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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 3 - "Borgia, Lucrezia" to "Bradford, John"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 3 - "Borgia, Lucrezia" to "Bradford, John"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not

(5) The following typographical error has been corrected:

    ARTICLE BOROUGH: "In London in the 13th century there was a regular
      system for the admission of new members to the borough..." 'London'
      amended from 'Londom'.



              ELEVENTH EDITION

            VOLUME IV, SLICE III

     Borgia, Lucrezia to Bradford, John


  BORGU                            BOUNTY
  BORING                           BOURBON
  BORKU                            BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAULT
  BORKUM                           BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS
  BORMIO                           BOURCHIER, THOMAS
  BORN, IGNAZ                      BOURDALOUE, LOUIS
  BORNA                            BOURDON, FRANÇOIS LOUIS
  BORNEO                           BOURGEOIS, LÉON VICTOR AUGUSTE
  BORNHOLM                         BOURGEOIS
  BORNIER, HENRI                   BOURGES
  BORNU                            BOURGET, PAUL CHARLES JOSEPH
  BORODINO                         BOURKE
  BORON                            BOURNE, VINCENT
  BOROUGH, STEVEN                  BOURNE (town)
  BOROUGH                          BOURNE (stream)
  BORSIPPA                         BOURSE
  BORT                             BOURSSE, ESAIAS
  BORZHOM                          BOUTERWEK, FRIEDRICH
  BOS, LAMBERT                     BOUTHILLIER, CLAUDE
  BOSA                             BOUTS-RIMÉS
  BOSCASTLE                        BOUVIER, JOHN
  BOSCH, JEROM                     BOVEY BEDS
  BOSPORUS                         BOVILL, SIR WILLIAM
  BOSS                             BOWDICH, THOMAS EDWARD
  BOSSU, RENÉ LE                   BOWDLER, THOMAS
  BOSTANAI                         BOWELL, SIR MACKENZIE
  BOSTON (Lincolnshire, England)   BOWEN, FRANCIS
  BOSTON (game of cards)           BOWER, WALTER
  BOSTONITE                        BOWERBANK, JAMES SCOTT
  BOSWELL, JAMES                   BOW-LEG
  BOTANY                           BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE
  BOTANY BAY                       BOWLINE
  BOTHA, LOUIS                     BOWLING
  BOTHNIA, GULF OF                 BOWLING GREEN (Kentucky, U.S.A.)
  BOTHWELL (town)                  BOWLS
  BOTOCUDOS                        BOWNESS-ON-WINDERMERE
  BOTORI                           BOWRING, SIR JOHN
  BOTOSHANI                        BOWTELL
  BO-TREE                          BOWYER, WILLIAM
  BOTRYTIS                         BOX
  BOTTLE                           BOY-BISHOP
  BOTZEN                           BOYD, ZACHARY
  BOUCHOR, MAURICE                 BOYLE (town)
  BOUCICAUT, JEAN                  BOZDAR
  BOUDIN, EUGÈNE                   BOZRAH
  BOUDINOT, ELIAS                  BRABANT (duchy)
  BOUÉ, AMI                        BRABANT (Belgium)
  BOUGIE                           BRACE, JULIA
  BOUGUER, PIERRE                  BRACE
  BOUILLON                         BRACHYCEPHALIC
  BOUILLOTTE                       BRACKYLOGUS
  BOULANGER                        BRACKLESHAM BEDS
  BOULDER (large stone)            BRACTON, HENRY DE
  BOULDER CLAY                     BRADAWL
  BOULE                            BRADDOCK, EDWARD
  BOULEVARD                        BRADDOCK
  BOULOGNE                         BRADFORD, JOHN

BORGIA, LUCREZIA (1480-1519), duchess of Ferrara, daughter of Cardinal
Rodrigo Borgia, afterwards Pope Alexander VI. (q.v.), by his mistress
Vanozza dei Cattanei, was born at Rome in 1480. Her early years were
spent at her mother's house near her father's splendid palace; but later
she was given over to the care of Adriana de Mila, a relation of
Cardinal Borgia and mother-in-law of Giulia Farnese, another of his
mistresses. Lucrezia was educated according to the usual curriculum of
Renaissance ladies of rank, and was taught languages, music, embroidery,
painting, &c.; she was famed for her beauty and charm, but the corrupt
court of Rome in which she was brought up was not conducive to a good
moral education. Her father at first contemplated a Spanish marriage for
her, and at the age of eleven she was betrothed to Don Cherubin de
Centelles, a Spanish nobleman. But the engagement was broken off almost
immediately, and Lucrezia was married by proxy to another Spaniard, Don
Gasparo de Procida, son of the count of Aversa. On the death of Innocent
VIII. (1492), Cardinal Borgia was elected pope as Alexander VI., and,
contemplating a yet more ambitious marriage for his daughter, he
annulled the union with Procida; in February 1493 Lucrezia was betrothed
to Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, with whose family Alexander was now
in close alliance. The wedding was celebrated in June; but when the
pope's policy changed and he became friendly to the king of Naples, the
enemy of the house of Sforza, he planned the subjugation of the vassal
lords of Romagna, and Giovanni, feeling his position insecure, left Rome
for Pesaro with his wife. By Christmas 1495 they were back in Rome; the
pope had all his children around him, and celebrated the carnival with a
series of magnificent festivities. But he decided that he had done with
Sforza, and annulled the marriage on the ground of the husband's
impotence (March 1497). In order to cement his alliance with Naples, he
married Lucrezia to Alphonso of Aragon, duke of Bisceglie, a handsome
youth of eighteen, related to the Neapolitan king. But he too realized
the fickleness of the Borgias' favour when Alexander backed up Louis
XII. of France in the latter's schemes for the conquest of Naples.
Bisceglie fled from Rome, fearing for his life, and the pope sent
Lucrezia to receive the homage of the city of Spoleto as governor. On
her return to Rome in 1499, her husband, who really loved her, was
induced to join her once more. A year later he was murdered by the order
of her brother Cesare. After the death of Bisceglie, Lucrezia retired to
Nepi, and then returned to Rome, where she acted for a time as regent
during Alexander's absence. The latter now was anxious for a union
between his daughter and Alphonso, son and heir to Ercole d'Este, duke
of Ferrara. The negotiations were somewhat difficult, as neither
Alphonso nor his father was anxious for a connexion with the house of
Borgia, and Lucrezia's own reputation was not unblemished. However, by
bribes and threats the opposition was overcome, and in September 1501
the marriage was celebrated by proxy with great magnificence in Rome. On
Lucrezia's arrival at Ferrara she won over her reluctant husband by her
youthful charm (she was only twenty-two), and from that time forth she
led a peaceful life, about which there was hardly a breath of scandal.
On the death of Ercole in 1505, her husband became duke, and she
gathered many learned men, poets and artists at her court, among whom
were Ariosto, Cardinal Bembo, Aldus Manutius the printer, and the
painters Titian and Dosso Dossi. She devoted herself to the education of
her children and to charitable works; the only tragedy connected with
this period of her life is the murder of Ercole Strozzi, who is said to
have admired her and fallen a victim to Alphonso's jealousy. She died on
the 24th of June 1519, leaving three sons and a daughter by the duke of
Ferrara, besides one son Rodrigo by the duke of Bisceglie, and possibly
another of doubtful paternity. She seems to have been a woman of very
mediocre talents, and only played a part in history because she was the
daughter of Alexander VI. and the sister of Cesare Borgia. While she was
in Rome she was probably no better and no worse than the women around
her, but there is no serious evidence for the charges of incest with her
father and brothers which were brought against her by the
scandal-mongers of the time.

  See the bibliographies for ALEXANDER VI. and BORGIA, CESARE; and
  especially F. Gregorovius's _Lucrezia Borgia_ (Stuttgart, 1874), the
  standard work on the subject; also W. Gilbert's _Lucrezia Borgia,
  Duchess of Ferrara_ (London, 1869), which, while containing much
  information, is quite without historic value; and G. Campori's "Una
  Vittima della Storia, Lucrezia Borgia," in the _Nuova Antologia_
  (August 31, 1866), which aims at the rehabilitation of Lucrezia.
       (L. V.*)

BORGLUM, SOLON HANNIBAL (1868-   ), American sculptor, was born in
Ogden, Utah, on the 22nd of December 1868, the son of a Danish
wood-carver. He studied under Louis F. Rebisso in the Cincinnati art
school in 1895-1897, and under Frémiet in Paris. He took as his chief
subjects incidents of western life, cowboys and Indians, with which he
was familiar from his years on the ranch; notably "Lassoing Wild
Horses," "Stampeding Wild Horses," "Last Round-up," "On the Border of
White Man's Land," and "Burial on the Plains." His elder brother, Gutzon
Borglum (b. 1867), also showed himself an artist of some originality.

BORGOGNONE, AMBROGIO (fl. 1473-1524), Italian painter of the Milanese
school, whose real name was Ambrogio Stefani da Fossano, was
approximately contemporary with Leonardo da Vinci, but represented, at
least during a great part of his career, the tendencies of Lombard art
anterior to the arrival of that master--the tendencies which he had
adopted and perfected from the hands of his predecessors Foppa and
Zenale. We are not precisely informed of the dates either of the death
or the birth of Borgognone, who was born at Fossano in Piedmont, and
whose appellation was due to his artistic affiliation to the Burgundian
school. His fame is principally associated with that of one great
building, the Certosa, or church and convent of the Carthusians at
Pavia, for which he worked much and in many different ways. It is
certain, indeed, that there is no truth in the tradition which
represents him as having designed, in 1473, the celebrated façade of the
Certosa itself. His residence there appears to have been of eight years'
duration, from 1486, when he furnished the designs of the figures of the
virgin, saints and apostles for the choir-stalls, executed in _tarsia_
or inlaid wood work by Bartolommeo Pola, till 1494, when he returned to
Milan. Only one known picture, an altar-piece at the church San
Eustorgio, can with probability be assigned to a period of his career
earlier than 1486. For two years after his return to Milan he worked at
the church of San Satiro in that city. From 1497 he was engaged for some
time in decorating with paintings the church of the Incoronata in the
neighbouring town at Lodi. Our notices of him thenceforth are few and
far between. In 1508 he painted for a church in Bergamo; in 1512 his
signature appears in a public document of Milan; in 1524--and this is
our last authentic record--he painted a series of frescoes illustrating
the life of St Sisinius in the portico of San Simpliciano at Milan.
Without having produced any works of signal power or beauty, Borgognone
is a painter of marked individuality. He holds an interesting place in
the most interesting period of Italian art. The National Gallery,
London, has two fair examples of his work --the separate fragments of a
silk banner painted for the Certosa, and containing the heads of two
kneeling groups severally of men and women; and a large altar-piece of
the marriage of St Catherine, painted for the chapel of Rebecchino near
Pavia. But to judge of his real powers and peculiar ideals--his system
of faint and clear colouring, whether in fresco, tempera or oil; his
somewhat slender and pallid types, not without something that reminds us
of northern art in their Teutonic sentimentality as well as their
Teutonic fidelity of portraiture; the conflict of his instinctive love
of placidity and calm with a somewhat forced and borrowed energy in
figures where energy is demanded, his conservatism in the matter of
storied and minutely diversified backgrounds--to judge of these
qualities of the master as they are, it is necessary to study first the
great series of his frescoes and altar-pieces at the Certosa, and next
those remains of later frescoes and altar-pieces at Milan and Lodi, in
which we find the influence of Leonardo and of the new time mingling
with, but not expelling, his first predilections.

BORGO SAN DONNINO, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in the
province of Parma, 14 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Parma. Pop. (1901)
town, 6251; commune, 12,109. It occupies the site of the ancient
Fidentia, on the Via Aemilia; no doubt, as its name shows, of Roman
origin. Here M. Lucullus defeated the democrats under Carbo in 82 B.C. It
was independent under Vespasian, but seems soon to have become a village
dependent on Parma. Its present name comes from the martyrdom of S.
Domninus under Maximian in A.D. 304. The cathedral, erected in honour of
this saint, is one of the finest and best-preserved Lombardo-Romanesque
churches of the 11th-13th centuries in north Italy. The upper part of the
façade is incomplete, but the lower, with its three portals and
sculptures, is very fine; the interior is simple and well-proportioned,
and has not been spoilt by restorations. For the _bénitier_, a work of
the early 11th century, see _Rassegna d'Arte_, 1905, 180. Not far from
the town is the small church of S. Antonio del Viennese, a 13th-century
structure in brick (_ib_., 1906, 22). The Palazzo Comunale, in the
Gothic-Lombard style, is a work of the 14th century. Borgo S. Donnino is
an important centre for the produce and cattle of Emilia.     (T. As.)

BORGU, or BARBA, an inland country of West Africa. The western part is
included in the French colony of Dahomey (q.v.); the eastern division
forms the Borgu province of the British protectorate of Nigeria. Borgu
is bounded N.E. and E. by the Niger, S. by the Yoruba country, N.W. by
Gurma. The country consists of an elevated plain traversed by rivers
draining north or east to the Niger. The water-parting between the Niger
basin and the coast streams of Dahomey and Lagos runs north-east and
south-west near the western frontier. In about 10° N., below the town of
Bussa, rapids block the course of the Niger, navigable up to that point
from the sea. The soil is mostly fertile, and is fairly cultivated,
producing in abundance millet, yams, plantains and limes. The acacia
tree is common, and from it gum-arabic of good quality is obtained. From
the nut of the horse-radish tree ben oil is expressed. Cattle are
numerous and of excellent breed, and game is abundant. Borgu is
inhabited by a number of pagan negro tribes, several of whom were
dependent on the chief of Nikki, a town in the centre of the country,
the chief being spoken of as sultan of Borgu. The king of Bussa was
another more or less powerful potentate. In the early years of the 19th
century Borgu was invaded by the Fula (q.v.), but the Bariba (as the
people are called collectively) maintained their independence. In 1894
Borgu became the object of rivalry between France and England. The Royal
Niger Company, which had already concluded a treaty of protection with
the king of Bussa, sent out Captain (afterwards Sir) F.D. Lugard to
negotiate treaties with the king of Nikki and other chiefs, and Lugard
succeeded in doing so a few days before the arrival of French
expeditions from the west. Disregarding the British treaties, French
officers concluded others with various chiefs, invaded Bussa and
established themselves at various points on the Niger. To defend British
interests, the West African Frontier Force was raised locally under
Lugard's command, and a period of great tension ensued, British and
French troops facing one another at several places. A conflict was,
however, averted, and by the convention of June 1898 the western part of
Borgu was declared French and the eastern British, the French
withdrawing from all places on the lower Niger.

The British portion of Borgu has an area of about 12,000 sq. m. Up to
the period of inclusion within the protectorate of Nigeria little or
nothing was known of the country, though there were interesting legends
of the antiquity of its history. The population was entirely
independent, and resisted with success not only the Fula from the north
but also the armies of Dahomey and Mossi from the south and west.
Travellers who attempted to penetrate this country had never returned.
Since 1898 the country has been opened, and from being the most lawless
and truculent of people the Bariba have become singularly amenable and
law-abiding. Provincial courts are established, but there is little
crime in the province. The British garrisons have been replaced by civil
police. The assessment of taxes under British administration was
successfully carried out in 1904, and taxes are collected without
trouble. In south Borgu the people are agricultural but not industrious
or inclined for trade. In the north there are some pastoral settlements
of Fula. The Bariba themselves remain agricultural. Cart-roads have been
constructed between the town of Kiama and the Niger. The agricultural
resources of Borgu are great, and as the population increases with the
cessation of war and by immigration the country should show marked
development. Shea trees are abundant. Elephants are still to be found in
the fifty-mile strip of forest land which stretches between the Niger
and the interior of the province. The forest contains valuable sylvan
products, and there are great possibilities for the cultivation of
rubber. There are also extensive areas of fine land suitable for cotton,
with the waterway of the Niger close at hand. Labour might be brought
from Yorubaland close by, and a Yoruba colony has been experimentally
started. (See NIGERIA and BUSSA.)

BORIC ACID, or BORACIC ACID, H3BO3, an acid obtained by dissolving boron
trioxide in water. It was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652-1715)
from borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name _sal
sedativum Hombergi_. The presence of boric acid or its salts has been
noted in sea-water, whilst it is also said to exist in plants and
especially in almost all fruits (A.H. Allen, _Analyst_, 1904, 301). The
free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany,
the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing mixed with steam from fissures
in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals
(borax, boracite, boronatrocalcite and colemanite).

The chief source of boric acid for commercial purposes is the Maremma of
Tuscany, an extensive and desolate tract of country over which jets of
vapour and heated gases (_soffioni_) and springs of boiling water spurt
out from chasms and fissures. In some places the fissures open directly
into the air, but in other parts of the district they are covered by
small muddy lakes (_lagoni_). The soffioni contain a small quantity of
boric acid (usually less than 0.1%), together with a certain amount of
ammoniacal vapours. In order to obtain the acid, a series of basins is
constructed over the vents, and so arranged as to permit of the passage
of water through them by gravitation. Water is led into the highest
basin and by the action of the heated gases is soon brought into a state
of ebullition; after remaining in this basin for about a day, it is run
off into the second one and is treated there in a similar manner. The
operation is carried on through the entire series, until the liquor in
the last basin contains about 2% of boric acid. It is then run into
settling tanks, from which it next passes into the evaporating pans,
which are shallow lead-lined pans heated by the gases of the soffioni.
These pans are worked on a continuous system, the liquor in the first
being concentrated and run off into a second, and so on, until it is
sufficiently concentrated to crystallize. The crystals are purified by
recrystallization from water. Artificial soffioni are sometimes prepared
by boring through the rock until the fissures are reached, and the water
so obtained is occasionally sufficiently impregnated with boric acid to
be evaporated directly. Boric acid is also obtained from
boronatrocalcite by treatment with sulphuric acid, followed by the
evaporation of the solution so obtained. The residue is then heated in a
current of superheated steam, in which the boric acid volatilizes and
distils over. It may also be obtained by the decomposition of boracite
with hot hydrochloric acid. In small quantities, it may be prepared by
the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution
of borax.

  Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + 5H2O = Na2SO4 + 4H3BO3.

  Boric acid crystallizes from water in white nacreous laminae belonging
  to the triclinic system; it is difficultly soluble in cold water, but
  dissolves readily in hot water. It is one of the "weak" acids, its
  dissociation constant being only 0.08169 (J. Walker, _Jour. of Chem.
  Soc._, 1900, lxxvii. 5), and consequently its salts are appreciably
  hydrolysed in aqueous solution. The free acid turns blue litmus to a
  claret colour. Its action upon turmeric is characteristic; a turmeric
  paper moistened with a solution of boric acid turns brown, the colour
  becoming much darker as the paper dries; while the addition of sodium
  or potassium hydroxide turns it almost black. Boric acid is easily
  soluble in alcohol, and if the vapour of the solution be inflamed it
  burns with a characteristic vivid green colour. The acid on being
  heated to 100° C. loses water and is converted into _metaboric acid_,
  HBO3; at 140° C., _pyroboric acid_, H2B4O7, is produced; at still
  higher temperatures, boron trioxide is formed. The salts of the normal
  or orthoboric acid in all probability do not exist; metaboric acid,
  however, forms several well-defined salts which are readily converted,
  even by carbon dioxide, into salts of pyroboric acid. That orthoboric
  acid is a tribasic acid is shown by the formation of ethyl orthoborate
  on esterification, the vapour density of which corresponds to the
  molecular formula B(OC2H5)3; the molecular formula of the acid must
  consequently be B(OH)3 or H3BO3. The metallic borates are generally
  obtained in the hydrated condition, and with the exception of those of
  the alkali metals, are insoluble in water. The most important of the
  borates is sodium pyroborate or borax (q.v.).

  Borax and boracic acid are feeble but useful antiseptics. Hence they
  may be used to preserve food-substances, such as milk and butter (see
  ADULTERATION). In medicine boracic acid is used in solution to relieve
  itching, but its chief use is as a mild antiseptic to impregnate lint
  or cotton-wool. Recent work has shown it is too feeble to be relied
  upon alone, but where really efficient antiseptics, such as mercuric
  chloride and iodide, and carbolic acid, have been already employed,
  boracic acid (which, unlike these, is non-poisonous and non-irritant)
  may legitimately be used to maintain the aseptic or non-bacterial
  condition which they have obtained. Borax taken internally is of some
  value in irritability of the bladder, but as a urinary antiseptic it
  is now surpassed by several recently introduced drugs, such as

BORING. The operations of deep boring are resorted to for ascertaining
the nature, thickness and extent of the various geological formations
underlying the surface of the earth. Among the purposes for which boring
is specifically employed are: (1) prospecting or searching for mineral
deposits; (2) sinking petroleum, natural gas, artesian or salt wells;
(3) determining the depth below the surface of bed-rock or other firm
substratum, together with the character of the overlying materials,
preparatory to mining or civil engineering operations; (4) carrying on
geological or other scientific explorations.

Prospecting by boring is practised most successfully in the case of
mineral deposits of large area, which are nearly horizontal, or at least
not highly inclined; e.g. deposits of coal, iron, lead and salt. Wide,
flat beds of such minerals may be pierced at any desired number of
points. The depth at which each hole enters the deposit and the
thickness of the mineral itself are readily ascertained, so that a map
may be constructed with some degree of accuracy. Samples of the mineral
are also secured, furnishing data as to the value of the deposit. While
boring is sometimes adopted for prospecting irregular and steeply
inclined mineral deposits of small area, the results are obviously less
trustworthy than under the conditions named above, and may be actually
misleading unless a large number of holes are bored. Incidentally,
bore-holes supply information as to the character and depth of the
valueless depositions of earth or rock overlying the mineral deposit.
Such data assist in deciding upon the appropriate method for, and in
estimating the cost of, sinking shafts or driving tunnels for the
development and exploitation of the deposit. In sinking petroleum wells,
boring serves not only for discovering the oil-bearing strata but also
for extracting the oil. This industry has become of great importance in
many parts of the United States, in southern Russia and elsewhere. Rock
salt deposits are sometimes worked through bore-holes, by introducing
water and pumping out the solution of brine for further treatment. The
sinking of artesian wells is another application of boring. They are
often hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of feet in depth. A well in St
Louis, Missouri, has a depth of 3843 ft.

Boring is useful in mines themselves for a variety of purposes, such as
exploring the deposit ahead of the workings, searching for neighbouring
veins, and sounding the ground on approaching dangerous inundated
workings. In the coal regions of Pennsylvania, bore-holes are often sunk
for carrying steam pipes and hoisting ropes underground at points remote
from a shaft.

Several of the methods of boring in soft ground are employed in
connexion with civil engineering operations; as for ascertaining the
depth below the surface to solid rock, preparatory to excavating for and
designing deep foundations for heavy structures, and for estimating the
cost of large scale excavations in earth and rock.

Lastly, a number of deep holes have been bored for geological
exploration or for observing the increase of temperature in depth in the
earth's crust; for example, at Paruschowitz, Silesia, about 6700 ft.
deep; at Leipzig, Germany, 6265 ft.; near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 5532
ft.; and at Wheeling, West Virginia, nearly 5000 ft. The two last
mentioned were intended to obtain as complete a knowledge as possible of
the bituminous coal and oil-bearing formations.

There are five methods of boring, viz.: by (1) earth augers, (2) drive
pipes, (3) long, jointed rods and drop drill, (4) the rope system, in
which the rods are replaced by rope, (5) rotary drills. The first two
methods are adapted to soft or earthy soils only; the others are for

  1. _Earth augers_ comprise spiral and pod augers. The ordinary spiral
  auger resembles the wood auger commonly used by carpenters. It is
  attached to the rod or stem by a socket joint, successive sections of
  rod being added as the hole is deepened. The auger is rotated by means
  of horizontal levers, clamped to the rod--by hand for holes of small
  diameter (2 to 6 in.), the larger sizes (8 to 16 in.) by horse power.
  Clayey, cohesive soils, containing few stones, are readily bored;
  stony ground with difficulty. The operation of the auger is
  intermittent. After a few revolutions it is raised and emptied, the
  soil clinging between the spirals. Depths to 50 or 60 ft. are usually
  bored by hand; deeper holes by horse power. For sandy, non-cohesive
  soils, the auger may be encircled by a close-fitting sheet-iron
  cylinder to prevent the soil from falling out.

  Pod augers generally vary in diameter from 8 to 20 in. A common form
  (fig. l) consists of two curved iron plates, one attached to the rod
  rigidly, the other by hinge and key. By being turned through a few
  revolutions the pod is filled, and is then raised and emptied. For
  boring in sandy soils, the open sides are closed by hinged plates.
  Fig. 2 shows another type of pod auger. For holes of large diameter
  earth augers are handled with the aid of a light derrick.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1. FIG. 2. Pod Auger.]

  2. _Drive pipes_ are widely used, both for testing the depth and
  character of soft material overlying solid rock and as a necessary
  preliminary to rock boring, when some thickness of surface soil must
  first be passed through. In its simplest form the drive pipe consists
  of one or more lengths of wrought iron pipe, open at both ends and
  from ½ in. to 6 in. diameter. When of small size the pipe is driven by
  a heavy hammer; for deep and large holes, a light pile-driver becomes
  necessary. The lower end of the pipe is provided with an annular steel
  shoe; the upper end has a drivehead for receiving the blows of the
  hammer. Successive lengths are screwed on as required. For shallow
  holes the pipe is cleaned out by a "bailer" or "sand-pump"--a cylinder
  4 to 6 ft. long, with a valve in the lower end. It is lowered at
  intervals, filled by being dashed up and down, and then raised and
  emptied. If, after reaching some depth, the external frictional
  resistance prevents the pipe from sinking farther, another pipe of
  small diameter may be inserted and the driving continued. Drive pipes
  are often sunk by applying weights at the surface and slowly rotating
  by a lever. Two pipes are then used, one inside the other. Water is
  pumped down the inner pipe, thus loosening the soil, raising the
  debris and increasing the speed of driving. The "driven well" for
  water supply is an adaptation of the drive pipe and put down in the
  same way.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3. Drill Bit.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4. Rod Joint.]

  3. _Drill and Rods._--This method has long been used in Europe and
  elsewhere for deep boring. In the United States it is rarely employed
  for depths greater than 200 or 300 ft. The usual form of cutting tool
  or drill is shown in fig. 3. The iron rods are from 1 to 2 in. square,
  in long lengths with screw joints (fig. 4). Wooden rods are
  occasionally used. For shallow holes (50 to 75 ft.) the work is done
  by hand, one or two cross-bars being clamped to the rod. The men
  alternately raise and drop the drill, meanwhile slowly walking around
  and around to rotate the bit and so keep the hole true. The cuttings
  are cleaned out by a bailer, as for drive pipes.

  In boring by hand, the practical limit of depth is soon reached, on
  account of the increasing weight of the rods. For going deeper a
  "spring-pole" may be used. This is a tapering pole, say 30 ft. long
  and 5 or 6 in. diameter at the small end. It rests in an inclined
  position on a fulcrum set about 10 ft. from the butt, the latter being
  firmly fixed. The rods are suspended from the end of the pole, which
  extends at a height of several feet over the mouth of the hole. With
  the aid of the spring of the pole the strokes are produced by a slight
  effort on the part of the driller. Average speeds of 6 to 10 ft. per
  10 hours are easily made, to depths of 200 to 250 ft.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5. Sliding Link.]

  For deep boring the rod system requires a more elaborate plant. The
  rods are suspended from a heavy "walking beam" or lever, usually
  oscillated by a steam engine. By means of a screw-feed device, the
  rods, which are rotated slightly after every stroke, are gradually fed
  down as the hole is deepened, length after length being added. A tall
  derrick carries the sheaves and ropes by which the rods and tools are
  manipulated. The drill bit cannot be attached rigidly to the rods as
  in shallow boring, because the momentum of the heavy moving parts,
  transmitted directly to the bit as the blow is struck, would cause
  excessive vibration and breakage. It becomes necessary, therefore, to
  introduce a sliding-link joint between the rods and bit. One form of
  link is shown in fig. 5. On striking its blow, the bit comes to rest,
  while the rods continue to descend to the end of the stroke, the upper
  member of the link sliding down upon the lower. Then, on the up stroke
  the lower link, with the bit, is raised for delivering another blow.
  For large holes the striking weight is, say, 800 to 1000 lb., length
  of stroke 2½ to 5 ft., and speed from 20 to 30 strokes per minute.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6. Kind Free-Falling Tool.]

  By using the sliding link the cross-section and weight of the rods may
  be greatly reduced, the only strain being that of tension. To deliver
  a sharp, effective blow, however, the rods must drop with a quick
  stroke, which brings a heavy strain upon the operating machinery. For
  overcoming this difficulty, various "free-falling tools" have been
  devised. By these the bit is allowed to fall by gravity; the rod
  follows on its measured down stroke, and picks up the bit.
  Free-falling tools are of two classes: (1) those by which the bit is
  released automatically; (2) those operated by a sudden twist imparted
  to the rod by the drillman. One of the best known of the first class
  is the Kind free-fall (fig. 6). The shank of the bit is gripped and
  released by the jaws J, J, worked through a toggle joint by movements
  of the disk D. When the rod begins its downward stroke, the resistance
  of the water in the hole slightly raises D, thus opening the jaws and
  releasing the bit, which falls by gravity. On reaching the end of the
  stroke the jaws again catch the shank of the bit and raise it for
  delivering another blow. The Fabian free-fall may be noted as an
  example of the second class (see Köhler, _Lehrbuch der Bergbaukunde_,
  p. 57). Tools are sometimes used for cutting an annular groove in the
  bottom of the hole, and raising to the surface the core so formed, for
  observing the character of the rock.

  4. _Rope and Drop Tools._--This method was long ago used in China.
  Because of its extensive application in the oil-fields it is generally
  designated in the United States as the "oil-well system." In its
  various modifications it is often employed also in general prospecting
  of mineral deposits and in sinking artesian, natural gas and salt
  wells. One of its forms is known in England as the Mather & Platt

  The chief point of difference from rod-boring is the substitution of
  rope for the jointed rods. For deep boring it possesses the advantage
  of saving the large amount of time consumed in raising and lowering
  the rods, as required whenever the hole is to be cleaned out, or a
  dull bit replaced, since the tools are rapidly run up or down by means
  of the rope with which they are operated while drilling. The speed of
  rope-boring is therefore but little affected by increase of depth,
  while with rod-boring it falls off rapidly. In its simplest form the
  so-called "string of tools," suspended from the rope, is composed of
  the bit or drill, jars and rope-socket. The jars are a pair of sliding
  links, similar to those used for rod-boring, but serving a different
  purpose, viz. to produce a sharp shock on the upward stroke, as the
  jars come together, for loosening the bit should it tend to stick fast
  in the hole. A heavy bar (auger stem) is generally inserted between
  the jars and bit, for increasing the force of the blow. The weight of
  another bar above the jars (sinker-bar) keeps the rope taut. The
  length of stroke and feed are regulated by the "temper-screw" (fig.
  7), a feed device resembling that used for rod-boring. Clamped to it
  is the drill rope, which is let out at intervals, as the hole is
  deepened. The bits usually range from 3 to 8 in. diameter, the speed
  of boring being generally between 20 and 40 ft. per 24 hours,
  according to the kind of rock. A great variety of special "fishing
  tools" are made, for use in case of breakage of parts in the hole or
  other accident.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7. Temper Screw.]

  5. _Diamond Drill._--The methods described above are capable of boring
  holes vertically downward only. By the diamond drill, holes can be
  bored in any direction, from vertically downward to vertically upward.
  It has the further advantage of making an annular hole from which is
  obtained a core, furnishing a practically complete cross-section of
  the strata penetrated; the thickness and character of each stratum are
  shown, together with its depth below the surface. Thus, the diamond
  drill is peculiarly well adapted for prospecting mineral deposits from
  which samples are desired. The first practical application of diamonds
  for drilling in rock was made in 1863 by Professor Rudolph Leschot, a
  civil engineer of Paris.

  The apparatus consists essentially of a line of hollow rods, coupled
  by screw joints, an annular steel bit or crown, set with diamonds,
  being attached to the lower end. By means of a small engine on the
  surface the rods are rapidly rotated and fed down automatically as the
  hole deepened. The speed of rotation is from 300 to 800 revolutions
  per minute, depending on the character of the rock and diameter of the
  bit. While boring a stream of water is forced down the hollow rods by
  a pump, passing back to the surface through the annular space between
  the rods and the walls of the drill hole. The cuttings are thus
  carried to the surface, leaving the bottom of the hole clean and
  unobstructed. For recovering the core and inspecting the bit and
  diamonds, the rods are raised at every 3 to 8 ft. of depth. This is
  done by a small drum and rope, operated by the driving engine.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--Little Champion Rock Drill.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

  Diamond drills of standard designs (fig. 8) bore holes from 1-9/16 to
  2¾ in. diameter, yielding cores of 1 to 1-15/16 in. diameter, and are
  capable of reaching depths of a few hundred to 4000 ft. or more. They
  require from 8 to 30 boiler horse-power. Large machines will bore
  shallower holes up to 6, 9 or even 12 in. diameter. For operating in
  underground workings of mines, small and compact machines are
  sometimes mounted on columns (fig. 9). They bore 1¼ to 1-9/16 in.
  holes to depths of 300 to 400 ft., cores being 7/8 to 1 in. diameter.
  Hand-power drills are also built. In the South African goldfields
  several diamond drill holes from 4500 to 5200 ft. deep have been
  successfully bored. Rates of advance for core-drilling to moderate
  depths range usually from 2 to 3 ft. per hour, including ordinary
  delays, though in favourable rock much higher speeds are often
  attained. In deep holes the speeds diminish, because of time consumed
  in raising and lowering the rods. If no core is desired a "solid bit"
  is used. The drilling then proceeds faster, as it is only necessary to
  raise the rods occasionally, for examining the condition of the bit.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10. Diamond Drill Bit.]

  The driving engine has two inclined cylinders, coupled to a
  crank-shaft, by which, through gearing, the drill-rod is rotated. The
  rods are wrought iron or steel tubes, in 5 to 10 ft. lengths. For
  producing the feed two devices are employed, the differential screw
  and hydraulic cylinder. For the _differential feed_ (fig. 9) the
  engine has a hollow left-hand threaded screw-shaft, to which the rods
  are coupled. This shaft is driven by a spline and bevel gearing and is
  supported by a threaded feed-nut, carried in the lower bearing. Geared
  to the screw-shaft is a light counter-shaft. By properly proportioning
  the number of teeth in the system of gear-wheels, the feed-nut is
  caused to revolve a little faster than the screw-shaft, so that the
  drill-rod is fed downward a small fraction of an inch for each
  revolution. To vary the rate of feed, as suitable for different rocks,
  three pairs of gears with different ratios of teeth are provided. The
  screw-shaft and gearing are carried by a swivel-head, which can be
  rotated in a vertical plane, for boring holes at an angle.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11. Core Lifter and Barrel.]

  The _hydraulic feed_ is an improvement on the above, in that the rate
  of feed is independent of the rotative speed of the rods and can be
  adjusted with the utmost nicety. There are either one or two feed
  cylinders, supplied with water from the pump. The rod, while rotating
  freely, is supported by the feed cylinder piston and caused to move
  slowly downward by allowing the water to pass from the lower to the
  upper part of the cylinder. A valve regulates the passage of the water
  and hence the rate of feed.

  The bit (fig. 10 and fig. 11, B) is of soft steel, set with six to
  eight or more diamonds according to its diameter. The diamonds,
  usually from 1½ to 2½ carats in size, are carefully set in the bit,
  projecting but slightly from its surface. Two kinds of diamonds are
  used, "carbons" and "borts." The carbons are opaque, dark in colour,
  tougher than the brilliant, and have no cleavage planes. They are
  therefore suitable for drilling in hard rock. Borts are rough,
  imperfect brilliants, and are best used for the softer rocks. As the
  bit wears, the stones must be reset from time to time. The wear of
  carbons in a well-set bit is small, though extremely variable. Above
  the bit are the core-lifter and core-barrel. The core-lifter (fig. 11,
  A) is a device for gripping and breaking off the core and raising it
  to the surface. The barrel, 3 to 10 ft. long, fits closely in the hole
  and is often spirally grooved for the passage of the water and debris.
  It serves partly as a guide, tending to keep the hole straight, partly
  for holding and protecting the core.

  Diamond drills do not work satisfactorily in broken, fissured rock, as
  the carbons are liable to be injured, loosened or torn from their
  settings. In these circumstances, and for soft rocks, the diamond bit
  may be replaced by a steel toothed bit. Another apparatus for
  core-drilling is the Davis Calyx drill. For hard rock it has an
  annular bit, accompanied by a quantity of chilled steel shot; for soft
  rock, a toothed bit is used.

  Diamond drill holes are rarely straight, and usually deviate
  considerably from the direction in which they are started. Very deep
  holes have been found to vary as much as 45° and even 60° from their
  true direction. This is due to the fact that the rods do not fit
  closely in the hole and therefore bend. It is also likely to occur in
  drilling through inclined strata, specially when of different degrees
  of hardness. By using a long and closely fitting core-barrel the
  liability to deviation is reduced, but cannot be wholly prevented.
  Holes which are nearly horizontal always deflect upward, because the
  sag of the rods tilts up the bit. Diamond drill holes should therefore
  always be surveyed. This is done by lowering into the hole instruments
  for observing at a number of successive points the direction and
  degree of deviation.[1] If accurately surveyed a crooked hole may be
  quite as useful as a straight one.

  AUTHORITIES.--For further information on boring see _Trans. Amer.
  Inst. Mining Engs._ vol. ii. p. 241, vol. xxvii. p. 123; C. le Neve
  Foster, _Text-book of Ore and Stone Mining_, chap. iii.; _Glückauf_,
  9th December 1899, 20th and 27th May 1905; _Scientific American_, 21st
  August 1886; _Engineering and Mining Jour._ vol. lviii. p. 268, vol.
  lxx. p. 699, vol. lxxx. p. 920; _Trans. Inst. Mining Engs._, England,
  vol. xxiii. p. 685; _School of Mines Quarterly_, N. Y., vol. xvi. p.
  1; _Zeitschr. für Berg- Hütten- und Salinenwesen_, vol. xxv. p. 29;
  Denny, "Diamond Drilling," _Mines and Minerals_, vol. xx., August
  1899, p. 7, to January 1900, p. 241; _Mining Jour._, 26th January
  1901; _Mining and Scientific Press_, 28th November 1903, p. 353; _Öst.
  Zeitschr. für Berg- und Hüttenwesen_, 21st May, 4th June 1904; _Trans.
  Inst. Mining and Metallurgy_, vol. xii. p. 301; _Engineering
  Magazine_, March 1896, p. 1075.     (R. P.*)


  [1] Brough, _Mine Surveying_, pp. 276-278; Marriott, _Trans. Inst.
    Mining and Metallurgy_, vol. xiv. p. 255.

BORIS FEDOROVICH GODUNOV, tsar of Muscovy (c. 1551-1605), the most
famous member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar
origin, which migrated from the Horde to Muscovy in the 14th century.
Boris' career of service began at the court of Ivan the Terrible. He is
mentioned in 1570 as taking part in the Serpeisk campaign as one of the
archers of the guard. In 1571 he strengthened his position at court by
his marriage with Maria, the daughter of Ivan's abominable favourite
Malyuta Skuratov. In 1580 the tsar chose Irene, the sister of Boris, to
be the bride of the tsarevich Theodore, on which occasion Boris was
promoted to the rank of _boyar_. On his deathbed Ivan appointed Boris
one of the guardians of his son and successor; for Theodore, despite his
seven-and-twenty years, was of somewhat weak intellect. The reign of
Theodore began with a rebellion in favour of the infant tsarevich
Demetrius, the son of Ivan's fifth wife Marie Nagaya, a rebellion
resulting in the banishment of Demetrius, with his mother and her
relations, to their appanage at Uglich. On the occasion of the tsar's
coronation (May 31, 1584), Boris was loaded with honours and riches, yet
he held but the second place in the regency during the lifetime of his
co-guardian Nikita Romanovich, on whose death, in August, he was left
without any serious rival. A conspiracy against him of all the other
great boyars and the metropolitan Dionysy, which sought to break Boris'
power by divorcing the tsar from Godunov's childless sister, only ended
in the banishment or tonsuring of the malcontents. Henceforth Godunov
was omnipotent. The direction of affairs passed entirely into his hands,
and he corresponded with foreign princes as their equal. His policy was
generally pacific, but always most prudent. In 1595 he recovered from
Sweden the towns lost during the former reign. Five years previously he
had defeated a Tatar raid upon Moscow, for which service he received the
title of _sluga_, an obsolete dignity even higher than that of boyar.
Towards Turkey he maintained an independent attitude, supporting an
anti-Turkish faction in the Crimea, and furnishing the emperor with
subsidies in his war against the sultan. Godunov encouraged English
merchants to trade with Russia by exempting them from tolls. He
civilized the north-eastern and south-eastern borders of Muscovy by
building numerous towns and fortresses to keep the Tatar and Finnic
tribes in order. Samara, Saratov, and Tsaritsyn and a whole series of
lesser towns derive from him. He also re-colonized Siberia, which had
been slipping from the grasp of Muscovy, and formed scores of new
settlements, including Tobolsk and other large centres. It was during
his government that the Muscovite church received its patriarchate,
which placed it on an equality with the other Eastern churches and
emancipated it from the influence of the metropolitan of Kiev. Boris'
most important domestic reform was the _ukaz_ (1587) forbidding the
peasantry to transfer themselves from one landowner to another, thus
binding them to the soil. The object of this ordinance was to secure
revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most grinding
form. The sudden death of the tsarevich Demetrius at Uglich (May 15,
1591) has commonly been attributed to Boris, because it cleared his way
to the throne; but this is no clear proof that he was personally
concerned in that tragedy. The same may be said of the many, often
absurd, accusations subsequently brought against him by jealous rivals
or ignorant contemporaries who hated Godunov's reforms as novelties.

On the death of the childless tsar Theodore (January 7, 1598),
self-preservation quite as much as ambition constrained Boris to seize
the throne. Had he not done so, lifelong seclusion in a monastery would
have been his lightest fate. His election was proposed by the patriarch
Job, who acted on the conviction that Boris was the one man capable of
coping with the extraordinary difficulties of an unexampled situation.
Boris, however, would only accept the throne from a _Zemsky Sobor_, or
national assembly, which met on the 17th of February, and unanimously
elected him on the 21st. On the 1st of September he was solemnly crowned
tsar. During the first years of his reign he was both popular and
prosperous, and ruled the people excellently well. Enlightened as he
was, he fully recognized the intellectual inferiority of Russia as
compared with the West, and did his utmost to bring about a better state
of things. He was the first tsar to import foreign teachers on a great
scale, the first to send young Russians abroad to be educated, the first
to allow Lutheran churches to be built in Russia. He also felt the
necessity of a Baltic seaboard, and attempted to obtain Livonia by
diplomatic means. He cultivated friendly relations with the
Scandinavians, in order to intermarry if possible with foreign royal
houses, so as to increase the dignity of his own dynasty. That Boris was
one of the greatest of the Muscovite tsars there can be no doubt. But
his great qualities were overbalanced by an incurable suspiciousness,
which made it impossible for him to act cordially with those about him.
His fear of possible pretenders induced him to go so far as to forbid
the greatest of the boyars to marry. He also encouraged informers and
persecuted suspects on their unsupported statements. The Romanov family
in especial suffered severely from these delations. Boris died suddenly
(April 13, 1605), leaving one son, Theodore II., who succeeded him for a
few months and then was foully murdered by the enemies of the Godunovs.

  See Platon Vasilievich Pavlov, _On the Historical Significance of the
  Reign of Boris Godunov_ (Rus.) (Moscow, 1850); Sergyei Mikhailivich
  Solovev, _History of Russia_ (Rus.) (2nd ed., vols. vii.-viii., St
  Petersburg, 1897).     (R. N. B.)

BORISOGLYEBSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Tambov, 100 m.
S.S.E. of the city of that name, in 51° 22' N. lat. and 43° 4' E. long.
It was founded in 1646 to defend the southern frontiers of Muscovy
against the Crimean Tatars, and in 1696 was surrounded by wooden
fortifications. The principal industries are the preparation of wool,
iron-casting, soap-boiling, tallow-melting, and brick-making; and there
is an active trade in grain, wool, cattle, and leather, and two
important annual fairs. Pop. (1867) 12,254; (1897) 22,370.

BORKU, or BORGU, a region of Central Africa between 17° and 19° N. and
18° and 21° E., forming part of the transitional zone between the arid
wastes of the Sahara and the fertile lands of the central Sudan. It is
bounded N. by the Tibesti Mountains, and is in great measure occupied by
lesser elevations belonging to the same system. These hills to the south
and east merge into the plains of Wadai and Darfur. South-west, in the
direction of Lake Chad, is the Bodele basin. The drainage of the country
is to the lake, but the numerous khors with which its surface is scored
are mostly dry or contain water for brief periods only. A considerable
part of the soil is light sand drifted about by the wind. The irrigated
and fertile portions consist mainly of a number of valleys separated
from each other by low and irregular limestone rocks. They furnish
excellent dates. Barley is also cultivated. The northern valleys are
inhabited by a settled population of Tibbu stock, known as the Daza, and
by colonies of negroes; the others are mainly visited by nomadic Berber
and Arab tribes. The inhabitants own large numbers of goats and asses.

A caravan route from Barca and the Kufra oasis passes through Borku to
Lake Chad. The country long remained unknown to Europeans. Gustav
Nachtigal spent some time in it in the year 1871, and gave a valuable
account of the region and its inhabitants in his book, _Sahara und
Sudan_ (Berlin, 1879-1889). In 1899 Borku, by agreement with Great
Britain, was assigned to the French sphere of influence. The country,
which had formerly been periodically raided by the Walad Sliman Arabs,
was then governed by the Senussi (q.v.), who had placed garrisons in the
chief centres of population. From it raids were made on French
territory. In 1907 a French column from Kanem entered Borku, but after
capturing Ain Galakka, the principal Senussi station, retired. Borku is
also called Borgu, but must not be confounded with the Borgu (q.v.) west
of the Niger.

  A summary of Nachtigal's writing on Borku will be found in section 28
  of _Gustav Nachtigal's Reisen in der Sahara und im Sudan_ (1 vol.),
  arranged by Albert Fränkel (Leipzig, 1887). See also an article (with
  map) by Commdt. Bordeaux in _La Géographie_, Oct. 1908.

BORKUM, an island of Germany, in the North Sea, belonging to the
Prussian province of Hanover, the westernmost of the East Frisian chain,
lying between the east and west arms of the estuary of the Ems, and
opposite to the Dollart. Pop. about 2500. The island is 5 m. long and 2½
m. broad, is a favourite summer resort, and is visited annually by about
20,000 persons. There is a daily steamboat service with Emden, Leer and
Hamburg during the summer months. The island affords pasture for cattle,
and a breeding-place for sea-birds.

BORLASE, WILLIAM (1695-1772), English antiquary and naturalist, was born
at Pendeen in Cornwall, of an ancient family, on the 2nd of February
1695. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and in 1719 was
ordained. In 1722 he was presented to the rectory of Ludgvan, and in
1732 he obtained in addition the vicarage of St Just, his native parish.
In the parish of Ludgvan were rich copper works, abounding with mineral
and metallic fossils, of which he made a collection, and thus was led to
study somewhat minutely the natural history of the county. In 1750 he
was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society; and in 1754 he published, at
Oxford, his _Antiquities of Cornwall_ (2nd ed., London, 1769). His next
publication was _Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the
Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain_
(Oxford, 1756). In 1758 appeared his _Natural History of Cornwall_. He
presented to the Ashmolean museum, Oxford, a variety of fossils and
antiquities, which he had described in his works, and received the
thanks of the university and the degree of LL.D. He died on the 31st of
August 1772. Borlase was well acquainted with most of the leading
literary men of the time, particularly with Alexander Pope, with whom he
kept up a long correspondence, and for whose grotto at Twickenham he
furnished the greater part of the fossils and minerals.

  Borlase's letters to Pope, St Aubyn and others, with answers, fill
  several volumes of MS. There are also MS. notes on Cornwall, and a
  complete unpublished treatise _Concerning the Creation and Deluge_.
  Some account of these MSS., with extracts from them, was given in the
  _Quarterly Review_, October 1875. Borlase's memoirs of his own life
  were published in Nichol's _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. v.

BORMIO (Ger. _Worms_), a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of
Sondrio, 41½ m. N.E. of the town of Sondrio. Pop. (1901) 1814. It is
situated in the Valtellina (the valley of the Adda), 4020 ft. above
sea-level, at the foot of the Stelvio pass, and, owing to its position,
was of some military importance in the middle ages. It contains
interesting churches and picturesque towers. A cemetery of pre-Roman
date was discovered at Bormio in 1820.

The baths of Bormio, 2 m. farther up the valley, are mentioned by Pliny
and Cassiodorus, the secretary of Theodoric, and are much frequented.

BORN, IGNAZ, EDLER VON (1742-1791), Austrian mineralogist and
metallurgist, was born of a noble family at Karlsburg, in Transylvania,
on the 26th of December 1742. Educated in a Jesuit college in Vienna, he
was for sixteen months a member of the order, but left it and studied
law at Prague. Then he travelled extensively in Germany, Holland and
France, studying mineralogy, and on his return to Prague in 1770 entered
the department of mines and the mint. In 1776 he was appointed by Maria
Theresa to arrange the imperial museum at Vienna, where he was nominated
to the council of mines and the mint, and continued to reside until his
death on the 24th of July 1791. He introduced a method of extracting
metals by amalgamation (_Über das Anquicken der Erze_, 1786), and other
improvements in mining and other technical processes. His publications
also include _Lithophylacium Bornianum_ (1772-1775) and _Bergbaukunde_
(1789), besides several museum catalogues. Von Born attempted satire
with no great success. _Die Staatsperücke_, a tale published without his
knowledge in 1772, and an attack on Father Hell, the Jesuit, and king's
astronomer at Vienna, are two of his satirical works. Part of a satire,
entitled _Monachologia_, in which the monks are described in the
technical language of natural history, is also ascribed to him. Von Born
was well acquainted with Latin and the principal modern languages of
Europe, and with many branches of science not immediately connected with
metallurgy and mineralogy. He took an active part in the political
changes in Hungary. After the death of the emperor Joseph II., the diet
of the states of Hungary rescinded many innovations of that ruler, and
conferred the rights of denizen on several persons who had been
favourable to the cause of the Hungarians, and, amongst others, on von
Born. At the time of his death in 1791, he was employed in writing a
work entitled _Fasti Leopoldini_, probably relating to the prudent
conduct of Leopold II., the successor of Joseph, towards the Hungarians.

BORNA, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Wyhra at its
junction with the Pleisse, 17 m. S. by E. of Leipzig by rail. Pop.
(1905) 9176. The industries include peat-cutting, iron foundries, organ,
pianoforte, felt and shoe factories.

BÖRNE, KARL LUDWIG (1786-1837), German political writer and satirist,
was born on the 6th of May 1786 at Frankfort-On-Main, where his father,
Jakob Baruch, carried on the business of a banker. He received his early
education at Giessen, but as Jews were ineligible at that time for
public appointments in Frankfort, young Baruch was sent to study
medicine at Berlin under a physician, Markus Herz, in whose house he
resided. Young Baruch became deeply enamoured of his patron's wife, the
talented and beautiful Henriette Herz (1764-1847), and gave vent to his
adoration in a series of remarkable letters. Tiring of medical science,
which he had subsequently pursued at Halle, he studied constitutional
law and political science at Heidelberg and Giessen, and in 1811 took
his doctor's degree at the latter university. On his return to
Frankfort, now constituted as a grand duchy under the sovereignty of the
prince bishop Karl von Dalberg, he received (1811) the appointment of
police actuary in that city. The old conditions, however, returned in
1814 and he was obliged to resign his office. Embittered by the
oppression under which the Jews suffered in Germany, he engaged in
journalism, and edited the Frankfort liberal newspapers,
_Staatsristretto_ and _Die Zeitschwingen_. In 1818 he became a convert
to Lutheran protestantism, changing his name from Löb Baruch to Ludwig
Börne. This step was taken less out of religious conviction than, as in
the case of so many of his descent, in order to improve his social
standing. From 1818 to 1821 he edited _Die Wage_, a paper distinguished
by its lively political articles and its powerful but sarcastic
theatrical criticisms. This paper was suppressed by the police
authorities, and in 1821 Börne quitted for a while the field of
publicist writing and led a retired life in Paris, Hamburg and
Frankfort. After the July Revolution (1830), he hurried to Paris,
expecting to find the newly-constituted state of society somewhat in
accordance with his own ideas of freedom. Although to some extent
disappointed in his hopes, he was not disposed to look any more kindly
on the political condition of Germany; this lent additional zest to the
brilliant satirical letters (_Briefe aus Paris_, 1830-1833, published
Paris, 1834), which he began to publish in his last literary venture,
_La Balance_, a revival under its French name of _Die Wage_. The _Briefe
aus Paris_ was Börne's most important publication, and a landmark in the
history of German journalism. Its appearance led him to be regarded as
one of the leaders of the new literary party of "Young Germany." He died
at Paris on the 12th of February 1837.

Börne's works are remarkable for brilliancy of style and for a thorough
French vein of satire. His best criticism is to be found in his
_Denkrede auf Jean Paul_ (1826), a writer for whom he had warm sympathy
and admiration, in his _Dramaturgische Blätter_ (1829-1834), and the
witty satire, _Menzel der Franzosenfresser_ (1837). He also wrote a
number of short stories and sketches, of which the best known are the
_Monographie der deutschen Postschnecke_ (1829) and _Der Esskünstler_

  The first edition of his _Gesammelte Schriften_ appeared at Hamburg
  (1829-1834) in 14 volumes, followed by 6 volumes of _Nachgelassene
  Schriften_ (Mannheim, 1844-1850); more complete is the edition in 12
  volumes (Hamburg, 1862-1863), reprinted in 1868 and subsequently. The
  latest complete edition is that edited by A. Klaar (8 vols., Leipzig,
  1900). For further biographical matter see K. Gutzkow, _Börnes Leben_
  (Hamburg, 1840), and M. Holzmann, _L. Börne, sein Leben und sein
  Wirken_ (Berlin, 1888). _Börnes Briefe an Henriette Herz_ (1802-1807),
  first published in 1861, have been re-edited by L. Geiger (Oldenburg,
  1905), who has also published Börne's _Berliner Briefe_ (1828)
  (Berlin, 1905). See also Heine's witty attack on Börne (_Werke_, ed.
  Elster, vii.), G. Gervinus' essay in his _Historiche Schriften_
  (Darmstadt, 1838), and the chapters in G. Brandes, _Hovedströmninger i
  det 19 de Aarhundredes Litteratur_ vol. vi. (Copenhagen, 1890, German
  trans. 1891; English trans. 1905), and in J. Proelss, _Das junge
  Deutschland_ (Stuttgart, 1892).

BORNEO, a great island of the Malay Archipelago, extending from 7° N. to
4° 20' S., and from 108° 53' to 119° 22' E. It is 830 m. long from N.E.
to S.W., by 600 m. in maximum breadth. Its area according to the
calculations of the Topographical Bureau of Batavia (1894) comprises
293,496 sq. m. These figures are admittedly approximate, and Meyer, who
is generally accurate, gives the area of Borneo at 289,860 sq. m. It is
roughly, however, five times as large as England and Wales. Politically
Borneo is divided into four portions: (1) British North Borneo, the
territory exploited and administered by the Chartered British North
Borneo Company, to which a separate section of this article is devoted;
(2) Brunei (q.v.), a Malayan sultanate under British protection; (3)
Sarawak (q.v.), the large territory ruled by raja Brooke, and under
British protection in so far as its foreign relations are concerned; and
(4) Dutch Borneo, which comprises the remainder and by far the largest
and most valuable portion of the island.

_Physical Features_.--The general character of the country is
mountainous, though none of the ranges attains to any great elevation,
and Kinabalu, the highest peak in the island, which is situated near its
north-western extremity, is only 13,698 ft. above sea-level. There is no
proper nucleus of mountains whence chains ramify in different
directions. The central and west central parts of the island, however,
are occupied by three mountain chains and a plateau. These chains are:
(1) the folded chain of the upper Kapuas, which divides the western
division of Dutch Borneo from Sarawak, extends west to east, and attains
near the sources of the Kapuas river a height of 5000 to 6000 ft.; (2)
the Schwaner chain, south of the Kapuas, whose summits range from 3000
to 7500 ft., the latter being the height of Bukit Raja, a plateau which
divides the waters of the Kapuas from the rivers of southern Borneo; and
(3) the Müller chain, between the eastern parts of the Madi plateau
(presently to be mentioned) and the Kapuas chain, a volcanic region
presenting heights, such as Bukit Terata (4700 ft.), which were once
active but are now long extinct volcanos. The Madi plateau lies between
the Kapuas and the Schwaner chains. Its height is from 3000 to 4000 ft.,
and it is clothed with tropical high fens. These mountain systems are
homologous in structure with those, not of Celebes or of Halmahera, but
of Malacca, Banka and Billiton. From the eastern end of the Kapuas
mountains there are further to be observed: (1) A chain running
north-north-east, which forms the boundary between Sarawak and Dutch
Borneo, the highest peak of which, Gunong Tebang, approaches 10,000 ft.
This chain can hardly be said to extend continuously to the extreme
north of the island, but it carries on the line of elevation towards the
mountains of Sarawak to the west, and those of British North Borneo to
the north, of which latter Kinabalu is the most remarkable. The
mountains of North Borneo are more particularly referred to in the
portion of this article which deals with that territory. (2) A chain
which runs eastward from the central mountains and terminates in the
great promontory of the east coast, known variously as Cape Kanior or
Kaniungan. (3) A well-marked chain running in a south-easterly direction
among the congeries of hills that extend south-eastward from the central
mountains, and attaining, near the southern part of the east coast,
heights up to and exceeding 6000 ft.

_Coasts._--Resting on a submarine plateau of no great depth, the coasts
of Borneo are for the most part rimmed round by low alluvial lands, of a
marshy, sandy and sometimes swampy character. In places the sands are
fringed by long lines of _Casuarina_, trees; in others, and more
especially in the neighbourhood of some of the river mouths, there are
deep banks of black mud covered with mangroves; in others the coast
presents to the sea bold headlands, cliffs, mostly of a reddish hue,
sparsely clad with greenery, or rolling hills covered by a growth of
rank grass. The depth of the sea around the shore rarely exceeds a
maximum depth of 1 to 3 fathoms, and the coast as a whole offers few
accessible ports. The towns and seaports are to be found as a rule at or
near the mouths of those rivers which are not barricaded too efficiently
by bars formed of mud or sand. All round the long coast-line of Dutch
Borneo there are only seven ports of call, which are habitually made use
of by the ships of the Dutch Packet Company. They are Pontianak,
Banjermasin, Kota Bharu, Pasir, Samarinda, Beru and Bulungan. The
islands off the coast are not numerous. Excluding some of alluvial
formation at the mouths of many of the rivers, and others along the
shore which owe their existence to volcanic upheaval, the principal
islands are Banguey and Balambangan at the northern extremity, Labuan
(q.v.), a British colony off the west coast of the territory of North
Borneo, and the Karimata Islands off the south-west coast. On Great
Karimata is situated the village of Palembang with a population of about
500 souls employed in fishing, mining for iron, and trading in forest

[Illustration: BORNEO]

_Rivers_.--The rivers play a very important part in the economy of
Borneo, both as highways and as lines along which run the main arteries
of population. Hydrographically the island may be divided into five
principal versants. Of these the shortest embraces the north-western
slope, north of the Kapuas range, and discharges its waters into the
China Sea. The most important of its rivers are the Sarawak, the
Batang-Lupar, the Sarebas, the Rejang (navigable for more than 100 m.),
the Baram, the Limbang or Brunei river, and the Padas. The rivers of
British North Borneo to the north of the Padas are of no importance and
of scant practical utility, owing to the fact that the mountain range
here approaches very closely to the coast with which it runs parallel.
In the south-western versant the largest river is the Kapuas, which,
rising near the centre of the island, falls into the sea between Mampawa
and Sukadana after a long and winding course. This river, of volume
varying with the tide and the amount of rainfall, is normally navigable
by small steamers and native prahus, of a draught of 4 to 5 ft., for
300 to 400 m., that is to say, from Pontianak up to Sintang, and thence
as far as Benut. The middle part of this river, wider and more shallow
than the lower reaches, gives rise to a region of inundation and lakes
which extend as far as the northern mountain chain. Among its
considerable tributaries may be mentioned the southern Melawi with its
affluent the Penuh. It reaches the sea through several channels in a
wide marshy delta. The Sambas, north of the Kapuas, is navigable in its
lower course for vessels drawing 25 ft. Rivers lying to the south of the
Kapuas, but of less importance in the way of size, commerce and
navigation, are the Simpang, Pawanand Kandawangan, in the neighbourhood
of whose mouths, or upon the adjacent coast, the principal native
villages are situated in each case. The Barito, which is the principal
river of the southern versant, takes its rise in the Kuti Lama Lake, and
falls into the Java Sea in 114° 30' E. Its upper reaches are greatly
impeded by rocks, rapids and waterfalls, but the lower part of its
course is wide, and traverses a rich, alluvial district, much of which
is marshy. Cross branches unite it with two rivers of considerable size
towards the west, the Kapuas Murung or Little Dyak, and the Kahayan or
Great Dyak. The Katingan or Mendawei, the Sampit, Pembuang or Surian and
the Kota Waringin are rivers that fall into the sea farther to the west.
The rivers of the southern versant are waters of capacious drainage, the
basin of the Kahayan having, for instance, an area of 16,000 sq. m., and
the Barito one of 38,000 sq. m. These rivers are navigable for
two-thirds of their course by steamers of a fair size, but in many cases
the bars at their mouths present considerable difficulties to ships
drawing anything over 8 or 9 ft. Most of the larger affluents of the
Barito are also navigable throughout the greater part of their courses.
The south-eastern like the north-western corner of the island is watered
by a considerable number of short mountain streams. The one great river
of the eastern versant is the Kutei or Mahakan, which, rising in the
central mountains, flows east with a sinuous course and falls by
numerous mounts into the Straits of Madassar. At a great distance from
its mouth it has still a depth of three fathoms, and in all its physical
features it is comparable to the Kapuas and Barito. The Kayan or
Bulungan river is the only other in the eastern versant that calls for
mention. Most of the rivers of the northern versant are comparatively
small, as the island narrows into a kind of promontory. Of these the
Kinabatangan in the territory of British North Borneo is the most
important. Lakes are neither numerous nor very large. In most cases they
are more fittingly described as swamps. In the flood area of the upper
Kapuas, of which mention has already been made, there occurs Lake Luar,
and there are several lake expanses of a similar character in the basins
of the Barito and Kutei rivers. The only really fine natural harbour in
the island of which any use has been made is that of Sandakan, the
principal settlement of the North Borneo Company on the north coast.

  _Geology._--The geology of Borneo is very imperfectly known. The
  mountain range which lies between Sarawak and the Dutch possessions,
  and may be looked upon as the backbone of the island, consists chiefly
  of crystalline schists, together with slates, sandstones and
  limestones. All these beds are much disturbed and folded. The
  sedimentary deposits were formerly believed to be Palaeozoic, but
  Jurassic fossils have since been found in them, and it is probable
  that several different formations are represented. Somewhat similar
  rocks appear to form the axis of the range in south-east Borneo, and
  possibly of the Tampatung Mountains. But the Müller range, the Madi
  plateau, and the Schwaner Mountains of west Borneo, consist chiefly of
  almost undisturbed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary age. The
  low-lying country between the mountain ranges is covered for the most
  part by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, but Cretaceous beds occur at
  several localities. Some of the older rocks of the mountain regions
  have been referred to the Devonian, but the evidence cannot be
  considered conclusive. _Vertebraria_ and _Phyllotheca_, plants
  characteristic of the Indian Gondwana series, have been recorded in
  Sarawak; and marine forms, similar to those of the lower part of the
  Australian Carboniferous system, are stated to occur in the limestone
  of north Borneo. _Pseudomonotis salinaria_, a Triassic form, has been
  noted from the schists of the west of Borneo. In the Kapoewas district
  radiolarian cherts supposed to be of Jurassic age are met with.
  Undoubted Jurassic fossils, belonging to several horizons, have been
  described from west Borneo and Sarawak. The Cretaceous beds, which
  have long been known in west Borneo, are comparatively little
  disturbed. They consist for the most part of marls with _Orbitolina
  concava_, and are referred to the Cenomanian. Cretaceous beds of
  somewhat later date are found in the Marpapura district in south-east
  Borneo. The Tertiary system includes conglomerates, sandstones,
  limestones and marls, which appear to be of Eocene, Oligocene and
  Miocene age. They contain numerous seams of coal. The Tertiary beds
  generally lie nearly horizontal and form the lower hills, but in the
  Madi plateau and the Schwaner range they rise to a height of several
  thousand feet. Volcanic rocks of Tertiary and late Cretaceous age are
  extensively developed, especially in the Müller Mountains. The whole
  of this consists of tuffs and lavas, andesites prevailing in the west
  and rhyolites and dacites in the east.

_Minerals._--The mineral wealth of Borneo is great and varied. It
includes diamonds, the majority of which, however, are of a somewhat
yellow colour, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, copper, iron, tin, antimony,
mineral oils, sulphur, rock-salt, marble and coal. The exploitation of
the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of
transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native
princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the
limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines. The districts of
Sambas and Landak in the west, the Kahayan river, the mountain valleys
of the extreme south-east and parts of Sarawak furnish the largest
quantities of gold, which is obtained for the most part from alluvial
washings. The Borneo Company is engaged in working gold-mines in the
upper part of the Sarawak valley, and the prospects of the enterprise,
which is conducted on a fairly extensive scale, are known to be
encouraging. Diamonds are also found widely distributed and mainly in
the same regions as the gold. The Kapuas valley has so far yielded the
largest quantity, and Pontianak is, for diamonds, the principal port of
export. Considerable progress has been made in the development of the
oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the _Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en
Handel Maatschappij_, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and
Trading Company, increased its output from 123,592 tons in 1901 to
285,720 tons in 1904, and showed further satisfactory increase
thereafter. This company owns extensive oil-fields at Balik Papan and
Sanga-Sanga. The quality of the oil varies in a remarkable way according
to the depth. The upper stratum is struck at a depth of 600 to 700 ft.,
and yields a natural liquid fuel of heavy specific gravity. The next
source is met with at about 1200 ft., yielding an oil which is much
lighter in weight and, as such, more suitable for treatment in the
refinery. The former oil is almost invariably of an asphalte basis,
whereas the latter sometimes is found to contain a considerable
percentage of paraffin wax. The average daily production is very high,
owing to a large number of the wells flowing under the natural pressure
of the gas. There is every reason to believe that the oil-fields of
Dutch Borneo have a great future. Coal mines have, in many instances,
been opened and abandoned, failure being due to the difficulty of
production. Coal of good quality has been found in Pengaron and
elsewhere in the Banjermasin district, but most Borneo coal is
considerably below this average of excellence. It has also been found in
fair quantities at various places in the Kutei valley and in Sarawak.
The coalmines of Labuan have been worked spasmodically, but success has
never attended the venture. Sadong yields something under 130 tons a
day, and the Brooketown mine, the property of the raja of Sarawak,
yields some 50 tons a day of rather indifferent coal. The discovery that
Borneo produced antimony was made in 1825 by John Crawfurd, the
orientalist, who learned in that year that a quantity had been brought
to Singapore by a native trader as ballast. The supply is practically
unlimited and widely distributed. The principal mine is at Bidi in

_Climate and Health_.--As is to be anticipated, having regard to its
insular position and to the fact that the equator passes through the
very middle of the island, the climate is at once hot and very damp. In
the hills and in the interior regions are found which may almost be
described as temperate, but on the coasts the atmosphere is dense, humid
and oppressive. Throughout the average temperature is from 78° to 80°
F., but the thermometer rarely falls below 70°, except in the hills, and
occasionally on exceptional days mounts as high as 96° in the shade. The
rainy westerly winds (S.W. and N.W.) prevail at all the meteorological
stations, not the comparatively dry south-east wind. Even at
Banjermasin, near the south coast, the north-west wind brings annually a
rainfall of 60 in., as against 33 in. of rain carried by the south-east
wind. The difference between the seasons is not rigidly marked. The
climate is practically unchanging all the year round, the atmosphere
being uniformly moist, and though days of continuous downpour are rare,
comparatively few days pass without a shower. Most rain falls between
November and May, and at this season the torrents are tremendous while
they last, and squalls of wind are frequent and violent, almost
invariably preceding a downpour. Over such an extensive area there is,
of course, great variety in the climatic character of different
districts, especially when viewed in relation to health. Some places,
such as Bidi in Sarawak, for instance, are notoriously unhealthy; but
from the statistics of the Dutch government, and the records of Sarawak
and British North Borneo, it would appear that the European in Borneo
has in general not appreciably more to fear than his fellow in Java, or
in the Federated Malay States of the Malayan Peninsula. Among the native
races the prevailing diseases, apart from those of a malarial origin,
are chiefly such as arise from bad and insufficient food, from
intemperance, and from want of cleanliness. The habit of allowing their
meat to putrefy before regarding it as fit for food, and of encouraging
children of tender age to drink to intoxication, accounts for absence of
old folk and the heavy mortality which are to be observed among the
Muruts of British North Borneo and some of the other more debased tribes
of the interior of the island. Scrofula and various forms of lupus are
common among the natives throughout the country and especially in the
interior; elephantiasis is frequently met with on the coast. Smallpox,
dysentery and fevers, frequently of a bilious character, are endemic and
occasionally epidemic. Cholera breaks out from time to time and works
great havoc, as was the case in 1903 when one of the raja of Sarawak's
punitive expeditions was stricken while ascending the Limbang river by
boat, and lost many hundreds of its numbers before the coast could be
regained. Ophthalmia is common and sometimes will attack whole tribes.
About one sixth of the native population of the interior, and a smaller
proportion of those living on the coast, suffer from a kind of ringworm
called _kurap_, which also prevails almost universally among the Sakai
and Semang, the aboriginal hill tribes of the Malayan Peninsula. The
disease is believed to be aggravated by chronic anaemia. Consumption is
not uncommon.

_Fauna_.--The fauna of Borneo comprises a large variety of species, many
of which are numerically of great importance. Among the quadrupeds the
most remarkable is the orang-utan (Malay, _ôrang ûtan_, i.e. jungle
man), as the huge ape, called _mias_ or _mâyas_ by the natives, is named
by Europeans. Numerous species of monkey are found in Borneo, including
the wahwah, a kind of gibbon, a creature far more human in appearance
and habits than the orang-utan, and several _Semnopitheci_, such as the
long-nosed ape and the golden-black or _chrysomelas_. The large-eyed
_Stenops tardigradus_ also deserves mention. The larger beasts of prey
are not met with, and little check is therefore put on the natural
fecundity of the graminivorous species. A small panther and the clouded
tiger (so called)--_Felis macroscelis_--are the largest animals of the
cat kind that occur in Borneo. The Bengal tiger is not found. The Malay
or honey-bear is very common. The rhinoceros and the elephant both occur
in the northern part of the island, though both are somewhat rare, and
in this connexion it should be noted that the distribution of quadrupeds
as between Borneo, Sumatra and the Malayan Peninsula is somewhat
peculiar and seemingly somewhat capricious. Many quadrupeds, such as the
honey-bear and the rhinoceros, are common to all, but while the tiger is
common both in the Malayan Peninsula and in Sumatra, it does not occur
in Borneo; the elephant, so common in the peninsula, and found in
Borneo, is unknown in Sumatra; and the orang-utan, so plentiful in parts
of Borneo and parts of Sumatra, has never been discovered in the Malay
Peninsula. It has been suggested, but with very scant measure of
probability, that the existence of elephants in Borneo, whose
confinement to a single district is remarkable and unexplained, is due
to importation; and the fact is on record that when Magellan's ships
visited Brunei in 1522 tame elephants were in use at the court of the
sultan of Brunei. Wild oxen of the Sunda race, not to be in any way
confounded with the Malayan _seladang_ or gaur, are rare, but the whole
country swarms with wild swine, and the _babirusa_, a pig with curious
horn-like tusks, is not uncommon. Alligators are found in most of the
rivers, and the gavial is less frequently met with. Three or four
species of deer are common, including the mouse-deer, or _plandok_, an
animal of remarkable grace and beauty, about the size of a hare but
considerably less heavy. Squirrels, flying-squirrels, porcupines,
civet-cats, rats, bats, flying-foxes and lizards are found in great
variety; snakes of various kinds, from the boa-constrictor downward, are
abundant, while the forests swarm with tree-leeches, and the marshes
with horse-leeches and frogs. A remarkable flying-frog was discovered by
Professor A.R. Wallace. Birds are somewhat rare in some quarters. The
most important are eagles, kites, vultures, falcons, owls, horn-bills,
cranes, pheasants (notably the argus, fire-back and peacock-pheasants),
partridges, ravens, crows, parrots, pigeons, woodpeckers, doves, snipe,
quail and swallows. Of most of these birds several varieties are met
with. The _Cypselus esculentus_, or edible-nest swift, is very common,
and the nests, which are built mostly in limestone caves, are esteemed
the best in the archipelago. Mosquitoes and sand-flies are the chief
insect pests, and in some districts are very troublesome. Several kinds
of parasitic jungle ticks cause much annoyance to men and to beasts.
There are also two kinds of ants, the semut âpi ("fire ant") and the
_semut lâda_ ("pepper ant"), whose bites are peculiarly painful.
Hornets, bees and wasps of many varieties abound. The honey and the wax
of the wild bee are collected by the natives. Butterflies and moths are
remarkable for their number, size, variety and beauty. Beetles are no
less numerously represented, as is to be expected in a country so richly
wooded as Borneo. The swamps and rivers, as well as the surrounding
seas, swarm with fish. The _siawan_ is a species of fish found in the
rivers and valued for its spawn, which is salted. The natives are expert
and ingenious fishermen. Turtles, trepang and pearl-shell are of some
commercial importance.

The dog, the cat, the pig, the domestic fowl (which is not very
obviously related to the bantam of the woods), the buffalo, a smaller
breed than that met with in the Malayan Peninsula, and in some districts
bullocks of the Brahmin breed and small horses, are the principal
domestic animals. The character of the country and the nomadic habits of
many of the natives of the interior, who rarely occupy their villages
for more than a few years in succession, have not proved favourable to
pastoral modes of life. The buffaloes are used not only in agriculture,
but also as beasts of burden, as draught-animals and for the saddle.
Horses, introduced by Europeans and owned only by the wealthier classes,
are found in Banjermasin and in Sarawak. In British North Borneo, and
especially in the district of Tempasuk on the north-west coast, Borneo
ponies, bred originally, it is supposed, from the stock which is
indigenous to the Sulu archipelago, are common.

_Flora_.--The flora of Borneo is very rich, the greater portion of the
surface of the island being clothed in luxuriant vegetation. The king of
the forest is the _tapan_, which, rising to a great height without fork
or branch, culminates in a splendid dome of foliage. The official seats
of some of the chiefs are constructed from the wood of this tree.
Iron-wood, remarkable for the durability of its timber, is abundant; it
is used by the natives for the pillars of their homes and forms an
article of export, chiefly to Hong-Kong. It is rivalled in hardness by
the _kâyu tembesu_. In all, about sixty kinds of timber of marketable
quality are furnished in more or less profusion, but the difficulty of
extraction, even in the regions situated in close proximity to the large
waterways, renders it improbable that the timber trade of Borneo will
attain to any very great dimensions until other and easier sources of
supply have become exhausted. Palm-trees are abundant in great variety,
including the _nîpah_, which is much used for thatching, the cabbage,
fan, sugar, coco and sago palms. The last two furnish large supplies of
food to the natives, some copra is exported, and sago factories, mostly
in the hands of Chinese, prepare sago for the Dutch and British markets.
Gutta-percha (_getah percha_ in the vernacular), camphor, cinnamon,
cloves, nutmegs, gambir and betel, or areca-nuts, are all produced in
the island; most of the tropical fruits flourish, including the
much-admired but, to the uninitiated, most evil-smelling durian, a large
fruit with an exceedingly strong outer covering composed of stout
pyramidal spikes, which grows upon the branches of a tall tree and
occasionally in falling inflicts considerable injuries upon passers-by.
Yams, several kinds of sweet potatoes, melons, pumpkins, cucumbers,
pineapples, bananas and mangosteens are cultivated, as also are a large
number of other fruits. Rice is grown in irrigated lands near the rivers
and in the swamps, and also in rude clearings in the interior;
sugar-cane of superior quality in Sambas and Montrado; cotton, sometimes
exported in small quantities, on the banks of the Negara, a tributary of
the Barito; tobacco, used very largely now in the production of cigars,
in various parts of northern Borneo; and tobacco for native consumption,
which is of small commercial importance, is cultivated in most parts of
the island. Indigo, coffee and pepper have been cultivated since 1855 in
the western division of Dutch Borneo. Among the more beautiful of the
flowering plants are rhododendrons, orchids and pitcher-plants--the
latter reaching extraordinary development, especially in the northern
districts about Kinabalu. Epiphytous plants are very common, many that
are usually independent assuming here the parasitic character; the
_Vanda lowii_, for example, grows on the lower branches of trees, and
its strange pendent flower-stalks often hang down so as almost to reach
the ground. Ferns are abundant, but not so varied as in Java.

_Population._--The population of Borneo is not known with any approach
to accuracy, but according to the political divisions of the island it
is estimated as follows:--

  Dutch Borneo             1,130,000
  British North Borneo       200,000
  Sarawak                    500,000
  Brunei                      20,000

No effective census of the population has ever been taken, and vast
areas in Dutch Borneo and in British North Borneo remain unexplored, and
free from any practical authority or control. In Sarawak, owing to the
high administrative genius of the first raja and his successor, the
natives have been brought far more completely under control, but the
raja has never found occasion to utilize the machinery of his government
for the accurate enumeration of his subjects.

Dutch Borneo is divided for administrative purposes into two divisions,
the western and the south and eastern respectively. Of the two, the
former is under the more complete and effective control. The estimated
population in the western division is 413,000 and in the south and
eastern 717,000. Europeans number barely 1000; Arabs about 3000, and
Chinese, mainly in the western division, over 40,000. In both divisions
there is an average density of little more than 1 to every 2 sq. m. The
sparseness of the population throughout the Dutch territory is due to a
variety of causes--to the physical character of the country, which for
the most part restricts the area of population to the near neighbourhood
of the rivers; to the low standard of civilization to which the majority
of the natives have attained and the consequent disregard of sanitation
and hygiene; to wars, piracy and head-hunting, the last of which has not
even yet been effectually checked among some of the tribes of the
interior; and to the aggression and oppressions in earlier times of
Malayan, Arab and Bugis settlers. Among the natives, more especially of
the interior, an innate restlessness which leads to a life of spasmodic
nomadism, poverty, insufficient nourishment, an incredible improvidence
which induces them to convert into intoxicating liquor a large portion
of their annual crops, feasts of a semi-religious character which are
invariably accompanied by prolonged drunken orgies, and certain
superstitions which necessitate the frequent procuration of abortion,
have contributed to check the growth of population. In Sambas, Montrado
and some parts of Pontianak, the greater density of the population is
due to the greater fertility of the soil, the opening of mines, the
navigation and trade plied on the larger rivers, and the concentration
of the population at the junctions of rivers, the mouths of rivers and
the seats of government. Of the chief place in the western division,
Pontianak has about 9000 inhabitants; Sambas about 8000; Montrado,
Mampawa and Landak between 2000 and 4000 each; and in the south and
eastern division there are Banjermasin with nearly 50,000 inhabitants;
Marabahan, Amuntai, Negara, Samarinda and Tengarung with populations of
from 5000 to 10,000 inhabitants each. In Amuntai and Martapura early
Hindu colonization, of which the traces and the influence still are
manifest, the fertile soil, trade and industry aided by navigable
rivers, have co-operated towards the growth of population to a degree
which presents a marked contrast to the conditions in the interior parts
of the Upper Barito and of the more westerly rivers. Only a very small
proportion of the Europeans in Dutch Borneo live by agriculture and
industry, the great majority of them being officials. The Arabs and
Chinese are engaged in trading, mining, fishing and agriculture. Of the
natives fully 90% live by agriculture, which, however, is for the most
part of a somewhat primitive description. The industries of the natives
are confined to such crafts as spinning and weaving and dyeing, the
manufacture of iron weapons and implements, boat- and shipbuilding, &c.
More particularly in the south-eastern division, and especially in the
districts of Negara, Banjermasin, Amuntai and Martapura, shipbuilding,
iron forging, gold- and silversmith's work, and the polishing of
diamonds, are industries of high development in the larger centres of

_Races._--The peoples of Borneo belong to a considerable variety of
races, of different origin and degrees of civilization. The most
important numerically are the Dyaks, the Dusuns and Muruts of the
interior, the Malays, among whom must be counted such Malayan tribes as
the Bajaus, Ilanuns, &c., the Bugis, who were originally immigrants from
Celebes, and the Chinese. The Dutch, and to a minor extent the Arabs,
are of importance on account of their political influence in Dutch
Borneo, while the British communities have a similar importance in
Sarawak and in British North Borneo. Accounts of the Malays, Dyaks and
Bugis are given under their several headings, and some information
concerning the Dusuns and Muruts will be found in the section below,
which deals with British North Borneo. The connexion of the Chinese with
Borneo calls for notice here. They seem to have been the first civilized
people who had dealings with Borneo, if the colonization of a portion of
the south-eastern corner of the island by Hindus be excepted. The
Chinese annals speak of tribute paid to the empire by Pha-la on the
north-east coast of the island as early as the 7th century, and later
documents mention a Chinese colonization in the 15th century. The
traditions of the Malays and Dyaks seem to confirm the statements, and
many of the leading families of Brunei in north-west Borneo claim to
have Chinese blood in their veins, while the annals of Sulu record an
extensive Chinese immigration about 1575. However this may be, it is
certain that the flourishing condition of Borneo in the 16th and 17th
centuries was largely due to the energy of Chinese settlers and to trade
with China. In the 18th century there was a considerable Chinese
population settled in Brunei, engaged for the most part in planting and
exporting pepper, but the consistent oppression of the native rajas
destroyed their industry and led eventually to the practical extirpation
of the Chinese. The Malay chiefs of other districts encouraged
immigration from China with a view to developing the mineral resources
of their territories, and before long Chinese settlers were to be found
in considerable numbers in Sambas, Montrado, Pontianak and elsewhere.
They were at first forbidden to engage in commerce or agriculture, to
carry firearms, to possess or manufacture gunpowder. About 1779 the
Dutch acquired immediate authority over all strangers, and thus assumed
responsibility for the control of the Chinese, who presently proved
themselves somewhat troublesome. Their numbers constantly increased and
were reinforced by new immigrants, and pushing inland in search of fresh
mineral-bearing areas, they contracted frequent intermarriages with the
Dyaks and other non-Mahommedan natives. They brought with them from
China their aptitude for the organization of secret societies which,
almost from the first, assumed the guise of political associations.
These secret societies furnished them with a machinery whereby
collective action was rendered easy, and under astute leaders they
offered a formidable opposition to the Dutch government. Later, when
driven into the interior and eventually out of Dutch territory, they
cost the first raja of Sarawak some severe contests before they were at
last reduced to obedience. Serious disturbances among the Chinese are
now in Borneo matters of ancient history, and to-day the Chinaman forms
perhaps the most valuable element in the civilization and development of
the island, just as does his fellow in the mining states of the Malayan
Peninsula. They are industrious, frugal and intelligent; the richer
among them are excellent men of business and are peculiarly equitable in
their dealings; the majority of all classes can read and write their own
script, and the second generation acquires an education of an European
type with great facility. The bulk of the shopkeeping, trading and
mining industries, so long as the mining is of an alluvial character, is
in Chinese hands. The greater part of the Chinese on the west coast are
originally drawn from the boundaries of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si. They
are called Kehs by the Malays, and are of the same tribes as those which
furnish the bulk of the workers to the tin mines of the Malay Peninsula.
They are a rough and hardy people, and are apt at times to be
turbulent. The shopkeeping class comes mostly from Fuh-kien and the
coast districts of Amoy. They are known to the Borneans as Ollohs.

_History._--As far as is known, Borneo never formed a political unity,
and even its geographical unity as an island is a fact unappreciated by
the vast majority of its native inhabitants. The name of Kalamantan has
been given by some Europeans (on what original authority it is not
possible now to ascertain) as the native name for the island of Borneo
considered as a whole; but it is safe to aver that among the natives of
the island itself Borneo has never borne any general designation. To
this day, among the natives of the Malayan Archipelago, men speak of
going to Pontianak, to Sambas or to Brunei, as the case may be, but make
use of no term which recognizes that these localities are part of a
single whole. The only archaeological remains are a few Hindu temples,
and it is probable that the early settlement of the south-eastern
portion of the island by Hindus dates from some time during the first
six centuries of our era. There exist, however, no data, not even any
trustworthy tradition, from which to reconstruct the early history of
Borneo. Borneo began to be known to Europeans after the fall of Malacca
in 1511, when Alphonso d'Albuquerque despatched Antonio d'Abreu with
three ships in search of the Molucca or Spice Islands with instructions
to establish friendly relations with all the native states that he might
encounter on his way. D'Abreu, sailing in a south-easterly direction
from the Straits of Malacca, skirted the southern coast of Borneo and
laid up his ships at Amboyna, a small island near the south-western
extremity of Ceram. He returned to Malacca in 1514, leaving one of his
captains, Francisco Serrano, at Ternate, where Magellan's followers
found him in 1521. After Magellan's death, his comrades sailed from the
Moluccas across the Celebes into the Sulu Sea, and were the first white
men who are known to have visited Brunei on the north-west coast of
Borneo, where they arrived in 1522. Pigafetta gives an interesting
account of the place and of the reception of the adventurers by the
sultan. The Molucca Islands being, at that time, the principal objective
of European traders, and the route followed by Magellan's ships being
frequently used, Borneo was often touched at during the remainder of the
16th century, and trade relations with Brunei were successfully
established by the Portuguese. In 1573 the Spaniards tried somewhat
unsuccessfully to obtain a share of this commerce, but it was not until
1580, when a dethroned sultan appealed to them for assistance and by
their agency was restored to his own, that they attained their object.
Thereafter the Spaniards maintained a fitful intercourse with Brunei,
varied by not infrequent hostilities, and in 1645 a punitive expedition
on a larger scale than heretofore was sent to chastise Brunei for
persistent acts of piracy. No attempt at annexation followed upon this
action, commerce rather than territory being at this period the prime
object of both the Spaniards and the Portuguese, whose influence upon
the natives was accordingly proportionately small. The only effort at
proselytizing of which we have record came to an untimely end in the
death of the Theatine monk, Antonio Ventimiglia, who had been its
originator. Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had
been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the
Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the
Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo. The
establishment of Dutch trading-posts on the west coast of Borneo dates
from 1604, nine years after the first Dutch fleet, under Houtman, sailed
from the Texel to dispute with the Portuguese the possession of the
Eastern trade, and in 1608 Samuel Blommaert was appointed Dutch
resident, or head factor, in Landak and Sukedana. The first appearance
of the British in Borneo dates from 1609, and by 1698 they had an
important settlement at Banjermasin, whence they were subsequently
expelled by the influence of the Dutch, who about 1733 obtained from the
sultan a trading monopoly. The Dutch, in fact, speedily became the
predominant European race throughout the Malay Archipelago, defeating
the British by superior energy and enterprise, and the trading-posts all
along the western and southern coasts of Borneo were presently their
exclusive possessions, the sultan of Bantam, who was the overlord of
these districts, ceding his rights to the Dutch. The British meanwhile
had turned their attention to the north of the island, over which the
sultan of Sulu exercised the rights of suzerain, and from him, in 1759,
Alexander Dalrymple obtained possession of the island of Balambangan,
and the whole of the north-eastern promontory. A military post was
established, but it was destroyed in 1775 by the natives under the
_dâto'_, or vassal chiefs, who resented the cession of their territory.
This mishap rendered a treaty, which had been concluded in 1774 with the
sultan of Brunei, practically a dead letter, and by the end of the
century British influence in Borneo was to all intents and purposes at
an end. The Dutch also mismanaged their affairs in Borneo and suffered
from a series of misfortunes which led Marshal Daendels in 1809 to order
the abandonment of all their posts. The natives of the coasts of Borneo,
assisted and stimulated by immigrants from the neighbouring islands to
the north, devoted themselves more and more to organized piracy, and
putting to sea in great fleets manned by two and three thousand men on
cruises that lasted for two and even three years, they terrorized the
neighbouring seas and rendered the trade of civilized nations almost
impossible for a prolonged period. During the occupation of Java by the
British an embassy was despatched to Sir Stamford Raffles by the sultan
of Banjermasin asking for assistance, and in 1811 Alexander Hare was
despatched thither as commissioner and resident. He not only obtained
for his government an advantageous treaty, but secured for himself a
grant of a district which he proceeded to colonize and cultivate. About
the same time a British expedition was also sent against Sambas and a
post established at Pontianak. On the restoration of Java to the Dutch
in 1816, all these arrangements were cancelled, and the Dutch government
was left in undisputed possession of the field. An energetic policy was
soon after adopted, and about half the kingdom of Banjermasin was
surrendered to the Dutch by its sultan in 1823, further concessions
being made two years later. Meanwhile, George Müller, while exploring
the east coast, obtained from the sultan of Kutei an acknowledgment of
Dutch authority, a concession speedily repented by its donor, since the
enterprising traveller was shortly afterwards killed. The outbreak of
war in Java caused Borneo to be more or less neglected by the Dutch for
a considerable period, and no effective check was imposed upon the
natives with a view to stopping piracy, which was annually becoming more
and more unendurable. On the rise of Singapore direct trade had been
established with Sarawak and Brunei, and it became a matter of moment to
British merchants that this traffic should be safe. In 1838 Sir James
Brooke, an Englishman, whose attention had been turned to the state of
affairs in the Eastern Archipelago, set out for Borneo, determined, if
possible, to remedy the evil. By 1841 he had obtained from the sultan of
Brunei the grant of supreme authority over Sarawak, in which state, on
the sultan's behalf, he had waged a successful war, and before many
years had elapsed he had, with the aid of the British government,
succeeded in suppressing piracy (see BROOKE, SIR JAMES; and SARAWAK). In
1847 the sultan of Brunei agreed to make no cession of territory to any
nation or individual without the consent of Great Britain. Since then
more and more territory has been ceded by the sultans of Brunei to the
raja of Sarawak and to British North Borneo, and to-day the merest
remnant of his once extensive state is left within the jurisdiction of
the sultan. The treaty in 1847 put an end once for all to the hopes
which the Dutch had cherished of including the whole island in their
dominions, but it served also to stimulate their efforts to consolidate
their power within the sphere already subjected to their influence.
Gunong Tebur, Tanjong, and Bulungan had made nominal submission to them
in 1834, and in 1844 the sultan of Kutei acknowledged their
protectorate, a treaty of a similar character being concluded about the
same time with Pasir. The boundaries of British and Dutch Borneo were
finally defined by a treaty concluded on the 20th of June 1891. In spite
of this, however, large areas in the interior, both in Dutch Borneo and
in the territory owned by the British North Borneo Company, are still
only nominally under European control, and have experienced few direct
effects of European administration.


Sabah is the name applied by the natives to certain portions of the
territory situated on the north-western coast of the island, and
originally in no way included the remainder of the country now owned by
the British North Borneo Company. It has become customary, however, for
the name to be used by Europeans in Borneo to denote the whole of the
company's territory, and little by little the more educated natives are
insensibly adopting the practice.

_History._--As has been seen, the British connexion with northern and
north-western Borneo terminated with the 18th century, nor was it
resumed until 1838, when Raja Brooke set out for Brunei and Sarawak. The
island of Labuan (q.v.) was occupied by the British as a crown colony in
1848, and this may be taken as the starting-point of renewed British
relations with that portion of northern Borneo which is situated to the
north of Brunei. In 1872 the Labuan Trading Company was established in
Sandakan, the fine harbour on the northern coast which was subsequently
the capital of the North Borneo Company's territory. In 1878, through
the instrumentality of Mr (afterwards Sir) Alfred Dent, the sultan of
Sulu was induced to transfer to a syndicate, formed by Baron Overbeck
and Mr Dent, all his rights in North Borneo, of which, as has been seen,
he had been from time immemorial the overlord. The chief promoters of
this syndicate were Sir Rutherford Alcock, Admiral the Hon. Sir Harry
Keppel, who at an earlier stage of his career had rendered great
assistance to the first raja of Sarawak in the suppression of piracy,
and Mr Richard B. Martin. Early in 1881 the British North Borneo
Provisional Association, Limited, was formed to take over the concession
which had been obtained from the sultan of Sulu, and in November of that
year a petition was addressed to Queen Victoria praying for a royal
charter. This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo
Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some
diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments,
all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants,
and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the
territory. The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and
territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei and his chiefs in addition
to some which had already been obtained at the time of the formation of
the company. The Putatan river was ceded in May 1884, the Padas
district, including the Padas and Kalias rivers, in November of the same
year, the Kawang river in February 1885, and the Mantanani islands in
April 1885. In 1888, by an agreement with the "State of North Borneo,"
the territory of the company was made a British protectorate, but its
administration remained entirely in the hands of the company, the crown
reserving only control of its foreign relations, and the appointment of
its governors being required to receive the formal sanction of the
secretary of state for the colonies. In 1890 the British government
placed the colony of Labuan under the administration of the company, the
governor of the state of North Borneo thereafter holding a royal
commission as governor of Labuan in addition to his commission from the
company. This arrangement held good until 1905, when, in answer to the
frequently and strongly expressed desire of the colonists, Labuan was
removed from the jurisdiction of the company and attached to the colony
of the Straits Settlements. In March 1898 arrangements were made whereby
the sultan of Brunei ceded to the company all his sovereign and
territorial rights to the districts situated to the north of the Padas
river which up to that time had been retained by him. This had the
effect of rounding off the company's territories, and had the additional
advantage of doing away with the various no-man's lands which had long
been used by the discontented among the natives as so many Caves of
Adullam. The company's acquisition of territory was viewed with
considerable dissatisfaction by many of the natives, and this found
expression in frequent acts of violence. The most noted and the most
successful of the native leaders was a Bajau named Mat Saleh (Mahomet
Saleh), who for many years defied the company, whose policy in his
regard was marked by considerable weakness and vacillation. In 1898 a
composition was made with him, the terms of which were unfortunately not
defined with sufficient clearness, and he retired into the Tambunan
country, to the east of the range which runs parallel with the west
coast, where for a period he lorded it unchecked over the Dusun tribes
of the valley. In 1899 it was found necessary to expel him, since his
acts of aggression and defiance were no longer endurable. A short, and
this time a successful campaign followed, resulting, on the 31st of
January 1900, in the death of Mat Saleh, and the destruction of his
defences. Some of his followers who escaped raided the town of Kudat on
Marudu Bay in April of the same year, but caused more panic than damage,
and little by little during the next years the last smouldering embers
of rebellion were extinguished. At the present time, though effective
administration of the more inaccessible districts of the interior cannot
be said to have been established even yet, the pacification of the
native population is to all intents and purposes complete. The Tambunan
district, the last stronghold of Mat Saleh, is now thoroughly settled.
It is some 500 sq. m. in extent, and carries a population of perhaps

_Geography._--The state of North Borneo may roughly be said to form a
pentagon of which three sides, the north-west, north-east and east are
washed by the sea, while the remaining two sides, the south-west and the
south, are bordered respectively by the Malayan sultanate of Brunei, and
by the territories of the raja of Sarawak and of the Dutch government.
The boundary between the company's territory and the Dutch government is
defined by the treaty concluded in June 1891, of which mention has
already been made.

The total area of the company's territory is estimated at about 31,000
sq. m., with a coast-line of over 900 m. The greater portion is
exceedingly hilly and in parts mountainous, and the interior consists
almost entirely of highlands with here and there open valleys and
plateaus of 50 to 60 sq. m. in extent. On the west coast the mountain
range, as already noted, runs parallel with the seashore at a distance
from it of about 15 m. Of this range the central feature is the mountain
of Kinabalu, which is composed of porphyritic granite and igneous rocks
and attains to a height of 13,698 ft. Mount Madalon, some 15 or 20 m. to
the north, is 5000 ft. in height, and inland across the valley of the
Pagalan river, which runs through the Tambunan country and falls into
the Padas, rises the peak of Trus Madi, estimated to be 11,000 ft. above
sea-level. The valley of the Pagalan is itself for the most part from
1000 to 2000 ft. above the sea, forming a string of small plateaus
marking the sites of former lakes. From the base of Trus Madi to the
eastern coast the country consists of huddled hills broken here and
there by regions of a more mountainous character. The principal plateaus
are in the Tambunan and Kaningau valleys, in the basin of the Pagalan,
and the Ranau plain to the eastward of the base of Kinabalu. Similar
plateaus of minor importance are to be found dotted about the interior.
The proximity of the mountain range to the seashore causes the rivers of
the west coast, with the single exception of the Padas, to be rapid,
boulder-obstructed, shallow streams of little value as means of
communication for a distance of more than half a dozen miles from their
mouths. The Padas is navigable for light-draught steam-launches and
native boats for a distance of nearly 50 m. from its mouth, and smaller
craft can be punted up as far as Rayoh, some 15 m. farther, but at this
point its bed is obstructed by impassable falls and rapids, which are of
such a character that nothing can even be brought down them. Even below
Rayoh navigation is rendered difficult and occasionally dangerous by
similar obstructions. The other principal rivers of the west coast are
the Kalias, Kimanis, Benoneh, Papar, Kinarut, Putatan, Inaman,
Mengkabong, Tampasuk and Pandasan, none of which, however, is of any
great importance as a means of communication. There is a stout breed of
pony raised along the Tampasuk, which is also noted for the Kalupis
waterfall (1500 ft.), one of the highest in the world, though the volume
of water is not great. Here also are the principal Bajau settlements.
Throughout the Malayan Archipelago the words _Bâjau_ and _perômpak_
(pirate) are still used as synonymous terms. At the northern extremity
of the island Marudu Bay receives the waters of the Marudu which rises
on the western side of Mount Madalon. On the east coast the principal
rivers are the Sugut, which rises in the hills to the east of Kinabalu
and forms its delta near Torongohok or Pura-Pura Island; the Labuk,
which has its sources 70 m. inland and debouches into Labuk Bay; and the
Kinabatangan, the largest and most important river in the territory,
which is believed to have its rise eastward of the range of which Trus
Madi is the principal feature, and is navigable by steamer for a
considerable distance and by native boats for a distance of over 100 m.
from its mouth. Some valuable tobacco land, which, however, is somewhat
liable to flood, and some remarkable burial-caves are found in the
valley of the Kinabatangan. The remaining rivers of the east coast are
the Segamah, which rises west of Darvel Bay, the Kumpong, and the
Kalabakang, which debouches into Cowie Harbour. Taking it as a whole,
the company's territory is much less generously watered than are other
parts of Borneo, which again compares unfavourably in this respect with
the Malayan states of the peninsula. Many of the rivers, especially
those of the west coast, are obstructed by bars at their mouths that
render them difficult of access. Several of the natural harbours of
North Borneo, on the other hand, are accessible, safe and commodious.
Sandakan Harbour, on the north-east coast (5° 40' N., 118° 10' E.), runs
inland for some 17 m. with a very irregular outline broken by the mouths
of numerous creeks and streams. The mouth, only 2 m. across, is split
into two channels by the little, high, bluff-like island of Barhala. The
depth in the main entrance varies from 10 to 17 fathoms, and vessels
drawing 20 ft. can advance half-way up the bay. The principal town in
the territory, and the seat of government (though an attempt has been
unsuccessfully made to transfer this to Jesselton on the west coast), is
Sandakan, situated just inside the mouth of the Sarwaka inlet. At Silam,
on Darvel Bay, there is good anchorage; and Kudat in Marudu Bay, first
surveyed by Commander Johnstone of H.M.S. "Nigeria" in 1881, is a small
but useful harbour.

_Climate and Population._--The climate of North Borneo is tropical, hot,
damp and enervating. The rainfall is steady and not usually excessive.
The shade temperature at Sandakan ordinarily ranges from 72° to 94° F.
The population of the company's territory is not known with any approach
to accuracy, but is estimated, somewhat liberally, to amount to 175,000,
including 16,000 Chinese. Of this total about three-fourths are found in
the districts of the west coast. The seashore and the country bordering
closely on the west coast are inhabited chiefly by Dusuns, by Kadayans,
by Bajaus and Ilanuns--both Malayan tribes--and by Brunei Malays. The
east coast is very sparsely populated and its inhabitants are mostly
Bajaus and settlers from the neighbouring Sulu archipelago. The interior
is dotted with infrequent villages inhabited by Dusuns or by Muruts, a
village ordinarily consisting of a single long hut divided up into
cubicles, one for the use of each family, opening out on to a common
verandah along which the skulls captured by the tribe are festooned. It
has been customary to speak of these tribes as belonging to the Dyak
group, but the Muruts would certainly seem to be the representatives of
the aboriginal inhabitants of the island, and there is much reason to
think that the Dusuns also must be classed as distinct from the Dyaks.
The Dusun language, it is interesting to note, presents very curious
grammatical complications and refinements such as are not to be found
among the tongues spoken by any of the other peoples of the Malayan
Archipelago or the mainland of south-eastern Asia. Dusuns and Muruts
alike are in a very low state of civilization, and both indulge
inordinately in the use of intoxicating liquors of their own

_Settlements and Communication._--The company possesses a number of
small stations along the coast, of which Sandakan, with a population of
9 500, is the most important. The remainder which call for separate
mention are Lahat Datu on Darvel Bay on the east coast; Kudat on Marudu
Bay and Jesselton on Gaya Bay on the west coast. A railway of
indifferent construction runs along the west coast from Jesselton to
Weston on Brunei Bay, with a branch along the banks of the Padas to
Tenom above the rapids. It was originally intended that this should
eventually be extended across the territory to Cowie Harbour (Sabuko
Bay) on the east coast, but the extraordinary engineering difficulties
which oppose themselves to such an extension, the sparse population of
the territory, and the failure of the existing line to justify the
expectations entertained by its designers, combine to render the
prosecution of any such project highly improbable. Sandakan is connected
by telegraph with Mempakul on the west coast whence a cable runs to
Labuan and so gives telegraphic communication with Singapore. The
overland line from Mempakul to Sandakan, however, passes through
forest-clad and very difficult country, and telegraphic communication is
therefore subject to very frequent interruption. Telegraphic
communication between Mempakul and Kudat, via Jesselton, has also been
established and is more regularly and successfully maintained. The only
roads in the territory are bridle-paths in the immediate vicinity of the
company's principal stations. The Sabah Steamship Company, subsidized by
the Chartered Company, runs steamers along the coast, calling at all the
company's stations at which native produce is accumulated. A German firm
runs vessels at approximately bi-monthly intervals from Singapore to
Labuan and thence to Sandakan, calling in on occasion at Jesselton and
Kudat _en route_. There is also fairly frequent communication between
Sandakan and Hong-Kong, a journey of four days' steaming.

_Products and Trade._--The capabilities of the company's territory are
only dimly known. Coal has been found in the neighbourhood of Cowie
Harbour and elsewhere, but though its quality is believed to be as good
as that exported from Dutch Borneo, it is not yet known whether it
exists in payable quantities. Gold has been found in alluvial deposits
on the banks of some of the rivers of the east coast, but here again the
quantity available is still in serious doubt. The territory as a whole
has been very imperfectly examined by geologists, and no opinion can at
present be hazarded as to the mineral wealth or poverty of the company's
property. Traces of mineral oil, iron ores, copper, zinc and antimony
have been found, but the wealth of North Borneo still lies mainly in its
jungle produce. It possesses a great profusion of excellent timber, but
the difficulty of extraction has so far restricted the lumber industry
within somewhat modest limits. Gutta, rubber, rattans, mangrove-bark,
edible nuts, guano, edible birds'-nests, &c., are all valuable articles
of export. The principal cultivated produce is tobacco, sago, cocoanuts,
coffee, pepper, gambier and sugar-canes. Of these the tobacco and the
sago are the most important. Between 1886 and 1900 the value of the
tobacco crop increased from £471 to £200,000.

As is common throughout Malayan lands, the trade of North Borneo is
largely in the hands of Chinese shopkeepers who send their agents inland
to attend the _Tamus_ (Malay, _temu_, to meet) or fairs, which are the
recognized scenes of barter between the natives of the interior and
those of the coast. At Sandakan there is a Chinese population of over

_Administration._--For administrative purposes the territory is divided
into nine provinces: Alcock and Dewhurst in the north; Keppel on the
west; Martin in the centre; Myburgh, Mayne and Elphinstone on the east
coast; and Dent and Cunliffe in the south. The boundaries of these
provinces, however, are purely arbitrary and not accurately defined. The
form of government is modelled roughly upon the system adopted in the
Malay States of the peninsula during the early days of their
administration by British residents. The government is vested primarily
in the court of directors appointed under the company's charter, which
may be compared to the colonial office in its relation to a British
colony, though the court of directors interests itself far more closely
than does the colonial department in the smaller details of local
administration. The supreme authority on the spot is represented by the
governor, under whom are the residents of Kudat, Darvel Bay and Keppel,
officers who occupy much the same position as that usually known by the
title of magistrate and collector. The less important districts are
administered by district magistrates, who also collect the taxes. The
principal departments, whose chiefs reside at the capital, are the
treasury, the land and survey, the public works, the constabulary, the
medical and the judicial. The secretariat is under the charge of a
government secretary who ranks next in precedence to the governor.
Legislation is by the proclamation of the governor, but there is a
council, meeting at irregular intervals, upon which the principal heads
of departments and one unofficial member have seats. The public service
is recruited by nomination by the court of directors. The governor is
the chief judge of the court of appeal, but a judge who is subordinate
to him takes all ordinary supreme court cases. The laws are the Indian
Penal and Civil Procedure Codes and Evidence Acts, supplemented by a few
local laws promulgated by proclamation. There is an Imam's court for the
trial of cases affecting Mahommedan law of marriage, succession, &c. The
native chiefs are responsible to the government for the preservation of
law and order in their districts. They have restricted judicial powers.
The constabulary numbers some 600 men and consists of a mixed force of
Sikhs, Pathans, Punjabi Mahommedans, Dyaks and Malays, officered by a
few Europeans. There is a Protestant mission which supports a
church--the only stone building in the territory--and a school at
Sandakan, with branches at Kudat, Kaningau and Tambunan. The Roman
Catholic mission maintains an orphanage, a church and school at
Sandakan, and has missions among the Dusuns at several points on the
west coast and in the Tambunan country. Its headquarters are at Kuching
in Sarawak. The Chinese have their joss-houses and the Mahommedans a few
small mosques, but the vast majority of the native inhabitants are
pagans who have no buildings set apart for religious purposes.

_Finance and Money._--The principal sources of revenue are the licences
granted for the importation and retailing of opium, wine and spirits,
which are in the hands of Chinese; a customs duty of 5% on imports; an
export tax of 5% on jungle produce; a poll-tax sanctioned by ancient
native custom; and a stamp duty. A land revenue is derived from the sale
of government lands, from quit rents and fees of transfer, &c. Judicial
fees bring in a small amount, and the issue and sale of postage and
revenue stamps have proved a fruitful source of income. The people of
the country are by no means heavily taxed, a large number of the natives
of the interior escaping all payment of dues to the company, the revenue
being for the most part contributed by the more civilized members of the
community residing in the neighbourhood of the company's stations. There
are bank agencies in Sandakan, and the company does banking business
when required. The state, which has adopted the penny postage, is in the
Postal Union, and money orders on North Borneo are issued in the United
Kingdom and in most British colonies and vice versa. Notes issued by the
principal banks in Singapore were made current in North Borneo in 1900.
There is also a government note issue issued by the company for use
within the territory only. The currency is the Mexican and British
dollar, the company issuing its own copper coin--viz. cents and half
cents. It is proposed to adopt the coinage of the Straits Settlements,
and measures have been taken with a view to the accomplishment of this.
In the interior the principal medium of exchange among the natives is
the large earthenware jars, imported originally, it is believed, from
China, which form the chief wealth both of tribes and individuals.
     (H. Cl.)

  AUTHORITIES.--Among early works may be mentioned, S. Blommaert,
  _Discours ende ghelegentheyt van het eylandt Borneo int Jear 1609_;
  _Hachelyke reystogt van Jacob Jansz. de Roy na Borneo en Atchin in het
  jaar 1691_; Beeckman, _Visit to Borneo_, 1718, in J. Pinkerton's
  _General Collections_ (1808-1814); F. Valentijn in _Ond en Nieuw Oost
  Indiën_ (Dordrecht, 1724-1726). See also H. Keppel, _Expedition to
  Borneo of H.M.S. "Dido"_ (London, 1846); R. Mundy, _Narrative of
  Events in Borneo and Celebes_ (London, 1848); F.S. Marryat,
  _Borneo_, &c. (1848); P.J. Veth, _Borneo's Westerafdeeling_
  (Zalt-Bommel, 1854 and 1856); S. Müller, _Reizen en onderzoekingen in
  den Indischen Archipel_ (Amsterdam, 1857); C. Bock, _Head-hunters of
  Borneo_ (London, 1881), and _Reis in Oost en Zuid-Borneo_ (The Hague,
  1887); J. Hatton, _The New Ceylon, a Sketch of British North Borneo_
  (London, 1882); F. Hatton, _North Borneo_ (London, 1885); T. Posewitz,
  _Borneo... Verbreitung der nutzbaren Mineralien_ (Berlin, 1889), Eng.
  trans., _Borneo; its Geology and Mineral Resources_ (London, 1892); J.
  Whitehead, _Exploration of Mount Kini Balu_ (London, 1893); Mrs W.B.
  Pryor, _A Decade in Borneo_ (London, 1894); H. Ling Roth, _The Natives
  of Sarawak and North Borneo_ (London, 1896); G.A.F. Molengraaf,
  _Geologische Verkinningstochten in Centraal Borneo_ (Leiden, 1900,
  Eng. trans. 1902); A.W. Niewenhuis, _In Centraal Borneo_ (Leiden,
  1901), and _Quer durch Borneo_ (Leiden, 1904), &c.; W.H. Furness,
  _Home Life of Borneo Head-hunters_ (London, 1902); O. Beccari, _Nelle
  Foreste di Borneo_ (Florence, 1902), Eng. trans., _Wanderings in the
  Great Forests of Borneo_ (London, 1904); D. Cator, _Everyday Life
  among the Head-hunters_ (London, 1905). For geology, besides the works
  of Posewitz and Molengraaf already cited, see R.B. Newton in _Geol.
  Mag_., 1897, pp. 407-415, and _Proc. Malac. Soc_., London, vol. v.
  (1902-1903), pp. 403-409. A series of papers on the palaeontology of
  the island will be found in the several volumes of the _Samml. Geol_.
  R. Mus., Leiden.

BORNHOLM, an island in the Baltic Sea, 22 m. S.E. of the Swedish coast,
belonging to Denmark, lying on 15° E., and between 55° and 55° 18' N.,
and measuring 24 m. from S.E. to N.W. and 19 (extreme) from E. to W.
Pop. (1901) 40,889. The surface is generally hilly; the scenery is fine
in the north, where the cliffs reach a height of 135 ft., and the
granite hill of Helligdomsklipper dominates the island. Besides
freestone, exported for building, limestone, blue marble, and
porcelain-clay are worked. A little coal is found and used locally, but
it is not of good quality. Oats, flax and hemp are cultivated. The
inhabitants are employed in agriculture, fishing, brewing, distillation
and the manufacture of earthenware. Weaving and clock-making are also
carried on to some extent. The capital is Rönne (115 m. by sea from
Copenhagen), and there are five other small towns on the
island--Svanike, Neksö, Hasle, Allinge, and Sandvig. A railway connects
Rönne with Neksö (22 m. E. by S.), where a bust commemorates J.N.
Madvig, the philologist, who was born there in 1804 (d. 1886). Blanch's
Hotel, 10 m. N. of Rönne, is the most favoured resort on the island,
which attracts many visitors. On the north-west coast are the ruins of
the castle of Hammershus, which was built in 1158, and long served as a
state prison; while another old castle, erected by Christian V. in 1684,
and important as commanding the entrance to the Baltic, is situated on
Christiansö, one of a small group of islands 15 m. E. by N. The island
of Bornholm has had an eventful history. In early times it was long the
independent seat of marauding Vikings. In the 12th century it became a
fief of the archbishop of Lund. In 1510 it was captured by the Hanseatic
League, in 1522 it came under Danish sway, and in 1526 it was made
directly subject to the city of Lübeck. In 1645 the Swedes took it by
storm, and their possession of it was confirmed by the peace of Roskilde
in 1658; but the sympathies of the people were with Denmark, and a
popular insurrection succeeded in expelling the Swedish forces, the
island coming finally into the possession of Denmark in 1660.

BORNIER, HENRI, VICOMTE DE (1825-1901) French poet and dramatist, was
born at Lunel (Hérault) on the 25th of December 1825. He came to Paris
in 1845 With the object of studying law, but in that year he published a
volume of verse, _Les Premières Feuilles_, and the Comédie Francaise
accepted a play of his entitled _Le Mariage de Luther_. He was given a
post in the library of the Arsenal, where he served for half a century,
becoming director in 1889. In 1875 was produced at the Théâtre Français
his heroic drama in verse, _La Fille de Roland_. The action of the play
turns on the love of Gérald, son of the traitor Ganelon, for the
daughter of Roland. The patriotic subject and the nobility of the
character of Gérald, who renounces Berthe when he learns his real
origin, procured for the piece a great success. The conflict between
honour and love and the grandiose sentiment of the play inevitably
provoked comparison with Corneille. The piece would indeed be a
masterpiece if, as its critics were not slow to point out, the verse had
been quite equal to the subject. Among the numerous other works of M. de
Bornier should be mentioned: _Dimitri_ (1876), libretto of an opera by
M.V. de Jonciêres; and the dramas, _Les Noces d'Allila_ (1880) and
_Mahomet_ (1888). The production of this last piece was forbidden in
deference to the representations of the Turkish ambassador. Henri de
Bornier was critic of the _Nouvelle Revue_ from 1879 to 1887. His
_Poésies complètes_ were published in 1894. He died in January 1901.

BORNU, a country in the Central Sudan, lying W. and S. of Lake Chad. It
is bounded W. and S. by the Hausa states and N. by the Sahara. Formerly
an independent Mahommedan sultanate it has been divided between Great
Britain, Germany and France. To France has fallen a portion of northern
Bornu and also Zinder (q.v.), a tributary state to the north-west, while
the south-west part is incorporated in the German colony of Cameroon.
Three-fourths of Bornu proper, some 50,000 sq. m., forms part of the
British protectorate of Nigeria.

Bornu is for the most part an alluvial plain, the country sloping
gradually to Lake Chad, which formerly spread over a much larger area
than it now occupies. The Komadugu (i.e. river) Waube--generally known
as the Yo--and its tributaries rise in the highlands which, beyond the
western border of Bornu, form the watershed between the Niger and Chad
systems, and flow north and east across the plains to Lake Chad, the Yo
in its last few miles marking the frontier between the French and
British possessions. In the south-west a part of Bornu drains to the
Benue. The rivers are intermittent, and water in southern Bornu is
obtained only from wells, which are sunk to a great depth. The vast
plain of Bornu is stoneless, except for rare outcrops of ironstone, and
consists of the porous fissured black earth called "cotton soil" in
India, alternating with, or more probably overlaid by, sand. Throughout
the flat country water is apparently found everywhere at a depth of 54
ft., corresponding to the level of Chad. Towards Damjiri in the
north-west the country becomes more broken, hilly and timbered. In the
south limestone is found near Gujba and also along the Gongola tributary
of the Benue. A forest of red and green barked acacia, yielding the
species of gum most valuable in the market, extends from the Gongola to
Gujba. Immense baobabs (_Adansonia digitata_), fine tamarinds and a few
trees of the genus _Ficus_ are met with in the south. North of Maifoni
(latitude 12° N.) the baobab ceases, except at Kuka, where extensive
plantations have been made, and its place is taken by the _Kigelia_ and
also by a very handsome species of _Diospyros_. North of Kuka is a dense
belt of _Hyphaene_ palm with fine tamarinds and figs. Cotton and indigo
grow wild, and afford the materials for the cloths, finely dyed with
blue stripes, which form the staple fabric of the country. On the shores
of Lake Chad the cotton grown is of a peculiarly fine quality. Rice and
wheat of excellent quality are raised, but in small quantities, the
staple food being a species of millet called _gussub_, which is made
into a kind of paste and eaten with butter or honey. Ground-nuts, yams,
sweet potatoes, several sorts of beans and grains, peppers, onions,
water-melons and tomatoes are grown. Of fruit trees the country
possesses the lime and fig.

Wild animals, in great numbers, find both food and cover in the
extensive districts of wood and marsh. Lions, giraffes, elephants,
hyenas, crocodiles, hippopotami, antelopes, gazelles and ostriches are
found. The horse, the camel and the ox are the chief domestic animals;
all are used as beasts of burden. The country abounds with bees, and
honey forms one of the chief Bornuese delicacies.

The climate, especially from March to the end of June, is oppressively
hot, rising sometimes to 105° and 107°, and even during most of the
night not falling much below 100°. In May the wet season begins, with
violent storms of thunder and lightning. In the end of June the rivers
and lakes begin to overflow, and for several months the rains,
accompanied with sultry weather, are almost incessant. The inhabitants
at this season suffer greatly from fevers. In October the rains abate;
cool, fresh winds blow from the west and north-west; and for several
months the climate is healthy and agreeable.

_Inhabitants._--The inhabitants, of whom the great majority profess
Mahommedanism, are divided into Negroes and those of mixed blood, i.e.
Negro and Berber, Arab or other crossing. The total population of
British Bornu is estimated at 500,000. The dominant tribe, called
Bornuese, Berberi or Kanuri, a Negro race with an infusion of Berber
blood, have black skins, large mouths, thick lips and broad noses, but
good teeth and high foreheads. The females add to their want of beauty
by extensive tattooing; they also stain their faces with indigo, and dye
their front teeth black and their canine teeth red. The law allows
polygamy, but the richest men have seldom more than two or three wives.
The marriage ceremonies last for a whole week, the first three days
being spent in feasting on the favourite national dishes, and the others
appropriated to certain symbolical rites. A favourite amusement is the
watching of wrestling matches. A game bearing some resemblance to chess,
played with beans and holes in the sand, is also a favourite occupation.

The pastoral districts of the country are occupied by the Shuwas, who
are of Arab origin, and speak a well-preserved dialect of Arabic. Of the
date of their immigration from the East there is no record; but they
were in the country as early as the middle of the 17th century. They are
divided into numerous distinct clans. Their villages in general consist
of rudely constructed huts, of an exaggerated conical form. Another
tribe, called La Salas, inhabits a number of low fertile islands in Lake
Chad, separated from the mainland by fordable channels.

The Bornuese are noted horsemen, and in times of war the horses, as well
as the riders, used to be cased in light iron mail. The Shuwas, however,
are clad only in a light shirt, and the Kanembu spearmen go almost
naked, and fight with shield and spear. It is indispensable to a chief
of rank that he should possess a huge belly, and when high feeding
cannot produce this, padding gives the appearance of it. Notwithstanding
the heat of the climate, the body is enveloped in successive robes, the
number indicating the rank of the wearer. The head likewise is enclosed
in numerous turbans. The prevailing language in Bornu is the Kanuri. It
has no affinity, according to Heinrich Barth, with the great Berber
family. A grammar was published in 1854 by S.W. Koelle, as well as a
volume of tales and fables, with a translation and vocabulary.

The towns in Bornu, which have populations varying from 10,000 to 50,000
or more, are surrounded with walls 35 or 40 ft. in height and 20 ft. in
thickness, having at each of the four corners a triple gate, composed of
strong planks of wood, with bars of iron. The abodes of the principal
inhabitants form an enclosed square, in which are separate houses for
each of the wives; the chief's palace consists of turrets connected
together by terraces. These are well built of a reddish clay, highly
polished, so as to resemble stucco; the interior roof, though composed
only of branches, is tastefully constructed. Maidugari, which in 1908
became the seat of the native government, is a thriving commercial town
some 70 m. south-west of Lake Chad. The former capital, Kuka (q.v.), and
Ngornu (the town of "blessing"), are near the shores of Lake Chad. On
the Yo are still to be seen extensive remains of Old Bornu or Birni and
Gambarou or Ghambaru, which were destroyed by the Fula about 1809.
Dikwa, the capital chosen by Rabah (see below), lies in the German part
of Bornu.

_History._--The history of Bornu goes back to the 9th century A.D., but
its early portions are very fragmentary and dubious. The first dynasty
known is that of the Sefuwa or descendants of Sef, which came to the
throne in the person of Dugu or Duku, and had its capital at Njimiye
(Jima) in Kanem on the north-east shores of Lake Chad. The Sefuwa are of
Berber origin, the descent from Sef, the Himyaritic ruler, being
mythical. From this Berber strain comes the name Berberi or
Ba-Berberche, applied by the Hausa to the inhabitants of Bornu.
Mahommedanism was adopted towards the end of the 11th century, and has
since continued the religion of the country. From 1194 to 1220 reigned
Selma II., under whom the power of the kingdom was greatly extended; and
Dunama II., his successor was also a powerful and warlike prince. In
the following reigns the prosperity of the country began to diminish,
and about 1386 the dynasty was expelled from Njimiye, and forced to seek
refuge in the western part of its territory by the invasion of the
Bulala. Mai Ali (I.) Ghajideni, who founded the city of Birni, rendered
his country once more redoubtable and strong. His successor, Idris II.,
completely vanquished the Bulala and subjugated Kanem; and under
Mahommed V., the next monarch, Bornu reached its highest pitch of
greatness. At this period Zinder became a tributary state. A series of
for the most part peaceful reigns succeeded till about the middle of the
18th century, when Ali (IV.) Omarmi entered upon a violent struggle with
the Tuareg or Imoshagh. Under his son Ahmed (about 1808) the kingdom
began to be harassed by the Fula, who had already conquered the Hausa
country. Expelled from his capital by the invaders, Ahmed was only
restored by the assistance of the fakir Mahommed al-Amin al-Kanemi, who,
pretending to a celestial mission, hoisted the green flag of the
Prophet, and undertook the deliverance of his country. The Fula appear
to have been taken by surprise, and were in ten months driven completely
out of Bornu. The conqueror invested the nearest heir of the ancient
kings with all the appearance of sovereignty--reserving for himself,
however, under the title of sheik, all its reality. The court of the
sultan (_shehu_) was established at New Bornu, or Birni, which was made
the capital, the old city having been destroyed during the Fula
invasion; while the sheik, in military state, took up his residence at
the new city of Kuka. Fairly established, he ruled the country with a
rod of iron, and at the same time inspired his subjects with a
superstitious notion of his sanctity. His zeal was peculiarly directed
against moral or religious offences. The most frivolous faults of women,
as talking too loud, and walking in the street unveiled, rendered the
offender liable to public indictment, while graver errors were visited
with the most ignominious punishments, and often with death itself.
Kanemi died in 1835, and was succeeded by his son, Sheik Omar, who
altogether abolished the nominal kingship of the Sefuwa.

During Omar's reign, which lasted about fifty years, Bornu was visited
by many Europeans, who reached it via Tripoli and the Sahara. The first
to enter the country were Walter Oudney, Hugh Clapperton and Dixon
Denham (1823). They were followed in 1851-1855 by Heinrich Barth. Later
travellers included Gerhard Rohlfs (1866) and Gustav Nachtigal. All
these travellers were well received by the Kanuri, whose power from the
middle of the 19th century began to decay. This was foreseen by Barth;
and Nachtigal, who in 1870 conveyed presents sent by King William of
Prussia, in acknowledgment of the sheik's kindness to many German
explorers, writes thus in December 1872:

  "The rapid declension of Bornu is an undeniable and lamentable fact.
  It is taking place with increasing rapidity, and the boundless
  weakness of Sheik Omar--otherwise so worthy and brave a man--must bear
  almost all the blame. His sons and ministers plunder the provinces in
  an almost unheard-of manner; trade and intercourse are almost at a
  standstill; good faith and confidence exist no more. The indolence of
  the court avoids military expeditions, and anarchy and a lack of
  security on the routes are the consequences.... Thus the sheik and the
  land grow poorer and poorer, and public morality sinks lower and

After the visit of Nachtigal the country was visited by no European
traveller until 1892, when Colonel P.L. Monteil resided for a time at
Kuka during his great journey from the Senegal to Tripoli. The French
traveller noticed many signs of decadence, the energy of the people
being sapped by luxury, while a virtual anarchy prevailed owing to
rivalries and intrigues among members of the royal family. The chief of
Zinder had ceased to pay tribute, and the sultan was not strong enough
to exact it by force. At the same time a danger was threatening from the
south-east, where the negro adventurer Rabah, once a slave of Zobeir
Pasha, was menacing the kingdom of Bagirmi. After making himself master
of the fortified town of Manifa, Rabah proceeded against Bornu,
defeating the army of the sultan Ahsem in two pitched battles. In
December 1893 Ahsem fled from Kuka, which was entered by Rabah and soon
afterwards destroyed, the capital being transferred to Dikwa in the
south-east of the kingdom. These events ruined for many years the trade
between Tripoli and Kuka by the long-established route via Bilma. Rabah
had raised a large, well-drilled army, and proved a formidable opponent
to the French in their advance on Lake Chad from the south. However in
1900 he was killed at Kussuri near the lower Shari, by the combined
forces of three French expeditions which had been converging from the
Congo, the Sahara and the Niger.

By an Anglo-French agreement of 1898 the tributary state of Zinder in
the north had been included in the French sphere, and after the defeat
of Rabah French military expeditions occupied both the German and
British portions of Bornu, but in 1902 on the appearance of British and
German expeditions the French withdrew to their own country east of the
Shari. The British placed on the throne of Bornu Shehu Garbai, a
descendant of the ancient sultans, and Kuka was again chosen as the
capital of the state. From that date British Bornu has been under
administrative control. It has been divided into East and West Bornu,
the line of division being fixed approximately at longitude 12°, and
placed under the administration of a resident. Maifoni and Kuka were
selected for British stations in the east, and Damjiri and Gujba in the
west. Garrisons are quartered at these points. The province has been
mapped, and a network of tracks available for wheeled transport has been
made through it. Water communication with the Benue and Niger has been
opened through the Gongola river. The _shehu_, who took the oath of
allegiance to the British crown on the occasion of his formal
installation in November 1904, is maintained in all local dignity as a
native chief, and co-operates loyally with the British administration.
Peace has prevailed in Bornu since the British occupation, and it is
estimated that the population has increased by immigration to about 50%
more than it was in 1902. The people are industrious. Extensive areas
are being brought under cultivation, and taxes are collected without
difficulty. Owing to its increasing commercial importance, the native
capital was in 1908 transferred to Maidugari (see also NIGERIA:
_History;_ and RABAH).

  AUTHORITIES.--Heinrich Barth's _Travels in North and Central Africa_
  (1857, new ed., London, 1890) contains an exact picture of the state
  in the period (c. 1850) preceding its decay. The earlier _Travels_ of
  Denham and Clapperton (London, 1828) may also be consulted, as well as
  Rohlfs, _Land und Volk in Afrika_ (Bremen, 1870); Nachtigal, _Sahara
  und Sudan_, vol. i. (Berlin, 1879); and Monteil, _de St.-Louis à
  Tripoli par le lac Tchad_ (Paris, 1895). For later information consult
  Lady Lugard's _A Tropical Dependency_ (London, 1905), and the _Annual
  Reports_, from 1900 onward, on Northern Nigeria, issued by the
  Colonial Office, London.     (F. L. L.)

BORODIN, ALEXANDER PORFYRIEVICH (1834-1887), Russian musical composer,
natural son of a Russian prince, was born in St Petersburg on the 12th
of November 1834. He was brought up to the medical profession, and in
1862 was appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the St Petersburg
academy of medicine. He wrote several works on chemistry, and took a
leading part in advocating women's education, helping to found the
school of medicine for women, and lecturing there from 1872 till his
death. But he is best known as a musician. His interest in music was
indeed stimulated from 1862 onwards by his friendship with Balakirev,
and from 1863 by his marriage with a lady who was an accomplished
pianist; but in his earlier years he had been proficient both in playing
the piano, violin, 'cello and other instruments, and also in composing;
and during life he did his best to pursue his studies in both music and
chemistry with equal enthusiasm. Like other Russian composers he owed
much to the influence of Liszt at Weimar. His first symphony was written
in 1862-1867; his opera _Prince Igor_, begun in 1869, was left
unfinished at his death, and was completed by Rimsky-Korsakov and
Glazounov (1889); his symphonic sketch, "In the Steppes" (1880) is,
however, his best-known work. Borodin also wrote a second symphony
(1871-1877), part of a third (orchestrated after his death by
Glazounov), and a few string quartets and some fine songs. His music is
characteristically Russian, and of an advanced modern type. He died
suddenly at St Petersburg, on the 28th of February 1887.

BORODINO, a village of Russia, 70 m. W. by S. of Moscow, on the
Kolotscha, an affluent of the river Moskva, famous as the scene of a
great battle between the army of Napoleon and the Russians under Kutusov
on the 7th of September 1812. Though the battle is remembered chiefly
for the terrible losses incurred by both sides, in many respects it is
an excellent example of Napoleon's tactical methods. After preliminary
fighting on the 5th of September both sides prepared for battle on the
6th, Napoleon holding back in the hope of confirming the enemy in his
resolution to fight a decisive battle. For the same reason the French
right wing, which could have manoeuvred the Russians from their
position, was designedly weakened. The Russian right, bent back at an
angle and strongly posted, was also neglected, for Napoleon intended to
make a direct frontal attack. The enemy's right centre near the village
of Borodino was to be attacked by the viceroy of Italy, Eugene, who was
afterwards to roll up the Russian line towards its centre, the so-called
"great redoubt," which was to be attacked directly from the front by Ney
and Junot. Farther to the French right, Davout was to attack frontally a
group of field works on which the Russian left centre was formed; and
the extreme right of the French army was composed of the weak corps of
Poniatowski. The cavalry corps were assigned to the various leaders
named, and the Guard was held in reserve. The whole line was not more
than about 2 m. long, giving an average of over 20 men per yard. When
the Russians closed on their centre they were even more densely massed,
and their reserves were subjected to an effective fire from the French
field guns. At 6 A.M. on the 7th of September the French attack began.
By 8 A.M. the Russian centre was driven in, and though a furious
counter-attack enabled Prince Bagration's troops to win back their
original line, fresh French troops under Davout and Ney drove them back
again. But the Russians, though they lost ground elsewhere, still clung
to the great redoubt, and for a time the advance of the French was
suspended by Napoleon's order, owing to a cavalry attack by the Russians
on Eugene's extreme left. When this alarm was ended the advance was
resumed. Napoleon had now collected a sufficient target for his guns. A
terrific bombardment by the artillery was followed by the decisive
charge of the battle, made by great masses of cavalry. The horsemen,
followed by the infantry, charged at speed, broke the Russian line in
two, and the French squadrons entered the gorge of the great redoubt
just as Eugene's infantry climbed up its faces. In a fearful _mêlée_ the
Russian garrison of the redoubt was almost annihilated. The defenders
were now dislodged from their main line and the battle was practically
at an end. Napoleon has been criticized for not using the Guard, which
was intact, to complete the victory. There is, however, no evidence that
any further expenditure of men would have had good results. Napoleon had
imposed his will on the enemy so far that they ceded possession of
Moscow without further resistance. That the defeat and losses of the
Russian field army did not end the war was due to the national spirit of
the Russians, not to military miscalculations of Napoleon. Had it not
been for this spirit, Borodino would have been decisive of the war
without'the final blow of the Guard. As it was, the Russians lost about
42,000 men out of 121,000; Napoleon's army (of which one-half consisted
of the contingents of subject allies-Germany, Poland, Switzerland,
Holland, &c.) 32,000 out of 130,000 (Berndt, _Zahl im Kriege_). On the
side of the French 31 general officers were killed, wounded or taken,
and amongst the killed were General Montbrun, who fell at the head of
his cavalry corps, and Auguste Caulaincourt, who took Montbrun's place
and fell in the _mêlée_ in the redoubt. The Russians lost 22 generals,
amongst them Prince Bagration, who died of his wounds after the battle,
and to whose memory a monument was erected on the battle-field by the
tsar Nicholas I.

BOROLANITE, one of the most remarkable rocks of the British Isles, found
on the shores of Loch Borolan in Sutherlandshire, after which it has
been named. In this locality there is a considerable area of granite
rich in red alkali felspar, and passing, by diminution in the amount of
its quartz, into quartz-syenites (nordmarkites) and syenites. At the
margins of the outcrop patches of nepheline-syenite occur; usually the
nepheline is decomposed, but occasionally it is well-preserved; the
other ingredients of the rock are brown garnet (melanite) and aegirine.
The abundance of melanite is very unusual in igneous rocks, though some
syenites, leucitophyres, and aegirine-felsites resemble borolanite in
this respect. In places the nepheline-syenite assumes the form of a dark
rock with large rounded white spots. These last consist of an
intermixture of nepheline or sodalite and alkali-felspar. From the
analogy of certain leucite-syenites which are known in Arkansas, it is
very probable that these spots represent original leucites which have
been changed into aggregates of the above-named minerals. They resemble
leucite in their shape, but have not yet been proved to have its
crystalline outlines. The "pseudo-leucites," as they have been called,
measure one-quarter to three-quarters of an inch across. The dark matrix
consists of biotite, aegirine-augite and melanite. Connected with the
borolanite there are other types of nepheline-syenite and pegmatite. In
Finland, melanite-bearing nepheline rocks have been found and described
as Ijolite, but the only other locality for melanite-leucite-syenite is
Magnet Cove in Arkansas.     (J. S. F.)

BORON (symbol B, atomic weight 11), one of the non-metallic elements,
occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various
borates such as borax, tincal, boronatrocalcite and boracite. It was
isolated by J. Gay Lussac and L. Thénard in 1808 by heating boron
trioxide with potassium, in an iron tube. It was also isolated at about
the same time by Sir H. Davy, from boracic acid. It may be obtained as a
dark brown amorphous powder by placing a mixture of 10 parts of the
roughly powdered oxide with 6 parts of metallic sodium in a red-hot
crucible, and covering the mixture with a layer of well-dried common
salt. After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been
used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the
soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains
as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried. H. Moissan
(_Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1895, 6, p. 296) heats three parts of the oxide
with one part of magnesium powder. The dark product obtained is washed
with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally
calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air
during the operation by a layer of charcoal. Pure amorphous boron is a
chestnut-coloured powder of specific gravity 2.45; it sublimes in the
electric arc, is totally unaffected by air at ordinary temperatures, and
burns on strong ignition with production of the oxide B2O3 and the
nitride BN. It combines directly with fluorine at ordinary temperature,
and with chlorine, bromine and sulphur on heating. It does not react
with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to
form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated
temperatures. It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and
cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat. Heated with sulphuric
acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion
with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali
metal. Like silicon and carbon, very varying values had been given for
its specific heat, until H.F. Weber showed that the specific heat
increases rapidly with increasing temperature. By strongly heating a
mixture of boron trioxide and aluminium, protected from the air by a
layer of charcoal, F. Wöhler and H. Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a
grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium
hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be
a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of
aluminium borides with more or less carbon. Boron dissolves in molten
aluminium, and on cooling, transparent, almost colourless crystals are
obtained, possessing a lustre, hardness and refractivity near that of
the diamond. In 1904 K.A. Kühne (D.R.P. 147,871) described a process in
which external heating is not necessary, a mixture of aluminium
turnings, sulphur and boric acid being ignited by a hot iron rod, the
resulting aluminium sulphide, formed as a by-product, being decomposed
by water.

  Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition;
  on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride
  Mg3B2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric
  acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and
  boron hydride, is obtained. This mixture burns with a green flame
  forming boron trioxide; whilst boron is deposited on passing the gas
  mixture through a hot tube, or on depressing a cold surface in the gas
  flame. By cooling it with liquid air Sir W. Ramsay and H.S. Hatfield
  obtained from it a gas of composition B3H3. The mixture probably
  contained also some BH3 (W. Ramsay and H.S. Hatfield, _Proc. Chem.
  Soc._, 17, p. 152). Boron fluoride BF3 was first prepared in 1808 by
  Gay Lussac and L. Thénard and is best obtained by heating a mixture of
  the trioxide and fluorspar with concentrated sulphuric acid. It is a
  colourless pungent gas which is exceedingly soluble in water. It fumes
  strongly in air, and does not attack glass. It rapidly absorbs the
  elements of water wherever possible, so that a strip of paper plunged
  into the gas is rapidly charred. It does not burn, neither does it
  support combustion. A saturated solution of the gas, in water, is a
  colourless, oily, strongly fuming liquid which after a time
  decomposes, with separation of metaboric acid, leaving hydrofluoboric
  acid HF·BF3 in solution. This acid cannot be isolated in the free
  condition, but many of its salts are known. Boron fluoride also
  combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a
  white crystalline solid of composition BF3·NH3; with excess of ammonia
  gas, colourless liquids BF3·2NH3 and BF3·3NH3 are produced, which on
  heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.

  Boron chloride BCl3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine
  gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated
  mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being
  condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture. It is a
  colourless fuming liquid boiling at 17-18° C, and is readily
  decomposed by water with formation of boric and hydrochloric acids. It
  unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of
  composition 2BCl3·3NH3.

  Boron bromide BBr3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements,
  but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the
  chloride. It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With
  water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the
  chloride. Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous
  hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI3,
  which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic
  acid through a red-hot porcelain tube. It is a white crystalline solid
  of melting point 43 C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled
  without decomposition. It is decomposed by water, and with a solution
  of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of
  composition PBI2, which sublimes _in vacuo_ at 210° C. to red
  crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine
  and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.

  Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in
  nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a
  platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two
  parts of dry ammonium chloride. After fusion, the melt is well washed
  with dilute hydrochloric acid and then with water, the nitride
  remaining as a white powder. It can also be prepared by heating
  borimide B2(NH)3; or by heating boron trioxide with a metallic
  cyanide. It is insoluble in water and unaffected by most reagents, but
  when heated in a current of steam or boiled for some time with a
  caustic alkali, slowly decomposes with evolution of ammonia and the
  formation of boron trioxide or an alkaline borate; it dissolves slowly
  in hydrofluoric acid.

  Borimide B2(NH)3 is obtained on long heating of the compound B2S3·6NH2
  in a stream of hydrogen, or ammonia gas at 115-120° C. It is a white
  solid which decomposes on heating into boron nitride and ammonia.
  Long-continued heating with water also decomposes it slowly.

  Boron sulphide B2S3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two
  elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 440°
  C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the
  trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour. It forms
  slightly coloured small crystals possessing a strong disagreeable
  smell, and is rapidly decomposed by water with the formation of boric
  acid and sulphuretted hydrogen. A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in
  an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon
  bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder
  which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur,
  sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.

  Boron trioxide B2O3 is the only known oxide of boron; and may be
  prepared by heating amorphous boron in oxygen, or better, by strongly
  igniting boric acid. After fusion the mass solidifies to a transparent
  vitreous solid which dissolves readily in water to form boric acid
  (q.v.); it is exceedingly hygroscopic and even on standing in moist
  air becomes opaque through absorption of water and formation of boric
  acid. Its specific gravity is 1.83 (J. Dumas). It is not volatile
  below a white heat, and consequently, if heated with salts of more
  volatile acids, it expels the acid forming oxide from such salts; for
  example, if potassium sulphate be heated with boron trioxide, sulphur
  trioxide is liberated and potassium borate formed. It also possesses
  the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high
  temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic
  colours. Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the
  action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl
  borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH3)3 are obtained. These are
  colourless liquids boiling at 119° C. and 72° C. respectively, and
  both are readily decomposed by water. By the action of zinc methyl on
  ethyl borate, in the requisite proportions, boron trimethyl is
  obtained, thus:--2B(OC2H5)2 + 6Zn(CH3)2 = 2B(CH3)3 +

         / CH3
  + 6Zn <
         \ OC2H5

  as a colourless spontaneously inflammable gas of unbearable smell.
  Boron triethyl B(C2H5)3 is obtained in the same manner, by using zinc
  ethyl. It is a colourless spontaneously inflammable liquid of boiling
  point 95° C. By the action of one molecule of ethyl borate on two
  molecules of zinc ethyl, the compound B(C2H5)2·OC2H5 diethylboron
  ethoxide is obtained as a colourless liquid boiling at 102° C. By the
  action of water it is converted into B(C2H5)2·OH, and this latter
  compound on exposure to air takes up oxygen slowly, forming the
  compound B·C2H5·OC2H5·OH, which, with water, gives B(C2H5)·(OH)2. From
  the condensation of two molecules of ethyl borate with one molecule of
  zinc ethyl the compound B2·C2H5·(OC2H5)5 is obtained as a colourless
  liquid of boiling point. 112° C. Boron triethyl and boron trimethyl
  both combine with ammonia.

  The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water
  content of pure borax (J. Berzelius), also by conversion of anhydrous
  borax into sodium chloride (W. Ramsay and E. Aston) and from analysis
  of the bromide and chloride (Sainte-Claire Deville); the values
  obtained ranging from 10.73 to 11.04. Boron can be estimated by
  precipitation as potassium fluoborate, which is insoluble in a mixture
  of potassium acetate and alcohol. For this purpose only boric acid or
  its potassium salt must be present; and to ensure this, the borate can
  be distilled with sulphuric acid and methyl alcohol and the volatile
  ester absorbed in potash.

navigator, was born at Northam in Devonshire on the 25th of September
1525. In 1553 he took part in the expedition which was despatched from
the Thames under Sir Hugh Willoughby to look for a northern passage to
Cathay and India, serving as master of the "Edward Bonaventure," on
which Richard Chancellor sailed as pilot in chief. Separated by a storm
from the "Bona Esperanza" and the "Bona Confidentia," the other two
ships of the expedition, Borough proceeded on his voyage alone, and
sailing into the White Sea, in the words of his epitaph, "discouered
Moscouia by the Northerne sea passage to St Nicholas" (Archangel). In a
second expedition, made in the "Serchthrift" in 1556, he discovered Kara
Strait, between Novaya Zemlya and Vaygach island. In 1560 he was in
charge of another expedition to Russia, and, probably in 1558, he also
made a voyage to Spain. At the beginning of 1563 he was appointed chief
pilot and one of the four masters of the queen's ships in the Medway,
and in this office he spent the rest of his life. He died on the 12th of
July 1584, and was buried at Chatham. His son, Christopher Borough,
wrote a description of a trading expedition made in 1579-1581 from the
White Sea to the Caspian and back.

His younger brother, WILLIAM BOROUGH, born in 1536, also at Northam,
served as an ordinary seaman in the "Edward Bonaventure" on her voyage
to Russia in 1553, and subsequently made many voyages to St Nicholas.
Later he transferred his services from the merchant adventurers to the
crown. As commander of the "Lion" he accompanied Sir Francis Drake in
his Cadiz expedition of 1587, but he got himself into trouble by
presuming to disagree with his chief concerning the wisdom of the attack
on Lagos. He died in 1599. He was the author of _A Discourse of the
Variation of the Compas, or Magneticall Needle_ (1581), and some of the
charts he made are preserved at the British Museum and Hatfield.

BOROUGH (A.S. nominative _burh_, dative _byrig_, which produces some of
the place-names ending in _bury_, a sheltered or fortified place, the
camp of refuge of a tribe, the stronghold of a chieftain; of. Ger.
_Burg_, Fr. _bor_, _borc_, _bourg_), the term for a town, considered as
a unit of local government.

_History of the English Borough._--After the early English settlement,
when Roman fortifications ceased to shelter hostile nations, their
colonies and camps were used by the Anglo-Saxon invaders to form tribal
strongholds; nevertheless burhs on the sites of Roman colonies show no
continuity with Roman municipal organization. The resettlement of the
Roman Durovernum as the burh of the men of (East) Kent, under a changed
name, the name "burh of the men of Kent," Cant-wara-byrig (Canterbury),
illustrates this point. The burh of the men of West Kent was
Hrofesceaster (Durobrivae), Rochester, and many other _ceasters_ mark
the existence of a Roman camp occupied by an early English burh. The
tribal burh was protected by an earthen wall, and a general obligation
to build and maintain burhs at the royal command was enforced by
Anglo-Saxon law. Offences in disturbance of the peace of the burh were
punished by higher fines than breaches of the peace of the "ham" or
ordinary dwelling. The burh was the home of the king as well as the
asylum of the tribe, and there is reason to think that the boundary of
the borough was annually sanctified by a religious ceremony, and hence
the long retention of a processional perambulation. Possibly the "hedge"
or "wall" of the borough gave it, besides safety, a sanctity analogous
to that enjoyed by the Germanic assembly while gathered within its
"hedge," which the priests solemnly set up when the assembly gathered,
and removed when it was over. While the "peace" of the Germanic assembly
was essentially temporary, the "peace" of the burh was sacred all the
year round. Its "hedge" was never removed. The sanctity of the burh was
enjoyed by all the dwellings of the king, at first perhaps only during
his term of residence. Neither in the early English language nor in the
contemporary Latin was there any fixed usage differentiating the various
words descriptive of the several forms of human settlement, and the
tribal refuges cannot accordingly be clearly distinguished from villages
or the strongholds of individuals by any purely nomenclative test. It is
not till after the Danish invasions that it becomes easier to draw a
distinction between the burhs that served as military strongholds for
national defence and the royal vills which served no such purpose. Some
of the royal vills eventually entered the class of boroughs, but by
another route, and for the present the private stronghold and the royal
dwelling may be neglected. It was the public stronghold and the
administrative centre of a dependent district which was the source of
the main features peculiar to the borough.

Many causes tended to create peculiar conditions in the boroughs built
for national defence. They were placed where artificial defence was most
needed, at the junction of roads, in the plains, on the rivers, at the
centres naturally marked out for trade, seldom where hills or marshes
formed a sufficient natural defence. The burhs drew commerce by every
channel; the camp and the palace, the administrative centre, the
ecclesiastical centre (for the mother-church of the state was placed in
its chief burh), all looked to the market for their maintenance. The
burh was provided by law with a mint and royal moneyers and exchangers,
with an authorized scale for weights and measures. Mercantile
transactions in the burhs or _ports_, as they were called when their
commercial rather than their military importance was accentuated, were
placed by law under special legal privileges in order no doubt to secure
the king's hold upon his toll. Over the burh or port was set a reeve, a
royal officer answerable to the king for his dues from the burh, his
rents for lands and houses, his customs on commerce, his share of the
profits from judicial fines. At least from the 10th century the burh had
a "moot" or court, the relation of which to the other courts is matter
of speculation. A law of Edgar, about 960, required that it should meet
three times a year, these being in all likelihood assemblies at which
attendance was compulsory on all tenants of the burghal district, when
pleas concerning life and liberty and land were held, and men were
compelled to find pledges answerable for their good conduct. At these
great meetings the borough reeve (_gerefa_) presided, declaring the law
and guiding the judgments given by the suitors of the court. The reeve
was supported by a group of assistants, called in Devon the "witan," in
the boroughs of the Danelaw by a group of (generally twelve) "lawmen,"
in other towns probably by a group of aldermen, senior burgesses, with
military and police authority, whose office was in some cases
hereditary. These persons assisted the reeve at the great meetings of
the full court, and sat with him as judges at the subordinate meetings
which were held to settle the unfinished causes and minor causes. There
was no compulsion on those not specially summoned to attend these extra
meetings. At these subordinate jurisdictional assemblies, held in
public, and acting by the same authority as the annual gathering of all
the _burh-wara_, other business concerning borough administration was
decided, at least in later days, and it is to these assemblies that the
origin of the town council may in many cases be ascribed. In the larger
towns the division into wards, with a separate police system, can be
traced at an early time, appearing as a unit of military organization,
answerable for the defence of a gate of the town. The police system of
London is described in detail in a record of 930-940. Here the free
people were grouped in associations of ten, each under the
superintendence of a headman. The bishops and reeves who belonged to the
"court of London" appear as the directors of the system, and in them we
may see the aldermen of the wards of a later time. The use of the word
_bertha_ for ward at Canterbury, and the fact that the London wardmoot
at a later time was used for the frankpledge system as well as for the
organization of the muster, point to a connexion between the military
and the police systems in the towns. At the end of the 9th and beginning
of the 10th century there is evidence of a systematic "timbering" of new
burhs, with the object of providing strongholds for the defence of
Wessex against the Danes, and it appears that the surrounding districts
were charged with their maintenance. In charters of this period a "haw,"
or enclosed area within a burh, was often conveyed by charter as if it
were an apanage of the lands in the neighbourhood with which it was
conveyed; the Norman settlers who succeeded to lands in the county
succeeded therewith to houses in the burhs, for a close association
existed between the "thegns" of the shire and the shirestow, an
association partly perhaps of duty and also of privilege. The king
granted borough "haws" as places of refuge in Kent, and in London he
gave them with commercial privileges to his bishops. What has been
called the "heterogeneous" tenure of the shirestow, one of the most
conspicuous characteristics of that particular type of borough, was
further increased by the liberty which some burgesses enjoyed to
"commend" themselves to a lord of their own choosing, promising to that
lord suit and service and perhaps rent in return for protection. Over
these burgesses the lords could claim jurisdictional rights, and these
were in some cases increased by royal grants of special rights within
certain "sokes." The great boroughs were honeycombed with sokes, or
areas of seignorial jurisdiction, within which the royal reeve's
authority was greatly restricted while that of the lord's reeve took
precedence. Even the haws, being "burhs" or strongholds within a
stronghold, enjoyed a local "peace" which protected from official
intrusion. Besides heterogeneity of tenure and jurisdiction in the
borough, there was also heterogeneity of status; there were burh-thegns
and cnihts, mercatores, burgesses of various kinds, the three groups
representing perhaps military, commercial and agricultural elements. The
burh generally shows signs of having been originally a village
settlement, surrounded by open fields, of which the borough boundary
before 1835 will suggest the outline. This area was as a rule eventually
the area of borough jurisdiction. There is some evidence pointing to the
fact that the restriction of the borough authority to this area is not
ancient, but due to the Norman settlement. The wide districts over which
the boroughs had had authority were placed under the control of the
Norman castle which was itself built by means of the old English levy of
"burh-work." The borough court was allowed to continue its work only
within its own immediate territory, and, to prevent conflict, the castle
was placed outside the borough. Losing their place in the national
scheme of defence, the burgess "cnihts" made commerce their principal
object under the encouragement of the old privileges of the walled

Besides the great co-operative strongholds in which many lords had
burgesses, there were small boroughs held by a single lord. In many
cases boroughs of this "seignorial" type were created upon the royal
estates. Out of the king's vill, as a rule the jurisdictional centre of
a hundred, there was sometimes created a borough. The lines of division
before Domesday Book are obscure, but it is probable that in some cases,
by a royal grant of jurisdiction, the inhabitants of a populous royal
vill, where a hundred court for the district was already held, were
authorized to establish a permanent court, for the settlement of their
disputes, distinct from the hundred court of the district. Boroughs of
this type with a uniform tenure were created not only on the king's
estates but also on those of his tenants-in-chief, and in 1086 they were
probably already numerous. A borough was usually, though perhaps not
invariably, the companion of a Norman castle. In some cases a French
"bourg" was created by the side of an English borough, and the two
remained for many generations distinct in their laws and customs: in
other cases a French "bourg" was settled by the side of an English
village. A large number of the followers of the Norman lords had been
almost certainly town-dwellers in their own country, and lost none of
their burghal privileges by the migration. Every castle needed for its
maintenance a group of skilled artisans, and the lords wished to draw to
the castle gates all kinds of commodities for the castle's provision.
The strength of the garrison made the neighbourhood of the castle a
place of danger to men unprotected by legal privilege; and in order to
invite to its neighbourhood desirable settlers, legal privileges similar
to those enjoyed in Norman or English boroughs were guaranteed to those
who would build on the plots which were offered to colonists. A low
fixed rental, release from the renders required of villeins, release
from the jurisdiction of the castle, and the creation of a separate
borough jurisdiction, with or without the right to choose their own
officers, rules fixing the maximum of fees and fines, or promising
assessment of the fines by the burgesses themselves, the cancelling of
all the castellan's rights, especially the right to take a forced levy
of food for the castle from all within the area of his jurisdiction,
freedom from arbitrary tallage, freedom of movement, the right to
alienate property and devise land, these and many other privileges named
in the early seignorial charters were what constituted the Norman _liber
burgus_ of the seignorial type. Not all these privileges were enjoyed by
all boroughs; some very meagre releases of seignorial rights accompanied
the lord's charter which created a borough and made burgesses out of
villeins. However liberal the grant, the lord or his reeve still
remained in close personal relation with the burgesses of such places,
and this character, together with the uniformity of their tenure,
continued to hold them apart from the boroughs of the old English type,
where all varieties of personal relationship between the lords and their
groups of tenants might subsist. The royal charters granting the right
to retain old customs prevented the systematic introduction into the old
boroughs of some of the incidents of feudalism. Rights of the king took
precedence of those of the lord, and devise with the king's consent was
legal. By these means the lords' position was weakened, and other
seignorial claims were later evaded or contested. The rights which the
lords failed to keep were divided between the king and the municipality;
in London, for instance, the king obtained all escheats, while the
borough court secured the right of wardship of burgess orphans.

From Norman times the yearly profit of the royal boroughs was as a rule
included in the general "farm" rendered for the county by the sheriff;
sometimes it was rendered by a royal farmer apart from the county-farm.
The king generally accepted a composition for all the various items due
from the borough. The burgesses were united in their efforts to keep
that composition unchanged in amount, and to secure the provision of the
right amount at the right time for fear that it should be increased by
way of punishment. The levy of fines on rent arrear, and the distraints
for debt due, which were obtained through the borough court, were a
matter of interest to the burgesses of the court, and first taught the
burgesses co-operative action. Money was raised, possibly by order of
the borough court, to buy a charter from the king giving the right to
choose officers who should answer directly to the exchequer and not
through the sheriff of the county. The sheriff was in many cases also
the constable of the castle, set by the Normans to overawe the English
boroughs; his powers were great and dangerous enough to make him an
officer specially obnoxious to the boroughs. Henry I. about 1131 gave
the London citizens the right to choose their own sheriffs and a
justiciar answerable for keeping the pleas of the crown. In 1130 the
Lincoln citizens paid to hold their city in chief of the king. By the
end of the 12th century many towns paid by the hand of their own reeves,
and John's charters began to make rules as to the freedom of choice to
be allowed in the nomination of borough officers and as to the royal
power of dismissal. In Richard I.'s reign London imitated the French
communes in styling the chief officer a mayor; in 1208 Winchester also
had a mayor, and the title soon became no rarity. The chartered right to
choose two or more citizens to keep the pleas of the crown gave to many
boroughs the control of their coroners, who occupied the position of the
London justiciar of earlier days, subject to those considerable
modifications which Henry II.'s systematization of the criminal law had
introduced. Burgesses who had gone for criminal and civil justice to
their own court in disputes between themselves, or between themselves
and strangers who were in their town, secured confirmation of this right
by charter, not to exclude the justices in eyre, but to exempt
themselves from the necessity of pleading in a distant court. The
burgess, whether plaintiff or defendant, was a privileged person, and
could claim in this respect a "benefit" somewhat similar to the benefit
of clergy. In permitting the boroughs to answer through their own
officers for his dues, the king handed over to the boroughs the farming
of his rents and a large number of rights which would eventually prove
to be sources of great profit.

No records exist showing the nature of municipal proceedings at the time
of the first purchase of charters. Certain it is that the communities in
the 12th century became alive to the possibilities of their new
position, that trade received a new impulse, and the vague
constitutional powers of the borough court acquired a new need for
definition. At first the selection of officers who were to treat with
the exchequer and to keep the royal pleas was almost certainly
restricted to a few rich persons who could find the necessary
securities. Nominated probably in one of the smaller judicial
assemblies, the choice was announced at the great Michaelmas assembly of
the whole community, and it is not till the next century that we hear of
any attempt of the "vulgus" to make a different selection from that of
the magnates. The "vulgus" were able to take effective action by means
of the several craft organizations, and first found the necessity to do
so when taxation was heavy or when questions of trade legislation were
mooted (see GILDS). The taxation of the boroughs in the reign of Henry
II. was assessed by the king's justices, who fixed the sums due _per
capita_; but if the borough made an offer of a gift, the assessment was
made by the burgesses. In the first case the taxation fell on the
magnates. In the levy _per communam_ the assessment was made through the
wardmoots (in London) and the burden fell on the poorer class. In Henry
II.'s reign London was taxed by both methods, the _barones majores_ by
head, the _barones minores_ through the wardmoot. The pressure of
taxation led in the 13th century to a closer definition of the burghal
constitutions; the commons sought to get an audit of accounts, and (in
London) not only to hear but to treat of municipal affairs. By the end
of the century London had definitely established two councils, that of
the mayor and aldermen, representing the old borough court, and a common
council, representing the voice of the commonalty, as expressed through
the city wards. The choice of councillors in the wards rested probably
with the aldermen and the ward jury summoned by them to make the
presentments. In some cases juries were summoned not to represent
different areas but different classes; thus at Lincoln there were in
1272 juries of the rich, the middling and the poor, chosen presumably by
authority from groups divided by means of the tax roll. Elsewhere the
several groups of traders and artisans made of their gilds all-powerful
agencies for organizing joint action among classes of commons united by
a trade interest, and the history of the towns becomes the history of
the struggle between the gilds which captured control of the council
and the gilds which were excluded therefrom. Many municipal revolutions
took place, and a large number of constitutional experiments were tried
all over the country from the 13th century onward. Schemes which
directed a gradual co-optation, two to choose four, these six to choose
more, and so in widening circles from a centre of officialdom, found
much favour throughout the middle ages. A plan, like the London plan, of
two companies, alderman and council, was widely favoured in the 14th
century, perhaps in imitation of the Houses of Lords and Commons. The
mayor was sometimes styled the "sovereign" and was given many
prerogatives. Great respect was paid to the "ancients," those, namely,
who had already held municipal office. Not till the 15th century were
orderly arrangements for counting "voices" arrived at in a few of the
most highly developed towns, and these were used only in the small
assemblies of the governing body, not in the large electoral assemblies
of the people.

In London in the 13th century there was a regular system for the
admission of new members to the borough "franchise," which was at first
regarded not as conferring any form of suffrage but as a means to secure
a privileged position in the borough court and in the trade of the
borough. Admission could be obtained by inheritance, by purchase or
gift, in some places by marriage, and in London, at least from 1275, by
a municipal register of apprenticeship. The new freeman in return for
his privileges was bound to share with the other burgesses all the
burdens of taxation, control, &c., which fell upon burgesses. Personal
service was not always necessary, and in some towns there were many
non-resident burgesses. When in later times admission to this freedom
came to be used as means to secure the parliamentary franchise, the
freedom of the borough was freely sold and given. The elections in which
the commons of the boroughs first took interest were those of the
borough magistrates. Where the commons succeeded for a time in asserting
their right to take part in borough elections they were rarely able to
keep it, not in all cases perhaps because their power was feared, but
sometimes because of the riotous proceedings which ensued. These led to
government interference, which no party in the borough desired. The
possibility of a forfeiture of their enfranchised position made the
burgesses on the whole fairly submissive. In the 13th century London
repeatedly was "taken into the king's hand," subjected to heavy fines
and put under the constable of the Tower. In the 15th century
disturbances in the boroughs led to the issue of new constitutions, some
of which were the outcome of royal charters, others the result of
parliamentary legislation. The development of the law of corporations
also at this time compelled the boroughs to seek new charters which
should satisfy the now exacting demands of the law. The charters of
incorporation were issued at a time when the state was looking more and
more to the borough authorities as part of its executive and judicial
staff, and thus the government was closely interested in the manner of
their selection. The new charters were drafted in such a way as to
narrow the popular control. The corporations were placed under a council
and in a number of cases popular control was excluded altogether, the
whole system being made one of co-optation. The absence of popular
protest may be ascribed in part to the fact that the old popular control
had been more nominal than real, and the new charter gave as a rule two
councils of considerable size. These councils bore a heavy burden of
taxation in meeting royal loans and benevolences, paying _per capita_
like the magnates of the 12th century, and for a time there is on the
whole little evidence of friction between the governors and the
governed. Throughout, popular opinion in the closest of corporations had
a means of expression, though none of execution, in the presentments of
the leet juries and sessions juries. By means of their "verdicts" they
could use threats against the governing body, express their resentment
against acts of the council which benefited the governing body rather
than the town, and call in the aid of the justices of assize where the
members of the governing body were suspected of fraud. Elizabeth
repeatedly declared her dislike of incorporations "because of the
abuses committed by their head rulers," but in her reign they were
fairly easily controlled by the privy council, which directed their
choice of members of parliament and secured supporters of the government
policy to fill vacancies on the borough bench. The practice in Tudor and
Stuart charters of specifying by name the members of the governing body
and holders of special offices opened the way to a "purging" of the
hostile spirits when new charters were required. There were also rather
vaguely worded clauses authorizing the dismissal of officers for
misconduct, though as a rule the appointments were for life. When under
the Stuarts and under the Commonwealth political and religious feeling
ran high in the boroughs, use was made of these clauses both by the
majority on the council and by the central government to mould the
character of the council by a drastic "purging." Another means of
control first used under the Commonwealth was afforded by the various
acts of parliament, which subjected all holders of municipal office to
the test of an oath. Under the Commonwealth there was no improvement in
the methods used by the central government to control the boroughs. All
opponents of the ruling policy were disfranchised and disqualified for
office by act of parliament in 1652. Cases arising out of the act were
to be tried by commissioners, and the commissions of the major-generals
gave them opportunity to control the borough policy. Few Commonwealth
charters have been preserved, though several were issued in response to
the requests of the corporations.

In some cases the charters used words which appeared to point to an
opportunity for popular elections in boroughs where a usage of election
by the town council had been established. In 1598 the judges gave an
opinion that the town councils could by by-law determine laws for the
government of the town regardless of the terms of the charter. In the
18th century the judges decided to the contrary. But even where a usage
of popular election was established, there were means of controlling the
result of a parliamentary election. The close corporations, though their
right to choose a member of parliament might be doubtful, had the sole
right to admit new burgesses, and in order to determine parliamentary
elections they enfranchised non-residents. Where conflicts arose over
the choice of a member, and two selections were made, the matter came
before the House of Commons. On various occasions the House decided in
favour of the popularly elected candidate against the nominee of the
town council, on the general principle that neither the royal charter
nor a by-law could curtail this particular franchise. But as each case
was separately determined by a body swayed by the dominant political
party, no one principle was steadily adhered to in the trial of election
petitions. The royal right to create boroughs was freely used by
Elizabeth and James I. as a means of securing a submissive parliament.
The later Stuarts abandoned this method, and the few new boroughs made
by the Georges were not made for political reasons. The object of the
later Stuarts was to control the corporations already in existence, not
to make new ones. Charles II. from the time of his restoration decided
to exercise a strict control of the close corporations in order to
secure not only submissive parliaments, but also a pliant executive
among the borough justices, and pliant juries, which were impanelled at
the selection of the borough officers. In 1660 it was made a rule that
all future charters should reserve expressly to the crown the first
nomination of the aldermen, recorder and town-clerk, and a proviso
should be entered placing with the common council the return of the
member of parliament. The Corporation Act of 1661 gave power to royal
commissioners to settle the composition of the town councils, and to
remove all who refused the sacraments of the Church of England or were
suspected of disaffection, even though they offered to take the
necessary oaths. Even so the difficulty of securing submissive juries
was again so great in 1682 that a general attack on the borough
franchises was begun by the crown. A London jury having returned a
verdict hostile to the crown, after various attempts to bend the city to
his will, Charles II. issued a _quo warranto_ against the mayor and
commonalty in order to charge the citizens with illegal encroachments
upon their chartered rights. The want of a sound philosophical
principle in the laws which were intended to regulate the actions of
organized groups of men made it easy for the crown judges to find flaws
in the legality of the actions of the boroughs, and also made it
possible for the Londoners to argue that no execution could be taken
against the mayor, commonalty and citizens, a "body politic invisible";
that the indictment lay only against every particular member of the
governing body; and that the corporation as a corporation was incapable
of suffering a forfeiture or of making a surrender. The judges gave a
judgment for the king, the charters were forfeited and the government
placed with a court of aldermen of the king's own choosing. Until James
II. yielded, there was no common council in London. The novelty of the
proceedings of Charles II. and James II. lay in using the weapon of the
_quo warranto_ systematically to ensure a general revocation of
charters. The new charters which were then granted required the king's
consent for the more important appointments, and gave him power to
remove officers without reason given. Under James II. in 1687 six
commissioners were appointed to "regulate" the corporations and remove
from them all persons who were opposed to the abolition of the penal
laws against Catholics. The new appointments were made under a writ
which ran, "We will and require you to elect" (a named person). When
James II. sought to withdraw from his disastrous policy, he issued a
proclamation (October 17, 1688) restoring to the boroughs their ancient
charters. The governing charter thenceforth in many boroughs, though not
in all, was the charter which had established a close corporation, and
from this time on to 1835 the boroughs made no progress in
constitutional growth. The tendency for the close corporation to treat
the members of the governing body as the only corporators, and to
repudiate the idea that the corporation was answerable to the
inhabitants of the borough if the corporate property was squandered,
became more and more manifest as the history of the past slipped into
oblivion. The corporators came to regard themselves as members of a
club, legally warranted in dividing the lands and goods of the same
among themselves whensoever such a division should seem profitable. Even
where the constitution of the corporation was not close by charter, the
franchise tended to become restricted to an ever-dwindling electorate,
as the old methods for the extension of the municipal franchise by other
means than inheritance died out of use. At Ipswich in 1833 the "freemen"
numbered only one fifty-fifth of the population. If the electorate was
increased, it was increased by the wholesale admission to the freedom of
voters willing to vote as directed by the corporation at parliamentary
elections. The growth of corruption in the boroughs continued unchecked
until the era of the Reform Bill. Several boroughs had by that time
become insolvent, and some had recourse to their member of parliament to
eke out their revenues. In Buckingham the mayor received the whole town
revenue without rendering account; sometimes, however, heavy charges
fell upon the officers. Before the Reform era dissatisfaction with the
corporations was mainly shown by the number of local acts of parliament
which placed under the authority of special commissioners a variety of
administrative details, which if the corporation had not been suspected
would certainly have been assigned to its care. The trust offered
another convenient means of escape from difficulty, and in some towns
out of the trust was developed a system of municipal administration
where there was no recognized corporation. Thus at Peterborough the
feoffees who had succeeded to the control of certain ancient charities
constituted a form of town council with very restricted powers. In the
17th century Sheffield was brought under the act "to redress the
misemployment of lands given to charitable uses," and the municipal
administration of what had been a borough passed into the hands of the
trustees of the Burgery or town trust.

The many special authorities created under act of parliament led to much
confusion, conflict and overlapping, and increased the need for a
general reform. The reform of the boroughs was treated as part of the
question of parliamentary reform. In 1832 the exclusive privileges of
the corporations in parliamentary elections having been abolished and
male occupiers enfranchised, the question of the municipal franchise was
next dealt with. In 1833 a commission inquired into the administration
of the municipal corporations. The result of the inquiry was the
Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which gave the municipal franchise to
the ratepayers. In all the municipal corporations dealt with by the act,
the town council was to consist of a mayor, aldermen and councillors,
and the councils were given like powers, being divided into those with
and those without a commission of the peace. The minutes were to be open
to the inspection of any burgess, and an audit of accounts was required.
The exclusive rights of retail trading, which in some towns were
restricted to freemen of the borough, were abolished. The system of
police, which in some places was still medieval in character, was placed
under the control of the council. The various privileged areas within
the bounds of a borough were with few exceptions made part of the
borough. The powers of the council to alienate corporate property were
closely restricted. The operations of the act were extended by later
legislation, and the divers amendments and enactments which followed
were consolidated in the Municipal Corporations Act 1882.     (M. Bat.)

_Irish Boroughs._--In Ireland the earliest traces of burghal life are
connected with the maritime settlements on the southern and eastern
coast. The invasion of Henry II. colonized these Ostman ports with
Anglo-Norman communities, who brought with them, or afterwards obtained,
municipal charters of a favourable kind. The English settlement
obviously depended on the advantages which the burgesses possessed over
the native population outside. Quite different from these were the new
close boroughs which during the plantation of Ulster James I. introduced
from England. The conquest was by this time completed, and by a rigorous
enforcement of the Supremacy and Uniformity Acts the existing liberties
of the older boroughs were almost entirely withdrawn. By the new rules
published (in terms of the Act of Settlement and Explanation) in 1672
resident traders were permitted to become freemen, but neither this
regulation nor the ordinary admissions through birth, marriage and
apprenticeship succeeded in giving to Ireland free and vigorous
municipalities. The corrupt admission of non-resident freemen, in order
to outvote the ancient freeholders in parliamentary elections, and the
systematic exclusion of Roman Catholics, soon divorced the "commonalty"
from true local interests, and made the corporations, which elected
themselves or selected the constituency, dangerously unpopular.

_Scottish Boroughs._--In Scotland burghs or burrows are divided into
royal burghs, burghs of regality and burghs of barony. The first were
erected by royal charter, and every burgess held direct of the crown. It
was, therefore, impossible to subfeu the burgh lands,--a distinction
still traceable in modern conveyancing. Where perhaps no charter ever
existed, the law on proof of immemorial possession of the privileges of
a royal burgh has presumed that a charter of erection once existed. The
charter gave power to elect provost, bailies and council, a power long
exercised under the act of 1469, which directed the new council to be
chosen annually by the retiring council, and the magistrates by both
councils. The jurisdiction of these magistrates, which was specially
reserved in the act of 1747 abolishing heritable jurisdictions, was
originally cumulative with, and as large as, that of the sheriff. It is
now confined to police offences, summary ejections, orders for _interim_
aliment (for prisoners), payment of burgh dues and delivery of title
deeds. Three head courts were held in the year, at which all burgesses
were obliged to attend, and at which public business was done and
private transactions were ratified. There were three classes of
burgesses--burgesses _in sua arte_, members of one or other of the
corporations; burgesses who were gild brothers; and simple burgesses.
The Leges Burgorum apparently contemplate that all respectable
inhabitants should have the franchise, but a ceremony of admission was
required, at which the applicant swore fealty and promised to watch and
ward for the community, and to pay his "maill" to the king. These
borough maills, or rents, and the great and small customs of burghs,
formed a large part of the royal revenue, and, although frequently
leased or feued out for a fixed duty, were on the accession of James I.
annexed to the crown as an alimentary fund. Burgh customs still stand in
the peculiar position of being neither adjudgeable nor arrestable; they
are therefore bad security. The early charters contain the usual
privileges of holding a market, of exemption from toll or tribute, and
that distraint will be allowed only for the burgess's own debts. There
was also the usual strife between the gildry and the craftsmen, who were
generally prohibited from trading, and of whom dyers, fleshers and
shoemakers were forbidden to enter the gildry. Deacons, wardens and
visitors were appointed by the crafts, and the rate of wages was fixed
by the magistrates. The crafts in Scotland were frequently incorporated,
not by royal charter, but, as in the case of the cordiners of Edinburgh,
by seals of cause from the corporation. The trade history of the free
burghs is very important. Thus in 1466 the privilege of importing and
exporting merchandise was confined to freemen, burgesses and their
factors. Ships were directed to trade to the king's free burghs, there
to pay the customs, and to receive their _cocquets_ or custom-house
seals; and in 1503 persons dwelling outside burghs were forbidden to
"use any merchandise," or to sell wine or staple goods. An act of 1633,
erroneously called a _Ratification_ of the privileges of burghs,
extended these privileges of buying and selling to retail as well as
wholesale trade, but restricted their enjoyment to royal burghs.
Accordingly, in 1672, a general declaratory act was passed confirming to
the freemen in royal burghs the wholesale trade in wine, wax, silk,
dyeing materials, &c., permitting generally to all persons the export of
native raw material, specially permitting the burgesses of barony and
regality to export their own manufactures, and such goods as they may
buy in "markets," and to import against these consignments certain
materials for tillage, building, or for use in their own manufactures,
with a general permission to retail all commodities. This extraordinary
system was again changed in 1690 by an act which declared that freemen
of royal burghs should have the sole right of importing everything by
sea or land except bestial, and also of exporting by sea everything
which was not native raw material, which might be freely exported by
land. The gentry were always allowed to import for their personal
consumption and to export an equal quantity of commodities. The act
mentions that the royal burghs as an estate of the kingdom contributed
one-sixth part of all public impositions, and were obliged to build and
maintain prison-houses. Some of these trade privileges were not
abolished till 1846.

In the north of Scotland there was an association of free burghs called
the Hanse or _Ansus_; and the lord chamberlain, by his _Iter_, or
circuit of visitation, maintained a common standard of right and duties
in all burghs, and examined the state of the "common good," the accounts
of which in 1535 were appointed to be laid before the auditors in
exchequer. The chamberlain latterly presided in the Curia Quatuor
Burgorum (Edinburgh, Berwick, Stirling, Roxburgh), which not only made
regulations in trade, but decided questions of private right (e.g.
succession), according to the varying customs of burghs. This court
frequently met at Haddington; in 1454 it was fixed at Edinburgh. The
more modern convention of royal burghs (which appeared as a judicial
_persona_ in the Court of Session so late as 1839) probably dates from
the act of James III. (1487, c. 111), which appointed the commissioners
of burghs, both north and south, to meet yearly at Inverkeithing "to
treat of the welfare of merchandise, the good rule and statutes for the
common profit of burghs, and to provide for remeid upon the skaith and
injuries sustained within the burghs." Among the more important
functions of this body (on whose decrees at one time summary diligence
proceeded) were the prohibition of undue exactions within burghs, the
revisal of the "set" or mode of municipal election, and the _pro rata_
division among the burghs of the parliamentary subsidy required from the
third estate. The reform of the municipalities, and the complete
representation of the mercantile interests in the united parliament,
deprived this body of any importance.

Burghs of regality and of barony held in vassalage of some great
lordship, lay or ecclesiastical, but were always in theory or in
practice created by crown grant. They received jurisdiction in civil and
criminal matters, generally cumulative with that of the baron or the
lord of regality, who in some cases obtained the right of nominating
magistrates. Powers to hold markets and to levy customs were likewise
given to these burghs.

The Scottish burghs emerged slowly into political importance. In 1295
the procurators of six burghs ratified the agreement for the marriage of
Edward Baliol; and in 1326 they were recognized as a third estate,
granting a tenth penny on all rents for the king's life, if he should
apply it for the public good. The commissioners of burghs received from
the exchequer their costages or expenses of attending parliament. The
burghs were represented in the judicial committee, and in the committee
on articles appointed during the reign of James V. After the
Reformation, in spite of the annexation of kirk lands to the crown, and
the increased burdens laid on temporal lands, the proportion of general
taxation borne by the burghs (viz. 1s. 6d.) was expressly preserved by
act 1587, c. 112. The number of commissioners, of course, fluctuated
from time to time. Cromwell assigned ten members to the Scottish burghs
in the second parliament of Three Nations (1654). The general practice
until 1619 had been, apparently, that each burgh should send two
members. In that year (by an arrangement with the convention of burghs)
certain groups of burghs returned one member, Edinburgh returning two.
Under art. 22 of the treaty of Union the number of members for royal
burghs was fixed at fifteen, who were elected in Edinburgh by the
magistrates and town council, and in the groups of burghs by delegates
chosen ad hoc.     (W. C. S.)

  See C. Gross, _Bibliography of British Municipal History_ (1897),
  which contains all needful references up to that date; F.W. Maitland,
  _Township and Borough_ (1898); A. Ballard, _Domesday Boroughs_ (1904);
  M. Bateson, _Borough Customs_ (1904-1906); S. and B. Webb, _English
  Local Government_ (3 vols., 1906-1908). For the character of the
  modern Scottish burgh see Mabel Atkinson, _Local Government in
  Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1904), where other works are mentioned.

BOROUGHBRIDGE, a market town in the Ripon parliamentary division of the
West Riding of Yorkshire, England; 22 m. N.W. of York on a branch of the
North Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 830. It lies in the central plain of
Yorkshire, on the river Ure near its confluence with the Swale. It is in
the parish of Aldborough, the village of that name (q.v.), celebrated
for its Roman remains, lying a mile south-east.

  About half a mile to the west of Boroughbridge there are three upright
  stones called the Devil's Arrows, which are of uncertain origin but
  probably of the Celtic period. The manor of Boroughbridge, then called
  Burc, was held by Edward the Confessor and passed to William the
  Conqueror, but suffered so much from the ravages of his soldiers that
  by 1086 it had decreased in value from £10 to 55 s. When the site of
  the Great North Road was altered, towards the end of the 11th century,
  a bridge was built across the Ure, about half a mile above the Roman
  bridge at Aldborough, and called Burgh bridge or Ponteburgem. This
  caused a village to spring up, and it afterwards increased so much as
  to become a market town. In 1229 Boroughbridge, as part of the manor
  of Aldborough, was granted to Hubert de Burgh, but was forfeited a few
  years later by his son who fought against the king at Evesham. It then
  remained a royal manor until Charles I. granted it to several citizens
  of London, from whom it passed through numerous hands to the present
  owner. The history of Boroughbridge during the early 14th century
  centres round the war with Scotland, and culminates with the battle
  fought there in 1321. When in 1317 the Scots invaded England, they
  penetrated as far south as Boroughbridge and burnt the town.
  Boroughbridge was evidently a borough by prescription, and as such was
  called upon to return two members to parliament in 1299. It was not
  represented again until 1553, when the privilege was revived. The town
  was finally disfranchised in 1832. In 1504 the bailiff and inhabitants
  of Boroughbridge received a grant of two fairs, and Charles II. in
  1670 created three new fairs in the borough, on the 12th of June, the
  5th of August and the 12th of October, and leased them to Francis
  Calvert and Thomas Wilkinson for ninety-nine years.

BOROUGH ENGLISH, a custom prevailing in certain ancient English
boroughs, and in districts attached to them (where the lands are held in
socage), and also in certain copyhold manors (chiefly in Surrey,
Middlesex, Suffolk and Sussex), by which in general lands descend to the
youngest son, to the exclusion of all the other children, of the person
dying seised and intestate. Descent to the youngest brother to the
exclusion of all other collaterals, where there is no issue, is
sometimes included in the general definition, but this is really a
special custom to be proved from the court-rolls of the manor and from
local reputation--a custom which is sometimes extended to the youngest
sister, uncle, aunt. Generally, however, Borough English, apart from
specialties, may be said to differ from gavelkind in not including
collaterals. It is often found in connexion with the distinct custom
that the widow shall take as dower the whole and not merely one-third of
her husband's lands.

The origin of the custom of Borough English has been much disputed.
Though frequently claimed to be of Saxon origin, there is no direct
evidence of such being the case. The first mention of the custom in
England occurs in Glanvil, without, however, any explanation as to its
origin. Littleton's explanation, which is the more usually accepted, is
that custom casts the inheritance upon the youngest, because after the
death of his parents he is least able to support himself, and more
likely to be left destitute of any other support. Blackstone derived
Borough English from the usages of pastoral life, the elder sons
migrating and the youngest remaining to look after the household. C.I.
Elton claims it to be a survival of pre-Aryan times. It was referred to
by the Normans as "the custom of the English towns." In the Yearbook of
22 Edward IV. fol. 32b it is described as the custom of Nottingham,
which is made clear by the report of a trial in the first year of Edward
III. where it was found that in Nottingham there were two districts, the
one the _Burgh-Fraunçoyes_, the other the _Burgh-Engloyes_, where
descent was to the youngest son, from which circumstance the custom has
derived its name. On the European continent the custom of junior-rights
is not unknown, more particularly in Germany, and it has by some been
ascribed to the _jus primae noctis_ (q.v.). It is also said to exist
amongst the Mongols.

  _Commentaries_; Coke's _Institutes_; Comyn's _Digest of the Law_;
  Elton's _Origin of English History_; Pollock and Maitland, _History of
  English Law_.

BORROMEAN ISLANDS, a group of four islands on the W. side of Lago
Maggiore off Baveno and Stresa. The southernmost, the Isola Bella, is
famous for its château and terraced gardens, constructed by Count
Vitaliano Borromeo (d. 1690). To the N.W. is the Isola dei Pescatori,
containing a fishing village; and to the N.E. of this the Isola Madre,
the largest of the group, with a château and garden; and to the N.
again, off Pallanza, is the little Isola S. Giovanni.

BORROMEO, CARLO (1538-1584), saint and cardinal of the Roman Catholic
Church, son of Ghiberto Borromeo, count of Arona, and Margarita de'
Medici, was born at the castle of Arona on Lago Maggiore on the 2nd of
October 1538. When he was about twelve years old, Giulio Cesare Borromeo
resigned to him an abbacy, the revenue of which he applied wholly in
charity to the poor. He studied the civil and canon law at Pavia. In
1554 his father died, and, although he had an elder brother, Count
Federigo, he was requested by the family to take the management of their
domestic affairs. After a time, however, he resumed his studies, and in
1559 he took his doctor's degree. In 1560 his uncle, Cardinal Angelo de'
Medici, was raised to the pontificate as Pius IV. Borromeo was made
prothonotary, entrusted with both the public and the privy seal of the
ecclesiastical state, and created cardinal with the administration of
Romagna and the March of Ancona, and the supervision of the Franciscans,
the Carmelites and the knights of Malta. He was thus at the age of
twenty-two practically the leading statesman of the papal court. Soon
after he was raised to the archbishopric of Milan. In compliance with
the pope's desire, he lived in great splendour; yet his own temperance
and humility were never brought into question. He established an academy
of learned persons, and published their memoirs as the _Noctes
Vaticanae_. About the same time he also founded and endowed a college at
Pavia, which he dedicated to Justina, virgin and martyr. On the death of
his elder brother Federigo, he was advised to quit the church and
marry, that his family might not become extinct. He declined the
proposal, however, and became henceforward still more fervent in
exercises of piety, and more zealous for the welfare of the church.
Owing to his influence over Pius IV., he was able to facilitate the
final deliberations of the council of Trent, and he took a large share
in the drawing up of the Tridentine catechism (_Catechismus Romanus_).

On the death of Pius IV. (1566), the skill and diligence of Borromeo
contributed materially to suppressing the cabals of the conclave.
Subsequently he devoted himself wholly to the reformation of his
diocese, which had fallen into a most unsatisfactory condition owing to
the prolonged absences of its previous archbishops. He made a series of
pastoral visits, and restored decency and dignity to divine service. In
conformity with the decrees of the council of Trent, he cleared the
cathedral of its gorgeous tombs, rich ornaments, banners, arms, sparing
not even the monuments of his own relatives. He divided the nave of the
church into two compartments for the separation of the sexes. He
extended his reforms to the collegiate churches (even to the
fraternities of penitents and particularly that of St John the Baptist),
and to the monasteries. The great abuses which had overrun the church at
this time arose principally from the ignorance of the clergy. Borromeo,
therefore, established seminaries, colleges and communities for the
education of candidates for holy orders. The most remarkable, perhaps,
of his foundations was the fraternity of the Oblates, a society whose
members were pledged to give aid to the church when and where it might
be required. He further paved the way for the "Golden" or "Borromean"
league formed in 1586 by the Swiss Catholic cantons of Switzerland to
expel heretics if necessary by armed force.

In 1576, when Milan was visited by the plague, he went about giving
directions for accommodating the sick and burying the dead, avoiding no
danger and sparing no expense. He visited all the neighbouring parishes
where the contagion raged, distributing money, providing accommodation
for the sick, and punishing those, especially the clergy, who were
remiss in discharging their duties. He met with much opposition to his
reforms. The governor of the province, and many of the senators,
apprehensive that the cardinal's ordinances and proceedings would
encroach upon the civil jurisdiction, addressed remonstrances and
complaints to the courts of Rome and Madrid. But Borromeo had more
formidable difficulties to struggle with, in the inveterate opposition
of several religious orders, particularly that of the Humiliati
(Brothers of Humility). Some members of that society formed a conspiracy
against his life, and a shot was fired at him in the archiepiscopal
chapel under circumstances which led to the belief that his escape was
miraculous. The number of his enemies was increased by his successful
attack on his Jesuit confessor Ribera, who with other members of the
college of Milan was found to be guilty of unnatural offences. His
manifold labours and austerities appear to have shortened his life. He
was seized with an intermittent fever, and died at Milan on the 4th of
November 1584. He was canonized in 1610, and his feast is celebrated on
the 4th of November.

Besides the _Nodes Vaticanae_, to which he appears to have contributed,
the only literary relics of this intrepid and zealous reformer are some
homilies, discourses and sermons, with a collection of letters. His
sermons, which have little literary merit, were published by J.A. Sax (5
vols., Milan, 1747-1748), and have been translated into many languages.
The record of his episcopate is to be found in the two volumes of the
_Acta Ecclesiae Mediolanensis_ (Milan, 1599). Contrary to his last
wishes a memorial was erected to him in Milan cathedral, as well as a
statue 70 ft. high on the hill above Arona, by his admirers who regarded
him as the leader of a Counter-Reformation.

His nephew, Federigo Borromeo (1564-1631), was archbishop of Milan from
1595, and in 1609 founded the Ambrosian library in that city.

  See G.P. Giussano, _Vita di S. Carlo Borromeo_ (1610, Eng. ed. by H.E.
  Manning, London, 1884); A. Sala, _Documenti circa la vita e la gesta
  di Borromeo_ (4 vols., Milan, 1857-1859); Chanoine Silvain, _Histoire
  de St Charles Borromée_ (Milan, 1884); and A. Cantono, _Un grande
  riformatore del secolo XVI_ (Florence, 1904); article "Borromäus" in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (Leipzig, 1897).

BORROMINI, FRANCESCO (1599-1667), Italian architect, was born at Bissone
in 1599. He was the chief representative of the style known in
architecture as "baroque," which marked a fearless and often reckless
departure from the traditional laws of the Renaissance, and often
obtained originality only at the cost of beauty or wisdom. One of the
main opponents of this style was Barocchio (q.v.). Borromini was much
employed in the middle of the 17th century at Rome. His principal works
are the church of St Agnese in Piazza Navona, the church of La Sapienza
in Rome, the church of San Carlino alle Fontane, the church of the
Collegio di Propaganda, and the restoration of San Giovanni in Laterano.
He died by his own hand at Rome in 1667. Engravings of his chief
compositions are to be found in the posthumous work, _Francisci
Borromini opus Architectonicum_ (1727).

BORROW, GEORGE HENRY (1803-1881), English traveller, linguist and
author, was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, on the 5th of July 1803, of a
middle-class Cornish family. His father was a recruiting officer, and
his mother a Norfolk lady of French extraction. From 1816 to 1818 Borrow
attended, with no very great profit, the grammar school at Norwich.
After leaving school he was articled to a firm of Norwich solicitors,
where he neglected the law, but gave a great deal of desultory attention
to languages. He was encouraged in these studies by William Taylor, the
friend of Southey. On the death of his father, in 1824 he went to London
to seek his fortune as a literary adventurer. In 1826 he published a
volume of _Romantic Ballads_ translated from the Danish. Engaged by Sir
Richard Phillips, the publisher, as a hack-writer at starvation wages,
his experiences in London were bitter indeed. His struggles at last
became so dire that if he would escape Chatterton's doom, he must leave
London and either return to Norwich and share his mother's narrow
income, or turn to account in some way the magnificent physical strength
with which nature had endowed him. Determining on the latter of these
courses, he left London on tramp. As he stood considerably more than 6
ft. in height, was a fairly trained athlete, and had a countenance of
extraordinary impressiveness, if not of commanding beauty--Greek in type
with a dash of the Hebrew--we may assume that there had never before
appeared on the English high-roads so majestic-looking a tramp as he
who, on an afternoon in May, left his squalid lodging with bundle and
stick to begin life on the roads. Shaping his course to the south-west,
he soon found himself on Salisbury Plain. And then his extraordinary
adventures began. After a while he became a travelling hedge-smith, and
it was while pursuing this avocation that he made the acquaintance of
the splendid road-girl, born at Long Melford workhouse, whom he has
immortalized under the name of Isopel Berners. He was now brought much
into contact with the gipsies, and this fact gave him the most important
subject-matter for his writings. For picturesque as is Borrow's style,
it is this subject-matter of his, the Romany world of Great Britain,
which--if his pictures of that world are true--will keep his writings
alive. Now that the better class of gipsies are migrating so rapidly to
America that scarcely any are left in England, Borrow's pictures of them
are challenged as being too idealistic. It is unfortunate that no one
who knew Borrow, and the gryengroes or horse-dealers with whom he
associated, and whom he depicted, has ever written about him and them.
Full of "documents" as is Dr Knapp's painstaking biography, it cannot be
said to give a vital picture of Borrow and his surroundings during this
most interesting period of his life. It is this same peculiar class of
gipsies (the gryengroes) with whom the present writer was brought into
contact, and he can only refer, in justification of Borrow's
descriptions of them, to certain publications of his own, where the
whole question is discussed at length, and where he has set out to prove
that Borrow's pictures of the section of the English gipsies he knew are
not idealized. But there is one great blemish in _all_ Borrow's dramatic
scenes of gipsy life, wheresoever they may be laid. This was pointed
out by the gentleman who "read" _Zincali_ for Mr Murray, the

  "The dialogues are amongst the best parts of the book; but in several
  of them the tone of the speakers, of those especially who are in
  humble life, is too correct and elevated, and therefore out of
  character. This takes away from their effect. I think it would be very
  advisable that Mr Borrow should go over them with reference to this
  point, simplifying a few of the terms of expression and introducing a
  few contractions--_don'ts, can'ts_, &c. This would improve them

It is the same with his pictures of the English gipsies. The reader has
only to compare the dialogues between gipsies given in that photographic
study of Romany life, _In Gipsy Tents_, by F.H. Groome, with the
dialogues in _Lavengro_ and _The Romany Rye_, to see how the illusion in
Borrow's narrative is disturbed by the uncolloquial locutions of the
speakers. It is true, no doubt, that all Romanies, especially perhaps
the English and Hungarian, have a passion for the use of high-sounding
words, and the present writer has shown this in his remarks upon the
Czigany Czindol, who is said to have taught the Czigany language to the
archduke Joseph, often called the "Gipsy Archduke." But after all
allowance is made for this racial peculiarity, Borrow's presentation of
it considerably weakens our belief in Mr and Mrs Petulengro, Ursula, and
the rest, to find them using complex sentences and bookish words which,
even among English people, are rarely heard in conversation. As to the
deep impression that Borrow made upon his gipsy friends, that is partly
explained by the singular nobility of his appearance, for the gipsies of
all countries are extremely sensitive upon matters of this kind. The
silvery whiteness of the thick crop of hair which Borrow retained to the
last seemed to add in a remarkable way to the nobility of his hairless
face, but also it gave to the face a kind of strange look "not a bit
like a Gorgio's," to use the words of one of his gipsy friends.
Moreover, the shy, defiant, stand-off way which Borrow assumed in the
company of his social equals left him entirely when he was with the
gipsies. The result of this was that these wanderers knew him better
than did his own countrymen.

Seven years after the events recorded in _Lavengro_ and _The Romany Rye_
Borrow obtained the post of agent to the Bible Society, in which
capacity he visited St Petersburg (1833-1835) (where he published
_Targum_, a collection of translations), and Spain, Portugal and Morocco
(1835-1839). From 1837 to 1839 he acted as correspondent to the _Morning
Herald_. The result of these travels and adventures was the publication,
in 1841, of _Zincali, or The Gypsies in Spain_, the original MS. of
which, in the hands of the present writer, shows how careful was
Borrow's method of work. In 1843 appeared _The Bible in Spain_, when
suddenly Borrow became famous. Every page of the book glows with
freshness, picturesqueness and vivacity. In 1840 he married Mary Clarke,
the widow of a naval officer, and permanently settled at Oulton Broad,
near Lowestoft, with her and her daughter. Here he began to write again.
Very likely Borrow would never have told the world about his vagabond
life in England as a hedge-smith had not _The Bible in Spain_ made him
famous as a wanderer. _Lavengro_ appeared in 1851 with a success which,
compared with that of _The Bible in Spain_, was only partial. He was
much chagrined at this, and although _Lavengro_ broke off in the midst
of a scene in the Dingle, and only broke off there because the three
volumes would hold no more, it was not until 1857 that he published the
sequel, _The Romany Rye_. In 1844 he travelled in south-eastern Europe,
and in 1854 he made a tour with his step-daughter in Wales. This tour he
described in _Wild Wales_, published in 1862. In 1874 he brought out a
volume of ill-digested material upon the Romany tongue, _Romano
Lavo-lil, or Word-book of the Gypsy Language_, a book which has been
exhaustively analysed and criticized by Mr John Sampson. In the summer
of 1874 he left London, bade adieu to Mr Murray and a few friends, and
returned to Oulton. On the 26th of July 1881 he was found dead in his
house at Oulton, in his seventy-ninth year.

Borrow was indisputably a linguist of wide knowledge, though he was not
a scholar in the strict sense. The variety of his attainments is shown
by his translation of the Church of England _Homilies_ into Manchu, of
the Gospel of St Luke into the Git dialect of the Gitanos, of _The
Sleeping Bard_ from the Cambrian-British, and of _Bluebeard_ into
Turkish. But it is not Borrow's linguistic accomplishments that have
kept his name fresh, and will continue to keep it fresh for many a
generation to come. It is his character, his unique character as
expressed, or partially expressed, in his books. Among all the
"remarkable individuals" (to use his favourite expression) who during
the middle of the 19th century figured in the world of letters, Borrow
was surely the most eccentric, the most whimsical, and in many ways the
most extraordinary. There was scarcely a point in which he resembled any
other writer of his time. With regard to _Lavengro_ and _The Romany
Rye_, there has been very much discussion as to how much _Dichtung_ is
mingled with the _Wahrheit_ in those fascinating books. Had it not been
for the amazingly clumsy pieces of fiction which he threw into the
narrative, few readers would have doubted the autobiographical nature of
the two books. Such incidents as are here alluded to shed an air of
unreality over the whole. It has been said by Dr Knapp that Borrow never
created a character, and that to one who thoroughly knows the times and
Borrow's writings the originals are easily recognizable. This is true,
no doubt, as regards people whom he knew at Norwich, and indeed
generally as regards those he knew before the period of his gipsy
wanderings. It must not be supposed, however, that such a character as
the man who "touched" to avert the evil chance is in any sense a
portrait of an individual with whom he had been brought into contact.
The character has so many of Borrow's own eccentricities that it might
rather be called a portrait of himself. There was nothing that Borrow
strove against with more energy than the curious impulse, which he seems
to have shared with Dr Johnson, to touch the objects along his path in
order to save himself from the evil chance. He never conquered the
superstition. In walking through Richmond Park with the present writer
he would step out of his way constantly to touch a tree, and he was
offended if the friend he was with seemed to observe it. Many of the
peculiarities of the man who taught himself Chinese in order to distract
his mind from painful thoughts were also Borrow's own. (T. W.-D.)

BORSIPPA (_Barsip_ in the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions; _Borsif_
in the Talmud; mod. Birs or Birs-Nimrud), the Greek name of an ancient
city about 15 m. S.W. of Babylon and 10 m. from Hillah, on the Nahr
Hindieh, or Hindieh canal, formerly known as "the Euphrates of
Borsippa," and even during the Arabic period called "the river of Birs."
Borsippa was the sister city of Babylon, and is often called in the
inscriptions Babylon II., also the "city without equal." Its patron god
was Nebo or Nabu. Like Babylon Borsippa is not mentioned in the oldest
inscriptions, but comes into importance first after Khammurabi had made
Babylon the capital of the whole land, somewhere before 2000 B.C. He
built or rebuilt the temple E-Zida at this place, dedicating it,
however, to Marduk (Bel-Merodach). But although Khammurabi himself does
not seem to have honoured Nebo (q.v.), subsequent kings recognized him
as the deity of E-Zida and made him the son of Marduk (q.v.). Each new
year his image was taken to visit his father, in Babylon, who in his
turn gave him escort homeward, and his temple was second in wealth and
importance only to E-Saggila, the temple of Marduk in Babylon. As with
Babylon, so with Borsippa, the time of Nebuchadrezzar was the period of
its greatest prosperity. In general Borsippa shared the fate of Babylon,
falling into decay after the time of Alexander, and finally in the
middle ages into ruins. The site of the ancient city is represented by
two large ruin mounds. Of these the north-westerly, the lower of the
two, but the larger in superficial area, is called Ibrahim Khalil, from
a _ziara_, or shrine, of Abraham, the friend of God, which stands on its
highest point. According to Arabic lore, based on Jewish legends, at
this spot Nimrod sought to throw Abraham into a fiery furnace, from
which he was saved by the grace of God. Excavations were first conducted
here by the French Expédition Scientifique en Mésopotamie in 1852, with
small result. In 1879 and 1880 Hormuzd Rassam conducted more extensive,
although unsystematic, excavations in this mound, finding a
considerable quantity of inscribed tablets and the like, now in the
British Museum; but by far the greater part of this ruin still remains
unexplored. The south-westerly mound, the Birs proper, is probably the
most conspicuous and striking ruin in all Irak. On the top of a hill
over 100 ft. high rises a pointed mass of vitrified brick split down the
centre, over 40 ft. high, about which lie huge masses of vitrified
brick, some as much as 15 ft. in diameter, and also single enamelled
bricks, generally bearing an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, twisted,
curled and broken, apparently by great heat. Jewish and Arabic tradition
makes this the Tower of Babel, which was supposed to have been destroyed
by lightning. Excavations conducted here by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 1854
showed it to be the stage tower or _ziggurat_, called the "house of the
seven divisions of heaven and earth," of E-Zida, the temple of Nebo. On
a large platform rose seven solid terraces, each smaller than the one
below it, the lowest being 272 ft. square and 26 ft. high. Each of these
terraces was faced with bricks of a different colour. The approach to
this _ziggurat_ was toward the north-east, and on this side lay also the
principal rooms of the temple of which this was the tower. These rooms
were partly excavated by Hormuzd Rassam in 1879-1880. In its final form
this temple and tower were the work of Nebuchadrezzar, but from the clay
cylinders found by Sir Henry Rawlinson in two of the corners of the
tower it appears that he restored an incomplete _ziggurat_ of a former
king, "which was long since fallen into decay." Some of the best
authorities believe that it was this ambitious but incomplete and
ruinous _ziggurat_, existing before the time of Nebuchadrezzar, which
gave occasion to or afforded local attachment for the Biblical story of
the Tower of Babel.

  AUTHORITIES.--H.C. Rawlinson, _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society_
  (1860); J. Oppert, _Expédition scientifique en Mésopotamie_ (Paris,
  1863); F. Delitzsch, _Wo lag das Paradies?_ (Leipzig, 1881); J.P.
  Peters, _Nippur_ (New York and London, 1896); H. Rassam, _Asshur and
  the Land of Nimrod_ (London and New York, 1897); M. Jastrow, _Religion
  of Babylonia and Assyria_ (Boston, 1898); see also BABYLON, BABEL.
       (J. P. Pe.)

BORT, or BOART, an inferior kind of diamond, unfit for cutting but
useful as an abrasive agent. The typical bort occurs in small spherical
masses, of greyish colour, rough or drusy on the surface, and showing on
fracture a radiate crystalline structure. These masses, known in Brazil
as bolas, are often called "shot bort" or "round bort." Much of the bort
consists of irregular aggregates of imperfect crystals. In trade, the
term bort is extended to all small and impure diamonds, and crystalline
fragments of diamond, useless as gem-stones. A large proportion of the
output of some of the South African mines consists of such material.
This bort is crushed in steel mortars to form diamond powder, which is
largely used in lapidaries' work.

naturalist, was born at Agen in 1780. He was sent as naturalist with
Captain Nicholas Baudin's expedition to Australia in 1798, but left the
vessel at Mauritius, and spent two years in exploring Réunion and other
islands. Joining the army on his return, he was present at the battles
of Ulm and Austerlitz, and in 1808 went to Spain with Marshal Soult. His
attachment to the Napoleonic dynasty and dislike to the Bourbons were
shown in various ways during 1815, and his name was consequently placed
on the list of the proscribed; but after wandering in disguise from
place to place he was allowed quietly to return to Paris in 1820. In
1829 he was placed at the head of a scientific expedition to the Morea,
and in 1839 he had charge of the exploration of Algeria. He died on the
23rd of December 1846. He was editor of the _Dictionnaire classique
d'histoire naturelle_, and among his separate productions were:--_Essais
sur les Îles Fortunées_ (1802); _Voyage dans les Îles d'Afrique_ (1803);
_Voyage souterrain, ou description du plateau de Saint-Pierre de
Maestricht et de ses vastes cryptes_ (1821); _L'Homme, essai zoologique
sur le genre humain_ (1827); _Résumé de la géographie de la Péninsule_

BORZHOM, a watering-place of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of
Tiflis, and 93 m. by rail W. of the city of Tiflis. Pop. (1897) 5800.
It is situated at an altitude of 2750 ft. in the Borzhom gorge, a narrow
rift in the Little Caucasus mountains, and on the Kura. Its warm
climate, its two hot springs (71½°-82° Fahr.) and its beautiful parks
make it a favourite summer resort, and give it its popular name of "the
pearl of Caucasus." The bottled mineral waters are very extensively

BOS, LAMBERT (1670-1717), Dutch scholar and critic, was born at Workum
in Friesland, where his father was headmaster of the school. He went to
the university of Franeker (suppressed by Napoleon in 1811), and was
appointed professor of Greek there in 1704; after an uneventful life he
died at Franeker in 1717. His most famous work, _Ellipses Graecae_
(1702), was translated into English by John Seager (1830); and his
_Antiquitates Graecae_ (1714) passed through several editions. He also
published _Vetus Testamentum_, Ex Versione lxx. Interpretum (1709);
notes on Thomas Magister (1698); _Exercitationes Philologicae_ (1700);
_Animadversiones ad Scriptores quosdam Graecos_ (1715); and two small
treatises on Accents and Greek Syntax.

BOSA, a seaport and episcopal see on the W. coast of Sardinia, in the
province of Cagliari, 30 m. W. of Macomer by rail. Pop. (1901) 6846. The
height above the town is crowned by a castle of the Malaspina family.
The cathedral, founded in the 12th century, restored in the 15th, and
rebuilt in 1806, is fine. There are some tanneries, and the fishing
industry is important, but the coral production of Sicily has entirely
destroyed that of Bosa since 1887. The district produces oil and wine.
The present town of Bosa was founded in 1112 by the Malaspina, 1½ m.
from the site of the ancient town (Bosa or Calmedia), where a
well-preserved church still exists. The old town is of Roman origin, but
is only mentioned by Pliny and Ptolemy, and as a station on the
coast-road in the Itineraries (_Corp. Inscr. Lat._ x. 7939 seq.). One of
the inscriptions preserved in the old cathedral records the erection of
four silver statues, of Antoninus Pius, his wife Faustina and their two

was born at Alkmaar in north Holland on the 16th of September 1812. Her
father, named Toussaint, a local chemist of Huguenot descent, gave her a
fair education, and at an early period of her career she developed a
taste for historical research, fostered, perhaps, by a forced indoor
life, the result of weak health. In 1851 she married the Dutch painter,
Johannes Bosboom (1817-1891), and thereafter was known as Mrs
Bosboom-Toussaint. Her first romance, _Almagro_, appeared in 1837,
followed by the _Graaf van Devonshire_ (_The Earl of Devonshire_) in
1838; the _Engelschen te Rome_ (_The English at Rome_) in 1840, and _Het
Huis Lauernesse (The House of Lauernesse_) in 1841, an episode of the
Reformation, translated into many European languages. These stories,
mainly founded upon some of the most interesting epochs of Dutch
history, betrayed a remarkable grasp of facts and situations, combined
with an undoubted mastery over her mother tongue, though her style is
sometimes involved, and not always faultless. Ten years (1840-1850) were
mainly devoted to further studies, the result of which was revealed in
1851-1854, when her _Leycester in Nederland_ (3 vols.), _Vrouwen van het
Leycestersche Tydperk (Women of Leicester's Epoch_, 3 vols.), and
_Gideon Florensz_ (3 vols.) appeared, a series dealing with Robert
Dudley's adventures in the Low Countries. After 1870 Mrs
Bosboom-Toussaint abandoned historical romance for the modern society
novel, but her _Delftsche Wonderdokter (The Necromancer of Delft_, 1871,
3 vols.) and _Majoor Frans_ (1875, 3 vols.) did not command the success
of her earlier works. _Major Frank_ has been translated into English
(1885). She died at the Hague on the 13th of April 1886. Her novels have
been published there in a collected edition (1885-1888, 25 vols.).

BOSC, LOUIS AUGUSTIN GUILLAUME (1759-1828), French naturalist, was born
at Paris on the 29th of January 1759. He was educated at the college of
Dijon, where he showed a taste for botany, and he followed up his
studies in Paris at the Jardin des Plantes, where he made the
acquaintance of Mme M.J.P. Roland. At the age of eighteen he obtained a
government appointment, and he rose to be one of the chief officials in
the postal department. Under the ministry of J.M. Roland in 1792 he also
held the post of superintendent of prisons, but the violent outbreaks of
1793 drove him from office, and compelled him to take refuge in flight.
For some months he lay concealed at Sainte-Radégonde, in the forest of
Montmorency, barely subsisting on roots and vegetables. He was enabled
to return to Paris on the fall of Robespierre, and under the title
_Appel à l'impartiale postérité par la citoyenne Roland_ published a
manuscript Mme Roland had entrusted to him before her execution. Soon
afterwards he set out for America, resolving to explore the natural
riches of that country. The immense materials he gathered were never
published in a complete form, but much went to enrich the works of
B.G.E. de Lacépède, P.A. Latreille and others. After his return, on the
establishment of the Directory, he was reinstated in his old office. Of
this he was again deprived by the _coup d'état_ of 1799, and for a time
he was in great destitution; but by his copious contributions to
scientific literature he contrived to support himself and to lay the
foundations of a solid reputation. He was engaged on the new
_Dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle_, and on the _Encyclopédie
méthodique_, he edited the _Dictionnaire raisonné et universel
d'agriculture_, and was one of the editors of the _Annales de
l'agriculture française_. He was made inspector of the gardens at
Versailles, and of the public nurseries belonging to the ministry of the
interior. The last years of his life were devoted to an elaborate work
on the vine, for which he had amassed an immense quantity of materials,
but his death at Paris on the 10th of July 1828 prevented its

BOSCÁN ALMOGAVER, JUAN (1490?-1542), Spanish poet, was born about the
close of the 15th century. He was a Catalan of patrician birth, and,
after some years of military service, became tutor to the duke of Alva.
His poems were published in 1543 at Barcelona by his widow. They are
divided into sections which mark the stages of Boscán's poetical
evolution. The first book contains poems in the old Castilian metres,
written in his youth, before 1526, in which year he became acquainted
with the Venetian ambassador, Andrea Navagiero, who urged him to adopt
Italian measures, and this advice gave a new turn to Boscán's activity.
The remaining books contain a number of pieces in the Italian manner,
the longest of these being _Hero y Leander_, a poem in blank verse,
based on Musaeus. Boscán's best effort, the _Octava Rima_, is a skilful
imitation of Petrarch and Bembo. Boscán also published in 1534 an
admirable translation of Castiglione's _Il Cortegiano_. Italian measures
had been introduced into Spanish literature by Santillana and
Villalpando; it is Boscán's distinction to have naturalized these forms
definitively, and to have founded a poetic school.

  The best edition of his poems is that issued at Madrid in 1875 by W.J.
  Knapp; for his indebtedness to earlier writers, see Francesco Flamini,
  _Studi di storia literaria italiana e straniera_ (Livorno, 1895).

BOSCASTLE, a small seaport and watering-place in the Launceston
parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 5 m. N. of Camelford
station on the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (civil parish of
Forrabury, 1901) 329. The village rises steeply above a very narrow cove
on the north coast, sheltered, but difficult of access, vessels having
to be warped into it by means of hawsers. A mound on a hill above the
harbour marks the site of a Norman castle. The parish church of St
Symphorian, Forrabury, also stands high, overlooking the Atlantic from
Willapark Point. The tower is without bells, and the tradition that a
ship bearing a peal hither was wrecked within sight of the harbour, and
that the lost bells may still be heard to toll beneath the waves, has
been made famous by a ballad of the Cornish poet Robert Stephen Hawker,
vicar of Moorwinstow. The coast scenery near Boscastle is severely
beautiful, with abrupt cliffs fully exposed to the sea, and broken only
by a few picturesque inlets such as Crackington Cove and Pentargan Cove.
Inland are bare moors, diversified by narrow dales.

BOSCAWEN, EDWARD (1711-1761), British admiral, was born on the 19th of
August 1711. He was the third son of Hugh, 1st Viscount Falmouth. He
early entered the navy, and in 1739 distinguished himself at the taking
of Porto Bello. At the siege of Cartagena, in March 1741, at the head of
a party of seamen, he took a battery of fifteen 24-pounders, while
exposed to the fire of another fort. On his return to England in the
following year he married, and entered parliament as member for Truro.
In 1744 he captured the French frigate "Médée," commanded by M. de
Hocquart, the first ship taken in the war. In May 1747 he signalized
himself in the engagement off Cape Finisterre, and was wounded in the
shoulder with a musket-ball. Hocquart again became his prisoner, and the
French ships, ten in number, were taken. On the 15th of July he was made
rear-admiral and commander-in-chief of the expedition to the East
Indies. On the 29th of July 1748 he arrived off Fort St David's, and
soon after laid siege to Pondicherry; but the sickness of his men and
the approach of the monsoons led to the raising of the siege. Soon
afterwards he received news of the peace, and Madras was delivered up to
him by the French. In April 1750 he arrived in England, and was the next
year made one of the lords of the Admiralty, and chosen an elder brother
of the Trinity House. In February 1755 he was appointed vice-admiral,
and in April he intercepted the French squadron bound to North America,
and took the "Alcide" and "Lys" of sixty-four guns each. Hocquart became
his prisoner for the third time, and Boscawen returned to Spithead with
his prizes and 1500 prisoners. For this exploit, he received the thanks
of parliament. In 1758 he was appointed admiral of the blue and
commander-in-chief of the expedition to Cape Breton, when, in
conjunction with General Amherst, he took the fortress of Louisburg, and
the island of Cape Breton--services for which he again received the
thanks of the House of Commons. In 1759, being appointed to command in
the Mediterranean, he pursued the French fleet, commanded by M. de la
Clue, and after a sharp engagement in Lagos Bay took three large ships
and burnt two, returning to Spithead with his prizes and 2000 prisoners.
The victory defeated the proposed concentration of the French fleet in
Brest to cover an invasion of England. In December 1760 he was appointed
general of the marines, with a salary of £3000 per annum, and was also
sworn a member of the privy council. He died at his seat near Guildford
on the 10th of January 1761.

BOSCH (or Bos), JEROM (c. 1460-1518), the name generally given, from his
birthplace Hertogenbosch, to Hieronymus van Aeken, the Dutch painter. He
was probably a pupil of Albert Ouwater, and may be called the Breughel
of the 15th century, for he devoted himself to the invention of bizarre
types, _diableries_, and scenes of the kind generally associated with
Breughel, whose art is to a great extent based on Bosch's. He was a
satirist much in advance of his time, and one of the most original and
ingenious artists of the 15th century. He exercised great influence on
Lucas Cranach, who frequently copied his paintings. His works were much
admired in Spain, especially by Philip II., at whose court Bosch painted
for some time. One of his chief works is the "Last Judgment" at the
Berlin gallery, which also owns a little "St Jerome in the Desert." "The
Fall of the Rebellious Angels" and the "St Anthony" triptych are in the
Brussels museum, and two important triptychs are at the Munich gallery.
The Lippmann collection in Berlin contains an important "Adoration of
the Magi," the Antwerp museum a "Passion," and a practically unknown
painting from his brush is at the Naples museum.

BOSCOVICH, ROGER JOSEPH (1711?-1787), Italian mathematician and natural
philosopher, one of the earliest of foreign _savants_ to adopt Newton's
gravitation theory, was born at Ragusa in Dalmatia on the 18th of May
1711, according to the usual account, but ten years earlier according to
Lalande (_Éloge_, 1792). In his fifteenth year, after passing through
the usual elementary studies, he entered the Society of Jesus. On
completing his noviciate, which was spent at Rome, he studied
mathematics and physics at the Collegium Romanum; and so brilliant was
his progress in these sciences that in 1740 he was appointed professor
of mathematics in the college. For this post he was especially fitted by
his acquaintance with recent advances in science, and by his skill in a
classical severity of demonstration, acquired by a thorough study of the
works of the Greek geometricians. Several years before this appointment
he had made himself a name by an elegant solution of the problem to find
the sun's equator and determine the period of its rotation by
observation of the spots on its surface. Notwithstanding the arduous
duties of his professorship he found time for investigation in all the
fields of physical science; and he published a very large number of
dissertations, some of them of considerable length, on a wide variety of
subjects. Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora
Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars,
the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of
mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in
astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the
cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of
continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of
spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of
science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing
the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been
discovered. His suggestion was adopted. Shortly after he engaged to take
part in the Portuguese expedition for the survey of Brazil, and the
measurement of a degree of the meridian; but he yielded to the urgent
request of the pope that he would remain in Italy and undertake a
similar task there. Accordingly, in conjunction with Christopher Maire,
an English Jesuit, he measured an arc of two degrees between Rome and
Rimini. The operations were begun towards the close of 1750, and were
completed in about two years. An account of them was published in 1755,
entitled _De Litteraria expeditione per pontificam ditionem ad
dimetiendos duos meridiani gradus a PP. Maire et Boscovich_. The value
of this work was increased by a carefully prepared map of the States of
the Church. A French translation appeared in 1770. A dispute having
arisen between the grand duke of Tuscany and the republic of Lucca with
respect to the drainage of a lake, Boscovich was sent, in 1757, as agent
of Lucca to Vienna, and succeeded in bringing about a satisfactory
arrangement of the matter. In the following year he published at Vienna
his famous work, _Theoria philosophiae naturalis redacta ad unicam legem
virium in natura existentium_, containing his atomic theory (see
MOLECULE). Another occasion for the exercise of his diplomatic ability
soon after presented itself. A suspicion having arisen on the part of
the British government that ships of war had been fitted out in the port
of Ragusa for the service of France, and that the neutrality of Ragusa
had thus been violated, Boscovich was selected to undertake an embassy
to London (1760), to vindicate the character of his native place and
satisfy the government. This mission he discharged successfully, with
credit to himself and satisfaction to his countrymen. During his stay in
England he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He soon after paid
this society the compliment of dedicating to it his Latin poem, entitled
_De Solis et Lunae Defectibus_ (London, 1764). This prolix composition,
one of a class which at that time was much in vogue--metrical epitomes
of the facts of science--contains in about five thousand lines,
illustrated by voluminous notes, a compendium of astronomy. It was for
the most part written on horseback, during the author's rides in the
country while engaged in his meridian measurements. The book is
characterized by G.B.J. Delambre as "uninstructive to an astronomer and
unintelligible to any one else."

On leaving England Boscovich travelled in Turkey, but ill-health
compelled him soon to return to Italy. In 1764 he was called to the
chair of mathematics at the university of Pavia, and this post he held,
together with the directorship of the observatory of Brera, for six
years. He was invited by the Royal Society of London to undertake an
expedition to California to observe the transit of Venus in 1769; but
this was prevented by the recent decree of the Spanish government for
the expulsion of the Jesuits from its dominions. The vanity, egotism and
petulance of Boscovich provoked his rivals and made him many enemies, so
that in hope of peace he was driven to frequent change of residence.
About 1770 he removed to Milan, where he continued to teach and to hold
the directorship of the observatory of Brera; but being deprived of his
post by the intrigues of his associates he was about to retire to his
native place, when the news reached him (1773) of the suppression of his
order in Italy. Uncertainty as to his future led him to accept an
invitation from the king of France to Paris, where he was naturalized
and was appointed director of optics for the marine, an office
instituted for him, with a pension of 8000 livres. He remained there ten
years, but his position became irksome, and at length intolerable. He
continued, however, to devote himself diligently to the pursuits of
science, and published many remarkable memoirs. Among them were an
elegant solution of the problem to determine the orbit of a comet from
three observations, and memoirs on the micrometer and achromatic
telescopes. In 1783 he returned to Italy, and spent two years at
Bassano, where he occupied himself with the publication of his _Opera
pertinentia ad opticam et astronomiam, &c._, which appeared in 1785 in
five volumes quarto. After a visit of some months to the convent of
Vallombrosa, he went to Milan and resumed his literary labours. But his
health was failing, his reputation was on the wane, his works did not
sell, and he gradually sank a prey to illness and disappointment. He
fell into melancholy, imbecility, and at last madness, with lucid
intervals, and died at Milan on the 15th (13th) of February 1787. In
addition to the works already mentioned Boscovich published _Elementa
universae matheseos_ (1754), the substance of the course of study
prepared for his pupils; and a narrative of his travels, entitled
_Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinopoli in Polonia_, of which several
editions and a French translation appeared. His latest labour was the
editing of the Latin poems of his friend Benedict Stay on the philosophy
of Descartes, with scientific annotations and supplements.
     (W. L. R. C.)

included in European Turkey, which now, together with Dalmatia, form the
southernmost territories of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The name
_Herzegovina_ is also written _Hertzegovina, Hertsegovina_ or, in
Croatian, _Hercegovina_. In shape roughly resembling an equilateral
triangle, with base uppermost, Bosnia and Herzegovina cover an area of
19,696 sq. m., in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula. They are
bounded N. and N.W. by Croatia-Slavonia; W. and S.W. by Dalmatia; S.E.
by Montenegro and the Sanjak of Novibazar; and N.E. by Servia. Opposite
to the promontory of Sabbioncello, and at the entrance to the Bocche di
Cattaro, the frontier of Herzegovina comes down to the Adriatic; but
these two strips of coast do not contain any good harbour, and extend
only for a total distance of 14½ m. Bosnia is altogether an inland

1. _Physical Features._--Along the Dalmatian border, and through the
centre of Bosnia, runs the backbone of the Dinaric Alps, which attain
their greatest altitudes (6000-7500 ft.) near Travnik, Serajevo and
Mostar. There are numerous high valleys shut in among the mountains of
this range; the most noteworthy being the plain of Livno, which lies
parallel to the Dalmatian border, at a height of 500 ft. above the sea.
The zone of highlands throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina reaches a mean
altitude of 1500 ft., while summits of more than 4000 ft. occur
frequently. To the north-east of the Dinaric Alps extends a region of
mountain, moor and forest, with deeply sunk alluvial basins, which
finally expand into the lowlands of the Posavina, or Vale of the Save,
forming the southernmost fringe of the Hungarian Alföld. Bosnia belongs
wholly to the watershed of the Save, and its rivers to the Danubian
system, no large stream finding a way to the Adriatic. The Save flows
eastward along the northern frontier for 237 m. It is joined by four
main tributaries, the Drina, Bosna, Vrbas and Una. The Drina is formed
on the Montenegrin frontier by the united streams of the Tara and Piva;
curving north-eastwards past Visegrad, it marches for 102 m. with
Servian territory, and falls into the Save at Racha, after a total
course of 155 m. The Bosna issues from many springs near Serajevo, and
winds for 107 m. northward, through a succession of fertile glens,
reaching the Save 1 m. west of Samac. Farther west, the Vrbas cuts a
channel through the Dinaric Alps, and, after passing Jajce and
Banjaluka, meets the Save 94 m. from its own headwaters. The Una rises
on the Croatian border, and, after skirting the Pljesevica Planina, in
Croatia, turns sharply to the north-east; serving as a frontier stream
for 37 m. before entering the Save at Jasenovac. Its length is 98 m. At
Novi it is joined by the Sana, a considerable affluent.

Herzegovina, which lies south of Bosnia, in a parallelogram defined by
Montenegro, Dalmatia, the Dinaric Alps, and an irregular line drawn from
a point 25 m. west-north-west of Mostar to the bend of the river
Narenta, differs in many respects from the larger territory. Its
mountains, which belong to the Adriatic watershed, and form a
continuation of the Montenegrin highlands, are less rounded and more
dolomitic in character. They descend in parallel ridges of grey Karst
limestone, south-westwards to the sea; their last summits reappear in
the multitude of rocky islands along the Dalmatian littoral. As in the
peaks of Orjen, Orobac, Samotica and Veliki Kap, their height often
exceeds 6000 ft. West of the Narenta, their flanks are in places covered
with forests of beech and pine, but north-east of that river they
present for the most part a scene of barren desolation. Their monotony
is varied only by the fruitful river-valleys and _poljes_, or upland
hollows, where the smaller towns and villages are grouped; the districts
or cantons thus formed are walled round by a natural rampart of
limestone. These _poljes_ may be described as oases in what is otherwise
a desert expanse of mountains. The surface of some, as notably the
_Mostarsko Blato_, lying west of Mostar, is marshy, and in spring forms
a lake; others are watered by streams which disappear in swallow-holes
of the rock, and make their way by underground channels either to the
sea or the Narenta. The most conspicuous example of these is the
Trebinjcica, which disappears in two swallow-holes in Popovopolye, and
after making its way by a subterranean passage through a range of
mountains, wells up in the mighty source of Ombla near Ragusa, and
hurries in undiminished volume to the Adriatic. The Narenta, or Neretva,
is the one large river of Herzegovina which flows above ground
throughout its length. Rising on the Montenegrin border, under the
Lebrsnik mountains, it flows north-westwards at the foot of the Dinaric
Alps; and, near Konjica, sweeps round suddenly to the south, and falls
into the Adriatic near Metkovic, after traversing 125 m. North of
Mostar, it cleaves a passage through the celebrated Narenta defile, a
narrow gorge, 12 m. long, overshadowed by mountains which rise on either
side and culminate in Lupoglav (6796 ft.) on the east, and Cvrstnica
(7205 ft.) on the west.

2. _Geology and Minerals._--Geologically, the highlands of Bosnia and
Herzegovina are to be regarded, in both their orographic and tectonic
character, as a continuation of the South Alpine calcareous belt. Along
the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of
Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by
a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of
Bosnia. Next, proceeding from this region in an easterly direction, are
the Neogene freshwater formations, filling up the greatest part of the
north-east of Bosnia, as also a zone of flysch intermingled with several
strips of eruptive rock. In the south-east of Bosnia the predominant
formations are Triassic and Palaeozoic strata with red sandstone and
quartzite. Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as also in the
fluvial and Karst valleys (_poljes_), are found diluvial and alluvial
formations, interrupted at one place by an isolated granite layer.
Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome,
manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent
building stone. Among the mountains, gold and silver were worked by the
Romans, and, in the middle ages, by the Ragusans. After 1881 the Mining
Company of Bosnia began to develop the coal and iron fields; and from
1886 its operations were continued by the government. Valuable salt is
obtained from the pits at Dolnja Tuzla, and the southern part of
Herzegovina yields asphalt and lignite. Mineral springs also abound, and
those of Ilidze, near Serajevo, have been utilized since the days of
the Romans; but the majority remained unexploited at the beginning of
the 20th century.

3. _Climate._--In climate Bosnia differs considerably from Herzegovina.
In both alike the _scirocco_, bringing rain from the south-west, is a
prevalent wind, as well as the _bora_, the fearful north-north-easter of
Illyria, which, sweeping down the lateral valleys of the Dinaric Alps,
overwhelms everything in its path. The snow-fall is slight, and, except
on a few of the loftier peaks, the snow soon melts. In Bosnia the
weather resembles that of the south Austrian highlands, generally mild,
though apt to be bitterly cold in winter. In Serajevo the mean annual
temperature is 50° Fahr. Herzegovina has more affinity to the Dalmatian
mountains, oppressively hot in summer, when the mercury often rises
beyond 110° Fahr. The winter rains of the Karst region show that it
belongs to the sub-tropical climatic zone.

4. _Fauna._--In 1893 the bones of a cave-bear (_Ursus spelaeus_) were
taken from a cavern of the Bjelasnica range, in Herzegovina, a discovery
without parallel in the Balkan Peninsula. Of existing species the bear,
wild-boar, badger, roe-deer and chamois may occasionally be seen in the
remotest wilds of mountain and forest. Hares are uncommon, and the last
red-deer was shot in 1814; but wolves, otters and squirrels abound.
Snipe, woodcock, ducks and rails, in vast flocks, haunt the banks of the
Drina and Save; while the crane, pelican, wild-swan and wild-goose are
fairly plentiful. The lammergeier (_Gypaëtus barbatus_) had almost
become extinct in 1900; but several varieties of eagle and falcon are
left. Falconry was long a pastime of the Moslem landlords. The
destruction of game, recklessly carried out under Turkish rule, is
prevented by the laws of 1880, 1883 and 1893, which enforced a close
time, and rendered shooting-licences necessary. The list of reptiles
includes the venomous _Vipera ammodytes_ and _Pelias berus_, while
scorpions and lizards infest the stony wastes of the Karst. In the
museum at Serajevo there is a large entomological collection, including
the remarkable _Pogonus anophthalmus_, from the underground Karst caves.
The caves are rich in curious kinds of fish, _Paraphoxinus Gethaldii_,
which is unknown elsewhere, _Chondrostoma phoximus, Phoxinellus
alepidatus_ and others, which are caught and eaten by the peasantry. In
Herzegovina, although many of the high mountain tarns are unproductive,
the eel-fisheries of the Narenta are of considerable value.
Leech-gathering is a characteristic Bosnian industry. The streams of
both territories yield excellent trout and crayfish; salmon, sturgeon
and sterlet, from the Danube, are netted in the Save.


5. _Flora._--Serajevo museum has a collection of the Bosnian flora,
representing over 3000 species; among them, the rare _Veronica crinita,
Pinus leucodermis, Picea omorica_ and _Daphne Blagayana_. About 50% of
the occupied territory is clothed with forest. "Bosnia begins with the
forest," says a native proverb, "Herzegovina with the rock"; and this
account is, broadly speaking, accurate, although the Bosnian Karst is as
bare as that of Herzegovina. Below the mountain crests, where only the
hardiest lichens and mosses can survive, comes a belt of large timber,
including many giant trees, 200 ft. high, and 20 ft. in girth at the
level of a man's shoulder. Dense brushwood prevails on the foothills.
There are three main zones of woodland. Up to 2500 ft. among the ranges
of northern Bosnia, the sunnier slopes are overgrown by oaks, the
shadier by beeches. Farther south, in central Bosnia, the oak rarely
mounts beyond the foothills, being superseded by the beech, elm, ash,
fir and pine, up to 5000 ft. The third zone is characterized by the
predominance, up to 6000 ft., of the fir, pine and other conifers. In
all three zones occur the chestnut, aspen, willow (especially _Salix
laurea_), hornbeam, birch, alder, juniper and yew; while the mountain
ash, hazel, wild plum, wild pear and other wild fruit trees are found at
rarer intervals. Until 1878 the forests were almost neglected;
afterwards, the government was forced to levy a graduated tax on goats,
owing to the damage they inflicted upon young trees, and to curtail the
popular rights of cutting timber and fir-wood and of pasturage. These
measures were largely successful, but in 1902 the export of oak staves
was discontinued owing to a shortage of supply.

6. _Agriculture._--In 1895, according to the agricultural survey, the
surface of Bosnia and Herzegovina was laid out as follows:--

  Plough-land.         2,355,499
  Garden-ground.         103,040
  Meadow.                739,200
  Vineyards.              12,598
  Pasture.             1,875,840
  Forest.              5,670,619
  Unproductive.          210,998

Apart from the arid wastes of the Karst, the soil is well adapted for
the growing of cereals, especially Indian corn; olives, vines,
mulberries, figs, pomegranates, melons, oranges, lemons, rice and
tobacco flourish in Herzegovina and the more sheltered portions of
Bosnia. Near Doboj, on the Bosna, there is a state sugar-refinery, for
which beetroot is largely grown in the vicinity. _Pyrethrum
cinerariaefolium_ is exported for the manufacture of insect-powder, and
sunflowers are cultivated for the oil contained in their seeds. The
plum-orchards of the Posavina furnish prunes and a spirit called
_slivovica, shlivovitsa_ or _sliwowitz_. This district is the
headquarters of a thriving trade in pigs. Poultry, bees and silkworms
are commonly kept. On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the
richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race,
and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors. Many
improvements were, nevertheless, introduced by the government after
1878. Machinery was lent to the farmers, and free grants of seed were
made. Model farms were established at Livno and at Gacko, on the
Montenegrin border; a school of viticulture near Mostar; a model
poultry-farm at Prijedor, close to the Croatian boundary; a school of
agriculture and dairy farming at Ilidze; and another school at Modric,
near the mouth of the Bosna, where a certain number of village
schoolmasters are annually trained, for six weeks, in practical
husbandry. Seed is distributed, and agricultural machinery lent, by the
government. To better the breeds of live-stock, a stud-farm was opened
near Serajevo, and foreign horses, cattle, sheep and poultry are

7. _Land Tenure._--The _zadruga_, or household community, more common in
Servia (q.v.), survives to a small extent in Bosnia and Herzegovina;
but, as a rule, the tenure of land resembles the system called
_métayage_. At the time of the Austrian occupation (1878) it was
regulated by a Turkish enactment[1] of the 12th of September 1859. Apart
from gardens and house-property, all land was, according to this
enactment, owned by the state; in practice, it was held by the Moslem
_begs_ or _beys_ (nobles) and _agas_ (landlords), who let it to the
peasantry. The landlord received from his tenant (_kmet_) a fixed
percentage, usually one third (_tretina_), of the annual produce; and,
of the remaining two thirds, the cash equivalent of one tenth
(_desetina_) went to the state. The amount of the _desetina_ was always
fixed first, and served as a basis for the assessment of the _tretina_,
which, however, was generally paid in kind. At any time the tenant could
relinquish his holding; but he could only be evicted for refusing to pay
his _tretina_, for wilful neglect of his land or for damage done to it.
The landlord was bound to keep his tenants' dwellings and outhouses in
repair. Should he desire to sell his estates, the right of pre-emption
belonged to the tenants, or, in default, to the neighbours. Thus foreign
speculators in land were excluded, while a class of peasant proprietors
was created; its numbers being increased by the custom that, if any man
reclaimed a piece of waste land, it became his own property after ten
years. The Turkish land-system remained in force during the entire
period of the occupation (1878-1908). It had worked, on the whole,
satisfactorily; and between 1885 and 1895 the number of peasants farming
their own land rose from 117,000 to 200,000. One conspicuous feature of
the Bosnian land-system is the Moslem _Vakuf_, or ecclesiastical
property, consisting of estates dedicated to such charitable purposes as
poor-relief, and the endowment of mosques, schools, hospitals,
cemeteries and baths. It is administered by a central board of Moslem
officials, who meet in Sarajevo, under state supervision. Its income
rose to £25,000 in 1895, having quadrupled itself in ten years. The
_Vakuf_ tenants were at that time extremely prosperous, for their rent
had been fixed for ten years in advance on the basis of the year's
harvest, and so had not risen proportionately to the value of their

8. _Industries and Commerce._--Beside agriculture, which employed over
88% of the whole population in 1895, the other industries are
insignificant. Chief among them are weaving and leather and metal work,
carried on by the workmen in their own houses. There are also government
workshops, opened with a view to a higher technical and artistic
development of the house industry. More particularly, chased and inlaid
metallic wares, _bez_ (thin cotton) and carpet-weaving receive
government support. Besides the sugar-refinery already mentioned, there
were in 1900 four tobacco factories, a national printing-press, an
annular furnace for brick-burning, an iron-foundry and several
blast-furnaces, under the management of the state. Among the larger
private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries,
one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two
building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron
and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one
mineral-oil refinery.

In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina were in 1882 included
in the customs and commercial system of Austria-Hungary, to the
extinction of all intermediate imposts. Since 1898 special statistics
have been drawn up respecting their trade also with Austria and Hungary.
According to these statistics the most important articles of export are
coal and turf, fruit, minerals, soda, iron and steel, and cattle. Other
articles of export are chemicals, dyeing and tanning stuffs, tobacco,
sugar-beet and kitchen-salt. The imports consist principally of food
stuffs, building materials, drinks, sugar, machinery, glass, fats,
clothes, wooden and stone wares, and various manufactured goods.

There is a national bank in Serajevo, which carries on a hypothecary
credit business and manages the wholesale trade of the tobacco
factories. There are savings banks in Banjaluka, Bjelina and Brcka.

9. _Communications._--The construction of carriage-roads, wholly
neglected by the Turks, was carried out on a large scale by the
Austrians. Two railways were also built, in connexion with the Hungarian
state system. One crosses the Una at Kostajnica, and, after skirting the
right bank of that river as far as Novi, strikes eastward to Banjaluka.
The other, a narrow-gauge line, crosses the Save at Bosna Brod, and
follows the Bosna to Serajevo, throwing out branches eastward beyond
Dolnja Tuzla, and westward to Jajce and Bugojno. It then pierces through
the mountains of northern Herzegovina, traverses the Narenta valley, and
runs almost parallel with the coast to Trebinje, Ragusa and the Bocche
di Cattaro. Up to this point the railways of the occupied territory were
complete in 1901. A farther line, from Serajevo to the frontiers of
Servia and Novibazar, was undertaken in 1902, and by 1906 782 m. of
railway were open. Small steamers ply on the Drina, Save and Una, but
the Bosna, though broad from its very source, is, like the Vrbas, too
full of shallows to be utilized; while the Narenta only begins to be
navigable when it enters Dalmatia. All the railway lines, like the
postal, telegraphic and telephonic services, are state property. In many
of the principal towns there are also government hotels.

Serajevo, with 41,543 inhabitants in 1895, is the capital of the
combined provinces, and other important places are Mostar (17,010), the
capital of Herzegovina, Banjaluka (14,812), Dolnja Tuzla (11,034),
Travnik (6626), Livno (5273), Visoko(5000), Foca (4217), Jajce (3929)
and Trebinje (2966). All these are described in separate articles.

10. _Population and National Characteristics._--In 1895 the population,
which tends to increase slowly, with a preponderance of males over
females, numbered 1,568,092. The alien element is small, consisting
chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews. Spanish is a
comomon language of the Jews, whose ancestors fled hither, during the
16th century, to escape the Inquisition. The natives are officially
described as Bosniaks, but classify themselves according to religion.
Thus the Roman Catholics prefer the name of Croats, Hrvats or Latins;
the Orthodox, of Serbs; the Moslems, of Turks. All alike belong to the
Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language
almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in
Latin instead of Cyrillic letters. A full account of this language, and
its literature, is given under SERVIA and CROATIA-SLAVONIA. To avoid
offending either "Serbs" or "Croats," it is officially designated
"Bosnisch." In some parts of Herzegovina the dress, manners and physical
type of the peasantry are akin to those of Montenegro. The Bosnians or
Bosniaks resemble their Servian kinsfolk in both appearance and
character. They have the same love for poetry, music and romance; the
same intense pride in their race and history; many of the same
superstitions and customs. The Christians retain the Servian costume,
modified in detail, as by the occasional use of the turban or fez. The
"Turkish" women have in some districts abandoned the veil; but in others
they even cover the eyes when they leave home. Polygamy is almost
unknown, possibly because many of the "Turks" are descended from the
austere Bogomils, who were, in most cases, converted to Islam, but more
probably because the "Turks" are as a rule too poor to provide for more
than one wife on the scale required by Islamic law. In general, the
people of Bosnia and Herzegovina are sober and thrifty, subsisting
chiefly on Indian corn, dried meat, milk and vegetables. Their houses
are built of timber and thatch, or clay tiles, except in the Karst
region, where stone is more plentiful than wood. Family ties are strong,
and the women are not ill-treated, although they share in all kinds of
manual labour.

11. _Government._--At the time of the Austrian annexation in 1908, the
only remaining token of Ottoman suzerainty was that the foreign consuls
received their _exequatur_ from Turkey, instead of Austria; otherwise
the government of the country was conducted in the name of the Austrian
emperor, through the imperial minister of finance at Vienna, who
controlled the civil service for the occupied territory. Its central
bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education,
finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were
largely recruited among the Austrian Slavs, who were better able than
the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language. A consultative
assembly, composed of the highest ecclesiastical authorities, together
with 12 popular representatives, also met at Serajevo. For
administrative purposes the country was divided into 6 districts or
prefectures (_kreise_), which were subdivided into 49 subprefectures

Every large town has a mayor and deputy mayor, appointed by the
government, and a town council, of whom one third are similarly
appointed, while the citizens choose the rest; a proportionate number of
councillors representing each religious community. To ensure economy,
the decisions of this body are supervised by a government commissioner.
The commune is preserved, somewhat as in Servia (q.v.), but with
modified powers. Each district has its court of law, where cases are
tried by three official judges and two assessors, selected from the
leading citizens. The assessors vote equally with the judges, and three
votes decide the verdict. Except where the litigants and witnesses are
German, the Serbo-Croatian language is used. An appeal, on points of law
alone, may be carried to the supreme court in Serajevo, and there tried
by five judges without assessors. In cases not involving a sum greater
than 300 florins (£25), no appeal will lie; and where only 50 florins
(£4:3:4) are in question, the case is summarily decided at the
_Bagatelle Gericht_, or court for trifling cases. The number of lawyers
admitted to practice is strictly limited. As far as possible, the
Turkish law was retained during the period of occupation; all cases
between Moslems were settled in separate courts by Moslem judges,
against whom there was an appeal to the supreme court, aided by
assessors. All able-bodied males are liable, on reaching their 21st
year, for 3 years' service with the colours, and 9 years in the reserve.
The garrison numbers about 20,000 Austrian troops, and there are 7100
native troops. The principal military stations are Bjelina, Zvornik,
Visegrad, Gorazda, Foca, Bilek, Avtovac and Trebinje, along the eastern
frontier; Mostar and Stolac in the south; Livno in the west; and Bihac
in the north.

12. _Religion._--In 1895 43% of the population were Orthodox Christians,
35% Moslems and 21% Roman Catholics. The patriarch of Constantinople is
the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement
concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor,
in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the
clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of
Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar
require the imperial assent. Under Turkish rule the communes chose their
own parish priests, but this right is now vested in the government. The
Roman Catholics have an archbishop in Serajevo, a bishop in Mostar and
an apostolic administrator in Banjaluka. Serajevo is also the seat of
the Jewish chief rabbi; and of the highest Moslem ecclesiastic, or
_reis-el-ulema_, who with his council is nominated and paid by the
government. The inferior Moslem clergy draw their stipends from the
_Vakuf_. Considerable bitterness prevails between the rival confessions,
each aiming at political ascendancy, but the government favours none. In
order to conciliate even the Moslems, who include the bulk of the great
landholders and of the urban population, its representatives visit the
mosques in state on festivals; grants are made for the Mecca pilgrimage;
and even the howling Dervishes in Serajevo are maintained by the state.

13. _Education._--Education for boys and girls between the ages of seven
and fifteen is free, but not compulsory. The state supports primary
schools (352 in 1905), where reading, writing, arithmetic and history
are taught; and separate instruction is given by the Orthodox, Roman
Catholic, Jewish and Moslem clergy. There are also various private
schools, belonging to the different religious communities. These receive
a grant from the government, which nevertheless encourages all parents
to send their children to its own schools. One of the earliest and
best-known private schools is the orphanage at Serajevo, founded in 1869
by two English ladies, Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie. In the Moslem
schools, which, in 1905, comprised 855 _mektebs_ or primary schools, and
41 _madrasas_ or high schools, instruction is usually given in Turkish
or Arabic; while in Orthodox schools the books are printed in Cyrillic

For higher education there were in 1908 three gymnasia, a real-school at
Banjaluka, a technical college and a teachers' training-college at
Serajevo, where, also, is the state school for Moslem law-students,
called _scheriatschule_ from the _sheri_ or Turkish code; and various
theological, commercial and art institutes. Promising pupils are
frequently sent to Vienna University, with scholarships, which may be
forfeited if the holders engage in political agitation.

14. _Antiquities._--Up to 1900 no traces of palaeolithic man had been
discovered in Bosnia or Herzegovina; but many later prehistoric remains
are preserved in Serajevo museum. The neolithic station of Butmir, near
Ilidze, was probably a lake-dwellers' colony, and has yielded numerous
stone and horn implements, clay figures and pottery. Not far off,
similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and
bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur
in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine,
where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c.
Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the
discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of
which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as
roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions. Such
remains occur frequently near Bihac, Foca, Livno, Jajce and Serajevo;
and especially near the sources of the Drina. The period between the
downfall of Roman power, late in the 5th century, and the growth of a
Bosnian state, in the 11th, is poorer in antiquities. The later middle
ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as
those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepce and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac,
on the Una; Prijedor and Kljuc, on the Sana; and Stolac, Gabela,
Irebinje and Konjica, in Herzegovina. The bridge across the Narenta, at
Konjica, is said to date from the 10th century. A group of signs carved
on some rocks near Visegrad have been regarded as cuneiform writing, but
are probably medieval masonic symbols. In a few cases, such as the
Begova Dzamia at Serajevo, the Foca mosques and the Mostar bridge, the
buildings raised by the Turks are of high architectural merit. More
remarkable are the tombstones, generally measuring 6 ft. in length, 3 in
height and 3 in breadth, which have been supposed to mark the graves of
the Bogomils. These are, as a rule, quite unadorned, a few only being
decorated with rude has-reliefs of animals, plants, weapons, the
crescent and star, or, very rarely, the cross.

  Formation of the Banate.

15. _History._--Under Roman rule Bosnia had no separate name or history,
and until the great Slavonic immigration of 636 it remained an
undifferentiated part of Illyria (q.v.). Owing to the scarcity of
authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the
events of the next three centuries. During this period Bosnia became the
generally accepted name for the valley of the Bosna (ancient
_Basanius_); and subsequently for several outlying and tributary
principalities, notably those of Soli, afterwards Tuzla; Usora, along
the south-eastern bank of the Save; Donji Kraj, the later Krajina,
Kraina or Turkish Croatia, in the north-west; and Rama, the modern
district of Livno. The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or
expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal
divisions, or _Zupanates_, of the Slavs. Pressure from Hungary and
Byzantium gradually welded these isolated social units into a single
nation, whose ruler was known as the Ban (q.v.). But the central power
remained weak, and the country possessed no strong natural frontiers. It
seems probable that the bans were originally viceroys of the Croatian
kings, who resumed their sovereignty over Bosnia from 958 to 1010.
Thenceforward, until 1180, the bans continued subject to the Eastern
empire or Hungary, with brief intervals of independence. The territory
now called Herzegovina was also subject to various foreign powers. It
comprised the principalities of Tribunia or Travunja, with its capital
at Trebinje; and Hlum or Hum, the Zachlumia of Constantine
Porphyrogenitus, who gives a clear picture of this region as it was in
the 10th century.[2]

  Religious controversies.

The schism between Eastern and Western Christendom left Bosnia divided
between the Greek and Latin Churches. Early in the 12th century a new
religion, that of the Bogomils (q.v.), was introduced, and denounced as
heretical. Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles
and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its
prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture,
and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans. An
unusually able ruler, connected by marriage with the powerful Servian
dynasty of Nemanya, and by treaty with the republic of Ragusa,[3] Kulin
perceived in the new doctrines a barrier between his subjects and
Hungary. He was compelled to recant, under strong pressure from Pope
Innocent III. and Béla III. of Hungary; but, despite all efforts,
Bogomilism incessantly gained ground. In 1232 Stephen, the successor of
Kulin, was dethroned by the native magnates, who chose instead Matthew
Ninoslav, a Bogomil. This event illustrates the three dominant
characteristics of Bosnian history: the strength of the aristocracy; the
corresponding weakness of the central authority, enhanced by the lack of
any definite rule of inheritance; and the supreme influence of religion.
Threatened by Pope Gregory IX. with a crusade, Ninoslav was baptized,
only to abjure Christianity in 1233. For six years he withstood the
Hungarian crusaders, led by Kaloman, duke of Croatia; in 1241 the Tatar
invasion of Hungary afforded him a brief respite; and in 1244 peace was
concluded after a Bosnian campaign against Croatia. A renewal of the
crusade proving equally vain, in 1247 Pope Innocent III. entered into
friendly negotiations with the ban, whose country was for the moment an
independent and formidable state. The importance attached to its
conversion is well attested by the correspondence of Pope Gregory IX.
with Ninoslav and various Bosnian ecclesiastics.[4]

  Period of Hungarian supremacy.

On the death of Ninoslav in 1250, vigorous efforts were made to
exterminate the Bogomil heresy; and to this end, Béla IV., who appeared
as the champion of Roman Catholicism, secured the election of his
nominee Prijesda to the banate. Direct Hungarian suzerainty lasted until
1299, the bans preserving only a shadow of their former power. From 1299
to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen
Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper
and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the
growth of a dangerous national unity. A rising of the native magnates in
1322 resulted in the election of the Bogomil, Stephen Kotromanic, last
and greatest of the Bosnian bans.

  Stephen Kotromanic.

At this period the Servian empire had reached its zenith; Hungary,
governed by the feeble monarch, Charles Robert of Anjou, was striving to
crush the insurgent magnates of Croatia; Venice, whose commercial
interests were imperilled, desired to restore peace and maintain the
balance of power. Dread of Servia impelled Kotromanic to aid Hungary. In
an unsuccessful war against the Croats (1322-26), from which Venice
derived the sole advantage, the ban appears to have learned the value of
sea-power; immediately afterwards he occupied the principality of Hlum
and the Dalmatian littoral between Spalato and the river Narenta. Ragusa
furnished him with money and a fleet, in return for a guarantee of
protection; commercial treaties with Venice further strengthened his
position; and the Vatican, which had instigated the Croats to invade the
dominions of their heretical neighbour (1337-40), was conciliated by his
conversion to Roman Catholicism. Defeated by the Servian tsar Dushan,
and driven to ally himself with Servia and Venice against Louis I. of
Hungary, Kotromanic returned to his allegiance in 1344. Four years later
his influence brought about a truce between Hungary and the Venetians,
who had agreed with Bosnia for mutual support against the Croats; and in
1353, the year of his death, his daughter Elizabeth was married to King

  Establishment of the Bosnian kingdom.

Stephen Tvrtko, the nephew and successor of Kotromanic, was a minor, and
for thirteen years his mother, Helena, acted as regent. Confronted by
civil war, and deprived of Hlum by the Hungarians, she was compelled to
acknowledge the suzerainty of Stephen Dushan, and afterwards of Louis.
But in 1366 Tvrtko overcame all opposition at home, and forthwith
embarked on a career of conquest, recapturing Hlum and annexing part of
Dalmatia. The death of Stephen Dushan, in 1356, had left his empire
defenceless against the Hungarians, Turks and other enemies; and to win
help from Bosnia the Servian tsar Lazar ceded to Tvrtko a large tract of
territory, including the principality of Tribunia. In 1376 Tvrtko was
crowned as "Stephen I., king of Bosnia, Servia, and all the Sea-coast,"
although Lazar retained his own title and a diminished authority. The
death of Louis in 1392, the regency of his widow Elizabeth, and a fresh
outbreak in Croatia, enabled Tvrtko to fulfil his predecessor's designs
by establishing a maritime state. With Venetian aid he wrested from
Hungary the entire Adriatic littoral between Fiume and Cattaro, except
the city of Zara; thus adding Dalmatia to his kingdom at the moment when
Servia was lost through the Ottoman victory of Kossovo (1389). At his
coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian
empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar;
and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should
extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea. The disaster of Kossovo,
though fatal to his ambition, did not immediately react on Bosnia
itself; and when Tvrtko died in 1391, his kingdom was still at the
summit of its prosperity.

  Decline of the Bosnian kingdom.

Kotromanic and Tvrtko had known how to crush or conciliate their
turbulent magnates, whose power reasserted itself under Dabisa (Stephen
II., 1391-1398), a brother of Tvrtko. Sigismond of Hungary profited by
the disorder that ensued to regain Croatia and Dalmatia; and in 1398 the
Turks, aided by renegade Slavs,[5] overran Bosnia. Ostoja (Stephen III.,
1398-1418), an illegitimate son of Tvrtko, proved a puppet in the hands
of Hrvoje Vukcic, duke of Spalato, Sandalj Hranic,[6] and other leaders
of the aristocracy, who fought indifferently against the Turks, the
Hungarians, the king or one another. Some upheld a rival claimant to the
throne in Tvrtkovic, a legitimate son of Tvrtko, and all took sides in
the incessant feud between Bogomils and Roman Catholics. During the
reigns of Ostojic (Stephen IV., 1418-1421) and Tvrtkovic (Stephen V.,
1421-1444) Bosnia was thus left an easy prey to the Turks, who exacted a
yearly tribute, after again ravaging the country, and carrying off many
thousands of slaves, with a vast store of plunder.

  Turkish conquest.

The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi János, and the attempt to
organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands,
temporarily averted the ruin of Bosnia under Thomas Ostojic (Stephen
VI., 1444-1461). Hoping to gain active support from the Vatican, Ostojic
renounced Bogomilism, and persecuted his former co-religionists, until
the menace of an insurrection forced him to grant an amnesty. His
position was endangered by the growing power of his father-in-law,
Stephen Vukcic, an ardent Bogomil, who had united Tribunia and Hlum into
a single principality. Vukcic--or _Cosaccia_, as he is frequently called
by the contemporary chroniclers, from his birthplace, Cosac--was the
first and last holder of the title "Duke of St Sava," conferred on him
by the emperor Frederick III. in 1448; and from this title is derived
the name _Herzegovina_, or "the Duchy." Hardly had the king become
reconciled with this formidable antagonist, when, in 1453, the death of
Hunyadi, and the fall of Constantinople, left Bosnia defenceless against
the Turks. In 1460 it was again invaded. Venice and the Papacy were
unable, and Hungary unwilling, to render assistance; while the Croats
proved actively hostile. Ostojic died in 1461, and his successor
Tomasevic (Stephen VII., 1461-1463) surrendered to the Turks and was
beheaded. Herzegovina, where Vukcic offered a desperate resistance, held
out until 1483; but apart from the heroic defence of Jajce, the efforts
of the Bosnians were feeble and inglorious, many of the Bogomils joining
the enemy. From 1463 the greater part of the country submitted to the
Turks; but the districts of Jajce and Srebrenica were occupied by
Hungarian garrisons, and organized as a separate "banate" or "kingdom of
Bosnia," until 1526, when the Hungarian power was broken at Mohács. In
1528 Jajce surrendered, after repelling every attack by the Turkish
armies for 65 years.

The fall of Jajce was the consummation of the Turkish conquest. It was
followed by the flight of large bodies of Christian refugees. Many of
the Roman Catholics withdrew into Croatia-Slavonia and south Hungary,
where they ultimately fell again under Ottoman dominion. Others found
shelter in Rome or Venice, and a large number settled in Ragusa, where
they doubtless contributed to the remarkable literary development of the
16th and 17th centuries in which the use of the Bosnian dialect was a
characteristic feature. Some of the most daring spirits waged war on
their conquerors from Clissa in Dalmatia, and afterwards from Zengg in
maritime Croatia, where they formed the notorious pirate community of
the Uskoks (q.v.). There was less inducement for the Orthodox
inhabitants to emigrate, because almost all the neighbouring lands were
governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were
permitted to retain their creed and communal organization. Judged by its
influence on Bosnian politics, the Orthodox community was relatively
unimportant at the Turkish conquest; and its subsequent growth is
perhaps due to the official recognition of the Greek Church, as the
representative of Christianity in Turkey. The Christian aristocracy lost
its privileges, but its ancient titles of duke (_vojvod_) and count
(_knez_) did not disappear. The first was retained by the leaders who
still carried on the struggle for liberty in Montenegro; the second was
transferred to the headmen of the communes. Many of the Franciscans
refused to abandon their work, and in 1463 they received a charter from
the sultan Mahomet II., which is still preserved in the monastery of
Fojnica, near Travnik. This toleration of religious orders, though it
did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic
of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks
was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.

  Bosnia under Turkish rule.

The Turkish triumph was the opportunity of the Bogomils, who
thenceforth, assuming a new character, controlled the destinies of their
country for more than three centuries. Bosnia was regarded by successive
sultans as the gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their
religion was hereditary among the Bogomils. Thus the desire for
vengeance and the prospect of a brilliant military career impelled the
Bogomil magnates to adopt the creed of Islam, which, in its austerity,
presented some points of resemblance to their own doctrines. The nominal
governor of the country was the Turkish _vali_, who resided at Banjaluka
or Travnik, and rarely interfered in local affairs, if the taxes were
duly paid. Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who
adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without
relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in
fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on
sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate
military caste, headed by 48 _kapetans_--landholders exercising
unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but
bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service
of their sovereign. Their favourite pursuits were fighting, either
against a common enemy or among themselves, hunting, hawking and
listening to the minstrels who celebrated their exploits. Their yearly
visits to Serajevo assumed in time the character of an informal
parliament, for the discussion of national questions; and their rights
tended always to increase, and to become hereditary, in fact, though not
in law. In every important campaign of the Turkish armies, these
descendants of the Bogomils were represented; they amassed considerable
wealth from the spoils of war, and frequently rose to high military and
administrative positions. Thus, in 1570, Ali Pasha, a native of
Herzegovina, became grand vizier; and he was succeeded by the
distinguished soldier and statesman, Mahomet Beg Sokolovic, a Bosnian.
Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian
serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were
at the mercy of their lords. The hardships of their lot, and, above all,
the system by which the strongest of their sons were carried off as
recruits for the corps of janissaries (q.v.), frequently drove them to
brigandage, and occasionally to open revolt.

  External history 1528-1821.

These conditions lasted until the 19th century, and meanwhile the
country was involved in the series of wars waged by the Turks against
Austria, Hungary and Venice. In the Krajina and all along the
Montenegrin frontier, Moslems and Christians carried on a ceaseless
feud, irrespective of any treaties concluded by their rulers; while the
Turkish campaigns in Hungary provided constant occupation for the nobles
during a large part of the 16th and 17th centuries. But after the
Ottoman defeat at Vienna in 1683, the situation changed. Instead of
extending the foreign conquests of their sultan, the Bosnians were hard
pressed to defend their own borders. Zvornik fell before the
Austro-Hungarian army in 1688, and the Turkish vali, who was still
officially styled the "vali of Hungary," removed his headquarters from
Banjaluka to Travnik, a more southerly, and therefore a safer capital.
Two years later, the imperial troops reached Dolnja Tuzla, and retired
with 3000 Roman Catholic emigrants. Serajevo was burned in 1697 by
Eugene of Savoy, who similarly deported 40,000 Christians. The treaties
of Carlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) deprived the Turks of all the
Primorje, or littoral of Herzegovina, except the narrow enclaves of Klek
and Suttorina, left to sunder the Ragusan dominions from those of
Venice. At the same time a strip of territory in northern Bosnia was
ceded to Austria, which was thus able to control both banks of the Save.
This territory was restored to Turkey in 1739, at the peace of
Belgrade;[7] but in 1790 it was reoccupied by Austrian troops. Finally,
in 1791, the treaty of Sistova again fixed the line of the Save and Una
as the Bosnian frontier.

  Moslem rebellions.

The reform of the Ottoman government contemplated by the sultan Mahmud
II. (1808-1839) was bitterly resented in Bosnia, where Turkish prestige
had already been weakened by the establishment of Servian autonomy under
Karageorge. Many of the janissaries had married and settled on the land,
forming a strongly conservative and fanatical caste, friendly to the
Moslem nobles, who now dreaded the curtailment of their own privileges.
Their opportunity came in 1820, when the Porte was striving to repress
the insurrections in Moldavia, Albania and Greece. A first Bosnian
revolt was crushed in 1821; a second, due principally to the massacre of
the janissaries, was quelled with much bloodshed in 1827. After the
Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, a further attempt at reform was initiated
by the sultan and his grand vizier, Reshid Pasha. Two years later came a
most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam,
and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on
Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith. A
holy war was preached by their leader, Hussein Aga Berberli, a brilliant
soldier and orator, who called himself _Zmaj Bosanski_, the "Dragon of
Bosnia," and was regarded by his followers as a saint. The Moslems of
Herzegovina, under Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic, remained loyal to the Porte,
but in Bosnia Hussein Aga encountered little resistance. At Kossovo he
was reinforced by 20,000 Albanians, led by the rebel Mustapha Pasha; and
within a few weeks the united armies occupied the whole of Bulgaria, and
a large part of Macedonia. Their career was checked by Reshid Pasha, who
persuaded the two victorious commanders to intrigue against one another,
secured the division of their forces, and then fell upon each in turn.
The rout of the Albanians at Prilipe and the capture of Mustapha at
Scutari were followed by an invasion of Bosnia. After a desperate
defence, Hussein Aga fled to Esseg in Croatia-Slavonia; his appeal for
pardon was rejected, and in 1832 he was banished for life to Tribizond.
The power of the Bosnian nobles, though shaken by their defeat, remained
unbroken; and they resisted vigorously when their kapetanates were
abolished in 1837; and again when a measure of equality before the law
was conceded to the Christians in 1839. In Herzegovina, Ali Pasha
Rizvanbegovic reaped the reward of his fidelity. He was left free to
tyrannize over his Christian subjects, a king in all but name. In 1840
he descended from his mountain stronghold of Stolac to wage war upon the
vladika Peter II. of Montenegro, and simultaneously to suppress a
Christian rising. Peace was arranged at Ragusa in 1842, and it was
rumoured that Ali had concluded a secret alliance with Montenegro,
hoping to shake off the suzerainty of the sultan, and to found an
entirely independent kingdom. It is impossible to verify this charge,
but during the troubled years that ensued, Ali pursued an elaborate
policy of intrigue. He sent large bribes to influential persons at
Constantinople; he aided the Turkish vali to repress the Christians, who
had again revolted; and he supported the Bosnian nobles against reforms
imposed by the vali. At last, in 1850, a Turkish army was despatched to
restore quiet. Ali Pasha openly professed himself a loyal subject, but
secretly sent reinforcements to the rebel aristocracy. The Turks proved
everywhere successful. After a cordial reception by their commander Omer
or Omar Pasha, Ali was imprisoned; he was shortly afterwards
assassinated, lest his lavish bribery of Turkish officials should
restore him to favour, and bring disgrace on his captor (March 1851).

  Condition of the serfs.

The downfall of the Moslem aristocracy resulted in an important
administrative change: Serajevo, which had long been the commercial
centre of the country, and the jealously guarded stronghold of the
nobles, superseded Travnik as the official capital, and the residence of
the vali. A variety of other reforms, including the reorganization of
Moslem education, were introduced by Omer Pasha, who governed the
country until 1860. But as the administration grew stronger, the
position of the peasantry became worse. They had now to satisfy the
imperial tax-farmers and excisemen, as well as their feudal lords. The
begs and agas continued to exact their forced labour and one-third of
their produce; the central government imposed a tithe which had become
an eighth by 1875. Three kinds of cattle-tax, the tax for exemption from
military service, levied on every newborn male, forced labour on the
roads, forced loan of horses, a heavy excise on grapes and tobacco, and
a variety of lesser taxes combined to burden the Christian serfs; but
even more galling than the amount was the manner in which these dues
were exacted--the extortionate assessments of tax-farmers and excisemen,
the brutal licence of the soldiery who were quartered on recalcitrant
villagers. A crisis was precipitated by the example of Servian
independence, the hope of Austrian intervention, and the public
bankruptcy of Turkey.

  Christian rising of 1875.

Sporadic insurrections had already broken out among the Bosnian
Christians, and on the 1st of July 1875 the villagers of Nevesinje,
which gives its name to a mountain range east of Mostar, rose against
the Turks. Within a few weeks the whole country was involved. The
Herzegovinians, under their leaders Peko Pavlovic, Socica, Ljubibratic,
and others, held out for a year against all the forces that Turkey could
despatch against them.[8] In July 1876 Servia and Montenegro joined the
struggle, and in April 1877 Russia declared war on the sultan.

  Austro-Hungarian occupation, 1878-1908.

The Austro-Hungarian occupation, authorized on the 13th of July 1878 by
the treaty of Berlin (arts. 23 and 26), was not easily effected; and,
owing to the difficulty of military operations among the mountains, it
was necessary to employ a force of 200,000 men. Haji Loja, the native
leader, was supported by a body of Albanians and mutinous Turkish
troops, while the whole Moslem population bitterly resented the proposed
change. The losses on both sides were very heavy, and, besides those who
fell in battle, many of the insurgents were executed under martial law.
But after a series of stubbornly contested engagements, the Austrian
general, Philippovic, entered Serajevo on the 19th of August, and ended
the campaign on the 20th of September, by the capture of Bihac in the
north-west, and of Klobuk in Herzegovina. The government of the country
was then handed over to the imperial ministry of finance; but the
bureaucratic methods of the finance ministers, Baron von Hoffmann and
Joseph de Szlávy, resulted only in the insurrection of 1881-82. Order
was restored in June 1882, when the administration was entrusted to
Benjamin von Kállay (q.v.), as imperial minister of finance. Kállay
retained this position until his death on the 13th of July 1903, when he
was succeeded by Baron Stephan Burian de Rajecz. During this period life
and property were rendered secure, and great progress was achieved, on
the lines already indicated, in creating an efficient civil service,
harmonizing Moslem law with new enactments, promoting commerce, carrying
out important public works, and reorganizing the fiscal and educational
systems. All classes and creeds were treated impartially; and, although
the administration has been reproached alike for undue harshness and
undue leniency, neither accusation can be sustained. Critics have also
urged that Kállay fostered the desire for material welfare at the cost
of every other national ideal; that, despite his own popularity, he
never secured the goodwill of the people for Austria-Hungary; that he
left the agrarian difficulty unsolved, and the hostile religious
factions unreconciled. These charges are not wholly unfounded; but the
chief social and political evils in Bosnia and Herzegovina may be traced
to historical causes operative long before the Austro-Hungarian
occupation, and above all to the political ambition of the rival
churches. Justly to estimate the work done by Kállay, it is only
necessary to point to the contrast between Bosnia in 1882 and Bosnia in
1903; for in 21 years the anarchy and ruin entailed by four centuries of
misrule were transformed into a condition of prosperity unsurpassed in
south-eastern Europe.

  Austrian annexation.

It was no doubt natural that Austrian statesmen should wish to end the
anomalous situation created by the treaty of Berlin, by incorporating
Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Dual Monarchy. The treaty had
contemplated the evacuation of the occupied provinces after the
restoration of order and prosperity; and this had been expressly
stipulated in an agreement signed by the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman
plenipotentiaries at Berlin, as a condition of Turkish assent to the
provisions of the treaty. But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed
to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled
the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the
ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration. The reforms in Turkey
certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied
territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution
similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper. But the
Austro-Hungarian government, profiting by the weakness of Russia after
the war with Japan, and aware that the proclamation of Bulgarian
independence was imminent, had already decided to annex Bosnia and
Herzegovina, in spite of the pledges given at Berlin, and although the
proposal was unpopular in Hungary. Its decision, after being
communicated to the sovereigns of the powers signatory to the treaty of
Berlin, in a series of autograph letters from the emperor Francis
Joseph, was made known to Bosnia and Herzegovina in an imperial rescript
published on the 7th of October 1908. The Serb and Moslem delegates, who
had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to
the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to
concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and
administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all
religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions." The separate
administration was, however, to be maintained, and the rescript did not
promise that the new provincial diet would be more than a consultative
assembly, elected on a strictly limited franchise.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--G. Capus, _A travers la Bosnie et l'Herzégovine_
  (Paris, 1896) contains a detailed and fully illustrated account of the
  combined provinces, their resources and population. J. Asbóth, _An
  Official Tour through Bosnia and Herzegovina_ (London, 1890) is
  valuable for details of local history, antiquities and topography: A.
  Bordeaux, _La Bosnie populaire_ (Paris, 1904) for social life and
  mining. Much information is also contained in the works by Lamouche,
  Miller, Thomson, Joanne, Cambon, Millet, Hamard and Laveleye, cited
  under the heading BALKAN PENINSULA. See also B. Nikasinovic, _Bosnien
  und die Herzegovina unter der Verwaltung der österreich-ungarischen
  Monarchie_ (Berlin, 1901, &c.), and M. Oransz, _Auf dem Rade durch
  Kroatien und Bosnien_ (Vienna, 1903). The best map is that of the
  Austrian General Staff. See also for geology, J. Cvijic,
  _Morphologische und glaciale Studien aus Bosnien_ (Vienna, 1900); F.
  Katzer, _Geologischer Führer durch Bosnien und Herzegovina_ (Serajevo,
  1903); P. Ballif, _Wasserbauten in Bosnien und Herzegovina_ (Vienna,
  1896). Sport: "Snaffle," _In the Land of the Bora_ (London, 1897).
  Agriculture and Commerce: annual British consular reports, and the
  official _Ergebnisse der Viehzahlungen_ (1879 and 1895), and
  _Landwirtschaft in Bosnien und Herzegovina_ (1899). The chief official
  publications are in German. For antiquities, see R. Munro, _Through
  Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia_ (Edinburgh, 1900); A.J. Evans,
  _Illyrian Letters_ (London, 1878); W. Radimsky, _Die neolithische
  Station von Butmir_ (Vienna 1895-1898); P. Ballif, _Römische Strassen
  in Bosnien und Herzegovina_ (Vienna, 1893, &c.). No adequate history
  of Bosnia was published up to the 20th century; but the chief
  materials for such a work are contained in the following books:--A.
  Theiner, _Vetera monumenta historica Hungariam sacram illustrantia_
  (Rome, 1860) and _Vetera monumenta Slavorum Meridionalium_ (1. Rome,
  1863; 2. Agram, 1875),--these are collections of Latin documents from
  the Vatican library; V. Makushev, _Monumenta historica Slavorum
  Meridionalium_ (Belgrade, 1885); Y. Shafarik, _Acta archivi Veneti
  spectantia ad historiam Serborum_, &c. (Belgrade, 1860-1862); F.
  Miklosich, _Monumenta Serbica_ (Vienna, 1858). Other important
  authorities are G. Lucio, _De Regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae_ (Amsterdam,
  1666); M. Orbini, _Regno degli Slavi_ (Pesaro 1601); D. Farlatus and
  others, _Illyricum Sacrum_ (Venice, 1751-1819); C. du Fresne du Cange,
  _Illyricum vetus et novum_ (1746); M. Simek, _Politische Geschichte
  des Königreiches Bosnien und Rama_ (Vienna, 1787). The best modern
  history, though valueless for the period after 1463, is by P.
  Coquelle, _Histoire du Monténégro et de la Bosnie_ (Paris, 1895). See
  also V. Klaic, _Geschichte Bosniens_ (Leipzig 1884). J. Spalaïkovitch
  (Spalajkovic), in _La Bosnie et l'Herzégovine_ (Paris, 1897), give a
  critical account of the Austro-Hungarian administration.
       (K. G. J.)


  [1] This was soon modified in detail. Arrears of debt, for instance,
    were made recoverable for one year only, instead of the ten years
    allowed by Turkish law.

  [2] _De Administrando Imperio_, 33 and 34. The names of _Chulmia_ and
    _Chelmo_, applied to this region by later Latin and Italian
    chroniclers, are occasionally adopted by English writers.

  [3] For the commercial and political relations of Ragusa and Bosnia,
    see L. Villari, _The Republic of Ragusa_ (London, 1904).

  [4] Given by Theiner, _Vetera monumenta Hungariam ... illustrantia_,

  [5] This is the first recorded instance of such an alliance. The
    Slavs were probably Bogomils.

  [6] These magnates played a considerable part in the politics of
    south-eastern Europe; see especially their correspondence with the
    Venetian Republic, given by Shafarik, _Acta archivi Veneti_, &c.

  [7] For details of these events see Umar Effendi, _History of the War
    in Bosnia_ (1737-1739). Translated by C. Fraser (London, 1830).

  [8] For the Christian rebellion and its causes, see A.J. Evans,
    _Through Bosnia and Herzegovina on Foot_ (London, 1876); and W.J.
    Stillman, _Herzegovina and the Late Uprising_ (London, 1877).

BOSPORUS, or BOSPHORUS (Gr. [Greek: Bosporos] = ox-ford, traditionally
connected with Io, daughter of Inachus, who, in the form of a heifer,
crossed the Thracian Bosporus on her wanderings). By the ancients this
name, signifying a strait, was especially applied to the _Bosporus
Cimmerius_ (see below), and the _Bosporus Thracius_; but when used
without any adjective it now denotes the latter, which unites the Black
Sea with the Sea of Marmora and forms part of the boundary between
Europe and Asia. The channel is 18 m. long, and has a maximum breadth at
the northern entrance of 2¾ m., a minimum breadth of about 800 yds., and
a depth varying from 20 to 66 fathoms in mid-stream. In the centre there
is a rapid current from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmora, but a
counter-current sets in the opposite direction below the surface and
along the shores. The surface current varies in speed, but averages
nearly 3 m. an hour; though at narrow places it may run at double this
pace. The strait is very rarely frozen over, though history records a
few instances; and the Golden Horn, the inlet on either side of which
Constantinople lies, has been partially frozen over occasionally in
modern times. The shores of the Bosporus are composed in the northern
portion of different volcanic rocks, such as dolerite, granite and
trachyte; but along the remaining course of the channel the prevailing
formations are Devonian, consisting of sandstones, marls, quartzose
conglomerates, and calcareous deposits of various kinds. The scenery on
both sides is of the most varied and beautiful description, many
villages lining each well-wooded shore, while on the European side are
numerous fine residences of the wealthy class of Constantinople. The
Bosporus is under Turkish dominion, and by treaty of 1841, confirmed by
the treaty of Berlin in 1878 and at other times, no ship of war other
than Turkish may pass through the strait (or through the Dardanelles)
without the countenance of the Porte. (See also CONSTANTINOPLE.)

BOSPORUS CIMMERIUS, the ancient name for the Straits of Kerch or
Yenikale, connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov; the Cimmerii
(q.v.) were the ancient inhabitants. The straits are about 25 m. long
and 2½ m. broad at the narrowest, and are formed by an eastern extension
of the Crimea and the peninsula of Taman, a kind of continuation of the
Caucasus. This in ancient times seems to have formed a group of islands
intersected by arms of the Hypanis or Kuban and various sounds now
silted up. The whole district was dotted with Greek cities; on the west
side, Panticapaeum (Kerch, q.v.), the chief of all, often itself called
Bosporus, and Nymphaeum (Eltegen); on the east Phanagoria (Sênnája),
Cepi, Hermonassa, Portus Sindicus, Gorgippia (Anapa). These were mostly
settled by Milesians, Panticapaeum in the 7th or early in the 6th
century B.C., but Phanagoria (c. 540 B.C.) was a colony of Teos, and
Nymphaeum had some connexion with Athens--at least it appears to have
been a member of the Delian Confederacy. The towns have left hardly any
architectural or sculptural remains, but the numerous barrows in their
neighbourhood have yielded very beautiful objects now mostly preserved
in the Hermitage in St Petersburg. They comprise especially gold work,
vases exported from Athens, textiles and specimens of carpentry and
marquetry. The numerous terra-cottas are rather rude in style.

According to Diodorus Siculus (xii. 31) the locality was governed from
480 to 438 B.C. by the Archaeanactidae, probably a ruling family, who
gave place to a tyrant Spartocus (438-431 B.C.), apparently a Thracian.
He founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 B.C. The
Spartocids have left many inscriptions which tell us that the earlier
members of the house ruled as archons of the Greek cities and kings of
various native tribes, notably the Sindi of the island district and
other branches of the Maitae (Maeotae). The text of Diodorus, the
inscriptions and the coins do not supply sufficient material for a
complete list of them. Satyrus (431-387), the successor of Spartocus,
established his rule over the whole district, adding Nymphaeum to his
dominions and laying siege to Theodosia, which was a serious commercial
rival by reason of its ice-free port and direct proximity to the
cornfields of the eastern Crimea. It was reserved for his son Leucon
(387-347) to take this city. He was succeeded by his two sons
conjointly, Spartocus II. and Paerisades; the former died in 342 and his
brother reigned alone until 310. Then followed a civil war in which
Eumelus (310-303) was successful. His successor was Spartocus III.
(303-283) and after him Paerisades II. Succeeding princes repeated the
family names, but we cannot assign them any certain order. We know only
that the last of them, a Paerisades, unable to make headway against the
power of the natives, called in the help of Diophantus, general of
Mithradates VI. (the Great) of Pontus, promising to hand over his
kingdom to that prince. He was slain by a Scythian Saumacus who led a
rebellion against him. The house of Spartocus was well known as a line
of enlightened and wise princes; although Greek opinion could not deny
that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants, they are always described as
dynasts. They maintained close relations with Athens, their best
customers for the Bosporan corn export, of which Leucon I. set the
staple at Theodosia, where the Attic ships were allowed special
privileges. We have many references to this in the Attic orators. In
return the Athenians granted him Athenian citizenship and set up decrees
in honour of him and his sons. Mithradates the Great entrusted the
Bosporus Cimmerius to his son Machares, who, however, deserted to the
Romans. But even when driven out of his own kingdom by Pompey,
Mithradates was strong enough to regain the Bosporus Cimmerius, and
Machares slew himself. Subsequently the Bosporans again rose in revolt
under Pharnaces, another of the old king's sons. After the death of
Mithradates (B.C. 63), this Pharnaces (63-47) made his submission to
Pompey, but tried to regain his dominion during the civil war. He was
defeated by Caesar at Zela, and on his return to Rome was slain by a
pretender Asander who married his daughter Dynamis, and in spite of
Roman nominees ruled as archon, and later as king, until 16 B.C. After
his death Dynamis was compelled to marry an adventurer Scribonius, but
the Romans under Agrippa interfered and set Polemon (14-8) in his place.
To him succeeded Aspurgus (8 B.C.-A.D. 38?), son of Asander, who founded
a line of kings which endured with certain interruptions until A.D. 341.
These kings, who mostly bore the Thracian names of Cotys, Rhescuporis,
Rhoemetalces, and the native name Sauromates, claimed descent from
Mithradates the Great, and used the Pontic era (starting from 297 B.C.)
introduced by him, regularly placing dates upon their coins and
inscriptions. Hence we know their names and dates fairly well, though
scarcely any events of their reigns are recorded. Their kingdom covered
the eastern half of the Crimea and the Taman peninsula, and extended
along the east coast of the Sea of Azov to Tanais at the mouth of the
Don, a great mart for trade with the interior. They carried on a
perpetual war with the native tribes, and in this were supported by
their Roman suzerains, who even lent the assistance of garrison and
fleet. At times rival kings of some other race arose and probably
produced some disorganization. At one of these periods (A.D. 255) the
Goths and Borani were enabled to seize Bosporan shipping and raid the
shores of Asia Minor. With the last coin of the last Rhescuporis, A.D.
341, materials for a connected history of the Bosporus Cimmerius come to
an end. The kingdom probably succumbed to the Huns established in the
neighbourhood. In later times it seems in some sort to have been revived
under Byzantine protection, and from time to time Byzantine officers
built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which was
constituted an archbishopric. They also held Ta Matarcha on the Asiatic
side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and 11th centuries became
the seat of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan, which in its turn
gave place to Tatar domination.

The Bosporan kingdom is interesting as the first Hellenistic state, the
first, that is to say, in which a mixed population adopted the Greek
language and civilization. It depended for its prosperity upon the
export of wheat, fish and slaves, and this commerce supported a class
whose wealth and vulgarity are exemplified by the contents of the
numerous tombs to which reference has been made. In later times a Jewish
element was added to the population, and under its influence were
developed in all the cities of the kingdom, especially Tanais, societies
of "worshippers of the highest God," apparently professing a monotheism
which without being distinctively Jewish or Christian was purer than any
found among the inhabitants of the Empire.

We possess a large series of coins of Panticapaeum and other cities from
the 5th century B.C. The gold _staters_ of Panticapaeum bearing Pan's
head and a griffin are specially remarkable for their weight and fine
workmanship. We have also coins with the names of the later Spartocids
and a singularly complete series of dated _solidi_ issued by the later
or Achaemenian dynasty; in them may be noticed the swift degeneration of
the gold _solidus_ through silver and potin to bronze (see also

  See, for history, introduction to V.V. Latyshev, _Inscrr. orae
  Septent. Ponti Euxini_, vol. ii. (St Petersburg, 1890); art.
  "Bosporus" (2) by C.G. Brandis in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencycl._ vol.
  iii. 757 (Stuttgart, 1899); E.H. Minns, _Scythians and Greeks_
  (Cambridge, 1907). For inscriptions, Latyshev as above and vol. iv.
  (St Petersburg, 1901). Coins: B. Koehne, _Musée Kotschoubey_ (St
  Petersburg, 1855). Religious Societies: E. Schürer in _Sitzber. d. k.
  pr. Akad. d. Wissenschaft zu Berlin_ (1897), i. pp. 200-227.
  Excavations: _Antiquités du Bosphore cimmérien_ (St Petersburg, 1854,
  repr. Paris, 1892) and _Compte rendu_ and _Bulletin de la Commission
  Imp. Archéologique de St. Pétersbourg_.     (E. H. M.)

BOSQUET, PIERRE FRANÇOIS JOSEPH (1810-1861), French marshal, entered the
artillery in 1833, and a year later went to Algeria. Here he soon did
good service, and made himself remarkable not only for technical skill
but the moral qualities indispensable for high command. Becoming captain
in 1839, he greatly distinguished himself at the actions of Sidi-Lakhdar
and Oued-Melah. He was soon afterwards given the command of a battalion
of native _tirailleurs_, and in 1843 was thanked in general orders for
his brilliant work against the Flittahs. In 1845 he became
lieutenant-colonel, and in 1847 colonel of a French line regiment. In
the following year he was in charge of the Oran district, where his
swift suppression of an insurrection won him further promotion to the
grade of general of brigade, in which rank he went through the campaign
of Kabulia, receiving a severe wound. In 1853 he returned to France
after nineteen years' absence, a general of division. Bosquet was
amongst the earliest chosen to serve in the Crimean War, and at the
battle of the Alma his division led the French attack. When the
Anglo-French troops formed the siege of Sevastopol, Bosquet's corps of
two divisions protected them against interruption. His timely
intervention at Inkerman (November 5, 1854) secured the victory for the
allies. During 1855 Bosquet's corps occupied the right wing of the
besieging armies opposite the Mamelon and Malakov. He himself led his
corps at the storming of the Mamelon (June 7), and at the grand assault
of the 8th of September he was in command of the whole of the storming
troops. In the struggle for the Malakov he received another serious
wound. At the age of forty-five Bosquet, now one of the foremost
soldiers in Europe, became a senator and a marshal of France, but his
health was broken, and he lived only a few years longer. He had the
grand cross of the Bath, the grand cross of the Legion of Honour, and
the Medjidieh of the 1st class.

BOSS. (1) (From the O. Eng. _boce_, a swelling, cf. Ital. _bozza_, and
Fr. _bosse_, possibly connected with the O. Ger. _bozan_, to beat), a
round protuberance; the projecting centre or "umbo" of a buckler; in
geology a projection of rock through strata of another species; in
architecture, the projecting keystone of the ribs of a vault which masks
their junction; the term is also applied to similar projecting blocks at
every intersection. The boss was often richly carved, generally with
conventional foliage but sometimes with angels, animals or grotesque
figures. The boss was also employed in the flat timber ceilings of the
15th century, where it formed the junction of cross-ribs. (2) (From the
Dutch _baas_, a word used by the Dutch settlers in New York for
"master," and so generally used by the Kaffirs in South Africa;
connected with the Ger. _Base_, cousin, meaning a "chief kinsman," the
head of a household or family), a colloquial term, first used in
America, for an employer, a foreman, and generally any one who gives
orders, especially in American political slang for the manager of a
party organization.

BOSSI, GIUSEPPE (1777-1816), Italian painter and writer on art, was born
at the village of Busto Arsizio, near Milan. He was educated at the
college of Monza; and his early fondness for drawing was fostered by the
director of the college, who supplied him with prints after the works of
Agostino Caracci for copies. He then studied at the academy of Brera at
Milan, and about 1795 went to Rome, where he formed an intimate
friendship with Canova. On his return to Milan he became assistant
secretary, and then secretary, of the Academy of Fine Arts. He rendered
important service in the organization of this new institution. In 1804,
in conjunction with Oriani, he drew up the rules of the three academies
of art of Bologna, Venice and Milan, and soon after was rewarded with
the decoration of the Iron Crown. On the occasion of the visit of
Napoleon I. to Milan in 1805, Bossi exhibited a drawing of the Last
Judgment of Michelangelo, and pictures representing Aurora and Night,
Oedipus and Creon, and the Italian Parnassus. By command of Prince
Eugene, viceroy of Italy, Bossi undertook to make a copy of the Last
Supper of Leonardo, then almost obliterated, for the purpose of getting
it rendered in mosaic. The drawing was made from the remains of the
original with the aid of copies and the best prints. The mosaic was
executed by Raffaelli, and was placed in the imperial gallery of Vienna.
Bossi made another copy in oil, which was placed in the museum of Brera.
This museum owed to him a fine collection of casts of great works of
sculpture acquired at Paris, Rome and Florence. Bossi devoted a large
part of his life to the study of the works of Leonardo; and his last
work was a series of drawings in monochrome representing incidents in
the life of that great master. He left unfinished a large cartoon in
black chalk of the Dead Christ in the bosom of Mary, with John and the
Magdalene. In 1810 he published a special work in large quarto, entitled
_Del Cenacolo di Leonardo da Vinci_, which had the merit of greatly
interesting Goethe. His other works are _Delle Opinioni di Leonardo
intorno alla simmetria de' corpi umani_ (1811), and _Del Tipo dell' arte
della pittura_ (1816). Bossi died at Milan on the 15th of December 1816.
A monument by Canova was erected to his memory in the Ambrosian library,
and a bust was placed in the Brera.

BOSSU, RENÉ LE (1631-1680), French critic, was born in Paris on the 16th
of March 1631. He studied at Nanterre, and in 1649 became one of the
regular canons of Sainte-Geneviève. He wrote _Parallèle des principes de
la physique d'Aristote et de celle de René Descartes_ (1674), and a
_Traité du poème épique_, highly praised by Boileau, the leading
doctrine of which was that the subject should be chosen before the
characters, and that the action should be arranged without reference to
the personages who are to figure in the scene. He died on the 14th of
March 1680.

BOSSUET, JAQUES BÉNIGNE (1627-1704), French divine, orator and writer,
was born at Dijon on the 27th of September 1627. He came of a family of
prosperous Burgundian lawyers; his father was a judge of the parliament
(a provincial high court) at Dijon, afterwards at Metz. The boy was sent
to school with the Jesuits of Dijon till 1642, when he went up to the
college of Navarre in Paris to begin the study of theology; for a pious
mother had brought him up to look on the priesthood as his natural
vocation. At Navarre he gained a great reputation for hard work;
fellow-students nicknamed him _Bos suetus aratro_--an ox broken in to
the plough. But his abilities became known beyond the college walls. He
was taken up by the Hôtel de Rambouillet, a great centre of aristocratic
culture and the original home of the _Précieuses_. Here he became the
subject of a celebrated experiment. A dispute having arisen about
extempore preaching, the boy of sixteen was put up, late one night, to
deliver an impromptu discourse. He acquitted himself as well as in more
conventional examinations. In 1652 he took a brilliant degree in
divinity, and was ordained priest. The next seven years he spent at
Metz, where his father's influence had got him a canonry at the early
age of thirteen; to this was now added the more important office of
archdeacon. He was plunged at once into the thick of controversy; for
nearly half Metz was Protestant, and Bossuet's first appearance in print
was a refutation of the Huguenot pastor Paul Ferry (1655). To reconcile
the Protestants with the Roman Church became the great object of his
dreams; and for this purpose he began to train himself carefully for the
pulpit, an all-important centre of influence in a land where political
assemblies were unknown, and novels and newspapers scarcely born. Not
that he reached perfection at a bound. His youthful imagination was
unbridled, and his ideas ran easily into a kind of paradoxical subtlety,
redolent of the divinity school. But these blemishes vanished when he
settled in Paris (1659), and three years later mounted the pulpit of the
Chapel Royal.

In Paris the congregations had no mercy on purely clerical logic or
clerical taste; if a preacher wished to catch their ear, he must manage
to address them in terms they would agree to consider sensible and
well-bred. Not that Bossuet thought too much of their good opinion.
Having very stern ideas of the dignity of a priest, he refused to
descend to the usual devices for arousing popular interest. The
narrative element in his sermons grows shorter with each year. He never
drew satirical pictures, like his great rival Bourdaloue. He would not
write out his discourses in full, much less learn them off by heart: of
the two hundred printed in his _Works_ all but a fraction are rough
drafts. No wonder ladies like Mme de Sévigné forsook him, when
Bourdaloue dawned on the Paris horizon in 1669; though Fénelon and La
Bruyère, two much sounder critics, refused to follow their example.
Bossuet possessed the full equipment of the orator, voice, language,
flexibility and strength. He never needed to strain for effect; his
genius struck out at a single blow the thought, the feeling and the
word. What he said of Martin Luther applies peculiarly to himself: he
could "fling his fury into theses," and thus unite the dry light of
argument with the fire and heat of passion. These qualities reach their
highest point in the _Oraisons funèbres_. Bossuet was always best when
at work on a large canvas; besides, here no conscientious scruples
intervened to prevent him giving much time and thought to the artistic
side of his subject. For the _Oraison_, as its name betokened, stood
midway between the sermon proper and what would nowadays be called a
biographical sketch. At least, that was what Bossuet made it; for on
this field he stood not merely first, but alone. His three great
masterpieces were delivered at the funerals of Henrietta Maria, widow of
Charles I. (1669), her daughter, Henrietta, duchess of Orleans (1670),
and the great soldier Condé (1687).

Apart from these state occasions, Bossuet seldom appeared in a Paris
pulpit after 1669. In that year he was gazetted bishop of Condom in
Gascony, though he resigned the charge on being appointed tutor to the
dauphin, only child of Louis XIV., and now a boy of nine (1670). The
choice was scarcely fortunate. Bossuet unbent as far as he could, but
his genius was by no means fitted to enter into the feelings of a child;
and the dauphin was a cross, ungainly, sullen lad, who grew up to be a
merely genealogical incident at his father's court. Probably no one was
happier than the tutor, when his charge's sixteenth birthday came round,
and he was promptly married off to a Bavarian princess. Still the nine
years at court were by no means wasted. Hitherto Bossuet had published
nothing, except his answer to Ferry. Now he sat down to write for his
pupil's instruction--or rather, to fit himself to give that
instruction--a remarkable trilogy. First came the _Traité de la
connaissance de Dieu et de soi-même_, then the _Discours sur l'histoire
universelle_, lastly the _Politique tirée de l'Écriture Sainte_. The
three books fit into each other. The _Traité_ is a general sketch of the
nature of God and the nature of man. The _Discours_ is a history of
God's dealings with humanity in the past. The _Politique_ is a code of
rights and duties drawn up in the light thrown by those dealings. Not
that Bossuet literally supposed that the last word of political wisdom
had been said by the Old Testament. His conclusions are only "drawn from
Holy Scripture," because he wished to gain the highest possible sanction
for the institutions of his country--to hallow the France of Louis XIV.
by proving its astonishing likeness to the Israel of Solomon. Then, too,
the veil of Holy Scripture enabled him to speak out more boldly than
court-etiquette would have otherwise allowed, to remind the son of Louis
XIV. that kings have duties as well as rights. Louis had often forgotten
these duties, but Louis' son would bear them in mind. The tutor's
imagination looked forward to a time when France would blossom into
Utopia, with a Christian philosopher on the throne. That is what made
him so stalwart a champion of authority in all its forms: _"le roi,
Jésus-Christ et l'Église, Dieu en ces trois noms"_, he says in a
characteristic letter. And the object of his books is to provide
authority with a rational basis. For Bossuet's worship of authority by
no means killed his confidence in reason; what it did was to make him
doubt the honesty of those who reasoned otherwise than himself. The
whole chain of argument seemed to him so clear and simple. Philosophy
proved that a God exists, and that He shapes and governs the course of
human affairs. History showed that this governance is, for the most
part, indirect, exercised through certain venerable corporations, as
well civil as ecclesiastical, all of which demand implicit obedience as
the immediate representatives of God. Thus all revolt, whether civil or
religious, is a direct defiance of the Almighty. Cromwell becomes a
moral monster, and the revocation of the edict of Nantes is "the
greatest achievement of the second Constantine." Not that Bossuet
glorified the _status quo_ simply as a clerical bigot. The France of his
youth had known the misery of divided counsels and civil war; the France
of his manhood, brought together under an absolute sovereign, had
suddenly shot up into a splendour only comparable with ancient Rome. Why
not, then, strain every nerve to hold innovation at bay and prolong that
splendour for all time? Bossuet's own _Discours sur l'histoire
universelle_ might have furnished an answer, for there the fall of many
empires is detailed. But then the _Discours_ was composed under a single
preoccupation. To Bossuet the establishment of Christianity was the one
point of real importance in the whole history of the world. Over Mahomet
and the East he passed without a word; on Greece and Rome he only
touched in so far as they formed part of the _Praeparatio Evangelica_.
And yet his _Discours_ is far more than a theological pamphlet. Pascal,
in utter scorn for science, might refer the rise and fall of empires to
Providence or chance--the nose of Cleopatra, or "a little grain of sand"
in the English lord protector's veins. Bossuet held fast to his
principle that God works through secondary causes. "It is His will that
every great change should have its roots in the ages that went before
it." Bossuet, accordingly, made a heroic attempt to grapple with origins
and causes, and in this way his book deserves its place as one of the
very first of philosophic histories.

From writing history he turned to history in the making. In 1681 he was
gazetted bishop of Meaux; but before he could take possession of his
see, he was drawn into a violent quarrel between Louis XIV. and the pope
(see GALLICANISM). Here he found himself between two fires. To support
the pope meant supporting the Jesuits; and he hated their casuists and
_dévotion aisée_ almost as much as Pascal himself. To oppose the pope
was to play into the hands of Louis, who was frankly anxious to humble
the Church before the State. So Bossuet steered a middle course. Before
the general assembly of the French clergy he preached a great sermon on
the unity of the Church, and made it a magnificent plea for compromise.
As Louis insisted on his clergy making an anti-papal declaration,
Bossuet got leave to draw it up, and made it as moderate as he could.
And when the pope declared it null and void, he set to work on a
gigantic _Defensio Cleri Gallicani_, only published after his death.

The Gallican storm a little abated, he turned back to a project very
near his heart. Ever since the early days at Metz he had been busy with
schemes for uniting the Huguenots to the Roman Church. In 1668 he
converted Turenne; in 1670 he published an _Exposition de la foi
catholique_, so moderate in tone that adversaries were driven to accuse
him of having fraudulently watered down the Roman dogmas to suit a
Protestant taste. Finally in 1688 appeared his great _Histoire des
variations des églises protestantes_, perhaps the most brilliant of all
his works. Few writers could have made the Justification controversy
interesting or even intelligible. His argument is simple enough. Without
rules an organized society cannot hold together, and rules require an
authorized interpreter. The Protestant churches had thrown over this
interpreter; and Bossuet had small trouble in showing that, the longer
they lived, the more they varied on increasingly important points. For
the moment the Protestants were pulverized; but before long they began
to ask whether variation was necessarily so great an evil. Between 1691
and 1701 Bossuet corresponded with Leibnitz with a view to reunion, but
negotiations broke down precisely at this point. Individual Roman
doctrines Leibnitz thought his countrymen might accept, but he flatly
refused to guarantee that they would necessarily believe to-morrow what
they believe to-day. "We prefer," he said, "a church eternally variable
and for ever moving forwards." Next, Protestant writers began to
accumulate some startling proofs of Rome's own variations; and here they
were backed up by Richard Simon, a priest of the Paris Oratory, and the
father of Biblical criticism in France. He accused St Augustine,
Bossuet's own special master, of having corrupted the primitive doctrine
of Grace. Bossuet set to work on a _Défense de la tradition_, but Simon
calmly went on to raise issues graver still. Under a veil of politely
ironical circumlocutions, such as did not deceive the bishop of Meaux,
he claimed his right to interpret the Bible like any other book. Bossuet
denounced him again and again; Simon told his friends he would wait
until "the old fellow" was no more. Another Oratorian proved more
dangerous still. Simon had endangered miracles by applying to them lay
rules of evidence, but Malebranche abrogated miracles altogether. It was
blasphemous, he argued, to suppose that the Author of nature would break
through a reign of law He had Himself established. Bossuet might
scribble _nova, mira, falsa_, in the margins of his book and urge on
Fénelon to attack them; Malebranche politely met his threats by saying
that to be refuted by such a pen would do him too much honour. These
repeated checks soured Bossuet's temper. In his earlier controversies he
had borne himself with great magnanimity, and the Huguenot ministers he
refuted found him a kindly advocate at court. Even his approval of the
revocation of the edict of Nantes stopped far short of approving
dragonades within his diocese of Meaux. But now his patience was wearing
out. A dissertation by one Father Caffaro, an obscure Italian monk,
became his excuse for writing certain violent _Maximes sur la comédie_
(1694) wherein he made an outrageous attack on the memory of Molière,
dead more than twenty years. Three years later he was battling with
Fénelon over the love of God, and employing methods of controversy at
least as odious as Fénelon's own (1697-1699). All that can be said in
his defence is that Fénelon, four-and-twenty years his junior, was an
old pupil, who had suddenly grown into a rival; and that on the matter
of principle most authorities thought him right.

Amid these gloomy occupations Bossuet's life came slowly to an end. Till
he was over seventy he had scarcely known what illness was; but in 1702
he was attacked by the stone. Two years later he was a hopeless invalid,
and on the 12th of April 1704 he passed quietly away. Of his private
life there is little to record. Meaux found him an excellent and devoted
bishop, much more attentive to diocesan concerns than his more stirring
occupations would seem to allow. In general society he was kindly and
affable enough, though somewhat ill at ease. Until he was over forty, he
had lived among purely ecclesiastical surroundings; and it was probably
want of self-confidence, more than want of moral courage, that made him
shut his eyes a little too closely to the disorders of Louis XIV.'s
private life. After all, he was not the king's confessor; and to
"reform" Louis, before age and Mme de Maintenon had sobered him down,
would have taxed the powers of Daniel or Ezekiel. But in his books
Bossuet was anything but timid. All of them, even the attacks on Simon,
breathe an air of masculine belief in reason, rare enough among the
apologists of any age. Bossuet would willingly have undertaken, as
Malebranche actually undertook, to make an intelligent Chinaman accept
all his ideas, if only he could be induced to lend them his attention.
But his best praise is to have brought all the powers of language to
paint an undying picture of a vanished world, where religion and
letters, laws and science, were conceived of as fixed unalterable
planets, circling for ever round one central Sun.

  AUTHORITIES.--The best edition of Bossuet's sermons is the _OEuvres
  oratoires de Bossuet_, edited by Abbé Lebarq, in 6 vols. (Paris,
  1890-1896). His complete works were edited by Lachat, in 31 vols.
  (Paris, 1862-1864). A complete list of the innumerable works relating
  to him will be found in the _Bossuet_ number of the _Bibliothèque des
  bibliographies critiques_, compiled by Canon Charles Urbain, and
  published by the Société des Études Historiques (Paris, 1900). The
  general reader will find all he requires in the respective studies of
  M. Rebelliau, _Bossuet_ (Paris, 1900), and M. Gustave Lanson,
  _Bossuet_ (Paris, 1901). In English there is a modest _Bossuet_ by Mrs
  Sidney Lear (London, 1874), and two remarkable studies by Sir J.
  Fitz-James Stephen in the second volume of his _Horae Sabbaticae_
  (London, 1892).     (St. C.)

BOSTANAI, the name of the first exilarch under Mahommedan rule, in the
middle of the 7th century. The exilarchs had their seat in Persia, and
were practically the secular heads of the Jewish community in the

BOSTON, THOMAS (1676-1732), Scottish divine, was born at Duns on the
17th of March 1676. His father, John Boston, and his mother, Alison
Trotter, were both Covenanters. He was educated at Edinburgh, and
licensed in 1697 by the presbytery of Chirnside. In 1699 he became
minister of the small parish of Simprin, where there were in all "not
more than 90 examinable persons." In 1704 he found, while visiting a
member of his flock, a book which had been brought into Scotland by a
commonwealth soldier. This was the famous _Marrow of Modern Divinity_,
by Edward Fisher, a compendium of the opinions of leading Reformation
divines on the doctrine of grace and the offer of the Gospel. Its object
was to demonstrate the unconditional freeness of the Gospel. It cleared
away such conditions as repentance, or some degree of outward or inward
reformation, and argued that where Christ is heartily received, full
repentance and a new life follow. On Boston's recommendation, Hog of
Carnock reprinted _The Marrow_ in 1718; and Boston also published an
edition with notes of his own. The book, being attacked from the
standpoint of high Calvinism, became the standard of a far-reaching
movement in Scottish Presbyterianism. The "Marrow men" were marked by
the zeal of their service and the effect of their preaching. As they
remained Calvinists they could not preach a universal atonement; they
were in fact extreme particular redemptionists. In 1707 Boston was
translated to Ettrick. He distinguished himself by being the only member
of the assembly who entered a protest against what he deemed the
inadequate sentence passed on John Simson, professor of divinity at
Glasgow, who was accused of heterodox teaching on the Incarnation. He
died on the 20th of May 1732. His books, _The Fourfold State, The Crook
in the Lot_, and his _Body of Divinity_ and _Miscellanies_, long
exercised a powerful influence over the Scottish peasantry.

  His _Memoirs_ were published in 1776 (ed. G.D. Low, 1908). An edition
  of his works in 12 volumes appeared in 1849.     (D. Mn.)

BOSTON, a municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport of
Lincolnshire, England, on the river Witham, 4 m. from its mouth in the
Wash, 107 m. N. of London by the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901)
15,667. It lies in a flat agricultural fen district, drained by numerous
cuts, some of which are navigable. The church of St Botolph is a superb
Decorated building, one of the largest and finest parish churches in
the kingdom. A Decorated chapel in it, formerly desecrated, was restored
to sacred use by citizens of Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in 1857, in
memory of the connexion of that city with the English town. The western
tower, commonly known as Boston Stump, forms a landmark for 40 m. Its
foundations were the first to be laid of the present church (which is on
the site of an earlier one), but the construction was arrested until the
Perpendicular period, of the work of which it is a magnificent example.
It somewhat resembles the completed tower of Antwerp cathedral, and is
crowned by a graceful octagonal lantern, the whole being nearly 290 ft.
in height. The church of Skirbeck, 1 m. south-east, though extensively
restored, retains good Early English details. Other buildings of
interest are the guildhall, a 15th-century structure of brick;
Shodfriars Hall, a half-timbered house adjacent to slight remains of a
Dominican priory; the free grammar school, founded in 1554, with a fine
gateway of wrought iron of the 17th century brought from St Botolph's
church; and the Hussey Tower of brick, part of a mansion of the 16th
century. Public institutions include a people's park and large municipal
buildings (1904).

As a port Boston was of ancient importance, but in the 18th century the
river had silted up so far as to exclude vessels exceeding about 50
tons. In 1882-1884 a dock some 7 acres in extent was constructed, with
an entrance lock giving access to the quay sides for vessels of 3000
tons. The bed of the river was deepened to 27 ft. for 3 m. below the
town, and a new cut of 3 m. was made from the mouth into deep water. An
iron swing-bridge connects the dock with the Great Northern railway.
There is a repairing slipway accommodating vessels of 800 tons. Imports,
principally timber, grain, cotton and linseed, increased owing to these
improvements from £116,179 in 1881 to £816,698 in 1899; and exports
(coal, machinery and manufactured goods) from £83,000 in 1883 to
£261,873 in 1899. The deep-sea and coastal fisheries are important.
Engineering, oil-cake, tobacco, sail and rope works are the principal
industries in the town. Boston returns one member to parliament. The
parliamentary borough falls within the Holland or Spalding division of
the county. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18
councillors. Area, 2727 acres.

  Boston (Icanhoe, St Botolph or Botolph's Town) derives its name from
  St Botolph, who in 654 founded a monastery here, which was destroyed
  by the Danes, 870. Although not mentioned in Domesday, Boston was
  probably granted as part of Skirbeck to Alan, earl of Brittany. The
  excellent commercial position of the town at the mouth of the Witham
  explains its speedy rise into importance. King John by charter of 1204
  granted the bailiff of Boston sole jurisdiction in the town. By the
  13th century it was a great commercial centre second only to London in
  paying £780 for two years to the fifteenth levied in 1205, and Edward
  III. made it a staple port for wool in 1369. The Hanseatic and Flemish
  merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of
  the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system
  Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained
  almost without trade. Nevertheless it was raised to the rank of a free
  borough by Henry VIII.'s charter of 1546, confirmed by Edward VI. in
  1547, by Mary in 1553, by Elizabeth (who granted a court of admiralty)
  in 1558 and 1573, and by James I. in 1608. Boston sent members to the
  great councils in 1337, 1352 and 1353; and from 1552 to 1885 two
  members were returned to each parliament. The Redistribution Act 1885
  reduced the representation to one member. In 1257 a market was granted
  to the abbot of Crowland and in 1308 to John, earl of Brittany. The
  great annual mart was held before 1218 and attended by many German and
  other merchants. Two annual fairs and two weekly markets were granted
  by Henry VIII.'s charter, and are still held. The Great Mart survives
  only in the Beast Mart held on the 11th of December.

  See Pishey Thompson, _History and Antiquities of Boston and the
  Hundred of Skirbeck_ (Boston, 1856); George Jebb, _Guide to the Church
  of St Botolph, with Notes on the History of Boston; Victoria County
  History: Lincolnshire_.

BOSTON, the capital of the state of Massachusetts, U.S.A., in Suffolk
county; lat. 42° 21' 27.6" N., long. 71° 3' 30" W. Pop. (1900) 560,892,
(197,129 being foreign born); (1905, state census) 595,580; (1910),
670,585. Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York
Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford,
and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several
minor roads once independent. The city lies on Massachusetts bay, on
what was once a pear-shaped peninsula attached to the mainland by a
narrow, marshy neck, often swept by the spray and water. On the north is
the Charles river, which widens here into a broad, originally much
broader, inner harbour or back-bay. The surface of the peninsula was
very hilly and irregular, the shore-line was deeply indented with coves,
and there were salt marshes that fringed the neck and the river-channel
and were left oozy by the ebbing tides. Until after the War of
Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was
afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site
of any other American city. The area of the original Boston was only 783
acres, but by the filling in of tidal flats (since 1804) this was
increased to 1829 acres; while the larger corporate Boston of the
present day--including the annexed territories of South Boston (1804),
Roxbury (1868), Charlestown, Dorchester, Brighton and West Roxbury
(1874)--comprehends almost 43 sq. m. The beautiful Public Garden and the
finest residential quarter of the city--the Back Bay, so called from
that inner harbour from whose waters it was reclaimed (1856-1886)--stand
on what was once the narrowest, but to-day is the widest and fairest
portion of the original site. Whole forests, vast quarries of granite,
and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins,
constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and
furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings. At the edge of
the Common, which is now well within the city, the British troops in
1775 took their boats on the eve of the battle of Lexington; and the
post-office, now in the very heart of the business section of the city,
stands on the original shore-line. The reclaimed territory is level and
excellently drained. The original territory still preserves to a large
degree its irregularity of surface, but its hills have been much
degraded or wholly razed. Beacon Hill, so called from its ancient use as
a signal warning station, is still the most conspicuous topographical
feature of the city, but it has been changed from a bold and picturesque
eminence into a gentle slope. After the great fire of 1872 it became
possible, in the reconstruction of the business district, to widen and
straighten its streets and create squares, and so provide for the
traffic that had long outgrown the narrow, crooked ways of the older
city. Atlantic Avenue, along the harbour front, was created, and
Washington Street, the chief business artery, was largely remade after
1866. It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger
outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and
reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares[1]
in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other
chief cities of the United States together. Washington Street, still
narrow, is perhaps the most crowded and congested thoroughfare in
America. The finest residence streets are in the Back Bay, which is laid
out, in sharp contrast with the older quarters, in a regular,
rectangular arrangement. The North End, the original city and afterwards
the fashionable quarter, is now given over to the Jews and foreign

The harbour islands, three of which have been ceded to the United States
for the purpose of fortification, are numerous, and render the
navigation of the shipping channels difficult and easily guarded. Though
tortuous of access, the channels afford a clear passage of 27-35 ft.
since great improvements were undertaken by the national government in
1892, 1899, 1902 and 1907, and the harbour, when reached, is secure. It
affords nearly 60 sq. m. of anchorage, but the wharf line, for lack of
early reservation, is not so large as it might and should have been. The
islands in the harbour, now bare, were for the most part heavily wooded
when first occupied. It has been found impossible to afforest them on
account of the roughness of the sea-air, and the wash from their bluffs
into the harbour has involved large expense in the erection of
sea-walls. Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days;
Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on
neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences. The broad
watercourses around the peninsula are spanned by causeways and bridges,
East Boston only, that the harbours may be open to the navy-yard at
Charlestown, being reached by ferry (1870), and by the electric subway
under the harbour. At the Charlestown navy-yard (1800) there are docks,
manufactories, foundries, machine-shops, ordnance stores, rope-walks,
furnaces, casting-pits, timber sheds, ordnance-parks, ship-houses, &c.
The famous frigate "Independence" was launched here in 1814, the more
famous "Constitution" having been launched while the yard was still
private in 1797. The first bridge over the Charles, to Charlestown, was
opened in 1786. The bridge of chief artistic merit is the Cambridge
Bridge (1908), which replaced the old West Boston Bridge, and is one
feature of improvements long projected for the beautifying of the
Charles river basin.

Comparatively few relics of the early town have been spared by time and
the improvements of the modern city. Three cemeteries remain
intact--King's chapel burying ground, with the graves of John Winthrop
and John Cotton; the Old Granary burial ground in the heart of the city,
where Samuel Sewall, the parents of Franklin, John Hancock, James Otis
and Samuel Adams are buried; and Copp's Hill burial ground, containing
the tombs of the Mathers. Christ church (1723) is the oldest church of
the city; in its tower the signal lanterns were displayed for Paul
Revere on the night of the 18th of April 1775. The Old South church
(1730-1782), the old state house (1748, restored 1882), and Faneuil Hall
(1762-1763, enlarged 1805, reconstructed 1898) are rich in memorable
associations of the period preceding the War of Independence. The second
was the seat of the royal government of Massachusetts during the
provincial period, and within its walls from 1760 to 1775 the questions
of colonial dependence or independence probably first came into evident
conflict. The Old South church has many associations; it was, for
instance, the meeting-place of the people after the "Boston Massacre" of
1770, when they demanded the removal of the British troops from the
city; and here, too, were held the meetings that led up to the "Boston
Tea Party" of 1773. Faneuil Hall (the original hall of the name was
given to the city by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot merchant, in 1742) is
associated, like the Old South, with the patriotic oratory of
revolutionary days and is called "the cradle of American liberty." Its
association with reform movements and great public issues of later times
is not less close and interesting.[2] The adjoining Quincy market may be
mentioned because its construction (1826) was utilized to open six new
streets, widen a seventh, and secure flats, docks and wharf rights--all
without laying tax or debt upon the city. The original King's chapel
(1688, present building 1749-1754) was the first Episcopal church of
Boston, which bitterly resented the action of the royal governor in 1687
in using the Old South for the services of the Church of England. The
new state house, the oldest portion of which (designed by Charles
Bulfinch) was erected in 1795-1798, was enlarged in 1853-1856, and again
by a huge addition in 1889-1898 (total cost about $6,800,000 to 1900).
Architecturally, everything is subordinated to a conformity with the
style of the original portion; and its gilded dome is a conspicuous
landmark. Other buildings of local importance are the city hall (1865);
the United States government building (1871-1878, cost about
$6,000,000); the county court-house (1887-1893, $2,250,000); the
custom-house (1837-1848); and the chamber of commerce (1892).

Copley Square, in the Back Bay, is finely distinguished by a group of
exceptional buildings: Trinity church, the old Museum of Fine Arts, the
public library and the new Old South church. Trinity (1877, cost
$800,000), in yellowish granite with dark sandstone trimmings, the
masterpiece of H.H. Richardson, is built in the Romanesque style of
southern France; it is a Latin cross surmounted by a massive central
tower, with smaller towers and an adjacent chapel reached by open
cloisters that distribute the balance (see ARCHITECTURE, Plate XVI. fig.
137). It has windows by La Farge, William Morris, Burne-Jones and

The library (1888-1895; cost $2,486,000, exclusive of the site, given
by the state) is a dignified, finely proportioned building of
pinkish-grey stone, built in the style of the Italian Renaissance,
suggesting a Florentine palace. It has an imposing exterior (see
ARCHITECTURE, Plate XVI. fig. 135), a beautiful inner court, and notable
decorative features and embellishments, including bronze doors by D.C.
French, a statue of Sir Henry Vane by Macmonnies, a fine staircase in
Siena marble, some characteristic decorative panels by Puvis de
Chavannes (illustrating the history of science and literature), and
other notable decorative paintings by John S. Sargent (on the history of
religion), Edwin A. Abbey (on the quest of the Holy Grail). The old
Museum of Fine Arts (1876) is a red brick edifice in modern Gothic
style, with trimmings of light stone and terra-cotta. The new Old South
(the successor of the Old South, which is now a museum) is a handsome
structure of Italian Gothic style, with a fine campanile. The dignified
buildings of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are near. In
Huntington Avenue, at its junction with Massachusetts Avenue, is another
group of handsome new buildings, including Horticultural Hall, Symphony
Hall (1900) and the New England Conservatory of Music. In the Back Bay
Fens, reclaimed swamps laid out by F.L. Olmsted, still other groups
have formed--among others those of the marble buildings of the Harvard
medical school; Fenway Court, a building in the style, internally, of a
Venetian palace, that houses the art treasures of Mrs. J.L. Gardner,
and Simmons College. Here, too, is the new building (1908) of the Museum
of Fine Arts. Throughout the Fens excellently effective use is being
made of monumental buildings grouped in ample grounds.

Boston compares favourably with other American cities in the character
of its public and private architecture. The height of buildings in the
business section is limited to 125 ft., and in some places to 90 ft.

One of the great public works of Boston is its subway for electric
trams, about 3 m. long, in part with four tracks and in part with two,
constructed since 1895 at a cost of about $7,500,000 up to 1905. The
branch to East Boston (1900-1904) passes beneath the harbour bed and
extends from Scollay Square, Boston, to Maverick Square, East Boston; it
was the first all-cement tunnel (diameter, 23.6 ft.) in the world. The
subway was built by the city, but leased and operated by a private
company on such terms as to repay its cost in forty years. Another
tunnel has been added to the system, under Washington Street. The narrow
streets and the traffic congestion of the business district presented
difficult problems of urban transit, but the system is of exceptional
efficiency. There is an elevated road whose trains, like the surface
cars, are accommodated in the centre of the city by the subway. All the
various roads--surface, elevated (about 7 m., built 1896-1901), and
subway--are controlled, almost wholly, by one company. They all connect
and interchange passengers freely; so that the ordinary American
five-cent fare enables a passenger to travel between almost any two
points over an area of 100 sq. m. The two huge steam-railway stations of
the Boston & Maine and the Boston & Albany systems also deserve mention.
The former (the North, or Union station, 1893) covers 9 acres and has 23
tracks; the latter (the South Terminal, 1898), one of the largest
stations in the world, covers 13 acres and has 32 tracks, and is used by
the Boston & Albany and by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways.

A noteworthy feature of the metropolitan public water service was begun
in 1896 in the Wachusett lake reservoir at Clinton, on the Nashua river.
The basin here excavated by ten years of labour, lying 385 ft. above
high-tide level of Boston harbour, has an area of 6.5 sq. m., an average
depth of 46 ft., and a capacity of 63,068,000,000 gallons of water. It
is the largest municipal reservoir in the world[3], yet it is only part
of a system planned for the service of the metropolitan area.

The park system is quite unique among American cities. The Common, a
park of 48 acres, in the centre of the city, has been a public
reservation since 1634, and no city park in the world is cherished more
affectionately for historical associations. Adjoining it is the Public
Garden of 24 acres (1859), part of the made area of the city.
Commonwealth Avenue, one of the Back Bay streets running from the foot
of the Public Garden, is one of the finest residence streets of the
country. It is 240 ft. wide, with four rows of trees shading the parking
of its central mall, and is a link through the Back Bay Fens with the
beautiful outer park system. The park system consists of two concentric
rings, the inner being the city system proper, the outer the
metropolitan system undertaken by the commonwealth in co-operation with
the city. The former has been laid out since 1875, and includes upwards
of 2300 acres, with more than 100 m. of walks, drives and rides. Its
central ornament is Franklin Park (527 acres). The metropolitan system,
which extends around the city on a radius of 10 to 12 m., was begun in
1893. It embraces over 10,000 acres, including the Blue Hill reservation
(about 5000 acres), the highest land in eastern Massachusetts, a
beautiful reservation of forest, crag and pond known as Middlesex Fells,
two large beach bath reservations on the harbour at Revere and Hull
(Nantasket), and the boating section of the Charles river. At the end of
1907 more than $13,000,000 had been expended on the system. Including
the local parks of the cities and towns of the metropolitan district
there are over 17,000 acres of pleasure grounds within the metropolitan
park district. Boston was the pioneer municipality of the country in the
establishment of open-air gymnasiums. A great improvement, planned for
many years, was brought nearer by the completion of the new Cambridge
Bridge. This improvement was projected to include the damming of the
Charles river, and the creation of a great freshwater basin, with
drive-ways of reclaimed land along the shores, and other adornments,
somewhat after the model of the Alster basins at Hamburg.

_Art and Literature._--The Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870
(though there were art exhibits collected from 1826 onward) and its
present building was erected in 1908. It has one of the finest
collections of casts in existence, a number of original pieces of Greek
statuary, the second-best collection in the world of Aretine ware, the
finest collection of Japanese pottery, and probably the largest and
finest of Japanese paintings in existence. Among the memorials to men of
Massachusetts (a large part of them Bostonians) commemorated by
monuments in the Common, the Public Garden, the grounds of the state
house, the city hall, and other public places of the city, are statues
of Charles Sumner, Josiah Quincy and John A. Andrew by Thomas Ball; of
Generals Joseph Hooker and William F. Bartlett, and of Rufus Choate by
Daniel C. French; of W.L. Garrison and Charles Devens by Olin L. Warner;
of Samuel Adams by Anne Whitney; of John Winthrop and Benjamin Franklin
by R.S. Greenough; of Edward Everett (W.W. Story), Colonel W. Prescott
(Story), Horace Mann (E. Stebbins), Daniel Webster (H. Powers), W.E.
Channing (H. Adams), N.P. Banks (H.H. Kitson), Phillips Brooks (A. St
Gaudens), and J.B. O'Reilly (D.C. French).

Among other important monuments are a group by J.Q.A. Ward
commemorating the first proof of the anaesthetic properties of ether,
made in 1846 in the Massachusetts General Hospital by Dr W.T.G.
Morton; an emancipation group of Thomas Ball with a portrait statue of
Lincoln; a fine equestrian statue, by the same sculptor, of Washington,
one of the best works in the country (1869); an army and navy monument
in the Common by Martin Millmore, in memory of the Civil War; another
(1888) recording the death of those who fell in the Boston Massacre of
1770; statues of Admiral D.G. Farragut (H.H. Kitson), Leif Ericson
(Anne Whitney), and Alexander Hamilton (W. Rimmer); and a magnificent
bronze bas-relief (1897) by Augustus St Gaudens commemorating the
departure from Boston of Colonel Robert G. Shaw with the first regiment
of negro soldiers enlisted in the Civil War. There is an art department
of the city government, under unpaid commissioners, appointed by the
mayor from candidates named by local art and literary institutions; and
without their approval no work of art can now become the property of the

The public library, containing 922,348 volumes in January 1908, is the
second library of the country in size, and is the largest free
circulating library in the world (circulation 1907, 1,529,111 volumes).
There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674--probably in
1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced. The
present library (antedated by several circulating, social and
professional collections) may justly be said to have had its origin in
the efforts of the Parisian, Alexandre Vattemare (1796-1864), from 1830
on, to foster international exchanges. From 1847 to 1851 he arranged
gifts from France to American libraries aggregating 30,655 volumes, and
a gift of 50 volumes by the city of Paris in 1843 (reciprocated in 1849
with more than 1000 volumes contributed by private citizens) was the
nucleus of the Boston public library. Its legal foundation dates from
1848. Among the special collections are the George Ticknor library of
Spanish and Portuguese books (6393 vols.), very full sets of United
States and British public documents, the Bowditch mathematical library
(7090 vols.), the Galatea collection on the history of women (2193
vols.), the Barton library, including one of the finest existing
collections of Shakespeariana (3309 vols., beside many in the general
library), the A.A. Brown library of music (9886 vols.), a very full
collection on the anthropology and ethnology of Europe, and more than
100,000 volumes on the history, biography, geography and literature of
the United States. The library is supported almost entirely by municipal
appropriations, though holding also considerable trust funds ($388,742
in 1905). The other notable book-collections of the city include those
of the Athenaeum, founded in 1807 (about 230,000 vols. and pamphlets),
the Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791; 50,300), the Boston
medical library (founded 1874; about 80,000), the New England
Historic-Genealogical Society (founded 1845; 33,750 volumes and 34,150
pamphlets), the state library (founded 1826; 140,000), the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1780; 30,000), the Boston Society
of Natural History (founded 1830; about 35,000 volumes and 27,000

The leading educational institutions are the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, the largest purely scientific and technical school in the
country, opened to students (including women) in 1865, four years after
the granting of a charter to Prof. W.B. Rogers, the first president;
Boston University (chartered in 1869; Methodist Episcopal;
co-educational); the New England Conservatory of Music (co-educational;
private; 1867, incorporated 1880), the largest in the United States,
having 2400 students in 1905-1906; the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy
(1852); the Massachusetts Normal Art School (1873); the School of
Drawing and Painting (1876) of the Museum of Fine Arts; Boston College
(1860), Roman Catholic, under the Society of Jesus; St John's
Theological Seminary (1880), Roman Catholic; Simmons College (1899) for
women, and several departments of Harvard University. The Institute of
Technology has an exceptional reputation for the wide range of its
instruction and its high standards of scholarship. It was a pioneer in
introducing as a feature of its original plans laboratory instruction in
physics, mechanics and mining. The architects of the United States navy
are sent here for instruction in their most advanced courses. Boston
University was endowed by Isaac Rich (1801-1872), a Boston
fish-merchant, Lee Claflin (1791-1871), a shoe manufacturer and a
benefactor of Wesleyan University and of Wilbraham Seminary, and Jacob
Sleeper. It has been co-educational from the beginning. Its faculties of
theology--founded in 1841 at Newbury, Vt., as the Biblical Institute; in
1847-1867 in Concord, N.H.; and in 1867-1871 the Boston Theological
Seminary--law, music, medicine, liberal arts and agriculture (at
Amherst, in association with the Massachusetts Agricultural College),
all antedate 1876. The funds for Simmons College were left by John
Simmons in 1870, who wished to found a school to teach the professions
and "branches of art, science and industry best calculated to enable the
scholars to acquire an independent livelihood." The Lowell Institute
(q.v.), established in 1839 (by John Lowell, Jr., who bequeathed
$237,000 for the purpose), provides yearly courses of free public
lectures, and its lecturers have included many of the leading scholars
of America and Europe. During each winter, also, a series of public
lectures on American history is delivered in the Old South meeting
house. The public schools, particularly the secondary schools, enjoy a
very high reputation. The new English High and Latin school, founded in
1635, is the oldest school of the country. A girls' Latin school, with
the same standards as the boys' school, was established in 1878 (an
outcome of the same movement that founded Radcliffe College). There are
large numbers of private schools, in art, music and academic studies.

In theatrical matters Boston is now one of the chief American centres.
The Federal Street theatre--the first regular theatre--was established
in 1794, the old Puritan feeling having had its natural influence in
keeping Boston behind New York and Philadelphia in this respect. The
dramatic history of the city is largely associated with the Boston
Museum, built in 1841 by Moses Kimball on Tremont Street, and rebuilt in
1846 and 1880; here for half a century the principal theatrical
performances were given (see an interesting article in the _New England
Magazine_, June 1903), in later years under the management of R.
Montgomery Field, until in 1903 the famous Boston Museum was swept away,
as other interesting old places of entertainment (the old Federal Street
theatre, the Tremont theatre, &c.) had been, in the course of further
building changes. The Boston theatre dates from 1854, and there were
seventeen theatres altogether in 1900.

As a musical centre Boston rivals New York. Among musical organizations
may be mentioned the Handel and Haydn Society (1815), the Harvard
Musical Association (1837), the Philharmonic (1880) and the Symphony
Orchestra, organized in 1881 by the generosity of Henry Lee Higginson.
This orchestra has done much for music not only in Boston but in the
United States generally. In 1908 the Boston Opera Company was
incorporated, and an opera house has been erected on the north side of
Huntington Avenue.

Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later
decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and
important colony of writers and artists. Its ascendancy was identical
with the long predominance of the New England literary school, who lived
in Boston or in the country round about. Two Boston periodicals (one no
longer so) that still hold an exceptional position in periodical
literature, the _North American Review_ (1815) and the _Atlantic
Monthly_ (1857), date from this period. The great majority of names in
the long list of worthies of the commonwealth--writers, statesmen,
orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are
intimately connected with Boston. Among the city's daily newspapers the
_Boston Herald_ (1846), the _Boston Globe_, the _Evening Transcript_
(1830), the _Advertiser_ (1813) and the _Post_ (1831) are the most

_Industry and Commerce._--Boston is fringed with wharves. Commercial
interests are largely concentrated in East Boston. Railway connexion
with Worcester, Lowell and Providence was opened in 1835; with Albany,
N.Y., and thereby with various lines of interior communication, in 1841
(double track, 1868); with Fitchburg, in 1845; and in 1851 connexion was
completed with the Great Lakes and Canada. In 1840 Boston was selected
as the American terminus of the Cunard Line, the first regular line of
trans-Atlantic steamers. The following decade was the most active of the
city's history as regards the ocean carrying trade. Boston ships went to
all parts of the globe. The Cunard arrangement was the first of various
measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New
England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of
1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return
to relations of reciprocity. Beginning about 1855 the commerce of the
port greatly declined. The Cunard service has not been continuous. In
1869 there was not one vessel steaming directly for Europe; in 1900
there were 973 for foreign ports. Great improvements of the harbour were
undertaken in 1902 by the United States government, looking to the
creation of two broad channels 35 ft. deep. Railway rates have also been
a matter of vital importance in recent years; Boston, like New York,
complaining of discriminations in favour of Philadelphia, Baltimore, New
Orleans and Galveston. Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and
Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight
differentials. Boston is the second import port of the United States,
but its exports in 1907 were less than those of Philadelphia, of
Galveston, or of New Orleans. The total tonnage in foreign trade
entering and leaving in 1907 was 5,148,429 tons; and in the same year
9616 coasting vessels (tonnage, 10,261,474) arrived in Boston. The value
of imports and exports for 1907 were respectively $123,414,168 and
$104,610,908. Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins,
cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal,
and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions,
leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs,
iron and steel and their manufactures are the leading exports. In the
exportation of cattle, and of the various meat and dairy products
classed as provisions, Boston is easily second to New York. It is the
largest wool and the largest fish market of the United States, being in
each second in the world to London only.

Manufacturing is to-day the most distinctive industry, as was commerce
in colonial times. The value of all manufactured products from
establishments under the "factory system" in 1900 was $162,764,523; in
1905 it was $184,351,163. Among the leading and more distinctive items
were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses
refining ($15,746,547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of
the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in
1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900,
$3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655,
in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5,211,445);
malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery
(in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900,
$3,504,603, in 1905, $4,592,698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in
1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780);
rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323);
steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905,
$3,354,020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are
manufactured in Chelsea. Shipbuilding and allied industries early became
of great importance. The Waltham watch and the Singer sewing-machine had
their beginning in Boston in 1850. The making of the Chickering pianos
goes back to 1823, and of Mason & Hamlin reed organs to 1854; these are
to-day very important and distinctive manufactures of the city. The
ready-made clothing industry began about 1830.

_Government._--Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it
was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822;
although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and
township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for
incorporation, beginning as early as 1650. In 1822 Boston became a city.
Thus for nearly two centuries it preserved intact its old "town"
government, disposing of all its affairs in the "town-meeting" of its
citizens. Excellent political training such a government unquestionably
offered; but it became unworkable as disparities of social condition
increased, as the number of legal voters (above 7000 in 1822) became
greater, and as the population ceased to be homogeneous in blood. All
the citizens did not assemble; on the contrary ordinary business seldom
drew out more than a hundred voters, and often a mere handful. From very
early days executive officers known as "select-men," constables, clerks
of markets, hog reeves, packers of meat and fish, &c., were chosen; and
the select-men, particularly, gained power as the attendance of the
freemen on meetings grew onerous. Interested cliques could control the
business of the town-meeting in ordinary times, and boisterousness
marred its democractic excellence in exciting times. Large sums were
voted loosely, and expended by executive boards without any budgetary
control. The whole system was full of looseness, complexity and
makeshifts. But the tenacity with which it was clung to, proved that it
was suited to the community; and whether helpful or harmful to, it was
not inconsistent with, the continuance of growth and prosperity. Various
other Massachusetts townships, as they have grown older, have been
similarly compelled to abandon their old form of government. The powers
of the old township were much more extensive than those of the present
city of Boston, including as they did the determination of the residence
of strangers, the allotment of land, the grant of citizenship, the
fixing of wages and prices, of the conditions of lawsuits and even a
voice in matters of peace and war. The city charter was revised in 1854,
and again reconstructed in important particulars by laws of 1885
separating the executive and legislative powers, and by subsequent acts.
A complete alteration of the government has indeed been effected since
1885. Boston proper is only the centre of a large metropolitan area,
closely settled, with interests in large part common. This metropolitan
area, within a radius of approximately 10 m. about the state house,
contained in 1900 about 40% of the population of the state. In the last
two decades of the 19th century the question of giving to this greater
city some general government, fully consolidated or of limited powers,
was a standing question of expediency. The commonwealth has four times
recognized a community of metropolitan interests in creating state
commissions since 1882 for the union of such interests, beginning with a
metropolitan health district in that year. The metropolitan water
district (1895) included in 1908 Boston and seventeen cities or
townships in its environs; the metropolitan sewerage district (1889)
twenty four; the park service (1893) thirty-nine. Local sentiment was
firmly against complete consolidation. The creation of the state
commissions, independent of the city's control, but able to commit the
city indefinitely by undertaking expensive works and new debt, was
resented. Independence is further curtailed by other state boards
semi-independent of the city--the police commission of three members
from 1885 to 1906, and in 1906 a single police commissioner, appointed
by the governor, a licensing board of three members, appointed by the
governor; the transit commission, &c. There are, further, county offices
(Suffolk county comprises only Boston, Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop),
generally independent of the city, though the latter pays practically
all the bills.

A new charter went into effect in 1910. It provided for municipal
elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for
his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered
voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of
his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any
department head or other of his appointees, for a city council of one
chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for
nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by
the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the
state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the
annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the
council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school
use. The school committee (who serve gratuitously) appoint the
superintendent and supervisors of schools. The number of members of the
school-board was in 1905 reduced from twenty-four to five, elected by
the city at large, and serving for one, two or three years; at the same
time power was centralized in the hands of the superintendent of
schools. Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal
administration. The city's work is done under an eight-hour law.

An analysis of city election returns for the decade 1890-1899 showed
that the interest of the citizens was greatest in the choice of a
president; then, successively, in the choice of a mayor, a governor, the
determination of liquor-license questions by referendum, and the
settlement of other referenda. On 21 referenda, 10 being questions of
license, the ratio of actual to registered voters ranged on the latter
from 57.00 to 75.38% (mean 61.15), and on other referenda from 75.63 to
33.40 (mean 61.39),--the mean for all, 64.18. But the average of two
presidential votes was 85.37%; and the maxima, minima and means for
mayors and governors were respectively 83.86, 74.99, 78.36 and 84.73,
61.78, 75.72. Of those who might, only some 50 to 65% actually register.
Women vote for school committee-men (categories as above, 95.18, 59.62,
76.49%). On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal
suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted,
and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.

Hospitals, asylums, refuges and homes, pauper, reformatory and penal
institutions, flower missions, relief associations, and other charitable
or philanthropic organizations, private and public, number several
hundreds. The Associated Charities is an incorporated organization for
systematizing the various charities of the city. The Massachusetts
general hospital (1811-1821)--with a branch for mental and nervous
diseases, McLean hospital (1816), in the township of Belmont
(post-office, Waverley) about 6 m. W.N.W. of Boston; the Perkins
Institution and Massachusetts school for the blind (1832), famous for
its conduct by Samuel G. Howe, and for association with Laura Bridgman
and Helen Keller; the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feebleminded
children (1839); and the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary
(1824), all receive financial aid from the commonwealth, which has
representation in their management. The city hospital dates from 1864. A
floating hospital for women and children in the summer months, with
permanent and transient wards, has been maintained since 1894
(incorporated 1901). Boston was one of the first municipalities of the
country to make provision for the separate treatment of juvenile
offenders; in 1906 a juvenile court was established. A People's Palace
dedicated to the work of the Salvation Army, and containing baths,
gymnasium, a public hall, a library, sleeping-rooms, an employment
bureau, free medical and legal bureaus, &c., was opened in 1906. Simmons
College and Harvard University maintain the Boston school for social
workers (1904). Beneficent social work out of the more usual type is
directed by the music and bath departments of the city government. In
the provision of public gymnasiums and baths (1866) Boston was the
pioneer city of the country, and remains the most advanced. The beach
reservations of the metropolitan park system at Revere and Nantasket,
and several smaller city beaches are a special feature of this service.
Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left
£1000 to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and
constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the

  Largely owing to activity in public works Boston has long been the
  most expensively governed of American cities. The average yearly
  expenditure for ten years preceding 1904 was $27,354,416, exclusive of
  payments on funded and floating debts. The running expenses
  _per-capita_ in 1900 were $35.23; more than twice the average of 86
  leading cities of the country (New York, $23.92; Chicago, $11.62).
  Schools, police, charities, water, streets and parks are the items of
  heaviest cost. The cost of the public schools for the five years from
  1901-1902 to 1906-1907 was $27,883,937, of which $7,057,895.42 was for
  new buildings; the cost of the police department was $11,387,314.66
  for the six years 1902-1907; and of the water department $4,941,343.37
  for the six years 1902-1907; of charities and social work a much
  larger sum. The remaking of the city was enormously expensive,
  especially the alteration of the streets after 1866, when the city
  received power to make such alterations and assess a part of the
  improvements upon abutting estates. The creation of the city
  water-system has also been excessively costly, and the total cost up
  to the 31st of January 1908 of the works remaining to the city after
  the creation of the metropolitan board in 1898 was about $17,000,000.
  The metropolitan water board--of whose expenditures Boston bears only
  a share--expended from 1895 to 1900 $20,693,870; and the system was
  planned to consume finally probably 40 millions at least. The city
  park system proper had cost $16,627,033 up to 1899 inclusive; and the
  metropolitan parks $13,679,456 up to 1907 inclusive. There are no
  municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city
  depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control
  of a state commission. In 1885 a state law placed a limit on the
  contractable debt and upon the taxation rate of the city. Revenues
  were not realized adequate to its lavish undertakings, and loans were
  used to meet current expenses. The limits were altered subsequently,
  but the net debt has continued to rise. In 1822 it was $100,000; in
  1850, $6,195,144; in 1886, $24,712,820; in 1904, $58,216,725; in 1907,
  $70,781,969 (gross debt, $104,206,706)--this included the debt of
  Suffolk county which in 1907 was $3,517,000. The chief objects for
  which the city debt was created were in 1907, in millions of dollars:
  highways, 24.07, parks, 16.29, drainage and sewers, 15.05, rapid
  transit, 13.57 and water-works, 4.53. Boston paid in 1907 36% of all
  state taxes, and about 33, 62, 47 and 79% respectively of the
  assessments for the metropolitan sewer, parks, boulevards and water
  services. About a third of its revenue goes for such uses or for
  Suffolk county expenditures over which it has but limited control. The
  improvement of the Back Bay and of the South Boston flats was in
  considerable measure forced upon the city by the commonwealth. The
  debt per capita is as high as the cost of current administration
  relatively to other cities. The average interest rate on the city
  obligations in 1907 was about 3.7%. The city's tax valuation in 1907
  was $1,313,471,556 (in 1822, $42,140,200; in 1850, $180,000,500), of
  which only $242,606,856 represented personalty; although in the
  judgment of the city board of trade such property cannot by any
  possibility be inferior in value to realty.

_Population._--Up to the War of Independence the population was not only
American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan;
modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
In 1900 35.1% of the inhabitants were foreign-born, and 72.2% wholly or
in part of foreign parentage. Irish, English-Canadian, Russian, Italian,
English and German are the leading races. Of the foreign-born population
these elements constituted respectively 35.6, 24.0, 7.6, 7.0, 6.7 and
5.3%. Large foreign colonies, like adjoining but unmixing nations,
divide among themselves a large part of the city, and give to its life a
cosmopolitan colour of varied speech, opinion, habits, traditions,
social relations and religions. Most remarkable of all, the Roman
Catholic churches, in this stronghold of exiled Puritanism where
Catholics were so long under the heavy ban of law, outnumber those of
any single Protestant denomination; Irish Catholics dominate the
politics of the city, and Protestants and Catholics have been aligned
against each other on the question of the control of the public schools.
Despite, however, its heavy foreign admixture the old Americanism of the
city remains strikingly predominant. The population of Boston at the end
of each decennial period since 1790 was as follows:--(1790), 18,320;
(1800), 24,937; (1810), 33,787; (1820), 43,298; (1830), 61,392; (1840),
93,383; (1850), 136,881; (1860), 177,840; (1870), 250,526; (1880),
362,839; (1890), 448,477; (1900), 560,892.

_History._--John Smith visited Boston Harbour in 1614, and it was
explored in 1621 by a party from Plymouth. There were various attempts
to settle about its borders in the following years before John Endecott
in 1628 landed at Salem as governor of the colony of Massachusetts bay,
within which Boston was included. In June 1630 John Winthrop's company
reached Charlestown. At that time a "bookish recluse," William Blaxton
(Blackstone), one of the several "old planters" scattered about the bay,
had for several years been living on Boston peninsula. The location
seemed one suitable for commerce and defence, and the Winthrop party
chose it for their settlement. The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of
which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three
hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the
adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,--a name perpetuated
variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the
17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations,
it was ordered that "Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the
borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the
leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.[4]

For several years it was uncertain whether Cambridge, Charlestown or
Boston should be the capital of the colony, but in 1632 the General
Court agreed "by general consent, that Boston is the fittest place for
public meetings of any place in the Bay." It rapidly became the
wealthiest and most populous. Throughout the 17th century its history is
so largely that of Massachusetts generally that they are inseparable.
Theological systems were largely concerned. The chief features of this
epoch --the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions,
the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648,
1651, 1656, 1688) &c.--are referred to in the article MASSACHUSETTS
(q.v.). In 1692 the first permanent and successful printing press was
established; in 1704 the first newspaper in America, the _Boston
News-Letter_, which was published weekly until 1776. Puritanism steadily
mellowed under many influences. By the turn of the first century bigotry
was distinctly weakened. Among the marks of the second half of the 17th
century was growing material prosperity, and there were those who
thought their fellows unduly willing to relax church tests of fellowship
when good trade was in question. There was an unpleasant Englishman who
declared in 1699 that he found "Money Their God, and Large Possessions
the only Heaven they Covet." Prices were low, foreign commerce was
already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the
official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston "town" was
drawing society from the "country." Of the two-score or so of families
most prominent in the first century hardly one retained place in the
similar list for the early years of the second. Boston was a prosperous,
thrifty, English country town, one traveller thought. Another, Daniel
Neal, in 1720, found Boston conversation "as polite as in most of the
cities and towns in England, many of their merchants having the
advantage of a free conversation with travellers; so that a gentleman
from London would almost think himself at home at Boston, when he
observes the number of people, their houses, their furniture, their
tables, their dress and conversation, which perhaps is as splendid and
showy as that of the most considerable tradesmen in London."

The population, which was almost stationary through much of the century,
was about 20,000 in the years immediately before the War of
Independence. At this time Boston was the most flourishing town of North
America. It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried
goods for other colonies, it traded--often evading British laws--with
Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies. The
merchant princes and social leaders of the time are painted with
elaborate show of luxury in the canvases of Copley. The great English
writers of Queen Anne's reign seem to have been but little known in the
colony, and the local literature, though changed somewhat in character,
showed but scant improvement. About the middle of the century
restrictions upon the press began to disappear. At the same time
questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of
imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced
theology in leading interest. In the years 1760-1776 Boston was the most
frequently recurring and most important name in British colonial
history. Sentiments of limited independence of the British government
had been developing since the very beginning of the settlement (see
MASSACHUSETTS), and their strength in 1689 had been strikingly exhibited
in the local revolution of that year, when the royal governor, Sir
Edmund Andros, and other high officials, were frightened into surrender
and were imprisoned. This movement, it should be noted, was a popular
rising, and not the work of a few leaders.

The incidents that marked the approach of the War of Independence need
barely be adverted to. Opposition to the measures of the British
government for taxing and oppressing the colonies began in Boston. The
argument of Otis on the writs of assistance was in 1760-1761. The Stamp
Act, passed in 1765, was repealed in 1766; it was opposed in Boston by a
surprising show of determined and unified public sentiment. Troops were
first quartered in the town in 1768. In 1770, on the 5th of March, in a
street brawl, a number of citizens were killed or wounded by the
soldiers, who fired into a crowd that were baiting a sentry. This
incident is known as the "Boston Massacre." The Tea Act of 1773 was
defied by the emptying into the harbour of three cargoes of tea on the
16th of December 1773, by a party of citizens disguised as Indians,
after the people in town-meeting had exhausted every effort, through a
period of weeks, to procure the return of the tea-ships to England. To
this act Great Britain replied by various penal regulations and
reconstructive acts of government. She quartered troops in Boston; she
made the juries, sheriffs and judges of the colony dependent on the
royal officers; she ordered capital offenders to be tried in Nova Scotia
or England; she endeavoured completely to control or to abolish
town-meetings; and finally, by the so-called "Boston Port Bill," she
closed the port of Boston on the 1st of June 1774. Not even a ferry, a
scow or other boat could move in the harbour. Marblehead and Salem were
made ports of entry, and Salem was made the capital. But they would not
profit by Boston's misfortune. The people covenanted not to use British
goods and to suspend trade with Great Britain. From near neighbours and
from distant colonies came provisions and encouragement. In October
1774, when General Gage refused recognition to the Massachusetts general
court at Salem, the members adjourned to Concord as the first provincial
congress. Finally came war, with Lexington and Bunker Hill, and
beleaguerment by the colonial army; until on the 17th of March 1776 the
British were compelled by Washington to evacuate the city. With them
went about 1100 Tory refugees, many of them of the finest families of
the city and province. The evacuation closed the heroic period of
Boston's history. War did not again approach the city.

The years from 1776 to the end of "town" government in 1822 were marked
by slow growth and prosperity. Commerce and manufactures alike took
great impetus. Direct trade with the East Indies began about 1785, with
Russia in 1787. A Boston vessel, the "Columbia" (Captain Robert Gray),
opened trade with the north-west coast of America, and was the first
American ship to circumnavigate the globe (1787-1790). In 1805 Boston
began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended
to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro
and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled
Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York
throughout the entire period. But of course it was far less important
than various other articles of trade in the aggregate values of
commerce. It was Boston commerce that was most sorely hurt by the
embargo and non-importation policy of President Jefferson. In
manufactures the foundation was laid of the city's wealth. In politics
the period is characterized by Boston's connexion with the fortunes of
the Federalist party. The city was warmly in favour of the adoption of
the federal constitution of 1787; even Samuel Adams was rejected for
Congress because he was backward in its support. It was the losses
entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's
administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican
party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its
policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in
the Hartford Convention of 1814.

Some mention must be made of the Unitarian movement. Unitarian
tendencies away from the Calvinism of the old Congregational churches
were plainly evident about 1750, and it is said by Andrew P. Peabody
(1811-1893) that by 1780 nearly all the Congregational pulpits around
Boston were filled by Unitarians. Organized Unitarianism in Boston dates
from 1785. In 1782 King's chapel (Episcopal) became Unitarian, and in
1805 one of that faith was made professor of divinity in Harvard. But
the Unitarianism of those times, even the Unitarianism of Channing, was
very different from that of to-day. Theodore Parker and Channing have
been the greatest leaders. The American Unitarian Association, organized
in 1825, has always retained its headquarters in Boston. The theological
and philosophical developments of the second quarter of the 19th century
were characterized by the transcendental movement (see MASSACHUSETTS).

In the period from 1822 to the Civil War anti-slavery is the most
striking feature of Boston's annals. Garrison established the Liberator
in 1831; W.E. Channing became active in the cause of abolition in 1835,
and Wendell Phillips a little later. In 1835 a mob, composed in part of
wealthy and high-standing citizens, attacked a city-building, and
dragged Garrison through the streets until the mayor secured his safety
by putting him in gaol. But times changed. In 1850 a reception was given
in Faneuil Hall in honour of the English anti-slavery leader, George
Thompson, whose reported intention to address Bostonians in 1835
precipitated the riot of that year. In 1851 the Court House was
surrounded with chains to prevent the "rescue" of a slave (Sims) held
for rendition under the Fugitive Slave Law; another slave (Shadrach) was
released this same year, and in 1854 there was a riot and intense
excitement over the rendition of Anthony Burns. Boston had long since
taken her place in the very front of anti-slavery ranks, and with the
rest of Massachusetts was playing somewhat the same part as in the years
before the War of Independence.

Later events of importance have already been indicated in essentials. On
the 9th-10th of November 1872 a terrible fire swept the business part of
the city, destroying hundreds of buildings of brick and granite, and
inflicting a loss of some $75,000,000. Within two years the whole area,
solidly rebuilt and with widened and straightened streets, showed no
traces of the ruin except an appearance superior in all respects to that
presented before the fire. The expense of this re-creation probably
duplicated, at least, the loss from the conflagration. Since this time
there has been no set-back to the prosperity of the city. But it is not
upon material prosperity that Boston rests its claims for consideration.
It prides itself on its schools, its libraries, its literary traditions,
its splendid public works and its reputation as the chief centre of
American culture.

  AUTHORITIES.--See the annual _City Documents_; also Justin Winsor
  (ed.) _The Memorial History of Boston, including Suffolk County ...
  1630-1880_ (4 vols., Boston, 1880-1881), a work that covers every
  phase of the city's growth, history and life; S.A. Drake, _The History
  and Antiquities of ... Boston_ (2 vols., Boston, 1854; and later
  editions), and _Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston_
  (Boston, 1873, and later editions); Josiah Quincy, _A Municipal
  History of ... Boston ... to ... 1830_ (Boston, 1852); C.W. Ernst,
  _Constitutional History of Boston_ (Boston, 1894); H.H. Sprague, _City
  Government in Boston--its Rise and Development_ (Boston, 1890); E.E.
  Hale, _Historic Boston and its Neighbourhood_ (New York, 1898), and L.
  Swift, _Literary Landmarks of Boston_ (Boston, 1903). A great mass of
  original historical documents have been published by the registry
  department of the city government since 1876 (34 v. to 1905). Boston
  has been described in many works of fiction, and the reader may be
  referred to the novels of E.L. Bynner, to L. Maria Childs' _The
  Rebels_, to J.F. Cooper's _Lionel Lincoln_, to the early novels of
  W.D. Howells (also those of Arlo Bates), to O.W. Holmes' _Poet_ and
  _Autocrat_, and Hawthorne's _Scarlet Letter_, as pictures of Boston
  life at various periods since early colonial days.


  [1] On the alteration of streets alone $26,691,496 were expended from
    1822 to 1880.

  [2] Faneuil Hall is the headquarters of the Ancient and Honourable
    Artillery Company of Boston, the oldest military organization of the
    country, organized in 1638.

  [3] The dam is 1250 ft. long, with a maximum height of 129 ft., only
    750 ft. having a depth of more than 40 ft. from high water to rock.
    The entire surface of the basin was scraped to bed rock, sand or
    mineral earth, this alone costing $3,000,000. Connected with the
    reservoir is an aqueduct, of which 2 m. are tunnel and 7 m. covered
    masonry. The metropolitan system as planned in 1905 for the near
    future contemplated storage for 80,000,000,000 gallons, reservoirs
    holding 2,200,000,000 gallons for immediate use, aqueducts capable of
    carrying 420,000,000 gallons daily, and a minimum daily supply of
    173,000,000 gallons.

  [4] In 1851 the mayor of the English Boston sent over a copy of that
    city's seals, framed in oak from St Botolph's church, of which John
    Cotton, the famous Boston divine (he came over in 1633) had been
    vicar. The seals now hang in the city hall. In 1855 a number of
    Americans, including Charles Francis Adams and Edward Everett, and
    also various descendants of Cotton, united to restore the south-west
    chapel of St Botolph's church, and to erect in it a memorial tablet
    to Cotton's memory. The total amount raised by subscription for this
    purpose was £673.

BOSTON, a game of cards invented during the last quarter of the 18th
century. It is said to have originated in Boston, Massachusetts, during
the siege by the British. It seems to have been invented by the officers
of the French fleet which lay for a time off the town of Marblehead, and
the name of the two small islands in Marblehead harbour which have, from
the period of the American Revolution, been called Great and Little
Misery, correspond with expressions used in the game. William Tudor, in
his _Letters on the Eastern States_, published in 1821, states somewhat
differently that "A game of cards was invented in Versailles and called
in honour of the town, Boston; the points of the game are allusive,
'great independence,' 'little independence,' 'great misery,' 'little
misery,' &c. It is composed partly of whist and partly of quadrille,
though partaking mostly of the former." The game enjoyed an
extraordinary vogue in high French society, where it was the fashion at
that time to admire all things American. "The ladies... filled my
pockets with bon-bons, and ... called me _'le pétit Bostonien.'_ It was
indeed by the name of Bostonian that all Americans were known in France
then. The war having broken out in Boston and the first great battle
fought in its neighbourhood, gave to that name universal celebrity. A
game invented at that time, played with cards, was called 'Boston,' and
is to this day (1830) exceedingly fashionable at Paris by that
appellation" (_Recollections of Samuel Breck_, Philadelphia, 1877).
There was a tradition that Dr Franklin was fond of the game and even
that he had a hand in its invention. At the middle of the 19th century
it was still popular in Europe, and to a less degree in America, but its
favour has steadily declined since then.

  The rules of Boston recognized in English-speaking countries differ
  somewhat from those in vogue in France. According to the former, two
  packs of 52 cards are used, which rank as in whist, both for cutting
  and dealing. Four players take part, and there are usually no
  partners. Counters are used, generally of three colours and values,
  and each hand is settled for as soon as finished. The entire first
  pack is dealt out by fours and fives, and the second pack is cut for
  the trump, the suit of the card turned being "first preference," the
  other suit of the same colour "second preference" or "colour," while
  the two remaining suits are "plain suits." The eldest hand then
  announces that he will make a certain number of tricks provided he may
  name the trump, or lose a certain number without trumps. The different
  bids are called by various names, but the usual ones are as
  follows:--To win five tricks, "Boston." (To win) "six tricks." (To
  win) "seven tricks." To lose twelve tricks, after discarding one card
  that is not shown, "little _misère_." (To win) "eight tricks." (To
  win) "nine tricks." To lose every trick, "grand _misère_." (To win)
  "ten tricks." (To win) "eleven tricks." To lose twelve tricks, after
  discarding one card that is not shown, the remaining twelve cards
  being exposed on the table but not liable to be called, "little
  spread." (To win) "twelve tricks." To lose every trick with exposed
  cards, "grand spread." To win thirteen tricks, "grand slam." If a
  player does not care to bid he may pass, and the next player bids.
  Succeeding players may "overcall," _i.e_. overbid, previous bidders.
  Players passing may thereafter bid only "_misères_." If a player bids
  seven but makes ten he is paid for the three extra tricks, but on a
  lower scale than if he had bid ten. If no bid should be made, a
  "_misère partout_" (general poverty) is often played, the trump being
  turned down and each player striving to take as few tricks as
  possible. Payments are made by each loser according to the value of
  the winner's bid and the overtricks he has scored. There are regular
  tables of payments. In America overtricks are not usually paid for. In
  French Boston the knave of diamonds arbitrarily wins over all other
  cards, even trumps. The names of the different bids remind one of the
  period of the American Revolution, including "Independence,"
  "Philadelphia," "Souveraine," "Concordia," &c. Other variations of the
  game are _Boston de Fontainebleau_ and Russian Boston.

BOSTONITE, in petrology, a fine-grained, pale-coloured, grey or pinkish
rock, which consists essentially of alkali-felspar (orthoclase,
microperthite, &c.). Some of them contain a small amount of interstitial
quartz (quartz bostonites); others have a small percentage of lime,
which occasions the presence of a plagioclase felspar (maenite,
gauteite, lime-bostonite). Other minerals, except apatite, zircon and
magnetite, are typically absent. They have very much the same
composition as the trachytes; and many rocks of this series have been
grouped with these or with the orthophyres. Typically they occur as
dikes or as thin sills, often in association with nepheline-syenite; and
they seem to bear a complementary relationship to certain types of
lamprophyre, such as camptonite and monchiquite. Though nowhere very
common they have a wide distribution, being known from Scotland, Wales,
Massachusetts, Montreal, Portugal, Bohemia, &c. The lindoites and
quartz-lindoites of Norway are closely allied to the bostonites.

BOSTRÖM, CHRISTOFFER JACOB (1797-1866), Swedish philosopher, was born at
Piteå and studied at Upsala, where from 1840 to 1863 he was professor of
practical philosophy. His philosophy, as he himself described it, is a
thoroughgoing rational idealism founded on the principle that the only
true reality is spiritual. God is Infinite Spirit in whom all existence
is contained, and is outside the limitations of time and space. Thus
Boström protests not only against empiricism but also against those
doctrines of Christian theology which seemed to him to picture God as
something less than Pure Spirit. In ethics the highest aim is the
direction of actions by reason in harmony with the Divine; so the
state, like the individual, exists solely in God, and in its most
perfect form consists in the harmonious obedience of all its members to
a constitutional monarch; the perfection of mankind as a whole is to be
sought in a rational orderly system of such states in obedience to
Universal Reason. This system differs from Platonism in that the "ideas"
of God are not archetypal abstractions but concrete personalities.

  Boström's writings were edited by H. Edfeldt (2 vols., Upsala, 1883).
  For his school see SWEDEN: _Literature_; also H. Höffding, _Filosofien
  i Sverig_ (German trans. in _Philos. Monatsheften_, 1879), and
  _History of Mod. Philos._ (Eng. trans., 1900), p. 284; R. Falckenberg,
  _Hist. of Phil._ (Eng. trans., 1895); A. Nyblaeus, _Om den Boströmske
  filosofien_ (Lund, 1883), and _Karakteristik af den Boströmska
  filosofien_ (Lund, 1892).

BOSWELL, JAMES (1740-1795), Scottish man of letters, the biographer of
Samuel Johnson, was born at Edinburgh on the 29th of October 1740. His
grandfather was in good practice at the Scottish bar, and his father,
Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, was also a noted advocate, who, on his
elevation to the supreme court in 1754, took the name of his Ayrshire
property as Lord Auchinleck. A Thomas Boswell (said upon doubtful
evidence to have been a minstrel in the household of James IV.) was
killed at Flodden, and since 1513 the family had greatly improved its
position in the world by intermarriage with the first Scots nobility. In
contradiction to his father, a rigid Presbyterian Whig, James was "a
fine boy, wore a white cockade, and prayed for King James until his
uncle Cochrane gave him a shilling to pray for King George, which he
accordingly did" ("Whigs of all ages are made in the same way" was
Johnson's comment). He met one or two English boys, and acquired a
"tincture of polite letters" at the high school in Edinburgh. Like R.L.
Stevenson, he early frequented society such as that of the actors at the
Edinburgh theatre, sternly disapproved of by his father. At the
university, where he was constrained for a season to study civil law, he
met William Johnson Temple, his future friend and correspondent. The
letters of Boswell to his "Atticus" were first published by Bentley in
1857. One winter he spent at Glasgow, where he sat under Adam Smith, who
was then lecturing on moral philosophy and rhetoric.

In 1760 he was first brought into contact with "the elegance, the
refinement and the liberality" of London society, for which he had long
sighed. The young earl of Eglintoun took him to Newmarket and introduced
him into the society of "the great, the gay and the ingenious." He wrote
a poem called "The Cub at Newmarket," published by Dodsley in 1762, and
had visions of entering the Guards. Reclaimed with some difficulty by
his father from his rakish companions in the metropolis, he contrived to
alleviate the irksomeness of law study in Edinburgh by forcing his
acquaintance upon the celebrities then assembled in the northern
capital, among them Kames, Blair, Robertson, Hume and Sir David
Dalrymple (Lord Hailes), of whose sayings on the Northern Circuit he
kept a brief journal. Boswell had already realized his vocation, the
exercise of which was to give a new word to the language. He had begun
to Boswellize. He was already on the track of bigger game--the biggest
available in the Britain of that day. In the spring of 1763 Boswell came
to a composition with his father. He consented to give up his pursuit of
a guidon in the Guards and three and sixpence a day on condition that
his father would allow him to study civil law on the continent. He set
out in April 1763 by "the best road in Scotland" with a servant, on
horseback like himself, in "a cocked hat, a brown wig, brown coat made
in the court fashion, red vest, corduroy small clothes and long military
boots." On Monday, the 16th of May 1763, in the back shop of Tom Davies
the bookseller, No. 8 Russell Street, Covent Garden, James Boswell first
met "Dictionary Johnson," the great man of his dreams, and was severely
buffeted by him. Eight days later, on Tuesday, the 24th of May, Boswell
boldly called on Mr Johnson at his chambers on the first floor of No. 1
Inner Temple Lane. On this occasion Johnson pressed him to stay; on the
13th of June he said, "Come to me as often as you can"; on the 25th of
June Boswell gave the great man a little sketch of his own life, and
Johnson exclaimed with warmth, "Give me your hand; I have taken a
liking to you." Boswell experienced a variety of sensations, among which
exultation was predominant. Some one asked, "Who is this Scotch cur at
Johnson's heels?" "He is not a cur," replied Goldsmith, "he is only a
bur. Tom Davies flung him at Johnson in sport, and he has the faculty of
sticking." Johnson was fifty-four at this time and Boswell twenty-three.
After June 1763 they met on something like 270 subsequent days. These
meetings formed the memorable part of Boswell's life, and they are told
inimitably in his famous biography of his friend.

The friendship, consecrated by the most delightful of biographies, and
one of the most gorgeous feasts in the whole banquet of letters, was not
so ill-assorted as has been inconsiderately maintained. Boswell's
freshness at the table of conversation gave a new zest to every maxim
that Johnson enunciated, while Boswell developed a perfect genius for
interpreting the kind of worldly philosophy at which Johnson was so
unapproachable. Both men welcomed an excuse for avoiding the task-work
of life. Johnson's favourite indulgence was to talk; Boswell's great
idea of success to elicit memorable conversation. Boswell is almost
equally admirable as a reporter and as an interviewer, as a collector
and as a researcher. He prepared meetings for Johnson, he prepared
topics for him, he drew him out on questions of the day, he secured a
copy of his famous letter to Lord Chesterfield, he obtained an almost
verbatim report of Johnson's interview with the king, he frequented the
tea-table of Miss Williams, he attended the testy old scholar on lengthy
peregrinations in the Highlands and in the midlands. "Sir," said Johnson
to his follower, "you appear to have only two subjects, yourself and me,
and I am sick of both." Yet thorough as the scheme was from the outset,
and admirable as was the devotedness of the biographer, Boswell was far
too volatile a man to confine himself to any one ambition in life that
was not consistent with a large amount of present fame and notoriety. He
would have liked to Boswellize the popular idol Wilkes, or Chatham, or
Voltaire, or even the great Frederick himself. As it was, during his
continental tour he managed in the autumn of 1765 to get on terms with
Pasquale di Paoli, the leader of the Corsican insurgents in their unwise
struggle against Genoa. After a few weeks in Corsica he returned to
London in February 1766, and was received by Johnson with the utmost
cordiality. In accordance with the family compact referred to, he was
now admitted advocate at Edinburgh, and signalized his return to the law
by an enthusiastic pamphlet entitled _The Essence of the Douglas Cause_
(November 1767), in which he vigorously repelled the charge of imposture
from the youthful claimant. In the same year he issued a little book
called _Dorando_, containing a history of the Douglas cause in the guise
of a Spanish tale, and bringing the story to a conclusion by the triumph
of Archibald Douglas in the law courts. Editors who published extracts
while the case was still _sub judice_ were censured severely by the
court of session; but though his identity was notorious the author
himself escaped censure. In the spring of 1768 Boswell published through
the Foulis brothers of Glasgow his _Account of Corsica, Journal of a
Tour to that Island, and Memoirs of Pascal Paoli_. The liveliness of
personal impression which he managed to communicate to all his books
gained for this one a deserved success, and the _Tour_ was promptly
translated into French, German, Italian and Dutch. Walpole and others,
jeered, but Boswell was talked about everywhere, as Paoli Boswell or
Paoli's Englishman, and to aid the mob in the task of identifying him at
the Shakespeare jubilee of 1769 he took the trouble to insert a placard
in his hat bearing the legend "Corsica Boswell." The amazing costume of
"a Corsican chief" which he wore on this occasion was described at
length in the magazines.

On the 25th of November 1769, after a short tour in Ireland undertaken
to empty his head of Corsica (Johnson's emphatic direction), Boswell
married his cousin Margaret Montgomery at Lainshaw in Ayrshire. For some
years henceforth his visits to London were brief, but on the 30th of
April 1773 he was present at his admission to the Literary Club, for
which honour he had been proposed by Johnson himself, and in the autumn
of this year in the course of his tour to the Hebrides Johnson visited
the Boswells in Ayrshire. Neither Boswell's father nor his wife shared
his enthusiasm for the lexicographer. Lord Auchinleck remarked that
Jamie was "gane clean gyte ... And whose tail do ye think he has pinned
himself to now, man? A dominie, an auld dominie, that keepit a schule
and ca'd it an academy!" Housewives less prim than Mrs Boswell might
have objected to Johnson's habit of turning lighted candles upside down
when in the parlour to make them burn better. She called the great man a
bear. Boswell's _Journal of a Tour in the Hebrides_ was written for the
most part during the journey, but was not published until the spring of
1786. The diary of Pepys was not then known to the public, and Boswell's
indiscretions as to the emotions aroused in him by the neat ladies'
maids at Inveraray, and the extremity of drunkenness which he exhibited
at Corrichatachin, created a literary sensation and sent the _Tour_
through three editions in one year. In the meantime his pecuniary and
other difficulties at home were great; he made hardly more than £100 a
year by his profession, and his relations with his father were
chronically strained. In 1775 he began to keep terms at the Inner Temple
and managed to see a good deal of Johnson, between whom and John Wilkes
he succeeded in bringing about a meeting at the famous dinner at Dilly's
on the 15th of May 1776. On the 30th of August 1782 his father died,
leaving him an estate worth £1600 a year. On the 30th of June 1784,
Boswell met Johnson for the last time at a dinner at Sir Joshua
Reynolds's. He accompanied him back in the coach from Leicester Square
to Bolt Court. "We bade adieu to each other affectionately in the
carriage. When he had got down upon the foot pavement he called out
'Fare you well'; and without looking back, sprung away with a kind of
pathetic briskness, if I may use that expression, which seemed to
indicate a struggle to conceal uneasiness, and impressed me with a
foreboding of our long, long separation." Johnson died that year, and
two years later the Boswells moved to London. In 1789 Mrs Boswell died,
leaving five children. She had been an excellent mother and a good wife,
despite the infidelities and drunkenness of her husband, and from her
death Boswell relapsed into worse excesses, grievously aggravated by
hypochondria. He died of a complication of disorders at his house in
Great Poland Street on the 19th of May 1795, and was buried a fortnight
later at Auchinleck.

Up to the eve of his last illness Boswell had been busy upon his magnum
opus, _The Life of Samuel Johnson_, which was in process of
crystallization to the last. The first edition was published in two
quarto volumes in an edition of 1700 copies on the 16th of May 1791. He
was preparing a third edition when he died; this was completed by his
friend Edmund Malone, who brought out a fifth edition in 1807. That of
James Boswell junior (the editor of Malone's _Variorum Shakespeare_,
1821) appeared in 1811.

The _Life of Johnson_ was written on a scale practically unknown to
biographers before Boswell. It is a full-length with all the blotches
and pimples revealed ("I will not make my tiger a cat to please
anybody," wrote "Bozzy"). It may be overmuch an exhibition of oddities,
but it is also, be it remembered, a pioneer application of the
experimental method to the determination of human character. Its size
and lack of divisions (to divide it into chapters was an original device
of Croker's) are a drawback, and have prevented Boswell's _Life_ from
that assured triumph abroad which has fallen to the lot of various
English classics such as _Robinson Crusoe_ or _Gulliver's Travels_. But
wherever English is spoken, it has become a veritable sacred book and
has pervaded English life and thought in the same way, that the Bible,
Shakespeare and Bunyan have done. Boswell has successfully (to use his
own phrase) "Johnsonized" Britain, but has not yet Johnsonized the
planet. The model originally proposed to himself by Boswell was Mason's
_Life of Gray_, but he far surpassed that, or indeed any other, model.
The fashion that Boswell adopted of giving the conversations not in the
neutral tints of _oratio obliqua_ but in full _oratio recta_ was a
stroke of genius. But he is far from being the mere mechanical
transmitter of good things. He is a dramatic and descriptive artist of
the first order. The extraordinary vitality of his figures postulates a
certain admixture of fiction, and it is certain that Boswell exaggerates
the sympathy expressed in word or deed by Johnson for some of his own
tenderer foibles. But, on the whole, the best judges are of opinion that
Boswell's accuracy is exceptional, as it is undoubtedly seconded by a
power of observation of a singular retentiveness and intensity. The
difficulty of dramatic description can only be realized, as Jowett well
pointed out, by those who have attempted it, and it is not until we
compare Boswell's reports with those of less skilful hearers that we can
appreciate the skill with which the essence of a conversation is
extracted, and the whole scene indicated by a few telling touches. The
result is that Johnson, not, it is true, in the early days of his
poverty, total idleness and the pride of literature, but in the fulness
of fame and competence of fortune from 1763 to 1784, is better known to
us than any other man in history. The old theory to explain such a
marvel (originally propounded by Gray when the _Tour in Corsica_
appeared) that "any fool may write a valuable book by chance" is now
regarded as untenable. If fool is a word to describe Boswell (and his
folly was at times transcendent) he wrote his great book because and not
in despite of the fact that he was one. There can be no doubt, in fact,
that he was a biographical genius, and that he arranged his
opportunities just as he prepared his transitions and introduced those
inimitable glosses by which Johnson's motives are explained, his state
of mind upon particular occasions indicated, and the general feeling of
his company conveyed. This remarkable literary faculty, however, was but
a fraction of the total make-up requisite to produce such a masterpiece
as the _Life_. There is a touch of genius, too, in the naïf and
imperturbable good nature and persistency ("Sir, I will not be baited
with 'what' and 'why.' 'Why is a cow's tail long?' 'Why is a fox's tail
bushy?'"), and even in the abnegation of all personal dignity, with
which Boswell pursued his hero. As he himself said of Goldsmith, "He had
sagacity enough to cultivate assiduously the acquaintance of Johnson,
and his faculties were gradually enlarged." Character, the vital
principle of the individual, is the _ignis fatuus_ of the mechanical
biographer. Its attainment may be secured by a variety of means--witness
Xenophon, Cellini, Aubrey, Lockhart and Froude--but it has never been
attained with such complete intensity as by Boswell in his _Life of
Johnson_. The more we study Boswell, the more we compare him with other
biographers, the greater his work appears.

  The eleventh edition of Boswell's _Johnson_ was brought out by John
  Wilson Croker in 1831; in this the original text is expanded by
  numerous letters and variorum anecdotes and is already knee-deep in
  annotation. Its blunders provoked the celebrated and mutually
  corrective criticisms of Macaulay and Carlyle. Its value as an
  unrivalled granary of Johnsoniana, stored opportunely before the last
  links with a Johnsonian age had disappeared, has not been adequately
  recognized. A new edition of the original text was issued in 1874 by
  Percy Fitzgerald (who has also written a useful life of James Boswell
  in 2 vols., London, 1891); a six-volume edition, including the _Tour_
  and Johnsoniana, was published by the Rev. Alexander Napier in 1884;
  the definitive edition is that by Dr Birkbeck Hill in 6 vols., 1887,
  with copious annotations and a model index. A generously illustrated
  edition was completed in 1907 in two large volumes by Roger Ingpen,
  and reprints of value have also been edited by R. Carruthers (with
  woodcuts), A. Birrell, Mowbray Morris (Globe edition) and Austin
  Dobson. A short biography of Boswell was written in 1896 by W. Keith
  Leask. Boswell's commonplace-book was published in 1876, under the
  title of _Boswelliana_, with a memoir by the Rev. C. Rogers.
       (T. Se.)

BOSWORTH, JOSEPH (1789-1876), British Anglo-Saxon scholar, was born in
Derbyshire in 1789. Educated at Repton, whence he proceeded to Aberdeen
University, he became in 1817 vicar of Little Horwood, Buckinghamshire,
and devoted his spare time to literature and particularly to the study
of Anglo-Saxon. In 1823 appeared his _Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar_.
In 1829 Bosworth went to Holland as chaplain, first at Amsterdam and
then at Rotterdam. He remained in Holland until 1840, working there on
his _Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language_ (1838), his best-known
work. In 1857 he became rector of Water Shelford, Buckinghamshire, and
in the following year was appointed Rawlinson professor of Anglo-Saxon
at Oxford. He gave to the university of Cambridge in 1867 £10,000 for
the establishment of a professorship of Anglo-Saxon. He died on the
27th of May 1876, leaving behind him a mass of annotations on the
Anglo-Saxon charters.

BOTANY (from Gr. [Greek: botanae], plant; [Greek: bodkein], to graze),
the science which includes everything relating to the vegetable kingdom,
whether in a living or in a fossil state. It embraces a consideration of
the external forms of plants--of their anatomical structure, however
minute--of the functions which they perform --of their arrangement and
classification--of their distribution over the globe at the present and
at former epochs--and of the uses to which they are subservient. It
examines the plant in its earliest state of development, and follows it
through all its stages of progress until it attains maturity. It takes a
comprehensive view of all the plants which cover the earth, from the
minutest organism, only visible by the aid of the microscope, to the
most gigantic productions of the tropics. It marks the relations which
subsist between all members of the plant world, including those between
existing groups and those which are known only from their fossilized
remains preserved in the rocks. We deal here with the history and
evolution of the science.

The plants which adorn the globe more or less in all countries must
necessarily have attracted the attention of mankind from the earliest
times. The science that treats of them dates back to the days of
Solomon, who "spake of trees, from the cedar of Lebanon to the hyssop on
the wall." The Chaldaeans, Egyptians and Greeks were the early
cultivators of science, and botany was not neglected, although the study
of it was mixed up with crude speculations as to vegetable life, and as
to the change of plants into animals. About 300 years before Christ
Theophrastus wrote a _History of Plants_, and described about 500
species used for the treatment of diseases. Dioscorides, a Greek writer,
who appears to have flourished about the time of Nero, issued a work on
Materia Medica. The elder Pliny described about a thousand plants, many
of them famous for their medicinal virtues. Asiatic and Arabian writers
also took up this subject. Little, however, was done in the science of
botany, properly so called, until the 16th century of the Christian era,
when the revival of learning dispelled the darkness which had long hung
over Europe. Otto Brunfels, a physician of Bern, has been looked upon as
the restorer of the science in Europe. In his _Herbarium_, printed at
Strassburg (1530-1536), he gave descriptions of a large number of
plants, chiefly those of central Europe, illustrated by beautiful
woodcuts. He was followed by other writers,--Leonhard Fuchs, whose
_Historia Stirpium_ (Basel, 1542) is worthy of special note for its
excellent woodcuts; Hieronymus Bock, whose _Kreutter Buch_ appeared in
1539; and William Turner, "The Father of English Botany," the first part
of whose _New Herbal_, printed in English, was issued in 1551. The
descriptions in these early works were encumbered with much medicinal
detail, including speculations as to the virtues of plants. Plants which
were strikingly alike were placed together, but there was at first
little attempt at systematic classification. A crude system, based on
the external appearance of plants and their uses to man, was gradually
evolved, and is well illustrated in the _Herbal_, issued in 1597 by John
Gerard (1545-1612), a barber-surgeon, who had a garden in Holborn, and
was a keen student of British plants.

One of the earliest attempts at a methodical arrangement of plants was
made in Florence by Andreas Caesalpinus (1519-1603), who is called by
Linnaeus _primus verus systematicus_. In his work _De Plantis_,
published at Florence in 1583, he distributed the 1520 plants then known
into fifteen classes, the distinguishing characters being taken from the

John Ray (1627-1705) did much to advance the science of botany, and was
also a good zoologist. He promulgated a system which may be considered
as the dawn of the "natural system" of the present day (Ray, _Methodus
Plantarum_, 1682). He separated flowering from flowerless plants, and
divided the former into Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. His orders (or
"classes") were founded to some extent on a correct idea of the
affinities of plants, and he far outstripped his contemporaries in his
enlightened views of arrangement.

About the year 1670 Dr Robert Morison[1] (1620-1683), the first
professor of botany at Oxford, published a systematic arrangement of
plants, largely on the lines previously suggested by Caesalpinus. He
divided them into eighteen classes, distinguishing plants according as
they were woody or herbaceous, and taking into account the nature of the
flowers and fruit. In 1690 Rivinus[2] promulgated a classification
founded chiefly on the forms of the flowers. J.P. de Tournefort[3]
(1656-1708), who about the same time took up the subject of vegetable
taxonomy, was long at the head of the French school of botany, and
published a systematic arrangement in 1694-1700. He described about 8000
species of plants, and distributed them into twenty-two classes, chiefly
according to the form of the corolla, distinguishing herbs and
under-shrubs on the one hand from trees and shrubs on the other. The
system of Tournefort was for a long time adopted on the continent, but
was ultimately displaced by that of Carl von Linné, or Linnaeus (q.v.;

The system of Linnaeus was founded on characters derived from the
stamens and pistils, the so-called sexual organs of the flower, and
hence it is often called the sexual system. It is an artificial method,
because it takes into account only a few marked characters in plants,
and does not propose to unite them by natural affinities. It is an index
to a department of the book of nature, and as such is useful to the
student. It does not aspire to any higher character, and although it
cannot be looked upon as a scientific and natural arrangement, still it
has a certain facility of application which at once commended it. It
does not of itself give the student a view of the true relations of
plants, and by leading to the discovery of the name of a plant, it is
only a stepping-stone to the natural system. Linnaeus himself claimed
nothing higher for it. He says--"Methodi Naturalis fragmenta studiose
inquirenda sunt. Primum et ultimum hoc in botanicis desideratum est.
Natura non facit saltus. Plantae omnes utrinque affinitatem monstrant,
uti territorium in mappa geographica." Accordingly, besides his
artificial index, he also promulgated fragments of a natural method of

The Linnean system was strongly supported by Sir James Edward Smith
(1759-1828), who adopted it in his _English Flora_, and who also became
possessor of the Linnean collection. The system was for a long time the
only one taught in the schools of Britain, even after it had been
discarded by those in France and in other continental countries.

The foundation of botanic gardens during the 16th and 17th centuries did
much in the way of advancing botany. They were at first appropriated
chiefly to the cultivation of medicinal plants. This was especially the
case at universities, where medical schools existed. The first botanic
garden was established at Padua in 1545, and was followed by that of
Pisa. The garden at Leiden dates from 1577, that at Leipzig from 1579.
Gardens also early existed at Florence and Bologna. The Montpellier
garden was founded in 1592, that of Giessen in 1605, of Strassburg in
1620, of Altdorf in 1625, and of Jena in 1629. The Jardin des Plantes at
Paris was established in 1626, and the Upsala garden in 1627. The
botanic garden at Oxford was founded in 1632. The garden at Edinburgh
was founded by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald in 1670, and,
under the name of the Physic Garden, was placed under the
superintendence of James Sutherland, afterwards professor of botany in
the university. The garden at Kew dates from about 1730, when Frederick,
prince of Wales, obtained a long lease of Kew House and its gardens from
the Capel family. After his death in 1751 his widow, Princess Augusta of
Saxe-Gotha, showed great interest in their scientific development, and
in 1759 engaged William Aiton to establish a Physic Garden. The garden
of the Royal Dublin Society at Glasnevin was opened about 1796; that of
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1807; and that of Glasgow in 1818. The
Madrid garden dates from 1763, and that of Coimbra from 1773. Jean
Gesner (1709-1790), a Swiss physician and botanist, states that at the
end of the 18th century there were 1600 botanic gardens in Europe.

A new era dawned on botanical classification with the work of Antoine
Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836). His uncle, Bernard de Jussieu, had
adopted the principles of Linnaeus's _Fragmenta_ in his arrangement of
the plants in the royal garden at the Trianon. At an early age Antoine
became botanical demonstrator in the Jardin des Plantes, and was thus
led to devote his time to the science of botany. Being called upon to
arrange the plants in the garden, he necessarily had to consider the
best method of doing so, and, following the lines already suggested by
his uncle, adopted a system founded in a certain degree on that of Ray,
in which he embraced all the discoveries in organography, adopted the
simplicity of the Linnean definitions, and displayed the natural
affinities of plants. His _Genera Plantarum_, begun in 1778, and finally
published in 1789, was an important advance, and formed the basis of all
natural classifications. One of the early supporters of this natural
method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813
published his _Théorie élémentaire de la botanique_, in which he showed
that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study
of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their
functions (physiology). His _Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni
Vegetabilis_ was intended to embrace an arrangement and description of
all known plants. The work was continued after his death, by his son
Alphonse de Candolle, with the aid of other eminent botanists, and
embraces descriptions of the genera and species of the orders of
Dicotyledonous plants. The system followed by de Candolle is a
modification of that of Jussieu.

In arranging plants according to a natural method, we require to have a
thorough knowledge of structural and morphological botany, and hence we
find that the advances made in these departments have materially aided
the efforts of systematic botanists.

Robert Brown (1773-1858) was the first British botanist to support and
advocate the natural system of classification. The publication of his
_Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae_ (in 1810), according to the natural
method, led the way to the adoption of that method in the universities
and schools of Britain. In 1827 Brown announced his important discovery
of the distinction between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms, and the
philosophical character of his work led A. von Humboldt to refer to him
as "Botanicorum facile princeps." In 1830 John Lindley published the
first edition of his _Introduction to the Natural System_, embodying a
slight modification of de Candolle's system. From the year 1832 up to
1859 great advances were made in systematic botany, both in Britain and
on the continent of Europe. The _Enchiridion_ and _Genera Plantarum_ of
S.L. Endlicher (1804-1849), the _Prodromus_ of de Candolle, and the
_Vegetable Kingdom_ (1846) of J. Lindley became the guides in systematic
botany, according to the natural system.

The least satisfactory part of all these systems was that concerned with
the lower plants or Cryptogams as contrasted with the higher or
flowering plants (Phanerogams). The development of the compound
microscope rendered possible the accurate study of their life-histories;
and the publication in 1851 of the results of Wilhelm Hofmeister's
researches on the comparative embryology of the higher Cryptogamia shed
a flood of light on their relationships to each other and to the higher
plants, and supplied the basis for the distinction of the great groups
Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Phanerogamae, the last named
including Gymnospermae and Angiospermae.

A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are
frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much
used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker,
whose _Genera Plantarum_ (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the
genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination. The
arrangement is a modification of that adopted by the de Candolles.
Another system differing somewhat in detail is that of A.W. Eichler
(Berlin, 1883), a modified form of which was elaborated by Dr Adolf
Engler of Berlin, the principal editor of _Die natrürliche

The study of the anatomy and physiology of plants did not keep pace with
the advance in classification. Nehemiah Grew and his contemporary
Marcello Malpighi were the earliest discoverers in the department of
plant anatomy. Both authors laid an account of the results of their
study of plant structure before the Royal Society of London almost at
the same time in 1671. Malpighi's complete work, _Anatome Plantarum_,
appeared in 1675 and Grew's _Anatomy of Plants_ in 1682. For more than a
hundred years the study of internal structure was neglected. In 1802
appeared the _Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie végétale_ of C.F.B. de
Mirbel (1776-1854), which was quickly followed by other publications by
Kurt Sprengel, L.C. Treviranus (1779-1864), and others. In 1812 J.J.
P. Moldenhawer isolated cells by maceration of tissues in water. The
work of F.J.F. Meyen and H. von Mohl in the middle of the 19th century
placed the study of plant anatomy on a more scientific basis. Reference
must also be made to M.J. Schleiden (1804-1881) and F. Unger
(1800-1870), while in K.W. von Nägeli's investigations on molecular
structure and the growth of the cell membrane we recognize the origin of
modern methods of the study of cell-structure included under cytology
(q.v.). The work of Karl Sanio and Th. Hartig advanced knowledge on the
structure and development of tissues, while A. de Bary's _Comparative
Anatomy of the Phanerogams and Ferns_ (1877) supplied an admirable
presentation of the facts so far known. Since then the work has been
carried on by Ph. van Tieghem and his pupils, and others, who have
sought to correlate the large mass of facts and to find some general
underlying principles (see PLANTS: _Anatomy of_).

The subject of fertilization was one which early excited attention. The
idea of the existence of separate sexes in plants was entertained in
early times, long before separate male and female organs had been
demonstrated. The production of dates in Egypt, by bringing two kinds of
flowers into contact, proves that in very remote periods some notions
were entertained on the subject. Female date-palms only were cultivated,
and wild ones were brought from the desert in order to fertilize them.
Herodotus informs us that the Babylonians knew of old that there were
male and female date-trees, and that the female required the concurrence
of the male to become fertile. This fact was also known to the
Egyptians, the Phoenicians and other nations of Asia and Africa. The
Babylonians suspended male clusters from wild dates over the females;
but they seem to have supposed that the fertility thus produced depended
on the presence of small flies among the wild flowers, which, by
entering the female flowers, caused them to set and ripen. The process
was called palmification. Theophrastus, who succeeded Aristotle in his
school in the 114th Olympiad, frequently mentions the sexes of plants,
but he does not appear to have determined the organs of reproduction.
Pliny, who flourished under Vespasian, speaks particularly of a male and
female palm, but his statements were not founded on any real knowledge
of the organs. From Theophrastus down to Caesalpinus, who died at Rome
in 1603, there does not appear to have been any attention paid to the
reproductive organs of plants. Caesalpinus had his attention directed to
the subject, and he speaks of a halitus or emanation from the male
plants causing fertility in the female.

Nehemiah Grew seems to have been the first to describe, in a paper on
the _Anatomy of Plants_, read before the Royal Society in November 1676,
the functions of the stamens and pistils. Up to this period all was
vague conjecture. Grew speaks of the _attire_, or the stamens, as being
the male parts, and refers to conversations with Sir Thomas Millington,
Sedleian professor at Oxford, to whom the credit of the sexual theory
seems really to belong. Grew says that "when the attire or apices break
or open, the globules or dust falls down on the seedcase or uterus, and
touches it with a prolific virtue." Ray adopted Grew's views, and states
various arguments to prove their correctness in the preface to his work
on European plants, published in 1694. In 1694 R.J. Camerarius,
professor of botany and medicine at Tübingen, published a letter on the
sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the
organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered
in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants. In 1703 Samuel Morland,
in a paper read before the Royal Society, stated that the farina
(pollen) is a congeries of seminal plants, one of which must be conveyed
into every ovum or seed before it can become prolific. In this
remarkable statement he seems to anticipate in part the discoveries
afterwards made as to pollen tubes, and more particularly the peculiar
views promulgated by Schleiden. In 1711 E.F. Geoffrey, in a memoir
presented to the Royal Academy at Paris, supported the views of Grew and
others as to the sexes of plants. He states that the germ is never to be
seen in the seed till the apices (anthers) shed their dust; and that if
the stamina be cut out before the apices open, the seed will either not
ripen, or be barren if it ripens. He mentions two experiments made by
him to prove this--one by cutting off the staminal flowers in Maize, and
the other by rearing the female plant of Mercurialis apart from the
male. In these instances most of the flowers were abortive, but a few
were fertile, which he attributes to the dust of the apices having been
wafted by the wind from other plants.

Linnaeus took up the subject in the inauguration of his sexual system.
He first published his views in 1736, and he thus writes--"Antheras et
stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio,
Rayo, Camerario, Godofredo, Morlando, Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio,
Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c., detectum, descriptum, et pro infallibili
assumptum; nec ullum, apertis oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae
flores, latere potest." He divided plants into sexual and asexual, the
former being Phanerogamous or flowering, and the latter Cryptogamous or
flowerless. In the latter division of plants he could not detect stamens
and pistils, and he did not investigate the mode in which their germs
were produced. He was no physiologist, and did not promulgate any views
as to the embryogenic process. His followers were chiefly engaged in the
arrangement and classification of plants, and while descriptive botany
made great advances the physiological department of the science was
neglected. His views were not, however, adopted at once by all, for we
find Charles Alston stating arguments against them in his _Dissertation
on the Sexes of Plants_. Alston's observations were founded on what
occurred in certain unisexual plants, such as Mercurialis, Spinach,
Hemp, Hop and Bryony. The conclusion at which he arrives is that the
pollen is not in all flowering plants necessary for impregnation, for
fertile seeds can be produced without its influence. He supports
parthenogenesis in some plants. Soon after the promulgation of
Linnaeus's method of classification, the attention of botanists was
directed to the study of Cryptogamic plants, and the valuable work of
Johann Hedwig (1730-1799) on the reproductive organs of mosses made its
appearance in 1782. He was one of the first to point out the existence
of certain cellular bodies in these plants which appeared to perform the
functions of reproductive organs, and to them the names of antheridia
and pistillidia were given. This opened up a new field of research, and
led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since
been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries. The
interesting observations of Morland, already quoted, seem to have been
neglected, and no one attempted to follow in the path which he had
pointed out. Botanists were for a long time content to know that the
scattering of the pollen from the anther, and its application to the
stigma, were necessary for the production of perfect seed, but the
stages of the process of fertilization remained unexplored. The matter
seemed involved in mystery, and no one attempted to raise the veil which
hung over the subject of embryogeny. The general view was, that the
embryo originated in the ovule, which was in some obscure manner
fertilized by the pollen.

In 1815 L.C. Treviranus, professor of botany in Bonn, roused the
attention of botanists to the development of the embryo, but although he
made valuable researches, he did not add much in the way of new
information. In 1823 G.B. Amici discovered the existence of pollen
tubes, and he was followed by A.T. Brongniart and R. Brown. The latter
traced the tubes as far as the nucleus of the ovule. These important
discoveries mark a new epoch in embryology, and may be said to be the
foundation of the views now entertained, which were materially aided by
the subsequent elucidation of the process of cytogenesis, or
cell-development, by Schleiden, Schwann, Mohl and others. The whole
subject of fertilization and development of the embryo has been more
recently investigated with great assiduity and zeal, as regards both
cryptogamous and phanerogamous plants, and details must be sought in the
various special articles. The observations of Darwin as to the
fertilization of orchids, _Primula, Linum_ and _Lythrum_, and other
plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an
explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at
the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of
botany, which has been followed by Hermann Müller, Federico Delpino and
others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.

One of the earliest workers at plant physiology was Stephen Hales. In
his _Statical Essays_ (1727) he gave an account of numerous experiments
and observations which he had made on the nutrition of plants and the
movement of sap in them. He showed that the gaseous constituents of the
air contribute largely to the nourishment of plants, and that the leaves
are the organs which elaborate the food; the importance of leaves in
nutrition had been previously pointed out by Malpighi in a short account
of nutrition which forms an appendix to his anatomical work. The birth
of modern chemistry in the work of J. Priestley and Lavoisier, at the
close of the 18th century, made possible the scientific study of
plant-nutrition, though Jan Ingenhousz in 1779 discovered that plants
incessantly give out carbonic acid gas, but that the green leaves and
shoots only exhale oxygen in sunlight or clear daylight, thereby
indicating the distinction between assimilation of carbonic acid gas
(photosynthesis) and respiration. N.T. de Saussure (1767-1845) gave
precision to the science of plant-nutrition by use of quantitative
methods. The subjects of plant nutrition and respiration were further
studied by R.J.H. Dutrochet towards the middle of the century, and
Liebig's application of chemistry to agriculture and physiology put
beyond question the parts played by the atmosphere and the soil in the
nutrition of plants.

The phenomena of movements of the organs of plants attracted the
attention of John Ray (1693), who ascribed the movements of the leaf of
Mimosa and others to alteration in temperature. Linnaeus also studied
the periodical movements of flowers and leaves, and referred to the
assumption of the night-position as the sleep-movement. Early in the
19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth
of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made
other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant
organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H. von Mohl
and others contributed to the advance of this phase of plant physiology.
Darwin's experiments in reference to the movements of climbing and
twining plants, and of leaves in insectivorous plants, have opened up a
wide field of inquiry as to the relation between plants and the various
external factors, which has attracted numerous workers. By the work of
Julius Sachs and his pupils plant physiology was established on a
scientific basis, and became an important part of the study of plants,
for the development of which reference may be made to the article
PLANTS: _Physiology_. The study of form and development has advanced
under the name "morphology," with the progress of which are associated
the names of K. Goebel, E. Strasburger, A. de Bary and others, while
more recently, as cytology (q.v.), the intimate study of the cell and
its contents has attracted considerable attention.

The department of geographical botany made rapid advance by means of the
various scientific expeditions which have been sent to all quarters of
the globe, as well as by individual effort (see PLANTS: _Distribution_)
since the time of A. von Humboldt. The question of the mode in which the
floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to
important speculations by such eminent botanical travellers as Charles
Darwin, Sir J.D. Hooker, A.R. Wallace and others. The connexion
between climate and vegetation has also been studied. Quite recently
under the name of "Ecology" or "Oecology" the study of plants in
relation to each other and to their environment has become the subject
of systematic investigation.

The subject of palaeontological botany (see PALAEOBOTANY) has been
advanced by the researches of both botanists and geologists. The nature
of the climate at different epochs of the earth's history has also been
determined from the character of the flora. The works of A.T.
Brongniart, H.R. Goeppert and W.P. Schimper advanced this department of
science. Among others who contributed valuable papers on the subject may
be noticed Oswald Heer (1809-1883), who made observations on the Miocene
flora, especially in Arctic regions; Gaston de Saporta (1823-1895), who
examined the Tertiary flora; Sir J.W. Dawson and Leo Lesquereux, and
others who reported on the Canadian and American fossil plants. In Great
Britain also W.C. Williamson, by his study of the structure of the
plants of the coal-measures, opened up a new line of research which has
been followed by Bertrand Renault, D.H. Scott, A.C. Seward and others,
and has led to important discoveries on the nature of extinct groups of
plants and also on the phylogeny of existing groups.

Botany may be divided into the following departments:--

1. Structural, having reference to the form and structure of the various
parts, including (a) Morphology, the study of the general form of the
organs and their development--this will be treated in a series of
articles dealing with the great subdivisions of plants (see ANGIOSPERMS,
BACTERIOLOGY) and the more important organs (see STEM, LEAF, ROOT,
FLOWER, FRUIT); (b) Anatomy, the study of internal structure, including
minute anatomy or histology (see PLANTS: _Anatomy_).

2. Cytology (q.v.), the intimate structure and behaviour of the cell and
its contents--protoplasm, nucleus, &c.

3. Physiology, the study of the life-functions of the entire plant and
its organs (see PLANTS: _Physiology_).

4. Systematic, the arrangement and classification of plants (see PLANTS:

5. Distribution or Geographical Botany, the consideration of the
distribution of plants on the earth's surface (see PLANTS:

6. Palaeontology, the study of the fossils found in the various strata
of which the earth is composed (see PALAEOBOTANY).

7. Ecology or Oecology, the study of plants in relation to each other
and to their environment (see PLANTS: _Ecology_).

Besides these departments which deal with Botany as a science, there are
various applications of botany, such as forestry (see FORESTS AND
FORESTRY), agriculture (q.v.), horticulture (q.v.), and materia medica
(for use in medicine; see the separate articles on each plant).
     (A. B. R.)


  [1] Morison, _Pradudia Botanica_ (1672); _Plantarum Historia
    Universalis_ (1680).

  [2] Rivinus (Augustus Quirinus) paterno nomine Bachmann, _Introductio
    genetatis in Rem Herbariam_ (Lipsiae, 1690).

  [3] Tournefort, _Élémens de botanique_ (1694); _Institutiones Rei
    Herbariae_ (1700).

BOTANY BAY, an inlet on the coast of Cumberland county, New South Wales,
Australia, 5 m. south of the city of Sydney. On its shore is the
township of Botany, forming a suburb of Sydney, with which it is
connected by a tramway. It was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770,
who landed at a spot marked by a monument, and took possession of the
territory for the crown. The bay received its name from Joseph Banks,
the botanist of the expedition, on account of the variety of its flora.
When, on the revolt of the New England colonies, the convict
establishments in America were no longer available (see DEPORTATION and
NEW SOUTH WALES), the attention of the British government, then under
the leadership of Pitt, was turned to Botany Bay; and in 1787 Commodore
Arthur Phillip was commissioned to form a penal settlement there.
Finding, on his arrival, however, that the locality was ill suited for
such a purpose, he removed northwards to the site of the present city of
Sydney. The name of Botany Bay seems to have struck the popular fancy,
and continued to be used in a general way for any convict establishment
in Australia. The transportation of criminals to New South Wales was
discontinued in 1840.

BOTHA, LOUIS (1862-   ), Boer general and statesman, was the son of one
of the "Voortrekkers," and was born on the 27th of September 1862 at
Greytown (Natal). He saw active service in savage warfare, and in 1887
served as a field-cornet. Subsequently he settled in the Vryheid
district, which he represented in the Volksraad of 1897. In the war of
1899 he served at first under Lucas Meyer in northern Natal, but soon
rose to higher commands. He was in command of the Boers at the battles
of Colenso and Spion Kop, and these victories earned him so great a
reputation that on the death of P.J. Joubert, Botha was made
commander-in-chief of the Transvaal Boers. His capacity was again
demonstrated in the action of Belfast-Dalmanutha (August 23-28, 1900),
and after the fall of Pretoria he reorganized the Boer resistance with a
view to prolonged guerrilla warfare. In this task, and in the subsequent
operations of the war, he was aided by his able lieutenants de la Rey
and de Wet. The success of his measures was seen in the steady
resistance offered by the Boers to the very close of the three years'
war. He was the chief representative of his countrymen in the peace
negotiations of 1902, after which, with de Wet and de la Rey, he visited
Europe in order to raise funds to enable the Boers to resume their
former avocations. In the period of reconstruction under British rule,
General Botha, who was still looked upon as the leader of the Boer
people, took a prominent part in politics, advocating always measures
which he considered as tending to the maintenance of peace and good
order and the re-establishment of prosperity in the Transvaal. After the
grant of self-government to the Transvaal in 1907, General Botha was
called upon by Lord Selborne to form a government, and in the spring of
the same year he took part in the conference of colonial premiers held
in London. During his visit to England on this occasion General Botha
declared the whole-hearted adhesion of the Transvaal to the British
empire, and his intention to work for the welfare of the country
regardless of racial differences. (See TRANSVAAL: _History_.)

BOTHNIA, GULF OF, the northern part of the Baltic Sea (q.v.). The name
is preserved from the former territory of Bothnia, of which the western
part is now included in Sweden, the eastern in Finland.

BOTHWELL, JAMES HEPBURN, 4TH EARL OF, duke of Orkney and Shetland (c.
1536-1578), husband of Mary, queen of Scots, son of Patrick, 3rd earl of
Bothwell, and of Agnes, daughter of Henry, Lord Sinclair, was born about
1536. His father, Patrick, the 3rd earl (c. 1512-1556), was the only son
of Adam, the 2nd earl, who was killed at Flodden, and the grandson of
Patrick (d. c. 1508), 3rd Lord Hailes and 1st earl of Bothwell. It was
this Patrick who laid the foundation of the family fortunes. Having
fought against King James III. at the battle of Sauchieburn in 1488, he
was rewarded by the new king, James IV., with the earldom of Bothwell,
the office of lord high admiral and other dignities. He also received
many grants of land, including the lordship of Bothwell, which had been
taken from John Ramsay, Lord Bothwell (d. 1513), the favourite of James

James Hepburn succeeded in 1556 to his father's titles, lands and
hereditary offices, including that of lord high admiral of Scotland.
Though a Protestant, he supported the government of Mary of Guise,
showed himself violently anti-English, and led a raid into England,
subsequently in 1559 meeting the English commissioners and signing
articles for peace on the border. The same year he seized £1000 secretly
sent by Elizabeth to the lords of the congregation. In retaliation Arran
occupied and stripped his castle at Crichton, whereupon Bothwell in
November sent Arran a challenge, which the latter declined. In December
he was sent by the queen dowager to secure Stirling, and in 1560 was
despatched on a mission to France, visiting Denmark on the way, where he
either married or seduced Anne, daughter of Christopher Thorssen, whom
he afterwards deserted, and who came to Scotland in 1563 to obtain
redress. He joined Mary at Paris in September, and in 1561 was sent by
her as a commissioner to summon the parliament; in February he arrived
in Edinburgh and was chosen a privy councillor on the 6th of September.
He now entered into obligations to keep the peace with his various
rivals, but was soon implicated in riots and partisan disorders, and was
ordered in December to leave the city. In March 1562, having made up his
quarrel with Arran, he was accused of having proposed to the latter a
project for seizing the queen, and in May he was imprisoned in Edinburgh
castle, whence he succeeded in escaping on the 28th of August. On the
23rd of September he submitted to the queen. Murray's influence,
however, being now supreme, he embarked in December for France, but was
driven by storms on to Holy Island, where he was detained, and was
subsequently, on the 18th of January 1564, seized at Berwick and sent by
Elizabeth to the Tower, whence he was soon liberated and proceeded to
France. After these adventures he returned to Scotland in March 1565,
but withdrew once more before the superior strength of his opponents to
France. The same year, however, he was recalled by Mary to aid in the
suppression of Murray's rebellion, successfully eluding the ships of
Elizabeth sent to capture him. As lieutenant of the Marches he was
employed in settling disputes on the border, but used his power to
instigate thieving and disorders, and is described by Cecil's
correspondents as "as naughty a man as liveth and much given to the most
detestable vices," "as false as a devil," "one that the godly of this
whole nation hath a cause to curse for ever."[1] In February 1566
Bothwell, in spite of his previous matrimonial engagements--and he had
also been united by "handfasting" to Janet Betoun of Cranstoun
Riddell--married Jane, daughter of George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly.
Notwithstanding his insulting language concerning Mary and the fact that
he was the "stoutest" in refusing mass, he became one of her chief
advisers, but his complete ascendancy over her mind and affections dates
from the murder of Rizzio on the 9th of March 1566. The queen required a
protector, whom she found, not in the feeble Darnley, nor in any of the
leaders of the factions, but in the strong, determined earl who had ever
been a stanch supporter of the throne against the Protestant party and
English influence. In Bothwell also, "the glorious, rash and hazardous
young man," romantic, handsome, charming even in his guilt, Mary gained
what she lacked in her husband, a lover. He now stood forth as her
champion; Mary took refuge with him at Dunbar, presented him, among
other estates, with the castle there and the chief lands of the earldom
of March, and made him the most powerful noble in the south of Scotland.
Her partiality for him increased as her contempt and hatred of Darnley
became more confirmed. On the 7th of October he was dangerously wounded,
and the queen showed her anxiety for his safety by riding 40 miles to
visit him, incurring a severe illness. In November she visited him at
Dunbar, and in December took place the conference at Craigmillar at
which both were present, and at which the disposal of Darnley was
arranged, Bothwell with some others subsequently signing the bond to
accomplish his murder. He himself superintended all the preparations,
visiting Darnley with Mary on the night of the crime, Sunday, 9th of
February 1567, attending the queen on her return to Holyrood for the
ball, and riding back to Kirk o' Field to carry out the crime. After the
explosion he hurried back to Holyrood and feigned surprise at the
receipt of the news half an hour later, ascribing the catastrophe to
"the strangest accident that ever chancit, to wit, the fouder
(lightning) came out of the luft (sky) and had burnt the king's

Bothwell's power was now greater, and the queen's affection for him more
ardent than ever. She was reported to have said that she cared not to
lose France, England and her own country for him, and would go with him
to the world's end in a white petticoat ere she left him.[3] He was
gratified with further rewards, and his success was clouded by no stings
of conscience or remorse. According to Melville he had designs on the
life of the young prince. On the demand of Lennox, Darnley's father,
Bothwell was put upon his trial in April, but Lennox, having been
forbidden to enter the city with more than six attendants, refused to
attend, and Bothwell was declared not guilty. The queen's intention to
marry Bothwell, which had been kept a strict secret before the issue of
the trial, was now made public. On the 19th of April he obtained the
consent and support of the Protestant lords, who signed a bond in his
favour. On the 24th he seized Mary's willing person near Edinburgh, and
carried her to his castle at Dunbar. On the 3rd of May Bothwell's
divorce from his wife was decreed by the civil court, on the ground of
his adultery with a maidservant, and on the 7th by the Roman Catholic
court on the ground of consanguinity. Archbishop Hamilton, however, who
now granted the decree, had himself obtained a papal dispensation for
the marriage,[4] and in consequence it is extremely doubtful whether
according to the Roman Catholic law Bothwell and Mary were ever husband
and wife. On the 12th Bothwell was created duke of Orkney and Shetland
and the marriage took place on the 15th according to the Protestant
usage, the Roman Catholic rite being performed, according to some
accounts, afterwards in addition.[5]

Bothwell's triumph, however, was shortlived. The nobles, both Protestant
and Roman Catholic, now immediately united to effect his destruction. In
June Mary and Bothwell fled from Holyrood to Borthwick Castle, whence
Bothwell, on the place being surrounded by Morton and his followers,
escaped to Dunbar, Mary subsequently joining him. Thence they marched
with a strong force towards Edinburgh, meeting the lords on the 15th of
June at Carberry Hill. Bothwell invited any one of the nobles to single
combat, but Mary forbade the acceptance of the challenge. Meanwhile,
during the negotiations, the queen's troops had been deserting; a
surrender became inevitable, and Bothwell returned to Dunbar, parting
from Mary for ever. Subsequently Bothwell left Dunbar for the north,
visited Orkney and Shetland, and in July placed himself at the head of a
band of pirates, and after eluding all attempts to capture him, arrived
at Karm Sound in Norway. Here he was confronted by his first wife or
victim, Anne Thorssen, whose claims he satisfied by the gift of a ship
and promises of an annuity, and on his identity becoming known he was
sent by the authorities to Copenhagen, where he arrived on the 30th of
September. He wrote _Les Affaires du comte de Boduel_, exhibiting
himself as the victim of the malice of his enemies, and gained King
Frederick II.'s goodwill by an offer to restore the Orkneys and
Shetlands to Denmark. In consequence the king allowed him to remain at
Copenhagen, and refused all requests for his surrender. In January 1568
he was removed to Malmoe in Sweden. He corresponded frequently with
Mary, but there being no hopes whatever of his restoration, and a new
suitor being found in the duke of Norfolk, Mary demanded a divorce, on
pleas which recall those of Henry VIII. in the matter of Catherine of
Aragon. The divorce was finally granted by the pope in September 1570 on
the ground of her prenuptial ravishment by Bothwell,[6] and met with no
opposition from the latter. After the downfall of Mary, Bothwell's good
treatment came to an end, and on the 16th of June 1573 he was removed to
the castle of Dragsholm or Adelersborg in Zealand. Here the close and
solitary confinement, and the dreary and hopeless inactivity to which he
was condemned, proved a terrible punishment for the full-blooded,
energetic and masterful Bothwell. He sank into insanity, and died on the
14th of April 1578. He was buried at the church of Faareveille, where a
coffin, doubtfully supposed to be his, was opened in 1858. A portrait
was taken of the head of the body found therein, now in the museum of
the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland. His so-called death-bed
confession is not genuine.

He left no lawful descendants; but his nephew, FRANCIS STEWART HEPBURN,
who, through his father, John Stewart, prior of Coldingham, was a
grandson of King James V., and was thus related to Mary, queen of Scots,
and the regent Murray, was in 1581 created earl of Bothwell. He was lord
high admiral of Scotland, and was a person of some importance at the
court of James VI. during the time when the influence of the Protestants
was uppermost. He was anxious that Mary Stuart's death should be
avenged by an invasion of England, and in 1589 he suffered a short
imprisonment for his share in a rising. By this time he had completely
lost the royal favour. Again imprisoned, this time on a charge of
witchcraft, he escaped from captivity in 1591, and was deprived by
parliament of his lands and titles; as an outlaw his career was one of
extraordinary lawlessness. In 1591 he attempted to seize Holyrood
palace, and in 1593 he captured the king, forcing from him a promise of
pardon. But almost at once he reverted to his former manner of life,
and, although James failed to apprehend him, he was forced to take
refuge in France about 1595. He died at Naples before July 1614. This
earl had three sons, but his titles were never restored.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biog._ and
  authorities; _Les Affaires du comte de Boduel_ (written January 1568,
  publ. Bannatyne Club, 1829); "Memoirs of James, Earl of Bothwell," in
  G. Chalmers's _Life of Mary, Queen of Scots_ (1818); _Life of
  Bothwell_, by F. Schiern (trans. 1880); _Pièces et documents relatifs
  au comte de Bothwell_, by Prince A. Lobanoff (1856); _Appendix to the
  Hist. of Scotland_, by G. Buchanan (1721); _Sir James Melville's
  Memoirs_ (Bannatyne Club, 1827); _A Lost Chapter in the Hist. of Mary,
  Queen of Scots_, by J. Stuart (1874); J.H. Burton's _Hist. of
  Scotland_ (1873); A. Lang's _Hist. of Scotland_, ii. (1902);
  _Archaeologia_, xxxviii. 308; _Cal. of State Papers, Foreign,
  Scottish, Venetian_, vii; _Exchequer Rolls of Scotland_, xix. and xx.,
  _Domestic, Border Papers_; _Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Marq. of
  Salisbury_, i. ii. See also MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS.     (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Cal. of State Papers, Scottish, i. 679._

  [2] _Sir James Melville's Mem. 174._

  [3] _Cal. of State Pap., Foreign, 1566-1568_, p. 212.

  [4] _Hist. MSS. Comm._ Rep. ii. p. 177.

  [5] _Cal. of State Pap., Scottish_, ii. 333.

  [6] _Cal. of State Pap., Foreign, 1569-1571_, p. 372.

BOTHWELL, a town of Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop. of town (1901) 3015; of
parish (1901) 45,905. The town lies on the right bank of the Clyde, 9 m.
E. S. E. of Glasgow by the North British and Caledonian railways. Owing
to its pleasant situation it has become a residential quarter of
Glasgow. The choir of the old Gothic church of 1398 (restored at the end
of the 19th century) forms a portion of the parish church. Joanna
Baillie, the poetess, was born in the manse, and a memorial has been
erected in her honour. The river is crossed by a suspension bridge as
well as the bridge near which, on the 22nd of June 1679, was fought the
battle of Bothwell Bridge between the Royalists, under the duke of
Monmouth, and the Covenanters, in which the latter lost 500 men and 1000
prisoners. Adjoining this bridge, on the level north-eastern bank, is
the castle that once belonged to James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh (fl.
1566-1580), the assassin of the regent Murray; and near the present
farmhouse the South Calder is spanned by a Roman bridge. The picturesque
ruins of Bothwell Castle occupy a conspicuous position on the side of
the river, which here takes the bold sweep famed in Scottish song as
Bothwell bank. The fortress belonged to Sir Andrew Moray, who fell at
Stirling in 1297, and passed by marriage to the Douglases. The lordship
was bestowed in 1487 on Patrick Hepburn, 3rd Lord Hailes, 1st earl of
Bothwell, who resigned it in 1491 in favour of Archibald Douglas, 5th
earl of Angus. It thus reverted to the Douglases and now belongs to the
earl of Home, a descendant. The castle is a fine example of Gothic, and
mainly consists of a great oblong quadrangle, flanked on the south side
by circular towers. At the east end are the remains of the chapel. A
dungeon bears the nickname of "Wallace's Beef Barrel." The unpretending
mansion near by was built by Archibald Douglas, 1st earl of Forfar
(1653-1712). The parish of Bothwell contains several flourishing towns
and villages, all owing their prosperity to the abundance of coal, iron
and oil-shale. The principal places, most of which have stations on the
North British or Caledonian railway or both, are Bothwell Park, Carfin,
Chapelhall, Bellshill (pop. 8786), Holytown, Mossend, Newarthill,
Uddingston (pop. 7463), Clydesdale, Hamilton Palace, Colliery Rows and

BOTOCUDOS (from Port. _botoque_, a plug, in allusion to the wooden disks
or plugs worn in their lips and ears), the foreign name for a tribe of
South American Indians of eastern Brazil, also known as the Aimores or
Aimbores. They appear to have no collective tribal name for themselves.
Some are called Nac-nanuk or Nac-poruk, "sons of the soil." The name
Botocudos cannot be traced much farther back than the writings of Prince
Maximilian von Neuwied (_Reise nach Bresilien_, Frankfort-On-Main,
1820). When the Portuguese adventurer Vasco Fernando Coutinho reached
the east coast of Brazil in 1535, he erected a fort at the head of
Espirito Santo Bay to defend himself against "the Aimores and other
tribes." The original home of the tribe comprised most of the present
province of Espirito Santo, and reached inland to the headwaters of Rio
Grande (Belmonte) and Rio Doce on the eastern slopes of the Serra do
Espinhacao, but the Botocudos are now mainly confined to the country
between Rio Pardo and Rio Doce, and seldom roam westward beyond Serra
dos Aimores into Minas Geraes. It was in the latter district that at the
close of the 18th century they came into collision with the whites, who
were attracted thither by the diamond fields.

The Botocudos are nomads, wandering naked in the woods and living on
forest products. They are below the medium height, but broad-shouldered
and remarkable for the muscular development and depth of their chests.
Their arms and legs are, however, soft and fleshy, and their feet and
hands small. Their features, which vary individually almost as much as
those of Europeans, are broad and flat, with prominent brow, high
cheek-bones, small bridgeless nose, wide nostrils and slight projection
of the jaws. They are longheaded, and their hair is coarse, black and
lank. Their colour is a light yellowish brown, sometimes almost
approaching white. The general yellow tint emphasizes their Mongolic
appearance, which all travellers have noticed. The Botocudos were
themselves greatly struck by the Chinese coolies, whom they met in
Brazilian seaports, and whom they at once accepted as kinsmen (Henri
Hollard, _De l'homme et des races humaines_, Paris, 1853).[1] Some few
Botocudos have settled and become civilized, but the great bulk of them,
numbering between twelve and fourteen thousand, are still the wildest of
savages. During the earlier frontier wars (1790-1820) every effort was
made to extirpate them. They were regarded by the Portuguese as no
better than wild beasts. Smallpox was deliberately spread among them;
poisoned food was scattered in the forests; by such infamous means the
coast districts about Rios Doce and Belmonte were cleared, and one
Portuguese commander boasted that he had either slain with his own hands
or ordered to be butchered many hundreds of them. Their implements and
domestic utensils are all of wood; their only weapons are reed spears
and bows and arrows. Their dwellings are rough shelters of leaf and
bast, seldom 4 ft. high. So far as the language of the Botocudos is
known, it would appear that they have no means of expressing the
numerals higher than one. Their only musical instrument is a small
bamboo nose-flute. They attribute all the blessings of life to the
"day-fire" (sun) and all evil to "night-fire" (moon). At the graves of
the dead they keep fires burning for some days to scare away evil
spirits, and during storms and eclipses arrows are shot into the sky to
drive away demons.

The most conspicuous feature of the Botocudos is the _tembeitera_, or
wooden plug or disk which is worn in the lower lip and the lobe of the
ear. This disk, made of the specially light and carefully dried wood of
the barriguda tree (_Chorisia ventricosa_), is called by the natives
themselves _emburé_, whence Augustin Saint Hilaire suggests the probable
derivation of their name Aimbore (_Voyages dans l'intérieur du Brésil
1816-1821_, Paris, 1830). It is worn only in the under-lip, now chiefly
by women, but formerly by men also. The operation for preparing the lip
begins often as early as the eighth year, when an initial boring is made
by a hard pointed stick, and gradually extended by the insertion of
larger and larger disks or plugs, sometimes at last as much as 3 in. in
diameter. Notwithstanding the lightness of the wood the _tembeitera_
weighs down the lip, which at first sticks out horizontally and at last
becomes a mere ring of skin around the wood. Ear-plugs are also worn, of
such size as to distend the lobe down to the shoulders. Ear-ornaments of
like nature are common in south and even central America, at least as
far north as Honduras. When Columbus discovered this latter country
during his fourth voyage (1502) he named part of the seaboard _Costa de
la Oreja_, from the conspicuously distended ears of the natives. Early
Spanish explorers also gave the name _Orejones_ or "big-eared" to
several Amazon tribes.

  See A.R. Wallace, _Travels on the Amazon_ (1853-1900); H.H. Bancroft,
  _Hist. of Pacific States_ (San Francisco, 1882), vol. i. p. 211; A.H.
  Keane, "On the Botocudos" in _Journ. Anthrop. Instit._ vol. xiii.
  (1884); J.R. Peixoto, _Novos Estudios Craniologicos sobre os Botocuds_
  (Rio Janeiro, 1882); Prof. C.F. Hartt, _Geology and Physical Geography
  of Brazil_ (Boston, 1870), pp. 577-606.


  [1] A parallel case is that of the Bashkir soldiers of Orenburg, who
    formed part of the Russian army sent to put down the Hungarian revolt
    of 1848, and who recognized their Ugrian kinsmen in the Zeklars and
    other Magyars settled in the Danube basin.

BOTORI, a Japanese game played at the naval, military and other schools,
by two sides of equal number, usually about one hundred, each of which
defends a pole about 8 ft. high firmly set in the ground, the poles
being about 200 yds. distant from each other. The object of each party
is to overthrow the adversaries' pole while keeping their own upright.
Pulling, hauling and wrestling are allowed, but no striking or kicking.
The players resort to all kinds of massed formations to arrive at the
enemies' pole, and frequently succeed in passing over their heads and
shoulders one or more comrades, who are thus enabled to reach the pole
and bear it down unless pulled off in time by its defenders. A game
similar in character is played by the Sophomore and Freshman classes of
Amherst College (Massachusetts), called the "Flag-rush." It was
instituted at the instance of the faculty to take the place of the
traditional "Cane-rush," a general _mêlée_ between the two classes for
the ultimate possession of a stout walking-stick, which became so rough
that students were frequently seriously injured. In the "Flag-rush" a
small flag is set upon a padded post about 6 ft. high, and is defended
by one class while the other endeavours, as at Botori, to overthrow it.
If the flag is not captured or torn down within a certain time the
defending side wins.

BOTOSHANI (_Botosani_), the capital of the department of Botoshani,
Rumania; on a small tributary of the river Jijia, and in one of the
richest agricultural and pastoral regions of the north Moldavian hills.
Pop. (1900) 32,193. Botoshani is commercially important as the town
through which goods from Poland and Galicia pass in transit for the
south; being situated on a branch railway between Dorohoi and on the
main line from Czernowitz to Galatz. It has extensive starch and flour
mills; and Botoshani flour is highly prized in Rumania, besides being
largely exported to Turkey and the United Kingdom. Botoshani owes its
name to a Tatar chief, Batus or Batu Khan, grandson of Jenghiz Khan, who
occupied the country in the 13th century. There are large colonies of
Armenians and Jews.

BO-TREE, or BODHI-TREE, the name given by the Buddhists of India and
Ceylon to the Pipul or sacred wild fig (_Ficus religiosa_). It is
regarded as sacred, and one at least is planted near each temple. These
are traditionally supposed to be derived from the original one, the
Bodhi-tree of Buddhist annals, beneath which the Buddha is traditionally
supposed to have attained perfect knowledge. The Bo-tree at the ruined
city of Anuradhapura, 80 m. north of Kandy, grown from a branch of the
parent-tree sent to Ceylon from India by King Asoka in the 3rd century
B.C., is said to have been planted in 288 B.C., and is to this day
worshipped by throngs of pilgrims who come long distances to pray before
it. Usually a bo-tree is planted on the graves of the Kandy priests.

BOTRYTIS, a minute fungus which appears as a brownish-grey mould on
decaying vegetation or on damaged fruits. Under a hand-lens it is seen
to consist of tiny, upright, brown stalks which are branched at the
tips, each branchlet being crowned with a naked head of pale-coloured
spores. It is a very common fungus, growing everywhere in the open or in
greenhouses, and can be found at almost any season. It has also a bad
record as a plant disease. If it once gains entrance into one of the
higher plants, it spreads rapidly, killing the tissues and reducing them
to a rotten condition. Seedling pines, lilies and many other cultivated
plants are subject to attack by _Botrytis_, Some of the species exist in
two other growth-forms, so different in appearance from the _Botrytis_
that they have been regarded as distinct plants:--a sclerotium, which is
a hard compact mass of fungal filaments, or mycelium, that can retain
its vitality for a considerable time in a resting condition; and a
stalked _Peziza_, or cup-fungus, which grows out of the sclerotium. The
latter is the perfect form of fruit. The _Botrytis_ mould is known as
the conidial form.

BOTTA, CARLO GIUSEPPE GUGLIELMO (1766-1837), Italian historian, was born
at San Giorgio Canavese in Piedmont. He studied medicine at the
university of Turin, and obtained his doctor's degree when about twenty
years of age. Having rendered himself obnoxious to the government during
the political commotions that followed the French Revolution, he was
imprisoned for over a year; and on his release in 1795 he withdrew to
France, only to return to his native country as a surgeon in the French
army, whose progress he followed as far as Venice. Here he joined the
expedition to Corfu, from which he did not return to Italy till 1798. At
first he favoured French policy in Italy, contributed to the annexation
of Piedmont by France in 1799, and was an admirer of Napoleon; but he
afterwards changed his views, realizing the necessity for the union of
all Italians and for their freedom from foreign control. After the
separation of Piedmont from France in 1814 he retired into private life,
but, fearing persecution at home, became a French citizen. In 1817 he
was appointed rector of the university of Rouen, but in 1822 was removed
owing to clerical influence. Amid all the vicissitudes of his early
manhood Botta had never allowed his pen to be long idle, and in the
political quiet that followed 1816 he naturally devoted himself more
exclusively to literature. In 1824 he published a history of Italy from
1789 to 1814 (4 vols.), on which his fame principally rests; he himself
had been an eyewitness of many of the events described. His continuation
of Guicciardini, which he was afterwards encouraged to undertake, is a
careful and laborious work, but is not based on original authorities and
is of small value. Though living in Paris he was in both these works the
ardent exponent of that recoil against everything French which took
place throughout Europe. A careful exclusion of all Gallicisms, as a
reaction against the French influences of the day, is one of the marked
features of his style, which is not infrequently impassioned and
eloquent, though at the same time cumbrous, involved and ornate. Botta
died at Paris in August 1837, in comparative poverty, but in the
enjoyment of an extensive and well-earned reputation.

His son, Paul Émile Botta (1802-1870), was a distinguished traveller and
Assyrian archaeologist, whose excavations at Khorsabad (1843) were among
the first efforts in the line of investigation afterwards pursued by

  The works of Carlo Botta are _Storia naturale e medica dell' Isola di
  Corfu_ (1798); an Italian translation of Born's _Joannis Physiophili
  specimen monachologiae_ (1801); _Souvenirs d'un voyage en Dalmatie_
  (1802); _Storia della guerra dell' Independenza d'America_ (1809);
  _Camillo_, a poem (1815); _Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814_ (1824,
  new ed., Prato, 1862); _Storia d'ltalia in continuazione al
  Guicciardini_ (1832, new ed., Milan, 1878). See C. Dionisiotti, _Vita
  di Carlo Botta_ (Turin, 1867); C. Pavesio, _Carlo Botta e le sue opere
  storiche_ (Florence, 1874); Scipione Botta, _Vita privata di Carlo
  Botta_ (Florence, 1877); A. d'Ancona c O. Bacci, _Manuela della
  Letteratura Italiana_ (Florence, 1894), vol. v. pp. 245 seq.

BOTTESINI, GIOVANNI (1823-1889), Italian contrabassist and musical
composer, was born at Crema in Lombardy on the 24th of December 1823. He
studied music at the Milan Conservatoire, devoting himself especially to
the double-bass, an instrument with which his name is principally
associated. On leaving Milan he spent some time in America and also
occupied the position of principal double-bass in the theatre at Havana.
Here his first opera, _Cristoforo Colombo_, was produced in 1847. In
1849 he made his first appearance in England, playing double-bass solos
at one of the Musical Union concerts. After this he made frequent visits
to England, and his extraordinary command of his unwieldy instrument
gained him great popularity in London and the provinces. Apart from his
triumphs as an executant, Bottesini was a conductor of European
reputation, and earned some success as a composer, though his work had
not sufficient individuality to survive the changes of taste and
fashion. He was conductor at the Théâtre des Italiens in Paris from 1855
to 1857, where his second opera, _L'Assedio di Firenze_, was produced
in 1856. In 1861 and 1862 he conducted at Palermo, supervising the
production of his opera _Marion Delorme_ in 1862, and in 1863 at
Barcelona. During these years he diversified the toils of conducting by
repeated concert tours through the principal countries of Europe. In
1871 he conducted a season of Italian opera at the Lyceum theatre in
London, during which his opera _Ali Baba_ was produced, and at the close
of the year he was chosen by Verdi to conduct the first performance of
_Aïda_, which took place at Cairo on 27th December 1871. Bottesini wrote
three operas besides those already mentioned: _Il Diavolo della Notte_
(Milan, 1859); _Vinciguerra_ (Paris, 1870); and _Ero e Leandro_ (Turin,
1880), the last named to a libretto by Arrigo Boito, which was
subsequently set by Mancinelli. He also wrote _The Garden of Olivet_, a
devotional oratorio (libretto by Joseph Bennett), which was produced at
the Norwich festival in 1887, a concerto for the double-bass, and
numerous songs, and minor instrumental pieces. Bottesini died at Parma
on the 7th of July 1889.

(1444-1510). Florentine painter, was born at Florence in 1444, in a
house in the Via Nuova, Borg' Ognissanti. This was the home of his
father, Mariano di Vanni dei Filipepi, a struggling tanner. Sandro, the
youngest child but one of his parents, derived the name Botticelli, by
which he was commonly known, not, as related by Vasari, from a goldsmith
to whom he was apprenticed, but from his eldest brother Giovanni, a
prosperous broker, who seems to have taken charge of the boy, and who
for some reason bore the nickname _Botticello_ or Little Barrel. A
return made in 1457 by his father describes Sandro as aged thirteen,
weak in health, and still at school (if the words _sta al legare_ are to
be taken as a misspelling of _sta al leggere_, otherwise they might
perhaps mean that he was apprenticed either to a jeweller or a
bookbinder). One of his elder brothers, Antonio, who afterwards became a
bookseller, was at this time in business as a goldsmith and
gold-leaf-beater, and with him Sandro was very probably first put to
work. Having shown an irrepressible bent towards painting, he was
apprenticed in 1458-1459 to Fra Filippo Lippi, in whose workshop he
remained as an assistant apparently until 1467, when the master went to
carry out a commission for the decoration with frescoes of the cathedral
church of Spoleto. During his apprentice years Sandro was no doubt
employed with other pupils upon the great series of frescoes in the
choir of the Pieve at Prato upon which his master was for long
intermittently engaged. The later among these frescoes in many respects
anticipate, by charm of sentiment, animation of movement and rhythmic
flutter of draperies, some of the prevailing characteristics of Sandro's
own style. One of Sandro's earliest extant pictures, the oblong
"Adoration of the Magi" at the National Gallery, London (No. 592, long
ascribed in error to Filippino), shows him almost entirely under the
influence of his first master. Left in Florence on Fra Filippo's
departure to Spoleto, he can be traced gradually developing his
individuality under various influences, among which that of the
realistic school of the Pollaiuoli is for some time the strongest. From
that school he acquired a knowledge of bodily structure and movement,
and a searching and expressive precision of linear draughtsmanship,
which he could never have learnt from his first master. The Pollaiuolo
influence dominates, with some slight admixture of that of Verrocchio,
in the fine figure of Fortitude, now in the Uffizi, which was painted by
Botticelli for the Mercanzia about 1470; this is one of a series of the
seven Virtues, of which the other six, it seems, were executed by Piero
Pollaiuolo from the designs of his brother Antonio. The same influence
is again very manifest in the two brilliant little pictures at the
Uffizi in which the youthful Botticelli has illustrated the story of
Judith and Holofernes; in his injured portrait of a man holding a medal
of Cosimo de' Medici, No. 1286 at the Uffizi; and in his life-sized "St
Sebastian" at Berlin, which we know to have been painted for the church
of Sta Maria Maggiore in 1473. Tradition and internal evidence seem also
to point to Botticelli's having occasionally helped, in his earliest or
Pollaiuolo period, to furnish designs to the school of engravings in
Florence which had been founded by the goldsmith Maso Finiguerra.

Some authorities hold that he must have attended for a while the
much-frequented workshop of Verrocchio. But the "Fortitude" is the only
authenticated early picture in which the Verrocchio influence is really
much apparent; the various other pictures on which this opinion is
founded, chiefly Madonnas dispersed among the museums of Naples,
Florence, Paris and elsewhere, have been shown to be in all probability
the work not of Sandro himself, but of an anonymous artist, influenced
partly by him and partly by Verrocchio, whose individuality it has been
endeavoured to reconstruct under the provisional name of Amico di
Sandro. At the same time we know that the young Botticelli stood in
friendly relations with some of the pupils in Verrocchio's workshop,
particularly with Leonardo da Vinci. Among the many "Madonnas" which
bear Botticelli's name in galleries public and private, the earliest
which carries the unmistakable stamp of his own hand and invention is
that which passed from the Chigi collection at Rome to that of Mrs
Gardner at Boston. At the beginning of 1474 he entered into an agreement
to work at Pisa, both in the Campo Santo and in the chapel of the
Incoronata in the Duomo, but after spending some months in that city
abandoned the task, we know not why. Next in the order of his preserved
works comes probably the much-injured round of the "Adoration of the
Magi" in the National Gallery (No. 1033), long ascribed in error, like
the earlier oblong panel of the same subject, to Filippino Lippi. (To
about this date is assigned by some the well-known "Assumption of the
Virgin surrounded with the heavenly hierarchies," formerly at Hamilton
Palace and now in the National Gallery [No. 1126]; but recent criticism
has proved that the tradition is mistaken which since Vasari's time has
ascribed this picture to Botticelli, and that it is in reality the work
of a subordinate painter somewhat similarly named, Francesco Botticini.)

A more mature and more celebrated "Adoration of the Magi" than either of
those in the National Gallery is that now in the Uffizi, which
Botticelli painted for Giovanni Lami, probably in 1477, and which was
originally placed over an altar against the front wall of the church of
Sta Maria Novella to the right inside the main entrance. The scene is
here less crowded than in some other of the master's representations of
the subject, the conception entirely sane and masculine, with none of
those elements of bizarre fantasy and over-strained sentiment to which
he was sometimes addicted and which his imitators so much exaggerated;
the execution vigorous and masterly. The picture has, moreover, special
interest as containing lifelike portraits of some of the chief members
of the Medici family. Like other leading artists of his time in
Florence, Botticelli had already begun to profit by the patronage of
this family. For the house of Lorenzo Il Magnifico in the Via Larga he
painted a decorative piece of Pallas with lance and shield (not to be
confounded with the banner painted with a similar allegoric device of
Pallas by Verrocchio, to be carried by Giuliano de' Medici in the famous
tournament in 1475 in which he wore the favour of La Bella Simonetta,
the wife of his friend Marco Vespucci). This Pallas by Botticelli is now
lost, as are several other decorative works in fresco and panel recorded
to have been done by him for Lorenzo Il Magnifico between 1475 and
Lorenzo's death in 1492. But Sandro's more especial patron, for whom
were executed several of his most important still extant works, was
another Lorenzo, the son of Pierfrancesco de' Medici, grandson of a
natural brother of Cosimo _Pater Patriae_, and inheritor of a vast share
of the family estates and interests. For the villa of this younger
Lorenzo at Castello Botticelli painted about 1477-1478 the famous
picture of "Primavera" or Spring now in the Academy at Florence. The
design, inspired by Poliziano's poem the "Giostra," with reminiscences
of Lucretius and of Horace (perhaps also, as has lately been suggested,
of the late Latin "Mythologikon" of Fulgentius) thrown in, is of an
enchanting fantasy, and breathes the finest and most essential spirit of
the early Renaissance at Florence. Venus fancifully draped, with Cupid
hovering above her, stands in a grove of orange and myrtle and welcomes
the approach of Spring, who enters heralded by Mercury, with Flora and
Zephyrus gently urging her on. In pictures like this and in the later
"Birth of Venus," the Florentine genius, brooding with passion on the
little that it really yet knew of the antique, and using frankly and
freshly the much that it was daily learning of the truths of bodily
structure and action, creates a style wholly new, in which something of
the strained and pining mysticism of the middle ages is intimately and
exquisitely blended with the newly awakened spirit of naturalism and the
revived pagan delight in bodily form and movement and richness of linear
rhythm. In connexion with this and other classic and allegoric pictures
by the master, much romantic speculation has been idly spent on the
supposition that the chief personages were figured in the likeness of
Giuliano de' Medici and Simonetta Vespucci. Simonetta in point of fact
died in 1476, Giuliano was murdered in 1478; the web of romance which
has been spun about their names in modern days is quite unsubstantial;
and there is no reason whatever why Botticelli should have introduced
the likenesses of these two supposed lovers (for it is not even certain
that they were lovers at all) in pictures all of which were demonstrably
painted after the death of one and most of them after the death of both.

The tragedy of Giuliano's assassination by the Pazzi conspirators in
1478 was a public event which certainly brought employment to
Botticelli. After the capture and execution of the criminals he was
commissioned to paint their effigies hanging by the neck on the walls of
the Palazzo del Podestà, above the entrance of what was formerly the
Dogana. In the course of Florentine history public buildings had on
several previous occasions received a similar grim decoration: the last
had been when Andrea del Castagno painted in 1434 the effigies, hanging
by the heels, of the chief citizens outlawed and expelled on the return
of Cosimo de' Medici. Perhaps from the time of this Pazzi commission may
be dated the evidences which are found in some of Botticelli's work of a
closer study than heretofore of the virile methods and energetic types
of Castagno. His frescoes of the hanged conspirators held their place
for sixteen years only, and were destroyed in 1494 in consequence of
another revolution in the city's politics. Two years later (1480) he
painted in rivalry with Ghirlandaio a grand figure of St Augustine on
the choir screen of the Ognissanti; now removed to another part of the
church. About the same time we find clear evidence of his contributing
designs to the workshops of the "fine-manner" engravers in the shape of
a beautiful print of the triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne adapted from an
antique sarcophagus (the only example known is in the British Museum),
as well as in nineteen small cuts executed for the edition of Dante with
the commentary of Landino printed at Florence in 1481 by Lorenzo della
Magna. This series of prints was discontinued after canto xix., perhaps
because of the material difficulties involved by the use of line
engravings for the decoration of a printed page, perhaps because the
artist was at this time called away to Rome to undertake the most
important commission of his life. Due possibly to the same call is the
unfinished condition of a much-damaged, crowded "Adoration of the Magi"
by Botticelli preserved in the Uffizi, the design of which seems to have
influenced Leonardo da Vinci in his own Adoration (which in like manner
remains unfinished) of nearly the same date, also at the Uffizi.

The task with which Botticelli was charged at Rome was to take part with
other leading artists of the time (Ghirlandaio, Cosimo Rosselli,
Perugino and Pinturicchio) in the decoration of Sixtus IV.'s chapel at
the Vatican, the ceiling of which was afterwards destined to be the
field of Michelangelo's noblest labours. Internal evidence shows that
Sandro and his assistants bore a chief share in the series of papal
portraits which decorate the niches between the windows. His share in
the decoration of the walls with subjects from the Old and the New
Testament consists of three frescoes, one illustrating the history of
Moses (several episodes of his early life arranged in a single
composition); another the destruction of Korah, Dathan and Abiram; a
third the temptation of Christ by Satan (in this case the main theme is
relegated to the background, while the foreground is filled with an
animated scene representing the ritual for the purification of a
leper). On these three frescoes Botticelli laboured for about a year and
a half at the height of his powers, and they may be taken as the central
and most important productions of his career, though they are far from
being the best-known, and from their situation on the dimmed and stained
walls of the chapel are by no means easy of inspection. Skill in the
interlinking of complicated groups; in the principal actors energy of
dramatic action and expression not yet overstrained, as it came to be in
the artist's later work; an incisive vigour of portraiture in the
personages of the male bystanders; in the faces and figures of the women
an equally vital grasp of the model, combined with that peculiar strain
of haunting and melancholy grace which is this artist's own; the most
expressive care and skill in linear draughtsmanship, the richest and
most inventive charm in fanciful costume and decorative colouring, all
combine to distinguish them. During this time of his stay in Rome
(1481-1482) Botticelli is recorded also to have painted another
"Adoration of the Magi," his fifth or sixth embodiment of the same
subject; this has been identified, no doubt rightly, with a picture now
in the Hermitage gallery at St Petersburg.

Returning to Florence towards the end of 1482, Botticelli worked there
for the next ten years, until the death of Lorenzo Il Magnifico in 1492,
with but slight variations in manner and sentiment, in the now formed
manner of his middle life. Some of the recorded works of this time have
perished; but a good many have been preserved, and except in the few
cases where the dates of commission and payment can be established by
existing records, their sequence can only be conjectured from internal
evidence. A scheme of work which he was to have undertaken with other
artists in the Sala dei Gigli in the Palazzo Pubblico came to nothing
(1483); a set of important mythologic frescoes carried out by him in the
vestibule of a villa of Lorenzo Il Magnifico at Spedaletto near Volterra
in 1484 has been destroyed by the effects first of damp and then of
fire. To 1482-1483 belongs the fine altar-piece of San Barnabo (a
Madonna and Child with six saints and four angels), now in the academy
at Florence. Very nearly of the same time must be the most popular and
most often copied, though very far from the best-preserved, of his
works, the round picture of the Madonna with singing angels in the
Uffizi, known, from the text written in the open choir-book, as the
"Magnificat." Somewhere near this must be placed the beautiful and
highly finished drawing of "Abundance," which has passed through the
Rogers, Morris Moore and Malcolm collections into the British Museum, as
well as a small Madonna in the Poldi-Pezzoli collection at Milan, and
the fine full-faced portrait of a young man, probably some pupil or
apprentice in the studio, at the National Gallery (No. 626). For the
marriage of Antonio Pucci to Lucrezia Dini in 1483 Botticelli designed,
and his pupils or assistants carried out, the interesting and dramatic
set of four panels illustrating Boccaccio's tale of Nastagio
degl'Onesti, which were formerly in the collection of Mr Barker and are
now dispersed. His magnificent and perfectly preserved altar-piece of
the Madonna between the two saints John, now in the Berlin gallery, was
painted for the Bardi chapel in the church of San Spirito in 1486. In
the same year he helped to celebrate the marriage of Lorenzo Tornabuoni
with Giovanna degli Albizzi by an exquisite pair of symbolical frescoes,
the remains of which, after they had been brought to light from under a
coat of whitewash on the walls of the Villa Lemmi, were removed in 1882
to the Louvre. Within a few years of the same date (1485-1488) should
apparently be placed that second masterpiece of fanciful classicism done
for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's villa at Castello, the "Birth of Venus,"
now in the Uffizi, the design of which seems to have been chiefly
inspired by the "Stanze" of Poliziano, perhaps also by the _Pervigilium
Veneris_; together with the scarcely less admirable "Mars and Venus" of
the National Gallery, conceived in the master's peculiar vein of virile
sanity mingled with exquisite caprice; and the most beautiful and
characteristic of all his Madonnas, the round of the "Virgin with the
Pomegranate" (Uffizi). The fine picture of "Pallas and the Centaur,"
rediscovered after an occultation of many years in the private
apartments of the Pitti Palace, would seem to belong to about 1488, and
to celebrate the security of Florentine affairs and the quelling of the
spirit of tumult in the last years of the power of the great Lorenzo
(1488-1490). "The Annunciation" from the convent of Cestello, now in the
Uffizi, shows a design adapted from Donatello, and expressive, in its
bending movements and vehement gestures, of that agitation of spirit the
signs of which become increasingly perceptible in Botticelli's work from
about this time until the end. The great altar-piece at San Marco with
its _predelle_, commissioned by the Arte della Seta in 1488 and finished
in 1490, with the incomparable ring of dancing and quiring angels
encircling the crowned Virgin in the upper sky, is the last of
Botticelli's altar-pieces on a great scale. To nearly the same date
probably belongs his deeply felt and beautifully preserved small
painting of the "Last Communion of St Jerome" belonging to the Marchese

In 1490 Botticelli was called to take part with other artists in a
consultation as to the completion of the façade of the Duomo, and to
bear a share with Alessio Baldovinetti and others in the mosaic
decorations of the chapel of San Zenobio in the same church. The death
of Lorenzo Il Magnifico in 1492, and the accession to chief power of his
worthless son Piero, soon plunged Florence into political troubles, to
which were by and by added the profound spiritual agitation consequent
upon the preaching and influence of Savonarola. Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco
de' Medici, who with his brother Giovanni was in a position of political
rivalry against their cousin Piero, continued his patronage of
Botticelli; and it was for him, apparently chiefly between the years
1492 and 1495, that the master undertook to execute a set of drawings in
illustration of Dante on a far more elaborate and ambitious plan than
the little designs for the engraver which had been interrupted in 1481.
Eighty-five of these drawings are in the famous manuscript acquired for
the Berlin museum at the sale of the Hamilton Palace collection in 1882,
and eleven more in the Vatican library at Rome. The series is one of the
most interesting that has been preserved by any ancient master;
revealing an intimate knowledge of and profound sympathy with the text;
full of Botticelli's characteristic poetic yearning and vehemence of
expression, his half-childish intensity of vision; exquisite in
lightness of touch and in swaying, rhythmical grace of linear
composition and design. These gifts were less suited on the whole to the
illustration of the Hell than of the later parts of the poem, and in the
fiercer episodes there is often some puerility and inadequacy of
invention. Throughout the Hell and Purgatory Botticelli maintains a
careful adherence to the text, illustrating the several progressive
incidents of each canto on a single page in the old-fashioned way. In
the Paradise he gives a freer rein to his invention, and his designs
become less a literal illustration of the text than an imaginative
commentary on it. Almost all interest is centred on the persons of Dante
and Beatrice, who are shown us again and again in various phases of
ascending progress and rapt contemplation, often with little more than a
bare symbolical suggestion of the beatific visions presented to them.
Most of the drawings remain in pen outline only over a light preliminary
sketch with the lead stylus; all were probably intended to be finished
in colour, as a few actually are. To the period of these drawings
(1492-1497) would seem to belong the fine and finely preserved small
round of the "Virgin and Child with Angels" at the Ambrosiana, Milan,
and the famous "Calumny of Apelles" at the Uffizi, inspired no doubt by
some contemporary translation of the text by Lucian, and equally
remarkable by a certain feverish energy in its sentiment and
composition, and by its exquisite finish and richness of execution and
detail. Probably the small "St Augustine" in the Uffizi, the injured
"Judith with the head of Holofernes" in the Kaufmann collection at
Berlin, and the "Virgin and Child with St John," belonging to Mr
Heseltine in London, are works of the same period.

Simone di Mariano, a brother of Botticelli long resident at Naples,
returned to Florence in 1493 and shared Sandro's home in the Via Nuova.
He soon became a devoted follower of Savonarola, and has left a
manuscript chronicle which is one of the best sources for the history of
the friar and of his movement. Sandro himself seems to have remained
aloof from the movement almost until the date of the execution of
Savonarola and his two followers in 1498. At least there is clear
evidence of his being in the confidence and employ of Lorenzo di
Pierfrancesco so late as 1496 and 1497, which he could not possibly have
been had he then been an avowed member of the party of the Piagnoni. It
was probably the enforced departure of Lorenzo from Florence in 1497
that brought to a premature end the master's great undertaking on the
illustration of Dante. After Lorenzo's return, following on the
overthrow and death of Savonarola in 1498, we find no trace of any
further relations between him and Botticelli, who by that time would
seem to have become a declared devotee of the friar's memory and an
adherent, like his brother, of the defeated side. During these years of
swift political and spiritual revolution in Florence, documents give
some glimpses of him: in 1497 as painting in the monastery of Monticelli
a fresco of St Francis which has perished; in the winter of the same
year as bound over to keep the peace with, a neighbour living next to
the small suburban villa which Sandro held jointly with his brother
Simone in the parish of San Sepolcro; in 1499 as paying belated
matriculation fees to the gild of doctors and druggists (of which the
painters were a branch); and again in 1499 as carrying out some
decorative paintings for a member of the Vespucci family. It has been
suggested, probably with reason, that portions of these decorations are
to be recognized in two panels of dramatic scenes from Roman history,
one illustrating the story of Virginia, which has passed with the
collection of Senatore Morelli into the gallery at Bergamo, the other a
history of Lucretia formerly belonging to Lord Ashburnham, which passed
into Mrs Gardner's collection at Boston. These and the few works still
remaining to be mentioned are all strongly marked by the strained
vehemence of design and feeling characteristic of the master's later
years, when he dramatizes his own high-strung emotions in figures flung
forward and swaying out of all balance in the vehemence of action, with
looks cast agonizingly earthward or heavenward, and gestures of wild
yearning or appeal. These characters prevail still more in a small Pietà
at the Poldi-Pezzoli gallery, probably a contemporary copy of one which
the master is recorded to have painted for the Panciatichi chapel in the
church of Sta Maria Maggiore; they are present to a degree even of
caricature in the larger and coarser painting of the same subject which
bears the master's name in the Munich gallery, but is probably only a
work of his school. The mystic vein of religious and political
speculation into which Botticelli had by this time fallen has its finest
illustration in the beautiful symbolic "Nativity" which passed in
succession from the Aldobrandini, the Ottley, and the Fuller Maitland
collections into the National Gallery in 1882, with the apocalyptic
inscription in Greek which the master has added to make his meaning
clear (No. 1034). In a kindred vein is a much-injured symbolic
"Magdalene at the foot of the Cross" in private possession at Lyons.
Among extant pictures those which from internal evidence we must put
latest in the master's career are three panels illustrating the story of
St Zenobius, of which one is at Dresden and the other two in the
collection of Dr Mond in London. The documentary notices of him after
1500 are few. In 1502 he is mentioned in the correspondence of Isabella
d'Este, marchioness of Gonzaga, and in a poem by Ugolino Verino. In
1503-1504 he served on the committee of artists appointed to decide
where the colossal David of Michelangelo should be placed. In these and
the following years we find him paying fees to the company of St Luke,
and the next thing recorded of him is his death, followed by his burial
in the Ortaccio or garden burial-ground of the Ognissanti, in May 1510.

The strong vein of poetical fantasy and mystical imagination in
Botticelli, to which many of his paintings testify, and the capacity for
religious conviction and emotional conversion which made of him an
ardent, if belated, disciple of Savonarola, coexisted in him, according
to all records, with a strong vein of the laughing humour and love of
rough practical and verbal jesting which belonged to the Florentine
character in his age. His studio in the Via Nuova is said to have been
the resort, not only of pupils and assistants, of whom a number seem to
have been at all times working for him, but of a company of more or less
idle gossips with brains full of rumour and tongues always wagging.
Vasari's account of the straits into which he was led by his absorption
in the study of Dante and his adhesion to the sect of Savonarola are
evidently much exaggerated, since there is proof that he lived and died,
not rich indeed, but possessed of property enough to keep him from any
real pinch of distress. The story of his work and life, after having
been the subject in recent years of much half-informed study and
speculation, has at length been fully elucidated in the work of Mr H.P.
Horne cited below,--a masterpiece of documentary research and critical

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Vasari, _Le Opere_ (ed. Milanesi), vol. iii.;
  Crowe-Cavalcaselle, _Hist. of Painting in Italy_, vol. ii.; Fr.
  Lippmann, _Botticellis Zeichnungen zu Dantes Göttlicher Komödie_; Dr
  Karl Woermann, "Sandro Botticelli" (in Dohme, _Kunst u. Künstler_); Dr
  Hermann Ulmann, _Sandro Botticelli_; Dr E. Steinmann, _Sandro
  Botticelli_ (in Knackfuss series, valuable for the author's
  elucidation of the Sixtine frescoes); I.B. Supino, _Sandro
  Botticelli_; Bernhard Berenson, _The Drawings of Florentine Painters;
  The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance_ (2nd ed.); _The Study and
  Criticism of Italian Art_; papers in the _Burlington Magazine_, the
  _Gazette des Beaux-Arts_ (to this critic is due the first systematic
  attempt to discriminate between the original work of Botticelli and
  that of his various pupils); J. Mesnil, _Miscellanea d'Arte_ and
  papers in the _Rivista d'Arte_, &c.; W. Warburg, _Sandro Botticelli's
  "Geburt der Venus" and "Frühling"_; Julia Cartwright (Mrs Ady), _The
  Life and Art of Sandro Botticelli_ (1904); F. Wickhoff in the
  _Jahrbuch der k. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen_ (1906); Herbert P.
  Horne, _Alessandro Filipepi commonly called Sandro Botticelli_ (1908);
  this last authority practically supersedes all others.     (S. C.)

BÖTTIGER, KARL AUGUST (1760-1835), German archaeologist, was born at
Reichenbach on the 8th of June 1760. He was educated at the school of
Pforta, and the university of Leipzig. After holding minor educational
posts, he obtained in 1791, through the influence of Herder, the
appointment of rector of the gymnasium at Weimar, where he entered into
a circle of literary men, including Wieland, Schiller, and Goethe. He
published in 1803 a learned work, _Sabina, oder Morgenszenen im
Putzzimmer einer reichen Römerin_, a description of a wealthy Roman
lady's toilette, and a work on ancient art, _Griechische Vasengemälde_.
At the same time he assisted in editing the _Journal des Luxus und der
Moden_, the _Deutsche Merkur_, and the _London and Paris_. In 1804 he
was called to Dresden as superintendent of the studies of the court
pages, and received the rank of privy councillor. In 1814 he was made
director of studies at the court academy, and inspector of the Museum of
Antiquities. He died at Dresden on the 17th of November 1835. His chief
works are:--_Ideen zur Archäologie der Malerei_, i. (1811) (no more
published); _Kunstmythologie_ (1811); _Vorlesungen und Aufsätze zur
Alterthumskunde_ (1817); _Amalthea_ (1821-1825); _Ideen zur
Kunstmythologie_ (1826-1836). The _Opuscula et Carmina Latina_ were
published separately in 1837; with a collection of his smaller pieces,
_Kleine Schriften_ (1837-1838), including a complete list of his works
(56 pages). His biography was written by his son Karl Wilhelm Böttiger
(1790-1862), for some time professor of history at Erlangen, and author
of several valuable histories (_History of Germany_, _History of
Saxony_, _History of Bavaria_, _Universal History of Biographies_).

BOTTLE (Fr. bouteille, from a diminutive of the Lat. _butta_, a flask;
cf. Eng. "butt"), a vessel for containing liquids, generally as opposed
to one for drinking from (though this probably is not excluded), and
with a narrow neck to facilitate closing and pouring. The first bottles
were probably made of the skins of animals. In the _Iliad_ (iii. 247)
the attendants are represented as bearing wine for use in a bottle made
of goat's skin. The ancient Egyptians used skins for this purpose, and
from the language employed by Herodotus (ii. 121), it appears that a
bottle was formed by sewing up the skin and leaving the projection of
the leg and foot to serve as a vent, which was hence termed [Greek:
podeon]. The aperture was closed with a plug or a string. Skin bottles
of various forms occur on Egyptian monuments. The Greeks and Romans also
were accustomed to use bottles made of skins; and in the southern parts
Europe they are still used for the transport of wine. The first of
explicit reference to bottles of skin in Scripture occurs in Joshua (ix.
4), where it is said that the Gibeonites took "old sacks upon their
asses, and wine-bottles _old and rent and bound up_." The objection to
putting "new wine into old bottles" (Matt. ix. 17) is that the skin,
already stretched and weakened by use, is liable to burst under the
pressure of the gas from new wine. Skins are still most extensively used
throughout western Asia for the conveyance and storage of water. It is
an error to represent the bottles of the ancient Hebrews as being made
exclusively of skins. In Jer. xix. 1 the prophet speaks of "a potter's
earthen vessel." The Egyptians (see EGYPT: _Art and Archaeology_)
possessed vases and bottles of hard stone, alabaster, glass, ivory,
bone, porcelain, bronze, silver and gold, and also of glazed pottery or
common earthenware. In modern times bottles are usually made of glass
(q.v.), or occasionally of earthenware. The glass bottle industry has
attained enormous dimensions, whether for wine, beer, &c., or mineral
waters; and labour-saving machinery for filling the bottles has been
introduced, as well as for corking or stoppering, for labelling and for
washing them.

[Illustration: Roman Skin Bottles, from specimens at Pompeii and

BOTTLE-BRUSH PLANTS, a genus of Australian plants, known botanically as
_Callistemon_, and belongiug to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). They take
their name from the resemblance of the head of flowers to a
bottle-brush. They are well known in cultivation as greenhouse shrubs;
the flower owes its beauty to the numerous long thread-like stamens
which far exceed the small petals. _Callistemon salignus_ is a valuable
hard wood.

BOTTLENOSE WHALE (_Hyperoödon rostratus_), a member of the sperm-whale
family, which is an inhabitant of the North Atlantic, passing the summer
in the Spitzbergen seas and going farther south in winter. It resembles
the sperm-whale in possessing a large store of oil in the upper part of
the head, which yields spermaceti when refined; on this account, and
also for the sake of the blubber, which supplies an oil almost
indistinguishable from sperm-oil, this whale became the object of a
regular chase in the latter half of the 19th century. In length these
whales vary between 20 ft. and 30 ft.; and in colour from black on the
upper surface in the young to light brown in old animals, the
under-parts being greyish white. There is no notch between the flukes,
as in other whales, but the hinder part of the tail is rounded.
Bottlenoses feed on cuttle-fishes and squills, and are practically
toothless; the only teeth which exist in the adult being a small pair at
the front of the lower jaw, concealed beneath the gum during life.
Examples have frequently been recorded on the British coasts. In
November 1904 a female, 24 ft. long, and a calf 15 ft. long were driven
ashore at Whitstable. (See CETACEA.)

BOTTOMRY, a maritime contract by which a ship (or bottom) is
hypothecated in security for money borrowed for expenses incurred in the
course of her voyage, under the condition that if she arrive at her
destination the ship shall be liable for repayment of the loan, together
with such premium thereon as may have been agreed for; but that if the
ship be lost, the lender shall have no claim against the borrower either
for the sum advanced or for the premium. The freight may be pledged as
well as the ship, and, if necessary, the cargo also. In some cases the
personal obligation of the shipmaster is also included. When money is
borrowed on the security of the cargo alone, it is said to be taken up
at _respondentia_; but it is now only in rare and exceptional cases
that it could be competent to the shipmaster to pledge the cargo, except
under a general bottomry obligation, along with the ship and freight. In
consideration of the risks assumed by the lender, the bottomry premium
(sometimes termed _maritime interest_) is usually high, varying of
course with the nature of the risk and the difficulty of procuring

A bottomry contract may be written out in any form which sufficiently
shows the conditions agreed on between the parties; but it is usually
drawn up in the form of a _bond_ which confers a maritime lien (q.v.).
The document must show, either by express terms or from its general
tenor, that the risk of loss is assumed by the lender,--this being the
consideration for which the high premium is conceded. The lender may
transfer the bond by indorsation, in the same manner as a bill of
exchange or bill of lading, and the right to recover its value becomes
vested in the indorsees. (See BOND.)

According to the law of England, a bottomry contract remains in force so
long as the ship exists _in the form of a ship_, whatever amount of
damage she may have sustained. Consequently, the "constructive total
loss" which is recognized in marine insurance, when the ship is damaged
to such an extent that she is not worth repairing, is not recognized in
reference to bottomry, and will not absolve the borrower from his
obligation. But if the ship go to pieces, the borrower is freed from all
liability under the bottomry contract; and the lender is not entitled to
receive any share of the proceeds of such of the ship's stores or
materials as may have been saved from the wreck. Money advanced on
bottomry is not liable in England for general average losses. If the
ship should _deviate_ from the voyage for which the funds were advanced,
her subsequent loss will not discharge the obligation of the borrower
under the bottomry contract. If she should not proceed at all on her
intended voyage, the lender is not entitled to recover the bottomry
premium in addition to his advance, but only the ordinary rate of
interest for the temporary loan. As the bottomry premium is presumed, in
every case, to cover the risks incurred by the lender, he is not
entitled to charge the borrower with the premium which he may pay for
_insurance_ of the sum advanced, in addition to that stipulated in the

The contract of bottomry seems to have arisen from the custom of
permitting the master of a ship, when in a foreign country, to pledge
the ship in order to raise money for repairs, or other extraordinary
expenditures rendered necessary in the course of the voyage.
Circumstances often arise, in which, without the exercise of this power
on the part of the master, it would be impossible to provide means for
accomplishing the voyage; and it is better that the master should have
authority to burden the ship, and, if necessary, the freight and cargo
also, in security for the money which has become requisite, than that
the adventure should be defeated by inability to proceed. But the right
of the master to pledge the ship or goods must always be created by
necessity; if exercised without necessity the contract will be void.
Accordingly, the master of a British ship has no power to grant a
bottomry bond at a British port, or at any foreign port where he might
raise funds on the personal credit of the shipowners. Neither has he any
power to pledge the ship or goods for private debts of his own, but only
for such supplies as are indispensable for the purposes of the voyage.
And in all cases he ought, if possible, to communicate with the owners
of the ship, and with the proprietor of the cargo before pledging their
property ("The Bonaparte," 1853, 8 Moo. P.C. 473; "The Staffordshire,"
1872, L.R. 4 P.C. 194). Increased facility of communication, by
telegraph and otherwise, has given additional stringency to this rule,
and caused a decline in the practice of giving bottomry bonds.

The bottomry lender must use reasonable diligence to ascertain that a
real necessity exists for the loan; but he is not bound to see to the
application of the money advanced. If the lender has originally advanced
the funds on the personal credit of the owner he is not entitled to
require a bottomry obligation. A bond procured from the shipmaster by
improper compulsion would be void.

The power of the master to pledge the cargo depends upon there being
some reasonable prospect of benefit to it by his so doing. He has no
such power except in virtue of circumstances which may oblige him to
assume the character of _agent for the cargo_, in the absence of any
other party authorized to act on its behalf. Under ordinary
circumstances he is not at liberty to pledge the cargo for repairs to
the ship. If indeed the goods be of a perishable nature, and if it be
impossible to get the ship repaired in sufficient time to obviate
serious loss on them by delay, without including them under the bottomry
contract, he has power to do so, because it may fairly be assumed, in
the case supposed, that the cargo will be benefited by this procedure.
The general principle is, that the master must act for the cargo, with a
reasonable view to the interests of its proprietors, under the whole
circumstances of the case. When he does this his proceedings will be
sustained; but should he manifestly prejudice the interests of the cargo
by including it under bottomry for the mere purpose of relieving the
ship, or of earning the freight, the owners of the cargo will not be
bound by the bottomry contract. Any bottomry or respondentia bond may be
good in part or bad in part, according as the master may have acted
_within_ or _beyond_ the scope of his legitimate authority in granting
it. If two or more bottomry bonds have been granted at different stages
of the voyage, and the value of the property be insufficient to
discharge them all, the last-dated bond has the priority of payment, as
having furnished the means of preserving the ship, and thereby
preventing the total loss of the security for the previous bonds.

When the sum due under a bottomry bond over ship, freight and cargo is
not paid at the stipulated time, proceedings may be taken by the
bondholder for recovery of the freight and for the sale of the ship; and
should the proceeds of these be insufficient to discharge the claim, a
judicial sale of the cargo may be resorted to. As a general rule the
value of the ship and freight must be exhausted before recourse can be
taken against the cargo. A bottomry bond gives no remedy to the lenders
against the owners of the ship or cargo personally. The whole liability
under it may be met by the surrender of the property pledged, whether
the value so surrendered covers the amount of the bond or not. But the
owners of the ship, though not liable to the bondholder for more than
the value of the ship and freight, may be further liable to the
proprietors of the cargo for any sum in excess of the cargo's proper
share of the expenses, taken by the bondholder out of the proceeds of
the cargo to satisfy the bond after the ship and freight have been

The bottomry premium must be ultimately paid by the parties for whose
benefit the advances were obtained, as ascertained on the final
adjustment of the average expenditures at the port of destination.

  The practice of pledging property subject to maritime risks was common
  among the ancient Greeks, being known as [Greek: ekdosis] or [Greek:
  daneion] (see Demosthenes' speeches _Pro Phormione, Contra Lacritum_
  and _In Dionysodorum_); it passed into Roman law as _foenus nauticum_
  or _usura maritima_.

  See also LIEN: _Maritime_; and generally Abbott on _Shipping_ (14th
  ed., 1901).

BOTZARIS [BOZZARIS], MARCO (c. 1788-1823), leader in the War of Greek
Independence, born at Suli in Albania, was the second son of Kitzo
Botzaris, murdered at Arta in 1809 by order of Ali of Iannina. In 1803,
after the capture of Suli by Ali Pasha, Marco, with the remnant of the
Suliots, crossed over to the Ionian Islands, where he ultimately took
service in an Albanian regiment in French pay. In 1814 he joined the
Greek patriotic society known as the _Hetairia Philike_, and in 1820,
with other Suliots, made common cause with Ali of Iannina against the
Ottomans. On the outbreak of the Greek revolt, he distinguished himself
by his courage, tenacity and skill as a partisan leader in the fighting
in western Hellas, and was conspicuous in the defence of Missolonghi
during the first siege (1822-1823). On the night of the 21st of August
1823 he led the celebrated attack at Karpenisi of 350 Suliots on 4000
Albanians who formed the vanguard of the army with which Mustai Pasha
was advancing to reinforce the besiegers. The rout of the Turks was
complete; but Botzaris himself fell. His memory is still celebrated in
popular ballads in Greece. Marco Botzaris's brother Kosta (Constantine),
who fought at Karpenisi and completed the victory, lived to become a
general and senator in the Greek kingdom. He died at Athens on the 13th
of November 1853. Marco's son, Dimitri Botzaris, born in 1813, was three
times minister of war under the kings Otho and George. He died at Athens
on the 17th of August 1870.

BOTZEN, or BOZEN (Ital. _Bolzano_), a town in the Austrian province of
Tirol, situated at the confluence of the Talfer with the Eisak, and a
short way above the junction of the latter with the Adige or Etsch. It
is built at a height of 869 ft., and is a station on the Brenner
railway, being 58 m. S. of that pass and 35 m. N. of Trent. In 1900 it
had a population of 13,632, Romanist and mainly German-speaking, though
the Italian element is said to be increasing. Botzen is a Teutonic town
amid Italian surroundings. It is well built, and boasts of a fine old
Gothic parish church, dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, opposite
which a statue was erected in 1889 to the memory of the famous
_Minnesänger_, Walther von der Vogelweide, who, according to some
accounts, was born (c. 1170) at a farm above Waidbruck, to the north of
Botzen. Botzen is the busiest commercial town in the German-speaking
portion of Tirol, being admirably situated at the junction of the
Brenner route from Germany to Italy with that from Switzerland down the
Upper Adige valley or the Vintschgau. Hence the transit trade has always
been very considerable (it has four large fairs annually), while the
local wine is mentioned as early as the 7th century. Lately its
prosperity has been increased by the rise into favour as a winter resort
of the village of Gries, on the other bank of the Talfer, and now
practically a suburb of Botzen.

The _pons Drusi_ (probably over the Adige, just below Botzen) is
mentioned in the 4th century by the _Peutinger Table_. In the 7th to 8th
centuries Botzen was held by a dynasty of Bavarian counts. But in 1027,
with the rest of the diocese of Trent, it was given by the emperor
Conrad II. to the bishop of Trent. From 1028 onwards it was ruled by
local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the
hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that
of the bishops. In 1381 Leopold granted to the citizens the privilege of
having a town council, while in 1462 the bishops resigned all rights of
jurisdiction over the town to the Habsburgers, so that its later history
is merged in that of Tirol.     (W. A. B. C.)

BOUCHARDON, EDME (1698-1762), French sculptor, was esteemed in his day
the greatest sculptor of his time. Born at Chaumont, he became the pupil
of Guillaume Coustou and gained the _prix de Rome_ in 1722. Resisting
the tendency of the day he was classic in his taste, pure and chaste,
always correct, charming and distinguished, a great stickler for all the
finish that sand-paper could give. During the ten years he remained at
Rome, Bouchardon made a striking bust of Pope Benedict XIII. (1730). In
1746 he produced his first acclaimed masterpiece, "Cupid fashioning a
Bow out of the Club of Hercules," perfect in its grace, but cold in the
purity of its classic design. His two other leading _chefs-d'oeuvre_ are
the fountain in the rue de Grenelle, Paris, the first portions of which
had been finished and exhibited in 1740, and the equestrian statue of
Louis XV., a commission from the city of Paris. This superb work, which,
when the model was produced, was declared the finest work of its kind
ever produced in France, Bouchardon did not live to finish, but left its
completion to Pigalle. It was destroyed during the Revolution.

  Among the chief books on the sculptor and his art are _Vie d'Edme
  Bouchardon_, by le comte de Caylus (Paris, 1762); _Notice sur Edme
  Bouchardon, sculpteur_, by E. Jolibois (Versailles, 1837); _Notice
  historique sur Edme Bouchardon_, by J. Carnandet (Paris, 1855); and
  _French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th Century_, by Lady Dilke
  (London, 1900).

BOUCHER, FRANÇOIS (1703-1770), French painter, was born in Paris, and at
first was employed by Jean François Cars (1670-1739), the engraver,
father of the engraver Laurent Cars (1699-1771), to make designs and
illustrations for books. In 1727, however, he went to Italy, and at
Rome became well known as a painter. He returned to Paris in 1731 and
soon became a favourite in society. His picture "Rinaldo and Armida"
(1734) is now in the Louvre. He was made inspector of the Gobelins
factory in 1755 and court painter in 1765, and was employed by Madame de
Pompadour both to paint her portrait and to execute various decorative
works. He died in 1770. His Watteau-like style and graceful
voluptuousness gave him the title of the Anacreon of painting, but his
repute declined until recent years. The Wallace collection, at Hertford
House, has some of his finest pictures, outside the Louvre. His etchings
were also numerous and masterly.

  See Antoine Bret's notice in the _Nécrologe des hommes célèbres_ for
  1771, and the monographs by the brothers de Goncourt and Paul Mantz.

BOUCHER, JONATHAN (1738-1804), English divine and philologist, was born
in the hamlet of Blencogo, near Wigton, Cumberland, on the 12th of March
1738. He was educated at the Wigton grammar school, and about 1754 went
to Virginia, where he became a private tutor in the families of Virginia
planters. Among his charges was John Parke Custis, the step-son of
George Washington, with whom he began a long and intimate friendship.
Returning to England, he was ordained by the bishop of London in March
1762, and at once sailed again for America, where he remained until 1775
as rector of various Virginia and Maryland parishes, including Hanover,
King George's county, Virginia, and St Anne's at Annapolis, Maryland. He
was widely known as an eloquent preacher, and his scholarly attainments
won for him the friendship and esteem of some of the ablest scholars in
the colonies. During his residence in Maryland he vigorously opposed the
"vestry act," by which the powers and emoluments of the Maryland pastors
were greatly diminished. When the struggle between the colonies and the
mother country began, although he felt much sympathy for the former, his
opposition to any form of obstruction to the Stamp Act and other
measures, and his denunciation of a resort to force created a breach
between him and his parish, and in a fiery farewell discourse preached
after the opening of hostilities he declared that no power on earth
should prevent him from praying and shouting "God save the King." In the
succeeding autumn he returned to England, where his loyalism was
rewarded by a government pension. In 1784 he became vicar of Epsom in
Surrey, where he continued until his death on the 27th of April 1804,
becoming known as one of the most eloquent preachers of his day. He was
an accomplished writer and scholar, contributed largely to William
Hutchinson's _History of the County of Cumberland_ (2 vols., 1704 seq.),
and published _A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American
Revolution_ (1797), dedicated to George Washington, and consisting of
thirteen discourses delivered in America between 1763 and 1775. His
philological studies, to which the last fourteen years of his life were
devoted, resulted in the compilation of "A Glossary of Provincial and
Archaic Words," intended as a supplement to Dr Johnson's _Dictionary_,
but never published except in part, which finally in 1831 passed into
the hands of the English compilers of Webster's _Dictionary_, by whom it
was utilized.

His son, BARTON BOUCHER (1794-1865), rector of Fonthill Bishops,
Wiltshire, in 1856, was well known as the author of religious tracts,
hymns and novels.

BOUCHER DE CRÈVCOEUR DE PERTHES, JACQUES (1788-1868), French geologist
and antiquary, was born on the 10th of September 1788 at Rethel,
Ardennes, France. He was the eldest son of Jules Armand Guillaume
Boucher de Crèvecoeur, botanist and customs officer, and of
Étienne-Jeanne-Marie de Perthes (whose surname he was authorized by
royal decree in 1818 to assume in addition to his father's). In 1802 he
entered government employ as an officer of customs. His duties kept him
for six years in Italy, whence returning (in 1811) he found rapid
promotion at home, and finally was appointed (March 1825) to succeed his
father as director of the _douane_ at Abbeville, where he remained for
the rest of his life, being superannuated in January 1853, and dying on
the 5th of August 1868. His leisure was chiefly devoted to the study of
what was afterwards called the Stone Age, "antediluvian man," as he
expressed it. About the year 1830 he had found, in the gravels of the
Somme valley, flints which in his opinion bore evidence of human
handiwork; but not until many years afterwards did he make public the
important discovery of a worked flint implement with remains of
elephant, rhinoceros, &c., in the gravels of Menchecourt. This was in
1846. A few years later he commenced the issue of his monumental work,
_Antiquités celtiques et an édiluviennes_ (1847, 1857, 1864; 3 vols.), a
work in which he was the first to establish the existence of man in the
Pleistocene or early Quaternary period. His views met with little
approval, partly because he had previously propounded theories regarding
the antiquity of man without facts to support them, partly because the
figures in his book were badly executed and they included drawings of
flints which showed no clear sign of workmanship. In 1855 Dr Jean Paul
Rigollot (1810-1873), of Amiens, strongly advocated the authenticity of
the flint implements; but it was not until 1858 that Hugh Falconer
(q.v.) saw the collection at Abbeville and induced Prestwich (q.v.) in
the following year to visit the locality. Prestwich then definitely
agreed that the flint implements were the work of man, and that they
occurred in undisturbed ground in association with remains of extinct
mammalia. In 1863 his discovery of a human jaw, together with worked
flints, in a gravel-pit at Moulin-Quignon near Abbeville seemed to
vindicate Boucher de Perthes entirely; but doubt was thrown on the
antiquity of the human remains (owing to the possibility of interment),
though not on the good faith of the discoverer, who was the same year
made an officer of the Legion of Honour together with Quatrefages his
champion. Boucher de Perthes displayed activity in many other
directions. For more than thirty years he filled the presidential chair
of the Société d'Émulation at Abbeville, to the publications of which he
contributed articles on a wide range of subjects. He was the author of
several tragedies, two books of fiction, several works of travel, and a
number of books on economic and philanthropic questions. To his
scientific books may be added _De l'homme antédilumen et de ses oeuvres_
(Paris, 1860).

  See Alcius Ledien, _Boucher de Perthes; sa vie, ses oeuvres, sa
  correspondence_ (Abbeville, 1885); Lady Prestwich, "Recollections of
  M. Boucher de Perthes" (with portrait) in _Essays Descriptive and
  Biographical_ (1901).

BOUCHES-DU-RHÔNE, a maritime department of south-eastern France situated
at the mouth of the Rhone. Area, 2026 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 765,918. Formed
in 1790 from western Provence, it is bounded N. by Vaucluse, from which
it is separated by the Durance, E. by Var, W. by Card, and S. by the
Mediterranean, along which its seaboard stretches for about 120 m. The
western portion consists of the Camargue (q.v.), a low and marshy plain
enclosed between the Rhone and the Petit-Rhône, and comprising the Rhone
delta. A large portion of its surface is covered by lagoons and pools
(étangs), the largest of which is the Étang de Vaccarès; to the east of
the Camargue is situated the remarkable stretch of country called the
Crau, which is strewn with pebbles like the sea-beach; and farther east
and north there are various ranges of mountains of moderate elevation
belonging to the Alpine system. The Étang de Berre, a lagoon covering an
area of nearly 60 sq. m., is situated near the sea to the south-east of
the Crau. A few small tributaries of the Rhone and the Durance, a number
of streams, such as the Arc and the Touloubre, which flow into the Étang
de Berre, and the Huveaune, which finds its way directly to the sea, are
the only rivers that properly belong to the department.

Bouches-du-Rhône enjoys the beautiful climate of the Mediterranean
coast, the chief drawback being the mistral, the icy north-west wind
blowing from the central plateau of France. The proportion of arable
land is small, though the quantity has been considerably increased by
artificial irrigation and by the draining of marshland. Cereals, of
which wheat and oats are the commonest, are grown in the Camargue and
the plain of Aries, but they are of less importance than the olive-tree,
which is grown largely in the east of the department and supplies the
oil-works of Marseilles. The vine is also cultivated, the method of
submersion being used as a safeguard against phylloxera. In the cantons
of the north-west large quantities of early vegetables are produced. Of
live-stock, sheep alone are raised to any extent. Almonds, figs, capers,
mulberry trees and silkworms are sources of considerable profit. Iron is
worked, but the most important mines are those of lignite, in which
between 2000 and 3000 workmen are employed; the department also produces
bauxite, building-stone, lime, cement, gypsum, clay, sand and gravel and
marble. The salt marshes employ many workmen, and the amount of sea-salt
obtained exceeds in quantity the produce of any other department in
France. Marseilles, the capital, is by far the most important industrial
town. In its oil-works, soap-works, metallurgical works, shipbuilding
works, distilleries, flour-mills, chemical works, tanneries, engineering
and machinery works, brick and tile works, manufactories of preserved
foods and biscuits, and other industrial establishments, is concentrated
most of the manufacturing activity of the department. To these must be
added the potteries of the industrial town of Aubagne, the silk-works in
the north-west cantons, and various paper and cardboard manufactories,
while several of the industries of Marseilles, such as the distilling of
oil, metal-founding, shipbuilding and soap-making, are common to the
whole of Bouches-du-Rhône. Fishing is also an important industry.
Cereals, flour, silk, woollen and cotton goods, wine, brandy, oils,
soap, sugar and coffee are chief exports; cereals, oil-seeds, wine and
brandy, raw sugar, cattle, timber, silk, wool, cotton, coal, &c., are
imported. The foreign commerce of the department, which is principally
carried on in the Mediterranean basin, is for the most part concentrated
in the capital; the minor ports are Martigues, Cassis and La Ciotat.
Internal trade is facilitated by the canal from Aries to Port-de-Bouc
and two smaller canals, in all about 35 m. in length. The Rhone and the
Petit-Rhône are both navigable within the department.

Bouches-du-Rhône is divided into the three arrondissements of
Marseilles, Aix and Arles (33 cantons, 111 communes). It belongs to the
archiepiscopal province of Aix, to the region of the XV. army corps, the
headquarters of which are at Marseilles, and to the _académie_
(educational division) of Aix. Its court of appeal is at Aix.
Marseilles, Aix, Arles, La Ciotat, Martigues, Salon, Les Saintes-Maries,
St Rémy, Les Baux and Tarascon, the principal places, are separately
noticed. Objects of interest elsewhere may be mentioned. Near
Saint-Chamas there is a remarkable Roman bridge over the Touloubre,
which probably dates from the 1st century B.C. and is thus the oldest in
France. It is supported on one semicircular span and has triumphal
arches at either end. At Vernègues there are remains of a Roman temple
known as the "Maison-Basse." The famous abbey of Montmajour, of which
the oldest parts are the Romanesque church and cloister, is 2½ m. from
Arles. At Orgon there are the ruins of a château of the 15th century,
and near La Roque d'Anthéron the church and other buildings of the
Cistercian abbey of Silvacane, founded in the 12th century.

BOUCHOR, MAURICE (1855-   ), French poet, was born on the 15th of
December 1855 in Paris. He published in succession _Chansons joyeuses_
(1874), _Poèmes de l'amour et de la mer_ (1875), _Le Faust moderne_
(1878) in prose and verse, and _Les Contes parisiens_ (1880) in verse.
His _Aurore_ (1883) showed a tendency to religious mysticism, which
reached its fullest expression in _Les Symboles_ (1888; new series,
1895), the most interesting of his works. Bouchor (whose brother, Joseph
Félix Bouchor, b. 1853, became well known as an artist) was a sculptor
as well as a poet, and he designed and worked the figures used in his
charming pieces as marionettes, the words being recited or chanted by
himself or his friends behind the scenes. These miniature dramas on
religious subjects, _Tobie_ (1889), _Noël_ (1890) and _Sainte Cécile_
(1892), were produced in Paris at the Théâtre des Marionnettes. A
one-act verse drama by Bouchor, Conte de Noël, was played at the Théâtre
Français in 1895, but _Dieu le veut_ (1888) was not produced. In
conjunction with the musician Julien Tiersot (b. 1857), he made efforts
for the preservation of the French folk-songs, and published _Chants
populaires pour les écoles_ (1897).

BOUCHOTTE, JEAN BAPTISTE NOËL (1754-1840), French minister, was born at
Metz on the 25th of December 1754. At the outbreak of the Revolution he
was a captain of cavalry, and his zeal led to his being made colonel and
given the command at Cambrai. When Dumouriez delivered up to the
Austrians the minister of war, the marquis de Beurnonville, in April
1793, Bouchotte, who had bravely defended Cambrai, was called by the
Convention to be minister of war, where he remained until the 31st of
March 1794. The predominant rôle of the Committee of Public Safety
during that period did not leave much scope for the new minister, yet he
rendered some services in the organization of the republican armies, and
chose his officers with insight, among them Kléber, Masséna, Moreau and
Bonaparte. During the Thermidorian reaction, in spite of his
incontestable honesty, he was accused by the anti-revolutionists. He was
tried by the tribunal of the Eure-et-Loire and acquitted. Then he
withdrew from politics, and lived in retirement until his death on the
8th of June 1840.

BOUCICAULT, DION (1822-1890), Irish actor and playwright, was born in
Dublin on the 26th of December 1822, the son of a French refugee and an
Irish mother. Before he was twenty he was fortunate enough to make an
immediate success as a dramatist with _London Assurance_, produced at
Covent Garden on the 4th of March 1841, with a cast that included
Charles Matthews, William Farren, Mrs Nesbitt and Madame Vestris. He
rapidly followed this with a number of other plays, among the most
successful of the early ones being _Old Heads and Young Hearts_, _Louis
XI_., and _The Corsican Brothers_. In June 1852 he made his first
appearance as an actor in a melodrama of his own entitled _The Vampire_
at the Princess's theatre. From 1853 to 1869 he was in the United
States, where he was always a popular favourite. On his return to
England he produced at the Adelphi a dramatic adaptation of Gerald
Griffin's novel, _The Collegians_, entitled _The Colleen Bawn_. This
play, one of the most successful of modern times, was performed in
almost every city of the United Kingdom and the United States, and made
its author a handsome fortune, which he lost in the management of
various London theatres. It was followed by _The Octoroon_ (1861), the
popularity of which was almost as great. Boucicault's next marked
success was at the Princess's theatre in 1865 with _Arrah-na-Pogue_, in
which he played the part of a Wicklow carman. This, and his admirable
creation of Con in his play _The Shaughraun_ (first produced at Drury
Lane in 1875), won him the reputation of being the best stage Irishman
of his time. In 1875 he returned to New York City and finally made his
home there, but he paid occasional visits to London, where his last
appearance was made in his play, _The Jilt_, in 1886. _The Streets of
London_ and _After Dark_ were two of his late successes as a dramatist.
He died in New York on the 18th of September 1890. Boucicault was twice
married, his first wife being Agnes Robertson, the adopted daughter of
Charles Kean, and herself an actress of unusual ability. Three children,
Dion (b. 1859), Aubrey (b. 1868) and Nina, also became distinguished in
the profession.

marshal of France, was the son of another Jean le Meingre, also known as
Boucicaut, marshal of France, who died on the 15th of March 1368 (N.S.).
At a very early age he became a soldier; he fought in Normandy, in
Flanders and in Prussia, distinguishing himself at the battle of
Roosebeke in 1382; and then after a campaign in Spain he journeyed to
the Holy Land. Boucicaut's great desire appears to have been to fight
the Turk, and in 1396 he was one of the French soldiers who marched to
the defence of Hungary and shared in the Christian defeat at Nicopolis,
where he narrowly escaped death. After remaining for some months a
captive in the hands of the sultan, he obtained his ransom and returned
to France; then in 1399 he was sent at the head of an army to aid the
Eastern emperor, Manuel II., who was harassed by the Turks. Boucicaut
drove the enemy from his position before Constantinople and returned to
France for fresh troops, but instead of proceeding again to eastern
Europe, he was despatched in 1401 to Genoa, who in 1396 had placed
herself under the dominion of France. Here he was successful in
restoring order and in making the French occupation effective, and he
was soon able to turn his attention to the defence of the Genoese
possessions in the Mediterranean. The energy which he showed in this
direction involved him not only in a quarrel with Janus, king of Cyprus,
but led also to a short war with Venice, whose fleet he encountered off
Modon in the Archipelago in October 1403. This battle has been claimed
by both sides as a victory. Peace was soon made with the republic, and
then in 1409, while the marshal was absent on a campaign in northern
Italy, Genoa threw off the French yoke, and Boucicaut, unable to reduce
her again to submission, retired to Languedoc. He fought at Agincourt,
where he was taken prisoner, and died in England. Boucicaut, who was
very skilful in the tournament, founded the order of the _Dame blanche à
l'écu vert_, a society the object of which was to defend the wives and
daughters of absent knights.

  There is in existence an anonymous account of Boucicaut's life and
  adventures, entitled _Livre des faits du bon messire Jean le Meingre
  dit Boucicaut_, which was published in Paris by T. Godefroy in 1620.
  See J. Delaville le Roulx, _La France en Orient: expéditions du
  maréchal Boucicaut_ (Paris, 1886).

BOUDIN, EUGÈNE (1824-1898), French painter of the _paysage de mer_, was
the son of a pilot. Born at Honfleur he was cabin-boy for a while on
board the rickety steamer that plied between Havre and Honfleur across
the estuary of the Seine. But before old age came on him, Boudin's
father abandoned seafaring, and the son gave it up too, having of course
no real vocation for it, though he preserved to his last days much of a
sailor's character,--frankness, accessibility, open-heartedness. Boudin
the elder now established himself as stationer and frame-maker; this
time in the greater seaport town of Havre; and Eugène helped in the
little business, and, in stolen hours, produced certain drawings. That
was a time at which the romantic outlines of the Norman coast engaged
Isabey, and the green wide valleys of the inland country engaged Troyon;
and Troyon and Isabey, and Millet too, came to the shop at Havre. Young
Boudin found his desire to be a painter stimulated by their influence;
his work made a certain progress, and the interest taken in the young
man resulted in his being granted for a short term of years by the town
of his adoption a pension, that he might study painting. He studied
partly in Paris; but whatever individuality he possessed in those years
was hidden and covered, rather than disclosed. An instance of tiresome,
elaborate labour--good enough, no doubt, as groundwork, and not out of
keeping with what at least was the popular taste of that day--is his
"Pardon of Sainte Anne de la Palud," a Breton scene, of 1858, in which
he introduced the young Breton woman who was immediately to become his
wife. This conscientious and unmoving picture hangs in the museum of
Havre, along with a hundred later, fresher, thoroughly individual
studies and sketches, the gift of Boudin's brother, Louis Boudin, after
the painter's death. Re-established at Honfleur, Boudin was married and
poor. But his work gained character and added, to merely academic
correctness, character and charm. He was beginning to be himself by 1864
or 1865--that was the first of such periods of his as may be accounted
good--and, though not at that time so fully a master of transient
effects of weather as he became later, he began then to paint with a
success genuinely artistic the scenes of the harbour and the estuary,
which no longer lost vivacity by deliberate and too obvious
completeness. The war of 1870-71 found Boudin impecunious but great, for
then there had well begun the series of freshly and vigorously conceived
canvases and panels, which record the impressions of a precursor of the
Impressionists in presence of the Channel waters, and of those autumn
skies, or skies of summer, now radiant, now uncertain, which hung over
the small ports and the rocky or chalk-cliff coasts, over the
watering-places, Trouville, Dieppe, and over those larger harbours, with
_port_ and _avant-port_ and _bassin_, of Dunkirk, of Havre. In the war
time, Boudin was in Brittany and then in the Low Countries. About
1875-1876 he was at Rotterdam and Bordeaux. That great bird's-eye
vision of Bordeaux which is in the Luxembourg dates from these years,
and in these years he was at Rotterdam, the companion of Jongkind, with
whom he had so much in common, but whose work, like his, free and
fearless and unconventional, can never be said with accuracy to have
seriously influenced his own. Doing excellent things continually through
all the 'seventies, when he was in late middle age--gaining scope in
colour, having now so many notes--faithful no longer wholly to his
amazing range of subtle greys, now blithe and silvery, now nobly
deep--sending to the Salon great canvases, and to the few enlightened
people who would buy them of him the _toile_ or panel of most moderate
size on which he best of all expressed himself--Boudin was yet not
acceptable to the public or to the fashionable dealer. The late
'eighties had to come and Boudin to be elderly before there was a sale
for his work at any prices that were in the least substantial. Broadly
speaking his work in those very 'eighties was not so good as the labour,
essentially delicate and fresh and just, of some years earlier, nor had
it always the attractiveness of the impulsive deliverances of some years
later, when the inspired sketch was the thing that he generally stopped
at. Old age found him strong and receptive. Only in the very last year
of his life was there perceptible a positive deterioration. Not very
long before it, Boudin, in a visit to Venice, had produced impressions
of Venice for which much more was to be said than that they were not
Ziem's. And the deep colouring of the South, on days when the sunshine
blazes least, had been caught by him and presented nobly at Antibes and
Villefranche. At last, resorting to the south again as a refuge from
ill-health, and recognizing soon that the relief it could give him was
almost spent, he resolved that it should not be for him, in the words of
Maurice Barrès, a "_tombe fleurie_," and he returned, hastily, weak and
sinking, to his home at Deauville, that he might at least die within
sight of Channel waters and under Channel skies. As a "marine
painter"--more properly as a painter of subjects in which water must
have some part, and as curiously expert in the rendering of all that
goes upon the sea, and as the painter too of the green banks of tidal
rivers and of the long-stretched beach, with crinolined Parisienne noted
as ably as the sailor-folk--Boudin stands alone. Beside him others are
apt to seem rather theatrical--or if they do not romance they appear,
perhaps, to chronicle dully. The pastels of Boudin--summary and economic
even in the 'sixties, at a time when his painted work was less
free--obtained the splendid eulogy of Baudelaire, and it was no other
than Corot who, before his pictures, said to him: "You are the master of
the sky."

  See also Gustave Cahen, _Eugène Boudin_ (Paris, 1899); Arsène
  Alexandre, _Essais_; Frederick Wedmore, _Whistler and Others_ (1906).
      (F. We.)

BOUDINOT, ELIAS (1740-1821), American revolutionary leader, was born at
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of Huguenot descent, on the 2nd of May 1740.
He studied law at Princeton, New Jersey, in the office of Richard
Stockton, whose sister Hannah he married in 1762, and in November 1760
he was licensed as a counsellor and attorney-at-law, afterwards
practising at Elizabethtown, New Jersey. On the approach of the War of
Independence he allied himself with the conservative Whigs. He was a
deputy to the provincial congress of New Jersey from May to August 1775,
and from May 1777 until July 1778 was the commissary-general of
prisoners, with the rank of colonel, in the continental army. He was one
of the New Jersey members of the continental congress in 1778 and again
from 1781 until 1783, and from November 1782 until October 1783 was
president of that body, acting also for a short time, after the
resignation of Robert R. Livingston, as secretary for foreign affairs.
From 1789 to 1795 he sat as a member of the national House of
Representatives, and from 1795 until 1805 he was the director of the
United States mint at Philadelphia. He took an active part in the
founding of the American Bible Society in 1816, of which he became the
first president. He was a trustee and a benefactor of the college of New
Jersey (afterwards Princeton University). In reply to Thomas Paine's
_Age of Reason_, he published the _Age of Revelation_ (1790); he also
published a volume entitled _A Star in the West, or a Humble Attempt to
Discover the Long Lost Ten Tribes of Israel_ (1816), in which he
endeavours to prove that the American Indians may be the ten lost
tribes. Boudinot died at Burlington, New Jersey, on the 24th of October

  See _The Life, Public Services, Addresses and Letters of Elias
  Boudinot_, edited by J.J. Boudinot (Boston and New York, 1896).

BOUÉ, AMI (1794-1881), Austrian geologist, was born at Hamburg on the
16th of March 1794, and received his early education there and in Geneva
and Paris. Proceeding to Edinburgh to study medicine at the university,
he came under the influence of Robert Jameson, whose teachings in
geology and mineralogy inspired his future career. Boué was thus led to
make geological expeditions to various parts of Scotland and the
Hebrides, and after taking his degree of M.D. in 1817 he settled for
some years in Paris. In 1820 he issued his _Essai géologique sur
l'Écosse_, in which the eruptive rocks in particular were carefully
described. He travelled much in Germany, Austria and southern Europe,
studying various geological formations, and becoming one of the pioneers
in geological research; he was one of the founders of the Société
Géologique de France in 1830, and was its president in 1835. In 1841 he
settled in Vienna, and became naturalized as an Austrian. He died on the
21st of November 1881. To the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Vienna he
communicated important papers on the geology of the Balkan States
(1859-1870), and he also published _Mémoires géologiques et
paléontologiques_ (Paris, 1832) and _La Turquie d'Europe; observations
sur la géographie, la géologie, l'histoire naturelle, &c._ (Paris,

BOUFFLERS, LOUIS FRANÇOIS, DUC DE, comte de Cagny (1644-1711), marshal
of France, was born on the 10th of January 1644. He entered the army and
saw service in 1663 at the siege of Marsal, becoming in 1669 colonel of
dragoons. In the conquest of Lorraine (1670) he served under Marshal de
Créqui. In Holland he served under Turenne, frequently distinguishing
himself by his skill and bravery; and when Turenne was killed by a
cannon-shot in 1675 he commanded the rear-guard during the retreat of
the French army. He was already a brigadier, and in 1677 he became
_maréchal de camp_. He served throughout the campaigns of the time with
increasing distinction, and in 1681 became lieutenant-general. He
commanded the French army on the Moselle, which opened the War of the
League of Augsburg with a series of victories; then he led a corps to
the Sambre, and reinforced Luxemburg on the eve of the battle of
Fleurus. In 1691 he acted as lieutenant-general under the king in
person; and during the investment of Mons he was wounded in an attack on
the town. He was present with the king at the siege of Namur in 1692,
and took part in the victory of Steinkirk. For his services he was
raised in 1692 to the rank of marshal of France, and in 1694 was made a
duke. In 1694 he was appointed governor of French Flanders and of the
town of Lille. By a skilful manoeuvre he threw himself into Namur in
1695, and only surrendered to his besiegers after he had lost 8000 of
his 13,000 men. In the conferences which terminated in the peace of
Ryswick he had a principal share. During the following war, when Lille
was threatened with a siege by Marlborough and Eugene, Boufflers was
appointed to the command, and made a most gallant resistance of three
months. He was rewarded and honoured by the king for his defence of
Lille, as if he had been victorious. It was indeed a species of triumph;
his enemy, appreciating his merits, allowed him to dictate his own terms
of capitulation. In 1708 he was made a peer of France. In 1709, when the
affairs of France were threatened with the most urgent danger, Boufflers
offered to serve under his junior, Villars, and was with him at the
battle of Malplaquet. Here he displayed the highest skill, and after
Villars was wounded he conducted the retreat of the French army without
losing either cannon or prisoners. He died at Fontainebleau on the 22nd
of August 1711.

  See F...., _Vie du Mal. de Boufflers_ (Lille, 1852), and Père
  Delarue's and Père Poisson's _Oraisons funèbres du Mal. B._ (1712).

BOUFFLERS, STANISLAS JEAN, CHEVALIER DE (1737-1815), French statesman
and man of letters, was born near Nancy on the 31st of May 1738. He was
the son of Louis François, marquis de Boufflers. His mother, Marie
Catherine de Beauveau Craon, was the mistress of Stanislas Leszczynski,
and the boy was brought up at the court of Lunéville. He spent six
months in study for the priesthood at Saint Sulpice, Paris, and during
his residence there he put in circulation a story which became extremely
popular, _Aline, reine de Golconde_. Boufflers did not, however, take
the vows, as his ambitions were military. He entered the order of the
Knights of Malta, so that he might be able to follow the career of arms
without sacrificing the revenues of a benefice he had received in
Lorraine from King Stanislas. After serving in various campaigns he
reached the grade of _maréchal de camp_ in 1784, and in the next year
was sent to West Africa as governor of Senegal. He proved an excellent
administrator, and did what he could to mitigate the horrors of the
slave trade; and he interested himself in opening up the material
resources of the colony, so that his departure in 1787 was regarded as a
real calamity by both colonists and negroes. The _Mémoires secrets_ of
Bachaumont give the current opinion that Boufflers was sent to Senegal
because he was in disgrace at court; but the real reason appears to have
been a desire to pay his debts before his marriage with Mme de Sabran,
which took place soon after his return to France. Boufflers was admitted
to the Academy in 1788, and subsequently became a member of the
states-general. During the Revolution he found an asylum with Prince
Henry of Prussia at Rheinsberg. At the Restoration he was made
joint-librarian of the Bibliothèque Mazarine. His wit and his skill in
light verse had won him a great reputation, and he was one of the idols
of the Parisian salons. His paradoxical character was described in an
epigram attributed to Antoine de Rivarol, "_abbé libertin, militaire
philosophe, diplomate chansonnier, émigré patriote, républicain
courtisan_." He died in Paris on the 18th of January 1815.

  His _OEuvres complètes_ were published under his own supervision in
  1803. A selection of his stories in prose and verse was edited by
  Eugène Asse in 1878; his _Poésies_ by O. Uzanne in 1886; and the
  _Correspondance inédite de la comtesse de Sabran et du chevalier de
  Boufflers_ (1778-1788), by E. de Magnieu and Henri Prat in 1875.

BOUGAINVILLE, LOUIS ANTOINE DE (1729-1811), French navigator, was born
at Paris on the 11th of November 1729. He was the son of a notary, and
in early life studied law, but soon abandoned the profession, and in
1753 entered the army in the corps of musketeers. At the age of
twenty-five he published a treatise on the integral calculus, as a
supplement to De l'Hôpital's treatise, _Des infiniment petits_. In 1755
he was sent to London as secretary to the French embassy, and was made a
member of the Royal Society. In 1756 he went to Canada as captain of
dragoons and aide-de-camp to the marquis de Montcalm; and having
distinguished himself in the war against England, was rewarded with the
rank of colonel and the cross of St Louis. He afterwards served in the
Seven Years' War from 1761 to 1763. After the peace, when the French
government conceived the project of colonizing the Falkland Islands,
Bougainville undertook the task at his own expense. But the settlement
having excited the jealousy of the Spaniards, the French government gave
it up to them, on condition of their indemnifying Bougainville. He was
then appointed to the command of the frigate "La Boudeuse" and the
transport "L'Etoile," and set sail in December 1766 on a voyage of
discovery round the world. Having executed his commission of delivering
up the Falkland Islands to the Spanish, Bougainville proceeded on his
expedition, and touched at Buenos Aires. Passing through the Straits of
Magellan, he visited the Tuamotu archipelago, and Tahiti, where the
English navigator Wallis had touched eight months before. He proceeded
across the Pacific Ocean by way of the Samoan group, which he named the
Navigators Islands, the New Hebrides and the Solomon Islands. His men
now suffering from scurvy, and his vessels requiring refitting, he
anchored at Buru, one of the Moluccas, where the governor of the Dutch
settlement supplied his wants. It was the beginning of September, and
the expedition took advantage of the easterly monsoon, which carried
them to Batavia. In March 1769 the expedition arrived at St Malo, with
the loss of only seven out of upwards of 200 men. Bougainville's account
of the voyage (Paris, 1771) is written with simplicity and some humour.
After an interval of several years, he again accepted a naval command
and saw much active service between 1779 and 1782. In the memorable
engagement of the 12th of April 1782, in which Rodney defeated the comte
de Grasse, near Martinique, Bougainville, who commanded the "Auguste,"
succeeded in rallying eight ships of his own division, and bringing them
safely into St Eustace. He was created _chef d'escadre_, and on
re-entering the army, was given the rank of _maréchal de camp_. After
the peace he returned to Paris, and obtained the place of associate of
the Academy. He projected a voyage of discovery towards the north pole,
but this did not meet with support from the French government.
Bougainville obtained the rank of vice-admiral in 1791; and in 1792,
having escaped almost miraculously from the massacres of Paris, he
retired to his estate in Normandy. He was chosen a member of the
Institute at its formation, and returning to Paris became a member of
the Board of Longitude. In his old age Napoleon I. made him a senator,
count of the empire, and member of the Legion of Honour. He died at
Paris on the 31st of August 1811. He was married and had three sons, who
served in the French army.

Bougainville's name is given to the largest member of the Solomon
Islands, which belongs to Germany; and to the strait which divides it
from the British island of Choiseul. It is also applied to the strait
between Mallicollo and Espiritu Santo Islands of the New Hebrides group,
and the South American climbing plant _Bougainvillea_, often cultivated
in greenhouses, is named after him.

BOUGHTON, GEORGE HENRY (1834-1905), Anglo-American painter, was born in
England, but his parents went to the United States in 1839, and he was
brought up at Albany, N.Y. He studied art in Paris in 1861-62, and
subsequently lived mainly in London; he was much influenced by Frederick
Walker, and the delicacy and grace of his pictures soon made his
reputation. He was elected an A.R.A. in 1879, and R.A. in 1896, and a
member of the National Academy of Design in New York in 1871. His
pictures of Dutch life and scenery were especially characteristic; and
his subject-pictures, such as the "Return of the Mayflower" and "The
Scarlet Letter," were very popular in America.

BOUGIE, a seaport of Algeria, chief town of an arrondissement in the
department of Constantine, 120 m. E. of Algiers. The town, which is
defended by a wall built since the French occupation, and by detached
forts, is beautifully situated on the slope of Mount Guraya. Behind it
are the heights of Mounts Babor and Tababort, rising some 6400 ft. and
crowned with forests of pinsapo fir and cedar. The most interesting
buildings in the town are the ancient forts, Borj-el-Ahmer and
Abd-el-Kader, and the kasbah or citadel, rectangular in form, flanked by
bastions and towers, and bearing inscriptions stating that it was built
by the Spaniards in 1545. Parts of the Roman wall exist, and
considerable portions of that built by the Hammadites in the 11th
century. The streets are very steep, and many are ascended by stairs.
The harbour, sheltered from the east by a breakwater, was enlarged in
1897-1902. It covers 63 acres and has a depth of water of 23 to 30 ft.
Bougie is the natural port of Kabylia, and under the French rule its
commerce--chiefly in oils, wools, hides and minerals--has greatly
developed; a branch railway runs to Beni Mansur on the main line from
Constantine to Oran. Pop. (1906) of the town, 10,419; of the commune,
17,540; of the arrondissement, which includes eight communes, 37,711.

Bougie, if it be correctly identified with the Saldae of the Romans, is
a town of great antiquity, and probably owes its origin to the
Carthaginians. Early in the 5th century Genseric the Vandal surrounded
it with walls and for some time made it his capital. En-Nasr
(1062-1088), the most powerful of the Berber dynasty of Hammad, made
Bougie the seat of his government, and it became the greatest commercial
centre of the North African coast, attaining a high degree of
civilization. From an old MS. it appears that as early as 1068 the
heliograph was in common use, special towers, with mirrors properly
arranged, being built for the purpose of signalling. The Italian
merchants of the 12th and 13th centuries owned numerous buildings in the
city, such as warehouses, baths and churches. At the end of the 13th
century Bougie passed under the dominion of the Hafsides, and in the
15th century it became one of the strongholds of the Barbary pirates. It
enjoyed partial independence under amirs of Hafside origin, but in
January 1510 was captured by the Spaniards under Pedro Navarro. The
Spaniards strongly fortified the place and held it against two attacks
by the corsairs Barbarossa. In 1555, however, Bougie was taken by Salah
Rais, the pasha of Algiers. Leo Africanus, in his _Africae descriptio_,
speaks of the "magnificence" of the temples, palaces and other buildings
of the city in his day (c. 1525), but it appears to have fallen into
decay not long afterwards. When the French took the town from the
Algerians in 1833 it consisted of little more than a few fortifications
and ruins. It is said that the French word for a candle is derived from
the name of the town, candles being first made of wax imported from

BOUGUER, PIERRE (1698-1758), French mathematician, was born on the 16th
of February 1698. His father, John Bouguer, one of the best
hydrographers of his time, was regius professor of hydrography at
Croisic in lower Brittany, and author of a treatise on navigation. In
1713 he was appointed to succeed his father as professor of hydrography.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Académie des Sciences for his
paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of
ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best
method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his
paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at
sea." These were published in the _Prix de l'Académie des Sciences_. In
1729 he published _Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumière_, the
object of which is to define the quantity of light lost by passing
through a given extent of the atmosphere. He found the light of the sun
to be 300 times more intense than that of the moon, and thus made some
of the earliest measurements in photometry. In 1730 he was made
professor of hydrography at Havre, and succeeded P.L.M. de Maupertuis as
associate geometer of the Académie des Sciences. He also invented a
heliometer, afterwards perfected by Fraunhofer. He was afterwards
promoted in the Academy to the place of Maupertuis, and went to reside
in Paris. In 1735 Bouguer sailed with C.M. de la Condamine for Peru, in
order to measure a degree of the meridian near the equator. Ten years
were spent in this operation, a full account of which was published by
Bouguer in 1749, _Figure de la terre déterminée_. His later writings
were nearly all upon the theory of navigation. He died on the 15th of
August 1758.

  The following is a list of his principal works:--_Traité d'optique sur
  la gradation de la lumière_ (1729 and 1760); _Entretiens sur la cause
  d'inclinaison des orbites des planètes_ (1734); _Traité de navire,
  &c._ (1746, 4to); _La Figure de la terre déterminée, &c._ (1749), 4to;
  _Nouveau traité de navigation, contenant la théorie et la pratique du
  pilotage_ (1753); _Solution des principaux problèmes sur la manoeuvre
  des vaisseaux_ (1757); _Opérations faites pour la vérification du
  degré du méridien entre Paris et Amiens_, par Mess. Bouguer, Camus,
  Cassini et Pingré(1757).

  See J.E. Montucla, _Histoire des mathématiques_ (1802).

BOUGUEREAU, ADOLPHE WILLIAM (1825-1905), French painter, was born at La
Rochelle on the 30th of November 1825. From 1843 till 1850 he went
through the course of training at the École des Beaux-Arts, and in 1850
divided the Grand Prix de Rome scholarship with Baudry, the subject set
being "Zenobia on the banks of the Araxes." On his return from Rome in
1855 he was employed in decorating several aristocratic residences,
deriving inspiration from the frescoes which he had seen at Pompeii and
Herculaneum, and which had already suggested his "Idyll" (1853). He also
began in 1847 to exhibit regularly at the Salon. "The Martyr's Triumph,"
the body of St Cecilia borne to the catacombs, was placed in the
Luxembourg after being exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1855; and in
the same year he exhibited "Fraternal Love," a "Portrait" and a
"Study." The state subsequently commissioned him to paint the emperor's
visit to the sufferers by the inundations at Tarascon. In 1857
Bouguereau received a first prize medal. Nine of his panels executed in
wax-painting for the mansion of M. Bartholomy were much
discussed--"Love," "Friendship," "Fortune," "Spring," "Summer,"
"Dancing," "Arion on a Sea-horse," a "Bacchante" and the "Four Divisions
of the Day." He also exhibited at the Salon "The Return of Tobit" (now
in the Dijon gallery). While in antique subjects he showed much grace of
design, in his "Napoleon," a work of evident labour, he betrayed a lack
of ease in the treatment of modern costume. Bouguereau subsequently
exhibited "Love Wounded" (1859), "The Day of the Dead" (at Bordeaux),
"The First Discord" (1861, in the Club at Limoges), "The Return from the
Fields" (a picture in which Théophile Gautier recognized "a pure feeling
for the antique"), "A Fawn and Bacchante" and "Peace"; in 1863 a "Holy
Family," "Remorse," "A Bacchante teasing a Goat" (in the Bordeaux
gallery); in 1864 "A Bather" (at Ghent), and "Sleep"; in 1865 "An
Indigent Family," and a portrait of Mme Bartholomy; in 1866 "A First
Cause," and "Covetousness," with "Philomela and Procne"; and some
decorative work for M. Montlun at La Rochelle, for M. Emile Péreire in
Paris, and for the churches of St Clotilde and St Augustin; and in 1866
the large painting of "Apollo and the Muses on Olympus," in the Great
Theatre at Bordeaux. Among other works by this artist may be mentioned
"Between Love and Riches" (1869), "A Girl Bathing" (1870), "In Harvest
Time" (1872), "Nymphs and Satyrs" (1873), "Charity" and "Homer and his
Guide" (1874), "Virgin and Child," "Jesus and John the Baptist," "Return
of Spring" (which was purchased by an American collector, and was
destroyed by a fanatic who objected to the nudity), a "Pietà" (1876), "A
Girl defending herself from Love" (1880), "Night" (1883), "The Youth of
Bacchus" (1884), "Biblis" (1885), "Love Disarmed" (1886), "Love
Victorious" (1887), "The Holy Women at the Sepulchre" and "The Little
Beggar Girls" (1890), "Love in a Shower" and "First Jewels" (1891). To
the Exhibition of 1900 were contributed some of Bouguereau's best-known
pictures. Most of his works, especially "The Triumph of Venus" (1856)
and "Charity," are popularly known through engravings. "Prayer," "The
Invocation" and "Sappho" have been engraved by M. Thirion, "The Golden
Age" by M. Annetombe. Bouguereau's pictures, highly appreciated by the
general public, have been severely criticized by the partisans of a
freer and fresher style of art, who have reproached him with being too
content to revive the formulas and subjects of the antique. At the Paris
Exhibition of 1867 Bouguereau took a third-class medal, in 1878 a medal
of honour, and the same again in the Salon of 1885. He was chosen by the
Society of French Artists to be their vice-president, a post he filled
with much energy. He was made a member of the Legion of Honour in 1856,
an officer of the Order 26th of July 1876, and commander 12th of July
1885. He succeeded Isidore Pils as member of the Institute, 8th of
January 1876. He died on the 20th of August 1905.

  See Ch. Vendryes, _Catalogue illustré des oeuvres de Bouguereau_
  (Paris, 1885); Jules Claretie, _Peintres et sculpteurs contemporains_
  (Paris, 1874); P.G. Hamerton, _French Painters; Artistes modernes:
  dictionnaire illustré des beaux-arts_ (1885); "W. Bouguereau,"
  _Portfolio_ (1875); Émile Bayard, "William Bouguereau," _Monde
  moderne_ (1897).

BOUHOURS, DOMINIQUE (1628-1702), French critic, was born in Paris in
1628. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen, and was
appointed to read lectures on literature in the college of Clermont at
Paris, and on rhetoric at Tours. He afterwards became private tutor to
the two sons of the duke of Longueville. He was sent to Dunkirk to the
Romanist refugees from England, and in the midst of his missionary
occupations published several books. In 1665 or 1666 he returned to
Paris, and published in 1671 _Les Entretiens d'Ariste et d'Eugène_, a
critical work on the French language, printed five times at Paris, twice
at Grenoble, and afterwards at Lyons, Brussels, Amsterdam, Leiden, &c.
The chief of his other works are _La Manière de bien penser sur les
ouvrages d'esprit_ (1687), _Doutes sur la langue française_ (1674), _Vie
de Saint Ignace de Loyola_ (1679), _Vie de Saint François Xavier_
(1682), and a translation of the New Testament into French (1697). His
practice of publishing secular books and works of devotion alternately
led to the _mot_, _"qu'il servait le monde et le ciel par semestre."_
Bouhours died at Paris on the 27th of May 1702.

  See Georges Doucieux, _Un Jésuite homme de lettres au dix-septième
  siècle: Le père Bouhours_ (1886). For a list of Bouhours' works see
  Backer and Sommervogel, _Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus_, i.
  pp. 1886 et seq.

BOUILHET, LOUIS HYACINTHE (1822-1869), French poet and dramatist, was
born at Cany, Seine Inférieure, on the 27th of May 1822. He was a
schoolfellow of Gustave Flaubert, to whom he dedicated his first work,
_Méloenis_ (1851), a narrative poem in five cantos, dealing with Roman
manners under the emperor Commodus. His volume of poems entitled
_Fossiles_ attracted considerable attention, on account of the attempt
therein to use science as a subject for poetry. These poems were
included also in _Festons et astragales_ (1859). As a dramatist he
secured a success with his first play, _Madame de Montarcy_ (1856),
which ran for seventy-eight nights at the Odéon; and _Hélène Peyron_
(1858) and _L'Oncle Million_ (1860) were also favourably received. But
of his other plays, some of them of real merit, only the _Conjuration
d'Amboise_ (1866) met with any great success. Bouilhet died on the 18th
of July 1869, at Rouen. Flaubert published his posthumous poems with a
notice of the author, in 1872.

  See also Maxime du Camp, _Souvenirs littéraires_ (1882); and H. de la
  Ville de Mirmont, _Le Poète Louis Bouilhet_ (1888).

He served in the Seven Years' War, and as governor in the Antilles
conducted operations against the English in the War of American
Independence. On his return to France he was named governor of the Three
Bishoprics, of Alsace and of Franche-Comté. Hostile to the Revolution,
he had continual quarrels with the municipality of Metz, and brutally
suppressed the military insurrections at Metz and Nancy, which had been
provoked by the harsh conduct of certain noble officers. Then he
proposed to Louis XVI. to take refuge in a frontier town where an appeal
could be made to other nations against the revolutionists. When this
project failed as a result of Louis XVI.'s arrest at Varennes, Bouillé
went to Russia to induce Catherine II. to intervene in favour of the
king, and then to England, where he died in 1800, after serving in
various royalist attempts on France. He left _Mémoires sur la Révolution
française depuis son origine jusqu'à la retraite du duc de Brunswick_
(Paris, 1801).

BOUILLON, formerly the seat of a dukedom in the Ardennes, now a small
town in the Belgian province of Luxemburg. Pop. (1904) 2721. It is most
picturesquely situated in the valley under the rocky ridge on which are
still the very well preserved remains of the castle of Godfrey of
Bouillon (q.v.), the leader of the first crusade. The town, 690 ft.
above the sea, but lying in a basin, skirts both banks of the river
Semois which is crossed by two bridges. The stream forms a loop round
and almost encircles the castle, from which there are beautiful views of
the sinuous valley and the opposite well-wooded heights. The whole
effect of the grim castle, the silvery stream and the verdant woods
makes one of the most striking scenes in Belgium. In the 8th and 9th
centuries Bouillon was one of the castles of the counts of Ardenne and
Bouillon. In the 10th and 11th centuries the family took the higher
titles of dukes of Lower Lorraine and Bouillon. These dukes all bore the
name of Godfrey (Godefroy) and the fifth of them was the great crusader.
He was the son of Eustace, count of Boulogne, which has led many
commentators into the error of saying that Godfrey of Bouillon was born
at the French port, whereas he was really born in the castle of Baisy
near Genappe and Waterloo. His mother was Ida d'Ardenne, sister of the
fourth Godfrey ("the Hunchback"), and the successful defence of the
castle when a mere youth of seventeen on her behalf was the first feat
of arms of the future conqueror of Jerusalem. This medieval fortress,
strong by art as well as position before the invention of modern
artillery, has since undergone numerous sieges. In order to undertake
the crusade Godfrey sold the castle of Bouillon to the prince bishop of
Liége, and the title of duke of Bouillon remained the appendage of the
bishopric till 1678, or for 580 years. The bishops appointed
"châtelains," one of whom was the celebrated "Wild Boar of the
Ardennes," William de la Marck. His descendants made themselves
quasi-independent and called themselves princes of Sedan and dukes of
Bouillon, and they were even recognized by the king of France. The
possession of Bouillon thenceforward became a constant cause of strife
until in 1678 Louis XIV. garrisoned it under the treaty of Nijmwegen.
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La
Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of
France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
In 1676 the duke of Créquy seized it in the name of Louis XIV., who in
1678 gave it to Godefroy Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne, whose descendants
continued in possession till 1795. Bouillon remained French till 1814,
and Vauban called it "the key of the Ardennes." In 1760 the elder
Rousseau established here the famous press of the Encyclopaedists. In
1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an
extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British
navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient
duchy of Bouillon. The people of Bouillon freely recognized him, and
Louis XVIII. was well pleased with the arrangement, but the congress
assigned Bouillon to the Netherlands. Napoleon III. on his way to
Germany after Sedan slept one night in the little town, which is a
convenient centre for visiting that battlefield.

BOUILLOTTE, a French game of cards, very popular during the Revolution,
and again for some years from 1830. Five, four or three persons may
play; a piquet pack is used, from which, in case five play, the sevens,
when four the knaves, and when three the queens also, are omitted.
Counters or chips, as in poker, are used. Before the deal each player
"antes" one counter, after which each, the "age" passing, may "raise"
the pot; those not "seeing the raise" being obliged to drop out. Three
cards are dealt to each player, and a thirteenth, called the _retourne_,
when four play, turned up. Each player must then bet, call, raise or
drop out. When a call is made the hands are shown and the best hand
wins. The hands rank as follows: _brélan carré_, four of a kind, one
being the _retourne_; _simple brélan_, three of a kind, ace being high;
_brélan favori_, three of a kind, one being the _retourne_. When no
player holds a _brélan_ the hand holding the greatest number of pips
wins, ace counting 11, and court cards 10.

BOUILLY, JEAN NICOLAS (1763-1842), French author, was born near Tours on
the 24th of January 1763. At the outbreak of the Revolution he held
office under the new government, and had a considerable share in the
organization of primary education. In 1799 he retired from public life
to devote himself to literature. His numerous works include the musical
comedy, _Pierre le Grand_ (1790), for Grétry's music, and the opera,
_Les Deux Journées_ (1800), music by Cherubini; also _L'Abbé de l'épée_
(1800), and some other plays; and _Causeries d'un vieillard_ (1807),
_Contes à ma fille_ (1809), and _Les Adieux du vieux conteur_ (1835).
His _Léonore_ (1798) formed the basis of the libretto of the _Fidelio_
of Beethoven. Bouilly died in Paris on the 14th of April 1842.

  See Bouilly, _Mes récapitulations_ (3 vols., 1836-1837); E. Legouvé,
  _Soixante ans de souvenir_ (lère partie, 1886).

BOULAINVILLIERS, HENRI, COMTE DE (1658-1722), French political writer,
was born at St Saire in Normandy in 1658. He was educated at the college
of Juilly, and served in the army until 1697. He wrote a number of
historical works (published after his death), of which the most
important were the following: _Histoire de l'ancien gouvernement de la
France_ (La Haye, 1727); _État de la France, avec des mémoires sur
l'ancien gouvernement_ (London, 1727); _Histoire de la pairie de France_
(London, 1753); _Histoire des Arabes_ (1731). His writings are
characterized by an extravagant admiration of the feudal system. He was
an aristocrat of the most pronounced type, attacking absolute monarchy
on the one hand and popular government on the other. He was at great
pains to prove the pretensions of his own family to ancient nobility,
and maintained that the government should be entrusted solely to men of
his class. He died in Paris on the 23rd of January 1722.

BOULANGER, the name of several French artists:--JEAN (1606-1660), a
pupil of Guido Reni at Bologna, who had an academy at Modena; his cousin
JEAN (1607-1680), a celebrated line-engraver; the latter's son MATTHIEU,
another engraver; LOUIS (1806-1867), a subject-painter, the friend of
Victor Hugo, and director of the imperial school of art at Dijon; the
best-known, GUSTAVE RODOLPHE CLARENCE (1824-1888), a pupil of Paul
Delaroche, a notable painter of Oriental and Greek and Roman subjects,
and a member of the Institute (1882); and CLÉMENT (1805-1842), a pupil
of Ingres.

BOULANGER, GEORGE ERNEST JEAN MARIE (1837-1891), French general, was
born at Rennes on the 29th of April 1837. He entered the army in 1856,
and served in Algeria, Italy, Cochin-China and the Franco-German War,
earning the reputation of being a smart soldier. He was made a
brigadier-general in 1880, on the recommendation of the duc d'Aumale,
then commanding the VII. army corps, and Boulanger's expressions of
gratitude and devotion on this occasion were remembered against him
afterwards when, as war minister in M. Freycinet's cabinet, he erased
the name of the due d'Aumale from the army list, as part of the
republican campaign against the Orleanist and Bonapartist princes. In
1882 his appointment as director of infantry at the war office enabled
him to make himself conspicuous as a military reformer; and in 1884 he
was appointed to command the army occupying Tunis, but was recalled
owing to his differences of opinion with M. Cambon, the political
resident. He returned to Paris, and began to take part in politics under
the aegis of M. Clémenceau and the Radical party; and in January 1886,
when M. Freycinet was brought into power by the support of the Radical
leader, Boulanger was given the post of war minister.

By introducing genuine reforms for the benefit of officers and common
soldiers alike, and by laying himself out for popularity in the most
pronounced fashion--notably by his fire-eating attitude towards Germany
in April 1887 in connexion with the Schnaebele frontier
incident--Boulanger came to be accepted by the mob as the man destined
to give France her revenge for the disasters of 1870, and to be used
simultaneously as a tool by all the anti-Republican intriguers. His
action with regard to the royal princes has already been referred to,
but it should be added that Boulanger was taunted in the Senate with his
ingratitude to the duc d'Aumale, and denied that he had ever used the
words alleged. His letters containing them were, however, published, and
the charge was proved. Boulanger fought a bloodless duel with the baron
de Lareinty over this affair, but it had no effect at the moment in
dimming his popularity, and on M. Freycinet's defeat in December 1886 he
was retained by M. Goblet at the war office. M. Clémenceau, however, had
by this time abandoned his patronage of Boulanger, who was becoming so
inconveniently prominent that, in May 1887, M. Goblet was not sorry to
get rid of him by resigning. The mob clamoured for their "brav'
général," but M. Rouvier, who next formed a cabinet, declined to take
him as a colleague, and Boulanger was sent to Clermont-Ferrand to
command an army corps. A Boulangist "movement" was now in full swing.
The Bonapartists had attached themselves to the general, and even the
comte de Paris encouraged his followers to support him, to the dismay of
those old-fashioned Royalists who resented Boulanger's treatment of the
duc d'Aumale. His name was the theme of the popular song of the
moment--"C'est Boulanger qu'il nous faut"; the general and his black
horse became the idol of the Parisian populace; and he was urged to play
the part of a plebiscitary candidate for the presidency.

The general's vanity lent itself to what was asked of it; after various
symptoms of insubordination had shown themselves, he was deprived of
his command in 1888 for twice coming to Paris without leave, and finally
on the recommendation of a council of inquiry composed of five generals,
his name was removed from the army list. He was, however, almost at once
elected to the chamber for the Nord, his political programme being a
demand for a revision of the constitution. In the chamber he was in a
minority, since genuine Republicans of all varieties began to see what
his success would mean, and his actions were accordingly directed to
keeping the public gaze upon himself. A popular hero survives many
deficiencies, and neither his failure as an orator nor the humiliation
of a discomfiture in a duel with M. Floquet, then an elderly civilian,
sufficed to check the enthusiasm of his following. During 1888 his
personality was the dominating feature of French politics, and, when he
resigned his seat as a protest against the reception given by the
chamber to his revisionist proposals, constituencies vied with one
another in selecting him as their representative. At last, in January
1889, he was returned for Paris by an overwhelming majority. He had now
become an open menace to the parliamentary Republic. Had Boulanger
immediately placed himself at the head of a revolt he might at this
moment have effected the _coup d'état_ which the intriguers had worked
for, and might not improbably have made himself master of France; but
the favourable opportunity passed. The government, with M. Constans as
minister of the interior, had been quietly taking its measures for
bringing a prosecution against him, and within two months a warrant was
signed for his arrest. To the astonishment of his friends, on the 1st of
April he fled from Paris before it could be executed, going first to
Brussels and then to London. It was the end of the political danger,
though Boulangist echoes continued for a little while to reverberate at
the polls during 1889 and 1890. Boulanger himself, having been tried and
condemned _in absentia_ for treason, in October 1889 went to live in
Jersey, but nobody now paid much attention to his doings. The world was
startled, however, on the 30th of September 1891 by hearing that he had
committed suicide in a cemetery at Brussels by blowing out his brains on
the grave of his mistress, Madame de Bonnemains (_née_ Marguerite
Crouzet), who had died in the preceding July.

  See also the article FRANCE: History; and Verly, _Le Général Boulanger
  et la conspiration monarchique_ (Paris, 1893).     (H. Ch.)

French politician and magistrate, son of an agricultural labourer, was
born at Chamousey (Vosges) on the 19th of February 1761. Called to the
bar at Nancy in 1783, he presently went to Paris, where he rapidly
acquired a reputation as a lawyer and a speaker. He supported the
revolutionary cause in Lorraine, and fought at Valmy (1792) and
Wissembourg (1793) in the republican army. But his moderate principles
brought suspicion on him, and during the Terror he had to go into
hiding. He represented La Meurthe in the Council of Five Hundred, of
which he was twice president, but his views developed steadily in the
conservative direction. Fearing a possible renewal of the Terror, he
became an active member of the plot for the overthrow of the Directory
in November 1799. He was rewarded by the presidency of the legislative
commission formed by Napoleon to draw up the new constitution; and as
president of the legislative section of the council of state he examined
and revised the draft of the civil code. In eight years of hard work as
director of a special land commission he settled the titles of land
acquired by the French nation at the Revolution, and placed on an
unassailable basis the rights of the proprietors who had bought this
land from the government. He received the grand cross of the Legion of
Honour and the title of count, was a member of Napoleon's privy council,
but was never in high favour at court. After Waterloo he tried to obtain
the recognition of Napoleon II. He was placed under surveillance at
Nancy, and later at Halberstadt and Frankfort-on-Main. He was allowed to
return to France in 1819, but took no further active part in politics,
although he presented himself unsuccessfully for parliamentary election
in 1824 and 1827. He died in Paris on the 4th of February 1840. He
published two books on English history--_Essai sur les causes qui, en
1649, amenèrent en Angleterre l'établissement de la république_ (Paris,
1799), and _Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II,
derniers rois de la maison de Stuart_ (The Hague, 1818)--which contained
much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration
governments. He devoted the last years of his life to writing his
memoirs, which, with the exception of a fragment on the _Théorie
constitutionnelle de Sieyès_ (1836), remained unpublished.

His elder son, Comte HENRI GEORGES BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE (1797-1858), was
a constant Bonapartist, and after the election of Louis Napoleon to the
presidency, was named (January 1849) vice-president of the republic. He
zealously promoted popular education, and became in 1842 president of
the society for elementary instruction.

BOULDER, a city and the county-seat of Boulder county, Colorado, U.S.A.,
about 30 m. N.W. of Denver. Pop. (1890) 3330; (1900) 6150 (693
foreign-born); (1910) 9539. It is served by the Union Pacific, the
Colorado & Southern, and the Denver, Boulder & Western railways; the
last connects with the neighbouring mining camps, and affords fine views
of mountain scenery. Boulder lies about 5300 ft. above the sea on Middle
Boulder Creek, a branch of the St Vrain river about 30 m. from its
confluence with the Platte, and has a beautiful situation in the valley
at the foot of the mountains. The state university of Colorado,
established at Boulder by an act of 1861, was opened in 1877; it
includes a college of liberal arts, school of medicine (1883), school of
law (1892), college of engineering (1893), graduate school, college of
commerce (1906), college of education (1908), and a summer school
(1904), and has a library of about 42,000 volumes. There are a fine park
of 2840 acres, the property of the city, and three beautiful cañons near
Boulder. At the southern limits, in a beautiful situation 400 ft. above
the city, are the grounds of an annual summer school, the Colorado
Chautauqua. The climate is beneficial for those afflicted with bronchial
and pulmonary troubles; the average mean annual temperature for eleven
years ending with 1907 was 51° F. There are medicinal springs in the
vicinity. The water-works are owned and operated by the city, the water
being obtained from lakes at the foot of the Arapahoe Peak glacier in
the Snowy Range, 20 m. from the city. The surrounding country is
irrigated, and successfully combines agriculture and mining. There are
ore sampling works and brick-making establishments. Oil and natural gas
abound in the vicinity; there are oil refineries in the city; and in
Boulder county, especially at Nederland, 18 m. south-west, and at
Eldora, about 22 m. south-west of the city, has been obtained since 1900
most of the tungsten mined in the United States; the output in 1907 was
valued at about $520,000. The first settlement near the site of Boulder
was made in the autumn of 1858. Placer gold was discovered on an
affluent of Boulder Creek in January 1859. The town was laid out and
organized in February 1859, and a city charter was secured in 1871 and
another in 1882.

BOULDER (short for "boulder-stone," of uncertain origin; cf. Swed.
_bullersten_, a large stone which causes a noise of rippling water in a
stream, from _bullra_, to make a loud noise), a large stone, weathered
or water-worn; especially a geological term for a large mass of rock
transported to a distance from the formation to which it belongs.
Similarly, in mining, a mass of ore found at a distance from the lode.

BOULDER CLAY, in geology, a deposit of clay, often full of boulders,
which is formed in and beneath glaciers and ice-sheets wherever they are
found, but is in a special sense the typical deposit of the Glacial
Period in northern Europe and America. Boulder clay is variously known
as "till" or "ground moraine" (Ger. _Blocklehme_, _Geschiebsmergel_ or
_Grundmoräne_; Fr. _argile à blocaux_, _moraine profonde_; Swed.
_Krosstenslera_). It is usually a stiff, tough clay devoid of
stratification; though some varieties are distinctly laminated.
Occasionally, within the boulder clay, there are irregular lenticular
masses of more or less stratified sand, gravel or loam. As the boulder
clay is the result of the abrasion (direct or indirect) of the older
rocks over which the ice has travelled, it takes its colour from them;
thus, in Britain, over Triassic and Old Red Sandstone areas the clay is
red, over Carboniferous rocks it is often black, over Silurian rock it
may be buff or grey, and where the ice has passed over chalk the clay
may be quite white and chalky (chalky boulder clay). Much boulder clay
is of a bluish-grey colour where unexposed, but it becomes brown upon
being weathered.

The boulders are held within the clay in an irregular manner, and they
vary in size from mere pellets up to masses many tons in weight. Usually
they are somewhat oblong, and often they possess a flat side or "sole";
they may be angular, sub-angular, or well rounded, and, if they are hard
rocks, they frequently bear grooves and scratches caused by contact with
other rocks while held firmly in the moving ice. Like the clay in which
they are borne, the boulders belong to districts over which the ice has
travelled; in some regions they are mainly limestones or sandstones; in
others they are granite, basalts, gneisses, &c.; indeed, they may
consist of any hard rock. By the nature of the contained boulders it is
often possible to trace the path along which a vanished ice-sheet moved;
thus in the Glacial drift of the east coast of England many Scandinavian
rocks can be recognized.

With the exception of foraminifera which have been found in the boulder
clay of widely separated regions, fossils are practically unknown; but
in some maritime districts marine shells have been incorporated with the

BOULE (Gr. [Greek: boulae], literally "will," "advice"; hence a
"council"), the general term in ancient Greece for an advisory council.
In the loose Homeric state, as in all primitive societies, there was a
council of this kind, probably composed of the heads of families, i.e.
of the leading princes or nobles, who met usually on the summons of the
king for the purpose of consultation. Sometimes, however, it met on its
own initiative, and laid suggestions before the king. It formed a means
of communication between the king and the freemen assembled in the
Agora. In Dorian states this aristocratic form of government was
retained (for the Spartan Council of Elders see GEROUSIA). In Athens the
ancient council was called the Boule until the institution of a
democratic council, or committee of the Ecclesia, when, for purposes of
distinction, it was described as "the Boule on the Areopagus," or, more
shortly, "the Areopagus" (q.v.). It must be clearly understood that the
second, or Solonian Boule, was entirely different from the Areopagus
which represented the Homeric Council of the King throughout Athenian
history, even after the "mutilation" carried out by Ephialtes. Further,
it is, as will appear below, a profound mistake to call the second Boule
a "senate." There is no real analogy between the Roman senate and the
Athenian council of Five Hundred.

Before describing the Athenian Boule, the only one of its kind of which
we have even fairly detailed information, it is necessary to mention
that councils existed in other Greek states also, both oligarchic and
democratic. A Boule was in the first place a necessary part of a Greek
oligarchy; the transition from monarchy to oligarchy was nominally begun
by the gradual transference of the powers of the monarch to the Boule of
nobles. Further, in the Greek democracy, the larger democratic Boule was
equally essential. The general assembly of the people was utterly
unsuited to the proper management of state affairs in all their
minutiae. We therefore find councils of both kinds in almost all the
states of Greece. (1) At Corinth we learn that there was an oligarchic
council of unknown numbers presided over by eight leaders (Nicol.
Damasc. _Frag_. 60). It was probably like the old Homeric council,
except that its constitution did not depend on a birth qualification,
but on a high census. This was natural in Corinth where, according to
Herodotus (ii. 167), mercantile pursuits bore no stigma. (2) From an
inscription we learn that the Athenians, in imposing a constitution on
Erythrae (about 450 B.C.), included a council analogous to their own.
(3) In Elis (Thuc. v. 47) there was an aristocratic council of ninety,
which was superseded by a popular council of six hundred (471). (4)
Similarly in Argos there were an aristocratic council of eighty and
later a popular council of much larger size (Thuc. v. 47). Councils are
also found at (5) Rhodes, (6) Megalopolis (democratic), (7) Corcyra
(democratic), (Thuc. iii. 70). Of these seven the most instructive is
that of Erythrae, which proves that in the 5th century the Council of
Five Hundred was so efficient in Athens that a similar body was imposed
at Erythrae (and probably in the other tributary cities).

_The Boule at Athens. History._--The origin of the second Boule, or
Council of Four Hundred, at Athens is involved in obscurity. In the
Aristotelian _Constitution of Athens_ (c. 4), it is stated that Draco
established a council of 401, and that he transferred to it some of the
functions of the Council of Areopagus (q.v.). It is, however, generally
held (see DRACO) that this statement is untrue, and that it was Solon
who first established the council as a part of the constitution.
Thirdly, it has been held that the council was not invented either by
Draco or by Solon, but was of older and unknown origin. Fourthly, it has
also been maintained by some recent writers that no Boule existed before
Cleisthenes. The principal evidence for this view is the omission of any
reference to the Boule in one of the earliest Athenian inscriptions,
that relating to Salamis (Hicks and Hill, No. 4), where in place of the
customary formula of a later age, [Greek: hedoxe tae boulae kai to
daemo], we have the formula [Greek: edochsen to daemo]. This argument is
far from conclusive, and it is clear from the _Constitution_ (c. 20)
that the resistance of the Boule to Cleomenes and Isagoras was anterior
to the legislation of Cleisthenes (i.e. that the Boule in question was
the Solonian and not the Cleisthenian). On the whole it is reasonable to
conclude that it was Solon who invented the Boule to act as a
semi-democratic check upon the democracy, whose power he was increasing
at the expense of the oligarchs by giving new powers to the people in
the Ecclesia and the Dicasteries. Practically nothing is known of the
operations of this council until the struggle between Isagoras and
Cleisthenes (Herod, v. 72). Solon's council had been based on the four
Ionic tribes. When Cleisthenes created the new ten tribes in order to
destroy the local influence of dominant families and to give the country
demes a share in government, he changed the Solonian council into a body
of 500 members, 50 from each tribe. This new body (see below) was the
keystone of the Cleisthenean democracy, and may be said in a sense to
have embodied the principle of local representation. After Cleisthenes,
the council remained unaltered till 306 B.C., when, on the addition of
two new tribes named after Antigonus and his son, Demetrius Poliorcetes,
its numbers were increased to 600. In A.D. 126-127 the old number of 500
was restored. A council of 750 members is mentioned in an inscription of
the early 3rd century A.D., and about A.D. 400 the number of councillors
had fallen to 300.

  Solon's council.

  Cleisthenes' council.

_Constitution and Functions._--(a) Under Solon the council consisted of
400 members, 100 from each of the four Ionic tribes. It is certain that
all classes were eligible except the Thetes, but the method of
appointment is not known. Three suggestions have been made, (1) that
each tribe chose its representatives, (2) that they were chosen by lot
from qualified citizens in rotation, (3) that the combined method of
selection by lot from a larger number of elected candidates was
employed. According to the passage in Plutarch's _Solon_ the functions
of this body were from the first _probouleutic_ (i.e. it prepared the
business for the Ecclesia). Others hold that this function was not
assigned to it until the Cleisthenean reforms. When we consider,
however, the double danger of leaving the Ecclesia in full power, and
yet under the presidency of the aristocratic archons, it seems probable
that the probouleutic functions were devised by Solon as a method of
maintaining the balance. On this hypothesis the Solonian Boule was from
the first what it certainly was later, a _committee_ of the Ecclesia,
i.e. not a "senate." It may be regarded as certain that the system of
Prytaneis was the invention of Cleisthenes, not of Solon. (b) Under
Cleisthenes the council reached its full development as a democratic
representative body. Its actual organization is still uncertain, but it
may be inferred that it became gradually a more strictly self-existent
body than the Solonian council. Every full citizen of thirty years of
age was eligible, and, unlike other civil offices, it was permissible to
serve twice, but not more than twice (_Ath. Pol._ c. 62). It may be
regarded as certain, although our evidence is derived from inscriptions
which date from the 3rd century B.C., that from the first the Bouleutae
were appointed by the demes, in numbers proportionate to the size of the
deme, and that from the first also the method of sortition was employed.
For each councillor chosen by lot, a substitute was chosen in case of
death or disgrace. After nomination each had to pass before the old
council an examination in which the whole of his private life was
scrutinized. After this, the councillors had to take an oath that they
(1) would act according to the laws, (2) would give the best advice in
their power, and (3) would carry out the examination of their successors
in an impartial spirit. As symbols of office they wore wreaths; they
received payment originally at the rate of one drachma a day,[1] at the
end of the 4th century of five obols a day. At the end of the year of
office each councillor had to render an account of his work, and if the
council had done well the people voted crowns of honour. Within its own
sphere the council exercised disciplinary control over its members by
the device known as _Ecphyllophoria_; it could provisionally suspend a
member, pending a formal trial before the whole council assembled _ad
hoc_. The council had further a complete system of scribes or
secretaries (_grammateis_), private treasury officials, and a paid
herald who summoned the Boule and the Ecclesia. The meetings took place
generally in the council hall (_Bouleuterion_), but on special occasions
in the theatre, the stadium, the dockyards, the Acropolis or the
Theseum. They were normally public, the audience being separated by a
barrier, but on occasions of peculiar importance the public was


The Ecclesia, owing to its size and constitution, was unable to meet
more than three or four times a month; the council, on the other hand,
was in continuous session, except on feast days. It was impossible that
the Five Hundred should all sit every day, and, therefore, to facilitate
the despatch of business, the system of Prytaneis was introduced,
probably by Cleisthenes. By this system the year was divided into ten
equal periods. During each of these periods the council was represented
by the fifty councillors of one of the ten tribes, who acted as a
committee for carrying on business for a tenth of the year. Each of
these committees was led by a president (_Epistates_), who acted as
chairman of the Boule and the Ecclesia also, and a third of its numbers
lived permanently during their period of office in the Tholos (Dome) or
Skias, a round building where they (with certain other officials and
honoured citizens) dined at the public expense. In 378-377 B.C. (or
perhaps in the archonship of Eucleides, 403) the presidency of the
Ecclesia was transferred to the _Epistates of the Proedri_, the
_Proedri_ being a body of nine chosen by lot by the Epistates of the
Prytaneis from the remaining nine tribes. It was the duty of the Boule
(i.e. the Prytany which was for the time in session) to prepare all
business for the consideration of the Ecclesia. Their recommendation
([Greek: probouleuma]) was presented to the popular assembly (for
procedure, see ECCLESIA), which either passed it as it stood or made
amendments subject to certain conditions. It must be clearly understood
that the recommendation of the council had no intrinsic force until by
the votes of the Ecclesia it passed into law as a psephism. But in
addition to this function, the Council of the Five Hundred had large
administrative and judicial control. (1) It was before the council that
the Poletae arranged the farming of public revenues, the receipt of
tenders for public works and the sale of confiscated property; further,
it dealt with defaulting collectors ([Greek: eklogeis]), exacted the
debts of private persons to the state, and probably drew up annual
estimates. (2) It supervised the treasury payments of the Apodectae
("Receivers") and the "Treasurers of the God." (3) From Demosthenes (_In
Androt_.) it is clear that it had to arrange for the provision of so
many triremes per annum and the award of the trierarchic crown. (4) It
arranged for the maintenance of the cavalry and the special levies from
the demes. (5) It heard certain cases of _eisangelia_ (impeachment) and
had the right to fine up to 500 drachmas, or hand the case over to the
Heliaea. The cases which it tried were mainly prosecutions for crimes
against the state (e.g. treason, conspiracy, bribery). In later times it
acted mainly as a court of first instance. Subsequently (_Ath. Pol._ c.
45) its powers were limited and an appeal was allowed to the popular
courts. (6) The council presided over the _dokimasia_ (consideration of
fitness) of the magistrates; this examination, which was originally
concerned with a candidate's moral and physical fitness, degenerated
into a mere inquiry into his politics. (7) In foreign affairs the
council as the only body in permanent session naturally received foreign
envoys and introduced them to the Ecclesia. Further, the Boule, with
the Strategi ("Generals"), took treaty oaths, after the Ecclesia had
decided on the terms. The Xenophontic _Politeia_ states that the council
of the 5th century was "concerned with war," but in the 4th century it
chiefly supervised the docks and the fleet. On two occasions at least
the council was specially endowed with full powers; Demosthenes (_De
Fals. Leg._ p. 389) states that the people gave it full powers to send
ambassadors to Philip, and Andocides (_De Myst._ 14 foil.) states that
it had full power to investigate the affair of the mutilation of the
Hermae on the night before the sailing of the Sicilian Expedition.

It will be seen that this democratic council was absolutely essential to
the working of the Athenian state. Without having any final legislative
authority, it was a necessary part of the legislative machinery, and it
may be regarded as certain that a large proportion of its
recommendations were passed without alteration or even discussion by the
Ecclesia. The Boule; was, therefore, in the strict sense a committee of
the Ecclesia, and was immediately connected with a system of
sub-committees which exercised executive functions.

  DRACO, SOLON, CLEISTHENES, where collateral information is given.
  Besides the chief histories of Greece (Grote, ed. 1907, Meyer &c.),
  see Gilbert, _Constitutional Antiquities_ (Eng. trans. by E.J. Brooks
  and T. Nicklin, 1895); J.B. Bury, _History of Greece_ (1900); A.H.J.
  Greenidge _Handbook of Greek Constitutional History_ (1896); J.E.
  Sandys' edition of the _Constitution of Athens_; Boeckh, _Die
  Staatshaushaltung der Athener_ (1886); Schumann, _Griechische
  Altertümer_ (1897-1902); Busolt, _Die griechischen Staats- und
  Rechtsaltertümer_ (1902). See also H. Swoboda, _Die griechischen
  Volksbeschlüsse_ (1890); Szanto, _Das griechische Bürgerrecht_ (1892);
  Perrot, _Essai sur le droit public d'Athènes_ (1869). It should be
  observed that all works published before 1891 are so far useless that
  they are without the information contained in the _Constitution of
  Athens_ (q.v.). See also GREEK LAW.     (J. M. M.)


  [1] The institution of pay for the councillors may safely be ascribed
    to Pericles although we have no direct evidence of it before 411 B.C.
    (Thuc. viii. 69; see PERICLES).

BOULEVARD (a Fr. word, earlier _boulevart_, from Dutch or Ger.
_Bollwerk_, cf. Eng. "bulwark"), originally, in fortification, an
earthwork with a broad platform for artillery. It came into use owing to
the width of the gangways in medieval walls being insufficient for the
mounting of artillery thereon. The boulevard or bulwark was usually an
earthen outwork mounting artillery, and so placed in advance as to
prevent the guns of a besieger from battering the foot of the main
walls. It was as a rule circular. Semicircular _demi-boulevards_ were
often constructed round the bases of the old masonry towers with the
same object. In modern times the word is most frequently used to denote
a promenade laid out on the site of a former fortification, and, by
analogy, a broad avenue in a town planted with rows of trees.

BOULLE, ANDRÉ CHARLES (1642-1732), French cabinet-maker, who gave his
name to a fashion of inlaying known as Boulle or Buhl work. The son of
Jean Boulle, a member of a family of _ébénistes_ who had already
achieved distinction--Pierre Boulle, who died c. 1636, was for many
years _tourneur et menuisier du roy des cabinets d'ébène_,--he became
the most famous of his name and was, indeed, the second
cabinet-maker--the first was Jean Macé--who has acquired individual
renown. That must have begun at a comparatively early age, for at thirty
he had already been granted one of those lodgings in the galleries of
the Louvre which had been set apart by Henry IV. for the use of the
most talented of the artists employed by the crown. To be admitted to
these galleries was not only to receive a signal mark of royal favour,
but to enjoy the important privilege of freedom from the trammels of the
trade gilds. Boulle was given the deceased Jean Macé's own lodging in
1672 by Louis XIV. upon the recommendation, of Colbert, who described
him as "_le plus habile ébéniste de Paris_," but in the patent
conferring this privilege he is described also as "chaser, gilder and
maker of marqueterie." Boulle appears to have been originally a painter,
since the first payment to him by the crown of which there is any record
(1669) specifies "ouvrages de peinture." He was employed for many years
at Versailles, where the mirrored walls, the floors of "wood mosaic,"
the inlaid panelling and the pieces in marqueterie in the Cabinet du
Dauphin were regarded as his most remarkable work. These rooms were long
since dismantled and their contents dispersed, but Boulle's drawings for
the work are in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs. His royal commissions
were, indeed, innumerable, as we learn both from the _Comptes des
bâtiments_ and from the correspondence of Louvois. Not only the most
magnificent of French monarchs, but foreign princes and the great nobles
and financiers of his own country crowded him with commissions, and the
_mot_ of the abbé de Marolles, "_Boulle y tourne en ovale_," has become
a stock quotation in the literature of French cabinet-making. Yet
despite his distinction, the facility with which he worked, the high
prices he obtained, and his workshops full of clever craftsmen, Boulle
appears to have been constantly short of money. He did not always pay
his workmen, clients who had made considerable advances failed to obtain
the fine things they had ordered, more than one application was made for
permission to arrest him for debt under orders of the courts within the
asylum of the Louvre, and in 1704 we find the king giving him six
months' protection from his creditors on condition that he used the time
to regulate his affairs or "ce scra la derniére grâce que sa majesté lui
fera là-dessus." Twenty years later one of his sons was arrested at
Fontainebleau and kept in prison for debt until the king had him
released. In 1720 his finances were still further embarrassed by a fire
which, beginning in another atelier, extended to his twenty workshops
and destroyed most of the seasoned materials, appliances, models and
finished work of which they were full. The salvage was sold and a
petition for pecuniary help was sent to the regent, the result of which
does not appear. It would seem that Boulle was never a good man of
business, but, according to his friend Mariette, many of his pecuniary
difficulties were caused by his passion for collecting pictures,
engravings and other objects of art--the inventory of his losses in the
fire, which exceeded £40,000 in amount, enumerates many old masters,
including forty-eight drawings by Raphael and the manuscript journal
kept by Rubens in Italy. He attended every sale of drawings and
engravings, borrowed at high interest to pay for his purchases, and when
the next sale took place, fresh expedients were devised for obtaining
more money. Collecting was to Boulle a mania of which, says his friend,
it was impossible to cure him. Thus he died in 1732, full of fame, years
and debts. He left four sons who followed in his footsteps in more
senses than one--Jean Philippe (born before 1690, dead before 1745),
Pierre Benoit (d. 1741), Charles André (1685-1749) and Charles Joseph
(1688-1754). Their affairs were embarrassed throughout their lives, and
the three last are known to have died in debt.

All greatness is the product of its opportunities, and the elder Boulle
was made by the happy circumstances of his time. He was born into a
France which was just entering upon the most brilliant period of
sumptuary magnificence which any nation has known in modern times. Louis
XIV., so avid of the delights of the eye, by the reckless extravagance
of his example turned the thoughts of his courtiers to domestic
splendours which had hitherto been rare. The spacious palaces which
arose in his time needed rich embellishment, and Boulle, who had not
only inherited the rather flamboyant Italian traditions of the late
Renaissance, but had _ébénisterie_ in his blood, arose, as some such man
invariably does arise, to gratify tastes in which personal pride and
love of art were not unequally intermingled. He was by no means the
first Frenchman to practise the delightful art of marqueterie, nor was
he quite the inventor of the peculiar type of inlay which is chiefly
associated with his name; but no artist, before or since, has used these
motives with such astonishing skill, courage and surety. He produced
pieces of monumental solidity blazing with harmonious colour, or
gleaming with the sober and dignified reticence of ebony, ivory and
white metal. The Renaissance artists chiefly employed wood in making
furniture, ornamenting it with gilding and painting, and inlaying it
with agate, cornelian, lapis-lazuli, marble of various tints, ivory,
tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl and various woods. Boulle improved upon
this by inlaying brass devices into wood or tortoise-shell, which last
he greatly used according to the design he had immediately in view,
whether flowers, scenes, scrolls, &c.; to these he sometimes added
enamelled metal. Indeed the use of tortoise-shell became so
characteristic that any furniture, however cheap and common, which has a
reddish _fond_ that might by the ignorant be mistaken for inlay, is now
described as "Buhl"--the name is the invention of the British auctioneer
and furniture-maker. In this process the brass is thin, and, like the
ornamental wood or tortoise-shell, forms a veneer. In the first instance
the production of his work was costly, owing to the quantity of valuable
material that was cut away and wasted, and, in addition, the labour lost
in separately cutting for each article or copy of a pattern. By a
subsequent improvement Boulle effected an economy by gluing together
various sheets of material and sawing through the whole, so that an
equal number of figures and matrices were produced at one operation.
Boulle adopted from time to time various plans for the improvement of
his designs. He placed gold-leaf or other suitable material under the
tortoise-shell to produce such effect as he required; he chased the
brass-work with a graver for a like purpose, and, when the metal
required to be fastened down with brass pins or nails, these were
hammered flat and disguised by ornamental chasing. He also adopted, in
relief or in the round, brass feet, brackets, edgings, and other
ornaments of appropriate design, partly to protect the corners and edges
of his work, and partly for decoration. He subsequently used other brass
mountings, such as claw-feet to pedestals, or figures in high or low
relief, according to the effect he desired to produce. These mounts in
the pieces that undoubtedly come from Boulle's _atelier_ are nearly
always of the greatest excellence. They were cast in the rough--the
tools of the chaser gave them their sharpness, their minute finish,
their jewel-like smoothness.

Unhappily it is by no means easy, even for the expert, to declare the
authenticity of a commode, a bureau, or a table in the manner of Boulle
and to all appearance from his workshops. His sons unquestionably
carried on the traditions for some years after his death, and his
imitators were many and capable. A few of the more magnificent
pedigree-pieces are among the world's mobiliary treasures. There are,
for instance, the two famous _armoires_, which fetched £12,075 at the
Hamilton Palace sale; the marqueterie commodes, enriched with bronze
mounts, in the Bibliotheque Mazarine; various cabinets and commodes and
tables in the Louvre, the Musée Cluny and the Mobilier National; the
marriage coffers of the dauphin which were in the San Donato collection.
There are several fine authenticated pieces in the Wallace collection at
Hertford House, together with others consummately imitated, probably in
the Louis Seize period. On the rare occasions when a pedigree example
comes into the auction-room, it invariably commands a high price; but
there can be little doubt that the most splendid and sumptuous specimens
of Boulle are diminishing in number, while the second and third classes
of his work are perhaps becoming more numerous. The truth is that this
wonderful work, with its engraved or inlaid designs of Bérain, its
myriads of tiny pieces of ivory and copper, ebony and tortoise-shell,
all kept together with glue and tiny chased nails, and applied very
often to a rather soft, white wood, is not meet to withstand the ravages
of time and the variations of the atmosphere. Alternate heat and
humidity are even greater enemies of inlaid furniture than time and
wear--such delicate things are rarely much used, and are protected from
ordinary chances of deterioration. There is consequently reason to
rejoice when a piece of real artistry in furniture finds its final home
in a museum, where a degree of warmth is maintained which, however
distressing it may be to the visitor, at least preserves the contents
from one of the worst enemies of the collector.     (J. P.-B.)

BOULOGNE, or BOULLONGNE, the name of a family of French painters. Louis
(1609-1674), who was one of the original members of the Academy of
Painting and Sculpture (1648), became celebrated under Louis XIV. His
traditions were continued by his children: GENEVIEVE (1645-1708), who
married the sculptor Jacques Clerion; MADELEINE (1646-1710), whose work
survives in the _Trophies d'armes_ at Versailles; BON (1649-1717), a
successful teacher and decorative artist; and LOUIS the younger
(1654-1733), who copied Raphael's cartoons for the Gobelins tapestry,
and besides taking a high place as a painter was also a designer of

BOULOGNE-SUR-MER, a fortified seaport of northern France and chief town
of an arrondissement in Pas-de-Calais, situated on the shore of the
English Channel at the mouth of the river Liane, 157 m. N.N.W. of Paris
on the Northern railway, and 28 m. by sea S.E. of Folkestone, Kent. Pop.
(1906) 49,636. Boulogne occupies the summit and slopes of a ridge of
hills skirting the right bank of the Liane; the industrial quarter of
Capécure extends along the opposite bank, and is reached by two bridges,
while the river is also crossed by a double railway viaduct. The town
consists of two parts, the Haute Ville and the Basse Ville. The former,
situated on the top of the hill, is of comparatively small extent, and
forms almost a parallelogram, surrounded by ramparts of the 13th
century, and, outside them, by boulevards, and entered by ancient
gateways. In this part are the law court, the château and the hotel de
ville (built in the 18th century), and a belfry tower of the 13th and
17th centuries is in the immediate neighbourhood. In the château (13th
century) now used as barracks, the emperor Napoleon III was confined
after the abortive insurrection of 1840. At some distance north-west
stands the church of Notre-Dame, a well-known place of pilgrimage,
erected (1827-1866) on the site of an old building destroyed in the
Revolution, of which the extensive crypt still remains. The modern town
stretches from the foot of the hill to the harbour, along which it
extends, terminating in an expanse of sandy beach frequented by bathers,
and provided with a bathing establishment and casino. It contains
several good streets, some of which are, however, very steep. A main
street, named successively rue de la Lampe, St Nicolas and Grande rue,
extends from the bridge across the Liane to the promenade by the side of
the ramparts. This is intersected first by the Quai Gambetta, and
farther back by the rue Victor Hugo and the rue Nationale, which contain
the principal shops. The public buildings include several modern
churches, two hospitals and a museum with collections of antiquities,
natural history, porcelain, &c. Connected with the museum is a public
library with 75,000 volumes and a number of valuable manuscripts, many
of them richly illuminated. There are English churches in the town, and
numerous boarding-schools intended for English pupils. Boulogne is the
seat of a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of
commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a
branch of the Bank of France. There are also communal colleges, a
national school of music, and schools of hydrography, commerce and
industry. Boulogne has for a long time been one of the most anglicized
of French cities; and in the tourist season a continuous stream of
English travellers reach the continent at this point.

The harbour is formed by the mouth of the Liane. Two jetties enclose a
channel leading into the river, which forms a tidal basin with a depth
at neap-tides of 24 ft. Alongside this is an extensive dock, and behind
it an inner port. There is also a tidal basin opening off the entrance
channel. The depth of water in the river-harbour is 33 ft. at
spring-tide and 24 ft. at neap-tide; in the sluice of the dock the
numbers are 29½ and 23½ respectively. The commerce of Boulogne consists
chiefly in the importation of jute, wool, woven goods of silk and wool
skins, threads, coal, timber, and iron and steel, and the exportation
of wine, woven goods, table fruit, potatoes and other vegetables, skins,
motor-cars, forage and cement. The average annual value of the exports
in the five years 1901-1905 was £10,953,000 (£11,704,000 in the years
1896-1900), and of the imports £6,064,000 (£7,003,000 in the years
1896-1900). From 1901 to 1905 the annual average of vessels entered,
exclusive of fishing-smacks, was 2735, tonnage 1,747,699; and cleared
2750, tonnage 1,748,297. The total number of passengers between
Folkestone and Boulogne in 1906 was 295,000 or 49% above the average for
the years 1901-1905. These travelled by the steamers of the
South-Eastern & Chatham railway company. The liners of the
Dutch-American, Hamburg-American and other companies also call at the
port. In the extent and value of its fisheries Boulogne is exceeded by
no seaport in France. The most important branch is the herring-fishery;
next in value is the mackerel. Large quantities of fresh fish are
transmitted to Paris by railway, but an abundant supply is reserved to
the town itself. The fishermen live for the most part in a separate
quarter called La Beurrière, situated in the upper part of the town. In
1905 the fisheries of Boulogne and the neighbouring village of Étaples
employed over 400 boats and 4500 men, the value of the fish taken being
estimated at £1,025,000. Among the numerous industrial establishments in
Boulogne and its environs may be mentioned foundries, cement-factories,
important steel-pen manufactories, oil-works, dye-works, fish-curing
works, flax-mills, saw-mills, and manufactories of cloth, fireproof
ware, chocolate, boots and shoes, and soap. Shipbuilding is also carried

Among the objects of interest in the neighbourhood the most remarkable
is the Colonne de la Grande Armée, erected on the high ground above the
town, in honour of Napoleon I., on occasion of the projected invasion of
England, for which he here made great preparations. The pillar, which is
of the Doric order, 166 ft. high, is surmounted by a statue of the
emperor by A.S. Bosio. Though begun in 1804, the monument was not
completed till 1841. On the edge of the cliff to the east of the port
are some rude brick remains of an old building called Tour d'Ordre, said
to be the ruins of a tower built by Caligula at the time of his intended
invasion of Britain.

Boulogne is identified with the _Gessoriacum_ of the Romans, under whom
it was an important harbour. It is suggested that it was the _Portus
Itius_ where Julius Caesar assembled his fleet (see ITIUS PORTUS). At an
early period it began to be known as _Bononia_, a name which has been
gradually modified into the present form. The town was destroyed by the
Normans in 882, but restored about 912. During the Carolingian period
Boulogne was the chief town of a countship that was for long the subject
of dispute between Flanders and Ponthieu. From the year 965 it belonged
to the house of Ponthieu, of which Godfrey of Bouillon, the first king
of Jerusalem, was a scion. Stephen of Blois, who became king of England
in 1135, had married Mahaut, daughter and heiress of Eustace, count of
Boulogne. Their daughter Mary married Matthew of Alsace (d. 1173), and
her daughter Ida (d. 1216) married Renaud of Dammartin. Of this last
marriage was issue Mahaut, countess of Boulogne, wife of Philip Hurepel
(d. 1234), a son of King Philip Augustus. To her succeeded the house of
Brabant, issue of Mahaut of Boulogne, sister of Ida, and wife of Henry
I. of Brabant; and then the house of Auvergne, issue of Alice, daughter
of Henry I. of Brabant, inherited the Boulonnais. It remained in the
possession of descendants of these families until Philip the Good, duke
of Burgundy, seized upon it in 1419. In 147 7 Louis XI. of France
reconquered it, and reunited it to the French crown, giving Lauraguais
as compensation to Bertrand IV. de la Tour, count of Auvergne, heir of
the house of Auvergne. To avoid doing homage to Mary of Burgundy,
suzerain of the Boulonnais and countess of Artois, Louis XI declared the
countship of Boulogne to be held in fee of Our Lady of Boulogne. In 1544
Henry VIII.--more successful in this than Henry III. had been in
1347--took the town by siege; but it was restored to France in 1550.
From 1566 to the end of the 18th century it was the seat of a

BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE, a town of northern France, in the department of
Seine, on the right bank of the Seine, S.W. of Paris and immediately
outside the fortifications. Pop. (1906) 49,412. The town has a Gothic
church of the 14th and 15th centuries (restored in 1863) founded in
honour of Notre-Dame of Boulogne-sur-Mer. To this fact is due the name
of the place, which was previously called Menus-lès-St Cloud. Laundrying
is extensively carried on as well as the manufacture of metal boxes,
soap, oil and furniture, and there are numerous handsome residences. For
the neighbouring Bois de Boulogne see PARIS.

BOULTON, MATTHEW (1728-1809), English manufacturer and engineer, was
born on the 3rd of September 1728, at Birmingham, where his father,
Matthew Boulton the elder, was a manufacturer of metal articles of
various kinds. To this business he succeeded on his father's death in
1759, and in consequence of its growth removed his works in 1762 from
Snowhill to what was then a tract of barren heath at Soho, 2 mi. north
of Birmingham. Here he undertook the manufacture of artistic objects in
metal, as well as the reproduction of oil paintings by a mechanical
process in which he was associated with Francis Eginton (1737-1805), who
subsequently achieved a reputation as a worker in stained or enamelled
glass. About 1767, Boulton, who was finding the need of improving the
motive power for his machinery, made the acquaintance of James Watt, who
on his side appreciated the advantages offered by the Soho works for the
development of his steam-engine. In 1772 Watt's partner, Dr John
Roebuck, got into financial difficulties, and Boulton, to whom he owed
£1200, accepted the two-thirds share in Watt's patent held by him in
satisfaction of the debt. Three years later Boulton and Watt formally
entered into partnership, and it was mainly through the energy and
self-sacrifice of the former, who devoted all the capital he possessed
or could borrow to the enterprise, that the steam-engine was at length
made a commercial success. It was also owing to Boulton that in 1775 an
act of parliament was obtained extending the term of Watt's 1769 patent
to 1799. In 1800 the two partners retired from the business, which they
handed over to their sons, Matthew Robinson Boulton and James Watt
junior. In 1788 Boulton turned his attention to coining machinery, and
erected at Soho a complete plant with which he struck coins for the
Sierra Leone and East India companies and for Russia, and in 1797
produced a new copper coinage for Great Britain. In 1797 he took out a
patent in connexion with raising water on the principle of the hydraulic
ram. He died at Birmingham on the 18th of August 1809.

BOUND, or BOUNDARY (from O. Fr. _bonde_, Med. Lat. _bodena_ or _butina_,
a frontier line), that which serves to indicate the limit or extent of
land. It is usually defined by a certain mark, such as a post, ditch,
hedge, dyke, wall of stones, &c., though on the other hand it may have
to be ascertained by reference to a plan or by measurement. In law, the
exact boundary of land is always a matter of evidence; where no evidence
is available, the court acts on presumption. For example, the boundary
of land on opposite sides of a road, whether public or private, is
presumed to be the middle line of the road. Where two fields are
separated by a hedge and ditch the boundary line will run between the
hedge and the ditch. Boundaries of parishes, at common law, depended
upon ancient and immemorial custom, and in many parishes great care was
taken to perpetuate the boundaries of the parish by perambulations from
time to time. The confusion of local boundaries in England was the
subject of several commissions and committees in the 19th century, and
much information will be found in their reports (1868, 1870, 1873,
1888). The Local Government Act 1888, ss. 50-63, contains provisions for
the alteration of local areas.

BOUNDS, BEATING THE, an ancient custom still observed in many English
parishes. In former times when maps were rare it was usual to make a
formal perambulation of the parish boundaries on Ascension day or during
Rogation week. The latter is in the north of England still called "Gang
Week" or "Ganging Days" from this "ganging" or procession. The priest
of the parish with the churchwardens and the parochial officials headed
a crowd of boys who, armed with green boughs, beat with them the parish
border-stones. Sometimes the boys were themselves whipped or even
violently bumped on the boundary-stones to make them remember. The
object of taking boys was obviously to ensure that witnesses to the
boundaries should survive as long as possible. In England the custom is
as old as Anglo-Saxon days, as it is mentioned in laws of Alfred and
Aethelstan. It is thought that it may have been derived from the Roman
Terminalia, a festival celebrated on the 22nd of February in honour of
Terminus, the god of landmarks, to whom cakes and wine were offered,
sports and dancing taking place at the boundaries. In England a
parish-ale or feast was always held after the perambulation, which
assured its popularity, and in Henry VIII.'s reign the occasion had
become an excuse for so much revelry that it attracted the condemnation
of a preacher who declared "these solemne and accustomable processions
and supplications be nowe growen into a right foule and detestable
abuse." Beating the bounds had a religious side in the practice which
originated the term Rogation, the accompanying clergy being supposed to
beseech (_rogare_) the divine blessing upon the parish lands for the
ensuing harvest. This feature originated in the 5th century, when
Mamercus, bishop of Vienne, instituted special prayers and fasting and
processions on these days. This clerical side of the parish
bounds-beating was one of the religious functions prohibited by the
Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth; but it was then ordered that the
perambulation should continue to be performed as a quasi-secular
function, so that evidence of the boundaries of parishes, &c. might be
preserved (Gibson, _Codex juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani_ (1761) pp.
213-214). Bequests were sometimes made in connexion with bounds-beating.
Thus at Leighton Buzzard on Rogation Monday, in accordance with the will
of one Edward Wilkes, a London merchant who died in 1646, the trustees
of his almshouses accompanied the boys. The will was read and beer and
plum rolls distributed. A remarkable feature of the bequest was that
while the will is read one of the boys has to stand on his head.

BOUNTY (through O. Fr. _bontet_, from Lat. _bonitas_, goodness), a gift
or gratuity; more usually, a premium paid by a government to encourage
some branch of production or industry, as in England in the case of the
bounty on corn, first granted in 1688 and abolished in 1814, the
herring-fishery bounties, the bounties on sail-cloth, linen and other
goods. It is admitted that the giving of bounties is generally
impolitic, though they may sometimes be justified as a measure of state.
The most striking modern example of a bounty was that on sugar (q.v.).
Somewhat akin to bounties are the subsidies granted to shipping (q.v.)
by many countries. Bounties or, as they may equally well be termed,
grants are often given, more especially in new countries, for the
destruction of beasts of prey; in the United States and some other
countries, bounties have been given for tree-planting; France has given
bounties to encourage the Newfoundland fisheries.

Bounty was also the name given to the money paid to induce men to enlist
in the army or navy, and, in the United Kingdom, to the sum given on
entering the militia reserve. During the American Civil War, many
recruits joined solely for the sake of the bounty offered, and
afterwards deserted; they were called "bounty-jumpers." The term bounty
was also applied in the English navy to signify money payable to the
officers and crew of a ship in respect of services on particular

Queen Anne's Bounty (q.v.) is a fund applied for the augmentation of
poor livings in the established church.

King's Bounty is a grant made by the sovereign of his royal bounty to
those of his subjects whose wives are delivered of three or more
children at a birth.

BOURBAKI, CHARLES DENIS SAUTER (1816-1897), French general, was born at
Pau on the 22nd of April 1816, the son of a Greek colonel who died in
the War of Independence in 1827. He entered St Cyr, and in 1836 joined
the Zouaves, becoming lieutenant of the Foreign Legion in 1838, and
aide-de-camp to King Louis Philippe. It was in the African expedition
that he first came to the front. In 1842 he was captain in the Zouaves;
1847, colonel of the Turcos; in 1850, lieutenant-colonel of the 1st
Zouaves; 1851, colonel; 1854, brigadier-general. In the Crimean War he
commanded a portion of the Algerian troops; and at the Alma, Inkerman
and Sevastopol Bourbaki's name became famous. In 1857 he was made
general of division, commanding in 1859 at Lyons. His success in the war
with Italy was only second to that of MacMahon, and in 1862 he was
proposed as a candidate for the vacant Greek throne, but declined the
proffered honour. In 1870 the emperor entrusted him with the command of
the Imperial Guard, and he played an important part in the fighting
round Metz.

A curious incident of the siege of Metz is connected with Bourbaki's
name. A man who called himself Regnier,[1] about the 21st of September,
appeared at Hastings, to seek an interview with the refugee empress
Eugénie, and failing to obtain this he managed to get from the young
prince imperial a signed photograph with a message to the emperor
Napoleon. This he used, by means of a safe-conduct from Bismarck, as
credentials to Marshal Bazaine, to whom he presented himself at Metz,
telling him on the empress's alleged authority that peace was about to
be signed and that either Marshal Canrobert or General Bourbaki was to
go to Hastings for the purpose. Bourbaki at once went to England, with
Prussian connivance, as though he had a recognized mission, only to
discover from the empress at Hastings that a trick had been played on
him; and as soon as he could manage he returned to France. He offered
his services to Gambetta and received the command of the Northern Army,
but was recalled on the 19th of November and transferred to the Army of
the Loire. In command of the hastily-trained and ill-equipped Army of
the East, Bourbaki made the attempt to raise the siege of Belfort,
which, after the victory of Villersexel, ended in the repulse of the
French in the three days' battle of the Lisaine. Other German forces
under Manteuffel now closed upon Bourbaki, and he was eventually driven
over the Swiss frontier with the remnant of his forces (see
FRANCO-GERMAN WAR). His troops were in the most desperate condition,
owing to lack of food; and out of 150,000 men under him when he started,
only 84,000 escaped from the Germans into Swiss territory. Bourbaki
himself, rather than submit to the humiliation of a probable surrender,
on the 26th of January 1871 delegated his functions to General
Clinchant, and in the night fired a pistol at his own head, but the
bullet, owing to a deviation of the weapon, was flattened against his
skull and his life was saved. General Clinchant carried Bourbaki into
Switzerland, and he recovered sufficiently to return to France. In July
1871 he again took the command at Lyons, and subsequently became
military governor. In 1881, owing to his political opinions, he was
placed on the retired list. In 1885 he was an unsuccessful candidate for
the senate. He died on the 27th of September 1897. A patriotic Frenchman
and a brilliant soldier and leader, Bourbaki, like some other French
generals of the Second Empire whose training had been obtained in
Africa, was found wanting in the higher elements of command when the
European conditions of 1870 were concerned.


  [1] The whole Regnier affair remained a mystery; the man himself--who
    on following Bourbaki to England made the impression on Lord
    Granville (see the _Life of Lord Granville_, by Lord Fitzmaurice, ii.
    61) of being a "swindler" but honestly wishing to serve the
    empress--was afterwards mixed up in the Humbert frauds of 1902-1903;
    he published his own version of the affair in 1870 in a pamphlet,
    _Quel est votre nom?_ It has been suspected that on the part either
    of Bazaine or of the German authorities some undisclosed intrigue was
    on foot.

BOURBON. The noble family of Bourbon, from which so many European kings
have sprung, took its name from Bourbon l'Archambault, chief town of a
lordship which in the 10th century was one of the largest baronies of
the kingdom of France. The limits of the lordship, which was called the
Bourbonnais, were approximately those of the modern department of
Allier, being on the N. the Nivernais and Berry, on the E. Burgundy and
Lyonnais, on the S. Auvergne and Marche and on the W. Berry. The first
of the long line of Bourbons known in history was Adhémar or Aimar, who
was invested with the barony towards the close of the 9th century.
Matilda, heiress of the first house of Bourbon, brought this lordship to
the family of Dampierre by her marriage, in 1196, with Guy of Dampierre,
marshal of Champagne (d. 1215). In 1272 Beatrix, daughter of Agnes of
Bourbon-Dampierre, and her husband John of Burgundy, married Robert,
count of Clermont, sixth son of Louis IX. (St Louis) of France. The
elder branches of the family had become extinct, and their son Louis
became duke of Bourbon in 1327. In 1488 the line of his descendants
ended with Jean II., who died in that year. The whole estates passed to
Jean's brother Pierre, lord of Beaujeu, who was married to Anne,
daughter of Louis XI. Pierre died in 1503, leaving only a daughter,
Suzanne, who, in 1505, married Charles de Montpensier, heir of the
Montpensier branch of the Bourbon family. Charles, afterwards constable
of France, who took the title of duke of Bourbon on his marriage, was
born in 1489, and at an early age was looked upon as one of the finest
soldiers and gentlemen in France. With the constable ended the direct
line from Pierre I., duke of Bourbon (d. 1356). But the fourth in
descent from Pierre's brother, Jacques, count of La Marche, Louis, count
of Vendôme and Chartres (d. 1446), became the ancestor of the royal
house of Bourbon and of the noble families of Condé, Conti and
Montpensier. The fourth in direct descent from Louis of Vendôme was
Antoine de Bourbon, who in 1548 married Jeanne d'Albret, heiress of
Navarre, and became king of Navarre in 1554. Their son became king of
France as Henry IV. Henry was succeeded by his son, Louis XIII., who
left two sons, Louis XIV., and Philip, duke of Orleans, head of the
Orleans branch. Louis XIV.'s son, the dauphin, died before his father,
and left three sons, one of whom died without issue. Of the others the
elder, Louis of Burgundy, died in 1712, and his only surviving son
became Louis XV. The younger, Philip, duke of Anjou, became king of
Spain, and founded the Spanish branch of the Bourbon family. Louis XV.
was succeeded by his grandson, Louis XVI., who perished on the scaffold.
At the restoration the throne of France was occupied by Louis XVIII.,
brother of Louis XVI., who in turn was succeeded by his brother Charles
X. The second son of Charles X., the duc de Berry, left a son, Henri
Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois, duc de Bordeaux, and comte
de Chambord (q.v.). From Louis XIV.'s brother, Philip, descended another
claimant of the throne. Philip's son was the regent Orleans, whose
great-grandson, "Philippe Égalité," perished on the scaffold in 1793.
Égalité's son, Louis Philippe, was king of the French from 1830 to 1848;
his grandson, Louis Philippe, comte de Paris (1838-1894), inherited on
the death of the comte de Chambord the rights of that prince to the
throne of France, and was called by the royalists Philip VII. He had a
son, Louis Philippe Robert, duc d'Orléans, called by his adherents
Philip VIII.

_Spanish Branch._--Philip, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., became
king of Spain as Philip V., in 1700. He was succeeded in 1746 by his son
Ferdinand VI., who died in 1759 without family, and was followed by his
brother Charles III. Charles III.'s eldest son became Charles IV. of
Spain in 1788, while his second son, Ferdinand, was made king of Naples
in 1759. Charles IV. was deposed by Napoleon, but in 1814 his son,
Ferdinand VII., again obtained his throne. Ferdinand was succeeded by
his daughter Isabella, who in 1870 abdicated in favour of her son,
Alphonso XII. (d. 1885). Alphonso's posthumous son became king of Spain
as Alphonso XIII. Ferdinand's brother, Don Carlos (d. 1855), claimed the
throne in 1833 on the ground of the Salic law, and a fierce war raged
for some years in the north of Spain. His son Don Carlos, count de
Montemolin (1818-1861), revived the claim, but was defeated and
compelled to sign a renunciation. The nephew of the latter, Don Carlos
Maria Juan Isidor, duke of Madrid, for some years carried on war in
Spain with the object of attaining the rights contended for by the
Carlist party.


I. _The French Bourbons_

                                                        Henry IV. (1553-1610)
                                               |                                         |
                                          Louis XIII.                                 Gaston,
                                          (1601-1643)                            duke of Orleans
                                               |                                    (1608-1660)
                                       |                                                          |
                                   Louis XIV.                                                 Philip I.
                                  (1638-1715)                                              duke of Orleans
                                       |                                                     (1640-1701)
                                       |                                                          |
                               Louis the Dauphin                                              Philip II.
                                  (1661-1711)                                        duke of Orleans,[1] the regent
                                       |                                                     (1674-1723)
                    +------------------+---------------+                                          |
                    |                  |               |                                          |
                  Louis,           Charles,         Philip,                                     Louis,
            duke of Burgundy    duke of Berry   duke of Anjou,                             duke of Orleans
               (1682-1712)       (1686-1714)    king of Spain                                (1703-1752)
                    |                            as Philip V.                                     |
                    |                            (1683-1746)                                      |
                 Louis XV.                                                                 Louis Philippe,
               (1710-1774)                                                                 duke of Orleans
                    |                                                                        (1725-1785)
                    |                                                                             |
            Louis the Dauphin                                                         Louis Philippe, "Egalité,"
               (1729-1765)                                                                 duke of Orleans
                    |                                                                        (1747-1793)
       +------------+-------------+                                                               |
       |            |             |                                                               |
  Louis XVI.   Louis XVIII.   Charles X.                                                   Louis Philippe,
  (1754-1793)  (1755-1824)   (1757-1836)                                                 king of the French
       |                          |                                                          (1773-1850)
       |               +----------+--------+                                                      |
       |               |                   |                  +------------------+----------------+----+------------------+---------------+
       |               |                   |                  |                  |                     |                  |               |
  Louis XVII.        Louis,        Charles Ferdinand,     Ferdinand,          Francis,              Antony,             Henry,          Louis,
  (1785-1795)  duke of Angoulême     duke of Berry     duke of Orleans   prince of Joinville   duke of Montpensier  duke of Aumale  duke of Nemours
                  (1775-1844)          (1778-1820)       (1810-1842)        (1818-1900)            (1824-1890)        (1822-1897)      (1814-1896)
                                           |                  |                  |                     |                                  |
                                           |                  |                  |                     |                        +---------+-------+
                                           |                  |                  |                     |                        |                 |
                                      Henry Charles,          |                Peter,               Antony,                  Gaston,           Ferdinand,
                                  duke of Bordeaux and        |          duke of Penthièvre     duke of Galliera           count of Eu,     duke of Alençon
                                    count of Chambord         |              (b. 1845)             (b. 1866)                (b. 1842)          (b. 1844)
                                       (1820-1883)            |                                        |                        |                 |
                                                              |                +-----------------------+              +---------+---------+       +-------+
                                                              |                |                       |              |         |         |               |
                                                              |            Alphonso             Louis Ferdinand     Peter      Louis    Antony         Emmanuel,
                                                              |           (b. 1886)                (b. 1888)      (b. 1875)  (b. 1878) (b. 1881)    duke of Vendôme
                                                              |                                                                                        (b. 1872)
                                                              |                                                                                           |
                                              +-------------------+-------------------+                                                                   |
                                              |                                       |                                                                   |
                                       Louis Philippe,                              Robert,                                                        Charles Philip,
                                       count of Paris                           duke of Chartres                                                  duke of Nemours,
                                         (1838-1894)                               (b. 1840)                                                          (b. 1905)
                                              |                                       |
                                       +------+------------+                 +--------+---------+
                                       |                   |                 |                  |
                                Louis Philippe,       Ferdinand,           Henry,             John,
                                duke of Orleans  duke of Montpensier  prince of Orleans   duke of Guise
                                   (b. 1869)          (b. 1884)         (1867-1901)         (b. 1874)

II. The Spanish and Italian Bourbons.

                                                                         Philip V., king of Spain (1683-1746)
                    |              |                                                                                                                                        |
               Charles III.   Ferdinand VI.                                                                                                                              Philip,
               (1716-1788)     (1713-1759)                                                                                                                               duke of
                    |                                                                                                                                                     Parma
                +---+--------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------+                                                  (1715-1765)
                |                                                                        |                          |                                                       |
           Charles IV.                                                              Ferdinand I.,                Gabriel[3]                                             Ferdinand,
           (1748-1819)                                                               king of the                (1752-1788)                                              duke of
                |                                                                   Two Sicilies                                                                          Parma
       +--------+------+------------------------+                                    (1751-1825)                                                                       (1765-1802)
       |               |                        |                                        |                                                                                  |
  Ferdinand VII.    Francis,                 Carlos,                                  Francis I.                                                                          Louis,
  (1784-1833)       duke of                  duke of                                 (1777-1830)                                                                         king of
       |             Cadiz                    Madrid                                     |                                                                               Erutrea
       |           (d. 1865)                (1788-1855)                            +-----+--------+-------------+---------------------------+                         (c. 1786-1803)
       |               |                          |                                |              |             |                           |                               |
       |              +------------+           +--+-------------+             Ferdinand II.    Francis,      Leopold,                     Louis,                        Charles II,
       |              |            |           |                |              (1810-1859)      count of     count of                    count of                         duke of
  Isabella II. +   Francis       Henry,      Carlos,          Juan                 |            Trapani,     Syracuse                     Aquila                           Parma
  (1830-1904)  | (1822-1902)     duke of     duke of       (1823-1887)             |          (1827-1892) (c. 1825-1860)                (1824-1897)                     (1799-1883)
               |                Seville[2]   Madrid             |                  |                                                        |                               |
               |               (1823-1870) (1818-1861)          |           +------------+-------------+----------+-----------+           +-+--------+                  Charles III,
               |                                                |           |            |             |          |           |           |          |                    duke of
           Alphonso XII.                        +---------------+       Francis II.    Alphonso,     Louis,    Gaëtan,      Pascal,     Louis      Philip                  Parma
            (1857-1885)                         |               |       (1836-1894)    count of     count of   count of     count of   count of   (b. 1847)             (1823-1854)
               |                              Carlos,         Alphonso                  Castera       Trani    Gergenti      Bari       Aquila                              |
           Alphonso XIII.                     duke of         (b. 1849)                (b. 1841)  (1838-1886) (1846-1871) (1852-1904)  (b. 1845)             +--------------+-------+
             (b. 1886)                        Madrid                                      |                                                                  |                      |
               |                            (b. 1848)                           +---------+---+-----------+---------+----------+--------+----------+       Robert[4]              Henry
        +------+---------+                      |                               |             |           |         |          |        |          |       duke of               count of
        |                |                    Jaimé                         Ferdinand,     Charles     Gabriel   Francis    Philip    Rénier    Gennaro     Parma                 Bardi
     Alphonso          Jaimé                (b. 1870)                        duke of       (b. 1870)  (b. 1897) (b. 1888)  (b. 1885) (b. 1883) (b. 1882)  (b. 1848)             (1851-1905)
   prince of the     (b. 1908)                                               Calabria         |                                                               |
     Asturias                                                                (b. 1869)     Alphonso                                                    +------+----+-----------+
    (b. 1907)                                                                   |          (b. 1901)                                                   |           |           |
                                                                              Roger                                                                  Henry       Joseph      Elias
                                                                             duke of                                                               (b. 1873)    (b. 1875)  (b. 1880)
                                                                               Noto                                                                                            |
                                                                             (b. 1901)                                                                                      Charles
                                                                                                                                                                           (b. 1905)
_Neapolitan Branch._--The first Bourbon who wore the crown of Naples was
Charles III. of Spain, who on his succession to the Spanish throne in
1759, resigned his kingdom of Naples to his son Ferdinand. Ferdinand was
deposed by Napoleon, but afterwards regained his throne, and took the
title of Ferdinand I., king of the Two Sicilies. In 1825 he was
succeeded by his son Francis, who in turn was succeeded in 1830 by his
son Ferdinand II. Ferdinand II. died in 1859, and in the following year
his successor Francis II. was deprived of his kingdom, which was
incorporated into the gradually-uniting Italy.

_Duchies of Lucca and Parma._--In 1748 the duchy of Parma was conferred
on Philip, youngest son of Philip V. of Spain. He was succeeded by his
son Ferdinand in 1765. Parma was ceded to France in 1801, Ferdinand's
son Louis being made king of Etruria, but the French only took
possession of the duchy after Ferdinand's death in 1802. Louis's son
Charles Louis was forced to surrender Etruria to France in 1807, and he
was given the duchy of Lucca by the congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1847,
on the death of Marie Louise, widow of Napoleon, who had received Parma
and Piacenza in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Paris of
1814, Charles Louis succeeded to the duchies as Charles II., at the same
time surrendering Lucca to Tuscany. In 1849 he abdicated in favour of
his son, Charles III., who married a daughter of the duke of Berry, and
was assassinated in 1854, being succeeded by his son Robert. In 1860 the
duchies were annexed by Victor Emmanuel to the new kingdom of Italy.

_Bastard Branches._--There are numerous bastard branches of the family
of Bourbon, the most famous being the Vendôme branch, descended from
Caesar, natural son of Henry IV., and the Maine and Toulouse branches,
descended from the two natural sons of Louis XIV. and Madame de

  See Coiffier de Moret, _Histoire du Bourbonnais et des Bourbons_ (2
  vols., 1824); Berand, _Histoire des sires et ducs de Bourbon_ (1835);
  Désormeaux, _Histoire de la maison de Bourbon_ (5 vols., 1782-1788);
  Achaintre, _Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale
  de Bourbon_ (2 vols., 1825-1826); and Dussieux, _Généalogie de la
  maison de Bourbon_ (1872).


  [1] Philip married a natural daughter of Louis XIV., and in this way
    the later princes of Orleans are descended from the Grand Monarque.

  [2] Henry contracted a morganatic marriage, and consequently his son
    Henry, who died in 1894, was ruled out of the succession. This branch
    of the family is now extinct.

  [3] The branch of the family descended from the infante Gabriel is
    still flourishing, its head being Francis, duke of Marchena.

  [4] By a second marriage Robert has a large family, including six
    sons--Sixtus, Xavier, Felix, René, Louis and Gaëtan.

BOURBON, CHARLES, DUKE OF (1490-1527), constable of France, second son
of Gilbert, count of Montpensier and dauphin of Auvergne, was born on
the 17th of February 1490, his mother being a Gonzaga. In 1505 he
married Suzanne, heiress of Peter II., duke of Bourbon, by Anne of
France, daughter of King Louis XI., and assumed the title of duke of
Bourbon. The addition of this duchy to the numerous duchies, countships
and other fiefs which he had inherited on the death of his elder brother
Louis in 1501, made him at the age of fifteen the wealthiest noble in
Europe. He gained his first military experience in the Italian campaigns
of Louis XII., taking part in the suppression of the Genoese revolt
(1507) and contributing to the victory over the Venetians at Agnadello
(May 14, 1509). Shortly after the accession of Francis I. Bourbon
received the office of constable of France, and for his brilliant
services at the battle of Marignano (September 1515) he was made
governor of the Milanese, which he succeeded in defending against an
attack of the emperor Maximilian. But dissensions arose between Francis
and the constable. Grave, haughty and taciturn, Bourbon was but ill
suited to the levities of the court, and his vast wealth and influence
kindled in the king a feeling of resentment, if not of fear. The duke
was recalled from the government of the Milanese; his official salary
and the sums he had borrowed for war expenses remained unpaid; and in
the campaign in the Netherlands against the emperor Charles V. the
command of the vanguard, one of the most cherished prerogatives of the
constables, was taken from him. The death of his wife without surviving
issue, on the 28th of April 1521, afforded the mother of the king,
Louise of Savoy, a means to gratify her greed, and at the same time to
revenge herself on Bourbon, who had slighted her love. A suit was
instituted at her instance against the duke in the parlement of Paris,
in which Louise, as grand-daughter of Charles, duke of Bourbon (d.
1456), claimed the female and some of the male fiefs of the duchy of
Bourbon, while the king claimed those fiefs which were originally
appanages, as escheating to the crown, and other claims were put
forward. Before the parlement was able to arrive at a decision, Francis
handed over to his mother a part of the Bourbon estates, and ordered
the remainder to be sequestrated.

Smarting under these injuries, Bourbon, who for some time had been
coquetting with the enemies of France, renewed his negotiations with the
emperor and Henry VIII. of England. It was agreed that the constable
should raise in his own dominions an armed force to assist the emperor
in an invasion of France, and should receive in return the hand of
Eleonora, queen dowager of Portugal, or of another of the emperor's
sisters, and an independent kingdom comprising his own lands together
with Dauphiné and Provence. He was required, too, to swear fidelity to
Henry VIII. as king of France. But Bourbon's plans were hampered by the
presence of the French troops assembling for the invasion of Italy, and
for this reason he was unable to effect a junction with the emperor's
German troops from the east. News of the conspiracy soon reached the
ears of Francis, who was on his way to take command of the Italian
expedition. In an interview with Bourbon at Moulins the king endeavoured
to persuade him to accompany the French army into Italy, but without
success. Bourbon remained at Moulins for a few days, and after many
vicissitudes escaped into Italy. The joint invasion of France by the
emperor and his ally of England had failed signally, mainly through lack
of money and defects of combination. In the spring of 1524, however,
Bourbon at the head of the imperialists in Lombardy forced the French
across the Sesia (where the chevalier Bayard was mortally wounded) and
drove them out of Italy. In August 1524 he invested Marseilles, but
being unable to prevent the introduction of supplies by Andrea Doria,
the Genoese admiral in the service of Francis, he was forced to raise
the siege and retreat to the Milanese. He took part in the battle of
Pavia (1525), where Francis was defeated and taken prisoner. But
Bourbon's troops were clamouring for pay, and the duke was driven to
extreme measures to satisfy their demands. Cheated of his kingdom and
his bride after the treaty of Madrid (1526), Bourbon had been offered
the duchy of Milan by way of compensation. He now levied contributions
from the townsmen, and demanded 20,000 ducats for the liberation of the
chancellor Girolamo Morone (d. 1529), who had been imprisoned for an
attempt to realize his dream of an Italy purged of the foreigner. But
the sums thus raised were wholly inadequate. In February 1527 Bourbon's
army was joined by a body of German mercenaries, mostly Protestants, and
the combined forces advanced towards the papal states. Refusing to
recognize the truce which the viceroy of Naples had concluded with Pope
Clement VII., Bourbon hastened to put into execution the emperor's plan
of attaching Clement to his side by a display of force. But the troops,
starving and without pay, were in open mutiny, and Spaniards and
Lutherans alike were eager for plunder. On the 5th of May 1527 the
imperial army appeared before the walls of Rome. On the following
morning Bourbon attacked the Leonine City, and while mounting a scaling
ladder fell mortally wounded by a shot, which Benvenuto Cellini in his
_Life_ claims to have fired. After Bourbon's death his troops took and
sacked Rome.

  See E. Armstrong, _Charles V._ (London, 1902); _Cambridge Mod. Hist._
  vol. ii., bibliography to chaps. i. ii. and iii.

BOURBON-LANCY, a watering-place of east-central France in the department
of Saône-et-Loire, on a hill about 2 m. from the right bank of the Loire
and on the Borne, 52 m. S.S.E. of Nevers by rail. Pop. (1906) town,
1896; commune, 4266. The town possesses thermal springs, resorted to in
the Roman period, and ancient baths and other remains have been found.
The waters, which are saline and ferruginous, are used for drinking and
bathing, in cases of rheumatism, &c. Their temperature varies from 117°
to 132° F. Cardinal Richelieu, Madame de Sévigné, James II. of England,
and other celebrated persons visited the springs in the 17th and 18th
centuries. The town has a well-equipped bathing establishment, a large
hospital, and a church of the 11th and 12th centuries (used as an
archaeological museum), and there are ruins of an old stronghold on a
hill overlooking the town. A belfry pierced by a gateway of the 15th
century and houses of the 15th and 16th centuries also remain. The
industries of the town include the manufacture of farm implements.

In the middle ages Bourbon-Lancy was an important stronghold and a fief
of the Bourbon family, from the name of a member of which the suffix to
its name is derived.

BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAULT, a town of central France in the department of
Allier, on the Burge, 16 m. W. of Moulins by rail. Pop. (1906) 2306. The
town has thermal springs known in Roman times, which are used in cases
of scrofula and rheumatism. The bathing-establishment is owned by the
state. A church dating from the 12th century, and ruins of a castle of
the dukes of Bourbon (13th and 15th centuries), including a cylindrical
keep, are of interest. There are a military and a civil hospital in the
town. Stone is quarried in the vicinity. Bourbon (_Aquae Borvonis_ or
_Bormonis_) was anciently the capital of the Bourbonnais and gave its
name to the great Bourbon family. The affix Archambault is the name of
one of its early lords.

BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, a town of eastern France, in the department of
Haute-Marne, 35½ m. by rail E.N.E. of Langres. Pop. (1906) 3738. It is
much frequented on account of its hot saline springs, which were known
to the Romans under the name _Aquae Borvonis_. The heat of these springs
varies from 110° to 156° F. The waters are used in cases of lymphatic
affections, scrofula, rheumatism, wounds, &c. The principal buildings
are a church of the 12th century, the state bathing-establishment and
the military hospital; there are also the remains of a castle.
Timber-sawing and plaster manufacture are carried on in the town. In the
neighbourhood are the buildings of the celebrated Cistercian abbey of

BOURCHIER, ARTHUR (1864-   ), English actor, was born in Berkshire in
1864, and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. At the university
he became prominent as an amateur actor in connexion with the
O.U.A.D.C., which he founded, and in 1889 he joined Mrs Langtry as a
professional. He also acted with Charles Wyndham at the Criterion, and
was for a while in Daly's company in America. In 1894 he married the
actress Violet Vanbrugh, elder sister of the no less well-known actress
Irene Vanbrugh, and he and his wife subsequently took the leading parts
under his management of the Garrick theatre. Both as tragedian and
comedian Mr Bourchier took high rank on the London stage, and his career
as actor-manager was remarkable for the production of a number of
successful modern plays, by Mr Sutro and others.

BOURCHIER, THOMAS (c. 1404-1486), English archbishop, lord chancellor
and cardinal, was a younger son of William Bourchier, count of Eu (d.
1420), and through his mother, Anne, a daughter of Thomas of Woodstock,
duke of Gloucester, was a descendant of Edward III. One of his brothers
was Henry, earl of Essex (d. 1483), and his grand-nephew was John, Lord
Berners, the translator of Froissart. Educated at Oxford and then
entering the church, he obtained rapid promotion, and after holding some
minor appointments he became bishop of Worcester in 1434. In the same
year he was chancellor of the university of Oxford, and in 1443 he was
appointed bishop of Ely; then in April 1454 he was made archbishop of
Canterbury, becoming lord chancellor of England in the following March.
Bourchier's short term of office as chancellor coincided with the
opening of the Wars of the Roses, and at first he was not a strong
partisan, although he lost his position as chancellor when Richard, duke
of York, was deprived of power in October 1456. Afterwards, in 1458, he
helped to reconcile the contending parties, but when the war was renewed
in 1459 he appears as a decided Yorkist; he crowned Edward IV. in June
1461, and four years later he performed a similar service for the queen,
Elizabeth Woodville. In 1457 Bourchier took the chief part in the trial
of Reginald Pecock, bishop of Chichester, for heresy; in 1467 he was
created a cardinal; and in 1475 he was one of the four arbitrators
appointed to arrange the details of the treaty of Picquigny between
England and France. After the death of Edward IV. in 1483 Bourchier
persuaded the queen to allow her younger son, Richard, duke of York, to
share his brother's residence in the Tower of London; and although he
had sworn to be faithful to Edward V. before his father's death, he
crowned Richard III. in July 1483. He was, however, in no way implicated
in the murder of the young princes, and he was probably a participant in
the conspiracies against Richard. The third English king crowned by
Bourchier was Henry VII., whom he also married to Elizabeth of York in
January 1486. The archbishop died on the 30th of March 1486 at his
residence, Knole, near Sevenoaks, and was buried in Canterbury

  See W.F. Hook, _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_ (1860-1884).

BOURDALOUE, LOUIS (1632-1704), French Jesuit and preacher, was born at
Bourges on the 20th of August 1632. At the age of sixteen he entered the
Society of Jesus, and was appointed successively professor of rhetoric,
philosophy and moral theology, in various colleges of the Order. His
success as a preacher in the provinces determined his superiors to call
him to Paris in 1669 to occupy for a year the pulpit of the church of St
Louis. Owing to his eloquence he was speedily ranked in popular
estimation with Corneille, Racine, and the other leading figures of the
most brilliant period of Louis XIV.'s reign. He preached at the court of
Versailles during the Advent of 1670 and the Lent of 1672, and was
subsequently called again to deliver the Lenten course of sermons in
1674, 1675, 1680 and 1682, and the Advent sermons of 1684, 1689 and
1693. This was all the more noteworthy as it was the custom never to
call the same preacher more than three times to court. On the revocation
of the Edict of Nantes he was sent to Languedoc to confirm the new
converts in the Catholic faith, and he had extraordinary success in this
delicate mission. Catholics and Protestants were unanimous in praising
his fiery eloquence in the Lent sermons which he preached at Montpellier
in 1686. Towards the close of his life he confined his ministry to
charitable institutions, hospitals and prisons, where his sympathetic
discourses and conciliatory manners were always effective. He died in
Paris on the 13th of May 1704. His peculiar strength lay in his power of
adapting himself to audiences of every kind, and throughout his public
career he was highly appreciated by all classes of society. His
influence was due as much to his saintly character and to the gentleness
of his manners as to the force of his reasoning. Voltaire said that his
sermons surpassed those of Bossuet (whose retirement in 1669, however,
practically coincided with Bourdaloue's early pulpit utterances); and
there is little doubt that their simplicity and coherence, and the
direct appeal which they made to hearers of all classes, gave them a
superiority over the more profound sermons of Bossuet. Bourdaloue may be
with justice regarded as one of the greatest French orators, and many of
his sermons have been adopted as text-books in schools.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The only authoritative source for the Sermons is the
  edition of Père Bretonneau (14 vols., Paris, 1707-1721, followed by
  the _Pensées_, 2 vols., 1734). There has been much controversy both as
  to the authenticity of some of the sermons in this edition and as to
  the text in general. It is, however, generally agreed that the changes
  confessedly made by Bretonneau were merely formal. Other editions not
  based on Bretonneau are inferior; some, indeed, are altogether
  spurious (e.g. that of Abbé Sicard, 1810). Among critical works are:
  Anatole Feugère, _Bourdaloue, sa prédication et son temps_ (Paris,
  1874); Adrien Lézat, _Bourdaloue, théologien et orateur_ (Paris,
  1874); P.M. Lauras, _Bourdaloue, sa vie et ses oeuvres_ (2 vols.,
  Paris, 1881); Abbé Blampignon, _Étude sur Bourdaloue_ (Paris, 1886);
  Henri Chérot, _Bourdaloue inconnu_ (Paris, 1898), and _Bourdaloue, sa
  correspondance et ses correspondans_ (Paris, 1898-1904); L. Pauthe,
  _Bourdaloue_ (_les maîtres de la chaire au XVII^e siècle_) (Paris,
  1900); E. Griselle, _Bourdaloue, histoire critique de sa prédication_
  (2 vols., Paris, 1901), _Sermons inédits; bibliographie, &c._ (Paris,
  1901), _Deux sermons inédits sur le royaume de Dieu_ (Lille and Paris,
  1904); Ferdinand Castets, _Bourdaloue, la vie et la prédication d'un
  religieux au XVII^e siècle_, and _La Revue Bourdaloue_ (Paris,
  1902-1904); C.H. Brooke, _Great French Preachers_ (sermons of
  Bourdaloue and Bossuet, London, 1904); F. Brunetière, "L'Éloquence de
  Bourdaloue," in _Revue des deux mondes_ (August 1904), a general
  inquiry into the authenticity of the sermons and their general

revolutionist, was _procureur_ at the parlement of Paris. He ardently
embraced the revolutionary doctrines and took an active part in the
insurrection of the 10th of August 1792. Representing the department of
the Oise in the Convention, he voted for the immediate death of the
king. He accused the Girondists of relations with the court, then turned
against Robespierre, who had him expelled from the Jacobin club for his
conduct as commissioner of the Convention with the army of La Rochelle.
On the 9th Thermidor he was one of the deputies delegated to aid Barras
to repress the insurrection made by the commune of Paris in favour of
Robespierre. Bourbon then became a violent reactionary, attacking the
former members of the Mountain and supporting rigorous measures against
the rioters of the 12th Germinal and the 1st Prairial of the year III.
In the council of Five Hundred, Bourdon belonged to the party of
"Clichyens," composed of disguised royalists, against whom the directors
made the _coup d'état_ of the 18th Fructidor. Bourdon was arrested and
deported to French Guiana, where he died soon after his arrival.

BOURG-EN-BRESSE, a town of eastern France, capital of the department of
Ain, and formerly capital of the province of Bresse, 36 m. N.N.E. of
Lyons by the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) town, 13,916; commune,
20,045. Bourg is situated at the western base of the Jura, on the left
bank of the Reyssouze, a tributary of the Saône. The chief of the older
buildings is the church of Notre-Dame (16th century), of which the
façade belongs to the Renaissance; other parts of the church are Gothic.
In the interior there are stalls of the 16th century. The other public
buildings, including a handsome prefecture, are modern. The hôtel de
ville contains a library and the Lorin museum with a collection of
pictures, while another museum has a collection of the old costumes and
ornaments characteristic of Bresse. Among the statues in the town there
is one of Edgar Quinet (1803-1875), a native of Bourg. Bourg is the seat
of a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has a tribunal of first
instance, a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, and a branch of the Bank
of France. Its educational establishments include lycées for boys and
girls, and training colleges. The manufactures consist of iron goods,
mineral waters, tallow, soap and earthenware, and there are flour mills
and breweries; and there is considerable trade in grain, cattle and
poultry. The church of Brou, a suburb of Bourg, is of great artistic
interest. Marguerite of Bourbon, wife of Philibert II. of Savoy, had
intended to found a monastery on the spot, but died before her intention
could be carried into effect. The church was actually built early in the
16th century by her daughter-in-law Marguerite of Austria, wife of
Philibert le Beau of Savoy, in memory of her husband. The exterior,
especially the façade, is richly ornamented, but the chief interest lies
in the works of art in the interior, which date from 1532. The most
important are the three mausoleums with the marble effigies of
Marguerite of Bourbon, Philibert le Beau, and Marguerite of Austria. All
three are remarkable for perfection of sculpture and richness of
ornamentation. The rood loft, the oak stalls, and the reredos in the
chapel of the Virgin are masterpieces in a similar style.

Roman remains have been discovered at Bourg, but little is known of its
early history. Raised to the rank of a free town in 1250, it was at the
beginning of the 15th century chosen by the dukes of Savoy as the chief
city of the province of Bresse. In 1535 it passed to France, but was
restored to Duke Philibert Emmanuel, who later built a strong citadel,
which afterwards withstood a six months' siege by the soldiers of Henry
IV. The town was finally ceded to France in 1601. In 1814 the
inhabitants, in spite of the defenceless condition of their town,
offered resistance to the Austrians, who put the place to pillage.

BOURGEOIS, LÉON VICTOR AUGUSTE (1851-   ), French statesman, was born at
Paris on the 21st of May 1851, and was educated for the law. After
holding a subordinate office (1876) in the department of public works, he
became successively prefect of the Tarn (1882) and the Haute-Garonne
(1885), and then returned to Paris to enter the ministry of the interior.
He became prefect of police in November 1887, at the critical moment of
President Grévy's resignation. In the following year he entered the
chamber, being elected deputy for the Marne, in opposition to General
Boulanger, and joined the radical left. He was under-secretary for home
affairs in the Floquet ministry of 1888, and resigned with it in 1889,
being then returned to the chamber for Reims. In the Tirard ministry,
which succeeded, he was minister of the interior, and subsequently, on
the 18th of March 1890, minister of public instruction in the cabinet of
M. de Freycinet, a post for which he had qualified himself by the
attention he had given to educational matters. In this capacity he was
responsible in 1890 for some important reforms in secondary education. He
retained his office in M. Loubet's cabinet in 1892, and was minister of
justice under M. Ribot at the end of that year, when the Panama scandals
were making the office one of peculiar difficulty. He energetically
pressed the Panama prosecution, so much so that he was accused of having
put wrongful pressure on the wife of one of the defendants in order to
procure evidence. To meet the charge he resigned in March 1893, but again
took office, and only retired with the rest of the Freycinet ministry. In
November 1895 he himself formed a cabinet of a pronouncedly radical type,
the main interest of which was attached to its fall, as the result of a
constitutional crisis arising from the persistent refusal of the senate
to vote supply. The Bourgeois ministry appeared to consider that popular
opinion would enable them to override what they claimed to be an
unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house; but the public
was indifferent and the senate triumphed. The blow was undoubtedly
damaging to M. Bourgeois's career as an _homme de gouvernement_. As
minister of public instruction in the Brisson cabinet of 1898 he
organized courses for adults in primary education. After this short
ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague
peace congress, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court
of arbitration. He held somewhat aloof from the political struggles of
the Waldeck-Rousseau and Combes ministries, travelling considerably in
foreign countries. In 1902 and 1903 he was elected president of the
chamber. In 1905 he replaced the due d'Audiffret-Pasquier as senator for
the department of Marne, and in May 1906 became minister of foreign
affairs in the Sarrien cabinet. He was responsible for the direction of
French diplomacy in the conference at Algeciras.

BOURGEOIS, a French word, properly meaning a freeman of a _bourg_ or
borough in France; later the term came to have the wider significance of
the whole class lying between the _ouvriers_ or workmen and the
nobility, and is now used generally of the trading middle-class of any
country. In printing, the word (pronounced burjoice') is used of a type
coming in size between longprimer and brevier; the derivation is
supposed to be from the name of a French printer, otherwise unknown.

BOURGES, a city of central France, chief town of the department of Cher,
144 m. S. of Paris on the Orléans railway between Vierzon and Nevers.
Pop. (1906) town, 34,581; commune, 44,133. Bourges is built amidst flat
and marshy country on an eminence limited on three sides by the waters
of the Canal Of Berry, the Yèvre, the Auron, and other smaller streams
with which they unite at this point. The older part of the town with its
narrow streets and old houses forms a centre, to the south and east of
which lie important engineering suburbs. Flourishing nurseries and
market-gardens are situated in the marshy ground to the north and
north-east. Bourges preserves portions of the Roman ramparts of the 4th
century, which are for the most part built into the houses of the old
quarter. They measure considerably less in circumference than the
fortifications of the 13th century, remains of which in the shape of
ruined walls and towers are still to be seen. The summit of the rise on
which the city is built is crowned by the cathedral of St Étienne, one
of the most important in France. Begun at the end of the 12th century,
it was not completed till the 16th century, to which period belong the
northernmost of the two unfinished towers flanking the façade and two of
its five elaborately sculptured portals. The interior, which has double
aisles, the inner aisles of remarkable height, and no transepts,
contains, among many other works of art, magnificent stained glass of
the 13th century. Beneath the choir there is a crypt of Romanesque
construction, where traces of the Roman fosses are to be found; the two
lateral portals are also survivals of a Romanesque church. The Jardin de
l'Archevêché, a pleasant terrace-garden, adjoins the choir of the
cathedral. Bourges has many fine old houses. The hôtel Lallemant and the
hôtel Cujas (now occupied by the museum) are of the Renaissance period.
The hôtel de Jacques Coeur, named after the treasurer of Charles VII.
and now used as the law-court, is of still greater interest, though it
has been doubted whether Jacques Coeur himself inhabited it. The mansion
is in the Renaissance style, but two towers of the Roman fortifications
were utilized in the construction of the south-western façade (see
HOUSE, Plate II. figs. 7 and 8). Its wings surround a courtyard into
which three staircase turrets project; one of these leads to a chapel,
the ceiling of which is decorated by fine frescoes.

Bourges is the seat of an archbishopric, a court of appeal, a court of
assizes and a prefect; and is the headquarters of the VIII. army corps.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of
trade-arbitrators, and a chamber of commerce, and a branch of the Bank
of France. Its educational institutions include an ecclesiastical
seminary, a lycée for boys, and a college for girls, training colleges,
and a school of industrial art. The industrial activity of Bourges
depends primarily on its gunpowder and ammunition factories, its
cannon-foundry and gun-carriage works. These all belong to the
government, and, together with huge magazines, a school of pyrotechnics,
and an artillery school, lie in the east of the town. The suburb of
Mazières has large iron and engineering works, and there are
manufactories of anvils, edge-tools, biscuits, woollen goods, oil-cloth,
boots and shoes, fertilizers, brick and tile works, breweries,
distilleries, tanneries, saw-mills and dye-works. The town has a port on
the canal of Berry, and does a considerable trade in grain, wine,
vegetables, hemp and fruit.

Bourges occupies the site of the Gallic town of _Avaricum_, capital of
the Bituriges, mentioned by Caesar as one of the most important of all
Gaul. In 52 B.C., during the war with Vercingetorix, it was completely
destroyed by the Roman conqueror, but under Augustus it rose again into
importance, and was made the capital of Aquitania Prima. About A.D. 250
it became the seat of a bishop, the first occupant of the see being
Ursinus. Captured by the Visigoths about 475, it continued in their
possession till about 507. In the middle ages it was the capital of
Berry. During the English occupation of France in the 15th century it
became the residence of Charles VII., who thus acquired the popular
title of "king of Bourges." In 1463 a university was founded in the city
by Louis XI., which continued for centuries to be one of the most famous
in France, especially in the department of jurisprudence. On many
occasions Bourges was the seat of ecclesiastical councils--the most
important being the council of 1438, in which the Pragmatic Sanction of
the Gallican church was established, and that of 1528, in which the
Lutheran doctrines were condemned.

BOURGET, PAUL CHARLES JOSEPH (1852-   ), French novelist and critic, was
born at Amiens on the 2nd of September 1852. His father, a professor of
mathematics, was afterwards appointed to a post in the college at
Clermont-Ferrand. Here Bourget received his early education. He
afterwards studied at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and at the École des
Hautes Études. In 1872-1873 he produced a volume of verse, _Au bord de
la mer_, which was followed by others, the last, _Les Aveux_, appearing
in 1882. Meanwhile he was making a name in literary journalism, and in
1883 he published _Essais de psychologic contemporaine_, studies of
eminent writers first printed in the _Nouvelle Revue_, and now brought
together. In 1884 Bourget paid a long visit to England, and there wrote
his first published story (_L'Irréparable_). _Cruelle Énigme_ followed
in 1885; and _André Cornelis_ (1886) and _Mensonges_ (1887) were
received with much favour. _Le Disciple_ (1889) showed the novelist in a
graver attitude; while in 1891 _Sensations d'Italie_, notes of a tour in
that country, revealed a fresh phase of his powers. In the same year
appeared the novel _Coeur de femme_, and _Nouveaux Pastels_, types of
the characters of men, the sequel to a similar gallery of female types
(_Pastels_, 1890). His later novels include _La Terre promise_ (1892);
_Cosmopolis_ (1892), a psychological novel, with Rome as a background;
_Une Idylle tragique_ (1896); _La Duchesse bleue_ (1897); _Le Fantôme_
(1901); _Les Deux Soeurs_ (1905); and some volumes of shorter
stories--_Complications sentimentales_ (1896), the powerful _Drames de
famille_ (1898), _Un Homme fort_ (1900), _L'Étape_ (1902), a study of
the inability of a family raised too rapidly from the peasant class to
adapt itself to new conditions. This powerful study of contemporary
manners was followed by _Un Divorce_ (1904), a defence of the Roman
Catholic position that divorce is a violation of natural laws, any
breach of which inevitably entails disaster. _Études et portraits_,
first published in 1888, contains impressions of Bourget's stay in
England and Ireland, especially reminiscences of the months which he
spent at Oxford; and _Outre-Mer_ (1895), a book in two volumes, is his
critical journal of a visit to the United States in 1893. He was
admitted to the Academy in 1894, and in 1895 was promoted to be an
officer of the Legion of Honour, having received the decoration of the
order ten years before.

As a writer of verse Bourget was merely trying his wings, and his poems,
which were collected in two volumes(1885-1887), are chiefly interesting
for the light which they throw upon his mature method and the later
products of his art. It was in criticism that his genius first found its
true bent. The habit of close scientific analysis which he derived from
his father, the sense of style produced by a fine ear and moulded by a
classical education, the innate appreciation of art in all its forms,
the taste for seeing men and cities, the keen interest in the oldest not
less than the newest civilizations, and the large tolerance not to be
learned on the _boulevard_--all these combined to provide him with a
most uncommon equipment for the critic's task. It is not surprising that
the _Sensations d'ltalie_ (1891), and the various psychological studies,
are in their different ways scarcely surpassed throughout the whole
range of literature. Bourget's reputation as a novelist has long been
assured. Deeply impressed by the singular art of Henry Beyle (Stendhal),
he struck out on a new course at a moment when the realist school
reigned without challenge in French fiction. His idealism, moreover, had
a character of its own. It was constructed on a scientific basis, and
aimed at an exactness, different from, yet comparable to, that of the
writers who were depicting with an astonishing faithfulness the
environment and the actions of a person or a society. With Bourget
observation was mainly directed to the secret springs of human
character. At first his purpose seemed to be purely artistic, but when
_Le Disciple_ appeared, in 1889, the preface to that remarkable story
revealed in him an unsuspected fund of moral enthusiasm. Since then he
has varied between his earlier and his later manner, but his work in
general has been more seriously conceived. From first to last he has
painted with a most delicate brush the intricate emotions of women,
whether wronged, erring or actually vicious; and he has described not
less happily the ideas, the passions and the failures of those young men
of France to whom he makes special appeal.

Bourget has been charged with pessimism, and with undue delineation of
one social class. The first charge can hardly be sustained. The lights
in his books are usually low; there is a certain lack of gaiety, and the
characters move in a world of disenchantment. But there is no despair in
his own outlook upon human destiny as a whole. As regards the other
indictment, the early stories sometimes dwell to excess on the mere
framework of opulence; but the pathology of moral irresolution, of
complicated affairs of the heart, of the ironies of friendship, in which
the writer revels, can be more appropriately studied in a cultured and
leisured society than amid the simpler surroundings of humbler men and
women. The style of all Bourget's writings is singularly graceful. His
knowledge of the literature of other lands gives it a greater
flexibility and a finer allusiveness than most of his contemporaries can
achieve. The precision by which it is not less distinguished, though
responsible for a certain over-refinement, and for some dull pages of
the novels, is an almost unmixed merit in the critical essays. As a
critic, indeed, either of art or letters, Bourget leaves little to be
desired. If he is not in the very first rank of novelists, if his books
display more ease of finished craftsmanship than joy in spontaneous
creation, it must be remembered that the supreme writers of fiction have
rarely succeeded as he has in a different field.

  See also C. Lecigne, _L'Évolution morale et religieuse de M. Paul
  Bourget_ (1903); Sargeret, _Les Grands Convertis_ (1906). His _Oeuvres
  complètes_ began to appear in a uniform edition in 1899.

BOURIGNON, ANTOINETTE (1616-1680), Flemish mystic, was born at Lille on
the 13th of January 1616. From an early age she was under the influence
of religion, which took in course of time a mystical turn. Undertaking
the work of a reformer, she visited France, Holland, England and
Scotland. Her religious enthusiasm, peculiarity of views and disregard
of all sects raised both zealous persecutors and warm adherents. On her
death at Franeker, Friesland, on the 30th of October 1680, she left a
large number of followers, who, however, dwindled rapidly away; but in
the early 18th century her influence revived in Scotland sufficiently to
call forth several denunciations of her doctrines in the various
Presbyterian general assemblies of 1701, 1709 and 1710. So far as
appears from her writings and contemporary records, she was a visionary
of the ordinary type, distinguished only by the audacity and persistency
of her pretensions.

  Her writings, containing an account of her life and of her visions and
  opinions, were collected by her disciple, Pierre Poiret (19 vols.,
  Amsterdam, 1679-1686), who also published her life (2 vols., 1679).
  For a critical account see Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (Leipzig, 1897),
  and Étude sur Antoinette Bourignon_, by M. E. S. (Paris, 1876). Three
  of her works at least have been translated into English:--_An
  Abridgment of the Light of the World_ (London, 1786); _A Treatise of
  Solid Virtue_ (1699); _The Restoration of the Gospel Spirit (1707)

BOURKE, a town of Cowper county, New South Wales, Australia, 503 m. by
rail N.W. from Sydney. Pop. (1901) 2614. It is situated on the south
bank, and at the head of the ordinary winter navigation, of the Darling
river. Very rich copper ore exists in the district in great abundance.
Bourke is the centre of a large sheep-farming area, and the annual
agricultural show is one of the best in the colony. On the west side of
the Darling, 3 m. distant, is the small town of North Bourke, and at
Pera, 10 m. distant, is an important irrigation settlement.

of France, entered the _Gardes Françaises_ of the royal army shortly
before the Revolution, emigrated in 1789, and served with Condé and the
army of the _émigrés_ in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793, subsequently
serving as chief of staff to Scépeaux, the royalist leader, in the civil
war in lower Anjou (1794-1796). Bourmont, excepted from the amnesty of
April 1796, fled into Switzerland, but soon afterwards, having been made
by Louis XVIII. a _maréchal de camp_ and a knight of St Louis, he headed
a fresh insurrection, which after some preliminary successes collapsed
(1799-1800). He then made his submission to the First Consul, married,
and lived in Paris; but his thinly veiled royalism caused his arrest a
few months later, and he remained a prisoner for more than three years,
finally escaping to Portugal in 1804. Three years later the French army
under General Junot invaded Portugal, and Bourmont offered his services
to Junot, who made him chief of staff of a division. He returned to
France with Junot after the convention of Cintra, and was promptly
re-arrested. He was soon released, however, on Junot's demand, and was
commissioned as an officer in the imperial army. He served in Italy for
a time, then went on the staff of the viceroy Eugène (Beauharnais), whom
he accompanied in the Moscow campaign. He was taken prisoner in the
retreat, but escaped after a time and rejoined the French army. His
conspicuous courage at the battle of Lützen in 1813 led Napoleon to
promote him general of brigade, and in 1814 his splendid defence of
Nogent (February 13) earned him the rank of general of division. At the
first Restoration Bourmont was naturally employed by the Bourbons, to
whose service he had devoted his life, but he rejoined Napoleon on his
return from Elba. On the eve of the campaign of 1815, and at the urgent
request of Count Gérard, he was given a divisional command in the army
of the north. On the first day of the Waterloo campaign Bourmont went
over to the enemy. It is not probable that he gave information of French
movements to the allies, but the best that can be said in exculpation of
his treachery is that his old friends and comrades, the royalists of
Anjou, were again in insurrection, and that he felt that he must lead
them. He made no attempt to defend his conduct, and acted as the accuser
of Marshal Ney. A year later he was given command of a division of the
royal guard; and in 1823 he held an important position in the army
which, under the command of the duc d'Angoulême, invaded Spain. He
commanded the whole army in Spain for a time in 1824, became minister of
war in 1829, and in 1830 was placed in command of the Algiers
expedition. The landing of the French and the capture of Algiers were
directed by him with complete success, and he was rewarded with the
_bâton_ of marshal. But the revolution of 1830 put an end to his
command, and, refusing to take the oath to Louis Philippe, he was forced
to resign. In 1832 Marshal Bourmont took part in the rising of the
duchesse de Berri, and on its failure retired to Portugal. Here, as
always, on the side of absolutism, he commanded the army of Dom Miguel
during the civil war of 1833-1834, and after the victory of the
constitutional party he retired to Rome. At the amnesty of 1840 he
returned to France. He died at the château of Bourmont on the 27th of
October 1846.

  Charles de Bourmont, a son of the marshal, wrote several pamphlets in
  vindication of his father's career.

BOURNE, VINCENT (1695-1747), English classical scholar, familiarly known
as "Vinny" Bourne, was born at Westminster in 1695. In 1710 he became a
scholar at Westminster school, and in 1714 entered Trinity College,
Cambridge. He graduated in 1717, and obtained a fellowship three years
later. Of his afterlife exceedingly little is known. It is certain that
he passed the greater portion of it as usher in Westminster school. He
died on; the 2nd of December 1747. During his lifetime he published
three editions of his Latin poems, and in 1772 there appeared a very
handsome quarto volume containing all Bourne's pieces, but also some
that did not belong to him. The Latin poems are remarkable not only for
perfect mastery of all linguistic niceties, but for graceful expression
and genuine poetic feeling. A number of them are translations of English
poems, and it is not too much to say that the Latin versions almost
invariably surpass the originals. Cowper, an old pupil of Bourne's,
Beattie and Lamb have combined in praise of his wonderful power of Latin

  See an edition (1840) of his _Poemata_, with a memoir by John Mitford.

BOURNE, or BOURN, a market town in the S. Kesteven or Stamford
parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England; lying in a fenny
district 95 m. N. by W. from London. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4361.
The Stamford-Sleaford branch of the Great Northern railway here crosses
the Saxby-Lynn joint line of the Great Northern and Midland companies.
The church of St Peter and St Paul is Norman and Early English with
later insertions; it is part of a monastic church belonging to a
foundation of Augustinian canons of 1138, of which the other buildings
have almost wholly disappeared. Trade is principally agricultural.
Bourne is famous through its connexion with the ardent opponent of
William the Conqueror, Hereward the Wake. Of his castle very slight
traces remain. Bourne was also the birthplace of the Elizabethan
statesman Cecil, Lord Burghley. The Red Hall, which now forms part of
the railway station buildings, belonged to the family of Digby, of whom
Sir Everard Digby was executed in 1606 for his connexion with the
Gunpowder Plot.

BOURNE (southern form of burn, Teutonic _born, brun, burna_), an
intermittent stream frequent in chalk and limestone country where the
rock becomes saturated with winter rain, that slowly drains away until
the rock becomes dry, when the stream ceases. A heavy rainfall will
cause streams to run in winter from the saturated soil. These are the
winter bournes that have given name to several settlements upon
Salisbury Plain, such as Winterbourne Gunning. The "bourne" may also be
a permanent "burn," but the word is usually applied to an intermittent
stream. (2) (From the Fr. _borne_), a boundary; the first use of the
word in English is in Lord Ferrers' translation of Forrest, 1523; the
figurative meaning of limit, end or final destination comes from
Shakespeare's Hamlet, "the undiscovered country, from whose bourne no
traveller returns."

BOURNEMOUTH, a municipal and county borough and watering-place of
Hampshire, England, in the parliamentary borough of Christchurch, 107½
m. S.W. by W. from London by the London & South-Western railway. Pop.
(1901) 59,762. It is beautifully situated on Poole Bay. Considerable
sandstone cliffs rise from the sandy beach, and are scored with deep
picturesque dells or chines. The town itself lies in and about the
valley of the Bourne stream. Its sheltered situation and desirable
winter climate began to attract notice about 1840; in 1855 a national
sanatorium for consumptive patients was erected by subscription; a pier
was opened in 1861, and in 1870 railway communication was afforded. The
climate is remarkably equable, being relatively warm in winter and cool
in summer; the average temperature in July is 61.7° F., and in January
40.3°. The town contains numerous handsome buildings, including
municipal buildings, churches, various places of entertainment,
sanatoria and hospitals, a public library and a science and art school.
Its suburbs have greatly extended along the sea front, and the beautiful
chines of Boscombe, Alum and Branksome have attracted a large number of
wealthy residents. There are piers at the town itself and at Boscombe,
and the bathing is excellent. The parks, gardens and drives are
extensive and pleasant. A service of electric tramways is maintained,
notable as being the first system installed in England with a
combination of the trolley and conduit principles of supplying current.
There are golf links in Meyrick and Queen's parks, both laid out by the
corporation, which has in other ways studied the entertainment of
visitors. The two railway stations are the Central and West, and through
communications with the north are maintained by the Somerset & Dorset
and Midland, and the Great Western and Great Central railways. The town,
which is of wholly modern and remarkably rapid growth (for in the middle
of the 19th century the population was less than 1000), was incorporated
in 1890, and became a county borough in 1900. The corporation consists
of a mayor, 11 aldermen and 33 councillors. Area, 5769 acres.

BOURNONITE, a mineral species, a sulphantimonite of lead and copper with
the formula PbCuSbS3. It is of some interest on account of the twinning
and the beautiful development of its crystals. It was first mentioned by
Philip Rashleigh in 1797 as "an ore of antimony," and was more
completely described by the comte de Bournon in 1804, after whom it was
named: the name given by Bournon himself (in 1813) was endellione, since
used in the form endellionite, after the locality in Cornwall where the
mineral was first found. The crystals are orthorhombic, and are
generally tabular in habit owing to the predominance of the basal
pinacoid (c); numerous smooth bright faces are often developed on the
edges and corners of the crystals. An un-twinned crystal is represented
in fig. 1. Usually, however, the crystals are twinned, the twin-plane
being a face of the prism (m); the angle between the faces of this prism
being nearly a right angle (86° 20'), the twinning gives rise to
cruciform groups (fig. 2), and when it is often repeated the group has
the appearance of a cog-wheel, hence the name _Rädelerz_ (wheel-ore) of
the Kapnik miners. The repeated twinning gives rise to twin-lamellae,
which may be detected on the fractured surfaces, even of the massive
material. The mineral is opaque, and has a brilliant metallic lustre
with a lead-grey colour. The hardness is 2½, and the specific gravity

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Crystal of Bournonite.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Twinned Crystal of Bournonite.]

At the original locality, Wheal Boys in the parish of Endellion in
Cornwall, it was found associated with jamesonite, blende and chalybite.
Later, still better crystals were found in another Cornish mine, namely,
Herodsfoot mine near Liskeard, which was worked for argentiferous
galena. Fine crystals of large size have been found with quartz and
chalybite in the mines at Neudorf in the Harz, and with blende and
tetrahedrite at Kapnik-Bánya near Nagy-Bánya in Hungary. A few other
localities are known for this mineral.     (L. J. S.)

BOURRÉE, a French name for a dance common in Auvergne and in Biscay in
Spain; also a term for a musical composition or a dance-movement in a
suite, somewhat akin to the gavotte, in quick time with two beats to the

BOURRIENNE, LOUIS ANTOINE FAUVELET DE (1769-1834), French diplomatist,
was born at Sens on the 9th of July 1769. He was educated at the
military school of Brienne in Champagne along with Napoleon Bonaparte;
and although the solitary habits of the latter made intimacy difficult,
the two youths seem to have been on friendly terms. It must, however, be
added that the stories of their very close friendship, as told in
Bourrienne's memoirs, are open to suspicion. Leaving Brienne in 1787,
and conceiving a distaste for the army, Bourrienne proceeded to Vienna.
He was pursuing legal and diplomatic studies there and afterwards at
Leipzig, when the French Revolution broke out and went through its first
phases. Not until the spring of 1792 did Bourrienne return to France; at
Paris he renewed his acquaintance with Bonaparte. They led a Bohemian
life together, and among other incidents of that exciting time, they
witnessed the mobbing of the royal family in the Tuileries (June 20) and
the overthrow of the Swiss Guards at the same spot (August 10).
Bourrienne next obtained a diplomatic appointment at Stuttgart, and soon
his name was placed on the list of political _émigrés_, from which it
was not removed until November 1797. Nevertheless, after the affair of
13th Vendémiaire (October 5, 1795) he returned to Paris and renewed his
acquaintance with Bonaparte, who was then second in command of the Army
of the Interior and soon received the command of the Army of Italy.
Bourrienne did not proceed with him into Italy, but was called thither
by the victorious general at the time of the long negotiations with
Austria (May-October 1797), when his knowledge of law and diplomacy was
of some service in the drafting of the terms of the treaty of Campo
Formio (October 17). In the following year he accompanied Bonaparte to
Egypt as his private secretary, and left a vivid, if not very
trustworthy, account of the expedition in his memoirs. He also
accompanied him on the adventurous return voyage to Fréjus
(September-October 1799), and was of some help in the affairs which led
up to the _coup d'état_ of Brumaire (November) 1799. He remained by the
side of the First Consul in his former capacity, but in the autumn of
1802 incurred his displeasure owing to his very questionable financial
dealings. In the spring of 1805 he was sent as French envoy to the free
city of Hamburg. There it was his duty to carry out the measures of
commercial war against England, known as the Continental System; but it
is known that he not only viewed those tyrannical measures with disgust,
but secretly relaxed them in favour of those merchants who plied him
with _douceurs_. In the early spring of 1807, when directed by Napoleon
to order a large number of military cloaks for the army, then in East
Prussia, he found that the only means of procuring them expeditiously
was to order them from England. After gaining a large fortune while at
Hamburg, he was recalled to France in disgrace at the close of 1810. In
1814 he embraced the royal cause, and during the Hundred Days (1815)
accompanied Louis XVIII. to Ghent. The rest of his life was uneventful;
he died at Caen on the 7th of February 1834, after suffering from a
mental malady for two years.

  The fame of Bourrienne rests, not upon his achievements or his
  original works, which are insignificant, but upon his _Mémoires_,
  edited by C.M. de Villemarest (10 vols., Paris, 1829-1831), which
  have been frequently republished and translated. The best English
  edition is that edited by Colonel R.W. Phipps (4 vols., London,
  1893); a new French edition has been edited by D. Lacroix (5 vols.,
  Paris, 1899-1900). See _Bourrienne et ses erreurs, volontaires et
  involontaires_ (Paris, 1830), by Generals Belliard, Gourgaud, &c., for
  a discussion of the genuineness of his Memoirs; also _Napoléon et ses
  détracteurs_, by Prince Napoleon (Paris, 1887; Eng. trans., London,
  1888).     (J. Hl. R.)

BOURRIT, MARC THÉODORE (1739-1819), Swiss traveller and writer, came of
a family which was of French origin but had taken refuge at Geneva for
reasons connected with religion. His father was a watchmaker there, and
he himself was educated in his native city. He was a good artist and
etcher, and also a pastor, so that by reason of his fine voice and love
of music he was made (1768) precentor of the church of St Peter (the
former cathedral) at Geneva. This post enabled him to devote himself to
the exploration of the Alps, for which he had conceived a great passion
ever since an ascent (1761) of the Voirons, near Geneva. In 1775 he made
the first ascent of the Buet (10,201 ft.) by the now usual route from
the Pierre à Bérard, on which the great flat rock known as the _Table au
Chantre_ still preserves his memory. In 1784-1785 he was the first
traveller to attempt the ascent of Mont Blanc (not conquered till 1786),
but neither then nor later (1788) did he succeed in reaching its summit.
On the other hand he reopened (1787) the route over the Col du Géant
(11,060 ft.), which had fallen into oblivion, and travelled also among
the mountains of the Valais, of the Bernese Oberland, &c. He received a
pension from Louis XVI., and was named the _historiographe des Alpes_ by
the emperor Joseph II., who visited him at Geneva. His last visit to
Chamonix was in 1812. His writings are composed in a naïve, sentimental
and rather pompous style, but breathe throughout a most passionate love
for the Alps, as wonders of nature, and not as objects of scientific
study. His chief works are the _Description des glacières de Savoye_,
1773 (English translation, Norwich, 1775-1776), the _Description des
Alpes pennines et rhétiennes_ (2 vols., 1781) (reprinted in 1783 under
the title of _Nouvelle Description des vallées de glace_, and in 1785,
with additions, in 3 vols., under the name of _Nouvelle Description des
glacières_), and the _Descriptions des cols ou passages des Alpes_, (2
vols., 1803), while his _Itinéraire de Genève, Lausanne et Chamouni_,
first published in 1791, went through several editions in his lifetime.
    (W. A. B. C.)

BOURSAULT, EDME (1638-1701), French dramatist and miscellaneous writer,
was born at Mussy l'Évêque, now Mussy-sur-Seine (Aube), in October 1638.
On his first arrival in Paris in 1651 his language was limited to a
Burgundian patois, but within a year he produced his first comedy, _Le
Mort vivant_. This and some other pieces of small merit secured for him
distinguished patronage in the society ridiculed by Molière in the
_École des femmes_. Boursault was persuaded that the "Lysidas" of that
play was a caricature of himself, and attacked Molière in _Le Portrait
du peintre ou la contre-critique de l'École des femmes_ (1663). Molière
retaliated in _L'Impromptu de Versailles_, and Boileau attacked
Boursault in Satires 7 and 9. Boursault replied to Boileau in his
_Satire des satires_ (1669), but was afterwards reconciled with him,
when Boileau on his side erased his name from his satires. Boursault
obtained a considerable pension as editor of a rhyming gazette, which
was, however, suppressed for ridiculing a Capuchin friar, and the editor
was only saved from the Bastille by the interposition of Condé. In 1671
he produced a work of edification in _Ad usum Delphini: la véritable
étude des souverains_, which so pleased the court that its author was
about to be made assistant tutor to the dauphin when it was found that
he was ignorant of Greek and Latin, and the post was given to Pierre
Huet. Perhaps in compensation Boursault was made collector of taxes at
Mont-luçon about 1672, an appointment that he retained until 1688. Among
his best-known plays are _Le Mercure galant_, the title of which was
changed to _La Comédie sans titre_ (1683); _La Princesse de Clèves_
(1676), an unsuccessful play which, when refurbished with fresh names by
its author, succeeded as _Germanicus; Ésope à la ville_ (1690); and
_Ésope à la cour_ (1701). His lack of dramatic instinct could hardly be
better indicated than by the scheme of his _Ésope_, which allows the
fabulist to come on the stage in each scene and recite a fable.
Boursault died in Paris on the 15th of September 1701.

  The _Oeuvres choisies_ of Boursault were published in 1811, and a
  sketch of him is to be found in M. Saint-René Taillandier's _Études
  littéraires_ (1881).

BOURSE (from the Med. Lat. _bursa_, a purse), the French equivalent of
the Stock Exchange, and so used of the Paris Exchange, or of any foreign
money-market. The English form "burse," as in Sir Thomas Gresham's
building, which was known as "Britain's Burse," went out of use in the
18th century. The origin of the name is doubtful; it is not derived from
any connexion between purse and money, but rather from the use of a
purse as a sign. At Bruges a house belonging to the family de Bursa is
said to have been first used as an Exchange, and to have had three
purses as a sign on the front.

BOURSSE, ESAIAS (1630-1673), Dutch painter, was born in Amsterdam. He
was a follower of Pieter de Hooch, in whose manner he worked for many
years in his native town; then he took service with the Dutch East India
Company, and died on a sea voyage. His paintings are exceedingly rare,
perhaps because, in spite of their greater freedom and breadth, many of
them pass under the names of Vermeer of Delft and Pieter de Hooch. Two
of the paintings ascribed to the latter (one bears the false signature)
at the Ryks museum in Amsterdam, are now recognized as being the work of
Boursse. His subjects are interiors with figures, painted with great
precision and with exquisite quality of colour. The Wallace collection
has his masterpiece, an interior with a woman and a child in a cradle,
almost as brilliant as on the day it was painted, and reflecting
something of the feeling of Rembrandt, by whom he was influenced. Other
important examples are at the Ryks museum and at Aix-la-Chapelle.
Boursse's "Boy blowing Soap Bubbles," in the Berlin museum, was until
lately attributed to Vermeer of Delft. More than one picture bearing the
false signature of Boursse have been publicly shown of late years.

chemist, was born in Paris on the 2nd of February 1802. After studying
at the school of mines at Saint-Étienne he went, when little more than
twenty years old, to South America as a mining engineer on behalf of an
English company. During the insurrection of the Spanish colonies he was
attached to the staff of General Bolivar, and travelled widely in the
northern parts of the continent. Returning to France he became professor
of chemistry at Lyons, and in 1839 was appointed to the chair of
agricultural and analytical chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et
Métiers in Paris. In 1848 he was elected to the National Assembly, where
he sat as a Moderate republican. Three years later he was dismissed from
his professorship on account of his political opinions, but so much
resentment at this action was shown by scientific men in general, and
especially by his colleagues, who threatened to resign in a body, that
he was reinstated. He died in Paris on the 11th of May 1887. His first
papers were concerned with mining topics, and his sojourn in South
America yielded a number of miscellaneous memoirs, on the cause of
goitre in the Cordilleras, the gasses of volcanoes, earthquakes,
tropical rain, &c., which won the commendation of A. von Humboldt. From
1836 he devoted himself mainly to agricultural chemistry and animal and
vegetable physiology, with occasional excursions into mineral chemistry.
His work included papers on the quantity of nitrogen in different foods,
the amount of gluten in different wheats, investigations on the question
whether plants can assimilate free nitrogen from the atmosphere (which
he answered in the negative), the respiration of plants, the function of
their leaves, the action and value of manures, and other similar
subjects. Through his wife he had a share in an estate at Bechebronn in
Alsace, where he carried out many agricultural experiments. He
collaborated with J.B.A. Dumas in writing an _Essai de statique
chimique des ètres organisés_ (1841), and was the author of _Traité
d'économic rurale_ (1844), which was remodelled as _Agronomie, chimie
agricole, et physiologie_ (5 vols., 1860-1874; 2nd ed., 1884), and of
_Études sur la transformation du fer en acier_ (1875).

BOUTERWEK, FRIEDRICH (1766-1828), German philosopher and critic, was
born at Oker, near Goslar in Lower Saxony, and studied law at Göttingen.
From 1790, however, he became a disciple of Kant, published _Aphorismen
nach Kants Lehre vorgelegt_ (1793), and became professor of philosophy
at Göttingen (1802), where he died on the 9th of August 1828. As a
philosopher, he is interesting for his criticism of the theory of the
"thing-in-itself" (_Ding-an-sich_). For the pure reason, as described in
the _Kritik_, the "thing-in-itself" can be only an inconceivable
"something-in-general"; any statement about it involves the predication
of Reality, Unity and Plurality, which belong not to the absolute thing
but to phenomena. On the other hand, the subject is known by the fact of
will, and the object by that of resistance; the cognizance of willing is
the assertion of absolute reality in the domain of relative knowledge.
This doctrine has since been described as absolute Virtualism. Following
this train of thought, Bouterwek left the Kantian position through his
opposition to its formalism. In later life he inclined to the views of
F.H. Jacobi, whose letters to him (published at Göttingen, 1868) shed
much light on the development of his thought. His chief philosophical
works are _Ideen zu einer allgemeinen Apodiktik_ (Göttingen and Halle,
1799); _Aesthetik_ (Leipzig, 1806; Göttingen, 1815 and 1824); _Lehrbuch
der philos. Vorkenntnisse_ (Göttingen, 1810 and 1820); _Lehrbuch der
philos. Wissenschaften_ (Göttingen, 1813 and 1820). In these works he
dissociated himself from the Kantian school. His chief critical work was
the _Geschichte der neuern Poesie und Beredsamkeit_ (Göttingen, 12
vols., 1801-1819), of which the history of Spanish literature has been
published separately in French, Spanish and English. The _Geschichte_ is
a work of wide learning and generally sound criticism, but it is not of
equal merit throughout. He also wrote three novels, _Paulus Septimus_
(Halle, 1795), _Graf Donamar_ (Göttingen, 1791) and _Ramiro_ (Leipzig,
1804), and published a collection of poems (Göttingen, 1802).

statesman, began life as an advocate. In 1613 he was councillor in the
parlement of Paris, and in 1619 became councillor of state and a
secretary to the queen-mother, Marie de' Medici. The connexion of his
father, Denis Bouthillier (d. 1622), with Cardinal Richelieu secured for
him the title of secretary of state in 1628, and he was able to remain
on good terms with both Marie de' Medici and Richelieu, in spite of
their rivalry. In 1632 he became superintendent of finances. But his
great role was in diplomacy. Richelieu employed him on many diplomatic
missions, and the success of his foreign policy was due in no small
degree to Bouthillier's ability and devotion. In 1630 he had taken part
at Regensburg in arranging the abortive treaty between the emperor and
France. From 1633 to 1640 he was continually busied with secret missions
in Germany, sometimes alone, sometimes with Father Joseph. Following
Richelieu's instructions, he negotiated the alliances which brought
France into the Thirty Years' War. Meanwhile, at home, his tact and
amiable disposition, as well as his reputation for straightforwardness,
had secured for him a unique position of influence in a court torn by
jealousies and intrigues. Trusted by the king, the confidant of
Richelieu, the friend of Marie de' Medici, and through his son, Léon
Bouthillier, who was appointed in 1635 chancellor to Gaston d'Orléans,
able to bring his influence to bear on that prince, he was an invaluable
mediator; and the personal influence thus exercised, combined with the
fact that he was at the head of both the finances and the foreign policy
of France, made him, next to the cardinal, the most powerful man in the
kingdom. Richelieu made him executor of his will, and Louis XIII. named
him a member of the council of regency which he intended should govern
the kingdom after his death. But the king's last plans were not carried
out, and Bouthillier was obliged to retire into private life, giving up
his office of superintendent of finances in June 1643. He died in Paris
on the 13th of March 1652.

His son, LÉON BOUTHILLIER (1608-1652), comte de Chavigny, was early
associated with his father, who took him with him from 1629 to 1632 to
all the great courts of Europe, instructing him in diplomacy. In 1632 he
was named secretary of state and seconded his father's work, so that it
is not easy always to distinguish their respective parts. After the
death of Louis XIII. he had to give up his office; but was sent as
plenipotentiary to the negotiations at Munster. He showed himself
incapable, however, giving himself up to pleasure and fêtes, and
returned to France to intrigue against Mazarin. Arrested twice during
the Fronde, and then for a short time in power during Mazarin's exile
(April 1651), he busied himself with small intrigues which came to

BOUTS-RIMÉS, literally (from the French) "rhymed ends," the name given
in all literatures to a kind of verses of which no better definition can
be found than was made by Addison, in the Spectator, when he described
them as "lists of words that rhyme to one another, drawn up by another
hand, and given to a poet, who was to make a poem to the rhymes in the
same order that they were placed upon the list." The more odd and
perplexing the rhymes are, the more ingenuity is required to give a
semblance of common-sense to the production. For instance, the rhymes
_breeze, elephant, squeeze, pant, scant, please, hope, pope_ are
submitted, and the following stanza is the result:--

  Escaping from the Indian _breeze_,
  The vast, sententious _elephant_
  Through groves of sandal loves to _squeeze_
  And in their fragrant shade to _pant_;
  Although the shelter there be _scant_,
  The vivid odours soothe and _please_,
  And while he yields to dreams of _hope_,
  Adoring beasts surround their _Pope_.

The invention of bouts-rimés is attributed to a minor French poet of the
17th century, Dulot, of whom little else is remembered. According to the
_Menagiana_, about the year 1648, Dulot was complaining one day that he
had been robbed of a number of valuable papers, and, in particular, of
three hundred sonnets. Surprise being expressed at his having written so
many, Dulot explained that they were all "blank sonnets," that is to
say, that he had put down the rhymes and nothing else. The idea struck
every one as amusing, and what Dulot had done seriously was taken up as
a jest. Bouts-rimés became the fashion, and in 1654 no less a person
than Sarrasin composed a satire against them, entitled _La Défaite des
bouts-rimés_, which enjoyed a great success. Nevertheless, they
continued to be abundantly composed in France throughout the 17th
century and a great part of the 18th century. In 1701 Etienne Mallemans
(d. 1716) published a collection of serious sonnets, all written to
rhymes selected for him by the duchess of Maine. Neither Piron, nor
Marmontel, nor La Motte disdained this ingenious exercise, and early in
the 19th century the fashion was revived. The most curious incident,
however, in the history of bouts-rimés is the fact that the elder
Alexandre Dumas, in 1864, took them under his protection. He issued an
invitation to all the poets of France to display their skill by
composing to sets of rhymes selected for the purpose by the poet, Joseph
Méry (1798-1866). No fewer than 350 writers responded to the appeal, and
Dumas published the result, as a volume, in 1865.

W.M. Rossetti, in the memoir of his brother prefixed to D.G. Rossetti's
_Collected Works_ (1886), mentions that, especially in 1848 and 1849, he
and Dante Gabriel Rossetti constantly practised their pens in writing
sonnets to _bouts-rimés_, each giving the other the rhymes for a sonnet,
and Dante Gabriel writing off these exercises in verse-making at the
rate of a sonnet in five or eight minutes. Most of W.M. Rossetti's poems
in _The Germ_ were _bouts-rimés_ experiments. Many of Dante Gabriel's, a
little touched up, remained in his brother's possession, but were not
included in the _Collected Works_.     (E. G.)

BOUTWELL, GEORGE SEWALL (1818-1905), American statesman, was born in
Brookline, Massachusetts, on the 28th of January 1818. He was reared on
a farm, and at an early age began a mercantile career at Groton, Mass.
There he studied law and in 1836 was admitted to the bar, but did not
begin practice for many years. In 1842-1844 and again in 1847-1850 he
served in the state house of representatives, and became the recognized
leader on the Democratic side; he was thrice defeated for Congress, and
was twice an unsuccessful candidate for governor. In 1851, however, by
means of "Free-Soil" votes, he was chosen governor, and was re-elected
by the same coalition in 1852. In the following year he took an active
part in the state constitutional convention. He became a member of the
Massachusetts Board of Education in 1853, and as its secretary in
1855-1861 prepared valuable reports and rendered much service to the
state's school system. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 1854
had finally alienated him from the Democratic party, and he became one
of the founders of the new Republican party in the state. He played an
influential part in the Republican national convention in 1860, and in
1862 after the passage of the war tax measures he was appointed by
President Lincoln the first commissioner of internal revenue, which
department he organized. From 1863 to 1869 he was a representative in
Congress, taking an influential part in debate, and acting as one of the
managers of President Johnson's impeachment. From 1869 to 1873 he was
secretary of the treasury in President Grant's cabinet, and from 1873
until 1877 was a United States senator from Massachusetts. Under an
appointment by President Hayes, he prepared the second edition of the
_United States Revised Statutes_ (1878). In 1880 he represented the
United States before the commission appointed in accordance with the
treaty of that year, between France and the United States, to decide the
claims brought by French citizens against the United States for acts of
the American authorities during the Civil War, and the claims of
American citizens against France for acts of French authorities during
the war between France and Mexico, the Franco-German War and the
Commune. He opposed the acquisition by the United States of the
Philippine Islands, became president of the Anti-Imperialistic League,
and was a presidential elector on the Bryan (Democratic) ticket in 1900.
He died at Groton, Massachusetts, on the 28th of February 1905. He
published various volumes, including _The Constitution of the United
States at the End of the First Century_ (1895), and _Reminiscences of
Sixty Years in Public Affairs_ (2 vols., New York, 1902).

BOUVARDIA, a genus of handsome evergreen greenhouse shrubs, belonging to
the natural order Rubiaceae, and a native of tropical America. The
flowers are in terminal generally many-flowered clusters; the corolla
has a large tube and a spreading four-rayed limb. The cultivated forms
include a number of hybrids. The plants are best increased by cuttings
taken off in April, and placed in a brisk heat in a propagating frame
with a close atmosphere. When rooted they should be potted singly into
3-in. pots in fibrous peat and loam, mixed with one-fourth leaf-mould
and a good sprinkling of sand, and kept in a temperature of 70° by night
and 80° during the day; shade when required; syringe overhead in the
afternoon and close the house with sun-heat. The plants should be topped
to ensure a bushy habit, and as they grow must be shifted into 6-in. or
7-in. pots. After midsummer move to a cool pit, where they may remain
till the middle of September, receiving plenty of air and space. They
should then be removed to a house, and some of the plants put at once in
a temperature of about 70° at night, with a few degrees higher in the
daytime, to bring them into flower. Others are moved into heat to supply
flowers in succession through the winter and spring.

BOUVET, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH (1753-1832), French admiral, son of a captain in
the service of the French East India Company, was born on the 23rd of
April 1753. He went to sea at the age of twelve with his father. Bouvet
served in the East Indies in the famous campaign of 1781-83 under the
command of Suffren, but only in a subordinate rank. On the outbreak of
the French Revolution he very naturally took the anti-royalist side.
Murder and exile had removed the great majority of the officers of the
monarchy, and the services of a man of Bouvet's experience were
valuable. He was promoted captain and received the command of the
"Audacieux" (80) in the first great fleet collected by the republic. In
the same year (1793) he was advanced to rear-admiral, and he commanded a
division in the fleet which fought the battle of the 1st of June 1794
against Lord Howe. Until the close of 1796 he continued in command of a
squadron in the French Channel fleet. In the December of that year he
was entrusted with the van division of the fleet which was sent from
Brest to attempt to land General Hoche with an expeditionary force in
the south of Ireland. The stormy weather which scattered the French as
soon as they left Brest gave Bouvet a prominence which he had not been
designed to enjoy. Bouvet, who found himself at daybreak on the 17th of
December separated with nine sail of the line from the rest of the
fleet, opened his secret orders, and found that he was to make his way
to Mizen Head. He took a wide course to avoid meeting British cruisers,
and on the 19th had the good luck to fall in with a considerable part of
the rest of the fleet and some of the transports. On the 21st of
December he arrived off Dursey Island at the entry to Bantry Bay. On the
24th he anchored near Bear Island with part of his fleet. The continued
storms which blew down Bantry Bay, and the awkwardness of the French
crews, made it impossible to land the troops he had with him. On the
evening of the 25th the storm increased to such a pitch of violence that
the frigate in which Bouvet had hoisted his flag was blown out to sea.
The wind moderated by the 29th, but Bouvet, being convinced that none of
the ships of his squadron could have remained at the anchorage, steered
for Brest, where he arrived on the 1st of January 1797. His fortune had
been very much that of his colleagues in this storm-tossed expedition,
and on the whole he had shown more energy than most of them. He was
wrong, however, in thinking that all his squadron had failed to keep
their anchorage in Bantry Bay. The government, displeased by his
precipitate return to Brest, dismissed him from command soon afterwards.
He was compelled to open a school to support himself. Napoleon restored
him to the service, and he commanded the squadron sent to occupy
Guadaloupe during the peace of Amiens, but he had no further service,
and lived in obscurity till his death on the 21st of July 1832.

  Tronde, _Batailles navales de la France_, vols. ii. and iii., and
  James, _Naval History_, vols. i. and ii., give accounts of the 1st of
  June and the expedition to Ireland. There is a vigorous account of the
  expedition in Tronde's _English in Ireland_, and it is dealt with in
  Admiral Colomb's _Naval Warfare_.     (D. H.)

BOUVIER, JOHN (1787-1851), American jurist, was born in Codogno, France,
in 1787. In 1802 his family, who were Quakers (his mother was a member
of the well-known Benezet family), emigrated to America and settled in
Philadelphia, and after varied experiences as proprietor of a book shop
and as a country editor he was admitted to the bar in 1818, having
become a citizen of the United States in 1812. He attained high standing
in his profession, was recorder of Philadelphia in 1836, and from 1838
until his death was an associate justice of the court of criminal
sessions in that city. He is best known for his able legal writings. His
_Law Dictionary Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United
States of America and of the Several States of the American Union_
(1839, revised and brought up to date by Francis Rawle, under the title
of _Bouvier's Law Dictionary_, 2 vols., 1897) has always been a
standard. He published also an edition of _Bacon's Abridgement of the
Law_ (10 vols., 1842-1846), and a compendium of American law entitled
_The Institutes of American Law_ (4 vols., 1851; new ed. 2 vols., 1876).

BOUVINES, a village on the French-Belgian frontier between Lille and
Tournay, the scene of one of the greatest battles of the middle ages,
fought on the 27th of July 1214, between the forces of Philip Augustus,
king of France, and those of the coalition formed against him, of which
the principal members were the emperor and King John of England. The
plan of campaign seems to have been designed by King John, who was the
soul of the alliance; his general idea was to draw the French king to
the southward against himself, while the emperor Otto IV., the princes
of the Netherlands and the main army of the allies should at the right
moment march upon Paris from the north. John's part in the general
strategy was perfectly executed; the allies in the north moved slowly.
While John, after two inroads, turned back to his Guienne possessions on
the 3rd of July, it was not until three weeks later that the emperor
concentrated his forces at Valenciennes, and in the interval Philip
Augustus had countermarched northward and concentrated an army at
Péronne. Philip now took the offensive himself, and in manoeuvring to
get a good cavalry ground upon which to fight he offered battle (July
27), on the plain east of Bouvines and the river Marque--the same plain
on which in 1794 the brilliant cavalry action of Willems was fought. The
imperial army accepted the challenge and drew up facing south-westward
towards Bouvines, the heavy cavalry on the wings, the infantry in one
great mass in the centre, supported by the cavalry corps under the
emperor himself. The total force is estimated at 6500 heavy cavalry and
40,000 foot. The French army (about 7000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry)
took ground exactly opposite to the enemy and in a similar formation,
cavalry on the wings, infantry, including the _milice des communes_, in
the centre, Philip with the cavalry reserve and the Oriflamme in rear of
the foot. The battle opened with a confused cavalry fight on the French
right, in which individual feats of knightly gallantry were more
noticeable than any attempt at combined action. The fighting was more
serious between the two centres; the infantry of the Low Countries, who
were at this time almost the best in existence, drove in the French;
Philip led the cavalry reserve of nobles and knights to retrieve the
day, and after a long and doubtful fight, in which he himself was
unhorsed and narrowly escaped death, began to drive back the Flemings.
In the meanwhile the French feudatories on the left wing had thoroughly
defeated the imperialists opposed to them, and William Longsword, earl
of Salisbury, the leader of this corps, was unhorsed and taken prisoner
by the warlike bishop of Beauvais. Victory declared itself also on the
other wing, where the French at last routed the Flemish cavalry and
captured Count Ferdinand of Flanders, one of the leaders of the
coalition. In the centre the battle was now between the two mounted
reserves led respectively by the king and the emperor in person. Here
too the imperial forces suffered defeat, Otto himself being saved only
by the devotion of a handful of Saxon knights. The day was already
decided in favour of the French when their wings began to close inwards
to cut off the retreat of the imperial centre. The battle closed with
the celebrated stand of Reginald of Boulogne, a revolted vassal of King
Philip, who formed a ring of seven hundred Brabançon pikemen, and not
only defied every attack of the French cavalry, but himself made
repeated charges or sorties with his small force of knights. Eventually,
and long after the imperial army had begun its retreat, the gallant
schiltron was ridden down and annihilated by a charge of three thousand
men-at-arms. Reginald was taken prisoner in the _mêlée_; and the
prisoners also included two other counts, Ferdinand and William
Longsword, twenty-five barons and over a hundred knights. The killed
amounted to about 170 knights of the defeated party, and many thousands
of foot on either side, of whom no accurate account can be given.

  See Oman, _History of the Art of War_, vii. pp. 457-480; also Köhler,
  _Kriegsgeschichte, &c_., i. 140, and Delpech, _Tactique au XIII
  siècle_, 127.

BOVEY BEDS, in geology, a deposit of sands, clays and lignite, 200-300
ft. thick, which lies in a basin extending from Bovey Tracey to Newton
Abbot in Devonshire, England. The deposit is evidently the result of the
degradation of the neighbouring Dartmoor granite; and it was no doubt
laid down in a lake. O. Heer, who examined the numerous plant remains
from these beds, concluded that they belonged to the same geological
horizon as the Molasse or Oligocene of Switzerland. Starkie Gardiner,
however, who subsequently examined the flora, showed that it bore a
close resemblance to that of the Bournemouth Beds or Lower Bagshot; in
this view he is supported by C. Reid. Large excavations have been made
for the extraction of the clays, which are very valuable for pottery
and similar purposes. The lignite or "Bovey Coal" has at times been
burned in the local kilns, and in the engines and workmen's cottages,
but it is not economical.

  See S. Gardiner, _Q. J. G. S._ London, xxxv., 1879; W. Pengelly and O.
  Heer, _Phil. Trans._, 1862; C. Reid, _Q. J. G. S._ lii., 1896, p. 490,
  and _loc. cit._ liv., 1898, p. 234. An interesting general account is
  given by A.W. Clayden, _The History of Devonshire Scenery_ (London,
  1906), pp. 159-168.

BOVIANUM, the name of two ancient Italian towns, (1) UNDECIMANORUM
[_Boiano_], the chief city of the Pentri Samnites, 9 m. N.W. of Saepinum
and 18 m. S.E. of Aesernia, on the important road from Beneventum to
Corfinium, which connected the Via Appia and the Via Valeria. The
original city occupied the height (Civita) above the modern town, where
remains of Cyclopean walls still exist, while the Roman town (probably
founded after the Social War, in which Bovianum was the seat of the
Samnite assembly) lay in the plain. It acquired the name _Undecimanorum_
when Vespasian settled the veterans of the Legio XI. Claudia there. Its
remains have been covered by over 30 ft. of earth washed down from the
mountains. Comparatively few inscriptions have been discovered. (2)
VETUS (near Pietrabbondante, 5 m. S. of Agnone and 19 m. N.W. of
Campobasso), according to Th. Mommsen (_Corpus Inscrip. Lat._ ix.
Berlin, 1883, p. 257) the chief town of the Caraceni. It lay in a remote
situation among the mountains, and where Bovianum is mentioned the
reference is generally to Bovianum Undecimanorum. Remains of
fortifications and lower down of a temple and a theatre (cf. _Römische
Mitteilungen_, 1903, 154)--the latter remarkable for the fine
preservation of the stone seats of the three lowest rows of the
auditorium--are to be seen. No less than eight Oscan inscriptions have
been found. (T. As.)

BOVIDAE, the name of the family of hollow-horned ruminant mammals
typified by the common ox (_Bos taurus_), and specially characterized by
the presence on the skulls of the males or of both sexes of a pair of
bony projections, or cores, covered in life with hollow sheaths of horn,
which are never branched, and at all events after a very early stage of
existence are permanently retained. From this, which is alone sufficient
for diagnostic purposes, the group is often called the Cavicornia. For
other characteristics see PECORA. The _Bovidae_ comprise a great number
of genera and species, and include the oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes and
certain other kinds which come under neither of these designations. In
stature they range from the size of a hare to that of a rhinoceros; and
their horns vary in size and shape from the small and simple spikes of
the oribi and duiker antlers to the enormous and variously shaped
structures borne respectively by buffaloes, wild sheep and kudu and
other large antelopes. In geographical distribution the _Bovidae_
present a remarkable contrast to the deer tribe, or _Cervidae_. Both of
these families are distributed over the whole of the northern
hemisphere, but whereas the Cervidae are absent from Africa south of the
Sahara and well represented in South America, the Bovidae are unknown in
the latter area, but are extraordinarily abundant in Africa. Neither
group is represented in Australasia; Celebes being the eastern limit of
the _Bovidae_. The present family doubtless originated in the northern
half of the Old World, whence it effected an entrance by way of the
Bering Strait route into North America, where it has always been but
poorly represented in the matter of genera and species.

The _Bovidae_ are divided into a number of sections, or subfamilies,
each of which is briefly noticed in the present article, while fuller
mention of some of the more important representatives of these is made
in other articles.

The first section is that of the _Bovinae_, which includes buffaloes,
bison and oxen. The majority of these are large and heavily-built
ruminants, with horns present in both sexes, the muzzle broad, moist and
naked, the nostrils lateral, no face-glands, and a large dewlap often
developed in the males; while the tail is long and generally tufted,
although in one instance longhaired throughout. The horns are of nearly
equal size in both sexes, are placed on or near the vertex of the skull,
and may be either rounded or angulated, while their direction is more or
less outwards, with an upward direction near the tips, and conspicuous
knobs or ridges are never developed on their surface. The tall upper
molars have inner columns. The group is represented throughout the Old
World as far east as Celebes, and has one living North American
representative. All the species may be included in the genus _Bos_, with
several subgeneric divisions (see ANOA, AUROCHS, BANTIN, BISON, BUFFALO,

The second group, or _Caprinae_, includes the sheep and goats, which are
smaller animals than most of the _Bovidae_, generally with horns in both
sexes, but those of the females small. In the males the horns are
usually compressed and triangular, with transverse ridges or knobs, and
either curving backwards or spiral. The muzzle is narrow and hairy; and
when face-glands are present these are small and insignificant; while
the tail is short and flattened. Unlike the _Bovinae_, there are
frequently glands in the feet; and the upper molar teeth differ from
those of that group in their narrower crowns, which lack a distinct
inner column. When a face-pit is present in the skull it is small. The
genera are _Ovis_ (sheep), _Capra_ (goats) and _Hemitragus_ (tahr).
Sheep and goats are very nearly related, but the former never have a
beard on the chin of the males, which are devoid of a strong odour; and
their horns are typically of a different type. There are, however,
several more or less transitional forms. Tahr are short-horned goats.
The group is unknown in America, and in Africa is only represented in
the mountains of the north, extending, however, some distance south into
the Sudan and Abyssinia. All the species are mountain-dwellers. (See

The musk-ox (_Ovibos moschatus_) alone represents the family
_Ovibovinae_, which is probably most nearly related to the next group
(see MUSK-OX).

Next come the _Rupicaprinae_, which include several genera of
mountain-dwelling ruminants, typified by the European chamois
(_Rupicapra_); the other genera being the Asiatic serow, goral and
takin, and the North American Rocky Mountain goat. These ruminants are
best described as goat-like antelopes. (See ANTELOPE, CHAMOIS, GORAL,

Under the indefinable term "antelope" (q.v.) may be included the seven
remaining sections, namely _Tragelaphinae_ (kudu and eland),
_Hippotraginae_ (sable antelope and oryx), _Antilopinae_ (black-buck,
gazelles, &c.), _Cervicaprinae_ (reedbuck and waterbuck), _Neotraginae_
(klipspringer and steinbok), _Cephalophinae_ (duikers and four-horned
antelopes) and _Bubalinae_ (hartebeests and gnus).     (R. L.*)

BOVILL, SIR WILLIAM (1814-1873), English judge, a younger son of
Benjamin Bovill, of Wimbledon, was born at All-hallows, Barking, on the
26th of May 1814. On leaving school he was articled to a firm of
solicitors, but entering the Middle Temple he practised for a short time
as a special pleader below the bar. He was called in 1841 and joined the
home circuit. His special training in a solicitor's office, and its
resulting connexion, combined with a thorough knowledge of the details
of engineering, acquired through his interest in a manufacturing firm in
the east end of London, soon brought him a very extensive patent and
commercial practice. He became Q.C. in 1855, and in 1857 was elected
M.P. for Guildford. In the House of Commons he was very zealous for
legal reform, and the Partnership Law Amendment Act 1865, which he
helped to pass, is always referred to as Bovill's Act. In 1866 he was
appointed solicitor-general, an office which he vacated on becoming
chief justice of the common pleas in succession to Sir W. Erie in
November of the same year. He died at Kingston, Surrey, on the 1st of
November 1873. As a barrister he was unsurpassed for his remarkable
knowledge of commercial law; and when promoted to the bench his
painstaking labour and unswerving uprightness, as well as his great
patience and courtesy, gained for him the respect and affection of the

BOVILLAE, an ancient town of Latium, a station on the Via Appia (which
in 293 B.C. was already paved up to this point), 11 m. S.E. of Rome. It
was a colony of Alba Longa, and appears as one of the thirty cities of
the Latin league; after the destruction of Alba Longa the _sacra_ were,
it was held, transferred to Bovillae, including the cult of Vesta (in
inscriptions _virgines Vestales Albanae_ are mentioned, and the
inhabitants of Bovillae are always spoken of as _Albani Longani
Bovillenses_) and that of the _gens Iulia_. The existence of this
hereditary worship led to an increase in its importance when the Julian
house rose to the highest power in the state. The knights met Augustus's
dead body at Bovillae on its way to Rome, and in A.D. 16 the shrine of
the family worship was dedicated anew,[1] and yearly games in the circus
instituted, probably under the charge of the _sodales Augustales_, whose
official calendar has been found here. In history Bovillae appears as
the scene of the quarrel between Milo and Clodius, in which the latter,
whose villa lay above the town on the left of the Via Appia, was killed.
The site is not naturally strong, and remains of early fortifications
cannot be traced. It may be that Bovillae took the place of Alba Longa
as a local centre after the destruction of the latter by Rome, which
would explain the deliberate choice of a strategically weak position.
Remains of buildings of the imperial period--the circus, a small
theatre, and edifices probably connected with the post-station--may
still be seen on the south-west edge of the Via Appia.

  See L. Canina, _Via Appia_ (Rome, 1853), i. 202 seq.; T. Ashby in
  _Mélanges de l'école française de Rome_ (1903), p. 395.     (T. As.)


  [1] It is not likely that any remains of it now exist.

BOW (pronounced "bõ"), a common Teutonic word for anything bent[1] (O.
Eng. _boezha_; cf. O. Sax. and O.H.G. _bogo_, M.H.G. _boge_, Mod. Ger.
_bogen_; from O. Teut. stem _bug_- of _beugan_, Mod. Ger. _biegen_, to
bend). Thus it is found in English compound words, e.g. "elbow,"
"rainbow," "bow-net," "bow-window," "bow-knot," "saddle-bow," and by
itself as the designation of a great variety of objects. The Old English
use of "bow," or stone-bow, for "arch," now obsolete, survives in
certain names of churches and places, e.g. Bow church (St
Mary-in-Arcubus) in Cheapside, and Stratford-le-Bow (the
"Stratford-atte-Bowe" of Chaucer). "Bow," however, is still the
designation of objects so various as an appliance for shooting arrows
(see ARCHERY), a necktie in the form of a bow-knot (i.e. a double-looped
knot), a ring or hoop forming a handle (e.g. the bow of a watch),
certain instruments or tools consisting of a bent piece of wood with the
ends drawn together by a string, used for drilling, turning, &c., in
various crafts, and the stick strung with horsehair by means of which
the strings of instruments of the violin family are set in vibration. It
is with this last that the present article is solely concerned.

_Bow in Music_.--The modern bow (Fr. _archet_; Ger. _Bogen_; Ital.
_arco_) consists of five parts, i.e. the "stick," the screw or
"ferrule," the "nut," the "hair" and the "head." The stick, in
high-grade bows, is made of Pernambuco wood (_Caesalpinia
brasiliensis_), which alone combines the requisite lightness, elasticity
and power of resistance; for the cheaper bows American oak is used, and
for the double-bass bow beech. A billet rich in colouring matter and
straight in the grain is selected, and the stick is usually cut from a
templet so as to obtain the accurate taper, which begins about 4¼ in.
from the nut, decreasing according to regular proportions from 3/8 in.
at the screw to 3/16 at the back of the head. The stick is cut
absolutely straight and parallel along its whole length with the fibre
of the wood; it is then bent by heat until it is slightly convex to the
hair and has assumed the elegant _cambrure_ first given to it by
François Tourte (1747-1835). This process requires the greatest care,
for if the fibres be not heated right through, they offer a continual
resistance to the curve, and return after a time to the rigid straight
line, a defect often observed in cheap bows. The sticks are now of
either cylindrical or octagonal section, and are lapped or covered with
gold thread or leather for some inches beyond the nut in order to afford
a firm grip. The length of the stick was definitely and finally fixed by
François Tourte at 29.34 to 29.528 in.

  The centre of gravity in a well-balanced violin bow should be at 19
  cm. (7½ to 7¾ in.) from the nut;[2] in the violoncello bow the hair
  measures from 60 to 62 cm. (24 to 25 in.), and the centre of gravity
  is at from 175 to 180 mm. (7 to 7¼ in.) from the nut. In consequence
  of the flexure given to the stick, Tourte found it necessary to
  readjust the proportions and relative height of head and nut, in order
  to keep the hair at a satisfactory distance from the stick, and at the
  necessary angle in attacking the strings so as to avoid contact
  between stick and strings in bowing. In order to counterbalance the
  consequent increased weight of the head and to keep the centre of
  gravity nearer the hand, Tourte loaded the nut with metal inlays or
  ornamental designs.

  The screw or ferrule, at the cylindrical end of the stick held by the
  hand, provides the means of tightening or loosening the tension of the
  hair. This screw, about 3¼ in. long, hidden within the stick, runs
  through the eye of another little screw at right angles to it, which
  is firmly embedded in the nut.

  The nut is a wooden block at the screw end of the stick, the original
  purpose of which was to keep the hair at a proper distance from the
  stick and to provide a secure attachment for the hair. The whole nut
  slides up and down the stick in a groove in answer to the screw, thus
  tightening or relaxing the tension of the hair. In the nut is a little
  cavity or chamber, into which the knotted end of the hair is firmly
  fixed by means of a little wedge, the hair being then brought out and
  flattened over the front of the nut like a ribbon by the pressure of a
  flat ferrule. The mother-of-pearl slide which runs along a mortised
  groove further protects the hair on the outside of the nut. Bows
  having these attachments of ferrule and slide, added by Tourte at the
  instigation of the violinist Giovanni Battista Viotti, were known as
  _archets à recouvrements_.

  The hair is chosen from the best white horsehair, and each of the 150
  to 200 hairs which compose the half-inch wide ribbon of the bow must
  be perfectly cylindrical and smooth. It is bought by the pound, and
  must be very carefully sorted, for not more than one hair in ten is
  perfectly cylindrical and fit for use on a high-grade bow. Experience
  determines the right number of hairs, for if the ribbon be too thick
  it hinders the vibration of the strings; if too thin the friction is
  not strong enough to produce a good tone. Fétis gives 175 to 250 as
  the number used in the modern bow,[3] and Julius Rühlmann 110 to
  120.[4] Tourte attached the greatest importance to the hairing of the
  bow, and bestowed quite as much attention upon it as upon the stick.
  He subjected the hair to the following process of cleansing: first it
  was thoroughly scoured with soap and water to remove all grease, then
  steeped in bran-water, freed from all heterogeneous matter still
  adhering to it, and finally rinsed in pure water slightly blued. When
  passed between the fingers in the direction from root to tip, the hair
  glides smoothly and offers no resistance, but passed in the opposite
  direction it feels rough, suggesting a regular succession of minute
  projections. The outer epithelium or sheath of the hair is composed of
  minute scales which produce a succession of infinitesimal shocks when
  the hair is drawn across the strings; the force and uniformity of
  these shocks, which produce series of vibrations of equal persistency,
  is considerably heightened by the application of rosin to the hair.
  The particles of rosin cling to the scales of the epithelium, thus
  accentuating the projections and the energy of the attack or "bite"
  upon the strings. With use, the scales of the epithelium wear off, and
  then no matter how much rosin is applied, the bow fails to elicit
  musical sounds--it is then "played out" and must be re-haired. The
  organic construction of horsehair makes it necessary, in hairing the
  bow, to lay the hairs in opposite directions, so that the up and down
  strokes may be equal and a pure and even tone obtained. Waxed silk is
  wound round both ends of the hair to form a strong knot, which is
  afterwards covered with melted rosin and hardens with the hair into a
  solid mass.

  The head, 1 in. long and 7/16 in. wide at the plate, is cut in one
  piece with the stick, an operation which requires delicate
  workmanship; otherwise the head is liable to snap at this point during
  a _sforzando_ passage. The head has a chamber and wedge contrivance
  similar to that of the nut, in which the other end of the hair is
  immovably fixed. The hair on the face of the head is protected by a
  metal or ivory plate.

  The model bow here described, elaborated by François Tourte as long
  ago as between 1775 and 1780 according to Fétis,[5] or between 1785
  and 1790 according to Vidal,[6] has not since been surpassed.

That the violin and the bow form one inseparable whole becomes evident
when we consider the history of the forerunners of the viol family:
without the bow the ancestor of the violin would have remained a guitar;
the bow would not have reached its present state of perfection had it
been required only for instruments of the _rebec_ and _vielle_ type. As
soon as the possibilities of the violin were realized, as a solo
instrument capable, through the agency of the bow, of expressing the
emotions of the performer, the perfecting of the bow was prosecuted in
earnest until it was capable of responding to every shade of delicate
thought and feeling. This accounts in a measure for the protracted
development of the bow, which, although used long before the violin had
been evolved, did not reach a state of perfection at the hands of Tourte
until more than a century and a half after the Cremona master had given
us the violin.

The question of the origin of the bow still remains a matter of
conjecture. Its appearance in western Europe seems to have coincided
with the conquest of Spain by the Moors in the 8th century, and the
consequent impetus their superior culture gave to arts and sciences in
the south-west of Europe. We have, however, no well-authenticated
representation of the bow before the 9th century in Europe; the earliest
is the bow illustrated along with the Lyra Teutonica by Martin
Gerbert[7], the representation being taken from a MS. at the monastery
of St Blaise, dating in his opinion from the 9th century. On the other
hand, Byzantine art of the 9th and 11th centuries[8] reveals
acquaintance with a bow far in advance of most of the crude contemporary
specimens of western Europe. The bow undoubtedly came from the East, and
was obviously borrowed by the Greeks of Asia Minor and the Arabs from a
common source--probably India, by way of Persia. The earliest
representation of a bow yet discovered is to be found among the fine
frescoes in one of the chapels of the monastery of Bawit[9] in Egypt.
The mural paintings in question were the work of many artists, covering
a considerable period of time. The only non-religious subject depicted
is a picture of a youthful Orpheus, assigned by Jean Clédat to some date
not later than the 8th century A.D., but more probably the work of a
6th-century artist. Orpheus is holding an instrument, which appears to
be a rebab, against his chin, in the act of bowing and stopping the
strings. The bow is similar in shape to one shown in the Psalter of
Labeo Notker, Leipzig, 10th century, mentioned farther on. On Indian
sculptures of the first centuries of our era, such as the Buddhist
_stupas_ of Amaravati, the risers of the topes of Jamal-Garhi, in the
Yusafzai district of Afghanistan (both in the British Museum), on which
stringed instruments abound, there is no bow. The bow has remained a
primitive instrument in India to this day; a Hindu tradition assigns its
invention to Ravanon, a king of Ceylon, and the instrument for which it
was invented was called _ravanastron_; a primitive instrument of that
name is still in use in Hindustan[10]. F.J. Fétis[11], Antoine
Vidal[12], Edward Heron-Allen[13], and others have given the question
some consideration, and readers who wish to pursue the matter farther
are referred to their works.

There is thus no absolute proof of the existence of the bow in primitive
times. The earliest bow known in Europe was associated with the rebab
(q.v.), the most widely used bowed instrument until the 12th century.
The development of this instrument can be traced with some degree of
certainty, but it is quite impossible to decide at what date or in what
place the use of the bow was introduced. The bow developed very slowly
in Europe and remained a crude instrument as long as it was applied to
the rebab and its hybrids. Its progress became marked only from the time
when it was applied to the almost perfect guitar (q.v.), which then
became the guitar fiddle (q.v.), the immediate forerunner of the viols.

[Illustration: Drawn from the ivory cover of the _Lothair Psalter_, by
permission of Sir Thomas Brooke.

FIG. 1.--Earliest Bow of the Crémaillère Type (c. 11th century).]

The first improvement on the primitive arched bow was to provide some
sort of handle in a straight line with the hair or string of the bow,
such as is shown in the MS. translation of the Psalms by Labeo Notker,
late 10th century, in the University library, Leipzig.[14] The length of
the handle was often greatly exaggerated, perhaps by the fancy of the
artist. Another handle (see Bodleian Library MS., N.E.D. 2, 12th
century) was in the form of a hilt with a knob, possibly a screw-nut, in
which the arched stick and the hair were both fixed. The first
development of importance influencing the technique of stringed
instruments was the attempt to find some device for controlling the
tension of the hair. The contrivance known as _crémaillère_, which was
the first step in this direction, seems to have been foreshadowed in the
bows drawn in a quaint MS. of the 14th century in the British Museum
(Sloane 3983, fol. 43 and 13) on astronomy. Forming an obtuse angle with
the handle of the bow is a contrivance shaped like a spear-head which
presumably served some useful purpose; if it had notches (which would be
too small to show in the drawing), and the hair of the bow was finished
with a loop, then we have here an early example of a device for
controlling the tension. Another bow in the same MS. has two round knobs
on the stick which may be assumed to have served the same purpose.

[Illustriation: Drawn from bows the property of William E. Hill & Sons.

FIG. 2.--A, B, Tartini Bows; C, Tourte Bow.]

A very early example of the _crémaillère_ bow (fig. 1) occurs on a
carved ivory plate ornamenting the binding of the fine Carolingian MS.
Psalter of Lothair (A.D. 825), for some time known as the Ellis and
White Psalter, but now in the library of Sir Thomas Brooke at Armitage
Bridge House. The carved figure of King David, assigned from its
characteristic pose and the treatment of the drapery to the 11th
century, holds a stringed instrument, a rotta of peculiar shape, which
occurs twice in other Carolingian MSS.[15] of the 9th century, but
copied here without understanding, as though it were a lyre with many
strings. The artist has added a bow with _crémaillère_ attachment,
which is startling if the carving be accurately placed in the 11th
century. The earliest representation of a _crémaillère_ bow, with this
exception, dates from the 15th century, according to Viollet-le-Duc, who
merely states that it was copied from a painting.[16] Fétis (op. cit. p.
117) figures a _crémaillère_ bow which he styles "Bassani, 1680."
Sebastian Virdung draws a bow for a _tromba marina_, with the hair and
stick bound together with waxed cord. The hair appears to be kept more
or less tense by means of a wedge of wood or other material forced in
between stick and hair, the latter bulging slightly at this point like
the string of an archery bow when the arrow is in position; this
contrivance may be due to the fancy of the artist.

The invention of a movable nut propelled by a screw is ascribed to the
elder Tourte (fig. 2); had we not this information on the best authority
(Vuillaume and Fétis), it might be imagined that some of the bows
figured by Mersenne,[17] e.g. the bass viol bow KL (p. 184), and another
KLM (p. 192), had a movable nut and screw; the nut is clearly drawn
astride the stick as in the modern bow. Mersenne explains (p. 178) the
construction of the bow, which consists of three parts: the _bois,
bâton_ or _brin_, the _soye_, and the _demi-roüe_ or _hausse_. The term
"half-wheel" clearly indicates that the base of the nut was cut round so
as to fit round the stick. In the absence of any allusion to such
ingenious mechanism as that of screw and nut, we must infer that the
drawing is misleading and that the very decided button was only meant
for an ornamental finish to the stick. We are informed further that _la
soye_ was in reality hairs from the horse or some other animal, of which
from 80 to 100 were used for each bow. The up-stroke of the bow was used
on the weak beats, 2, 4, 6, 8, and the down-stroke on the strong beats,
1, 3, 5, 7 (p. 185). The same practice prevailed in England in 1667,
when Christopher Simpson wrote the _Division Viol_. He gives information
concerning the construction of the bow in these words: "the viol-bow for
division should be stiff but not heavy. The length (betwixt the two
places where the hairs are fastened at each end) about seven-and-twenty
inches. The nut should be short, the height of it about a finger's
breadth or a little more" (p. 2).

As soon as Corelli (1653-1713) formulated the principles of the
technique of the violin, marked modifications in the construction of the
bow became noticeable. Tartini, who began during the second decade of
the 18th century to gauge the capabilities of the bow, introduced
further improvements, such as a lighter wood for the stick, a straight
contour, and a shorter head, in order to give better equilibrium. The
Tourtes, father and son, accomplished the rest.

  After Francois Tourte, the following makers are the most esteemed:
  J.B. Vuillaume, who was directly inspired by Tourte and rendered an
  inestimable service to violinists by working out on a scientific basis
  the empirical taper of the Tourte stick, which was found in all his
  bows to conform to strict ratio;[18] Dominique Peccate, apprenticed to
  J.B. Vuillaume; Henry, 1812-1870, who signs his name and "Paris" on
  the stick near the nut; Jacques Lefleur, 1760-1832; François Lupot,
  1774-1837, the first to line the angular cutting of the nut, where it
  slides along the stick, with a plate of metal; Simon, born 1808, who
  also signs his bows on the stick near the nut; John Dodd of Richmond,
  the greatest English bow-maker, who was especially renowned for his
  violoncello bows, though his violin bows had the defect of being
  rather short.

  The violoncello bow is a little shorter than those used for violin and
  viola, and the head and nut are deeper.

  The principal models of double-bass bows in vogue at the beginning of
  the 19th century were the _Dragonetti_, maintaining the arch of the
  medieval bows, and the _Bottesini_, shaped and held like the violin
  bow; the former was held over-hand with the hair inclining towards the
  bridge, and was adopted by the Paris Conservatoire under Habeneck
  about 1830; the great artist himself sent over the model from London.
  Illustrations of both bows are given by Vidal (_op. cit._ pl. xviii.).

  Messrs W.E. Hill & Sons probably possess the finest and most
  representative collection of bows in the world.     (K. S.)


  [1] "Bow," the forepart or head of a ship, must be distinguished from
    this word. It is the same word, and pronounced in the same way, as
    "bough," an arm or limb of a tree, and represents a common Teutonic
    word, seen in O. Eng. _bog_, Ger. _Bug_, shoulder, and is cognate
    with Gr. [Greek: paechus], forearm. The sense of "shoulder" of a ship
    is not found in O. Eng. _bog_. but was probably borrowed from Dutch
    or Danish. "Bow," an inclination of the head or body, though
    pronounced as "bough," is of the same origin as "bow," to bend.

  [2] See F.J. Fétis, _Antoine Stradivari_, pp. 120-121 (Paris, 1856).

  [3] Fétis, _op. cit._ p. 123.

  [4] J. Rühlmann, _Die Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente_ (Brunswick,
    1882), p. 143.

  [5] Fétis, _op. cit._ p. 119.

  [6] Antoine Vidal, _Les Instruments à archet_ (Paris, 1876-1878),
    tome i. p. 269

  [7] _De Cantu et Musica Sacra_ (1774), tome ii. pl. xxxii. No. 18;
    the MS. has since perished by fire.

  [8] See, for an illustration of the bowed instrument on one of the
    sides of a Byzantine ivory casket, 9th century, in the Carrand
    Collection, Florence, A. Venturi, _Gallerie Nazionali Italiane_, iii.
    (Rome, 1897), plate, p. 263; and _Add. MS. 19,352, British Museum_,
    Greek Psalter, dated 1066.

  [9] See Jean Clédat, "Le Monastère et la nécropole de Baouît," in
    _Mém. de l'Inst. franç. d'archéol. orient. du Caire_, vol. xii.
    (1904), chap. xviii. pl. lxiv. (2); also Fernand Cabrol, _Dict.
    d'archéol. chrétienne, s.v._ "Baouît."

  [10] For an illustration, see Sonnerat, _Voyage aux Indes orientales_
    (Paris, 1806), vol. i. p. 182.

  [11] _Op. cit._ pp. 4-10.

  [12] _Op. cit._ vol. i. p. 3 and pl. ii.

  [13] Edward Heron-Allen, _Violin-making as it was and is_ (London,
    1884), pp. 37-42, figs. 5-10.

  [14] MS. 774, fol. 30. For an illustration of it see Hyacinth Abele,
    _Die Violine, ihre Geschichte und ihr Bau_ (Neuburg-a-D., 1874), pl.
    5, No. 7.

  [15] See CROWD for fig. from the Bible of Charles le Chauve; and also
    King David in the Bible of St Paul _extra muros_, Rome (photographic
    facsimile by J.O. Westwood, Oxford, 1876).

  [16] See _Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français_ (Paris, 1871),
    vol. ii. part iv. pp. 265 D. and 266 note.

  [17] Marin Mersenne, _L'Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636-1637), pp.
    184 and 192.

  [18] Vuillaume's diagram and explanation are reproduced by Fétis, op.
    cit. pp. 125-128.

BOWDICH, THOMAS EDWARD (1790-1824), English traveller and author, was
born at Bristol in 1790. In 1814, through his uncle, J. Hope-Smith,
governor of the British Gold Coast Settlements, he obtained a writership
in the service of the African Company of Merchants and was sent to Cape
Coast. In 1817 he was sent, with two companions, to Kumasi on a mission
to the king of Ashanti, and chiefly through his skilful diplomacy the
mission succeeded in its object of securing British control over the
coast natives (see ASHANTI: _History_). In 1818 Bowdich returned to
England, and in 1819 published an account of his mission and of the
study he had made of the barbaric court of Kumasi, entitled _Mission
from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c._ (London, 1819). His African
collections he presented to the British Museum. Bowdich publicly
attacked the management of the African committee, and his strictures
were instrumental in leading the British government to assume direct
control over the Gold Coast. From 1820 to 1822 Bowdich lived in Paris,
studying mathematics and the natural sciences, and was on intimate terms
with Cuvier, Humboldt and other savants. During his stay in France he
edited several works on Africa, and also wrote scientific works. In
1822, accompanied by his wife, he went to Lisbon, where, from a study of
historic MSS., he published _An Account of the Discoveries of the
Portuguese in ... Angola and Mozambique_ (London, 1824). In 1823 Bowdich
and his wife, after some months spent in Madeira and Cape Verde Islands,
arrived at Bathurst at the mouth of the Gambia, intending to go to
Sierra Leone and thence explore the interior. But at Bathurst Bowdich
died on the 10th of January 1824. His widow published an account of his
last journey, entitled _Excursions in Madeira and Porto Santo ... to
which is added.... A Narrative of the Continuance of the Voyage to its
Completion, &c._ (London, 1825). Bowdich's daughter, Mrs Hutchinson
Hale, republished in 1873, with an introductory preface, her father's
_Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee_.

BOWDITCH, NATHANIEL (1773-1838), American mathematician, was born at
Salem, Massachusetts. He was bred to his father's business as a cooper,
and afterwards apprenticed to a ship-chandler. His taste for mathematics
early developed itself; and he acquired Latin that he might study
Newton's _Principia_. As clerk (1795) and then as supercargo (1796,
1798, 1799) he made four long voyages; and, being an excellent
navigator, he afterwards (1802) commanded a vessel, instructing his
crews in lunar and other observations. He edited two editions of
Hamilton Moore's _Navigation_, and in 1802 published a valuable work,
_New American Practical Navigator_, founded on the earlier treatise by
Moore. In 1804 he became president of a Salem insurance company. In the
midst of his active career he undertook a translation of the _Mécanique
céleste_ of P.S. Laplace, with valuable annotations (vol. i., 1829). He
was offered, but declined, the professorship of mathematics and
astronomy at Harvard. Subsequently he became president of the Mechanics'
Institute in Boston, and also of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. He died at Boston on the 16th of March 1838.

  A life of Bowditch was written by his son Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch
  (1805-1861), and was prefixed to the fourth volume (1839) of the
  translation of Laplace. In 1865 this was elaborated into a separate
  biography by another son, Henry Ingersoll Bowditch (1808-1892), a
  famous Boston physician.

BOWDLER, THOMAS (1754-1825), editor of the "family" Shakespeare, younger
son of Thomas Bowdler, a gentleman of independent fortune, was born at
Ashley, near Bath, on the 11th of July 1754. He studied medicine at the
universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh, graduating M.D. in 1776. After
four years spent in foreign travel, he settled in London, where he
became intimate with Mrs Montague and other learned ladies. In 1800 he
left London to live in the Isle of Wight, and later on he removed to
South Wales. He was an energetic philanthropist, and carried on John
Howard's work in the prisons and penitentiaries. In 1818 he published
_The Family Shakespeare_ "in ten volumes, in which nothing is added to
the original text; but those words and expressions are omitted which
cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family." Criticisms of this
edition appeared in the _British Critic_ of April 1822. Bowdler also
expurgated Edward Gibbon's _History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire_ (published posthumously, 1826); and he issued a selection from
the Old Testament for the use of children. He died at Rhyddings, near
Swansea, on the 24th of February 1825.

From Bowdler's name we have the word to "bowdlerize," first known to
occur in General Perronet Thompson's _Letters of a Representative to his
Constituents during the Session of 1836_, printed in Thompson's
_Exercises_, iv. 126. The official interpretation is "to expurgate (a
book or writing) by omitting or modifying words or passages considered
indelicate or offensive." Both the word and its derivatives, however,
are associated with false squeamishness. In the ridicule poured on the
name of Bowdler it is worth noting that Swinburne in "Social Verse"
(_Studies in Prose and Poetry_, 1894, p. 98) said of him that "no man
ever did better service to Shakespeare than the man who made it possible
to put him into the hands of intelligent and imaginative children," and
stigmatized the talk about his expurgations as "nauseous and foolish

BOWDOIN, JAMES (1726-1790), American political leader, was born of
French Huguenot descent, in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 7th of August
1726. He graduated at Harvard in 1745, and was a member of the lower
house of the general court of Massachusetts in 1753-1756, and from 1757
to 1774 of the Massachusetts council, in which, according to Governor
Thomas Hutchinson, he "was without a rival," and, on the approach of the
War of Independence, was "the principal supporter of the opposition to
the government." From August 1775 until the summer of 1777 he was the
president of the council, which had then become to a greater extent than
formerly an executive as well as a legislative body. In 1779-1780 he was
president of the constitutional convention of Massachusetts, also
serving as chairman of the committee by which the draft of the
constitution was prepared. Immediately afterward he was a member of a
commission appointed "to revise the laws in force in the state; to
select, abridge, alter and digest them, so as to be accommodated to the
present government." From 1785 to 1787 he was governor of Massachusetts,
suppressing with much vigour Shays' Rebellion, and failing to be
re-elected largely because it was believed that he would punish the
insurrectionists with more severity than would his competitor, John
Hancock. Bowdoin was a member of the state convention which in February
1788 ratified for Massachusetts the Federal Constitution, his son being
also a member. He died in Boston on the 6th of November 1790. He took
much interest in natural philosophy, and presented various papers before
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which he was one of the
founders and, from 1780 to 1790, the first president. Bowdoin College
was named in his honour.

His son, JAMES BOWDOIN (1752-1811), was born in Boston on the 22nd of
September 1752, graduated at Harvard in 1771, and served, at various
times, as a representative, senator and councillor of the state. From
1805 until 1808 he was the minister plenipotentiary of the United States
in Spain. He died on Naushon Island, Dukes county, Massachusetts, on the
11th of October 1811. To Bowdoin College he gave land, money and
apparatus; and he made the college his residuary legatee, bequeathing to
it his collection of paintings and drawings, then considered the finest
in the country.

BOWELL, SIR MACKENZIE (1823-   ), Canadian politician, son of John
Bowell, carpenter and builder, was born at Ricking-hall, England, on the
27th of December 1823. In 1833 he moved with his family to Belleville,
Canada, where he finally became editor and proprietor of the
_Intelligencer_. He was elected grand master of the Orange Association
of British America, and was long the exponent in the Canadian parliament
of the claims of that order. From 1867 till 1892 he represented North
Hastings in the House, after which he retired to the senate. From 1878
till 1891 he was minister of customs in the cabinet of Sir John
Macdonald; then minister of militia; and under the premiership of Sir
John Thompson, minister of trade and commerce. From December 1894 till
April 1896 he was premier of Canada, and endeavoured to enforce remedial
legislation in the question of the Manitoba schools. But his policy was
unsuccessful, and he retired from the government. From 1896 till 1906 he
led the Conservative party in the senate. In 1894 he presided over the
colonial conference held in Ottawa, and in 1895 was created K.C.M.G.

judge, was born on the 1st of January 1835, at Woolaston in
Gloucestershire, his father, the Rev. Christopher Bowen of Hollymount,
Co. Mayo, being then curate of the parish. He was educated at Lille,
Blackheath and Rugby schools, leaving the latter with a Balliol
scholarship in 1853. At Oxford he made good the promise of his earlier
youth, winning the principal classical scholarships and prizes of his
time. He was made a fellow of Balliol in 1858. From Oxford Bowen went to
London, where he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1861, and
while studying law he wrote regularly for the _Saturday Renew_, and also
later for the _Spectator_. For a time he had little success at the bar,
and came near to exchanging it for the career of a college tutor, but he
was induced by his friends, who recognized his talents, to persevere.
Soon after he had begun to make his mark he was briefed against the
claimant in the famous "Tichborne Case." Bowen's services to his leader,
Sir John Coleridge, helped to procure for him the appointment of junior
counsel to the treasury when Sir John had passed, as he did while the
trial proceeded, from the office of solicitor-general to that of
attorney-general; and from this time his practice became a very large
one. The strain, however, of the Tichborne trials had been great, so
that his physical health became unequal to the tasks which his zeal for
work imposed upon it, and in 1879 his acceptance of a judgeship in the
queen's bench division, on the retirement of Mr Justice Mellor, gave him
the opportunity of comparative rest. The character of Charles Bowen's
intellect hardly qualified him for some of the duties of a puisne judge;
but it was otherwise when, in 1882, in succession to Lord Justice
Holker, he was raised to the court of appeal. As a lord justice of
appeal he was conspicuous for his learning, his industry and his
courtesy to all who appeared before him; and in spite of failing health
he was able to sit more or less regularly until August 1893, when, on
the retirement of Lord Hannen, he was made a lord of appeal in ordinary,
and a baron for life, with the title of Baron Bowen of Colwood. By this
time, however, his health had finally broken down; he never sat as a law
lord to hear appeals, and he gave but one vote as a peer, while his last
public service consisted in presiding over the commission which sat in
October 1893 to inquire into the Featherstone riots. He died on the 10th
of April 1894.

Lord Bowen was regarded with great affection by all who knew him either
professionally or privately. He had a polished and graceful wit, of
which many instances might be given, although such anecdotes lose force
in print. For example, when it was suggested on the occasion of an
address to Queen Victoria, to be presented by her judges, that a passage
in it, "conscious as we are of our shortcomings," suggested too great
humility, he proposed the emendation "conscious as we are of one
another's shortcomings"; and on another occasion he defined a jurist as
"a person who knows a little about the laws of every country except his
own." Lord Bowen's judicial reputation will rest upon the series of
judgments delivered by him in the court of appeal, which are remarkable
for their lucid interpretation of legal principles as applied to the
facts and business of life. Among good examples of his judgment may be
cited that given in advising the House of Lords in _Angus_ v. _Dalton_
(6 App. Cas. 740), and those delivered in _Abrath_ v. _North Eastern
Railway_ (11 Q.B.D. 440); _Thomas_ v. _Quartermaine_ (18 Q.B.D. 685);
_Vagliano_ v. _Bank of England_ (23 Q.B.D. 243) (in which he prepared
the majority judgment of the court, which was held to be wrong in its
conclusion by the majority of the House of Lords); and the _Mogul
Steamship Company_ v. _M'Gregor_ (23 Q.B.D. 598). Of Lord Bowen's
literary works besides those already indicated may be mentioned his
translation of Virgil's _Eclogues_, and _Aeneid_, books i.-vi., and his
pamphlet, _The Alabama Claim and Arbitration considered from a Legal
Point of View._ Lord Bowen married in 1862 Emily Frances, eldest
daughter of James Meadows Rendel, F.R.S., by whom he had two sons and a

  See _Lord Bowen_, by Sir Henry Stewart Cunningham.

BOWEN, FRANCIS (1811-1890), American philosophical writer and
educationalist, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, on the 8th of
September 1811. He graduated at Harvard in 1833, taught for two years at
Phillips Exeter Academy, and then from 1835 to 1839 was a tutor and
instructor at Harvard. After several years of study in Europe, he
settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was editor and proprietor of
the _North American Review_ from 1843 to 1854. In 1850 he was appointed
professor of history at Harvard; but his appointment was disapproved by
the board of overseers on account of reactionary political opinions he
had expressed in a controversy with Robert Carter (1819-1879) concerning
the Hungarian revolution. In 1853 his appointment as Alford professor of
natural religion, moral philosophy and civil polity was approved, and he
occupied the chair until 1889. In 1876 he was a member of the Federal
commission appointed to consider currency reform, and wrote (1877) the
minority report, in which he opposed the restoration of the double
standard and the remonetization of silver. He died in Boston,
Massachusetts, on the 22nd of January 1890. His writings include lives
of Sir William Phipps, Baron von Steuben, James Otis and Benjamin
Lincoln in Jared Sparks' "Library of American Biography"; _Critical
Essays on the History and Present Condition of Speculative Philosophy_
(1842); _Lowell Lectures on the Application of Metaphysical and Ethical
Science to the Evidences of Religion_ (1849); _The Principles of
Political Economy applied to the Condition, Resources and Institutions
of the American People_ (1856); _A Treatise on Logic_ (1864); _American
Political Economy_ (1870); _Modern Philosophy from Descartes to
Schopenhauer and Hartmann_ (1877); and _Gleanings from a Literary Life,
1838-1880_ (1880).

BOWEN, SIR GEORGE FERGUSON (1821-1899), British colonial governor,
eldest son of the Rev. Edward Bowen, afterwards rector of Taughboyne,
Co. Donegal, was born on the 2nd of November 1821. Educated at
Charterhouse school and Trinity College, Oxford, he took a first class
in classics in 1844, and was elected a fellow of Brasenose. In 1847 he
was chosen president of the university of Corfu. Having served as
secretary of government in the Ionian Islands, he was appointed in 1859
the first governor of Queensland, which colony had just been separated
from New South Wales. He was interested in the exploration of Queensland
and in the establishment of a volunteer force, but incurred some
unpopularity by refusing to sanction the issue of inconvertible paper
money during the financial crisis of 1866. In 1867 he was made governor
of New Zealand, in which position he was successful in reconciling the
Maoris to the English rule, and saw the end of the struggle between the
colonists and the natives. Transferred to Victoria in 1872, Bowen
endeavoured to reduce the expenses of the colony, and in 1879 became
governor of Mauritius. His last official position was that of governor
of Hong-Kong, which he held from 1882 to 1887. He was made a K.C.M.G. in
1856, a privy councillor in 1886, and received honorary degrees from
both Oxford and Cambridge. In December 1887 he was appointed chief of
the royal commission which was sent to Malta with regard to the new
constitution for the island, and all the recommendations made by him
were adopted. He died at Brighton on the 21st of February 1899, having
been married twice, and having had a family of one son and four
daughters. Bowen wrote _Ithaca in 1850_ (London, 1854), translated into
Greek in 1859; and _Mount Athos, Thessaly and Epirus_ (London, 1852);
and he was the author of Murray's _Handbook for Greece_ (London, 1854).

  A selection of his letters and despatches, _Thirty Years of Colonial
  Government_ (London, 1889), was edited by S. Lane-Poole.

BOWER, WALTER (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at
Haddington. He was abbot of Inchcolm (in the Firth of Forth) from 1418,
was one of the commissioners for the collection of the ransom of James
I., king of Scots, in 1423 and 1424, and in 1433 one of the embassy to
Paris on the business of the marriage of the king's daughter to the
dauphin. He played an important part at the council of Perth (1432) in
the defence of Scottish rights. During his closing years he was engaged
on his work the _Scotichronicon_, on which his reputation now chiefly
rests. This work, undertaken in 1440 by desire of a neighbour, Sir David
Stewart of Rosyth, was a continuation of the _Chronica Gentis Scotorum_
of Fordun. The completed work, in its original form, consisted of
sixteen books, of which the first five and a portion of the sixth (to
1163) are Fordun's--or mainly his, for Bower added to them at places. In
the later books, down to the reign of Robert I. (1371), he was aided by
Fordun's _Gesta Annalia_, but from that point to the close the work is
original and of contemporary importance, especially for James I., with
whose death it ends. The task was finished in 1447. In the two remaining
years of his life he was engaged on a reduction or "abridgment" of this
work, which is known as the _Book of Cupar_, and is preserved in the
Advocates' library, Edinburgh (MS. 35. 1. 7). Other abridgments, not by
Bower, were made about the same time, one about 1450 (perhaps by Patrick
Russell, a Carthusian of Perth) preserved in the Advocates' library (MS.
35. 6. 7) and another in 1461 by an unknown writer, also preserved in
the same collection (MS. 35. 5. 2). Copies of the full text of the
_Scotichronicon_, by different scribes, are extant. There are two in the
British Museum, in _The Black Book of Paisley_, and in Harl. MS. 712;
one in the Advocates' library, from which Walter Goodall printed his
edition (Edin., 1759), and one in the library of Corpus Christi,

  Goodall's is the only complete modern edition of Bower's text. See
  also W.F. Skene's edition of Fordun in the series of _Historians of
  Scotland_ (1871). Personal references are to be found in the
  _Exchequer Rolls of Scotland_, iii. and iv. The best recent account is
  that by T.A. Archer in the _Dict, of Nat. Biog._

BOWERBANK, JAMES SCOTT (1797-1877), English naturalist and
palaeontologist, was born in Bishopsgate, London, on the 14th of July
1797, and succeeded in conjunction with his brother to his father's
distillery, in which he was actively engaged until 1847. In early years
astronomy and natural history, especially botany, engaged much of his
attention; he became an enthusiastic worker at the microscope, studying
the structure of shells, corals, moss-agates, flints, &c., and he also
formed an extensive collection of fossils. The organic remains of the
London Clay attracted particular attention, and about the year 1836 he
and six other workers founded "The London Clay Club"--the members
comprising Dr Bowerbank, Frederick E. Edwards (1799-1875), author of
_The Eocene Mollusca_ (Palaeontograph. Soc.), Searles V. Wood, John
Morris, Alfred White (zoologist), N.T. Wetherell, surgeon of Highgate
(1800-1875), and James de Carle Sowerby. In 1840 Bowerbank published _A
History of the Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the London Clay_, and two
years later he was elected F.R.S. In 1847 he suggested the establishment
of a society for the publication of undescribed British Fossils, and
thus originated the Palaeontographical Society. From 1844 until 1864 he
did much to encourage a love of natural science by being "at home" every
Monday evening at his residence in Park Street, Islington, and
afterwards in Highbury Grove, where the treasures of his museum, his
microscopes, and his personal assistance were at the service of every
earnest student. In the study of sponges he became specially interested,
and he was author of _A Monograph of the British Spongiadae_ in 4
vols., published by the Ray Society, 1864-1882. He retired in 1864 to St
Leonards, where he died on the 8th of March 1877.

BOWIE, JAMES (1796-1836), American pioneer, was born in Logan county,
Kentucky. He was taken to Louisiana about 1802, and in 1818-1820 was
engaged with his brothers, John J. and Rezin P., in smuggling negro
slaves into the United States from the headquarters of the pirates led
by Jean Lafitte on Galveston Island. Bowie removed to Texas in 1828 and
took a prominent part in the revolt against Mexico, being present at the
battles of Nacogdoches (1832), Concepcion (1835) and the Grass Fight
(1835). He was one of the defenders of the Alamo (see SAN ANTONIO), but
was ill of pneumonia at the time of the final assault on the 6th of
March 1836, and was among the last to be butchered. Bowie's name is now
perpetuated by a county in north-eastern Texas, and by its association
with that of the famous hunting-knife, which he used, but probably did
not invent.

BOW-LEG (_Genu Varum_), a deformity characterized by separation of the
knees when the ankles are in contact. Usually there is an outward
curvature of both femur and tibia, with at times an interior bend of the
latter bone. At birth all children are more or less bandy-legged. The
child lies on its nurse's knee with the soles of the feet facing one
another; the tibiae and femora are curved outwards; and, if the limbs
are extended, although the ankles are in contact, there is a distinct
space between the knee-joints. During the first year of life a gradual
change takes place. The knee-joints approach one another; the femora
slope downwards and inwards towards the knee-joints; the tibiae become
straight; and the sole of the foot faces almost directly downwards.
While these changes are occurring, the bones, which at first consist
principally of cartilage, are gradually becoming ossified, and in a
normal child by the time it begins to walk the lower limbs are prepared,
both by their general direction and by the rigidity of the bones which
form them, to support the weight of the body. If, however, the child
attempts either as the result of imitation or from encouragement to walk
before the normal bandy condition had passed off, the result will
necessarily be either an arrest in the development of the limbs or an
increase of the bandy condition. If the child is weakly, either rachitic
or suffering from any ailment which prevents the due ossification of the
bones, or is improperly fed, the bandy condition may remain persistent.
Thus the chief cause of this deformity is rickets (q.v.). The remaining
causes are occupation, especially that of a jockey, and traumatism, the
condition being very likely to supervene after accidents involving the
condyles of the femur. In the rickety form the most important thing is
to treat the constitutional disease, at the same time instructing the
mother never to place the child on its feet. In many cases this is quite
sufficient in itself to effect a cure, but matters can be hastened
somewhat by applying splints. When in older patients the deformity
arises either from traumatism or occupation, the only treatment is that
of operation.

A far commoner deformity than the preceding is that known as
_knock-knee_ (or _Genu Valgum_). In this condition there is close
approximation of the knees with more or less separation of the feet, the
patient being unable to bring the feet together when standing.
Occasionally only one limb may be affected, but the double form is the
more common. There are two varieties of this deformity: (i.) that due to
rickets and occurring in young children (the rachitic form), and (ii.)
that met with in adolescents and known as the static form. In young
children it is practically always due to rickets, and the constitutional
disease must be most rigorously dealt with. It is, however, especially
in these cases that cod-liver oil is to be avoided, since it increases
the body weight and so may do harm rather than good. The child if quite
young must be kept in bed, and the limbs manipulated several times a
day. Where the child is a little older and it is more difficult to keep
him off his feet, long splints should be applied from the axilla or
waist to a point several inches below the level of the foot. It is only
by making the splints sufficiently long that a naturally active child
can be kept at rest. The little patient should live in the open air as
much as possible.

The static form of Genu Valgum usually occurs in young adolescents,
especially in anaemic nurse-girls, young bricklayers, and young people
who have outgrown their strength, yet have to carry heavy weights.
Normally in the erect posture the weight of the body is passed through
the outer condyle of the femur rather than the inner, and this latter is
lengthened to keep the plane of the knee-joint horizontal. This throws
considerable strain on the internal lateral ligament of the knee-joint,
and after standing of long duration or with undue weight the muscles of
the inner side of the limb also become over-fatigued. Thus the ligament
gradually becomes stretched, giving the knee undue mobility from side to
side. If the condition be not attended to, the outer condyle becomes
gradually atrophied, owing to the increased weight transmitted through
it, and the inner condyle becomes lengthened. These changes are the
direct outcome of a general law, namely, that diminished pressure
results in increased growth, increased pressure in diminished growth.
The best example of the former principle is the rapid growth that takes
place in the child that is confined to bed during a prolonged illness.
The distorted, stunted, shortened and fashionable foot of the Chinese
lady is an example of the latter. Flat-foot (see CLUB-FOOT) and lateral
curvature of the spine, scoliosis, are often associated with this form
of Genu Valgum, the former being due to relaxation of ligaments, the
latter being compensatory where the deformity only affects one leg,
though often found merely in association with the more common bilateral
variety. In the early stages of the static form attention to general
health, massage and change of air, will often effect a cure. But in the
more aggravated forms an apparatus is needed. This usually consists of
an outside iron rod, jointed at the knee, attached above to a pelvic
band and below to the heel of the boot. By the gradual tightening of
padded straps passing round the limbs the bones can be drawn by degrees
into a more natural position. But if the patient has reached such an age
that the deformity is fixed, then the only remedy is that of operation.

BOWLES, SAMUEL (1826-1878), American journalist, was born in
Springfield, Massachusetts, on the 9th of February 1826. He was the son
of Samuel Bowles (1779-1851) of the same city, who had established the
weekly _Springfield Republican_ in 1824. The daily issue was begun in
1844, as an evening newspaper, afterwards becoming a morning journal. To
its service Samuel Bowles, junior, devoted his life (with the exception
of a brief period during which he was in charge of a daily in Boston),
and he gave the paper a national reputation by the vigour, incisiveness
and independence of its editorial utterances, and the concise and
convenient arrangement of its local and general news-matter. During the
controversies affecting slavery and resulting in the Civil War, Bowles
supported, in general, the Whig and Republican parties, but in the
period of Reconstruction under President Grant his paper represented
anti-administration or "Liberal Republican" opinions, while in the
disputed election of 1876 it favoured the claims of Tilden, and
subsequently became independent in politics. Bowles died at Springfield
on the 16th of January 1878. During his lifetime, and subsequently, the
_Republican_ office was a sort of school for young journalists,
especially in the matter of pungency and conciseness of style, one of
his maxims being "put it all in the first paragraph." Bowles published
two books of travel, _Across the Continent_ (1865) and _The Switzerland
of America_ (1869), which were combined into one volume under the title
_Our New West_ (1869). He was succeeded as publisher and editor-in-chief
of the _Republican_ by his son Samuel Bowles (b. 1851).

  A eulogistic _Life and Times of Samuel Bowles_ (2 vols., New York,
  1885), by George S. Merriam, is virtually a history of American
  political movements after the compromise of 1850.

BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE (1762-1850), English poet and critic, was born at
King's Sutton, Northamptonshire, of which his father was vicar, on the
24th of September 1762. At the age of fourteen he entered Winchester
school, the head-master at the time being Dr Joseph Warton. In 1781 he
left as captain of the school, and proceeded to Trinity College, Oxford,
where he had gained a scholarship. Two years later he won the
chancellor's prize for Latin verse. In 1789 he published, in a small
quarto volume, _Fourteen Sonnets_, which met with considerable favour at
the time, and were hailed with delight by Coleridge and his young
contemporaries. The _Sonnets_ even in form were a revival, a return to
the older and purer poetic style, and by their grace of expression,
melodious versification, tender tone of feeling and vivid appreciation
of the life and beauty of nature, stood out in strong contrast to the
elaborated commonplaces which at that time formed the bulk of English
poetry. After taking his degree at Oxford he entered the Church, and was
appointed in 1792 to the vicarage of Chicklade in Wiltshire. In 1797 he
received the vicarage of Dumbleton in Gloucestershire, and in 1804 was
presented to the vicarage of Bremhill in Wiltshire. In the same year he
was collated by Bishop Douglas to a prebendal stall in the cathedral of
Salisbury. In 1818 he was made chaplain to the prince regent, and in
1828 he was elected residentiary canon of Salisbury. He died at
Salisbury on the 7th of April 1850, aged 88.

The longer poems published by Bowles are not of a very high standard,
though all are distinguished by purity of imagination, cultured and
graceful diction, and great tenderness of feeling. The most extensive
were _The Spirit of Discovery_ (1804), which was mercilessly ridiculed
by Byron; _The Missionary of the Andes_ (1815); _The Grave of the Last
Saxon_ (1822); and _St John in Patmos_ (1833). Bowles is perhaps more
celebrated as a critic of poetry than as a poet. In 1806 he published an
edition of Pope's works with notes and an essay on the poetical
character of Pope. In this essay he laid down certain canons as to
poetic imagery which, subject to some modification, have been since
recognized as true and valuable, but which were received at the time
with strong opposition by all admirers of Pope and his style. The "Pope
and Bowles" controversy brought into sharp contrast the opposing views
of poetry, which may be roughly described as the natural and the
artificial. Bowles maintained that images drawn from nature are
poetically finer than those drawn from art; and that in the highest
kinds of poetry the themes or passions handled should be of the general
or elemental kind, and not the transient manners of any society. These
positions were vigorously assailed by Byron, Campbell, Roscoe and others
of less note, while for a time Bowles was almost solitary. Hazlitt and
the _Blackwood_ critics, however, came to his assistance, and on the
whole Bowles had reason to congratulate himself on having established
certain principles which might serve as the basis of a true method of
poetical criticism, and of having inaugurated, both by precept and by
example, a new era in English poetry. Among other prose works from his
prolific pen was a _Life of Bishop Ken_ (2 vols., 1830-1831).

  His _Poetical Works_ were collected in 1855, with a memoir by G.

BOWLINE (a word found in most Teutonic languages, probably connected
with the "bow" of a ship), a nautical term for a rope leading from the
edge of a sail to the bows, for the purpose of steadying the sail when
sailing close to the wind--"on a bowline."

BOWLING (Lat. _bulla_, a globe, through O. Fr. _boule_, ball), an indoor
game played upon an alley with wooden balls and nine or ten wooden pins.
It has been played for centuries in Germany and the Low Countries, where
it is still in high favour, but attains its greatest popularity in the
United States, whence it was introduced in colonial times from Holland.
The Dutch inhabitants of New Amsterdam, now New York, were much addicted
to it, and up to the year 1840 it was played on the green, the principal
resort of the bowlers being the square just north of the Battery still
called Bowling Green. The first covered alleys were made of hardened
clay or of slate, but those in vogue at present are built up of
alternate strips of pine and maple wood, about 1 × 3 in. in size, set on
edge, and fastened together and to the bed of the alley with the nicest
art of the cabinet-maker. The width of the alley is 4l½ in., and its
whole length about 80 ft. From the head, or apex, pin to the foul-line,
over which the player may not step in delivering the ball, the distance
is 60 ft. On each side of the alley is a 9-in. "gutter" to catch any
balls that are bowled wide. Originally nine pins, set up in the diamond
form, were used, but during the first part of the 19th century the game
of "nine-pins" was prohibited by law, on account of the excessive
betting connected with it. This ordinance, however, was soon evaded by
the addition of a tenth pin, resulting in the game of "ten-pins," the
pastime in vogue to-day. The ten pins are set up at the end of the alley
in the form of a right-angled triangle in four rows, four pins at the
back, then three, then two and one as head pin. The back row is placed 3
in. from the alley's edge, back of which is the pin-pit, 10 in. deep and
about 3 ft. wide. The back wall is heavily padded (often with a heavy,
swinging cushion), and there are safety corners for the pin-boys, who
set up the pins, call the scores and place the balls in the sloping
"railway" which returns them to the players' end of the alley. The pins
are made of hard maple and are 15 in. high, 2¼ in. in diameter at their
base and 15 in. in circumference at the thickest point. The balls, which
are made of some very hard wood, usually lignum vitae, may be of any
size not exceeding 27 in. in circumference and 16½ lb. in weight. They
are provided with holes for the thumb and middle finger. As many may
play on a side as please, five being the number for championship teams,
though this sometimes varies. Each player rolls three balls, called a
_frame_, and ten frames constitute a game, unless otherwise agreed upon.
In first-class matches two balls only are rolled. If all ten pins are
knocked down by the first ball the player makes a _strike_, which counts
him 10 plus whatever he may make with the first two balls of his next
frame. If, however, he should then make another strike, 10 more are
added to his score, making 20, to which are added the pins he may knock
down with his first ball of the third frame. This may also score a
strike, making 30 as the score of the first frame, and, should the
player keep up this high average, he will score the maximum, 300, in his
ten frames. If all the pins are knocked down with two balls it is called
a _spare_, and the player may add the pins made by the first ball of his
second frame. This seemingly complicated mode of scoring is
comparatively simple when properly lined score-boards are used. Of
course, if all three balls are used no strike or spare is scored, but
the number of pins overturned is recorded. The tens of thousands of
bowling clubs in the United States and Canada are under the jurisdiction
of the American Bowling Congress, which meets once a year to revise the
rules and hold contests for the national championships.

  Several minor varieties of bowling are popular in America, the most in
  vogue being "Cocked Hat," which is played with three pins, one in the
  head-pin position and the others on either corner of the back row. The
  pins are usually a little larger than those used in the regular game,
  and smaller balls are used. The maximum score is 90, and all balls,
  even those going into the gutter, are in play. "Cocked hat and
  Feather" is similar, except that a fourth pin is added, placed in the
  centre. Other variations of bowling are "Quintet," in which five pins,
  set up like an arrow pointed towards the bowler, are used; the "Battle
  Game," in which 12 can be scored by knocking down all but the centre,
  or king, pin; "Head Pin and Four Back," in which five pins are used,
  one in the head-pin position and the rest on the back line; "Four
  Back"; "Five Back"; "Duck Pin"; "Head Pin," with nine pins set up in
  the old-fashioned way, and "Candle Pin," in which thin pins tapering
  towards the top and bottom are used, the other rules being similar to
  those of the regular game.

  The American bowling game is played to a slight extent in Great
  Britain and Germany. In the latter country, however, the old-fashioned
  game of nine-pins (_Kegelspiel_) with solid balls and the pins set up
  diamond-fashion, obtains universally. The alleys are made with less
  care than the American, being of cement, asphalt, slate or marble.

BOWLING GREEN, a city and the county-seat of Warren county, Kentucky,
U.S.A., on the Barren river, 113 m. S. by W. of Louisville. Pop. (1890)
7803; (1900) 8226, of whom 2593 were negroes; (1910) 9173. The city is
served by the Louisville & Nashville railway (which maintains car shops
here), and by steamboats navigating the river. Macadamized or gravel
roads also radiate from it to all parts of the surrounding country, a
rich agricultural and live-stock raising region, in which there are
deposits of coal, iron ore, oil, natural gas, asphalt and building
stone. The city is the seat of Potter College (for girls; non-sectarian,
opened 1889); of Ogden College (non-sectarian, 1877), a secondary
school, endowed by the bequest of Major Robert W. Ogden (1796-1873); of
the West Kentucky State Normal School, opened (as the Southern Normal
School and Business College) at Glasgow in 1875 and removed to Bowling
Green in 1884; and of the Bowling Green Business University, formerly a
part of the Southern Normal School and Business College. Bowling Green
has two parks, a large horse and mule market, and a trade in other
live-stock, tobacco and lumber; among its manufactures are flour,
lumber, tobacco and furniture. The municipality owns and operates the
water-works and the electric lighting plant. Bowling Green was
incorporated in 1812. During the early part of the Civil War Bowling
Green was on the right flank of the first line of Confederate defence in
the West, and was for some time the headquarters of General Albert
Sidney Johnston. It was abandoned, however, after the capture by the
Federals of Forts Henry and Donelson.

BOWLING GREEN, a city and the county-seat of Wood county, Ohio, U.S.A.,
20 m. S. by W. of Toledo, of which it is a residential suburb. Pop.
(1890) 3467; (1900) 5067 (264 foreign-born); (1910) 5222. Bowling Green
is served by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and the Toledo & Ohio
Central railways, and by the Toledo Urban & Interurban and the Lake
Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon electric lines, the former extending from
Toledo to Dayton. It is situated in a rich agricultural region which
abounds in oil and natural gas. Many of the residences and business
places of Bowling Green are heated by a privately owned central
hot-water heating plant. Among the manufactures are cut glass, stoves
and ranges, kitchen furniture, guns, thread-cutting machines, brooms and
agricultural implements. Bowling Green was first settled in 1832, was
incorporated as a town in 1855, and became a city in 1904.



the oldest British outdoor pastime, next to archery, still in vogue. It
has been traced certainly to the 13th, and conjecturally to the 12th
century. William Fitzstephen (d. about 1190), in his biography of Thomas
Becket, gives a graphic sketch of the London of his day and, writing of
the summer amusements of the young men, says that on holidays they were
"exercised in Leaping, Shooting. Wrestling, Casting of Stones [_in jactu
lapidum_], and Throwing of Javelins fitted with Loops for the Purpose,
which they strive to fling before the Mark; they also use Bucklers, like
fighting Men." It is commonly supposed that by _jactus lapidum_
Fitzstephen meant the game of bowls, but though it is possible that
round stones may sometimes have been employed in an early variety of the
game-and there is a record of iron bowls being used, though at a much
later date, on festive occasions at Nairn,--nevertheless the inference
seems unwarranted. The _jactus lapidum_ of which he speaks was probably
more akin to the modern "putting the weight," once even called "putting
the stone." It is beyond dispute, however, that the game, at any rate in
a rudimentary form, was played in the 13th century. A MS. of that period
in the royal library, Windsor (No. 20, E iv.), contains a drawing
representing two players aiming at a small cone instead of an
earthenware ball or jack. Another MS. of the same century has a
picture--crude, but spirited--which brings us into close touch with the
existing game. Three figures are introduced and a jack. The first
player's bowl has come to rest just in front of the jack; the second has
delivered his bowl and is following after it with one of those eccentric
contortions still not unusual on modern greens, the first player
meanwhile making a repressive gesture with his hand, as if to urge the
bowl to stop short of his own; the third player is depicted as in the
act of delivering his bowl. A 14th-century MS. _Book of Prayers_ in the
Francis Douce collection in the Bodleian library at Oxford contains a
drawing in which two persons are shown, but they bowl to no mark. Strutt
(_Sports and Pastimes_) suggests that the first player's bowl may have
been regarded by the second player as a species of jack; but in that
case it is not clear what was the first player's target. In these three
earliest illustrations of the pastime it is worth noting that each
player has one bowl only, and that the attitude in delivering it was as
various five or six hundred years ago as it is to-day. In the third he
stands almost upright; in the first he kneels; in the second he stoops,
halfway between the upright and the kneeling position.

As the game grew in popularity it came under the ban of king and
parliament, both fearing it might jeopardize the practice of archery,
then so important in battle; and statutes forbidding it and other sports
were enacted in the reigns of Edward III., Richard II. and other
monarchs. Even when, on the invention of gunpowder and firearms, the bow
had fallen into disuse as a weapon of war, the prohibition was
continued. The discredit attaching to bowling alleys, first established
in London in 1455, probably encouraged subsequent repressive
legislation, for many of the alleys were connected with taverns
frequented by the dissolute and gamesters. The word "bowls" occurs for
the first time in the statute of 1511 in which Henry VIII. confirmed
previous enactments against unlawful games. By a further act of
1541--which was not repealed until 1845--artificers, labourers,
apprentices, servants and the like were forbidden to play bowls at any
time save Christmas, and then only in their master's house and presence.
It was further enjoined that any one playing bowls outside of his own
garden or orchard was liable to a penalty of 6s. 8d., while those
possessed of lands of the yearly value of £100 might obtain licences to
play on their own private greens. But though the same statute absolutely
prohibited bowling alleys, Henry VIII. had them constructed for his own
pleasure at Whitehall Palace, and was wont to back himself when he
played. In Mary's reign (1555) the licences were withdrawn, the queen or
her advisers deeming the game an excuse for "unlawful assemblies,
conventicles, seditions and conspiracies." The scandals of the bowling
alleys grew rampant in Elizabethan London, and Stephen Gosson in his
_School of Abuse_ (1579) says, "Common bowling alleys are privy moths
that eat up the credit of many idle citizens; whose gains at home are
not able to weigh down their losses abroad; whose shops are so far from
maintaining their play, that their wives and children cry out for bread,
and go to bed supperless often in the year."

Biased bowls were introduced in the 16th century. "A little altering of
the one side," says Robert Recorde, the mathematician, in his _Castle of
Knowledge_ (1556), "maketh the bowl to run biasse waies." And
Shakespeare (_Richard II_., Act. III. Sc. 4) causes the queen to
remonstrate, in reply to her lady's suggestion of a game at bowls to
relieve her ennui, "'Twill make me think the world is full of rubs, and
that my fortune runs against the bias." This passage is interesting also
as showing that women were accustomed to play the game in those days. It
is pleasant to think that there is foundation for the familiar story of
Sir Francis Drake playing bowls on Plymouth Hoe as the Armada was
beating up Channel, and finishing his game before tackling the
Spaniards. Bowls, at that date, was looked upon as a legitimate
amusement for Sundays,--as, indeed, were many other sports. When John
Knox visited Calvin at Geneva one Sunday, it is said that he discovered
him engaged in a game; and John Aylmer (1521-1594), though bishop of
London, enjoyed a game of a Sunday afternoon, but used such language "as
justly exposed his character to reproach." The pastime found favour with
the Stuarts. In the _Book of Sports_ (1618), James I. recommended a
moderate indulgence to his son, Prince Henry, and Charles I. was an
enthusiastic bowler, unfortunately encouraging by example wagering and
playing for high stakes, habits that ultimately brought the green into
as general disrepute as the alley. It is recorded that the king
occasionally visited Richard Shute, a Turkey merchant who owned a
beautiful green at Barking Hall, and that after one bout his losses were
£1000. He was permitted to play his favourite game to beguile the tedium
of his captivity. The signboard of a wayside inn near Goring Heath in
Oxfordshire long bore a portrait of the king with couplets reciting how
his majesty "drank from the bowl, and bowl'd for what he drank." During
his stay at the Northamptonshire village of Holdenby or Holmby--where
Sir Thomas Herbert complains the green was not well kept--Charles
frequently rode over to Lord Vaux's place at Harrowden, or to Lord
Spencer's at Althorp, for a game, and, according to one account, was
actually playing on the latter green when Cornet Joyce came to Holmby to
remove him to other quarters. During this period gambling had become a
mania. John Aubrey, the antiquary, chronicles that the sisters of Sir
John Suckling, the courtier-poet, once went to the bowling-green in
Piccadilly, crying, "for fear he should lose all their portions." If the
Puritans regarded bowls with no friendly eye, as Lord Macaulay asserts,
one can hardly wonder at it. But even the Puritans could not suppress
betting. So eminently respectable a person as John Evelyn thought no
harm in bowling for stakes, and once played at the Durdans, near Epsom,
for £10, winning match and money, as he triumphantly notes in his
_Diary_ for the 14th of August 1657. Samuel Pepys repeatedly mentions
finding great people "at bowles." But in time the excesses attending the
game rendered it unfashionable, and after the Revolution it became
practically a pothouse recreation, nearly all the greens, like the
alleys, having been constructed in the grounds and gardens attached to

After a long interval salvation came from Scotland, somewhat
unexpectedly, because although, along with its winter analogue of
curling, bowls may now be considered, much more than golf, the Scottish
national game, it was not until well into the 19th century that the
pastime acquired popularity in that country. It had been known in
Scotland since the close of the 16th century (the Glasgow kirk session
fulminated an edict against Sunday bowls in 1595), but greens were few
and far between. There is record of a club in Haddington in 1709, of Tom
Bicket's green in Kilmarnock in 1740, of greens in Candleriggs and
Gallowgate, Glasgow, and of one in Lanark in 1750, of greens in the
grounds of Heriot's hospital, Edinburgh, prior to 1768, and of one in
Peebles in 1775. These are, of course, mere infants compared with the
Southampton Town Bowling Club, founded in 1299, which still uses the
green on which it has played for centuries and possesses the quaint
custom of describing its master, or president, as "sir," and are younger
even than the Newcastle-on-Tyne club established in 1657. But the
earlier clubs did nothing towards organizing the game. In 1848 and 1849,
however, when many clubs had come into existence in the west and south
of Scotland (the Willowbank, dating from 1816, is the oldest club in
Glasgow), meetings were held in Glasgow for the purpose of promoting a
national association. This was regarded, by many, as impracticable, but
a decision of final importance was reached when a consultative committee
was appointed to draft a uniform code of laws to govern the game. This
body delegated its functions to its secretary, W.W. Mitchell
(1803-1884), who prepared a code that was immediately adopted in
Scotland as the standard laws. It was in this sense that Scottish
bowlers saved the game. They were, besides, pioneers in laying down
level greens of superlative excellence. Not satisfied with seed-sown
grass or meadow turf, they experimented with seaside turf and found it
answer admirably. The 13th earl of Eglinton also set an example of
active interest which many magnates emulated. Himself a keen bowler, he
offered for competition, in 1854, a silver bowl and, in 1857, a gold
bowl and the Eglinton Cup, all to be played for annually. These trophies
excited healthy rivalry in Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, and the enthusiasm
as well as the skill with which the game was conducted in Scotland at
length proved contagious. Clubs in England began to consider the
question of legislation, and to improve their greens. Moreover, Scottish
emigrants introduced the game wherever they went, and colonists in
Australia and New Zealand established many clubs which, in the main,
adopted Mitchell's laws; while clubs were also started in Canada and in
the United States, in South Africa, India (Calcutta, Karachi), Japan
(Kobe, Yokohama, Kumamoto) and Hong-Kong. In Ireland the game took root
very gradually, but in Ulster, owing doubtless to constant intercourse
with Scotland, such clubs as have been founded are strong in numbers and

On the European continent the game can scarcely be said to be played on
scientific principles. It has existed in France since the 17th century.
When John Evelyn was in Paris in 1644 he saw it played in the gardens of
the Luxembourg Palace. In the south of France it is rather popular with
artisans, who, however, are content to pursue it on any flat surface and
use round instead of biased bowls, the bowler, moreover, indulging in a
preliminary run before delivering the bowl, after the fashion of a
bowler in cricket. A rude variety of the game occurs in Italy, and, as
we have seen, John Calvin played it in Geneva, where John Evelyn also
noticed it in 1646. There is evidence of its vogue in Holland in the
17th century, for the painting by David Teniers (1610-1690), in the
Scottish National Gallery at Edinburgh, is wrongly described as
"Peasants playing at Skittles." In this picture three men are
represented as having played a bowl, while the fourth is in the act of
delivering his bowl. The game is obviously bowls, the sole difference
being that an upright peg, about 4 in. high, is employed instead of a
jack,--recalling, in this respect, the old English form of the game
already mentioned.

Serious efforts to organize the game were made in the last quarter of
the 19th century, but this time the lead came from Australia. The
Bowling Associations of Victoria and New South Wales were established in
1880, and it was not until 1892 that the Scottish Bowling Association
was founded. Then in rapid succession came several independent
bodies--the Midland Counties (1895), the London and Southern Counties
(1896), the Imperial (1899), the English (1903) and the Irish and Welsh
(1904). These institutions were concerned with the task of regularizing
the game within the territories indicated by their titles, but it soon
appeared that the multiplicity of associations was likely to prove a
hindrance rather than a help, and with a view, therefore, to reducing
the number of clashing jurisdictions and bringing about the
establishment of a single legislative authority, the Imperial
amalgamated with the English B.A. in 1905. The visits to the United
Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New
Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had
gained enormously in popularity. The former visit was commemorated by
the institution of the Australia Cup, presented to the Imperial Bowling
Association (and now the property of the English B.A.) by Mr Charles
Wood, president of the Victorian Bowling Association. An accredited team
of bowlers from the mother country visited Canada in 1906, and was
accorded a royal welcome. Perhaps the most interesting proof that bowls
is a true _Volksspiel_ is to be found in the fact that it has become
municipalized. In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in
London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns,
the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In Scotland the public greens are self-supporting, from a charge, which
includes the use of bowls, of one penny an hour for each player; in
London the upkeep of the greens falls on the rates, but players must
provide their own bowls.

  The game.

There are two kinds of bowling green, the level and the crown. The crown
has a fall which may amount to as much as 18 in. all round from the
centre to the sides. This type of green is confined almost wholly to
certain of the northern and midland counties of England, where it is
popular for single-handed, gate-money contests. But although the
crown-green game is of a sporting character, it necessitates the use of
bowls of narrow bias and affords but limited scope for the display of
skill and science. It is the game on the perfectly level green that
constitutes the historical game of bowls. Subject to the rule as to the
shortest distance to which the jack must be thrown (25 yds.), there is
no prescribed size for the lawn; but 42 yds. square forms an ideal
green. The Queen's Park and Titwood clubs in Glasgow have each three
greens, and as they can quite comfortably play six rinks on each, it is
not uncommon to see 144 players making their game simultaneously. An
undersized lawn is really a poor pitch, because it involves playing from
corner to corner instead of up and down--the orthodox direction. For
the scientific construction of a green, the whole ground must be
excavated to a depth of 18 in. or so, and thoroughly drained, and layers
of different materials (gravel, cinders, moulds, silver-sand) laid down
before the final covering of turf, 2½ or 3 in. thick. Seaside turf is
the best. It wears longest and keeps its "spring" to the last.
Surrounding the green is a space called a ditch, which is nearly but not
quite on a level with the green and slopes gently away from it, the side
next the turf being lined with boarding, the ditch itself bottomed with
wooden spars resting on the foundation. Beyond the ditch are banks
generally laid with turf. A green is divided into spaces usually from 18
to 21 ft. in width, commonly styled "rinks"--a word which also
designates each set of players--and these are numbered in sequence on a
plate fixed in the bank at each end opposite the centre of the space.
The end ditch within the limits of the space is, according to Scottish
laws, regarded as part of the green, a regulation which prejudices the
general acceptance of those laws. In match play each space is further
marked off from its neighbour by thin string securely fastened flush
with the turf.

Every player uses four _lignum vitae_ bowls in single-handed games and
(as a rule) in friendly games, but only two in matches. Every bowl must
have a certain amount of bias, which was formerly obtained by loading
one side with lead, but is now imparted by the turner making one side
more convex than the other, the bulge showing the side of the bias. No
bowl must have less than No. 3 bias--that is, it should draw about 6 ft.
to a 30 yd. jack on a first-rate green: it follows that on an inferior
green the bowler, though using the same bowl, would have to allow for a
narrower draw. It is also a rule that the diameter of the bowl shall not
be less than 4½ in. nor more than 5¼ in., and that its weight must not
exceed 3½ lb. The jack or kitty, as the white earthenware ball to which
the bowler bowls is called, is round and 2½ to 2¾ in. in diameter. On
crown-greens it is customary to use a small biased wooden jack to give
the bowler some clue to the run of the green. The bowler delivers his
bowl with one foot on a mat or footer, made of india-rubber or cocoa-nut
fibre, the size of which is also prescribed by rule as 24 by 16 in.,
though, with a view to protecting the green, Australasian clubs employ a
much larger size, and require the bowler to keep both feet on the mat in
the act of delivery.

In theory the game of bowls is very simple, the aim of the player being
to roll his bowl so as to cause it to rest nearer to the jack than his
opponent's, or to protect a well-placed bowl, or to dislodge a better
bowl than his own. But in practice there is every opportunity for skill.
On all good greens the game is played in rinks of four a side, there
being, however, on the part of many English clubs still an adherence to
the old-fashioned method of two and three a side rinks. Ordinarily a
match team consists of four rinks of four players each, or sixteen men
in all. The four players in a rink are known as the leader, second
player, third player and skip (or driver, captain or director), and
their positions, at least in matches, are unchangeable. Great
responsibility is thus thrown on the skip in the choice of his players,
who are selected for well-defined reasons. The leader has to place the
mat, to throw the jack, to count the game, and to call the result of
each end or head to the skip who is at the other end of the green. He is
picked for his skill in playing to the jack. It is, therefore, his
business to "be up." There is no excuse for short play on his part, and
his bowls would be better off the green than obstructing the path of
subsequent bowls. So he will endeavour to be "on the jack," the ideal
position being a bowl at rest immediately in front of or behind it. The
skip plays last, and directs his men from the end that is being played
to. The weakest player in the four is invariably played in the second
place (the "soft second"). Most frequently he will be required either to
protect a good bowl or to rectify a possible error of the leader. His
official duty is to mark the game on the scoring card when the leader
announces the result. He keeps a record of the play of both sides. The
third player, who does any measuring that may be necessary to determine
which bowl or bowls may be nearest the jack, holds almost as responsible
a position as the captain, whose place, in fact, he takes whenever the
skip is temporarily absent. The duties of the skip will already be
understood by inference. Before he leaves the jack to play, he must
observe the situation of the bowls of both sides. It may be that he has
to draw a shot with the utmost nicety to save the end, or even the
match, or to lay a cunningly contrived block, or to "fire"--that is, to
deliver his bowl almost dead straight at the object, with enough force
to kill the bias for the moment. The score having been counted, the
leader then places the mat, usually within a yard of the spot where the
jack lay at the conclusion of the head, and throws the jack in the
opposite direction for a fresh end. On small greens play, for obvious
reasons, generally takes place from each ditch. The players play in
couples--the first on both sides, then the second and so on. The leader
having played his first bowl, the opposing leader will play his first
and so on. As a rule, a match consists of 21 points, or 21 ends (or a
few more, by agreement).


FIG. 1.--Drawing.

FIG. 2.--Guarding.

FIG. 3.--Trailing

FIG. 4.--Driving.

(In every case F is the Footer, B the Bowl, J the Jack.)]

  Certain points in the play call for notice. In throwing the jack, the
  leader is bound to throw (i.e. roll) a legal jack. A legal jack must
  travel at least 25 yds. from the footer and not come to rest within 2
  yds. of either side boundary; but it may be thrown as far beyond this
  as the leader chooses, provided that it does not run within 2 yds. of
  the end ditch or either side boundary. In English practice the leader
  is entitled to a second throw if he fail to roll a legal jack at his
  first attempt; should he fail again, the right to throw passes to his
  opponent, but not the right of playing first. On Scottish greens the
  leader has only a single throw. A legal jack should not be interfered
  with except by the course of play. Should the jack be driven towards
  the side boundary, it is legitimate for a player to cause his bowl to
  draw outside of the dividing string, provided that when it has ceased
  running it shall have come to rest entirely within his own space. If
  it stop on the string, or outside of it, the bowl is "dead" and must
  be removed to the bank. A "toucher" bowl is a characteristic of the
  Scottish game to which great exception is taken by many English clubs.
  Should a bowl running jackwards touch the jack, however slightly, it
  is called a toucher and must be marked by the skip with a chalk cross
  as soon as it is at rest. Such a bowl is alive until the end is
  finished wherever it may lie, within the limits of the space. Even if
  it run into the ditch or be driven in by another bowl, it will yet
  count as alive. A bowl, however, that is forced on to the jack by
  another is not a toucher. The feat of hitting the jack is so common
  that it really calls for no special reward. Difference of opinion
  prevails as to the condition of the jack after it has been driven into
  the ditch. According to Scottish rules, unless it has been forced
  clean out of bounds, such a jack is still alive. On most English
  greens it is a "dead" jack and the end void. Every bowler should learn
  both forehand and backhand play. In forehand play the bowl as it
  courses to the jack describes its segment of a circle on the right, in
  backhand play on the left. In both styles the biased side must always
  be the inner.

  In the United Kingdom the regular bowling season extends from May day
  till the end of September or the middle of October. At its close the
  green must be carefully examined, weeds uprooted, worn patches
  re-turfed, and the whole laid under a winter blanket of silver-sand.

  On Scottish greens the game of points is frequently played, but it is
  rarely seen on English greens. Its main object is to perfect the
  proficiency of players in certain departments of bowls proper. There
  are four sections in the game, namely, drawing, guarding, trailing and
  driving. In _drawing_ (fig. 1), the object is to draw as near as
  possible to the jack, the player's bowl passing outside of two other
  bowls placed 5 ft. apart in a horizontal line 15 ft. from the jack,
  without touching either of them. Three points are scored if the bowl
  come to rest within 1 ft. of the jack, two points if within 2 ft., and
  one point if within 3 ft. Circles of these radii are usually marked
  around the jack for convenience sake. In _guarding_ (fig. 2), two
  jacks are laid at the far end of the green 12 ft. apart in a vertical
  line. A thread is then pinned down between them, and on each side of
  this thread three others are pinned down parallel with it and 6 in.
  apart from each other. A bowl that comes to rest on the central line,
  or within 6 in. of it, counts three points, a bowl 12 in. away two
  points, and a bowl 18 in. off one point. In _trailing_ (fig. 3), two
  bowls are laid on the turf 3 ft. apart, and straight lines are chalked
  from bowl to bowl across their back and front faces, and a jack is
  then deposited equidistant from each bowl and immediately before the
  front line. A semicircle is then drawn behind the bowls with a radius
  of 9 ft. from the jack. Three points are given to the bowl that trails
  the jack over both lines into the semicircle and goes over them
  itself. If a bowl trail the jack over both lines, but only itself
  cross the first; or if it pass both lines, but the jack cross only the
  first, two points are awarded. A bowl passing between the jack and
  either of the stationary bowls, and passing over the back line; or
  touching the jack, yet not trailing it past the first line, but itself
  crossing the back line; or trailing the jack over the front line
  without crossing it itself, receives one point. In no case must the
  stationary bowls be touched, or the semicircle crossed by the trailed
  jack or played bowls. In _driving_ (fig. 4), two bowls are laid down 2
  ft. apart, and then a jack is placed in front of them, 15 in. apart
  from each, and occupying the position of the apex of an inverted
  pyramid. The player who drives the jack into the ditch between the two
  bowls scores three. If he moves the jack, but does not carry it
  through to the ditch, he scores two. If he pass between the jack and
  either bowl he scores one, although it is not easy to see what driving
  he has done. The played bowl must itself run into the ditch without
  touching either of the stationary bowls. It is obvious that the points
  game demands an ideally perfect green.

  See W.W. Mitchell, _Manual of Bowl-playing_ (Glasgow, 1880); _Laws of
  the Game issued by the Scottish B.A._ (1893, et sqq.); H.J. Dingley,
  _Touchers and Rubs_ (Glasgow, 1893); Sam Aylwin, _The Gentle Art of
  Bowling_, with 26 diagrams (London, 1904); James A. Manson, _The
  Bowler's Handbook_ (London, 1906).     (J. A. M.)

BOWNESS-ON-WINDERMERE, an urban district in the Appleby parliamentary
division of Westmorland, England, on the east shore of Windermere, 1¼ m.
S.W. of Windermere station on the London & North-Western railway.
Together with the town of Windermere it forms an urban district (pop.
5061 in 1901), but the two towns were separate until 1905. Its situation
is fine, the lake-shore here rising sharply, while at this point the
lake narrows and is studded with islands. The low surrounding hills are
richly wooded, and a number of country seats stand upon them. Bowness
lies at the head of a small bay, is served by the lake-steamers of the
Furness Railway Company, and is a favourite yachting, boating, fishing
and tourist centre. The church of St Martin is ancient, and contains
stained glass from Cartmel priory in Furness. (See WINDERMERE.)

BOWRING, SIR JOHN (1792-1872), English linguist, political economist and
miscellaneous writer, was born at Exeter, on the 17th of October 1792,
of an old Puritan family. In early life he came under the influence of
Jeremy Bentham. He did not, however, share his master's contempt for
_belles-lettres_, but was a diligent student of literature and foreign
languages, especially those of eastern Europe. As a linguist he ranked
with Mezzofanti and von Gabelentz among the greatest of the world. The
first-fruits of his study of foreign literature appeared in _Specimens
of the Russian Poets_ (1821-1823). These were speedily followed by
_Batavian Anthology_ (1824), _Ancient Poetry and Romances of Spain_
(1824), _Specimens of the Polish Poets_, and _Servian Popular Poetry_,
both in 1827. During this period he began to contribute to the newly
founded _Westminster Review_, of which he was appointed editor in 1825.
By his contributions to the _Review_ he obtained considerable reputation
as political economist and parliamentary reformer. He advocated in its
pages the cause of free trade long before it was popularized by Richard
Cobden and John Bright. He pleaded earnestly in behalf of parliamentary
reform, Catholic emancipation and popular education. In 1828 he visited
Holland, where the university of Groningen conferred on him the degree
of doctor of laws. In the following year he was in Denmark, preparing
for the publication of a collection of Scandinavian poetry. Bowring, who
had been the trusted friend of Bentham during his life, was appointed
his literary executor, and was charged with the task of preparing a
collected edition of his works. This appeared in eleven volumes in 1843.
Meanwhile Bowring had entered parliament in 1835 as member for
Kilmarnock; and in the following year he was appointed head of a
government commission to be sent to France to inquire into the actual
state of commerce between the two countries. He was engaged in similar
investigations in Switzerland, Italy, Syria and some of the German
states. The results of these missions appeared in a series of reports
laid before the House of Commons. After a retirement of four years he
sat in parliament from 1841 till 1849 as member for Bolton. During this
busy period he found leisure for literature, and published in 1843 a
translation of the _Manuscript of the Queen's Court_, a collection of
old Bohemian lyrics, &c. In 1849 he was appointed British consul at
Canton, and superintendent of trade in China, a post which he held for
four years. After his return he distinguished himself as an advocate of
the decimal system, and published a work entitled _The Decimal System in
Numbers, Coins and Accounts_ (1854). The introduction of the florin as a
preparatory step was chiefly due to his efforts. Knighted in 1854, he
was again sent the same year to Hong-Kong as governor, invested with the
supreme military and naval power. It was during his governorship that a
dispute broke out with the Chinese; and the irritation caused by his
"spirited" or high-handed policy led to the second war with China. In
1855 he visited Siam, and negotiated with the king a treaty of commerce.
After the usual five years of service he retired and received a pension.
His last employment by the English government was as a commissioner to
Italy in 1861, to report on British commercial relations with the new
kingdom. Sir John Bowring subsequently accepted the appointment of
minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary from the Hawaiian
government to the courts of Europe, and in this capacity negotiated
treaties with Belgium, Holland, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. In
addition to the works already named he published--_Poetry of the
Magyars_ (1830); _Cheskian Anthology_ (1832); _The Kingdom and People of
Siam_ (1857); a translation of _Peter Schlemihl_ (1824); translations
from the Hungarian poet, Alexander Petöfi (1866); and various pamphlets.
He was elected F.R.S. and F.R.G.S., and received the decorations of
several foreign orders of knighthood. He died at Claremont, near Exeter,
on the 23rd of November 1872. His valuable collection of coleoptera was
presented to the British Museum by his second son, Lewin Bowring, a
well-known Anglo-Indian administrator; and his third son, E.A. Bowring,
member of parliament for Exeter from 1868 to 1874, became known in the
literary world as an able translator.

  Sir John Bowring's _Recollections_ were edited by Lewin Bowring (d.
  1910) in 1877.

BOWTELL, a medieval term in architecture for a round or corniced
moulding; the word is a variant of "boltel," which is probably the
diminutive of "bolt," the shaft of an arrow or javelin. A "roving"
bowtell is one which passes up the side of a bench end and round a
finial, the term "roving" being applied to that which follows the line
of a curve.

BOWYER, WILLIAM (1663-1737), English printer, was born in 1663,
apprenticed to a printer in 1679, made a liveryman of the Stationers'
Company in 1700, and nominated as one of the twenty printers allowed by
the Star Chamber. He was burned out in the great fire of 1712, but his
loss was partly made good by the subscription of friends and fellow
craftsmen, as recorded on a tablet in Stationers' Hall, and in 1713 he
returned to his Whitefriars shop and became the leading printer of his
day. He died on the 27th of December 1737.

His son, WILLIAM BOWYER (1699-1777), was born in London on the 19th of
December 1699. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and in
1722 became a partner in his father's business. In 1729 he was appointed
printer of the votes of the House of Commons, and in 1736 printer to the
Society of Antiquaries, of which he was elected a fellow in 1737. In
1737 he took as apprentice John Nichols, who was to be his successor and
biographer. In 1761 Bowyer became printer to the Royal Society, and in
1767 printer of the rolls of the House of Lords and the journals of the
House of Commons. He died on the 13th of November 1777, leaving
unfinished a number of large works and among them the reprint of
Domesday Book. He wrote a great many tracts and pamphlets, edited,
arranged and published a host of books, but perhaps his principal work
was an edition of the New Testament in Greek, with notes. His generous
bequests in favour of his own profession are administered by the
Stationers' Company, of which he became a liveryman in 1738, and in
whose hall is his portrait bust and a painting of his father. He was
known as "the learned printer."

BOX (Gr. [Greek: puxos], Lat. _buxus_, box-wood; cf. [Greek: puxis], a
pyx), the most varied of all receptacles. A box may be square, oblong,
round or oval, or of an even less normal shape; it usually opens by
raising, sliding or removing the lid, which may be fastened by a catch,
hasp or lock. Whatever its shape or purpose or the material of which it
is fashioned, it is the direct descendant of the chest, one of the most
ancient articles of domestic furniture. Its uses are infinite, and the
name, preceded by a qualifying adjective, has been given to many objects
of artistic or antiquarian interest.

Of the boxes which possess some attraction beyond their immediate
purpose the feminine work-box is the commonest. It is usually fitted
with a tray divided into many small compartments, for needles, reels of
silk and cotton and other necessaries of stitchery. The date of its
introduction is in considerable doubt, but 17th-century examples have
come down to us, with covers of silk, stitched with beads and adorned
with embroidery. In the 18th century no lady was without her work-box,
and, especially in the second half of that period, much taste and
elaborate pains were expended upon the case, which was often exceedingly
dainty and elegant. These boxes are ordinarily portable, but sometimes
form the top of a table.

But it is as a receptacle for snuff that the box has taken its most
distinguished and artistic form. The snuff-box, which is now little more
than a charming relic of a disagreeable practice, was throughout the
larger part of the 18th century the indispensable companion of every man
of birth and breeding. It long survived his sword, and was in frequent
use until nearly the middle of the 19th century. The jeweller, the
enameller and the artist bestowed infinite pains upon what was quite as
often a delicate bijou as a piece of utility; fops and great personages
possessed numbers of snuff-boxes, rich and more ordinary, their
selection being regulated by their dress and by the relative splendour
of the occasion. From the cheapest wood that was suitable--at one time
potato-pulp was extensively used--to a frame of gold encased with
diamonds, a great variety of materials was employed. Tortoise-shell was
a favourite, and owing to its limpid lustre it was exceedingly
effective. Mother-of-pearl was also used, together with silver, in its
natural state or gilded. Costly gold boxes were often enriched with
enamels or set with diamonds or other precious stones, and sometimes the
lid was adorned with a portrait, a classical vignette, or a tiny
miniature, often some choice work by an old master. After snuff-taking
had ceased to be general it lingered for some time among diplomatists,
either because--as Talleyrand explained--they found a ceremonious pinch
to be a useful aid to reflection in a business interview, or because
monarchs retained the habit of bestowing snuff-boxes upon ambassadors
and other intermediaries, who could not well be honoured in any other
way. It is, indeed, to the cessation of the habit of snuff-taking that
we may trace much of modern lavishness in the distribution of
decorations. To be invited to take a pinch from a monarch's snuff-box
was a distinction almost equivalent to having one's ear pulled by
Napoleon. At the coronation of George IV. of England, Messrs Rundell &
Bridge, the court jewellers, were paid £8205 for snuff-boxes for foreign
ministers. Now that the snuff-box is no longer used it is collected by
wealthy amateurs or deposited in museums, and especially artistic
examples command large sums. George, duke of Cambridge (1819-1904),
possessed an important collection; a Louis XV. gold box was sold by
auction after his death for £2000.

A jewel-box is a receptacle for trinkets. It may take a very modest
form, covered in leather and lined with satin, or it may reach the
monumental proportions of the jewel cabinets which were made for Marie
Antoinette, one of which is at Windsor, and another at Versailles, the
work of Schwerdfeger as cabinet-maker, Degault as miniature-painter, and
Thomire as chaser.

A strong-box is a receptacle for money, deeds and securities. Its place
has been taken in modern life by the safe. Some of those which have
survived, such as that of Sir Thomas Bodley in the Bodleian library,
possess locks with an extremely elaborate mechanism contrived in the
under-side of the lid.

The knife-box is one of the most charming of the minor pieces of
furniture which we owe to the artistic taste and mechanical ingenuity of
the English cabinet-makers of the last quarter of the 18th century. Some
of the most elegant were the work of Adam, Hepplewhite and Sheraton.
Occasionally flat-topped boxes, they were most frequently either
vase-shaped, or tall and narrow with a sloping lid necessitated by a
series of raised stages for exhibiting the handles of knives and the
bowls of spoons. Mahogany and satinwood were the woods most frequently
employed, and they were occasionally inlaid with marqueterie or edged
with boxwood. These graceful receptacles still exist in large numbers;
they are often converted into stationery cabinets.

The Bible-box, usually of the 17th century, but now and again more
ancient, probably obtained its name from the fact that it was of a size
to hold a large Bible. It often has a carved or incised lid.

The powder-box and the patch-box were respectively receptacles for the
powder and the patches of the 18th century; the former was the direct
ancestor of the puff-box of the modern dressing-table.

The _étui_ is a cylindrical box or case of very various materials, often
of pleasing shape or adornment, for holding sewing materials or small
articles of feminine use. It was worn on the châtelaine.

BOXING (M.E. _box_, a blow, probably from Dan. _bask_, a buffet), the
art of attack and defence with the fists protected by padded gloves, as
distinguished from pugilism, in which the bare fists, or some kind of
light gloves affording little moderation of the blow, are employed. The
ancient Greeks used a sort of glove in practice, but, although far less
formidable than the terrible caestus worn in serious encounters, it was
by no means so mild an implement as the modern boxing-glove, the
invention of which is traditionally ascribed to Jack Broughton
(1705-1789), "the father of British pugilism." In any case gloves were
first used in his time, though only in practice, all prize-fights being
decided with bare fists. Broughton, who was for years champion of
England, also drew up the rules by which prize-fights were for many
years regulated, and no doubt, with the help of the newly invented
gloves, imparted instruction in boxing to the young aristocrats of his
day. The most popular teacher of the art was, however, John Jackson
(1769-1845), called "Gentleman Jackson," who was champion from 1795 to
1800, and who is credited with imparting to boxing its scientific
principles, such as countering, accurate judging of distance in hitting,
and agility on the feet. Tom Moore, the poet, in his _Memoirs_, asserted
that Jackson "made more than a thousand a year by teaching sparring."
Among his pupils was Lord Byron, who, when chided for keeping company
with a pugilist, insisted that Jackson's manners were "infinitely
superior to those of the fellows of the college whom I meet at the high
table," and referred to him in the following lines in _Hints from

  "And men unpractised in exchanging knocks
   Must go to Jackson ere they dare to box."

His rooms in Bond Street were crowded with men of birth and distinction,
and when the allied monarchs visited London he was entrusted with the
management of a boxing carnival with which they were vastly pleased. In
1814 the Pugilistic Club, the meeting-place of the aristocratic sporting
element, was formed, but the high-water mark of the popularity of boxing
had been reached, and it declined rapidly, although throughout the
country considerable interest continued to be manifested in

The sport of modern boxing, as distinguished from pugilism, may be said
to date from the year 1866, when the public had become disgusted with
the brutality and unfair practices of the professional "bruisers," and
the laws against prize-fighting began to be more rigidly enforced. In
that year the "Amateur Athletic Club" was founded, principally through
the efforts of John G. Chambers (1843-1883), who, in conjunction with
the 8th marquess of Queensberry, drew up a code of laws (known as the
Queensberry Rules) which govern all glove contests in Great Britain, and
were also authoritative in America until the adoption of the boxing
rules of the Amateur Athletic Union of America. In 1867 Lord Queensberry
presented cups for the British amateur championships at the recognized

For the history of pugilism in classic antiquity and an account of
modern prize-fighting see PUGILISM. At present two kinds of boxing
contests are in vogue, that for a limited number of rounds (as in the
amateur championships) and that for endurance, in which the one who
cannot continue the fight loses. Endurance contests, which contain the
essential element of the old prize-fights, are now indulged in only by
professionals. Among amateurs boxing is far less popular than it once
was, owing to the importance placed upon brute strength, and the
prevailing ambition of the modern boxer to "knock out" his opponent,
i.e. reduce him to a state of insensibility. Even in 3-round matches
between gentlemen, in which points win, and there is therefore no need
to knock an opponent senseless, it is nevertheless a common practice to
strike a dazed and reeling adversary a heavy blow with a view to ending
the battle at once. During the annual boxing competitions between Oxford
and Cambridge more than half the bouts have been known to end in this
manner. Undoubtedly the prettiest boxing is seen when two men proficient
in the art indulge in a practice bout--or "sparring."

Boxing is the art of hitting without getting hit. The boxers face each
other just out of reach and balanced equally on both feet, the left from
10 to 20 in. in advance of the right. The left foot is planted flat on
the floor, while the right heel is raised slightly from it. The left
side of the body is turned a little towards the opponent and the right
shoulder slightly depressed. When the hands are clenched inside the
gloves the thumb is doubled over the second and third fingers to avoid a
sprain when hitting. The general position of the guard is a matter of
individual taste. In the "crouch," affected by many American
professionals, the right hip is thrust forward and the body bent over
towards the right, while the left arm is kept well stretched out to
keep the opponent at a distance. No good master, however, teaches a
beginner any other than the upright position. Some boxers stand with the
right foot forward, a practice common in the 18th century, which gives
freer play with the right hand but is rather unstable. A boxer should
stand lightly on his feet, ready to advance or retreat on the instant,
using short steps, advancing with the left foot first and retreating
with the right. Attacks are either simple or secondary. Simple attacks
consist in straight leads, i.e. blows aimed with or without preliminary
feints, at some part of the opponent's body or head. All other attacks
are either "counters" or returns after a guard or "block." A counter is
a lead carried out just as one is attacked, the object being to block
(parry) the blow and land on the opponent at the same time. Counters are
often carried out in connexion with a side-step, a slip or a crouch. In
hitting, a boxer seeks to exert the greatest force at the instant of
impact. Blows may be either straight, with or without the weight of the
body behind them ("straight from the shouder" hits); jabs, short blows
(usually with the left hand when at close quarters); hooks, or
side-blows with bent arm; upper cuts (short swinging blows from beneath
to the adversary's chin); chops (short blows from above); punches
(usually at close quarters, with the right hand); or swings (round-arm
blows, usually delivered with a partial twist of the body to augment the
force of the blow). Of the dangerous blows, which often result in a
knockout, or in seriously weakening an adversary, the following may be
mentioned:--on the pit of the stomach, called the solar plexus, from the
sensitive network of nerves situated there; a blow on the point of the
chin, having a tendency slightly to paralyse the brain; a blow under the
ear, painful and often resulting in partial helplessness; and one
directly over the heart, kidney or liver. As a boxer is allowed ten
seconds after being knocked down in which to rise, an experienced
ring-fighter will drop on one knee when partially stunned, remaining in
that position in order to recover until the referee has counted nine.

Guarding is done with the arm or hand, either open or shut. If a blow is
caught or stopped short it is called _blocking_, but a blow may also be
shoved aside, or avoided altogether by _slipping, i.e._ moving the head
quickly to one side, or by ducking and allowing the adversary's swing to
pass harmlessly over the head. Still another method of avoiding a blow
without guarding is to bend back the head or body so as narrowly to
escape the opponent's glove.

The rules of the Amateur Boxing Association (founded 1884) contain the
following provisions. "An amateur is one who has never competed for a
money prize or staked bet with or against a professional for any prize,
except with the express sanction of the A.B.A., and who has never
taught, pursued or assisted in the practice of athletic exercises as a
means of obtaining a livelihood." The ring shall be roped and between 12
and 24 ft. square. No spikes shall be worn on shoes. Boxers are divided
into the following classes by weight:--Bantam, not exceeding 8 st. 4 lb
(116 lb); Feather, not exceeding 9 st. (126 lb); Light, not exceeding 10
st. (140 lb); Middle, not exceeding 11 st. 4 lb. (158 lb); and Heavy,
any weight above. There shall be two judges, a referee and a timekeeper.
The votes of the judges decide the winner of a bout, unless they
disagree, in which case the referee has the deciding vote. In case of
doubt he may order an extra round of two minutes' duration. Each match
is for three rounds, the first two lasting three minutes and the third
four, with one minute rest between the rounds. A competitor failing to
come up at the call of time loses the match. When a competitor draws a
bye he must box for a specified time with an opponent chosen by the
judges. A competitor is allowed one assistant (second) only, and no
advice or coaching during the progress of a round is permitted. Unless
one competitor is unable to respond to the call of time, or is obliged
to stop before the match is over, the judges decide the winner by
_points_, which are for attack, comprising successful hits cleanly
delivered, and defence, comprising guarding, slipping, ducking,
counter-hitting and getting away in time to avoid a return. When the
points are equal the decision is given in favour of the boxer who has
done the most leading, i.e. has been the more aggressive. Fouls are
hitting below the belt, kicking, hitting with the open hand, the side of
the hand, the wrist, elbow or shoulder, wrestling or "roughing" on the
ropes, i.e. unnecessary shouldering and jostling.

The boxing rules of the American Amateur Athletic Association differ
slightly from the British. The ring is roped but must be from 16 to 24
ft. square. Gloves must not be worn more than 8 oz. in weight. The
recognized classes by weight are: Bantam, 105 lb. and under; Feather,
115 lb. and under; Light, 135 lb. and under; Welter, 145 lb. and under;
Middle, 158 lb. and under; and Heavy, over 158 lb. The rules for
officials and rounds are identical with the British, except that only in
final bouts does the last round last four minutes. Two "seconds" are
allowed. The rules for points and fouls coincide with the British. The
amateur rules are very strict, and any one who competes in a boxing
contest of more than four rounds is suspended from membership in the
Athletic Association.

  _Glossary_ of terms not mentioned above:--_Break away_, to get away
  from the adversary, usually a command from the referee when the men
  clinch. _Break ground_, retire diagonally to right or left.
  _Catch-weight_, any weight. _Corners_, the opposite angles of the
  square "ring," in which the boxers rest between the rounds.
  _Cross-counter_, a blow in which the right or left arm crosses that of
  the adversary as he leads off; the arm is slightly curved to get round
  that of the opponent but is straightened at the moment of impact.
  _Clinching_, grappling after an exchange of blows; when breaking from
  a clinch one tries to pin the adversary's hands in order to prevent
  his hitting at close quarters. _Drawing_ an opponent, enticing him by
  leaving an apparent opening into making an attack for which a counter
  is prepared. _Fiddling_, forward and back movements of the arms at the
  beginning of a round, a part of sparring for an opening. _Footwork_,
  the manner in which a boxer uses his feet. _In-fighting_, boxing at
  very close quarters. _Mark_, the pit of the stomach. _Side-step_,
  springing quickly to one side to avoid a blow, the movement being
  usually followed up by a counter attack. _Timing_, a blow delivered on
  the enemy's preparation of an attack of his own, but more quickly.

  See _Boxing_, by R. Allanson Winn (Isthmian Library, London, 1897);
  _Boxing_, by Wm. Elder (Spalding's Athletic Library, New York, 1902)
  (these two books are excellent for the technicalities of boxing). The
  article "Boxing," by B. Jno. Angle and G.W. Barroll, in the
  _Encyclopaedia of Sport_; _Boxing_, by J.C. Trotter (Oval Series,
  London, 1896); _Fencing, Boxing and Wrestling_, in the Badminton
  Library (London, 1892).

FRENCH BOXING (_la boxe française_) dates from about 1830. It is more
like the ancient Greek _pankration_ (see PUGILISM) than is British
boxing, as not only striking with the fists, but also kicking with the
feet, butting with the head and wrestling are allowed. It is a
development of the old sport of _savate_, in which the feet, and not the
hands, were used in attack. Lessons in savate, which was practised
especially by roughs, were usually given in some low resort, and there
were no respectable teachers. While Paris was restricted to savate,
another sport, called _chausson_ or _jeu marseillais_, was practised in
the south of France, especially among the soldiers, in which blows of
the fist as well as kicks were exchanged, and the kicks were given
higher than in savate, in the stomach or even the face. It was an
excellent exercise, but could hardly be reckoned a serious means of
defence, for the high kicks usually fell short, and the upward blows of
the fist could not be compared with the terrible sledge-hammer blows of
the English boxers. Alexandre Dumas _père_ says that Charles Lecour
first conceived the idea of combining English boxing with savate. For
this purpose he went to England, and took lessons of Adams and Smith,
the London boxers. He then returned to Paris, about 1852, and opened a
school to teach the sport since called _la boxe française_. Around him,
and two provincial instructors who came to Paris about this time with
similar ideas, there grew up a large number of sportsmen, who between
1845 and 1855 brought French boxing to its highest development. Among
others who gave public exhibitions was Lecour's brother Hubert, who
although rather undersized, was quick as lightning, and had an English
blow and a French kick that were truly terrible. Charles Ducros was
another whose style of boxing, more in the English fashion, but with low
kicks about his opponent's shins, made a name for himself. Later came
Vigneron, a "strong man," whose style, though slow, was severe in its
punishment. About 1856 the police interfered in these fights, and Lecour
and Vigneron had to cease giving public exhibitions and devote
themselves to teaching. Towards 1862 a new boxer, J. Charlemont, was not
only very clever with his fists and feet, but an excellent teacher, and
the author of a treatise on the art. Lecour, Vigneron and Charlemont may
be said to have created _la boxe française_, which, for defence _at
equal weights_, the French claim to be better than the English.

  See _L'Art de la boxe française et de la canne_, by J. Charlemont
  (Paris, 1899); _The French Method of the Noble Art of Self Defence_,
  by Georges d'Amoric (London, 1898).

BOXWOOD, the wood obtained from the genus _Buxus_, the principal species
being the well-known tree or shrub, _B. sempervirens_, the common box,
in general use for borders of garden walks, ornamental parterres, &c.
The other source of the ordinary boxwood of commerce is _B. balearica_,
which yields the variety known as Turkey boxwood. The common box is
grown throughout Great Britain (perhaps native in the chalk-hills of the
south of England), in the southern part of the European continent
generally, and extends through Persia into India, where it is found
growing on the slopes of the western Himalayas. There has been much
discussion as to whether it is a true native of Britain. Writing more
than 200 years ago, John Ray, the author of the important _Historia
Plantarum_, says, "The Box grows wild on Boxhill, hence the name; also
at Boxwell, on the Cotteswold Hills in Gloucestershire, and at Boxley in
Kent.... It grows plentifully on the chalk hills near Dunstable." On the
other hand the box is not wild in the Channel Islands, and in the north
of France, Holland and Belgium is found mainly in hedgerows and near
cultivation, and it may have been one of the many introductions owed to
the Romans. Only a very small proportion of the wood suitable for
industrial uses is now obtained in Great Britain. The box is a very
slow-growing plant, adding not more than 1½ or 2 in. to its diameter in
twenty years, and on an average attaining only a height of 16 ft., with
a mean diameter of 10½ in. The leaves of this species are small, oval,
leathery in texture and of a deep glossy green colour. _B. balearica_ is
a tree of considerable size, attaining to a height of 80 ft., with
leaves three times larger than those of the common box. It is a native
of the islands of the Mediterranean, and grows in Turkey, Asia Minor,
and around the shores of the Black Sea, and is supposed to be the chief
source of the boxwood which comes into European commerce by way of
Constantinople. The wood of both species possesses a delicate yellow
colour; it is very dense in structure and has a fine uniform grain,
which has given it unique value for the purposes of the wood-engraver. A
large amount is used in the manufacture of measuring rules, various
mathematical instruments, flutes and other musical instruments, as well
as for turning into many minor articles, and for inlaying, and it is a
favourite wood for small carvings. The use of boxwood for turnery and
musical instruments is mentioned by Pliny, Virgil and Ovid.

BOYACÁ, or Bojacá, an inland department of Colombia, bounded by the
departments of Santander and Cundinamarca on the N., W. and S., and the
republic of Venezuela on the E., and having an area of 33,321 sq. m.,
including the Casanare territory. Pop. (1899, estimate) 508,940. The
department is very mountainous, heavily forested and rich in minerals.
The famous Muso emerald mines are located in the western part of Boyacá.
The capital, Tunja (pop. 1902, 10,000), is situated in the Eastern
Cordilleras, 9054 ft. above sea-level, and has a cool, temperate
climate, though only 5½° N. of the equator. It was an important place in
colonial times, and occupies the site of one of the Indian towns of this
region (Hunsa), which had acquired a considerable degree of civilization
before the discovery of America. Other towns of note in the department
are Chiquinquira (20,000), Moniquira (18,000), Sogamoso (10,787), and
Boyacá (7000), where on the 7th of August 1819 Bolivar defeated the
Spanish army and secured the independence of New Granada.

BOYAR (Russ. _boyarin_, plur. _boyare_), a dignity of Old Russia
conterminous with the history of the country. Originally the boyars were
the intimate friends and confidential advisers of the Russian prince,
the superior members of his _druzhina_ or bodyguard, his comrades and
champions. They were divided into classes according to rank, most
generally determined by personal merit and service. Thus we hear of the
"oldest," "elder" and the "younger" boyars. At first the dignity seems
to have been occasionally, but by no means invariably, hereditary. At a
later day the boyars were the chief members of the prince's _duma_, or
council, like the _senatores_ of Poland and Lithuania. Their further
designation of _luchshie lyudi_ or "the best people" proves that they
were generally richer than their fellow subjects. So long as the
princes, in their interminable struggles with the barbarians of the
Steppe, needed the assistance of the towns, "the best people" of the
cities and of the _druzhina_ proper mingled freely together both in war
and commerce; but after Yaroslav's crushing victory over the Petchenegs
in 1036 beneath the walls of Kiev, the two classes began to draw apart,
and a political and economical difference between the members of the
princely _druzhina_ and the aristocracy of the towns becomes
discernible. The townsmen devote themselves henceforth more exclusively
to commerce, while the _druzhina_ asserts the privileges of an
exclusively military caste with a primary claim upon the land. Still
later, when the courts of the northern grand dukes were established, the
boyars appear as the first grade of a fullblown court aristocracy with
the exclusive privilege of possessing land and serfs. Hence their title
of _dvoryane_ (courtiers), first used in the 12th century. On the other
hand there was no distinction, as in Germany, between the _Dienst Adel_
(nobility of service) and the simple _Adel_. The Russian boyardom had no
corporate or class privileges, (1) because their importance was purely
local (the dignity of the principality determining the degree of dignity
of the boyars), (2) because of their inalienable right of transmigration
from one prince to another at will, which prevented the formation of a
settled aristocracy, and (3) because birth did not determine but only
facilitated the attainment of high rank, e.g. the son of a boyar was not
a boyar born, but could more easily attain to boyardom, if of superior
personal merit. It was reserved for Peter the Great to transform the
_boyarstvo_ or boyardom into something more nearly resembling the
aristocracy of the West.

  See Alexander Markevich, _The History of Rank-priority in the Realm of
  Muscovy in the 15th-18th Centuries_ (Russ.) (Odessa, 1888); V.
  Klyuchevsky, _The Boyar Duma of Ancient Russia_ (Russ.) (Moscow,
  1888).     (R. N. B.)

BOY-BISHOP, the name given to the "bishop of the boys" (_episcopus
puerorum_ or _innocentium_, sometimes _episcopus scholariorum_ or
_chorestarum_), who, according to a custom very wide-spread in the
middle ages, was chosen in connexion with the festival of Holy
Innocents. For the origin of the curious authority of the boy-bishop and
of the rites over which he presided, see FOOLS, FEAST OF. In England the
boy-bishop was elected on December 6, the feast of St Nicholas, the
patron of children, and his authority lasted till Holy Innocents' day
(December 28). The election made, the lad was dressed in full bishop's
robes with mitre and crozier and, attended by comrades dressed as
priests, made a circuit of the town blessing the people. At Salisbury
the boy-bishop seems to have actually had ecclesiastical patronage
during his episcopate, and could make valid appointments. The boy and
his colleagues took possession of the cathedral and performed all the
ceremonies and offices except mass. Originally, it seems, confined to
the cathedrals, the custom spread to nearly all the parishes. Several
ecclesiastical councils had attempted to abolish or to restrain the
abuses of the custom, before it was prohibited by the council of Basel
in 1431. It was, however, too popular to be easily suppressed. In
England it was abolished by Henry VIII. in 1542, revived by Mary in 1552
and finally abolished by Elizabeth. On the continent it survived longest
in Germany, in the so-called _Gregoriusfest_, said to have been founded
by Gregory IV. in 828 in honour of St Gregory, the patron of schools. A
school-boy was elected bishop, duly vested, and, attended by two
boy-deacons and the town clergy, proceeded to the parish church, where,
after a hymn in honour of St Gregory had been sung, he preached. At
Meiningen this custom survived till 1799.

  See Brand, _Pop. Antiquities of Great Britain_ (1905); Gasquet,
  _Parish Life in Medieval England_ (1906); Du Cange, _Glossarium_
  (London, 1884), s.v. "Episcopus puerorum."

BOYCE, WILLIAM (1710-1779), English musical composer, the son of a
cabinet-maker, was born in London on the 7th of February 1710. As a
chorister in St Paul's he received his early musical education from
Charles King and Dr Maurice Greene, and he afterwards studied the theory
of music under Dr Pepusch. In 1734, having become organist of Oxford
chapel, Vere Street, Cavendish Square, he set Lord Lansdowne's masque of
_Peleus and Thetis_ to music. In 1736 he left Oxford chapel and was
appointed organist of St Michael's church, Cornhill, and in the same
year he became composer to the chapel royal, and wrote the music for
John Lockman's oratorio _David's Lamentation over Saul and Jonathan_. In
1737 he was appointed to conduct the meetings of the three choirs of
Gloucester, Worcester and Hereford. In 1743 was written the serenata
_Solomon_, in which occurs the favourite song "Softly rise, O southern
breeze." In 1749 he received the degree of doctor of music from the
university of Cambridge, as an acknowledgment of the merit of his
setting of the ode performed at the installation of Henry Pelham, duke
of Newcastle, as chancellor; and in this year he became organist of
All-hallows the Great and Less, Thames Street. A musical setting to _The
Chaplet_, an entertainment by Moses Mendez, was Boyce's most successful
achievement in this year. In 1750 he wrote songs for Dryden's _Secular
Masque_ and in 1751 set another piece (_The Shepherd's Lottery_) by
Mendez. He became master of the king's band in succession to Greene in
1757, and in 1758 he was appointed principal organist to the chapel
royal. As an ecclesiastical composer Boyce ranks among the best
representatives of the English school. His two church services and his
anthems, of which the best specimens are _By the Waters of Babylon_ and
_O, Where shall Wisdom be found_, are frequently performed. It should
also be remembered that he wrote additional accompaniments and choruses
for Purcell's _Te Deum_ and _Jubilate_, which the earlier musician had
composed for the St Cecilia's day of 1694. Boyce did this in his
capacity of conductor at the annual festivals of the Sons of the Clergy
at St Paul's cathedral, an office which he had taken in succession to
Greene. His twelve trios for two violins and a bass were long popular.
One of his most valuable services to musical art was his publication in
three volumes quarto of a work on _Cathedral Music_. The collection had
been begun by Greene, but it was mainly the work of Boyce. The first
volume appeared in 1760 and the last in 1778. On the 7th of February
1779 Boyce died from an attack of gout. He was buried under the dome of
St Paul's cathedral.

BOYCOTT, the refusal and incitement to refusal to have commercial or
social dealings with any one on whom it is wished to bring pressure. As
merely a form of "sending to Coventry" or (in W.E. Gladstone's phrase)
"exclusive dealing," boycotting may be, from a legal point of view,
unassailable, and as such has frequently been justified by its original
political inventors. But in practice it has usually taken the form of
what is undoubtedly an illegal conspiracy to injure the person, property
or business of another by unwarrantably putting pressure on all and
sundry to withdraw from him their social or business intercourse. The
word was first used in Ireland, and was derived from the name of Captain
Charles Cunningham Boycott (1832-1897), agent for the estates of the
earl of Erne in Co. Mayo. For refusing in 1880 to receive rents at
figures fixed by the tenants, Captain Boycott had his life threatened,
his servants compelled to leave him, his fences torn down, his letters
intercepted and his food supplies interfered with. It took a force of
900 soldiers to protect the Ulster Orangemen ("Emergency Men") who
succeeded finally in getting in his crops. He was hooted and mobbed in
the streets, and hanged and burnt in effigy. The system of boycotting
was an essential part of the Irish Nationalist "Plan of Campaign," and
was dealt with under the Crimes Act of 1887. The term soon came into
common English use, and was speedily adopted by the French, Germans,
Dutch and Russians. In the United States this method of "persuasion" was
taken up by the trade unions about 1886, an employer who refused their
demands being brought to terms by a combination to refuse to buy his
product or do his work, or to deal with any who did. Various cases have
occurred in America in which labour organizations have pronounced such a
boycott against a firm; and its illegal nature has been established in
the law-courts, notably in the case of the Bucks Stove Company v. The
American Federation of Labor (1907) in the Supreme Court of the district
of Columbia, and in a suit against the Hatters' Union (February 1908) in
the U.S. Supreme Court. A boycott has also been held by the U.S. Supreme
Court to be a violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust law.

BOYD, ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON (1825-1899), Scottish author and divine,
was born at Auchinleck manse in Ayrshire on the 3rd of November 1825. He
studied at King's College, London, and at the Middle Temple, with the
idea of practising at the English bar. Returning to Scotland, however,
he entered Glasgow University and there qualified for the Scottish
ministry, being licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of Ayr. He
served in succession the parishes of Newton-on-Ayr, Kirkpatrick-Irongray
near Dumfries, St Bernard's, Edinburgh, and finally, in 1865, became
minister of the first charge at St Andrews. Here he advocated an
improved ritual in the Scottish church, his action resulting in the
appointment by the general assembly of a committee, with Boyd as
convener, to prepare a new hymnal. In 1890 he was appointed moderator of
the general assembly, and fulfilled the duties of the position with
admirable dignity and tact. He died at Bournemouth on the 1st of March
1899. Dr Boyd was a very famous preacher and talker, and his desultory
essays have very much of the charm of his conversation. Among his
numerous publications may be specially mentioned the two works (each in
three series), _Recreations of a Country Parson_ (1859, 1861 and 1878),
and _Graver Thoughts of a Country Parson_ (1862-1865 and 1875); he also
wrote _Twenty-five Years at St Andrews_ (1892), and _St Andrews and
Elsewhere_ (1894). He was familiarly known to the public as a writer by
his initials "A.K.H.B."

BOYD, ROBERT BOYD, LORD (d.c. 1470), Scottish statesman, was a son of
Sir Thomas Boyd (d. 1439), and belonged to an old and distinguished
family, one member of which, Sir Robert Boyd, had fought with Wallace
and Robert Bruce. Boyd, who was created a peer about 1454, was one of
the regents of Scotland during the minority of James III., but, in 1466,
with some associates he secured the person of the young king and was
appointed his sole governor. As ruler of Scotland he was instrumental in
reforming some religious foundations; he arranged the marriage between
James III. and Margaret, daughter of Christian I., king of Denmark and
Norway, and secured the cession of the Orkney Islands by Norway.
However, when in 1467 he obtained the offices of chamberlain and
justiciary for himself, and the hand of the king's sister Mary, with the
title of earl of Arran for his eldest son Thomas, his enemies became too
strong for him, and he was found guilty of treason and sentenced to
death. He escaped to England, and the date of his death is unknown. His
brother and assistant, Sir Alexander Boyd, was beheaded on the 22nd of
November 1469.

Boyd's son Thomas, earl of Arran, was in Denmark when his father was
overthrown. However, he fulfilled his mission, that of bringing the
king's bride, Margaret, to Scotland, and then, warned by his wife,
escaped to the continent of Europe. He is mentioned very eulogistically
in one of the Paston Letters, but practically nothing is known of his
subsequent history.

Lord Boyd's grandson Robert (d. c. 1550), a son of Alexander Boyd, was
confirmed in the possession of the estates and honours of his
grandfather in 1549, and is generally regarded as the 3rd Lord Boyd. His
son Robert, 4th Lord Boyd (d. 1590), took a prominent part in Scottish
politics during the troubled time which followed the death of James V.
in 1542. At first he favoured the reformed religion, but afterwards his
views changed and he became one of the most trusted advisers of Mary,
queen of Scots, whom he accompanied to the battle of Langside in 1568.
During the queen's captivity he was often employed on diplomatic
errands; he tried to stir up insurrections in her favour, and he was
suspected of participation in the murder of the regent Murray. He
enjoyed a high and influential position under the regent James Douglas,
earl of Morton, but was banished in 1583 for his share in the seizure of
King James VI., a plot known as the Raid of Ruthven. He retired to
France, but was soon allowed to return to Scotland. He died on the 3rd
of January 1590.

William, 8th or 9th Lord Boyd (d. 1692), was created earl of Kilmarnock
in 1661, and this nobleman's grandson William, the 3rd earl (d. 1717),
was a partisan of the Hanoverian kings and fought for George I. during
the rising of 1715. His son William, the 4th earl (1704-1746), was
educated in the same principles, but in 1745, owing either to a personal
affront or to the influence of his wife or to his straitened
circumstances he deserted George II. and joined Charles Edward, the
Young Pretender. The 4th earl fought at Falkirk and Culloden, where he
was made prisoner, and was beheaded on the 18th of August 1746. The
title of earl of Kilmarnock is now merged in that of earl of Erroll.

BOYD, ZACHARY (1585?-1653), Scottish divine, was educated at the
universities of Glasgow and St Andrews. He was for many years a teacher
in the Protestant college of Saumur in France, but returned to Scotland
in 1621, to escape the Huguenot persecution. In 1623 he was appointed
minister of the Barony church in Glasgow, and he was rector of the
university in 1634, 1635 and 1645. He bequeathed to the university the
half of his fortune, a sum amounting to £20,000 Scots, besides his
library and twelve volumes of MSS. His poetical compositions, though
often eccentric, have some merit. The common statement that he made the
printing of his metrical version of the Gospels and other Biblical
narratives a condition of the reception of his grant to the university
is a mistake. In later years he was a staunch Covenanter, and though for
a time opposed to Oliver Cromwell, afterwards became friendly with him.
His best-known works are _The Battel of the Soul in Death_ (1629), of
which a new edition, with a biography by G. Neil, was published in
Glasgow in 1831; _Zion's Flowers_--often called "Boyd's Bible" (1644);
_Four Letters of Comfort_ (1640, reprinted, Edinburgh, 1878).

BOYDELL, JOHN (1719-1804), English alderman and publisher, was born at
Dorrington, and at the age of twenty-one came to London and was
apprenticed for seven years to an engraver. In 1746 he published a
volume of views in England and Wales, and started in business as a
print-seller. By his good taste and liberality he managed to secure the
services of the best artists, and his engravings were executed with such
skill that his business became extensive and lucrative. He succeeded in
his plan of a Shakespeare gallery, and obtained the assistance of the
most eminent painters of the day, whose contributions were exhibited
publicly for many years. The engravings from these paintings form a
splendid companion volume to his large illustrated edition of
Shakespeare's works. Towards the close of his life Boydell sustained
severe losses through the French Revolution, and was compelled to
dispose of his Shakespeare gallery by lottery. Boydell had previously
become an alderman, and rose to be lord mayor of London.

BOYER, ALEXIS (1757-1833), French surgeon, was born on the 1st of March
1757 at Uzerches (Corrèze). The son of a tailor, he obtained his first
medical knowledge in the shop of a barber-surgeon. Removing to Paris he
had the good fortune to attract the notice of Antoine Louis (1723-1792)
and P.J. Desault (1744-1795); and his perseverance, anatomical skill
and dexterity as an operator, became so conspicuous, that at the age of
thirty-seven he obtained the appointment of second surgeon to the Hôtel
Dieu of Paris. On the establishment of the École de Santé he gained the
chair of operative surgery, but soon exchanged it for the chair of
clinical surgery. In 1805 Napoleon nominated him imperial family
surgeon, and, after the brilliant campaigns of 1806-7, conferred on him
the legion of honour, with the title of baron of the empire and a salary
of 25,000 francs. On the fall of Napoleon the merits of Boyer secured
him the favour of the succeeding sovereigns of France, and he was
consulting surgeon to Louis XVIII., Charles X., and Louis Philippe. In
1825 he succeeded J.F.L. Deschamps (1740-1824) as surgeon-in-chief to
the Hôpital de la Charité, and was chosen a member of the Institute. He
died in Paris on the 23rd of November 1833. Perhaps no French surgeon of
his time thought or wrote with greater clearness and good sense than
Boyer; and while his natural modesty made him distrustful of innovation,
and somewhat tenacious of established modes of treatment, he was as
judicious in his diagnosis and as cool and skilful in manipulating, as
he was cautious in forming his judgment on individual cases. His two
great works are:--_Traité complet de l'anatomie_ (in 4 vols.,
1797-1799), of which a fourth edition appeared in 1815, and _Traité des
maladies chirurgicales et des opérations qui leur conviennent_ (in 11
vols., 1814-1826), of which a new edition in 7 vols. was published in
1844-1853, with additions by his son, Philippe Boyer (1801-1858).

BOYER, JEAN PIERRE (1776-1850), president of the republic of Haiti, a
mulatto, was born at Port-au-Prince on the 28th of February 1776. He
received a good education in France, and, returning to St Domingo,
joined the army in 1792. In 1794 he was already in command of a
battalion, and fought with distinction under General Rigaud against the
English. The negro insurrection under Toussaint l'Ouverture, which was
directed against the mulattoes as well as the whites, ultimately forced
him to take refuge in France. He was well received by Napoleon, and in
1802 obtained a commission in Leclerc's expedition. Being opposed to the
reinstitution of slavery, he turned against the French and succeeded in
producing an alliance between the negroes and mulattoes by which they
were driven from the island. Dessalines, a negro, was proclaimed king,
but his cruelty and despotism were such that Boyer combined with A.A.S.
Pétion and General Christophe to overthrow him (1806). Christophe now
seized the supreme power, but Pétion set up an independent republic in
the southern part of the island, with Boyer as commander-in-chief.
Christophe's efforts to crush this state were defeated by Boyer's
gallant defence of Port-au-Prince, and a series of brilliant victories,
which, on Pétion's death in 1818, led to Boyer's election as president.
Two years later the death of Christophe removed his only rival, and he
gained almost undisputed possession of the whole island. During his
presidency Boyer did much to set the finances and the administration in
order, and to encourage the arts and sciences, and in 1825 obtained
French recognition of the independence of Haiti, in return for a payment
of 150,000 francs. The weight of this debt excited the greatest
discontent in Haiti. Boyer was able to carry on his government for some
years longer, but in March 1843 a violent insurrection overthrew his
power and compelled him to take refuge in Jamaica. He resided there till
1848, when he removed to Paris, where he died in 1850.

  See Wallez, _Précis historique des négociations entre la France et
  Saint-Domingue, avec une notice biographique sur le général Boyer_
  (Paris, 1826).

BOYLE, JOHN J. (1851- ), American sculptor, was born in New York City.
He studied in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, and
in the École des Beaux Arts, Paris. He is particularly successful in the
portrayal of Indians. Among his principal works are: "Stone Age,"
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia; "The Alarm," Lincoln Park, Chicago; and, a
third study in primitive culture, the two groups, "The Savage Age" at
the Pan-American Exposition of 1901. His work also includes the seated
"Franklin," in Philadelphia; and "Bacon" and "Plato" in the
Congressional library, Washington, D.C.

BOYLE, ROBERT (1627-1691), English natural philosopher, seventh son and
fourteenth child of Richard Boyle, the great earl of Cork, was born at
Lismore Castle, in the province of Munster, Ireland, on the 25th of
January 1627. While still a child he learned to speak Latin and French,
and he was only eight years old when he was sent to Eton, of which his
father's friend, Sir Henry Wotton, was then provost. After spending over
three years at the college, he went to travel abroad with a French
tutor. Nearly two years were passed in Geneva; visiting Italy in 1641,
he remained during the winter of that year in Florence, studying the
"paradoxes of the great star-gazer" Galileo, who died within a league of
the city early in 1642. Returning to England in 1644 he found that his
father was dead and had left him the manor of Stalbridge in Dorsetshire,
together with estates in Ireland. From that time he gave up his life to
study and scientific research, and soon took a prominent place in the
band of inquirers, known as the "Invisible College," who devoted
themselves to the cultivation of the "new philosophy." They met
frequently in London, often at Gresham College; some of the members also
had meetings at Oxford, and in that city Boyle went to reside in 1654.
Reading in 1657 of Otto von Guericke's air-pump, he set himself with the
assistance of Robert Hooke to devise improvements in its construction,
and with the result, the "machina Boyleana" or "Pneumatical Engine,"
finished in 1659, he began a series of experiments on the properties of
air. An account of the work he did with this instrument was published in
1660 under the title _New Experiments Physico-Mechanical touching the
spring of air and its effects_. Among the critics of the views put
forward in this book was a Jesuit, Franciscus Linus (1595-1675), and it
was while answering his objections that Boyle enunciated the law that
the volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure, which among
English-speaking peoples is usually called after his name, though on the
continent of Europe it is attributed to E. Mariotte, who did not publish
it till 1676. In 1663 the "Invisible College" became the "Royal Society
of London for improving natural knowledge," and the charter of
incorporation granted by Charles II. named Boyle a member of the
council. In 1680 he was elected president of the society, but declined
the honour from a scruple about oaths. In 1668 he left Oxford for London
where he resided at the house of his sister, Lady Ranelagh, in Pall
Mall. About 1689 his health, never very strong, began to fail seriously
and he gradually withdrew from his public engagements, ceasing his
communications to the Royal Society, and advertising his desire to be
excused from receiving guests, "unless upon occasions very
extraordinary," on Tuesday and Friday forenoon, and Wednesday and
Saturday afternoon. In the leisure thus gained he wished to "recruit his
spirits, range his papers," and prepare some important chemical
investigations which he proposed to leave "as a kind of Hermetic legacy
to the studious disciples of that art," but of which he did not make
known the nature. His health became still worse in 1691, and his death
occurred on the 30th of December of that year, just a week after that of
the sister with whom he had lived for more than twenty years. He was
buried in the churchyard of St Martin's in the Fields, his funeral
sermon being preached by his friend Bishop Burnet.

Boyle's great merit as a scientific investigator is that he carried out
the principles which Bacon preached in the _Novum Organum_. Yet he would
not avow himself a follower of Bacon or indeed of any other teacher: on
several occasions he mentions that in order to keep his judgment as
unprepossessed as might be with any of the modern theories of
philosophy, till he was "provided of experiments" to help him judge of
them, he refrained from any study of the Atomical and the Cartesian
systems, and even of the _Novum Organum_ itself, though he admits to
"transiently consulting" them about a few particulars. Nothing was more
alien to his mental temperament than the spinning of hypotheses. He
regarded the acquisition of knowledge as an end in itself, and in
consequence he gained a wider outlook on the aims of scientific inquiry
than had been enjoyed by his predecessors for many centuries. This,
however, did not mean that he paid no attention to the practical
application of science nor that he despised knowledge which tended to
use. He himself was an alchemist; and believing the transmutation of
metals to be a possibility, he carried out experiments in the hope of
effecting it; and he was instrumental in obtaining the repeal, in 1689,
of the statute of Henry IV. against multiplying gold and silver. With
all the important work he accomplished in physics--the enunciation of
Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation
of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water,
on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on
electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c.--chemistry was his peculiar
and favourite study. His first book on the subject was _The Sceptical
Chemist_, published in 1661, in which he criticized the "experiments
whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their Salt,
Sulphur and Mercury to be the true Principles of Things." For him
chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not merely
an adjunct to the arts of the alchemist or the physician. He advanced
towards the modern view of elements as the undecomposable constituents
of material bodies; and understanding the distinction between mixtures
and compounds, he made considerable progress in the technique of
detecting their ingredients, a process which he designated by the term
"analysis." He further supposed that the elements were ultimately
composed of particles of various sorts and sizes, into which, however,
they were not to be resolved in any known way. Applied chemistry had to
thank him for improved methods and for an extended knowledge of
individual substances. He also studied the chemistry of combustion and
of respiration, and made experiments in physiology, where, however, he
was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from
anatomical dissections, especially of living animals, though he knew
them to be "most instructing."

Besides being a busy natural philosopher, Boyle devoted much time to
theology, showing a very decided leaning to the practical side and an
indifference to controversial polemics. At the Restoration he was
favourably received at court, and in 1665 would have received the
provostship of Eton, if he would have taken orders; but this he refused
to do, on the ground that his writings on religious subjects would have
greater weight coming from a layman than a paid minister of the Church.
He spent large sums in promoting the spread of Christianity,
contributing liberally to missionary societies, and to the expenses of
translating the Bible or portions of it into various languages. By his
will he founded the Boyle lectures, for proving the Christian religion
against "notorious infidels, viz. atheists, theists, pagans, Jews and
Mahommedans," with the proviso that controversies between Christians
were not to be mentioned.

In person Boyle was tall, slender and of a pale countenance. His
constitution was far from robust, and throughout his life he suffered
from feeble health and low spirits. While his scientific work procured
him an extraordinary reputation among his contemporaries, his private
character and virtues, the charm of his social manners, his wit and
powers of conversation, endeared him to a large circle of personal
friends. He was never married. His writings are exceedingly voluminous,
and his style is clear and straightforward, though undeniably prolix.

  The following are the more important of his works in addition to the
  two already mentioned:--_Considerations touching the Usefulness of
  Experimental Natural Philosophy_ (1663), followed by a second part in
  1671; _Experiments and Considerations upon Colours, with Observations
  on a Diamond that Shines in the Dark_ (1663); _New Experiments and
  Observations upon Cold_ (1665); _Hydrostatical Paradoxes_ (1666);
  _Origin of Forms and Qualities according to the Corpuscular
  Philosophy_ (1666); a continuation of his work on the spring of air
  (1669); tracts about the _Cosmical Qualities of Things_, the
  _Temperature of the Subterraneal and Submarine Regions_, the _Bottom
  of the Sea_, &c. with an _Introduction to the History of Particular
  Qualities_ (1670); _Origin and Virtues of Gems_ (1672); _Essays of the
  strange Subtilty, great Efficacy, determinate Nature of Effluviums_
  (1673); two volumes of tracts on the _Saltness of the Sea_, the
  _Hidden Qualities of the Air, Cold, Celestial Magnets, Animadversions
  on Hobbes's_ Problemata de Vacuo (1674); _Experiments and Notes about
  the Mechanical Origin or Production of Particular Qualities_,
  including some notes on electricity and magnetism (1676);
  _Observations upon an artificial Substance that Shines without any
  Preceding Illustration_ (1678); the _Aerial Noctiluca_ (1680); _New
  Experiments and Observations upon the Icy Noctiluca_ (1682); a further
  continuation of his work on the air; _Memoirs for the Natural History
  of the Human Blood_ (1684); _Short Memoirs for the Natural
  Experimental History of Mineral Waters_ (1685); _Medicina
  Hydrostatica_ (1690); and _Experimenta et Observiationes Physicae_
  (1691). Among his religious and philosophical writings
  were:--_Seraphic Love_, written in 1648, but not published till 1660;
  an _Essay upon the Style of the Holy Scriptures_ (1663); _Occasional
  Reflections upon Several Subjects_ (1665), which was ridiculed by
  Swift in _A Pious Meditation upon a Broomstick_, and by Butler in _An
  Occasional Reflection on Dr Charlton's Feeling a Dog's Pulse at
  Cresham College_; _Excellence of Theology compared with Natural
  Philosophy_ (1664); _Some Considerations about the Reconcileableness
  of Reason and Religion_, with a _Discourse about the Possibility of
  the Resurrection_ (1675); _Discourse of Things above Reason_ (1681);
  _High Veneration Man owes to God_ (1685); _A Free Inquiry into the
  vulgarly received Notion of Nature_ (1686); and the _Christian
  Virtuoso_ (1690). Several other works appeared after his death, among
  them _The General History of the Air designed and begun_ (1692); a
  "collection of choice remedies," _Medicinal Experiments_ (1692-1698);
  and _A Free Discourse against Customary Swearing_ (1695). An
  incomplete and unauthorized edition of Boyle's works was published at
  Geneva in 1677, but the first complete edition was that of Thomas
  Birch, with a life, published in 1744, in five folio volumes, a second
  edition appearing in 1772 in six volumes, 4to. Boyle bequeathed his
  natural history collections to the Royal Society, which also possesses
  a portrait of him by the German painter, Friedrich Kerseboom

BOYLE, a market town of Co. Roscommon, Ireland, in the north
parliamentary division, on the Sligo line of the Midland Great Western
railway, 106¼ m. N.W. by W. from Dublin and 28 m. S. by E. from Sligo.
Pop. (1901) 2477. It is beautifully situated on both banks of the river
Boyle, an affluent of the Shannon, between Loughs Gara and Key. Three
bridges connect the two parts of the town. There is considerable trade
in agricultural produce. To the north of the town stand the extensive
ruins of a Cistercian abbey founded in 1161, including remains of a
cruciform church, with a fine west front, and Norman and Transitional
arcades with carving of very beautiful detail. The offices of the
monastery are well preserved, and an interesting feature is seen in the
names carved on the door of the lodge, attributed in Cromwell's soldier,
who occupied the buildings. Neighbouring antiquities are Asselyn church
near Lough Key, and a large cromlech by the road towards Lough Gara.
Boyle was incorporated by James I., and returned two members to the
Irish parliament.

BOYNE, a river of Ireland, which, rising in the Bog of Allen, near
Carbery in Co. Kildare, and flowing in a north-easterly direction,
passes Trim, Navan and Drogheda, and enters the Irish Sea, 4 m. below
the town last named. It is navigable for barges to Navan, 19 m. from its
mouth. Much of the scenery on its banks is beautiful, though never
grand. About 2 m. west of Drogheda, an obelisk, 150 ft. in height, marks
the spot where the forces of William III. gained a celebrated victory
over those of James II., on the 1st of July[1] 1690, known as the battle
of the Boyne.


  [1] This was the "old style" date, which in the new style (see
    CALENDAR) would be July 11th (not 12th, as Lecky says, _Hist, of
    Ireland_, iii. p. 427). The 12th of July is annually celebrated by
    the Orangemen in the north of Ireland as the anniversary, but this is
    a confusion between the supposed new style for July 1st and the old
    style date of the battle of Aughrim, July 12th; the intention being
    to commemorate both.

BOYS' BRIGADE, an organization founded in Glasgow by Mr (afterwards Sir)
W.A. Smith in 1883 to develop Christian manliness by the use of a
semi-military discipline and order, gymnastics, summer camps and
religious services and classes. There are about 2200 companies connected
with different churches throughout the United Kingdom, the British
empire and the United States, with 10,000 officers and 100,000 boys. A
similar organization, confined to the Anglican communion, is the Church
Lads' Brigade. Boys' and girls' life brigades are a more recent
movement; they teach young people how to save life from fire and from
water, and hold classes in hygiene, ambulance and elementary nursing.

BOZDAR, a Baluch tribe of Rind (Arab) extraction, usually associated
with the mountain districts of the frontier near Dera Ghazi Khan. They
are also to be found in Zhob, Thal-Chotiali and Las Bela, whilst the
majority of the population are said to live in the Punjab. They are
usually graziers, and the name Bozdar is probably derived from Buz, the
Persian name for goat. Within the limits of their mountain home on the
outer spurs of the Suliman hills they have always been a turbulent race,
mustering about 2700 fighting men, and they were formerly constantly at
feud with the neighbouring Ustarana and Sherani tribes. In 1857 their
raids into the Punjab drew upon them an expedition under
Brigadier-General Sir N.B. Chamberlain. The Sangarh pass was captured
and the Bozdars submitted. Since Baluchistan has been taken over they
have given but little trouble.

BOZRAH. (1) A capital of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 33; Amos i. 12; Is. xxxiv. 6,
lxiii. 1), doubtfully identified with _el-Buseireh_, S.E. of the Dead
Sea, in the broken country N. of Petra; the ruins here are comparatively
unimportant. It is the centre of a pastoral district, and its
inhabitants, who number between 100 and 200, are all shepherds. (2) A
city in the _Mishor_ or plain country of Moab, denounced by Jeremiah
(xlviii. 24). It has been identified (also questionably) with a very
extensive collection of ruins of various ages, now called Bosra (the
Roman _Bostra_), situated in the Hauran, about 80 m. south of Damascus.
The area within the walls is about 1¼ m. in length, and nearly 1 m. in
breadth, while extensive suburbs lie to the east, north and west. The
principal buildings which can still be distinguished are a temple, an
aqueduct, a large theatre (enclosed by a castle of much more recent
workmanship), several baths, a triumphal and other arches, three
mosques, and what are known as the church and convent of the monk
Boheira. In A.D. 106 the city was beautified and perhaps restored from
ruin by Trajan, who made it the capital of the new province of Arabia.
In the reign of Alexander Severus it was made a colony, and in 244, a
native of the place, Philippus, ascended the imperial throne. By the
time of Constantine the Great it seems to have been Christianized, and
not long after it was the seat of an extensive bishopric. It was one of
the first cities of Syria to be subjected to the Mahommedans, and it
successfully resisted all the attempts of the Crusaders to wrest it from
their hands. As late as the 14th century it was a populous city, after
which it gradually fell into decay. It is now inhabited by thirty or
forty families only. Another suggested identification is with Kusur
el-Besheir, equidistant (2 m.) from Dibon and Aroer. This is perhaps the
same as the Bezer mentioned in Deuteronomy and Joshua as a levitical
city and a city of refuge.

In 1 Macc. v. 26 there is mention of Bosor and of Bosora. The latter is
probably to be identified with Bosra, the former perhaps with the
present Busr el-Hariri in the south-east corner of the Leja.
     (R. A. S. M.)

BRABANT, a duchy which existed from 1190 to 1430, when it was united
with the duchy of Burgundy, the name being derived from Brabo, a
semi-mythical Frankish chief.

The history of Brabant is connected with that of the duchy of Lower
Lorraine (q.v.), which became in the course of the 11th century split up
into a number of small feudal states. The counts of Hainaut, Namur,
Luxemburg and Limburg asserted their independence, and the territory of
Liége passed to the bishops of that city. The remnant of the duchy,
united since 1100 with the margraviate of Antwerp, was conferred in 1106
by the emperor Henry V., with the title of duke of Lower Lorraine, upon
Godfrey (Godefroid) I., "the Bearded," count of Louvain and Brussels.
His title was disputed by Count Henry of Limburg, and for three
generations the representatives of the rival houses contested the
possession of the ducal dignity in Lower Lorraine. The issue was decided
in favour of the house of Louvain by Duke Godfrey III. in 1159. His son,
Henry I., "the Warrior" (1183-1235), abandoned the title of duke of
Lower Lorraine and assumed in 1190 that of duke of Brabant. His
successors were Henry II., "the Magnanimous" (1235-1248), Henry III.,
"le Debonnair" (1248-1261), and John I., "the Victorious" (1261-1294).
These were all able rulers. Their usual place of residence was Louvain.
John I., in 1283 bought the duchy of Limburg from Adolf of Berg, and
secured his acquisition by defeating and slaying his competitor, Henry
of Luxemburg, at the battle of Woeringen (June 5, 1288). His own son,
John II., "the Pacific" (1294-1312), bestowed liberties upon his
subjects by the charter of Cortenberg. This charter laid the foundation
of Brabantine freedom. By it the imposition of grants (_beden_) and
taxes was strictly limited and regulated, and its execution was
entrusted to a council appointed by the duke for life (four nobles, ten
burghers) whose duty it was to consider all complaints and to see that
the conditions laid down by the charter concerning the administration of
justice and finance were not infringed. He was succeeded by his son,
John III., "the Triumphant" (1312-1355), who succeeded in maintaining
his position in spite of formidable risings in Louvain and Brussels,
and a league formed against him by his princely neighbours, but he had
a hard struggle to face, and many ups and downs of fortune. He it was to
whom Brabant owed the great charter of its liberties, called _La joyeuse
entrée_, because it was granted on the occasion of the marriage of his
daughter Johanna (Jeanne) with Wenzel (Wenceslaus) of Luxemburg, and was
proclaimed on their state entry into Brussels (1356).

Henry, the only legitimate son of John III., having died in 1349, the
ducal dignity passed to his daughter and heiress, the above-named
Johanna (d. 1406). She had married in first wedlock William IV., count
of Holland (d. 1345). Wenzel of Luxemburg, her second husband, assumed
in right of his wife, and by the sanction of the charter _La joyeuse
entrée_, the style of duke of Brabant. Johanna's title was, however,
disputed by Louis II., count of Flanders (d. 1384), who had married her
sister Margaret. The question had been compromised by the cession to
Margaret in 1347 of the margraviate of Antwerp by John III., but a war
broke out in 1356 between Wenzel supported by the gilds, and Louis, who
upheld the burgher-patrician party in the Brabant cities. The democratic
leaders were Everhard Tserclaes at Brussels and Peter Coutercel at
Louvain. In the course of a stormy reign Wenzel was taken prisoner in
1371 by the duke of Gelderland, and had to be ransomed by his subjects.
After his death (1383) his widow continued to rule over the two duchies
for eighteen years, but was obliged to rely on the support of the house
of Burgundy in her contests with the turbulent city gilds and with her
neighbours, the dukes of Jülich and Gelderland. In 1390 she revoked the
deed which secured the succession to Brabant to the house of Luxemburg,
and appointed her niece, Margaret of Flanders (d. 1405), daughter of
Louis II. and Margaret of Brabant (see FLANDERS), and her husband,
Philip the Bold of Burgundy, her heirs. Margaret of Flanders had married
(1) Philip I. de Rouvre of Burgundy (d. 1361) and (2) Philip II., the
Bold, (d. 1404), son of John II., king of France (see BURGUNDY). Of her
three sons by her second marriage John succeeded to Burgundy, and
Anthony to Brabant on the death of Johanna in 1406. Anthony was killed
at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 and was succeeded by his eldest son
by Jeanne of Luxemburg St Pol, John IV. (d. 1427). He is chiefly
memorable for the excitement caused by his divorce from his wife Jacoba
(q.v.), countess of Holland. John IV. left no issue, and the succession
passed to his brother Philip I., who also died without issue in 1430.

On the extinction of the line of Anthony the duchy of Brabant became the
inheritance of the elder branch of the house of Burgundy, in the person
of Philip III., "the Good," of Burgundy, II. of Brabant, son of John.
His grand-daughter Mary (d. 1482), daughter and heiress of Charles I.,
"the Bold," (d. 1477) married the archduke Maximilian of Austria
(afterwards emperor) and so brought Brabant with the other Burgundian
possessions to the house of Habsburg. The chief city of Brabant,
Brussels, became under the Habsburg régime the residence of the court
and the capital of the Netherlands. In the person of the emperor Charles
V. the destinies of Brabant and the other Netherland states were linked
with those of the Spanish monarchy. The attempt of Philip II. of Spain
to impose despotic rule upon the Netherlands led to the outbreak of the
Netherland revolt, 1568 (see NETHERLANDS).

In the course of the eighty years' war of independence the province of
Brabant became separated into two portions. In the southern and larger
part Spanish rule was maintained, and Brussels continued to be the seat
of government. The northern (smaller) part was conquered by the Dutch
under Maurice and Frederick Henry of Orange. The latter captured 's
Hertogenbosch (1629), Maastricht (1632) and Breda (1637). At the peace
of Münster this portion, which now forms the Dutch province of North
Brabant, was ceded by Philip IV. to the United Provinces and was known
as Generality Land, and placed under the direct government of the
states-general. The southern portion, now divided into the provinces of
Antwerp and South Brabant, remained under the rule of the Spanish
Habsburgs until the death of Charles II., the last of his race in 1700.
After the War of the Spanish Succession the southern Netherlands passed
by the treaty of Utrecht (1713) to the Austrian branch of the Habsburgs.
During the whole period of Austrian rule the province of Brabant
succeeded in maintaining, to a very large extent unimpaired, the
immunities and privileges to which it was entitled under the provisions
of its ancient charter of liberty, the Joyous Entry. An ill-judged
attempt by the emperor Joseph II., in his zeal for reform, to infringe
these inherited rights stirred up the people under the leadership of
Henry van der Noot to armed resistance in the Brabançon revolt of

Since the French conquest of 1794 the history of Brabant is merged in
that of Belgium (q.v.). The revolt against Dutch rule in 1830 broke out
at Brussels and was in its initial stages largely a Brabançon movement.
The important part played by Brabant at this crisis of the history of
the southern Netherlands was marked in 1831 by the adoption of the
ancient Brabançon colours to form the national flag, and of the lion of
Brabant as the armorial bearings of Belgium. The title of duke of
Brabant has been revived as the style of the eldest son of the king of
the Belgians.     (G. E.)

BRABANT, the central and metropolitan province of Belgium, is formed out
of part of the ancient duchy. From 1815 to 1830, that is to say, during
the existence of the kingdom of the Netherlands, Belgian Brabant was
distinguished from Dutch by the employment of the geographical terms
South and North. The surface of Brabant is undulating, and the highest
points, some 400 ft. in altitude, are to be found at and near Mont St
Jean. The province is well cultivated, and the people are well known for
their industry. There are valuable stone quarries, and many manufactures
flourish in the smaller towns, such as Ottignies, as well as in the
larger cities of Brussels and Louvain. Brabant contains 820,740 acres or
1268 sq. m. Its principal towns are Brussels, Louvain, Nivelles, Hal,
Ottignies, and its three administrative divisions are named after the
first three of those towns. They are subdivided into 50 cantons and 344
communes. In 1904 the population of the province was 1,366,389 or a
proportion of 1077 per sq. m.

BRABANT, NORTH, the largest province in Holland, bounded S. by Belgium,
W. and N.W. by the Scheldt, the Eendracht, the Volkerak and the
Hollandsch Diep, which separate it from Zealand and South Holland, N.
and N. E. by the Merwede and Maas, which separate it from South Holland
and Gelderland, and E. by the province of Limburg. It has an area of 231
sq. m. and a pop. (1900) of 553,842. The surface of the province is a
gentle slope from the south-east (where it ranges between 80 and 160 ft.
in height) towards the north and north-west, and the soil is composed of
diluvial sand, here and there mixed with gravel, but giving place to
sea-clay along the western boundary and river-clay along the banks of
the Maas and smaller rivers. The watershed is formed by the
north-eastern edge of the Belgian plateau of Campine, and follows a
curved line drawn through Bergen-op-Zoom, Turnhout and Maastricht. The
landscape consists for the most part of waste stretches of heath,
occasionally slightly overlaid with high fen. Between the valleys of the
Aa and the Maas lies the long stretch of heavy high-fen called the Peel
("marshy land"). Deurne, a few miles east of Helmond, the site of a
prehistoric burial-ground, was an early fen colony. The work of
reclamation was removed farther eastwards to Helenaveen in the second
half of the 19th century. Agriculture (potatoes, buckwheat, rye) is the
main industry, generally combined with cattle-raising. On the clay lands
wheat and barley are the principal products, and in the western corner
of the province beetroot is largely cultivated for the beet sugar
industry, factories being found at Bergen-op-Zoom, Steenbergen and
Oudenbosch. There is a special cultivation of hops in the district
north-west of 's Hertogenbosch. The large majority of the population is
Roman Catholic. The earliest development of towns and villages took
place along the river Maas and its tributaries, and the fortified Roman
camps which were the origin of many such afterwards developed in the
hands of feudal lords. The chief town of the province, 's Hertogenbosch,
may be cited as an interesting historical example. Geertruidenberg,
Heusden, Ravestein and Grave are all similarly situated. Breda is the
next town in importance to the capital. Bergen-op-Zoom had originally a
more maritime importance. Rozendaal, Eindhoven and Bokstel (or Boxtel)
are important railway junctions. Bokstel was formerly the seat of an
independent barony which came into the possession of Philip the Good in
1439. The castle was restored in modern times. The precarious position
of the province on the borders of the country doubtless militated
against an earlier industrial development, but since the separation from
Belgium and the construction of roads, railways and canals there has
been a general improvement, Tilburg, Eindhoven and Helmond all having
risen into prominence in modern times as industrial centres.
Leather-tanning and shoe-making are especially associated with the
district called Langstraat, which is situated between Geertruidenberg
and 's Hertogenbosch, and consists of a series of industrial villages
along the course of the Old Maas.

BRACCIANO, a town in the province of Rome, Italy, 25 m. N.W. of Rome by
rail, situated on the S.W. shore of the Lake of Bracciano, 915 ft. above
sea-level. Pop. (1901) 3987. It is chiefly remarkable for its fine
castle (built by the Orsini in 1460, and since 1696 the property of the
Odescalchi) which has preserved its medieval character. The beautiful
lake is the ancient _Lacus Sabatinus_, supposed to derive its name from
an Etruscan city of the name of Sabate, which is wrongly thought to be
mentioned in the Itineraries; the reference is really to the lake
itself, which bore this name and gave it to one of the Roman tribes, the
_tribus Sabatina_, founded in 387 B.C. (O. Cuntz in _Jahreshefte des
Österr. Arch. Instituts_, ii., 1899, 85). It is 22 sq. m. in area, 538
ft. above sea-level, and 530 ft. deep; it is almost circular, but is
held to be, not an extinct crater, but the result of a volcanic
subsidence. The tufa deposits which radiate from it extend as far as
Rome; various small craters surround it, while the existence of warm
springs in the district (especially those of Vicarello, probably the
ancient _Aquae Apollinares_) may also be noted. Many remains of ancient
villas may be seen round the lake: above its west bank is the station of
Forum Clodii, and on its north shore the village of Trevignano, which
retains traces of the fortifications of an ancient town of unknown name.
About half-a-mile east of it was a post station called Ad Novas. The
site of Anguillara, on the south shore, was occupied by a Roman villa.
The water of the lake partly supplies the Acqua Paola, a restoration by
Paul V. of the Aqua Traiana.     (T. As.)

BRACCIOLINI, FRANCESCO (1566-1645), Italian poet, was born at Pistoia,
of a noble family, in 1566. On his removing to Florence he was admitted
into the academy there, and devoted himself to literature. At Rome he
entered the service of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, with whom he
afterwards went to France. After the death of Clement VIII. he returned
to his own country; and when his patron Barberini was elected pope,
under the name of Urban VIII., Bracciolini repaired to Rome, and was
made secretary to the pope's brother, Cardinal Antonio. He had also the
honour conferred on him of taking a surname from the arms of the
Barberini family, which were bees; whence he was afterwards known by the
name of _Bracciolini dell' Api_. During Urban's pontificate the poet
lived at Rome in considerable reputation, though at the same time he was
censured for his sordid avarice. On the death of the pontiff he returned
to Pistoia, where he died in 1645. There is scarcely any species of
poetry, epic, dramatic, pastoral, lyric or burlesque, which Bracciolini
did not attempt; but he is principally noted for his mock-heroic poem
_Lo Scherno degli Dei_, published in 1618, similar but confessedly
inferior to the contemporary work of Tassoni, _Secchia Rapita_. Of his
serious heroic poems the most celebrated is _La Croce Racquistata_.

  For the Italian humanist Poggio Bracciolini see POGGIO.

BRACE, CHARLES LORING (1826-1890), American philanthropist, was born on
the 19th of June 1826 in Litchfield, Connecticut. He graduated at Yale
in 1846, studied theology there in 1847-1848, and graduated from Union
Theological Seminary in 1849. From this time he practically devoted his
life to social work among the poor of New York, and to Christian
propaganda among the criminal classes; and he became well known as a
social reformer, at home and abroad. He started in 1852 to hold "boys'
meetings," and in 1853 helped to found the Children's Aid Society,
establishing workshops, industrial schools and lodging-houses for
newsboys. In 1872 he was a delegate to the international prison congress
which met in London. He died at Campfer, in Tirol, on the 11th of August
1890. He published from time to time several volumes embodying his views
on practical Christianity and its application to the improvement of
social conditions.

  See _The Life and Letters of Charles Loring Brace_ (New York, 1894),
  edited by his daughter, Emma Brace.

BRACE, JULIA (1806-1884), American blind deaf-mute, was born at
Newington, Connecticut, on the 13th of June 1806. In her fifth year she
became blind and deaf, and lost the power of speech. At the age of
eighteen she entered the asylum for the deaf and dumb at Hartford. The
study of blind deaf-mutes and their scientific training was then in its
infancy; but she learnt to sew well, was neat in her dress, and had a
good memory. Dr S.G. Howe's experiments with her were interesting as
leading to his success with Laura Bridgman. She died at Bloomington,
Conn., on the 12th of August 1884.

BRACE (through the Fr. from the plural of the Lat. _bracchium_, the
arm), a measure of length, being the distance between the extended arms.
From the original meaning of "the two arms" comes that of something
which secures, connects, tightens or strengthens, found in numerous uses
of the word, as a carpenter's tool with a crank handle and socket to
hold a bit for boring; a beam of wood or metal used to strengthen any
building or machine; the straps passing over the shoulders to support
the trousers; the leathern thong which slides up and down the cord of a
drum, and regulates the tension and the tone; a writing and printing
sign ({) for uniting two or more lines of letterpress or music; a
nautical term for a rope fastened to the yard for trimming the sails
(cf. the corresponding French term _bras de vergue_). As meaning "a
couple" or "pair" the term was first applied to dogs, probably from the
leash by which they were coupled in coursing. In architecture "brace
mould" is the term for two ressaunts or ogees united together like a
brace in printing, sometimes with a small bead between them.

BRACEGIRDLE, ANNE (c. 1674-1748), English actress, is said to have been
placed under the care of Thomas Betterton and his wife, and to have
first appeared on the stage as the page in _The Orphan_ at its first
performance at Dorset Garden in 1680. She was Lucia in Shadwell's
_Squire of Alsatia_ at the Theatre Royal in 1688, and played similar
parts until, in 1693, as Araminta in _The Old Bachelor_, she made her
first appearance in a comedy by Congreve, with whose works and life her
name is most closely connected. In 1695 she went with Betterton and the
other seceders to Lincoln's Inn Fields, where, on its opening with
Congreve's _Love for Love_, she played Angelica. This part, and those of
Belinda in Vanbrugh's _Provoked Wife_, and Almira in Congreve's
_Mourning Bride_, were among her best impersonations, but she also
played the heroines of some of Nicholas Rowe's tragedies, and acted in
the contemporary versions of Shakespeare's plays. In 1705 she followed
Betterton to the Haymarket, where she found a serious competitor in Mrs
Oldfield, then first coming into public favour. The story runs that it
was left for the audience to determine which was the better comedy
actress, the test being the part of Mrs Brittle in Betterton's _Amorous
Widow_, which was played alternately by the two rivals on successive
nights. When the popular vote was given in favour of Mrs Oldfield, Mrs
Bracegirdle quitted the stage, making only one reappearance at
Betterton's benefit in 1709. Her private life was the subject of much
discussion. Colley Cibber remarks that she had the merit of "not being
unguarded in her private character," while Macaulay does not hesitate to
call her "a cold, vain and interested coquette, who perfectly understood
how much the influence of her charms was increased by the fame of a
severity which cost her nothing." She was certainly the object of the
adoration of many men, and she was the innocent cause of the killing of
the actor William Mountfort (q.v.), whom Captain Hill and Lord Mohun
regarded as a rival for her affections. During her lifetime she was
suspected of being secretly married to Congreve, whose mistress she is
also said to have been. He was at least always her intimate friend, and
left her a legacy. Rightly or wrongly, her reputation for virtue was
remarkably high, and Lord Halifax headed a subscription list of 800
guineas, presented to her as a tribute to her virtue. Her charity to the
poor in Clare Market and around Drury Lane was conspicuous, "insomuch
that she would not pass that neighbourhood without the thankful
acclamations of people of all degrees." She died in 1748, and was buried
in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey.

  See Genest, _History of the Stage_; Colley Gibber, _Apology_ (edited
  by Bellchambers); Egerton, _Life of Anne Oldfield_; Downes, _Roscius

BRACELET, or ARMLET, a personal ornament for the arm or wrist, made of
different materials, according to the fashion of the age and the rank of
the wearer. The word is the French _bracelet_, a diminutive of _bracel_,
from _brac(c)hiale_, formed from the Latin _bracchium_, the arm, on
which it was usually worn. By the Romans it was called _armilla,
brachiale, occabus_; and in the middle ages _bauga, armispatha_.

[Illustration: From _La Grande Encyclopédie._

FIG. 1.--Egyptian Bracelet, Louvre.]

In the Bible there are three different words which the authorized
version renders by "bracelet." These are--(1) [Hebrew: 'es'adah]
_'es'adah_, which occurs in Num. xxxi. 50, 2 Sam. i. 10, and which being
used with reference to men only, may be taken to be the _armlet_; (2)
[Hebrew: samid] _samid_, which is found in Gen. xxiv. 22, Num. xxxi. 50,
Ezek. xvi. 11;--where these two words occur together (as in Num. xxxi.
50) the first is rendered by "chain," and the second by "bracelet"; (3)
[Hebrew: sheroth] _sheroth_, which occurs only in Isa. iii. 19. The
first probably meant armlets worn by men; the second, bracelets worn by
women and sometimes by men; and the third a peculiar bracelet of
chain-work worn only by women. In 2 Sam. i. 10 the first word denotes
the royal ornament which the Amalekite took from the arm of the dead
Saul, and brought with the other regalia to David. There is little
question that this was such a distinguishing band of jewelled metal as
we still find worn as a mark of royalty from the Tigris to the Ganges.
The Egyptian kings are represented with armlets, which were also worn by
the Egyptian women. These, however, are not jewelled, but of plain or
enamelled metal, as was in all likelihood the case among the Hebrews.

In modern times the most celebrated armlets are those which form part of
the regalia of the Persian kings and formerly belonged to the Mogul
emperors of India, being part of the spoil carried to Persia from Delhi
by Nadir Shah in 1739. These ornaments are of dazzling splendour, and
the jewels in them are of such large size and immense value that the
pair have been reckoned to be worth a million sterling. The principal
stone of the right armlet is famous in the East under the name of the
_Darya-i-nur_, "sea (or river) of light." It weighs 186 carats, and is
considered the diamond of finest lustre in the world. The principal
jewel of the left armlet, although of somewhat inferior size (146
carats) and value, is renowned as the _Taj-e-mah_, "crown of the moon."
The imperial armlets, generally set with jewels, may also be observed in
most of the portraits of the Indian emperors.

Bracelets have at all times been much in use among barbaric nations, and
the women frequently wear several on the same arm. The finer kinds are
of mother-of-pearl, fine gold or silver; others of less value are made
of plated steel, horn, brass, copper, beads, &c. Chinese bracelets are
sometimes cut out of single pieces of jade.

This species of personal ornament has been exceedingly common in Europe
from prehistoric times onward. The bracelets of the Bronze Age were of
either gold or bronze, silver being then unknown. In shape they were
oval and penannular with expanding or trumpet-shaped ends, having an
opening between them of about half an inch to enable them to be easily
slipped over the wrist. Those of gold were generally plain, hammered
rods, bent to the requisite shape, but those of bronze were often chased
with decorative designs. Some forms of spiral armlets of bronze,
peculiar to Germany and Scandinavia, covered the whole fore-arm, and
were doubtless intended as much for defence against a sword-stroke as
for ornament. Among the nations of classical antiquity, bracelets were
worn by both sexes of the Etruscans; by women only among the Greeks,
except in orientalized communities. Among the Romans they were worn by
women only as a rule, but they are also recorded to have been used
during the empire by _nouveaux riches_, and by some of the emperors. It
should also be mentioned that bracelets were conferred as a military
decoration in the field.

[Illustration: From _La Grande Encyclopédie_.

FIG. 2.--Greek Bracelet, Hermitage.]

The bracelets of the Greeks are of two leading types, both of which were
also familiar to the Assyrians. The one class were in the form of coiled
spirals, usually in the form of snakes, a term which Pollux gives as a
synonym for bracelet. The other class were stiff penannular hoops,
capable of being slightly opened. In such examples the terminals are
finely finished as rams' heads, lions' heads, or (as in the accompanying
figure from a bracelet found at Kuloba) as enamelled sphinxes. In late
Etruscan art the bracelet may be formed of consecutive panels, as often
in modern jewelry.

[Illustration: From La Grande Encydopédie.

FIG. 3.--Etruscan Bracelet, Louvre.]

The spiral forms were common in the Iron Age of northern Europe, while
silver bracelets of great elegance, formed of plaited and intertwisted
strands of silver wire, and plain penannular hoops, round or
lozenge-shaped in section and tapering to the extremities, became common
towards the close of the pagan period. The late Celtic period in Britain
was characterized by serpent-shaped bracelets and massive armlets, with
projecting ornaments of solid bronze and perforations filled with
enamel. In the middle ages bracelets were much less commonly used in
Europe, but the custom has continued, to prevail among Eastern nations
to the present time, and many of the types that were common in Europe in
prehistoric times are still worn in central Asia.

  A treatise, _De Armillis Veterum_, by Thomas Bartholinus, was
  published at Amsterdam in 1676.

BRACHIOPODA, an important and well-defined but extremely isolated class
of invertebrates. The group may be defined as follows: Sessile solitary
_Coelomata_ with bivalved shells usually of unequal size and arranged
dorso-ventrally. The head is produced into ciliated arms bearing
tentacles. They reproduce sexually, and with doubtful exceptions are of
separate sexes.

The name Brachiopod ([Greek: brachion], an arm, and [Greek: pous,
podos], a foot) was proposed for the class by F. Cuvier in 1805, and by
A.M.C. Dumeril in 1809, and has since been very extensively adopted. The
division of the group into _Ecardines_ (_Inarticulata_), with no hinge
to the shell and with an alimentary canal open at both ends, and
_Testicardines_ (_Articulata_), with a hinge between the dorsal and
ventral valves and with no anus, was proposed by Owen and has been
adopted by nearly all authors. In a later scheme based on our increased
knowledge of fossil forms, the Brachiopoda are divided into four primary
groups (orders). This is given at the end of the article, but it must
not be forgotten that the existing forms with an anus (Ecardines) differ
markedly from the aproctous members of the group (Testicardines).

[Illustration: Figs. 1-11.--Various forms of Brachiopoda.

  1. _Magellania [Waldheimia] cranium_. A, ventral, B, dorsal valve.

  2. _Rhynchonella (Hemithyris) psittacea_.

  3. and 4. _Thecidea_.

  5. _Spirifer_. Dorsal valve, showing calcareous spiral coils.

  6. _Orthis calligramma_.

  7. _Leptaena transversalis_. A, ventral, B, dorsal valve.

  8. _Productus horridus_.

  9. _Lingula pyramidata_ (after Morse).

  10. _Discinisca lamellosa_.

  11. _Crania anomala_ Interior of dorsal valve, showing muscular
  impressions and labial appendages.]

The soft body of the Brachiopod is in all cases protected by a shell
composed of two distinct valves; these valves are always, except in
cases of malformation, equal-sided, but not equivalved. The valves are,
consequently, essentially symmetrical, which is not the case with the
Lamellibranchiata,--so much so, that certain Brachiopod shells were
named _Lampades_, or lamp shells, by some early naturalists; but while
such may bear a kind of resemblance to an antique Etruscan lamp, by far
the larger number in no way resemble one. The shell is likewise most
beautiful in its endless shapes and variations. In some species it is
thin, semi-transparent and glassy, in others massive. Generally the
shell is from a quarter of an inch to about 4 in. in size, but in
certain species it attains nearly a foot in breadth by something less in
length, as is the case with _Productus giganteus_. The valves are also
in some species very unequal in their respective thickness, as may be
seen in _Productus_ (_Daviesiella_)[1] _llangollensis_, _Davidsonia
verneuilii_, &c., and while the space allotted to the animal is very
great in many species, as in _Terebratula sphaeroidalis_, it is very
small in others belonging to _Strophomena_, _Leptaena_, _Chonetes_, &c.
The ventral valve is usually the thickest, and in some forms is six or
seven times as great as the opposite one. The outer surface of many of
the species presents likewise the most exquisite sculpture, heightened
by brilliant shades, or spots of green, red, yellow and bluish black.
Traces of the original colour have also been preserved in some of the
fossil forms; radiating bands of a reddish tint have been often seen in
well-preserved examples of _Terebratula_ (_Dielasma_) _hastata_, _T_.
(_Dielasma_) _sacculus_, _T. communis_, _T. biplicata_, and of several
others. Some specimens of _T. carnea_ are of a beautiful pale pink
colour when first removed from their matrix, and E. Deslongchamps has
described the tint of several Jurassic species.

The valves are distinguished as _dorsal_ and _ventral_. The ventral
valve is usually the larger, and in many genera, such as _Terebratula_
and _Rhynchonella_, has a prominent beak or umbo, with a circular or
otherwise shaped foramen at or near its extremity, partly bounded by one
or two plates, termed a deltidium. Through the foramen passes a
peduncle, by which the animal is in many species attached to submarine
objects during at least a portion of its existence. Other forms show no
indication of ever having been attached, while some that had been moored
by means of a peduncle during the early portion of their existence have
become detached at a more advanced stage of life, the opening becoming
gradually cicatrized, as is so often seen in _Leptaena rhomboidalis_,
_Orthisina anomala_, &c. Lastly, some species adhere to submarine
objects by a larger or smaller portion of their ventral valve, as is the
case with many forms of _Crania_, _Thecidium_, _Davidsonia_, &c. Some
_Cranias_ are always attached by the whole surface of their lower or
ventral valve, which models itself and fills up all the projections or
depressions existing on either the rock, shell or coral to which it
adhered. These irregularities are likewise, at times, reproduced on the
upper or dorsal valve. Some species of _Strophalosia_ and _Productus_
seem also to have been moored during life to the sandy or muddy bottoms
on which they lived, by the means of tubular spines often of
considerable length. The interior of the shell varies very much
according to families and genera. On the inner surface of both valves
several well-defined muscular, vascular and ovarian impressions are
observable; they form either indentations of greater or less size and
depth, or occur as variously shaped projections. In the _Trimerellidae_,
for example, some of the muscles are attached to a massive or vaulted
platform situated in the medio-longitudinal region of the posterior half
or umbonal portion of both valves. In addition to these, there exists in
the interior of the _dorsal_ valve of some genera a variously modified,
thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated
arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic
characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is
more developed in some genera than in others. In certain forms, as in
_Terebratula_ and _Terebratulina_, it is short and simple, and attached
to a small divided hinge-plate, the two riband-shaped lamina being bent
upwards in the middle (fig. 15). The cardinal process is prominent, and
on each side of the hinge-plate are situated the dental sockets; the
loop in _Terebratulina_ becomes annular in the adult by the union of its
crural processes (fig. 16). In _Magellania_ [_Waldheimia_] it is
elongated and reflected; the hinge-plate large, with four depressions,
under which originates a median septum, which extends more or less into
the interior of the shell (figs. 13 and 14). In _Terebratella_ the loop
is attached to the hinge-plate and to the septum (fig. 17). In
_Megerlia_ it is three times attached, first to the hinge-plate, and
then to the septum by processes from the diverging and reflected
positions of the loop. In _Magas_ the brachial skeleton is composed of
an elevated longitudinal septum reaching from one valve to the other, to
which are affixed two pairs of calcareous lamellae, the lower ones
riband-shaped; attached first to the hinge-plate, they afterwards
proceed by a gentle curve near to the anterior portion of the septum, to
the sides of which they are affixed; the second pair originate on both
sides of the upper edge of the septum, extending in the form of two
triangular anchor-shaped lamellae (fig. 18). In _Bouchardia_ the septum
only is furnished with two short anchor-shaped lamellae. Many more
modifications are observable in different groups of which the great
family _Terebratulidae_ is composed. In _Thecidium_ (figs. 3,4) the
interior of the dorsal valve is variously furrowed to receive the
lophophore folded in two or more lobes. In the family _Spiriferidae_
there are two conical spires directed outwards, and nearly filling the
cavity of the shell (fig. 5); while in _Atrypa_ the broad spirally
coiled lamellae are vertical, and directed toward the centre of the
dorsal valve. In the _Rhynchonellidae_ there are two short slender
curved laminae, while in many genera and even families, such as the
_Productidae, Strophomenidae, Lingulidae, Discinidae_, &c., there exists
no calcified support for the labial appendages. The ventral valve in
many of the genera is provided with two curved hinge-teeth, which fit
into corresponding sockets in the opposite valve, so that the valves
cannot be separated without breaking one of the teeth.

[Illustration: FIGS. 12-18.

  12. _Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_. Interior of ventral valve.
  f, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (=
  occlusors, _Hancock_); c, divaricator (= cardinal muscles, _King_, =
  muscles diducteurs principaux, _Gratiolet_); c', accessory
  divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, _Gratiolet_); b, ventral
  adjuster (= ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire
  supérieure, _Gratiolet_); b', peduncular muscle.

  13. _Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_. Interior of dorsal valve. c,
  c', cardinal process; b', b', hinge-plate; s, dental sockets; l, loop;
  q, crura; a, a', adductor impressions; c, accessory divaricator; b,
  peduncle muscles; ss, septum.

  14. _Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_. Longitudinal section of
  valves. A, ventral, B, dorsal valves; l, loop; q, crura; ss, septum;
  c, cardinal process.

  15. _Terebratula (Liothyris) vitrea_. Interior of dorsal valve. l,
  loop; b, hinge-plate; c, cardinal process.

  16. Loop of _Terebratulina caput serpentis_.

  17. Longitudinal section of _Terebratella dorsata_. (References as in
  fig. 14.)

  18. Longitudinal section of _Magas pumilus_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--_Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_. Interior
of dorsal valve, to show the position of the labial appendages. v,
Mouth. (A portion of the fringe of cirri is removed to show the brachial
membrane and a portion of the spiral extremities of the arms.)]

Each valve of the shell is lined by a mantle which contains
prolongations of the body cavity. The outer surfaces of the mantle
secrete the shell, which is of the nature of a cuticle impregnated by
calcareous salts. These often have the form of prisms of calcite
surrounded by a cuticular mesh work; the whole is nourished and kept
alive by processes, which in _Crania_ are branched; these perforate the
shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its
substance. These canals are closed externally and are absent in
_Rhynchonella_, where the amount of calcareous deposit is small. In
_Lingula_ the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of
phosphate of lime. The free edges of the mantle often bear chitinous
bristles or setae which project beyond the shell. As in the case of the
Lamellibranchiata, the shell of the adult is not a direct derivative of
the youngest shell of the larva. The young Brachiopod in all its species
is protected by an embryonic shell called the "protegulum," which
sometimes persists in the umbones of the adult shells but is more
usually worn off. In all species it has the same shape, a shape which
has been retained in the adult by the Lower Cambrian genus _Iphidea_.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--_Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_.
Logitudinal section with a portion of the animal.

  d, h, Brachial appendages.
  a, Adductor
  c, c', Divaricator muscles.
  s, Septum.
  v, Mouth.
  z, Exremity of alimentary tube. The penduncular muscules have been
      purposely omitted.]

The body of the Brachiopod usually occupies about the posterior half of
the space within the shell. The anterior half of this space is lined by
the inner wall of the mantle and is called the mantle cavity. This
cavity lodges the arms, which are curved and coiled in different ways in
different genera. The water which bears the oxygen for respiration and
the minute organisms upon which the Brachiopod feeds is swept into the
mantle cavity by the action of the cilia which cover the arms, and the
eggs and excreta pass out into the same cavity. The mouth lies in the
centre of the anterior wall of the body. Its two lips fusing together at
the corners of the mouth are prolonged into the so-called arms. These
arms, which together form the lophophore, may be, as in _Cistella_,
applied flat to the inner surface of the dorsal mantle fold, but more
usually they are raised free from the body like a pair of moustaches,
and as they are usually far too long to lie straight in the mantle
cavity, they are folded or coiled up. The brachial skeleton which in
many cases supports the arms has been mentioned above.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--A diagram of the left half of an _Argiope_
(_Megathyris_), which has been bisected in the median plane.

   1. The ventral valve.
   2. The dorsal valve.
   3. The pedicle.
   4. The mouth.
   5. Lip which overhangs the mouth and runs all round the lophophore.
   6. Tentacles.
   7. Ovary in dorsal valve.
   8. Liver diverticula.
   9. Occlusor muscle--its double origin is shown.
  10. Internal opening of left nephridium.
  11. External opening of the same.
  12. Ventral adjustor.
  13. Divaricator muscle.
  14. Sub-oesophageal nerve ganglion.
  15. The heart.
  16. Dorsal adjustor muscle.]

A transverse section through the arm (fig. 22) shows that it consists of
a stout base, composed of a very hyaline connective tissue not uncommon
in the tissues of the Brachiopoda, which is traversed by certain canals
whose nature is considered below under the section (_The Body Cavity_)
devoted to the coelom. Anteriorly this base supports a gurrie or gutter,
the pre-oral rim of which is formed by a simple lip, but the post-oral
rim is composed of a closely set row of tentacles. These may number some
thousands, and they are usually bent over and tend to form a closed
cylinder of the gutter. Each of these tentacles (fig. 22) is hollow, and
it contains a diverticulum from the coelom, a branch of the vascular
system, a nerve and some muscle-fibres. Externally on two sides and on
the inner surface the tentacles are ciliated, and the cilia are
continued across the gutter to the lip and even on the outer surface of
the latter. These cilia pass on any diatoms and other minute organism
which come within their range of action to the capacious oval mouth,
which appears as a mere deepening of the gutter in the middle line. In
_Terebratulina, Rhynchonella, Lingula_, and possibly other genera, the
arms can be unrolled and protruded from the opened shell; in this case
the tentacles also straighten themselves and wave about in the water.

  _The Body Cavity._--The various internal organs of the brachiopod
  body, the alimentary canal and liver, the excretory organs, the heart,
  numerous muscles and the reproductive organs, are enclosed in a cavity
  called the body cavity, and since this cavity (i.) is derived from the
  archicoel and is from the first surrounded by meroblast, (ii.)
  communicates with the exterior through the nephridia or excretory
  organs, and (iii.) gives rise by the proliferation of the cells which
  line it to the ova and spermatoza, it is of the nature of a true
  coelom. The coelom then is a spacious chamber surrounding the
  alimentary canal, and is continued dorsally and ventrally into the
  sinuses of the mantle (fig. 21). Some of the endothelial cells lining
  the coelom are ciliated, the cilia keeping the corpusculated fluid
  contents in movement. Others of the endothelial cells show a great
  tendency to form muscle fibres. Besides this main coelomic cavity
  there are certain other spaces which F. Blochmann regards as coelomic,
  but it must be remembered that his interpretation rests largely on
  histological grounds, and at present embryological confirmation is
  wanting. These spaces are as follows:--(i.) the great arm-sinus; (ii.)
  the small arm-sinus together with the central sinus and the
  peri-oesophageal sinus, and in _Discinisca_ and _Lingula_, and, to a
  less extent, in _Crania_, the lip-sinus; (iii.) certain portions of
  the general body cavity which in _Crania_ are separated off and
  contain muscles, &c.; (iv.) the cavity of the stalk when such exists.
  The great arm-sinus of each side of the lophophore lies beneath the
  fold or lip which together with the tentacles forms the ciliated
  groove in which the mouth opens. These sinuses are completely shut off
  from all other cavities, they do not open into the main coelomic space
  nor into the small arm-sinus, nor does the right sinus communicate
  with the left. The small arm-sinus runs along the arms of the
  lophophore at the base of the tentacles, and gives off a blind
  diverticulum into each of these. This diverticulum contains the
  blood-vessel and muscle-fibres (fig. 22). In the region of the mouth
  where the two halves of the small arm-sinus approach one another they
  open into a central sinus lying beneath the oesophagus and partly
  walled in by the two halves of the ventral mesentery. This sinus is
  continued round the oesophagus as the peri-oesophageal sinus, and thus
  the whole complex of the small arm-sinus has the relations of the
  so-called vascular system of a Sipunculid. In _Crania_ it is
  completely shut off from the main coelom, but in _Lingula_ it
  communicates freely with this cavity. In _Discinisca_ and _Lingula_
  there is further a lip-sinus or hollow system of channels which
  traverses the supporting tissue of the edge of the mantle and contains
  muscle-fibres. It opens into the peri-oesophageal sinus. It is better
  developed and more spacious in _Lingula_ than in _Discinisca._ In
  _Crania_, where only indications of the lip-sinus occur, there are two
  other closed spaces. The posterior occlusor muscles lie in a special
  closed space which Blochmann also regards as coelomic. The posterior
  end of the intestine is similarly surrounded by a closed coelomic
  space known as the peri-anal sinus in which the rectum lies freely,
  unsupported by mesenteries. All these spaces contain a similar
  coagulable fluid with sparse corpuscles, and all are lined by ciliated
  cells. There is further a great tendency for the endothelial cells to
  form muscles, and this is especially pronounced in the small
  arm-sinus, where a conspicuous muscle is built up. The mantle-sinuses
  which form the chief spaces in the mantle are diverticula of the main
  coelomic cavity. In _Discinisca_ they are provided with a muscular
  valve placed at their point of origin. They contain the same fluid as
  the general coelom. The stalk is an extension of the ventral
  body-wall, and contains a portion of the coelom which, in _Discinisca_
  and _Lingula_, remains in communication with the general body cavity.

  [Illustration: FIG. 22.--Diagrammatic section through an arm of the
  lophophore of _Crania_. Magnified; after Blochmann.

     1. The lip.
     2. The base of a tentacle bisected in the middle line.
     3. Great arm-sinus.
     4. Small arm-sinus, containing muscle-fibres.
     5. Tentacular canal.
     6. External tentacular muscle.
     7. Tentacular blood-vessel arising from the cut arm-vessel in the
         small arm-sinus.
     8. Chief arm-nerve.
     9. Secondary arm-nerve.
    10. Under arm-nerve.]

  _The Alimentary Canal_.--The mouth, which is quite devoid of armature,
  leads imperceptibly into a short and dorsally directed oesophagus. The
  latter enlarges into a spherical stomach into which open the broad
  ducts of the so-called liver. The stomach then passes into an
  intestine, which in the Testicardines (Articulata) is short,
  finger-shaped and closed, and in the Ecardines (Inarticulata) is
  longer, turned back upon its first course, and ends in an anus. In
  _Lingula_ and _Discina_ the anus lies to the right in the
  mantle-cavity, but in _Crania_ it opens medianly into a posterior
  extension of the same. Apart from the asymmetry of the intestine
  caused by the lateral position of the anus in the two genera just
  named, Brachiopods are bilaterally symmetrical animals.

  The liver consists of a right and left half, each opening by a broad
  duct into the stomach. Each half consists of many lobes which may
  branch, and the whole takes up a considerable proportion of the space
  in the body cavity. The food passes into these lobes, which may be
  found crowded with diatoms, and without doubt a large part of the
  digestion is carried on inside the liver. The stomach, oesophagus and
  intestine are ciliated on their inner surface. The intestine is slung
  by a median dorsal and ventral mesentery which divides the body cavity
  into two symmetrically shaped halves; it is "stayed" by two transverse
  septa, the anterior or gastroparietal band running from the stomach to
  the body wall and the posterior or ileoparietal band running from the
  intestine to the body wall. None of these septa is complete, and the
  various parts of the central body cavity freely communicate with one
  another. In _Rhynchonella_, where there are two pairs of kidneys, the
  internal opening of the anterior pair is supported by the
  gastroparietal band and that of the posterior pair by the ileoparietal
  band. The latter pair alone persists in all other genera.

  The kidneys or nephridia open internally by wide funnel-shaped
  nephridiostomes and externally by small pores on each side of the
  mouth near the base of the arms. Each is short, gently curved and
  devoid of convolutions. They are lined by cells charged with a yellow
  or brown pigment, and besides their excretory functions they act as
  ducts through which the reproductive cells leave the body.

  _Circulatory System._--The structures formerly regarded as
  pseudohearts have been shown by Huxley to be nephridia; the true heart
  was described and figured by A. Hancock, but has in many cases escaped
  the observation of later zoologists. F. Blochmann in 1884, however,
  observed this organ in the living animal in species of the following
  genera:--_Terebratulina, Magellania_ [_Waldheimia_]_, Rhynchonella,
  Megathyris_ (_Argiope_), _Lingula_, and _Crania_ (fig. 21). It
  consists of a definite contractile sac or sacs lying on the dorsal
  side of the alimentary canal near the oesophagus, and in preparations
  of _Terebratulina_ made by quickly removing the viscera and examining
  them in sea-water under a microscope, he was able to count the
  pulsations, which followed one another at intervals of 30-40 seconds.

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.--_Rhynchonella_ (_Hemithyris_) _psittacea._
  Interior of dorsal valve, s, Sockets; b, dental plates; V, mouth;
  de, labial appendage in its natural position; d, appendage extended
  or unrolled.]

  A vessel--the dorsal vessel--runs forward from the heart along the
  dorsal surface of the oesophagus. This vessel is nothing but a split
  between the right and left folds of the mesentery, and its cavity is
  thus a remnant of the blastocoel. A similar primitive arrangement is
  thought by F. Blochmann to obtain in the genital arteries. Anteriorly
  the dorsal vessel splits into a right and a left half, which enter the
  small arm-sinus and, running along it, give off a blind branch to each
  tentacle (fig. 21). The right and left halves are connected ventrally
  to the oesophagus by a short vessel which supplies these tentacles in
  the immediate neighbourhood of the mouth. There is thus a vascular
  ring around the oesophagus. The heart gives off posteriorly a second
  median vessel which divides almost at once into a right and a left
  half, each of which again divides into two vessels which run to the
  dorsal and ventral mantles respectively. The dorsal branch sends a
  blind twig into each of the diverticula of the dorsal mantle-sinus,
  the ventral branch supplies the nephridia and neighbouring parts
  before reaching the ventral lobe of the mantle. Both dorsal and
  ventral branches supply the generative organs.

  The blood is a coagulable fluid. Whether it contains corpuscles is not
  yet determined, but if so they must be few in number. It is a
  remarkable fact that in _Discinisca_, although the vessels to the
  lophophore are arranged as in other Brachiopods, no trace of a heart
  or of the posterior vessels has as yet been discovered.

  _Muscles._--The number and position of the muscles differ materially
  in the two great divisions into which the Brachiopoda have been
  grouped, and to some extent also in the different genera of which each
  division is composed. Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has
  written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names
  for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be
  regretted. In the Testicardines, of which the genus _Terebratula_ may
  be taken as an example, five or six pairs of muscles are stated by A.
  Hancock, Gratiolet and others to be connected with the opening and
  closing of the valves, or with their attachment to or movements upon
  the peduncle. First of all, the adductors or occlusors consist of two
  muscles, which, bifurcating near the centre of the shell cavity,
  produce a large quadruple impression on the internal surface of the
  small valve (fig. 13, a, a'), and a single divided one towards the
  centre of the large or ventral valve (fig. 12, a). The function of
  this pair of muscles is the closing of the valves. Two other pairs
  have been termed _divaricators_ by Hancock, or _cardinal muscles_
  ("muscles diducteurs" of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening
  of the valves. The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise
  from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and
  close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become
  attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the
  sockets in the dorsal valve. The _accessory divaricators_ are,
  according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have
  their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the
  median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and
  again to the extreme point of the cardinal process. Two pairs of
  muscles, apparently connected with the peduncle and its limited
  movements, have been minutely described by Hancock as having one of
  their extremities attached to this organ. The _dorsal adjusters_ are
  fixed to the ventral surface of the peduncle, and are again inserted
  into the hinge-plate in the smaller valve. The _ventral adjusters_ are
  considered to pass from the inner extremity of the peduncle, and to
  become attached by one pair of their extremities to the ventral valve,
  one on each side and a little behind the expanded base of the
  divaricators. The function of these muscles, according to the same
  authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to
  attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it
  upon the peduncle. By alternate contracting they can cause a slight
  rotation of the animal in its stalk.

  [Illustration: FIG. 24.--_Magellania [Waldheimia] flavescens_. Diagram
  showing the muscular system. (After Hancock.)

    M, Ventral,
    N, Dorsal valve,
    l, Loop.
    V, Mouth.
    Z, Extremity of intestine,
    c, Divaricators.
    c', Accessory divaricators.
    a, Adductor.
    b, Ventral adjusters.
    b', Peduncular muscles.
    b'', Dorsal adjusters.
    P, Peduncle.]

  Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division
  composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain
  unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the
  different families and genera thereof. Owing to the strong and tight
  interlocking of the valves by the means of curved teeth and sockets,
  many species of Brachiopoda could open their valves but slightly. In
  some species, such as _Thecidea_, the animal could raise its dorsal
  valve at right angles to the plane of the ventral one (fig. 4).

  [Illustration: FIGS. 25, 26. _Lingula anatina._

    25, Interior of ventral valve.
    26, Interior of dorsal valve.
    g, Umbonal muscular impressions (open valves).
    h, Central muscles (close valves).
    i, Transmedial or sliding muscles.
    b, Parietal band.
    j, k, l, Lateral muscles (j, anteriors; k, middles; l, outsiders),
      enabling the valves to move forward and backward on each other.

    (After King.)]

  In the Ecardines, of which _Lingula_ and _Discina_ may be quoted as
  examples, the myology is much more complicated. Of the shell or
  valvular muscles W. King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and
  individualizes their respective functions as follows:--Three pairs are
  _lateral_, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one
  pair are _transmedians_, each member passing across the middle of the
  reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal
  cavity. The _central_ and _umbonal_ muscles effect the direct opening
  and closing of the shell, the _laterals_ enable the valves to move
  forward and backward on each other, and the _transmedians_ allow the
  similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each
  other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated,
  that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve. It was long
  a matter in discussion whether the animal could displace its valves
  sideways when about to open its shell, but this has been actually
  observed by Professors K. Semper and E.S. Morse, who saw the animal
  perform the operation. They mention that it is never done suddenly or
  by jerks, as the valves are at first always pushed to one side several
  times and back again on each other, at the same time opening gradually
  in the transverse direction till they rest opposite to one another and
  widely apart. Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did
  not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with
  a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its
  muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the
  lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an
  opposite position, or holding them adjusted. We have not only the
  observations of Semper and Morse, but the anatomical investigations of
  King, to confirm the sliding action or lateral divarication of the
  valves of _Lingula_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.--_Lingula anatina_.

    Diagram showing the muscular system. (After Hancock.) The letters
    indicate the muscles as in figs. 25 and 26.

    A, Dorsal,
    B, Ventral valve.
    p, Peduncle.
    e, Heart.
    a, Alimentary tube.
    z, Anal aperture.]

  In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was
  necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required,
  consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as
  in _Lingula_; but in an extinct group, the _Trimerellidae_, which
  seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines
  and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have
  been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful
  (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely
  developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in _Lingula_,
  to move forward and backward upon each other. _Crania_ in life opens
  its valves by moving upon the straight hinge, without sliding the

  The _nervous system_ of Brachiopods has, as a rule, maintained its
  primitive connexion with the external epithelium. In a few places it
  has sunk into the connective-tissue supporting layer beneath the
  ectoderm, but the chief centres still remain in the ectoderm, and the
  fibrils forming the nerves are for the most part at the base of the
  ectodermal cells. Above the oesophagus is a thin commissure which
  passes laterally into the chief arm-nerve. This latter includes in its
  course numerous ganglion cells, and forms, according to F. Blochmann,
  the immensely long drawn out supra-oesophageal ganglion. The chief
  arm-nerve traverses the lophophore, being situated between the great
  arm-sinus and the base of the lip (figs. 22 and 28); it gives off a
  branch to each tentacle, and these all anastomose at the base of the
  tentacles with the second nerve of the arm, the so-called secondary
  arm-nerve. Like the chief arm-nerve, this strand runs through the
  lophophore, parallel indeed with the former except near the middle
  line, where it passes ventrally to the oesophagus. The lophophore is
  supplied by yet a third nerve, the under arm-nerve, which is less
  clearly defined than the others, and resembles a moderate aggregation
  of the nerve fibrils, which seem everywhere to underlie the ectoderm,
  and which in a few cases are gathered up into nerves. The under
  arm-nerve, which lies between the small arm-sinus and the surface,
  supplies nerves to the muscles of both arm-sinuses (figs. 22 and 28).
  Medianly, it has its origin in the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which,
  like the supra-oesophageal, is drawn out laterally, though not to the
  same extent. In the middle line the sub-oespphageal nerve mass is
  small; the ganglion is in fact drawn out into two halves placed on
  either side of the body. From each of these sub-oesophageal ganglia
  numerous nerves arise. Passing from the middle line outwards they
  are--(i.) the median pallial nerve to the middle of the dorsal mantle;
  (ii.) numerous small nerves--the circum-oesophageal commissures--which
  pass round the oesophagus to the chief arm-nerve or supra-oesophageal
  ganglion; (iii.) the under arm-nerve to the lophophore and its
  muscles; (iv.) the lateral pallial nerve to the sides of the dorsal
  mantle. Laterally, the sub-oesophageal ganglia give off (v.) nerves to
  the ventral mantle, and finally they supply (vi.) branches to the
  various muscles. There is a special marginal nerve running round the
  edge of the mantle, but the connexion of this with the rest of the
  nervous system is not clear; probably it is merely another
  concentration of the diffused sub-ectodermal nervous fibrils.

  The above account applies more particularly to _Crania_, but in the
  main it is applicable to the other Inarticulata which have been
  investigated. In _Discinisca_ and _Lingula_, however, the
  sub-oesophageal ganglion is not drawn out, but lies medianly; it gives
  off two posteriorly directed nerves to the stalk, which in _Lingula_
  unite and form a substantial nerve. Sense organs are unknown in the
  adult. The larval forms are provided with eye-spots, but no very
  specialized sense organs are found in the adult.

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--Diagram of nervous system of _Crania_; from
  the dorsal side. The nerves running to the dorsal parts are white,
  with black edges; those running to the ventral parts are solid black.
  Magnified. (After Blochmann.)

     1. Oesophagus.
     2. Supra-oesophageal commisure.
     3. Circum-oesophageal commisure.
     4. Under arm-nerve.
     5. Great arm-sinus.
     6. Small arm-sinus.
     7. Tentacle.
     8. Lip of lophophore.
     9. Infra-oesophageal commisure.
    10. Chief arm-nerve.
    11. Secondary arm-nerve.
    12. Nerves to tentacles.
    13. Sub-oesophageal ganglion.
    14. Dorsal lateral nerve.
    15. Sub-oesophageal portion of the secondary arm-nerve.
    16. Median pallial nerve of dorsal lobe of mantle.
    17. Anterior occlusor muscle.
    18. Posterior occlusor muscle.
    19. Obliquus superior muscle.
    20. Levator brachii muscle.]

  The _histology_ of Brachiopods presents some peculiar and many
  primitive features. As a rule the cells are minute, and this has
  especially stood in the way of embryological research. The plexus of
  nerve-fibrils which underlie the ectoderm and are in places gathered
  up into nerves, and the great development of connective tissue, are
  worthy of notice. Much of the latter takes the form of hyaline
  supporting tissue, embedded in which are scattered cells and fibres.
  The lophophore and stalk are largely composed of this tissue. The
  ectodermal cells are large, ciliated, and amongst the ciliated cells
  glandular cells are scattered. The chitinous chaetae have their origin
  in special ectodermal pits, at the base of which is one large cell
  which is thought to secrete the chaeta, as in Chaetopods. These pits
  are not isolated, but are connected by an ectodermal ridge, which
  grows in at the margin of the mantle and forms a continuous band
  somewhat resembling the ectodermal primordium of vertebrate teeth.

  The ovary and testes are heaped-up masses of red or yellow cells due
  to a proliferation of the cells lining the coelom. There are four of
  such masses, two dorsal and two ventral, and as a rule they extend
  between the outer and inner layer of the mantle lining the shells. The
  ova and the spermatozoa dehisce into the body cavity and pass to the
  exterior through the nephridia. Fertilization takes place outside the
  body, and in some species the early stages of development take place
  in a brood-pouch which is essentially a more or less deep depression
  of the body-wall median in _Thecidea_, while in _Cistella_ (_?
  Argiope_) there is one such pouch on each side, just below the base of
  the arms, and into these the nephridia open. The developing ova are
  attached by little stalks to the walls of these pouches. In spite of
  some assertions to the contrary, all the Brachiopods which have been
  carefully investigated have been found to be male or female.
  Hermaphrodite forms are unknown.

  [FIG. 29.--Three larvae stages of _Megathyris_ (_Argiope_). A, Larva
  which has just left brood-pouch; B, longitudinal section through a
  somewhat later stage; C, the fully formed embryo just before
  fixing--the neo-embryo of Beecher. Highly magnified.

    1. Anterior segment.
    2. Second or mantle-forming segment.
    3. Third or stalk-forming segment.
    4. Eye-spots.
    5. Setae.
    6. Nerve mass (?).
    7. Alimentary canal.
    8. Muscles.]

  _Embryology._--With the exception of Yatsu's article on the
  development of _Lingula_ (_J. Coll. Sci., Japan_, xvii., 1901-1903)
  and E.G. Conklin's on "Terebratulina septentrionalis" (_P. Amer. Phil.
  Soc._ xli., 1902), little real advance has been made in our knowledge
  of the embryology of the Brachiopoda within recent years. Kovalevsky's
  researches (Izv. Obshch. Moskov, xiv., 1874) on _Megathyris_
  (_Argiope_) and Yatsu's just mentioned are the most complete as
  regards the earlier stages. Segmentation is complete, a gastrula is
  formed, the blastopore closes, the archenteron gives off two coelomic
  sacs which, as far as is known, are unaffected by the superficial
  segmentation of the body that divides the larva into three segments.
  The walls of these sacs give rise at an early stage to muscles which
  enable the parts of the larva to move actively on one another (fig.
  29, B). About this stage the larvae leave the brood-pouch, which is a
  lateral or median cavity in the body of the female, and lead a free
  swimming life in the ocean. The anterior segment broadens and becomes
  umbrella-shaped; it has a powerful row of cilia round the rim and
  smaller cilia on the general surface. By the aid of these cilia the
  larva swims actively, but owing to its minute size it covers very
  little distance, and this probably accounts for the fact that where
  brachiopods occur there are, as a rule, a good many in one spot. The
  head bears four eye-spots, and it is continually testing the ground
  (fig. 29, A, C). The second segment grows downwards like a skirt
  surrounding the third segment, which is destined to form the stalk. It
  bears at its rim four bundles of very pronounced chaetae. After a
  certain time the larva fixes itself by its stalk to some stone or
  rock, and the skirt-like second segment turns forward over the head
  and forms the mantle. What goes on within the mantle is unknown, but
  presumably the head is absorbed. The chaetae drop off, and the
  lophophore is believed to arise from thickenings which appear in the
  dorsal mantle lobe. The Plankton Expedition brought back, and H.
  Simroth (_Ergeb. Plankton Expedition_, ii., 1897) has described, a few
  larval brachiopods of undetermined genera, two of which at least were
  pelagic, or at any rate taken far from the coast. These larvae, which
  resemble those described by Fritz Müller (_Arch. Naturg._, 1861-1862),
  have their mantle turned over their head and the larval shell well
  developed. No stalk has been seen by Simroth or Fritz Müller, but in
  other respects the larva resembles the stages in the development of
  _Megathyris_ and _Terebratulina_ which immediately precede fixation.
  The cirri or tentacles, of which three or four pairs are present, are
  capable of being protruded, and the minute larva swims by means of the
  ciliary action they produce. It can retract the tentacles, shut its
  shell, and sink to the bottom.

  [FIG. 30.--Stages in the fixing and metamorphosis of _Terebratulina_.
  Highly magnified. (From Morse.)

    A, Larva (neo-embryo) just come to rest.
    B, C, D, Stages showing the turning forward of the second or mantle
    E, Completion of this.
    F, Young Brachiopod.
    1, 2, 3, The first, second and third segments.]

  C.E.E. Beecher (_Amer. Jour. Sci._ ser. 3, xli. and xliv.) has
  classified with appropriate names the various stages through which
  Brachiopod larvae pass. The last stage, that in which the folds of the
  second segment are already reflected over the first, he calls the
  Typembryo. Either before or just after turning, the mantle develops a
  larval shell termed the protegulum, and when this is completed the
  larva is termed the Phylembryo. By this time the eyes have
  disappeared, the four bundles of chaetae have dropped off, and the
  lophophore has begun to appear as an outgrowth of the dorsal mantle
  lobe. The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the
  families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the
  group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian genus _Iphidea
  [Paterina]_, and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the
  _Paterina_ stage. In some orders the Phylembryo is succeeded by an
  _Obolella_ stage with a nearly circular outline, but this is not
  universal. The larva now assumes specific characters and is
  practically adult.

  [FIG. 31.--Shell of larval Brachiopod. Phylembryo stage. (From
  Simroth.) 1, Protegulum; 2, permanent shell.]

  _Classification_.--Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four
  orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which
  the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell. To appreciate his diagnoses it
  is necessary to understand certain terms, which unfortunately are not
  used in the same sense by all authors. The triangular pedicle-opening
  seen in _Orthis_, &c., has been named by James Hall and J.M. Clarke
  the delthyrium. In some less primitive genera, e.g. _Terebratula_,
  that type of opening is found in the young stages only; later it
  becomes partly closed by two plates which grow out from the sides of
  the delthyrium. These plates are secreted by the ventral lobe of the
  mantle, and were named by von Buch in 1834 the "deltidium." The form
  of the deltidium varies in different genera. The two plates may meet
  in the middle line, and leave only a small oval opening near the
  centre for the pedicle, as in _Rhynchonella_; or they may meet only
  near the base of the delthyrium forming the lower boundary of the
  circular pedicle-opening, as in _Terebratula_; or the right plate may
  remain quite distinct from the left plate, as in _Terebratella_. The
  pro-deltidium, a term introduced by Hall and Clarke, signifies a small
  embryonic plate originating on the dorsal side of the body. It
  subsequently becomes attached to the ventral valve, and develops into
  the pseudo-deltidium, in the Neotremata and the Protremata. The
  pseudo-deltidium (so named by Bronn in 1862) is a single plate which
  grows from the apex of the delthyrium downwards, and may completely
  close the aperture. The pseudo-deltidium is sometimes reabsorbed in
  the adult. In the Telotremata neither pro-deltidium nor
  pseudo-deltidium is known. In the Atremata the pro-d