.

  [27] Shedd ii. 358 f.

  [28] Crawford, _Scripture Doctrine of the Atonement_, pp. 327 ff.

  [29] Orr, _Ritschlian Theology_, pp. 149 ff.

  [30] Dale, _Atonement_, pp. 430 ff.

  [31] Pp. 209, 212, 214, 216, 219, 221, 225.



ATRATO, a river of western Colombia, South America, rising on the slopes
of the Western Cordilleras, in 5° 36' N. lat., and flowing almost due
north to the Gulf of Uraba, or Darien, where it forms a large delta. Its
length is about 400 m., but owing to the heavy rainfall of this region
it discharges no less than 175,000 cub. ft. of water per second,
together with a very large quantity of sediment, which is rapidly
filling the gulf. The river is navigable to Quibdo (250 m.), and for the
greater part of its course for large vessels, but the bars at its mouth
prevent the entrance of sea-going steamers. Flowing through the narrow
valley between the Cordillera and coast range, it has only short
tributaries, the principal ones being the Truando, Sucio and Murri. The
gold and platinum mines of Choco were on some of its affluents, and the
river sands are auriferous. The Atrato at one time attracted
considerable attention as a feasible route for a trans-isthmian canal,
which, it was estimated, could be excavated at a cost of £11,000,000.



ATREK, a river which rises in 37° 10' N. lat. and 59° E., in the
mountains of the north-east of the Persian province of Khorasan, and
flows west along the borders of Persia and the Russian Transcaspian
province, till it falls, after a course of 350 m., into the
south-eastern corner of the Caspian, a short distance north-north-west
of Astarabad.



ATREUS, in Greek legend, son of Pelops and Hippodameia, and elder
brother of Thyestes. Having murdered his stepbrother Chrysippus, Atreus
fled with Thyestes to Mycenae, where he succeeded Eurystheus in the
sovereignty. His wife Aërope was seduced by Thyestes, who was driven
from Mycenae. To avenge himself, Thyestes sent Pleisthenes (Atreus' son
whom Thyestes had brought up as his own) to kill Atreus, but Pleisthenes
was himself slain by his own father. After this Atreus, apparently
reconciled to his brother, recalled him to Mycenae and invited him to a
banquet to eat of his son, whom Atreus had slain. Thyestes fled in
horror. Subsequently Atreus married the daughter of Thyestes, Pelopia,
who had by her own father a son, Aegisthus, who was adopted by Atreus.
Thyestes was found by Agamemnon and Menelaus, the sons of Atreus, and
imprisoned at Mycenae. Aegisthus being sent to murder Thyestes, mutual
recognition took place, and Atreus was slain by the father and son, who
seized the throne, and drove Agamemnon and Menelaus out of the country
(Thucydides i. 9; Hyginus, _Fabulae_; Apollodorus). Homer does not speak
of the horrors of the story, which are first found in the tragedians; he
merely states (_Iliad_, ii. 105) that Atreus at his death left the
kingdom to Thyestes.

  See T. Voigt in _Dissert. philol. Halenses._ vi. (1886).



ATRI, a town of the Abruzzi, Italy, in the province of Teramo, 6 m. W.
of the station of that name on the railway from Ancona to Foggia, and 18
m. due E.S.E. of Teramo, on the site of the ancient _Hadria_ (q.v.).
Pop. (1901) 13,448. Its Gothic cathedral (1285-1305) is remarkably fine;
and the interior, though spoilt by restoration in 1657, contains some
important frescoes of the end of the 15th century by Andrea di Lecce and
his pupils. The crypt was originally a cistern of the Roman period. The
palace of the Acquaviva family, who were dukes of Atri from 1398 to
1775, is a massive building situated in the principal square.



ATRIUM (either from _ater_, black, referring to the blackening of the
walls from the smoke of the hearth, or from the Greek [Greek: aethrion],
open to the sky, or from an Etruscan town, Atria, where the style of
building is supposed to have originated), the principal entrance hall or
court of a Roman dwelling, giving access and light to the rooms round
it. The centre of the roof over the atrium was open to the sky and
called the _compluvium_; the rain-water from the roof collected in the
gutters was discharged into a marble tank underneath, which was known as
the _impluvium_. In the early periods of Roman civilization the atrium
was the common public apartment, and was used for the reception of
visitors and clients, and for ordinary domestic purposes, as cooking and
dining. In it were placed the ancestral pictures, the marriage-couch,
the hearth and generally a small altar. At a somewhat later period, and
among the wealthy, separate apartments were built for kitchens and
dining-rooms, and the atrium was kept as a general reception-room for
clients and visitors. There were many varieties of the atrium, depending
on the way in which the roof was carried. These are described by
Vitruvius under the title of _cavaedium_.

Other buildings, both consecrated and unconsecrated, were called by the
term (corresponding to the English "hall"), such as the Atrium Vestae,
where the vestal virgins lived, and the Atrium Libertatis, the residence
of the censor, where Asinius Pollio established the first public library
at Rome.

The word _atrium_ in Rome had a second signification, being given to an
open court with porticos round, sometimes placed in front of a temple. A
similar arrangement was adopted by the early Christians with relation to
the Basilica, in front of which there was an open court surrounded by
colonnades or arcades. The church of San Clemente at Rome, that of Sant'
Ambrogio at Milan and the cathedral of Parenzo in Istria still retain
their atria.



ATROPHY (Gr. [Greek: a]- priv., [Greek: trophae], nourishment), a term
in medicine used to describe a state of wasting due to some interference
with the function of healthy nutrition (see PATHOLOGY). In the living
organism there are always at work changes involving the waste of its
component tissues, which render necessary, in order to maintain and
preserve life, the supply and proper assimilation of nutritive material.
It is also essential for the maintenance of health that a due relation
exist between these processes of waste and repair, so that the one may
not be in excess of the other. When the appropriation of nutriment
exceeds the waste, hypertrophy (q.v.) or increase in bulk of the tissues
takes place. When, on the other hand, the supply of nutritive matter is
suspended or diminished, or when the power of assimilation is impaired,
atrophy or wasting is the result. Thus the whole body becomes atrophied
in many diseases; and in old age every part of the frame, with the
single exception of the heart, undergoes atrophic change. Atrophy may,
however, affect single organs or parts of the body, irrespective of the
general state of nutrition, and this may be brought about in a variety
of ways. One of the most frequently observed of such instances is
atrophy from disuse, or cessation of function. Thus, when a limb is
deprived of the natural power of motion, either by paralysis or by
painful joint disease, the condition of exercise essential to its
nutrition being no longer fulfilled, atrophy of all its textures sooner
or later takes place. The brain in imbeciles is frequently observed to
be shrivelled, and in many cases of blindness there is atrophy of the
optic nerve and optic tract. This form of atrophy is likewise well
exemplified in the case of those organs and structures of the body which
subserve important ends during foetal life, but which, ceasing to be
necessary after birth, undergo a sort of natural atrophy, such as the
thymus gland, and certain vessels specially concerned in the foetal
circulation. The uterus after parturition undergoes a certain amount of
atrophy, and the ovaries, after the child-bearing period, become
shrunken. Atrophy of a part may also be caused by interruption to its
normal blood-supply, as in the case of the ligature or obstruction of an
artery. Again, long-standing disease, by affecting the nutrition of an
organ and by inducing the deposit of morbid products, may result in
atrophy, as frequently happens in affections of the liver and kidneys.
Parts that are subjected to continuous pressure are liable to become
atrophied, as is sometimes seen in internal organs which have been
pressed upon by tumours or other morbid growths, and is well illustrated
in the Chinese practice of foot-binding. Atrophy may manifest itself
simply by loss of substance; but, on the other hand, it is often found
to co-exist with degenerative changes in the textures affected and the
formation of adventitious growth, so that the part may not be reduced in
bulk although atrophied as regards its proper structure. Thus, in the
case of the heart, when affected with fatty degeneration, there is
atrophy of the proper muscular texture, but as this is largely replaced
by fatty matter, the organ may undergo no diminution in volume, but may,
on the contrary, be increased in size. Atrophy is usually a gradual and
slow process, but sometimes it proceeds rapidly. In the disease known by
the name of _acute yellow atrophy of the liver_, that organ undergoes
such rapidly destructive change as results in its shrinking to half, or
one-third, of its normal size in the course of a few days. The term
_progressive muscular atrophy_ (synonyms, _wasting_ or _creeping palsy_)
is applied to an affection of the muscular system, which is
characterized by the atrophy and subsequent paralysis of certain
muscles, or groups of muscles, and is associated with morbid changes in
the anterior roots of the nerves of the spinal cord. This disease begins
insidiously, and is often first observed to affect the muscles of one
hand, generally the right. The attention of the sufferer is first
attracted by the power of the hand becoming weakened, and then there is
found to be a wasting of certain of its muscles, particularly those of
the ball of the thumb. Gradually other muscles in the arms and legs
become affected in a similar manner, their atrophy being attended with a
corresponding diminution in power. Although sometimes arrested, this
disease tends to progress, until in course of time the greater part of
the muscular system is implicated and a fatal result ensues.



ATROPOS, in Greek mythology, the eldest of the three Fates (see FATE).
Her name, the "Unalterable" ([Greek: a]- privative, and [Greek:
trepein], to turn), indicates her function, that of rendering the
decisions of her sisters irreversible or immutable. Atropos is most
frequently represented with scales, a sun-dial or a cutting instrument,
the "abhorred shears," with which she slits the thin-spun thread of life
that has been placed on the spindle by Clotho and drawn off by Lachesis.



ATTA, TITUS QUINCTIUS, or QUINTICIUS (d. 77 B.C.), Roman comedy writer,
was, like Titinius and Afranius, distinguished as a writer of _fabulae
togatae_, national comedies. He had the reputation of being a vivid
delineator of character, especially female. He also seems to have
published a collection of epigrams. The scanty fragments contain many
archaisms, but are lively in style. According to Horace (_Epistles_, ii
1. 79) the plays of Atta were still put on the stage in his time.

  Aulus Gellius vii. 9; fragments in Neukirch, _De fabula togata
  Romanorum_ (1833); Ribbeck, _Comicorum Latinorum reliquiae_ (1855).



ATTACAPA (Choctaw for "cannibal"), a tribe of North-American Indians,
whose home was in south-west Louisiana; they are now practically
extinct.



ATTACHMENT,[1] in law, a process from a court of record, awarded by the
justices at their discretion, on a bare suggestion, or on their own
knowledge, and properly grantable in cases of contempt. It differs from
arrest (q.v.), in that he who arrests a man carries him to a person of
higher power to be forthwith disposed of; but he that attaches keeps the
party attached, and presents him in court at the day assigned, as
appears by the words of the writ. Another difference is, that arrest is
only upon the body of a man, whereas an attachment is often upon his
goods. It is distinguished from distress in not extending to lands, as
the latter does; nor does a distress touch the body, as an attachment
does. Every court of record has power to fine and imprison for contempt
of its authority. Attachment being merely a process to bring the
defendant before the court, is not necessary in cases of contempt in the
presence of the court itself. Attachment will be granted in England
against peers and members of parliament only for such gross contempts as
rescues, disobedience to the sovereign's writs and the like. Attachment
will not lie against a corporation. The county courts in this respect
are regulated by acts of 1846 and 1849. They can only punish for
contempts committed in presence of the court (see CONTEMPT OF COURT).
Attachments are granted on a rule in the first instance to show cause,
which must be personally served before it can be made absolute, except
for non-payment of costs on a master's allocatur, and against a sheriff
for not obeying a rule to return a writ or to bring in the body. The
offender is then arrested, and when committed will be compelled to
answer interrogatories, exhibited against him by the party at whose
instance the proceedings have been had; and the examination when taken
is referred to the master, who reports thereon, and on the contempt
being reported, the court gives judgment according to its discretion, in
the same manner as upon a conviction for a misdemeanour at common law.
Sir W. Blackstone observes that "this method of making the defendant
answer upon oath to a criminal charge is not agreeable to the genius of
the common law in any other instance"; and the elasticity of the legal
definitions of contempt of court, especially with respect to comments on
judicial proceedings, is the subject of much complaint.

_Attachment of Debts._--It was suggested by the common law commissioners
in 1853 that a remedy analogous to that of Foreign Attachment (see
below) might be made available to creditors, after judgment, against
debts due to their debtors. Accordingly, the Common Law Procedure Act
1854 enacted that any creditor, having obtained judgment in the superior
courts, should have an order that the judgment debtor might be examined
as to any debts due and owing to him before a master of the court. The
rules and regulations under the Judicature Act 1873 retained the process
for attachment of debts as established by the Procedure Act of 1854. On
affidavit that the judgment was still unsatisfied, and that any other
person within the jurisdiction was indebted to the judgment debtor, the
judge was empowered to attach all debts due from such third person
(called the _garnishee_) to the judgment debtor, to answer the judgment
debt. This order binds the debts in the hands of the garnishee, and if
he does not dispute his liability execution issues against him at once.
If he disputes his liability the question must be tried. Payment by the
garnishee or execution against him is a complete discharge as against
the judgment debtor. These provisions were, by an order in council of
the 18th of November 1867, extended to the county courts. By the Wages
Attachment Abolition Act 1870 it is enacted that no order for the
attachment of the wages of any servant, labourer or workman shall be
made by the judge of any court of record or inferior court, and by the
Merchant Shipping Act 1894 it is enacted that the wages of a seaman or
apprentice are not subject to attachment.

In the United States attachment of debts is a statutory remedy accorded
in most of the states in certain circumstances for the security of
creditors, by the seizure by the sheriff of the debtor's goods or the
imposition of a lien upon his land, before judgment, and sometimes at
the very commencement of the action. In some states it is only allowed
in special cases, as when the debtor has absconded, or is a non-resident
or guilty of fraud; in a few it may be had, as of right, at the
commencement of ordinary actions. The common-law courts of the United
States (by act of Congress) follow the practice in this regard of the
state in which they sit. Such attachments (on mesne process) can
generally be dissolved by the substitution of a bond with surety. The
body can also be attached in most states on civil actions of tort (for a
wrongful or negligent act to the damage of another), but not in actions
on contract.

_Foreign Attachment_ is an important custom prevailing in the city of
London, whereby a creditor may attach money owing to his debtor, or
property belonging to him in the possession of third parties. The person
holding the property or owing the money must be within the city at the
time of being served with the process, but all persons are entitled to
the benefit of the custom. The plaintiff having commenced his action,
and made a satisfactory affidavit of his debt, is entitled to issue
attachment, which thereupon affects all the money or property of the
defendant in the hands of the third party, the garnishee. The garnishee,
of course, has as against the attachment all the defences which would be
available to him against the defendant, his alleged creditor. The
garnishee may plead payment under the attachment, if there has been no
fraud or collusion, in bar to an action by the defendant for his debt or
property. The court to which this process belongs is the mayor's court
of London, the procedure in which is regulated by the Mayor's Court of
London Procedure Act 1857. This custom, and all proceedings relating
thereto, are expressly exempted from the operation of the Debtor's Act
1869. Similar customs exist in Bristol and a few other towns in England
and also in Scotland.

_A Writ of Attachment_ enforces answers and obedience to decrees and
orders of the High Court of Justice, and is made out without order upon
an affidavit of the due service of the process, &c., with whose
requirements compliance is sought. A corporation, however, is proceeded
against by distringas and not by attachment. It was formerly competent
to the plaintiff to compel the appearance of a defendant in chancery by
attachment, but the usual course was to enter appearance for him in case
of default. It is one of the modes of execution allowed for the recovery
of property other than land or money.

_Attachment of the Forest_ was the proceeding in the courts of
attachments, Woodmote, or Forty Days' courts. These courts have fallen
into desuetude. They were held before the verderers of the royal forests
in different parts of the kingdom once in every forty days, for the
purpose of inquiring into all offences against "vert (greensward) and
venison." The attachment was by the bodies of the offenders, if taken in
the very act of killing venison, or stealing wood, or preparing so to
do, or by fresh and immediate pursuit after the act was done; else they
must be attached by their goods. These attachments were received by the
verderers and enrolled, and certified under their seals to the
Swainmote, or Court of Justice-seat, which was the superior of the
forest courts.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] "To attach" is first used in English in the legal sense of arrest
    or seizure, and the sense of "fasten to" is comparatively late. The
    Old French _atachier_, modern _attacher_, from which the English
    "attach" is derived, is from a word for a peg or nail, in English
    "tack," which is found in many forms in Scandinavian and Celtic
    languages, and is ultimately connected with the root seen in Latin
    _tangere_, to touch. The Italian _attacare_, especially in the phrase
    _attacare battaglia_, to join battle, gave the French _attaquer_,
    whence the English "attack," which is therefore by origin a doublet
    of "attach."



ATTAINDER (from the O. Fr. _ataindre, ateindre_, to attain, i.e. to
strike, accuse, condemn; Lat. _attingere, tangere_, to touch; the
meaning has been greatly affected by the confusion with Fr. _taindre,
teindre_, to taint, stain, Lat. _tingere_, to dye), in English law, was
the immediate and inseparable consequence from the common law upon the
sentence of death. When it was clear beyond all dispute that the
criminal was no longer fit to live he was called _attaint_, and could
not, before the Evidence Act 1843, be a witness in any court. This
attainder took place after judgment of death, or upon such circumstances
as were equivalent to judgment of death, such as judgment of outlawry on
a capital crime, pronounced for absconding from justice. Conviction
without judgment was not followed by attainder. The consequences of
attainder were (1) forfeiture, (2) corruption of blood. On attainder for
treason, the criminal forfeited to the crown his lands, rights of entry
on lands, and any interest he might have in lands for his own life or a
term of years. For murder, the offender forfeited to the crown the
profit of his freeholds during life, and in the case of lands held in
fee-simple, the lands themselves for a year and a day; subject to this,
the lands escheated to the lord of the fee. These forfeitures related
back to the time of the offence committed. Forfeitures of goods and
chattels ensued not only on attainder, but on conviction for a felony of
any kind, or on flight from justice, and had no relation backwards to
the time of the offence committed. By _corruption of blood_, "both
upwards and downwards," the attainted person could neither inherit nor
transmit lands. The lands escheated to the lord of the fee, subject to
the crown's right of forfeiture. The doctrine of attainder has, however,
ceased to be of much importance. The Forfeiture Act 1870 enacted that
henceforth no confession, verdict, inquest, conviction or judgment of or
for any treason or felony, or _felo de se_, should cause any attainder
or corruption of blood, or any forfeiture or escheat. Sentence of death,
penal servitude or imprisonment with hard labour for more than twelve
months, after conviction for treason or felony, disqualifies from
holding or retaining a seat in parliament, public offices under the
crown or otherwise, right to vote at elections, &c., and such disability
is to remain until the punishment has been suffered or a pardon
obtained. Provision was made for the due administration of convicts'
estates, in the interests of themselves and their families. Forfeiture
consequent on outlawry was exempted from the provisions of the act. The
United States constitution (Art. III. s. 3) says: "The Congress shall
have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of
treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the
life of the person attainted."

_Bills of Attainder_, in English legal procedure, were formerly a
parliamentary method of exercising judicial authority. They were
ordinarily initiated in the House of Lords and the proceedings were the
same as on other bills, but the parties against whom they were brought
might appear by counsel and produce witnesses in both Houses. In the
case of an impeachment (q.v.), the House of Commons was prosecutor and
the House of Lords judge; but such bills being _legislative_ in form,
the consent of crown, lords and commons was necessary to pass them.
Bishops, who do not exercise but who claim the right to vote in cases of
impeachment (q.v.), have a right to vote upon bills of attainder, but
their vote is not conclusive in passing judgment upon the accused. First
passed in 1459, such bills were employed, more particularly during the
reigns of the Tudor kings, as a species of extrajudicial procedure, for
the direct punishment of political offences. Dispensing with the
ordinary judicial forms and precedents, they took away from the accused
whatever advantages he might have gained in the courts of law; such
evidence only was admitted as might be necessary to secure conviction;
indeed, in many cases bills of attainder were passed without any
evidence being produced at all. In the reign of Henry VIII. they were
much used, through a subservient parliament, to punish those who had
incurred the king's displeasure; many distinguished victims who could
not have been charged with any offence under the existing laws being by
this means disposed of. In the 17th century, during the disputes with
Charles I., the Long Parliament made effective use of the same
procedure, forcing the sovereign to give his consent. After the
Restoration it became less frequent, though the Jacobite movement in
Scotland produced several instances of attainder, without, however, the
infliction of the extreme penalty of death. The last bill of attainder
passed in England was in the case of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, one of the
Irish rebel leaders of 1798.

A bill for reversing attainder took a form contrary to the usual rule.
It was first signed by the sovereign and presented by a peer to the
House of Lords by command of the crown, then passed through the ordinary
stages and on to the commons, to whom the sovereign's assent was
communicated before the first reading was taken, otherwise the whole
proceedings were null and void.

A _Bill of Pains and Penalties_ resembles a bill of attainder in object
and procedure, but imposes a lesser punishment than death. The most
notable instances of the passing of a bill of pains and penalties are
those of Bishop Atterbury in 1722, and of Queen Caroline, wife of George
IV., in 1820.

The constitution of the United States declares that "no bill of
attainder or _ex post facto_ law shall be passed."



ATTAINT, WRIT OF, an obsolete method of procedure in English law, for
inquiring by a jury of twenty-four whether a false verdict had been
given in a trial before an ordinary jury of twelve. If it were found
that an erroneous judgment had been given, the wrong was redressed and
the original jury incurred infamy, with imprisonment and forfeiture of
their goods, which punishments were, however, commuted later for a
pecuniary penalty. In criminal cases a writ of attaint was issued at
suit of the king, and in civil cases at the suit of either party. In
criminal cases it appears to have become obsolete by the end of the 15th
century. Procedure by attaint in civil cases had also been gradually
giving place to the practice of granting new trials, and after the
decision in Bushell's case in 1670 (see JURY) it became obsolete, and
was finally abolished by the Juries Act 1825, except as regards jurors
guilty of embracery (q.v.).



ATTALIA, an ancient city of Pamphylia, which derived its name from
Attalus II., king of Pergamum; the modern Adalia (q.v.). It was
important as the nearest seaport to the rich districts of south-west
Phrygia. A much-frequented "half-sea" route led through it to the Lycus
and Maeander valleys, and so to Ephesus and Smyrna. This was the natural
way from any part of central Asia Minor to Syria and Egypt, and
accordingly we hear of Paul and Barnabas taking ship at Attalia for
Antioch. Originally the port of Perga, Attalia eclipsed the old
Pamphylian capital in early Christian times and became the metropolis.
There are extensive remains of the ancient walls, including some
portions which go back to the foundation of the Pergamenian city. The
most conspicuous monument is the triple Gate of Hadrian, flanked by a
tower built by the empress Julia. This lies about half-way round the
_enceinte_ and formerly admitted the road from Perga.



ATTAR [or OTTO] OF ROSES (Pers. _'atar_, essence), a perfume consisting
of essential oil of roses, prepared by distilling, or, in some
districts, by macerating the flowers. The manufacture is chiefly carried
out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk
of the European demand. It is used by perfumery manufacturers as an
ingredient. The genuine attar of roses is costly and it is frequently
adulterated.



ATTEMPT (Lat. _adtemptare, attentare_, to try), in law, an act done with
intent to commit a crime, and forming one of a series of acts which
would constitute its actual commission if it were not interrupted. An
attempt must proceed beyond mere preparation, but at the same time it
must fall short of the ultimate purpose in any part of it. The actual
point, however, at which an act ceases to be an attempt, and becomes
criminal, depends upon the circumstances of each particular case. A
person may be guilty of an attempt to commit a crime, even if its
commission in the manner proposed was impossible. Every attempt to
commit a treason, felony or indictable misdemeanour is in itself an
indictable misdemeanour, punishable by fine or imprisonment, unless the
attempt to commit is specifically punishable by statute as a felony, or
in a defined manner as a misdemeanour; and a person who has been
indicted for a felony or misdemeanour may, if the evidence so warrants,
be found guilty only of the attempt, provided that it too is a
misdemeanour.



ATTENTION (from Lat. _ad-tendo_, await, expect; the condition of being
"stretched" or "tense"), in psychology, the concentration of
consciousness upon a definite object or objects. The result is brought
about, not by effecting any change in the perceptions themselves, but
simply by isolating them from other objects. Since all consciousness
involves this isolation, attention may be defined generally as the
necessary condition of consciousness. Such a definition, however, throws
no light upon the nature of the psychological process, which is partly
explained by the general law that the greater the number of objects on
which attention is concentrated the less will each receive ("pluribus
intentus, minor est ad singula sensus"), and conversely. There are also
special circumstances which determine the amount of attention, e.g.
influences not subject to the will, such as the vividness of the
impression (e.g. in the case of a shock), strong change in pleasurable
or painful sensations. Secondly, an exercise of volition is employed in
fixing the mind upon a definite object. This is a purely voluntary act,
which can be strengthened by habit and is variable in different
individuals; to it the name "attention" is sometimes restricted. The
distinction is expressed by the words "reflex" or "passive," and
"volitional" or "active." It is important to notice that in every case
of attention to an object, there must be in consciousness an implicit
apprehension of surrounding objects from which the particular object is
isolated. These objects are known as the "psychic fringe," and are
essential to the systematic unity of the attention-process. Attempts
have been made to examine the attention-process from the physiological
standpoint by investigating the muscular and neural changes which
accompany it, and even to assign to it a specific local centre. It has,
for example, been remarked that uniformity of environment, resulting in
practically automatic activity, produces mental equilibrium and the
comparative disappearance of attention-processes; whereas the necessity
of adapting activity to abnormal conditions produces a comparatively
high degree of attention. In other words, attention is absent where
there is uniformity of activity in accordance with uniform, or uniformly
changing, environment. In spite of the progress made in this branch of
study, it has to be remembered that all psycho-physical experiments are
to some extent vitiated by the fact that the phenomena can scarcely
remain normal under inspection.

  See G.F. Stout, _Analytic Psychology_ (London, 1896), especially part
  ii. chap. 2; also PSYCHOLOGY, BRAIN, &c.



ATTERBOM, PER DANIEL AMADEUS (1790-1855), Swedish poet, son of a country
parson, was born in the province of Östergötland on the 19th of January
1790. He studied in the university of Upsala from 1805 to 1815, and
became professor of philosophy there in 1828. He was the first great
poet of the romantic movement which, inaugurated by the critical work of
Lorenzo Hammersköld, was to revolutionize Swedish literature. In 1807,
when in his seventeenth year, he founded at Upsala an artistic society,
called the Aurora League, the members of which included V.F. Palmblad,
A.A. Grafström (d. 1870), Samuel Hedborn (d. 1849), and other youths
whose names were destined to take a foremost rank in the literature of
their generation. Their first newspaper, _Polyfem_, was a crude effort,
soon abandoned, but in 1810 there began to appear a journal, _Fosforos_,
edited by Atterbom, which lasted for three years and finds a place in
classic Swedish literature. It consisted entirely of poetry and
aesthetico-polemical essays; it introduced the study of the newly arisen
Romantic school of Germany, and formed a vehicle for the early works,
not of Atterbom only, but of Hammersköld, Dahlgren, Palmblad and others.
Later, the members of the Aurora League established the _Poetisk
Kalender_ (1812-1822), in which their poems appeared, and a new critical
organ, _Svensk Litteraturtidning_ (1813-1824). Among Atterbom's
independent works the most celebrated is _Lycksalighetens Ö_ (_The
Fortunate Island_), a romantic drama of extraordinary beauty, published
in 1823. Before this he had published a somewhat in the manner of
Novalis. Of a dramatized fairy tale, _Fågel blå (The Blue Bird_), only a
fragment, which is among the most exquisite of his writings, is
preserved. As a purely lyrical poet he has not been excelled in Sweden,
but his more ambitious works are injured by his weakness for allegory
and symbolism, and his consistent adoption of the mannerisms of Tieck
and Novalis. In his later years he became less violent in literary
controversy. He became in 1835 professor of aesthetics and literature at
Upsala, and four years later he was admitted to the Swedish Academy. He
died on the 21st of July 1855. His _Svenska Siare och Skalder_ (6 vols.,
1841-1855, supplement, 1864) consists of a series of biographies of
Swedish poets and men of letters, which forms a valuable history of
Swedish letters down to the end of the "classical" period. Atterbom's
works were collected (13 vols., Örebro) in 1854-1870.



ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732), English man of letters, politician and
bishop, was born in the year 1662, at Milton or Middleton Keynes in
Buckinghamshire, a parish of which his father was rector. He was
educated at Westminster school and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he
became a tutor. In 1682 he published a translation of _Absalom and
Ahithophel_ into Latin verse; but neither the style nor the
versification was that of the Augustan age. In English composition he
succeeded much better. In 1687 he published _An Answer to some
Considerations on the Spirit of Martin Luther and the Original of the
Reformation_, a reply to Obadiah Walker, who, elected master of
University College in 1676, had printed in a press set up by him there
an attack on the Reformation, written by Abraham Woodhead. Atterbury's
treatise, though highly praised by Bishop Burnet, is perhaps more
distinguished for the vigour of his rhetoric than for the soundness of
his arguments, and the Papists were so much galled by his sarcasms and
invectives that they accused him of treason, and of having, by
implication, called King James a Judas.

After the Revolution, Atterbury, though bred in the doctrines of
non-resistance and passive obedience, readily swore fealty to the new
government. He had taken holy orders in 1687, preached occasionally in
London with an eloquence which raised his reputation, and was soon
appointed one of the royal chaplains. But he ordinarily resided at
Oxford, where he was the chief adviser and assistant of Dean Aldrich,
under whom Christ Church was a stronghold of Toryism. Thus he became the
inspirer of his pupil, Charles Boyle, in the attack (1698) on the Whig
scholar, Richard Bentley (q.v.), arising out of Bentley's impugnment of
the genuineness of the _Epistles of Phalaris_. He was figured by Swift
in the _Battle of the Books_ as the Apollo who directed the fight, and
was, no doubt, largely the author of Boyle's essay. Bentley spent two
years in preparing his famous reply, which proved not only that the
letters ascribed to Phalaris were spurious, but that all Atterbury's
wit, eloquence and skill in controversial fence was only a cloak for an
audacious pretence of scholarship.

Atterbury was soon occupied, however, in a dispute about matters still
more important and exciting. The rage of religious factions was extreme.
High Church and Low Church divided the nation. The great majority of the
clergy were on the High Church side; the majority of King William's
bishops were inclined to latitudinarianism. In 1700 Convocation, of
which the lower house was overwhelmingly Tory, had not been suffered to
meet for ten years. This produced a lively controversy, into which
Atterbury threw himself with characteristic energy, publishing a series
of treatises written with much wit, audacity and acrimony. By the mass
of the clergy he was regarded as the most intrepid champion that had
ever defended their rights against the oligarchy of Erastian prelates.
In 1701 he was rewarded with the archdeaconry of Totnes and a prebend in
Exeter cathedral. The lower house of Convocation voted him thanks for
his services; the university of Oxford created him a doctor of divinity;
and in 1704, soon after the accession of Anne, while the Tories still
had the chief weight in the government, he was promoted to the deanery
of Carlisle.

Soon after he had obtained this preferment the Whig party came into
power. From that party he could expect no favour. Six years elapsed
before a change of fortune took place. At length, in the year 1710, the
prosecution of Sacheverell produced a formidable explosion of High
Church fanaticism. At such a moment Atterbury could not fail to be
conspicuous. His inordinate zeal for the body to which he belonged, his
turbulent and aspiring temper, his rare talents for agitation and for
controversy, were again signally displayed. He bore a chief part in
framing that artful and eloquent speech which the accused divine
pronounced at the bar of the Lords, and which presents a singular
contrast to the absurd and scurrilous sermon which had very unwisely
been honoured with impeachment. During the troubled and anxious months
which followed the trial, Atterbury was among the most active of those
pamphleteers who inflamed the nation against the Whig ministry and the
Whig parliament. When the ministry had been changed and the parliament
dissolved, rewards were showered upon him. The lower house of
Convocation elected him prolocutor, in which capacity he drew up, in
1711, the often-cited _Representation of the State of Religion_; and, in
August 1711, the queen, who had selected him as her chief adviser in
ecclesiastical matters, appointed him dean of Christ Church on the death
of his old friend and patron Aldrich.

At Oxford he was as conspicuous a failure as he had been at Carlisle,
and it was said by his enemies that he was made a bishop because he was
so bad a dean. Under his administration Christ Church was in confusion,
scandalous altercations took place, and there was reason to fear that
the great Tory college would be ruined by the tyranny of the great Tory
doctor. In 1713 he was removed to the bishopric of Rochester, which was
then always united with the deanery of Westminster. Still higher
dignities seemed to be before him. For, though there were many able men
on the episcopal bench, there was none who equalled or approached him in
parliamentary talents. Had his party continued in power it is not
improbable that he would have been raised to the archbishopric of
Canterbury. The more splendid his prospects the more reason he had to
dread the accession of a family which was well known to be partial to
the Whigs, and there is every reason to believe that he was one of those
politicians who hoped that they might be able, during the life of Anne,
to prepare matters in such a way that at her decease there might be
little difficulty in setting aside the Act of Settlement and placing the
Pretender on the throne. Her sudden death confounded the projects of
these conspirators, and, whatever Atterbury's previous views may have
been, he acquiesced in what he could not prevent, took the oaths to the
house of Hanover, and did his best to ingratiate himself with the royal
family. But his servility was requited with cold contempt; and he became
the most factious and pertinacious of all the opponents of the
government. In the House of Lords his oratory, lucid, pointed, lively
and set off with every grace of pronunciation and of gesture, extorted
the attention and admiration even of a hostile majority. Some of the
most remarkable protests which appear in the journals of the peers were
drawn up by him; and, in some of the bitterest of those pamphlets which
called on the English to stand up for their country against the aliens
who had come from beyond the seas to oppress and plunder her, critics
easily detected his style. When the rebellion of 1715 broke out, he
refused to sign the paper in which the bishops of the province of
Canterbury declared their attachment to the Protestant succession, and
in 1717, after having been long in indirect communication with the
exiled family, he began to correspond directly with the Pretender.

In 1721, on the discovery of the plot for the capture of the royal
family and the proclamation of King James, Atterbury was arrested with
the other chief malcontents, and in 1722 committed to the Tower, where
he remained in close confinement during some months. He had carried on
his correspondence with the exiled family so cautiously that the
circumstantial proofs of his guilt, though sufficient to produce entire
moral conviction, were not sufficient to justify legal conviction. He
could be reached only by a bill of pains and penalties. Such a bill the
Whig party, then decidedly predominant in both Houses, was quite
prepared to support, and in due course a bill passed the Commons
depriving him of his spiritual dignities, banishing him for life, and
forbidding any British subject to hold intercourse with him except by
the royal permission. In the Lords the contest was sharp, but the bill
finally passed by eighty-three votes to forty-three.

Atterbury took leave of those whom he loved with a dignity and
tenderness worthy of a better man, to the last protesting his innocence
with a singular disingenuousness. After a short stay at Brussels he went
to Paris, and became the leading man among the Jacobite refugees there.
He was invited to Rome by the Pretender, but Atterbury felt that a
bishop of the Church of England would be out of place at the Vatican,
and declined the invitation. During some months, however, he seemed to
stand high in the good graces of James. The correspondence between the
master and the servant was constant. Atterbury's merits were warmly
acknowledged, his advice was respectfully received, and he was, as
Bolingbroke had been before him, the prime minister of a king without a
kingdom. He soon, however, perceived that his counsels were disregarded,
if not distrusted. His proud spirit was deeply wounded. In 1728 he
quitted Paris, fixed his residence at Montpelier, gave up politics, and
devoted himself entirely to letters. In the sixth year of his exile he
had so severe an illness that his daughter, Mrs Morice, herself very
ill, determined to run all risks that she might see him once more. She
met him at Toulouse, received the communion from his hand, and died that
night.

Atterbury survived the severe shock of his daughter's death two years.
He even returned to Paris and to the service of the Pretender, who had
found out that he had not acted wisely in parting with one who, though a
heretic, was the most able man of the Jacobite party. In the ninth year
of his banishment he published a luminous, temperate and dignified
vindication of himself against John Oldmixon, who had accused him of
having, in concert with other Christ Church men, garbled the new edition
of Clarendon's _History of the Rebellion_. The charge, as respected
Atterbury, had not the slightest foundation; for he was not one of the
editors of the _History_, and never saw it till it was printed. A copy
of this little work he sent to the Pretender, with a letter singularly
eloquent and graceful. It was impossible, the old man said, that he
should write anything on such a subject without being reminded of the
resemblance between his own fate and that of Clarendon. They were the
only two English subjects who had ever been banished from their country
and debarred from all communication with their friends by act of
parliament. But here the resemblance ended. One of the exiles had been
so happy as to bear a chief part in the restoration of the royal house.
All that the other could now do was to die asserting the rights of that
house to the last. A few weeks after this letter was written Atterbury
died, on the 22nd of February 1732. His body was brought to England, and
laid, with great privacy, under the nave of Westminster Abbey. No
inscription marks his grave.

It is agreeable to turn from Atterbury's public to his private life. His
turbulent spirit, wearied with faction and treason, now and then
required repose, and found it in domestic endearments, and in the
society of the most illustrious literary men of his time. Of his wife,
Katherine Osborn, whom he married while at Oxford, little is known; but
between him and his daughter there was an affection singularly close and
tender. The gentleness of his manners when he was in the company of a
few friends was such as seemed hardly credible to those who knew him
only by his writings and speeches. Though Atterbury's classical
attainments were not great, his taste in English literature was
excellent; and his admiration of genius was so strong that it
overpowered even his political and religious antipathies. His fondness
for Milton, the mortal enemy of the Stuarts and of the Church, was such
as to many Tories seemed a crime; and he was the close friend of
Addison. His favourite companions, however, were, as might have been
expected, men whose politics had at least a tinge of Toryism. He lived
on friendly terms with Swift, Arbuthnot and Gay. With Prior he had a
close intimacy, which some misunderstanding about public affairs at
last dissolved. Pope found in Atterbury not only a warm admirer, but a
most faithful, fearless and judicious adviser.

  See F. Williams, _Memoirs and Correspondence of Atterbury with Notes_,
  &c. (1869); _Stuart Papers_, vol. i.: _Letters of Atterbury to the
  Chevalier St George_, &c. (1847); J. Nichols, _Epistolary
  Correspondence_, &c. (1783-1796); and H.C. Beeching, _Francis
  Atterbury_, (1909).



ATTESTATION (Lat. _adtestare, attestare_, to bear witness, _testis_, a
witness), the verification of a deed, will or other instrument by the
signature to it of a witness or witnesses, who endorse or subscribe
their names under a memorandum, to the effect that it was signed or
executed in their presence. The essence of attestation is to show that
at the execution of the document there was present some disinterested
person capable of giving evidence as to what took place. The clause at
the end of the instrument, immediately preceding the signatures of the
witnesses to the execution, and stating that they have witnessed it, is
known as the attestation clause. In Scots law, the corresponding clause
is called the testing-clause (see DEED; WILL OR TESTAMENT; WITNESS).



ATTHIS (an adjective meaning "Attic"), the name given to a monograph or
special treatise on the religious and political history, antiquities and
topography of Attica and Athens. During the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C.,
a class of writers arose, who, making these subjects their particular
study, were called atthidographi, or compilers of atthides. The first of
these was Clidemus or Clitodemus (about 378 B.C.); the last, Ister of
Cyrene (died 212 B.C.); the most important was Philochorus (first half
of the 3rd century B.C.), of whose work considerable fragments have been
preserved. The names of the other atthidographi known to us are
Phanodemus, Demon, Androtion, Andron, Melanthius. They laid no claim to
literary skill; their style was monotonous and soon became wearisome.
They were in fact chroniclers or annalists--not historians. Their only
object was to set down, in plain and simple language, all that seemed
worthy of note in reference to the legends, history, constitution,
religion and civilization of Attica. They followed the order of the
olympiads and archons, and their work was supported by the authority of
original documents, monuments and inscriptions. Their writings were much
used by historians, as well as by the scholiasts and grammarians.

  Fragments in Müller, _Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum_, i.



ATTIC (i.e. "in the Attic style"), an architectural term given to the
masonry rising above the main cornice of a building, the earliest
example known being that of the monument of Thrasyllus at Athens. It was
largely employed by the Romans, who in their arches of triumph utilized
it for inscriptions or for bas-relief sculpture. It was used also to
increase the height of enclosure walls such as those of the Forum of
Nerva. By the Italian revivalists it was utilized as a complete storey,
pierced with windows, as found in Palladio's work at Vicenza and in
Greenwich hospital. The largest attic in existence is that which
surmounts the entablature of St Peter's at Rome, which measures 39 ft.
in height. The term is also employed in modern terminology to designate
an upper storey in a roof, and the feature is sometimes introduced to
hide a roof behind.



ATTICA, a district of ancient Greece, triangular in shape, projecting in
a south-easterly direction into the Aegean Sea, the base line being
formed by the continuous chain of Mounts Cithaeron and Parnes, the apex
by the promontory of Sunium. It was washed on two sides by the sea, and
the coast is broken up into numerous small bays and harbours, which,
however, are with few exceptions exposed to the south wind. The surface
of Attica, as of the rest of Greece, is very mountainous, and between
the mountain chains lie several plains of no great size, open on one
side to the sea. On the west its natural boundary is the Corinthian
Gulf, so that it would include Megaris; indeed, before the Dorian
invasion, which resulted in the foundation of Megara, the whole country
was politically one, in the hands of the Ionian race. This is proved by
the column which, as we learn from Strabo, once stood on the Isthmus of
Corinth, bearing on one side in Greek the inscription, "This land is
Peloponnesus, not Ionia," and on the other, "This land is not
Peloponnesus, but Ionia."

The position of Attica was one main cause of its historical importance.
Hence in part arose the maritime character of its inhabitants; and when
they had once taken to the sea, the string of neighbouring islands,
Ceos, Cythnos and others, some of which lay within sight of their
coasts, and from one to another of which it was possible to sail without
losing sight of land, served to tempt them on to further enterprises.
Similarly on land, the post it occupied between northern Greece and the
Peloponnese materially influenced its relation to other states, both in
respect of its alliances, such as that with Thessaly, towards which it
was drawn by mutual hostility to Boeotia, which lay between them; and
also in respect of offensive combinations of other powers, as that
between Thebes and Sparta, which throughout an important part of Greek
history were closely associated in their politics, through mutual dread
of their powerful neighbour.


  Mountains.

The mountains of Attica, which form its most characteristic feature, are
a continuation of that chain which, starting from Tymphrestus at the
southern extremity of Pindus, passes through Phocis and Boeotia under
the names of Parnassus and Helicon; from this proceeds the range which,
as Cithaeron in its western and Parnes in its eastern portion, separates
Attica from Boeotia, throwing off spurs southward towards the Saronic
Gulf in Aegaleos and Hymettus, which bound the plain of Athens. Again,
the eastern extremity of Parnes is joined by another line of hills,
which, separating from Mount Oeta, skirts the Euboic Gulf, and, after
entering Attica, throws up the lofty pyramid of Pentelicus, overlooking
the plain of Marathon, and then sinks towards the sea at Sunium to rise
once more in the outlying islands. Finally, at the extreme west of the
whole district, Cithaeron is bent round at right angles in the direction
of the isthmus, at the northern approach to which it abuts against the
mighty mass of Mount Geraneia, which is interposed between the
Corinthian and the Saronic Gulf. Both Cithaeron and Parnes are about
4600 ft. high, Pentelicus 3635, and Hymettus 3370, while Aegaleos does
not rise higher than 1534 ft. At the present day they are extremely
bare, and in this respect almost repellent; but the lack of colour is
compensated by the delicacy of the outlines, the minute articulation of
the minor ridges and valleys, and the symmetrical grouping of the
several mountains.


  Soil.

The soil is light and thin, and requires very careful agriculture not
only on the rocky mountain sides but to some extent also in the maritime
plains. This fact had considerable influence on the inhabitants, both by
enforcing industrious habits and by leading them at an early period to
take to the sea. Still, the level ground was sufficiently fertile to
form a marked contrast to the rest of the district. Thucydides
attributes to the nature of the soil (i. 2 [Greek: to leptogeon]), which
presented no attraction to invaders, the permanence of the same
inhabitants in the country, whence arose the claim to indigenousness on
which the Athenians so greatly prided themselves; while at the same time
the richer ground fostered that fondness for country life, which is
proved by the enthusiastic terms in which it is always spoken of by
Aristophanes. That we are not justified in judging of the ancient
condition of the soil by, the aridity which prevails at the present day,
is shown by the fact that out of the 182 demes (see CLEISTHENES) into
which Attica was divided, one-tenth were named from trees or plants.


  Climate.

The climate of Attica has always been celebrated. In approaching Attica
from Boeotia a change of temperature is felt as soon as a person
descends from Cithaeron or Parnes, and the sea breeze, which in modern
times is called [Greek: ho embates], or that which sets towards shore,
moderates the heat in summer. The Attic comedians and Plato speak with
enthusiasm of their native climate, and the fineness of the Athenian
intellect was attributed to the clearness of the Attic atmosphere. It
was in the neighbourhood of Athens itself that the air was thought to
be purest. So Euripides describes the inhabitants as "ever walking
gracefully through the most luminous ether" (_Med._ 829); and Milton--

  "Where, on the Aegean shore, a city stands,
   Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil--
   Athens, the eye of Greece."

Or again Xenophon says "one would not err in thinking that this city is
placed near the centre of Greece--nay, of the civilized world--because,
the farther removed persons are from it, the severer is the cold or heat
they meet with" (_Vectigal._ i. 6). The air is so clear that one can see
from the Acropolis the lines of white marble that streak the sides of
Pentelicus. The brilliant colouring which is so conspicuous in an
Athenian sunset is due to the same cause. The epithet "violet-crowned,"
used of Athens by Pindar, is due either to the blue haze on the
surrounding hills, or to the use of violets (or irises) for festal
wreaths. This otherwise perfect climate is slightly marred by the
prevalence of the north wind. This is expressed on the Horologium of
Andronicus Cyrrhestes, called the Temple or Tower of the Winds, at
Athens, where Boreas is represented as a bearded man of stern aspect,
thickly clad, and wearing strong buskins; he blows into a conch shell,
which he holds in his hand as a sign of his tempestuous character.


  Vegetation.

  Minerals.

Of the flora of Attica, the olive is the most important. This tree, we
learn from Herodotus (v. 82), was thought at one time to have been found
in that country only; and the enthusiastic praises of Sophocles (_Oed.
Col._ 700) teach us that it was the land in which it flourished best. So
great was the esteem in which it was held, that in the early legend of
the struggle between the gods of sea and land, Poseidon and Athena, for
the patronage of the country, the sea-god is represented as having to
retire vanquished before the giver of the olive; and at a later period
the evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive tree in
the Acropolis, together with three holes in the rock, said to have been
made by the trident of Poseidon, and to be connected with a salt well
hard by. The fig also found its favourite home in this country, for
Demeter was said to have bestowed it as a gift on the Eleusinian
Phytalus, i.e. "the gardener." Both Cithaeron and Parnes must have been
wooded in former times; for on the former are laid the picturesque
silvan scenes in the _Bacchae_ of Euripides, and it was from the latter
that the wood came which caused the neighbouring deme of Acharnae to be
famous for its charcoal--the [Greek: anthrakes Parnesioi] of the
_Acharnians_ of Aristophanes (348). From the thymy slopes of Hymettus
came the famous Hymettian honey. Among the other products we must notice
the marble--both that of Pentelicus, which afforded a material of
unrivalled purity and whiteness for building the Athenian temples, and
the blue marble of Hymettus--the _trabes Hymettiae_ of Horace--which
used to be transported to Rome for the construction of palaces. But the
richest of all the sources of wealth in Attica was the silver mines of
Laurium, the yield of which was so considerable as to render silver the
principal medium of exchange in Greece, so that "a silver piece"
([Greek: argurion]) was the Greek equivalent term for money. Hence
Aeschylus speaks of the Athenians as possessing a "fountain of silver"
(_Pers._ 235), and Aristophanes makes his chorus of birds promise the
audience that, if they show him favour, owls from Laurium (i.e. silver
pieces with the emblem of Athens) shall never fail them (_Birds_, 1106).
The reputation of these coins for purity of metal and accuracy of weight
was so great that they had a very wide circulation, and in consequence
it was thought undesirable to make any alteration in the types lest
their genuineness should be doubted. This accounts for the somewhat
inartistic character which the Athenian coins maintained to the last
(see further NUMISMATICS: _Greek_, § Athens). In Strabo's time, though
the mines had almost ceased to yield, silver was obtained in
considerable quantities from the scoriae; and at the present day a large
amount of lead is got in the same way, the work being chiefly carried on
by two companies, one of which is French and the ether Greek. In the
ancient workings, many of which are in the same condition as they were
left 1800 years ago, there are in all 2000 shafts and galleries.


  Plain of Megara.

It has been already mentioned that the base line of Attica is formed by
the chain of Cithaeron and Parnes, running from west to east; and that
from this transverse chains run southward, dividing Attica into a
succession of plains. The westernmost of these, which is separated from
the innermost bay of the Corinthian Gulf, called the Mare Alcyonium, by
an offshoot of Cithaeron, and is bounded on the east by a ridge which
ends towards the Saronic Gulf in a striking two-horned peak called
Kerata, is the plain of Megara. It is only for geographical purposes
that we include this district under Attica, for both the Dorian race of
the inhabitants, and its dangerous proximity to Athens, caused it to be
at perpetual feud with that city; but its position as an outpost for the
Peloponnesians, together with the fact of its having once been Ionian
soil, sufficiently explains the bitter hostility of the Athenians
towards the Megarians. The great importance of Megara arose from its
commanding all the passes into the Peloponnese. These were three in
number: one along the shores of the Corinthian Gulf, which, owing to the
nature of the ground, makes a long detour; the other two starting from
Megara, and passing, the one by a lofty though gradual route over the
ridge of Geraneia, the other along the Saronic Gulf, under the dangerous
precipices of the Scironian rocks.


  Plain of Eleusis.

To the east of the plain of Megara lies that of Eleusis, bounded on the
one side by the chain of Kerata, and on the other by that of Aegaleos,
through a depression in which was the line of the sacred way, where the
torchlight processions from Athens used to descend to the coast, the
"brightly gleaming shores" ([Greek: lampades aktai]) of Sophocles (_Oed.
Col._ 1049). The deep bay which here runs into the land is bounded on
its southern side by the rocky island of Salamis, which was at all times
an important possession to the Athenians on account of its proximity to
their city; and the winding channel which separates that island from the
mainland in the direction of the Peiraeus was the scene of the battle of
Salamis, while on the last declivities of Mt. Aegaleos, which here
descends to the sea, was the spot where, as Byron wrote--

  "A king sate on the rocky brow
   Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis."

The eastern portion of the plain of Eleusis was called the Thriasian
plain, and the city itself was situated in the recesses of the bay just
mentioned.


  Plain of Athens.

Next in order to the plain of Eleusis came that of Athens, which is the
most extensive of all, reaching from the foot of Parnes to the sea, and
bounded on the west by Aegaleos, and on the east by Hymettus. Its most
conspicuous feature is the broad line of dark green along its western
side, formed by the olive-groves of Colonus and the gardens of the
Academy, which owe their fertility to the waters of the Cephisus. This
river is fed by copious sources on the side of Mt. Parnes, and thus,
unlike the other rivers of Attica, has a constant supply of water, which
was diverted in classical times, as it still is, into the neighbouring
plantations (cf. Sophocles, _Oed. Col._ 685). The position of Colonus
itself is marked by two bare knolls of light-coloured earth, which
caused the poet in the same chorus to apply the epithet "white" ([Greek:
argeta]) to that place. On the opposite side of the plain runs the other
river, the Ilissus, which rises from two sources on the side of Mt.
Hymettus, and skirts the eastern extremity of the city of Athens; but
this, notwithstanding its celebrity, is a mere brook, which stands in
pools a great part of the year, and in summer is completely dry. The
situation of Athens relatively to the surrounding objects is singularly
harmonious; for, while it forms a central point, so as to be the eye of
the plain, and while the altar-rock of the Acropolis and the hills by
which it is surrounded are conspicuous from every point of view, there
is no such exactness in its position as to give formality, since it is
nearer to the sea than to Parnes, and nearer to Hymettus than to
Aegaleos. The most striking summit in the neighbourhood of the city is
that of Lycabettus, on the north-eastern side; and the variety is still
further increased by the continuation of the ridge which it forms for
some distance northwards through the plain. Three roads lead to Athens
from the Boeotian frontier over the intervening mountain barrier--the
easternmost over Parnes, from Delium and Oropus by Decelea, which was
the usual route of the invading Lacedaemonians during the Peloponnesian
War; the westernmost over Cithaeron, by the pass of Dryoscephalae, or
the "Oakheads," leading from Thebes by Plataea to Eleusis, and so to
Athens, which we hear of in connexion with the battle of Plataea, and
with the escape of the Plataeans at the time of the siege of that city
in the Peloponnesian War; the third, midway between the two, by the pass
of Phyle, near the summit of which, on a rugged height overlooking the
Athenian plain, is the fort occupied by Thrasybulus in the days of the
Thirty Tyrants. On the sea-coast to the south-west of Athens rises the
hill of Munychia, a mass of rocky ground, forming the acropolis of the
town of Peiraeus. It was probably at one time an island; this was
Strabo's opinion, and at the present day the ground which joins it to
the mainland is low and swampy, and seems to have been formed by
alluvial soil brought down by the Cephisus. On one side of this, towards
Hymettus, lay the open roadstead of Phalerum, on the other the harbour
of Peiraeus, a completely land-locked inlet, safe, deep and spacious,
the approach to which was still further narrowed by moles. The eastern
side of the hill was further indented by two small but commodious
havens, which were respectively called Zea and Munychia.


  Eastern Attica.

The north-eastern boundary of the plain of Athens is formed by the
graceful pyramid of Pentelicus, which received its name from the deme of
Pentele at its foot, but was far more commonly known as Brilessus in
ancient times. This mountain did not form a continous chain with
Hymettus, for between them intervenes a level space of ground 2 m. in
width, which formed the entrance to the Mesogaea, an elevated undulating
plain in the midst of the mountains, reaching nearly to Sunium. At the
extremity of Hymettus, where it projects into the Saronic Gulf, was the
promontory of Zoster ("the Girdle"), which was so called because it
girdles and protects the neighbouring harbour; but in consequence of the
name, a legend was attached to it, to the effect that Latona had loosed
her girdle there. From this promontory to Sunium there runs a lower line
of mountains, and between these and the sea a fertile strip of land
intervenes, which was called the Paralia. Beyond Sunium, on the eastern
coast, were two safe ports, that of Thoricus, which is defended by the
island of Helene, forming a natural breakwater in front of it, and that
of Prasiac, now called Porto Raphti ("the Tailor"), from a statue at the
entrance to which the natives have given that name. In the north-east
corner is the little plain of Marathon (q.v.), the scene of the battle
against the Persians (490 B.C.). It lies between Parnes, Pentelicus and
the sea. The bay in front is sheltered by Euboea, and on the north by a
projecting tongue of land, called Cynosura. The mountains in the
neighbourhood were the home of the Diacrii or Hyperacrii, who, being
poor mountaineers, and having nothing to lose, were the principal
advocates of political reform; while, on the other hand, the Pedieis, or
inhabitants of the plains, being wealthy landholders, formed the strong
conservative element, and the Parali, or occupants of the sea-coast,
representing the mercantile interest, held an intermediate position
between the two (see CLEISTHENES). Finally, there was one district of
Attica, the territory of Oropus, which properly belonged to Boeotia, as
it was situated to the north of Parnes; but on this the Athenians always
endeavoured to retain a firm hold, because it facilitated their
communications with Euboea. The command of that island was of the utmost
importance to them; for, if Aegina could rightly be called "the eyesore
of the Peiraeus," Euboea was quite as truly a thorn in the side of
Attica; for we learn from Demosthenes (_De Cor._ p. 307) that at one
period the pirates that made it their headquarters so infested the
neighbouring sea as to prevent all navigation.


  Excavations.

The place in Attica which has been the chief scene of excavations
(independently of Athens and its vicinity) is Eleusis (q.v.), where
the remains of the sanctuary of Demeter, the home of the Eleusinian
Mysteries, together with other buildings in its neighbourhood, were
cleared by the Greek Archaeological Society in 1882-1887 and 1895-1896.
Of the other classical ruins in Attica the best-known is the temple of
Athena at Sunium, which forms a conspicuous object on the headland, to
which it gave the name of Cape Colonnae, still used by the peasants. It
is in the Doric style, of white marble, and eleven columns of the
peristyle and one of the pronaos are now standing. At Thoricus there is
a theatre, which was cleared of earth by the archaeologists of the
American School in 1886. In the neighbourhood of Rhamnus are the remains
of two temples that stood side by side, the larger of which was
dedicated to Nemesis, the smaller probably to Themis, of which goddess a
fine statue was discovered in its ruins in the course of the excavations
of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1890. The same Society, in
1884,1886 and 1887, excavated the sanctuary of Amphiaraus, 4 m. from
Oropus; in ancient times this was the resort of numerous invalids, who
came thither to consult the healing divinity. Within it were found a
temple of Amphiaraus, a large altar, and a long colonnade, which may
have been the dormitory where the patients slept in hope of obtaining
counsel in dreams. There were also baths and a small theatre, and
numerous inscriptions relating to the arrangement and observances of the
sanctuary and oracle. The walls and towers also of the city of
Eleutherae and the fortress of Phyle are fine specimens of Hellenic
fortifications.

Of the condition of Attica in medieval and modern times little need be
said, for it has followed for the most part the fortunes of Athens. The
population, however, has undergone a great change, independently of the
large admixture of Slavonic blood that has affected the Greeks of the
mainland generally, by the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now
occupy a great part of the country. The district formed part of the
_nome_ (administrative division) of Boeotia and Attica until 1899, when
it became a separate _nome_.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--J.G. Frazer, _Pausanias's Description of Greece_, vols.
  ii. and v. (London, 1898); W.M. Leake, _The Demi of Attica_ (2nd ed.,
  London, 1841); Chr. Wordsworth, _Athens and Attica_ (4th ed., London,
  1869); C. Bursian, _Geographic von Griechenland_, vol. i. (Leipzig,
  1862); Baedeker's _Greece_ (4th Eng. ed., Leipzig, 1908); _Karten von
  Attica_, published by the German Archaeological Institute of Athens,
  with explanatory text, chiefly by Professor Milchhofer (1875-1903);
  see also ATHENS, ELEUSIS and GREECE: _Topography_.     (H. F. T.)



ATTIC BASE, the term given in architecture to the base of the Roman
Ionic order, consisting of an upper and lower torus, separated by a
scotia (q.v.) and fillets. It was the favourite base of the Romans,
and was employed by them for columns of the Corinthian and Composite
orders, and in Byzantine and Romanesque work would seem to have been
generally adopted as a model.



ATTICUS, TITUS POMPONIUS (109-32 B.C.), Roman patron of letters, was
born at Rome three years before Cicero, with whom he and the younger
Marius were educated. His name was Titus Pomponius, that of Atticus, by
which he is known, being given him afterwards from his long residence in
Athens (86-65) and his intimate acquaintance with the Greek literature
and language. His family is said to have been of noble and ancient
descent; his father belonged to the equestrian order, and was very
wealthy. When Pomponius was still a young man his father died, and he at
once took the prudent resolution of transferring himself and his fortune
to Athens, in order to escape the dangers of the civil war, in which he
might have been involved through his connexion with the murdered
tribune, Sulpicius Rufus. Here he lived in retirement, devoting himself
entirely to study. On his return to Rome, he took possession of an
inheritance left him by his uncle and assumed the name of Quintus
Caecilius Pomponianus. From this time he kept aloof from political
strife, attaching himself to no particular party, and continuing on
intimate terms with men so opposed as Caesar and Pompey, Antony and
Octavian. His most intimate friend, however, was Cicero, whose
correspondence with him extended over many years, and who seems to have
found his prudent counsel and sympathy a remedy for all his many
troubles. His private life was tranquil and happy. He did not marry till
he was fifty-three years of age, and his only child became the wife of
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the distinguished minister of Augustus. In 32,
being seized with an illness believed to be incurable, he starved
himself to death. Of his writings none is extant, but mention is made of
two: a Greek history of Cicero's consulship, and some annals, in Latin,
an epitome of the events of Roman history down to the year 54. His most
important work was his edition of the letters addressed to him by
Cicero. He also formed a large library at Athens, and engaged a staff of
slaves to make copies of valuable works.

  See Life by Cornelius Nepos; Berwick, _Lives of Messalla Corvinus and
  T.P.A._ (1813); Fialon, _Thesis in T.P.A._ (1861); Boissier, _Cicéron
  et ses amis_ (1888: Eng. trans. A.D. Jones, 1897); Peter,
  _Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta._



ATTICUS HERODES, TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS (c. A.D. 101-177), Greek rhetorician,
was born at Marathon in Attica. He belonged to a wealthy and
distinguished family, and received a careful education under the most
distinguished masters of the time, especially in rhetoric and
philosophy. His talents gained him the favourable notice of Hadrian, who
appointed him praefect of the free towns in the province of Asia (125).
On his return to Athens, he attained great celebrity as an orator and
teacher of rhetoric, and was elected to the office of archon. In 140 he
was summoned by Antoninus Pius to undertake the education of Marcus
Aurelius and Lucius Verus, and received many marks of favour, amongst
them the consulship (143). He is principally celebrated, however, for
the vast sums he expended on public purposes. He built at Athens a great
race-course of Pentelic marble, and a splendid musical theatre, called
the Odeum in memory of his wife Regilla, which still exists. At Corinth
he built a theatre, at Delphi a stadium, at Thermopylae hot baths, at
Canusium in Italy an aqueduct. He even contemplated cutting a canal
through the Isthmus of Corinth, but was afraid to carry out his plan
because the same thing had been unsuccessfully attempted before by the
emperor Nero. Many of the partially ruined cities of Greece were
restored by Atticus, and numerous inscriptions testify their gratitude
to their benefactor. His latter years were embittered by family
misfortune, and having incurred the enmity of the Athenians, he withdrew
from Athens to his villa near Marathon, where he died. He enjoyed a very
high reputation amongst his contemporaries, and wrote numerous works, of
which the only one to come down to us is a rhetorical exercise _On the
Constitution_ (ed. Hass, 1880), advocating an alliance of the Thebans
and Peloponnesians against Archelaus, king of Macedonia. The genuineness
of this speech, which is of little merit, has been disputed.

  Philostratus, _Vit. Soph._ ii. 1; Fiorillo, _Herodis Attici quae
  supersunt_ (1801); _A Biographical Notice of A.H._ (London, 1832),
  privately printed; Fuelles, _De Herodis Attici Vita_ (1864);
  Vidal-Lablache, _Hérode Atticus_ (1871).



ATTILA (d. 453), king of the Huns, became king in 433, along with his
brother Bleda, on the death of his uncle Roua. We hear but little as to
Bleda, who died about 445, possibly slain by his brother's orders. In
the first eight years of his reign Attila was chiefly occupied in the
wars with other barbarian tribes, by which he made himself virtually
supreme in central Europe. His own special kingdom comprised the
countries which are now called Hungary and Transylvania, his capital
being possibly not far from the modern city of Buda-Pest; but having
made the Ostrogoths, the Gepidae and many other Teutonic tribes his
subject-allies, and having also sent his invading armies into Media, he
seems for nearly twenty years to have ruled practically without a rival
from the Caspian to the Rhine. Very early in his reign, Honoria,
grand-daughter of the emperor Theodosius II., being subjected to severe
restraint on account of an amorous intrigue with one of the chamberlains
of the palace, sent her ring to the king of the Huns and called on him
to be her husband and her deliverer. Nothing came of the proposed
engagement, but the wrongs of Honoria, his affianced wife, served as a
convenient pretext for some of the constantly recurring embassies with
which Attila, fond of trampling on the fallen majesty of Rome, worried
and bullied the two courts of Constantinople and Ravenna. Another
frequent subject of complaint was found in certain sacred vessels which
the bishop of Sirmium had sent as a bribe to the secretary of Attila,
and which had been by him, fraudulently, as his master contended, pawned
to a silversmith at Rome. There were also frequent and imperious demands
for the surrender of fugitives who had sought shelter from the wrath of
Attila within the limits of the empire. One of the return embassies from
Constantinople, that sent in 448, had the great advantage of being
accompanied by a rhetorician named Priscus, whose minute journalistic
account of the negotiations, including as it does a vivid picture of the
great Hun in his banquet-hall, is by far the most valuable source of
information as to the court and camp of Attila. What lends additional
interest to the story is the fact that in the ambassador's suite there
was an interpreter named Vigilas, who for fifty pounds of gold had
promised to assassinate Attila. This base design was discovered by the
Hunnish king, but had never been revealed to the head of the embassy or
to his secretary. The situations created by this strange combination of
honest diplomacy and secret villainy are described by Priscus with real
dramatic power.

In 450 Theodosius II., the incapable emperor of the East, died, and his
throne was occupied by a veteran soldier named Marcian, who answered the
insulting message of Attila in a manlier tone than his predecessor.
Accordingly the Hun, who had something of the bully in his nature, now
turned upon Valentinian III., the trembling emperor of the West, and
demanded redress for the wrongs of Honoria, and one-half of
Valentinian's dominions as her dowry. Allying himself with the Franks
and Vandals, he led his vast many-nationed army to the Rhine in the
spring of 451, crossed that river, and sacked, apparently, most of the
cities in Belgic Gaul. Most fortunately for Europe, the Teutonic races
already settled in Gaul rallied to the defence of the empire against
invaders infinitely more barbarous than themselves. Prominent in this
new coalition was Theodoric, king of the Visigoths, whose capital city
was Toulouse. His firm fighting alliance with the Roman general Aëtius,
with whom he had had many a conflict in previous years, was one of the
best auguries for the new Europe that was to arise out of the ruins of
the Roman empire. Meanwhile Attila had reached the Loire and was
besieging the strong city of Orléans. The citizens, under the leadership
of their bishop Anianus, made a heroic defence, but the place was on the
point of being taken when, on the 24th of June, the allied Romano-Gothic
army was seen on the horizon. Attila, who knew the difficulty that he
should have in feeding his immense army if his march was further
delayed, turned again to the north-east, was persuaded by the venerable
bishop Lupus to spare the city of Troyes, but halted near that place in
the Catalaunian plains and offered battle to his pursuers Aëtius and
Theodoric. The battle which followed--certainly one of the decisive
battles of the world--has been well described by the Gothic historian
Jordanes as "ruthless, manifold, immense, obstinate." It lasted for the
whole day, and the number of the slain is variously stated at 175,000
and 300,000. All such estimates are, of course, untrustworthy, but there
is no doubt that the carnage was terrible. The Visigothic king was
slain, but the victory, though hardly earned, remained with his people
and his allies. Attila did not venture to renew the engagement on the
morrow, but retreated, apparently in good order, on the Rhine, recrossed
that river and returned to his Pannonian home. From thence in the spring
of 452 he again set forth to ravage or to conquer Italy. Her great
champion Aëtius showed less energy in her cause than he had shown in his
defence of Gaul. After a stubborn contest, Attila took and utterly
destroyed Aquileia, the chief city of Venetia, and then proceeded on his
destructive course, capturing and burning the cities at the head of the
Adriatic, Concordia, Altinum and Patavium (Padua). The fugitives from
these cities, but especially from the last, seeking shelter in the
lagoons of the Adriatic, laid the foundations of that which was one day
to become the glorious city of Venice. Upon Milan and the cities of
western Lombardy the hand of Attila seems to have weighed more lightly,
plundering rather than utterly destroying; and at last when Pope Leo I.,
at the head of a deputation of Roman senators, appeared in his camp on
the banks of the Mincio, entreating him not to pursue his victorious
career to the gates of Rome, he yielded to their entreaties and
consented to cross the Alps, with a menace, however, of future return,
should the wrongs of Honoria remain unredressed. As he himself jokingly
said: he knew how to conquer men, but the Lion and the Wolf (Leo and
Lupus) were too strong for him. No further expeditions to Italy were
undertaken by Attila, who died suddenly in 453, in the night following a
great banquet which celebrated his marriage with a damsel named Ildico.
Notwithstanding some rumours of violence it is probable that his death
was natural and due to his own intemperate habits.

Under his name of Etzel, Attila plays a great part in Teutonic legend
(see NIBELUNGENLIED) and under that of Atli in Scandinavian Saga, but
his historic lineaments are greatly obscured in both. He was short of
stature, swarthy and broad-chested, with a large head which early turned
grey, snub nose and deep-set eyes. He walked with proud step, darting a
haughty glance this way and that as if he felt himself lord of all.

  The chief authorities for the life of Attila are Priscus, Jordanes,
  the _Historia Miscella_, Apollonius Sidonius and Gregory of Tours.
       (T. H.)



ATTIS, or ATYS, a deity worshipped in Phrygia, and later throughout the
Roman empire, in conjunction with the Great Mother of the Gods. Like
Aphrodite and Adonis in Syria, Baal and Astarte at Sidon, and Isis and
Osiris in Egypt, the Great Mother and Attis formed a duality which
symbolized the relations between Mother Earth and her fruitage. Their
worship included the celebration of mysteries annually on the return of
the spring season. Attis was also known as Papas, and the Bithynians and
Phrygians, according to evidence of the time of the late Empire, called
him Zeus. He was never worshipped independently, however, though the
worship of the Great Mother was not always accompanied by his. He was
confused with Pan, Sabazios, Men and Adonis, and there were resemblances
between the orgiastic features of his worship and that of Dionysus. His
resemblance to Adonis has led to the theory that the names of the two
are identical, and that Attis is only the Semitic companion of Syrian
Aphrodite grafted on to the Phrygian Great Mother worship (Haakh,
_Stuttgarter-Philolog.-Vers._, 1857, 176 ff.). It is likely, however,
that Attis, like the Great Mother, was indigenous to Asia Minor, adopted
by the invading Phrygians, and blended by them with a deity of their
own.

_Legends._--According to Pausanias (vii. 17), Attis was a beautiful
youth born of the daughter of the river Sangarius, who was descended
from the hermaphroditic Agdistis, a monster sprung from the earth by the
seed of Zeus. Having become enamoured of Attis, Agdistis struck him with
frenzy as he was about to wed the king's daughter, with the result that
he deprived himself of manhood and died. Agdistis in repentance
prevailed upon Zeus to grant that the body of the youth should never
decay or waste. In Arnobius (v. 5-8) Attis emasculates himself under a
pine tree, which the Great Mother bears into her cave as she and
Agdistis together wildly lament the death of the youth. Zeus grants the
petition as in the version of Pausanias, but permits the hair of Attis
to grow, and his little finger to move. The little finger, _digitus_,
[Greek: daktylos], is interpreted as the phallus by Georg Kaibel
(_Gottinger Nachrichten_, 1901, p. 513). In Diodorus (in. 58, 59) the
Mother is the carnal lover of Attis, and, when her father the king
discovers her fault and kills her lover, roams the earth in wild grief.
In Ovid (_Fasti_, iv. 223 ff.) she is inspired with chaste love for him,
which he pledges himself to reciprocate. On his proving unfaithful, the
Great Mother slays the nymph with whom he has sinned, whereupon in
madness he mutilates himself as a penalty. Another form of the legend
(Paus. vii. 17), showing the influence of the Aphrodite-Adonis myth,
relates that Attis, the impotent son of the Phrygian Caläust Lydia to
institute the worship of the Great Mother, and was there slain by a boar
sent by Zeus.

  See GREAT MOTHER OF THE GODS; J.G. Frazer, _Adonis, Attis, Osiris_
  (1906).     (G. Sn.)



ATTLEBOROUGH, a township of Bristol county, in south-east Massachusetts,
U.S.A. Pop. (1890) 7577; (1900) 11,335, of whom 3237 were foreign-born;
(1910 census) 16,215 It is traversed by the New York, New Haven &
Hartford railway, and by inter-urban electric lines. It has an area of
28 sq. m. The population is largely concentrated in and about the
village which bears the name of the township. In Attleborough are the
Attleborough Home Sanitarium, and a public library (1885). The principal
manufactures of the township are jewelry, silverware, cotton goods,
cotton machinery, coffin trimmings, and leather. In 1905 the total value
of the township's factory products was $10,050,384, of which $5,544,285
was the value of jewelry, Attleborough ranking fourth among the cities
of the country in this industry, and producing 10.4% of the total
jewelry product of the United States. Attleborough was incorporated in
1694, though settled soon after 1661 (records since 1672) as part of
Rehoboth. In 1887 the township was divided in population, wealth and
area by the creation of the township of NORTH ATTLEBOROUGH--pop. (1890)
6727; (1900) 7253, of whom 1786 were foreign-born; (1905, state census)
7878. This township produced manufactured goods in 1900 to the value of
$3,990,731, jewelry valued at $2,785,567; it maintains the Richards
memorial library.

  See J. Daggett, _A Sketch of the History of Attleborough to 1887_
  (Boston, 1894).



ATTOCK, a town and fort of British India, in the Rawalpindi district of
the Punjab, 47 m. by rail from Peshawar, and situated on the eastern
bank of the Indus. Pop. (1901) 2822. The place is of both political and
commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and
trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan. Alexander the
Great, Tamerlane and Nadir Shah are believed to have successively
crossed the Indus at or about this spot in their respective invasions of
India. The river runs past Attock in a deep rapid channel about 200 yds.
broad, but is easily crossed in boats or on inflated skins of oxen. The
rocky gorges through which it flows, with a distant view of the Hindu
Kush, form some of the finest scenery in the world. In 1883 an iron
girder bridge of five spans was opened, which carries the North-Western
railway to Peshawar, and has also a subway for wheeled traffic and foot
passengers. The fort of Attock was built by the emperor Akbar in 1581,
on a low hillock beside the river. The walls are of polished stone, and
the whole structure is handsome; but from a military point of view it is
of little importance, being commanded by a hill, from which it is
divided only by a ravine. On the opposite side of the river is the
village of Khairabad, with a fort, also erected by Akbar according to
some, or by Nadir Shah according to others. The military importance of
Attock has diminished, but it still has a small detachment of British
troops.



ATTORNEY (from O. Fr. _atorné_ a person appointed to act for another,
from _atourner_, legal Lat. _attornare_, attorn, literally to turn over
to another or commit business to another), in English law, in its widest
sense, any substitute or agent appointed to act in "the turn, stead or
place of another." Attorneys are of two kinds, attorneys-in-fact and
attorneys-at-law. An attorney-in-fact is simply an agent, the extent of
whose capacity to act is bounded only by the powers embodied in his
authority, his _power of attorney_. An attorney-at-law was a public
officer, conducting legal proceedings on behalf of others, known as his
clients, and attached to the supreme courts of common law at
Westminster. Attorneys-at-law corresponded to the solicitors of the
courts of chancery and the proctors of the admiralty, ecclesiastical,
probate and divorce courts. Since the passing of the Judicature Act of
1873, however, the designation "attorney" has become obsolete in
England, all persons admitted as solicitors, attorneys or proctors of
an English court being henceforth called "solicitors of the supreme
court" (see SOLICITOR).

In the United States an attorney-at-law exercises all the functions
distributed in England between barristers, attorneys and solicitors, and
his full title is "attorney and counsellor-at-law." When acting in a
court of admiralty he is styled "proctor" or "advocate." Formerly, in
some states, there existed a grade among lawyers of attorneys-at-law,
which was inferior to that of counsellors-at-law, and in colonial times
New Jersey established a higher rank still--that of serjeant-at-law. Now
the term attorney-at-law is precisely equivalent to that of lawyer.
Attorneys are admitted by some court to which the legislature confides
the power, and on examination prescribed by the court, or by a board of
state examiners, as the case may be. The term of study required is
generally two or three years, but in some states less. In one no
examination is required. College graduates are often admitted to
examination after a shorter term of study than that required from those
not so educated. In the courts of the United States, admission is
regulated by rules of court and based upon a previous admission to the
state bar. In almost all states aliens are not admitted as attorneys,
and in many states women are ineligible, but during recent years several
states have passed statutes permitting them to practise. Since 1879
women have been eligible to practise before the U.S. Supreme Court, if
already admitted to practise in some state court, under the same
conditions as men. A _state attorney_ or _district attorney_ is the
local public prosecutor. He is either elected by popular vote at the
state elections for the district in which he resides and goes out of
office with the political party for which he was elected, or he is
appointed by the governor of the state for that district and for the
same term. He represents the state in criminal prosecutions and also in
civil actions within his district. There is a _United States district
attorney_ in each federal district, similarly representing the federal
government before the courts.

An attorney is an officer of the court which admits him to practise, and
he is subject to its discipline. He is liable to his client in damages
for failure to exercise ordinary care and skill, and he can bring action
for the value of his services. He has a lien on his client's papers, and
usually on any judgment in favour of his client to secure the payment of
his fees. (See also under BAR, THE.)



ATTORNEY-GENERAL, in England, the chief law officer appointed to manage
all the legal affairs and suits in which the crown is interested. He is
appointed by letters-patent authorizing him to hold office during the
sovereign's pleasure. He is _ex officio_ the leader of the bar, and only
counsel of the highest eminence are appointed to the office. The origin
of the office is uncertain, but as far back as 1277 we find an
_attornatus regis_ appointed to look after the interests of the crown,
in proceedings affecting it before the courts. He has precedence in all
the courts, and in the House of Lords he has precedence of the lord
advocate, even in Scottish appeals, but unlike the lord advocate and the
Irish attorney-general he is not necessarily made a privy councillor. He
is a necessary party to all proceedings affecting the crown, and has
extensive powers of control in matters relating to charities, lunatics'
estates, criminal prosecutions, &c. The attorney-general and the
solicitor-general are always members of the House of Commons (except for
temporary difficulties in obtaining a seat) and of the ministry, being
selected from the party in power, and their advice is at the disposal of
the government and of each department of the government, while in the
House of Commons they defend the legality of ministerial action if
called in question. Previously to 1895 there was no restriction placed
on the law officers as to their acceptance of private practice, but
since that date this privilege has been withdrawn, and the salary of the
attorney-general is fixed at £7000 a year and in addition such fees
according to the ordinary professional scales as he may receive for any
litigious business he may conduct on behalf of the crown. The crown has
also as a legal adviser an attorney-general in Ireland. In Scotland he
is called lord advocate (q.v.). There is also an attorney-general in
almost all the British colonies, and his duties are very similar to
those of the same officer in England. In the self-governing colonies he
is appointed by the administration of the colony, and in the crown
colonies by royal warrant under the signet and sign-manual. There is an
attorney-general for the duchy of Cornwall and also one for the duchy of
Lancaster, each of whom sues in matters relating to that duchy.

The United States has an officer of this name, who has a seat in the
cabinet. His duties are in general to represent the federal government
before the United States Supreme Court, to advise the president on
questions of law, and to advise similarly the heads of the state
departments with reference to matters affecting their department. His
opinions are published by the government periodically for the use of its
officials and they are frequently cited by the courts. Every state but
one or two has a similar officer. He represents the state in important
legal matters, and is often required to assist the local prosecutor in
trials for capital offences. He appears for the public interest in suits
affecting public charities. He is generally elected by the people for
the same term as the governor and on the same ticket.



ATTORNMENT (from Fr. _tourner_, to turn), in English real property law,
the acknowledgment of a new lord by the tenant on the alienation of
land. Under the feudal system, the relations of landlord and tenant were
to a certain extent reciprocal. So it was considered unreasonable to the
tenant to subject him to a new lord without his own approval, and it
thus came about that alienation could not take place without the consent
of the tenant. Attornment was also extended to all cases of lessees for
life or for years. The necessity for attornment was abolished by an act
of 1705. The term is now used to indicate an acknowledgment of the
existence of the relationship of landlord and tenant. An
attornment-clause, in mortgages, is a clause whereby the mortgagor
attorns tenant to the mortgagee, thus giving the mortgagee the right to
distrain, as an additional security.



ATTRITION (Lat. _attritio_, formed from _atterere_, to rub away), a
rubbing away; a term used in pathology and geology. Theologians have
also distinguished "attrition" from "contrition" in the matter of sin,
as an imperfect stage in the process of repentance; attrition being due
to servile fear of the consequences of sin, contrition to filial fear of
God and hatred of sin for His sake. It has been held among the Roman
Catholics that in the sacrament of penance attrition becomes contrition.



ATTWOOD, THOMAS (1765-1838), English composer, the son of a coal
merchant who had musical tastes, was born in London on the 23rd of
November 1765. At the age of nine he became a chorister in the Chapel
Royal, where he remained for five years. In 1783 he was sent to study
abroad at the expense of the prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.),
who had been favourably impressed by his skill at the harpsichord. After
spending two years at Naples, Attwood proceeded to Vienna, where he
became a favourite pupil of Mozart. On his return to London in 1787 he
held for a short time an appointment as one of the chamber musicians to
the prince of Wales. In 1796 he was chosen organist of St Paul's, and in
the same year he was made composer to the Chapel Royal. His court
connexion was further confirmed by his appointment as musical instructor
to the duchess of York, and afterwards to the princess of Wales. For the
coronation of George IV. he composed the anthem, "The King shall
rejoice," a work of high merit. The king, who had neglected him for some
years on account of his connexion with the princess of Wales, now
restored him to favour, and in 1821 appointed him organist to his
private chapel at Brighton. Soon after the institution of the Royal
Academy of Music in 1823, Attwood was chosen one of the professors. He
was also one of the original members of the Philharmonic Society,
founded in 1813. He wrote the anthem, "O Lord, grant the King a Long
Life," which was performed at the coronation of William IV., and he was
composing a similar work for the coronation of Queen Victoria when he
died at his house in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, on the 24th of March 1838. He
was buried under the organ in St Paul's cathedral. His services and
anthems were published in a collected form after his death by his pupil
Walmisley. Of his secular compositions several songs and glees are well
known and popular. The numerous operas which he composed in early life
are now practically forgotten. Of his songs the most popular was "The
Soldier's Dream," and the best of his glees were "In peace Love tunes
the shepherd's reed," and "To all that breathe the air of Heaven."
Attwood was a friend of Mendelssohn, for whom he professed an admiration
at a time when the young German's talent was little appreciated by the
majority of English musicians.



ATTWOOD, THOMAS (1783-1856), English political reformer, was born at
Halesowen, Worcestershire, on the 6th of October 1783. In 1800 he
entered his father's banking business in Birmingham, where he was
elected high bailiff in 1811. He took a leading part in the public life
of the city, and became very popular with the artisan class. He is now
remembered for his share in the movement which led to the carrying of
the Reform Act of 1832. He was one of the founders, in January 1830, of
the Political Union, branches of which were soon formed throughout
England. Under his leadership vast crowds of working-men met
periodically in the neighbourhood of Birmingham to demonstrate in favour
of reform of the franchise, and Attwood used his power over the
multitude to repress any action on their part which might savour of
illegality. His successful exertions in favour of reform made him a
popular hero all over the country, and he was presented with the freedom
of the city of London. After the passing of the Reform Act in 1832 he
was elected one of the members for the new borough of Birmingham, for
which he sat till 1839. He failed in the House of Commons to maintain
the reputation which he had made outside it, for in addition to an eager
partisanship in favour of every ultra-democratic movement, he was
wearisomely persistent in advocating his peculiar monetary theory. This
theory, which became with him a monomania, was that the existing
currency should be rectified in favour of state-regulated and
inconvertible paper-money, and the adoption of a system for altering the
standard of value as prices fluctuated. His waning influence with his
constituents led him to retire from parliament in 1837, and, though
invited to re-enter political life in 1843, he had by that time become a
thoroughly spent force. He died at Great Malvern on the 6th of March
1856.

  His grandson, C.M. Wakefield, wrote his life "for private circulation"
  (there is a copy in the British Museum), and his economic theories are
  set forth in a little book, _Gemini_, by T.B. Wright and J. Harlow,
  published in 1844.



ATWOOD, GEORGE (1746-1807), English mathematician, was born in the early
part of the year 1746. He entered Westminster school, and in 1759 was
elected to a scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge. He graduated in
1769, with the rank of third wrangler and first Smith's prizeman.
Subsequently he became a fellow and a tutor of the college, and in 1776
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. In the year 1784 he
left Cambridge, and soon afterwards received from William Pitt the
office of a patent searcher of the customs, which required but little
attendance, and enabled him to devote a considerable portion of his time
to his special studies. He died in July 1807. Atwood's published works,
exclusive of papers contributed to the _Philosophical Transactions_, for
one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows:--_Analysis of
a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy_
(Cambridge, 1784); _Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of
Bodies_ (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by
means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and
demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name,
for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion;
_Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been
established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th
of his present Majesty_ (London, 1801), a work of some historical
research; _Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches_
(London, 1801), with supplement, pt. i., 1801, pt. ii., 1804, an
elaborate work, now completely superseded.



AUBADE (a French word from _aube_, the dawn), the dawn-song of the
troubadours of Provence, developed by the Minnesingers (q.v.) of Germany
into the _Tagelied_, the song of the parting at dawn of lovers at the
warning of the watchman. In France in modern times the term is applied
to the performance of a military band in the early morning in honour of
some distinguished person.



AUBAGNE, a town of south-eastern France, in the department of
Bouches-du-Rhône on the Huveaune, 11 m. E. of Marseilles by rail. Pop.
(1906) 6039. The town carries on the manufacture of earthenware and
pottery, leather, &c. and the cultivation of fruit and wine. There is a
fountain to the memory of the statesman, F. Barthélemy (d. 1830), born
at Aubagne.



AUBE, a department of north-eastern France, bounded N. by the department
of Marne, N.W. by Seine-et-Marne, W. by Yonne, S. by Yonne and
Cote-d'Or, and E. by Haute-Marne; it was formed in 1790 from
Basse-Champagne, and a small portion of Burgundy. Area, 2326 sq. m. Pop.
(1906) 243,670. The department belongs to the Seine basin, and is
watered chiefly by the Seine and the Aube. These rivers follow the
general slope of the department, which is from south-east, where the
Bois du Mont (1200 ft.), the highest point, is situated, to north-west.
The southern and eastern districts are fertile and well wooded. The
remainder of the department, with the exception of a more broken and
picturesque district in the extreme north-west, forms part of the
sterile and monotonous plain known as Champagne Pouilleuse. The climate
is mild but damp. The annual rainfall over the greater part varies from
24 to 28 in.; but in the extreme south-east it at times reaches a height
of 36 in. Aube is an agricultural department; more than one third of its
surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat
and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are
extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube. The
vine flourishes chiefly on the hills of the south-east; the wines of Les
Riceys, Bar-sur-Aube, Bouilly and Laines-aux-Bois are most esteemed. The
river valleys abound in natural pasture, and sainfoin, lucerne and other
forage crops are largely grown; cattle-raising is an important source of
wealth, and the cheeses of Troyes are well known. There are excellent
nurseries and orchards in the neighbourhood of Troyes, Bar-sur-Seine,
Méry-sur-Seine and Brienne. Chalk, from which _blanc de Troyes_ is
manufactured, and clay are abundant; and there are peat workings and
quarries of building-stone and limestone. The spinning and weaving of
cotton and the manufacture of hosiery, of both of which Troyes is the
centre, are the main industries of the department; there are also a
large number of distilleries, tanneries, oil works, tile and brick
works, flour-mills, saw-mills and dye-works. The Eastern railway has
works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing
works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal
working is of small importance. The exports of Aube consist of timber,
cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its
imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially
looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the
main line to Belfort crosses it. The river Aube is navigable for 28 m.
(from Arcis-sur-Aube to its confluence with the Seine); the Canal de la
Haute-Seine extends beside the Seine from Bar-sur-Seine to Marcilly
(just outside the department) a distance of 46 m.; below Marcilly the
Seine is canalized.

Aube is divided into 5 arrondissements with 26 cantons and 446 communes.
It falls within the educational circumscription (_academie_) of Dijon
and the military circumscription of the XX. army corps; its court of
appeal is in Paris. It constitutes the diocese of Troyes and part of the
archiepiscopal province of Sens. The capital of the department is
Troyes; of the arrondissements the capitals are Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube,
Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-sur-Seine and Nogent-sur-Seine. The architecture of
the department is chiefly displayed in its churches, many of which
possess stained glass of the 16th century. Besides the cathedral and
other churches of Troyes, those of Mussy-sur-Seine (13th century),
Chaource (16th century) and Nogent-sur-Seine (15th and 16th centuries),
are of note. The abbey buildings of Clairvaux are the type of the
Cistercian abbey.



AUBENAS, a town of south-eastern France, in the department of Ardèche,
19 m. S.W. of Privas by road. Pop. (1906) 3976 (town), 7064 (commune).
Aubenas is beautifully situated on the slope of a hill, on the right
bank of the Ardèche, but its streets generally are crooked and narrow.
It has a castle of the 13th and 16th centuries, now occupied by several
of the public institutions of the town. These include a tribunal and
chamber of commerce, and a conditioning-house for silk. Iron and coal
mines are worked in the vicinity. As the centre of the silk trade of
southern France Aubenas is a place of considerable traffic. It has also
a large silk spinning and weaving industry, and carries on tanning and
various minor industries together with trade in silk. The district is
rich in plantations of mulberries and olives.



AUBER, DANIEL FRANÇOIS ESPRIT (1782-1871), French musical composer, the
son of a Paris printseller, was born at Caen in Normandy on the 29th of
January 1782. Destined by his father to the pursuits of trade, he was
allowed, nevertheless, to indulge his fondness for music, and learnt to
play at an early age on several instruments, his first teacher being the
Tirolean composer, I.A. Ladurner. Sent at the age of twenty to London to
complete his business training, he was obliged to leave England in
consequence of the breach of the treaty of Amiens (1804). He had already
attempted musical composition, and at this period produced several
_concertos pour basse_, in the manner of the violoncellist, Lamarre, in
whose name they were published. The praise given to his concerto for the
violin, which was played at the Conservatoire by Mazas, encouraged him
to undertake the resetting of the old comic opera, _Julie_ (1811).
Conscious by this time of the need of regular study of his chosen art,
he placed himself under the severe training of Cherubini, by which the
special qualities of the young composer were admirably developed. In
1813 he made his _début_ in an opera in one act, the _Séjour militaire_,
the unfavourable reception of which put an end for some years to his
attempts as composer. But the failure in business and death of his
father, in 1819, compelled him once more to turn to music, and to make
that which had been his pastime the serious employment of his life. He
produced another opera, the _Testament et les billets-deux_ (1819),
which was no better received than the former. But he persevered, and the
next year was rewarded by the complete success of his _Bergère
châtelaine_, an opera in three acts. This was the first in a long series
of brilliant successes. In 1822 began his long association with A.E.
Scribe, who shared with him, as librettist, the success and growing
popularity of his compositions. The opera of _Leicester_, in which they
first worked together (1823), is remarkable also as showing evidences of
the influence of Rossini. But his own style was an individual one,
marked by lightness and facility, sparkling vivacity, grace and
elegance, clear and piquant melody--characteristically French. In _La
Muette de Portici_, familiarly known as _Masaniello_, Auber achieved his
greatest musical triumph. Produced at Paris in 1828, it rapidly became a
European favourite, and its overture, songs and choruses were everywhere
heard. The duet, "Amour sacré de la patrie," was welcomed like a new
_Marseillaise_; sung by Nourrit at Brussels in 1830, it became the
signal for the revolution which broke out there. Of Auber's remaining
operas (about 50 in all) the more important are: _Le Maçon_ (1825), _La
Fiancée_ (1829), _Fra Diavolo_ (1830), _Lestocq_ (1834), _Le Cheval de
bronze_ (1835), _L'Ambassadrice_ (1836), _Le Domino noir_ (1837), _Le
Lac des fées_ (1839), _Les Diamants de la couronne_ (1841), _Haydée_
(1847), _Marco Spada_ (1853), _Manon Lescaut_ (1856), and _La Fiancée du
roi des Garbes_ (1864). Official and other dignities testified the
public appreciation of Auber's works. In 1829 he was elected member of
the Institute, in 1830 he was named director of the court concerts, and
in 1842, at the wish of Louis Philippe, he succeeded Cherubini as
director of the Conservatoire. He was also a member of the Legion of
Honour from 1825, and attained the rank of commander in 1847. Napoleon
III. made Auber his Imperial Maître de Chapelle in 1857.

One of Auber's latest compositions was a march, written for the opening
of the International Exhibition in London in 1862. His fascinating
manners, his witty sayings, and his ever-ready kindness and beneficence
won for him a secure place in the respect and love of his
fellow-citizens. He remained in his old home during the German siege of
Paris, 1870-71, but the miseries of the Communist war which followed
sickened his heart, and he died in Paris on the 13th of May 1871.

  See Adolph Kohut, "Auber," vol. xvii. of _Musiker Biographien_
  (Leipzig, 1895).



AUBERGINE (diminutive of Fr. _auberge_, a variant of _alberge_, a kind
of peach), or EGG PLANT (_Solanum melongena_, var. _ovigerum_), a tender
annual widely cultivated in the warmer parts of the earth, and in France
and Italy, for the sake of its fruits, which are eaten as a vegetable.
The seed should be sown early in February in a warm pit, where the
plants are grown till shifted into 8-in. or 10-in. pots, in well-manured
soil. Liquid manure should be given occasionally while the fruit is
swelling; about four fruits are sufficient for one plant. The French
growers sow them in a brisk heat in December, or early in January, and
in March plant them out four or eight in a hot-bed with a bottom heat of
from 60° to 68°, the sashes being gradually more widely opened as the
season advances, until at about the end of May they may be taken off.
The two main branches which are allowed are pinched to induce laterals,
but when the fruits are set all young shoots are taken off in order to
increase their size. The best variety is the large purple, which
produces oblong fruit, sometimes reaching 6 or 7 in. in length and 10 or
12 in. in circumference. The fruit of the ordinary form almost exactly
resembles the egg of the domestic fowl. It is also grown as an
ornamental plant, for covering walls or trellises; especially the
black-fruited kind.



AUBERVILLIERS, or AUBERVILLIERS-LES-VERTUS, a town of northern France,
in the department of Seine, on the canal St Denis, 2 m. from the right
bank of the Seine and 1 m. N. of the fortifications of Paris. Pop.
(1906) 33,358. Its manufactures include cardboard, glue, oils, colours,
fertilizers, chemical products, perfumery, &c. During the middle ages
and till modern times Aubervilliers was the resort of numerous pilgrims,
who came to pay honour to Notre Dame des Vertus. In 1814 the locality
was the scene of a stubborn combat between the French and the Allies.



AUBIGNAC, FRANÇOIS HÉDELIN, ABBÉ D' (1604-1676), French author, was born
at Paris on the 4th of August 1604. His father practised at the Paris
bar, and his mother was a daughter of the great surgeon Ambroise Paré.
François Hédelin was educated for his father's profession, but, after
practising for some time at Nemours he abandoned law, took holy orders,
and was appointed tutor to one of Richelieu's nephews, the duc de
Fronsac. This patronage secured for him the abbey of Aubignac and of
Mainac. The death of the duc de Fronsac in 1646 put an end to hopes of
further preferment, and the Abbé d'Aubignac retired to Nemours,
occupying himself with literature till his death on the 25th of July
1676. He took an energetic share in the literary controversies of his
time. Against Gilles Ménage he wrote a _Térence justifié_ (1656); he
laid claim to having originated the idea of the "_Carte de tendre_" of
Mlle de Scudéry's _Clélie_; and after being a professed admirer of
Corneille he turned against him because he had neglected to mention the
abbé in his _Discours sur le poème dramatique_. He was the author of
four tragedies: _La Cyminde_ (1642), _La Pucelle d'Orléans_ (1642),
_Zénobie_ (1647) and _Le Martyre de Sainte Catherine_ (1650). _Zénobie_
was written with the intention of affording a model in which the strict
rules of the drama, as understood by the theorists, were observed. In
the choice of subjects for his plays, he seems to have been guided by a
desire to illustrate the various kinds of tragedy--patriotic, antique
and religious. The dramatic authors whom he was in the habit of
criticizing were not slow to take advantage of the opportunity for
retaliation offered by the production of these mediocre plays. It is as
a theorist that D'Aubignac still arrests attention. It has been proved
that to Jean Chapelain belongs the credit of having been the first to
establish as a practical law the convention of the unities that plays
so large a part in the history of the French stage; but the laws of
dramatic method and construction generally were codified by d'Aubignac
in his _Pratique du théâtre._ The book was only published in 1657, but
had been begun at the desire of Richelieu as early as 1640. His
_Conjectures académiques sur l'Iliade d'Homère_, which was not published
until nearly forty years after his death, threw doubts on the existence
of Homer, and anticipated in some sense the conclusions of Friedrich
August Wolf in his _Prolegomena ad Homerum_ (1795).

  The contents of the _Pratique du théâtre_ are summarized by F.
  Brunetière in his notice of Aubignac in the _Grande Encydopédie._ See
  also G. Saintsbury, _Hist. of Criticism_, bk. v., and H. Rigault,
  _Hist. de la querelle des anciens et modernes._ (1859).



AUBIGNÉ, CONSTANT D' [BARON DE SURINEAU] (c. 1584-1647), French
adventurer, was the son of Théodore Agrippa d'Aubigné, and the father of
Madame de Maintenon. Born a Protestant, he became by turns Catholic or
Protestant as it suited his interests. He betrayed the Protestants in
1626, revealing to the court, after a voyage to England, the projects of
the English upon La Rochelle. He was renounced by his father; then
imprisoned by Richelieu's orders at Niort, where he was detained ten
years. After having tried his fortunes in the Antilles, he died in
Provence, leaving in destitution his wife, Jeanne de Cardillac, whom he
had married in 1627. He had two children, Charles, father of the duchess
of Noailles, and Françoise, known in history as Madame de Maintenon.

  See T. Lavallée, _La Famille d'Aubigné et l'enfance de Madame de
  Maintenon_ (Paris, 1863).



AUBIGNÉ, JEAN HENRI MERLE D' (1794-1872), Swiss Protestant divine and
historian, was born on the 16th of August 1794, at Eaux Vives, near
Geneva. The ancestors of his father, Aimé Robert Merle d'Aubigné
(1755-1799), were French Protestant refugees. Jean Henri was destined by
his parents to a commercial life; but at college he decided to be
ordained. He was profoundly influenced by Robert Haldane, the Scottish
missionary and preacher who visited Geneva. When in 1817 he went abroad
to further his education, Germany was about to celebrate the
tercentenary of the Reformation; and thus early he conceived the
ambition to write the history of that great epoch. At Berlin he received
stimulus from teachers so unlike as J.A.W. Neander and W.M.L. de Wette.
After presiding for five years over the French Protestant church at
Hamburg, he was, in 1823, called to become pastor of a congregation in
Brussels and preacher to the court. He became also president of the
consistory of the French and German Protestant churches. At the Belgian
revolution of 1830 he thought it advisable to undertake pastoral work at
home rather than to accept an educational post in the family of the
Dutch king. The Evangelical Society had been founded with the idea of
promoting evangelical Christianity in Geneva and elsewhere, but it was
found that there was also needed a theological school for the training
of pastors. On his return to Switzerland, d'Aubigné was invited to
become professor of church history in an institution of the kind, and
continued to labour in the cause of evangelical Protestantism. In him
the Evangelical Alliance found a hearty promoter. He frequently visited
England, was made a D.C.L. by Oxford University, and received civic
honours from the city of Edinburgh. He died suddenly in 1872.

His principal works are--_Discours sur l'étude de l'histoire de
Christianisme_ (Geneva, 1832); _Le Luthéranisme et la Réforme_ (Paris,
1844); _Germany, England and Scotland, or Recollections of a Swiss
Pastor_ (London, 1848); _Trois siècles de lutte en Écosse, ou deux rois
et deux royaumes; Le Protecteur ou la république d'Angleterre aux jours
de Cromwell_ (Paris, 1848); _Le Concile et l'infaillibililé_ (1870);
_Histoire de la Réformation au XVI^ième siècle_ (Paris, 1835-1853; new
ed:, 1861-1862, in 5 vols.); and _Histoire de la Réformation en Europe
au temps de Calvin_ (8 vols., 1862-1877).

The first portion of his _Histoire de la Réformation_, which was devoted
to the earlier period of the movement in Germany, gave him at once a
foremost place amongst modern French ecclesiastical historians, and was
translated into most European tongues. The second portion, dealing with
reform in the time of Calvin, was not less thorough, and had a subject
hitherto less exhaustively treated, but it did not meet with the same
success. This part of the subject, with which he was most competent to
deal, was all but completed at the time of his death. Among his minor
treatises, the most important are the vindication of the character and
aims of Oliver Cromwell, and the sketch of the contendings of the Church
of Scotland.

Indefatigable in sifting original documents, Aubigné had amassed a
wealth of authentic information; but his desire to give in all cases a
full and graphic picture, assisted by a vivid imagination, betrayed him
into excess of detail concerning minor events, and in a few cases into
filling up a narrative by inference from later conditions. Moreover, in
his profound sympathy with the Reformers, he too frequently becomes
their apologist. But his work is a monument of painstaking sincerity,
and brings us into direct contact with the spirit of the period.



AUBIGNÉ, THÉODORE AGRIPPA D' (1552-1630), French poet and historian, was
born at St Maury, near Pons, in Saintonge, on the 8th of February 1552.
His name Agrippa (_aegre partus_) was given him through his mother dying
in childbirth. In his childhood he showed a great aptitude for
languages; according to his own account he knew Latin, Greek and Hebrew
at six years of age; and he had translated the _Crito_ of Plato before
he was eleven. His father, a Huguenot who had been one of the
conspirators of Amboise, strengthened his Protestant sympathies by
showing him, while they were passing through that town on their way to
Paris, the heads of the conspirators exposed upon the scaffold, and
adjuring him not to spare his own head in order to avenge their death.
After a brief residence he was obliged to flee from Paris to avoid
persecution, but was captured and threatened with death. Escaping
through the intervention of a friend, he went to Montargis. In his
fourteenth year he was present at the siege of Orléans, at which his
father was killed. His guardian sent him to Geneva, where he studied for
a considerable time under the direction of Beza. In 1567 he made his
escape from tutelage, and attached himself to the Huguenot army under
the prince of Condé. Subsequently he joined Henry of Navarre, whom he
succeeded in withdrawing from the corrupting influence of the house of
Valois (1576), and to whom he rendered valuable service, both as a
soldier and as a counsellor, in the wars that issued in his elevation to
the throne as Henry IV. After a furious battle at Casteljaloux, and
suffering from fever from his wounds, he wrote his _Tragiques_ (1571).
He was in the battle of Coutras (1587), and at the siege of Paris
(1590). His career at camp and court, however, was a somewhat chequered
one, owing to the roughness of his manner and the keenness of his
criticisms, which made him many enemies and severely tried the king's
patience. In his _tragédie-ballet Circe_ (1576) he did not hesitate to
indulge in the most outspoken sarcasm against the king and other members
of the royal family. Though he more than once found it expedient to
retire into private life he never entirely lost the favour of Henry, who
made him governor of Maillezais. After the conversion of the king to
Roman Catholicism, d'Aubigné remained true to the Huguenot cause, and a
fearless advocate of the Huguenot interests. The first two volumes of
the work by which he is best known, his _Histoire universelle depuis
1550 jusqu'à l'an 1601_, appeared in 1616 and 1618 respectively. The
third volume was published in 1619, but, being still more free and
personal in its satire than those which had preceded it, it was
immediately ordered to be burned by the common hangman. The work is a
lively chronicle of the incidents of camp and court life, and forms a
very valuable source for the history of France during the period it
embraces. In September 1620 its author was compelled to take refuge in
Geneva, where he found a secure retreat for the last ten years of his
life, though the hatred of the French court showed itself in procuring a
sentence of death to be recorded against him more than once. He devoted
the period of his exile to study, and the superintendence of works for
the fortifications of Bern and Basel which were designed as a material
defence of the cause of Protestantism. He died at Geneva on the 29th of
April 1630.

  A complete edition of his works according to the original MSS. was
  begun by E. Réaume and F. de Caussade (1879). It contains all the
  literary works, the _Aventures du baron de Faeneste_ (1617), and the
  _Mémoires_ (6 vols., 1873-1892). The best edition of the _Histoire
  universelle_ is by A. de Ruble. The _Mémoires_ were edited by L.
  Lalanne (1854).



AUBIN, a town of southern France, in the department of Aveyron on the
Enne, 30 m. N.W. of Rodez. In 1906 the urban population was 2229, the
communal population 9986. Aubin is the centre of important coal-mines
worked in the middle ages, and also has iron-mines, the product of which
supplies iron works close to the town. Sheep-breeding is important in
the vicinity. The church dates from the 12th century.



AUBREY, JOHN (1626-1697), English antiquary, was born at Easton Pierse
or Percy, near Malmesbury, Wiltshire, on the 12th of March 1626, his
father being a country gentleman of considerable fortune. He was
educated at the Malmesbury grammar school under Robert Latimer, who had
numbered Thomas Hobbes among his earlier pupils, and at his
schoolmaster's house Aubrey first met the philosopher about whom he was
to leave so many curious and interesting details. He entered Trinity
College, Oxford, in 1642, but his studies were interrupted by the Civil
War. In 1646 he became a student of the Middle Temple, but was never
called to the bar. He spent much of his time in the country, and in 1649
he brought into notice the megalithic remains at Avebury. His father
died in 1652, leaving to Aubrey large estates, and with them,
unfortunately, complicated lawsuits. Aubrey, however, lived gaily, and
used his means to gratify his passion for the company of celebrities and
for every sort of knowledge to be gleaned about them. Anthony à Wood
prophesied that he would one day break his neck while running downstairs
after a retreating guest, in the hope of extracting a story from him. He
took no active share in the political troubles of the time, but from his
description of a meeting of the Rota Club, founded by James Harrington,
the author of _Oceana_, he appears to have been a theorizing republican.
His reminiscences on this subject date from the Restoration, and are
probably softened by considerations of expediency. In 1663 he became a
member of the Royal Society, and in the next year he met Joan Somner,
"in an ill hour," he tells us. This connexion did not end in marriage,
and a lawsuit with the lady complicated his already embarrassed affairs.
He lost estate after estate, until in 1670 he parted with his last piece
of property, Easton Pierse. From this time he was dependent on the
hospitality of his numerous friends. In 1667 he had made the
acquaintance of Anthony à Wood at Oxford, and when Wood began to gather
materials for his invaluable _Athenae Oxonienses_, Aubrey offered to
collect information for him. From time to time he forwarded memoranda to
him, and in 1680 he began to promise the "Minutes for Lives," which Wood
was to use at his discretion. He left the task of verification largely
to Wood. As a hanger-on in great houses he had little time for
systematic work, and he wrote the "Lives" in the early morning while his
hosts were sleeping off the effects of the dissipation of the night
before. He constantly leaves blanks for dates and facts, and many
queries. He made no attempt at a fair copy, and, when fresh information
occurred to him, inserted it at random. He made some distinction between
hearsay and authentic information, but had no pretence to accuracy, his
retentive memory being the chief authority. The principal charm of his
"Minutes" lies in the amusing details he has to recount about his
personages, and in the plainness and truthfulness that he permits
himself in face of established reputations. In 1592 he complained
bitterly that Wood had destroyed forty pages of his MS., probably
because of the dangerous freedom of Aubrey's pen. Wood Was prosecuted
eventually for insinuations against the judicial integrity of the earl
of Clarendon. One of the two statements called in question was certainly
founded on information provided by Aubrey. This perhaps explains the
estrangement between the two antiquaries and the ungrateful account that
Wood gives of the elder man's character. "He was a shiftless person,
roving and magotic-headed, and sometimes little better than crased. And
being exceedingly credulous, would stuff his many letters sent to A.W.
with follies and misinformations, which sometimes would guide him into
the paths of error."[1] In 1673 Aubrey began his "Perambulation" or
"Survey" of the county of Surrey, which was the result of many years'
labour in collecting inscriptions and traditions in the country. He
began a "History of his Native District of Northern Wiltshire," but,
feeling that he was too old to finish it as he would wish, he made over
his material, about 1695, to Thomas Tanner, afterwards bishop of St
Asaph. In the next year he published his only completed, though
certainly not his most valuable work, the _Miscellanies_, a collection
of stories on ghosts and dreams. He died at Oxford in June 1697, and was
buried in the church of St Mary Magdalene.

  Beside the works already mentioned, his papers included:
  "Architectonica Sacra," notes on ecclesiastical antiquities; and "Life
  of Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury," which served as the basis of Dr
  Blackburn's Latin life, and also of Wood's account. His survey of
  Surrey was incorporated in R. Rawlinson's _Natural History and
  Antiquities of Surrey_ (1719); his antiquarian notes on Wiltshire were
  printed in _Wiltshire; the Topographical Collections of John Aubrey_,
  corrected and enlarged by J.E. Jackson (Devizes, 1862); part of
  another MS. on "The Natural History of Wiltshire" was printed by John
  Britton in 1847 for the Wiltshire Topographical Society; the
  _Miscellanies_ were edited in 1890 for the _Library of Old Authors_;
  the "Minutes for Lives" were partially edited in 1813. A complete
  transcript, _Brief Lives chiefly of Contemporaries set down by John
  Aubrey between the Years 1669 and 1696_, was edited for the Clarendon
  Press in 1898 by the Rev. Andrew Clark from the MSS. in the Bodleian,
  Oxford.

  See also John Britton, _Memoir of John Aubrey_ (1845); David Masson,
  in the _British Quarterly Review_, July 1856; Émile Montégut, _Heures
  de lecture d'un critique_ (1891); and a catalogue of Aubrey's
  collections in _The Life and Times of Anthony Wood_ ..., by Andrew
  Clark (Oxford, 1891-1900, vol. iv. pp. 191-193), which contains many
  other references to Aubrey.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] "Life of Anthony à Wood written by Himself" (_Athen. Oxon._, ed.
    Bliss).



AUBURN, a city and the county-seat of Androscoggin county, Maine,
U.S.A., on the Androscoggin river, opposite Lewiston (with which it
practically forms an industrial unit), in the S.W. part of the state.
Pop. (1890) 11,250; (1900) 12,951, of whom 2076 were foreign-born;
(1910, census) 15,064. It is served by the Grand Trunk and the Maine
Central railways. The river furnishes abundant water-power, and the city
ranked fourth in the state as a manufacturing centre in 1905. Boots and
shoes are the principal products; in 1905 seven-tenths of the city's
wage-earners were engaged in their manufacture, and Auburn's output
($4,263,162 = 66.5% of the total factory product of the city) was
one-third of that of the whole state. Other manufactures are butter,
bread and other bakery products, cotton goods, furniture and leather.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks. Auburn was first
settled in 1786, and was incorporated in 1842, but the present charter
dates only from 1869.



AUBURN, a city and the county-seat of Cayuga county, New York, U.S.A.,
25 m. S.W. of Syracuse, on an outlet of Owasco Lake. Pop. (1890) 25,858;
(1900) 30,345, of whom 5436 were foreign-born, 2084 being from Ireland
and 1023 from England; (1910) 34,668. It is served by the Lehigh Valley
and the New York Central & Hudson River railways, and by inter-urban
electric lines. The city is attractively situated amidst a group of low
hills in the heart of the lake country of western New York; the streets
are wide, with a profusion of shade trees. Auburn has a city hall, the
large Burtis Auditorium, the Auburn hospital, two orphan asylums, and
the Seymour library in the Case Memorial building. There is a fine
bronze statue of William H. Seward, who made his home here after 1823,
and was buried in Fort Hill Cemetery. In Auburn are the Auburn (State)
prison (1816), in connexion with which there is a women's prison; the
Auburn Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), founded in 1819, chartered
in 1820, and opened for students in 1821; the Robinson school for girls;
and the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, for the education of
working girls, with a building erected in 1907. The city owns its
water-supply system, the water being pumped from Owasco Lake, about 2½
m. S.S.E. of the city. There is a good water-power, and the city has
important manufacturing interests. The principal manufactures are
cordage and twine, agricultural implements, engines, pianos, boots and
shoes, cotton and woollen goods, carpets and rugs, rubber goods, flour
and machinery. The total factory product in 1905 was valued at
$13,420,863; of this $2,890,301 was the value of agricultural
implements, in the manufacture of which Auburn ranked fifth among the
cities of the United States. There are a number of grey and blue
limestone quarries, one of which is owned and operated by the
municipality.

Settled soon after the close of the War of Independence, Auburn was laid
out in 1793 by Captain John L. Hardenburgh, a veteran of the war, and
for some years was known as Hardenburgh's Corners. In 1805, when it was
made the county-seat, it was renamed Auburn. It was incorporated in
1814, and was chartered as a city in 1848.

  See C. Hawley, _Early Chapters of Cayuga History_ (Auburn, 1879).



AUBURN (from the Low Lat. _alburnus_, whitish, light-coloured),
ruddy-brown; the meaning has changed from the original one of
brownish-white or light yellow (_citrinus_, in _Promptorium
Parvulorum_), probably through the intensification of the idea of brown
caused by the early spelling "abron" or "abrown."



AUBUSSON, PIERRE D' (1423-1503), grand-master of the order of St John of
Jerusalem, and a zealous opponent of the Turks, was born in 1423. He
belonged to a noble French family, and early devoted himself to the
career of a soldier in the service of the emperor Sigismund. Under the
archduke Albert of Austria he took part in a campaign against the Turks,
and on his return to France sided with the Armagnacs against the Swiss,
greatly distinguishing himself at the battle of St Jacob in 1444. He
then joined the order of the knights of Rhodes, and successfully
conducted an expedition against the pirates of the Levant and an embassy
to Charles VII. He soon rose to the most important offices in the order,
and in 1476 was elected grand-master. It was the period of the conquests
of Mahommed II., who, supreme in the East, now began to threaten Europe.
In December 1479 a large Turkish fleet appeared in sight of Rhodes; a
landing was effected, and a vigorous attack made upon the city. But in
July of the next year, being reinforced from Spain, the knights forced
the Mussulmans to retire, leaving behind them 9000 dead. The siege, in
which d'Aubusson was seriously wounded, enhanced his renown throughout
Europe. Mahommed was furious, and would have attacked the island again
but for his death in 1481. His succession was disputed between his sons
Bayezid and Jem. The latter, after his defeat by Bayezid, sought refuge
at Rhodes under a safe-conduct from the grand-master and the council of
the knights. What followed remains a stain on d'Aubusson's memory.
Rhodes not being considered secure, Jem with his own consent was sent to
France. Meanwhile, in spite of the safe-conduct, d'Aubusson accepted an
annuity of 45,000 ducats from the sultan; in return for which he
undertook to guard Jem in such a way as to prevent his design of
appealing to the Christian powers to aid him against his brother. For
six years Jem, in spite of frequent efforts to escape, was kept a close
prisoner in various castles of the Rhodian order in France, until in
1489 he was handed over to Pope Innocent VIII., who had been vying with
the kings of Hungary and Naples for the possession of so valuable a
political weapon. D'Aubusson's reward was a cardinal's hat (1489), and
the power to confer all benefices connected with the order without the
sanction of the papacy; the order of St John received the wealth of the
suppressed orders of the Holy Sepulchre and St Lazarus. The remaining
years of his life d'Aubusson spent in the attempt to restore discipline
and zeal in his order, and to organize a grand international crusade
against the Turks. The age of the Renaissance, with Alexander Borgia on
the throne of St Peter, was, however, not favourable to such an
enterprise; the death of Jem in 1495 had removed the most formidable
weapon available against the sultan; and when in 1501 d'Aubusson led an
expedition against Mytilene, dissensions among his motley host rendered
it wholly abortive. The old man's last years were embittered by chagrin
at his failure, which was hardly compensated by his success in
extirpating Judaism in Rhodes, by expelling all adult Jews and forcibly
baptizing their children. In the summer of 1503 he died.

  See P. Bouhours, _Hist. de Pierre d'Aubusson_ (Paris, 1676; Hague,
  1793; abridged ed. Bruges, 1887); G.E. Streck, _Pierre d'Aubusson,
  Grossmeister_, &c. (Chemnitz, 1873); J.B. Bury in _Cambridge Mod.
  Hist._ vol. i. p. 85, &c. (for relations with Jem).



AUBUSSON, a town of France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Creuse, picturesquely situated on the river Creuse 24 m.
S.E. of Guéret by rail. Pop. (1906) 6475. It has celebrated
manufactories of carpets, &c., employing about 2000 workmen, the
artistic standard of which is maintained by a national school of
decorative arts, founded in 1869. Nothing certain is known as to the
foundation of this industry, but it was in full activity at least as far
back as 1531. From the 10th to the 13th century Aubusson was the centre
of a viscounty, and the viscountess Marguerite, wife of Rainaud VI., was
sung by many a troubadour. After the death of the viscount Guy II. (a
little later than 1262) Aubusson was incorporated in the countship of La
Marche by Hugh XII. of Lusignan, and shared in its fortunes. Louis XIV.
revived the title of viscount of Aubusson in favour of François, first
marshall de la Feuillade (1686). From the family of the old viscounts
was descended Pierre d'Aubusson (q.v.). Admiral Sallandrouze de
Lamornaix (1840-1902) belonged to a family of tapestry manufacturers
established at Aubusson since the beginning of the 19th century.
Aubusson was also the native place of the novelists Leonard Sylvain,
Julien Sandeau and Alfred Assollant (1827-1886).

  See Le Père Anselme, _Hist. généalogique de la maison de France_, vol.
  v. pp. 318 et seq.; P. Mignaton, _Hist. de la maison d'Aubusson_
  (Paris, 1886); Cyprien Pérathon, _Hist. d'Aubusson_ (Limoges, 1886).
       (A. T.)



AUCH, a city of south-western France, capital of the department of Gers,
55 m. W. of Toulouse on the Southern railway. Pop. (1906) 9294. Auch is
built on the summit and sides of a hill at the foot of which flow the
yellow waters of the Gers. It consists of a lower and upper quarter
united in several places by flights of steps. The streets are in general
steep and narrow, but there is a handsome promenade in the upper town,
laid out in the 18th century by the _intendant_ Antoine Mégret d'Etigny.
Three bridges lead from the left to the right bank of the Gers, on which
the suburb of Patte d'Oie is situated. The most interesting part of the
town lies in the old quarter around the Place Salinis, a spacious
terrace which commands an extensive view over the surrounding country.
On its eastern side it communicates with the left bank of the river by a
handsome series of steps; on its north side rises the cathedral of
Sainte-Marie. This church, built from 1489 to 1662, belongs chiefly to
the Gothic style, of which it is one of the finest examples in southern
France. The façade, however, with its two square and somewhat heavy
flanking towers dates from the 17th century, and is Greco-Roman in
architecture. Sainte-Marie contains many artistic treasures, the chief
of which are the magnificent stained-glass windows of the Renaissance
which light the apsidal chapels, and the 113 choir-stalls of carved oak,
also of Renaissance workmanship. The archbishop's palace adjoins the
cathedral; it is a building of the 18th century with a Romanesque hall
and a tower of the 14th century. Opposite the south side of the
cathedral stands the lycée on the site of a former Jesuit college. Only
scanty remains are left of the once celebrated abbey of St Orens. The
ecclesiastical seminary contains an important library with a collection
of manuscripts, and there is a public library in the Carmelite chapel, a
building of the 17th century. The former palace of the _intendants_ of
Gascony is now used as the _préfecture_. Auch is the seat of an
archbishopric, a prefect and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of
first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycée,
training-colleges, a school of design, a branch of the Bank of France
and an important lunatic asylum. The manufactures include agricultural
implements, leather, vinegar and plaited sandals, and there is a trade
in brandy, wine, cattle, poultry and wool; there are quarries of
building-stone in the neighbourhood.

Auch (Elimberris) was the capital of a Celtiberian tribe, the Ausci, and
under the Roman domination was one of the most important cities in
Gaul. In the 4th century this importance was increased by the foundation
of its bishopric, and after the destruction of Eauze in the 9th century
it became the metropolis of Novempopulana. Till 732, Auch stood on the
right bank of the Gers, but in that year the ravages of the Saracens
drove the inhabitants to take refuge on the left bank of the river,
where a new city was formed. In the 10th century Count Bernard of
Armagnac founded the Benedictine abbey of St Orens, the monks of which,
till 1308, shared the jurisdiction over Auch with the archbishops--an
arrangement which gave rise to constant strife. The counts of Armagnac
possessed a castle in the city, which was the capital of Armagnac in the
middle ages. During the Religious Wars of the 16th century Auch remained
Catholic, except for a short occupation in 1569 by the Huguenots under
Gabriel, count of Montgomery. In the 18th century it was capital of
Gascony, and seat of a generality. Antoine Mégret d'Etigny, intendant
from 1751 to 1767, did much to improve the city and its commerce.



AUCHMUTY, SIR SAMUEL (1756-1822), British general, was born at New York
in 1756, and served as a loyalist in the American War of Independence,
being given an ensigncy in the royal army in 1777, and in 1778 a
lieutenancy in the 45th Foot, without purchase. When his regiment
returned to England after the war, having neither private means nor
influence, he exchanged into the 52nd, in order to proceed to India. He
took part in the last war against Hyder Ali; he was given a staff
appointment by Lord Cornwallis in 1790, served in the operations against
Tippoo Sahib, and continued in various staff appointments up to 1797,
when he returned to England a brevet lieut.-colonel. In 1800 he was made
lieut.-colonel and brevet colonel; and in the following year, as
adjutant-general to Sir David Baird in Egypt, took a distinguished share
in the march across the desert and the capture of Alexandria. On his
return to England in 1803 he was knighted, and three years later he went
out to the River Plate as a brigadier-general. Auchmuty was one of the
few officers who came out of the disastrous Buenos Aires expedition of
1806-7 with enhanced reputation. While General Whitelocke, the
commander, was cashiered, Auchmuty was at once re-employed and promoted
major-general, and was sent out in 1810 to command at Madras. In the
following year he commanded the expedition organized for the conquest of
Java, which the governor-general, Lord Minto, himself accompanied. The
storming of the strongly fortified position of Meester Cornelis (28th
August 1811), stubbornly defended by the Dutch garrison under General
Janssens, practically achieved the conquest of the island, and after the
action of Samarang (September 8th) Janssens surrendered. Auchmuty
received the thanks of parliament and the order of K.C.B. (G.C.B. in
1815), and in 1813, on his return home, was promoted to the rank of
lieut.-general. In 1821 he became commander-in-chief in Ireland, and a
member of the Irish privy council. He died suddenly on the 11th of
August 1822.



AUCHTERARDER (Gaelic, "upper high land"), a police burgh of Perthshire,
Scotland, 13¾ m. S.W. of Perth by the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901)
2276. It is situated on Ruthven Water, a right-hand tributary of the
Earn. The chief manufactures are those of tartans and other woollens,
and of agricultural implements. At the beginning of the 13th century it
obtained a charter from the earl of Strathearn, afterwards became a
royal burgh for a period, and was represented in the Scottish
parliament. Its castle, now ruinous, was built as a hunting-lodge for
Malcolm Canmore, but of the abbey which it possessed as early as the
reign of Alexander II. (1198-1249) no remains exist. The ancient church
of St Mungo, now in ruins, was a building in the Norman or Early Pointed
style. The town was almost entirely burned down by the earl of Mar in
1716 during the abortive Jacobite rising. It was in connexion with this
parish that the ecclesiastical dispute arose which led to the disruption
in the Church of Scotland in 1843. The estate of Kincardine, 1 m. south,
gives the title of earl of Kincardine to the duke of Montrose. The old
castle, now in ruins, was dismantled in 1645 by the marquis of Argyll in
retaliation for the destruction of Castle Campbell in Dollar Glen on the
south side of the Ochils. The old ruined castle of Tullibardine, 2 m
west of the burgh, once belonged to the Murrays of Tullibardine,
ancestors of the duke of Atholl, who derives the title of marquis of
Tullibardine from the estate. The ancient chapel adjoining, also
ruinous, was a burial-place of the Murrays.



AUCHTERMUCHTY (Gaelic, "the high ground of the wild sow"), a royal and
police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, built on an elevation about 9 m. W.
by S. of Cupar, with a station on a branch of the North British railway
from Ladybank to Mawcarse Junction. Pop. 1387. The rapid Loverspool Burn
divides the town. The principal industries include the weaving of linen
and damasks, bleaching, distilling and malting. John Glas, founder of
the sect known as Glassites or Sandemanians, was a native of the town. A
mile and a half to the south-west is the village of Strathmiglo (pop.
966), on the river Eden, with a linen factory and bleaching works.



AUCKLAND, GEORGE EDEN, EARL OF (1784-1849), English statesman, was the
second son of the 1st Baron Auckland. He completed his education at
Oxford, and was admitted to the bar in 1809. His elder brother was
drowned in the Thames in the following year; and in 1814, on the death
of his father, he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron Auckland.
He supported the Reform party steadily by his vote, and in 1830 was made
president of the Board of Trade and master of the Mint. In 1834 he held
office for a few months as first lord of the admiralty, and in 1835 he
was appointed governor-general of India. He proved himself to be a
painstaking and laborious legislator, and devoted himself specially to
the improvement of native schools, and the expansion of the commercial
industry of the nation committed to his care. These useful labours were
interrupted in 1838 by complications in Afghanistan, which excited the
fears not only of the Anglo-Indian government but of the home
authorities. Lord Auckland resolved to enter upon a war, and on the 1st
of October 1838 published at Simla his famous manifesto dethroning Dost
Mahommed. The early operations were crowned with success, and the
governor-general received the title of earl of Auckland. But reverses
followed quickly, and in the ensuing campaigns the British troops
suffered the most severe disasters. Lord Auckland had the double
mortification of seeing his policy a complete failure and of being
superseded before his errors could be rectified. In the autumn of 1841
he was succeeded in office by Lord Ellenborough, and returned to England
in the following year. In 1846 he was made first lord of the admiralty,
which office he held until his death, on the 1st of January 1849. He
died unmarried, and the earldom became extinct, the barony (see below)
passing to his brother Robert.

  See S.J. Trotter, _The Earl of Auckland_ ("Rulers of India" series),
  1893.



AUCKLAND, WILLIAM EDEN, 1ST BARON (1745-1814), English statesman, son of
Sir Robert Eden, 3rd Bart., of Windlestone Hall, Durham, and of Mary,
daughter of William Davison, was born in 1745, educated at Eton and
Christ Church, Oxford, and called to the bar at the Middle Temple in
1768. In 1771 he published _Principles of Penal Law_, and was early
recognized as an authority on commercial and economic questions, and in
1772 he was appointed an under secretary of state. He represented New
Woodstock in the parliaments of 1774 and 1780, and Heytesbury in those
of 1784 and 1790. In 1776 he was appointed a commissioner on the board
of trade and plantations. In 1778 he carried an act for the improvement
of the treatment of prisoners, and accompanied the earl of Carlisle as a
commissioner to North America on an unsuccessful mission to settle the
disputes with the colonists. On his return in 1779 he published his
widely read _Four Letters to the Earl of Carlisle_, and in 1780 became
chief secretary for Ireland. He was elected to the Irish House of
Commons as member for Dungannon in 1781 and sworn of the Irish privy
council, and while in Ireland established the National Bank. He advised
the increase of the secret service fund, and was reputed, according to
Lord Charlemont (a political opponent), as especially skilful in the
arts of corruption and in overcoming political prejudices. He resigned
in 1782, but in the following year he took office again as
vice-treasurer of Ireland under the coalition ministry, which he had
been instrumental in arranging, and was included in the privy council,
resigning with the government in December. He opposed strongly Pitt's
propositions for free trade between England and Ireland in 1785, but
took office with Pitt as a member of the committee on trade and
plantations, and negotiated in 1786 and 1787 Pitt's important commercial
treaty with France, and agreements concerning the East India Companies
and Holland. In 1787 he published his _History of New Holland_. Next
year he was sent as ambassador to Spain, and after his return was
created (September 1789) Baron Auckland in the Irish peerage. The same
year he was sent on a mission to Holland, and represented English
interests there with great zeal and prudence during the critical years
of 1790 to 1793, obtaining the assistance of the Dutch fleet in 1790 on
the menace of a war with Spain, signing the convention relating to the
Netherlands the same year, and in 1793 attending the congress at
Antwerp. He retired from the public service in the latter year, received
a pension of £2300, and was created Baron Auckland of West Auckland,
Durham, in the English peerage. During his retirement in the country at
Beckenham, he continued his intimacy with Pitt, his nearest neighbour at
Holwood, who at one time had thoughts of marrying his daughter; and with
Pitt's sanction he published his _Remarks on the Apparent Cicumstances
of the War_ in 1795, to prepare public opinion for a peace. In 1798 he
was included in Pitt's government as joint postmaster-general, and
supported strongly the income tax and the Irish Union, assisting in
drawing up the act embodying the latter. In 1799 he brought in a bill to
check adultery by preventing the marriage of the guilty parties, and the
same year took a mischievous part in the cabal against Sir Ralph
Abercromby. He severely criticized Pitt's resignation in 1801, from
which he had endeavoured to dissuade him, and retained office under
Addington. This terminated his friendship with Pitt, who excluded him
from his administration in 1804 though he increased his pension.
Auckland was included in Granville's ministry of "All the Talents" as
president of the board of trade in 1806. He held the appointments of
auditor and director of Greenwich hospital, recorder of Grantham, and
chancellor of the Marischal College in Aberdeen. He died on the 28th of
May 1814.

He had married in 1776 Eleanor, sister of the first Lord Minto, and had
a large family. Emily Eden (1797-1869), the novelist, was one of his
daughters. On the death of his son George, 2nd baron and earl of
Auckland (q.v.), the barony passed to the 1st baron's younger son Robert
John (1790-1870), bishop of Bath and Wells, from whom the later barons
were descended, and who was also the father of Sir Ashley Eden
(1831-1887), lieutenant-governor of Bengal. The 1st baron had two
distinguished brothers--Morton Eden (1752-1830), a diplomatist, who
married Lady Elizabeth Henley, and in 1799 was created 1st Baron Henley
(his family, from 1831, taking the name of Henley instead of Eden); and
Sir Robert Eden, governor of Maryland, whose son, Sir Frederic Morton
Eden (1766-1809), was a well-known economist.

  Lord Auckland's _Journal and Correspondence_, published in 1861-1862,
  throws much light on the political history of the time.



AUCKLAND, a city and seaport on the east coast of North Island, New
Zealand, in Eden county; capital of the province of its name, and the
seat of a bishop. Pop. (1906) 37,736; including suburbs, 82,101. It is
situated at the mouth of an arm of Hauraki Gulf, and is only 6 m.
distant from the head of Manukau harbour on the western coast. The
situation is extremely beautiful. The Hauraki Gulf, a great square inlet
opening northward, is studded with islands of considerable elevation;
Rangitoto, which protects the harbour, is a volcanic cone reaching
nearly 1000 ft. The isthmus on which the town stands (which position has
caused it to be likened to Corinth) can be crossed without surmounting
any great elevation, and offers a feasible canal route. A number of
small extinct volcanoes, however, appear in all directions. To the west
the Titirangi hills exceed 1400 ft. Some of the volcanic soil is barren,
but much of the district is clothed in luxuriant vegetation.

Auckland harbour, one of the best in New Zealand, is approachable by the
largest vessels at the lowest tide. There are two graving docks. Queen
Street, the principal thoroughfare, leads inland from the main dock, and
contains the majority of the public buildings. There is a small
government house, standing in beautiful grounds, adjoining Albert Park,
with plantations of oaks and pines. The government offices, art gallery
and exchange, with St Mary's cathedral (Anglican), a building in a
combination of native timbers, St Paul's and St Patrick's cathedral
(Roman Catholic), are noteworthy buildings. The art gallery and free
library contain excellent pictures, and valuable books and MSS.
presented by Sir G. Grey. The museum contains one of the best existing
collections of Maori art. There are an opera-house and an academy of
music. The Auckland University College and the grammar school are the
principal educational establishments. The parks are the Domain, with a
botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue
of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree Hill on the
outskirts, and Victoria Park on Freeman's Bay. The principal
thoroughfares are served by electric tramway. Of the suburbs, Newton,
Parnell and Newmarket are in reality outlying parts of the town itself.
Devonport, Birkenhead and Northcote are beautifully situated on the
north shore of the inlet, and are served by steam-ferries. Several other
residential suburbs lie among the hills on the mainland, such as Mount
Albert, Mount Eden and Epsom. Onehunga is a small port on Manukau
harbour, served by rail. In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop
Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the
constitution of the Anglican church. There are many associations with
his name in the neighbourhood. The prospect over the town and its
environs from Mount Eden is justly famous. The hill is terraced with
former native fortifications.

Auckland has industries of sugar-refining, ship-building and paper-,
rope- and brick-making, and timber is worked. The town was founded as
capital of the colony in 1840 by Governor Hobson. There is communication
both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of
the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to
1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865
that of the central government, which was then transferred to
Wellington. The first session of the general assembly took place here in
1854. Auckland is under municipal government.



AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a group in the Pacific Ocean, discovered in 1806 by
Captain Briscoe, of the English whaler "Ocean," in 50° 24' S., 166° 7'
E. The islands, of volcanic origin, are very fertile, and are covered
with forest. They were granted to the Messrs Enderby by the British
government as a whaling station, but the establishment was abandoned in
1852. The islands belong politically to New Zealand.



AUCTION PITCH, a card game which is a popular variation of All Fours
(q.v.). The name is derived from the rule that the first card played, or
_pitched_, is the trump suit, and that the eldest hand has the privilege
of pitching it or of selling out to the highest bidder. A full pack is
used, and the cards rank as in All Fours, namely from ace down to 2, ace
being highest in cutting also. From four to seven may play, each player
being provided with seven white counters, and also with red counters in
case stakes are played for. Each player receives six cards in every
deal, three at a time, no trump being turned. The object is to get rid
of the white counters, one of which may be put into the pool either (1)
for holding the highest trump played; (2) for having the lowest trump
dealt to one; (3) for taking the Jack (knave) of trumps; or (4) for
winning the _game_, namely the greatest number of pips that count. In
case of a tie of pips no game is scored. If the eldest hand decides to
pitch and not to sell out, he may do so, but is obliged to make four
points or be set back that number. If he decides to sell, he says "I
pass," and the player at his left bids for the privilege of pitching the
trump or passes, &c. When a bid has been made the rest must pass or bid
higher, and the eldest hand must either accept a bid or undertake to
make as many points as the bidder. If no bid is made he pitches the
trump himself, without the obligation of making anything. The first card
played is the trump suit, the winner of the trick leading again. In
trumps a player must follow suit if he can, and the same rule applies in
plain suits, excepting that a trump may be played at any time ("follow
suit or trump"). In play the highest card wins the trick unless trumped.
When the hand is played out each player puts a white counter into the
pool for every point won, and the first player to get rid of all his
seven white counters wins the pool and takes from it all the red
counters, which represent cash. This ends the game. In case two players
count out during the same deal, the bidder has the first right to the
pool, the rule being "bidder counts out first." If the two players who
count out are neither of them bidder, then they go out in regular order,
i.e. high first, then low, Jack and game. If a bidder fails to make his
points he is set back that number. A revoke is punished by the offender
being set back the number of points bid and forfeiting a red counter to
the pool.



AUCTIONS and AUCTIONEERS. An auction (Lat. _auctio_, increase) is a
proceeding at which people are invited to compete for the purchase of
property by successive offers of advancing sums. The advantages of
conducting a sale in this way are obvious, and we naturally find that
auctions are of great antiquity. Herodotus describes a custom which
prevailed in Babylonian villages of disposing of the maidens in marriage
by delivering them to the highest bidders in an assembly annually held
for the purpose (Book i. 196). So also among the Romans the quaestor
sold military booty and captives in war by auction--_sub hasta_--the
spear being the symbol of quiritarian ownership. The familiarity of such
proceedings is forcibly suggested by the conduct of the Praetorian Guard
when Sulpicianus was treating for the imperial dignity after the murder
of Pertinax. Apprehending that they would not obtain a sufficient price
by private contract, the Praetorians proclaimed from their ramparts that
the Roman world was to be disposed of by public auction to the best
bidder. Thereupon Julian proceeded to the foot of the ramparts and
outbid his competitor (Gibbon, vol. i. ch. v.). Though, however,
auctions were undoubtedly common among the Romans both in public and
private transactions, the rules whereby they were governed are by no
means clearly enunciated in the _Corpus Juris Civilis_.

In England the method of conducting auctions has varied. In some places
it has been usual to set up an inch of lighted candle, the person making
the last bid before the fall of the wick becoming the purchaser. By an
act of William III. (1698), this method of sale was prescribed for goods
and merchandise imported from the East Indies. Lord Eldon speaks of
"candlestick biddings," where the several bidders did not know what the
others had offered. A "dumb bidding" was the name given to a proceeding
at which a price was put by the owner under a candlestick with a
stipulation that no bidding should avail if not equal to it. In a "Dutch
auction" property is offered at a certain price and then successively at
lower prices until one is accepted.

According to the practice now usual in England, a proposed auction is
duly advertised, and a printed catalogue in the case of chattels, or
particulars of sale in the case of land, together with conditions of
sale, are circulated. Sometimes, in sales of goods, the conditions are
merely suspended in the auction room. At the appointed time and place,
the auctioneer, standing in a desk or rostrum, "puts up" the several
lots in turn by inviting biddings from the company present. He announces
the acceptance of the last bid by a tap with his hammer and so "knocks
down" the lot to the person who has made it. Sometimes property is
offered on lease to the highest bidder. "Roup" is the Scottish term for
an auction. A bid in itself is only an offer, and may accordingly be
retracted at any time before its acceptance by the fall of the hammer or
otherwise. Puffing is unlawful. Unless a right to bid is expressly
reserved on behalf of the vendor, he must neither bid himself nor employ
any one else to bid. When a right to bid has been expressly reserved,
the seller or any one person (but no more) on his behalf may bid at the
auction. If it is simply announced that the sale is to be subject to a
reserved or upset price, no bidding by or on behalf of the seller is
permissible: it is only lawful to declare by some appropriate terms that
the property is withdrawn. Where a sale is expressed to be without
reserve, or where an upset price has been reached, the auctioneer must,
after the lapse of a reasonable interval, accept the bid of the highest
_bona fide_ bidder. By not doing so he would render the vendor liable in
damages. The auctioneer must not make a pretence of receiving bids which
are not in fact made, as it would be fraudulent to run up the price by
such an artifice. A "knock-out" is a combination of persons to prevent
competition between themselves at an auction by an arrangement that only
one of their number shall bid, and that anything obtained by him shall
be afterwards disposed of privately among themselves. Such a combination
is not illegal. A "mock auction" is a proceeding at which persons
conspire by artifice to make it appear, contrary to the fact, that a
_bona fide_ sale is being conducted, and so attempt to induce the public
to purchase articles at prices far above their value. Those who invite
the public to enter the room where the supposed auction is proceeding,
or otherwise endeavour to attract bidders, are called "barkers." A
conspiracy to defraud in this way is an indictable offence.

American law is in general the same as the English law with regard to
auctions. As to bidding by the vendor, however, it is less stringent.
For, though puffing or by-bidding, as it is often called, will, under
both systems alike, render an auction sale voidable at the option of a
purchaser when it amounts to fraud, the weight of authority in the
United States is in favour of the view that an owner may, without
notice, employ a person to bid for him, if he does so with no other
purpose than to prevent a sacrifice of the property under a given price.

By a charter of Henry VII., confirmed by Charles I., the business of
selling by auction was confined to an officer called an _outroper_, and
all other persons were prohibited from selling goods or merchandise by
public claim or outcry (see Henry Blackstone's _Reports_, vol. ii. p.
557). The only qualification now required by an auctioneer is a licence
on which a duty of £10 has to be paid, and which must be renewed before
the 5th of July in each year. A liability to a penalty of £100 is
incurred by acting as an auctioneer without being duly licensed. The
duty formerly imposed upon the purchase-money payable by virtue of a
sale at auction was abolished by an act of 1845. An auctioneer is bound
under a penalty of £20 to see that his full name and address are
displayed before the commencement of an auction and during its
continuance in the place where he conducts it. He is the agent of the
vendor only, except in so far that, after he has knocked down a lot to
the highest bidder, he has authority to affix the name of the latter to
a memorandum of the transaction, so as to render the contract of sale
enforceable where written evidence is necessary. An auctioneer does not,
by merely announcing that a sale of certain articles will take place,
render himself liable to those who, in consequence, attend at the time
and place advertised, if the sale is not in fact proceeded with,
provided he acts in good faith. One of the chief risks run by an
auctioneer is that of being held liable for the conversion of goods
which he has sold upon the instructions of a person whom he believed to
be the owner, but who in fact had no right to dispose of them.

The number of auctioneers' licences issued during the year ended the
31st of March 1908 was in England 6639, in Scotland 760, and in Ireland
839. A central organization having its headquarters in London, the
Auctioneers' Institute of the United Kingdom, was founded in 1886, in
order to elevate the status and further the interests of auctioneers,
estate agents and valuers. It has nearly 2000 members.     (H. Ha.)



AUCUBA, the Japanese name for a small genus of the Dogwood order
(Cornaceae). The familiar Japanese laurel of gardens and shrubberies is
_Aucuba japonica_. It bears male and female flowers on distinct plants;
the red berries often last till the next season's flowers appear. There
are numerous varieties in cultivation, differing in the variegation of
their leaves.



AUDAEUS, or AUDIUS, a church reformer of the 4th century, by birth a
Mesopotamian. He suffered much persecution from the Syrian clergy for
his fearless censure of their irregular lives, and was expelled from the
church, thereupon establishing an episcopal monastic community. He was
afterwards banished into Scythia, where he worked successfully among the
Goths, not living to see the destruction of his labours by Athanaric.
The Audaeans celebrated the feast of Easter on the same day as the
Jewish Passover, and they were also charged with attributing to the
Deity a human shape, an opinion which they appear to have founded on
Genesis i. 26. Theodoret groundlessly accuses them of Manichean
tendencies.

  The main source of information is Epiphanius (_Haer._ 70).



AUDE, a river of south-western France, rising in the eastern Pyrenees
and flowing into the Golfe du Lion. Rising in a small lake a short
distance east of the Puy de Carlitte, it soon takes a northerly
direction and flows for many miles through deep gorges of great beauty
as far as the plain of Axat. Beyond Axat its course again lies through
defiles which become less profound as the river nears Carcassonne. Below
that town it receives the waters of the Fresquel and turns abruptly
east. From this point to its junction with the Cesse its course is
parallel with that of the Canal du Midi. The river skirts the northern
spurs of the Corbières, some distance below which it is joined by the
Orbieu and the Cesse. It then divides into two branches, the
northernmost of which, the Aude proper, runs east and empties into the
Mediterranean some 12 m. east-north-east of Narbonne, while the other
branch, the Canal de la Robine, turning south, traverses that town,
below which its course to the sea lies between two extensive lagoons,
the Étang de Bages et de Sigean and the Étang de Gruissan. The Aude has
a length of 140 m. and a basin 2061 sq. m. in extent. There is
practically no traffic upon it.



AUDE, a maritime department of southern France, formed in 1790 from part
of the old province of Languedoc. Area, 2448 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 308,327.
It is bounded E. by the Mediterranean, N. by the departments of Hérault
and Tarn, N.W. by Haute-Garonne, W. by Ariège, and S. by
Pyrénées-Orientales. The department is traversed on its western boundary
from S. to N. by a mountain range of medium height, which unites the
Pyrenees with the southern Cévennes; and its northern frontier is
occupied by the Montagne Noire, the most westerly portion of the
Cévennes. The Corbières, a branch of the Pyrenees, run in a south-west
and north-east direction along the southern district. The Aude (q.v.),
its principal river, has almost its entire length in the department, and
its lower course, together with its tributary the Fresquel, forms the
dividing line between the Montagne Noire and the Pyrenean system.

The lowness of the coast causes a series of large lagoons, the chief of
which are those of Bages et Sigean, Gruissan, Lapalme and Leucate. The
climate is warm and dry, but often sudden in its alterations. The wind
from the north-west, known as the _cers_, blows with great violence, and
the sea-breeze is often laden with pestilential effluvia from the
lagoons. The agriculture of the department is in a flourishing
condition. The meadows are extensive and well watered, and are pastured
by numerous flocks and herds. The grain produce, consisting mainly of
wheat, oats, rye and Indian corn, exceeds the consumption, and the
vineyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red wines, those of
Limoux and the Narbonnais being most highly esteemed. Truffles are
abundant. The olive and chestnut are the chief fruits. Mines of iron,
manganese, and especially of mispickel, are worked, and there are
stone-quarries and productive salt-marshes. Brewing, distilling,
cooperage, iron-founding, hat-making and machine construction are
carried on, and there are flour-mills, brick-works, saw-mills, sulphur
refineries and leather and paper works. The formerly flourishing textile
industries are now of small importance. The department imports coal,
lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports
agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other
manufactured goods. It is served by the Southern railway. The Canal du
Midi, following the courses of the Fresquel and the Aude, traverses it
for 76 m.; and a branch, the Canal de la Robine, which passes through
Narbonne to the sea, has a length of 24 m. The capital is Carcassonne,
and the department is divided into the four arrondissements of
Carcassonne, Limoux, Narbonne and Castelnaudary, with 31 cantons and 439
communes. It belongs to the 16th military region, and to the académie
(educational division) of Montpellier, where also is its court of
appeal. It forms the diocese of Carcassonne, and part of the province of
the archbishop of Toulouse. Carcassonne, Narbonne and Castelnaudary are
the principal towns. At Alet, which has hot springs of some note, there
are ruins of a fine Romanesque cathedral destroyed in the religious wars
of the 16th century. The extensive buildings of the Cistercian abbey of
Fontfroide, near Bizanet, include a Romanesque church, a cloister,
dormitories and a refectory of the 12th century. A curious polygonal
church of the 11th century at Rieux-Minervois, the abbey-church at St
Papoul, with its graceful cloister of the 14th century, and the remains
of the important abbey of St Hilaire, founded in the 6th century and
rebuilt from the 12th to the 15th century, are also of antiquarian
interest. Rennes-les-Bains has mineral springs of repute.



AUDEBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE (1759-1800), French artist and naturalist, was
born at Rochefort in 1759. He studied painting and drawing at Paris, and
gained considerable reputation as a miniature-painter. Employed in
preparing plates for the _Histoire des coléoptères_ of G.A. Olivier
(1756-1814), he acquired a taste for natural history. In 1800 appeared
his first original work, _L'Histoire naturelle des singes, des makis et
des galéopithèques_, illustrated by sixty-two folio plates, drawn and
engraved by himself. The colouring in these plates was unusually
beautiful, and was applied by a method devised by himself. Audebert died
in Paris in 1800, leaving complete materials for another great work,
_Histoire des colibris, des oiseaux-mouches, des jacamars et des
promérops_, which was published in 1802. Two hundred copies were printed
in folio, one hundred in large quarto, and fifteen were printed with the
whole text in letters of gold. Another work, left unfinished, was also
published after the author's death, _L'Histoire des grimpereaux et des
oiseaux de paradis_. The last two works also appeared together in two
volumes, _Oiseaux dorés ou à reflets métalliques_ (1802).



AUDEFROI LE BATARD, French _trouvère_, flourished at the end of the 12th
century and was born at Arras. Of his life nothing is known. The
seigneur de Nesles, to whom some of his songs are addressed, is probably
the châtelain of Bruges who joined the crusade of 1200. Audefroi was the
author of at least five lyric romances: _Argentine, Belle Idoine, Belle
Isabeau, Belle Emmelos_ and _Béatrix_. These romances follow older
_chansons_ in subject, but the smoothness of the verse and beauty of
detail hardly compensate for the spontaneity of the shorter form.

  See A. Jeanroy, _Les Origines de la poésie lyrique en France au moyen
  âge_ (Paris, 1889).



AUDIENCE (from Lat. _audire_, to hear), the act or state of hearing, the
term being therefore transferred to those who hear or listen, as in a
theatre, at a concert or meeting. In a more technical sense, the term is
applied to the right of access to the sovereign enjoyed by the peers of
the realm individually and by the House of Commons collectively. More
particularly it means the ceremony of the admission of ambassadors,
envoys or others to an interview with a sovereign or an important
official for the purpose of presenting their credentials. In France,
_audience_ is the term applied to the sitting of a law court for hearing
actions. In Spain, _audiencia_ is the name given to certain tribunals
which try appeals from minor courts. The Spanish judges were originally
known as _oidores_, hearers, from the Spanish _oir_, to hear; but they
are now called _ministros_, or _magistrados togados_, robed judges, as
the gown of the Spanish judge is called a _toga_. The _audiencia
pretorial_, i.e. of the praetor, was a court in Spanish America from
which there was no appeal to the viceroy, but only to the council of
the Indies in Spain. It is not the custom in Spain to speak of
_audiencias reales_, royal courts, but of the _audiencias del Reino_,
courts of the kingdom.

In England the _Audience-court_ was an ecclesiastical court, held by the
archbishops of Canterbury and York, in which they once exercised a
considerable part of their jurisdiction, dealing with such matters as
they thought fit to reserve for their own hearing. It has been long
disused and is now merged in the court of arches.



AUDIFFRET-PASQUIER, EDMÉ ARMAND GASTON, DUC D' (1823-1905), French
statesman, was the grand-nephew and adopted son of Baron Etienne Denis
Pasquier. He was created duke in 1844, and became auditor at the council
of state in 1846. After the revolution of 1848 he retired to private
life. Under the empire he was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the
legislature, but was elected in February 1871 to the National Assembly,
and became president of the right centre in 1873. After the fall of
Thiers, he directed the negotiations between the different royalist
parties to establish a king in France, but as he refused to give up the
tricolour for the flag of the old _régime_, the project failed. Yet he
retained the confidence of the chamber, and was its president in 1875
when the constitutional laws were being drawn up. Nominated senator
under the new constitution, he likewise was president of the senate from
March 1876 to 1879 when his party lost the majority. Henceforth he was
less prominent in politics. He was distinguished by his moderation and
uprightness; and he did his best to dissuade MacMahon from taking
violent advisers. In 1878 he was elected to the French Academy, but
never published anything.



AUDIT and AUDITOR. An audit is the examination of the accounts kept by
the financial officers of a state, public corporations and bodies, or
private persons, and the certifying of their accuracy. In the United
Kingdom the public accounts were audited from very early times, though,
until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in no very systematic way. Prior to
1559 this duty was carried out, sometimes by auditors specially
appointed, at other times by the auditors of the land revenue, or by the
auditor of the exchequer, an office established as early as 1314. But in
1559 an endeavour was made to systematize the auditing of the public
accounts, by the appointment of two auditors of the imprests. These
officers were paid by fee and did their work by deputy, but as the
results were thoroughly unsatisfactory the offices were abolished in
1785. An audit board, consisting of five commissioners, was appointed in
their place, but in order to concentrate under one authority the
auditing of the accounts of the various departments, some of which had
been audited separately, as the naval accounts, the Exchequer and Audit
Act of 1866 was passed. This statute, which sets forth at length the
duties of the audit office, empowered the sovereign to appoint a
"comptroller and auditor-general," with the requisite staff to examine
and verify the accounts prepared by the different departments of the
public service. In examining accounts of the appropriation of the
several supply grants, the comptroller and auditor-general "ascertains
first whether the payments which the account department has charged to
the grant are supported by vouchers or proofs of payments; and second,
whether the money expended has been applied to the purpose or purposes
for which such grant was intended to provide." The treasury may also
submit certain other accounts to the audit of the comptroller-general.
All public moneys payable to the exchequer (q.v.) are paid to the
"account of His Majesty's exchequer" at the Bank of England, and daily
returns of such payments are forwarded to the comptroller. Quarterly
accounts of the income and charge of the consolidated fund are prepared
and transmitted to him, and in case of any deficiency in the
consolidated fund, he may certify to the bank to make advances.

In the United States the auditing of the Federal accounts is in the
charge of the treasury department, under the supervision of the
comptroller of the treasury, under whom are six auditors, (1) for the
treasury department, (2) for the war, (3) for the interior, (4) for the
navy, (5) for the state, &c., (6) for the post office, as well as a
register and assistant register, who keep all general receipt and
expenditure ledgers; there are official auditors in most of the states
and in many cities. In practically all European countries there is a
department of the administration, charged with the auditing of the
public accounts, as the _cour des comptes_ in France, the _Rechnungshof
des deutschen Reiches_ in Germany, &c. All local boards, large cities,
corporations, and other bodies have official auditors for the purpose of
examining and checking their accounts and looking after their
expenditure. So far as regards the work which auditors discharge in
connexion with the accounts of joint-stock companies, building
societies, friendly societies, industrial and provident societies,
savings banks, &c., the word auditor is now almost synonymous with
"skilled accountant," and his duties are discussed in the article
ACCOUNTANTS.

In Scotland there is an "auditor" who is an official of the court of
session, appointed to tax costs in litigation, and who corresponds to
the English taxing-master. In France there are legal officers, called
auditors, attached to the _Conseil d'État_, whose duties consist in
drawing up briefs and preparing documents. On the continent of Europe,
lawyers skilled in military law are called "auditors" (see MILITARY
LAW).

Auditor is also the designation of certain officials of the Roman curia.
The _auditores Rotae_ are the judges of the court of the Rota (so
called, according to Hinschius, probably from the form of the panelling
in the room where they originally met). These were originally
ecclesiastics appointed to _hear_ particular questions in dispute and
report to the pope, who retained the decision in his own hands. In the
_Speculum juris_ of Durandus (published in 1272 and re-edited in 1287
and 1291) the _auditores palatii domini papae_ are cited as permanent
officials appointed to instruct the pope on questions as they arose. The
court of the Rota appears for the first time under this name in the bull
_Romani Pontificis_ of Martin V. in 1422, and the auditores by this time
had developed into a permanent tribunal to which the definitive decision
of certain disputes, hitherto relegated to a commission of cardinals or
to the pope himself, was assigned. From this time the powers of the
auditores increased until the reform of the curia by Sixtus V., when the
creation of the congregations of cardinals for specific purposes tended
gradually to withdraw from the Rota its most important functions. It
still, however, ranks as the supreme court of justice in the papal
curia, and, as members of it, the auditores enjoy special privileges.
They are prelates, and, besides the rights enjoyed by these, have others
conceded by successive popes, e.g. that of holding benefices in
plurality, of non-residence, &c. When the pope says mass pontifically
the subdeacon is always an auditor. The auditores must be in priest's or
deacon's orders, and have always been selected--nominally at
least--after severe tests as to their moral and intellectual
qualifications. They are twelve in number, and, by the constitution of
Pius IV., four of them were to be foreigners; one French, one Spanish,
one German and one Venetian; while the nomination of others was the
privilege of certain, cities. No bishop, unless _in partibus_ (see
BISHOP), may be an auditor. On the other hand, from the auditores, as
the intellectual _élite_ of the curia, the episcopate, the nunciature
and the cardinalate are largely recruited. The _auditor camerae_
(_uditore generale della reverenda camera apostolica_) is an official
formerly charged with important executive functions. In 1485, by a bull
of Innocent VIII., he was given extensive jurisdiction over all civil
and criminal causes arising in the curia, or appealed to it from the
papal territories. In addition he received the function of watching over
the execution of all sentences passed by the curia. This was extended
later, by Pius IV., to a similar executive function in respect of all
papal bulls and briefs, wherever no special executor was named. This
right was confirmed by Gregory XVI. in 1834, and the auditor may still
in principle issue letters monitory. In practice, however, this function
was at all times but rarely exercised, and, since 1847, has fallen to a
prelate _locum tenens_, who also took over the auditor's jurisdiction in
the papal states (Hinschius, _Kathol. Kirchenrecht_, i. 409, &c.).

_Auditores_ (listeners), in the early Church, was another name. for
catechumens (q.v.).



AUDLEY, or AUDELEY, SIR JAMES (c. 1316-1386), one of the original
knights, or founders, of the order of the Garter, was the eldest son of
Sir James Audley of Stratton Audley in Oxfordshire. When the order of
the Garter was founded, he was instituted as one of the first founders,
and his stall in St George's chapel, Windsor, was the eleventh on the
side of Edward, the Black Prince. He appears to have served in France in
1346, and in August 1350 took part in the naval fight off Sluys. When
hostilities were renewed between England and France in 1354 Sir James
was in constant attendance upon the Black Prince, and earned a great
reputation for valour. At the battle of Poitiers on the 19th of
September 1356 he took his stand in front of the English army, and after
fighting for a long time was severely wounded and carried from the
fight. After the victory, the prince inquired for Sir James, who was
brought to the royal tent, where Edward told him he had been the bravest
knight on his side, and granted him an annuity of five hundred marks.
Sir James made over this gift to the four esquires who had attended him
during the battle, and received from the prince a further pension of six
hundred marks. In 1359 he was one of the leaders of an expedition into
France, in 1360 he took the fortress of Chaven in Brittany, and was
present at Calais when peace was made between England and France in
October 1360. He was afterwards governor of Aquitaine and great
seneschal of Poitou, and took part in the capture of the town of La
Roche-sur-Yon by Edmund, earl of Cambridge. He died in 1386 at
Fontenay-le-Comte, where he had gone to reside, and was buried at
Poitiers.

  See Jean Froissart, _Chronigues_, translated by T. Johnes (Hafod,
  1810); G.F. Beltz, _Memorials of the Most Noble Order of the Garter_
  (London, 1841).



AUDLEY, THOMAS AUDLEY, BARON (c. 1488-1544), lord chancellor of England,
whose parentage is unknown, is believed to have studied at Buckingham
College, Cambridge. He was educated for the law, entered the Middle
Temple (becoming autumn reader in 1526), was town clerk of Colchester,
and was on the commission of the peace for Essex in 1521. In 1523 he was
returned to parliament for Essex, and represented this constituency in
subsequent parliaments. In 1527 he was groom of the chamber, and became
a member of Wolsey's household. On the fall of the latter in 1529, he
was made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and the same year speaker
of the House of Commons, presiding over the famous assembly styled the
Black or Long Parliament of the Reformation, which abolished the papal
jurisdiction. The same year he headed a deputation of the Commons to the
king to complain of Bishop Fisher's speech against their proceedings. He
interpreted the king's "moral" scruples to parliament concerning his
marriage with Catherine, and made himself the instrument of the king in
the attack upon the clergy and the preparation of the act of supremacy.
In 1531 he had been made a serjeant-at-law and king's serjeant; and on
the 20th of May 1532 he was knighted, and succeeded Sir Thomas More as
lord keeper of the great seal, being appointed lord chancellor on the
26th of January 1533. He supported the king's divorce from Catherine and
the marriage with Anne Boleyn; and presided at the trial of Fisher and
More in 1535, at which his conduct and evident intention to secure a
conviction has been generally censured. Next year he tried Anne Boleyn
and her lovers, was present on the scaffold at the unfortunate queen's
execution, and recommended to parliament the new act of succession. In
1537 he condemned to death as traitors the Lincolnshire and the
Yorkshire rebels. On the 29th of November 1538 he was created Baron
Audley of Walden; and soon afterwards presided as lord steward at the
trials of Henry Pole, Lord Montacute, and of the unfortunate marquess of
Exeter. In 1539, though inclining himself to the Reformation, he made
himself the king's instrument in enforcing religious conformity, and in
the passing of the Six Articles Act. On the 24th of April 1540 he was
made a knight of the Garter, and subsequently managed the attainder of
Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, and the dissolution of Henry's marriage
with Anne of Cleves. In 1542 he warmly supported the privileges of the
Commons in the case of George Ferrers, member for Plymouth, arrested and
imprisoned in London, but his conduct was inspired as usual by
subservience to the court, which desired to secure a subsidy, and his
opinion that the arrest was a flagrant contempt has been questioned by
good authority. He resigned the great seal on the 21st of April 1544,
and died on the 30th, being buried at Saffron Walden, where he had
prepared for himself a splendid tomb. He received several grants of
monastic estates, including the priory of Christ Church in London and
the abbey of Walden in Essex, where his grandson, Thomas Howard, earl of
Suffolk, built Audley End, doubtless named after him. In 1542 he
re-endowed and re-established Buckingham College, Cambridge, under the
new name of St Mary Magdalene, and ordained in the statutes that his
heirs, "the possessors of the late monastery of Walden," should be
visitors of the college _in perpetuum_. _A Book of Orders for the Warre
both by Sea and Land_ (Harleian MS. 297, f. 144) is attributed to his
authorship. He married (1) Christina, daughter of Sir Thomas
Barnardiston, and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquess of
Dorset, by whom he had two daughters. His barony became extinct at his
death.



AUDOUIN, JEAN VICTOR (1797-1841), French naturalist, was born at Paris
on the 27th of April 1797. He began the study of law, but was diverted
from it by his strong predilection for natural history, and entered the
medical profession. In 1824 he was appointed assistant to P.A. Latreille
(1762-1833) in the entomological chair at the Paris museum of natural
history, and succeeded him in 1833. In 1838 he became a member of the
Academy of Sciences. He died in Paris on the 9th of November 1841. His
principal work, _Histoire des insectes nuisibles à la vigne_ (1842), was
completed after his death by Henry Milne-Edwards and Émile Blanchard.
His papers mostly appeared in the _Annales des sciences naturelles_,
which, with A.T. Brongniart and J.B.A. Dumas, he founded in 1824, and in
the proceedings of the Société Entomologique de France, of which he was
one of the founders in 1832.



AUDRAN, the name of a family of French artists and engravers. The first
who devoted himself to the art of engraving was Claude Audran, born
1597, and the last was Benoit, Claude's great-grandson, who died in
1772. The two most distinguished members of the family are Gérard and
Jean.

GÉRARD, or GIRARD, AUDRAN, the most celebrated French engraver, was the
third son of Claude Audran, and was born at Lyons in 1640. He was taught
the first principles of design and engraving by his father; and,
following the example of his brother, went to Paris to perfect himself
in his art. He there, in 1666, engraved for Le Brun "Constantine's
Battle with Maxentius," his "Triumph," and the "Stoning of Stephen,"
which gave great satisfaction to the painter, and placed Audran in the
very first rank of engravers at Paris. Next year he set out for Rome,
where he resided three years, and engraved several fine plates. That
great patron of the arts, J.B. Colbert, was so struck with the beauty of
Audran's works, that he persuaded Louis XIV. to recall him to Paris. On
his return he applied himself assiduously to engraving, and was
appointed engraver to the king, from whom he received great
encouragement. In the year 1681 he was admitted to the council of the
Royal Academy. He died at Paris in 1703. His engravings of Le Brun's
"Battles of Alexander" are regarded as the best of his numerous works.
"He was," says the Abbé Fontenay, "the most celebrated engraver that
ever existed in the historical line. We have several subjects, which he
engraved from his own designs, that manifested as much taste as
character and facility. But in the 'Battles of Alexander' he surpassed
even the expectations of Le Brun himself." Gérard published in 1683 a
work entitled _Les Proportions du corps humain mesurées sur les plus
belles figures de l'antiquité_.

JEAN AUDRAN, nephew of Gérard, was born at Lyons in 1667. After having
received instructions from his father, he went to Paris to perfect
himself in the art of engraving under his uncle, next to whom he was the
most distinguished member of his family. At the age of twenty his genius
began to display itself in a surprising manner; and his subsequent
success was such, that in 1707 he obtained the title of engraver to the
king, Louis XIV., who allowed him a pension, with apartments in the
Gobelins; and the following year he was made a member of the Royal
Academy. He was eighty years of age before he quitted the graver, and
nearly ninety when he died. The best prints of this artist are those
which appear not so pleasing to the eye at first sight. In these the
etching constitutes a great part; and he has finished them in a bold,
rough style. The "Rape of the Sabines," after Poussin, is considered his
masterpiece.



AUDRAN, EDMOND (1842-1901), French musical composer, was born at Lyons
on the 11th of April 1842. He studied music at the École Niedermeyer,
where he won the prize for composition in 1859. Two years later he
accepted the post of organist of the church of St Joseph at Marseilles.
He made his first appearance as a dramatic composer at Marseilles with
_L'Ours et le Pacha_ (1862), a musical version of one of Scribe's
vaudevilles. This was followed by _La Chercheuse d'Esprit_ (1864), a
comic opera, also produced at Marseilles. Audran wrote a funeral march
on the death of Meyerbeer, which was performed with some success, and
made various attempts to win fame as a writer of sacred music. He
produced a mass (Marseilles, 1873), an oratorio, _La Sulamite_
(Marseilles, 1876), and numerous minor works, but he is known almost
entirely as a composer of the lighter forms of opera. His first Parisian
success was made with _Les Noces d'Olivette_ (1879), a work which
speedily found its way to London and (as _Olivette_) ran for more than a
year at the Strand theatre (1880-1881). Audran's music has, in fact, met
with as much favour in England as in France, and all save a few of his
works have been given in a more or less adapted form in London theatres.
Besides those already mentioned, the following have been the most
undeniably successful of Audran's many comic operas: _Le Grand Mogol_
(Marseilles, 1876; Paris, 1884; London, as _The Grand Mogul_, 1884), _La
Mascotte_ (Paris, 1880; London, as _The Mascotte_, 1881), _Gillette de
Narbonne_ (Paris, 1882; London, as _Gillette_, 1883), _La Cigale et la
Fourmi_ (Paris, 1886; London, as _La Cigale_, 1890), _Miss Hélyett_
(Paris, 1890; London, as _Miss Decima_ 1891), _La Poupée_ (Paris, 1896;
London, 1897). Audran was one of the best of the successors of
Offenbach. He had little of Offenbach's humour, but his music is
distinguished by an elegance and a refinement of manner which lift it
above the level of opéra bouffe to the confines of genuine opéra
comique. He was a fertile if not a very original melodist, and his
orchestration is full of variety, without being obtrusive or vulgar.
Many of his operas, _La Mascotte_ in particular, reveal a degree of
musicianship which is rarely associated with the ephemeral productions
of the lighter stage. He died in Paris on the 16th of August 1901.



AUDREHEM, ARNOUL D' (c. 1305-1370), French soldier, was born at
Audrehem, in the present department of Pas de Calais, near St Omer.
Nothing is known of his career before 1332, when he is heard of at the
court of the king of France. Between 1335 and 1342 he went three times
to Scotland to aid King David Bruce in his wars. In 1342 he became
captain for the king of France in Brittany; then he seems to have served
in the household of the duke of Normandy, and in 1346, as one of the
main defenders of Calais, was taken as a prisoner to England by Edward
III. From 1349 he holds an important place in the military history of
France, first as captain in Angoulême, and from June 1351, in succession
to the lord of Beaujeu, as marshal of France. In March 1352 he was
appointed lieutenant for the king in the territory between the Loire and
the Dordogne, in June 1353 in Normandy, and in 1355 in Artois, Picardy
and the Boulonnais. It was Audrehem who arrested Charles the Bad, king
of Navarre, and his partisans, at the banquet given by the dauphin at
Rouen in 1356. At Poitiers he was one of those who advised King John to
attack the English, and, charging in the front line of the French army,
was slightly wounded and taken prisoner. From England he was several
times given safe-conducts to France, and he took an active part in the
negotiations for the treaty of Bretigny, recovering his liberty the same
time as King John. In 1361, as the king's lieutenant in Languedoc, he
prevented the free companies from seizing the castles, and negotiated
the treaty with their chiefs under which they followed Henry, count of
Trastamara (later Henry II. of Castile), into Spain. In 1365 he himself
joined du Guesclin in the expedition to Spain, was taken prisoner with
him by the Black Prince at the battle of Najera (1367), and was unable
to pay his ransom until 1369. In 1368, on account of his age, he was
relieved of the office of marshal, being appointed bearer of the
oriflamme, with a pension of 2000 livres. He was sent to Spain in 1370
by Charles V., to urge his friend du Guesclin to return to France, and
in spite of his age he took part in the battle of Pontvallain (December
1370), but fell ill and died, probably at Saumur, in the latter part of
December 1370.

  See Émile Molinier, "Étude sur la vie d'Arnoul d'Audrehem, maréchal de
  France," in _Mémoires présentés par divers savants à l'académie des
  inscriptions et belles-lettres_, 2^e série, iv. (1883).



AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES (1780-1851), American naturalist, is said to have
been born on the 5th of May 1780 in Louisiana, his father being a French
naval officer and his mother a Spanish Creole. He was educated in Paris,
where he had lessons from the painter, J.L. David. Returning to America
in 1798 he settled on a farm near Philadelphia, and gave himself up to
the study of natural history, and especially to drawing birds. In 1826
he went to England in the hope of getting his drawings published, and by
the following year he had obtained sufficient subscribers to enable him
to begin the publication of his _Birds of America_, which on its
completion in 1838 consisted of 435 coloured plates, containing 1055
figures of birds the size of life. Cuvier called it "le plus magnifique
monument que l'art ait encore élevé à la nature." The descriptive matter
to accompany the plates appeared at Edinburgh in 5 vols. from 1831 to
1839 under the title of _American Ornithological Biography._ During the
publication of these works Audubon divided his time between Great
Britain and America, devoting his leisure to expeditions to various
parts of the United States and Canada for the purpose of collecting new
material. In 1842 he bought an estate on the Hudson, now Audubon Park in
New York City. In 1844 he published in America a popular octavo edition
of his _Birds of America._ He also took up the preparation of a new
work, _The Quadrupeds of America_, with the collaboration of John
Bachman, the publication of which was begun in New York in 1846 and
finished in 1853-1854. He died at New York on the 27th of January 1851.

  See ORNITHOLOGY; also _Audubon and his Journals_ (1897), by his
  grand-daughter Maria R. Audubon, with notes by Elliot Coues.



AUE, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, at the confluence of
the Mulde and Schwarzwasser, 21 m. S.W. from Chemnitz on the railway to
Adorf. It has a school of lace-making, foundries, and manufactures of
machinery, tin-plate and cotton goods. Pop. (1905) 17,102.



AUERBACH, BERTHOLD (1812-1882), German novelist, was born on the 28th of
February 1812 at Nordstetten in the Württemberg Black Forest. His
parents were Jews, and he was intended for the ministry; but after
studying philosophy at Tübingen, Munich and Heidelberg, and becoming
estranged from Jewish orthodoxy by the study of Spinoza, he devoted
himself to literature. He made a fortunate beginning in a romance on the
life of Spinoza (1837), so interesting in itself, and so close in its
adherence to fact, that it may be read with equal advantage as a novel
or as a biography. _Dichter und Kaufmann_ followed in 1839, and a
translation of Spinoza's works in 1841, when Auerbach turned to the
class of fiction which has made him famous, the _Schwarzwälder
Dorfgeschichten_ (1843), stories of peasant life in the Black Forest. In
these, as well as in _Barfüssele_ (1856), _Edelweiss_ (1861), and other
novels of greater compass, he depicts the life of the south German
peasant as "Jeremias Gotthelf" (Albrecht Bitzius) had painted the
peasantry of Switzerland, but in a less realistic spirit. When this vein
was exhausted Auerbach returned to his first phase as a philosophical
novelist, producing _Auf der Höhe_ (1865), _Das Landhaus am Rhein_
(1869), and other romances of profound speculative tendencies, turning
on plots invented by himself. With the exception of _Auf der Höhe_,
these works did not enjoy much popularity, and suffer from lack of form
and concentration. Auerbach's fame continues to rest upon his
_Dorfgeschichten_, although the celebrity of even these has been
impaired by the growing demand for a more uncompromising realism.
Auerbach died at Cannes on the 8th of February 1882.

  The first collected edition of Auerbach's _Schriften_ appeared in 22
  vols. in 1863-1864; the best edition is in 18 vols. (1892-1895).
  Auerbach's _Briefe an seinen Freund J. Auerbach_ (with a preface by F.
  Spielhagen) were published in 2 vols. (1884). See E. Zabel, _B.
  Auerbach_ (1882); and E. Lasker, _B. Auerbach, ein Gedenkblatt_
  (1882).



AUERSPERG, ANTON ALEXANDER, GRAF VON (1806-1876), Austrian poet, who
wrote under the pseudonym of ANASTASIUS GRÜN, was born on the 11th of
April 1806, at Laibach, the capital of the Austrian duchy of Carniola,
and was head of the Thurn-am-Hart branch of the Carniolan cadet line of
the house of Auersperg. He received his university education first at
Graz and then at Vienna, where he studied jurisprudence. In 1830 he
succeeded to his ancestral property, and in 1832 appeared as a member of
the estates of Carniola on the _Herrenbank_ of the diet at Laibach. Here
he distinguished himself by his outspoken criticism of the Austrian
government, leading the opposition of the duchy to the exactions of the
central power. In 1832 the title of "imperial chamberlain" was conferred
upon him, and in 1839 he married Maria, daughter of Count Attems. After
the revolution of 1848 at Vienna he represented the district of Laibach
at the German national assembly at Frankfort-on-the-Main, to which he
tried in vain to persuade his Slovene compatriots to send
representatives. After a few months, however, disgusted with the violent
development of the revolution, he resigned his seat, and again retired
into private life. In 1860 he was summoned to the remodelled _Reichsrat_
by the emperor, who next year nominated him a life member of the
Austrian upper house (_Herrenhaus_), where, while remaining a keen
upholder of the German centralized empire, as against the federalism of
Slavs and Magyars, he greatly distinguished himself as one of the most
intrepid and influential supporters of the cause of liberalism, in both
political and religious matters, until his death at Graz on the 12th of
September 1876.

Count Auersperg's first publication, a collection of lyrics, _Blätter
der Liebe_ (1830), showed little originality; but his second production,
_Der letzte Ritter_ (1830), brought his genius to light. It celebrates
the deeds and adventures of the emperor Maximilian I. (1493-1519) in a
cycle of poems written in the strophic form of the _Nibelungenlied_. But
Auersperg's fame rests almost exclusively on his political poetry; two
collections entitled _Spaziergänge eines Wiener Poeten_ (1831) and
_Schutt_ (1835) created a sensation in Germany by their originality and
bold liberalism. These two books, which are remarkable not merely for
their outspoken opinions, but also for their easy versification and
powerful imagery, were the forerunners of the German political poetry of
1840-1848. His _Gedichte_ (1837), if anything, increased his reputation;
his epics, _Die Nibelungen im Frack_ (1843) and _Der Pfaff vom
Kahlenberg_ (1850), are characterized by a fine ironic humour. He also
produced masterly translations of the popular Slovenic songs current in
Carniola (_Volkslieder aus Krain_, 1850), and of the English poems
relating to "Robin Hood" (1864).

  Anastasius Grün's _Gesammelte Werke_ were published by L.A. Frankl in
  5 vols. (Berlin, 1877); his _Briefwechsel mit L.A. Frankl_ (Berlin,
  1897). A selection of his _Politische Reden und Schriften_ has been
  published by S. Hock (Vienna, 1906). See P. von Radics, _Anastasius
  Grün_ (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1879).



AUFIDENA, an ancient city of the Samnites Caraceni, the site of which is
just north of the modern Alfedena,[1] Italy, a station on the railway
between Sulmona and Isernia, 37 m. from the latter. Its remains are
fully and accurately described by L. Mariani in _Monumenti dei Lincei_
(1901), 225 seq.: cf. _Notizie degli scavi_, 1901, 442 seq.; 1902, 516
seq. The ancient city occupied two hills, both over 3800 ft. above
sea-level (in the valley between were found the supposed remains of the
later forum), and the walls, of rough Cyclopean work, were over a mile
in length. A fortified outpost lay on a still higher hill to the north.
Not very much is as yet known of the city itself (though one public
building of the 5th century B.C. was excavated in 1901, and a small
sanctuary in 1902), attention having been chiefly devoted to the
necropolis which lay below it; 1400 tombs had already been examined in
1908, though this number is conjectured to be only a sixteenth of the
whole. They are all inhumation burials, of the advanced iron age, and
date from the 7th to the 4th century B.C., falling into three
classes--those without coffin, those with a coffin formed of stone
slabs, and those with a coffin formed of tiles. The objects discovered
are preserved in a museum on the spot. In the Roman period we find
Aufidena figuring as a post station on the road between Sulmo and
Aesernia, which, however, runs past Castel di Sangro, crossing the river
by an ancient bridge some 5 m. to the north-east. Castel di Sangro has
remains of ancient walls, but these are attributed to a road by Mariani,
and in any case the fortified area there was quite small, only
one-sixteenth the size of Aufidena. The attempted identification of
Castel di Sangro with Aufidena must therefore be rejected, though we
must allow that it was probably the Roman post station; the ancient
city, since its capture by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., having
lost something of its importance.     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Two churches here contain paintings of interest in the history of
    Abruzzese art, and one of them, the Madonna del Campo, contained
    fragments of a temple of considerable size.



AUGEAS, or AUGEIAS, in Greek legend, a son of Helios, the sun-god, and
king of the Epeians in Elis. He possessed an immense wealth of herds,
including twelve bulls sacred to Helios, and white as swans. Eurystheus
imposed upon Heracles the task of clearing out all his stalls unaided in
one day. This he did by turning the rivers Alpheus and Peneus through
them. Augeas had promised him a tenth of the herd, but refused this,
alleging that Heracles had acted only in the service of Eurystheus.
Heracles thereupon sent an army against him, and, though at first
defeated, finally slew Augeas and his sons.

  Apollodorus ii. 5, 7; Pindar, _Olympia_, xi, 24; Diodorus iv. 13;
  Theocritus, _Idyll_ 25.



AUGER (from the O. Eng. _nafu-gár_, nave-borer; the original initial n
having been lost, as in "adder," through a confusion in the case of a
preceding indefinite article), a tool for boring (q.v.) or drilling.



AUGEREAU, PIERRE FRANÇOIS CHARLES, duke of Castiglione (1757-1816),
marshal of France, was born in Paris in a humble station of life. At the
age of seventeen he enlisted in the carabineers and thereafter came into
note as a duellist. Having drawn his sword upon an officer who insulted
him, he fled from France and roamed about in the Levant. He served in
the Russian army against the Turks; but afterwards escaped into Prussia
and enlisted in the guards. Tiring of this, he deserted with several
others and reached the Saxon frontier. Service in the Neapolitan army
and a sojourn in Portugal filled up the years 1788-1791; but the events
of the French Revolution brought him back to his native land. He served
with credit against the Vendeans and then joined the troops opposing the
Spaniards in the south. There he rose rapidly, becoming general of
division on the 23rd of December 1793. His division distinguished itself
even more when transferred to the army of Italy; and under Bonaparte he
was largely instrumental in gaining the battle of Millesimo and in
taking the castle of Cosseria and the camp of Ceva. At the battle of
Lodi (May 10, 1796), the turning movement of Augereau and his division
helped to decide the day. But it was at Castiglione that he rendered the
most signal services. Marbot describes him as encouraging even Bonaparte
himself in the confused situation that prevailed before that battle,
and, though this is exaggerated, there is no doubt that Augereau largely
decided the fortunes of those critical days. Bonaparte thus summed up
his military qualities: "Has plenty of character, courage, firmness,
activity; is inured to war; is well liked by the soldiery; is fortunate
in his operations." In 1797 Bonaparte sent him to Paris to encourage the
Jacobinical Directors, and it was Augereau and the troops led by him
that coerced the "moderates" in the councils and carried through the
_coup d'état_ of 18 Fructidor (4th of September) 1797. He was then sent
to lead the united French forces in Germany; but peace speedily ensued;
and he bore a grudge against the Directors and Bonaparte for their
treatment of him at that time. He took no part in the _coup d'état_ of
Brumaire 1799, and did not distinguish himself in the Rhenish campaign
which ensued. Nevertheless, owing to his final adhesion to Bonaparte's
fortunes, he received a marshal's baton at the beginning of the Empire
(May 19, 1804). In the campaign of 1805 he did good service around
Constance and Bregenz, and at Jena (October 14, 1806) his corps
distinguished itself. Early in 1807 he fell ill of a fever, and at the
battle of Eylau he had to be supported on his horse, but directed the
movements of his corps with his wonted bravery. His corps was almost
annihilated and the marshal himself received a wound from which he never
quite recovered. When transferred to Catalonia, he gained some successes
but tarnished his name by cruelty. In the campaign of 1812 in Russia and
in the Saxon campaign of 1813 his conduct was little more than mediocre.
Before the battle of Leipzig (October 16, 18, 19, 1813), Napoleon
reproached him with not being the Augereau of Castiglione; to which he
replied, "Give me back the old soldiers of Italy, and I will show you
that I am." In 1814 he had command of the army of Lyons, and his
slackness exposed him to the charge of having come to an understanding
with the Austrian invaders. Thereafter he served Louis XVIII., but,
after reviling Napoleon, went over to him during the Hundred Days. The
emperor repulsed him and charged him with being a traitor to France in
1814. Louis XVIII., when restored to the throne, deprived him of his
military title and pension. He died at his estate of La Houssaye on the
12th of June 1816. In person he was tall and commanding, but his loud
and vulgar behaviour frequently betrayed the soldier of fortune.

  As authorities consult: Kock's _Mémoires de Masséna_; Bouvier,
  _Bonaparte en Italie_; Count A.F. Andréossi, _La Campagne sur le
  Mein, 1800-1801_; Baron A. Ducasse, _Précis de la campagne de l'armée
  de Lyon en 1814_; and the _Memoirs_ of Marbot.     (J. Hl. R.)



AUGHRIM, or AGHRIM, a small village in Co. Galway, Ireland, 4 m. W. by
S. of Ballinasloe. It is rendered memorable by the decisive victory
gained here on the 12th of July 1691 by the forces of William III. under
General Ginkel, over those of James II. under the French general St
Ruth, who fell in the fight. The Irish numbering 25,000, and strongly
posted behind marshy ground, at first maintained a vigorous resistance;
but Ginkel having penetrated their line of defence, and their general
being struck down by a cannon ball at this critical moment, they were at
length overcome and routed with terrible slaughter. The loss of the
English did not exceed 700 killed and 1000 wounded; while the Irish, in
their disastrous flight, lost about 7000 men, besides the whole material
of the army. This defeat rendered the adherents of James in Ireland
incapable of further efforts, and was speedily followed by the complete
submission of the country.



AUGIER, GUILLAUME VICTOR ÉMILE (1820-1889), French dramatist, was born
at Valence, Drôme, on the 17th of September 1820. He was the grandson of
Pigault Lebrun, and belonged to the well-to-do _bourgeoisie_ in
principles and in thought as well as by actual birth. He received a good
education and studied for the bar. In 1844 he wrote a play in two acts
and in verse, _La Ciguë_, refused at the Théâtre Français, but produced
with considerable success at the Odéon. This settled his career.
Thenceforward, at fairly regular intervals, either alone or in
collaboration with other writers--Jules Sandeau, Eugène-Marie Labiche,
Éd. Foussier--he produced plays which were in their way eventful. _Le
Fils de Giboyer_ (1862)--which was regarded as an attack on the clerical
party in France, and was only brought out by the direct intervention of
the emperor--caused some political excitement. His last comedy, _Les
Fourchambault_, belongs to the year 1879. After that date he wrote no
more, restrained by an honourable fear of producing inferior work. The
Academy had long before, on the 31st of March 1857, elected him to be
one of its members. He died in his house at Croissy on the 25th of
October 1889. Such, in briefest outline, is the story of a life which
Augier himself describes as "without incident"--a life in all senses
honourable. Augier, with Dumas _fils_ and Sardou, may be said to have
held the French stage during the Second Empire. The man respected
himself and his art, and his art on its ethical side--for he did not
disdain to be a teacher--has high qualities of rectitude and
self-restraint. Uprightness of mind and of heart, generous honesty, as
Jules Lemaitre well said, constituted the very soul of all his dramatic
work. _L'Aventurière_ (1848), the first of Augier's important works,
already shows a deviation from romantic models; and in the _Mariage
d'Olympe_ (1855) the courtesan is shown as she is, not glorified as in
Dumas's _Dame aux Camélias_. In _Gabrielle_ (1849) the husband, not the
lover, is the sympathetic, poetic character. In the _Lionnes pauvres_
(1858) the wife who sells her favours comes under the lash. Greed of
gold, social demoralization, ultramontanism, lust of power, these are
satirized in _Les Effrontés_ (1861), _Le Fils de Giboyer_ (1862),
_Contagion_, first announced under the title of _Le Baron d'Estrigaud_
(1866), _Lions et renards_ (1869)--which, with _Le Gendre de M. Poirier_
(1854), written in collaboration with Jules Sandeau, reach the
high-water mark of Augier's art; in _Philiberte_ (1853) he produced a
graceful and delicate drawing-room comedy; and in _Jean de Thommeray_,
acted in 1873 after the great reverses of 1870, the regenerating note of
patriotism rings high and clear. His last two dramas, _Madame Caverlet_
(1876) and _Les Fourchambault_ (1879), are problem plays. But it would
be unfair to suggest that Émile Augier was a preacher only. He was a
moralist in the great sense, the sense in which the term can be applied
to Molière and the great dramatists--a moralist because of his large and
sane outlook on life. Nor does the interest of his dramas depend on
elaborate plot. It springs from character and its evolution. His men and
women move as personality, that mysterious factor, dictates. They are
real, several of them typical. Augier's first drama, _La Ciguë_, belongs
to a time (1844) when the romantic drama was on the wane; and his almost
exclusively domestic range of subject scarcely lends itself to lyric
outbursts of pure poetry. But his verse, if not that of a great poet,
has excellent dramatic qualities, while the prose of his prose dramas is
admirable for directness, alertness, sinew and a large and effective
wit. Perhaps it wanted these qualities to enlist laughter on his side in
such a war as he waged against false passion and false sentiment.
     (F. T. M.)



AUGITE, an important member of the pyroxene (q.v.) group of rock-forming
minerals. The name (from [Greek: augae], lustre) has at various times
been used in different senses; it is now applied to aluminous pyroxenes
of the monoclinic series which are dark-greenish, brownish or black in
colour. Like the other pyroxenes it is characterized crystallographically
by its distinct cleavages parallel to the prism-faces (M), the angle
between which is 87°. A typical crystal is represented in fig. 1, whilst
fig. 2 shows a crystal twinned on the orthopinacoid (r'). Such crystals,
of short prismatic habit and black in colour, are common as phenocrysts
in many basalts, and are hence known as "basaltic augite"; when the
containing rock weathers to a clayey material the augite is left as black
isolated crystals, and such specimens, usually from Bohemia, are
represented in all mineral collections. Though typical of basaltic rocks,
augite is also an important constituent of many other kinds of igneous
rocks, and a rock composed almost wholly of augite is known as augitite.
It also occurs in metamorphic rocks; for example, in the crystalline
limestones of the Fassathal in Tirol, where the variety known as fassaite
is found as pistachio-green crystals resembling epidote in appearance.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Chemically, augite resembles diopside in consisting mainly of CaMgSi2O6,
but it contains in addition alumina and ferric iron as (Mg, Fe") (Al,
Fe"')2 SiO6; the acmite (NaFe"'Si2O6,) and jadeite (NaAlSi2O6)
molecules are also sometimes present. Variations in the amount of iron
in mixtures of these isomorphous molecules are accompanied by variations
in the optical characters of the augite.     (L. J. S.)



AUGMENT (Lat. _augere_, to increase), in Sanskrit and Greek grammar the
vowel prefixed to indicate the past tenses of a verb; in Greek grammar
it is called _syllabic_, when only the [epsilon] is prefixed;
_temporal_, when it causes an initial vowel in the verb to become a
diphthong or long vowel.



AUGMENTATION, or enlargement, a term in heraldry for an addition to a
coat of arms; in music, for the imitation in longer notes of an original
theme; in biology, an addition to the normal number of parts; in Scots
law, an increase of a minister's stipend by an action called "Process of
Augmentation." The "Court of Augmentation" in Henry VIII.'s time was
established to try cases affecting the suppression of monasteries, and
was dissolved in Mary's reign.



AUGSBURG, a city and episcopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of
Bavaria, chief town of the district of Swabia. Pop. (1885) 65,905;
(1900) 89,109; (1905) 93,882. It lies on a high plateau, 1500 ft. above
the sea, between the rivers Wertach and Lech, which unite below the
city, 39 m. W.N.W. from Munich, with which, as with Regensburg,
Ingolstadt and Ulm, it is connected by main lines of railway. It
consists of an upper and a lower town, the old Jakob suburb and various
modern suburbs. Its fortifications were dismantled in 1703 and have
since been converted into public promenades. Maximilian Street is
remarkable for its breadth and architectural beauty. One of its most
interesting edifices is the Fugger Haus, of which the entire front is
painted in fresco. Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of
notice is the town-hall in Renaissance style, one of the finest in
Germany, built by Elias Holl in 1616-1620. One of its rooms, called the
"Golden Hall," from the profusion of its gilding, is 113 ft. long, 59
broad and 53 high. The palace of the bishops, where the memorable
Confession of Faith was presented to Charles V., is now used for
government offices. Among the seventeen Reman Catholic churches and
chapels, the cathedral, a basilica with two Romanesque towers, dates in
its oldest portions from the 10th century. The church of St Ulrich and
St Afra, built 1474-1500, is a Late Gothic edifice, with a nave of
magnificent proportions and a tower 300 ft. high. The church stands on
the spot where the first Christians of the district suffered martyrdom,
and where a chapel was erected in the 6th century over the grave of St
Afra. There are also a Protestant church, St Anne's, a school of arts, a
polytechnic institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St
Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange,
gymnasium, deaf-mute institution, orphan asylum, several remarkable
fountains dating from the 16th century, &c. Augsburg is particularly
well provided with special and technical schools. The newer buildings,
all in the modern west quarter of the city, include law courts, a
theatre, and a municipal library with 200,000 volumes. The "Fuggerei,"
built in 1519 by the brothers Fugger, is a miniature town, with six
streets or alleys, three gates and a church, and consists of a hundred
and six small houses let to indigent Roman Catholic citizens at a
nominal rent. The manufactures of Augsburg are of great importance. It
is the chief seat of the textile industry in south Germany, and its
cloth, cotton goods and linen manufactories employ about 10,000 hands.
It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works,
foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches,
jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is
also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany.
Copper-engraving, for which it was formerly noted, is no longer carried
on; but printing, lithography and publishing have acquired a
considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers
being the _Allgemeine Zeitung_ or _Augsburg Gazette_. On the opposite
side of the river, which is here crossed by a bridge, lies the township
of Lechhausen.

Augsburg (the _Augusta Vindelicorum_ of the Romans) derives its name
from the Roman emperor Augustus, who, on the conquest of Rhaetia by
Drusus, established here a Roman colony about 14 B.C. In the 5th century
it was sacked by the Huns, and afterwards came under the power of the
Frankish kings. It was almost entirely destroyed in the war of
Charlemagne against Tassilo III., duke of Bavaria; and after the
dissolution and division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the
dukes of Swabia. After this it rose rapidly into importance as a
manufacturing and commercial town, becoming, after Nuremberg, the centre
of the trade between Italy and the north of Europe; its merchant
princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but
the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of
the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline. In 1276 it was
raised to the rank of a free imperial city, which it retained, with many
changes in its internal constitution, till 1806, when it was annexed to
the kingdom of Bavaria. Meanwhile, it was the scene of numerous events
of historical importance. It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus
in 1632, and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it
was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a
contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war of 1803 it suffered
severely. Of its conventions the most memorable are those which gave
birth to the Augsburg confession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance
(1686).

  See Wagenseil, _Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg_ (Augs., 1820-1822);
  Werner, _Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg_ (1899); Roth, _Augsburg's
  Reformationsgeschichte_ (1902).



AUGSBURG, CONFESSION OF, the most important Protestant statement of
belief drawn up at the Reformation. In summoning a diet for April 1530,
Charles V. offered a fair hearing to all religious parties in the
Empire. Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were
appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position. These "Torgau
Articles" (March 1530) tell merely why Saxony had abolished certain
ecclesiastical abuses. Melanchthon, however, soon found that, owing to
attacks by Johann Eck of Ingolstadt ("404 Articles"), Saxony must state
its position in doctrinal matters as well. Taking the Articles of
Marburg (see MARBURG, COLLOQUY OF) and of Schwabach as the point of
departure, he repudiated all connexion with heretics condemned by the
ancient church. On the 11th of May he sent the draft to Luther, who
approved it, adding that he himself "could not tread so softly and
gently." On the 23rd of June the Confession, originally intended as the
statement of Electoral Saxony alone, was discussed and signed by a
number of other Protestant princes and cities, and read before the diet
on the 25th of June. Articles 1-21 attempt to show that the Evangelicals
had deviated from current doctrine only in order to restore the pure and
original teaching of the church. In spite of significant omissions (the
sole authority of scripture; rejection of transubstantiation), the
Confession contains nothing contradictory to Luther's position, and in
its emphasis on justification by faith alone enunciates a cardinal
concept of the Evangelical churches. Articles 22-28 describe and defend
the reformation of various "abuses." On the 3rd of August, shorn of much
of its original bitterness, the so-called _Confutatio pontificia_ was
read; it well expresses the views approved in substance by the emperor
and all the Catholic party. In answer, Melanchthon was ordered to
prepare an Apology of the Confession, which the emperor refused to
receive; so Melanchthon enlarged it and published the _editio princeps_
of both Confession and Apology in 1531.

  As he felt free to make slight changes, the first edition does not
  represent the exact text of 1530; the edition of 1533 was further
  improved, while that of 1540, rearranged and in part rewritten, is
  known as the _Variata_. Dogmatic changes in this seem to have drawn
  forth no protest from Luther or Brenz, so Melanchthon made fresh
  alterations in 1542. Later, the _Variata_ of 1540 became the creed of
  the Melanchthonians and even of the Crypto-calvinists; so the framers
  of the Formula of Concord, promulgated in 1580, returned to the text
  handed in at the Diet. By mistake they printed from a poor copy and
  not from the original, from which their German text varies at over 450
  places. Their Latin text, that of Melanchthon's _editio princeps_, is
  more nearly accurate. The _textus receptus_ is that of the Formula of
  Concord, the divergent Latin and German forms being equally binding.

Acceptance of the Confession and Apology was made a condition of
membership in the Schmalkalden League. The Wittenberg Concord (1536)
and the Articles of Schmalkalden (1537) reaffirmed them. The Confession
was the ultimate source of much of the Thirty-nine Articles. The
Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) recognized no Protestants save
adherents of the Confession; this was modified in 1648. To-day the
_Invariata_ is of symbolical authority among Lutherans generally, while
the _Variata_ is accepted by the Reformed churches of certain parts of
Germany (see Löber, pp. 79-83.)

  Editions of the received text: J.T. Müller, _Die symbolischen Bücher
  der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche_ (10th ed., Gütersloh, 1907), with
  a valuable historical introduction by Th. Kolde; Theodor Kolde, _Die
  Augsburgische Konfession_ (Gotha, 1896), (contains also the Marburg,
  Schwabach and Torgau Articles, the _Confutatio_ and the _Variata_ of
  1540). For translations of these, as well as of Zwingli's Reckoning of
  his Faith, and of the Tetrapolitan Confession, see H.E. Jacobs, _The
  Book of Concord_ (Philadelphia, 1882-83). The texts submitted to the
  emperor, lost before 1570, are reconstructed and compared with the
  _textus receptus_ by P. Tschackert, _Die unveranderte Augsburgische
  Konfession_ (Leipzig, 1901). For the genesis of the Confession, see
  Th. Kolde, _Die alteste Redaktion der Augsburger Konfession_
  (Gütersloh, 1906), also Kolde's article, "Augsburger Bekenntnis," in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed., vol. ii., Leipzig, 1897).
  The standard commentary is still G.L. Plitt, _Einleitung in die
  Augustana_ (Erlangen, 1867 ff.); compare also J. Ficker, _Die
  Konfutation des Augsburgischen Bekenntnisses in ihrer ersten Gestalt_
  (Leipzig, 1891); also A. Petzold, _Die Konfutation des
  Vierstädtebekenntnisses_ (Leipzig, 1900). On its present use see G.
  Löber, _Die im evangelischen Deutschland geltenden
  Ordinationsverpflichtungen geschichtlich geordnet_ (Leipzig, 1905), 79
  ff.     (W. W. R.*)



AUGSBURG, WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF, the name applied to the European war of
1688-1697. The league of Augsburg was concluded on the 9th of July 1686
by the emperor, the elector of Brandenburg and other princes, against
the French. Spain, Sweden, England and other non-German states joined
the league, and formed the Grand Alliance by the treaty of Vienna (July
12, 1689). (See GRAND ALLIANCE, WAR OF THE.)



AUGURS, in ancient Rome, members of a religious college whose duty it
was to observe and interpret the signs (auspices) of approval or
disapproval sent by the gods in reference to any proposed undertaking.
The _augures_ were originally called _auspices_, but, while _auspex_[1]
fell into disuse and was replaced by _augur_, _auspicium_ was retained
as the scientific term for the observation of signs.

The early history of the college is obscure. Its institution has been
attributed to Romulus or Numa. It probably consisted originally of three
members, of whom the king himself was one. This number was doubled by
Tarquinius Priscus, but in 300 B.C. it was only four, two places,
according to Livy (x. 6), being vacant. The Ogulnian law in the same
year increased the number to nine, five plebeian being added to the four
patrician members. In the time of Sulla the number was fifteen, which
was increased to sixteen by Julius Caesar. This number continued in
imperial times; the college itself was certainly in existence as late as
the 4th century. The office of augur, which was bestowed only upon
persons of distinguished merit and was much sought after by reason of
its political importance, was held for life. Vacancies were originally
filled by co-optation, but by the Domitian law (104) the selection was
made, by seventeen out of the thirty-five tribes chosen by lot, from
candidates previously nominated by the college. The insignia of office
were the _lituus_, a staff free from knots and bent at the top, and the
_trabea_, a kind of toga with bright scarlet stripes and a purple
border. The science of augury was contained in various written works,
which were consulted as occasion arose: such were the _libri augurum_, a
manual of augural ritual, and the _commentarii augurum_, a collection of
decrees or answers given by the college to the senate in certain
definite cases.

The natural region to look to for signs of the will of Jupiter was the
sky, where lightning and the flight of birds seemed directed by him as
counsel to men. The latter, however, was the more difficult of
interpretation, and upon it, therefore, mainly hinged the system of
divination with which the augurs were occupied. It was the duty of the
augur, before the auspices properly so called (those from the sky and
from birds) were taken, to mark out with his staff the templum or
consecrated space within which his observations were intended to be
made. The method of procedure was as follows. At midnight, when the sky
was clear and there was an absence of wind, the augur, in the presence
of a magistrate, took up his position on a hill which afforded a wide
view. After prayer and sacrifice, he marked out the templum both in the
sky and on the ground and dedicated it. Within its limits he then
pitched a tent, in which he sat down with covered head, asked the gods
for a sign, and waited for an answer. As the augur looked south he had
the east, the lucky quarter, on his left, and therefore signs on the
left side were considered favourable, those on the right unfavourable.
The practice was the reverse in Greece; the observers of signs looked
towards the north, so that signs on the right were regarded as the
favourable ones, and this is frequently adopted in the Roman poets. The
augur afterwards announced the result of his observations in a set form
of words, by which the magistrate was bound. Signs of the will of the
gods were of two kinds, either in answer to a request (_auspicia
impetrativa_), or incidental (_auspicia oblativa_). Of such signs there
were five classes: (1) Signs in the sky (_caelestia auspicia_),
consisting chiefly of thunder and lightning, but not excluding falling
stars and other phenomena. Lightning from left to right was favourable,
from right to left unfavourable; but on its mere appearance, in either
direction, all business in the public assemblies was suspended for the
day. Since the person charged to take the auspices for a certain day was
constitutionally subject to no other authority who could test the truth
or falsehood of his statement that he had observed lightning, this
became a favourite device for putting off meetings of the public
assembly. Restrictions were, however, imposed in later republican times.
When a new consul, praetor or quaestor entered on his first day of
office and prayed the gods for good omens, it was a matter of custom to
report to him that lightning from the left had been seen. (2) Signs from
birds (_signa ex avibus_), with reference to the direction of their
flight, and also to their singing, or uttering other sounds. To the
first class, called _alites_, belonged the eagle and the vulture; to the
second, called _oscines_, the owl, the crow and the raven. The mere
appearance of certain birds indicated good or ill luck, while others had
a reference only to definite persons or events. In matters of ordinary
life on which divine counsel was prayed for, it was usual to have
recourse to this form of divination. For public affairs it was, by the
time of Cicero, superseded by the fictitious observation of lightning.
(3) Feeding of birds (_auspicia ex tripudiis_), which consisted in
observing whether a bird--usually a fowl--on grain being thrown before
it, let fall a particle from its mouth (_tripudium sollistimum_). If it
did so, the will of the gods was in favour of the enterprise in
question. The simplicity of this ceremony recommended it for very
general use, particularly in the army when on service. The fowls were
kept in cages by a servant, styled _pullarius_. In imperial times
_decuriales pullarii_ are mentioned. (4) Signs from animals (_pedestria
auspicia_, or _ex quadrupedibus_), i.e. observation of the course of,
or sounds uttered by, quadrupeds and reptiles within a fixed space,
corresponding to the observations of the flight of birds, but much less
frequently employed. It had gone out of use by the time of Cicero. (5)
Warnings (_signa ex diris_), consisting of all unusual phenomena, but
chiefly such as boded ill. Being accidental in their occurrence, they
belonged to the _auguria oblativa_, and their interpretation was not a
matter for the augurs, unless occurring in the course of some public
transaction, in which case they formed a divine veto against it.
Otherwise, reference was made for an interpretation to the pontifices in
olden times, afterwards frequently to the Sibylline books, or the
Etruscan haruspices, when the incident was not already provided for by a
rule, as, for example, that it was unlucky for a person leaving his
house to meet a raven, that the sudden death of a person from epilepsy
at a public meeting was a sign to break up the assembly.

Among the other means of discovering the will of the gods were the
casting of lots, oracles of Apollo (in the hands of the college _sacris
faciundis_), but chiefly the examination of the entrails of animals
slain for sacrifice (see OMEN). Anything abnormal found there was
brought under the notice of the augurs, but usually the Etruscan
haruspices were employed for this. The persons entitled to ask for an
expression of the divine will on a public affair were the magistrates.
To the highest offices, including all persons of consular and praetorian
rank, belonged the right of taking _auspicia maxima_; to the inferior
offices of aedile and quaestor, the _auspicia minora_; the differences
between these, however, must have been small. The subjects for which
_auspicia publica_ were always taken were the election of magistrates,
their entering on office, the holding of a public assembly to pass
decrees, the setting out of an army for war. They could only be taken in
Rome itself; and in case of a commander having to renew his _auspicia_,
he must either return to Rome or select a spot in the foreign country to
represent the hearth of that city. The time for observing auspices was,
as a rule, between midnight and dawn of the day fixed for any proposed
undertaking. In military affairs this course was not always possible, as
in the case of taking auspices before crossing a river. The founding of
colonies, the beginning of a battle, the calling together an army, the
sittings of the senate, decisions of peace or war, were occasions, not
always but frequently, for taking auspices. The place where the ceremony
was performed was not fixed, but selected with a view to the matter in
hand. A spot being selected, the official charged to make the
observation pitched his tent there some days before. A matter postponed
through adverse signs from the gods could on the following or some
future day be again brought forward for the auspices. If an error
(_vitium_) occurred in the auspices, the augurs could, of their own
accord or at the request of the senate, inform themselves of the
circumstances, and decree upon it. A consul could refuse to accept their
decree while he remained in office, but on retiring he could be
prosecuted. _Auspicia oblativa_ referred mostly to the comitia. A
magistrate was not bound to take notice of signs reported merely by a
private person, but he could not overlook such a report from a brother
magistrate. For example, if a quaestor on his entry to office observed
lightning and announced it to the consul, the latter must delay the
public assembly for the day.

  On the subject generally, see A. Bouché-Leclercq, _Histoire de la
  divination dans l'antiquité_ (1879), and his articles, with
  bibliography, in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des antiquités_,
  also articles "Augures," "Auspicium," by Wissowa in Pauly's
  _Realencyclopädie_ (II. pt. ii., 1896), and by L.C. Purser (and
  others) in Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_ (3rd
  ed., 1890). (See also DIVINATION, OMEN, ASTROLOGY, &c.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] There is no doubt that _auspex_ = _avi-spex_ ("observer of
    birds"), but the derivation of _augur_ is still unsettled. The
    following have been suggested: (1) _augur_ (or _augus_) is a
    substantive originally meaning "increase" (related to _augustus_ as
    _robur_ to _robustus_), then transferred to the priest as the giver
    of increase or blessing; (2) = _avi-gur_, the second part of the word
    pointing to (a) _garrire_, "chatter," or (b) _gerere_, the augur
    being conceived as "carrying" or guiding the flight of the birds; (3)
    from a lost verb _augo_ = "tell," "declare." It is now generally
    agreed that the science of augury is of Italian, not Etruscan,
    origin.



AUGUST (originally _Sextilis_), the sixth month in the pre-Julian Roman
year, which received its present name from the emperor Augustus. The
preceding month, _Quintilis_, had been called "July" after Julius
Caesar, and the emperor chose August to be rechristened in his own
honour because his greatest good fortune had then happened. In that
month he had been admitted to the consulate, had thrice celebrated a
triumph, had received the allegiance of the soldiers stationed on the
Janiculum, had concluded the civil wars, and had subdued Egypt. As July
contained thirty-one days, and August only thirty, it was thought
necessary to add another day to the latter month, in order that the
month of Augustus might not be in any respect inferior to that of
Julius.



AUGUSTA, a city and the county-seat of Richmond county, Georgia, U.S.A.,
at the head of steamboat navigation on the Savannah river, 132 m. N.W.
of Savannah by rail and 240 m. by river course. Pop. (1890) 33,300;
(1900) 39,441, of whom 18,487 were negroes and only 995 were
foreign-born; (1910 census) 41,040. Augusta is served by the Southern,
the Augusta Southern (controlled by the Southern), the Atlantic Coast
Line, the Charleston & Western Carolina (controlled by the Atlantic
Coast Line), the Georgia and the Central of Georgia railways, by an
electric line to Aiken, South Carolina, and by a line of steamers to
Savannah. The city extends along the river bank for a distance of more
than 3 m., and is connected by a bridge with Hamburg, and with North
Augusta, South Carolina, two residential suburbs. Augusta is well known
as a winter resort (mean winter temperature, 47° F.), and there are many
fine winter homes here of wealthy Northerners. There are good roads,
stretching from Augusta for miles in almost every direction. In North
Augusta there is a large hotel, and there is another in Summerville
(pop. in 1910, 4361), 2½ m. N.W., an attractive residential suburb and
winter resort, in which there are a country club and a large United
States arsenal, established in 1831. Broad Street is the principal
thoroughfare of Augusta, and Greene Street, with a park in the centre
and flanking rows of oaks and elms, is the finest residential street. Of
historical interest is St Paul's church (Protestant Episcopal); the
present building was erected in 1819 and is the third St Paul's church
on the same site. The first church was "built by the gentlemen of
Augusta" in 1750. In the crypt of the church General Leonidas Polk is
buried; and in the churchyard are the graves of George Steptoe
Washington, a nephew of George Washington, and of William Longstreet,
the inventor. Among the city's principal buildings are the Federal
building, the Richmond county court house, the Augusta orphan asylum,
the city hospital, the Lamar hospital for negroes, and the buildings of
Richmond Academy (incorporated in 1783), of the Academy of the Sacred
Heart (for girls), of Paine's Institute (for negroes), of Houghton
Institute, endowed in 1852 to be "free to all the children of Augusta,"
and of the medical school of the university of Georgia, founded in 1829,
and a part of the university since 1873. A granite obelisk 50 ft. high
was erected in 1861 as a memorial to the signers for Georgia of the
Declaration of Independence; beneath it are buried Lyman Hall
(1726-1790) and George Walton (1740-1804). There are two Italian marble
monuments in honour of Confederate soldiers, and monuments to the
Southern poets, Paul Hamilton Hayne and Richard Henry Wilde (1789-1847).

In commerce and manufacturing, Augusta ranks second among the cities of
Georgia. As a centre of trade for the "Cotton Belt," it has a large
wholesale and retail business; and it is an important cotton market. The
principal manufacture is cotton goods; among the other products are
lumber, flour, cotton waste, cotton-seed oil and cake, ice, silk,
boilers and engines, and general merchandise staples. Water-power for
factories is secured by a system of "water-power canals" from a large
dam across the Savannah, built in 1847 and enlarged in 1871; the
principal canal, owned by the city, is so valuable as nearly to pay the
interest on the municipal debt. In 1905 the value of the city's total
factory product was $8,829,305, of which $3,832,009, or 43.4%, was the
value of the cotton goods. The principal newspaper is the _Augusta
Chronicle_, founded in 1785.

Augusta was established in 1735-1736 by James Edward Oglethorpe, the
founder of Georgia, and was named in honour of the princess of Wales.
The Carolina colonists had a trading post in its vicinity before the
settlement by Oglethorpe. The fort, built in 1736, was first named Fort
Augusta, and in 1780, at the time of the British occupation, was
enlarged and renamed Fort Cornwallis; its site is now marked by a
Memorial Cross, erected by the Colonial Dames of Georgia in the
churchyard of St Paul's. Tobacco was the principal agricultural product
during the 18th century, and for its culture negro slaves were
introduced from Carolina, before the restrictions of the Georgia
Trustees on slavery were removed. During the colonial period several
treaties with Indians were made at Augusta; by the most important, that
of 1763, the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas agreed
(in a meeting with the governors of North and South Carolina, Virginia
and Georgia) to the terms of the treaty of Paris. At the opening of the
American War of Independence, the majority of the people of Augusta were
Loyalists. The town was taken by the British under Lieut.-Col. Archibald
Campbell (1739-1791) in January 1779, but was evacuated a month later;
it was the seat of government of Georgia for almost the entire period
from the capture of Savannah in December 1778 until May 1780, and was
then abandoned by the Patriots and was occupied chiefly by Loyalists
under Lieut.-Col. Thomas Brown. In September 1780 a force of less than
500 patriots under Col. Elijah Clarke marched against the town in three
divisions, and while one division, attacking a neighbouring Indian camp,
drew off most of the garrison, the other two divisions entered the town;
but British reinforcements arrived before Brown could be dislodged from
a building in which he had taken refuge, and Clarke was forced to
withdraw. A stronger American force, under Lieut.-Col. Henry Lee,
renewed the siege in May 1781 and gained possession on the 5th of June.
From 1783 until 1795 Augusta was again the seat of the state government.
It was the meeting-place of the Land Court which confiscated the
property of the Loyalists of Georgia, and of the convention which
ratified for Georgia the Constitution of the United States. In 1798 it
was incorporated as a town, and in 1817 it was chartered as a city.
Augusta was the home of the inventor, William Longstreet (1759-1814),
who as early as 1788 received a patent from the state of Georgia for a
steamboat, but met with no practical success until 1808; as early as
1801 he had made experiments in the application of steam to cotton gins
and saw-mills at Augusta. Near Augusta, on the site now occupied by the
Eli Whitney Country Club, Eli Whitney is said to have first set up and
operated his cotton gin; he is commemorated by a mural tablet in the
court house. The establishment of a steamboat line to Savannah in 1817
aided Augusta's rapid commercial development. There was a disastrous
fire in 1829, an epidemic of yellow fever in 1839, and a flood in 1840,
but the growth of the city was not seriously checked; the cotton
receipts of 1846 were 212,019 bales, and in 1847 a cotton factory was
built. During the Civil War Augusta was the seat of extensive military
factories, the tall chimney of the Confederate powder mills still
standing as a memorial. The economic development has, since the Civil
War, been steady and continuous. An exposition was held in Augusta in
1888, and another in 1893.



AUGUSTA, the capital of Maine, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Kennebec
county, on the Kennebec river[1] (at the head of navigation), 44 m. from
its mouth, 62 m. by rail N.E. of Portland, and 74 m. S.W. of Bangor.
Pop. (1890) 10,527; (1900) 11,683, of whom 2131 were foreign-born;
(1910, census) 13,211. It is served by the Maine Central railway, by
several electric lines, and by steamboat lines to Portland, Boston and
several other ports. It is built on a series of terraces, mostly on the
west bank of the river, which is spanned here by a bridge 1100 ft. long.
The state house, built of granite quarried in the vicinity, occupies a
commanding site along the south border of the city, and in it is the
state library. The Lithgow library is a city public library. Near the
state house is the former residence of James G. Blaine. On the other
side of the river, nearly opposite, is the Maine insane hospital. Among
other prominent buildings are the court house, the post office and the
city hall. In one of the parks is a soldiers' and sailors' monument. By
means of a dam across the river, 17 ft. high and nearly 600 ft. long,
good water-power is provided, and the city manufactures cotton goods,
boots and shoes, paper, pulp and lumber. A leading industry is the
printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals, several of the
periodicals published here having an enormous circulation. The total
value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,886,833. Augusta occupies
the site of the Indian village, Koussinoc, at which the Plymouth Colony
established a trading post about 1628. In 1661 Plymouth sold its
interests, and soon afterward the four purchasers abandoned the post. In
1754, however, their heirs brought about the erection here of Fort
Western, the main building of which is still standing at the east end of
the bridge, opposite the city hall. Augusta was originally a part of the
township of Hallowell (incorporated in 1771); in 1797 the north part of
Hallowell was incorporated as a separate town and named Harrington; and
later in the same year the name was changed to Augusta. It became the
county-seat in 1799; was chosen by the Maine legislature as the capital
of the state in 1827, but was not occupied as such until the completion
of the state house in 1831; and was chartered as a city in 1849.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The Kennebec was first explored to this point in 1607.



AUGUSTA, a seaport of the province of Syracuse, Sicily, 19 m. N. of it
by rail. Pop. (1901) 16,402. It occupies a part of the former peninsula
of Xiphonia, now a small island, connected with the mainland by a
bridge. It was founded by the emperor Frederick II. in 1232, and almost
entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1693, after which it was rebuilt.
The castle is now a large prison. The fortified port, though
unfrequented except as a naval harbour of refuge, is a very fine one.
There are considerable saltworks at Augusta. To the south, on the left
bank of the Molinello. 1½ m. from its mouth, Sicel tombs and Christian
catacombs, and farther up the river a cave village of the early middle
ages, have been explored (_Notizie degli Scavi_, 1902, 411, 631;
_Römische Quartalschrift_, 1902, 205). Whether there was ever a town
bearing the name Xiphonia is doubted by E.A. Freeman (_Hist. of Sic._ i.
583); cf., however, E. Pais, _Atakta_ (Pisa, 1891), 55, who attributes
its foundation, under the name of Tauromenion (which it soon lost), to
the Zancleans of Hybla (afterwards Megara Hyblaea).     (T. As.)



AUGUSTA BAGIENNORUM, the chief town of the Ligurian tribe of the
Bagienni, probably identical with the modern Bene Vagienna, on the upper
course of the Tanaro, about 35 m. due south of Turin. The town retained
its position as a tribal centre in the reorganization of Augustus, whose
name it bears, and was erected on a systematic plan. Considerable
remains of public buildings, constructed in concrete faced with small
stones with bands of brick at intervals, an amphitheatre with a major
axis of 390 ft. and a minor axis of 305 ft., a theatre with a stage 133
ft. in length, and near it the foundations of what was probably a
basilica, an open space (no doubt the forum), an aqueduct, baths, &c.,
have been discovered by recent excavations, and also one of the city
gates, flanked by two towers 22 ft. sq.

  See G. Assandria and G. Vacchetta in _Notizie degli Scavi_ (1894),
  155; (1896), 215; (1897), 441; (1898), 299; (1900), 389; (1901), 413.
       (T. As.)



AUGUSTAN HISTORY, the name given to a collection of the biographies of
the Roman emperors from Hadrian to Carinus (A.D. 117-284). The work
professes to have been written during the reigns of Diocletian and
Constantine, and is to be regarded as the composition of six
authors,--Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lampridius,
Vulcacius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus--known as
Scriptores Historiae Augustae, writers of Augustan history. It is
generally agreed, however, that there is a large number of
interpolations in the work, which are referred to the reign of
Theodosius; and that the documents inserted in the lives are almost all
forgeries. The more advanced school of critics holds that the names of
the supposed authors are purely fictitious, as those of some of the
authorities which they profess to quote certainly are. The lives, which
(with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are
distributed as follows:--To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian,
Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger,
Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to
Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax,
Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and
Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus,
Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the
Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives
of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian,
Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus,
Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.

The importance of the Augustan history as a repertory of information is
very considerable, but its literary pretensions are of the humblest
order. The writers' standard was confessedly low. "My purpose," says
Vopiscus, "has been to provide materials for persons more eloquent than
I." Considering the perverted taste of the age, it is perhaps fortunate
that the task fell into the hands of no showy declaimer who measured his
success by his skill in making surface do duty for substance, but of
homely, matter-of-fact scribes, whose sole concern was to record what
they knew. Their narrative is unmethodical and inartificial; their style
is tame and plebeian; their conception of biography is that of a
collection of anecdotes; they have no notion of arrangement, no measure
of proportion, and no criterion of discrimination between the important
and the trivial; they are equally destitute of critical and of
historical insight, unable to sift the authorities on which they rely,
and unsuspicious of the stupendous social revolution comprised within
the period which they undertake to describe. Their value, consequently,
depends very much on that of the sources to which they happen to have
recourse for any given period of history, and on the fidelity of their
adherence to these when valuable. Marius Maximus and Aelius Junius
Cordus, to whose qualifications they themselves bear no favourable
testimony, were their chief authorities for the earlier lives of the
series. Marius Maximus, who lived about 165-230, wrote biographies of
the emperors, in continuation of those of Suetonius, from Nerva to
Elagabalus; Junius Cordus dealt with the less-known emperors, perhaps
down to Maximus and Balbinus. The earlier lives, however, contain a
substratum of authentic historical fact, which recent critics have
supposed to be derived from a lost work by a contemporary writer,
described by one of these scholars as "the last great Roman historian."
For the later lives the Scriptores were obliged to resort more largely
to public records, and thus preserved matter of the highest importance,
rescuing from oblivion many imperial rescripts and senatorial decrees,
reports of official proceedings and speeches on public occasions, and a
number of interesting and characteristic letters from various emperors.
Their incidental allusions sometimes cast vivid though undesigned light
on the circumstances of the age, and they have made large contributions
to our knowledge of imperial jurisprudence in particular. Even their
trivialities have their use; their endless anecdotes respecting the
personal habits of the subjects of their biographies, if valueless to
the historian, are most acceptable to the archaeologist, and not
unimportant to the economist and moralist. Their errors and deficiencies
may in part be ascribed to the contemporary neglect of history as a
branch of instruction. Education was in the hands of rhetoricians and
grammarians; historians were read for their style, not for their matter,
and since the days of Tacitus, none had arisen worth a schoolmaster's
notice. We thus find Vopiscus acknowledging that when he began to write
the life of Aurelian, he was entirely misinformed respecting the
latter's competitor Firmus, and implying that he would not have ventured
on Aurelian himself if he had not had access to the MS. of the emperor's
own diary in the Ulpian library. The writers' historical estimates are
superficial and conventional, but report the verdict of public opinion
with substantial accuracy. The only imputation on the integrity of any
of them lies against Trebellius Pollio, who, addressing his work to a
descendant of Claudius, the successor and probably the assassin of
Gallienus, has dwelt upon the latter versatile sovereign's carelessness
and extravagance without acknowledgment of the elastic though fitful
energy he so frequently displayed in defence of the empire. The caution
of Vopiscus's references to Diocletian cannot be made a reproach to him.

No biographical particulars are recorded respecting any of these
writers. From their acquaintance with Latin and Greek literature they
must have been men of letters by profession, and very probably
secretaries or librarians to persons of distinction. There seems no
reason to accept Gibbon's contemptuous estimate of their social
position. They appear particularly versed in law. Spartianus's reference
to himself as "Diocletian's own" seems to indicate that he was a
domestic in the imperial household. They address their patrons with
deference, acknowledging their own deficiencies, and seem painfully
conscious of the profession of literature having fallen upon evil days.

  Editio princeps (Milan, 1475); Casaubon (1603) showed great critical
  ability in his notes, but for want of a good MS. left the restoration
  of the text to Salmasius (1620), whose notes are a most remarkable
  monument of erudition, combined with acuteness in verbal criticism and
  general vigour of intellect. Of recent years considerable attention
  has been devoted by German scholars to the _History_, especially by
  Peter, whose edition of the text in the Teubner series (2nd ed., 1884)
  contains (praef. xxxv.-xxxvii.) a bibliography of works on the subject
  preceding the publication of his own special treatise. The edition by
  Jordan-Eyssenhardt (1863) should also be mentioned. Amongst the most
  recent treatises on the subject are: A. Gemoll, _Die Scriptores
  Historiae Augustae_ (1886); H. Peter, _Die Scriptores Historiae
  Augustae_ (1892); G. Tropea, _Studi sugli Scriptores Historiae
  Augustae_ (1899-1903); J.M. Heer, _Der historische Wert der Vita
  Commodi in der Sammlung der Scriptores Historiae Augustae_ (1901); C.
  Lécrivain, _Études sur l'histoire Auguste_ (1904); E. Kornemann,
  _Kaiser Hadrian und der letzte grosse Historiker von Rom_ (1905),
  according to whom "the last great historian of Rome" is Lollius
  Urbicus; O. Schulz, _Das Kaiserhaus der Antonine und der letzte
  Historiker Roms_ (1907). On their style, see C. Paucker, _De
  Latinitate Scriptorum Historiae Augustae_ (1870); special lexicon by
  C. Lessing (1901-1906). An English translation is included in _The
  Lives of the Roman Emperors_, by John Bernard (1698). See further
  ROME: _History_ (anc. _ad fin._), section "Authorities"; M. Schanz,
  _Geschichte der römischen Litteratur_, iii. p. 69 (for Marius Maximus
  and Junius Cordus), iv. p. 47; Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman
  Literature_ (Eng. tr.), § 392; H. Peter, bibliography from 1893 to
  1905 in Bursian's _Jahresbericht_, cxxix. (1907).



AUGUSTA PRAETORIA SALASSORUM (mod. _Aosta_, q.v.), an ancient town of
Italy in the district of the Salassi, founded by Augustus about 24 B.C.
on the site of the camp of Varro Murena, who subdued this tribe in 25
B.C., and settled with 3000 praetorians. Pliny calls it the last town of
Italy on the north-west, and its position at the confluence of two
rivers, at the end of the Great and Little St Bernard, gave it
considerable military importance, which is vouched for by considerable
remains of Roman buildings. The ancient town walls, enclosing a
rectangle 793 by 624 yds., are still preserved almost in their entire
extent. The walls are 21 ft. high. They are built of concrete faced with
small blocks of stone, and at the bottom are nearly 9 ft. thick, and at
the top 6 ft. There are towers at the angles of the _enceinte_, and
others at intervals, and two at each of the four gates, making a total
of twenty towers altogether. They are roughly 32 ft. square, and project
14 ft. from the wall. The Torre del Pailleron on the south and the Torre
del Leproso in the west are especially well preserved. The east and
south gates exist (the latter, a double gate with three arches flanked
by two towers, is the Porta Praetoria, and is especially fine), while
the rectangular arrangement of the streets perpetuates the Roman plan,
dividing the town into 16 blocks (_insulae_). The main road, 32 ft.
wide, divides the city into two equal halves, running from east to west,
an arrangement which makes it clear that the guarding of the road was
the main _raison d'être_ of the city. Some arcades of the amphitheatre
(the diameters of which are 282 ft. and 239 ft.), and the south wall of
the theatre are also preserved, the latter to a height of over 70 ft.,
and a market-place some 300 ft. square, surrounded by storehouses on
three sides with a temple in the centre, and two on the open (south)
side, and the _thermae_, have been discovered. Outside the town is a
handsome triumphal arch in honour of Augustus. About 5 m. to the west is
a single-arched Roman bridge, the Pondel, which has a closed passage
lighted by windows for foot passengers in winter, and above it an open
footpath, both being about 3½ ft. in width. There are considerable
remains of the ancient road from Eporedia (mod. _Ivrea_) to Augusta
Praetoria, up the Valle d' Aosta, which the modern railway follows,
notably the Pont St Martin, with a single arch with a span of 116 ft.
and a roadway 15 ft. wide, the cutting of Donnaz, and the Roman bridges
of Châtillon (Pont St Vincent) and Aosta (Pont de Pierre), &c.

  See C. Promis, _Le antichità di Aosta_ (Turin, 1862); E. Bérard in
  _Atti della Società di Archeologia di Torino_, iii. 119 seq.; _Notizie
  degli Scavi_, passim; A. d'Andrade, _Relazione dell' Ufficio Regionale
  per la consenazione dei Monumenti del Piemonte e della Liguria_
  (Turin, 1899), 46 seq.     (T. As.)



AUGUSTI, JOHANN CHRISTIAN WILHELM (1772-1841), German theologian, born
at Eschenberga, near Gotha, was of Jewish descent, his grandfather
having been a converted rabbi. He was educated at the gymnasium at Gotha
and the university of Jena. At Jena he studied oriental languages, of
which he became professor there in 1803. Subsequently he became ordinary
professor of theology (1812), and for a time rector, at Breslau. In 1819
he was transferred to the university of Bonn, where he was made
professor primarius. In 1828 he was appointed chief member of the
consistorial council at Coblenz. Here he was afterwards made director of
the consistory. He died at Coblenz in 1841. Augusti had little sympathy
with the modern philosophical interpretations of dogma, and although he
took up a position of free criticism with regard to the Biblical
narratives, he held fast to the traditional faith. His works on theology
(_Dogmengeschichte_, 1805; 4th ed., 1835) are simple statements of fact;
they do not attempt a speculative treatment of their subjects. In 1809
he published in conjunction with W.M.L. de Wette a new translation of
the Old Testament. Mention should also be made of his _Grundriss einer
historischkritischen Einleitung ins Alte Testament_ (1806), his
_Exegetisches Handbuch des Alten Testaments_ (1797-1800), and his
edition of _Die Apokryphen des A. T._ (1804). In addition to these, his
most important writings are the _Denkwürdigkeiten aus der Christlichen
Archäologie_, 12 vols. (1817-1831), a partially digested mass of
materials, and the _Handbuch der Christ. Archäologie_, 3 vols.
(1836-1837), which gives the substance of the larger work in a more
compact and systematic form.



AUGUSTINE, SAINT (354-430), one of the four great fathers of the Latin
Church. Augustinus--the _praenomen_ Aurelius is used indeed by his
disciples Orosius and Prosper, and is found in the oldest Augustine
MSS., but is not used by himself, nor in the letters addressed to
him--was born at Tagaste, a town of Numidia, now Suk Ahras in
Constantine, on the 13th of November 354. His father, Patricius, was a
burgess of Tagaste and still a pagan at the time of his son's birth. His
mother, Monica, was not only a Christian, but a woman of the most tender
and devoted piety, whose beautiful faith and enthusiasm and patient
prayer for both her husband and son (at length crowned with success in
both cases) have made her a type of womanly saintliness for all ages.
She early instructed her son in the faith and love of Jesus Christ, and
for a time he seems to have been impressed by her teaching. Falling ill,
he wished to be baptized; but when the danger was past, the rite was
deferred and, in spite of his mother's admonitions and prayers,
Augustine grew up without any profession of Christian piety or any
devotion to Christian principles.

Inheriting from his father a passionate nature, he formed while still a
mere youth an irregular union with a girl, by whom he became the father
of a son, whom in a fit of pious emotion he named Adeodatus ("by God
given"), and to whom he was passionately attached. In his _Confessions_
he afterwards described this period of his life in the blackest colours;
for in the light of his conversion he saw behind him only shadows. Yet,
whatever his youthful aberrations, Augustine was from the first an
earnest student. His father, noticing his early promise, destined him
for the brilliant and lucrative career of a rhetorician, for which he
spared no expense in training him. Augustine studied at his native town
and afterwards at Madaura and Carthage, especially devoting himself to
the works of the Latin poets, many traces of his love for which are to
be found in his writings. His acquaintance with Greek literature was
much more limited, and, indeed, it has been doubted, though without
sufficient reason, whether he could use the Greek scriptures in the
original. Cicero's _Hortensius_, which he read in his nineteenth year,
first awakened in his mind the spirit of speculation and the impulse
towards the knowledge of the truth. But he passed from one phase of
thought to another, unable to find satisfaction in any. Manichaeism,
that mixed product of Zoroastrian and Christian-gnostic elements, first
enthralled him. He became a fervent member of the sect, and was admitted
into the class of _auditors_ or "hearers." Manichaeism seemed to him to
solve the mysteries of the world, and of his own experiences by which he
was perplexed. His insatiable imagination drew congenial food from the
fanciful religious world of the Manichaeans, decked out as this was with
the luxuriant wealth of Oriental myth. His strongly developed sense of a
need of salvation sought satisfaction in the contest of the two
principles of Good and Evil, and found peace, at least for the moment,
in the conviction that the portions of light present in him would be
freed from the darkness in which they were immersed. The ideal of
chastity and self-restraint, which promised a foretaste of union with
God, amazed him, bound as he was in the fetters of sensuality and for
ever shaking at these fetters. But while his moral force was not
sufficient for the attainment of this ideal, gradually everything else
which Manichaeism seemed to offer him dissolved before his criticism.
Increasingly occupied with the exact sciences, he learnt the
incompatibility of the Manichaean astrology with the facts. More and
more absorbed in the problems of psychology, he realized the
insufficiency of dualism, which did not solve the ultimate questions but
merely set them back. The Manichaean propaganda seemed to him
invertebrate and lacking in force, and a discussion which he had with
Faustus, a distinguished Manichaean bishop and controversialist, left
him greatly disappointed.

Meanwhile nine years had passed. Augustine, after finishing his studies,
had returned to Tagaste, where he became a teacher of grammar. He must
have been an excellent master, who knew how to influence the whole
personality of his pupils. It was then that Alypius, who in the later
stages of Augustine's life proved a true friend and companion, attached
himself to him. He remained in his native town little more than a year,
during which time he lived with his mother, who was comforted by the
bishop for the estrangement of her son from the Catholic faith ("a son
of so many tears cannot be lost": _Confess._ III. xii. § 21), comforted
also, and above all, by the famous vision, which Augustine thus
describes: "She saw herself standing on a certain wooden rule, and a
shining youth coming towards her, cheerful and smiling upon her the
while she grieved, and was consumed with grief: and when he had inquired
of her the causes of her grief and daily tears (for the sake, as is
their wont, of teaching, not of learning) and she had made answer that
she was bewailing my perdition, he bade her be at ease, and advised her
to look and observe, 'That where she was, there was I also.' And when
she looked there, she saw me standing by her on the same rule"
(_Confess._ III. xi.). Augustine now returned for a second time to
Carthage, where he devoted himself zealously to work. Thence, probably
in the spring of 383, he migrated to Rome. His Manichaean friends urged
him to take this step, which was rendered easier by the licentious lives
of the students at Carthage. His stay at Rome may have lasted about a
year, no agreeable time for Augustine, since his patrons and friends
belonged to just those Manichaean circles with which he had in the
meantime entirely lost all intellectual touch. He, therefore, accepted
an invitation from Milan, where the people were in search of a teacher
of rhetoric.

At Milan the conflict within his mind in search of truth still
continued. It was now that he separated himself openly from the
Manichaean sect. As a thinker he came entirely under the influence of
the New Academy; he professed the Sceptic philosophy, without being able
to find in it the final conclusion of wisdom. He was, however, not far
from the decision. Two things determined his further development. He
became acquainted with the Neo-Platonic philosophy; its monism replaced
the dualism, its intellectualized world of ideas the materialism of
Manichaeism. Here he found the admonition to seek for truth outside the
material world, and from created things he learnt to recognize the
invisible God; he attained the certainty that this God is, and is
eternal, always the same, subject to change neither in his parts nor in
his motions. And while thus Augustine's metaphysical convictions were
being slowly remodelled, he met, in Ambrose, bishop of Milan, a man in
whom complete worldly culture and the nobility of a ripe Christian
personality were wonderfully united. He heard him preach; but at first
it was the orator and not the contents of the sermons that enchained
him. He sought an opportunity of conversation with him, but this was not
easily found. Ambrose had no leisure for philosophic discussion. He was
accessible to all who sought him, but never for a moment free from study
or the cares of duty. Augustine, as he himself tells us, used to enter
without being announced, as all persons might; but after staying for a
while, afraid of interrupting him, he would depart again. He continued,
however, to hear Ambrose preach, and gradually the gospel of divine
truth and grace was received into his heart. He was busy with his friend
Alypius in studying the Pauline epistles; certain words were driven home
with irresistible force to his conscience. His struggle of mind became
more and more intolerable, the thought of divine purity fighting in his
heart with the love of the world and the flesh. That sensuality was his
worst enemy he had long known. The mother of his child had accompanied
him to Milan. When he became betrothed he dismissed her; but neither the
pain of this parting nor consideration for his not yet marriageable
bride prevented him from forming a fresh connexion of the same kind.
Meanwhile, the determination to renounce the old life with its pleasures
of sense, was ever being forced upon him with more and more
distinctness. He then received a visit from a Christian compatriot named
Pontitian, who told him about St Anthony and the monachism in Egypt, and
also of a monastery near Milan. He was shaken to the depths when he
learnt from Pontitian that two young officials, like himself betrothed,
had suddenly formed a determination to turn their backs upon the life of
the world. He could no longer bear to be inside the house; in terrible
excitement he rushed into the garden; and now followed that scene which
he himself in the _Confessions_ has described to us with such graphic
realism. He flung himself under a fig tree, burst into a passion of
weeping, and poured out his heart to God. Suddenly he seemed to hear a
voice bidding him consult the divine oracle: "Take up and read, take up
and read." He left off weeping, rose up, sought the volume where Alypius
was sitting, and opening it read in silence the following passage from
the Epistle to the Romans (xiii. 13, 14): "Not in rioting and
drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and
envying. But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for
the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof." He adds: "I had neither desire
nor need to read further. As I finished the sentence, as though the
light of peace had been poured into the heart, all the shadows of doubt
dispersed. Thus hast Thou converted me to Thee, so as no longer to seek
either for wife or other hope of the world, standing fast in that rule
of faith in which Thou so many years before hadst revealed me to my
mother" (_in qua me ante lot annos ei revelaveras: Confess_. VIII. xii.
§ 30).[1]

The conversion of Augustine, as we have been accustomed to call this
event, took place in the late summer of 386, a few weeks before the
beginning of the vacation. The determination to give up his post was
rendered easier by a chest-trouble which was not without danger, and
which for months made him incapable of work. He withdrew with several
companions to the country estate of Cassisiacum near Milan, which had
been lent him by a friend, and announced himself to the bishop as a
candidate for baptism. His religious opinions were still to some extent
unformed, and even his habits by no means altogether such as his great
change demanded. He mentions, for example, that during this time he
broke himself of a habit of profane swearing, and in other ways sought
to discipline his character and conduct for the reception of the sacred
rite. He received baptism the Easter following, in his thirty-third
year, and along with him his son Adeodatus and his friend Alypius were
admitted to the Church. Monica, his mother, had rejoined him, and at
length rejoiced in the fulfilment of her prayers. She died at Ostia,
just as they were about to embark for Africa, her last hours being
gladdened by his Christian sympathy. In the account of the conversation
which he had with his mother before her end, in the narrative of her
death and burial (_Confess_. IX. x.-xi., §§ 23-28), Augustine's literary
power is displayed at its highest.

The plan of returning home, remained for the present unaccomplished.
Augustine stayed for a year in Rome, occupied in literary work,
particularly in controversy with Manichaeism. It was not until the
autumn of 388 that he returned to Tagaste, probably still accompanied by
his son, who, however, must have died shortly afterwards. With some
friends, who joined him in devotion, he formed a small religious
community, which looked to him as its head. Their mode of life was not
formally monastic according to any special rule, but the experience of
this time of seclusion was, no doubt, the basis of that monastic system
which Augustine afterwards sketched and which derived its name from him
(see AUGUSTINIANS). As may be imagined, the fame of such a convert in
such a position soon spread, and invitations to a more active
ecclesiastical life came to him from many quarters. He shrank from the
responsibility, but his destiny was not to be avoided. After two and a
half years spent in retirement he went to Hippo, to see a Christian
friend, who desired to converse with him as to his design of quitting
the world and devoting himself to a religious life. The Christian
community there being in want of a presbyter and Augustine being present
at the meeting, the people unanimously chose him and he was ordained to
the presbyterate. A few years afterwards, 395 or 396, he was made
coadjutor to the bishop, and finally became bishop of the see.

Henceforth Augustine's life is filled up with his ecclesiastical
labours, and is more marked by the series of his numerous writings and
the great controversies in which they engaged him than by anything else.
His life was spent in a perpetual strife. During the first half this had
been against himself; but even when others stepped into his place, it
always seems as though a part of Augustine himself were incarnate in
them. Augustine had early distinguished himself as an author. He had
written several philosophical treatises, and, as teacher of rhetoric at
Carthage, he had composed a work _De pulchro et apto_, which is no
longer extant. Whenat Cassisiacum he had combated the scepticism of the
New Academy (_Contra Academicos_), had treated of the "blessed life"
(_De Vita beata_), of the significance of evil in the order of the world
(_De ordine_), of the means for the elucidation of spiritual truths
(_Soliloquia_). Shortly before the time of his baptism, he was occupied
with the question of the immortality of the soul (_De immortalitate
animae_), and in Rome and at Tagaste he was still engaged with
philosophical problems, as is evidenced by the writings _De quantitate
animae_ and _De magistro_. In all these treatises is apparent the
influence of the Neo-Platonic method of thought, which for him, as for
so many others, had become the bridge to the Christian. While still in
Rome, he began to come to a reckoning with the Manichaeans, and wrote
two books on the morals of the Catholic Church and of the Manichaeans
(_De moribus ecclesiae Catholicae et de moribus Manichaeorum libri
duo_). For many years he pursued this controversy in a long series of
writings, of which the most conspicuous is the elaborate reply to his
old associate and disputant, Faustus of Mileve (_Contra Faustum
Manichaeum_, A.D. 400). It was natural that the Manichaean heresy, which
had so long enslaved his own mind, should have first exercised
Augustine's great powers as a theological thinker and controversialist.
He was able from his own experience to give force to his arguments for
the unity of creation and of the spiritual life, and to strengthen the
mind of the Christian Church in its last struggle with that dualistic
spirit which had animated and moulded in succession so many forms of
thought at variance with Christianity.

But the time was one of almost universal ecclesiastical and intellectual
excitement; and so powerful a mental activity as his was naturally drawn
forth in all directions. Following his writings against the Manichaeans
came those against the Donatists. The controversy was one which strongly
interested him, involving as it did the whole question of the
constitution of the Church and the idea of catholic order, to which the
circumstances of the age gave special prominence. The Donatist
controversy sprang out of the Diocletian persecution in the beginning of
the century. A party in the Church of Carthage, fired with fanatic zeal
on behalf of those who had courted martyrdom by resistance to the
imperial mandates, resented deeply the appointment of a bishop of
moderate opinions, whose consecration had been performed, they alleged,
by a _traditor_, viz. a bishop who had "delivered" the holy scriptures
to the magistrates. They set up, in consequence, a bishop of their own,
of the name of Majorinus, succeeded in 315 by Donatus. The party made
great pretensions to purity of discipline, and rapidly rose in popular
favour, notwithstanding a decision given against them both by the bishop
of Rome and by the emperor Cons tan tine. Augustine was strongly moved
by the lawlessness of the party and launched forth a series of writings
against them, the most important of which survive. Amongst these are
"Seven Books on Baptism" (_De baptismo contra Donatistas_, c. A.D. 400)
and a lengthy answer, in three books, to Petilian, bishop of Cirta, who
was the most eminent theologian amongst the Donatist divines. At a later
period, about 417, Augustine wrote a treatise concerning the correction
of the Donatists (_De correctione Donatistarum_) "for the sake of
those," he says in his _Retractations_, "who were not willing that the
Donatists should be subjected to the correction of the imperial laws."
In these writings, while vigorously maintaining the validity of the
Church as it then stood in the Roman world, and the necessity for
moderation in the exercise of church discipline, Augustine yet gave
currency, in his zeal against the Donatists, to certain maxims as to the
duty of the civil power to control schism, which were of evil omen, and
have been productive of much disaster in the history of Christianity.

The third controversy in which Augustine engaged was the most important,
and the most intimately associated with his distinctive greatness as a
theologian. As may be supposed, owing to the conflicts through which he
had passed, the bishop of Hippo was intensely interested in what may be
called the anthropological aspect of the great Christian idea of
redemption. He had himself been brought out of darkness into "marvellous
light," only by entering into the depths of his own soul, and finding,
after many struggles, that there was no power but divine grace, as
revealed in the life and death of the Son of God, which could bring rest
to human weariness, or pardon and peace for human guilt. He had found
human nature in his own case too weak and sinful to find any good for
itself. In God alone he had found good. This deep sense of human
sinfulness coloured all his theology, and gave to it at once its
depth--its profound and sympathetic adaptation to all who feel the
reality of sin--and that tinge of darkness and exaggeration which has as
surely repelled others. When the expression "Augustinism" is used, it
points especially to those opinions of the great teacher which were
evoked in the Pelagian controversy, to which he devoted the most mature
and powerful period of his life. His opponents in this controversy were
Pelagius, from whom it derives its name, and Coelestius and Julianus,
pupils of the former. Nothing is certainly known as to the home of
Pelagius. Augustine calls him Brito, and so do Marius Mercator and
Orosius. Jerome points to his Scottish descent, in such terms, however,
as to leave it uncertain whether he was a native of Scotland or of
Ireland. He was a man of blameless character, devoted to the reformation
of society, full of that confidence in the natural impulses of humanity
which often accompanies philanthropic enthusiasm. About the year 400 he
came, no longer a young man, to Rome, where he lived for more than a
decade, and soon made himself conspicuous by his activity and by his
opinions. His pupil Coelestius, a lawyer of unknown origin, developed
the views of his master with a more outspoken logic, and, while
travelling with Pelagius in Africa, in the year 411, was at length
arraigned before the bishop of Carthage for the following, amongst other
heretical opinions:--(1) that Adam's sin was purely personal, and
affected none but himself; (2) that each man, consequently, is born with
powers as incorrupt as those of Adam, and only falls into sin under the
force of temptation and evil example; (3) that children who die in
infancy, being untainted by sin, are saved without baptism. Views such
as these were obviously in conflict with the whole course of Augustine's
experience, as well as with his interpretation of the catholic doctrine
of the Church. And when his attention was drawn to them by the trial and
excommunication of Coelestius, he undertook their refutation, first of
all in three books on the punishment and forgiveness of sins and the
baptism of infants (_De peccatorum meritis et remissione et de baptismo
parvulorum_), addressed to his friend Marcellinus, in which he
vindicated the necessity of baptism of infants because of original sin
and the grace of God by which we are justified (_Retract._ ii. 23). This
was in 412. In the same year he addressed a further treatise to the same
Marcellinus on _The Spirit and the Letter_ (_De spiritu et littera_).
Three years later he composed the treatises on _Nature and Grace_ (_De
natura et gratia_) and the relation of the human to the divine
righteousness (_De perfectione iustitiae hominis_). The controversy was
continued during many years in no fewer than fifteen treatises. Upon no
subject did Augustine bestow more of his intellectual strength, and in
relation to no other have his views so deeply and permanently affected
the course of Christian thought. Even those who most usually agree with
his theological standpoint will hardly deny that, while he did much in
these writings to vindicate divine truth and to expound the true
relations of the divine and human, he also, here as elsewhere, was
hurried into extreme expressions as to the absoluteness of divine grace
and the extent of human corruption. Like his great disciple in a later
age--Luther--Augustine was prone to emphasize the side of truth which he
had most realized in his own experience, and, in contradistinction to
the Pelagian exaltation of human nature, to depreciate its capabilities
beyond measure.

In addition to these controversial writings, which mark the great epochs
of Augustine's life and ecclesiastical activity after his settlement as
a bishop at Hippo, he was the author of other works, some of them better
known and even more important. His great work, the most elaborate, and
in some respects the most significant, that came from his pen, is _The
City of God_ (_De civitate Dei_). It is designed as a great apologetic
treatise in vindication of Christianity and the Christian Church,--the
latter conceived as rising in the form of a new civic order on the
crumbling ruins of the Roman empire,--but it is also, perhaps, the
earliest contribution to the philosophy of history, as it is a repertory
throughout of his cherished theological opinions. This work and his
_Confessions_ are, probably, those by which he is best known, the one as
the highest expression of his thought, and the other as the best
monument of his living piety and Christian experience. _The City of God_
was begun in 413, and continued to be issued in its several portions for
a period of thirteen years, or till 426. The _Confessions_ were written
shortly after he became a bishop, about 397, and give a vivid sketch of
his early career. To the devout utterances and aspirations of a great
soul they add the charm of personal disclosure, and have never ceased to
excite admiration in all spirits of kindred piety. Something of this
charm also belongs to the _Retractations_, that remarkable work in which
Augustine, in 427, towards the end of his life, held as it were a review
of his literary activity, in order to improve what was erroneous and to
make clear what was doubtful in it. His systematic treatise on _The
Trinity_ (_De Trinitate_) which extends to fifteen books and occupied
him for nearly thirty years, must not be passed over. This important
work, unlike most of his dogmatic writings, was not provoked by any
special controversial emergency, but grew up silently during this long
period in the author's mind. This has given it something more of
completeness and organic arrangement than is usual with Augustine, if it
has also led him into the prolonged discussion of various analogies,
more curious than apt in their bearing on the doctrine which he
expounds. Brief and concise is the presentation of the Catholic doctrine
in the compendium, which, about 421, he wrote at the request of a Roman
layman named Laurentius (_Encheiridion, sive de fide spe et caritate_).
In spite of its title, the compendious work on Christian doctrine (_De
doctrina Christiana_), begun as early as 393, but only finished in 426,
does not belong to the dogmatic writings. It is a sort of Biblical
hermeneutic, in which homiletic questions are also dealt with. His
catechetical principles Augustine developed in the charming writing _De
catechizandis rudibus_ (c. 400). A large number of tractates are devoted
to moral and theological problems (_Contra mendacium_, c. 420; _De bono
conjugali_, 401, &c.). A widespread influence was exercised by the
treatise _De opere monachorum_ (c. 400), in which, on the ground of
Holy Scripture, manual work was demanded of monks. Of less importance
than the remaining works are the numerous exegetical writings, among
which the commentary on the Gospel of St John deserves a special
mention. These have a value owing to Augustine's appreciation of the
deeper spiritual meaning of scripture, but hardly for their exegetical
qualities. His _Letters_ are full of interest owing to the light they
throw on many questions in the ecclesiastical history of the time, and
owing to his relations with such contemporary theologians as Jerome.
They have, however, neither the liveliness nor the varied interest of
the letters of Jerome himself. As a preacher Augustine was of great
importance. We still possess almost four hundred sermons which may be
ascribed to him with certainty. Many others only pass under his
celebrated name.

The closing years of the great bishop were full of sorrow. The Vandals,
who had been gradually enclosing the Roman empire, appeared before the
gates of Hippo, and laid siege to it. Augustine was ill with his last
illness, and could only pray for his fellow-citizens. He passed away
during the siege, on the 28th of August 430, at the age of seventy-five,
and thus was spared the indignity of seeing the city in the hands of the
enemy.

The character of Augustine, both as a man and as a theologian, has been
briefly indicated in the course of our sketch. None can deny the
greatness of Augustine's soul--his enthusiasm, his unceasing search
after truth, his affectionate disposition, his ardour, his
self-devotion. And even those who may doubt the soundness of his
dogmatic conclusions, cannot but acknowledge the depth of his spiritual
convictions, and the logical force and penetration with which he handled
the most difficult questions, thus weaving all the elements of his
experience and of his profound scriptural knowledge into a great system
of Christian thought. Of the four great Fathers of the Church he was
admittedly the greatest--more profound than Ambrose, his spiritual
father, more original and systematic than Jerome, his correspondent, and
intellectually far more distinguished than Gregory the Great, his pupil
on the papal throne. The theological position and influence of Augustine
may be said to be unrivalled. No single name has ever exercised such
power over the Christian Church, and no one mind ever made so deep an
impression upon Christian thought. In him scholastics and mystics, popes
and the opponents of the papal supremacy, have seen their champion. He
was the fulcrum on which Luther rested the thoughts by which he sought
to lift the past of the Church out of the rut; yet the judgment of
Catholics still proclaims the ideas of Augustine as the only sound basis
of philosophy.

  The best complete edition of Augustine's works is that of the
  Maurines, in 11 vols. fol. published at Paris, 1679-1700, and
  reprinted in Migne's _Patrologie_ (Paris, 1841-1842). Of the new
  critical edition in the _Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum
  Latinorum_, issued by the Vienna Academy, thirteen volumes had been
  published in 1908, including the _Confessions_, the _Retractations_,
  _De civitate Dei_, and a number of exegetical and of dogmatic
  polemical works, together with a portion of the _Letters_. An English
  translation of nearly the whole of Augustine's writings will be found
  in the _Select Library of the Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers of the
  Christian Church_ (series 1, Buffalo, 1886, &c.). Tillemont, in his
  _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique des VI premiers
  siècles_, has devoted a quarto volume (vol. xiii.) to Augustine's life
  and writings. The most complete monographs are those on the Catholic
  side by Kloth (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1839-1840, 3 vols.) and J.J.F.
  Poujoulat (7th ed., Paris, 1886, 2 vols.), and on the Protestant side
  by Bindemann (Berlin, Leipzig, Greifswald, 1844-1869, 3 vols,). There
  are interesting sketches, from quite different points of view, by von
  Hertling, _Augustinus_ (2nd ed., Mainz, 1904), and Joseph McCabe, _St
  Augustine and His Age_ (London, 1902). See also Nourrisson, _La
  Philosophie de St Augustin_ (2nd ed., Paris, 1866, 2 vols.); H.A.
  Naville, _St Augustin, étude sur la développement de sa pensée jusqu'à
  l'époque de son ordination_ (Geneva, 1872); Dorner, _Augustinus_
  (Berlin, 1873); Reuter, _Augustinische Studien_ (Gotha, 1886); F.
  Scheel, _Die Anschauung Augustins über Christi Person und Werk_
  (Tübingen, 1901); A. Hatzfeld, _Saint Augustin_ (6th ed., Paris,
  1902); G. von Hertling, _Augustin_ (Mainz, 1902); A. Egger, _Der
  heilige Augustinus_ (Kempten, 1904); J.N. Espenberger, _Die Elemente
  der Erbsunde nach Augustin und der Fruhscholastik_ (Mainz, 1905); S.
  Angus, _The Sources of the First Ten Books of Augustine's De Civitate
  Dei_ (Princeton, 1906); and the more modern text-books of the history
  of dogma, especially Harnack.     (G. K.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The reference is to the vision described above.



AUGUSTINE, SAINT (d. c. 613), first archbishop of Canterbury, occupied a
position of authority in the monastery of St Andrew at Rome, when
Gregory I. summoned him to lead a mission to England in A.D. 596. The
apprehensions of Augustine's followers caused him to return to Rome, but
the pope furnished him with letters of commendation and encouraged him
to proceed. He landed in Thanet in A.D. 597, and was favourably received
by Æthelberht, king of Kent, who granted a dwelling-place for the monks
in Canterbury, and allowed them liberty to preach. Augustine first made
use of the ancient church of St Martin at Canterbury, which before his
arrival had been the oratory of the Queen Berhta and her confessor
Liudhard. Æthelberht upon his conversion employed all his influence in
support of the mission. In 601 Augustine received the pallium from
Gregory and was given authority over the Celtic churches in Britain, as
well as all future bishops consecrated in English territory, including
York. Authority over the see of York was not, however, to descend to
Augustine's successors. In 603 he consecrated Christ Church, Canterbury,
and built the monastery of SS. Peter and Paul, afterwards known as St
Augustine's. At the conference of Augustine's Oak he endeavoured in vain
to bring over the Celtic church to the observance of the Roman Easter.
He afterwards consecrated Mellitus and Justus to the sees of London and
Rochester respectively. The date of his death is not recorded by Bede,
but MS. F of the Saxon Chronicle puts it in 614, and the _Annales
Monasterienses_ in 612.

  See Bede, _Eccl. Hist._ (ed. by Plummer), i. 23-ii. 3.



AUGUSTINIAN CANONS, a religious order in the Roman Catholic Church,
called also Austin Canons, Canons Regular, and in England Black Canons,
because their cassock and mantle were black, though they wore a white
surplice: elsewhere the colour of the habit varied considerably.

The canons regular (see CANON) grew out of the earlier institute of
canonical life, in consequence of the urgent exhortations of the Lateran
Synod of 1059. The clergy of some cathedrals (in England, Carlisle), and
of a great number of collegiate churches all over western Europe,
responded to the appeal; and the need of a rule of life suited to the
new regime produced, towards the end of the 11th century, the so-called
Rule of St Augustine (see AUGUSTINIANS). This Rule was widely adopted by
the canons regular, who also began to bind themselves by the vows of
poverty, obedience and chastity. In the 12th century this discipline
became universal among them; and so arose the order of Augustinian
canons as a religious order in the strict sense of the word. They
resembled the monks in so far as they lived in community and took
religious vows; but their state of life remained essentially clerical,
and as clerics their duty was to undertake the pastoral care and serve
the parish churches in their patronage. They were bound to the choral
celebration of the divine office, and in its general tenor their manner
of life differed little from that of monks.

Their houses, at first without bonds between them, soon tended to draw
together and coalesce into congregations with corporate organization and
codes of constitutions supplementary to the Rule. The popes encouraged
these centralizing tendencies; and in 1339 Benedict XII. organized the
Augustinian canons on the same general lines as those laid down for the
Benedictines, by a system of provincial chapters and visitations.

Some thirty congregations of canons regular of St Augustine are
numbered. The most important were: (1) the Lateran canons, formed soon
after the synod of 1059, by the clergy of the Lateran Basilica; (2)
Congregation of St Victor in Paris, c. 1100, remarkable for the
theological and mystical school of Hugh, Richard and Adam of St Victor;
(3) Gilbertines (see GILBERT OF SEMPRINGHAM, ST); (4) Windesheim
Congregation, c. 1400, in the Netherlands and over north and central
Germany (see GROOT, GERHARD), to which belonged Thomas à Kempis; (5)
Congregation of Ste Geneviève in Paris, a reform c. 1630. During the
later middle ages the houses of these various congregations of canons
regular spread all over Europe and became extraordinarily numerous. They
underwent the natural and inevitable vicissitudes of all orders, having
their periods of depression and degeneracy, and again of revival and
reform. The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, _De
Reformatione monasteriorum_, shows that in the 15th century grave
relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in
north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
The Reformation, the religious wars and the Revolution have swept away
nearly all the canons regular, but some of their houses in Austria still
exist in their medieval splendour. In England there were as many as 200
houses of Augustinian canons, and 60 of them were among the "greater
monasteries" suppressed in 1538-1540 (for list see Tables in F.A.
Gasquet's _English Monastic Life_). The first foundation was Holy
Trinity, Aldgate, by Queen Maud, in 1108; Carlisle was an English
cathedral of Augustinian canons. In Ireland the order was even more
numerous, Christ Church, Dublin, being one of their houses. Three houses
of the Lateran canons were established in England towards the close of
the 19th century. Most of the congregations of Augustinian canons had
convents of nuns, called canonesses; many such exist to this day.

  See the works of Amort and Du Molinet, mentioned under CANON. Vol. ii.
  of Helyot's _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1792) is devoted to canons
  regular of all kinds. The information is epitomized by Max Heimbucher,
  _Orden und Kongregationen_, i. (1896), §§ 54-60, where copious
  references to the literature of the subject are supplied. See also
  Otto Zöckler, _Askese und Mönchtum_, ii. (1897), p. 422; and Wetzer
  und Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (2nd ed.), art. "Canonici Regulares" and
  "Canonissae." For England see J.W. Clark, _Observances in use at the
  Augustinian Priory at Barnwell_ (1897); and an article in _Journal of
  Theological Studies_ (v.) by Scott Holmes.     (E. C. B.)



AUGUSTINIAN HERMITS, or FRIARS, a religious order in the Roman Catholic
Church, sometimes called (but improperly) Black Friars (see FRIARS). In
the first half of the 13th century there were in central Italy various
small congregations of hermits living according to different rules. The
need of co-ordinating and organizing these hermits induced the popes
towards 1250 to unite into one body a number of these congregations, so
as to form a single religious order, living according to the Rule of St
Augustine, and called the Order of Augustinian Hermits, or simply the
Augustinian Order. Special constitutions were drawn up for its
government, on the same lines as the Dominicans and other mendicants--a
general elected by chapter, provincials to rule in the different
countries, with assistants, definitors and visitors. For this reason,
and because almost from the beginning the term "hermits" became a
misnomer (for they abandoned the deserts and lived conventually in
towns), they ranked among the friars, and became the fourth of the
mendicant orders. The observance and manner of life was, relatively to
those times, mild, meat being allowed four days in the week. The habit
is black. The institute spread rapidly all over western Europe, so that
it eventually came to have forty provinces and 2000 friaries with some
30,000 members. In England there were not more than about 30 houses (see
Tables in F.A. Gasquet's _English Monastic Life_). The reaction against
the inevitable tendencies towards mitigation and relaxation led to a
number of reforms that produced upwards of twenty different
congregations within the order, each governed by a vicar-general, who
was subject to the general of the order. Some of these congregations
went in the matter of austerity beyond the original idea of the
institute; and so in the 16th century there arose in Spain, Italy and
France, Discalced or Barefooted Hermits of St Augustine, who provided in
each province one house wherein a strictly eremitical life might be led
by such as desired it.

About 1500 a great attempt at a reform of this kind was set on foot
among the Augustinian Hermits of northern Germany, and they were formed
into a separate congregation independent of the general. It was from
this congregation that Luther went forth, and great numbers of the
German Augustinian Hermits, among them Wenceslaus Link the provincial,
followed him and embraced the Reformation, so that the congregation was
dissolved in 1526.

The Reformation and later revolutions have destroyed most of the houses
of Augustinian Hermits, so that now only about a hundred exist in
various parts of Europe and America; in Ireland they are relatively
numerous, having survived the penal times. The Augustinian school of
theology (Noris, Berti) was formed among the Hermits. There have been
many convents of Augustinian Hermitesses, chiefly in the Barefooted
congregations; such convents exist still in Europe and North America,
devoted to education and hospital work. There have also been numerous
congregations of Augustinian Tertiaries, both men and women, connected
with the order and engaged on charitable works of every kind (see
TERTIARIES).

  See Helyot, _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1792), iii.; Max Heimbucher,
  _Orden und Kongregationen_, i. (1896), § 61-65; Wetzer und Welte,
  _Kirchenlexicon_ (2nd ed.), art. "Augustiner"; Herzog,
  _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed.), art. "Augustiner." The chief book on the
  subject is Th. Kolde, _Die deutschen Augustiner-Kongregationen_
  (1879).     (E. C. B.)



AUGUSTINIANS, in the Roman Catholic Church, a generic name for religious
orders that follow the so-called "Rule of St Augustine." The chief of
these orders are:--Augustinian Canons (q.v.), Augustinian Hermits (q.v.)
or Friars, Premonstratensians (q.v.), Trinitarians (q.v.), Gilbertines
(see GILBERT OF SEMPRINGHAM, ST). The following orders, though not
called Augustinians, also have St Augustine's Rule as the basis of their
life: Dominicans, Servites, Our Lady of Ransom, Hieronymites,
Assumptionsts and many others; also orders of women: Brigittines,
Ursulines, Visitation nuns and a vast number of congregations of women,
spread over the Old and New Worlds, devoted to education and charitable
works of all kinds.

  See Helyot, _Ordres religieux_ (1792), vols. ii., iii., iv.; Max
  Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_, i. (1896), § 66-85; Wetzer und
  Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_, i., 1665-1667.

St Augustine never wrote a Rule, properly so called; but _Ep._ 211
(_al._ 109) is a long letter of practical advice to a community of nuns,
on their daily life; and _Serm._ 355, 356 describe the common life he
led along with his clerics in Hippo. When in the second half of the 11th
century the clergy of a great number of collegiate churches were
undertaking to live a substantially monastic form of life (see CANON),
it was natural that they should look back to this classical model for
clerics living in community. And so attention was directed to St
Augustine's writings on community life; and out of them, and spurious
writings attributed to him, were compiled towards the close of the 11th
century three Rules, the "First" and "Second" being mere fragments, but
the "Third" a substantive rule of life in 45 sections, often grouped in
twelve chapters. This Third Rule is the one known as "the Rule of St
Augustine." Being confined to fundamental principles without entering
into details, it has proved itself admirably suited to form the
foundation of the religious life of the most varied orders and
congregations, and since the 12th century it has proved more prolific
than the Benedictine Rule. In an uncritical age it was attributed to St
Augustine himself, and Augustinians, especially the canons, put forward
fantastic claims to antiquity, asserting unbroken continuity, not merely
from St Augustine, but from Christ and the Apostles.

  The three Rules are printed in Dugdale, _Monasticon_ (ed. 1846), vi.
  42; and in Holsten-Brockie, _Codex Regularum_, ii. 121. For the
  literature see Otto Zöckler, _Askese und Mönchtum_ (1897), pp. 347,
  354.     (E. C. B.)



AUGUSTOWO, a city of Russian Poland, in the government of Suwalki, 20 m.
S. of the town of that name, on a canal (65 m.) connecting the Vistula
with the Niemen. It was founded in 1557 by Sigismund II. (Augustus), and
is laid out in a very regular manner, with a spacious market-place. It
carries on a large trade in cattle and horses, and manufactures linen
and huckaback. Pop. (1897) 12,746.



AUGUSTUS (a name[1] derived from Lat. _augeo_, increase, i.e. venerable,
majestic, Gr. [Greek: Sebastos]), the title given by the Roman senate,
on the 17th of January 27 B.C., to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (63
B.C.-A.D. 14), or as he was originally designated, Gaius Octavius, in
recognition of his eminent services to the state (_Mon. Anc._ 34), and
borne by him as the first of the Roman emperors. The title was adopted
by all the succeeding Caesars or emperors of Rome long after they had
ceased to be connected by blood with the first Augustus.

Gaius Octavius was born in Rome on the 23rd of September 63 B.C., the
year of Cicero's consulship and of Catiline's conspiracy. He came of a
family of good standing, long settled at Velitrae (Velletri), but his
father was the first of the family to obtain a curule magistracy at Rome
and senatorial dignity. His mother, however, was Atia, daughter of
Julia, the wife of M. Atius Balbus, and sister of Julius Caesar, and it
was this connexion with the great dictator which determined his career.
In his fifth year (58 B.C.) his father died; about a year later his
mother remarried, and the young Octavius passed under her care to that
of his stepfather, L. Marcius Philippus. At the age of twelve (51 B.C.)
he delivered the customary funeral panegyric on his grandmother Julia,
his first public appearance. On the 18th of October 48 (or ? 47) B.C. he
assumed the "toga virilis" and was elected into the pontifical college,
an exceptional honour which he no doubt owed to his great-uncle, now
dictator and master of Rome. In 46 B.C. he shared in the glory of
Caesar's African triumph, and in 45 he was made a patrician by the
senate, and designated as one of Caesar's "masters of the horse" for the
next year. In the autumn of 45, Caesar, who was planning his Parthian
campaign, sent his nephew to study quietly at the Greek colony of
Apollonia, in Illyria. Here the news of Caesar's murder reached him and
he crossed to Italy. On landing he learnt that Caesar had made him his
heir and adopted him into the Julian gens, whereby he acquired the
designation of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. The inheritance was a
perilous one; his mother and others would have dissuaded him from
accepting it, but he, confident in his abilities, declared at once that
he would undertake its obligations, and discharge the sums bequeathed by
the dictator to the Roman people. Mark Antony had possessed himself of
Caesar's papers and effects, and made light of his young nephew's
pretensions. Brutus and Cassius paid him little regard, and dispersed to
their respective provinces. Cicero, much charmed at the attitude of
Antonius, hoped to make use of him, and flattered him to the utmost,
with the expectation, however, of getting rid of him as soon as he had
served his purpose. Octavianus conducted himself with consummate
adroitness, making use of all competitors for power, but assisting none.
Considerable forces attached themselves to him. The senate, when it
armed the consuls against Antonius, called upon him for assistance; and
he took part in the campaign in which Antonius was defeated at Mutina
(43 B.C.). The soldiers of Octavianus demanded the consulship for him,
and the senate, though now much alarmed, could not prevent his election.
He now effected a coalition with Antonius and Lepidus, and on the 27th
of November 43 B.C. the three were formally appointed a triumvirate for
the reconstitution of the commonwealth for five years. They divided the
western provinces among them, the east being held for the republic by
Brutus and Cassius. They drew up a list of proscribed citizens, and
caused the assassination of three hundred senators and two thousand
knights. They further confiscated the territories of many cities
throughout Italy, and divided them among their soldiers. Cicero was
murdered at the demand of Antonius. The remnant of the republican party
took refuge either with Brutus and Cassius in the East, or with Sextus
Pompeius, who had made himself master of the seas.

Octavianus and Antonius crossed the Adriatic in 42 B.C. to reduce the
last defenders of the republic. Brutus and Cassius were defeated, and
fell at the battle of Philippi. War soon broke out between the victors,
the chief incident of which was the siege and capture by famine of
Perusia, and the alleged sacrifice of three hundred of its defenders by
the young Caesar at the altar of his uncle. But peace was again made
between them (40 B.C.). Antonius married Octavia, his rival's sister,
and took for himself the eastern half of the empire, leaving the west to
Caesar. Lepidus was reduced to the single province of Africa. Meanwhile
Sextus Pompeius made himself formidable by cutting off the supplies of
grain from Rome. The triumvirs were obliged to concede to him the
islands in the western Mediterranean. But Octavianus could not allow the
capital to be kept in alarm for its daily sustenance. He picked a
quarrel with Sextus, and when his colleagues failed to support him,
undertook to attack him alone. Antonius, indeed, came at last to his
aid, in return for military assistance in the campaign he meditated in
the East. But Octavianus was well served by the commander of his fleet,
M. Vipsanius Agrippa. Sextus was completely routed, and driven into
Asia, where he perished soon afterwards (36 B.C.). Lepidus was an object
of contempt to all parties, and Octavianus and Antonius remained to
fight for supreme power.

The five years (36-31 B.C.) which preceded the decisive encounter
between the two rivals were wasted by Antony in fruitless campaigns, and
in a dalliance with Cleopatra which shocked Roman sentiment. By Octavian
they were employed in strengthening his hold on the West, and his claim
to be regarded as the one possible saviour of Rome and Roman
civilization. His marriage with Livia (38 B.C.) placed by his side a
sagacious counsellor and a loyal ally, whose services were probably as
great as even those of his trusted friend Marcus Agrippa. With their
help he set himself to win the confidence of a public still inclined to
distrust the author of the proscriptions of 43 B.C. Brigandage was
suppressed in Italy, and the safety of the Italian frontiers secured
against the raids of Alpine tribes on the north-west and of Illyrians on
the east, while Rome was purified and beautified, largely with the help
of Agrippa (aedile in 33 B.C.). Meanwhile, indignation at Antony's
un-Roman excesses, and alarm at Cleopatra's rumoured schemes of founding
a Greco-Oriental empire, were rapidly increasing. In 32 B.C. Antony's
repudiation of his wife Octavia, sister of Octavian, and the discovery
of his will, with its clear proofs of Cleopatra's dangerous ascendancy,
brought matters to a climax, and war was declared, not indeed against
Antony, but against Cleopatra.

The decisive battle was fought on the 2nd of September 31 B.C. at Actium
on the Epirot coast, and resulted in the almost total destruction of
Antony's fleet and the surrender of his land forces. Not quite a year
later (Aug. 1, 30 B.C.) followed the capture of Alexandria and the
deaths by their own hands of Antony and Cleopatra. On the 11th of
January 29 B.C. the restoration of peace was marked by the closing of
the temple of Janus for the first time for 200 years. In the summer
Octavian returned to Italy, and in August celebrated a three days'
triumph. He was welcomed, not as a successful combatant in a civil war,
but as the man who had vindicated the sovereignty of Rome against its
assailants, as the saviour of the republic and of his fellow-citizens,
above all as the restorer of peace.

He was now, to quote his own words, "master of all things," and the
Roman world looked to him for some permanent settlement of the
distracted empire. His first task was the re-establishment of a regular
and constitutional government, such as had not existed since Julius
Caesar crossed the Rubicon twenty years before. To this task he devoted
the next eighteen months (Aug. 29-Jan. 27 B.C.). In the article on ROME:
_History_ (q.v.), his achievements are described in detail, and only a
brief summary need be given here. The "principate," to give the new form
of government its most appropriate name, was a compromise thoroughly
characteristic of the combination of tenacity of purpose with cautious
respect for forms and conventions which distinguished its author. The
republic was restored; senate, magistrates and assembly resumed their
ancient functions; and the public life of Rome began to run once more in
the familiar grooves. The triumvirate with its irregularities and
excesses was at an end. The controlling authority, which Octavian
himself wielded, could not indeed be safely dispensed with. But
henceforward he was to exercise it under constitutional forms and
limitations, and with the express sanction of the senate and people.
Octavian was legally invested for a period of ten years with the
government of the important frontier provinces, with the sole command of
the military and naval forces of the state, and the exclusive control of
its foreign relations. At home it was understood that he would year by
year be elected consul, and enjoy the powers and pre-eminence attached
to the chief magistracy of the Roman state. Thus the republic was
restored under the presidency and patronage of its "first citizen"
(_princeps civitatis_).

In acknowledgment of this happy settlement and of his other services
further honours were conferred upon Octavian. On the 13th of January 27
B.C., the birthday of the restored republic, he was awarded the civic
crown to be placed over the door of his house, in token that he had
saved his fellow-citizens and restored the Republic. Four days later
(Jan. 17) the senate conferred upon him the cognomen of Augustus.

But it was not only the machinery of government in Rome that needed
repair. Twenty years of civil war and confusion had disorganized the
empire, and the strong hand of Augustus, as he must now be called,
could alone restore confidence and order. Towards the end of 27 B.C. he
left Rome for Gaul, and from that date until October 19 B.C. he was
mainly occupied with the reorganization of the provinces and of the
provincial administration, first of all in the West and then in the
East. It was during his stay in Asia (20 B.C.) that the Parthian king
Phraates voluntarily restored the Roman prisoners and standards taken at
Carrhae (53 B.C.), a welcome tribute to the respect inspired by
Augustus, and a happy augury for the future. In October 19 B.C. he
returned to Rome, and the senate ordered that the day of his return
(Oct. 12) should thenceforward be observed as a public holiday. The
period of ten years for which his _imperium_ had been granted him was
nearly ended, and though much remained to be done, very much had been
accomplished. The pacification of northern Spain by the subjugation of
the Astures and Cantabri, the settlement of the wide territories added
to the empire by Julius Caesar in Gaul--the "New Gaul," or the
"long-haired Gaul" (Gallia Comata) as it was called by way of
distinction from the old province of Gallia Narbonensis (see GAUL)--and
the re-establishment of Roman authority over the kings and princes of
the Near East, were achievements which fully justified the acclamations
of senate and people.

In 18 B.C. Augustus's _imperium_ was renewed for five years, and his
tried friend Marcus Agrippa, now his son-in-law, was associated with him
as a colleague. From October of 19 B.C. till the middle of 16 B.C.
Augustus's main attention was given to Rome and to domestic reform, and
to this period belong such measures as the Julian law "as to the
marriage of the orders." In June of 17 B.C. the opening of the new and
better age, which he had worked to bring about, was marked by the
celebration in Rome of the Secular games. The chief actors in the
ceremony were Augustus himself and his colleague Agrippa,--while, as the
extant record tells us, the processional hymn, chanted by youths and
maidens first before the new temple of Apollo on the Palatine and then
before the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, was composed by Horace. The
hymn, the well-known _Carmen Saeculare_, gives fervent expression to the
prevalent emotions of joy and gratitude.

In the next year (16 B.C.), however, Augustus was suddenly called away
from Rome to deal with a problem which engrossed much of his attention
for the next twenty-five years. The defeat of Marcus Lollius, the legate
commanding on the Rhine, by a horde of German invaders, seems to have
determined Augustus to take in hand the whole question of the frontiers
of the empire towards the north, and the effective protection of Gaul
and Italy. The work was entrusted to Augustus's step-sons Tiberius and
Drusus. The first step was the annexation of Noricum and Raetia (16-15
B.C.), which brought under Roman control the mountainous district
through which the direct routes lay from North Italy to the upper waters
of the Rhine and the Danube. East of Noricum Tiberius reduced to order
for the time the restless tribes of Pannonia, and probably established a
military post at Carnuntum on the Danube. To Drusus fell the more
ambitious task of advancing the Roman frontier line from the Rhine to
the Elbe, a work which occupied him until his death in Germany in 9 B.C.
In 13 B.C. Augustus had returned to Rome; his return, and the conclusion
of his second period of rule, were commemorated by the erection of one
of the most beautiful monuments of the Augustan age, the Ara Pacis
Augustae (see ROMAN ART, Pl. II, III). His _imperium_ was renewed, again
for five years, and in 12 B.C., on the death of his former
fellow-triumvir Lepidus, he was elected Pontifex Maximus. But this third
period of his imperium brought with it losses which Augustus must have
keenly felt. Only a few months after his reappointment as Augustus's
colleague, Marcus Agrippa, his trusted friend since boyhood, died. As
was fully his due, his funeral oration was pronounced by Augustus, and
he was buried in the mausoleum near the Tiber built by Augustus for
himself and his family. Three years later his brilliant step-son Drusus
died on his way back from a campaign in Germany, in which he had reached
the Elbe. Finally in 8 B.C. he lost the comrade who next to Agrippa had
been the most intimate friend and counsellor of his early manhood, Gaius
Cilnius Maecenas, the patron of Virgil and Horace.

For the moment Augustus turned, almost of necessity, to his surviving
step-son. Tiberius was associated with him as Agrippa had been in the
tribunician power, was married against his will to Julia, and sent to
complete his brother Drusus's work in Germany (7-6 B.C.). But Tiberius
was only his step-son, and, with all his great qualities, was never a
very lovable man. On the other hand, the two sons of Agrippa and Julia,
Gaius and Lucius, were of his own blood and evidently dear to him. Both
had been adopted by Augustus (178. c.). In 6 B.C. Tiberius, who had just
received the tribunician power, was transferred from Germany to the
East, where the situation in Armenia demanded attention. His sudden
withdrawal to Rhodes has been variously explained, but, in part at
least, it was probably due to the plain indications which Augustus now
gave of his wish that the young Caesars should be regarded as his heirs.
The elder, Gaius, now fifteen years old (5 B.C.), was formally
introduced to the people as consul-designate by Augustus himself, who
for this purpose resumed the consulship (12th) which he had dropped
since 23 B.C., and was authorized to take part in the deliberations of
the senate. Three years later (2 B.C.) Augustus, now consul for the 13th
and last time, paid a similar compliment to the younger brother Lucius.
In 1 B.C. Gaius was given proconsular imperium, and sent to re-establish
order in Armenia, and a few years afterwards (A.D. 2) Lucius was sent to
Spain, apparently to take command of the legions there. But the fates
were unkind; Lucius fell sick and died at Marseilles on his way out, and
in the next year (A.D. 3) Gaius, wounded by an obscure hand in Armenia,
started reluctantly for home, only to die in Lycia. Tiberius alone was
left, and Augustus, at once accepting facts, formally and finally
declared him to be his colleague and destined successor (A.D. 4) and
adopted him as his son.

The interest of the last ten years of Augustus's life centres in the
events occurring on the northern frontier. The difficult task of
bringing the German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe under Roman
rule, commenced by Drusus in 13 B.C., had on his death been continued by
Tiberius (9-6 B.C.). During Tiberius's retirement in Rhodes no decisive
progress was made, but in A.D. 4 operations on a large scale were
resumed. From Velleius Paterculus, who himself served in the war, we
learn that in the first campaign Roman authority was restored over the
tribes between the Rhine and the Weser, and that the Roman forces,
instead of returning as usual to their headquarters on the Rhine, went
into winter-quarters near the source of the Lippe. In the next year
(A.D. 5) the Elbe was reached by the troops, while the fleet, after a
hazardous voyage, arrived at the mouth of the same river and sailed some
way up it. Both feats are deservedly commemorated by Augustus himself in
the Ancyran monument. To complete the conquest of Germany and to connect
the frontier with the line of the Danube, it seemed that only one thing
remained to be done, to break the power of the Marcomanni and their king
Maroboduus. In the spring of A.D. 6 preparations were made for this
final achievement; the territory of the Marcomanni (now Bohemia) was to
be invaded simultaneously by two columns. One, starting apparently from
the headquarters of the army of Upper Germany at Mainz, was to advance
by way of the Black Forest and attack Maroboduus on the west; the other,
led by Tiberius himself, was to start from the new military base at
Carnuntum on the Danube and operate from the south-east.

But the attack was never delivered, for at this moment, in the rear of
Tiberius, the whole of Pannonia and Dalmatia burst into a blaze of
insurrection. The crisis is pronounced by Suetonius to have been more
serious than any which had confronted Rome since the Hannibalic war, for
it was not merely the loss of a province but the invasion of Italy that
was threatened, and Augustus openly declared in the senate that the
insurgents might be before Rome in ten days. He himself moved to
Ariminum to be nearer the seat of war, recruiting was vigorously carried
on in Rome and Italy, and legions were summoned from Moesia and even
from Asia. In the end, and not including the Thracian cavalry of King
Rhoemetalces, a force of 15 legions with an equal number of auxiliaries
was employed. Even so the task of putting down the insurrection was
difficult enough, and it was not until late in the summer of A.D. 9,
after three years of fighting, that Germanicus, who had been sent to
assist Tiberius, ended the war by the capture of Andetrium in Dalmatia.

Five days later the news reached Rome of the disaster to Varus and his
legions, in the heart of what was to have been the new province of
Germany beyond the Rhine. The disaster was avowedly due entirely to
Varus's incapacity and vanity, and might no doubt have been repaired by
leaders of the calibre of Tiberius and Germanicus. Augustus, however,
was now seventy-two, the Dalmatian outbreak had severely tried his
nerve, and now for the second time in three years the fates seemed to
pronounce clearly against a further prosecution of his long-cherished
scheme of a Roman Germany reaching to the Elbe.

All that was immediately necessary was done. Recruiting was pressed
forward in Rome, and first Tiberius and then Germanicus were despatched
to the Rhine. But the German leaders were too prudent to risk defeat,
and the Roman generals devoted their attention mainly to strengthening
the line of the Rhine.

The defeat of Varus, and the tacit abandonment of the plans of expansion
begun twenty-five years before, are almost the last events of importance
in the long principate of Augustus. The last five years of his life
(A.D. 10-14) were untroubled by war or disaster. Augustus was ageing
fast, and was more and more disinclined to appear personally in the
senate or in public. Yet in A.D. 13 he consented, reluctantly we are
told, to yet one more renewal of his _imperium_ for ten years,
stipulating, however, that his step-son Tiberius, himself now over
fifty, should be associated with himself on equal terms in the
administration of the empire. Early in the same year (January 16, A.D.
13) the last triumph of his principate was celebrated. Tiberius was now
in Rome, the command on the Rhine having been given to Germanicus, who
went out to it immediately after his consulship (A.D. 12), and the time
had come to celebrate the Dalmatian and Pannonian triumph, which the
defeat of Varus had postponed. Augustus witnessed the triumphal
procession, and Tiberius, as it turned from the Forum to ascend the
Capitol, halted, descended from his triumphal car, and did reverence to
his adopted father.

One last public appearance Augustus made in Rome. During A.D. 13 he and
Tiberius conducted a census of Roman citizens, the third taken by his
orders; the first having been in 28 B.C. at the very outset of his rule.
The business of the census lasted over into the next year, but on the
11th of May, A.D. 14, before a great crowd in the Campus Martius,
Augustus took part in the solemn concluding ceremony of burying away out
of sight the old age and inaugurating the new. The ceremony had been
full of significance in 28 B.C., and now more than forty years later it
was given a pathetic interest by Augustus himself. When the tablets
containing the vows to be offered for the welfare of the state during
the next lustrum were handed to him, he left the duty of reciting them
to Tiberius, saying that he would not take vows which he was never
destined to perform.

It was apparently at the end of June or early in July that Augustus left
Rome on his last journey. Travelling by road to Astura (Torre Astura) at
the southern point of the little bay of Antium, he sailed thence to
Capri and to Naples. On his way at Puteoli, the passengers and crew of a
ship just come from Alexandria cheered the old man by their spontaneous
homage, declaring, as they poured libations, that to him they owed life,
safe passage on the seas, freedom and fortune.

At Naples, in spite of increasing disease, he bravely sat out a
gymnastic contest held in his honour, and then accompanied Tiberius as
far as Beneventum on his way to Brundusium and Illyricum. On his return
he was forced by illness to stop at Nola, his father's old home.
Tiberius was hastily recalled and had a last confidential talk on
affairs of state. Thenceforward, says Suetonius, he gave no more thought
to such great affairs. He bade farewell to his friends, inquired after
the health of Drusus's daughter who was ill, and then quietly expired in
the arms of the wife who for more than fifty years had been his most
intimate and trusted guide and counsellor, and to whom his last words
were an exhortation to "live mindful of our wedded life." He died on the
19th of August, A.D. 14, in the same room in which his father had died
before him, and on the anniversary of his entrance upon his first
consulship fifty-seven years before (43 B.C.). The corpse was carried to
Rome in slow procession along the Appian Way. On the day of the funeral
it was borne to the Campus Martius on the shoulders of senators and
there burnt. The ashes were reverently collected by Livia, and placed in
the mausoleum by the Tiber which her husband had built for himself and
his family. The last act was the formal decree of the senate by which
Augustus, like his father Julius before him, was added to the number of
the gods recognized by the Roman state.

If we except writers like Voltaire who could see in Augustus only the
man who had destroyed the old republic and extinguished political
liberty, the verdict of posterity on Augustus has varied just in
proportion as his critics have fixed their attention, mainly, on the
means by which he rose to power, or the use which he made of the power
when acquired. The lines of argument followed respectively by friendly
and hostile contemporaries immediately after his death (Tac. _Ann_. i.
9, 10) have been followed by later writers with little change. But of
late years, our increasing mistrust of the current gossip about him, and
our increased knowledge of the magnitude of what he actually
accomplished, have conspicuously influenced the judgments passed upon
him. We allow the faults and crimes of his early manhood, his cruelties
and deceptions, his readiness to sacrifice everything that came between
him and the end he had in view. On the other hand, a careful study of
what he achieved between the years 38 B.C., when he married Livia, and
his death in A.D. 14, is now held to give him a claim to rank, not
merely as an astute and successful intriguer, or an accomplished
political actor, but as one of the world's great men, a statesman who
conceived and carried through a scheme of political reconstruction which
kept the empire together, secured peace and tranquillity, and preserved
civilization for more than two centuries.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The most comprehensive work on Augustus and his age is
  that of V. Gardthausen, _Augustus und seine Zeit_ (2 vols., Leipzig,
  1891-1904), which deals with all aspects of Augustus's life, vol. ii.
  consisting of elaborate critical and bibliographical notes. See also
  histories of Rome generally, and among special works:--E.S.
  Shuckburgh, _Augustus_ (London, 1903; reviewed by F.T. Richards in
  _Class. Rev._ vol. xviii.), containing the text of the _Monumentum
  Ancyranum_ (see also Gardthausen, book xiii.); J.B. Firth, _Augustus
  Caesar_ (London, 1903), in "Heroes of the Nations" series; O. Seeck,
  "Kaiser Augustus" (_Monographien zur Weltgeschichte_, xvii., 1902),
  nine essays on special problems, e.g. the campaigns of Mutina, Perusia
  and against Sextus Pompeius, "das Augustische Zeitalter"; A. Duméril,
  "Auguste et la fondation de l'empire romain," in the _Annales de la
  Fac. des lett. de Bordeaux_ (1890); a suggestive monograph on the
  reforms of Augustus in relation to the decrease of population is Jules
  Ferlet's _L'Abaissement de la natalité à Rome_ (Paris, 1902).
       (H. F. P.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] On the name see Neumann, in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie f.
    cl. alterth._, s.v. 2374.



AUGUSTUS I. (1526-1586), elector of Saxony, was the younger son of
Henry, duke of Saxony, and consequently belonged to the Albertine branch
of the Wettin family. Born at Freiberg on the 31st of July 1526, and
brought up as a Lutheran, he received a good education and studied at
the university of Leipzig. When Duke Henry died in 1541 he decreed that
his lands should be divided equally between his two sons, but as his
bequest was contrary to law, it was not carried out, and the dukedom
passed almost intact to his elder son, Maurice. Augustus, however,
remained on friendly terms with his brother, and to further his policy
spent some time at the court of the German king, Ferdinand I., in
Vienna. In 1544 Maurice secured the appointment of his brother as
administrator of the bishopric of Merseburg; but Augustus was very
extravagant and was soon compelled to return to the Saxon court at
Dresden. Augustus supported his brother during the war of the league of
Schmalkalden, and in the policy which culminated in the transfer of the
Saxon electorate from John Frederick I., the head of the Ernestine
branch of the Wettin family, to Maurice. On the 7th of October 1548
Augustus was married at Torgau to Anna, daughter of Christian III., king
of Denmark, and took up his residence at Weissenfels. But he soon
desired a more imposing establishment. The result was that Maurice made
more generous provision for his brother, who acted as regent of Saxony
in 1552 during the absence of the elector. Augustus was on a visit to
Denmark when by Maurice's death in July 1553 he became elector of
Saxony.

The first care of the new elector was to come to terms with John
Frederick, and to strengthen his own hold upon the electoral position.
This object was secured by a treaty made at Naumburg in February 1554,
when, in return for the grant of Altenburg and other lands, John
Frederick recognized Augustus as elector of Saxony. The elector,
however, was continually haunted by the fear that the Ernestines would
attempt to deprive him of the coveted dignity, and his policy both in
Saxony and in Germany was coloured by this fear. In imperial politics
Augustus acted upon two main principles: to cultivate the friendship of
the Habsburgs, and to maintain peace between the contending religious
parties. To this policy may be traced his share in bringing about the
religious peace of Augsburg in 1555, his tortuous conduct at the diet of
Augsburg eleven years later, and his reluctance to break entirely with
the Calvinists. On one occasion only did he waver in his allegiance to
the Habsburgs. In 1568 a marriage was arranged between John Casimir, son
of the elector palatine, Frederick III., and Elizabeth, a daughter of
Augustus, and for a time it seemed possible that the Saxon elector would
support his son-in-law in his attempts to aid the revolting inhabitants
of the Netherlands. Augustus also entered into communication with the
Huguenots; but his aversion to foreign complications prevailed, and the
incipient friendship with the elector palatine soon gave way to serious
dislike. Although a sturdy Lutheran the elector hoped at one time to
unite the Protestants, on whom he continually urged the necessity of
giving no cause of offence to their opponents, and he favoured the
movement to get rid of the clause in the peace of Augsburg concerning
ecclesiastical reservation, which was offensive to many Protestants. His
moderation, however, prevented him from joining those who were prepared
to take strong measures to attain this end, and he refused to jeopardize
the concessions already won.

The hostility between the Albertines and the Ernestines gave serious
trouble to Augustus. A preacher named Matthias Flacius held an
influential position in ducal Saxony, and taught a form of Lutheranism
different from that taught in electoral Saxony. This breach was widened
when Flacius began to make personal attacks on Augustus, to prophesy his
speedy downfall, and to incite Duke John Frederick to make an effort to
recover his rightful position. Associated with Flacius was a knight,
William of Grumbach, who, not satisfied with words only, made inroads
into electoral Saxony and sought the aid of foreign powers in his plan
to depose Augustus. After some delay Grumbach and his protector, John
Frederick, were placed under the imperial ban, and Augustus was
entrusted with its execution. His campaign in 1567 was short and
successful. John Frederick surrendered, and passed his time in prison
until his death in 1595; Grumbach was taken and executed; and the
position of the elector was made quite secure.

The form of Lutheranism taught in electoral Saxony was that of
Melanchthon, and many of its teachers and adherents, who were afterwards
called Crypto-Calvinists, were favoured by the elector. When Augustus,
freed from the fear of an attack by the Ernestines, became gradually
estranged from the elector palatine and the Calvinists, he seemed to
have looked with suspicion upon the Crypto-Calvinists, who did not
preach the pure doctrines of Luther. Spurred on by his wife the matter
reached a climax in 1574, when letters were discovered, which, while
revealing a hope to bring over Augustus to Calvinism, cast some
aspersions upon the elector and his wife. Augustus ordered the leaders
of the Crypto-Calvinists to be seized, and they were tortured and
imprisoned. A strict form of Lutheranism was declared binding upon all
the inhabitants of Saxony, and many persons were banished from the
country. In 1576 he made a serious but unsuccessful attempt to unite the
Protestants upon the basis of some articles drawn up at Tolgau, which
inculcated a strict form of Lutheranism. The change in Saxony, however,
made no difference to the attitude of Augustus on imperial questions. In
1576 he opposed the proposal of the Protestant princes to make a grant
for the Turkish War conditional upon the abolition of the clause
concerning ecclesiastical reservation, and he continued to support the
Habsburgs.

Much of the elector's time was devoted to extending his territories. In
1573 he became guardian to the two sons of John William, duke of
Saxe-Weimar, and in this capacity was able to add part of the county of
Henneberg to electoral Saxony. His command of money enabled him to take
advantage of the poverty of his neighbours, and in this way he secured
Vogtland and the county of Mansfeld. In 1555 he had appointed one of his
nominees to the bishopric of Meissen, in 1561 he had secured the
election of his son Alexander as bishop of Merseburg, and three years
later as bishop of Naumburg; and when this prince died in 1565 these
bishoprics came under the direct rule of Augustus.

As a ruler of Saxony Augustus was economical and enlightened. He
favoured trade by encouraging Flemish emigrants to settle in the
country, by improving the roads, regulating the coinage and establishing
the first posts. He was specially interested in benefiting agriculture,
and added several fine buildings to the city of Dresden. His laws were
numerous and comprehensive. The constitution of 1572 was his work, and
by these laws the church, the universities and the police were
regulated, the administration of justice was improved, and the raising
of taxes placed upon a better footing (see SAXONY).

In October 1585 the electress Anna died, and a few weeks later Augustus
married Agnes Hedwig, a daughter of Joachim Ernest, prince of Anhalt.
His own death took place at Dresden on the 21st of January 1586, and he
was buried at Freiberg. By his first wife he had fifteen children, but
only four of these survived him, among whom was his successor, the
elector Christian I. (1560-1591). Augustus was a covetous, cruel and
superstitious man, but these qualities were redeemed by his political
caution and his wise methods of government. He wrote a small work on
agriculture entitled _Künstlich Obstund Gartenbüchlein_.

  See C.W. Böttiger and T. Flathe, _Geschichte Sachsens_, Band ii.
  (Gotha, 1870); M. Ritter, _Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der
  Gegenreformation_, Band i. (Stuttgart, 1890); R. Calinich, _Kampf und
  Untergang des Melanchthonismus in Kursachsen_ (Leipzig, 1866); J.
  Falke, _Geschichte des Kurfürsten August in volkswirtschaftlicher
  Beziehung_ (Leipzig, 1868); J. Janssen, _Geschichte des Deutschen
  Volks seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters_ (Freiburg, 1885-1894); W.
  Wenck, _Kurfürst Moritz und Herzog August_ (Leipzig, 1874).



AUGUSTUS II., king of Poland, and, as FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I., elector of
Saxony (1670-1733), second son of John George III., elector of Saxony,
was born at Dresden on the 12th of May 1670. He was well educated, spent
some years in travel and in fighting against France, and on account of
his immense strength was known as "the Strong." On the death of his
brother, John George IV., in 1694, he became elector of Saxony, and in
1695 and 1696 led the imperial troops against the Turks, but without
very much success. When John Sobieski died in 1696, Augustus was a
candidate for the Polish throne, and in order to further his chances
became a Roman Catholic, a step which was strongly resented in Saxony.
By a lavish expenditure of money, and by his promptness in entering the
country, he secured his election and coronation in September 1697, and
his principal rival F.L. de Bourbon, prince of Conti, abandoned the
contest and returned to France. Augustus continued the war against the
Turks for a time, and being anxious to extend his influence and to find
a pretext for retaining the Saxon troops in Poland, made an alliance in
1699 with Russia and Denmark against Charles XII. of Sweden. The Poles
would not assist, and at the head of the Saxons Augustus invaded
Livonia, but for various causes the campaign was not a success, and in
July 1702 he was defeated by Charles at Klissow. Augustus was then
deposed in Poland, and after holding Warsaw for a short time he fled to
Saxony. The alliance with Russia was renewed and in reply Charles
invaded Saxony in 1706, and compelled the elector to sign the treaty of
Altranstädt in September of that year, to recognize Stanislaus
Leszczynski as his successor in Poland, and to abandon the Russian
alliance. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Augustus fought with
the imperialists in the Netherlands, but after the defeat of Charles
XII. at Poltawa in July 1709, he turned his attention to the recovery of
Poland. Declaring the treaty of Altranstädt void and renewing his
alliance with Russia and Denmark, he quickly recovered the Polish crown.
He then attacked Swedish Pomerania. He was handicapped by the mutual
jealousy of the Saxons and the Poles, and a struggle broke out in Poland
which was only ended when the king promised to limit the number of his
army in that country to 18,000 men. Peace was made with Sweden in
December 1719 at Stockholm after the death of Charles XII., and Augustus
was recognized as king of Poland. His remaining years were spent in
futile plans to make Poland a hereditary monarchy, to weaken the power
of the Saxon nobles, and to gain territory for his sons in various parts
of Europe. He was a man of extravagant and luxurious tastes, and,
although he greatly improved the city of Dresden, he cannot be called a
good ruler. He sought to govern Saxony in an absolute fashion, and, in
spite of his declaration that his conversion to Roman Catholicism was
personal only, assisted the spread of the teachings of Rome. His wife
was Christine Eberhardine, a member of the Hohenzollern family, who left
him when he became a Roman Catholic, and died in 1727. Augustus died at
Warsaw on the 1st of February 1733, leaving a son Frederick Augustus,
who succeeded him in Poland and Saxony, and many illegitimate children,
among whom was the famous general, Maurice of Saxony, known as Marshal
Saxe (q.v.).

  See Otwikowski, _History of Poland under Augustus II._ (Cracow, 1849);
  F. Förster, _Die Hofe und Kabinette Europas im achtzehnten
  Jahrhtmdert_ (Potsdam, 1839); Jarochowski, _History of Augustus II._
  (Posen, 1856-1874); C.W. Böttiger and T. Flathe, _Geschichte des
  Kurstaates und Königreichs Sachsen_ (Gotha, 1867-1873).



AUGUSTUS III., king of Poland, and, as FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II., elector
of Saxony (1696-1763), the only legitimate son of Augustus II. ("the
Strong"), was born at Dresden on the 17th of October 1696. Educated as a
Protestant, he followed his father's example by joining the Roman
Catholic Church in 1712, although his conversion was not made public
until 1717. In August 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of the
emperor Joseph I., and seems to have taken very little part in public
affairs until he became elector of Saxony on his father's death in
February 1733. He was then a candidate for the Polish crown; and having
purchased the support of the emperor Charles VI. by assenting to the
Pragmatic Sanction, and that of the czarina Anne by recognizing the
claim of Russia to Courland, he was elected king of Poland in October
1733. Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski
from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was
generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736. On the death of
Charles VI. in October 1740, Augustus was among the enemies of his
daughter Maria Theresa, and, as a son-in-law of the emperor Joseph I.,
claimed a portion of the Habsburg territories. In 1742, however, he was
induced to transfer his support to Maria Theresa, and his troops took
part in the struggle against Frederick the Great during the Silesian
wars, and again when the Seven Years' War began in 1756. Saxony was in
that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not
only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but
the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony,
which remained under the dominion of Frederick. When the treaty of
Hubertsburg was concluded in February 1763, he returned to Saxony, where
he died on the 5th of October 1763. He left five sons, the eldest of
whom was his successor in Saxony, Frederick Christian; and five
daughters, one of whom was the wife of Louis, the dauphin of France, and
mother of Louis XVI. Another daughter was the wife of Charles III., king
of Spain, but she predeceased her father. Augustus, who showed neither
talent nor inclination for government, was content to leave Poland under
the influence of Russia, and Saxony to the rule of his ministers. He
took great interest in music and painting, and added to the collection
of art treasures at Dresden.

  See C.W. Böttiger and T. Flathe, _Geschichte des Kurstaates und
  Königreichs Sachsen_ (Gotha, 1867-1873); R. Röpell, _Polen um die
  Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts_ (Gotha, 1876).



AUGUSTUSBAD, a watering-place of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 10
m. E. from Dresden, close to Radeberg, in a pleasant valley. Pop. 900.
It has five saline chalybeate springs, used both for drinking and
bathing, and specific in feminine disorders, rheumatism, paralysis and
neuralgia. The spa is largely frequented in summer and has agreeable
public rooms and gardens.



AUK, a name commonly given to several species of sea-fowl. A special
interest attaches to the great auk (_Alca impennis_), owing to its
recent extinction and the value of its eggs to collectors. (See
GAREFOWL; also GUILLEMOT, PUFFIN, RAZORBILL.)



AULARD, FRANÇOIS VICTOR ALPHONSE (1849-   ), French historian, was born
at Montbron in Charente in 1849. Having obtained the degree of doctor of
letters in 1877 with a Latin thesis upon C. Asinius Pollion and a French
one upon Giacomo Leopardi (whose works he subsequently translated into
French), he made a study of parliamentary oratory during the French
Revolution, and published two volumes upon _Les Orateurs de la
constituante_ (1882) and upon _Les Orateurs de la legislative et de la
convention_ (1885). With these works, which were reprinted in 1905, he
entered a fresh field, where he soon became an acknowledged master.
Applying to the study of the French Revolution the rules of historical
criticism which had produced such rich results in the study of ancient
and medieval history, he devoted himself to profound research in the
archives, and to the publication of numerous most important
contributions to the political, administrative and moral history of that
marvellous period. Appointed professor of the history of the French
Revolution at the Sorbonne, he formed the minds of students who in their
turn have done valuable work. To him we owe the _Recueil des actes du
comité de salut public_ (vol. i., 1889; vol. xvi., 1904); _La Société
des Jacobins; recueil de documents pour l'histoire du club des Jacobins
de Paris_ (6 vols., 1889-1897); and _Paris pendant la reaction
thermidorienne et sous le directoire, recueil de documents pour
l'histoire de l'esprit public à Paris_ (5 vols., 1898-1902), which was
followed by an analogous collection for Paris sous le consulat (2 vols.,
1903-1904). For the Société de l'Histoire de la Révolution Française,
which brought out under his supervision an important periodical
publication called _La Révolution française_, he produced the _Registre
des déliberations du consulat provisoire_ (1894), and _L'État de la
France en l'an VIII et en l'an IX_, with the reports of the prefects
(1897), besides editing various works or memoirs written by men of the
Revolution, such as J.C. Bailleul, Chaumette, Fournier (called the
American), Hérault de Séchelles, and Louvet de Couvrai. But these large
collections of documents are not his entire output. Besides a little
pamphlet upon Danton, he has written a _Histoire politique de la
Révolution française_ (1901), and a number of articles which have been
collected in volumes under the title _Études et leçons sur la Révolution
française_ (5 vols., 1893-1908). In a volume entitled _Taine, historien
de la Révolution française_ (1908), Aulard has submitted the method of
the eminent philosopher to a criticism, severe, perhaps even unjust, but
certainly well-informed. This is, as it were, the "manifesto" of the new
school of criticism applied to the political and social history of the
Revolution (see _Les Annales Révolutionnaires_, June 1908).

  See A. Mathiez, "M. Aulard, historien et professeur," in the _Revue de
  la Révolution française_ (July 1908).     (C. B.*)



AULIC COUNCIL (_Reichshofrat_), an organ of the Holy Roman Empire,
originally intended for executive work, but acting chiefly as a
judicature, which worked from 1497 to 1806. In the early middle ages
the emperor had already his _consiliarii_; but his council was a
fluctuating body of personal advisers. In the 14th century there first
arose an official council, with permanent and paid members, many of whom
were legists. Its business was largely executive, and it formed
something of a ministry; but it had also to deal with petitions
addressed to the king, and accordingly it acted as a supreme court of
judicature. It was thus parallel to the king's council, or _concilium
continuum_, of medieval England; while by its side, during the 15th
century, stood the _Kammergericht_, composed of the legal members of the
council, in much the same way as the Star Chamber stood beside the
English council. But the real history of the Aulic Council, as that term
was understood in the later days of the Empire, begins with Maximilian
I. in 1497-1498. In these years Maximilian created three organs
(apparently following the precedent set by his Burgundian ancestors in
the Netherlands)--a _Hofrat_, a _Hofkammer_ for finance, and a
_Hofkanzlei._ Primarily intended for the hereditary dominions of
Maximilian, these bodies were also intended for the whole Empire; and
the _Hofrat_ was to deal with "all and every business which may flow in
from the Empire, Christendom at large, or the king's hereditary
principalities." It was thus to be the supreme executive and judicial
organ, discharging all business except that of finance and the drafting
of documents; and it was intended to serve Maximilian as a _point
d'appui_ for the monarchy against the system of oligarchical committees,
instituted by Berthold, archbishop of Mainz. But it was difficult to
work such a body both for the Empire and for the hereditary
principalities; and under Ferdinand I. it became an organ for the Empire
alone (_circ._ 1558), the hereditary principalities being removed from
its cognizance. As such an imperial organ, its composition and powers
were fixed by the treaty of Westphalia of 1648. (1) It consisted of
about 20 members--a president, a vice-president, the vice-chancellor of
the Empire, and some 18 other members. These came partly from the Empire
at large, partly (and in greater numbers) from the hereditary lands of
the emperor. There were two benches, one of the nobles, one of doctors
of civil law; six of the members must be Protestants. The council
followed the person of the emperor, and was therefore stationed at
Vienna; it was paid by the emperor, and he nominated its members, whose
office terminated with his life--an arrangement which made the council
more dependent than it should have been on the emperor's will. (2) Its
powers were nominally both executive and judicial. (a) Its executive
powers were small: it gradually lost everything except the formal
business of investiture with imperial fiefs and the confirmation of
charters, its other powers being taken over by the _Geheimräte._ These
_Geheimräte_, a narrow body of secret counsellors, had already become a
determinate _concilium_ by 1527; and though at first only concerned with
foreign affairs, they acquired, from the middle of the 16th century
onwards, the power of dealing with imperial affairs in lieu of the Aulic
Council. (b) In its judicial aspect, the Aulic Council, exercising the
emperor's judicial powers on his behalf, and thus succeeding, as it
were, to the old _Kammergericht_, had exclusive cognizance of matters
relating to imperial fiefs, criminal charges against immediate vassals
of the Empire, imperial charters, Italian affairs, and cases "reserved"
for the emperor. In all other matters, the Aulic Council was a
competitor for judicial work with the Imperial Chamber[1]
(_Reichskammergericht_, a tribunal dating from the great diet of Worms
of 1495: see under IMPERIAL CHAMBER). It was determined in 1648 that the
one of these two judicial authorities which first dealt with a case
should alone have competence to pursue it. An appeal lay from the
decision of the council to the emperor, and judgment on appeal was given
by those members of the council who had not joined in the original
decision, though in important cases they might be afforced by members of
the diet. Neither the council nor the chamber could deal with cases of
outlawry, except to prepare such cases for the decision of the diet.
To-day the archives of the Aulic Council are in Vienna, though parts of
its records have been given to the German states which they concern.

  AUTHORITIES.--R. Schröder, _Lehrbuch der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte_
  (Leipzig, 1904), gives the main facts; S. Adler, _Die Organisation der
  Centralverwaltung unter Maximilian I._ (Leipzig, 1886), deals with
  Maximilian's reorganization of the Council; and J. St. Pütter,
  _Historische Entwickelung der heutigen Staatsverfassung des Teutschen
  Reichs_ (Göttingen, 1798-1799), may be consulted for its development
  and later form.     (E. Br.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The Aulic Council is the private court of the emperor, with its
    members nominated by him; the Imperial Chamber is the public court of
    the Empire, with its members nominated by the estates of the Empire.



AULIE-ATA, a town and fort of Russian Turkestan, province of Syr-darya,
152 m. N.E. of Tashkent, on the Talas river, at the western end of the
Alexander range, its altitude being 5700 ft. The inhabitants are mostly
Sarts and Tajiks, trading in cattle, horses and hides. Pop. (1897)
12,006.



AULIS, an ancient Boeotian town on the Euripus, situated on a rocky
peninsula between two bays, near the modern village of Vathy, about 3 m.
S. of Chalcis. Its fame was due to the tradition that it was the
starting-place of the Greek fleet before the Trojan War, the scene of
the sacrifice of Iphigenia. The temple of Artemis was still to be seen
in the time of Pausanias.



AULNOY (or AUNOY), MARIE CATHERINE LE JUMEL DE BARNEVILLE DE LA MOTTE,
BARONNE D' (c. 1650-1705), French author, was born about 1650 at
Barneville near Bourg-Achard (Eure). She was the niece of Marie Bruneau
des Loges, the friend of Malherbe and of J.G. de Balzac, who was called
the "tenth Muse." She married on the 8th of March 1666 François de la
Motte, a gentleman in the service of César, duc de Vendôme, who became
Baron d'Aulnoy in 1654. With her mother, who by a second marriage had
become marquise de Gudaigne, she instigated a prosecution for high
treason against her husband. The conspiracy was exposed, and the two
women saved themselves by a hasty flight to England. Thence they went
(February 1679) to Spain, but were eventually allowed to return to
France in reward for secret services rendered to the government. Mme.
d'Aulnoy died in Paris on the 14th of January 1705. She wrote fairy
tales, _Contes nouvelles ou les Fées a la mode_ (3 vols., 1698), in the
manner of Charles Perrault. This collection (24 tales) included
_L'Oiseau bleu, Finette Cendron, La Chatte blanche_ and others. The
originals of most of her admirable tales are to be found in the
_Pentamerone_ (1637) of Giovanni Battista Basile. Other works are:
_L'Histoire d'Hippolyte, comte de Duglas_ (1690), a romance in the style
of Madame de la Fayette, though much inferior to its model; _Mémoires de
la cour d'Espagne_ (1679-1681); and a _Relation du voyage d'Espagne_
(1690 or 1691) in the form of letters, edited in 1874-1876 as _La Cour
et la ville de Madrid_ by Mme. B. Carey; _Histoire de Jean de Bourbon_
(1692); _Mémoires sur la cour de France_ (1692); _Mémoires de la cour
d'Angleterre_ (1695). Her historical writings are partly borrowed from
existing records, to which she adds much that must be regarded as
fiction, and some vivid descriptions of contemporary manners.

  The _Diverting Works of the Countess d'Anois_, including some
  extremely untrustworthy "Memoirs of her own life," were printed in
  London in 1707. _The Fairy Tales of Madame d'Aulnoy_, with an
  introduction by Lady Thackeray Ritchie, appeared in 1892. For
  biographical particulars see M. de Lescure's introduction to the
  _Contes des Fées_ (1881).



AULOS (Gr. [Greek: aulos]; Lat. _tibia_; Egyptian hieroglyphic, _Ma-it_;
medieval equivalents, _shalm, chalumeau, schalmei, hautbois_), in Greek
antiquities, a class of wood-wind instruments with single or with double
reed mouthpiece and either cylindrical or conical bore, thus
corresponding to both oboe and clarinet. In its widest acceptation the
_aulos_ was a generic term for instruments consisting of a tube in which
the air column was set in vibration either directly by the lips of the
performer, or through the medium of a mouthpiece containing a single or
a double reed. Even the pipes of the pan-pipes (_syrinx polycalamus_,[1]
[Greek: syrinx polykalamos]) were sometimes called auloi ([Greek:
auloi]). The aulos is also the earliest prototype of the organ, which,
by gradual assimilation of the principles of syrinx and bag-pipe,
reached the stage at which it became known as the _Tyrrhenian aulos_
(Pollux iv. 70) or the _hydraulos_, according to the method of
compressing the wind supply (see ORGAN: _Early History_; and SYRINX).
The aulos in its earliest form, the reed pipe, during the best classical
period had a cylindrical bore ([Greek: koilia]) like that of the modern
clarinet, and therefore had the acoustic properties of the stopped pipe,
whether the air column was set in vibration by means of a single or of a
double reed, for the mouthpiece does not affect the harmonic series.[2]
To the acoustic properties of open or stopped pipes are due those
essential differences which underlie the classification of modern wind
instruments. A stopped pipe produces its fundamental tone one octave
lower than the tone of an open pipe of corresponding length, and
overblows the harmonics of the twelfth, and of the third above the
second octave of the fundamental tone, i.e. the odd numbers of the
series; whereas the open pipe gives the whole series of harmonics, the
octave, the twelfth, the double octave, and the third above it, &c.

To produce the diatonic scale throughout the octaves of its compass, the
stopped pipe requires eleven lateral holes in the side of the pipe, at
appropriate distances from each other, and from the end of the pipe,
whereas the open pipe requires but six. The acoustic properties of the
open pipe can only be secured in combination with a reed mouthpiece by
making the bore conical. The late Romans (and therefore we may perhaps
assume the Greeks also, since the Romans acknowledge their indebtedness
to the Greeks in matters relating to musical instruments, and more
especially to the cithara and aulos) understood the acoustic principle
utilized to-day in making wind instruments, that a hole of small
diameter nearer the mouthpiece may be substituted for one of greater
diameter in the theoretically correct position. This is demonstrated by
the 4th-century grammarian Macrobius, who says (_Comm. in Somn. Scip._
ii. 4, 5): "Nec secus probamus in tibiis, de quarum foraminibus vicinis
inflantis ori sonus acutus emittitur, de longinquis autem et termino
proximis gravior; item acutior per patentiora foramina, gravior per
angusta" (see BASSOON). Aristotle gives directions for boring holes in
the aulos, which would apply only to a pipe of cylindrical bore
(_Probl_. xix. 23). At first the aulos had but three or four holes; to
Diodorus of Thebes is due the credit of having increased this number
(Pollux iv. 80). Pronomus, the musician, and teacher of Alcibiades (5th
century B.C.), further improved the aulos by making it possible to play
on one pair of instruments the three musical scales in use at his time,
the Dorian, the Phrygian, and the Lydian, whereas previously a separate
pair of pipes had been used for each scale (Pausanias ix. 12. 5;
Athenaeus xiv. 31). These three modes would require a compass of a tenth
in order to produce the fundamental octave in each.

There are two ways in which this increased compass might have been
obtained: (1) by increasing the number of holes and covering up those
not required, (2) by means of contrivances for lowering the pitch of
individual notes as required. We have evidence that both means were
known to the Greeks and Romans. The simplest device for closing holes
not in use was a band of metal left free to slide round the pipe, and
having a hole bored through it corresponding in diameter with the hole
in the pipe. Each hole was provided with a band, which was in some cases
prevented from slipping down the pipe by narrow fixed rings of metal.
The line on fig. 1 between r and s is thought to have been one of these
rings.

Some pipes had two holes pierced through the bands and the bone, in such
a manner that only one could be exposed at a time. This is clearly shown
in the diagram (fig. 1) of fragments of an aulos from the museum at
Candia, for which the writer is greatly indebted to Professor John L.
Myres, by whom measured drawings were made from the instrument in 1893.
These highly interesting remains, judging from the closed end (5), seem
to belong to a side-blown reed-pipe similar to the Maenad pipes in the
Castellani collection at the British Museum, illustrated below; they are
constructed like modern flutes, but played by means of a reed inserted
into the lateral embouchure.

In the Candia pipe, it seems likely that Nos. 1 and 2 represented the
bell end, slightly expanded, No. 3 joining the broken end of No. 2 at l;
there being a possible fit at the other end at s with a in No. 4 (the
drawings must in this case be imagined as reversed for parts 3 and 4),
and No. 5 joining on to No. 4 at k.

According to Professor Myres there are fragments of a pair of pipes in
the Cyprus Museum of precisely the same construction as the one in
Candia. In the drawing, the shape and relative position of the holes _on
the circumference_ is approximate only, but their position lengthways is
measured.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Diagram of the Fragments of an _Aulos_ (Candia
Mus.).

(From a drawing by Prof. John L. Myres.)

  a, Triple wrapping of bronze as well as slide.
  b, Slide with hole.
  c, Slides with two holes not uncovered together.
  d, Slides with two holes not uncovered together, one hole at back.
  e, Slide.
  f, Slide missing.
  g, Slide missing, scars of slide holes.
  h, Slide.
  i and j, Slide.
  k, Socket.
  l, Male half of joint.
  m, n, o, Slides, the top hole being in the slide only.
  p and q, Slides, with two holes; the small hole shown is in the
      pipe, there being a corresponding hole in the slide at the back.
  r, Bronze covering (and slide?).
  s, Male joint.
  t, The wavy line shows the extreme length of fragment.
  u, 13 mm. inside diameter, 14 mm. outside diameter.
  w, Engraved lines and conical form of bronze covering.
  x, Wavy line shows extreme length of fragment.
  y, Stopped end of pipe with engraved lines.

    The line between r and s is either a turned ring or part of bronze
    cover. The double lines to the right of t are engraved lines.]

Bands of silver were found on the ivory pipes from Pompeii[3] (fig. 2),
as well as on two pipes belonging to the Castellani collection (fig. 4)
and on one from Halicarnassus, in the British Museum. In order to enable
the performer to use these bands conveniently, a contrivance such as a
little ring, a horn or a hook termed keras (Greek: keras) was attached
to the band.[4]

Thirteen of the bands on the Pompeian pipes still have sockets which
probably originally contained _kerata_. Pollux (iv. 80) mentions that
Diodorus of Thebes, in order to increase the range of the aulos, made
lateral channels for the air ([Greek: plagiai hodoi]). These consisted
of tubes inserted into the holes in the bands for the purpose of
lengthening the column of air, and lowering individual notes at will,
the sound being then produced at the extremity of the tube, instead of
at the surface of the pipe. It is possible that some of the double holes
in the slides of the Candia pipe were intended for the reception of
these tubes. These lateral tubes form the archetype of the modern crook
or piston.[5] The mouthpiece of the aulos was called _zeugos_ ([Greek:
zeugos]),[6] the reed tongue _glossa_[7] or _glotta_ ([Greek: glossa] or
[Greek: glotta]), and the socket into which the reed was fixed
_glottis_[8] ([Greek: glottis]).

The double reed was probably used at first, being the simplest form of
mouthpiece; the word _zeugos_, moreover, signifies a pair of like
things. There is, however, no difficulty in accepting the probability
that a single beating reed or clarinet mouthpiece was used by the
Greeks, since the ancient Egyptians used it with the as-it or arghoul
(q.v.).

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Roman Ivory Aulos found at Pompeii (Naples
Mus.), showing slides and rings.

(Drawn from a photo by Brogi.)]

The beak-shaped mouthpiece of a pipe found at Pompeii (fig. 3) has all
the appearance of the beak of the clarinet, having, on the side not
shown, the lay on which to fix a single or beating reed.[9] It may,
however, have been the cap of a covered reed, or even a whistle
mouthpiece in which the lip does not show in the photograph. It is
difficult to form a conclusion without seeing the real instrument. On a
mosaic of Monnus in Trèves[10] is represented an aulos which also
appears to have a beak-shaped mouthpiece.

The upper part of the aulos, as in the Pompeian pipes, frequently had
the form of a flaring cup supported on a pear-shaped bulb, respectively
identified as the _holmos_ ([Greek: holmos]) and the _hypholmion_
([Greek: hypholmion]), the support of the _holmos_. An explanation of
the original nature and construction of the bulb and flaring cup, so
familiar in the various representations of the aulos, and in the real
instruments found in Pompeii, is provided by an ancient Egyptian flute
belonging to the collection of G. Maspero, illustrated and described by
Victor Loret.[11] Loret calls the double bulb the beak mouthpiece of the
instrument, and describes its construction; it consists of a piece of
reed of larger diameter than that of the flute, and eight centimetres
long; this reed has been forcibly compressed a little more than half way
down by means of a ligature of twine, thus reducing the diameter from 6
mm. to 4 mm. The end of the pipe, covered by rows of waxed thread, fits
into the end of the smaller bulb, to which it was also bound by waxed
thread exactly as in the Elgin pipe at the British Museum, described
below. There is no indication of the manner in which the pipe was
sounded, and Loret assumes that there was once a whistle or flageolet
mouthpiece. To the present writer, however, it seems probable that the
constricted diameter between the two bulbs formed a socket into which
the double reed or straw was inserted, and that, in this case at least,
the reed was not taken into the mouth, but vibrated in the upper bulb or
air-chamber. This simple contrivance was probably also employed in the
earliest Greek pipes, and was later copied and elaborated in wood, bone
or metal, the upper bulb being made shorter and developing into the
flaring cup, in order that the reeds might be taken directly into the
mouth. During the best period of Greek music the reeds were taken
directly into the mouth[12] and not enclosed in an air-chamber. The two
pipes were kept in position while the fingers stopped the holes and
turned the bands by means of the [Greek: phorbeia] (Lat. _capistrum_), a
bandage encircling mouth and cheeks, and having holes through which the
reed-mouthpiece passed into the mouth of the performer; the _phorbeia_
also relieved the pressure of the breath on the cheeks and lips,[13]
which is felt more especially by performers on oboe and bassoon at the
present day.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Beak mouthpiece. Found at Pompeii (Naples Mus.).

(From a photo by Brogi.)]

In the pair of wooden pipes belonging to the Elgin collection at the
British Museum, one of the bulbs, partly broken, but preserved in the
same case as the pipes, was fastened to the pipes by means of waxed
thread, the indented lines being still visible on the rim of the bulb.
The aulos was kept in a case called _sybene_[14] ([Greek: sybaenae]) or
_aulotheke_[15] ([Greek: aulothaekae]), and the little bag or case in
which the delicate reeds were carried was known by the name of
_glottokomeion_[15] ([Greek: glottokomeion]).[16] Two Egyptian flute
cases are extant, one in the Louvre,[17] and the other in the museum at
Leiden. The latter case is of sycamore wood, cylindrical in shape, with
a stopper of the same wood; there is no legend or design upon it. The
case contained seven pipes, five pieces of reed without bore or holes,
and three pieces of straw suitable for making double-reed
mouthpieces.[18]

Aristoxenus gives the full compass of a single pipe or pair of pipes as
over three octaves:--"For doubtless we should find an interval greater
than the above mentioned three octaves between the highest note of the
soprano clarinet (aulos) and the lowest note of the bass-clarinet
(aulos); and again between the highest note of a clarinet player
performing with the speaker open, and the lowest note of a clarinet
player performing with the speaker closed."[19]

This, according to the tables of Alypius, would correspond to the full
range of the Greek scales, a little over three octaves from
[Illustration: low "E" below the staff, bass clef] to [Illustration:
high "F-sharp" on the fifth-stave, treble clef]. It is evident that the
ancient Greeks obtained this full compass on the aulos by means of the
harmonics. Proclus (_Comm. in Alcibiad._ chap. 68) states that from each
hole of the pipe at least three tones could be produced. Moreover,
classic writers maintain that if the performer press the _zeugos_ or the
_glottai_ of the pipes, a sharper tone is produced.[20] This is exactly
how a performer on a modern clarinet or oboe produces the higher
harmonics of the instrument.[21] The small bore of the aulos in
comparison to its length facilitated the production of the harmonics
(cf. Zamminer p. 218), as does also the use of a small hole near the
mouthpiece, called in Greek _syrinx_ ([Greek: syrinx]) and in the modern
clarinet the "speaker," which when open enables the performer to
overblow with ease the first harmonic of the lowest fundamental tones.
To Mr Albert A. Howard of Harvard University is due the credit of having
identified the _syrinx_ of the aulos with the speaker of the
clarinet.[22] This assumption is doubtless correct, and is supported by
classical grammarians,[23] who state that the _syrinx_ was one of the
holes of the aulos. It renders quite clear certain passages in
Aristoxenus, Aristotle and Plutarch, and a scholion to Pindar's 12th
_Pythian_, which before were difficult to understand (see SYRINX).

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--The Plagiaulos. Castellani Collection (Maenad
Pipes), British Museum.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Ancient Greek Double Pipes. Elgin Collection,
British Museum.]

The aulos or tibia existed in a great number of varieties enumerated by
Pollux (_Onomast._ iv. 74 et seq.) and Athenaeus (iv. 76 et seq.). They
fall into two distinct classes, the single and the double pipes. There
were three principal single pipes, the _monaulos_, the _plagiaulos_ and
the _syrinx monocalamos_. The double pipes were used by the great
musicians of ancient Greece, and notably at the musical contests at
Delphi, and what has been said above concerning the construction of the
aulos refers mainly to the double pipes. The _monaulos_, a single pipe
of Egyptian origin, which, by inference, we assume to have been played
from the end by means of a reed, may have been the archetype of the oboe
or clarinet. The _plagiaulos photinx_ or _tibia obliqua_, invented by
the Libyans (Pollux iv. 74), or, according to Pliny (vii. 204), by Midas
of Phrygia, was held like the modern flute, but was played by means of a
mouthpiece containing a reed. Three of the existing pipes at the British
Museum (the two in the Castellani collection, and the pipe from
Halicarnassus) belong to this type. The mouthpiece projects from the
side of the pipe and communicates with the main bore by means of a
slanting passage; the end nearest the mouthpiece is stopped as in the
modern flute; in the latter, however, the embouchure is not closed by
the lips when playing, and therefore the flute has the acoustic
properties of the open pipe, whereas the _plagiaulos_ having a reed
mouthpiece gave the harmonics of a closed pipe. The double pipes existed
in five sizes according to pitch, in the days of Aristoxenus, who, in a
treatise on the construction of the auloi ([Greek: Peri aulon
traeseos]), unfortunately not extant,[24] divides them thus:--

(1) _Parthenioi auloi_ ([Greek: parthenioi auloi]), the maiden's
_auloi_, corresponding to the soprano compass.

(2) _Paidikoi auloi_ ([Greek: paidikoi auloi]), the boy's pipes or alto
_auloi_, used to accompany boys' songs and also in double pairs at
feasts.

(3) _Kitharisterioi auloi_ ([Greek: kitharistaerioi auloi]), used to
accompany the cithara.

(4) _Teleioi auloi_, the perfect aulos, or tenor's pipes; also known as
the _pythic auloi_ ([Greek: pythikoi auloi]); used for the paeans and
for solos at the Pythean games (without chorus). It was the _pythic
auloi_ and the _kitharisterioi auloi_ more especially which were
provided with the speaker (syrinx) in order to improve the harmonic
notes (see SYRINX).

(5) _Hyperteleioi auloi_ ([Greek: hyperteleioi auloi]) or _andreioi
auloi_ ([Greek: andreioi ayloi]) (see Athenaeus iv. 79), the bass-auloi.

The Phrygian pipes or _auloi Elymoi_[25] were made of box-wood and were
tipped with horn; they were double pipes, but differed from all others
in that the two pipes were unequal in length and in the diameter of
their bores;[26] sometimes one of the pipes was curved upwards and
terminated in a horn bell;[27] they seem to have had a conical bore, if
representations on monuments are to be trusted. We may conclude that the
archetype of the oboe with conical bore was not unknown to the Greeks;
it was frequently used by the Etruscans and Romans, and appears on many
has-reliefs, mural paintings and other monuments. For illustrations see
Wilhelm Froehner, _Les Musées de France_, pl. iii., "Marsyas playing the
double pipes." There the bore is decidedly conical in the ratio of at
least 1:4 between the mouthpiece and the end of the instrument; the vase
is Roman, from the south of France. See also _Bulletino della
Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma_, Rome, 1879, vol. vii., 2nd
series, pl. vii. and p. 119 et seq., "Le Nozze di Elena e Paride," from
a bas-relief in the monastery of S. Antonio on the Esquiline; Wilhelm
Zahn, _Die schonsten Ornamente und die merkwurdigsten Gemälde aus
Pompeji, Herkulaneum und Stabiae_ (German and French), vol. iii., pl. 43
and 51 (Berlin, 1828-1859).

  For further information on the aulos, consult Albert A. Howard, "The
  Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard Studies_, iv., 1893; François A. Gevaert,
  _Histoire de la musique dans l'antiquité_, vol. ii. p. 273 et seq.;
  Carl von Jan's article "Flote" in August Baumeister's _Denkmaler des
  klassischen Altertums_ (Munich, 1884-1888), vol. i.; Dr Hugo Riemann,
  _Handbuch der Musikgeschichte_, Bd. I.T. 1, pp. 93-112 (Leipzig,
  1904); Caspar Bartholinus, _De Tibiis Veterum_ (Amsterdam, 1779).
       (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Pollux, _Onom._ iv. 69.

  [2] See Friedrich Zamminer, _Die Musik und musikalischen Instrumente
    in ihrer Beziehung zu den Gesetzen der Akustik_ (Giessen, 1855), p.
    305.

  [3] These pipes were discovered during the excavations in 1867, and
    are now in the museum at Naples. Excellent reproductions and
    descriptions of them are given in "The Aulos or Tibia," by Albert A.
    Howard, _Harvard Studies_, vol. iv. (Boston, 1893), pl. ii. and pp.
    48-55.

  [4] For illustrations of _auloi_ provided with these contrivances,
    see illustration (fig. 2) of an aulos from Pompeii; a relief in
    Vatican, No. 535; Helbig's _Wandgemãlde_, Nos. 56, 69, 730, 765, &c.

  [5] For illustrations of [Greek: hodoi] showing the holes at the ends
    of the tubes, see _Description des marbres antiques du Musée
    Campana_, by H. d'Escamps, pl. 25; Wilhelm Froehner's _Catalogue of
    the Louvre_, No. 378; Glyptothek Museum at Munich, No. 188; Albert A.
    Howard, "The Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard Studies_, iv. (Boston, 1893),
    pl. 1, No. 1.

  [6] For a description of the reed calamus from which pipe and
    mouthpiece were made see Theophrastus, _Hist. Plant._ iv. 11.

  [7] Aeschines 86. 29; Aristotle, _H.A._ 6, 10, 9, &c.

  [8] Lucian, _Harm._ 1.

  [9] Cf. article MOUTHPIECE.

  [10] See _Antike Denkmaler_, Deutsches archäol. Inst., Berlin, 1891,
    vol. i. pi. 49.

  [11] See "Les Flûtes égyptiennes antiques," _Journal asiatique_, 8th
    ser. vol. xiv. (Paris, 1889), pp. 212-215.

  [12] See Aristotle, _De Audib._ p. 802 b, 18, and p. 804a; Festus,
    ed. Mueller, p. 116.

  [13] See Albert A. Howard, op. cit. p. 29, and Dr Hugo Riemann,
    _Gesch. d. Musik_, Bd. i. T. 1, p. 111 (Leipzig, 1904).

  [14] Pollux, _Onomasticon_, vii. 153.

  [15] Hesychius.

  [16] Pollux ii. 108, vii. 153, x. 153-154; A.A. Howard, op. cit. pp.
    26-27. An illustration of the little bag is given in _Denkmaler des
    klassischen Altertums_, by August Baumeister, vol. i. p. 554, fig.
    591.

  [17] Two Egyptian pipes now in the Louvre were found in a case
    ornamented with a painting of a female musician playing a double
    pipe. See E. de Rougé, _Notice sommaire des monuments égyptiens
    exposés dans les galeries du Louvre_, p. 87.

  [18] See Victor Loret, "Les Flûtes égyptiennes antiques," in _Journal
    asiatique_, vol. xiv. (Paris, 1889), pp. 199, 200 and 201 (note), pp.
    207, 211 and 217, and Conrad Leemans, _Description raisonnée des
    monuments égyptiens du Musée d'Antiquités de Leyde_, p. 132, No. 489;
    contents of case Nos. 474-488.

  [19] Aristoxenus, _Harm._ bk. i. 20 and 21, H.S. Macran's edition
    with translation (Oxford, 1902), p. 179.

  [20] Aristotle, _De audib._ p. 804a; Porphyry, ed. Wallis, p. 249;
    _ibid._ p. 252.

  [21] Zamminer, _op. cit._ p. 301.

  [22] _Op. cit._ p. 32-35.

  [23] See _Etymologicum magnum_ (Augsburg. 1848), s.v. "Syrinx."

  [24] See Athenaeus xiv. 634, who quotes from Didymus.

  [25] Pollux iv. 74.

  [26] Servius _ad Aen._ ix. 615.

  [27] Tibullus ii. 85; Virg. _Aen._ xi. 735; Ovid, _Met._ iii. 533,
    _Ex Ponto_ i. 1. 39.



AUMALE, HENRI EUGÈNE PHILIPPE LOUIS D'ORLÉANS, DUC D' (1822-1897),
French prince and statesman, fifth son of Louis Philippe, duke of
Orleans, afterwards king of the French, and of Marie Amélie, princess of
the Two Sicilies, was born at Paris on the 16th of January 1822. While
still young he inherited a large fortune from the prince de Condé.
Brought up by his parents with great simplicity, he was educated at the
college of Henri IV., on leaving which at the age of seventeen he
entered the army with the rank of a captain of infantry. He
distinguished himself during the conquest of Algeria, and was appointed
governor of that colony, in which capacity he received the submission of
the amir Abd-el-Kader. After the revolution of 1848 he retired to
England and busied himself with historical and military studies,
replying in 1861 by a _Letter upon the History of France_ to Prince
Napoleon's violent attacks upon the house of Orleans. On the outbreak of
the Franco-Prussian War he volunteered for service in the French army,
but his offer was declined. Elected deputy for the Oise department, he
returned to France, and succeeded to the _fauteuil_ of the comte de
Montalembert in the French Academy. In March 1872 he resumed his place
in the army as general of division; and in 1873 he presided over the
court-martial which condemned Marshal Bazaine to death. About this
period, being appointed commandant of the VII. army corps at Besançon,
he retired from political life, and in 1879 became inspector-general of
the army. By the act of exception passed in 1883 all members of families
that had reigned in France serving in the army were deprived of their
military positions; consequently the duc d'Aumale was placed on the
unemployed supernumerary list. Subsequently, in 1886, another law was
promulgated which expelled from French territory the heads of former
reigning families, and provided that henceforward all members of those
families should be disqualified for any public position or function, and
for election to any public body. The duc d'Aumale protested
energetically, and was himself expelled. By his will of the 3rd of June
1884, however, he had bequeathed to the Institute of France his
Chantilly estate, with all the art-collection he had gathered there.
This generosity led the government to withdraw the decree of exile, and
the duke returned to France in 1889. He died at Zucco in Sicily on the
7th of May 1897. Of his marriage, contracted in 1844 with his first
cousin, Caroline de Bourbon, daughter of the prince of Salerno, were
born two sons: the prince de Condé (d. 1866), and the due de Guise (d.
1872). The due d'Aumale's principal literary work was an _Histoire des
princes de Condé_, which he left unfinished.

  See Georges Picot, _M. le duc d'Aumale_ (Paris, 1898); Ernest Daudet,
  _Le duc d'Aumale_ (Paris, 1898).     (M. P.*)



AUMALE, a town of northern France, in the department of
Seine-Inférieure, on the left bank of the Bresle, 47 m. N.E. of Rouen on
the Northern railway. Pop. (1906) 1999. The church is an interesting
building of the 16th and 17th centuries, and has a portal attributed to
Jean Goujon. The town has glass and steel works.

The territory of Aumale (Albemarle, Aubemale, Aumerle; Lat. _Alba
Marla_) in Normandy, a dependency of the archbishopric of Rouen, was
granted to Odo of Champagne, brother-in-law of William the Conqueror,
who founded the first line of counts of Aumale. Hawise (Hadwide, Havoise
or Avoie), countess of Aumale, after the death of her first husband
William de Mandeville, earl of Essex (d. 1189), married William des
Forts (de Fors, or de Fortz; Lat. de Fortibus), a military adventurer
who had been one of the commanders of the fleet under Richard I. during
his first crusade. He died in 1195, and his widow married Baldwin de
Betun, who became count of Aumale in her right. He died in 1213, and in
1214 William de Fortibus, son of Hawise by her second husband, was
confirmed by King John in all his mother's lands. Meanwhile, however,
the territory of Aumale shared the fate of the rest of Normandy, and was
annexed to the French crown by King Philip Augustus; but the title of
earl of Albemarle, derived from it, continued to be borne in England by
William de Fortibus, and was passed on to his heirs (see ALBEMARLE).
Aumale itself was conferred by Philip Augustus as an appanage on his son
Philip. It was subsequently granted by Louis VIII. to Simon, count of
Dammartin, whose daughter, Jeanne, countess of Dammartin, transferred
it, together with the countship of Ponthieu, to the house of Castile, by
her marriage with Ferdinand III., king of Castile, called the Saint
(1238). It then remained in the possession of a branch of her
descendants bearing the name of Ponthieu, until it passed to the house
of Harcourt on the marriage of Blanche of Ponthieu with John, count of
Harcourt (1340). Marie d'Harcourt (d. 1476), heiress of Aumale, married
Anthony of Lorraine, count of Vaudémont, and Aumale was created a duchy
in the peerage of France for Claude and Francis of Lorraine in 1547. By
the marriage of Anne of Lorraine with the duke of Nemours in 1618 the
duchy of Aumale passed to the house of Savoy-Nemours. In 1686 Marie
Jeanne Baptiste, duchess of Nemours and of Aumale, and wife of Charles
Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy, sold Aumale to Louis XIV., who gave it to
his natural son, the duke of Maine. After the death of that prince, the
dukedom devolved upon his brother, the count of Toulouse, subsequently
passing to the latter's son, the duke of Penthièvre, whose daughter
married the duke of Orleans. Since the reign of Louis Philippe, king of
the French, the title of duke of Aumale has been borne by a son of the
duke of Orleans.



AUMONT, the name of a family which played an important part in French
history. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it has usually been
derived from Aumont, now a small commune in the department of the Somme.
The family was of great antiquity, a Jean, sire d'Aumont, having
accompanied Louis IX. on crusade. It was already powerful in the 14th
century, and during the English wars of that period its members fought
in the armies of the kings of France. Towards the end of the century,
the family took the part of the dukes of Burgundy, but returned to the
side of France on the death of Charles the Bold. Jean d'Aumont,
lieutenant-general to the king of France in the government of Burgundy,
rendered important services to Louis XII. and Francis I. Another Jean
d'Aumont (d. 1595), a marshal of France and knight of the order of the
Holy Ghost since its institution in 1578, fought against the Huguenots
under the last of the Valois kings; but he was among the first to
recognize Henry IV., and was appointed governor of Champagne and of
Brittany, where he had to fight against the League. His grandson Antoine
(1601-1669) was also a marshal of France (1651), governor of Paris
(1662), duke and peer (1665). Louis Marie Augustin, duc d'Aumont
(1709-1782), was a celebrated collector of works of art. Louis Marie
Celeste d'Aumont, due de Piennes, afterwards duc d'Aumont (1762-1831),
emigrated during the Revolution and served in the army of the royalists,
as also in the Swedish army. During the Hundred Days he effected a
descent upon Normandy in the Bourbon interest, and succeeded in
capturing Bayeux and Caen.



AUNCEL (from the Anglo-Fr. _auncelle_, a confused derivation from
_l'auncelle_, Ital. _lancella_, a little balance), a balance formerly
used in England; now, in dialectical use, a term for the weighing of
meat by hand instead of by scales.



AUNDH, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay,
ranking as one of the Satara Jagirs. Its area is 447 sq. m.; its
population was 63,921 in 1901, showing a decrease of 2% in the decade.
Estimated revenue £9422. The chief, whose title is Pant Pratinidhi, is a
Brahman by caste. The state has suffered severely from plague. The town
of Aundh is situated 26 m. S.E. of Satara. Pop. about 3500.



AUNGERVYLE, RICHARD (1287-1345), commonly known as RICHARD DE BURY,
English bibliophile, writer and bishop, was born near Bury St Edmunds,
Suffolk, on the 24th of January 1287. He was the son of Sir Richard
Aungervyle, who was descended from one of William the Conqueror's
soldiers, settled in Leicestershire, where the family came into
possession of the manor of Willoughby. His education was undertaken by
his uncle, John de Willoughby, and after leaving the grammar school of
his native place he was sent to Oxford, where he is said to have
distinguished himself in philosophy and theology. John Pits[1] says, but
apparently without authority, that he became a Benedictine monk. He was
made tutor to Prince Edward of Windsor (afterwards Edward III.), and,
according to Dibdin, inspired him with some of his own love of books. He
was mixed up with the sordid intrigues which preceded the deposition of
Edward II., and supplied Queen Isabella and Mortimer in Paris with money
in 1325 from the revenues of Guienne, of which province he was
treasurer. For some time he had to hide in Paris from the officers sent
by Edward II. to apprehend him. On the accession of Edward III. his
services were rewarded by rapid promotion. He was cofferer to the king,
treasurer of the wardrobe and afterwards clerk of the privy seal. The
king, moreover, repeatedly recommended him to the pope, and twice sent
him, in 1330 and 1333, as ambassador to the papal court, then in exile
at Avignon. On the first of these visits he made the acquaintance of a
fellow bibliophile in Petrarch, who records his impression (_Epist.
Famil._ lib. iii. Ep. 1) of the Englishman as "not ignorant of
literature and ... from his youth up curious beyond belief of hidden
things." He asked him for information about Thule, but Aungervyle, who
promised information when he should once more be at home among his
books, never sent any answer, in spite of repeated enquiries. The pope,
John XXII., made him his principal chaplain, and presented him with a
rochet in earnest of the first vacant bishopric in England.

During his absence from England he was made (1333) dean of Wells. In
September of the same year the see of Durham fell vacant, and the king
overruled the choice of the monks, who had elected and actually
installed their sub-prior, Robert de Graystanes, in favour of
Aungervyle. In February 1334 he was made lord treasurer, an appointment
he exchanged later in the year for that of lord chancellor. This charge
he resigned in the next year, and, after making arrangements for the
protection of his northern diocese from an expected inroad of the Scots,
he proceeded in July 1336 to France to attempt a settlement of the
claims in dispute between Edward and Philip. In the next year he served
on three commissions for the defence of the northern counties. In June
1338 he was once more sent abroad to secure peace, but within a month of
his appointment Edward himself landed in Flanders to procure allies for
his approaching campaign. Aungervyle accompanied him to Coblenz to his
meeting with the emperor Louis IV., and in the next year was sent to
England to raise money. This seems to have been his last visit to the
continent. In 1340 and 1342 he was again engaged in trying to negotiate
peace with the Scots, but from this time his life appears to have passed
quietly in the care of his diocese and in the accumulation of a library.

He sent far and wide in search of manuscripts, rescuing many treasures
from the charge of ignorant and neglectful monks. "No dearness of
price," he says, "ought to hinder a man from the buying of books, if he
has the money demanded for them, unless it be to withstand the malice of
the seller or to await a more favourable opportunity of buying." It is
to be supposed that Richard de Bury sometimes brought undue pressure to
bear on the owners, for it is recorded that an abbot of St Albans bribed
him to secure his influence for the house by four valuable books, and
that de Bury, who procured certain coveted privileges for the monastery,
bought from him thirty-two other books, for fifty pieces of silver, far
less than their normal price. The record of his passion for books, his
_Philobiblon_, was completed on his fifty-eighth birthday, the 24th of
January 1345, and he died on the 14th of April (May, according to Adam
Murimuth) of that year. He gives an account (chapter viii.) of the
unwearied efforts made by himself and his agents to collect books. In
the eighteenth chapter he records his intention of founding a hall at
Oxford, and in connexion with it a library of which his books were to
form the nucleus. He even details the rules to be observed for the
lending and care of the books, and he had already taken the preliminary
steps for the foundation. The bishop died, however, in great poverty,
and it seems likely that his collection was dispersed immediately after
his death. But the traditional account is that the books were sent to
the Durham Benedictines at Oxford, and that on the dissolution of the
foundation by Henry VIII. they were divided between Duke Humphrey of
Gloucester's library, Balliol College and Dr George Owen. Only two of
the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of
Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological
treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.

The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed
in Wharton's _Anglia Sacra_, 1691, and in _Historiae Dunelmensis
scriptores tres_, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable
and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of
many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards
archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of
Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated
Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de
Kilvington. John Bale[2] and Pits[3] mention other works of his,
_Epistolae Familiares_ and _Orationes ad Principes_. The opening words
of the _Philobiblon_ and the _Epistolae_ as given by Bale represent
those of the _Philobiblon_ and its prologue, so that he apparently made
two books out of one treatise. It is possible that the _Orationes_ may
represent a letter book of Richard de Bury's, entitled _Liber
Epistolaris quondam domini Ricardi de Bury, Episcopi Dunelmensis_, now
in the possession of Lord Harlech. This MS., the contents of which are
fully catalogued in the Fourth Report (1874) of the Historical MSS.
Commission (Appendix, pp. 379-397), contains numerous letters from
various popes, from the king, a correspondence dealing with the affairs
of the university of Oxford, another with the province of Gascony,
beside some harangues and letters evidently kept as models to be used on
various occasions.

It has often been asserted that the _Philobiblon_ itself was not written
by Richard de Bury at all, but by Robert Holkot. This assertion is
supported by the fact that in seven of the extant MSS. of _Philobiblon_
it is ascribed to Holkot in an introductory note, in these or slightly
varying terms: _Incipit prologus in philobiblon ricardi dunelmensis
episcopi que libru composuit Robertus holcote de ordine predicalorum sub
nomine dicti episcopi_. The Paris MS. has simply _Philobiblon olchoti
anglici_, and does not contain the usual concluding note of the date
when the book was completed by Richard. As a great part of the charm of
the book lies in the unconscious record of the collector's own
character, the establishment of Holkot's authorship would materially
alter its value. A notice of Richard de Bury by his contemporary Adam
Murimuth (_Continuatio Chronicarum_, Rolls Series, 1889, p. 171) gives a
less favourable account of him than does William de Chambre, asserting
that he was only moderately learned, but desired to be regarded as a
great scholar.

  The original Latin text was printed at Cologne (1473), Spires (1483),
  Paris (1500), Oxford (1598 and 1599), &c. It was first translated into
  English by J.B. Inglis in 1832, and into French by Hippolyte Cocheris
  in 1856. The best translation is that by Mr E.C. Thomas, accompanying
  the Latin text, with full biographical and bibliographical
  introductions (1888). Other editions are in the _King's Classics_
  (1902) and for the Grolier Club (New York, 1889, ed. A.W. West).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _De Ill. Angl. Script._ (1619, p. 467).

  [2] _Script. Ill. Maj. Brit._ cent. v. No. 69.

  [3] _De Ill. Angl. Script._ (1619, p. 468).



AUNT SALLY, the English name for a game popular at fairs, race-courses
and summer resorts. It consists in throwing hard balls, of wood or
leather-covered yarn, at puppets dressed to represent different
characters, originally a grotesque female figure called "Aunt Sally,"
with the object of smashing a clay pipe which is inserted either in the
mouth or forehead of the puppet. In France the game is popular under the
name _jeu de massacre_. In a variation of the pastime the mark consists
of a living person's head thrust through a hole in a sheet of canvas. In
case of a hit a second shy is allowed, or a small prize is given.



AURA (from the Gr. for "breath" or "breeze"), a term used in old days to
denote a supposed ethereal emanation from a volatile substance; applied
later to the "electrical aura," or air-current caused by electrical
discharge; in epilepsy (q.v.) to one of its premonitory symptoms; and
in spiritualism to a mysterious light associated with the presence of
spirit-forms. See also AUREOLA.



AURANGABAD, or AURUNGABAD, a city of India, in the dominions of the
nizam of Hyderabad, north-west division, situated 138 m. from Poona, 207
from Bombay via Poona, and 270 from Hyderabad on the river Kaum. It
gives its name to a district. It was founded in 1610, under the name of
Fatchnagar, by Malik Ambar, an Abyssinian, who had risen from the
condition of a slave to great influence. Subsequently it became the
capital of the Mogul conquests in the south of India. Aurangzeb, who
erected here a mausoleum to his wife which has been compared to the Taj
at Agra, made the city the seat of his government during his viceroyalty
of the Deccan, and gave it the name of Aurangabad. It thus grew into the
principal city of an extensive province of the same name, stretching
westward to the sea, and comprehending nearly the whole of the territory
now comprised within the northern division of the presidency of Bombay.
Aurangabad long continued to be the capital of the succession of
potentates bearing the modern title of nizam, after those chiefs became
independent of Delhi. They abandoned it subsequently, and transferred
their capital to Hyderabad, when the town at once began to decline.
Aurangabad is a railway station on the Hyderabad-Godavari line, 435 m.
from Bombay. In 1901 the population, with military cantonments, was
36,837, showing an increase of 8% in the decade. It has a cotton mill.

The district of Aurangabad has an area of 6172 sq. m. The population in
1901 was 721,407. It contains the famous caves of Ajanta, and also the
battlefield of Assaye.



AURANGZEB (1618-1707), one of the greatest of the Mogul emperors of
Hindustan, was the third son of Shah Jahan, and was born in November
1618. His original name, Mahommed, was changed by his father, with whom
he was a favourite, into Aurangzeb, meaning ornament of the throne, and
at a later time he assumed the additional titles of Mohi-eddin, reviver
of religion, and Alam-gir, conqueror of the world. At a very early age,
and throughout his whole life, he manifested profound religious feeling
perhaps instilled into him in the course of his education under some of
the strictest Mahommedan doctors. He was employed, while very young, in
some of his father's expeditions into the country beyond the Indus, gave
promise of considerable military talents, and was appointed to the
command of an army directed against the Uzbegs. In this campaign he was
not completely successful, and soon after was transferred to the army
engaged in the Deccan. Here he gained several victories, and in
conjunction with the famous general, Mir Jumla, who had deserted from
the king of Golconda, he seized and plundered the town of Hyderabad,
which belonged to that monarch. His father's express orders prevented
Aurangzeb from following up this success, and, not long after, the
sudden and alarming illness of Shah Jahan turned his thoughts in another
direction. Of Shah Jahan's four sons, the eldest, Dara, a brave and
honourable prince, but disliked by the Mussulmans on account of his
liberality of thought, had a natural right to the throne. Accordingly,
on the illness of his father, he at once seized the reins of government
and established himself at Delhi. The second son, Shuja, governor of
Bengal, a dissolute and sensual prince, was dissatisfied, and raised an
army to dispute the throne with Dara. The keen eye of Aurangzeb saw in
this conjuncture of events a favourable opportunity for realising his
own ambitious schemes. His religious exercises and temperate habits gave
him, in popular estimation, a great superiority over his brothers, but
he was too politic to put forward his claims openly. He made overtures
to his younger brother Murad, governor of Gujarat, representing that
neither of their elder brothers was worthy of the kingdom, that he
himself had no temporal ambition, and desired only to place a fit
monarch on the throne, and then to devote himself to religious exercises
and make the pilgrimage to Mecca. He therefore proposed to unite his
forces to those of Murad, who would thus have no difficulty in making
himself master of the empire while the two elder brothers were divided
by their own strife. Murad was completely deceived by these crafty
representations, and at once accepted the offer. Their united armies
then moved northward. Meanwhile Shah Jahan had recovered, and though
Dara resigned the crown he had seized, the other brothers professed not
to believe in their father's recovery, and still pressed on. Shuja was
defeated by Dara's son, but the imperial forces under Jaswant Singh were
completely routed by the united armies of Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara in
person took the field against his brothers, but was defeated and
compelled to fly. Aurangzeb then, by a clever stroke of policy, seized
the person of his father, and threw him into confinement, in which he
was kept for the remaining eight years of his life. Murad was soon
removed by assassination, and the way being thus cleared, Aurangzeb,
with affected reluctance, ascended the throne in August 1658. He quickly
freed himself from all other competitors for the imperial power. Dara,
who again invaded Gujarat, was defeated and closely pursued, and was
given up by the native chief with whom he had taken refuge. He was
brought up to Delhi, exhibited to the people, and assassinated. Shuja,
who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the
imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son,
who, however, deserted and joined his uncle. Shuja was defeated and fled
to Arakan, where he perished; Mahommed was captured, thrown into the
fortress of Gwalior, and died after seven years' confinement. No similar
contest disturbed Aurangzeb's long reign of forty-six years, which has
been celebrated, though with doubtful justice, as the most brilliant
period of the history of Hindustan. The empire certainly was wealthy and
of enormous extent, for there were successively added to it the rich
kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda, but it was internally decaying and
ready to crumble away before the first vigorous assault. Two causes
principally had tended to weaken the Mogul power. The one was the
intense bigotry and intolerant policy of Aurangzeb, which had alienated
the Hindus and roused the fierce animosity of the haughty Rajputs. The
other was the rise and rapid growth of the Mahratta power. Under their
able leader, Sivaji, these daring freebooters plundered in every
direction, nor could all Aurangzeb's efforts avail to subdue them. For
the last twenty-six years of his life Aurangzeb was engaged in wars in
the Deccan, and never set foot in his own capital. At the close of the
long contest the Mogul power was weaker, the Mahratta stronger than at
first. Still the personal ability and influence of the emperor were
sufficient to keep his realms intact during his own life. His last years
were embittered by remorse, by gloomy forebodings, and by constant
suspicion, for he had always been in the habit of employing a system of
espionage, and only then experienced its evil effects. He died on the
3rd of March 1707 at Ahmadnagar, while engaged on an extensive but
unfortunate expedition against the Mahrattas.

  See Lane-Poole, _Aurangzib_, "Rulers of India" series (1893).



AURAY, a town of France near the mouth of the Auray river, in the
department of Morbihan, 12 m. W. of Vannes on the railway between that
town and Lorient. Pop. (1906) 5241. Its port, which is formed by the
channel of the river and divides the town into two parts, is frequented
by coasting and fishing vessels. The principal buildings are the church
of St Esprit (13th century) now secularized; the Renaissance church of
St Gildas; the town-hall (18th century); and, at a short distance from
the town, the Carthusian monastery, now a deaf and dumb institute, on
the site of the battle of 1364, at which Charles of Blois was defeated
by John of Montfort (see BRITTANY: _History_). Adjoining the Chartreuse
is a small chapel in which are preserved the bones of the Royalists
captured by the Republicans in a battle fought near the spot in 1795. In
the neighbourhood is the church of Sainte Anne d'Auray, one of the
principal places of pilgrimage in Brittany. Auray is one of the chief
centres in France for oyster-breeding, and carries on boat-building and
sardine-fishing.



AURELIA, VIA, an ancient highroad of Italy, the date of the construction
of which is unknown. It ran from Rome to Alsium, where it reached the
sea, and thence along the south-west coast of Italy, perhaps originally
only as far as Cosa, and was later extended to Vada Volaterrana, and in
109 B.C. to Genua and Dertona by means of the Via Aemilia, though a
coast road as far as Genua at least must have existed long before. The
name is applied in the Antonine Itinerary to these extensions, and even
to the prolongation to Aries. Its line is in the main closely followed
by the modern coast highroad; cf., however, for the section between Cosa
and Populonia, O. Cuntz in _Jahreshefte des Öslerr. arch. Instituts_,
vii. (1904), 54.     (T. As.)



AURELIAN [LUCIUS DOMITIUS AURELIANUS], one of the greatest of the Roman
soldier emperors, was born at Sirmium in Pannonia between A.D. 212-214.
He was of humble origin, but nothing definite is known of his family. He
had always shown great enthusiasm for a military career, and so
distinguished himself in the campaigns in which he took part that on one
occasion he received a public vote of thanks. At the same time he was
proclaimed consul elect, and adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, military
governor of Illyria and Thrace. On the death of the emperor Claudius II.
Gothicus (270), Aurelian was proclaimed his successor with the universal
approval of the soldiers. His first task was to continue the war which
had been begun by Claudius against the Goths. He drove them out of
Moesia across the Danube, where he left them in possession of Dacia,
which he did not think himself able to retain; the name was transferred
to Moesia, which was then called Dacia Aureliani. The chronology,
however, of Aurelian's reign is very confused, and the abandonment of
Dacia is placed by some authorities towards its close. He next entered
upon campaigns against the Juthungi, Alamanni, and other Germanic
tribes, over whom, after a severe defeat which was said to have
imperilled the very existence of the empire, he at length obtained a
complete victory. Having thus secured the Rhine and Danube frontiers, he
turned his energies towards the east, and in 271 set out on his
expedition against Zenobia, queen of Palmyra (q.v.). At the same time he
crushed two pretenders to the throne--Firmus and Tetricus. Firmus, a
wealthy merchant of Seleucia, had proclaimed himself emperor of Egypt.
Aurelian, who was at the time in Mesopotamia, hastened thither, and
ordered him to be seized and put to death. Tetricus, who had been
proclaimed emperor in the west after the death of Gallienus, and left
undisturbed by Claudius II., still ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain. A
decisive battle was fought near the modern Châlons, in which Tetricus
was defeated. The restoration of the unity of the empire was thus
complete. In 274 a brilliant triumph, adorned by the persons of Zenobia
and Tetricus, was celebrated at Rome.

Aurelian now turned his attention to the internal affairs of the empire.
He introduced sumptuary laws; relieved the poor by distributions of
bread and meat, proceeded with great severity against informers and
embezzlers; began the construction of various public works and
buildings; and proclaimed a general amnesty for political crimes. The
restoration and enlargement of the walls of Rome, commenced by him, was
not completed till the reign of Probus. An attempt to restore the
standard of the coinage is said to have caused a revolt of the workmen
and officials connected with the mint, which was only put down with the
loss of 7000 soldiers. It has been suggested that this was really an
attempt at revolution incited by the senate and praetorian guards, the
opportunity being found in disturbances resulting from opposition to the
attempted reform, which by themselves could hardly have assumed such
serious proportions. Aurelian's restless spirit was not long able to
endure a life of inaction in the city. Towards the end of 274, he
started on an expedition against the Persians, halting in Thrace by the
way. While on the march between Heracleia and Byzantium, at the
beginning of the following year, he was assassinated through the
treachery of his secretary Eros, who, in order to escape the discovery
of his own irregularities, incited certain officers against the emperor
by showing them a forged list, on which their names appeared as marked
out for death.

Aurelian well deserved the title of restorer of the empire, and it must
be remembered that he lived in an age when severity was absolutely
necessary. He was a great soldier and a rigid but just disciplinarian.
In more favourable circumstances he would have been a great
administrator. He displayed a fondness for pomp and show on public
occasions; he was the first Roman emperor to wear the diadem, and
assumed the title of Lord and God on medals.

  The chief authority for the events of Aurelian's reign is his life by
  Vopiscus, one of the writers of the "Augustan History"; it is founded
  on Greek memoirs and certain journals deposited in the Ulpian library
  at Rome. See L. Homo, _Le Règne de l'empereur Aurélien_ (1904), and
  Groag's art. in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_, v. 1347 foll.



AURELIANUS, CAELIUS, a physician of Sicca in Numidia, who probably
flourished in the 5th century A.D., although some place him two or even
three centuries earlier. In favour of the later date is the nature of
his Latin, which shows a strong tendency to the Romance, and the
similarity of his language to that of Cassius Felix, also an African
medical writer, who about 450 wrote a short treatise, chiefly based on
Galen. We possess a translation by Aurelianus of two works of Soranus of
Ephesus (2nd century), the chief of the "methodist" school of medicine,
on chronic and acute maladies--_Tardae_ or _Chronicae Passiones_, in
five, and _Celeres_ or _Acutae Passiones_ in three books. The
translation, which is especially valuable since the original has been
lost, shows that Soranus possessed considerable practical skill in the
diagnosis of ordinary and even of exceptional diseases. It is also
important as containing numerous references to the methods of earlier
medical authorities. We also possess considerable fragments of his
_Medicinales Responsiones_, also adapted from Soranus, a general
treatise on medicine in the form of question and answer; it deals with
rules of health (_salutaria praecepta_) and the pathology of internal
diseases (ed. Rose, _Anecdota Graeca et Latina_, ii., 1870). Where it is
possible to compare Aurelianus's translation with the original--as in a
fragment of his Gynaecia with Soranus's [Greek: Peri gynaikeion
Pathon]--it is found that it is literal, but abridged. There is
apparently no MS. of the treatises in existence. (Editions: Amman, 1709;
Haller, 1774.)



AURELLE DE PALADINES, LOUIS JEAN BAPTISTE D' (1804-1877), French
general, was born at Malzieu, Lozère, on the 9th of January 1804. He was
educated at St Cyr, and entered the army as sub-lieutenant of foot in
1824. He served with distinction in Algeria between 1841 and 1848,
becoming lieut.-colonel and an officer of the Legion of Honour; took
part in the Roman campaigns of 1848 and 1849, and was made colonel. He
served as general of brigade throughout the Crimean War of 1854-56,
being promoted general of division and commander of the Legion of
Honour. During the campaign in Lombardy in 1859 he commanded at
Marseilles, and superintended the despatch of men and stores to the seat
of war, and for his services he was made a grand officer of the Legion
of Honour. Placed on the reserve list in 1869, he was recalled to the
Marseilles command on the outbreak of the Franco-German War of 1870-71.
After the first capture of Orleans by the Germans, he was appointed by
the Government of National Defence, in November 1870, to the command of
the Army of the Loire. He was at first very successful against von der
Tann-Rathsamhausen, winning the battle of Coulmiers and compelling the
Germans to evacuate Orleans, but the capitulation of Metz had set free
additional German troops to oppose him, and, after his defeat at Beaune
la Rolande and subsequent unsuccessful fighting near Orleans, resulting
in its recapture by the Germans in December, Aurelle retreated into the
Sologne and was superseded. After the armistice he was elected to the
National Assembly by the departments both of Allier and Gironde. He sat
for Allier and was one of the fifteen officers chosen to assist in the
peace negotiations. He was decorated with the grand cross of the Legion
of Honour, and was given the command at Bordeaux, but retired in 1872.
Elected a life senator in 1875, he supported the monarchical majority of
1876. He died at Versailles on the 17th of December 1877. He was the
author of _La Première Armée de la Loire_, published in 1872.



AUREOLA, AUREOLE (diminutive of Lat. _aura_, air), the radiance of
luminous cloud which, in paintings of sacred personages, is represented
as surrounding the whole figure. In the earliest periods of Christian
art this splendour was confined to the figures of the persons of the
Godhead, but it was afterwards extended to the Virgin Mary and to
several of the saints. The aureola, when enveloping the whole body, is
generally oval or elliptical in form, but is occasionally circular or
quatrefoil. When it is merely a luminous disk round the head, it is
called specifically a _nimbus_, while the combination of nimbus and
aureole is called a _glory_. The strict distinction between nimbus and
aureole is not commonly maintained, and the latter term is most
frequently used to denote the radiance round the heads of saints, angels
or persons of the Godhead. The _nimbus_ in Christian art appeared first
in the 5th century, but practically the same device was known still
earlier, though its history is obscure, in non-Christian art. Thus
(though earlier Indian and Bactrian coins do not show it) it is found
with the gods on some of the coins of the Indian kings Kanishka,
Huvishka and Vasudeva, 58 B.C. to A.D. 41 (Gardner's _Cat. of Coins of
Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India_, Brit. Mus. 1886, plates
26-29). And its use has been traced through the Egyptians to the Greeks
and Romans, representations of Trajan (arch of Constantine) and
Antoninus Pius (reverse of a medal) being found with it. In the circular
form it constitutes a natural and even primitive use of the idea of a
crown, modified by an equally simple idea of the emanation of light from
the head of a superior being, or by the meteorological phenomenon of a
halo. The probability is that all later associations with the symbol
refer back to an early astrological origin (cf. MITHRAS), the person so
glorified being identified with the sun and represented in the sun's
image; so the aureole is the _Hvareno_ of Mazdaism. From this early
astrological use the form of "glory" or "nimbus" has been adapted or
inherited under new beliefs.



AURICH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, chief
town of the district of East Friesland, on the Ems-Jade canal, 18 m.
N.W. from Emden by rail. Pop. (1900) 6013. It is built in the Dutch
style, and lies in a sandy but fertile plain, surrounded by pleasant
promenades which have taken the place of the old fortifications. It has
a palace, formerly the residence of the counts of East Friesland and now
used as government offices, a Roman Catholic and two Protestant
churches, a gymnasium, and four libraries. There are breweries and
small manufactories of paper and tobacco. Close by is the
_Upstallsboom_, the hill of oath and liberty, where every year at
Whitsuntide representatives of the seven Frisian coast lands assembled
to deliberate.

  See Wiarda, _Bruchstücke zur Geschichte der Stadt Aurich_ (Emden,
  1835).



AURICLE (from Lat. diminutive of _auris_, ear), the external ear in
animals, or an analogous part in plants, &c. From a supposed resemblance
to the ear of a dog, the term was applied to the upper cavities of the
heart. The adjective "auricular" is more specially used in the phrase
"auricular confession" (see CONFESSION), i.e. private.



AURICULA (_Primula auricula_), an Alpine plant, which has been an inmate
of British gardens for about three hundred years, and is still prized by
florists as a favourite spring flower. It loves a cool soil and shady
situation. The florists' varieties are grown in rich composts, for the
preparation of which numberless receipts have been given; but many of
the old nostrums are now exploded, and a more rational treatment has
taken their place. Thus Mr Douglas writes (_Hardy Florists' Flowers_):--

  "There is no mystery, as some suppose, about the potting, any more
  than there is about the potting material. The compost should consist
  of turfy loam four parts, leaf-mould one part, sharp river or silver
  sand one part, and a few bits of broken charcoal mixed with it. The
  pots to be used should be from 3 to 4½ in. in diameter, inside
  measure; about 1 in. of potsherds should be placed in the bottom of
  each pot, and over this some fibrous turf, from which the fine
  particles of earth have been removed. The old soil should be shaken
  from the roots of the plants to be potted; and before potting cut off,
  if necessary, a portion of the main root. In potting press the soil
  rather firmly around the roots."

Auriculas are best grown in a cold frame mounted on legs about 2 ft.
from the ground, and provided with hinged sashes. A graduated stage
formed of wood battens 6 in. broad, with a rise of 2 in., should be
fixed so as to take each one row of pots, with the plants standing at
about 15 in. from the glass; the spaces between the shelves should be
closed, while the top board of the back and the front should be hinged
so as to be let down when desired for ventilation, the sashes, too,
being movable for the same purpose, and also to afford facilities for
examining and attending to the plants. This frame should face the north
from May to October, and south in winter. No protection will be needed
except in very severe frosts, when two or three thicknesses of garden
mats may be thrown over the glass, and allowed to remain on until the
soil is thawed, should it become frozen.

Auriculas may be propagated from seed, which is to be sown as soon as
ripe, in July or August, in boxes, kept under cover, and exposed only to
the rays of the morning sun. When seed has been saved from the finer
sorts, the operation is one of considerable nicety, as it not
unfrequently happens that the best seedlings are at first exceedingly
weak. They generally flower in the second or third year, a few good
sorts being all that can be expected from a large sowing. The
established varieties are increased by taking off the offshoots, an
operation performed at the time of potting in July or the beginning of
August. But some varieties are very shy in producing offsets.

The original of the auricula is a hardy perennial herb, of dwarf habit,
bearing dull yellowish blossoms. This and the commoner forms raised from
seed, as well as one or two double forms, are interesting hardy border
flowers. The choice florists' varieties are divided into five
classes:--the _green-edged_, with the margins of the flowers green; the
_grey-edged_, with the green margins powdered with meal so as to appear
to be coloured grey; the _white-edged_, with the mealy powder so dense
as to cover the green; the _selfs_, which have none of the green
variegation of margin seen in the foregoing, but are of some distinct
colour, as purple, maroon, &c., but have, like the preceding, a white
paste surrounding the eye; and the _alpines_, which resemble the selfs
in not having any green marginal variegation, but differ in having a
yellow centre more or less dense. The individual flowers of the first
three groups of florists' auriculas show four distinct circles:--first
the eye or tube, which should have the stamens lying in it, but
sometimes has the pin-headed stigma instead, which is a defect; second,
the paste or circle of pure white surrounding the eye; third, the body
colour, a circle of some dark tint, as maroon or violet, which feathers
out more or less towards the edge, but is the more perfect the less it
is so feathered, and is quite faulty if it breaks through to the outer
circle; fourth, the margin, which is green or grey or white. These
circles should be about equal in width and clearly defined, and the
nearer they are to this standard the more perfect is the flower. In the
group of selfs the conditions are the same, except that there is no
margin, and consequently the body colour, which should be uniform in
tone, extends to the edge. In the alpines there should be no paste or
white surrounding the eye, but this space should be either golden-yellow
or creamy-yellow, which makes two subdivisions in this group; and the
body colour is more or less distinctly shaded, the edges being of a
paler hue. There is besides a group of laced alpines, in which a
distinct and regular border of colour surrounds each of the marginal
lobes.

The following is a selection of the best varieties cultivated in 1909:--

  _Green-edged._--Abbé Liszt, Abraham Barker, Shirley Hibberd, Prince
  Charming, Mrs Henwood.

  _Grey-edged._--Amy Robsart, George Lightbody, Marmion, Olympus, George
  Rudd, Richard Headly.

  _White-edged._--Acme, Conservative, Heather Bell, Mrs Dodson, Rachel,
  Smiling Beauty.

  _Selfs._--Andrew Miller, Gerald, Mikado, Mrs Phillips, Mrs Potts,
  Harrison Weir.

  _Alpines._--Argus, Dean Hole, Duke of York, Firefly, Flora Mclvor, Mrs
  Douglas, Mrs Markham, Perfection, Phyllis, Rosy Morn, The Bride,
  Teviotdale.



AURIFABER (the latinized form of Goldschmidt), a surname borne by three
prominent men of the Reformation period in Germany.

1. ANDREAS (1514-1559) was a physician of some repute, but through his
influence with Albert of Brandenburg, last grand-master of the Teutonic
order, and first Protestant duke of Prussia, became an outstanding
figure in the controversy associated with Andreas Osiander (q.v.) whose
daughter he had married.

2. JOANNES (Vratislaviensis; 1517-1568), the younger brother of Andreas,
was born at Breslau on the 30th of January 1517, and educated at
Wittenberg, where he formed a close and lasting friendship with
Melanchthon. After graduating in 1538 he spent twelve years as _docent_
at the university, and having then received his doctorate of divinity,
was appointed professor of divinity and pastor of the church of St
Nicholas at Rostock. He distinguished himself by his conciliatory
disposition, earned the special confidence of Duke John Albert of
Mecklenburg, and took a leading part in 1552 in drawing up the
constitution of the Mecklenburg church. He also settled some religious
disputes in the town of Lübeck. In 1553 Duke Albert of Prussia, anxious
to heal the differences in the Prussian church caused by the discussion
of Osiander's doctrines, invited him to Königsberg, and in the following
year appointed him professor of divinity and president of the Samland
diocese. Joannes, however, found it impossible to conciliate all
parties, and in 1565 returned to Breslau, where, in 1567, he became
pastor in the church of St Elizabeth and inspector of the Lutheran
churches and schools. He died on the 19th of October 1568.

3. JOANNES (Vinariensis; 1519-1575), was born in the county of Mansfeldt
in 1519. He studied at Wittenberg where he heard the lectures of Luther,
and afterwards became tutor to Count Mansfeldt. In the war of 1544-45 he
accompanied the army as field-preacher, and then lived with Luther as
his _famulus_ or private secretary, being present at his death in 1546.
In the following year he spent six months in prison with John Frederick,
elector of Saxony, who had been captured by the emperor, Charles V. He
held for some years the office of court-preacher at Weimar, but owing to
theological disputes was compelled to resign this office in 1561. In
1566 he was appointed to the Lutheran church at Erfurt, and there
remained till his death in November 1575. Besides taking a share in the
first collected or Jena edition of Luther's works (1556), Aurifaber
sought out and published at Eisleben in 1564-1565 several writings not
included in that edition. He also published Luther's _Letters_ (1556,
1565), and _Table Talk_ (1566). This popular work, which has given him
most of his fame, is unfortunately but a second or third hand
compilation.

  See G. Kawerau's art. in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyk. für prot.
  Theologie_, and the literature there cited.



AURIGA (the "charioteer" or "waggoner"), in astronomy, a constellation
of the northern hemisphere, found in the catalogues of Eudoxus (4th
century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.). It was symbolized by the
Greeks as an old man in a more or less sitting posture, with a goat and
her kids in his left hand, and a bridle in his right. The ancient Greeks
associated this constellation with many myths. Some assume it to be
Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the
skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches. Others
assume it to be Myrtilus, a son of Hermes and Clytic, and charioteer to
Oenomaus, who was placed in the heavens by Hermes. Another myth has it
to be Olenus, a son of Hephaestus, and father of Aega and Helice, two
nymphs who nursed Zeus. Ptolemy catalogued fourteen stars, Tycho Brahe
twenty-seven, and Hevelius forty in this constellation. Interesting
stars are: [alpha] _Aurigae_ or _Capella_ (the goat), one of the
brightest stars in the heavens, determined by Newall and Campbell to be
a spectroscopic binary; [beta] _Aurigae_, a star of the second magnitude
also a spectroscopic binary; [epsilon] _Aurigae_, an irregularly
variable star; and _Nova Aurigae_, a "new" star discovered by Anderson
in 1892, and afterwards found on a photographic plate exposed at Harvard
in December 1891. Several fine star clusters also appear in this
constellation.



AURILLAC, a town of central France, capital of the department of Cantal,
140 m. N.N.E. of Toulouse, on the Orléans railway between Figeac and
Murat. Pop. (1906) 14,097. Aurillac stands on the right bank of the
Jordanne, and is dominated from the north-west by the Roc Castanet,
crowned by the castle of St Etienne, the keep of which dates from the
11th century. Its streets are narrow and uninteresting, with the
exception of one which contains, among other old houses, that known as
the Maison des Consuls, a Gothic building of the 16th century, decorated
with sculptured stone-work. Aurillac owes its origin to an abbey founded
in the 9th century by St Géraud, and the abbey-church, rebuilt in the
17th century in the Gothic style, is the chief building in the town. The
former college, which dates from the 17th century, is now occupied by a
museum and a library. There is a statue of Pope Silvester II., born near
Aurillac in 930 and educated in the abbey, which soon afterwards became
one of the most famous schools of France. Aurillac is the seat of a
prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals of first instance
and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycée, training-colleges and a
branch of the Bank of France. The chief manufactures are wooden shoes
and umbrellas, and there is trade in cheese and in the cattle and horses
reared in the neighbourhood.



AURISPA, GIOVANNI (c. 1370-1459), one of the learned Italians of the
15th century, who did so much to promote the revival of the study of
Greek in Italy, was born at Noto in Sicily. In 1418 he visited
Constantinople, where he remained for some years, perfecting his
knowledge of Greek and searching for ancient MSS. His efforts were
rewarded by the acquisition of some 250 MSS., with which he returned to
Venice. Here he is said to have been obliged to pawn his treasures for
50 gold florins to provide for his immediate wants. Cosimo de' Medici,
hearing of his embarrassment, redeemed the MSS. and summoned the owner
to Florence. In 1438, at the council of Basel, Aurispa attracted the
attention of Pope Eugenius IV., who made him his secretary; he held a
similar position under Nicholas V., who presented him to two lucrative
abbacies. He died at Ferrara. Considering his long life and reputation
Aurispa produced little: Latin translations of the commentary of
Hierocles on the golden verses of Pythagoras (1474) and of _Philisci
Consolatoria ad Ciceronem_ from Dio Cassius (not published till 1510);
and, according to Gesner, a translation of the works of Archimedes.
Aurispa's reputation rests upon the extensive collection of MSS. copied
and distributed by him, and his persistent efforts to revive and promote
the study of ancient literature.



AUROCHS (from Lat. _urus_, the wild ox, and "ox") or URUS, the name of
the extinct wild ox of Europe (_Bos taurus primigenius_), which after
the disappearance of that animal became transferred to the bison.
According to the German Freiherr von Herberstein (1486-1566), in his
_Moscovia_, of which an Italian translation was published at Venice in
1550, the aurochs survived in Poland (and probably also in Hungary)
during the latter middle ages. In this work appear woodcuts--rude but
characteristic and unmistakable--of two distinct types of European wild
cattle; one the aurochs, or ur, and the other the bison. As Herberstein
had travelled in Poland, it is probable that he had seen both species
alive, and the drawings were most likely executed under his own
direction. It has indeed been suggested that the figure of the aurochs
was taken from a domesticated ox, but this is a mistaken idea. Not the
least important feature of the work of Herberstein is the application of
the name aurochs to the wild ox, as distinct from the bison. The
locality where aurochs survived in Herberstein's time was the forest of
Jaktozowka, situated about 55 kilometres west-south-west of Warsaw, in
the provinces of Bolemow and Sochaczew. From other evidence it appears
that the last aurochs was killed in this forest in the year 1627.
Herberstein describes the colour of the aurochs as black, and this is
confirmed by another old picture of the animal. Gesner's figure of the
aurochs, or as he calls it "thur," given in the _Icones_ to his _History
of Animals_, was probably adapted from Herberstein's. It may be added
that an ancient gold goblet depicts the hunting and taming of the wild
aurochs.

As a wild animal, then, the aurochs appears to have ceased to exist in
the early part of the 17th century; but as a species it survives, for
the majority of the domesticated breeds of European cattle are its
descendants, all diminished in point of size, and some departing more
widely from the original type than others. Aurochs' calves were in all
probability captured by the early inhabitants of Britain and the
continent and tamed; and from these, with perhaps an occasional blending
of wild blood, are descended most European breeds of cattle.

Much misconception, however, has prevailed as to which breeds are the
nearest to the ancestral wild stock. At one time this position was
supposed to be occupied by the white half-wild cattle of Chillingham and
other British parks. These white breeds are, however, partial albinos;
and such semi-albinos are always the result of domestication and could
not have arisen in the wild state. Moreover, park-cattle display
evidence of their descent from dark-coloured breeds by the retention of
red or black ears and brown or black muzzles. In the Chillingham cattle
the ears are generally red, although sometimes black, and the muzzle is
brown; while in the breed at Cadzow Chase Lanarkshire, both ears and
muzzle are black, and there are usually flecks of black on the head and
forequarters. It is further significant that, in the Chillingham herd,
dark-coloured calves, which are weeded out, make their appearance from
time to time.

A very ancient British breed is the black Pembroke; and when this breed
tends to albinism, the ears and muzzle, and more rarely the fetlocks,
remain completely black, or very dark grey, although the colour
elsewhere is whitish, more or less flecked and blotched with pale grey.
In the shape and curvature of the horns, which at first incline outwards
and forwards, and then bend somewhat upwards and inwards, this breed of
cattle resembles the aurochs and the (by comparison) dwarfed
park-breeds. Moreover, in both the Pembroke and the park-breeds the
horns are light-coloured with black tips.

Evidence as to the affinity between these breeds is afforded by the fact
that a breed of cattle very similar to that at Chillingham was found in
Wales in the 10th century; these cattle being white with red ears.
Individuals of this race survived till at least 1850 in Pembroke, where
they were at one time kept perfectly pure as a part of the regular
farm-stock. Until a period comparatively recent, they were relatively
numerous, and were driven in droves to the pasturages of the Severn and
the neighbouring markets. Their whole essential characters are the same
as those of the cattle at Chillingham. Their horns are white, tipped
with black, and extended and turned upwards in the manner distinctive of
the park-breed. The inside of the ears and the muzzle are black, and the
feet are black to the fetlock joint. The skin is unctuous and of a
deep-toned yellow colour. Individuals of the race were sometimes born
entirely black, and then were not to be distinguished from the common
Pembroke cattle of the mountains.

It is thus evident that park-cattle are an albino offshoot from the
ancient Pembroke black breed, which, from their soft and well-oiled
skins, are evidently natives of a humid climate, such as that of the
forests in which dwelt the wild aurochs. This disposes of a theory that
they are descendants of a white sacrificial breed introduced into
Britain by the ancient Romans.

The Pembroke and park-cattle are, however, by no means the sole
descendants of the aurochs, the black Spanish fighting-bulls claiming a
similar descent. This breed shows a light-coloured line along the spine,
which was characteristic of the aurochs. It has also been suggested that
the Swiss Siemental cattle are nearly related to the aurochs. The latter
was a gigantic animal, especially during the Pleistocene period; the
skulls and limb-bones discovered in the brick-earths and gravels of the
Thames valley and many other parts of England having belonged to animals
that probably stood six feet at the shoulder.     (R. L.*)



AURORA (perhaps through a form _ausosa_ from Sansk. _ush_, to burn; the
common idea of "brightness" suggests a connexion with _aurum_, gold),
the Roman goddess of the dawn, corresponding to the Greek goddess Eos.
According to Hesiod (_Theog_. 271) she was the daughter of the Titan
Hyperion and Thea (or Euryphassa), and sister of Helios and Selene. By
the Titan Astraeus, she was the mother of the winds Zephyrus, Notus and
Boreas, of Hesperus and the stars. Homer represents her as rising every
morning from the couch of Tithonus (by whom she was the mother of
Emathion and Memnon), and drawn out of the east in a chariot by the
horses Lampus and Phaëthon to carry light to gods and men (_Odyssey_,
xxiii. 253); in Homer, she abandons her course when the sun is fully
risen (or at the latest at mid-day, _Iliad_, ix. 66), but in later
literature she accompanies the sun all day and thus becomes the goddess
of the daylight. From the roseate shafts of light which herald the dawn,
she bears in Homer the epithet "rosy-fingered." The conception of a
dawn-goddess is common in primitive religions, especially in the Vedic
mythology, where the deity Usás is closely parallel to the Greco-Roman;
see Paul Regnaud, _Le Rig-Véda_ in _Annales du musée Guimet_, vol. i. c.
6 (Paris, 1892). She is also represented as the lover of the hunter
Orion (_Odyssey_, v. 121), the representative of the constellation that
disappears at the flush of dawn, and the youthful hunter Cephalus, by
whom she was the mother of Phaëthon (Apollodorus iii. 14. 3). In works
of art, Eos is represented as a young woman, fully clothed, walking fast
with a youth in her arms; or rising from the sea in a chariot drawn by
winged horses; sometimes, as the goddess who dispenses the dews of the
morning, she has a pitcher in each hand. In the fresco-painting by Guido
Reni in the Rospigliosi palace at Rome, Aurora is represented strewing
flowers before the chariot of the sun. Metaphorically the word Aurora
was used (e.g. Virg. _Aen_. viii. 686, vii. 606) for the East generally.



AURORA, a city of Kane county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the
state, on the Fox river, about 37 m. W. of Chicago. Pop. (1890) 19,688;
(1900) 24,147, of whom 5075 were foreign-born; (1910) 29,807. Aurora is
served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western,
the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, and the Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota
railways, and is connected with Chicago by an electric line. The city
has a soldiers' memorial hall, erected by popular subscription, and a
Carnegie library. Aurora is an important manufacturing centre; among its
manufactures are railway cars--the shops of the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy railway being here--flour and cotton, carriages, hardware
specialties, corsets, suspenders, stoves and silver-plate. In 1905 the
city's factory products were valued at $7,329,028, an increase of 30% in
5 years. The municipality owns and operates the water-works and
electric-lighting plants. The first settlement in the vicinity of Aurora
was made in 1834. In 1845 the village of East Aurora was incorporated,
and West Aurora was incorporated nine years later. In 1853 the two
villages were united under a city charter, which was superseded by a
revised charter in 1887.



AURORA, a city of Lawrence county, Missouri, U.S.A., 275 m. S.W. of St
Louis, on the St Louis & San Francisco, and the St Louis, Iron Mountain
& Southern railways. Pop.(1890) 3482; (1900) 6191; (1910) 4148. It is
situated near a lead and zinc mining region, where surface lead was
discovered in 1873 and systematic mining began in 1887; among the cities
of the state it is second to Joplin in mineral importance, and has large
iron-works and flour-mills; mining machinery also is manufactured.
Farming and fruit-growing are carried on in the surrounding country, and
Aurora is the place from which the products are shipped. Aurora was
platted in 1870 and was chartered as a city in 1886.



AURORA, a village of Cayuga county, New York, U.S.A., on Cayuga Lake, 16
m. S.W. of Auburn. Pop. (1905) 623; (1910) 493. It is served by the
Lehigh Valley railway. Aurora is a beautiful place and a popular summer
resort, but it is best known as the seat of Wells College, a
non-sectarian college for women, founded in 1868 by Henry Wells
(1805-1878), of the Wells Fargo Express Company, and liberally endowed
by Edwin B. Morgan (1806-1881), also connected with the same company,
and by others. At Aurora are also the Somes school (a preparatory school
for boys), founded in 1798 and until 1904 known as the Cayuga Lake
Academy, and the Wells school (a preparatory school for girls). The
village has a public library. Aurora was settled in 1789 chiefly by
residents of New England, and was incorporated in 1905.



AURORA POLARIS (_Aurora Borealis_ and _Australis_, Polar Light, Northern
Lights), a natural phenomenon which occurs in many forms, some of great
beauty.

1. _Forms._--Various schemes of classification have been proposed, but
none has met with universal acceptance; the following are at least the
principal types. (1) _Arcs._ These most commonly resemble segments of
circles, but are not infrequently elliptical or irregular in outline.
The ends of arcs frequently extend to the horizon, but often one or both
ends stop short of this. Several arcs may be visible at the same time.
Usually the under or concave edge of the arc is the more clearly
defined, and adjacent to it the sky often seems darker than elsewhere.
It is rather a disputed point whether this dark segment--through which
starlight has been seen to pass--represents a real atmospheric condition
or is merely a contrast effect. (2) _Bands._ These may be nearly
straight and regular in outline, as if broken portions of arcs;
frequently they are ribbon-like serpentine forms showing numerous
sinuosities. (3) _Rays._ Frequently an arc or band is visibly composed
of innumerable short rays separated by distinctly less luminous
intervals. These rays are more or less perpendicular to the arc or band;
sometimes they are very approximately parallel to one another, on other
occasions they converge towards a point. Longer rays often show an
independent existence. Not infrequently rays extend from the upper edge
of an arc towards the zenith. Combinations of rays sometimes resemble a
luminous fan, or a series of fans, or part of a hollow luminous
cylinder. Rays often alter suddenly in length, seeming to stretch down
towards the horizon or mount towards the zenith. This accounts for the
description of aurora as "Merry Dancers." (4) _Curtains or Draperies._
This form is rare except in Arctic regions, where it is sometimes fairly
frequent. It is one of the most imposing forms. As a rule the higher
portion is visibly made up of rays, the light tending to become more
continuous towards the lower edge; the combination suggests a connected
whole, like a curtain whose alternate portions are in light and shade.
The curtain often shows several conspicuous folds, and the lower edge
often resembles frilled drapery. At several stations in Greenland
auroral curtains have been observed when passing right overhead to
narrow to a thin luminous streak, exactly as a vertical sheet of light
would seem to do to one passing underneath it. (5) _Corona_. A fully
developed corona is perhaps the finest form of aurora. As the name
implies, there is a sort of crown of light surrounding a comparatively
or wholly dark centre. Farther from the centre the ray structure is
usually prominent. The rays may lie very close together, or may be
widely separated from one another. (6) _Patches_. During some displays,
auroral light appears in irregular areas or patches, which sometimes
bear a very close resemblance to illuminated detached clouds. (7)
_Diffused Aurora_. Sometimes a large part of the sky shows a diffuse
illumination, which, though brighter in some parts than others,
possesses no definite outlines. How far the different forms indicate
real difference in the nature of the phenomenon, and how far they are
determined by the position of the observer, it is difficult to say. Not
infrequently several different forms are visible at the same time.

[Illustration]

2. _Isochasms._--Aurora is seldom observed in low latitudes. In the
southern hemisphere there is comparatively little inhabited land in high
latitudes and observational data are few; thus little is known as to how
the frequency varies with latitude and longitude. Even in the northern
hemisphere there are large areas in the Arctic about which little is
known. H. Fritz (2) has, however, drawn a series of curves which are
believed to give a good general idea of the relative frequency of aurora
throughout the northern hemisphere. Fritz' curves, shown in the
illustration, are termed isochasms, from the Greek word employed by
Aristotle to denote aurora. Points on the same curve are supposed to
have the same average number of auroras in the year, and this average
number is shown adjacent to the curve. Starting from the equator and
travelling northwards we find in the extreme south of Spain an average
of only one aurora in ten years. In the north of France the average
rises to five a year; in the north of Ireland to thirty a year; a little
to the north of the Shetlands to one hundred a year. Between the
Shetlands and Iceland we cross the curve of maximum frequency, and
farther north the frequency diminishes. The curve of maximum frequency
forms a slightly irregular oval, whose centre, the auroral pole, is
according to Fritz at about 81° N. lat., 70° W. long. Isochasms reach a
good deal farther south in America than in Europe. In other words,
auroras are much more numerous in the southern parts of Canada and in
the United States than in the same latitudes of Europe.

3. _Annual Variation._--Table I. shows the annual variation observed in
the frequency of aurora. It has been compiled from several authorities,
especially Joseph Lovering (4) and Sophus Tromholt (5). The monthly
figures denote the percentages of the total number seen in the year. The
stations are arranged in order of latitude. Individual places are first
considered, then a few large areas.

The Godthaab data in Table I. are essentially those given by Prof. A.
Paulsen (6) as observed by Kleinschmidt in the winters of 1865 to 1882,
supplemented by Lovering's data for summer. Starting at the extreme
north, we have a simple period with a well-marked maximum at midwinter,
and no auroras during several months at midsummer. This applies to
Hammerfest, Jakobshavn, Godthaab and the most northern division of
Scandinavia. The next division of Scandinavia shows a transition stage.
To the south of this in Europe the single maximum at mid-winter is
replaced by two maxima, somewhere about the equinoxes.

  4. In considering what is the real significance of the great
  difference apparent in Table I. between higher and middle latitudes, a
  primary consideration is that aurora is seldom seen until the sun is
  some degrees below the horizon. There is no reason to suppose that the
  physical causes whose effects we see as aurora are in existence only
  when aurora is visible. Until means are devised for detecting aurora
  during bright sunshine, our knowledge as to the hour at which these
  causes are most frequently or most powerfully in operation must remain
  incomplete. But it can hardly be doubted that the differences apparent
  in Table I. are largely due to the influence of sunlight. In high
  latitudes for several months in summer it is never dark, and
  consequently a total absence of visible aurora is practically
  inevitable. Some idea of this influence can be derived from figures
  obtained by the Swedish International Expedition of 1882-1883 at Cape
  Thorsden, Spitsbergen, lat. 78° 28' N. (7). The original gives the
  relative frequency of aurora for each degree of depression of the sun
  below the horizon, assuming the effect of twilight to be nil (i.e. the
  relative frequency to be 100) when the depression is 18.5° or more.
  The following are a selection of the figures:--

    Angle of depression  4.5°  7.5°  10.5°  12.5°  15.5°.
    Relative frequency   0.3   9.3   44.9   74.5   95.9.

  These figures are not wholly free from uncertainties, arising from
  true diurnal and annual variations in the frequency, but they give a
  good general idea of the influence of twilight.

  If sunlight and twilight were the sole cause of the apparent annual
  variation, the frequency would have a simple period, with a maximum at
  midwinter and a minimum at midsummer. This is what is actually shown
  by the most northern stations and districts in Table I. When we come,
  however, below 65° lat. in Europe the frequency near the equinoxes
  rises above that at midwinter, and we have a distinct double period,
  with a principal minimum at midsummer and a secondary minimum at
  midwinter. In southern Europe--where, however, auroras are too few to
  give smooth results in a limited number of years--in southern Canada,
  and in the United States, the difference between the winter and summer
  months is much reduced. Whether there is any real difference between
  high and mean latitudes in the annual frequency of the causes rendered
  visible by aurora, it is difficult to say. The Scandinavian data, from
  the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and
  even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the
  excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March
  and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at
  the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight
  and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.

  5. _Fourier Analysis._--With a view to more minute examination, the
  annual frequency can be expressed in Fourier series, whose terms
  represent waves, whose periods are 12, 6, 4, 3, &c. months. This has
  been done by Lovering (4) for thirty-five stations. The nature of the
  results will best be explained by reference to the formula given by
  Lovering as a mean from all the stations considered, viz.:--

    8.33 + 3.03 sin(30t + 100°52') + 2.53 sin(60t + 309° 5')
         + 0.16 sin(90t + 213°31') + 0.56 sin(120t + 162°45')
         + 0.27 sin(150t + 32°38').

  [Illustration: PLATE I.

    FIG. 1--TWO TYPES OF AURORAL ARCS.

    FIG. 2--TWO TYPES OF AURORAL RAYS.

    (From the _Internationale Polarforschung_, 1882-1883, by permission
    of the _Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften_, Vienna.)]

  [Illustration: PLATE II.

    FIG. 3--AURORAL BANDS.

    FIG. 4--AURORAL CURTAIN BELOW AN ARC.

    FIG. 5.--AURORAL CORONA.]


    TABLE I.--_Annual Frequency (Relative)._

    +-----------------+-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |      Place.     | Latitude. | Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May  | June | July | Aug. | Sep. | Oct. | Nov. | Dec. |
    +-----------------+-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
    |                 |     °     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    | Hammerfest      |    70½    | 20.9 | 17.6 |  8.8 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |  4.4 |  9.9 | 17.6 | 20.9 |
    | Jakobshavn      |    69     | 14.6 | 13.0 |  9.2 |  .5  |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |  9.2 | 15.1 | 18.4 | 20.0 |
    | Godthaab        |    64     | 15.5 | 12.4 |  9.7 |  4.9 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  1.2 |  8.7 | 13.3 | 17.0 | 17.4 |
    | St Petersburg   |    60     |  6.5 |  9.1 | 16.8 | 13.8 |  3.5 |  1.2 |  1.4 |  5.9 | 13.8 | 13.1 |  7.6 |  7.3 |
    | Christiania     |    60     |  8.6 | 11.4 | 14.0 | 11.2 |  0.6 |  0   |  0.2 |  6.5 | 14.6 | 12.2 | 10.3 | 10.3 |
    | Upsala          |    60     |  8.4 | 12.9 | 14.9 |  7.4 |  0.7 |  0.2 |  0.4 |  7.1 | 12.4 | 14.3 | 10.7 | 10.7 |
    | Stockholm       |    59     |  7.6 | 10.0 | 14.7 | 16.4    3.8 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  5.6 | 12.9 | 11.4 | 10.0 |  7.3 |
    | Edinburgh       |    56     |  9.6 | 12.6 | 14.0 |  9.5 |  3.4 |  0.0 |  1.7 |  6.0 | 12.6 | 13.5 | 11.8 |  5.2 |
    | Berlin          |    52½    |  7.6 | 10.8 | 16.4 | 15.5 | 11.4 |  0.6 |  2.9 |  2.9 |  6.5 | 13.2 |  8.5 |  4.1 |
    | London          |    51½    |  8.6 | 10.5 | 10.2 | 10.7 |  4.0 |  1.1 |  1.9 |  5.6 | 14.5 | 16.9 |  9.6 |  6.4 |
    | Quebec          |    47     |  3.6 | 14.8 |  8.3 | 14.2 |  4.1 |  5.9 |  7.7 |  5.9 | 11.2 | 12.4 |  7.7 |  4.1 |
    | Toronto         |    43½    |  5.4 |  9.5 |  8.7 | 11.8 |  9.0 |  6.2 |  8.0 |  6.4 |  8.5 | 11.1 |  8.7 |  6.7 |
    | Cambridge, Mass.|    42½    |  5.1 |  8.2 | 11.8 | 10.2 |  6.4 |  5.1 | 10.3 |  8.5 | 13.3 |  9.2 |  6.8 |  5.1 |
    | New Haven, Conn.|    41½    |  7.7 |  7.3 |  8.9 |  8.2 |  7.6 |  5.7 |  8.9 |  8.1 | 11.9 |  7.6 | 10.6 |  7.5 |
    | Scandinavia     | N. of 68½ | 16.4 | 13.8 | 14.8 |  1.6 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  0.4 |  7.8 | 15.1 | 14.4 | 15.7 |
    |      "          | 68½  to 65| 15.3 | 14.6 | 13.7 |  2.9 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  1.1 |  9.7 | 14.6 | 14.0 | 14.1 |
    |      "          | 65 to 61½ | 13.2 | 12.3 | 14.5 |  5.4 |  0.2 |  0.0 |  0.0 |  2.8 | 13.1 | 14.2 | 12.8 | 11.5 |
    |      "          | 61½  to 58|  9.5 | 11.2 | 13.5 | 10.9 |  1.3 |  0.1 |  0.4 |  5.7 | 13.6 | 13.8 | 10.4 |  9.6 |
    |      "          | S. of 58  |  8.2 | 11.9 | 12.6 | 13.3 |  1.5 |  0.1 |  0.6 |  4.9 | 14.9 | 13.5 | 10.3 |  8.2 |
    | New York State  | 45 to 40½ |  6.3 |  7.4 |  9.1 | 11.0 |  7.4 |  6.6 |  8.8 | 10.4 | 11.7 |  9.7 |  6.2 |  5.4 |
    +-----------------+-----------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

  The total number of auroras in the year is taken as 100, and t denotes
  the time, in months, that has elapsed since the middle of January.
  Putting t=0, 1, &c., in succession, we get the percentages of the
  total number of auroras which occur in January, February, and so on.
  The first periodic term has a period of twelve, the second of six
  months, and similarly for the others. The first periodic term is
  largest when t × 30° + 100° 52' = 450°. This makes t = 11.6 months
  after the middle of January, otherwise the 3rd of January,
  approximately. The 6-month term has the earliest of its two equal
  maxima about the 26th of March. These two are much the most important
  of the periodic terms. The angles 100° 52', 309° 5', &c., are known as
  the phase angles of the respective periodic terms, while 3.03, 2.53,
  &c., are the corresponding amplitudes. Table II. gives a selection of
  Lovering's results. The stations are arranged according to latitude.


    TABLE II.

    +----------------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
    |                      | Annual Term. | 6-Month Term.| 4-Month Term.|
    |       Station.       +-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+
    |                      |  Amp. |Phase.|  Amp. |Phase.|  Amp. |Phase.|
    +----------------------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+
    |                      |       |   °  |       |   °  |       |   °  |
    | Jakobshavn           | 10.40 |  123 |  1.13 |  206 |  1.41 |  333 |
    | Godthaab             |  8.21 |  111 |  1.54 |  316 |  0.64 |  335 |
    | St Petersburg        |  2.81 |   96 |  5.99 |  309 |  0.57 |  208 |
    | Christiania          |  4.83 |  116 |  4.99 |  317 |  0.76 |  189 |
    | Upsala               |  5.41 |  119 |  4.57 |  322 |  0.86 |  296 |
    | Stockholm            |  3.68 |   91 |  5.80 |  303 |  1.31 |  180 |
    | Makerstown (Scotland)|  5.79 |  102 |  4.47 |  310 |  2.00 |  342 |
    | Great Britain        |  3.87 |  126 |  4.24 |  287 |  0.40 |   73 |
    | Toronto              |  0.18 |   12 |  2.13 |  260 |  0.52 |  305 |
    | Cambridge, Mass.     |  1.02 |  262 |  2.84 |  339 |  1.28 |  253 |
    | New Haven, Conn.     |  0.99 |  183 |  1.02 |  313 |  0.57 |  197 |
    | New York State       |  1.34 |  264 |  2.29 |  325 |  0.54 |  157 |
    +----------------------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+

  Speaking generally, the annual term diminishes in importance as we
  travel south. North of 55° in Europe its phase angle seems fairly
  constant, not differing very much from the value 110° in Lovering's
  general formula. The 6-month term is small, in the two most northern
  stations, but south of 60° N. lat. it is on the whole the most
  important term. Excluding Jakobshavn, the phase angles in the 6-month
  term vary wonderfully little, and approach the value 309° in
  Lovering's general formula. North of lat. 50° the 4-month term is, as
  a rule, comparatively unimportant, but in the American stations its
  relative importance is increased. The phase angle, however, varies so
  much as to suggest that the term mainly represents local causes or
  observational uncertainties. Lovering's general formula suggests that
  the 4-month term is really less important than the 3-month term, but
  he gives no data for the latter at individual stations.

  6. Sunlight is not the only disturbing cause in estimates of auroral
  frequency. An idea of the disturbing influence of cloud may be derived
  from some interesting results from the Cape Thorsden (7) observations.
  These show how the frequency of visible auroras diminished as cloud
  increased from 0 (sky quite clear) to 10 (sky wholly overcast).

  Grouping the results, we have:

    Amount of cloud        0    1 to 3    4 to 6    7 to 9    10
    Relative frequency   100      82        57        46       8

  Out of a total of 1714 hours during which the sky was wholly overcast
  the Swedish expedition saw auroras on 17, occurring on 14 separate
  days, whereas 226 hours of aurora would have occurred out of an equal
  number of hours with the sky quite clear. The figures being based on
  only one season's observations are somewhat irregular. Smoothing them,
  Carlheim-Gyllensköld gives f = 100' - 7.3c as the most probable linear
  relation between c, the amount of cloud, and f, the frequency,
  assuming the latter to be 100 when there is no cloud.

7. _Diurnal Variation._--The apparent daily period at most stations is
largely determined by the influence of daylight on the visibility. It is
only during winter and in high latitudes that we can hope to ascertain
anything directly as to the real diurnal variation of the causes whose
influence is visible at night as aurora. Table III. gives particulars of
the number of occasions when aurora was seen at each hour of the
twenty-four during three expeditions in high latitudes when a special
outlook was kept.

The data under A refer to Cape Thorsden (78° 28' N. lat., 15° 42' E.
long.), those under B to Jan Mayen (8) (71° 0' N. lat., 8° 28' W.
long.), both for the winter of 1882-1883. The data under C are given by
H. Arctowski (9) for the "Belgica" Expedition in 1898. They may be
regarded as applying approximately to the mean position of the
"Belgica," or 70½° S. lat., 86½° W. long. The method of counting
frequencies was fairly alike, at least in the case of A and B, but in
comparing the different stations the data should be regarded as relative
rather than absolute. The Jan Mayen data refer really to Göttingen mean
time, but this was only twenty-three minutes late on local time. In
calculating the percentages of forenoon and afternoon occurrences half
the entries under noon and midnight were assigned to each half of the
day. Even at Cape Thorsden, the sun at midwinter is only 11° below the
horizon at noon, and its effect on the visibility is thus not wholly
negligible. The influence of daylight is presumably the principal cause
of the difference between the phenomena during November, December and
January at Cape Thorsden and Jan Mayen, for in the equinoctial months
the results from these two stations are closely similar. Whilst daylight
is the principal cause of the diurnal inequality, it is not the only
cause, otherwise there would be as many auroras in the morning
(forenoon) as in the evening (afternoon). The number seen in the evening
is, however, according to Table III., considerably in excess at all
seasons. Taking the whole winter, the percentage seen in the evening was
the same for the "Belgica" as for Jan Mayen, i.e. for practically the
same latitudes South and North. At Cape Thorsden from November to
January there seems a distinct double period, with minima near noon and
midnight. The other months at Cape Thorsden show a single maximum and
minimum, the former before midnight. The same phenomenon appears at Jan
Mayen especially in November, December and January, and it is the normal
state of matters in temperate latitudes, where the frequency is usually
greatest between 8 and 10 P.M. An excess of evening over morning
occurrences is also the rule, and it is not infrequently more pronounced
than in Table III. Thus at Tasiusak (65° 37' N. lat., 37° 33' W. long.)
the Danish Arctic Expedition (10) of 1904 found seventy-five out of
every hundred occurrences to take place before midnight.


  TABLE III.--_Diurnal Variation._

  +-------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------+
  |             |           |           |Feb., Mar.,|Sep. to Mar. (N. Lat.).|
  |    Hour.    |    Dec.   |Nov. & Jan.|Sep. & Oct.|Mar. to Sep. (S. Lat.).|
  |             +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-------+
  |             |  A  |  B  |  A  |  B  |  A  |  B  |   A   |   B   |   C   |
  +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-------+
  |       1     |  14 |   7 |  14 |   8 |  27 |  23 |   55  |   38  |   24  |
  |       2     |  10 |   6 |  15 |   6 |  20 |  25 |   45  |   37  |   23  |
  |       3     |   9 |   4 |  15 |   5 |  15 |  21 |   39  |   30  |   10  |
  |       4     |  10 |   5 |  21 |   7 |  14 |  18 |   45  |   30  |    4  |
  |       5     |  13 |   5 |  20 |   3 |  10 |  10 |   43  |   18  |    2  |
  |       6     |  11 |   3 |  15 |   4 |   2 |   3 |   28  |   10  |    1  |
  |       7     |   9 |   2 |  13 |   3 |   1 |   2 |   23  |    7  |    0  |
  |       8     |   5 |   1 |   6 |   1 |   0 |   0 |   11  |    2  |    0  |
  |       9     |   7 |   2 |   9 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   16  |    2  |    0  |
  |      10     |  10 |   0 |   5 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   15  |    0  |    0  |
  |      11     |   9 |   0 |   6 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   15  |    0  |    0  |
  |     Noon    |  10 |   0 |   4 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   14  |    0  |    0  |
  |       1     |  10 |   0 |   6 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   16  |    0  |    0  |
  |       2     |  14 |   0 |  10 |   0 |   0 |   0 |   24  |    0  |    0  |
  |       3     |  18 |   1 |  20 |   3 |   0 |   0 |   38  |    4  |    0  |
  |       4     |  16 |   7 |  19 |   7 |   1 |   1 |   36  |   15  |    0  |
  |       5     |  12 |  11 |  22 |  10 |   5 |   2 |   39  |   23  |    3  |
  |       6     |  14 |  10 |  21 |  16 |   8 |   5 |   43  |   31  |    3  |
  |       7     |  16 |  13 |  23 |  16 |  20 |   9 |   59  |   38  |   14  |
  |       8     |  15 |  12 |  22 |  18 |  24 |  24 |   61  |   54  |   25  |
  |       9     |  14 |  15 |  18 |  17 |  27 |  28 |   59  |   60  |   31  |
  |      10     |  12 |  15 |  19 |  15 |  31 |  25 |   62  |   55  |   29  |
  |      11     |  10 |  12 |  18 |  17 |  33 |  26 |   61  |   55  |   26  |
  |   Midnight  |   9 |   9 |  13 |  11 |  28 |  22 |   50  |   42  |   26  |
  +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-------+
  | Totals      | 277 | 140 | 354 | 167 | 266 | 244 |  897  |  551  |  221  |
  +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-------+
  |Percentages--|     |     |     |     |     |     |       |       |       |
  | Forenoon    |  42 |  28 |  42 |  25 |  39 |  46 |   41  |   35  |   35  |
  | Afternoon   |  58 |  72 |  58 |  75 |  61 |  54 |   59  |   65  |   65  |
  +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------+-------+-------+

  8. The preceding remarks relate to auroras as a whole; the different
  forms differ considerably in their diurnal variation. Arcs, bands and,
  generally speaking, the more regular and persistent forms, show their
  greatest frequencies earlier in the night than rays or patches. Table
  IV. shows the percentages of e. (evening) and m. (morning) occurrences
  of the principal forms as recorded by the Arctic observers at Cape
  Thorsden, Jan Mayen and Tasiusak.


    TABLE IV.

    +----------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                |   Arcs.   |  Bands.   |   Rays.   |  Patches. |
    +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    |                |  e. |  m. |  e. |  m. |  e. |  m. |  e. |  m. |
    |                +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | Cape Thorsden. |  76 |  24 |  66 |  34 |  52 |  48 |  51 |  49 |
    | Jan Mayen.     |  78 |  22 |  68 |  32 |  60 |  40 |  60 |  40 |
    | Tasiusak       |  85 |  15 |  85 |  15 |  65 |  35 |  62 |  38 |
    +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  At Cape Thorsden diffused auroral light had percentages e. 65, m. 35,
  practically identical with those for bands. At Tasiusak, 8 P.M. was
  the hour of most frequent occurrence for arcs and bands, whereas
  patches had their maximum frequency at 11 P.M. and rays at midnight.

9. _Lunar and other Periods._--The action of moonlight necessarily gives
rise to a true lunar period in the visibility of aurora. The extent to
which it renders aurora invisible depends, however, so much on the
natural brightness of the aurora--which depends on the time and the
place--and on the sharpness of the outlook kept, that it is difficult to
gauge it. Ekholm and Arrhenius (11) claim to have established the
existence of a true tropical lunar period of 27-32 days, and also of a
26-day period, or, as they make it, a 25.929-day period. A 26-day period
has also been derived by J. Liznar (12), after an elaborate allowance
for the disturbing effects of moonlight from the observations in
1882-1883 at Bossekop, Fort Rae and Jan Mayen. Neither of these periods
is universally conceded. The connexion between aurora and earth magnetic
disturbances renders it practically certain that if a 26-day or similar
period exists in the one phenomenon it exists also in the other, and of
the two terrestrial magnetism (q.v.) is probably the element least
affected by external complications, such as the action of moonlight.

10. _Sun-spot Connexion._--The frequency of auroral displays is much
greater in some years than others. At most places the variation in the
frequency has shown a general similarity to that of sun-spots. Table V.
gives contemporaneous data for the frequency of sun-spots and of auroras
seen in Scandinavia. The sun-spot data prior to 1902 are from A.
Wolfer's table in the _Met. Zeitschrift_ for 1902, p. 195; the more
recent data are from his quarterly lists. All are observed frequencies,
derived after Wolf's method; maxima and minima are in heavy type.

The auroral data are from Table E of Tromholt's catalogue (5), with
certain modifications. In Tromholt's yearly data the year commences with
July. This being inconvenient for comparison with sun-spots, use was
made of his monthly values to obtain corresponding data for years
commencing with January. The Tromholt-Schroeter data for Scandinavia as
a whole commenced with 1761; the figures for earlier years were obtained
by multiplying the data for Sweden by 1.356, the factor being derived by
comparing the figures for Sweden alone and for the whole of Scandinavia
from July 1761 to June 1783.

In a general way Table V. warrants the conclusion that years of many
sun-spots are years of many auroras, and years of few sun-spots years of
few auroras; but it does not disclose any very definite relationship
between the two frequencies. The maxima and minima in the two phenomena
in a good many cases are not found in the same years. On the other hand,
there is absolute coincidence in a number of cases, some of them very
striking, as for instance the remarkably low minima of 1810 and 1823.

  11. During the period 1764 to 1872 there have been ten years of
  maximum, and ten of minimum, in sun-spot frequency. Taking the three
  years of greatest frequency at each maximum, and the three years of
  least frequency at each minimum, we get thirty years of many and
  thirty of few sun-spots. Also we can split the period into an earlier
  half, 1764 to 1817, and a later half, 1818 to 1872, containing
  respectively the earlier five and the later five of the above groups
  of sun-spot maximum and minimum years. The annual means derived from
  the whole group, and the two sub-groups, of years of many and few
  sun-spots are as follows:--

    +-----------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
    |                 |     1764-1872.   |    1764-1817.    |    1818-1872.    |
    |    Years of     +--------+---------+--------+---------+--------+---------+
    |                 | Spots. | Auroras.| Spots. | Auroras.| Spots. | Auroras.|
    +-----------------+--------+---------+--------+---------+--------+---------+
    | Many sun-spots. |  93.4  |   99.9  |  86.7  |   70.7  | 100.1  |  129.1  |
    | Few     "       |  13.4  |   61.5  |  13.6  |   51.6  |  13.1  |   71.3  |
    +-----------------+--------+---------+--------+---------+--------+---------+

  In each case the excess of auroras in the group of years of many
  sun-spots is decided, but the results from the two sub-periods do not
  harmonize closely. The mean sun-spot frequency for the group of years
  of few sun-spots is almost exactly the same for the two sub-periods,
  but the auroral frequency for the later group is nearly 40% in excess
  of that for the earlier, and even exceeds the auroral frequency in
  the years of many sun-spots in the earlier sub-period. This
  inconsistency, though startling at first sight, is probably more
  apparent than real. It is almost certainly due in large measure to a
  progressive change in one or both of the units of frequency. In the
  case of sun-spots, A. Schuster (13) has compared J.R. Wolf and A.
  Wolfer's frequencies with data obtained by other observers for areas
  of sun-spots, and his figures show unquestionably that the unit in one
  or other set of data must have varied appreciably from time to time.
  Wolf and Wolfer have, however, aimed persistently at securing a
  definite standard, and there are several reasons for believing that
  the change of unit has been in the auroral rather than the sun-spot
  frequency. R. Rubenson (14), from whom Tromholt derives his data for
  Sweden, seems to accept this view, assigning the apparent increase in
  auroral frequency since 1860 to the institution by the state of
  meteorological stations in 1859, and to the increased interest taken
  in the subject since 1865 by the university of Upsala. The figures
  themselves in Table V. certainly point to this conclusion, unless we
  are prepared to believe that auroras have increased enormously in
  number. If, for instance, we compare the first and the last three
  11-year cycles for which Table V. gives complete data, we obtain as
  yearly means:--

    1749-1781    Sun-spots 56.4   Auroras  77.5
    1844-1876        "     55.8      "    112.2

  The mean sun-spot frequencies in the two periods differ by only 1%,
  but the auroral frequency in the later period is 45% in excess of that
  in the earlier.

  The above figures would be almost conclusive if it were not for the
  conspicuous differences that exist between the mean sun-spot
  frequencies for different 11-year periods. Schuster, who has
  considered the matter very fully, has found evidence of the existence
  of other periods--notably 8.4 and 4.8 years--in addition to the
  recognized period of 11.125 years, and he regards the difference
  between the maxima in successive 11-year periods as due at least
  partly to an overlapping of maxima from the several periodic terms.
  This cannot, however, account for all the fluctuations observed in
  sun-spot frequencies, unless other considerably longer periods exist.
  There has been at least one 33-year period during which the mean value
  of sun-spot frequency has been exceptionally low, and, as we shall
  see, there was a corresponding remarkable scarcity of auroras. The
  period in question may be regarded as extending from 1794 to 1826
  inclusive. Comparing it with the two adjacent periods of thirty-three
  years, we obtain the following for the mean annual frequencies:--

    +-----------------+------------+----------+
    | 33-Year Period. | Sun-spots. | Auroras. |
    +-----------------+------------+----------+
    |    1761-1793    |    65.6    |   76.1   |
    |    1794-1826    |    20.3    |   39.5   |
    |    1827-1859    |    56.1    |   84.4   |
    +-----------------+------------+----------+

  12. The association of high auroral and sun-spot frequencies shown in
  Table V. is not peculiar to Scandinavia. It is shown, for instance, in
  Loomis's auroral data, which are based on observations at a variety of
  European and American stations (_Ency. Brit._ 9th ed. art.
  METEOROLOGY, Table XXVIII.). It does not seem, however, to apply
  universally. Thus at Godthaab we have, according to Adam Paulsen (15),
  comparing 3-year periods of few and many sun-spots:--

    +----------------+----------------+--------------+
    | 3-Year Period. | Total Sun-spot | Total Nights |
    |                |   Frequency.   |  of Aurora.  |
    +----------------+----------------+--------------+
    |   1865-1868    |       48       |     274      |
    |   1869-1872    |      339       |     138      |
    |   1876-1879    |       23       |     273      |
    +----------------+----------------+--------------+

  The years start in the autumn, and 1865-1868 includes the three
  winters of 1865 to '66, '66 to '67, and '67 to '68. Paulsen also gives
  data from two other stations in Greenland, viz. Ivigtut (1869 to 1879)
  and Jakobshavn (1873 to 1879), which show the same phenomenon as at
  Godthaab in a prominent fashion. Greenland lies to the north of
  Fritz's curve of maximum auroral frequency, and the suggestion has
  been made that the zone of maximum frequency expands to the south as
  sun-spots increase, and contracts again as they diminish, the number
  of auroras at a given station increasing or diminishing as the zone of
  maximum frequency approaches to or recedes from it. This theory,
  however, does not seem to fit all the facts and stands in want of
  confirmation.


    TABLE V.

    +-------+----------------------++-------+----------------------+
    |       |      Frequency.      ||       |      Frequency.      |
    | Year. +----------------------++ Year. +----------------------+
    |       | Sun-spot. | Auroral. ||       | Sun-spot. | Auroral. |
    +-------+-----------+----------++-------+-----------+----------+
    | 1749  |   80.9    |    103   || 1829  |   67.0    |     93   |
    | 1750  |   83.4    |    134   || 1830  |   71.0    |    132   |
    | 1751  |   47.7    |     53   || 1831  |   47.8    |     89   |
    | 1752  |   47.8    |    111   || 1832  |   27.5    |     54   |
    | 1753  |   30.7    |     96   || 1833  |    8.5    |     79   |
    | 1754  |   12.2    |     65   || 1834  |   13.2    |     81   |
    | 1755  |    9.6    |     34   || 1835  |   56.9    |     58   |
    | 1756  |   10.2    |     60   || 1836  |  121.5    |     98   |
    | 1757  |   32.4    |     83   || 1837  |  138.3    |    137   |
    | 1758  |   47.6    |     80   || 1838  |  103.2    |    159   |
    | 1759  |   54.0    |    113   || 1839  |   85.8    |    165   |
    | 1760  |   62.9    |     86   || 1840  |   63.2    |     82   |
    | 1761  |   85.9    |    124   || 1841  |   36.8    |     75   |
    | 1762  |   61.2    |    114   || 1842  |   24.2    |     91   |
    | 1763  |   45.1    |     89   || 1843  |   10.7    |     66   |
    | 1764  |   36.4    |    107   || 1844  |   15.0    |     81   |
    | 1765  |   20.9    |     76   || 1845  |   40.1    |     26   |
    | 1766  |   11.4    |     51   || 1846  |   61.5    |     50   |
    | 1767  |   37.8    |     68   || 1847  |   98.5    |     63   |
    | 1768  |   69.8    |     80   || 1848  |  124.3    |    107   |
    | 1769  |  106.1    |     89   || 1849  |   95.9    |    131   |
    | 1770  |  100.8    |     83   || 1850  |   66.5    |     95   |
    | 1771  |   81.6    |     62   || 1851  |   64.5    |     60   |
    | 1772  |   66.5    |     38   || 1852  |   54.2    |     92   |
    | 1773  |   34.8    |     58   || 1853  |   39.0    |     65   |
    | 1774  |   30.6    |     98   || 1854  |   20.6    |     64   |
    | 1775  |    7.0    |     33   || 1855  |    6.7    |     49   |
    | 1776  |   19.8    |     17   || 1856  |    4.3    |     46   |
    | 1777  |   92.5    |     64   || 1857  |   22.8    |     38   |
    | 1778  |  154.4    |     59   || 1858  |   54.8    |     88   |
    | 1779  |  125.9    |     60   || 1859  |   93.8    |    131   |
    | 1780  |   84.8    |     67   || 1860  |   95.7    |    119   |
    | 1781  |   68.1    |    103   || 1861  |   77.2    |    127   |
    | 1782  |   38.5    |     67   || 1862  |   59.1    |    135   |
    | 1783  |   22.8    |     70   || 1863  |   44.0    |    135   |
    | 1784  |   10.2    |     78   || 1864  |   47.0    |    124   |
    | 1785  |   24.1    |     83   || 1865  |   30.5    |    119   |
    | 1786  |   82.9    |    136   || 1866  |   16.3    |    130   |
    | 1787  |  132.0    |    115   || 1867  |    7.3    |    127   |
    | 1788  |  130.9    |     97   || 1868  |   37.3    |    144   |
    | 1789  |  118.1    |     89   || 1869  |   73.9    |    160   |
    | 1790  |   89.9    |     90   || 1870  |  139.1    |    195   |
    | 1791  |   66.6    |     54   || 1871  |  111.2    |    185   |
    | 1792  |   60.0    |     64   || 1872  |  101.7    |    200   |
    | 1793  |   46.9    |     29   || 1873  |   66.3    |    189   |
    | 1794  |   41.0    |     37   || 1874  |   44.7    |    158   |
    | 1795  |   21.3    |     34   || 1875  |   17.1    |    133   |
    | 1796  |   16.0    |     37   || 1876  |   11.3    |    137   |
    | 1797  |    6.4    |     61   || 1877  |   12.3    |    126   |
    | 1798  |    4.1    |     35   || 1878  |    3.4    |    ..    |
    | 1799  |    6.8    |     28   || 1879  |    6.0    |    ..    |
    | 1800  |   14.5    |     30   || 1880  |   32.3    |    ..    |
    | 1801  |   34.0    |     34   || 1881  |   54.3    |    ..    |
    | 1802  |   45.0    |     65   || 1882  |   59.7    |    ..    |
    | 1803  |   43.1    |     73   || 1883  |   63.7    |    ..    |
    | 1804  |   47.5    |    101   || 1884  |   63.5    |    ..    |
    | 1805  |   42.2    |     85   || 1885  |   52.2    |    ..    |
    | 1806  |   28.1    |     62   || 1886  |   25.4    |    ..    |
    | 1807  |   10.1    |     42   || 1887  |   13.1    |    ..    |
    | 1808  |    8.1    |     20   || 1888  |    6.8    |    ..    |
    | 1809  |    2.5    |     20   || 1889  |    6.3    |    ..    |
    | 1810  |    0.0    |      4   || 1890  |    7.1    |    ..    |
    | 1811  |    1.4    |     13   || 1891  |   35.6    |    ..    |
    | 1812  |    5.0    |     11   || 1892  |   73.0    |    ..    |
    | 1813  |   12.2    |     18   || 1893  |   84.9    |    ..    |
    | 1814  |   13.9    |     17   || 1894  |   78.0    |    ..    |
    | 1815  |   35.4    |     10   || 1895  |   64.0    |    ..    |
    | 1816  |   45.8    |     33   || 1896  |   41.8    |    ..    |
    | 1817  |   41.1    |     60   || 1897  |   26.2    |    ..    |
    | 1818  |   30.4    |     74   || 1898  |   26.7    |    ..    |
    | 1819  |   23.9    |     43   || 1899  |   12.1    |    ..    |
    | 1820  |   15.7    |     62   || 1900  |    9.5    |    ..    |
    | 1821  |    6.6    |     37   || 1901  |    2.7    |    ..    |
    | 1822  |    4.0    |     33   || 1902  |    5.0    |    ..    |
    | 1823  |    1.8    |     13   || 1903  |   24.4    |    ..    |
    | 1824  |    8.5    |     14   || 1904  |   42.0    |    ..    |
    | 1825  |   16.6    |     40   || 1905  |   62.8    |    ..    |
    | 1826  |   36.3    |     58   || 1906  |   53.8    |    ..    |
    | 1827  |   49.7    |     79   || 1907  |   62.0    |    ..    |
    | 1828  |   62.5    |     60   || 1908  |   48.5    |    ..    |
    +-------+-----------+----------++-------+-----------+----------+

13. _Auroral Meridian._--It is a common belief that the summit of an
auroral arc is to be looked for in the observer's magnetic meridian. On
any theory it would be rather extraordinary if this were invariably
true. In temperate latitudes auroral arcs are seldom near the zenith,
and there is reason to believe them at very great heights. In high
latitudes the average height is probably less, but the direction in
which the magnetic needle points changes rapidly with change of
latitude and longitude, and has a large diurnal variation. Thus there
must in general be a difference between the observer's magnetic
meridian--answering to the mean position of the magnetic needle at his
station--and the direction the needle would have at a given hour, if
undisturbed by the aurora, at any spot where the phenomena which the
observer sees as aurora exist.

  Very elaborate observations have been made during several Arctic
  expeditions of the azimuths of the summits of auroral arcs. At Cape
  Thorsden (7) in 1882-1883 the mean azimuth derived from 371 arcs was
  24° 12' W., or 11° 27' to the W. of the magnetic meridian. As to the
  azimuths in individual cases, 130 differed from the mean by less than
  10°, 118 by from 10° to 20°, 82 by from 20° to 30°, 21 by from 30° to
  40°, 14 by from 40° to 50°; in six cases the departure exceeded 50°,
  and in one case it exceeded 70°. Also, whilst the mean azimuths
  deduced from the observations between 6 A.M. and noon, between noon
  and 6 P.M., and between 6 P.M. and midnight, were closely alike, their
  united mean being 22.4° W. of N. (or E. of S.), the mean derived from
  the 113 arcs observed between midnight and 6 A.M. was 47.8° W. At Jan
  Mayen (8) in 1882-1883 the mean azimuth of the summit of the arcs was
  28.8° W. of N., thus approaching much more closely to the magnetic
  meridian 29.9° W. As to individual azimuths, 113 lay within 10° of the
  mean, 37 differed by from 10° to 20°, 18 by from 20° to 30°, 6 by from
  30° to 40°, whilst 6 differed by over 40°. Azimuths were also measured
  at Jan Mayen for 338 auroral bands, the mean being 22.0° W., or 7.9°
  to the east of the magnetic meridian. Combining the results from arcs
  and bands, Carlheim-Gyllensköld gives the "anomaly" of the auroral
  meridian at Jan Mayen as 5.7° E. At the British Polar station of 1882,
  Fort Rae (62° 23' N. lat., 115° 44' W. long.), he makes it 15.7° W. At
  Godthaab in 1882-1883 the auroral anomaly was, according to Paulsen,
  15.5° E., the magnetic meridian lying 57.6° W. of the astronomical.

14. _Auroral Zenith._--Another auroral direction having apparently a
close relation to terrestrial magnetism is the imaginary line drawn to
the eye of an observer from the centre of the corona--i.e. the point to
which the auroral rays converge. This seems in general to be nearly
coincident with the direction of the dipping needle.

  Thus at Cape Thorsden (7) in 1882-1883 the mean of a considerable
  number of observations made the angle between the two directions only
  1° 7', the magnetic inclination being 80° 35', whilst the coronal
  centre had an altitude of 79° 55' and lay somewhat to the west of the
  magnetic meridian. Even smaller mean values have been found for the
  angle between the auroral and magnetic "zeniths"--as the two
  directions have been called--e.g. 0° 50' at Bossekop (16) in
  1838-1839, and 0° 7' at Treurenberg (17) (79° 55' N. lat., 16° 51' E.
  long.) in 1899-1900.

15. _Relations to Magnetic Storms._--That there is an intimate connexion
between aurora when visible in temperate latitudes and terrestrial
magnetism is hardly open to doubt. A bright aurora visible over a large
part of Europe seems always accompanied by a magnetic storm and earth
currents, and the largest magnetic storms and the most conspicuous
auroral displays have occurred simultaneously. Noteworthy examples are
afforded by the auroras and magnetic storms of August 28-29 and
September 1-2, 1859; February 4, 1872; February 13-14 and August 12,
1892; September 9, 1898; and October 31, 1903. On some of these
occasions aurora was brilliant in both the northern and southern
hemispheres, whilst magnetic disturbances were experienced the whole
world over. In high latitudes, however, where both auroras and magnetic
storms are most numerous, the connexion between them is much less
uniform. Arctic observers, both Danish and British, have repeatedly
reported displays of aurora unaccompanied by any special magnetic
disturbance. This has been more especially the case when the auroral
light has been of a diffused character, showing only minor variability.
When there has been much apparent movement, and brilliant changes of
colour in the aurora, magnetic disturbance has nearly always accompanied
it. In the Arctic, auroral displays seem sometimes to be very local, and
this may be the explanation. On the other hand, Arctic observers have
reported an apparent connexion of a particularly definite character.
According to Paulsen (18), during the Ryder expedition in 1891-1892, the
following phenomenon was seen at least twenty times by Lieut. Vedel at
Scoresby Sound (70° 27' N. lat., 26° 10' W. long.). An auroral curtain
travelling with considerable velocity would approach from the south,
pass right overhead and retire to the north. As the curtain approached,
the compass needle always deviated to the west, oscillated as the
curtain passed the zenith, and then deviated to the east. The behaviour
of the needle, as Paulsen points out, is exactly what it should be if
the space occupied by the auroral curtain were traversed by electric
currents directed upwards from the ground. The Danish observers at
Tasiusak (10) in 1898-1899 observed this phenomenon occasionally in a
slightly altered form. At Tasiusak the auroral curtain after reaching
the zenith usually retired in the direction from which it had come. The
direction in which the compass needle deviated was west or east,
according as the curtain approached from the south or the north; as the
curtain retired the deviation eventually diminished.

  Kr. Birkeland (19). who has made a special study of magnetic
  disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they
  arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence
  attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents,
  asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were
  insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean
  line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc,
  he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.

16. In the northern hemisphere to the south of the zone of greatest
frequency, the part of the sky in which aurora most generally appears is
the magnetic north. In higher latitudes auroras are most often seen in
the south. The relative frequency in the two positions seems to vary
with the hour, the type of aurora, probably with the season of the year,
and possibly with the position of the year in the sun-spot cycle.

  At Jan Mayen (8) in 1882-1883, out of 177 arcs whose position was
  accurately determined, 44 were seen in the north, their summits
  averaging 38.5° above the northern horizon; 88 were seen in the south,
  their average altitude above the southern horizon being 33.5°; while
  45 were in the zenith. At Tasiusak (10) in 1898-1899 the magnetic
  directions of the principal types were noted separately. The results
  are given in Table VI.


  TABLE VI.

  +--------+----------------------------------------------+------------+
  | Direc- |        Absolute Number for each Type.        | Percentage |
  |  tion. +-------+--------+-----------+-------+---------+  from all  |
  |        | Arcs. | Bands. | Curtains. | Rays. | Patches.|   Types.   |
  +--------+-------+--------+-----------+-------+---------+------------+
  |   N.   |   9   |   16   |     5     |  15   |    4    |     10     |
  |  N.E.  |   9   |   13   |     2     |  20   |    4    |      9     |
  |   E.   |   3   |   11   |     2     |  26   |    3    |      9     |
  |  S.E.  |   5   |    6   |     1     |  10   |    7    |      6     |
  |   S.   |  45   |   43   |     1     |  16   |   15    |     24     |
  |  S.W.  |   9   |    9   |     2     |  12   |   13    |      9     |
  |   W.   |   3   |   11   |     2     |  22   |    6    |      9     |
  |  N.W.  |   2   |    8   |     2     |   8   |    5    |      5     |
  +--------+-------+--------+-----------+-------+---------+------------+

Table VI. accounts for only 81% of the total displays; of the remainder
15% appeared in the zenith, while 4% covered the whole sky. Auroral
displays generally cover a considerable area, and are constantly
changing, so the figures are necessarily somewhat rough. But clearly,
whilst the arcs and bands, and to a lesser extent the patches, showed a
marked preference for the magnetic meridian, the rays showed no such
preference.

  At Cape Thorsden (7) in 1882-1883 auroras as a whole were divided into
  those seen in the north and those seen in the south. The variation
  throughout the twenty-four hours in the percentage seen in the south
  was as follows:--

    +--------+------+------+------+-------+
    |  Hour. | 0-3. | 3-6. | 6-9. | 9-12. |
    +--------+------+------+------+-------+
    |  A.M.  |  69  |  55  |  44  |   35  |
    |  P.M.  |  55  |  70  |  65  |   65  |
    +--------+------+------+------+-------+

  The mean from the whole twenty-four hours is sixty-three. Between 3
  A.M. and 3 P.M. the percentage of auroras seen in the south thus
  appears decidedly below the mean.

  17. The following data for the apparent angular width of arcs were
  obtained at Cape Thorsden, the arcs being grouped according to the
  height of the lower edge above the horizon. Group I. contained thirty
  arcs whose altitudes did not exceed 11° 45'; Group II. thirty arcs
  whose altitudes lay between 12° and 35°; and Group III, thirty arcs
  whose altitudes lay between 36° and 80°.

    +-----------------+--------+--------+----------+
    |      Group.     |   I.   |   II.  |   III.   |
    +-----------------+--------+--------+----------+
    | Greatest width  | 11.5°  | 12.0°  |   21.0°  |
    | Least      "    |  1.0°  |  0.75° |    2.0°  |
    | Mean       "    |  3.45° |  4.6°  |    6.9°  |
    +-----------------+--------+--------+----------+

  There is here a distinct tendency for the width to increase with the
  altitude. At the same time, arcs near the horizon often appeared wider
  than others near the zenith. Furthermore, Gyllensköld says that when
  arcs mounted, as they not infrequently did, from the horizon, their
  apparent width might go on increasing right up to the zenith, or it
  might increase until an altitude of about 45° was reached and then
  diminish, appearing much reduced when the zenith was reached. Of
  course the phenomenon might be due to actual change in the arc, but it
  is at least consistent with the view that arcs are of two kinds, one
  form constituting a layer of no great vertical depth but considerable
  real horizontal width, the other form having little horizontal width
  but considerable vertical depth, and resembling to some extent an
  auroral curtain.

  18. According to numerous observations made at Cape Thorsden, the
  apparent angular velocity of arcs increases on the average with their
  altitude. Dividing the whole number of arcs, 156, whose angular
  velocities were measured into three numerically equal groups,
  according to their altitude, the following were the results in minutes
  of arc per second of time (or degrees per minute of time):--

    +-------------------+-------+--------+--------+------+
    |      Group.       |   I.  |   II.  |  III.  | All. |
    +-------------------+-------+--------+--------+------+
    | Mean altitude     | 10.5° | 34.6°  |  72.3° |  ..  |
    | Greatest velocity |  4.81 |  15.12 | 109.09 |  ..  |
    | Mean velocity     |  0.48 |  2.42  |   8.67 | 3.86 |
    +-------------------+-------+--------+--------+------+

  Each group contained auroras which appeared stationary. The intervals
  to which the velocities referred were usually from five to ten
  minutes, but varied widely. The velocity 109.09 was much the largest
  observed, the next being 52.38; both were from observations lasting
  under half a minute.

  19. In 1882-1883 the direction of motion of arcs was from north to
  south in 62% of the cases at Jan Mayen, and in 58% of the cases at
  Cape Thorsden. This seems the more common direction in the northern
  hemisphere, at least for stations to the south of the zone of maximum
  frequency, but a considerable preponderance of movements towards the
  north was observed in Franz Joseph Land by the Austrian Expedition of
  1872-1874. The apparent motion of arcs is sometimes of a complicated
  character. One end only, for example, may appear to move, as if
  rotating round the other; or the two ends may move in opposite
  directions, as if the arc were rotating about a vertical axis through
  its summit.

20. _Height._--If an auroral arc represented a definite self-luminous
portion of space of small transverse dimensions at a uniform height
above the ground, its height could be accurately determined by
observations made with theodolites at the two ends of a measured base,
provided the base were not too short compared to the height. If a very
long base is taken, it becomes increasingly open to doubt whether the
portions of space emitting auroral light to the observers at the two
ends are the same. There is also difficulty in ensuring that the
observations shall be simultaneous, an important matter especially when
the apparent velocity is considerable. If the base is short, definite
results can hardly be hoped for unless the height is very moderate.
Amongst the best-known theodolite determinations of height are those
made at Bossekop in Norway by the French Expedition of 1838-1839 (16)
and the Norwegian Expedition of 1882-1883, and those made in the latter
year by the Swedes at Cape Thorsden and the Danes at Godthaab. At
Bossekop and Cape Thorsden there were a considerable proportion of
negative or impossible parallaxes. Much the most consistent results were
those obtained at Godthaab by Paulsen (15). The base was 5.8 km. (about
3½ miles) long, the ends being in the same magnetic meridian, on
opposite sides of a fiord, and observations were confined to this
meridian, strict simultaneity being secured by signals. Heights were
calculated only when the observed parallax exceeded 1°, but this
happened in three-fourths of the cases. The calculated heights--all
referring to the lowest border of the aurora--varied from 0.6 to 67.8
km. (about 0.4 to 42 m.), the average being about 20 km. (12 m.).
Regular arcs were selected in most cases, but the lowest height obtained
was for a collection of rays forming a curtain which was actually
situated between the two stations.

  In 1885 Messrs Garde and Eherlin made similar observations at
  Nanortalik near Cape Farewell in Greenland, but using a base of only
  1250 metres (about ¾ m.). Their results were very similar to
  Paulsen's. On one occasion twelve observations, extending over half an
  hour, were made on a single arc, the calculated heights varying in a
  fairly regular fashion from 1.6 to 12.9 km. (about 1 to 8 m.). The
  calculated horizontal distances of this arc varied between 5 and 24
  km. (about 3 and 15 m.), the motion being sometimes towards, sometimes
  away from the observers, but not apparently exceeding 3 km. (nearly 2
  m.) per minute. Heights of arcs have often been calculated from the
  apparent altitudes at stations widely apart in Europe or America. The
  heights calculated in this way for the under surface of the arc, have
  usually exceeded 100 m.; some have been much in excess of this figure.
  None of the results so obtained can be accepted without reserve, but
  there are several reasons for believing that the average height in
  Greenland is much below that in lower latitudes. Heights have been
  calculated in various less direct ways, by observing for instance the
  angular altitude of the summit of an arc and the angular interval
  between its extremities, and then making some assumption such as that
  the portion visible to an observer may be treated as a circle whose
  centre lies over the so-called auroral pole. The mean height
  calculated at Arctic stations, where careful observations have been
  made, in this or analogous ways, has varied from 58 km. (about 36 m.)
  at Cape Thorsden (Gyllensköld) to 227 km. (about 141 m.) at Bossekop
  (Bravais). The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that
  auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar
  to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges
  pass in vacuum tubes. Estimates on this basis have suggested heights
  of the order of 50 km. (about 31 m.). There are, of course, many
  uncertainties, as the conditions of discharge in the free atmosphere
  may differ widely from those in glass vessels. If the Godthaab
  observations can be trusted, auroral discharges must often occur
  within a few miles of the earth's surface in Arctic regions. In
  confirmation of this view reference may be made to a number of
  instances where observers--e.g. General Sabine, Sir John Franklin,
  Prof. Selim Lemström, Dr David Walker (at Fort Kennedy in 1858-1859),
  Captain Parry (Fort Bowen, 1825) and others--have seen aurora below
  the clouds or between themselves and mountains. One or two instances
  of this kind have even been described in Scotland. Prof. Cleveland
  Abbe (20) has given a full historical account of the subject to which
  reference may be made for further details.

  21. _Brightness._--In auroral displays the brightness often varies
  greatly over the illuminated area and changes rapidly. Estimates of
  the intensity of the light have been based on various arbitrary
  scales, such for instance as the size of type which the observer can
  read at a given distance. The estimate depends in the case of reading
  type on the general illumination. In other cases scales have been
  employed which make the result mainly depend on the brightest part of
  the display. At Jan Mayen (8) in 1882-1883 a scale was employed
  running from 1, taken as corresponding to the brightness of the milky
  way, to 4, corresponding to full moonlight. The following is an
  analysis of the results obtained, showing the number of times the
  different grades were reached:--

    +------------+------+------+------+------+------------+
    |  Scale of  |  1.  |  2.  |  3.  |  4.  |    Mean    |
    | Intensity. |      |      |      |      | Intensity. |
    +------------+------+------+------+------+------------+
    | Arcs       |  27  |  53  |  13  |   1  |    1.87    |
    | Bands      |  46  |  83  |  49  |  22  |    2.24    |
    | Rays       |  30  | 116  | 138  |  28  |    2.21    |
    | Corona     |   3  |  14  |  12  |  12  |    2.81    |
    +------------+------+------+------+------+------------+

  On one or two occasions at Jan Mayen auroral light is described as
  making the full moon look like an ordinary gas jet in presence of
  electric light, whilst rays could be seen crossing and brighter than
  the moon's disk. Such extremely bright auroras seem very rare,
  however, even in the Arctic. There is a general tendency for both
  bands and rays to appear brightest at their lowest parts; arcs seldom
  appear as bright at their summits as nearer the horizon. It is not
  unusual for arcs and bands to look as if pulses or waves of light were
  travelling along them; also the direction in which these pulses travel
  does not seem to be wholly arbitrary. Movements to the east were twice
  as numerous at Jan Mayen and thrice as numerous at Traurenberg as
  movements to the west. In some cases changes of intensity take place
  round the auroral zenith, simulating the effect that would be produced
  by a cyclonic rotation of luminous matter. In the case of isolated
  patches the intensity often waxes and wanes as if a search-light were
  being thrown on and turned off.

22. _Colour._--The ordinary colour of aurora is white, usually with a
distinct yellow tint in the brighter forms, but silvery white when the
light is faint. When the light is intense and changing rapidly, red is
not infrequently present, especially towards the lower edge. Under these
circumstances, green is also sometimes visible, especially towards the
zenith. Thus a bright auroral ray may seem red towards the foot and
green at its summit, with yellow intervening. In some cases the green
may be only a contrast effect. Other colours, e.g. violet, have
occasionally been noticed but are unusual.

23. _Spectrum._--The spectrum of aurora consists of a number of lines.
Numerous measurements have been made of the wave-lengths of the
brightest. One line, in the yellow green, is so dominant optically as
often to be described as the auroral line. Its wave-length is probably
very near 5571 tenth-metres, and it is very close to, if not absolutely
coincident with, a prominent line in the spectrum of krypton. This line
is so characteristic that its presence or absence is the usual criterion
for deciding whether an atmospheric light is aurora. The Swedish
Expedition (17) of 1899-1902, engaged in measuring an arc of the meridian
in Spitsbergen, were unusually well provided spectrographically, and
succeeded in taking photographs of aurora in conjunction with artificial
lines--chiefly of hydrogen--which led to results claiming exceptional
accuracy. In the spectrograms three auroral rays--including the principal
one mentioned above--were pre-eminent. For the two shorter wave-lengths,
for whose measurement he claims the highest precision, the observer, J.
Westman, gives the values 4276.4 and 3913.5. In addition, he assigns
wave-lengths for 156 other auroral lines between wave-lengths 5205 and
3513. The following table gives the wave-lengths of the photographically
brightest of these, retaining four significant figures in place of
Westman's five.


  TABLE VII.

  +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
  |  4830  |  4489  |  4329  |  3997  |  3861  |
  |  4709  |  4420  |  4242  |  3986  |  3804  |
  |  4699  |  4371  |  4230  |  3947  |  3793  |
  |  4661  |  4356  |  4225  |  3937  |  3704  |
  |  4560  |  4344  |  4078  |  3880  |  3607  |
  |  4550  |  4337  |  4067  |  3876  |  3589  |
  +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+

There are a number of optically bright lines of longer wave-length. For
the principal of these Angot (1) gives the following wave-lengths (unit
1 µµ or 1 × 10^(-9) metre):--630, 578, 566, 535, 523, 500.

Out of a total of 146 auroral lines, with wave-lengths longer than 3684
tenth-metres, Westman identifies 82 with oxygen or nitrogen lines at the
negative pole in vacuum discharges. Amongst the lines thus identified
are the two principal auroral lines having wave-lengths 4276.4 and
3913.5. The interval considered by Westman contains at least 300 oxygen
and nitrogen lines, so that approximate coincidence with a number of
auroral lines was almost inevitable, and an appreciable number of the
coincidences may be accidental. E.C.C. Baly (21), making use of the
observations of the Russian expedition in Spitsbergen in 1899, accepts
as the wave-lengths of the three principal auroral lines 5570, 4276 and
3912; and he identifies all three and ten other auroral lines ranging
between 5570 and 3707 with krypton lines measured by himself. In
addition to these, he mentions other auroral lines as very probably
krypton lines, but in their case the wave-lengths which he quotes from
Paulsen (22) are given to only three significant figures, so that the
identification is more uncertain. The majority of the krypton lines
which Baly identifies with auroral lines require for their production a
Leyden jar and spark gap.

  If, as is now generally believed, aurora represents some form of
  electrical discharge, it is only reasonable to suppose that the
  auroral lines arise from atmospheric gases. The conditions, however,
  as regards pressure and temperature under which the hypothetical
  discharges take place must vary greatly in different auroras, or even
  sometimes in different parts of the same aurora. Further, auroras are
  often possessed of rapid motion, so that conceivably spectral lines
  may receive small displacements in accordance with Doppler's
  principle. Thus the differences in the wave-lengths of presumably the
  same lines as measured by different Arctic observers may be only
  partly due to unfavourable observational conditions. Many of the
  auroral lines seen in any single aurora are exceedingly faint, so that
  even their relative positions are difficult to settle with high
  precision.

  24. Whether or not auroral displays are ever accompanied by a
  characteristic sound is a disputed question. If sound waves originate
  at the seat of auroral displays they seem hardly likely to be audible
  on the earth, unless the aurora comes very low and great stillness
  prevails. It is thus to the Arctic one looks for evidence. According
  to Captain H.P. Dawson (26), in charge of the British Polar Station at
  Fort Rae in 1882-1883, "The Indians and _voyageurs_ of the Hudson Bay
  Company, who often pass their nights in the open, say that it [sound]
  is not uncommon ... there can be no doubt that distinct sound does
  occasionally accompany certain displays of aurora." On the one
  occasion when Captain Dawson says he heard it himself, "the sound was
  like the swishing of a whip or the noise produced by a sharp squall of
  wind in the upper rigging of a ship, and as the aurora brightened and
  faded so did the sound which accompanied it." If under these
  conditions the sound was really due to the aurora, the latter, as
  Captain Dawson himself remarks, must have been pretty close.

  25. Usually the electric potential near the ground is positive
  compared to the earth and increases with the height (see ATMOSPHERIC
  ELECTRICITY). Several Arctic observers, however, especially Paulsen
  (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a
  change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except
  the presence of a bright aurora. Other Arctic observers have failed to
  find any trace of this phenomenon. If it exists, it is presumably
  confined to cases when the auroral discharge comes unusually low.

  26. _Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora._--At Sodankylä, the
  station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim
  Lemström and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical
  phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora. A
  number of metallic points, supported on insulators, were connected by
  wires enclosing several hundred square metres on the top of a hill.
  Sometimes a Holtz machine was employed, but even without it
  illumination resembling aurora was seen on several occasions,
  extending apparently to a considerable height. In the laboratory, Kr.
  Birkeland (19) has produced phenomena bearing a striking resemblance
  to several forms of aurora. His apparatus consists of a vacuum vessel
  containing a magnetic sphere--intended to represent the earth--and the
  phenomena are produced by sending electric discharges through the
  vessel.

  27. _Theories._--A great variety of theories have been advanced to
  account for aurora. All or nearly all the most recent regard it as
  some form of electrical discharge. Birkeland (19) supposes the
  ultimate cause to be cathode rays emanating from the sun; C. Nordmann
  (24) replaces the cathode rays by Hertzian waves; while Svante
  Arrhenius (25) believes that negatively charged particles are driven
  through the sun's atmosphere by the Maxwell-Bartoli repulsion of light
  and reach the earth's atmosphere. For the size and density of
  particles which he considers most likely, Arrhenius calculates the
  time required to travel from the sun as forty-six hours. By modifying
  the hypothesis as to the size and density, times appreciably longer or
  shorter than the above would be obtained. Cathode rays usually have a
  velocity about a tenth that of light, but in exceptional cases it may
  approach a third of that of light. Hertzian waves have the velocity of
  light itself. On either Birkeland's or Nordmann's theory, the electric
  impulse from the sun acts indirectly by creating secondary cathode
  rays in the earth's atmosphere, or ionizing it so that discharges due
  to natural differences of potential are immensely facilitated. The
  ionized condition must be supposed to last to a greater or less extent
  for a good many hours to account for aurora being seen throughout the
  whole night. The fact that at most places the morning shows a marked
  decay of auroral frequency and intensity as compared to the evening,
  the maximum preceding midnight by several hours, is certainly
  favourable to theories which postulate ionization of the atmosphere by
  some cause or other emanating from the sun.

  AUTHORITIES.--The following works are numbered according to the
  references in the text:--(1) A. Angot, _Les Aurores polaires_ (Paris,
  1895); (2) H. Fritz, _Das Polarlicht_ (Leipzig, 1881); (3) Svante
  August Arrhenius, _Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik_; (4) Joseph
  Lovering, "On the Periodicity of the Aurora Borealis," _Mem. American
  Acad._ vol. x. (1868); (5) Sophus Tromholt, _Catalog der in Norwegen
  bis Juni 1878 beobachteten Nordlichter_; (6) _Observations
  internationales polaires_ (1882-1883), _Expédition Danoise_, tome i.
  "Aurores boréales"; (7) Carlheim-Gyllensköld, "Aurores boréales" in
  _Observations faites au Cap Thorsden Spitzberg par l'expédition
  suédoise_, tome ii. 1; (8) "Die Österreichische Polar Station Jan
  Mayen" in _Die Internationale Polarforschung_, 1882-1883, Bd. ii.
  Abth. 1; (9) Henryk Arctowski, "Aurores australes" in _Expédition
  antarctique belge ... Voyage du S. Y. "Belgica"_; (10) G.C. Amdrup,
  _Observations ... faites par l'expédition danoise_; H. Ravn,
  _Observations de l'aurore boréale de Tasiusak_; (11) _K. Sven.
  Vet.-Akad. Hand_. Bd. 31, Nos. 2, 3, &c.; (12) _Sitz. d. k. Akad. d.
  Wiss._ (Vienna), Math. Naturw. Classe, Bd. xcvii. Abth. iia, 1888;
  (13) _Proc. Roy. Soc._, 1906, lxxvii. A, 141; (14) _Kongl. Sven.
  Vet.-Akad. Hand._ Bd. 15, No. 5, Bd. 18, No. 1; (15) _Bull. Acad. Roy.
  Danoise_, 1889, p. 67; (16) _Voyages ... pendant les années 1838, 1839
  et 1840 sur ... la Recherche_, "Aurores boréales," by MM. Lottin,
  Bravais, &c.; (17) _Missions scientifiques ... au Spitzberg ... en
  1899-1902, Mission suédoise_, tome ii. VIII^e Section, C. "Aurores
  boréales"; (18) _Bull. Acad. R. des Sciences de Danemark_, 1894, p.
  148; (19) Kr. Birkeland, _Expédition norvégienne 1899-1900 pour
  l'étude des aurores boréales_ (Christiania, 1901); (20) _Terrestrial
  Magnetism_, vol. iii. (1898), pp. 5, 53, 149; (21) _Astrophysical
  Journal_, 1904, xix. p. 187; (22) _Rapports présentés au Congrès
  International de Physique réuni à Paris_, 1900, iii. 438; (23)
  _Expédition polaire finlandaise_ (1882-1884), tome iii.; (24) Charles
  Nordmann, _Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris_
  (1903); (25) _Terrestrial Magnetism_, vol. 10, 1905, p. 1; (26)
  _Observations of the International Polar Expeditions 1882-1883 Fort
  Rae_ ... by Capt. H.P. Dawson, R.A.     (C. Ch.)



AURUNCI, the name given by the Romans to a tribe which in historical
times occupied only a strip of coast on either side of the Mons Massicus
between the Volturnus and the Liris, although it must at an earlier
period have extended over a considerably wider area. Their own name for
themselves in the 4th century B.C. was _Ausones_, and in Greek writers
we find the name _Ausonia_ applied to Latium and Campania (see Strabo v.
p. 247; Aristotle, _Pol._ iv. (vii.) 10; Dion. Hal. i. 72), while in the
Augustan poets (e.g. Virgil, _Aen._ vii. 795) it is used as one of
many synonyms for Italy. In history the tribe appears only for a brief
space, from 340 to 295 B.C. (Mommsen, _C.I.L._ x. pp. 451, 463, 465),
and their struggle with the Romans ended in complete extermination;
their territory was parcelled out between the Latin colonies of Cales
(Livy viii. 16) and Suessa Aurunca (_id._ ix. 28) which took the place
of an older town called _Ausona_ (_id._ ix. 25; viii. 15), and the
maritime colonies Sinuessa (the older _Vescia_) and Minturnae (both in
295 B.C., Livy x. 21). The coin formerly attributed to Suessa Aurunca on
the strength of its supposed legend _Aurunkud_ has now been certainly
referred to Naples (see R.S. Conway, _Italic Dialects_, 145, and
_Verner's law in Italy_, p. 78, where the change of s to r is
explained as probably due to the Latin conquest). Seeing that the tribe
was blotted out at the beginning of the 3rd century B.C., we can
scarcely wonder that no record of its speech survives; but its
geographical situation and the frequency of the _co_-suffix in that
strip of coast (besides _Aurunci_ itself we have the names _Vescia_,
_Mons Massicus_, _Marica_, _Glanica_ and _Caedicii_; see _Italic
Dialects_, pp. 283 f.) rank them beyond doubt with their neighbours the
Volsci (q.v.).     (R. S. C.)



AUSCULTATION (from Lat. _auscultare_, to listen), a term in medicine,
applied to the method employed by physicians for determining, by the
sense of hearing, the condition of certain internal organs. The ancient
physicians appear to have practised a kind of auscultation, by which
they were able to detect the presence of air or fluids in the cavities
of the chest and abdomen. Still no general application of this method of
investigation was resorted to, or was indeed possible, till the advance
of the study of anatomy led to correct ideas regarding the locality,
structure and uses of the various organs of the body, and the
alterations produced in them by disease. In 1761 Leopold Auenbrugger
(1722-1809), a Viennese physician, published his _Inventum Novum_,
describing the art of percussion in reference more especially to
diseases of the chest. This consisted in tapping with the fingers the
surface of the body, so as to elicit sounds by which the comparative
resonance of the subjacent parts or organs might be estimated.
Auenbrugger's method attracted but little attention till the French
physician J.N. Corvisart (1755-1828) in 1808 demonstrated its great
practical importance, and then its employment in the diagnosis of
affections of the chest soon became general. Percussion was originally
practised in the manner above mentioned (_immediate percussion_), but
subsequently the method of _mediate percussion_ was introduced by P.A.
Piorry (1794-1879). It is accomplished by placing upon the spot to be
examined some solid substance, upon which the percussion strokes are
made with the fingers. For this purpose a thin oval piece of ivory
(called a _pleximeter_, or stroke-measurer) may be used, with a small
hammer; but one or more fingers of the left hand applied flat upon the
part answer equally well, and this is the method which most physicians
adopt. Percussion must be regarded as a necessary part of auscultation,
particularly in relation to the examination of the chest; for the
physician who has made himself acquainted with the normal condition of
that part of the body in reference to percussion is thus able to
recognize by the ear alterations of resonance produced by disease. But
percussion alone, however important in diagnosis, could manifestly
convey only limited and imperfect information, for it could never
indicate the nature or extent of functional disturbance.

In 1819 the distinguished French physician R.T.H. Laënnec (1781-1826)
published his _Traité de L'auscultation médiate_, embodying the present
methods of auscultatory examination, and venturing definite conclusions
based on years of his own study. He also invented the stethoscope
([Greek: staethos], the breast, and [Greek: skopein], to examine). Since
then many men have widened the scope of auscultation, notably Skoda,
Wintrich, A. Geigel, Th. Weber and Gerhardt. According to Laënnec the
essential of a good stethoscope was its capability of intensifying the
tone vibrations. But since his time the opinion of experts on this
matter has somewhat changed, and there are now two definite schools. The
first and older condemns the resonating stethoscope, maintaining that
the tones are bound to be altered; the second and younger school warmly
advocates its use. In America, more than elsewhere, there is a type of
phonendoscope much used by the younger men, which has the advantage that
it can be used when the older type of instrument fails, viz. when the
patient is recumbent and too ill to be moved. By slipping it beneath the
patient's back a fairly accurate idea of the breathing over the bases of
the lungs behind can often be obtained.

Stethoscopes have been made of many forms and materials. They usually
consist of a hollow stem of wood, hard rubber or metal, with an enlarged
tip slightly funnel-shaped at one end, and an ear-plate with a hole in
the middle, fastened perpendicularly to the other end. To enable the
instrument to be more conveniently carried, the ear-plate can be
unscrewed from the tube. The length of the stem of the instrument is of
minor importance, but its bore should be as nearly as possible that of
the entrance of the external ear. A flexible stethoscope in general use
both in England and America transmits the sound from a funnel through
tubes to the ears of the observer. This is the common form of a binaural
resonating stethoscope. It is convenient and gives a loud tone, but is
condemned by the older school, who say that the resonance is confusing,
and that the slightest movement in handling gives rise to perplexing
murmurs. Nevertheless, it is this form of instrument which has by far
the greatest vogue. It is probable, however, that the most skilled
physicians of all find a special use in each form, the monaural
non-resonating type being more sensitive to high-pitched sounds, and of
greater assistance in differentiating the sounds and murmurs of the
heart, the ordinary binaural form being more useful in examining the
lungs and other organs. In using the stethoscope, it must be applied
very carefully, so that the edge of the funnel makes an air-tight
connexion with the skin, and in the monaural form the ear must be but
lightly applied to the ear-plate, not pressing heavily on the patient.

The numerous diseases affecting the lungs can now be recognized and
discriminated from each other with a precision which, but for
auscultation and the stethoscope, would have been altogether
unattainable. The same holds good in the case of the heart, whose varied
and often complex forms of disease can, by auscultation, be identified
with striking accuracy. But in addition to these its main uses,
auscultation is found to render great assistance in the investigation of
many obscure internal affections, such as aneurysms and certain diseases
of the oesophagus and stomach. To the accoucheur the stethoscope yields
valuable aid in the detection of some forms of uterine tumours, and
especially in the diagnosis of pregnancy--the only evidence now accepted
as absolutely diagnostic of that condition being the hearing of the
foetal heart sounds.



AUSONIUS, DECIMUS MAGNUS (c. 310-395), Roman poet and rhetorician, was
born at Burdigala [_Bordeaux_]. He received an excellent education,
especially in grammar and rhetoric, but confesses that his progress in
Greek was unsatisfactory. Having completed his studies, he practised for
some time as an advocate, but his inclination lay in the direction of
teaching. He set up (in 334) a school of rhetoric in his native place,
which was largely attended, his most famous pupil being Paulinus,
afterwards bishop of Nola. After thirty years of this work, he was
summoned by Valentinian to the imperial court, to undertake the
education of Gratian, the heir-apparent. The prince always entertained
the greatest regard for his tutor, and after his accession bestowed upon
him the highest titles and honours, culminating in the consulship (379).
After the murder of Gratian (383), Ausonius retired to his estates near
Burdigala. He appears to have been a (not very enthusiastic) convert to
Christianity. He died about 395.

His most important extant works are: in prose, _Gratiarum Actio_, an
address of thanks to Gratian for his elevation to the consulship;
_Periochae_, summaries of the books of the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_; and
one or two _epistolae_; in verse, _Epigrammata_, including several free
translations from the Greek Anthology; _Ephemeris_, the occupations of
a day; _Parentalia_ and _Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium_, on
deceased relatives and literary friends; _Epitaphia_, chiefly on the
Trojan heroes; _Caesares_, memorial verses on the Roman emperors from
Julius Caesar to Elagabalus; _Ordo Nobilium Urbium_, short poems on
famous cities; _Ludus Septem Sapientum_, speeches delivered by the Seven
Sages of Greece; _Idyllia_, of which the best-known are the _Mosella_, a
descriptive poem on the Moselle, and the infamous _Cento Nuptialis_. We
may also mention _Cupido Cruciatus_, Cupid on the cross;
_Technopaegion_, a literary trifle consisting of a collection of verses
ending in monosyllables; _Eclogarum Liber_, on astronomical and
astrological subjects; _Epistolae_, including letters to Paulinus and
Symmachus; lastly, _Praefatiunculae_, three poetical epistles, one to
the emperor Theodosius. Ausonius was rather a man of letters than a
poet; his wide reading supplied him with material for a great variety of
subjects, but his works exhibit no traces of a true poetic spirit; even
his versification, though ingenious, is frequently defective.

  There are no MSS. containing the whole of Ausonius's works. Editio
  princeps, 1472; editions by Scaliger 1575, Souchay 1730, Schenkl 1883,
  Peiper 1886; cf. _Mosella_, Böcking 1845, de la Ville de Mirmont
  (critical edition with translation) 1889, and _De Ausonii Mosella_,
  1892, Hosius 1894. See Deydou, _Un Poète bordelais_ (1868); Everat,
  _De Ausonii Operibus_ (1885); Jullian, _Ausone et Bordeaux_ (1893); C.
  Verrier and R. de Courmont, _Les Épigrammes d'Ausone_ (translation
  with bibliography, 1905); R. Pichon, _Les Derviers Écrivains profanes_
  (1907).



AUSSIG (Czech _Oustí nad Labem_), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 68 m. N.
of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 37,255, mostly German. It is situated in
a mountainous district, at the confluence of the Biela and the Elbe,
and, besides being an active river port, is an important junction of the
northern Bohemian railways. Aussig has important industries in
chemicals, textiles, glass and boat-building, and carries on an active
trade in coal from the neighbouring mines, stone and stoneware, corn,
fruit and wood. It was the birthplace of the painter, Raphael Mengs
(1728-1779). Aussig is mentioned as a trading centre as early as 993. It
was made a city by Ottokar II. in the latter part of the 13th century.
In 1423 it was pledged by King Sigismund to the elector Frederick of
Meissen, who occupied it with a Saxon garrison. In 1426 it was besieged
by the Hussites, who on the 16th of June, though only 25,000 strong,
defeated a German army of 70,000, which had been sent to its relief,
with great slaughter. The town was stormed and sacked next day. After
lying waste for three years, it was rebuilt in 1429. It suffered much
during the Thirty Years' and Seven Years' Wars, and in 1830 it had only
1400 inhabitants. Not far from Aussig is the village of Kulm, where, on
the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French
under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians.
The French were defeated, and Vandamme surrendered with his army of
10,000 men.



AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817), English novelist, was born on the 16th of
December 1775 at the parsonage of Steventon, in Hampshire, a village of
which her father, the Rev. George Austen, was rector. She was the
youngest of seven children. Her mother was Cassandra Leigh, niece of
Theophilus Leigh, a dry humorist, and for fifty years master of Balliol,
Oxford. The life of no woman of genius could have been more uneventful
than Miss Austen's. She did not marry, and she never left home except on
short visits, chiefly to Bath. Her first sixteen years were spent in the
rectory at Steventon, where she began early to trifle with her pen,
always jestingly, for family entertainment. In 1801 the Austens moved to
Bath, where Mr Austen died in 1805, leaving only Mrs Austen, Jane and
her sister Cassandra, to whom she was always deeply attached, to keep up
the home; his sons were out in the world, the two in the navy, Francis
William and Charles, subsequently rising to admiral's rank. In 1805 the
Austen ladies moved to Southampton, and in 1809 to Chawton, near Alton,
in Hampshire, and there Jane Austen remained till 1817, the year of her
death, which occurred at Winchester, on July 18th, as a memorial window
in the cathedral testifies.

During her placid life Miss Austen never allowed her literary work to
interfere with her domestic duties: sewing much and admirably, keeping
house, writing many letters and reading aloud. Though, however, her days
were quiet and her area circumscribed, she saw enough of middle-class
provincial society to find a basis on which her dramatic and humorous
faculties might build, and such was her power of searching observation
and her sympathetic imagination that there are not in English fiction
more faithful representations of the life she knew than we possess in
her novels. She had no predecessors in this genre. Miss Austen's "little
bit (two inches wide) of ivory" on which she worked "with so fine a
brush"--her own phrases--was her own invention.

Her best-known, if not her best work, _Pride and Prejudice_, was also
her first. It was written between October 1796 and August 1797,
although, such was the blindness of publishers, not issued until 1813,
two years after _Sense and Sensibility_, which was written, on an old
scenario called "Eleanor and Marianne," in 1797 and 1798. Miss Austen's
inability to find a publisher for these stories, and for _Northanger
Abbey_, written in 1798 (although it is true that she sold that MS. in
1803 for £10 to a Bath bookseller, only, however, to see it locked away
in a safe for some years, to be gladly resold to her later), seems to
have damped her ardour; for there is no evidence that between 1798 and
1809 she wrote anything but the fragment called "The Watsons," after
which year she began to revise her early work for the press. Her other
three books belong to a later date--_Mansfield Park_, _Emma_ and
_Persuasion_ being written between 1811 and 1816. The years of
publication were _Sense and Sensibility_, 1811; _Pride and Prejudice_,
1813; _Mansfield Park_, 1814; and _Emma_, 1816--all in their author's
lifetime. _Persuasion_ and _Northanger Abbey_ were published
posthumously in 1818. All were anonymous, agreeably to their author's
retiring disposition.

Although _Pride and Prejudice_ is the novel which in the mind of the
public is most intimately associated with Miss Austen's name, both
_Mansfield Park_ and _Emma_ are finer achievements--at once riper and
richer and more elaborate. But the fact that _Pride and Prejudice_ is
more single-minded, that the love story of Elizabeth Bennet and D'Arcy
is not only _of_ the book but _is_ the book (whereas the love story of
Emma and Mr Knightley and Fanny Price and Edmund Bertram have parallel
streams), has given _Pride and Prejudice_ its popularity above the
others among readers who are more interested by the course of romance
than by the exposition of character. Entirely satisfactory as is _Pride
and Prejudice_ so far as it goes, it is, however, thin beside the
niceness of analysis of motives in _Emma_ and the wonderful management
of two housefuls of young lovers that is exhibited in _Mansfield Park_.

It has been generally agreed by the best critics that Miss Austen has
never been approached in her own domain. No one indeed has attempted any
close rivalry. No other novelist has so concerned herself or himself
with the trivial daily comedy of small provincial family life,
disdaining equally the assistance offered by passion, crime and
religion. Whatever Miss Austen may have thought privately of these
favourite ingredients of fiction, she disregarded all alike when she
took her pen in hand. Her interest was in life's little perplexities of
emotion and conduct; her gaze was steadily ironical. The most untoward
event in any of her books is Louisa's fall from the Cobb at Lyme Regis,
in _Persuasion_; the most abandoned, Maria's elopement with Crawford, in
_Mansfield Park_. In pure ironical humour Miss Austen's only peer among
novelists is George Meredith, and indeed _Emma_ may be said to be her
_Egoist_, or the _Egoist_ his _Emma_. But irony and fidelity to the fact
alone would not have carried her down the ages. To these gifts she
allied a perfect sense of dramatic progression and an admirably lucid
and flowing prose style which makes her stories the easiest reading.

Recognition came to Miss Austen slowly. It was not until quite recent
times that to read her became a necessity of culture. But she is now
firmly established as an English classic, standing far above Miss Burney
(Madame d'Arblay) and Miss Edgeworth, who in her day were the popular
women novelists of real life, while Mrs Radcliffe and "Monk" Lewis,
whose supernatural fancies' _Northanger Abbey_ was written in part to
ridicule, are no longer anything but names. Although, however, she has
become only lately a household word, Miss Austen had always her
panegyrists among the best intellects--such as Coleridge, Tennyson,
Macaulay, Scott, Sydney Smith, Disraeli and Archbishop Whately, the last
of whom may be said to have been her discoverer. Macaulay, whose
adoration of Miss Austen's genius was almost idolatrous, considered
_Mansfield Park_ her greatest feat; but many critics give the palm to
_Emma_. Disraeli read _Pride and Prejudice_ seventeen times. Scott's
testimony is often quoted: "That young lady had a talent for describing
the involvements, feelings and characters of ordinary life which is to
me the most wonderful I have ever met with. The big bow-wow I can do
myself like any one going; but the exquisite touch which renders
commonplace things and characters interesting from the truth of the
description and the sentiment is denied to me."

  Many monographs on Miss Austen have been written, in addition to the
  authorized _Life_ by her nephew J.E. Austen Leigh in 1870, and the
  collection of her _Letters_ edited by Lord Brabourne in 1884. The
  chief books on her and around her are _Jane Austen_, by S.F. Malden
  (1889); _Jane Austen_, by Goldwin Smith (1890); _Jane Austen: Her
  Contemporaries and Herself_, by W.H. Pollock; _Jane Austen: Her Homes
  and Her Friends_, by Constance Hill (1902); _Jane Austen and Her
  Times_, by G.E. Mitton (1905); _Jane Austen's Sailor Brothers_, by J
  H. and E.C. Hubback (1906); and the essay on her in Lady Richmond
  (Thackeray) Ritchie's _Book of Sibyls_ (1883).     (E. V. L.)



AUSTERLITZ (Czech _Slavkov_), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 15 m.
E.S.E. of Brünn by rail. Pop. (1900) 3145, mostly Czech. It contains a
magnificent palace belonging to the prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, and a
beautiful church.

[Illustration: (map of Austerlitz battle site)]

The great battle in which the French under Napoleon I. defeated the
Austrians and Russians on the 2nd of December 1805, was fought in the
country to the west of Austerlitz, the position of Napoleon's left wing
being almost equi-distant from Brünn and from Austerlitz. The wooded
hills to the northward throw out to the south and south-west long spurs,
between which are the low valleys of several rivers and brooks. The
scene of the most important fighting was the Pratzen plateau. The famous
"lakes" in the southern part of the field were artificial ponds, which
have long since been drained. On the west or Brünn side of the Goldbach
is another and lower ridge, which formed in the battle the first
position of the French right and centre. On the other wing is the mass
of hills from which the spurs and streams descend: here the Olmütz-Brünn
road passes. The road from Brunn to Vienna, Napoleon's presumed line of
retreat, runs in a southerly direction, and near the village of Raigern
(3 m. west of Monitz) is very close to the extreme right of the French
position, a fact which had a great influence on the course of the
battle. (The course of events which led to the action is described under
NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the
allied Austrians and Russians from Olmütz, bivouacked west of the
Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of
the roads from Olmutz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of
the Pratzen heights. The cavalry of both sides remained inactive,
Napoleon's by express order, the enemy's seemingly from mere negligence,
since they had 177 squadrons at their disposal. Napoleon, having
determined to fight, as usual called up every available battalion; the
splendid III. corps of Davout only arrived upon the field after a heavy
march, late on the night of December 1st. The plan of the allies was to
attack Napoleon's right, and to cut him off from Vienna, and their
advanced guard began, before dark on the 1st of December, to skirmish
towards Telnitz. At that moment Napoleon was in the midst of his troops,
thousands of whom had made their bivouac-straw into torches in his
honour. The glare of these seemed to the allies to betoken the familiar
device of lighting fires previous to a retreat, and thus confirmed them
in the impression which Napoleon's calculated timidity had given. Thus
encouraged, those who desired an immediate battle soon gained the upper
hand in the councils of the tsar and the emperor Francis. The attack
orders for the 2nd of December (drawn up by the Austrian general
Weyrother, and explained by him to a council of superior officers, of
whom some were hostile, the greater part indifferent, and the chief
Russian member, General Kutusov, asleep) gave the five columns and the
reserve, into which the Austro-Russian army was organized, the following
tasks: the first and second (Russians) to move south-westward behind the
Pratzen ridge towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz; the third (Russian) to
cross the southern end of the plateau, and come into line on the right
of the first two; the fourth (Austrians and Russians under Kolowrat) on
the right of the third to advance towards Kobelnitz. An Austrian
advanced guard preceded the 1st and 2nd columns. Farther still on the
right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to
hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Brunn-Olmutz road;
across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of
Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke
Constantine). Thus, the farther the four main columns penetrated into
the French right wing, the wider would the gap become between Bagration
and Kolowrat, and Liechtenstein's squadrons could not form a serious
obstacle to a heavy attack of Napoleon's centre. The whole plan was
based upon defective information and preconceived ideas; it has gone
down to history as a classical example of bad generalship, and its
author Weyrother, who was perhaps nothing worse than a pedant, as a
charlatan.

Napoleon, on the other hand, with the exact knowledge of the powers of
his men, which was the secret of his generalship, entrusted nearly half
of his line of battle to a division (Legrand's) of Soult's corps, which
was to be supported by Davout, some of whose brigades had marched, from
Vienna, 90 m. in forty-eight hours. But the ground which this thin line
was to hold against three columns of the enemy was marshy and densely
intersected by obstacles, and the III. corps was the best in the _Grande
Armée_, while its leader was perhaps the ablest of all Napoleon's
marshals. The rest of the army formed in the centre and left. "Whilst
they march to turn my right," said Napoleon in the inspiriting
proclamation which he issued on the eve of the battle, "they present me
their flank," and the great counterstroke was to be delivered against
the Pratzen heights by the French centre. This was composed of Soult's
corps, with Bernadotte's in second line. On the left, around the hill
called by the French the Santon (which was fortified) was Lannes' corps,
supported by the cavalry reserve under Murat. The general reserve
consisted of the Guard and Oudinot's grenadiers.

The attack of the allies was begun by the first three columns, which
moved down from their bivouacs behind the Pratzen plateau before dawn on
the 2nd, towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz. The Austrian advanced guard
engaged at daybreak, and the French in Telnitz made a vigorous defence;
both parties were reinforced, and Legrand drew upon himself, in
fulfilling his mission, the whole weight of the allied attack. The
contest was long and doubtful, but the Russians gradually drove back
Legrand and a part of Davout's corps; numerous attacks both of infantry
and cavalry were made, and by the successive arrival of reinforcements
each side in turn received fresh impetus. Finally, at about 10 A.M., the
allies were in possession of the villages on the Goldbach from Sokolnitz
southwards, and Davout's line of battle had reformed more than a mile to
rearward, still, however, maintaining touch with the French centre on
the Goldbach at Kobelnitz. Between the two lines the fighting continued
almost to the close of the battle. With 12,500 men of all arms the
Marshal held in front of him over 40,000 of the enemy.

In the centre, the defective arrangements of the allied staff had
delayed the 4th column (Kolowrat), the line of march of which was
crossed by Liechtenstein's cavalry moving in the opposite direction. The
objective of this column was Kobelnitz, and the two emperors and Kutusov
accompanied it. The delay had, however, opened a gap between Kolowrat
and the 3rd column on his left; and towards this gap, and the denuded
Pratzen plateau, Napoleon sent forward St Hilaire's division of Soult's
corps for the decisive attack. Kutusov was pursuing this march to the
south-west when he was surprised by the swift advance of Soult's men on
the plateau itself. Napoleon had here double the force of the allies;
Kutusov, however, displayed great energy, changed front to his right and
called up his reserves. The French did not win the plateau without a
severe struggle. St Hilaire's (the right centre) division was fiercely
engaged by Kolowrat's column, General Miloradovich opposed the left
centre attack under Vandamme, but the French leaders were two of the
best fighting generals in their army. The rearmost troops of the Russian
2nd column, not yet committed to the fight on the Goldbach, made a bold
counter stroke against St Hilaire's right flank, but were repulsed, and
Soult now turned to relieve the pressure on Davout by attacking
Sokolnitz. The Russians in Sokolnitz surrendered, an opportune cavalry
charge further discomfited the allied left, and the Pratzen plateau was
now in full possession of the French. Even the Russian Guard failed to
shake Vandamme's hold. In the meanwhile Lannes and Murat had been
engaged in the defence of the Santon. Here the allied leaders displayed
the greatest vigour, but they were unable to drive back the French. The
cavalry charges in this quarter are celebrated in the history of the
mounted arm; and Kellermann, the hero of Marengo, won fresh laurels
against the cavalry of Liechtenstein's command. The French not only held
their ground, but steadily advanced and eventually forced back the
allies on Austerlitz, thereby barring their retreat on Olmütz. The last
serious attempt of the allies in the centre led to some of the hardest
fighting of the day; the Russian Imperial Guard under the grand-duke
Constantine pressed closely upon St Hilaire and Vandamme on the plateau,
and only gave way when the French Guard and the Grenadiers came into
action. After the "Chevalier Guards" had been routed by Marshal
Bessières and the Guard cavalry, the allies had no more hope of victory;
orders had already been sent to Buxhöwden, who commanded the three
columns engaged against Davout, to retreat on Austerlitz. No further
attempt was made on the plateau, which was held by the French from
Pratzen to the Olmütz road. The allied army was cut in two, and the last
confused struggle of the three Russian columns on the Goldbach was one
for liberty only. The fighting in Telnitz was perhaps the hardest of the
whole battle, but the inevitable retreat, every part of which was now
under the fire of the French on the plateau, was terribly costly. Soult
now barred the way to Austerlitz, and the allies turned southward
towards Satschan. As they retreated, the ice of the Satschan pond was
broken up by the French artillery, and many of the fugitives were
drowned. In the twelve hours from 7 A.M. to nightfall, the 65,000 French
troops had lost 6800 men, or about 10%; the allies (82,500 engaged) had
12,200 killed and wounded, and left in the enemy's hands 15,000
prisoners (many wounded) and 133 guns.



AUSTIN, ALFRED (1835- ), English poet-laureate, was born at Headingley,
near Leeds, on the 30th of May 1835. His father, Joseph Austin, was a
merchant of the city of Leeds; his mother, a sister of Joseph Locke,
M.P. for Honiton. Mr Austin was educated at Stonyhurst, Oscott, and
London University, where he graduated in 1853. He was called to the bar
four years later, and practised as a barrister for a short time; but in
1861, after two comparatively false starts in poetry and fiction, he
made his first noteworthy appearance as a writer with a satire called
_The Season_, which contained incisive lines, and was marked by some
promise both in wit and observation. In 1870 he published a volume of
criticism, _The Poetry of the Period_, which was again conceived in a
spirit of satirical invective, and attacked Tennyson, Browning, Matthew
Arnold and Swinburne in no half-hearted fashion. The book aroused some
discussion at the time, but its judgments were extremely uncritical. In
1881 Mr Austin returned to verse with a tragedy, _Savonarola_, to which
he added _Soliloquies_ in 1882, _Prince Lucifer_ in 1887, _England's
Darling_ in 1896, _The Conversion of Winckelmann_ in 1897, &c. A keen
Conservative in politics, for several years he edited _The National
Review_, and wrote leading articles for _The Standard_. On Tennyson's
death in 1892 it was felt that none of the then living poets, except
Swinburne or William Morris, who were outside consideration on other
grounds, was of sufficient distinction to succeed to the laurel crown,
and for several years no new poet-laureate was nominated. In the
interval the claims of one writer and another were much canvassed, but
eventually, in 1896, Mr Austin was appointed. As poet-laureate, his
occasional verses did not escape adverse criticism; his hasty poem in
praise of the Jameson Raid in 1896 being a notable instance. The most
effective characteristic of Mr Austin's poetry, as of the best of his
prose, is a genuine and intimate love of nature. His prose idylls, _The
Garden that I love_ and _In Veronica's Garden_, are full of a pleasant,
open-air flavour, which is also the outstanding feature of his _English
Lyrics_. His lyrical poems are wanting in spontaneity and individuality,
but many of them possess a simple, orderly charm, as of an English
country lane. He has, indeed, a true love of England, sometimes not
without a suspicion of insularity, but always fresh and ingenuous. A
drama by him, _Flodden Field_, was acted at His Majesty's theatre in
1903.



AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859), English jurist, was born on the 3rd of March
1790. His father was the owner of flour mills at Ipswich and in the
neighbourhood, and was in good circumstances. John was the eldest of
five brothers. One of his brothers, Charles (1799-1874), obtained great
distinction at the bar. John Austin entered the army at a very early
age; he is said to have been only sixteen. He served with his regiment
under Lord William Bentinck in Malta and Sicily. He seems to have liked
his profession, and to have joined in the amusements and even in the
follies of his brother officers. Yet it appears from a journal kept by
him at the time that he occupied himself with studies of a far more
serious kind than is common amongst young officers in the army. He notes
having read in the course of one year Dugald Stewart's _Philosophical
Essays_, Drummond's _Academical Questions_, Enfield's _History of
Philosophy_, and Mitford's _History of Greece_, and upon all of these he
makes observations which disclose much thought and a capacity for
criticism which must have come from extensive reading elsewhere. The
prevailing note of this journal is one of bitter self-depreciation. He
says in it that the retrospect of the past year (1811) "has hardly given
rise to one single feeling of satisfaction," and farther on he says that
"indolence, always the prominent vice of my character," has "assumed
over me an empire I almost despair of shaking off." It is difficult to
believe that a man only just of age, whose serious reading consisted of
such books, and who (as appears from the same journal) was in the habit
of turning to the classics as an alternative, could have deserved the
reproach of indolence.

In 1812, he resigned his commission in the army, and returned home. He
then began to read law in the chambers of a barrister. He was called to
the bar in the year 1818, and joined the Norfolk circuit, but he never
obtained any large practice, and he finally retired from the bar in
1825. In 1819 he married Sarah Taylor (see AUSTIN, SARAH).

Although Austin had failed to attain success at the bar it was not long
before he had an opportunity of exercising his abilities and in a manner
peculiarly suited to his particular turn of mind. In 1826 a number of
eminent men were engaged in the foundation of University College, and it
was determined to establish in it a chair of jurisprudence. This chair
was offered to Austin and he agreed to accept it. As he was not called
upon to begin his lectures immediately, he resolved to proceed to
Germany in order to prepare himself for his duties by studying the
method of legal teaching pursued at German universities. He resided
first at Heidelberg, and afterwards at Bonn, where he lived on terms of
intimacy with such distinguished lawyers as Savigny and K.J.A.
Mittermaier; and such eminent men of letters as Niebuhr, Brandis,
Schlegel and A.W. Heffter. He began lecturing in 1828, and at first was
not without encouragement. His class was a peculiarly brilliant one. It
included a number of men who afterwards became eminent in law, politics
and philosophy--Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Charles Buller, Charles
Villiers, Sir Samuel Romilly and his brother Lord Romilly, Edward Strutt
afterwards Lord Belper, Sir William Erie and John Stuart Mill were all
members of his class. All of these have left on record expressions of
the profound admiration which the lectures excited in the minds of those
who heard them. But the members of his class, though exceptional in
quality, were few in number, and as there was no fixed salary attached
to the professorship, Austin could not afford to remain in London, and
in 1832 he resigned. In that year he published his _Province of
Jurisprudence determined_, being the first ten of his delivered lectures
compressed into six.

There is ample testimony that Austin's lectures were very highly
appreciated by those who heard them. Their one fault was that they were
over-elaborated. In his desire to avoid ambiguity, he repeats his
explanations and qualifications to an extent which must have tired his
hearers. Nevertheless the lectures excited an admiration which almost
amounted to enthusiasm. Nor was Austin's influence confined to his
lectures. Sir William Erle says in a letter written to him in 1844, "The
interchange of mind with you in the days of Lincoln's Inn I regard as a
deeply important event in my life, and I ever remember your friendship
with thankfulness and affection." John Stuart Mill, whose views on
political subjects were entirely opposed to those of Austin, spoke of
him after his death as the man "to whom he (Mill) had been
intellectually and morally most indebted," and he expressed the opinion
"that few men had contributed more by their individual influence, and
their conversation, to the formation and growth of the most active minds
of the generation."

In 1833 a royal commission was issued to draw up a digest of criminal
law and procedure. Of this commission Austin was a member. The first
report was signed by all the commissioners, and was presented in June
1834. Nevertheless it appears from some notes made at the time that
Austin, though he thought it his duty to sign the report, strongly
objected to some passages which it contained. It is pretty obvious from
the nature of these objections that nothing would have satisfied him
short of a complete recasting of the criminal law, whereas what the
commissioners were ordered to produce was not a code but a digest.
Probably Austin felt, as Mr Justice Wills felt some years later, that
the anomalies which a code would remove would "choke a digest."

In 1834 the benchers of the Inner Temple appointed Austin to give
lectures on the "General Principles of Jurisprudence and International
Law." He delivered a few lectures in the spring of that year, but in
June the course was by order of the benchers suspended on account of the
smallness of the attendance, and it was never resumed. He then went to
live with his wife and only child Lucie (afterwards Lady Duff-Gordon) at
Boulogne. Here he remained for about a year and a half. He then accepted
an appointment offered him by Sir James Stephen to go as royal
commissioner to Malta in conjunction with Mr (afterward Sir George)
Cornewall Lewis, to inquire into the nature and extent of the grievances
of which the natives of that island complained.

The Austins remained in Malta until July 1838. After their return they
lived a good deal abroad, and in 1844 they settled in Paris, where they
remained until driven out of France by the revolution of 1848. They then
took a house at Weybridge, and there Austin remained until his death in
December 1859. He was urged by his friends to publish a second edition
of the _Province of Jurisprudence_, which was then out of print, and he
went so far as to allow a prospectus to be issued by Mr Murray of an
extended work on "The Principles and Relations of Jurisprudence and
Ethics." But nothing came of it.

In 1842 Austin published in the _Edinburgh Review_ an attack upon
Friedrich List's system of trade protection (_Das nationale System der
politischen Okonomie_). And in 1859 he published a pamphlet entitled "A
Plea for the Constitution." This was occasioned by the publication of
Lord Grey's essay on "Parliamentary Government." Its main object was to
show that the consequences to be anticipated from Parliamentary Reform
were all of them either impossible of realization or mischievous. He
thought any attempt on the part of the poorer classes to improve their
position was barred by the inexorable laws of political economy; and
that if they obtained power they would only use it to plunder the rich;
whilst, on the other hand, he seems not to have had any suspicion that
the "proprietary class" were likely to disregard the interests of the
poor. He thinks that political power is safest in the hands of those
possessed of hereditary or acquired property; and that without property
even intelligence and knowledge afford no presumption of political
capacity. Undoubtedly Austin was a utilitarian in the Benthamite sense,
and remained so to the end of his life. It must be remembered that
Bentham's sole and immutable test of human action was the greatest
happiness of the greatest number. This is a principle which an
aristocrat may adopt if he chooses, no less than a democrat; an
individualist no less than a socialist; and there is nothing in the
"Plea for the Constitution" which contravenes this. But Austin thought,
and in this no doubt he differed from Bentham, that the mass of the
people did not know their own interests so well as "an aristocracy of
independent gentlemen" who might be trusted to provide for the wants of
all classes alike.

Austin's position as a jurist is much more difficult to estimate. Twice
his influence appeared likely to produce some impression upon English
law, but upon both occasions it lasted only a short time, and never
extended very far. The men whom he influenced were very eminent, but in
numbers they were few. As a rule, students for the bar never at any time
paid any attention to his teaching. The first published lectures were
almost forgotten when Mr (afterwards Sir Henry) Maine was appointed to
lecture on jurisprudence at the Inner Temple. Both in his private and
public lectures Maine constantly urged upon his hearers the importance
of Austin's analytical inquiries into the meaning of legal terms. He
used to say that it was Austin's inquiries which had made a philosophy
of law possible. Undoubtedly Maine's influence revived for a short time
the interest in Austin's teaching. Maine was lecturing about the time of
Austin's death, and in 1861 Mrs Austin published a second edition of the
_Province of Jurisprudence_, and this was followed soon after by two
volumes which contained in addition in a fragmentary form the remaining
lectures delivered at University College and other notes (_Lectures on
Jurisprudence; or The Philosophy of Positive Law_).

It cannot be said that Austin's views of jurisprudence have had, as yet,
any visible influence whatever on the study of English law. But if we
consider what it was that Austin endeavoured to teach, it can hardly be
said that the subject is one which a lawyer can with impunity neglect.
He proposes to distinguish law from morals; to explain the notions
which have been entertained of duty, right, liberty, injury, punishment
and redress; and their connexion with, and relations to, sovereignty; to
examine the distinction between rights _in rem_ and rights _in
personam_, and between rights _ex contractu_ and rights _ex delicto_;
and further to determine the meaning of such terms as right, obligation,
injury, sanction, person, thing, act and forbearance. These are some of
the terms, notions and distinctions which Austin endeavoured to explain.
They are daily in the mouth of every practising lawyer. The only portion
of Austin's work which has attracted much attention of recent years is
his conception of sovereignty, and his dictum that all laws properly so
called must be considered as sanctioned expressly or tacitly by the
sovereign. This has been indignantly denied. It has been considered
enough to justify this denial to point out that there are in existence
states where the seat of sovereignty, and the ultimate source of law,
cannot be accurately indicated. But this criticism is entirely
misplaced; for as pointed out by Maine (_Early History of Institutions_,
Lecture xii.), in an elaborate discussion of Austin's views, which in
the main he accepts, what Austin was engaged upon was not an inquiry
into the nature of sovereignty as it is found to exist, but an inquiry
into what was the connexion between the various forms of political
superiority. And this inquiry was undertaken in order to enable him to
distinguish the province of jurisprudence properly so called from the
province of morality; an inquiry which was hopeless unless the connexion
just stated was clearly conceived. Austin's views of sovereignty,
therefore, was an abstraction, useless it is true for some purposes, but
by no means useless for others. "There is," as Maine says, "not the
smallest necessity for accepting all the conclusions of these great
writers (i.e. Bentham and Austin) with implicit deference, but there
is the strongest necessity for knowing what these conclusions are. They
are indispensable, if for no other object, for the purpose of clearing
the head." These last words exactly express the work which Austin set
himself to do. It was to clear his own head, and the heads of his
hearers, that he laboured so hard. As Austin once said of himself, his
special vocation was that of untying intellectual knots. The
disentangling of classifications and distinctions, the separation of
real from accidental distinctions, the analysis of ideas confusedly
apprehended, these (as has been truly said) were the characteristics of
Austin's work which specially distinguished him. Austin thought that
this somewhat irksome task was a necessary preliminary both to the study
of law as a science, and to the production of a code. It is a curious
reflection that whilst the lectures in which these inquiries were begun
(though not completed) excited the admiration of his contemporaries,
hardly any one now thinks such inquiries worth pursuing.

  The _Lectures on Jurisprudence_ were reviewed by J.S. Mill in the
  _Edinburgh Review_ of October 1863, and this review is republished in
  Mill's _Dissertations and Discussions_, vol. 3, p. 206. Professor
  Jethro Brown has published (1906) an edition of Austin's earlier
  lectures, in which they are stated in an abbreviated form. There is a
  sketch of his life by his widow in the preface to the _Lectures on
  Jurisprudence_, which she published after his death.     (W. Ma.)



AUSTIN, SARAH (1793-1867), English author, was born in 1793, the
daughter of John Taylor (d. 1826), a wool-stapler and a member of the
well-known Taylor family of Norwich. Her great grandfather, Dr John
Taylor (1694-1761), had been pastor of the Presbyterian church there,
and wrote a once famous polemical work on _The Scripture Doctrine of
Original Sin_ (1738), which called forth celebrated treatises by
Jonathan Edwards on _Original Sin_. Her mother, Susannah Cook, was an
exceedingly clever woman who transmitted both her beauty and her talent
to her daughter. Their friends included Dr Alderson and his daughter Mrs
Opie, Henry Crabbe Robinson, the Gurneys and Sir James Mackintosh. Sarah
Taylor married in 1820 John Austin (q.v.). They lived in Queen Square,
Westminster, where Mrs. Austin, whose tastes, unlike her husband's, were
extremely sociable, gathered round her a large circle, Jeremy Bentham,
James Mill and the Grotes being especially intimate. She received many
Italian exiles, who found a real friend in her. In 1821 was born her
only child, Lucie, afterwards Lady Duff-Gordon. Mrs. Austin never
attempted any considerable original work, contenting herself chiefly
with translations, of which the most important are the _History of the
Reformation in Germany_ and the _History of the Popes_ (1840), from the
German of Leopold von Ranke, _Report on the State of Public Instruction
in Prussia_ (1834) from the French of V. Cousin, and F.W. Carove's _The
Story without an End_ (1864). After her husband's death in 1859 she
edited his _Lectures on Jurisprudence_. She also edited the _Memoirs of
Sydney Smith_ (1855) and Lady Duff-Gordon's _Letters from Egypt_ (1865).
She died at Weybridge on the 8th of August 1867.

  See _Three Generations of Englishwomen_ (1888), by her grand-daughter,
  Mrs Janet Ross.



AUSTIN, STEPHEN FULLER (1793-1836), American pioneer, was born in
Austinville, Wythe county, Virginia, on the 3rd of November 1793. He was
the son of Moses Austin (1767-1821), a native of Durham, Connecticut,
who in 1820 obtained from Mexico a grant of land for an American colony
in Texas, but died before he could carry out his project. The son was
educated in New London, Connecticut, and at Transylvania University,
Lexington, Kentucky, and settled in Missouri, where he was a member of
the territorial legislature from 1813 to 1819. In 1819 he removed to
Arkansas Territory, where he was appointed a circuit judge. After his
father's death he obtained a confirmation of the Texas grants from the
newly established Mexican government, and in 1821-1823 he established a
colony of several hundred American families on the Brazos river, the
principal town being named, in his honour, San Felipe de Austin. He was
a firm defender of the rights of the Americans in Texas, and in 1833 he
was sent to the city of Mexico to present a petition from a convention
in Texas praying for the erection of a separate state government. While
there, despairing of success for his petition, he wrote home
recommending the organization of a state without waiting for the consent
of the Mexican congress. This letter falling into the hands of the
Mexican government, Austin, while returning home, was arrested at
Saltillo, carried as a prisoner back to Mexico, and imprisoned for a
year without trial. Returning to Texas in 1835, he found the Texans in
armed revolt against Mexican rule, and was chosen commander-in-chief of
the revolutionary forces, but after failing to take San Antonio he
resigned the command, for which he had never considered himself fitted,
and in November 1835 went to the United States as a commissioner to
secure loans and supplies, and to learn the position the United States
authorities would be likely to take in the event of a declaration of
Texan independence. He succeeded in raising large sums, and received
assurances that satisfied him that Americans would look with great
favour on an independent Texas. Returning to Texas in the summer of
1836, he became a candidate, rather reluctantly, for the presidency of
the newly established republic of Texas, but was defeated by Samuel
Houston, under whom he was secretary of state until his sudden death on
the 7th of December 1836.

  See _A Comprehensive History of Texas_, edited by D.G. Wooten (2
  vols., Dallas, 1898).



AUSTIN, a city and the county-seat of Mower county, Minnesota, U.S.A.,
on the Red Cedar river and Turtle creek, (by rail) 105 m. S. of
Minneapolis and 100 m. from St Paul. Pop. (1900) 5474; (1905, state
census) 6489 (913 foreign-born); (1910, U.S. census) 6960. It is served
by the Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul
railways. Austin is the seat of the Southern Minnesota Normal College
and Austin School of Commerce (1896), and has a Carnegie library, court
house and city hall. It is a market for livestock, and for dairy and
farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour
mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving
factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators. Brick,
tile, sewer-pipe, and hydraulic cement are manufactured, and there are
railway repair shops. A valuable water-power is utilized for
manufacturing purposes. Fresh-water pearls of considerable value and
beauty are found in the Red Cedar river. The city owns and operates its
own water-supply system and electric-lighting plant. Austin was settled
in 1855, was incorporated as a village in 1868, and was chartered as a
city in 1873.



AUSTIN, the capital of Texas, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Travis
county, on the N. bank of the Colorado river, near the centre of the
state and about 145 m. W.N.W. of Houston. Pop. (1890) 14,575; (1900)
22,258, of whom 5822 were negroes; (1910 census) 29,860. Austin is
served by the Houston & Texas Central, the International & Great
Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways. The city is built
on high bluffs 40-120 ft. above the river, which is spanned here by a
bridge, built in 1874. The Texas State Capitol, a handsome building of
red Texas granite, with a dome 318 ft. high, cost more than $3,500,000,
and stands in a square in the centre of the city. It was built
(1881-1888) by Chicago capitalists in exchange for a land grant of
3,000,000 acres. It is in the form of a Greek cross, with an extreme
length of 556.5 ft. and an extreme width of 288.8 ft. Next to the
National Capitol at Washington, it is the largest capitol building in
the United States, and it is said to be one of the ten largest buildings
in the world. Austin is the seat of the University of Texas (opened in
1883; co-educational); the medical department of the state university is
at Galveston, and the departments in Austin are the college of arts,
department of education, department of engineering, department of law,
school of pharmacy, and school of nursing. The government of the
university is vested in a board of eight regents nominated by the
governor and appointed with the advice and consent of the state senate.
At Austin are also state institutions and asylums for the insane, the
blind, the coloured deaf and blind; the state school for the deaf and
dumb; the state Confederate home; the Confederate woman's home (1907;
for wives and widows of Confederate soldiers and sailors), maintained by
the Daughters of the Confederacy; St Mary's Academy (Roman Catholic,
under the supervision of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, founded 1875,
chartered 1886); St Edward's College (Roman Catholic, chartered 1885);
the Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary (Presbyterian Church,
South), opened in 1902 by the Synod of Texas, and after 1905 partly
controlled by the Synod of Arkansas; Tillotson College (a negro school
under Congregational control, founded by the American Missionary
Association, chartered in 1877, and opened in 1881), and Samuel Huston
College (for negroes; Methodist Episcopal; opened in 1900 and named in
honour of an Iowan benefactor). The principal newspapers of Austin are
the _Statesman_ (Democratic, established in 1871), a morning paper, and
the _Tribune_ (Democratic, established in 1891), an evening paper. The
_Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Society_ is published here.
Austin is the principal trade and jobbing centre for central and western
Texas, is an important market for livestock, cotton, grain and wool, and
has extensive manufactories of flour, cotton-seed oil, leather goods,
lumber and wooden ware; the value of the factory product in 1905 was
$1,569,353, being 105.2% more than in 1900. The city owns and operates
its water-supply system. In 1890-1893 one of the largest dams in the
world, an immense structure of granite masonry, 1200 ft. long. 60-70 ft.
high, and 18 to 66 ft. thick, was constructed across the Colorado river
2 m. above the city for the purpose of supplying water and power,
creating a reservoir (Lake M'Donald) about 30 m. long. Freshets in the
spring of 1900, however, undermined the wall, and on the 7th of April
the dam broke with a resulting loss of several lives and about
$1,000,000 worth of property. The rebuilding of the dam was projected in
1907. Austin was first settled in 1838 and was named Waterloo, but in
1839, when it was chosen as the site of the capital of the Republic of
Texas, it was renamed in honour of Stephen F. Austin, one of its
founders. Under the influence of General Sam Houston the capital was for
a time in 1842-1845 removed from Austin to Houston, but in 1845 an
ordinance was passed making Austin the capital, and it remained the
state capital after Texas entered the Union, although Huntsville and
Tehuacana Springs in 1850 and Houston in 1872 attempted in popular
elections to be chosen in its place. The first Anglo-American settlement
in Texas, established on the Brazos river in 1823 by members of the
Austin colony, was San Felipe de Austin now San Felipe. In 1909 Austin
adopted a commission form of government.



AUSTRALASIA, a term used by English geographers in a sense nearly
synonymous with the Oceania of continental writers. It thus comprises
all the insular groups which extend almost continuously from the
south-eastern extremity of Asia to more than half-way across the
Pacific. Its chief divisions are Malaysia with the Philippines;
Australia with Tasmania and New Zealand; Melanesia, that is, New Guinea,
New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Santa
Cruz, Fiji, Loyalties and New Caledonia; Micronesia, that is, the
Ladrones, Pelew and Carolines, with the Marshall and Gilbert groups;
lastly, Polynesia, that is, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Tahiti, the Marquesas,
Ellice, Hawaii and all intervening clusters. The term is so far
justified in that it harmonizes better than Oceania did with the names
of the other continents, and also embodies the two essential facts that
it is a south-eastern extension of Asia, and that its central and most
important division is the great island-continent of Australia. In a more
restricted sense the term Australasia corresponds to the large division
including Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.

  See _Australasia_, 2 vols. Stanford Compendium Series, new issue
  (London, 1907-1908).



AUSTRALIA, the only continent entirely in the southern hemisphere. It
lies between 10° 39' and 39° 11½' S., and between 113° 5' and 153° 16'
E. Its greatest length is 2400 m. from east to west, and the greatest
breadth 1971 m. from north to south. The area is, approximately,
2,946,691 sq. m., with a coast line measuring about 8850 m. This is
equal to 1 m. to each 333 sq. m. of land, the smallest proportion of
coast shown by any of the continents.


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

  General character.

_Physiography._--The salient features of the Australian continent are
its compact outline, the absence of navigable rivers communicating with
the interior, the absence of active volcanoes or snow-capped mountains,
its isolation from other lands, and its antiquity. Some of the most
profound changes that have taken place on this globe occurred in
Mesozoic times, and a great portion of Australia was already dry land
when vast tracts of Europe and Asia were submerged; in this sense,
therefore, Australia has been rightly referred to as one of the oldest
existing land surfaces. It has been described as at once the largest
island and the smallest continent on the globe. The general contours
exemplify the law of geographers in regard to continents, viz. as to
their having a high border around a depressed interior, and the highest
mountains on the side of the greatest ocean. On the N. Australia is
bounded by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait; on the E.
by the Pacific Ocean; on the S. by Bass Strait and the Southern Ocean;
and on the W. by the Indian Ocean. It stands up from the ocean depths in
three fairly well-marked terraces. The basal plain of these terraces is
the bed of the ocean, which on the Pacific side has an average depth of
15,000 ft. From this profound foundation rise Australia, New Guinea and
Melanesia, in varying slopes. The first ledge rising from the ocean
floor has a depth averaging 8000 ft. below sea-level. The outer edge of
this ledge is roughly parallel to the coast of Western Australia, and
more than 150 m. from the land. Round the Australian Bight it continues
parallel to the coast, until south of Spencer Gulf (the basal ledge
still averaging 8000 ft. in depth) it sweeps southwards to lat. 55°, and
forms a submarine promontory 1000 m. long. The edge of the abysmal area
comes close to the eastern coasts of Tasmania and New South Wales,
approaching to within 60 m. of Cape Howe. The terrace closest to the
land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft.,
and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep.
Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is
extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the
land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely
paralleled. Off the Queensland coast the shelf broadens, its outer edge
being lined by the seaward face of the Great Barrier Reef. From Torres
Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia
with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago. An elongation of the shelf to
the south joins Tasmania with the mainland. The vertical relief of the
land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the
climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a
continent.

  The land mass of Australia rises to a mean height much less than that
  of any other continent; and the chief mountain systems are parallel
  to, and not far from, the coast-line. Thus, taking the continent as a
  whole, it may be described as a plateau, fringed by a low-lying
  well-watered coast, with a depressed, and for the most part arid,
  interior. A great plain, covering quite 500,000 sq. m., occupies a
  position a little to the east of a meridional line bisecting the
  continent, and south of the 22nd degree, but portions of it stretch
  upwards to the low-lying country south of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The
  contour of the continent in latitude 30° 5' is as follows:--a short
  strip of coastal plain; then a sharp incline rising to a mountain
  range 4000 ft. above sea-level, at a distance of 40 m. from the coast.
  From this a gently-sloping plateau extends to almost due north of
  Spencer Gulf, at which point its height has fallen almost to
  sea-level. Then there is a gentle rise to the low steppes, 500 to 1000
  ft. above sea-level. A further gentle rise in the high steppes leads
  to the mountains of the West Australian coast, and another strip of
  low-lying coastal land to the sea.

  With a circumference of 8000 m. Australia presents a contour
  wonderfully devoid of inlets from the sea except on its northern
  shores, where the coast-line is largely indented. The Gulf of
  Carpentaria, situated in the north, is enclosed on the east by the
  projection of Cape York, and on the west by Arnheim Land, and forms
  the principal bay on the whole coast, measuring about 6° of long. by
  6° of lat. Farther to the west, Van Diemen's Gulf, though much
  smaller, forms a better-protected bay, having Melville Island between
  it and the ocean; while beyond this, Queen's Channel and Cambridge
  Gulf form inlets about 14° 50' S. On the north-west of the continent
  the coast-line is much broken, the chief indentations being Admiralty
  Gulf, Collier Bay and King Sound, on the shores of Tasman Land.
  Western Australia, again, is not favoured with many inlets, Exmouth
  Gulf and Shark's Bay being the only bays of any size. The same remark
  may be made of the rest of the sea-board; for, with the exception of
  Spencer Gulf, the Gulf of St Vincent and Port Phillip on the south,
  and Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay and Broad Sound on the east, the
  coast-line is singularly uniform. There are, however, numerous
  spacious harbours, especially on the eastern coast, which are referred
  to in the detailed articles dealing with the different states. The
  Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east
  coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it
  is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs. The channel between the
  reef and the coast is in places 70 m. wide and 400 ft. deep. There are
  a few clear openings in the outer rampart which the reef presents to
  the ocean. These are opposite to the large estuaries of the Queensland
  rivers, and might be thought to have been caused by fresh water from
  the land. The breaks are, however, some 30 to 90 m. away from land and
  more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known
  to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with
  New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's
  well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be
  inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are
  explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.

  With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands
  belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other
  islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great
  distance from the continent, do not belong to its system. On the east
  coast there are a few small and unimportant islands. In Bass Strait
  are Flinders Island, about 800 sq. m. in area, Clarke Island, and a
  few other small islands. Kangaroo Island, at the entrance of St
  Vincent Gulf, is one of the largest islands on the Australian coast,
  measuring 80 m. from east to west with an average width of 20 m.
  Numerous small islands lie off the western coast, but none has any
  commercial importance. On the north coast are Melville and Bathurst
  Islands; the former, which is 75 m. long and 38 m. broad, is fertile
  and well watered. These islands are opposite Port Darwin, and to the
  westward of the large inlet known as Van Diemen's Gulf. In the Gulf of
  Carpentaria are numerous islands, the largest bearing the Dutch name
  of Groote Eylandt.


    Mountains.

  Along the full length of the eastern coast extends a succession of
  mountain chains. The vast Cordillera of the Great Dividing Range
  originates in the south-eastern corner of the continent, and runs
  parallel with and close to the eastern shore, through the states of
  Victoria and New South Wales, right up to the far-distant York
  Peninsula in Queensland. In Victoria the greatest elevation is reached
  in the peaks of Mount Bogong (6508 ft.) and Mount Feathertop (6303
  ft.), both of which lie north of the Dividing Range; in the main range
  Mount Hotham (6100 ft.) and Mount Cobberas (6025 ft.) are the highest
  summits. In New South Wales, but close to the Victorian border, are
  found the loftiest peaks of Australia, Mount Kosciusco and Mount
  Townsend, rising to heights of 7328 and 7260 ft. respectively. The
  range is here called the Muniong, but farther north it receives the
  name of Monaro Range; the latter has a much reduced altitude, its
  average being only about 2000 ft. As the tableland runs northward it
  decreases both in height and width, until it narrows to a few miles
  only, with an elevation of scarcely 1500 ft.; under the name of the
  Blue Mountains the plateau widens again and increases in altitude, the
  chief peaks being Mount Clarence (4000 ft.), Mount Victoria (3525
  ft.), and Mount Hay (3270 ft.). The Dividing Range decreases north of
  the Blue Mountains, until as a mere ridge it divides the waters of the
  coastal rivers from those flowing to the Darling. The mass widens out
  once more in the Liverpool Range, where the highest peak, Mount Oxley,
  reaches 4500 ft., and farther north, in the New England Range, Ben
  Lomond reaches an elevation of 5000 ft. Near the Queensland border,
  Mount Lindsay, in the Macpherson Range, rises to a height of 5500 ft.
  In the latitude of Brisbane the chain swerves inland; no other peak
  north of this reaches higher than Mount Bartle Frere in the Bellenden
  Ker Range (5438 ft.). The Southern Ocean system of the Victorian
  Dividing Range hardly attains to the dignity of high mountains. An
  eastern system in South Australia touches at a few points a height of
  3000 ft.; and the Stirling Range, belonging to the south-western
  system of South Australia, reaches to 2340 ft. There are no mountains
  behind the Great Australian Bight. On the west the Darling Range faces
  the Indian Ocean, and extends from Point D'Entrecasteaux to the
  Murchison river. North of the Murchison, Mount Augustus and Mount
  Bruce, with their connecting highlands, cut off the coastal drainage
  from the interior; but no point on the north-west coast reaches a
  greater altitude than 4000 ft. Several minor ranges, the topography of
  which is little known, extend from Cambridge Gulf, behind a very much
  broken coast-line, to Limmen Bight on the Gulf of Carpentaria. Nothing
  is more remarkable than the contrast between the aspect of the coastal
  ranges on the north-east and on the south-east of the continent. The
  higher Australian peaks in the south-east look just what they are, the
  worn and denuded stumps of mountains, standing for untold ages above
  the sea. Their shoulders are lifted high above the tree-line. Their
  summits stand out gaunt and lonely in an unbroken solitude. Having
  left the tree-line far behind him, nothing is visible to the traveller
  for miles around but barren peaks and torn crags in indescribable
  confusion. A verdure of herbage clothes the valleys that have been
  scooped from the summits downwards. But there are no perpetual
  snow-fields, no glaciers creep down these valleys, and no alpine
  hamlets ever appear to break the monotony. The mountains of the
  north-east, on the contrary, are clothed to their summits with a rich
  and varied flora. Naked crags, when they do appear, lift themselves
  from a sea of green, and a tropical vegetation, quite Malaysian in
  character, covers everything.

  The absence of active volcanoes in Australia is a state of things, in
  a geological sense, quite new to the continent. Some of the volcanoes
  of the western districts of Victoria have been in eruption probably
  subsequent to the advent of the black-fellow. In some instances the
  cones are quite intact, and the beds of ash and scoriae are as yet
  almost unaffected by denuding agencies. Late in the Tertiary period
  vast sheets of lava poured from many points of the Great Dividing
  Range of eastern Australia. But it is notable that all recent volcanic
  action was confined to a wide belt parallel to the coast. No evidences
  of recent lava flows can be found in the interior over the great
  alluvial plain, the Lower, or the Higher Steppes. Nor has the
  continent, as a whole, in recent times been subjected to any violent
  earth tremors; though in 1873, to the north of Lake Amadeus, in
  central Australia, Ernest Giles records the occurrence of earthquake
  shocks violent enough to dislodge considerable rock masses.

  Australia possesses one mountain which, though not a volcano, is a
  "burning mountain." This is Mount Wingen, situated in a spur of the
  Liverpool Range and close to the town of Scone. Its fires are not
  volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance
  underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that
  the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.


    Rivers.

  The coastal belt of Australia is everywhere well watered, with the
  exception of the country around the Great Australian Bight and Spencer
  Gulf. Flowing into the Pacific Ocean on the east coast there are some
  fine rivers, but the majority have short and rapid courses. In
  Queensland a succession of rivers falls into the Pacific from Cape
  York to the southern boundary of the state. The Burdekin is the finest
  of these, draining an area of 53,500 sq. m., and emptying into Upstart
  Bay; it receives numerous tributaries in its course, and carries a
  large body of fresh water even in the driest seasons. The Fitzroy
  river is the second in point of size; it drains an area of 55,600 sq.
  m., and receives several tributary streams during its course to Keppel
  Bay. The Brisbane river, falling into Moreton Bay, is important
  chiefly from the fact that the city of Brisbane is situated on its
  banks. In New South Wales there are several important rivers, the
  largest of which is the Hunter, draining 11,000 sq. m., and having a
  course of 200 m. Taking them from north to south, the principal rivers
  are the Richmond, Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter,
  Hawkesbury and Shoalhaven. The Snowy river has the greater part of its
  course in New South Wales, but its mouth and the last 120 m. are in
  Victoria. The other rivers worth mentioning are the Yarra, entering
  the sea at Port Phillip, Hopkins and Glenelg. The Murray (q.v.), the
  greatest river of Australia, debouches into Lake Alexandrina, and
  thence into the sea at Encounter Bay in South Australia. There are no
  other rivers of importance in South Australia, but the Torrens and the
  Gawler may be mentioned. Westward of South Australia, on the shores of
  the Australian Bight, there is a stretch of country 300 m. in length
  unpierced by any streams, large or small, but west of the bight,
  towards Cape Leeuwin, some small rivers enter the sea. The south-west
  coast is watered by a few streams, but none of any size; amongst these
  is the Swan, upon which Perth, the capital of Western Australia, is
  built. Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are
  the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the
  Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the
  Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord. In the Northern Territory
  are several fine rivers. The Victoria river is navigable for large
  vessels for a distance of about 43 m. from the sea, and small vessels
  may ascend for another 80 m. The Fitzmaurice, discharging into the
  estuary of the Victoria, is also a large stream. The Daly, which in
  its upper course is called the Katherine, is navigable for a
  considerable distance, and small vessels are able to ascend over 100
  m. The Adelaide, discharging into Adam Bay, has been navigated by
  large vessels for about 38 m., and small vessels ascend still farther.
  The South Alligator river, flowing into Van Diemen's Gulf, is also a
  fine stream, navigable for over 30 m. by large vessels; the East
  Alligator river, falling into the same gulf, has been navigated for 40
  m. Besides those mentioned, there are a number of smaller rivers
  discharging on the north coast, and on the west shore of the Gulf of
  Carpentaria the Roper river discharges itself into Limmen Bight. The
  Roper is a magnificent stream, navigable for about 75 or 80 m. by
  vessels of the largest tonnage, and light draught vessels can ascend
  20 m. farther. Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of
  Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large
  rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders,
  Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia,
  Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
  The rivers flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria, as well as those in
  the Northern Territory, drain country which is subject to regular
  monsoonal rains, and have the general characteristics of sub-tropical
  rivers.

  The network of streams forming the tributaries of the Darling and
  Murray system give an idea of a well-watered country. The so-called
  rivers have a strong flow only after heavy rains, and some of them do
  not ever reach the main drainage line. Flood waters disappear often
  within a distance of a few miles, being absorbed by porous soil,
  stretches of sand, and sometimes by the underlying bed-rocks. In many
  cases the rivers as they approach the main stream break up into
  numerous branches, or spread their waters over vast flats. This is
  especially the case with the tributaries of the Darling on its left
  bank, where in seasons of great rains these rivers overspread their
  banks and flood the flat country for miles around and thus reach the
  main stream. Lieutenant John Oxley went down the Lachlan (1817) during
  one of these periods of flood, and the great plains appeared to him to
  be the fringe of a vast inland sea. As a matter of fact, they are an
  alluvial deposit spread out by the same flood waters. The great rivers
  of Australia, draining inland, carve out valleys, dissolve limestone,
  and spread out their deposit over the plains when the waters become
  too sluggish to bear their burden farther. From a geological
  standpoint, the Great Australian Plain and the fertile valley of the
  Nile have had a similar origin. Taking the Lachlan as one type of
  Australian river, we find it takes its rise amongst the precipitous
  and almost unexplored valleys of the Great Dividing Range. With the
  help of its tributaries it acts as a denuding agent for 14,000 sq. m.
  of country, and carries its burden of sediment westwards. A point is
  reached about 200 m. from the Dividing Range, where the river ceases
  to act as a denuding agent, and the area of deposition begins, at a
  level of 250 ft. above the sea, but before the waters can reach the
  ocean they have still to travel about 1000 m.

  The Darling is reckoned amongst the longest rivers in the world, for
  it is navigable, part of the year, from Walgett to its confluence with
  the Murray, 1758 m., and then to the sea, a further distance of 587
  m.--making in all 2345 m. of navigable water. But this gives no
  correct idea of the true character of the Darling, for it can hardly
  be said to drain its own watershed. From the sources of its various
  tributaries to the town of Bourke, the river may be described as
  draining a watershed. But from Bourke to the sea, 550 m. in a direct
  line, the river gives rather than receives water from the country it
  flows through.

  The annual rainfall and the area of the catchment afford no measure
  whatever as to the size of a river in the interior of Australia. The
  discharge of the Darling river at Bourke does not amount to more than
  10% of the rainfall over the country which it drains. It was this
  remarkable fact which first led to the idea that, as the rainfall
  could not be accounted for either by evaporation or by the river
  discharge, much of the 90% unaccounted for must sink into the ground,
  and in part be absorbed by some underlying bed-rock. All Australian
  rivers, except the Murray and the Murrumbidgee, depend entirely and
  directly on the rainfall. They are flooded after rain, and in seasons
  of drought many of them, especially the tributaries of the Darling,
  become chains of ponds. Springs which would equalize the discharge of
  rivers by continuing to pour water into their beds after the rainy
  season has passed seem entirely absent in the interior. Nor are there
  any snowfields to feed rivers, as in the other continents. More
  remarkable still, over large tracts of country the water seems
  disposed to flow away from, rather than to, the river-beds. As the
  low-lying plains are altogether an alluvial deposit, the coarser
  sediments accumulate in the regions where the river first overflows
  its banks to spread out over the plains. The country nearest the river
  receiving the heaviest deposit becomes in this way the highest ground,
  and so continues until a "break-away" occurs, when a new river-bed is
  formed, and the same process of deposition and accumulation is
  repeated. As the general level of the country is raised by successive
  alluvial deposits, the more ancient river-beds become buried, but
  being still connected with the newer rivers at some point or other,
  they continue to absorb water. This underground network of old
  river-beds underlying the great alluvial plains must be filled to
  repletion before flood waters will flow over the surface. It is not
  surprising, therefore, that comparatively little of the rainfall over
  the vast extent of the great central plain ever reaches the sea by way
  of the river systems; indeed these systems as usually shown on the
  maps leave a false impression as to the actual condition of things.


    Steppes.

    Lakes.

  The great alluvial plain is one of Australia's most notable inland
  features; its extent is upwards of 500,000 sq. m., lying east of 135°
  W. and extending right across the continent from the Gulf of
  Carpentaria to the Murray river. The interior of the continent west of
  135° and north of the Musgrave ranges is usually termed by geographers
  the Australian Steppes. It is entirely different in all essential
  features from the great alluvial plains. Its prevailing aspect is
  characterized by flat and terraced hills, capped by desert sandstone,
  with stone-covered flats stretching over long distances. The country
  round Lake Eyre, where some of the land is actually below sea-level,
  comes under this heading. The higher steppes, as far as they are
  known, consist of Ordovician and Cambrian rocks, with an average
  elevation of 1500 to 3000 ft. above sea-level. Over this country
  water-courses are shown on maps. These run in wet seasons, but in
  every instance for a short distance only, and sooner or later they are
  lost in sand-hills, where their waters disappear and a line of stunted
  gum-trees (_Eucalyptus rostrata_) is all that is present to indicate
  that there may be even a soakage to mark the abandoned course. The
  steppes cover a surface of 400,000 sq. m., and from this vast expanse
  not a drop of the scanty rainfall reaches the sea; there is no leading
  drainage system and there are no rivers. Another notable feature of
  the interior is the so-called lake area, a district stretching to the
  north of Spencer Gulf. These lakes are expanses of brackish waters
  that spread or contract as the season is one of drought or rain. In
  seasons of drought they are hardly more than swamps and mud flats,
  which for a time may become a grassy plain, or desolate coast
  encrusted with salt. The country around is the dreariest imaginable,
  the surface is a dead level, there is no heavy timber and practically
  no settlement. Lake Torrens, the largest of these depressions,
  sometimes forms a sheet of water 100 m. in length. To the north again
  stretches Lake Eyre, and to the west Lake Gairdner. Some of these
  lake-beds are at or slightly below sea-level, so that a very slight
  depression of the land to the south of them would connect much of the
  interior with the Southern Ocean.     (T. A. C.)

  _Geology._--The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries,
  which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing,
  mainly, to their different geological structures. Hence the general
  stratigraphical geology can be most conveniently summarized for each
  state separately, dealing here with the geological history of
  Australia as a whole. Australia is essentially the fragment of a great
  plateau land of Archean rocks. It consists in the main of an Archean
  block or "coign," which still occupies nearly the whole of the western
  half of the continent, outcrops in north-eastern Queensland, forms the
  foundation of southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, and is
  exposed in western Victoria, in Tasmania, and in the western flank of
  the Southern Alps of New Zealand. These areas of Archean rocks were
  doubtless once continuous. But they have been separated by the
  foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the
  continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon;
  and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of
  Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales,
  to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of
  eastern and western Australia. The breaking up of the old Archean
  foundation block began in Cambrian and Ordovician times. A narrow
  Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the
  Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the
  Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian
  highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.
  Cambrian rocks occur in each of these districts, and they are best
  developed in the South Australian highlands, where they include a long
  belt of contemporary glacial deposits. Marine Ordovician rocks were
  deposited along the same general course. They are best developed in
  the Macdonnell chain in central Australia and in Victoria, where the
  fullest sequence is known; while they also extended north-eastward
  from Victoria into New South Wales, where, as yet, no Cambrian rocks
  have been found. The Silurian system was marked by the retreat of the
  sea from central Australia; but the sea still covered a band across
  Victoria, from the coast to the Murray basin, passing to the east of
  Melbourne. This Silurian sea was less extensive than the Ordovician in
  Victoria; but it appears to have been wider in New South Wales and in
  Queensland. The best Silurian sequence is in New South Wales. Silurian
  rocks are well developed in western Tasmania, and the Silurian sea
  must have washed the south-western corner of the continent, if the
  rocks of the Stirling Range be rightly identified as of this age.

  [Illustration: Geological map of Australia.]

  The Devonian system includes a complex series of deposits, which are
  of most interest in eastern Australia. This period was marked by
  intense earth movements, which affected the whole of the east
  Australian highlands. The Lower Devonian beds are in the main
  terrestrial, or coarse littoral deposits, and volcanic rocks. The
  Middle Devonian was marked by the same great transgression as in
  Europe and America; it produced inland seas, extending into Victoria,
  New South Wales and Queensland, in which were deposited limestones
  with a rich coral fauna. The Upper Devonian was a period of marine
  retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed
  and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines,
  producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the
  similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria. Intrusions
  of granitic _massifs_ in the Devonian period formed the primitive
  mountain axis of Victoria, which extends east and west across the
  state and forms the nucleus of the Victorian highlands. Similar
  granitic intrusions occurred in New South Wales and Queensland, and
  built up a mountain chain, which ran north and south across the
  continent; its worn-down stumps now form the east Australian
  highlands.

  The Carboniferous period began with a marine transgression, enabling
  limestones to form in Tasmania and New South Wales; and at the same
  time the sea first got in along the western edge of the western
  plateau, depositing the Carboniferous rocks of the Gascoyne basin and
  the coastal plain of north-western Australia. The Upper Carboniferous
  period was in the main terrestrial, and during it were laid down the
  coal-seams of New South Wales; they are best developed in the basin of
  the Hunter river, and they extend southward, covered by Mesozoic
  deposits, beyond Sydney. The Coal Measures become narrower in the
  south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the
  Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast. The coal-seams must have been
  formed in well-watered, lowland forests, at the foot of a high
  mountain range, built up by the Devonian earth movements. The
  mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and
  glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial
  deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain
  ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote
  and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and of Branxton and other
  localities in New South Wales. The age of the glacial deposits is
  later than the _Glossopteris_ flora and occurs early in the time of
  the _Gangamopteris_ flora. Kitson's work in Tasmania shows that there
  also the glacial beds may be correlated with the lower or Greta Coal
  Measures of New South Wales.

  The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and
  Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the
  Carboniferous conditions. The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land
  period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the
  Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which
  fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in
  New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of
  sandstones and shales. They also occur in northern Tasmania.

  The Jurassic system is represented by two types. In Victoria,
  Tasmania, northern New South Wales and Queensland, there are Jurassic
  terrestrial deposits, containing the coal seams of Victoria, of the
  Clarence basin of north-eastern New South Wales, and of the Ipswich
  series in Queensland; the same beds range far inland on the western
  slopes of the east Australian highlands in New South Wales and
  Queensland and they occur, with coal-seams, at Leigh's Creek, at the
  northern foot of the South Australian highlands. They are also
  preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal
  deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore. The second and
  marine type of the Jurassics occurs in Western Australia, on the
  coastal plain skirting the western foot of the western plateau.

  The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area
  to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous
  sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South
  Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia. In this sea
  were laid down the shales of the Rolling Downs formation. The sea does
  not appear to have extended completely across Australia, breaking it
  into halves, for a projection from the Archean plateau of Western
  Australia extended as far east as the South Australian highlands, and
  thence probably continued eastward, till it joined the Victorian
  highlands. The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the
  Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the
  sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.

  The Kainozoic period opened with fresh earth movements, the most
  striking evidence of which are the volcanic outbreaks all round the
  Australian coasts. These movements in the south-east formed the Great
  Valley of Victoria, which traverses nearly the whole of the state
  between the Victorian highlands to the north, and the Jurassic
  sandstones of the Otway Ranges and the hills of south Gippsland. In
  this valley were laid down, either in Eocene or Oligocene times, a
  great series of lake beds and thick accumulations of brown coal.
  Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and
  New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic
  volcanic period of Australasia. The first eruptions piled up huge
  domes of lavas rich in soda, including the geburite-dacites and
  sölvsbergites of Mount Macedon in Victoria, and the kenyte and
  tephrite domes of Dunedin, in New Zealand. These rocks were followed
  by the outpouring of the extensive older basalts in the Great Valley
  of Victoria and on the highlands of eastern Victoria, and also in New
  South Wales and Queensland. Then followed a marine transgression along
  most of the southern coast of Australia. The sea encroached far on the
  land from the Great Australian Bight and there formed the limestones
  of the Nullarbor Plains. The sea extended up the Murray basin into the
  western plains of New South Wales. Farther east the sea was
  interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and
  Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing
  the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong. These marine
  deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia;
  but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in
  New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand. No doubt eastern
  Australia then extended far out into the Tasman Sea. The great
  monoclinal fold which formed the eastern face of the east Australian
  highlands, west of Sydney, is of later age. After this marine period
  was brought to a close the sea retreated. Tasmania and Victoria were
  separated by the foundering of Bass Strait, and at the same time the
  formation of the rift valley of Spencer Gulf, and Lake Torrens,
  isolated the South Australian highlands from the Eyre Peninsula and
  the Westralian plateau. Earth movements are still taking place both
  along Bass Strait and the Great Valley of South Australia, and
  apparently along the whole length of the southern coast of Australia.

  _The Flowing Wells of Central Australia._--The clays of the Rolling
  Downs formation overlie a series of sands and drifts, saturated with
  water under high pressure, which discharges at the surface as a
  flowing well, when a borehole pierces the impermeable cover. The first
  of these wells was opened at Kallara in the west of New South Wales in
  1880. In 1882, Dr W.L. Jack concluded that western Queensland might be
  a deep artesian basin. The Blackhall bore, put down at his advice from
  1885 to 1888, reached a water-bearing layer at the depth of 1645 ft.
  and discharged 291,000 gallons a day. It was the first of the deep
  artesian wells of the continent. As the plains on the Rolling Downs
  formation are mostly waterless, the discovery of this deep reservoir
  of water has been of great aid in the development of central
  Australia. In Queensland to the 30th of June 1904, 973 wells had been
  sunk, of which 596 were flowing wells, and the total flow was
  62,635,722 cub. ft. a day. The deepest well is that at Whitewood, 5046
  ft. deep. In New South Wales by the 30th of June 1903, the government
  had put down 101 bores producing 66 flowing wells and 22 sub-artesian
  wells, with a total discharge of 54,000,000 gallons a day; and there
  were also 144 successful private wells. In South Australia there are
  38 deep bores, from 20 of which there is a flow of 6,250,000 gallons a
  day.

  The wells were first called artesian in the belief that the ascent of
  the water in them was due to the hydrostatic pressure of water at a
  higher level in the Queensland hills. The well-water was supposed to
  have percolated underground, through the Blythesdale Braystone, which
  outcrops in patches on the eastern edge of the Rolling Downs
  formation. But the Blythesdale Braystone is a small local formation,
  unable to supply all the wells that have been sunk; and many of the
  wells derive their water from the Jurassic shales and mudstones. The
  difference in level between the outcrop of the assumed eastern intake
  and of the wells is often so small, in comparison with their distance
  apart, that the friction would completely sop up the whole of the
  available hydrostatic head. Many of the well-waters contain gases;
  thus the town of Roma is lighted by natural gas which escapes from its
  well. The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular
  distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the
  underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells
  of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not
  explained on the simple hydrostatic theory. J.W. Gregory has
  maintained (_Dead Heart of Australia_, 1906, pp. 273-341) that the
  ascent of water in these wells is due to the tension of the included
  gases and the pressure of overlying sheets of rocks, and that some of
  the water is of plutonic origin.[1]     (J. W. G.)

_Climate._--The Australian continent, extending over 28° of latitude,
might be expected to show a considerable diversity of climate. In
reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the
other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic
circle and (11°) from the equator. There is, besides, a powerful
determining cause in the uniform character and undivided extent of its
dry interior. The plains and steppes already described lie either within
or close to the tropics. They present to the fierce play of the sun
almost a level surface, so that during the day that surface becomes
intensely heated and at night gives off its heat by radiation.
Ordinarily the alternate expansion and contraction of the atmosphere
which takes place under such circumstances would draw in a supply of
moisture from the ocean, but the heated interior, covering some 900,000
sq. m., is so immense, that the moist air from the ocean does not come
in sufficient supply, nor are there mountain chains to intercept the
clouds which from time to time are formed; so that two-fifths of
Australia, comprising a region stretching from the Australian Bight to
20° S. and from 117° to 142° E., receives less than an average of 10 in.
of rain throughout the year, and a considerable portion of this region
has less than 5 in. No part of Victoria and very little of Queensland
and New South Wales lie within this area. The rest of the continent may
be considered as well watered. The north-west coast, particularly the
portions north of Cambridge Gulf and the shores of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, are favoured with an annual visitation of the monsoon from
December to March, penetrating as far as 500 m. into the continent, and
sweeping sometimes across western and southern Queensland to the
northern interior of New South Wales. It is this tropical downpour that
fills and floods the rivers flowing into Lake Eyre and those falling
into the Darling on its right bank. The whole of the east coast of the
continent is well watered. From Cape York almost to the tropic of
Capricorn the rainfall exceeds 50 in. and ranges to over 70 in. At
Brisbane the fall is 50 in., and portions of the New South Wales coast
receive a like quantity, but speaking generally the fall is from 30 in.
to 40 in. The southern shores of the continent receive much less rain.
From Cape Howe to Melbourne the fall may be taken at from 30 in. to 40
in., Melbourne itself having an average of 25.6 in. West of Port Phillip
the fall is less, averaging 20 in. to 30 in., diminishing greatly away
from the coast. Along the shores of Encounter Bay and St Vincent and
Spencer Gulfs, the precipitation ranges from 10 to 20 in., the yearly
rainfall at Adelaide is a little less than 21 in., while the head of
Spencer Gulf is within the 5 to 10 in. district. The rest of the
southern coast west as far as 124° E., with the exception of the
southern projection of Eyre Peninsula, which receives from 10 to 20 in.,
belongs to the district with from 5 to 10 in. annual rainfall. The
south-western angle of the continent, bounded by a line drawn diagonally
from Jurien river to Cape Riche, has an average of from 30 to 40 in.
annual rainfall, diminishing to about 20 to 30 in. in the country along
the diagonal line. The remainder of the south and west coast from 124°
E. to York Sound in the Kimberley district for a distance of some 150 m.
inland has a fall ranging from 10 to 20 in. The 10 to 20 in. rainfall
band circles across the continent through the middle of the Northern
Territory, embraces the entire centre and south-west of Queensland, with
the exception of the extreme south-western angle of the state, and
includes the whole of the interior of New South Wales to a line about
200 m. from the coast, as well as the western and northern portions of
Victoria and South Australia south of the Murray.

  The area of Australia subject to a rainfall of from 10 to 20 in. is
  843,000 sq. m. On the seaward side of this area in the north and east
  is the 20 to 30 in. annual rainfall area, and still nearer the sea are
  the exceptionally well-watered districts. The following table shows
  the area of the rainfall zones in square miles:--

                           Rainfall Area
       Rainfall.             in sq. m.

     Under 10 inches         1,219,600
     10 to 20   "              843,100
     20 to 30   "              399,900
     30 to 40   "              225,700
     40 to 50   "              140,300
     50 to 60   "               47,900
     60 to 70   "               56,100
     Over 70    "               14,100
                             ---------
                    Total    2,946,700

  The tropic of Capricorn divides Australia into two parts. Of these the
  northern or intertropical portion contains 1,145,000 sq. m.,
  comprising half of Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the
  north-western divisions of Western Australia. The whole of New South
  Wales, Victoria and South Australia proper, half of Queensland, and
  more than half of Western Australia, comprising 1,801,700 sq. m., are
  without the tropics. In a region so extensive very great varieties of
  climate are naturally to be expected, but it may be stated as a
  general law that the climate of Australia is milder than that of
  corresponding lands in the northern hemisphere. During July, which is
  the coldest month in southern latitudes, one-half of Australia has a
  mean temperature ranging from 45° to 61°, and the other half from 62°
  to 80°. The following are the areas subject to the various average
  temperatures during the month referred to:--

    Temperature          Area
       Fahr.           in sq. m.

      45°-50°           18,800
      50°-55°          506,300
      55°-60°          681,800
      60°-65°          834,400
      65°-70°          515,000
      70°-75°          275,900
      75°-80°           24,500

  The temperature in December ranges from 60° to above 95° Fahr., half
  of Australia having a mean temperature below 84°. Dividing the land
  into zones of average summer temperature, the following are the areas
  which would fall to each:--

    Temperature          Area
       Fahr.           in sq. m.

      60°-65°           67,800
      65°-70°           63,700
      70°-75°          352,300
      75°-80°          439,200
      80°-85°          733,600
      85°-90°          570,600
      90°-95°          584,100
      95° and over     135,400

  Judging from the figures just given, it must be conceded that a
  considerable area of the continent is not adapted for colonization by
  European races. The region with a mean summer temperature in excess of
  95° Fahr. is the interior of the Northern Territory north of the 20th
  parallel; and the whole of the country, excepting the seaboard, lying
  between the meridians of 120° and 140°, and north of the 25th
  parallel, has a mean temperature in excess of 90° Fahr.


    Queensland.

  The area of Australia is so large that the characteristics of its
  climate will not be understood without reference to the individual
  states. About one-half of the colony of Queensland lies in the
  tropics, the remaining area lying between the tropic and 29° S. The
  temperature, however, has a daily range less than that of other
  countries under the same isothermal lines. This circumstance is due to
  the sea-breezes, which blow with great regularity, and temper what
  would otherwise be an excessive heat. The hot winds which prevail
  during the summer in some of the other colonies are unknown in
  Queensland. Of course, in a territory of such large extent there are
  many varieties of climate, and the heat is greater along the coast
  than on the elevated lands of the interior. In the northern parts of
  the colony the high temperature is very trying to persons of European
  descent. The mean temperature at Brisbane, during December, January
  and February, is about 76°, while during the months of June, July and
  August it averages about 60°. Brisbane, however, is situated near the
  extreme southern end of the colony, and its average temperature is
  considerably less than that of many of the towns farther north. Thus
  the winter in Rockhampton averages nearly 65°, while the summer heat
  rises almost to 85°; and at Townsville and Normanton the average
  temperature is still higher. The average rainfall along the coast is
  high, especially in the north, where it ranges from 60 to 70 in. per
  annum, and along a strip of country south from Cape Melville to
  Rockingham Bay the average rainfall exceeds 70 in. At Brisbane the
  rainfall is about 50 in., taking an average of forty years. A large
  area of the interior is watered to the extent of 20 to 30 in. per
  annum, but in the west and south, more remote than from 250 to 300 m.,
  there is a rainfall of less than 20 in.


    New South Wales.

  Climatically, New South Wales is divided into three marked divisions.
  The coastal region has an average summer temperature ranging from 78°
  in the north to 67° in the south, with a winter temperature of from
  59° to 52°. Taking the district generally, the difference between the
  mean summer and mean winter temperatures may be set down as averaging
  not more than 20°, a range smaller than is found in most other parts
  of the world. Sydney, situated in latitude 33° 51' S., has a mean
  temperature of 62.9° Fahr., which corresponds with that of Barcelona
  in Spain and of Toulon in France, the former of these being in
  latitude 41° 22' N. and the latter in 43° 7' N. At Sydney the mean
  summer temperature is 70.8° Fahr., and that of winter 53.9°. The range
  is thus 16.9° Fahr. At Naples, where the mean temperature for the year
  is about the same as at Sydney, the summer temperature reaches a mean
  of 74.4°, and the mean of winter is 47.6°, with a range 26.8°. The
  mean temperature of Sydney for a long series of years was spring 62°,
  summer 71°, autumn 64°, winter 54°.

  Passing from the coast to the tableland, a distinct climatic region is
  entered. Cooma, with a mean summer temperature of 65.4°, and a mean
  winter temperature of 41.4°, may be taken as illustrative of the
  climate of the southern tableland, and Armidale of the northern. The
  yearly average temperature of the latter is scarcely 65.5°, while the
  summer only reaches 67.7°, and the winter falls to 44.4°.

  The climatic conditions of the western districts of the state are
  entirely different from those of the other two regions. The summer is
  hot, but on the whole the climate is very healthy. The town of Bourke,
  lying on the upper Darling, may be taken as an example of many of the
  interior districts, and illustrates peculiarly well the defects as
  well as the excellencies of the climate of the whole region. Bourke
  has exactly the same latitude as Cairo, yet its mean summer
  temperature is 1.3° less, and its mean annual temperature 4° less than
  that of the Egyptian city. New Orleans, also on the same parallel, is
  4° hotter in summer. As regards winter temperature Bourke leaves
  little to be desired. The mean winter reading of the thermometer is
  54.7, and accompanied as this is by clear skies and an absence of
  snow, the season is both pleasant and invigorating. The rainfall of
  New South Wales ranges from an annual average of 64 in. at various
  points on the northern coast, and at Kiandra in the Monaro district,
  to 9 in. at Milparinka in the trans-Darling district. The coastal
  districts average about 42 in. per annum, the tablelands 32 in., and
  the western interior has an average as low as 20 in. At Sydney, the
  average rainfall, since observations were commenced, has been 50 in.


    Victoria.

  The climate of Victoria does not differ greatly from that of New South
  Wales. The heat, however, is generally less intense in summer, and the
  cold greater in winter. Melbourne, which stands in latitude 37° 50'
  S., has a mean temperature of 57.3°, and therefore corresponds with
  Washington in the United States, Madrid, Lisbon and Messina. The
  difference between summer and winter is, however, less at Melbourne
  than at any of the places mentioned, the result of a long series of
  observations being spring 57°, summer 65.3°, autumn 58.7°, and winter
  49.2°. The highest recorded temperature in the shade at Melbourne is
  110.7°, and the lowest 27°, but it is rare for the summer heat to
  exceed 85°, or for the winter temperature in the daytime to fall below
  40°. Ballarat, the second city of Victoria, lies above 100 m. west
  from Melbourne at a height of 1400 ft. above sea-level. It has a
  minimum temperature of 29°, and a maximum of 104.5°, the average
  yearly mean being 54.1°. The rainfall of Melbourne averages 25.58 in.,
  the mean number of rainy days being 131.


    South Australia.

  South Australia proper extends over 26 degrees of latitude, and
  naturally presents considerable variations of climate. The coldest
  months are June, July and August, during which the temperature is very
  agreeable, averaging 53.6°, 51.7°, and 54° in those months
  respectively. On the plains slight frosts occur occasionally, and ice
  is sometimes seen on the highlands. In summer the sun has great
  power, and the temperature reaches 100° in the shade, with hot winds
  blowing from the interior. The weather on the whole is remarkably dry.
  At Adelaide there are on an average 120 rainy days per annum, with a
  mean rainfall of 20-88 in. The country is naturally very healthful, as
  evidence of which may be mentioned that no great epidemic has ever
  visited the state.


    Western Australia.

  Western Australia has practically only two seasons, the winter or wet
  season, which commences in April and ends in October, and the summer
  or dry season, which comprises the remainder of the Year. During the
  wet season frequent and heavy rains fall, and thunderstorms, with
  sharp showers, occur in the summer, especially on the north-west
  coast, which is sometimes visited by hurricanes of great violence. In
  the southern and early-settled parts of the state the mean temperature
  is about 64°, but in the more northern portions the heat is excessive,
  though the dryness of the atmosphere makes it preferable to moist
  tropical climates. The average rainfall at Perth is 33 in. per annum.

  The climate of the Northern Territory is extremely not, except on the
  elevated tablelands; altogether, the temperature of this part of the
  continent is very similar to that of northern Queensland, and the
  climate is not favourable to Europeans. The rainfall in the extreme
  north, especially in January and February, is very heavy, and the
  annual average along the coast is about 63 in. The whole of the
  peninsula north of 15° S. has a rainfall considerably exceeding 40 in.
  This region is backed by a belt of about 100 m. wide, in which the
  rainfall is from 30 to 40 in., from which inwards the rainfall
  gradually declines until between Central Mount Stuart and Macdonnell
  ranges it falls to between 5 and 10 in.

_Fauna and Flora._--The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has
attracted considerable attention. Much accumulated evidence, biological
and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern
extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the
Indian Ocean. The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western
Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these
primitive types. Dr H.O. Forbes drew attention to a certain community
amongst birds and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and amongst plants,
on all the lands stretching towards the south pole. A theory was
therefore propounded that these known types were all derived from a
continent which has been named Antarctica. The supposed continent
extended across the south pole, practically joining Australia and South
America. Just as we have evidence of a former mild climate in the arctic
regions, so a similar mild climate has been postulated for Antarctica.
Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's
remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following
hypothesis:--The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in
early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic
continent or archipelago. From an area corresponding to what is now
South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing
modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia. These immigrants
then developed, with some exceptions, into the present Australian flora
and fauna. This theory has advanced from the position of a disparaged
heresy to acceptance by leading thinkers. The discovery as fossil, in
South America, of primitive or ancestral forms of marsupials has given
it much support. One of these, _Prothylacinus_, is regarded as the
forerunner of the marsupial wolf of Tasmania. An interesting link
between divergent marsupial families, still living in Ecuador, the
_Coenolestes_, is another discovery of recent years. On the Australian
side the fact that Tasmania is richest in marsupial types indicates the
gate by which they entered. It is not to be supposed that this antarctic
element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name _Euronotian_,
entered a desert barren of all life. Previous to its arrival Australia
doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly
invertebrate. At a comparatively recent date Australia received its
third and newest constituent. The islands of Torres Strait have been
shown to be the denuded remnant of a former extension of Cape York
peninsula in North Queensland. Previous to the existence of the strait,
and across its site, there poured into Australia a wealth of Papuan
forms. Along the Pacific slope of the Queensland Cordillera these found
in soil and climate a congenial home. Among the plants the wild banana,
pepper, orange and mangosteen, rhododendron, epiphytic orchids and the
palm; among mammals the bats and rats; among birds the cassowary and
rifle birds; and among reptiles the crocodile and tree snakes,
characterize this element. The numerous facts, geological, geographical
and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this
theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of
the Australian Museum, Sydney.


    Fauna.

  The zoology of Australia and Tasmania presents a very conspicuous
  point of difference from that of other regions of the globe, in the
  prevalence of non-placental mammalia. The vast majority of the
  mammalia are provided with an organ in the uterus, by which, before
  the birth of their young, a vascular connexion is maintained between
  the embryo and the parent animal. There are two orders, the
  Marsupialia and the Monotremata, which do not possess this organ; both
  these are found in Australia, to which region indeed they are not
  absolutely confined.

  The geographical limits of the marsupials are very interesting. The
  opossums of America are marsupials, though not showing anomalies as
  great as kangaroos and bandicoots (in their feet), and _Myrmecobius_
  (in the number of teeth). Except the opossums, no single living
  marsupial is known outside the Australian zoological region. The forms
  of life characteristic of India and the Malay peninsula come down to
  the island of Bali. Bali is separated from Lombok by a strait not more
  than 15 m. wide. Yet this narrow belt of water is the boundary line
  between the Australasian and the Indian regions. The zoological
  boundary passing through the Bali Strait is called "Wallace's line,"
  after the eminent naturalist who was its discoverer. He showed that
  not only as regards beasts, but also as regards birds, these regions
  are thus sharply limited. Australia, he pointed out, has no
  woodpeckers and no pheasants, which are widely-spread Indian birds.
  Instead of these it has mound-making turkeys, honey-suckers, cockatoos
  and brush-tongued lories, all of which are found nowhere else in the
  world.

  The marsupials constitute two-thirds of all the Australian species of
  mammals. It is the well-known peculiarity of this order that the
  female has a pouch or fold of skin upon her abdomen, in which she can
  place the young for suckling within reach of her teats. The opossum of
  America is the only species out of Australasia which is thus provided.
  Australia is inhabited by at least 110 different species of
  marsupials, which is about two-thirds of the known species; these have
  been arranged in five tribes, according to the food they eat, viz.,
  the grass-eaters (kangaroos), the root-eaters (wombats), the
  insect-eaters (bandicoots), the flesh-eaters (native cats and rats),
  and the fruit-eaters (phalangers).

  The kangaroo (_Macropus_) lives in droves in the open grassy plains.
  Several smaller forms of the same general appearance are known as
  wallabies, and are common everywhere. The kangaroo and most of its
  congeners show an extraordinary disproportion of the hind limbs to the
  fore part of the body. The rock wallabies again have short tarsi of
  the hind legs, with a long pliable tail for climbing, like that of the
  tree kangaroo of New Guinea, or that of the jerboa. Of the larger
  kangaroos, which attain a weight of 200 lb. and more, eight species
  are named, only one of which is found in Western Australia. Fossil
  bones of extinct kangaroo species are met with; these kangaroos must
  have been of enormous size, twice or thrice that of any species now
  living.

  There are some twenty smaller species in Australia and Tasmania,
  besides the rock wallabies and the hare kangaroos; these last are
  wonderfully swift, making clear jumps 8 or 10 ft. high. Other
  terrestrial marsupials are the wombat (_Phascolomys_), a large,
  clumsy, burrowing animal, not unlike a pig, which attains a weight of
  from 60 to 100 lb.; the bandicoot (_Perameles_), a rat-like creature
  whose depredations annoy the agriculturist; the native cat
  (_Dasyurus_), noted robber of the poultry yard; the Tasmanian wolf
  (_Thylacinus_), which preys on large game; and the recently discovered
  _Notoryctes_, a small animal which burrows like a mole in the desert
  of the interior. Arboreal species include the well-known opossums
  (_Phalanger_); the extraordinary tree-kangaroo of the Queensland
  tropics; the flying squirrel, which expands a membrane between the
  legs and arms, and by its aid makes long sailing jumps from tree to
  tree; and the native bear (_Phascolarctos_), an animal with no
  affinities to the bear, and having a long soft fur and no tail.

  The _Myrmecobius_ of Western Australia is a bushy-tailed ant-eater
  about the size of a squirrel, and from its lineage and structure of
  more than passing interest. It is, Mivart remarks, a survival of a
  very ancient state of things. It had ancestors in a flourishing
  condition during the Secondary epoch. Its congeners even then lived in
  England, as is proved by the fact that their relics have been found in
  the Stonesfield oolitic rocks, the deposition of which is separated
  from that which gave rise to the Paris Tertiary strata by an abyss of
  past time which we cannot venture to express even in thousands of
  years.

  We pass on to the other curious order of non-placental mammals, that
  of the Monotremata, so called from the structure of their organs of
  evacuation with a single orifice, as in birds. Their abdominal bones
  are like those of the marsupials; and they are furnished with pouches
  for their young, but have no teats, the milk being distilled into
  their pouches from the mammary glands. Australia and Tasmania possess
  two animals of this order--the echidna, or spiny ant-eater (hairy in
  Tasmania), and the _Platypus anatinus_, the duckbilled water mole,
  otherwise named the _Ornithorhynchus paradoxus_. This odd animal is
  provided with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird,
  affixed to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and
  muscles.

  Australia has no apes, monkeys or baboons, and no ruminant beasts. The
  comparatively few indigenous placental mammals, besides the dingo or
  wild dog--which, however, may have come from the islands north of this
  continent--are of the bat tribe and of the rodent or rat tribe. There
  are four species of large fruit-eating bats, called flying foxes,
  twenty of insect-eating bats, above twenty of land-rats, and five of
  water-rats. The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend
  rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many
  cetaceans, besides the "right whale" and sperm whale; and the dugong,
  found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.

  The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be
  deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not
  stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South
  America in the same latitudes. The black swan was thought remarkable
  when discovered, as belying an old Latin proverb. There is also a
  white eagle. The vulture is wanting. Sixty species of parrots, some of
  them very handsome, are found in Australia. The emu corresponds with
  the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the
  cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea. In New Zealand this group is
  represented by the apteryx, as it formerly was by the gigantic moa,
  the remains of which have been found likewise in Queensland. The
  graceful _Menura superba_, or lyre-bird, with its tail feathers spread
  in the shape of a lyre, is a very characteristic form. The
  mound-raising megapodes, the bower-building satin-birds, and several
  others, display peculiar habits. The honey-eaters present a great
  diversity of plumage. There are also many kinds of game birds,
  pigeons, ducks, geese, plovers and quails. The ornithology of New
  South Wales and Queensland is more varied and interesting than that of
  the other provinces.

  As for reptiles, Australia has a few tortoises, all of one family, and
  not of great size. The "leathery turtle," which is herbivorous, and
  yields abundance of oil, has been caught at sea off the Illawarra
  coast so large as 9 ft. in length. The saurians or lizards are
  numerous, chiefly on dry sandy or rocky ground in the tropical region.
  The great crocodile of Queensland has been known to attain a length of
  30 ft.; there is a smaller one about 6 ft. in length to be met with in
  the shallow lagoons of the interior of the Northern Territory. Lizards
  occur in great profusion and variety. The monitor, or fork-tongued
  lizard, which burrows in the earth, climbs and swims, is said to grow
  to a length of 8 to 9 ft. This species and many others do not extend
  to Tasmania. The monitor is popularly known as the goanna, a name
  derived from the iguana, an entirely different animal. There are about
  twenty kinds of night-lizards, and many which hibernate. One species
  can utter a cry when pained or alarmed, and the tall-standing frilled
  lizard can lift its forelegs, and squat or hop like a kangaroo. There
  is also the _Moloch horridus_ of South and Western Australia, covered
  with tubercles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange
  aspect. This and some other lizards have power to change their colour,
  not only from light to dark, but over some portions of their bodies,
  from yellow to grey or red. Frogs of many kinds are plentiful, the
  brilliant green frogs being especially conspicuous and noisy.
  Australia is rich in snakes, and has more than a hundred different
  kinds. Most of these are venomous, but all are not equally dreaded.
  Five rather common species are certainly deadly--the death adder, the
  brown, the black, the superb and the tiger snakes. During the colder
  months these reptiles remain in a torpid state. No certain cure has
  been or is likely to be discovered for their poison, but in less
  serious cases strychnine has been used with advantage. In tropical
  waters a sea snake is found, which, though very poisonous, rarely
  bites. Among the inoffensive species are counted the graceful green
  "tree snake," which pursues frogs, birds and lizards to the topmost
  branches of the forest; also several species of pythons, the commonest
  of which is known as the carpet snake. These great reptiles may attain
  a length of 10 ft.; they feed on small animals which they crush to
  death in their folds.

  The Australian seas are inhabited by many fishes of the same genera as
  exist in the southern parts of Asia and Africa. Of those peculiar to
  Australian waters may be mentioned the arripis, represented by what is
  called among the colonists a salmon trout. A very fine freshwater fish
  is the Murray cod, which sometimes weighs 100 lb.; and the golden
  perch, found in the same river, has rare beauty of colour. Among the
  sea fish, the schnapper is of great value as an article of food, and
  its weight comes up to 50 lb. This is the _Pagrus unicolor_, of the
  family of _Sparidae_, which includes also the bream. Its colours are
  beautiful, pink and red with a silvery gloss; but the male as it grows
  old takes on a singular deformity of the head, with a swelling in the
  shape of a monstrous human-like nose. These fish frequent rocky shoals
  off the eastern coast and are caught in numbers outside Port Jackson
  for the Sydney market. Two species of mackerel, differing somewhat
  from the European species, are also caught on the coasts. The
  so-called red garnet, a pretty fish, with hues of carmine and blue
  stripes on its head, is much esteemed for the table. The _Trigla
  polyommata_, or flying garnet, is a greater beauty, with its body of
  crimson and silver, and its large pectoral fins, spread like wings, of
  a rich green, bordered with purple, and relieved by a black and white
  spot. Whiting, mullet, gar-fish, rock cod and many others known by
  local names, are in the lists of edible fishes belonging to New South
  Wales and Victoria. Oysters abound on the eastern coast, and on the
  shelving banks of a vast extent of the northern coast the pearl oyster
  is the source of a considerable industry.

  Two existing fishes may be mentioned as ranking in interest with the
  _Myrmecobius_ (ant-eater) in the eyes of the naturalist. These are the
  _Ceratodus Forsteri_ and the Port Jackson shark. The "mud-fish" of
  Queensland (_Ceratodus Forsteri_) belongs to an ancient order of
  fishes--the Dipnoi, only a few species of which have survived from
  past geological periods. The Dipnoi show a distinct transition between
  fishes and amphibia. So far the mud-fish has been found only in the
  Mary and the Burnett rivers. Hardly of less scientific interest is the
  Port Jackson shark (_Heterodontus_). It is a harmless helmeted
  ground-shark, living on molluscs, and almost the sole survivor of a
  genus abundant in the Secondary rocks of Europe.


    Flora.

  The eastern parts of Australia are very much richer both in their
  botany and in their zoology than any of the other parts. This is due
  in part to the different physical conditions there prevailing and in
  part to the invasion of the north-eastern portion of the continent by
  a number of plants characteristically Melanesian. This element was
  introduced via Torres Strait, and spread down the Queensland coast to
  portions of the New South Wales littoral, and also round the Gulf of
  Carpentaria, but has never been able to obtain a hold in the more arid
  interior. It has so completely obliterated the original flora, that a
  Queensland coast jungle is almost an exact replication of what may be
  seen on the opposite shores of the straits, in New Guinea. This wealth
  of plant life is confined to the littoral and the coastal valleys, but
  the central valleys and the plateaux have, if not a varied flora, a
  considerable wealth of timber trees in every way superior to the flora
  inland in the same latitudes. In the interior there is little change
  in the general aspect of the vegetation, from the Australian Bight to
  the region of Carpentaria, where the exotic element begins. Behind the
  luxuriant jungles of the sub-tropical coast, once over the main range,
  we find the purely Australian flora with its apparent sameness and
  sombre dulness. Physical surroundings rather than latitude determine
  the character of the flora. The contour lines showing the heights
  above sea-level are the directions along which species spread to form
  zones. Putting aside the exotic vegetation of the north and east
  coast-line, the Australian bush gains its peculiar character from the
  prevalence of the so-called gum-trees (_Eucalyptus_) and the acacias,
  of which last there are 300 species, but the eucalypts above all are
  everywhere. Dwarfed eucalypts fringe the tree-limit on Mount
  Kosciusco, and the soakages in the parched interior are indicated by a
  line of the same trees, stunted and straggling. Over the vast
  continent from Wilson's Promontory to Cape York, north, south, east
  and west--where anything can grow--there will be found a gum-tree. The
  eucalypts are remarkable for the oil secreted in their leaves, and the
  large quantity of astringent resin of their bark. This resinous
  exudation (Kino) somewhat resembles gum, hence the name "gum" tree. It
  will not dissolve in water as gums do, but it is soluble in alcohol,
  as resin usually is. Many of the gum-trees throw off their bark, so
  that it hangs in long dry strips from the trunk and branches, a
  feature familiar in "bush" pictures. The bark, resin and "oils" of the
  eucalyptus are well known as commercial products. As early as 1866,
  tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and
  eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and
  researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs. Baker and
  Smith of the Sydney Technical College, have brought to light many
  other valuable products likely to prove of commercial value. The genus
  _Eucalyptus_ numbers more than 150 species, and provides some of the
  most durable timbers known. The iron-bark of the eastern coast uplands
  is well known (_Eucalyptus sideroxylon_), and is so called from the
  hardness of the wood, the bark not being remarkable except for its
  rugged and blackened aspect. Samples of this timber have been studied
  after forty-three years' immersion in sea-water. Portions most liable
  to destruction, those parts between the tide marks, were found
  perfectly sound, and showed no signs of the ravages of marine
  organisms. Other valuable timber trees of the eastern portion of the
  continent are the blackbutt, tallow-wood, spotted gum, red gum,
  mahogany, and blue gum, eucalyptus; and the turpentine (_Syncarpia
  laurifolia_), which has proved to be more resistant to the attacks of
  teredo than any other timber and is largely used in wharf construction
  in infested waters. There are also several extremely valuable soft
  timbers, the principal being red cedar (_Cedrela Toona_), silky oak
  (_Grevillea robusta_), beech and a variety of teak, with several
  important species of pine. The red gum forests of the Murray valley
  and the pine forests bordering the Great Plains are important and
  valuable. In Western Australia there are extensive forests of
  hardwood, principally jarrah (_Eucalyptus marginata_), a very durable
  timber; 14,000 sq. m. of country are covered with this species. Jarrah
  timber is nearly impervious to the attacks of the teredo, and there is
  good evidence to show that, exposed to wear and weather, or placed
  under the soil, or used as submarine piles, the wood remained intact
  after nearly fifty years' trial. The following figures show the high
  density of Australian timber:--

      Australian       Specific
       timber.         gravity.

    Jarrah              1.12
    Grey iron-bark      1.18
    Red iron-bark       1.22
    Forest oak          1.21
    Tallow wood         1.23
    Mahogany            1.20
    Grey gum             .917
    Red gum              .995

      European         Specific
       timber.         gravity.
    Ash                  .753
    Beech                .690
    Chestnut             .535
    British oak          .99

  The resistance to breaking or rupture of Australian timber is very
  high; grey iron-bark with a specific gravity of 1.18 has a modulus of
  rupture of 17,900 lb. per sq. in. compared with 11,800 lb. for British
  oak with a specific gravity of .69 to .99. No Australian timber in the
  foregoing list has a less modulus than 13,100 lb. per sq. in.

  Various "scrubs" characterize the interior, differing very widely from
  the coastal scrubs. "Mallee" scrub occupies large tracts of South
  Australia and Victoria, covering probably an extent of 16,000 sq. m.
  The mallee is a species of eucalyptus growing 12 to 14 ft. high. The
  tree breaks into thin stems close to the ground, and these branch
  again and again, the leaves being developed umbrella-fashion on the
  outer branches. The mallee scrub appears like a forest of dried osier,
  growing so close that it is not always easy to ride through it. Hardly
  a leaf is visible to the height of one's head; but above, a crown of
  thick leather-like leaves shuts out the sunlight. The ground below is
  perfectly bare, and there is no water. Nothing could add to the
  sterility and the monotony of these mallee scrubs. "Mulga" scrub is a
  somewhat similar thicket, covering large areas. The tree in this
  instance is one of the acacias, a genus distributed through all parts
  of the continent. Some species have rather elegant blossoms, known to
  the settlers as "wattle." They serve admirably to break the sombre and
  monotonous aspect of the Australian vegetation. Two species of acacia
  are remarkable for the delicate and violet-like perfume of their
  wood--myall and yarran. The majority of the species of _Acacia_ are
  edible and serve as reserve fodder for sheep and cattle. In the
  alluvial portions of the interior salsolaceous plants--saltbush,
  bluebush, cottonbush--are invaluable to the pastoralist, and to their
  presence the pre-eminence of Australia as a wool-producing country is
  largely due.

  Grasses and herbage in great variety constitute the most valuable
  element of Australian flora from the commercial point of view. The
  herbage for the most part grows with marvellous rapidity after a
  spring or autumn shower and forms a natural shelter for the more
  stable growth of nutritious grasses.

  Under the system of grazing practised throughout Australia it is
  customary to allow sheep, cattle and horses to run at large all the
  year round within enormous enclosures and to depend entirely upon the
  natural growth of grass for their subsistence. Proteaceous plants,
  although not exclusively Australian, are exceedingly characteristic of
  Australian scenery, and are counted amongst the oldest flowering
  plants of the world. The order is easily distinguished by the hard,
  dry, woody texture of the leaves and the dehiscent fruits. They are
  found in New Zealand and also in New Caledonia, their greatest
  developments being on the south-west of the Australian continent.
  Proteaceae are found also in Tierra del Fuego and Chile. They are also
  abundant in South Africa, where the order forms the most conspicuous
  feature of vegetation. The range in species is very limited, no one
  being common to eastern and western Australia. The chief genera are
  banksia (_honeysuckle_), and hakea (_needle bush_).

  The Moreton Bay pine (_Araucaria Cunninghamii_) is reckoned amongst
  the giants of the forest. The genus is associated with one long
  extinct in Europe. Moreton Bay pine is chiefly known by the utility of
  its wood. Another species, _A. Bidwillii_, or the bunya-bunya,
  afforded food in its nut-like seeds to the aborigines. A most
  remarkable form of vegetation in the north-west is the gouty-stemmed
  tree (_Adansonia Gregorii_), one of the Malvaceae. It is related
  closely to the famous baobab of tropical Africa. The "grass-tree"
  (_Xanthorrhoea_), of the uplands and coast regions, is peculiarly
  Australian in its aspect. It is seen as a clump of wire-like leaves, a
  few feet in diameter, surrounding a stem, hardly thicker than a
  walking-stick, rising to a height of 10 or 12 ft. This terminates in a
  long spike thickly studded with white blossoms. The grass-tree gives
  as distinct a character to an Australian picture as the agave and
  cactus do to the Mexican landscape. With these might be associated the
  gigantic lily of Queensland (_Nymphaea gigantea_), the leaves of which
  float on water, and are quite 18 in. across. There is also a gigantic
  lily (_Doryanthes excelsa_) which grows to a height of 15 feet. The
  "flame tree" is a most conspicuous feature of an Illawarra landscape,
  the largest racemes of crimson red suggesting the name. The waratah or
  native tulip, the magnificent flowering head of which, with the
  kangaroo, is symbolic of the country, is one of the Proteaceae. The
  natives were accustomed to suck its tubular flowers for the honey they
  contained. The "nardoo" seed, on which the aborigines sometimes
  contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps
  and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.
  The spore-cases remain after the plant is dried up and withered. These
  are collected by the natives, and are known over most of the continent
  as nardoo.

  No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account
  satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora. As a step
  towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the
  South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
  There is also to a limited extent a European element present. One
  thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant
  of a vegetation once widely distributed. Heer has described such
  Australian genera as Banksia, Eucalyptus, _Grevillea_ and _Hakea_ from
  the Miocene of Switzerland. Another point agreed upon is that the
  Australian flora is one of vast antiquity. There are genera so far
  removed from every living genus that many connecting links must have
  become extinct. The region extending round the south-western extremity
  of the continent has a peculiarly characteristic assemblage of typical
  Australian forms, notably a great abundance of the Proteaceae. This
  flora, isolated by arid country from the rest of the continent, has
  evidently derived its plant life from an outside source, probably from
  lands no longer existing.


POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

_Population._[2]--The Australian people are mainly of British origin,
only 3¼% of the population of European descent being of non-British
race. It is certain that the aborigines (see the section on Aborigines
below) are very much less numerous than when the country was first
colonized, but their present numbers can be given for only a few of the
states. At the census of 1901, 48,248 aborigines were enumerated, of
whom 7434 were in New South Wales, 652 in Victoria, 27,123 in South
Australia, and 6212 in Western Australia. The assertion by the
Queensland authorities that there are 50,000 aborigines in that state is
a crude estimate, and may be far wide of the truth. In South Australia
and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of
settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in
Queensland. The census of Western Australia included only those
aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of
this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it
may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of
the whole number of persons of that race in the state. Taking all things
into consideration, the aboriginal population of the continent may be
set down at something like 180,000. Chinese, numbering about 30,000, are
chiefly found in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and the Northern
Territory. Of Japanese there were 3500, of Hindu and Sinhalese 4600,
according to recent computation, but the policy of the Commonwealth is
adverse to further immigration of other than whites. South Sea Islanders
and other coloured races, numbering probably about 15,000, were in 1906
to be found principally in Queensland, but further immigration of
Pacific Islanders to Australia is now restricted, and the majority of
those in the country in 1906 were deported by the middle of 1907.

At the close of 1906 the population of Australia was approximately
4,120,000, exclusive of aborigines. The increase of population since
1871 was as follows: 1871, 1,668,377; 1881, 2,252,617; 1891, 3,183,237;
1901, 3,773,248. The expansion has been due mainly to the natural
increase; that is, by reason of excess of births over deaths.
Immigration to Australia has been very slight since 1891, owing
originally to the stoppage of progress consequent on the bank crisis of
1893, and, subsequently, to the disinclination of several of the state
governments towards immigration and their failure to provide for the
welfare of immigrants on their arrival. During 1906 a more rational view
of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments
and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now
systematically encouraged. Australia's gain of population by
immigration,--i.e. the excess of the inward over the outward movement
of a population--since the discovery of gold in 1851, arranged in ten
years periods, was

  1852-1861      520,713
  1862-1871      188,158
  1872-1881      223,326
  1882-1891      374,097
  1892-1901        2,377

During the five years following the last year of the foregoing table,
there was practically no increase in population by immigration.

The birth rate averages 26.28 per thousand of the population and the
death rate 12.28, showing a net increase of 14 per thousand by reason of
the excess of births over deaths. The marriage rate varies as in other
countries from year to year according to the degree of prosperity
prevailing. In the five years 1881-1888 the rate was 8.08 marriages
(16.1 persons) per thousand of the population, declining to 6.51 in
1891-1895; in recent years there has been a considerable improvement,
and the Australian marriage rate may be quoted as ranging between 6.75
and 7.25. The death rate of Australia is much below that of European
countries and is steadily declining. During the twenty years preceding
the census of 1901 there was a fall in the death rate of 3.4 per
thousand, of which, however, 1 per thousand is attributable to the
decline in the birth rate, the balance being attributable to improved
sanitary conditions.

_Territorial Divisions._--Australia is politically divided into five
states, which with the island of Tasmania form the Commonwealth of
Australia. The area of the various states is as follows:

                         Sq. m.
  New South Wales       310,700
  Victoria               87,884
  Queensland            668,497
  South Australia       903,690
  Western Australia     975,920
                      ---------
                      2,946,691
  Tasmania               26,215
                      =========
  Commonwealth        2,972,906

To the area of the Commonwealth shown in the table might be added that
of New Guinea, 90,000 sq. m.; this would bring the area of the territory
controlled by the Commonwealth to 3,062,906 sq. m. The distribution of
population at the close of 1906 (4,118,000) was New South Wales
1,530,000, Victoria 1,223,000, Queensland 534,000, South Australia
381,000, Western Australia 270,000, Tasmania 180,000. The rate of
increase since the previous census was 1.5% per annum, varying from 0.31
in Victoria to 2.06 in New South Wales and 6.9 in Western Australia.

Australia contains four cities whose population exceeds 100,000, and
fifteen with over 10,000. The principal cities and towns are Sydney
(pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland,
Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New
South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong,
Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane
(pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich,
and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port
Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000),
Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500)
and Launceston in Tasmania.

_Defence._--Up to the end of the 19th century, little was thought of any
locally-raised or locally-provided defensive forces, the mother-country
being relied upon. But the Transvaal War of 1899-1902, to which
Australia sent 6310 volunteers (principally mounted rifles), and the
gradual increase of military sentiment, brought the question more to the
front, and more and more attention was given to making Australian
defence a matter of local concern. Naval defence in any case remained
primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for
ten years) between the British government and the governments of the
Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New
Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters,
Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
Under the agreement a royal naval reserve was maintained, three of the
Imperial vessels provided being utilized as drill ships for crews
recruited from the Australian states. At the end of 1908 the strength of
the naval forces under the Commonwealth defence department was:
permanent, 217, naval militia, 1016; the estimated expenditure for
1908-1909 being £63,531. In 1908-1909 a movement began for the
establishment by Australia of a local flotilla of torpedo-boat
destroyers, to be controlled by the Commonwealth in peace time, but
subject to the orders of the British admiralty in war time, though not
to be removed from the Australian coast without the sanction of the
Commonwealth; and by 1909 three such vessels had been ordered in England
preparatory to building others in Australia. The military establishment
at the beginning of 1909 was represented by a small permanent force of
about 1400, a militia strength of about 17,000, and some 6000
volunteers, besides 50,000 members of rifle clubs and 30,000 cadets; the
expenditure being (estimate, 1908-1909) £623,946. But a reorganization
of the military forces, on the basis of obligatory national training,
was already contemplated, though the first Bill introduced for this
purpose by Mr Deakin's government (Sept. 1908) was dropped, and in 1909
the subject was still under discussion.

_Religion._--There is no state church in Australia, nor is the teaching
of religion in any way subsidized by the state. The Church of England
claims as adherents 39% of the population, and the Roman Catholic Church
22%; next in numerical strength are the Wesleyans and other Methodists,
numbering 12%, the various branches of the Presbyterians 11%,
Congregationalists 2%, and Baptists 2%. These proportions varied very
little between 1881 and 1906, and may be taken as accurately
representing the present strength of the various Christian
denominations. Churches of all denominations are liberally supported
throughout the states, and the residents of every settlement, however
small, have their places of worship erected and maintained by their own
contributions.

_Instruction._--Education is very widely distributed, and in every state
it is compulsory for children of school ages to attend school. The
statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and
Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to
12 years, in Queensland 6 to 11 years, and in South Australia 7 to 12
years inclusive. Religious instruction is not imparted by the state-paid
teachers in any state, though in certain states persons duly authorized
by the religious organizations are allowed to give religious instruction
to children of their own denomination where the parents' consent has
been obtained. According to the returns for 1905 there were 7292 state
schools, with 15,628 teachers and 648,927 pupils, and the average
attendance of scholars was 446,000. Besides state schools there were
2145 private schools, with 7825 teachers and 137,000 scholars, the
average number of scholars in attendance being 120,000. The census of
1901 showed that about 83% of the whole population and more than 91% of
the population over five years of age could read and write. There was,
therefore, a residue of 9% of illiterates, most of whom were not born in
Australia. The marriage registers furnish another test of education. In
1905 only ten persons in every thousand married were unable to sign
their names, thus proving that the number of illiterate adults of
Australian birth is very small.

Instruction at state schools is either free or at merely nominal cost,
and high schools, technical colleges and agricultural colleges are
maintained by appropriations from the general revenues of the states.
There are also numerous grammar schools and other private schools.
Universities have been established at Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and
Hobart, and are well equipped and numerously attended; they are in part
supported by grants from the public funds and in part by private
endowments and the fees paid by students. The number of students
attending lectures is about 2500 and the annual income a little over
£100,000. The cost of public instruction in Australia averages about
11s. 4d. per inhabitant, and the cost per scholar in average attendance
at state schools is £4:13:9.

_Pastoral and Agricultural Industries._--The continent is essentially a
pastoral one, and the products of the flocks and herds constitute the
chief element in the wealth of Australia. Practically the whole of the
territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as
well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep
pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre-eminently
adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality. Numerically the
flocks of Australia represent one-sixth of the world's sheep, and in
just over half a century (1851-1905) the exports of Australian wool
alone reached the value of £650,000,000. During the same period, owing
to the efforts of pastoralists to improve their flocks, there was a
gradual increase in the weight of wool produced per sheep from 3¼ lb. to
an average of over 7 lb. The cattle and horse-breeding industries are of
minor importance as compared with wool-growing, but nevertheless
represent a great source of wealth, with vast possibilities of expansion
in the over-sea trade. The perfection of refrigeration in over-sea
carriage, which has done so much to extend the markets for Australian
beef and mutton, has also furthered the expansion of dairying, there
being an annual output of over 160 million lb. of butter, valued at
£6,000,000; of this about 64 million lb., valued at £2,500,000, is
exported annually to British markets.

Next to the pastoral industry, agriculture is the principal source of
Australian wealth. At the close of 1905 the area devoted to tillage was
9,365,000 acres, the area utilized for the production of breadstuffs
being 6,270,000 acres or over two-thirds of the whole extent of
cultivation. At first wheat was cultivated solely in the coastal
country, but experience has shown that the staple cereal can be most
successfully grown over almost any portion of the arable lands within
the 20 to 40 in. rainfall areas. The value of Australian wheat and flour
exported in 1905 was £5,500,000.

Other important crops grown are--maize, 324,000 acres; oats, 493,000
acres; other grains, 160,000 acres; hay, 1,367,000 acres; potatoes,
119,000 acres; sugar-cane, 141,000 acres; vines, 65,000 acres; and other
crops, 422,000 acres. The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South
Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the
acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands
to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal
with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the
yield. Maize and sugar-cane are grown in New South Wales and Queensland.
The vine is cultivated in all the states, but chiefly in South
Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. Australia produces abundant
quantities and nearly all varieties of fruits; but the kinds exported
are chiefly oranges, pineapples, bananas and apples. Tobacco thrives
well in New South Wales and Victoria, but kinds suitable for exportation
are not largely grown. Compared with the principal countries of the
world, Australia does not take a high position in regard to the gross
value of the produce of its tillage, the standard of cultivation being
for the most part low and without regard to maximum returns, but in
value per inhabitant it compares fairly well; indeed, some of the states
show averages which surpass those of many of the leading agricultural
countries. For 1905 the total value of agricultural produce estimated at
the place of production was £18,750,000 sterling, or about £4:13:4 per
inhabitant.

_Timber Industry._--Although the timbers of commercial value are
confined practically to the eastern and a portion of the western coastal
belt and a few inland tracts of Australia, they constitute an important
national asset. The early settlement of heavily timbered country was
characterized by wanton destruction of vast quantities of magnificent
timber; but this waste is a thing of the past, and under the pressure of
a demand for sound timber both for local use and for exportation, the
various governments are doing much to conserve the state forests. In
Western Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland there are
many hundreds of well-equipped saw-mills affording employment to about
5000 men. The export of timber is in ordinary years valued at a million
sterling and the total production at £2,250,000.

_Fisheries._--Excellent fish of many varieties abound in the Australian
seas and in many of the rivers. In several of the states, fish have been
introduced successfully from other countries. Trout may now be taken in
many of the mountain streams. At one time whaling was an important
industry on the coasts of New South Wales and Tasmania, and afterwards
on the Western Australian coasts. The industry gravitated to New
Zealand, and finally died out, chiefly through the wasteful practice of
killing the calves to secure the capture of the mothers. Of late years
whaling has again attracted attention, and a small number of vessels
prosecute the industry during the season. The only source of maritime
wealth that is now being sufficiently exploited to be regarded as an
industry is the gathering of pearl-oysters from the beds off the
northern and north-western coasts of the continent. In Queensland waters
there are about 300 vessels, and on the Western Australian coast about
450 licensed craft engaged in the industry, the annual value of
pearl-shell and pearls raised being nearly half a million sterling.
Owing to the depletion of some of the more accessible banks, and to
difficulties in connexion with the employment of coloured crews, many of
the vessels have now gone farther afield. As the pearl-oyster is
remarkably prolific, it is considered by experts that within a few years
of their abandonment by fishing fleets the denuded banks will become as
abundantly stocked as ever.


  Gold.

_Mineral Production._--Australia is one of the great gold producers of
the world, and its yield in 1905 was about £16,000,000 sterling, or
one-fourth of the gold output of the world; and the total value of its
mineral production was approximately £25,000,000. Gold is found
throughout Australia, and the present prosperity of the states is
largely due to the discoveries of this metal, the development of other
industries being, in a country of varied resources, a natural sequence
to the acquisition of mineral treasure. From the date of its first
discovery, up to the close of 1905, gold to the value of £460,000,000
sterling has been obtained in Australia. Victoria, in a period of
fifty-four years, contributed about £273,000,000 to this total, and is
still a large producer, its annual yield being about 800,000 oz., 29,000
men being engaged in the search for the precious metal. Queensland's
annual output is between 750,000 and 800,000 oz.; the number of men
engaged in gold-mining is 10,000. In New South Wales the greatest
production was in 1852, soon after the first discovery of the precious
metal, when the output was valued at £2,660,946; the production in 1905
was about 270,000 oz., valued at £1,150,000. For many years Western
Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any
value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends
from north to south. The first important discovery was made in 1882,
when gold was found in the Kimberley district; but it was not until a
few years later that this rich and extensive area was developed. In 1887
gold was found in Yilgarn, about 200 m. east of Perth. This was the
first of the many rich discoveries in the same district which have made
Western Australia the chief gold-producer of the Australian group. In
1907 there were eighteen goldfields in the state, and it was estimated
that over 30,000 miners were actively engaged in the search for gold. In
1905 the production amounted to 1,983,000 oz., valued at £8,300,000.
Tasmania is a gold producer to the extent of about 70,000 or 80,000 oz.
a year, valued at £300,000; South Australia produces about 30,000 oz.

Gold is obtained chiefly from quartz reefs, but there are still some
important alluvial deposits being worked. The greatest development of
quartz reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of great
depth. There are eight mines in the Bendigo district over 3000 ft. deep,
and fourteen over 2500 ft. deep. In the Victoria mine a depth of 3750
ft. has been reached, and in Lazarus mine 3424 ft. In the Ballarat
district a depth of 2520 ft. has been reached in the South Star mine. In
Queensland there is one mine 3156 ft. deep, and several others exceed
2000 ft. in depth. A considerable number of men are engaged in the
various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging
is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits. So far this
form of winning is chiefly carried on in New South Wales, where there
are about fifty gold-dredging plants in successful operation. Over
70,000 men are employed in the gold-mining industry, more than
two-thirds of them being engaged in quartz mining.


    Silver.

  Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the
  form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,
  iodide and chloro-bromide of silver, and argentiferous lead ores, the
  largest deposits of the metal being found in the last-mentioned form.
  The leading silver mines are in New South Wales, the returns from the
  other states being comparatively insignificant. The fields of New
  South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver
  and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end
  of the year named over £40,000,000. The Broken Hill field, which was
  discovered in 1883, extends over 2500 sq. m. of country, and has
  developed into one of the principal mining centres of the world. It is
  situated beyond the river Darling, and close to the boundary between
  New South Wales and South Australia. The lodes occur in Silurian
  metamorphic micaceous schists, intruded by granite, porphyry and
  diorite, and traversed by numerous quartz reefs, some of which are
  gold-bearing. The Broken Hill lode is the largest yet discovered. It
  varies in width from 10 ft. to 200 ft., and may be traced for several
  miles. Although indications of silver abound in all the other states,
  no fields of great importance have yet been discovered. Up to the end
  of 1904 Australia had produced silver to the value of £45,000,000. At
  Broken Hill mines about 11,000 miners are employed.


    Copper.

  Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined
  extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and
  Tasmania. The low quotations which ruled for a number of years had a
  depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably
  worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general
  revival. The discovery of copper had a marked effect on the fortunes
  of South Australia at a time when the young colony was surrounded by
  difficulties. The first important mine, the Kapunda, was opened up in
  1842. It is estimated that at one time 2000 tons were produced
  annually, but the mine was closed in 1879. In 1845 the celebrated
  Burra Burra mine was discovered. This mine proved to be very rich, and
  paid £800,000 in dividends to the original owners. For a number of
  years, however, the mine has been suffered to remain untouched, as the
  deposits originally worked were found to be depicted. For many years
  the average output was from 10,000 to 13,000 tons of ore, yielding
  from 22 to 23% of copper. For the period of thirty years during which
  the mine was worked the production of ore amounted to 234,648 tons,
  equal to 51,622 tons of copper, valued at £4,749,924. The Wallaroo and
  Moonta mines, discovered in 1860 and 1861, proved to be even more
  valuable than the Burra Burra, the Moonta mines employing at one time
  upwards of 1600 hands. The dividends paid by these mines amounted to
  about £1,750,000 sterling. The satisfactory price obtained during
  recent years has enabled renewed attention to be paid to copper mining
  in South Australia, and the production of the metal in 1905 was valued
  at £470,324. The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are
  found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling
  and Bogan rivers. Deposits have also been found in the New England and
  southern districts, as well as at Broken Hill, showing that the
  mineral is widely distributed throughout the state. The more important
  mines are those of Cobar, where the Great Cobar mine produces annually
  nearly 4000 tons of refined copper. In northern Queensland copper is
  found throughout the Cloncurry district, in the upper basin of the
  Star river, and the Herberton district. The returns from the copper
  fields in the state are at present a little over half a million
  sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the
  lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the
  economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the
  mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication
  with the coast. In Western Australia copper deposits have been worked
  for some years. Very rich lodes of the metal have been found in the
  Northampton, Murchison and Champion Bay districts, and also in the
  country to the south of these districts on the Irwin river. Tasmania
  is now the largest copper-producing state of the Commonwealth; in 1905
  the output was over £672,010 and in earlier years even larger. The
  chief mines belong to the Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., and are
  situated on the west side of the island with an outlet by rail to
  Strahan on the west coast. The total value of copper produced in
  Australia up to the end of 1905 was £42,500,000 sterling, £24,500,000
  having been obtained in South Australia, £7,500,000 in New South
  Wales, £6,400,000 in Tasmania and over £3,500,000 in Queensland.


    Tin.

  Tin was known to exist in Australia from the first years of
  colonization. The wealth of Queensland and the Northern Territory in
  this mineral, according to the reports of Dr Jack, late Government
  geologist of the former state, and the late Rev. J.E. Tenison-Woods,
  appears to be very great. The most important tin-mines in Queensland
  are in the Herberton district, south-west of Cairns; at Cooktown, on
  the Annan and Bloomfield rivers; and at Stanthorpe, on the border of
  New South Wales. Herberton and Stanthorpe have produced more than
  three-fourths of the total production of the state. Towards the close
  of the 19th century the production greatly decreased in consequence of
  the low price of the metal, but in 1899 a stimulus was given to the
  industry, and since then the production has increased very
  considerably, the output for 1905 being valued at £989,627. In New
  South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin
  under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at
  Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England.
  The metal has also been discovered in the Barrier ranges, and many
  other places. The value of the output in 1905 was £226,110. The yield
  of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of
  importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1899
  extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland
  district--at Omeo and Tarwin. In South Australia tin-mining is
  unimportant. In Western Australia the production from the tin-fields
  at Greenbushes and elsewhere was valued at £87,000. Tasmania during
  the last few years has attained the foremost position in the
  production of tin, the annual output now being about £363,000. The
  total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling
  per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was
  £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales
  one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.


    Iron.

  Iron is distributed throughput Australia, but for want of capital for
  developing the fields this industry has not progressed. In New South
  Wales there are, together with coal and limestone in unlimited supply,
  important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes;
  and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of
  manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available. The most extensive
  fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which
  are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of
  ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron. Extensive deposits,
  which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being
  estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000
  tons of ore. Magnetite, or magnetic iron, the richest of all iron
  ores, is found in abundance near Wallerawang in New South Wales. The
  proximity of coal-beds now being worked should accelerate the
  development of the iron deposits, which, on an average, contain 41% of
  metal. Magnetite occurs in great abundance in Western Australia,
  together with haematite, which would be of enormous value if cheap
  labour were available. Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in
  New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation
  and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value
  by their proximity to coal-beds. Near Lithgow extensive deposits of
  limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal. Some samples of
  ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with
  pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the
  Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.


    Other Minerals.

  Antimony is widely diffused throughout Australia, and is sometimes
  found associated with gold. In New South Wales the principal centre of
  this industry is Hillgrove, near Armidale, where the Eleanora Mine,
  one of the richest in the state, is situated. The ore is also worked
  for gold. In Victoria the production of antimony gave employment in
  1890 to 238 miners, but owing to the low price of the metal,
  production has almost ceased. In Queensland the fields were all
  showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large
  increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of
  Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased. Good lodes
  of stibnite (sulphide of antimony) have been found near Roebourne in
  Western Australia, but no attempt has yet been made to work them.

  Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the
  present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz. New
  South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania. It is usually
  found in association with tin and other minerals. The principal mine
  in New South Wales is situated at Kingsgate, in the New England
  district, where the mineral is generally associated with molybdenum
  and gold.

  Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been
  found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia,
  the richest specimens being found in New South Wales. Little, however,
  has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial
  markets being extremely limited. The ore generally occurs in the form
  of oxides, manganite and pyrolusite, and contains a high percentage of
  sesquioxide of manganese.

  Platinum and the allied compound metal iridosmine have been found in
  New South Wales, but so far in inconsiderable quantities. Iridosmine
  occurs commonly with gold or tin in alluvial drifts.

  The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at
  Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at
  Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute
  quantities as would not repay the cost of working. At many of the
  mines at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, large quantities of ores of
  telluride of gold have been found in the lode formations.

  Lead is found in all the Australian states, but is worked only when
  associated with silver. In Western Australia the lead occurs in the
  form of sulphides and carbonates of great richness, but the quantity
  of silver mixed with it is very small. The lodes are most frequently
  of great size, containing huge masses of galena, and so little gangue
  that the ore can very easily be dressed to 83 or 84%. The association
  of this metal with silver in the Broken Hill mines of New South Wales
  adds very greatly to the value of the product.

  Mercury is found in New South Wales and Queensland. In New South
  Wales, in the form of cinnabar, it has been discovered on the
  Cudgegong river, near Rylstone, and it also occurs at Bingara,
  Solferino, Yulgilbar and Cooma. In the last-named place the assays of
  ore yielded 22% of mercury.

  Titanium, in the minerals known as octahedrite and brookite, is found
  in alluvial deposits in New South Wales, in conjunction with diamonds.

  Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the
  states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
  Scheelite, another mineral of tungsten, is also found in Queensland.
  Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is
  found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the
  parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.

  Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide,
  sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the
  Australian states but have attracted little attention except in New
  South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to
  produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores. Several
  companies are devoting all their energies to zinc extraction, and the
  output is now equal to about 5% of the world's production.

  Nickel, so abundant in the island of New Caledonia, has up to the
  present been found in none of the Australian states except Queensland
  and Tasmania. Few attempts, however, have been made to prospect
  systematically for this valuable mineral.

  Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and
  efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal
  having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no
  attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale. The
  manganese ores of the Bathurst district of New South Wales often
  contain a small percentage of cobalt--sufficient, indeed, to warrant
  further attempts to work them. In New South Wales chromium is found in
  the northern portion of the state, in the Clarence and Tamworth
  districts and also near Gundagai. It is usually associated with
  serpentine. In the Gundagai district the industry was rapidly becoming
  a valuable one, but the low price of chrome has greatly restricted the
  output. Chromium has been discovered in Tasmania also.

  Arsenic, in its well-known and beautiful forms, orpiment and realgar,
  is found in New South Wales and Victoria. It usually occurs in
  association with other minerals in veins.


    Fuel.

  The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral
  fuel. Five distinct varieties of black coal, of well-characterized
  types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown
  coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
  Brown coal, or lignite, occurs principally in Victoria. Attempts have
  frequently been made to use the mineral for ordinary fuel purposes,
  but its inferior quality has prevented its general use. Black coal
  forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the
  other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly
  developed. Coal of a very fair description was discovered in the basin
  of the Irwin river, in Western Australia, as far back as the year
  1846. It has been ascertained from recent explorations that the area
  of carboniferous formation in that state extends from the Irwin
  northwards to the Gascoyne river, about 300 m., and probably all the
  way to the Kimberley district. The most important discovery of coal in
  the state, so far, is that made in the bed of the Collie river, near
  Bunbury, to the south of Perth. The coal has been treated and found to
  be of good quality, and there are grounds for supposing that there are
  250,000,000 tons in the field. Dr Jack, late government geologist of
  Queensland, considers the extent of the coal-fields of that state to
  be practically unlimited, and is of opinion that the carboniferous
  formations extend to a considerable distance under the Great Western
  Plains. It is roughly estimated that the Coal Measures at present
  practically explored extend over an area of about 24,000 sq. m.
  Coal-mining is an established industry in Queensland, and is
  progressing satisfactorily. The mines, however, are situated too far
  from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an
  export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying
  local requirements. The coal-fields of New South Wales are situated in
  three distinct regions--the northern, southern and western districts.
  The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river
  districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally,
  the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on
  the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on
  the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo. The total area
  of the Carboniferous strata of New South Wales is estimated at 23,950
  sq. m. The seams vary in thickness. One of the richest has been found
  at Greta in the Hunter river district; it contains an average
  thickness of 41 ft. of clean coal, and the quantity underlying each
  acre of ground has been computed to be 63,700 tons. The coal mines of
  New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual
  production is over 6,600,000 tons. Black coal has been discovered in
  Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised. The principal
  collieries in the state are the Outtrim Howitt, the Coal Creek
  Proprietary and the Jumbunna. In South Australia, at Leigh's Creek,
  north of Port Augusta, coal-beds have been discovered. The quantity of
  coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000
  tons.

  Kerosene shale (torbanite) is found in several parts of New South
  Wales. It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead
  mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile
  hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral. The richest quality yields
  about 100 to 130 gallons of crude oil per ton, or 17,000 to 18,000
  cub. ft. of gas, with an illuminating power of 35 to 40 sperm candles,
  when gas only is extracted from the shale.

  Large deposits of alum occur close to the village of Bulladelah, 30 m.
  from Port Stephens, New South Wales. It is said to yield well, and a
  quantity of the manufactured alum is sent to Sydney for local
  consumption. Marble is found in many parts of New South Wales and
  South Australia. Kaolin, fire-clays and brick-clays are common to all
  the states. Except in the vicinity of cities and townships, however,
  little use has been made of the abundant deposits of clay. Kaolin, or
  porcelain clay, although capable of application to commercial
  purposes, has not as yet been utilized to any extent, although found
  in several places in New South Wales and in Western Australia.

  Asbestos has been found in New South Wales in the Gundagai Bathurst
  and Broken Hill districts--in the last-mentioned district in
  considerable quantities. Several specimens of very fair quality have
  also been met with in Western Australia.


    Gems.

  Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in
  various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been
  made principally for the diamond and the noble opal. Diamonds are
  found in all the states; but only in New South Wales have any attempts
  been made to work the diamond drifts. The best of the New South Wales
  diamonds are harder and much whiter than the South African diamonds,
  and are classified as on a par with the best Brazilian gems, but no
  large specimens have yet been found. The finest opal known is obtained
  in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New
  South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant
  employment. Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald,
  oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz,
  cairngorm, onyx, zircon, &c., have been found in the gold and tin
  bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the
  states. The sapphire is found in all the states, principally in the
  neighbourhood of Beechworth, Victoria. The oriental topaz has been
  found in New South Wales. Oriental amethysts also have been found in
  that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in
  New South Wales. Turquoises have been found near Wangaratta, in
  Victoria, and mining operations are being carried on in that state.
  Chrysoberyls have been found in New South Wales; spinel rubies in New
  South Wales and Victoria; and white topaz in all the states.
  Chalcedony, carnelian, onyx and cat's eyes are found in New South
  Wales; and it is probable that they are also to be met with in the
  other states, particularly in Queensland. Zircon, tourmaline, garnet
  and other precious stones of little commercial value are found
  throughout Australia.

_Commerce._--The number of vessels engaged in the over-sea trade of
Australia in 1905 was 2112, viz. 1050 steamers, with a tonnage of
2,629,000, and 1062 sailers, tonnage 1,090,000; the total of both
classes was 3,719,000 tons. The nationality of the tonnage was, British
2,771,000, including Australian 288,000, and foreign 948,000. The
destination of the shipping was, to British ports 2,360,000 tons, and to
foreign ports 1,350,000 tons. The value of the external trade was
£95,188,000, viz. £38,347,000 imports, and £56,841,000 exports. The
imports represent £9:11:6 per inhabitant and the exports £14:4:2, with a
total trade of £23:15:8. The import trade is divided between the United
Kingdom and possessions and foreign countries as follows:--United
Kingdom £23,074,000, British possessions £5,384,000, and foreign states
£9,889,000, while the destination of the exports is, United Kingdom
£26,703,000, British possessions £12,519,000, and foreign countries
£17,619,000. The United Kingdom in 1905 sent 60% of the imports taken by
Australia, compared with 26% from foreign countries, and 14% from
British possessions; of Australian imports the United Kingdom takes 47%,
foreign countries 31% and British possessions 22%. In normal years (that
is to say, when there is no large movement of capital) the exports of
Australia exceed the imports by some £15,300,000. This sum represents
the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia,
mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital
invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and
the latter £8,000,000 per annum. The principal items of export are wool,
skins, tallow, frozen mutton, chilled beef, preserved meats, butter and
other articles of pastoral produce, timber, wheat, flour and fruits,
gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and other metals. In 1905 the value of
the wool export regained the £20,000,000 level, and with the rapid
recovery of the numerical strength of the flocks, great improvements in
the quality and weight of fleeces, this item is likely to show permanent
advancement. The exports of breadstuffs--chiefly to the United
Kingdom--exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions,
and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions. Gold is exported
in large quantities from Australia. The total gold production of the
country is from £14,500,000 to £16,000,000, and as not more than
three-quarters of a million are required to strengthen existing local
stocks, the balance is usually available for export, and the average
export of the precious metal during the ten years, 1896-1905, was
£12,500,000 per annum. The chief articles of import are apparel and
textiles, machinery and hardware, stimulants, narcotics, explosives,
bags and sacks, books and paper, oils and tea.

Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports,
with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San
Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines
being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany,
France and Japan.

_Railways._--Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the
property of the state governments, and have been constructed and
equipped wholly by borrowed capital. There were on the 30th of June
1905, 15,000 m. open for traffic, upon which nearly £135,000,000 had
been expended.

  The railways are of different gauges, the standard narrow gauge of 4
  ft. 8½ in. prevailing only in New South Wales; in Victoria the gauge
  is 5 ft. 3 in., in South Australia 5 ft. 3 in. and 3 ft. 6 in., and in
  the other states 3 ft. 6 in. Taking the year 1905, the gross earnings
  amounted to £11,892,262; the working expenses, exclusive of interest,
  £7,443,546; and the net earnings £4,448,716; the latter figure
  represents 3.31% upon the capital expended upon construction and
  equipment; in the subsequent year still better results were obtained.
  In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper,
  the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on
  the money borrowed for their construction. The earnings per train-mile
  vary greatly; but for all the lines the average is 7s. 1d., and the
  working expenses about 4s. 5d., making the net earnings 2s. 8d. per
  train-mile. The ratio of receipts from coaching traffic to total
  receipts is about 41%, which is somewhat less than in the United
  Kingdom; but the proportion varies greatly amongst the states
  themselves, the more densely populated states approaching most nearly
  to the British standard. The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about
  16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered
  fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage
  consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
  Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the
  length of railways in private hands is only 382 m. or about 2½% of the
  total mileage open. Of this length, 277 m. are in Western Australia.
  The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other
  states was caused by the inability of the government to construct
  lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in
  the interests of settlement. Private enterprise was, therefore,
  encouraged by liberal grants of land to undertake the work of
  construction; but the changed conditions of the state have now altered
  the state policy, and the government have already acquired one of the
  two trunk lines constructed by private enterprise, and it is not
  likely that any further concessions in regard to railway construction
  will be granted to private persons.

  _Posts and Telegraphs._--The postal and telegraphic facilities offered
  by the various states are very considerable. There are some 6686
  post-offices throughout the Commonwealth, or about one office to every
  600 persons. The letters carried amount to about 80 per head, the
  newspapers to 32 per head and the packets to 15 per head. The length
  of telegraph lines in use is 46,300 m., and the length of wire nearly
  three times that distance. In 1905 there were about 11,000,000
  telegraphic messages sent, which gives an average of 2.7 messages per
  inhabitant. The postal services and the telegraphs are administered by
  the federal government.

  _Banking._--Depositors in savings banks represent about twenty-nine in
  every hundred persons, and in 1906 the sum deposited amounted to
  £37,205,000 in the names of 1,152,000 persons. In ordinary banks the
  deposits amounted to £106,625,000, so that the total deposits stood at
  £143,830,000, equivalent to the very large sum of £34, 18s. per
  inhabitant. The coin and bullion held by the banks varies between 20
  and 24 millions sterling and the note circulation is almost stationary
  at about 3¼ millions.

  _Public Finance._--Australian public finance requires to be treated
  under the separate headings of Commonwealth and states finance. Under
  the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the
  postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other
  services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties;
  its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes have been
  imposed other than those just mentioned. The Commonwealth is empowered
  to retain one-fourth of the net revenue from customs and excise, the
  balance must be handed back to the states. This arrangement was to
  last until 1910. Including the total receipts derived from the
  customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up
  as follows:--

    Customs and excise        £8,999,485
    Posts, telegraphs, &c.     2,824,182
    Other revenue                 55,676
                             -----------
                             £11,879,343

  The return made to the states was £7,385,731, so that the actual
  revenue disposed of by the Commonwealth was less by that amount, or
  £4,493,612. The expenditure was distributed as follows:--

    Customs collection          £261,864
    Posts, telegraphs, &c.     2,774,804
    Defence                      949,286
    Other expenditure            508,887
                               ---------
                   Total      £4,494,841

  The states have the same powers of taxation as the Commonwealth except
  in regard to customs and excise, over which the Commonwealth has
  exclusive power, but the states are the owners of the crown lands, and
  the revenues derived from this source form an important part of their
  income. The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the
  Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of
  customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is
  £31,206,170. Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and
  the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the
  Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing
  the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is
  obtained. For 1906 the respective revenues were:--

    Commonwealth                          £11,879,343
    States                                 23,820,439
                                          -----------
                                          £35,699,782
                                          ===========
    Direct taxation                        £3,200,000
    Indirect taxation; customs and excise   8,999,485
    Land revenue                            3,500,000
    Post-office and telegraphs              2,824,182
    Railways, &c.                          13,650,000
    Other service                           3,526,115

  The revenue from direct taxation is equal to 15s. 10d. per inhabitant,
  from indirect taxation £2:4:6, and the total revenue from all sources
  £35,699,782, equal to £8:16:2 per inhabitant. The federal government
  has no public debt, but each of the six states has contracted debts
  which aggregate £237,000,000, equal to about £58, 8s. per inhabitant.
  The bulk of this indebtedness has been contracted for the purpose of
  constructing railways, tramways, water-supplies, and other
  revenue-producing works and services, and it is estimated that only 8%
  of the total indebtedness can be set down for unproductive services.

  Information regarding Australian state finance will be found under the
  heading of each state.     (T. A. C.)


ABORIGINES

The origin of the natives of Australia presents a difficult problem. The
chief difficulty in deciding their ethnical relations is their
remarkable physical difference from the neighbouring peoples. And if one
turns from physical criteria to their manners and customs it is only to
find fresh evidence of their isolation. While their neighbours, the
Malays, Papuans and Polynesians, all cultivate the soil, and build
substantial huts and houses, the Australian natives do neither. Pottery,
common to Malays and Papuans, the bows and arrows of the latter, and the
elaborate canoes of all three races, are unknown to the Australians.
They then must be considered as representing an extremely primitive type
of mankind, and it is necessary to look far afield for their prehistoric
home.


  Origin.

Wherever they came from, there is abundant evidence that their first
occupation of the Australian continent must have been at a time so
remote as to permit of no traditions. No record, no folk tales, as in
the case of the Maoris of New Zealand, of their migration, are preserved
by the Australians. True, there are legends and tales of tribal
migrations and early tribal history, but nothing, as A.W. Howitt points
out, which can be twisted into referring even indirectly to their first
arrival. It is almost incredible there should be none, if the date of
their arrival is to be reckoned as only dating back some centuries.
Again, while they differ physically from neighbouring races, while there
is practically nothing in common between them and the Malays, the
Polynesians, or the Papuan Melanesians, they agree in type so closely
among themselves that they must be regarded as forming one race. Yet it
is noteworthy that the languages of their several tribes are different.
The occurrence of a large number of common roots proves them to be
derived from one source, but the great variety of dialects--sometimes
unintelligible between tribes separated by only a few miles--cannot be
explained except by supposing a vast period to have elapsed since their
first settlement. There is evidence in the languages, too, which
supports the physical separation from their New Zealand neighbours and,
therefore, from the Polynesian family of races. The numerals in use were
limited. In some tribes there were only three in use, in most four. For
the number "five" a word meaning "many" was employed. This linguistic
poverty proves that the Australian tongue has no affinity to the
Polynesian group of languages, where denary enumeration prevails: the
nearest Polynesians, the Maoris, counting in thousands. Further evidence
of the antiquity of Australian man is to be found in the strict
observance of tribal boundaries, which would seem to show that the
tribes must have been settled a long time in one place.

A further difficulty is created by a consideration of the Tasmanian
people, extinct since 1876. For the Tasmanians in many ways closely
approximated to the Papuan type. They had coarse, short, woolly hair and
Papuan features. They clearly had no racial affinities with the
Australians. They did not possess the boomerang or woomerah, and they
had no boats. When they were discovered, a mere raft of reeds in which
they could scarcely venture a mile from shore was their only means of
navigation. Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in
physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of
Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one
continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass
Strait. How did the Tasmanians with their Papuan affinities get so far
south on a continent inhabited by a race so differing from Papuans? Did
they get to Tasmania before or after its separation from the main
continent? If before, why were they only found in the south? It would
have been reasonable to expect to find them sporadically all over
Australia. If after, how did they get there at all? For it is impossible
to accept the theory of one writer that they sailed or rowed round the
continent--a journey requiring enormous maritime skill, which, according
to the theory, they must have promptly lost.

Four points are clear: (1) the Australians represent a distinct race;
(2) they have no kinsfolk among the neighbouring races; (3) they have
occupied the continent for a very long period; (4) it would seem that
the Tasmanians must represent a still earlier occupation of Australia,
perhaps before the Bass Strait existed.

Several theories have been propounded by ethnologists. An attempt has
been made to show that the Australians have close affinities with the
African negro peoples, and certain resemblances in language and in
customs have been relied on. Sorcery, the scars raised on the body, the
knocking out of teeth, circumcision and rules as to marriage have been
quoted; but many such customs are found among savage peoples far distant
from each other and entirely unrelated. The alleged language
similarities have broken down on close examination. A.R. Wallace is of
the opinion that the Australians "are really of Caucasian type and are
more nearly allied to ourselves than to the civilized Japanese or the
brave and intelligent Zulus." He finds near kinsmen for them in the
Ainus of Japan, the Khmers and Chams of Cambodia and among some of the
Micronesian islanders who, in spite of much crossing, still exhibit
marked Caucasic types. He regards the Australians as representing the
lowest and most primitive examples of this primitive Caucasic type, and
he urges that they must have arrived in Australia at a time when their
ancestors had no pottery, knew no agriculture, domesticated no animals,
had no houses and used no bows and arrows. This theory has been
supported by the investigations of Dr Klaatsch, of the university of
Heidelberg, who would, however, date Australian ancestry still farther
back, for his studies on the spot have convinced him that the
Australians are "a generalized, not a specialized, type of
humanity--that is to say, they are a very primitive people, with more of
the common undeveloped characteristics of man, and less of the qualities
of the specialized races of civilization." Dr Klaatsch's view is that
they are survivals of a primitive race which inhabited a vast Antarctic
continent of which South America, South Africa and Australia once formed
a part, as evidenced by the identity of many species of birds and fish.
He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India
and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were
peopled from one common stock. This theory, plausible and attractive as
it is, and fitting in, as it does, with the acknowledged primitive
character of the Australian blackfellow, overlooks, nevertheless, the
Tasmanian difficulty. Why should a Papuan type be found in what was
certainly once a portion of the Australian continent? The theory which
meets this difficulty is that which has in its favour the greatest
weight of evidence, viz. that the continent was first inhabited by a
Papuan type of man who made his way thither from Flores and Timor, New
Guinea and the Coral Sea. That in days so remote as to be undateable, a
Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the
Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be
regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and
drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of
Australia. It is difficult to believe that they at first arrived in such
numbers as at once to overwhelm the Papuan population. There were
probably several migrations. What seems certain, if this theory is
adopted, is that they did at last accumulate to an extent which
permitted of their mastering the former occupiers of the soil, who were
probably in very scattered and defenceless communities.

In the slow process of time they drove them into the most southerly
corner of Australia, just as the Saxons drove the Celts into Cornwall
and the Welsh hills. Even if this Dravidian invasion is put subsequent
to the Bass Strait forming, even if one allows the probability of much
crossing between the two races at first, in time the hostilities would
be renewed. With their earliest settlements on the north-north-west
coasts, the Dravidians would probably tend to spread out north,
north-east and east, and a southerly line of retreat would be the most
natural one for the Papuans.[3] When at last they were driven to the
Strait they would drift over on rafts or in clumsy shallops; being
thereafter left in peace to concentrate their race, then possibly only
in an approximately pure state, in the island to which the Dravidians
would not take the trouble to follow them, and where they would have
centuries in which once more to fix their racial type and emphasize over
again those differences, perhaps temporarily marred by crossing, which
were found to exist on the arrival of the Whites.

This Indo-Aryan origin for the Australian blackfellows is borne out by
their physique. In spite of their savagery they are admitted by those
who have studied them to be far removed from the low or Simian type of
man. Dr Charles Pickering (1805-1878), who studied the Australians on
the spot, writes: "Strange as it may appear, I would refer to an
Australian as the finest model of the human proportions I have ever met;
in muscular development combining perfect symmetry, activity and
strength, while his head might have compared with the antique bust of a
philosopher." Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that "the Deccan
tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races." Sir W.W. Hunter
states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan,
and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are "expressed by
suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages. He states that
Bishop Caldwell,[4] whom he calls "the great missionary scholar of the
Dravidian tongue," showed that the south and western Australian tribes
use almost the same words for "I, thou, he, we, you, as the Dravidian
fishermen on the Madras coast." When in addition to all this it is found
that physically the Dravidians resemble the Australians; that the
boomerang is known among the wild tribes of the Deccan alone (with the
doubtful exception of ancient Egypt) of all parts of the world except
Australia, and that the Australian canoes are like those of the
Dravidian coast tribes, it seems reasonable enough to assume that the
Australian natives are Dravidians, exiled in remote times from
Hindustan, though when their migration took place and how they traversed
the Indian Ocean must remain questions to which, by their very nature,
there can be no satisfactory answer.

The low stage of culture of the Australians when they reached their new
home is thus accounted for, but their stagnation is remarkable, because
they must have been frequently in contact with more civilized peoples.
In the north of Australia there are traces of Malay and Papuan blood.
That a far more advanced race had at one time a settlement on the
north-west coast is indicated by the cave-paintings and sculptures
discovered by Sir George Grey. In caves of the valley of the Glenelg
river, north-west Australia, about 60 m. inland and 20 m. south of
Prince Regent's river, are representations of human heads and bodies,
apparently of females clothed to the armpits, but all the faces are
without any indication of mouths. The heads are surrounded with a kind
of head-dress or halo and one wears a necklace. They are drawn in red,
blue and yellow. The figures are almost life-size. Rough sculptures,
too, were found, and two large square mounds formed of loose stones, and
yet perfect parallelograms in outline, placed due east and west. In the
same district Sir George Grey noticed among t