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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 4 - "Bradford, William" to "Brequigny, Louis"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
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(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
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(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE BRAIN: "The cough, the eye-closure, the impulse to smile,
      all these can be suppressed." 'impulse' amended from 'impluse'.

    ARTICLE BRAIN: "The deep ends of these olfactory neurones having
      entered the central nervous organ come into contact with the of
      large neurones, called, from their shape, mitral." 'dendrites'
      amended from 'dentrites'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME IV, SLICE IV

   Bradford, William to Brequigny, Louis



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  BRADFORD, WILLIAM (governor)       BRAOSE, WILLIAM DE
  BRADFORD, WILLIAM (printer)        BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND
  BRADFORD, WILLIAM (painter)        BRAS D'OR
  BRADFORD (England)                 BRASDOR, PIERRE
  BRADFORD (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)    BRASIDAS
  BRADFORD CLAY                      BRASS (Nigeria)
  BRADFORD-ON-AVON                   BRASS (alloy)
  BRADLAUGH, CHARLES                 BRASSES, MONUMENTAL
  BRADLEY, GEORGE GRANVILLE          BRASSEUR DE BOURBOURG, CHARLES
  BRADLEY, JAMES                     BRASSEY, THOMAS
  BRADSHAW, GEORGE                   BRASSÓ
  BRADSHAW, HENRY (English poet)     BRATHWAIT, RICHARD
  BRADSHAW, HENRY (British scholar)  BRATIANU, ION C.
  BRADSHAW, JOHN                     BRATLANDSDAL
  BRADWARDINE, THOMAS                BRATTISHING
  BRADY, NICHOLAS                    BRATTLEBORO
  BRAEKELEER, HENRI JEAN DE          BRAUNAU
  BRAEMAR                            BRAUNSBERG
  BRAG                               BRAVO
  BRAGA                              BRAWLING
  BRAGANZA                           BRAY, SIR REGINALD
  BRAGG, BRAXTON                     BRAY, THOMAS
  BRAGI                              BRAY (England)
  BRAHAM, JOHN                       BRAY (Ireland)
  BRAHE, PER                         BRAYLEY, EDWARD WEDLAKE
  BRAHE, TYCHO                       BRAZIER
  BRAHMAN                            BRAZIL (legendary island)
  BRAHMANA                           BRAZIL (republic)
  BRAHMANISM                         BRAZIL (Indiana, U.S.A.)
  BRAHMAPUTRA                        BRAZIL NUTS
  BRAHMA SAMAJ                       BRAZIL WOOD
  BRAHMS, JOHANNES                   BRAZING AND SOLDERING
  BRAHUI                             BRAZZA, PIERRE PAUL SAVORGNAN DE
  BRAID                              BRAZZA
  BRAIDWOOD, THOMAS                  BREACH
  BRAILA                             BREAD
  BRAIN                              BREADALBANE, JOHN CAMPBELL
  BRAINERD, DAVID                    BREADALBANE
  BRAINERD                           BREAD-FRUIT
  BRAINTREE (Essex, England)         BREAKING BULK
  BRAINTREE (Massachusetts, U.S.A.)  BREAKWATER
  BRAKE (town of Germany)            BRÉAL, MICHEL JULES ALFRED
  BRAKE (engineering)                BREAM
  BRAKELOND, JOCELYN DE              BREAST
  BRAMAH, JOSEPH                     BREAUTÉ, FALKES DE
  BRAMANTE                           BRECCIA
  BRAMPTON, HENRY HAWKINS            BRECHIN
  BRAMPTON                           BRECKINRIDGE, JOHN CABELL
  BRAMWELL, GEORGE WILLIAM BRAMWELL  BRECON
  BRAN (Welsh hero)                  BRECONSHIRE
  BRAN (husk of cereals)             BREDA
  BRANCH                             BREDAEL, JAN FRANS VAN
  BRANCO                             BREDERODE, HENRY
  BRANCOVAN                          BREDOW, GOTTFRIED GABRIEL
  BRAND, JOHN                        BREDOW
  BRAND, SIR JOHN HENRY              BREECH
  BRANDE, WILLIAM THOMAS             BREEDS AND BREEDING
  BRANDENBURG (Prussian electorate)  BREEZE
  BRANDENBURG (Prussian province)    BREGENZ
  BRANDENBURG (town of Germany)      BREHON LAWS
  BRANDER, GUSTAVUS                  BREISACH
  BRANDES, GEORG MORRIS COHEN        BREISGAU
  BRANDING                           BREISLAK, SCIPIONE
  BRANDIS, CHRISTIAN AUGUST          BREITENFELD
  BRANDON (Canada)                   BREMEN (German state)
  BRANDON (England)                  BREMEN (German city)
  BRANDY                             BREMER, FREDRIKA
  BRANDYWINE                         BREMERHAVEN
  BRANFORD                           BRENDAN
  BRANGWYN, FRANK                    BRENHAM
  BRANKS                             BRENNER PASS
  BRANT, JOSEPH                      BRENNUS
  BRANT, SEBASTIAN                   BRENTANO, KLEMENS
  BRANTFORD                          BRENTANO, LUDWIG JOSEPH
  BRANTINGHAM, THOMAS DE             BRENTFORD
  BRANTÔME, PIERRE DE BOURDEILLE     BRENTON, SIR JAHLEEL
  BRANTÔME                           BRENTWOOD
  BRANXHOLM                          BRENZ, JOHANN
  BRANXTON                           BRÉQUIGNY, LOUIS GEORGES FEUDRIX DE


BRADFORD, WILLIAM (1590-1657), American colonial governor and historian,
was born in Austerfield, Yorkshire, England, probably in March 1590. He
became somewhat estranged from his family, which was one of considerable
importance in the locality, when in early youth he joined the Puritan
sect known as Separatists, and united in membership with the
congregation at Scrooby. He prepared in 1607, with other members of the
church, to migrate to Holland, but the plan was discovered and several
of the leaders, among them Bradford, were imprisoned. In the year
following, however, he joined the English colony at Amsterdam, where he
learned the trade of silk weaving. He subsequently sold his Yorkshire
property and embarked in business on his own account at Leiden, where
the English refugees had removed. He became an active advocate of the
proposed emigration to America, was one of the party that sailed in the
"Mayflower" in September 1620, and was one of the signers of the compact
on shipboard in Cape Cod Bay. After the death of Governor John Carver in
April 1621, Bradford was elected governor of Plymouth Colony, and served
as such, with the exception of five years (1633, 1634, 1636, 1638 and
1644) until shortly before his death. After 1624, at Bradford's
suggestion, a board of five and later seven assistants was chosen
annually to share the executive responsibility. Bradford's rule was firm
and judicious, and to his guidance more than to that of any other man
the prosperity of the Plymouth Colony was due. His tact and kindness in
dealing with the Indians helped to relieve the colony from the conflicts
with which almost every other settlement was afflicted. In 1630 the
council for New England granted to "William Bradford, his heires,
associatts, and assignes," a new patent enlarging the original grant of
territory made to the Plymouth settlers. This patent Bradford in the
name of the trustees made over to the body corporate of the colony in
1641. Bradford died in Plymouth on the 9th of May 1657. He was the
author of a very important historical work, the _History of Plimouth
Plantation_ (until 1646), first published in the _Proceedings_ of the
Massachusetts Historical Society for 1856, and later by the state of
Massachusetts (Boston, 1898), and in facsimile, with an introduction by
John A. Doyle, in 1896. The manuscript disappeared from Boston during
the War of Independence, was discovered in the Fulham library, London,
in 1855, and was returned by the bishop of London to the state of
Massachusetts in 1897. This work has been of inestimable value to
writers on the history of the Pilgrims, and was freely used, in
manuscript, by Morton, Hubbard, Mather, Prince and Hutchinson. Bradford
was also undoubtedly part author, with Edward Winslow, of the "Diary of
Occurrences" published in Mourts' _Relation_, edited by Dr H.M. Dexter
(Boston, 1865). He also wrote a series of _Dialogues_, on church
government, published in the Massachusetts Historical Society's
Publications (1870.)

  For Bradford's ancestry and early life see Joseph Hunter, _Collections
  concerning the Founders of New Plymouth_, in Massachusetts Historical
  Society's _Collections_ (Boston, 1852); also the quaint sketch in
  Cotton Mather's _Magnalia_ (London, 1702), and a chapter in Williston
  Walker's _Ten New England Leaders_ (New York, 1901).



BRADFORD, WILLIAM (1663-1752), American colonial printer, was born in
Leicestershire, England, on the 20th of May 1663. He learned the
printer's trade in London with Andrew Sowle, and in 1682 emigrated with
William Penn to Pennsylvania, where in 1685 he introduced the "art and
mystery" of printing into the Middle Colonies. His first imprint was an
almanac, _Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense or America's Messenger_ (1685). At
the outset he was ordered "not to print anything but what shall have
lycence from ye council," and in 1692, the colony then being torn by
schism, he issued a tract for the minority sect of Friends, whereupon
his press was seized and he was arrested. He was released, however, and
his press was restored on his appeal to Governor Benjamin Fletcher. In
1690, with William Rittenhouse (1644-1708) and others, he established in
Roxboro, Pennsylvania, now a part of Philadelphia, the first paper mill
in America. In the spring of 1693 he removed to New York, where he was
appointed royal printer for the colony, a position which he held for
more than fifty years; and on the 8th of November 1725 he issued the
first number of the _New York Gazette_, the first paper established in
New York and from 1725 to 1733 the only paper in the colony. Bradford
died in New York on the 23rd of May 1752.

His son, ANDREW SOWLE BRADFORD (1686-1742), removed from New York to
Philadelphia in 1712, and there on the 22nd of December 1719 issued the
first number of the _American Weekly Mercury_, the first newspaper in
the Middle Colonies. Benjamin Franklin, for a time a compositor in the
office, characterized the paper as "a paltry thing, in no way
interesting"; but it was continued for many years and was edited by
Bradford until his death.

The latter's nephew, WILLIAM BRADFORD (1722-1791), established in
December 1742 the _Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser_, which
was for sixty years under his control or that of his son, and which in
1774-1775 bore the oft-reproduced device of a divided serpent with the
motto "Unite or Die." He served in the War of American Independence,
rising to the rank of colonel. His son, WILLIAM BRADFORD (1755-1795),
also served in the War of Independence, and afterwards was
attorney-general of Pennsylvania (1791), a judge of the supreme court of
the state, and in 1794-1795 attorney-general of the United States.



BRADFORD, WILLIAM (1827-1892), American marine painter, was born at New
Bedford, Massachusetts. He was a Quaker, and was self-taught, painting
the ships and the marine views he saw along the coast of Massachusetts,
Labrador and Nova Scotia; he went on several Arctic expeditions with Dr
Hayes, and was the first American painter to portray the frozen regions
of the north. His pictures attracted much attention by reason of their
novelty and gorgeous colour effects. His "Steamer 'Panther' in Melville
Bay, under the Light of the Midnight Sun" was exhibited at the Royal
Academy in London in 1875. Bradford was a member of the National Academy
of Design, New York, and died in that city on the 25th of April 1892.
His style was somewhat influenced by Albert van Beest, who worked with
Bradford at Fairhaven for a time; but Bradford is minute and observant
of detail where van Beest's aim is general effect.



BRADFORD, a city, and municipal, county and parliamentary borough, in
the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 192 m. N.N.W. of London and 8 m.
W. of Leeds. Pop. (1891) 265,728; (1901) 279,767. It is served by the
Midland and the North Eastern railways (Midland station), and by the
Great Northern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways (Exchange
station). It lies in a small valley opening southward from that of the
Aire, and extends up the hills on either side. Most of the principal
streets radiate from a centre between the Midland and Exchange stations
and the town hall. This last is a handsome building, opened in 1873,
surmounted by a bell tower. The exterior is ornamented with statues of
English monarchs. The council-chamber contains excellent wood-carving.
The extension of the building was undertaken in 1905. The parish church
of St Peter is Perpendicular, dating from 1485, and occupies the site of
a Norman church. Its most noteworthy feature is the fine original roof
of oak. There was no other church in the town until 1815, but modern
churches and chapels are numerous. Among educational institutions, the
grammar school existed in the 16th century, and in 1663 received a
charter of incorporation from Charles II. It occupies a building erected
in 1873, and is largely endowed, possessing several scholarships founded
by prominent citizens. The technical college, under the corporation
since 1899, was opened in 1882. A mechanics' institute was founded in
1832, and in 1871 the handsome mechanics' hall, close to the town hall,
was opened. Other establishments are the Airedale College of students
for the Independent ministry, and the United Independent College (1888).
The general infirmary is the principal of numerous charitable
institutions. The most noteworthy public buildings beside the town hall
are St George's hall (1853), used for concerts and public meetings, the
exchange (1867), extensive market buildings, and two court-houses. The
Cartwright memorial hall, principally the gift of Lord Masham, opened in
1904 and containing an art gallery and museum, commemorates Dr Edmund
Cartwright (1743-1823) as the inventor of the power-loom and the
combing-machine. The hall stands in Lister Park, and was opened
immediately before, and used in connexion with, the industrial
exhibition held here in 1904. The Temperance hall is of interest
inasmuch as the first hall of this character in England was erected at
Bradford in 1837. Some of the great warehouses are of considerable
architectural merit. Statues commemorate several of those who have been
foremost in the development of the city, such as Sir Titus Salt, Mr S.C.
Lister (Lord Masham), and W.E. Forster. Of several parks the largest are
Lister, Peel, and Bowling parks, each exceeding fifty acres. In the last
is an ancient and picturesque mansion, which formerly belonged to the
Bowling or Bolling family. A large acreage of high-lying moorland near
the city is maintained by the corporation as a public recreation ground.

As a commercial centre Bradford is advantageously placed with regard to
both railway communication and connexion with the Humber and with
Liverpool by canal, and through the presence in its immediate vicinity
of valuable deposits of coal and iron. The principal textile
manufactures in order of importance are worsted, employing some 36,000
hands, females considerably outnumbering males; woollens, employing some
8000, silk and cotton. The corporation maintains a conditioning-hall for
testing textile materials. A new hall was opened in 1902. Engineering
and iron works (as at Bowling and Low Moor) are extensive; and the
freestone of the neighbourhood is largely quarried, and in Bradford
itself its use is general for building. It blackens easily under the
influence of smoke, and the town has consequently a somewhat gloomy
appearance. The trade of Bradford, according to an official estimate,
advanced between 1836 and 1884 from a total of five to at least
thirty-five millions sterling, and from not more than six to at least
fifty staple articles. The annual turn-over in the staple trade is
estimated at about one hundred millions sterling.

Bradford was created a city in 1897. The parliamentary borough returned
two members from 1832 until 1885, when it was divided into three
divisions, each returning one member. The county borough was created in
1888. Its boundaries include the suburbs, formerly separate urban
districts, of Eccleshill, Idle and others. The corporation consists of a
lord mayor (this dignity was conferred in 1907), 21 aldermen, and 63
councillors. One feature of municipal activity in Bradford deserves
special notice--there is a municipal railway, opened in 1907, extending
from Pateley Bridge to Lofthouse (6 m.) and serving the Nidd valley,
the district from which the main water-supply of the city is obtained.
Area of the city, 22,879 acres.

Bradford, which is mentioned as having belonged before 1066, with
several other manors in Yorkshire, to one Gamel, appears to have been
almost destroyed during the conquest of the north of England and was
still waste in 1086. By that time it had been granted to Ilbert de Lacy,
in whose family it continued until 1311. The inquisition taken after the
death of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, in that year gives several
interesting facts about the manor; the earl had there a hall or
manor-house, a fulling mill, a market every Sunday, and a fair on the
feast of St Andrew. There were also certain burgesses holding
twenty-eight burgages. Alice, only daughter and heiress of Henry de
Lacy, married Thomas Plantagenet, earl of Lancaster, and on the
attainder of her husband she and Joan, widow of Henry, were obliged to
release their rights in the manor to the king. The earl of Lancaster's
attainder being reversed in 1327, Bradford, with his other property, was
restored to his brother and heir, Henry Plantagenet, but again passed to
the crown on the accession of Henry IV., through the marriage of John of
Gaunt with Blanche, one of the daughters and heirs of Henry Plantagenet.
Bradford was evidently a borough by prescription and was not
incorporated until 1847. Previous to that date the chief officer in the
town had been the chief constable, who was appointed annually at the
court leet of the manor. Before the 19th century Bradford was never
represented in parliament, but in 1832 it was created a parliamentary
borough returning two members. A weekly market on Thursdays was granted
to Edward de Lacy in 1251 and confirmed in 1294 to Henry de Lacy, earl
of Lincoln, with the additional grant of a fair on the eve and day of St
Peter ad Vincula and three days following. In 1481 Edward IV. granted to
certain feoffees in whom he had vested his manor of Bradford a market on
Thursday every week and two yearly fairs, one on the feast of the
Deposition of St William of York and two days preceding, the other on
the feast of St Peter in Cathedra and two days preceding.

From the mention of a fulling mill in 1311 it is possible that woollen
manufacture had been begun at that time. By the reign of Henry VIII. it
had become an important industry and added much to the status of the
town. Towards the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century the
woollen trade decreased and worsted manufacture began to take its place.
Leland in his _Itinerary_ says that Bradford is "a praty quik Market
Toune. It standith much by clothing." In 1773 a piece hall was erected
and for many years served as a market-place for the manufacturers and
merchants of the district. On the introduction of steam-power and
machinery the worsted trade advanced with great rapidity. The first mill
in Bradford was built in 1798; there were 20 mills in the town in 1820,
34 in 1833, and 70 in 1841; and at the present time there are over 300,
of much greater magnitude than the earlier factories. In 1836 Mr
(afterwards Sir) Titus Salt developed the alpaca manufacture in the
town; mohair was shortly afterwards introduced; and the great works at
Saltaire were opened (see SHIPLEY). Later, Mr S.C. Lister (Lord Masham)
introduced the silk and velvet manufacture, having invented a process of
manipulating silk waste, whereby what was previously treated as refuse
is made into goods that will compete with those manufactured from the
perfect cocoon.

  See John James, _History of Bradford_ (1844, new and enlarged ed.,
  1866); A. Holroyd, _Collectanea Bradfordiana_ (1873); _Victoria County
  History--Yorkshire_.



BRADFORD, a city of McKean county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., near the N.
border of the state, about 80 m. E. by S. of Erie. Pop. (1890) 10,514;
(1900) 15,029, of whom 2211 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 14,544. It
is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Buffalo, Rochester &
Pittsburg railways, and is connected with Olean, New York, by an
electric line. Bradford is situated 1427 ft. above sea-level in the
valley of the Tuna, and is shut in by hills on either side. Since 1876
it has been one of the most important oil centres of the state, and it
has been connected by pipe lines with cities along the Atlantic coast;
petroleum refining is an important industry. Among the city's
manufactures are boilers, machines, glass, chemicals, terra cotta,
brick, iron pipes and couplings, gas engines, cutlery and silk. The
place was first settled about 1827; in 1838 it was laid out as a town
and named Littleton; in 1858 the present name, in honour of William
Bradford (1755-1795), was substituted; and Bradford was incorporated as
a borough in 1873, and was chartered as a city in 1879. Kendall borough
was annexed to Bradford in 1893.



BRADFORD CLAY, in geology, a thin, rather inconstant bed of clay or marl
situated in England at the base of the Forest Marble, the two together
constituting the Bradfordian group in the Bathonian series of Jurassic
rocks. The term "Bradford Clay" appears to have been first used by J.
de. C. Sowerby in 1823 (_Mineral Conchology_, vol. v.) as an alternative
for W. Smith's "Clay on Upper Oolite." The clay came into notice late in
the 18th century on account of the local abundance of the crinoid
_Apiocrinus Parkinsoni_. It takes its name from Bradford-on-Avon in
Wiltshire, whence it is traceable southward to the Dorset coast and
northward towards Cirencester. It may be regarded as a local phase of
the basement beds of the Forest Marble, from which it cannot be
separated upon either stratigraphical or palaeontological grounds. It is
seldom more than 10 ft. thick, and it contains as a rule a few irregular
layers of limestone and calcareous sandstone. The lowest layer is often
highly fossiliferous; some of the common forms being _Arca minuta,
Ostrea gregaria, Waldheimia digona, Terebratula coarctata, Cidaris
bradfordensis_, &c.

  See H.B. Woodward, "Jurassic Rocks of Britain," _Mem. Geol. Survey_,
  vol. iv. (1904).



BRADFORD-ON-AVON, a market town in the Westbury parliamentary division
of Wiltshire, England, on the rivers Avon and Kennet, and the Kennet &
Avon Canal, 98 m. W. by S. of London by the Great Western railway. Pop.
of urban district (1901) 4514. Its houses, all built of grey stone, rise
in picturesque disorder up the steep sides of the Avon valley, here
crossed by an ancient bridge of nine arches, with a chapel in the
centre. Among many places of worship may be mentioned the restored
parish church of Holy Trinity, which dates from the 12th century and
contains some interesting monuments and brasses; and the Perpendicular
Hermitage or Tory chapel, with a 15th or 16th century chantry-house. But
most notable is the Saxon church of St Lawrence, the foundation of which
is generally attributed, according to William of Malmesbury (1125), to
St Aldhelm, early in the 8th century. It consists of a chancel, nave and
porch, in such unchanged condition that E.A. Freeman considered it "the
most perfect surviving church of its kind in England, if not in Europe."
It has more lately, however, been held that the present building is not
Aldhelm's, but a restoration, dating from about 975, and attributable to
the influence of Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston House, long
the seat of the dukes of Kingston, is a beautiful example of early
17th-century domestic architecture. The local industries include the
manufacture of rubber goods, brewing, quarrying and iron-founding.

  Bradford (Bradauford, Bradeford) was the site of a battle in 652
  between Kenwal and his kinsman Cuthred. A monastery existed here in
  the 8th century, of which St Aldhelm was abbot at the time of his
  being made bishop of Sherborne in A.D. 705. In 1001 Æthelred gave this
  monastery and the town of Bradford to the nunnery of Shaftesbury, in
  order that the nuns might have a safe refuge against the insults of
  the Danes. No mention of the monastery occurs after the Conquest, but
  the nunnery of Shaftesbury retained the lordship of the manor until
  the dissolution in the reign of Henry VIII. In a synod held here in
  954, Dunstan was elected bishop of Winchester. Bradford appears as a
  borough in the Domesday survey, and is there assessed at 42 hides. No
  charter of incorporation is recorded, however, and after returning two
  members to the parliament of 1295 the town does not appear to have
  enjoyed any of the privileges of a borough. The market is of ancient
  origin, and was formerly held on Monday; in the survey the tolls are
  assessed at 45 shillings. Bradford was at one time the centre of the
  clothing industry in the west of England, and was especially famous
  for its broadcloths and mixtures, the waters of the Avon being
  especially favourable to the production of good colours and superior
  dyes. The industry declined in the 18th century, and in 1740 we find
  the woollen merchants of Bradford petitioning for an act of parliament
  to improve their trade and so re-establish their credit in foreign
  markets.



BRADLAUGH, CHARLES (1833-1891), English free-thinker and politician, was
born at Hoxton, London, on the 26th of September 1833. His father was a
poor solicitor's clerk, who also had a small business as a law
stationer, and his mother had been a nursemaid. At twelve years old he
became office-boy to his father's employer, and at fourteen wharf-clerk
and cashier to a coal merchant in the City Road. He had been baptized
and brought up in the Church of England, but he now came into contact
with a group of free-thinkers who were disciples of Richard Carlile. He
was hastily labelled an "atheist," and was turned out of his situation.
Thus driven into the arms of the secularists, he managed to earn a
living by odd jobs, and became further immersed in the study of
free-thought. At the end of 1850 he enlisted as a soldier, but in 1853
was bought out with money provided by his mother. He then found
employment as a lawyer's clerk, and gradually became known as a
free-thought lecturer, under the name of "Iconoclast." From 1860 he
conducted the _National Reformer_ for several years, and displayed much
resource in legal defence when the paper was prosecuted by the
government on account of its alleged blasphemy and sedition in
1868-1869. Bradlaugh became notorious as a leading "infidel," and was
supported by the sympathy of those who were enthusiasts at that time for
liberty of speech and thought. He was a constant figure in the law
courts; and his competence to take the oath was continually being called
in question, while his atheism and republican opinions were adduced as
reasons why no jury should give damages for attacks on his character. In
1874 he became acquainted with Mrs Annie Besant (b. 1847), who
afterwards became famous for her gifts as a lecturer on socialism and
theosophy. She began by writing for the _National Reformer_ and soon
became co-editor. In 1876 the Bristol publisher of an American pamphlet
on the population question, called _Fruits of Philosophy_, was indicted
for selling a work full of indecent physiological details, and, pleading
guilty, was lightly sentenced; but Bradlaugh and Mrs Besant took the
matter up, in order to vindicate their ideas of liberty, and
aggressively republished and circulated the pamphlet. The prosecution
which resulted created considerable scandal. They were convicted and
sentenced to a heavy fine and imprisonment, but the sentence was stayed
and the indictment ultimately quashed on a technical point. The affair,
however, had several side issues in the courts and led to much prejudice
against the defendants, the distinction being ignored between a protest
against the suppression of opinion and the championship of the
particular opinions in question. Mrs Besant's close alliance with
Bradlaugh eventually terminated in 1886, when she drifted from
secularism, first into socialistic and labour agitation and then into
theosophy as a pupil of Mme Blavatsky. Bradlaugh himself took up
politics with increasing fervour. He had been unsuccessful in standing
for Northampton in 1868, but in 1880 he was returned by that
constituency to parliament as an advanced Radical. A long and
sensational parliamentary struggle now began. He claimed to be allowed
to affirm under the Parliamentary Oaths Act, and the rejection of this
pretension, and the refusal to allow him to take the oath on his
professing his willingness to do so, terminated in Bradlaugh's victory
in 1886. But this result was not obtained without protracted scenes in
the House, in which Lord Randolph Churchill took a leading part. When
the long struggle was over, the public had gradually got used to
Bradlaugh, and his transparent honesty and courageous contempt for mere
popularity gained him increasing respect. Experience of public life in
the House of Commons appeared to give him a more balanced view of
things; and before he died, on the 30th of January 1891, the progress of
events was such that it was beginning to be said of him that he was in a
fair way to end as a Conservative. Hard, arrogant and dogmatic, with a
powerful physique and a real gift for popular oratory, he was a natural
leader in causes which had society against them, but his sincerity was
as unquestionable as his combativeness.

  His _Life_ was written, from a sympathetic point of view, with much
  interesting detail as to the history of secularism, by his daughter,
  Mrs Bradlaugh Bonner, and J.M. Robertson (1894).



BRADLEY, GEORGE GRANVILLE (1821-1903), English divine and scholar, was
born on the 11th of December 1821, his father, Charles Bradley, being at
that time vicar of Glasbury, Brecon. He was educated at Rugby under
Thomas Arnold, and at University College, Oxford, of which he became a
fellow in 1844. He was an assistant master at Rugby from 1846 to 1858,
when he succeeded G.E.L. Cotton as headmaster at Marlborough. In 1870 he
was elected master of his old college at Oxford, and in August 1881 he
was made dean of Westminster in succession to A.P. Stanley, whose pupil
and intimate friend he had been, and whose biographer he became. Besides
his _Recollections of A.P. Stanley_ (1883) and _Life of Dean Stanley_
(1892), he published _Aids to writing Latin Prose Composition_ and
_Lectures on Job_ (1884) and _Ecclesiastes_ (1885). He took part in the
coronation of Edward VII., resigned the deanery in 1902, and died on the
13th of March 1903.

Dean Bradley's family produced various other members distinguished in
literature. His half-brother, ANDREW CECIL BRADLEY (b. 1851), fellow of
Balliol, Oxford, became professor of modern literature and history
(1881) at University College, Liverpool, and in 1889 regius professor of
English language and literature at Glasgow University; and he was
professor of poetry at Oxford (1901-1906). Of Dean Bradley's own
children the most distinguished in literature were his son, ARTHUR
GRANVILLE BRADLEY (b. 1850), author of various historical and
topographical works; and especially his daughter, Mrs MARGARET LOUISA
WOODS (b. 1856), wife of the Rev. Henry George Woods, president of
Trinity, Oxford (1887-1897), and master of the Temple (1904), London.
Mrs Woods became well known for her accomplished verse (_Lyrics and
Ballads_, 1889), largely influenced by Robert Bridges, and for her
novels, of which her _Village Tragedy_ (1887) was the earliest and
strongest.



BRADLEY, JAMES (1693-1762), English astronomer, was born at Sherborne in
Gloucestershire in March 1693. He entered Balliol College, Oxford, on
the 15th of March 1711, and took degrees of B.A. and M.A. in 1714 and
1717 respectively. His early observations were made at the rectory of
Wanstead in Essex, under the tutelage of his uncle, the Rev. James Pound
(1669-1724), himself a skilled astronomer, and he was elected a fellow
of the Royal Society on the 6th of November 1718. He took orders on his
presentation to the vicarage of Bridstow in the following year, and a
small sinecure living in Wales was besides procured for him by his
friend Samuel Molyneux (1689-1728). He, however, resigned his
ecclesiastical preferments in 1721, on his appointment to the Savilian
professorship of astronomy at Oxford, while as reader on experimental
philosophy (1729-1760) he delivered 79 courses of lectures in the
Ashmolean museum. His memorable discovery of the aberration of light
(see ABERRATION) was communicated to the Royal Society in January 1729
(_Phil. Trans._ xxxv. 637). The observations upon which it was founded
were made at Molyneux's house on Kew Green. He refrained from announcing
the supplementary detection of nutation (q.v.) until the 14th of
February 1748 (_Phil. Trans._ xlv. 1), when he had tested its reality by
minute observations during an entire revolution (18.6 years) of the
moon's nodes. He had meantime (in 1742) been appointed to succeed Edmund
Halley as astronomer royal; his enhanced reputation enabled him to apply
successfully for an instrumental outfit at a cost of £1000; and with an
8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird (1700-1776), he
accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for
the reform of astronomy. A crown pension of £250 a year was conferred
upon him in 1752. He retired in broken health, nine years later, to
Chalford in Gloucestershire, and there died on the 13th of July 1762.
The printing of his observations was delayed by disputes about their
ownership; but they were finally issued from the Clarendon Press,
Oxford, in two folio volumes (1798, 1805). The insight and industry of
F.W. Bessel were, however, needed for the development of their
fundamental importance.

  Rigaud's Memoir prefixed to _Miscellaneous Works and Correspondence of
  James Bradley, D.D._ (Oxford, 1832), is practically exhaustive. Other
  sources of information are: _New and General Biographical Dictionary_,
  xii. 54 (1767); _Biog. Brit._ (Kippis); Fouchy's "Éloge," _Paris
  Memoirs_ (1762), p. 231 (Histoire); Delambre's _Hist. de l'astronomie
  au 18^me siècle_, p. 413.



BRADSHAW, GEORGE (1801-1853), English printer and publisher, was born at
Windsor Bridge, Pendleton, Lancashire, on the 29th of July 1801. On
leaving school he was apprenticed to an engraver at Manchester,
eventually setting up on his own account in that city as an engraver and
printer--principally of maps. His name was already known as the
publisher of _Bradshaw's Maps of Inland Navigation_, when in 1839, soon
after the introduction of railways, he published, at sixpence,
_Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables_, the title being changed in 1840 to
_Bradshaw's Railway Companion_, and the price raised to one shilling. A
new volume was issued at occasional intervals, a supplementary monthly
time-sheet serving to keep the book up to date. In December 1841, acting
on a suggestion made by his London agent, Mr W.J. Adams, Bradshaw
reduced the price of his time-tables to the original sixpence, and began
to issue them monthly under the title _Bradshaw's Monthly Railway
Guide._ In June 1847 was issued the first number of _Bradshaw's
Continental Railway Guide_, giving the time-tables of the Continental
railways just as _Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide_ gave the time-tables
of the railways of the United Kingdom. Bradshaw, who was a well-known
member of the Society of Friends, and gave considerable time to
philanthropic work, died in 1853.



BRADSHAW, HENRY (c. 1450-1513), English poet, was born at Chester. In
his boyhood he was received into the Benedictine monastery of St
Werburgh, and after studying with other novices of his order at
Gloucester (afterwards Worcester) College, Oxford, he returned to his
monastery at Chester. He wrote a Latin treatise _De antiquitate et
magnificentia Urbis Cestriae_, which is lost, and a life of the patron
saint of his monastery in English seven-lined stanza. This work was
completed in the year of its author's death, 1513, mentioned in "A
balade to the auctour" printed at the close of the work. A second ballad
describes him as "Harry Braddeshaa, of Chestre abbey monke." Bradshaw
disclaims the merit of originality and quotes the authorities from which
he translates--Bede, William of Malmesbury, Giraldus Cambrensis, Alfred
of Beverley, Henry of Huntingdon, Ranulph Higden, and especially the
"Passionary" or life of the saint preserved in the monastery. The poem,
therefore, which is defined by its editor, Dr Carl Horstmann, as a
"legendary epic," is rather a compilation than a translation. It
contains a good deal of history beside the actual life of the saint. St
Werburgh was the daughter of Wulfere, king of Mercia, and Bradshaw gives
a description of the kingdom of Mercia, with a full account of its royal
house. He relates the history of St Ermenilde and St Sexburge, mother
and grandmother of Werburgh, who were successively abbesses of Ely. He
does not neglect the miraculous elements of the story, but he is more
attracted by historical fact than legend, and the second book narrates
the Danish invasion of 875, and describes the history and antiquities of
Chester, from its foundation by the legendary giant Leon Gaur, from
which he derives the British name of Caerleon, down to the great fire
which devastated the city in 1180, but was suddenly extinguished when
the shrine of St Werburgh was carried in procession through the streets.
_The Holy Lyfe and History of saynt Werburge very frutefull for all
Christen people to rede_ (printed by Richard Pynson, 1521) has been very
variously estimated. Thomas Warton, who deals with Bradshaw at some
length,[1] quotes as the most splendid passage of the poem the
description of the feast preceding Werburgh's entry into the religious
life. He considered Bradshaw's versification "infinitely inferior to
Lydgate's worst manner." Dr Horstmann, on the other hand, finds in the
poem "original genius, of a truly epic tone, with a native simplicity
of feeling which sometimes reminds the reader of Homer." Most readers
will probably adopt a view between these extremes. Bradshaw expresses
the humblest opinion of his own abilities, and he certainly had no
delicate ear for rhythm. His sincerity is abundantly evident, and his
piety is admitted even by John Bale[2], hostile as he was to monkish
writers. W. Herbert[3] thought that a _Lyfe of Saynt Radegunde_, also
printed by Pynson, was certainly by Bradshaw. The only extant copy is in
the Britwell library.

  Pynson's edition of the _Holy Lyfe_ is very rare, only five copies
  being known. A reprint copying the original type was edited by Mr.
  Edward Hawkins for the Chetham Society in 1848, and by Dr Carl
  Hortsmann for the Early English Text Society in 1887.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _History of English Poetry_ (ed. W.C. Hazlitt, 1871; iii. pp.
    140-149).

  [2] _Scriptorum Illustrium, cant. ix._ No. 17.

  [3] Ames, _Typographical Antiquities_ (ed. W. Herbert, 1785; i. p.
    294).



BRADSHAW, HENRY (1831-1886), British scholar and librarian, was born in
London on the 2nd of February 1831, and educated at Eton. He became a
fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and after a short scholastic career
in Ireland he accepted an appointment in the Cambridge university
library as an extra assistant. When he found that his official duties
absorbed all his leisure he resigned his post, but continued to give his
time to the examination of the MSS. and early printed books in the
library. There was then no complete catalogue of these sections, and
Bradshaw soon showed a rare faculty for investigations respecting old
books and curious MSS. In addition to his achievements in black-letter
bibliography he threw great light on ancient Celtic language and
literature by the discovery, in 1857, of the _Book of Deer_, a
manuscript copy of the Gospel in the Vulgate version, in which were
inscribed old Gaelic charters. This was published by the Spalding Club
in 1869. Bradshaw also discovered some Celtic glosses on the MS. of a
metrical paraphrase of the Gospels by Juvencus. He made another find in
the Cambridge library of considerable philological and historical
importance. Cromwell's envoy, Sir Samuel Morland (1625-1695), had
brought back from Piedmont MSS. containing the earliest known Waldensian
records, consisting of translations from the Bible, religious treatises
and poems. One of the poems referred the work to the beginning of the
11th century, though the MSS. did not appear to be of earlier date than
the 15th century. On this Morland had based his theory of the antiquity
of the Waldensian doctrine, and, in the absence of the MSS., which were
supposed to be irretrievably lost, the conclusion was accepted. Bradshaw
discovered the MSS. in the university library, and found in the passage
indicated traces of erasure. The original date proved to be 1400.
Incidentally the correct date was of great value in the study of the
history of the language. He had a share in exposing the frauds of
Constantine Simonides, who had asserted that the _Codex Sinaiticus_
brought by Tischendorf from the Greek monastery of Mount Sinai was a
modern forgery of which he was himself the author. Bradshaw exposed the
absurdity of these claims in a letter to the _Guardian_ (January 26,
1863). In 1866 he made a valuable contribution to the history of
Scottish literature by the discovery of 2200 lines on the siege of Troy
incorporated in a MS. of Lydgate's _Troye Booke_, and of the _Legends of
the Saints_, an important work of some 40,000 lines. These poems he
attributed, erroneously, as has since been proved, to Barbour (q.v.).
Unfortunately Bradshaw allowed his attention to be distracted by a
multiplicity of subjects, so that he has not left any literary work
commensurate with his powers. The strain upon him was increased when he
was elected (1867) university librarian, and as dean of his college
(1857-1865) and praelector (1863-1868) he was involved in further
routine duties. Besides his brilliant isolated discoveries in
bibliography, he did much by his untiring zeal to improve the standard
of library administration. He died very suddenly on the 10th of February
1886. His fugitive papers on antiquarian subjects were collected and
edited by Mr F. Jenkinson in 1889.

  An excellent _Memoir of Henry Bradshaw_, by Mr G.W. Prothero, appeared
  in 1888. See also C.F. Newcombe, _Some Aspects of the Work of Henry
  Bradshaw_ (1905).



BRADSHAW, JOHN (1602-1659), president of the "High Court of Justice"
which tried Charles I., was the second son of Henry Bradshaw, of Marple
and Wibersley in Cheshire. He was baptized on the 10th of December 1602,
was educated at Banbury in Cheshire and at Middleton in Lancashire,
studied subsequently with an attorney at Congleton, was admitted into
Gray's Inn in 1620, and was called to the bar in 1627, becoming a
bencher in 1647. He was mayor of Congleton in 1637, and later high
steward or recorder of the borough. According to Milton he was assiduous
in his legal studies and acquired considerable reputation and practice
at the bar. On the 21st of September 1643 he was appointed judge of the
sheriff's court in London. In October 1644 he was counsel with Prynne in
the prosecution of Lord Maguire and Hugh Macmahon, implicated in the
Irish rebellion, in 1645 for John Lilburne in his appeal to the Lords
against the sentence of the Star Chamber, and in 1647 in the prosecution
of Judge Jenkins. On the 8th of October 1646 he had been nominated by
the Commons a commissioner of the great seal, but his appointment was
not confirmed by the Lords. In 1647 he was made chief justice of Chester
and a judge in Wales, and on the 12th of October 1648 he was presented
to the degree of serjeant-at-law. On the 2nd of January 1649 the Lords
threw out the ordinance for bringing the king to trial, and the small
remnant of the House of Commons which survived Pride's Purge, consisting
of 53 independents, determined to carry out the ordinance on their own
authority. The leading members of the bar, on the parliamentary as well
as on the royalist side, having refused to participate in proceedings
not only illegal and unconstitutional, but opposed to the plainest
principles of equity, Bradshaw was selected to preside, and, after some
protestations of humility and unfitness, accepted the office. The king
refused to plead before the tribunal, but Bradshaw silenced every legal
objection and denied to Charles an opportunity to speak in his defence.
He continued after the king's death to conduct, as lord president, the
trials of the royalists, including the duke of Hamilton, Lord Capel, and
Henry Rich, earl of Holland, all of whom he condemned to death, his
behaviour being especially censured in the case of Eusebius Andrews, a
royalist who had joined a conspiracy against the government. He received
large rewards for his services. He was appointed in 1649
attorney-general of Cheshire and North Wales, and chancellor of the
duchy of Lancaster, and was given a sum of £1000, together with
confiscated estates worth £2000 a year. He had been nominated a member
of the council of state on the 14th of February 1649, and on the 10th of
March became president. He disapproved strongly of the expulsion of the
Long Parliament, and on Cromwell's coming subsequently to dismiss the
council Bradshaw is said, on the authority of Ludlow, to have confronted
him boldly, and denied his power to dissolve the parliament. An ardent
republican, he showed himself ever afterwards an uncompromising
adversary of Cromwell. He was returned for Stafford in the parliament of
1654, and spoke strongly against vesting power in a single person. He
refused to sign the "engagement" drawn up by Cromwell, and in
consequence withdrew from parliament and was subsequently suspected of
complicity in plots against the government. He failed to obtain a seat
in the parliament of 1656, and in August of the same year Cromwell
attempted to remove him from the chief-justiceship of Cheshire. After
the abdication of Richard Cromwell, Bradshaw again entered parliament,
became a member of the council of state, and on the 3rd of June 1659 was
appointed a commissioner of the great seal. His health, however, was
bad, and his last public effort was a vehement speech, in the council,
when he declared his abhorrence of the arrest of Speaker Lenthall. He
died on the 31st of October 1659, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
His body was disinterred at the Restoration, and exposed on a gibbet
along with those of Cromwell and Ireton. Bradshaw married Mary, daughter
of Thomas Marbury of Marbury, Cheshire, but left no children.



BRADWARDINE, THOMAS (c. 1290-1349), English archbishop, called "the
Profound Doctor," was born either at Hartfield in Sussex or at
Chichester. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, where he took
the degree of doctor of divinity, and acquired the reputation of a
profound scholar, a skilful mathematician and an able divine. He was
afterwards raised to the high offices of chancellor of the university
and professor of divinity. From being chancellor of the diocese of
London, he became chaplain and confessor to Edward III., whom he
attended during his wars in France. On his return to England, he was
successively appointed prebendary of Lincoln, archdeacon of Lincoln
(1347), and in 1349 archbishop of Canterbury. He died of the plague at
Lambeth on the 26th of August 1349, forty days after his consecration.
Chaucer in his _Nun's Priest's Tale_ ranks Bradwardine with St
Augustine. His great work is a treatise against the Pelagians, entitled
_De causa Dei contra Pelagium et de virtute causarum_, edited by Sir
Henry Savile (London, 1618). He wrote also _De Geometria speculativa_
(Paris, 1530); _De Arithmetica practica_ (Paris, 1502); _De
Proportionibus_ (Paris, 1495; Venice, 1505); _De Quadratura Circuli_
(Paris, 1495); and an _Ars Memorativa_, Sloane MSS. No. 3974 in the
British Museum.

  See Quétif-Échard, _Script. Praedic._ (1719), i. 744; W.F. Hook,
  _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_, vol. iv.



BRADY, NICHOLAS (1659-1726), Anglican divine and poet, was born at
Bandon, Co. Cork, on the 28th of October 1659. He received his education
at Westminster school, and at Christ Church, Oxford; but he graduated at
Trinity College, Dublin. He took orders, and in 1688 was made a
prebendary of Cork. He was a zealous promoter of the Revolution and
suffered in consequence. When the troubles broke out in Ireland in 1690,
Brady, by his influence, thrice prevented the burning of the town of
Bandon, after James II. had given orders for its destruction; and the
same year he was employed by the people of Bandon to lay their
grievances before the English parliament. He soon afterwards settled in
London, where he obtained various preferments. At the time of his death,
on the 20th of May 1726, he held the livings of Clapham and Richmond.
Brady's best-known work is his metrical version of the Psalms, in which
Nahum Tate collaborated with him. It was licensed in 1696, and largely
ousted the old version of T. Sternhold and J. Hopkins. He also
translated Virgil's _Aeneid_, and wrote several smaller poems and
dramas, as well as sermons.



BRAEKELEER, HENRI JEAN AUGUSTIN DE (1840-1888), Belgian painter, was
born at Antwerp. He was trained by his father, a _genre_ painter, and
his uncle, Baron Henri Leys, and devoted himself to scenes of everyday
Antwerp life. The first pictures he exhibited, "The Laundry" (Van Cutsem
collection, Brussels), and "The Coppersmith's Workshop" (Vleeshovwer
collection, Antwerp), were shown at the Antwerp exhibition in 1861. He
received the gold medal at Brussels in 1872 for "The Geographer" and
"The Lesson" (both in the Brussels gallery); the gold medal at Vienna in
1873 for "The Painter's Studio" and "Grandmother's Birthday"; and the
medal of honour at the Exposition Universelle at Amsterdam for "The
Pilot House." Among his more notable works are "A Shoemaker" (1862), "A
Tailor's Workroom" (1863), "A Gardener" (1864, Antwerp gallery),
"Interior of a Church" (1866), "Interior, Flanders" (1867), "Woman
spinning" (1869), "Man reading" (1871), "The rue du Serment, Antwerp"
(1875), "A Copperplate Printer," "The Sailor's Return," "The Man at the
Window" (Couteaux collection, Brussels), "The Horn-blower" (Couteaux
collection), "Man retouching a Picture" (Couteaux collection), "The
Potters" (Marlier collection, Brussels), "Staircase in the Hydraulic
House at Antwerp" (Marlier collection), and "The Brewer's House at
Antwerp" (Marlier collection). The last, better known as "A Man
sitting," is generally regarded as his masterpiece. As a lithographer
and etcher, his work resembles that of Henri Leys. Towards the end of
his life de Braekeleer did some dot painting (_pointillisme_), in which
he achieved admirable effects of light.



BRAEMAR, a district in S.W. Aberdeenshire, Scotland, extending from
Ballater in the E. to Glen Dee in the W., a distance of 24 m. with a
breadth varying from 3 to 6 m. It is drained throughout by the river
Dee, both banks of which are bounded by hills varying from 1000 to
nearly 3000 ft. in height. The whole area is distinguished by typical
Highland scenery, and is a resort alike for sportsmen and tourists. The
villages and clachans (Gaelic for hamlet) being situated at an altitude
of from 600 to more than 1000 ft. above the sea, the air is everywhere
pure and bracing. The deer forests comprise the royal forests of
Balmoral and Ballochbuie, Glen Ey Forest, Mar Forest and Invercauld
Forest. At various points on either side of the Dee, granite castles,
mansions and lodges have been built, mostly in the Scottish baronial
style, and all effectively situated with reference to the wooded hills
or the river. The chief of these are Balmoral and Abergeldie Castles
belonging to the crown, Invercauld House, Braemar Castle, Mar Lodge and
Old Mar Lodge. Castleton of Braemar is the foremost of the villages,
being sometimes styled the capital of the Deeside Highlands. Its public
buildings include halls erected by the duke of Fife and Colonel
Farquharson of Invercauld to commemorate the Victorian jubilee of 1887.
Not far from the spot where the brawling Clunie joins the Dee the earl
of Mar raised the standard of revolt in 1715. His seat, Braemar Castle,
reputed to be a hunting-lodge of Malcolm Canmore, was forfeit along with
the estates. The new castle built by the purchasers in 1720 was acquired
at a later date by Farquharson of Invercauld, who gave government the
use of it during the pacification of the Highlands after the battle of
Culloden in 1746. Population of Crathie and Braemar (1901) 1452.



BRAG, a very old game of cards, probably evolved from the ancient
Spanish _primero_, played by five or six, or more players. It is the
ancestor of poker. A full pack is used, the cards ranking as at whist,
with certain exceptions. There are no trumps. Each player receives three
cards and puts up three stakes. The last round is dealt face upwards:
the holder of the highest card irrespective of suits wins the first
stake from all the players. In the case of equality the elder hand wins,
but the ace of diamonds is always a winning card. For the second stake
the players _brag_ or bet against each other, if they hold either a
pair, or a pair-royal (three cards of the same rank). Pairs and
pairs-royal take precedence according to the value of the cards
composing them, but any pair-royal beats any pair. The knave of clubs
may be counted as any card, e.g. two twos and the knave of clubs rank as
a pair-royal in twos; two aces and the knave as a pair-royal in aces.
Sometimes the knave of diamonds is allowed the same privilege, but is
inferior to the club knave; e.g. two threes and the club would beat the
other two threes and the diamond. Players who accept another's brag must
cover his. bet and offer another. The third stake is won by the player
whose cards make 31 or are nearest to 31 by their pips, aces and court
counting ten; but the ace may by arrangement count as 1 or 11. Players
may draw from the stock, losing if they over-draw. If one player wins
all three stakes, he may receive the value of another stake, or of two
or three stakes, all round, as arranged. The deal passes as at whist.
Each player should have the same number of deals before the game is
abandoned.



BRAGA, a city of northern Portugal, formerly included in the province of
Entre Minho e Douro, situated on the right-bank of the small river Deste
near its source, and at the head of a railway from Oporto. Pop. (1900)
24,202. Braga, which ranks after Lisbon and Oporto as the third city of
the kingdom, is the capital of an administrative district, and an
archiepiscopal see. Its cathedral, founded in the 12th century, was
rebuilt during the 16th century in the blend of Moorish and florid
Gothic styles known as Manoellian. It contains several tombs of
considerable historical interest, some fine woodwork carved in the 15th
century, and a collection of ancient vestments, plate and other objects
of art. Among the other churches Santa Cruz is noteworthy for its
handsome façade, which dates from 1642. There are several convents, an
archiepiscopal palace, a library, containing many rare books and
manuscripts, an orphan asylum, and a large hospital; also the ruins of a
theatre, a temple and an aqueduct of Roman workmanship, and a great
variety of minor antiquities of different ages. The principal
manufactures are firearms, jewelry, cutlery, cloth and felt hats. Large
cattle fairs are held in June and September, for cattle-breeding and
dairy-farming are among the foremost local industries. On a hill about
3 m. E. by S. stands the celebrated sanctuary of Bom Jesus, or Bom Jesus
do Monte, visited at Whitsuntide by many thousands of pilgrims, who do
public penance as they ascend to the shrine; and about 1 m. beyond it is
Mount Sameiro (2535 ft.), crowned by a colossal statue of the Virgin
Mary, and commanding a magnificent view of the mountainous country which
culminates in the Serra do Gerez, on the north-east.

Braga is the Roman _Bracara Augusta_, capital of the _Callaici
Bracarii_, or _Bracarenses_, a tribe who occupied what is now Galicia
and northern Portugal. Early in the 5th century it was taken by the
Suevi; but about 485 it passed into the hands of the Visigothic
conquerors of Spain, whose renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist
heresies, at two synods held here in the 6th century, marks the origin
of its ecclesiastical greatness. The archbishops of Braga retain the
title of primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the
Spanish church also; but their authority was never accepted throughout
Spain. From the Moors, who captured Braga early in the 8th century, the
city was retaken in 1040 by Ferdinand I., king of Castile and Leon; and
from 1093 to 1147 it was the residence of the Portuguese court.

The administrative district of Braga coincides with the central part of
the province of Entre Minho e Douro (q.v.). Pop. (1900) 357,159. Area,
1040 sq. m.



BRAGANZA (_Bragança_), the capital of an administrative district
formerly included in the province of Traz-os-Montes, Portugal; situated
in the north-eastern extremity of the kingdom, on a branch of the river
Sabor, 8 m. S. of the Spanish frontier. Pop. (1900) 5535. Braganza is an
episcopal city. It consists of a walled upper town, containing the
cathedral college and hospital, and of a lower or modern town. Large
tracts of the surrounding country are uncultivated, partly because
railway communication is lacking and the roads are bad. Except farming,
the chief local industry is silkworm-rearing and the manufacture of
silk. The administrative district of Braganza coincides with the eastern
part of Traz-os-Montes (q.v.). Pop. (1900) 185,162; area, 2513 sq. m.

The city gave its name to the family of Braganza, members of which were
rulers of Portugal from 1640 to 1853, and emperors of Brazil from 1822
to 1889. This family is descended from Alphonso (d. 1461), a natural son
of John I., king of Portugal (d. 1433), who was a natural son of King
Peter I., and consequently belonged to the Portuguese branch of the
Capetian family. Alphonso was made duke of Braganza in 1442, and in 1483
his grandson, Duke Ferdinand II., lost his life through heading an
insurrection against King John II. In spite of this Ferdinand's
descendants acquired great wealth, and several of them held high office
under the kings of Portugal. Duke John I. (d. 1583) married into the
royal family, and when King Henry II. died without direct heirs in 1580,
he claimed the crown of Portugal in opposition to Philip II. of Spain.
John, however, was unsuccessful, but, when the Portuguese threw off the
Spanish dominion in 1640, his grandson, John II., duke of Braganza,
became king as John IV. In 1807, when Napoleon declared the throne of
Portugal vacant, King John VI. fled to Brazil; but he regained his
inheritance after the fall of Napoleon in 1814, although he did not
return to Europe until 1821, when he left his elder son Peter to govern
Brazil. In 1822 a revolution established the independence of Brazil with
Peter as emperor. In 1826 Peter became king of Portugal on the death of
his father; but he at once resigned the crown to his young daughter
Maria, and appointed his brother Miguel to act as regent. Miguel soon
declared himself king, but after a stubborn struggle was driven from the
country in 1833, after which Maria became queen. Maria married for her
second husband Ferdinand (d. 1851), son of Francis, duke of Saxe-Coburg;
and when she died in 1853 the main Portuguese branch of the family
became extinct. Maria was succeeded by her son Louis I., father of
Charles I., who ascended the throne of Portugal in 1889. The empire of
Brazil descended on the death of Peter I. to his son Peter II., who was
expelled from the country in 1889. When Peter died in 1891 this branch
of the family also became extinct in the male line. His only child,
Isabella, married Louis Gaston of Orleans, count of Eu. The exiled king,
Miguel, founded a branch of the family of Braganza which settled in
Bavaria, and various noble families in Portugal are descended from
cadets of this house. The title of duke of Braganza is now borne by the
eldest son of the king of Portugal.



BRAGG, BRAXTON (1817-1876), American soldier, was born in Warren county,
North Carolina, on the 22nd of March 1817. He graduated at the United
States military academy in 1837, and as an artillery officer served in
the Seminole wars of 1837 and 1841, and under General Taylor in Mexico.
For gallant conduct at Fort Brown, Monterey and Buena Vista, he received
the brevets of captain, major and lieutenant-colonel. He resigned from
the regular army on the 3rd of January 1856, and retired to his
plantation in Louisiana. From 1859 to 1861 he was commissioner of the
board of public works of the state. When in 1861 the Civil War began,
Bragg was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate service, and
assigned to command at Pensacola. In February 1862, having meanwhile
become major-general, he took up a command in the Army of the
Mississippi, and he was present at the battle of Shiloh (April). The
vacancy created by the death of Sidney Johnston at that battle was
filled by the promotion of Bragg to full general's rank, and he
succeeded General Beauregard when that officer retired from the Western
command. In the autumn of 1862 he led a bold advance from Eastern
Tennessee across Kentucky to Louisville, but after temporary successes
he was forced to retire before Buell, and after the battle of Perryville
(8th October) retired into Tennessee. Though the material results of his
campaign were considerable, he was bitterly censured, and his removal
from his command was urged. But the personal favour of Jefferson Davis
kept him, as it had placed him, at the head of the central army, and on
the 31st of December 1862 and 2nd of January 1863 he fought the
indecisive battle of Murfreesboro (or Stone river) against Rosecrans,
Buell's successor. In the campaign of 1863 Rosecrans constantly
outmanoeuvred the Confederates, and forced them back to the border of
Georgia. Bragg, however, inflicted a crushing defeat on his opponent at
Chickamauga (September 19-20) and for a time besieged the Union forces
in Chattanooga. But enormous forces under Grant were concentrated upon
the threatened spot, and the great battle of Chattanooga (November
23-25) ended in the rout of the Confederates. Bragg was now deprived of
his command, but President Davis made him his military adviser, and in
that capacity he served during 1864. In the autumn of that year he led
an inferior force from North Carolina to Georgia to oppose Sherman's
march. In February 1865 he joined Johnston, and he was thus included in
the surrender of that officer to Sherman. After the war he became chief
engineer to the state of Alabama, and supervised improvements in Mobile
harbour. He died suddenly at Galveston, Texas, on the 27th of September
1876. General Bragg, in spite of his want of success, was unquestionably
a brave and skilful officer. But he was a severe martinet, and rarely in
full accord with the senior officers under his orders, the consequent
friction often acting unfavourably on the conduct of the operations.

His brother, THOMAS BRAGG (1810-1872), was governor of North Carolina
1855-1859, U.S. senator 1859-1861, and attorney-general in the
Confederate cabinet from Nov. 1861 to March 1862.



BRAGI, in Scandinavian mythology, the son of Odin, and god of wisdom,
poetry and eloquence. At the Scandinavian sacrificial feasts a horn
consecrated to Bragi was used as a drinking-cup by the guests, who then
vowed to do some great deed which would be worthy of being immortalized
in verse.



BRAHAM, JOHN (c. 1774-1856), English vocalist, was born in London about
1774, of Jewish parentage, his real name being Abraham. His father and
mother died when he was quite young. Having received lessons in singing
from an Italian artist named Leoni, he made his first appearance in
public at Covent Garden theatre on the 21st of April 1787, when he sang
"The soldier tired of war's alarms" and "_Ma chère arrive_." On the
breaking of his voice, he had to support himself by teaching the
pianoforte. In a few years, however, he recovered his voice, which
proved to be a tenor of exceptionally pure and rich quality. His second
début was made in 1794 at the Bath concerts, to the conductor of which,
Rauzzini, he was indebted for careful training extending over a period
of more than two years. In 1796 he reappeared in London at Drury Lane in
Storace's opera of _Mahmoud_. Such was his success that he obtained an
engagement the next year to appear in the Italian opera house in
Grétry's _Azor et Zémire_. He also sang in oratorios and was engaged for
the Three Choir festival at Gloucester. With the view of perfecting
himself in his art he set out for Italy in the autumn of 1797. On the
way he gave some concerts at Paris, which proved so successful that he
was induced to remain there for eight months. His career in Italy was
one of continuous triumph; he appeared in all the principal
opera-houses, singing in Milan, Genoa, Leghorn and Venice. His compass
embraced about nineteen notes, his management of the falsetto being
perfect. In 1801 he returned to his native country, and appeared once
more at Covent Garden in the opera _Chains of the Heart_, by Mazzinghi
and Reeve. So great was his popularity that an engagement he had made
when abroad to return after a year to Vienna was renounced, and he
remained henceforward in England. In 1824 he sang the part of Max in the
English version of Weber's _Der Freischütz_, and he was the original Sir
Huon in that composer's _Oberon_ in 1826. Braham made two unfortunate
speculations on a large scale, one being the purchase of the Colosseum
in the Regent's Park in 1831 for £40,000, and the other the erection of
the St James's theatre at a cost of £26,000 in 1836. In 1838 he sang the
part of William Tell at Drury Lane, and in 1839 the part of Don
Giovanni. His last public appearance was at a concert in March 1852. He
died on the 17th of February 1856. There is, perhaps, no other case upon
record in which a singer of the first rank enjoyed the use of his voice
so long; between Braham's first and last public appearances considerably
more than sixty years intervened, during forty of which he held the
undisputed supremacy alike in opera, oratorio and the concert-room.
Braham was the composer of a number of vocal pieces, which being sung by
himself had great temporary popularity, though they had little intrinsic
merit, and are now deservedly forgotten. A partial exception must be
made in favour of "The Death of Nelson," originally written in 1811 as a
portion of the opera _The American_; this still keeps its place as a
standard popular English song.



BRAHE, PER, COUNT (1602-1680), Swedish soldier and statesman, was born
on the island of Rydboholm, near Stockholm, on the 18th of February
1602. He was the grandson of Per Brahe (1520-1590), one of Gustavus I.'s
senators, created count of Visingsborg by Eric XIV., known also as the
continuator of Peder Svart's chronicle of Gustavus I., and author of
_Oeconomia_ (1585), a manual for young noblemen. Per Brahe the younger,
after completing his education by several years' travel abroad, became
in 1626 chamberlain to Gustavus Adolphus, whose lasting friendship he
gained. He fought with distinction in Prussia during the last three
years of the Polish War (1626-1629) and also, as colonel of a regiment
of horse, in 1630 in Germany. After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in
1632 his military yielded to his political activity. He had been elected
president (_Landsmarskalk_) of the diet of 1629, and in the following
year was created a senator (_Riksråd_). In 1635 he conducted the
negotiations for an armistice with Poland. In 1637-1640 and again in
1648-1654 he was governor-general in Finland, to which country he
rendered inestimable services by his wise and provident rule. He
reformed the whole administration, introduced a postal system, built ten
new towns, improved and developed commerce and agriculture, and very
greatly promoted education. In 1640 he opened the university of Åbo, of
which he was the founder, and first chancellor. After the death of
Charles X. in 1660, Brahe, as _rikskansler_ or chancellor of Sweden,
became one of the regents of Sweden for the second time (he had held a
similar office during the minority of Christina, 1632-1644), and during
the difficult year 1660 he had entire control of both foreign and
domestic affairs. He died on the 2nd of September 1680, at his castle
at Visingsborg, where during his lifetime he had held more than regal
pomp.

His brother, NILS BRAHE (1604-1632), also served with distinction under
Gustavus Adolphus. He took part in the siege and capture of Riga in
1621, served with distinction in Poland (1626-1627) and assisted in the
defence of Stralsund in 1628. In 1630 he accompanied Gustavus into
Germany, and in 1631 was appointed colonel of "the yellow regiment," the
king's world-renowned life-guards, at the head of which he captured the
castle of Würzburg on the 8th of October 1631. He took part in the long
duel between Gustavus and Wallenstein round Nuremberg as general of
infantry, and commanded the left wing at Lützen (November 6, 1632),
where he was the only Swedish general officer present. At the very
beginning of the fight he was mortally wounded. The king regarded Brahe
as the best general in the Swedish army after Lennart Torstensen.

A direct descendant of Nils, MAGNUS BRAHE (1790-1844), fought in the
campaign of 1813-14, under the crown prince Bernadotte, with whom, after
his accession to the throne as Charles XIV., he was in high favour. He
became marshal of the kingdom, and, especially from 1828 onwards,
exercised a preponderant influence in public affairs.

  See Martin Veibull, _Sveriges Storhetstid_, vol. iv. (Stockholm,
  1881); _Letters to Axel Oxenstjerna_ (Swed.) 1832-1851 (Stockholm,
  1890); Petrus Nordmann, _Per Brahe_ (Helsingfors, 1904).     (R. N. B.)



BRAHE, TYCHO (1546-1601), Danish astronomer, was born on the 14th of
December 1546 at the family seat of Knudstrup in Scania, then a Danish
province. Of noble family, he was early adopted by his uncle, Jörgen
Brahe, who sent him, in April 1559, to study philosophy and rhetoric at
Copenhagen. The punctual occurrence at the predicted time, August 21st,
1560, of a total solar eclipse led him to regard astronomy as "something
divine"; he purchased the _Ephemerides_ of Johann Stadius (3rd ed.,
1570), and the works of Ptolemy in Latin, and gained some insight into
the theory of the planets. Entered as a law-student at the university of
Leipzig in 1562, he nevertheless secretly prosecuted celestial studies,
and began continuous observations with a globe, a pair of compasses and
a "cross-staff." He quitted Leipzig on the 17th of May 1565, but his
uncle dying a month later, he repaired to Wittenberg, and thence to
Rostock, where, in 1566, he lost his nose in a duel, and substituted an
artificial one made of a copper alloy. In 1569 he matriculated at
Augsburg, and devoted himself to chemistry for two years (1570-1572). On
his return to Denmark, in 1571, he was permitted by his maternal uncle,
Steno Belle, to instal a laboratory at his castle of Herritzvad, near
Knudstrup; and there, on the 11th of November 1572, he caught sight of
the famous "new star" in Cassiopeia. He diligently measured its
position, and printed an account of his observations in a tract entitled
_De Novâ Stellâ_ (Copenhagen, 1573), a facsimile of which was produced
in 1901, as a tercentenary tribute to the author's memory.

Tycho's marriage with a peasant-girl in 1573 somewhat strained his
family relations. He delivered lectures in Copenhagen by royal command
in 1574; and in 1575 travelled through Germany to Venice. The execution
of his design to settle at Basel was, however, anticipated by the
munificence of Frederick II., king of Denmark, who bestowed upon him for
life the island of Hveen in the Sound, together with a pension of 500
thalers, a canonry in the cathedral of Roskilde, and the income of an
estate in Norway. The first stone of the magnificent observatory of
Uraniborg was laid on the 8th of August 1576; it received the finest
procurable instrumental outfit; and was the scene, during twenty-one
years, of Tycho's labours in systematically collecting materials--the
first made available since the Alexandrian epoch--for the correction of
astronomical theories. James VI. of Scotland, afterwards James I. of
England, visited him at Uraniborg on the 20th of March 1590. But by that
time his fortunes were on the wane; for Frederick II. died in 1588, and
his successor, Christian IV., was less tolerant of Tycho's arrogant and
insubordinate behaviour. His pension and fief having been withdrawn, he
sailed for Rostock in June 1597, and re-commenced observing before the
close of the year, in the castle of Wandsbeck near Hamburg. He spent
the following winter at Wittenberg, and reached Prague in June 1599,
well assured of favour and protection from the emperor Rudolph II. That
monarch, accordingly, assigned him the castle of Benatky for his
residence, with a pension of 3000 florins; his great instruments were
moved thither from Hveen, and Johannes Kepler joined him there in
January 1600. But this phase of renewed prosperity was brief. After
eleven days' illness, Tycho Brahe died on the 24th of October 1601, at
Benatky, and was buried in the Teynkirche, Prague.

Tycho's principal work, entitled _Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata_
(2 vols., Prague, 1602-1603) was edited by Kepler. The first volume
treated of the motions of the sun and moon, and gave the places of 777
fixed stars (this number was increased to 1005 by Kepler in 1627 in the
"Rudolphine Tables"). The second, which had been privately printed at
Uraniborg in 1588 with the heading _De Mundi Aetherei recentioribus
Phaenomenis_, was mainly concerned with the comet of 1577, demonstrated
by Tycho from its insensible parallax to be no terrestrial exhalation,
as commonly supposed, but a body traversing planetary space. It
included, besides, an account of the Tychonic plan of the cosmos, in
which a _via media_ was sought between the Ptolemaic and Copernican
systems. The earth retained its immobility; but the five planets were
made to revolve round the sun, which, with its entire cortège, annually
circuited the earth, the sphere of the fixed stars performing meanwhile,
as of old, its all-inclusive diurnal rotation (see ASTRONOMY:
_History_). Under the heading _Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica_, Tycho
published at Wandsbeck, in 1598, a description of his instruments,
together with an autobiographical account of his career and discoveries,
including the memorable one of the moon's "variation" (see MOON). The
book was reprinted at Nuremberg in 1602 (cf. Hasselberg,
_Vierteljahrsschrift Astr. Ges._ xxxix. iii. 180). His _Epistolae
Astronomicae_, printed at Uraniborg in 1596 with a portrait engraved by
Geyn of Amsterdam in 1586, were embodied in a complete edition of his
works issued at Frankfort in 1648. Tycho vastly improved the art of
astronomical observation. He constructed a table of refractions, allowed
for instrumental inaccuracies, and eliminated by averaging accidental
errors. He, moreover, corrected the received value of nearly every
astronomical quantity; but the theoretical purpose towards which his
practical reform was directed, was foiled by his premature death.

  See J.L.E. Dreyer's _Tycho Brahe_ (Edinburgh, 1890), which gives full
  and authentic information regarding his life and work. Also Gassendi's
  _Vita_ (Paris, 1654); _Lebensbeschreibung_, collected from various
  Danish sources, and translated into German by Philander von der
  Weistritz (Copenhagen and Leipzig, 1756); _Tyge Brahe_, by F.R. Friis
  (Copenhagen, 1871); _Prager Tychoniana_, collected by Dr F.I.
  Studnicka (Prague, 1901), a description of the scanty Tychonian relics
  which survived the Thirty Years' War and are still preserved at
  Prague.     (A. M. C.)



BRAHMAN, a Sanskrit noun-stem which, differently accented, yields in the
two nominatives _Brahma_ (neut.) and _Brahma_ (masc.), the names of two
deities which occupy prominent places in the orthodox system of Hindu
belief. Brahma (n.) is the designation generally applied to the Supreme
Soul (_paramatman_), or impersonal, all-embracing divine essence, the
original source and ultimate goal of all that exists; Brahma (m.), on
the other hand, is only one of the three hypostases of that divinity
whose creative activity he represents, as distinguished from its
preservative and destructive aspects, ever apparent in life and nature,
and represented by the gods Vishnu and Siva respectively. The history of
the two cognate names reflects in some measure the development of Indian
religious speculation generally.

The neuter term _brahma_ is used in the _Rigveda_ both in the abstract
sense of "devotion, worship," and in the concrete sense of "devotional
rite, prayer, hymn." The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout
belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering. The
earnest and well-expressed prayer or hymn of praise cannot fail to draw
the divine power to the worshipper and make it yield to his
supplication; whilst offerings, so far from being mere acts of devotion
calculated to give pleasure to the god, constitute the very food and
drink which render him vigorous and capable of battling with the enemies
of his mortal friend. It is this intrinsic power of fervent invocation
and worship which found an early expression in the term _brahma_; and
its independent existence as an active moral principle in shaping the
destinies of man became recognized in the Vedic pantheon in the
conception of a god _Brihaspati_ or _Brahmanaspati_, "lord of prayer or
devotion," the divine priest and the guardian of the pious worshipper.
By a natural extension of the original meaning, the term _brahma_, in
the sense of sacred utterance, was subsequently likewise applied to the
whole body of sacred writ, the _tri-vidya_ or "triple lore" of the Veda;
whilst it also came to be commonly used as the abstract designation of
the priestly function and the Brahmanical order generally, in the same
way as the term _kshatra_, "sway, rule," came to denote the aggregate of
functions and individuals of the Kshatriyas or Rajanyas, the nobility or
military class.

The universal belief in the efficacy of invocation as an indispensable
adjunct to sacrifices and religious rites generally, could not fail to
engender and maintain in the minds of the people feelings of profound
esteem and reverence towards those who possessed the divine gift of
inspired utterance, as well as for those who had acquired an intimate
knowledge of the approved forms of ritual worship. A common designation
of the priest is brahman (nom. _brahma_), originally denoting, it would
seem, "one who prays, a worshipper," perhaps also "the composer of a
hymn" (_brahman_, n.); and the same term came subsequently to be used
not only for one of the sacerdotal order generally, but also, and more
commonly, as the designation of a special class of priests who
officiated as superintendents during sacrificial performances, the
complicated nature of which required the co-operation of a whole staff
of priests, and who accordingly were expected to possess a competent
knowledge of the entire course of ritual procedure, including the
correct form and mystic import of the sacred texts to be repeated or
chanted by the several priests. The Brahman priest (_brahma_) being thus
the recognized head of the sacerdotal order (_brahma_), which itself is
the visible embodiment of sacred writ and the devotional spirit
pervading it (_brahma_), the complete realization of theocratic
aspirations required but a single step, which was indeed taken in the
theosophic speculations of the later Vedic poets and the authors of the
Brahmanas (q.v.), viz. the recognition of this abstract notion of the
Brahma as the highest cosmic principle and its identification with the
pantheistic conception of an all-pervading, self-existent spiritual
substance, the primary source of the universe; and subsequently coupled
therewith the personification of its creative energy in the form of
Brahma, the divine representative of the earthly priest, who was made to
take the place of the earlier conception of _Prajapati_, "the lord of
creatures" (see BRAHMANISM). By this means the very name of this god
expressed the essential oneness of his nature with that of the divine
spirit as whose manifestation he was to be considered. In the later
Vedic writings, especially the Brahmanas, however, Prajapati still
maintains throughout his position as the paramount personal deity; and
Brahma, in his divine capacity, is rather identified with Brihaspati,
the priest of the gods. Moreover, the exact relationship between
Prajapati and the Brahma (n.) is hardly as yet defined with sufficient
precision; it is rather one of simple identification: in the beginning
the Brahma was the All, and Prajapati is the Brahma. It is only in the
institutes of Manu, where we find the system of castes propounded in its
complete development, that Brahma has his definite place assigned to him
in the cosmogony. According to this work, the universe, before
undiscerned, was made discernible in the beginning by the sole,
self-existent lord Brahma (n.). He, desirous of producing different
beings from his own self, created the waters by his own thought, and
placed in them a seed which developed into a golden egg; therein was
born Brahma (m.), the parent of all the worlds; and thus "that which is
the undiscrete Cause, eternal, which is and is not, from it issued that
male who is called in the world Brahma." Having dwelt in that egg for a
year, that lord spontaneously by his own thought split that egg in two;
and from the two halves he fashioned the heaven and the earth, and in
the middle, the sky, and the eight regions (the points of the compass),
and the perpetual place of the waters. This theory of Brahma being born
from a golden egg is, however, a mere adaptation of the Vedic conception
of _Hiranya-garbha_ ("golden embryo"), who is represented as the supreme
god in a hymn of the tenth (and last) book of the _Rigveda_. Another
still later myth, which occurs in the epic poems, makes Brahma be born
from a lotus which grew out of the navel of the god Vishnu whilst
floating on the primordial waters. In artistic representations, Brahma
usually appears as a bearded man of red colour with four heads crowned
with a pointed, tiara-like head-dress, and four hands holding his
sceptre, or a sacrificial spoon, a bundle of leaves representing the
Veda, a bottle of water of the Ganges, and a string of beads or his bow
Parivita. His vehicle (_vahana_) is a goose or swan (_hamsa_), whence he
is also called _Hamsavhana_; and his consort is Sarasvati, the goddess
of learning.

One could hardly expect that a colourless deity of this description, so
completely the product of priestly speculation, could ever have found a
place in the hearts of the people generally, And indeed, whilst in
theoretic theology Brahma has retained his traditional place and
function down to our own days, his practical cult has at all times
remained extremely limited, the only temple dedicated to the worship of
this god being found at Pushkar (Pokhar) near Ajmir in Rajputana. On the
other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the
world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate
element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
Being devoid of all attributes, it can be the object only of meditation,
not of practical devotional rites; and philosophy can only attempt to
characterize it in general and vague terms, as in the favourite formula
which makes it to be _sachchidananda_, i.e. being (_sat_), thinking
(_chit_), and bliss (_ananda_).     (J. E.)



BRAHMANA, the Sanskrit term applied to a body of prose writings appended
to the collections (_samhita_) of Vedic texts, the meaning and ritual
application of which they are intended to elucidate, and like them
regarded as divinely revealed. From a linguistic point of view, these
treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas
and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the
connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit. The exact
derivation and meaning of the name is somewhat uncertain. Whilst the
masculine term _brahmana_ (nom. _brahmanas_), the ordinary Sanskrit
designation of a man of the Brahmanical caste, is clearly a derivative
of _brahman_ (nom. _brahma_), a common Vedic term for a priest (see
BRAHMAN), thus meaning the son or descendant of a Brahman, the neuter
word _brahman_ (nom. _brahmanam_) on the other hand, with which we are
here concerned, admits of two derivations: either it is derived from the
same word _brahman_, and would then seem to mean a _dictum_ or
observation ascribed to, or intended for the use of, a Brahman, or
superintendent priest; or it has rather to be referred to the neuter
noun _brahman_ (nom. _brahma_), in the sense of "sacred utterance or
rite," in which case it might mean a comment on a sacred text, or
explanation of a devotional rite, calculated to bring out its spiritual
or mystic significance and its bearing on the Brahma, the world-spirit
embodied in the sacred writ and ritual. This latter definition seems on
the whole the more probable one, and it certainly would fit exactly the
character of the writings to which the term relates. It will thus be
seen that the term _brahmanam_ applies not only to complete treatises of
an exegetic nature, but also to single comments on particular texts or
rites of which such a work would be made up.

The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the
all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly
growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the
significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a
demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their
practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites
assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating
priests. At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the
sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of
manuals, the so-called _Kalpa-sutras_, or ceremonial rules, detailing,
in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure,
without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.
These manuals are also called _Srauta-sutras_, treating as they do, like
the Brahmanas, of the Srauta rites--i.e. the rites based on the _sruti_
or revelation--requiring at least three sacrificial fires and a number
of priests, as distinguished from the _grihya_ (domestic) or _smarta_
(traditional) rites, supposed to be based on the _smriti_ or tradition,
which are performed on the house-fire and dealt with in the
_Grihya-sutras_.

The ritual recognizes four principal priests (_ritvij_), each of whom is
assisted by three subordinates: viz. the _Brahman_ or superintending
priest; the _Hotri_ or reciter of hymns and verses; the _Udgatri_ or
chanter; and the _Adhvaryu_ or offerer, who looks after the details of
the ceremonial, including the preparation of the offering-ground, the
construction of fire-places and altars, the making of oblations and
muttering of the prescribed formulae. Whilst the two last priests have
assigned to them special liturgical collections of the texts to be used
by them, the _Samaveda-samhita_ and _Yajurveda-samhita_ respectively,
the Hotri has to deal entirely with hymns and verses taken from the
_Rigveda-samhita_, of which they would, however, form only a
comparatively small portion. As regards the Brahman, he would doubtless
be chosen from one of those other three classes, but would be expected
to have made himself thoroughly conversant with the texts and ritual
details appertaining to all the officiating priests. It is, then, to one
or other of those three collections of sacred texts and the respective
class of priests, that the existing Brahmanas attach themselves. At a
later period, when the Atharvan gained admission to the Vedic canon, a
special connexion with the Brahman priest was sometimes claimed, though
with scant success, for this fourth collection of hymns and spells, and
the comparatively late and unimportant Gopatha-brahmana attached to it.

The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made
up of detached groups of verses of the _Rigveda_, as collected in the
Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class
deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications
which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting. Moreover, the
performance of chants being almost entirely confined to the
Soma-sacrifice, it is only a portion, though no doubt the most important
portion, of the sacrificial ceremonial that enters into the subject
matter of the Samaveda Brahmamas.

As regards the Brahmanas of the _Rigveda_, two of such works have
been handed down, the _Aitareya_ and the _Kaushitaki_ (or
_Sankhayana)-Brahmanas_, which have a large amount of their material in
common. But while the former work (transl. into English by M. Haug) is
mainly taken up with the Soma-sacrifice, the latter has in addition
thereto chapters on the other forms of sacrifice. Being intended for the
Hotri's use, both these works treat exclusively of the hymns and verses
recited by that priest and his assistants, either in the form of
connected litanies or in detached verses invoking the deities to whom
oblations are made, or uttered in response to the solemn hymns chanted
by the Udgatris.

It is, however, to the Brahmanas and Sutras of the _Yajurveda_, dealing
with the ritual of the real offering-priest, the Adhvaryu, that we have
to turn for a connected view of the sacrificial procedure in all its
material details. Now, in considering the body of writings connected
with this Veda, we are at once confronted by the fact that there are two
different schools, an older and a younger one, in which the traditional
body of ritualistic matter has been treated in a very different way. For
while the younger school, the _Vajasaneyins_, have made a clear
severance between the sacred texts or mantras and the exegetic
discussions thereon--as collected in the _Vajasaneyi-samhita_ and the
_Satapatha-Brahmana_ (trans. by J. Eggeling, in _Sacred Books of the
East_) respectively--arranged systematically in accordance with the
ritual divisions, the older school on the other hand present their
materials in a hopelessly jumbled form; for not only is each type of
sacrifice not dealt with continuously and in orderly fashion, but short
textual sections of mantras are constantly followed immediately by their
dogmatic exegesis; the term _brahmana_ thus applying in their case only
to these detached comments and not to the connected series of them. Thus
the most prominent subdivision of the older school, the _Taittiriyas_,
in their _Samhita_, have treated the main portion of the ceremonial in
this promiscuous fashion, and to add to the confusion they have, by way
of supplement, put forth a so-called _Taittiriya-brahmana_, which, so
far from being a real Brahmana, merely deals with some additional rites
in the same confused mixture of sacrificial formulae and dogmatic
explanations. It is not without reason, therefore, that those two
schools, the older and the younger, are commonly called the Black
(_krishna_) and the White (_sukla_) Yajus respectively.

Although the ritualistic discussions of the Brahmanas are for the most
part of a dry and uninteresting nature to an even greater degree than is
often the case with exegetic theological treatises, these works are
nevertheless of considerable importance both as regards the history of
Indian institutions and as "the oldest body of Indo-European prose, of a
generally free, vigorous, simple form, affording valuable glimpses
backwards at the primitive condition of unfettered Indo-European talk"
(Whitney). Of especial interest in this respect are the numerous myths
and legends scattered through these works. From the archaic style in
which these mythological tales are usually composed, as well as from the
fact that not a few of them are found in Brahmanas of different schools
and Vedas, though often with considerable variations, it seems pretty
evident that the groundwork of them must go back to times preceding the
composition or final redaction of the existing Brahmanas. In the case of
some of these legends--as those of Sunah-Sepha, and the fetching of Soma
from heaven--we can even see how they have grown out of germs contained
in some of the Vedic hymns. If the literary style in which the exegetic
discussion of the texts and rites is carried on in the Brahmanas is, as
a rule, of a very bald and uninviting nature, it must be borne in mind
that these treatises are of a strictly professional and esoteric
character, and in no way lay claim to being considered as literary
compositions in any sense of the word. And yet, notwithstanding the
general emptiness of their ritualistic discussions and mystic
speculations, "there are passages in the Brahmanas full of genuine
thought and feeling, and most valuable as pictures of life, and as
records of early struggles, which have left no trace in the literature
of other nations" (M. Müller).

The chief interest, however, attaching to the Brahmanas is doubtless
their detailed description of the sacrificial system as practised in the
later Vedic ages; and the information afforded by them in this respect
should be all the more welcome to us, as the history of religious
institutions knows of no other sacrificial ceremonial with the details
of which we are acquainted to anything like the same extent. An even
more complete and minutely detailed view of the sacrificial system is no
doubt obtained from the ceremonial manuals, the Kalpa-sutras; but it is
just by the speculative discussions of the Brahmanas--the mystic
significance and symbolical colouring with which they invest single
rites--that we gain a real insight into the nature and gradual
development of this truly stupendous system of ritual worship.

The sacrificial ritual recognizes two kinds of _srauta_ sacrifices, viz.
_haviryajnas_ (meat-offerings), consisting of oblations (_ishti_) of
milk, butter, cereals or flesh, and _somayagas_ or oblations of the
juice of the soma plant. The setting up, by a householder, of a set of
three sacrificial fires of his own constitutes the first ceremony of the
former class, the _Agny-adhana_ (or (?) _Agny-adheya_). The first of the
three fires laid down is the _garhapatya_, or householder's fire, so
called because, though not taken from his ordinary house-fire, but as a
rule specially produced by friction, it serves for cooking the
sacrificial food, and thus, as it were, represents the domestic fire.
From it the other two fires, the _anavaniya_, or offering fire, and the
_dakshinagni_, or southern fire, used for certain special purposes, are
taken. The principal other ceremonies of this class are the new and full
moon offerings, the oblations made at the commencement of the three
seasons, the offering of first-fruits, the animal sacrifice, and the
_Agnihotra_, or daily morning and evening oblation of milk, which,
however, is also included amongst the _grihya_, or domestic rites, as
having to be performed daily on the domestic fire by the householder who
keeps no regular set of sacrificial fires.

Of a far more complicated nature than these offerings are the
Soma-sacrifices, which, besides the simpler ceremonies of this class,
such as the _Agnishtoma_ or "Praise of Agni," also include great state
functions, such as the _Räjasuya_ or consecration of a king, and the
_Asvamedha_ or horse-sacrifice, which, in addition to the sacrificial
rites, have a considerable amount of extraneous, often highly
interesting, ceremonial connected with them, which makes them seem to
partake largely of the nature of public festivals. Whilst the oblations
of Soma-juice, made thrice on each offering-day, amidst chants and
recitations, constitute the central rites of those services, their
ritual also requires numerous single oblations of the _ishti_ kind,
including at least three animal offerings, and in some cases the
immolation of many hecatombs of victims. Moreover, a necessary
preliminary to every Soma-sacrifice is the construction, in five layers,
of a special fire-altar of large dimensions, consisting of thousands of
bricks, formed and baked on the spot, to each, or each group, of which a
special symbolic meaning is attached. The building of this altar is
spread over a whole year, during which period the sacrificer has to
carry about the sacrificial fire in an earthen pan for at least some
time each day, until it is finally deposited on the completed altar to
serve as the offering-fire for the Soma oblations. The altar itself is
constructed in the form of a bird, because Soma was supposed to have
been brought down from heaven by the metre Gayatri which had assumed the
form of an eagle. Whilst the Soma-sacrifice has been thus developed by
the Brahmanas in an extraordinary degree, its essential identity with
the Avestan Haoma-cult shows that its origin goes back at all events to
the Indo-Iranian period.

Among the symbolic conceits in which the authors of the Brahmanas so
freely indulge, there is one overshadowing all others--if indeed they do
not all more or less enter into it--which may be considered as the sum
and substance of these speculations, and the esoteric doctrine of the
sacrifice, involved by the Brahmanical ritualists. This is what may
conveniently be called the Prajapati theory, by which the "Lord of
Creatures," the efficient cause of the universe, is identified with both
the sacrifice (_yajna_) and the sacrificer (_yajamana_). The origin of
this theory goes back to the later Vedic hymns. In the so-called
Purusha-sukta (_Rigv._ x. 90) in which the supreme spirit is conceived
of as _the_ person or man (_purusha_), born in the beginning, and
consisting of "whatever hath been and whatever shall be," the creation
of the visible and invisible universe is represented as originating from
an "all-offered" (holocaust) sacrifice in which the Purusha himself
forms the offering-material (_havis_), or, as we might say, the victim.
In this primeval, or rather timeless because ever-proceeding, sacrifice,
time itself, in the shape of its unit the year, is made to take its
part, inasmuch as the three seasons--spring, summer and autumn--of which
it consists, constitute the ghee (clarified butter), the offering-fuel
and the oblation respectively. These speculations may be said to have
formed the foundation on which the theory of the sacrifice, as
propounded in the Brahmanas, has been reared. Prajapati--who (probably
for practical considerations, as better representing the sacrificer, the
earthly ruler, or "lord of the creatures") here takes the place of the
Purusha, the world-man or all-embracing personality--is offered up anew
in every sacrifice; and inasmuch as the very dismemberment of the lord
of creatures, which took place at that archtypal sacrifice, was in
itself the creation of the universe, so every sacrifice is also a
repetition of that first creative act. Thus the periodical sacrifice is
nothing else than a microcosmic representation of the ever-proceeding
destruction and renewal of all cosmic life and matter. The ritualistic
theologians, however, go an important step further by identifying
Prajapati with the performer, or patron, of the sacrifice, the
sacrificer; every sacrifice thus becoming invested--in addition to its
cosmic significance--with the mystic power of regenerating the
sacrificer by cleansing him of all guilt and securing for him a seat in
the eternal abodes.

Whilst forming the central feature of the ritualistic symbolism, this
triad--Prajapati, sacrifice (oblation, victim), sacrificer--is extended
in various ways. An important collateral identification is that of
Prajapati (and the sacrificer) with Agni, the god of fire, embodied not
only in the offering-fire, but also in the sacred Soma-altar, the
technical name of which is _agni_. For this reason the altar, as
representative of the universe, is built in five layers, representing
earth, air and heaven, and the intermediate regions; and in the centre
of the altar-site, below the first layer, on a circular gold plate (the
sun), a small golden man (_purusha_) is laid down with his face looking
upwards. This is Prajapati, and the sacrificer, who when regenerated
will pass upwards through the three worlds to the realms of light,
naturally perforated bricks being for this purpose placed in the middle
of the three principal altar-layers. One of the fourteen sections of the
Satapatha-brahmana, the tenth, called _Agni-rahasya_ or "the mystery
of Agni (the god and altar)," is entirely devoted to this feature of the
sacrificial symbolism. Similarly the sacrificer, as the human
representatiye of the Lord of Creatures, is identified with Soma (as the
supreme oblation), with Time, and finally with Death: by the sacrificer
thus becoming Death himself, the fell god ceases to have power over him
and he is assured of everlasting life. And now we get the Supreme Lord
in his last aspect; nay, his one true and real aspect, in which the
sacrificer, on shuffling off this mortal coil, will himself come to
share--that of pure intellectuality, pure spirituality--he is Mind: such
is the ultimate source of being, the one Self, the Purusha, the Brahman.
As the sum total of the wisdom propounded in the mystery of Agni, the
searcher after truth is exhorted to meditate on that Self, made up of
intelligence, endowed with a body of spirit, a form of light, and of an
ethereal nature; holding sway over all the regions and pervading this
All, being itself speechless and devoid of mental states; and by so
doing he shall gain the assurance that "even as a grain of rice, or the
smallest granule of millet, so is the golden Purusha in my heart; even
as a smokeless light, it is greater than the sky, greater than the
ether, greater than the earth, greater than all existing things;--that
Self of the Spirit is my Self; on passing away from hence, I shall
obtain that Self. And, verily, whosoever has this trust, for him there
is no uncertainty."     (J. E.)



BRAHMANISM, a term commonly used to denote a system of religious
institutions originated and elaborated by the _Brahmans_, the sacerdotal
and, from an early period, the dominant caste of the Hindu community
(see BRAHMAN). In like manner, as the language of the Aryan Hindus has
undergone continual processes of modification and dialectic division, so
their religious belief has passed through various stages of development
broadly distinguished from one another by certain prominent features.
The earliest phases of religious thought in India of which a clear idea
can now be formed are exhibited in a body of writings, looked upon by
later generations in the light of sacred writ, under the collective name
of _Veda_ ("knowledge") or _Sruti_ ("revelation"). The Hindu scriptures
consist of four separate collections, or _Samhitas_, of sacred texts, or
_mantras_, including hymns, incantations and sacrificial forms of
prayer, viz. the _Rich_ (nom. sing. _rik_) or _Rigveda_, the _Saman_ or
_Samaveda_, the _Yajus_ or _Yajurveda_, and the _Atharvan_ or
_Atharvaveda_. Each of these four text-books has attached to it a body
of prose writings, called _Brahmanas_ (see BRAHMANA), intended to
explain the ceremonial application of the texts and the origin and
import of the sacrificial rites for which these were supposed to have
been composed. Usually attached to these works, and in some cases to the
Samhitas, are two kinds of appendages, the Aranyakas and Upanishads, the
former of which deal generally with the more recondite rites, while the
latter are taken up chiefly with speculations on the problems of the
universe and the religious aims of man--subjects often touched upon in
the earlier writings, but here dealt with in a more mature and
systematic way. Two of the _Samhitas_, the _Saman_ and the _Yajus_,
owing their existence to purely ritual purposes, and being, besides, the
one almost entirely, the other partly, composed of verses taken from the
_Rigveda_, are only of secondary importance for our present inquiry. The
hymns of the _Rigveda_ constitute the earliest lyrical effusions of the
Aryan settlers in India which have been handed down to posterity. They
are certainly not all equally old; on the contrary they evidently
represent the literary activity of many generations of bards, though
their relative age cannot as yet be determined with anything like
certainty. The tenth (and last) book of the collection, however, at any
rate has all the characteristics of a later appendage, and in language
and spirit many of its hymns approach very nearly to the level of the
contents of the _Atharvan_. Of the latter collection about one-sixth is
found also in the _Rigveda_, and especially in the tenth book; the
larger portion peculiar to it, though including no doubt some older
pieces, appears to owe its origin to an age not long anterior to the
composition of the _Brahmanas_.

The state of religious thought among the ancient bards, as reflected in
the hymns of the _Rigveda_, is that of a worship of the grand and
striking phenomena of nature regarded in the light of personal conscious
beings, endowed with a power beyond the control of man, though not
insensible to his praises and actions. It is a nature worship purer than
that met with in any other polytheistic form of belief we are acquainted
with--a mythology still comparatively little affected by those
systematizing tendencies which, in a less simple and primitive state of
thought, lead to the construction of a well-ordered pantheon and a
regular organization of divine government. To the mind of the early
Vedic worshipper the various departments of the surrounding nature are
not as yet clearly defined, and the functions which he assigns to their
divine representatives continually flow into one another. Nor has he yet
learned to care to determine the relative worth and position of the
objects of his adoration; but the temporary influence of the phenomenon
to which he addresses his praises bears too strongly upon his mind to
allow him for the time to consider the claims of rival powers to which
at other times he is wont to look up with equal feelings of awe and
reverence. It is this immediateness of impulse under which the human
mind in its infancy strives to give utterance to its emotions that
imparts to many of its outpourings the ring of monotheistic fervour.

The generic name given to these impersonations, viz. _deva_ ("the
shining ones"), points to the conclusion, sufficiently justified by the
nature of the more prominent objects of Vedic adoration as well as by
common natural occurrences, that it was the striking phenomena of light
which first and most powerfully swayed the Aryan mind. In the primitive
worship of the manifold phenomena of nature it is not, of course, so
much their physical aspect that impresses the human heart as the moral
and intellectual forces which are supposed to move and animate them. The
attributes and relations of some of the Vedic deities, in accordance
with the nature of the objects they represent, partake in a high degree
of this spiritual element; but it is not improbable that in an earlier
phase of Aryan worship the religious conceptions were pervaded by it to
a still greater and more general extent, and that the Vedic belief,
though retaining many of the primitive features, has on the whole
assumed a more sensuous and anthropomorphic character. This latter
element is especially predominant in the attributes and imagery applied
by the Vedic poets to _Indra_, the god of the atmospheric region, the
favourite figure in their pantheon.

While the representatives of the prominent departments of nature appear
to the Vedic bard as co-existing in a state of independence of one
another, their relation to the mortal worshipper being the chief subject
of his anxiety, a simple method of classification was already resorted
to at an early time, consisting in a triple division of the deities into
gods residing in the sky, in the air, and on earth. It is not, however,
until a later stage,--the first clear indication being conveyed in a
passage of the tenth book of the _Rigveda_--that this attempt at a
polytheistic system is followed up by the promotion of one particular
god to the dignity of chief guardian for each of these three regions. On
the other hand, a tendency is clearly traceable in some of the hymns
towards identifying gods whose functions present a certain degree of
similarity of nature; attempts which would seem to show a certain
advance of religious reflection, the first steps from polytheism towards
a comprehension of the unity of the divine essence. Another feature of
the old Vedic worship tended to a similar result. The great problems of
the origin and existence of man and the universe had early begun to
engage the Hindu mind; and in celebrating the praises of the gods the
poet was frequently led by his religious, and not wholly disinterested,
zeal to attribute to them cosmical functions of the very highest order.
At a later stage of thought, chiefly exhibited in the tenth book of the
_Rigveda_ and in the _Atharvaveda_, inquiring sages could not but
perceive the inconsistency of such concessions of a supremacy among the
divine rulers, and tried to solve the problem by conceptions of an
independent power, endowed with all the attributes of a supreme deity,
the creator of the universe, including the gods of the pantheon. The
names under which this monotheistic idea is put forth are mostly of an
attributive character, and indeed some of them, such as _Prajapati_
("lord of creatures"), _Visvakarman_ ("all-worker"), occur in the
earlier hymns as mere epithets of particular gods. But to other minds
this theory of a personal creator left many difficulties unsolved. They
saw, as the poets of old had seen, that everything around them, that man
himself, was directed by some inward agent; and it needed but one step
to perceive the essential sameness of these spiritual units, and to
recognize their being but so many individual manifestations of one
universal principle or spiritual essence. Thus a pantheistic conception
was arrived at, put forth under various names, such as _Purusha_
("soul"), _Kama_ ("desire"), _Brahman_ (neutr.; nom. sing. _bráhma_)
("devotion, prayer"). Metaphysical and theosophic speculations were thus
fast undermining the simple belief in the old gods, until, at the time
of the composition of the _Brahmanas_ and _Upanishads_, we find them in
complete possession of the minds of the theologians. Whilst the theories
crudely suggested in the later hymns are now further matured and
elaborated, the tendency towards catholicity of formula favours the
combination of the conflicting monotheistic and pantheistic conceptions;
this compromise, which makes _Prajapati_, the personal creator of the
world, the manifestation of the impersonal _Brahma_, the universal
self-existent soul, leads to the composite pantheistic system which
forms the characteristic dogma of the Brahmanical period (see BRAHMAN).

In the Vedic hymns two classes of society, the royal (or military) and
the priestly classes, were evidently recognized as being raised above
the level of the _Vis_, or bulk of the Aryan community. These social
grades seem to have been in existence even before the separation of the
two Asiatic branches of the Indo-Germanic race, the Aryans of Iran and
India. It is true that, although the _Athrava, Rathaestao_, and
_Vastrya_ of the _Zend Avesta_ correspond in position and occupation to
the _Brahman, Rajan_ and _Vis_ of the Veda, there is no similarity of
names between them; but this fact only shows that the common vocabulary
had not yet definitely fixed on any specific names for these classes.
Even in the Veda their nomenclature is by no means limited to a single
designation for each of them. Moreover, _Atharvan_ occurs not
infrequently in the hymns as the personification of the priestly
profession, as the proto-priest who is supposed to have obtained fire
from heaven and to have instituted the rite of sacrifice; and although
_ratheshtha_ ("standing on a car") is not actually found in connexion
with the _Rajan_ or _Kshatriya_, its synonym _rathin_ is in later
literature a not unusual epithet of men of the military caste. At the
time of the hymns, and even during the common Indo-Persian period, the
sacrificial ceremonial had already become sufficiently complicated to
call for the creation of a certain number of distinct priestly offices
with special duties attached to them. While this shows clearly that the
position and occupation of the priest were those of a profession, the
fact that the terms _brahmana_ and _brahmaputra_, both denoting "the
son of a brahman," are used in certain hymns as synonyms of _brahman_,
seems to justify the assumption that the profession had already, to a
certain degree, become hereditary at the time when these hymns were
composed. There is, however, with the exception of a solitary passage in
a hymn of the last book, no trace to be found in the _Rigveda_ of that
rigid division into four castes separated from one another by
insurmountable barriers, which in later times constitutes the
distinctive feature of Hindu society. The idea of caste is expressed by
the Sanskrit term _varna_, originally denoting "colour," thereby
implying differences of complexion between the several classes. The word
occurs in the Veda in the latter sense, but it is used there to mark the
distinction, not between the three classes of the Aryan community, but
between them on the one hand and a dark-coloured hostile people on the
other. The latter, called Dasas or Dasyus, consisted, no doubt, of the
indigenous tribes, with whom the Aryans had to carry on a continual
struggle for the possession of the land. The partial subjection of these
comparatively uncivilized tribes as the rule of the superior race was
gradually spreading eastward, and their submission to a state of serfdom
under the name of _Sudras_, added to the Aryan community an element,
totally separated from it by colour, by habits, by language, and by
occupation. Moreover, the religious belief of these tribes being
entirely different from that of the conquering people, the pious Aryas,
and especially the class habitually engaged in acts of worship, could
hardly fail to apprehend considerable danger to the purity of their own
faith from too close and intimate a contact between the two races. What
more natural, therefore, than that measures should have been early
devised to limit the intercourse between them within as narrow bounds as
possible? In course of time the difference of vocation, and the greater
or less exposure to the scorching influence of the tropical sky, added,
no doubt, to a certain admixture of Sudra blood, especially in the case
of the common people, seem to have produced also in the Aryan population
different shades of complexion, which greatly favoured a tendency to
rigid class-restrictions originally awakened and continually fed by the
lot of the servile race. Meanwhile the power of the sacerdotal order
having been gradually enlarged in proportion to the development of the
minutiae of sacrificial ceremonial and the increase of sacred lore, they
began to lay claim to supreme authority in regulating and controlling
the religious and social life of the people. The author of the so-called
_Purusha-sukta_, or hymn of Purusha, above referred to, represents the
four castes--the _Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya_ and _Sudra_--as having
severally sprung respectively from the mouth, the arms, the thighs and
the feet of Purusha, a primary being, here assumed to be the source of
the universe. It is very doubtful, however, whether at the time when
this hymn was composed the relative position of the two upper castes
could already have been settled in so decided a way as this theory might
lead one to suppose. There is, on the contrary, reason to believe that
some time had yet to elapse, marked by fierce and bloody struggles for
supremacy, of which only imperfect ideas can be formed from the
legendary and frequently biased accounts of later generations, before
the Kshatriyas finally submitted to the full measure of priestly
authority.

The definitive establishment of the Brahmanical hierarchy marks the
beginning of the Brahmanical period properly so called. Though the
origin and gradual rise of some of the leading institutions of this era
can, as has been shown, be traced in the earlier writings, the chain of
their development presents a break at this juncture which no
satisfactory materials as yet enable us to fill up. A considerable
portion of the literature of this time has apparently been lost; and
several important works, the original composition of which has probably
to be assigned to the early days of Brahmanism, such as the institutes
of Manu and the two great epics, the _Mahabharata_ and _Ramayana_, in
the form in which they have been handed down to us, show manifest traces
of a more modern redaction. Yet it is sufficiently clear from internal
evidence that Manu's Code of Laws, though merely a metrical recast of
older materials, reproduces on the whole pretty faithfully the state of
Hindu society depicted in the sources from which it was compiled. The
final overthrow of the Kshatriya power was followed by a period of
jealous legislation on the part of the Brahmans. For a time their chief
aim would doubtless be to improve their newly gained vantage-ground by
surrounding everything relating to their order with a halo of sanctity
calculated to impress the lay community with feelings of awe. In the
Brahmanas and even in the Purusha Hymn, and the Atharvan, divine origin
had already been ascribed to the Vedic _Samhitas_, especially to the
three older collections. The same privilege was now successfully claimed
for the later Vedic literature, so imbued with Brahmanic aspirations and
pretensions; and the authority implied in the designation of _Sruti_ or
revelation removed henceforth the whole body of sacred writings from the
sphere of doubt and criticism. This concession necessarily involved an
acknowledgment of the new social order as a divine institution. Its
stability was, however, rendered still more secure by the elaboration of
a system of conventional precepts, partly forming the basis of Manu's
Code, which clearly defined the relative position and the duties of the
several castes, and determined the penalties to be inflicted on any
transgressions of the limits assigned to each of them. These laws are
conceived with no sentimental scruples on the part of their authors. On
the contrary, the offences committed by Brahmans against other castes
are treated with remarkable clemency, whilst the punishments inflicted
for trespasses on the rights of higher classes are the more severe and
inhuman the lower the offender stands in the social scale.

The three first castes, however unequal to each other in privilege and
social standing, are yet united by a common bond of sacramental rites
(_samskaras_), traditionally connected from ancient times with certain
incidents and stages in the life of the Aryan Hindu, as conception,
birth, name-giving, the first taking out of the child to see the sun,
the first feeding with boiled rice, the rites of tonsure and
hair-cutting, the youth's investiture with the sacrificial thread, and
his return home on completing his studies, marriage, funeral, &c. The
modes of observing these family rites are laid down in a class of
writings called _Grihya-sutras_, or domestic rules. The most important
of these observances is the _upanayana_, or rite of conducting the boy
to a spiritual teacher. Connected with this act is the investiture with
the sacred cord, ordinarily worn over the left shoulder and under the
right arm, and varying in material according to the class of the wearer.
This ceremony being the preliminary act to the youth's initiation into
the study of the Veda, the management of the consecrated fire and the
knowledge of the rites of purification, including the _savitri_, a
solemn invocation to _Savitri_, the sun (probl. Saturnus),--as a rule
the verse _Rigv_. iii. 62. 10, also called _gayatri_ from the metre in
which it is composed--which has to be repeated every morning and evening
before the rise and after the setting of that luminary, is supposed to
constitute the second or spiritual birth of the Arya. It is from their
participation in this rite that the three upper classes are called the
twice-born. The ceremony is enjoined to take place some time between the
eighth and sixteenth year of age in the case of a Brahman, between the
eleventh and twenty-second year of a Kshatriya, and between the twelfth
and twenty-fourth year of a Vaisya. He who has not been invested with
the mark of his class within this time is for ever excluded from
uttering the sacred _savitri_ and becomes an outcast, unless he is
absolved from his sin by a council of Brahmans, and after due
performance of a purificatory rite resumes the badge of his caste. With
one not duly initiated no righteous man is allowed to associate or to
enter into connexions of affinity. The duty of the Sudra is to serve the
twice-born classes, and above all the Brahmans. He is excluded from all
sacred knowledge, and if he performs sacrificial ceremonies he must do
so without using holy mantras. No Brahman must recite a Vedic text where
a man of the servile caste might overhear him, nor must he even teach
him the laws of expiating sin. The occupations of the Vaisya are those
connected with trade, the cultivation of the land and the breeding of
cattle; while those of a Kshatriya consist in ruling and defending the
people, administering justice, and the duties of the military profession
generally. Both share with the Brahman the privilege of reading the
Veda, but only so far as it is taught and explained to them by their
spiritual preceptor. To the Brahman belongs the right of teaching and
expounding the sacred texts, and also that of interpreting and
determining the law and the rules of caste. Only in exceptional cases,
when no teacher of the sacerdotal class is within reach, the twice-born
youth, rather than forego spiritual instruction altogether, may reside
in the house of a non-Brahmanical preceptor; but it is specially
enjoined that a pupil, who seeks the path to heaven, should not fail, as
soon as circumstances permit, to resort to a Brahman well versed in the
Vedas and their appendages.

Notwithstanding the barriers placed between the four castes, the
practice of intermarrying appears to have been too prevalent in early
times to have admitted of measures of so stringent a nature as wholly to
repress it. To marry a woman of a higher caste, and especially of a
caste not immediately above one's own, is, however, decidedly
prohibited, the offspring resulting from such a union being excluded
from the performance of the _sraddha_ or obsequies to the ancestors, and
thereby rendered incapable of inheriting any portion of the parents'
property. On the other hand, a man is at liberty, according to the rules
of Manu, to marry a girl of any or each of the castes below his own,
provided he has besides a wife belonging to his own class, for only such
a one should perform the duties of personal attendance and religious
observance devolving upon a married woman. As regards the children born
from unequal marriages of this description, they have the rights and
duties of the twice-born, if their mother belong to a twice-born caste,
otherwise they, like the offspring of the former class of
intermarriages, share the lot of the Sudra, and are excluded from the
investiture and the _savitri_. For this last reason the marriage of a
twice-born man with a Sudra woman is altogether discountenanced by some
of the later law books. At the time of the code of Manu the intermixture
of the classes had already produced a considerable number of
intermediate or mixed castes, which were carefully defined, and each of
which had a specific occupation assigned to it as its hereditary
profession.

The self-exaltation of the first class was not, it would seem,
altogether due to priestly arrogance and ambition; but, like a prominent
feature of the post-Vedic belief, the transmigration of souls, it was,
if not the necessary, yet at least a natural consequence of the
pantheistic doctrine. To the Brahmanical speculator who saw in the
numberless individual existences of animate nature but so many
manifestations of the one eternal spirit, to union with which they were
all bound to tend as their final goal of supreme bliss, the greater or
less imperfection of the material forms in which they were embodied
naturally presented a continuous scale of spiritual units from the
lowest degradation up to the absolute purity and perfection of the
supreme spirit. To prevent one's sinking yet lower, and by degrees to
raise one's self in this universal gradation, or, if possible, to attain
the ultimate goal immediately from any state of corporeal existence,
there was but one way--subjection of the senses, purity of life and
knowledge of the deity. "He" (thus ends the code of Manu) "who in his
own soul perceives the supreme soul in all beings and acquires
equanimity toward them all, attains the highest state of bliss." Was it
not natural then that the men who, if true to their sacred duties, were
habitually engaged in what was most conducive to these spiritual
attainments, that the Brahmanical class early learnt to look upon
themselves, even as a matter of faith, as being foremost among the human
species in this universal race for final beatitude? The life marked out
for them by that stern theory of class duties which they themselves had
worked out, and which, no doubt, must have been practised in early times
at least in some degree, was by no means one of ease and amenity. It
was, on the contrary, singularly calculated to promote that complete
mortification of the instincts of animal nature which they considered as
indispensable to the final deliverance from _samsara_, the revolution
of bodily and personal existence.

The pious Brahman, longing to attain the _summum bonum_ on the
dissolution of his frail body, was enjoined to pass through a succession
of four orders or stages of life, viz. those of _brahmacharin_, or
religious student; _grihastha_ (or _grihamedhin_), or householder;
_vanavasin_ (or _vanaprastha_), or anchorite; and _sannyasin_ (or
_bhikshu_), or religious mendicant. Theoretically this course of life
was open and even recommended to every twice-born man, his distinctive
class-occupations being in that case restricted to the second station,
or that of married life. Practically, however, those belonging to the
Kshatriya and Vaisya castes were, no doubt, contented, with few
exceptions, to go through a term of studentship in order to obtain a
certain amount of religious instruction before entering into the married
state, and plying their professional duties. In the case of the
sacerdotal class, the practice probably was all but universal in early
times; but gradually a more and more limited proportion even of this
caste seem to have carried their religious zeal to the length of
self-mortification involved in the two final stages. On the youth having
been invested with the badge of his caste, he was to reside for some
time in the house of some religious teacher, well read in the Veda, to
be instructed in the knowledge of the scriptures and the scientific or
theoretic treatises attached to them, in the social duties of his caste,
and in the complicated system of purificatory and sacrificial rites.
According to the number of Vedas he intended to study, the duration of
this period of instruction was to be, probably in the case of
Brahmanical students chiefly, of from twelve to forty-eight years;
during which time the virtues of modesty, duty, temperance and
self-control were to be firmly implanted in the youth's mind by his
unremitting observance of the most minute rules of conduct. During all
this time the student had to subsist entirely on food obtained by
begging from house to house; and his behaviour towards the preceptor and
his family was to be that prompted by respectful attachment and implicit
obedience. In the case of girls no investiture takes place, but for them
the nuptial ceremony is considered as an equivalent to that rite. On
quitting the teacher's abode, the young man returns to his family and
takes a wife. To die without leaving legitimate offspring, and
especially a son, capable of performing the periodical rite of obsequies
(_sraddha_), consisting of offerings of water and balls of rice, to
himself and his two immediate ancestors, is considered a great
misfortune by the orthodox Hindu. There are three sacred "debts" which a
man has to discharge in life, viz. that which is due to the gods, and of
which he acquits himself by daily worship and sacrificial rites; that
due to the _rishis_, or ancient sages and inspired seers of the Vedic
texts, discharged by the daily study of the scripture; and the "final
debt" which he owes to his _manes_, and of which he relieves himself by
leaving a son. To these three some authorities add a fourth, viz. the
debt owing to humankind, which demands his continually practising
kindness and hospitality. Hence the necessity of a man's entering into
the married state. When the bridegroom leads the bride from her father's
house to his own home, and becomes a _griha-pati_, or householder, the
fire which has been used for the marriage ceremony accompanies the
couple to serve them as their _garhapatya_, or domestic fire. It has to
be kept up perpetually, day and night, either by themselves or their
children, or, if the man be a teacher, by his pupils. If it should at
any time become extinguished by neglect or otherwise, the guilt incurred
thereby must be atoned for by an act of expiation. The domestic fire
serves the family for preparing their food, for making the five
necessary daily and other occasional offerings, and for performing the
sacramental rites above alluded to. No food should ever be eaten that
has not been duly consecrated by a portion of it being offered to the
gods, the beings and the _manes_. These three daily offerings are also
called by the collective name of _vaisvadeva_, or sacrifice "to all the
deities." The remaining two are the offering to Brahma, i.e. the daily
lecture of the scriptures, accompanied by certain rites, and that to
men, consisting in the entertainment of guests. The domestic
observances--many of them probably ancient Aryan family customs,
surrounded by the Hindus with a certain amount of adventitious
ceremonial--were generally performed by the householder himself, with
the assistance of his wife. There is, however, another class of
sacrificial ceremonies of a more pretentious and expensive kind, called
_srauta_ rites, or rites based on _sritu_, or revelation, the
performance of which, though not indispensable, were yet considered
obligatory under certain circumstances (see BRAHMANA). They formed a
very powerful weapon in the hands of the priesthood, and were one of the
chief sources of their subsistence. However great the religious merit
accruing from these sacrificial rites, they were obviously a kind of
luxury which only rich people could afford to indulge in. They
constituted, as it were, a tax, voluntary perhaps, yet none the less
compulsory, levied by the priesthood on the wealthy laity.

When the householder is advanced in years, "when he perceives his skin
become wrinkled and his hair grey, when he sees the son of his son," the
time is said to have come for him to enter the third stage of life. He
should now disengage himself from all family ties--except that his wife
may accompany him, if she chooses--and repair to a lonely wood, taking
with him his sacred fires and the implements required for the daily and
periodical offerings. Clad in a deer's skin, in a single piece of cloth,
or in a bark garment, with his hair and nails uncut, the hermit is to
subsist exclusively on food growing wild in the forest, such as roots,
green herbs, and wild rice and grain. He must not accept gifts from any
one, except of what may be absolutely necessary to maintain him; but
with his own little hoard he should, on the contrary, honour, to the
best of his ability, those who visit his hermitage. His time must be
spent in reading the metaphysical treatises of the Veda, in making
oblations, and in undergoing various kinds of privation and austerities,
with a view to mortifying his passions and producing in his mind an
entire indifference to worldly objects. Having by these means succeeded
in overcoming all sensual affections and desires, and in acquiring
perfect equanimity towards everything around him, the hermit has fitted
himself for the final and most exalted order, that of devotee or
religious mendicant. As such he has no further need of either
mortifications or religious observances; but "with the sacrificial fires
reposited in his mind," he may devote the remainder of his days to
meditating on the divinity. Taking up his abode at the foot of a tree in
total solitude, "with no companion but his own soul," clad in a coarse
garment, he should carefully avoid injuring any creature or giving
offence to any human being that may happen to come near him. Once a day,
in the evening, "when the charcoal fire is extinguished and the smoke no
longer issues from the fire-places, when the pestle is at rest, when the
people have taken their meals and the dishes are removed," he should go
near the habitations of men, in order to beg what little food may
suffice to sustain his feeble frame. Ever pure of mind he should thus
bide his time, "as a servant expects his wages," wishing neither for
death nor for life, until at last his soul is freed from its fetters and
absorbed in the eternal spirit, the impersonal self-existent Brahma.

The tendency towards a comprehension of the unity of the divine essence
had resulted in some minds, as has been remarked before, in a kind of
monotheistic notion of the origin of the universe. In the literature of
the Brahmana period we meet with this conception as a common element of
speculation; and so far from its being considered incompatible with the
existence of a universal spirit, _Prajapati_, the personal creator of
the world, is generally allowed a prominent place in the pantheistic
theories. Yet the state of theological speculation, reflected in these
writings, is one of transition. The general drift of thought is
essentially pantheistic, but it is far from being reduced to a regular
system, and the ancient form of belief still enters largely into it. The
attributes of Prajapati, in the same way, have in them elements of a
purely polytheistic nature, and some of the attempts at reconciling this
new-fangled deity with the traditional belief are somewhat awkward. An
ancient classification of the gods represented them as being
thirty-three in number, eleven in each of the three worlds or regions
of nature. These regions being associated each with the name of one
principal deity, this division gave rise at a later time to the notion
of a kind of triple divine government, consisting of _Agni_ (fire),
_Indra_ sky) or _Vayu_ (wind), and _Surya_ (sun), as presiding
respectively over the gods on earth, in the atmosphere, and in the sky.
Of this Vedic triad mention is frequently made in the Brahmana writings.
On the other hand the term _prajapati_ (lord of creatures), which in the
_Rigveda_ occurs as an epithet of the sun, is also once in the
_Atharvaveda_ applied jointly to Indra and Agni. In the Brahmanas
Prajapati is several times mentioned as the thirty-fourth god; whilst in
one passage he is called the fourth god, and made to rule over the three
worlds. More frequently, however, the writings of this period represent
him as the maker of the world and the father or creator of the gods. It
is clear from this discordance of opinion on so important a point of
doctrine, that at this time no authoritative system of belief had been
agreed upon by the theologians. Yet there are unmistakable signs of a
strong tendency towards constructing one, and it is possible that in
yielding to it the Brahmans may have been partly prompted by political
considerations. The definite settlement of the caste system and the
Brahmanical supremacy must probably be assigned to somewhere about the
close of the Brahmana period. Division in their own ranks was hardly
favourable to the aspirations of the priests at such a time; and the
want of a distinct formula of belief adapted to the general drift of
theological speculation, to which they could all rally, was probably
felt the more acutely, the more determined a resistance the military
class was likely to oppose to their claims. Side by side with the
conception of the Brahma, the universal spiritual principle, with which
speculative thought had already become deeply imbued, the notion of a
supreme personal being, the author of the material creation, had come to
be considered by many as a necessary complement of the pantheistic
doctrine. But, owing perhaps to his polytheistic associations and the
attributive nature of his name, the person of Prajapati seems to have
been thought but insufficiently adapted to represent this abstract idea.
The expedient resorted to for solving the difficulty was as ingenious as
it was characteristic of the Brahmanical aspirations. In the same way as
the abstract denomination of sacerdotalism, the neuter _brahma_, had
come to express the divine essence, so the old designation of the
individual priest, the masculine term _brahma_, was raised to denote the
supreme personal deity which was to take the place and attributes of the
Prajapati of the Brahmanas and Upanishads (see BRAHMAN).

However the new dogma may have answered the purposes of speculative
minds, it was not one in which the people generally were likely to have
been much concerned; an abstract, colourless deity like Brahma could
awake no sympathies in the hearts of those accustomed to worship gods of
flesh and blood. Indeed, ever since the primitive symbolical worship of
nature had undergone a process of disintegration under the influence of
metaphysical speculation, the real belief of the great body of the
people had probably become more and more distinct from that of the
priesthood. In different localities the principal share of their
affection may have been bestowed on one or another of the old gods who
was thereby raised to the dignity of chief deity; or new forms and
objects of belief may have sprung up with the intellectual growth of the
people. In some cases even the worship of the indigenous population
could hardly have remained without exercising some influence in
modifying the belief of the Aryan race. In this way a number of local
deities would grow up, more or less distinct in name and characteristics
from the gods of the Vedic pantheon. There is, indeed, sufficient
evidence to show that, at a time when, after centuries of theological
speculations, some little insight into the life and thought of the
people is afforded by the literature handed down to us, such a diversity
of worship did exist. Under these circumstances the policy which seems
to have suggested itself to the priesthood, anxious to retain a firm
hold on the minds of the people, was to recognize and incorporate into
their system some of the most prominent objects of popular devotion, and
thereby to establish a kind of catholic creed for the whole community
subject to the Brahmanical law. At the time of the original composition
of the great epics two such deities, _Siva_ or _Mahadeva_ ("the great
god") and _Vishnu_, seem to have been already admitted into the
Brahmanical system, where they have ever since retained their place; and
from the manner in which they are represented in those works, it would,
indeed, appear that both, and especially the former, enjoyed an
extensive worship. As several synonyms are attributed to each of them,
it is not improbable that in some of these we have to recognize special
names under which the people in different localities worshipped these
gods, or deities of a similar nature which, by the agency of popular
poetry, or in some other way, came to be combined with them. The places
assigned to them in the pantheistic system were coordinate with that of
Brahma; the three deities, _Brahma, Vishnu_ and _Siva_, were to
represent a triple impersonation of the divinity, as manifesting itself
respectively in the creation, preservation and destruction of the
universe. Siva does not occur in the Vedic hymns as the name of a god,
but only as an adjective in the sense of "kind, auspicious." One of his
synonyms, however, is the name of a Vedic deity, the attributes and
nature of which show a good deal of similarity to the post-Vedic god.
This is _Rudra_, the god of the roaring storm, usually portrayed, in
accordance with the element he represents, as a fierce, destructive
deity, "terrible as a wild beast," whose fearful arrows cause death and
disease to men and cattle. He is also called _kapardin_ ("wearing his
hair spirally braided like a shell"), a word which in later times became
one of the synonyms of Siva. The _Atharvaveda_ mentions several other
names of the same god, some of which appear even placed together, as in
one passage _Bhava, Sarva, Rudra_ and _Pasupati_. Possibly some of them
were the names under which one and the same deity was already worshipped
in different parts of northern India. This was certainly the case in
later times, since it is expressly stated in one of the later works of
the Brahmana period, that Sarva was used by the Eastern people and Bhava
by a Western tribe. It is also worthy of note that in the same work (the
_Satapatha-brahmana_), composed at a time when the Vedic triad of Agni,
Indra-Vayu and Surya was still recognized, attempts are made to identify
this god of many names with Agni; and that in one passage in the
_Mahabharata_ it is stated that the Brahmans said that Agni was Siva.
Although such attempts at an identification of the two gods remained
isolated, they would at least seem to point to the fact that, in
adapting their speculations to the actual state of popular worship, the
Brahmans kept the older triad distinctly in view, and by means of it
endeavoured to bring their new structure into harmony with the ancient
Vedic belief. It is in his character as destroyer that Siva holds his
place in the triad, and that he must, no doubt, be identified with the
Vedic Rudra. Another very important function appears, however, to have
been early assigned to him, on which much more stress is laid in his
modern worship--that of destroyer being more especially exhibited in his
consort--viz. the character of a generative power, symbolized in the
phallic emblem (_linga_) and in the sacred bull (_Nandi_), the favourite
attendant of the god. This feature being entirely alien from the nature
of the Vedic god, it has been conjectured with some plausibility, that
the _linga_-worship was originally prevalent among the non-Aryan
population, and was thence introduced into the worship of Siva. On the
other hand, there can, we think, be little doubt that Siva, in his
generative faculty, is the representative of another Vedic god whose
nature and attributes go far to account for this particular feature of
the modern deity, viz. _Pushan_. This god, originally, no doubt, a solar
deity, is frequently invoked, as the lord of nourishment, to bestow
food, wealth and other blessings. He is once, jointly with Soma, called
the progenitor of heaven and earth, and is connected with the marriage
ceremony, where he is asked to lead the bride to the bridegroom and make
her prosperous (_Sivatama_). Moreover, he has the epithet _kapardin_
(spirally braided), as have Rudra and the later Siva, and is called
_Pasupa_, or guardian of cattle, whence the latter derives his name
_Pasupati_. But he is also a strong, powerful, and even fierce and
destructive god, who, with his goad or golden spear, smites the foes of
his worshipper, and thus in this respect offers at least some points of
similarity to Rudra, which may have favoured the fusion of the two gods.
As regards _Vishnu_, this god occupies already a place in the Vedic
mythology, though by no means one of such prominence as would entitle
him to that degree of exaltation implied in his character as one of the
three hypostases of the divinity. Moreover, although in his general
nature, as a benevolent, genial being, the Vedic god corresponds on the
whole to the later Vishnu, the preserver of the world, the latter
exhibits many important features for which we look in vain in his
prototype, and which most likely resulted from sectarian worship or from
an amalgamation with local deities. In one or two of them, such as his
names Vasudeva and Vaikuntha, an attempt may again be traced to identify
Vishnu with Indra, who, as we have seen, was one of the Vedic triad of
gods. The characteristic feature of the elder Vishnu is his measuring
the world with his three strides, which are explained as denoting either
the three stations of the sun at the time of rising, culminating and
setting, or the triple manifestation of the luminous element, as the
fire on earth, the lightning in the atmosphere and the sun in the
heavens.

The male nature of the triad was supposed to require to be supplemented
by each of the three gods being associated with a female energy
(_Sakti_). Thus _Vach_ or _Sarasvati_, the goddess of speech and
learning, came to be regarded as the _sakti_, or consort of Brahma;
_Sri_ or _Lakshmi_, "beauty, fortune," as that of Vishnu; and _Uma_ or
_Parvati_, the daughter of _Himavat_, the god of the Himalaya mountain,
as that of Siva. On the other hand, it is not improbable that
_Parvati_--who has a variety of other names, such as _Kali_ ("the black
one"), _Durga_ ("the inaccessible, terrible one"), _Maha-devi_ ("the
great goddess")--enjoyed already a somewhat extensive worship of her
own, and that there may thus have been good reason for assigning to her
a prominent place in the Brahmanical system.

A compromise was thus effected between the esoteric doctrine of the
metaphysician and some of the most prevalent forms of popular worship,
resulting in what was henceforth to constitute the orthodox system of
belief of the Brahmanical community. Yet the Vedic pantheon could not be
altogether discarded, forming part and parcel, as it did, of that sacred
revelation (_sruti_), which was looked upon as the divine source of all
religious and social law (_smriti_, "tradition"), and being, moreover,
the foundation of the sacrificial ceremonial on which the priestly
authority so largely depended. The existence of the old gods is,
therefore, likewise recognized, but recognized in a very different way
from that of the triple divinity. For while the triad represents the
immediate manifestation of the eternal, infinite soul--while it
constitutes, in fact, the Brahma itself in its active relation to
mundane and seemingly material occurrences, the old traditional gods are
of this world, are individual spirits or portions of the Brahma like men
and other creatures, only higher in degree. To them an intermediate
sphere, the heaven of Indra (the _svarloka_ or _svarga_), is assigned to
which man may raise himself by fulfilling the holy ordinances; but they
are subject to the same laws of being; they, like men, are liable to be
born again in some lower state, and, therefore, like them, yearn for
emancipation from the necessity of future individual existence. It is a
sacred duty of man to worship these superior beings by invocations and
sacrificial observances, as it is to honour the _pitris_ ("the
fathers"), the spirits of the departed ancestors. The spirits of the
dead, on being judged by _Yama_, the Pluto of Hindu mythology, are
supposed to be either passing through a term of enjoyment in a region
midway between the earth and the heaven of the gods, or undergoing their
measure of punishment in the nether world, situated somewhere in the
southern region, before they return to the earth to animate new bodies.
In Vedic mythology Yama was considered to have been the first mortal who
died, and "espied the way to" the celestial abodes, and in virtue of
precedence to have become the ruler of the departed; in some passages,
however, he is already regarded as the god of death. Although the
pantheistic system allowed only a subordinate rank to the old gods, and
the actual religious belief of the people was probably but little
affected by their existence, they continued to occupy an important place
in the affections of the poet, and were still represented as exercising
considerable influence on the destinies of man. The most prominent of
them were regarded as the appointed _Lokapalas_, or guardians of the
world; and as such they were made to preside over the four cardinal and
(according to some authorities) the intermediate points of the compass.
Thus _Indra_, the chief of the gods, was regarded as the regent of the
east; _Agni_, the fire (_ignis_), was in the same way associated with
the south-east; _Yama_ with the south; _Surya_, the sun ([Greek:
Haelios]), with the south-west; _Varuna_, originally the representative
of the all-embracing heaven ([Greek: Ouranos]) or atmosphere, now the
god of the ocean, with the west; _Vayu_ (or _Pavana_), the wind, with
the north-west; _Kubera_, the god of wealth, with the north; and _Soma_
(or _Chandra_) with the north-east. In the institutes of Manu the
_Lokapalas_ are represented as standing in close relation to the ruling
king, who is said to be composed of particles of these his tutelary
deities. The retinue of Indra consists chiefly of the _Gandharvas_
(probably etym. connected with [Greek: kentauros]), a class of genii,
considered in the epics as the celestial musicians; and their wives, the
_Apsaras_, lovely nymphs, who are frequently employed by the gods to
make the pious devotee desist from carrying his austere practices to an
extent that might render him dangerous to their power. _Narada_, an
ancient sage (probably a personification of the cloud, the
"water-giver"), is considered as the messenger between the gods and men,
and as having sprung from the forehead of Brahma. The interesting office
of the god of love is held by _Kamadeva_, also called _Ananga_, the
bodyless, because, as the myth relates, having once tried by the power
of his mischievous arrow to make Siva fall in love with Parvati, whilst
he was engaged in devotional practices, the urchin was reduced to ashes
by a glance of the angry god. Two other mythological figures of some
importance are considered as sons of Siva and Parvati, viz. _Karttikeya_
or _Skanda_, the leader of the heavenly armies, who was supposed to have
been fostered by the six _Krittikas_ or Pleiades; and _Ganesa_ ("lord of
troops"), the elephant-headed god of wisdom, and at the same time the
leader of the _dii minorum gentium_.

Orthodox Brahmanical scholasticism makes the attainment of final
emancipation (_mukti_, _moksha_) dependent on perfect knowledge of the
divine essence. This knowledge can only be obtained by complete
abstraction of the mind from external objects and intense meditation on
the divinity, which again presupposes the total extinction of all
sensual instincts by means of austere practices (_tapas_). The chosen
few who succeed in gaining complete mastery over their senses and a full
knowledge of the divine nature become absorbed into the universal soul
immediately on the dissolution of the body. Those devotees, on the other
hand, who have still a residuum, however slight, of ignorance and
worldliness left in them at the time of their death, pass to the world
of Brahma, where their souls, invested with subtile corporeal frames,
await their reunion with the Eternal Being.

The pantheistic doctrine which thus forms the foundation of the
Brahmanical system of belief found its most complete exposition in one
of the six orthodox _darsanas_, or philosophical systems, the _Vedanta_
philosophy. These systems are considered as orthodox inasmuch as they
recognize the Veda as the revealed source of religious belief, and never
fail to claim the authority of the ancient seers for their own
teachings, even though--as in the case of Kapila, the founder of the
materialistic Sankhya system--they involve the denial of so essential a
dogmatic point as the existence of a personal creator of the world. So
much, indeed, had freedom of speculative thought become a matter of
established habit and intellectual necessity, that no attempt seems ever
to have been made by the leading theological party to put down such
heretical doctrines, so long as the sacred character of the privileges
of their caste was not openly called in question. Yet internal
dissensions on such cardinal points of belief could not but weaken the
authority of the hierarchical body; and as they spread beyond the
narrow bounds of the Brahmanical schools, it wanted but a man of moral
and intellectual powers, and untrammelled by class prejudices, to render
them fatal to priestly pretensions. Such a man arose in the person of a
Sakya prince of Kapilavastu, Gotama, the founder of Buddhism (about the
6th century B.C.). Had it only been for the philosophical tenets of
Buddha, they need scarcely have caused, and probably did not cause, any
great uneasiness to the orthodox theologians. He did, indeed, go one
step beyond Kapila, by altogether denying the existence of the soul as a
substance, and admitting only certain intellectual faculties as
attributes of the body, perishable with it. Yet the conception which
Buddha substituted for the transmigratory soul, viz. that of _karma_
("work"), as the sum total of the individual's good and bad actions,
being the determinative element of the form of his future existence,
might have been treated like any other speculative theory, but for the
practical conclusions he drew from it. Buddha recognized the institution
of caste, and accounted for the social inequalities attendant thereon as
being the effects of _karma_ in former existences. But, on the other
hand, he altogether denied the revealed character of the Veda and the
efficacy of the Brahmanical ceremonies deduced from it, and rejected the
claims of the sacerdotal class to be the repositaries and divinely
appointed teachers of sacred knowledge. That Buddha never questioned the
truth of the Brahmanical theory of transmigration shows that this early
product of speculative thought had become firmly rooted in the Hindu
mind as a tenet of belief amounting to moral conviction. To the Hindu
philosopher this doctrine seemed alone to account satisfactorily for the
apparent essential similarity of the vital element in all animate
beings, no less than for what elsewhere has led honest and logical
thinkers to the stern dogma of predestination. The belief in eternal
bliss or punishment, as the just recompense of man's actions during this
brief term of human life, which their less reflective forefathers had at
one time held, appeared to them to involve a moral impossibility. The
equality of all men, which Buddha preached with regard to the final
goal, the _nirvana_, or extinction of _karma_ and thereby of all future
existence and pain, and that goal to be reached, not by the performance
of penance and sacrificial worship, but by practising virtue, could not
fail to be acceptable to many people. It would be out of place here to
dwell on the rapid progress and internal development of the new
doctrine. Suffice it to say that, owing no doubt greatly to the
sympathizing patronage of ruling princes, Buddhism appears to have been
the state religion in most parts of India during the early centuries of
our era. To what extent it became the actual creed of the body of the
people it will probably be impossible ever to ascertain. One of the
chief effects it produced on the worship of the old gods was the rapid
decline of the authority of the orthodox Brahmanical dogma, and a
considerable development of sectarianism. (See HINDUISM.)

  See H.H. Wilson, _Essays on the Religion of the Hindus_; J. Muir,
  _Original Sanskrit Texts_; M. Müller, _History of Ancient Sanskrit
  Literature_; C. Lassen, _Indische Alterthumskunde_; Elphinstone,
  _History of India_, ed. by E.B. Cowell.     (J. E.)



BRAHMAPUTRA, a great river of India, with a total length of 1800 m. Its
main source is in a great glacier-mass of the northernmost chain of the
Himalayas, called Kubigangri, about 82° N., and receives various
tributaries including one formerly regarded as the true source from the
pass of Mariam La (15,500 ft.), which separates its basin from the
eastern affluents of the Mansarowar lakes, at least 100 m. south-east of
those of the Indus. It flows in a south-easterly direction for 170 m.,
and then adheres closely to a nearly easterly course for 500 m. more,
being at the end of that distance in 29° 10' N. lat. It then bends
north-east for 150 m. before finally shaping itself southwards towards
the plains of Assam. Roughly speaking, the river may be said so far to
run parallel to the main chain of the Himalaya at a distance of 100 m.
therefrom. Its early beginnings take their rise amidst a mighty mass of
glaciers which cover the northern slopes of the watershed, separating
them from the sources of the Gogra on the south; and there is evidence
that two of its great southern tributaries, the Shorta Tsanpo (which
joins about 150 m. from its source), and the Nyang Chu (the river of
Shigatse and Gyantse), are both also of glacial origin. From the north
it receives five great tributaries, namely, the Chu Nago, the Chachu
Tsanpo and the Charta Tsanpo (all within the first 200 m. of its
course), and the Raka Tsanpo and Kyi-chu (or river of Lhasa) below. The
Chachu and the Charta are large clear streams, evidently draining from
the great central lake district. Both of them measure more than 100 yds.
in width at the point of junction, and they are clearly non-glacial. The
Raka Tsanpo is a lateral affluent, flowing for 200 m. parallel to the
main river course and some 20 to 30 m. north of it, draining the
southern slopes of a high snowy range. It is an important feature as
affording foothold for the Janglam (the great high road of southern
Tibet connecting Ladakh with China), which is denied by the actual
valley of the Brahmaputra. The great river itself is known in Tibet by
many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro
Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word "tsanpo" (tsang-po) meaning (according to
Waddell) the "pure one," and applying to all great rivers. Fifty miles
from its source the river and the Janglam route touch each other, and
from that point past Tadum (the first important place on its banks) for
another 130 m., the road follows more or less closely the left bank of
the river. Then it diverges northwards into the lateral valley of the
Raka, until the Raka joins the Brahmaputra below Janglache. The upper
reaches are nowhere fordable between Tadum and Lhasa, but there is a
ferry at Likche (opposite Tadum on the southern bank), where wooden
boats covered with hide effect the necessary connexion between the two
banks and ensure the passage of the Nepal trade. From Janglache (13,800
ft.) to Shigatse the river is navigable, the channel being open and wide
and the course straight. This is probably the most elevated system of
navigation in the world. From Shigatse, which stands near the mouth of
the Nyang Chu, to the Kyi-chu, or Lhasa river, there is no direct route,
the river being unnavigable below Shigatse. The Janglam takes a
circuitous course southwards to Gyantse and the Yamdok Cho before
dropping again over the Khambala pass to the ferry at Khamba barje near
Chushul. Thence the valley of the Kyi-chu (itself navigable for small
boats for about 30 m.) leads to Lhasa northwards. At Chushul there is an
iron chain-and-rope suspension bridge over the deepest part of the
river, but it does not completely span the river, and it is too insecure
for use. The remains of a similar bridge exist at Janglache; but there
are no wooden or twig suspension bridges over the Tsanpo. At Tadum the
river is about one half as wide again as the Ganges at Hardwar in
December, i.e. about 250 to 300 yds. At Shigatse it flows in a wide
extended bed with many channels, but contracts again at Chushul, where
it is no wider than it is at Janglache, i.e. from 600 to 700 yds. At
Chushul (below the Kyi-chu) the discharge of the river is computed to be
about 35,000 cub. ft. per second, or seven times that of the Ganges at
Hardwar.

For about 250 m. below Kyi-chu to a point about 20 m. below the great
southerly bend (in 94° E. long.) the course of the Brahmaputra has been
traced by native surveyors. Then it is lost amidst the jungle-covered
hills of the wild Mishmi and Abor tribes to the east of Bhutan for
another 100 m., until it is again found as the Dihong emerging into the
plains of Assam. About the intervening reaches of the river very little
is known except that it drops through 7000 ft. of altitude, and that in
one place, at least, there exist some very remarkable falls. These are
placed in 29° 40' N. lat., between Kongbu and Pema-Koi. Here the river
runs in a narrow precipitous defile along which no path is practicable.
The falls can only be approached from below, where a monastery has been
erected, the resort of countless pilgrims. Their height is estimated at
70 ft., and by Tibetan report the hills around are enveloped in
perpetual mist, and the Sangdong (the "lion's face"), over which the
waters rush, is demon-haunted and full of mystic import. Up to
comparatively recent years it was matter for controversy whether the
Tsanpo formed the upper reaches of the Dihong or of the Irrawaddy. From
the north-eastern extremity of Assam where, near Sadya, the Lohit, the
Dibong and the Dihong unite to form the wide placid Brahmaputra of the
plains--one of the grandest rivers of the world--its south-westerly
course to the Bay of Bengal is sufficiently well known. It still retains
the proud distinction of being unbridged, and still the River Flotilla
Company appoints its steamers at regular intervals to visit all the
chief ports on its banks as far as Dibrugarh. Here, however, a new
feature has been introduced in the local railway, which extends for some
80 m. to Sadya, with a branch to the Buri Dihing river at the foot of
the Patkoi range. The Patkoi border the plains of Upper Assam to the
south-east, and across these hills lies the most reasonable probability
of railway extension to Burma.

The following are the "lowest level" discharges of the principal
affluents of the Brahmaputra in Upper Assam, estimated in cubic feet per
second:--

  Lohit river, 9 m. above Sadya             38,800
  Dibong, 1 m. above junction with Dihong   27,200
  Dihong        "         "        Dibong   55,400
  Subansiri                                 16,900

The basins of the Dibong and Subansiri are as yet very imperfectly
known. That of the Lohit has been fairly well explored. Near Goalpara
the discharge of the river in January 1828 was computed to be 140,000
cub. ft., or nearly double that of the Ganges. The length of the river
is 700 m. to the Dihong junction, and about 1000 in Tibet and eastern
Bhutan, above the Dihong. The Brahmaputra, therefore, exceeds the Ganges
in length by about 400 m. The bed of the great river maintains a fairly
constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within
that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on
the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down
as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer
traffic.

An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within
the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea
cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk. Gold is
found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum
are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into
economic prominence. During the rains the Brahmaputra floods hundreds of
square miles of country, reaching a height of 30 to 40 ft. above its
usual level. This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so
watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.

  See _Reports_ of the native explorers of the Indian Survey, edited by
  Montgomery and Harman; _Imperial Gazetteer of India_ (1908); Sir T.H.
  Holdich, _India_ ("Regions of the World" series, 1903); Ryder,
  _Geographical Journal_, 1905; Rawlings, _The Great Plateau_ (1906).
       (T. H. H.*)



BRAHMA SAMAJ, a religious association in India which owes its origin to
(Raja) Ram Mohan Roy, who began teaching and writing in Calcutta soon
after 1800. The name means literally the "Church of the One God," and
the word _Samaj_, like the word Church, bears both a local and a
universal, or an individual and a collective meaning. Impressed with the
perversions and corruptions of popular Hinduism, Ram Mohan Roy
investigated the Hindu Shastras, the Koran and the Bible, repudiated the
polytheistic worship of the Shastras as false, and inculcated the
reformed principles of monotheism as found in the ancient Upanishads of
the Vedas. In 1816 he established a society, consisting only of Hindus,
in which texts from the Vedas were recited and theistic hymns chanted.
This, however, soon died out through the opposition it received from the
Hindu community. In 1830 he organized the society known as the Brahma
Samaj.

The following extract from the trust-deed of the building dedicated to
it will show the religious belief and the purposes of its founder. The
building was intended to be "a place of public meeting for all sorts and
descriptions of people, without distinction, who shall behave and
conduct themselves in an orderly, sober, religious and devout manner,
for the worship and adoration of the eternal, unsearchable and immutable
Being, who is the author and preserver of the universe, but not under
and by any other name, designation or title, peculiarly used for and
applied to any particular being or beings by any man or set of men
whatsoever; and that no graven image, statue or sculpture, carving,
painting, picture, portrait or the likeness of anything shall be
admitted within the said messuage, building, land, tenements,
hereditament and premises; and that no sacrifice, offering or oblation
of any kind or thing shall ever be permitted therein; and that no animal
or living creature shall within or on the said messuage, &c., be
deprived of life either for religious purposes or food, and that no
eating or drinking (except such as shall be necessary by any accident
for the preservation of life), feasting or rioting be permitted therein
or thereon; and that in conducting the said worship or adoration, no
object, animate or inanimate, that has been or is or shall hereafter
become or be recognized as an object of worship by any man or set of
men, shall be reviled or slightingly or contemptuously spoken of or
alluded to, either in preaching or in the hymns or other mode of worship
that may be delivered or used in the said messuage or building; and that
no sermon, preaching, discourse, prayer or hymns be delivered, made or
used in such worship, but such as have a tendency to the contemplation
of the Author and Preserver of the universe or to the promotion of
charity, morality, piety, benevolence, virtue and the strengthening of
the bonds of union between men of all religious persuasions and creeds."

The new faith at this period held to the Vedas as its basis. Ram Mohan
Roy soon after left India for England, and took up his residence in
Bristol, where he died in 1835. The Brahma Samaj maintained a bare
existence till 1841, when Babu Debendra Nath Tagore, a member of a
famous and wealthy Calcutta family, devoted himself to it. He gave a
printing-press to the Samaj, and established a monthly journal called
the _Tattwabodhini Patrika_, to which the Bengali language now owes much
for its strength and elegance. About 1850 some of the followers of the
new religion discovered that the greater part of the Vedas is
polytheistic, and a schism took place,--the advanced party holding that
nature and intuition form the basis of faith. Between 1847 and 1858
branch societies were formed in different parts of India, especially in
Bengal, and the new society made rapid progress, for which it was
largely indebted to the spread of English education and the work of
Christian missionaries. In fact the whole Samaj movement is as distinct
a product of the contest of Hinduism with Christianity in the 19th
century, as the _Panth_ movement was of its contest with Islam 300 years
earlier.

The Brahma creed was definitively formulated as follows:--(1) The book
of nature and intuition supplies the basis of religious faith. (2)
Although the Brahmas do not consider any book written by man the basis
of their religion, yet they do accept with respect and pleasure any
religious _truth_ contained in any book. (3) The Brahmas believe that
the religious condition of man is progressive, like the other
departments of his condition in this world. (4) They believe that the
fundamental doctrines of their religion are also the basis of every true
religion. (5) They believe in the existence of one Supreme God--a God
endowed with a distinct personality, moral attributes worthy of His
nature and an intelligence befitting the Governor of the universe, and
they worship Him alone. They do not believe in any of His incarnations.
(6) They believe in the immortality and progressive state of the soul,
and declare that there is a state of conscious existence succeeding life
in this world and supplementary to it as respects the action of the
universal moral government. (7) They believe that repentance is the only
way to salvation. They do not recognize any other mode of reconcilement
to the offended but loving Father. (8) They pray for _spiritual_ welfare
and believe in the _efficacy_ of such prayers. (9) They believe in the
providential care of the divine Father. (10) They avow that love towards
Him and the performances of the works which He loves, constitute His
worship. (11) They recognize the necessity of public worship, but do not
believe that communion with the Father depends upon meeting in any fixed
place at any fixed time. They maintain that they can adore Him at any
time and at any place, provided that the time and the place are
calculated to compose and direct the mind towards Him. (12) They do not
believe in pilgrimages and declare that holiness can only be attained by
elevating and purifying the mind. (13) They put no faith in rites or
ceremonies, nor do they believe in penances as instrumental in obtaining
the grace of God. They declare that moral righteousness, the gaining of
wisdom, divine contemplation, charity and the cultivation of devotional
feelings are their rites and ceremonies. They further say, govern and
regulate your feelings, discharge your duties to God and to man, and you
will gain everlasting blessedness; purify your heart, cultivate
devotional feelings and you will see Him who is unseen. (14)
Theoretically there is no distinction of caste among the Brahmas. They
declare that we are all the children of God, and therefore must consider
ourselves as brothers and sisters.

For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865
the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the
Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by
demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
This, however, the older members opposed, declaring such innovations to
be premature. A schism resulted, Keshub Chunder Sen and his followers
founding the Progressive Samaj, while the conservative stock remained as
the Adi (i.e. original) Samaj, their aim being to "fulfil" rather than
to abrogate the old religion. The vitality of the movement, however, had
left it, and its inconsistencies, combined with the lack of strong
leadership, landed it in a position scarcely distinguishable from
orthodox Hinduism. Debendra Nath Tagore sought refuge from the
difficulty by becoming an ascetic. The "Brahma Samaj of India," as
Chunder Sen's party styled itself, made considerable progress
extensively and intensively until 1878, when a number of the most
prominent adherents, led by Anand Mohan Bose, took umbrage at Chunder
Sen's despotic rule and at his disregard of the society's regulations
concerning child marriage. This led to the formation of the Sadharana
(Universal) Brahma Samaj, now the most popular and progressive of the
three sections of the movement and conspicuous for its work in the cause
of literary culture, social reform and female education in India. But
even when we add all sections of the Brahma Samaj together, the total
number of adherents is only about 4000, mostly found in Calcutta and its
neighbourhood. A small community (about 130) in Bombay, known as the
Prarthna (Prayer) Samaj, was founded in 1867 through Keshub Chunder's
influence; they have a similar creed to that of the Brahma Samaj, but
have broken less decisively with orthodox and ceremonial Hinduism.

  See the articles on ARYA, SAMAJ, KESHUB CHUNDER SEN, RAM MOHAN ROY.
  Also John Robson, _Hinduism and Christianity_; and the _Theistic
  Quarterly Review_ (the organ of the Society since 1880).



BRAHMS, JOHANNES (1833-1897), German composer, was born in Hamburg on
the 7th of May 1833. He was the son of a double-bass player in the
Hamburg city theatre and received his first musical instruction from his
father. After some lessons from O. Cossel, he went to Cossel's master,
Eduard Marxsen of Altona, whose experience and artistic taste directed
the young man's genius into the highest paths. A couple of public
appearances as a pianist were hardly an interruption to the course of
his musical studies, and these were continued nearly up to the time when
Brahms accepted an engagement as accompanist to the Hungarian violinist,
Remenyi, for a concert tour in 1853. At Göttingen there occurred a
famous _contretemps_ which had a most important though indirect
influence on the whole after-life of the young player. A piano on which
he was to play the "Kreutzer" sonata of Beethoven with Remenyi turned
out to be a semitone below the required pitch; and Brahms played the
part by heart, transposing it from A to B flat, in such a way that the
great violinist, Joachim, who was present and discerned what the feat
implied, introduced himself to Brahms, and laid the foundation of a
life-long friendship. Joachim gave him introductions to Liszt at Weimar
and to Schumann at Düsseldorf; the former hailed him for a time as a
member of the advanced party in music, on the strength of his E flat
minor scherzo, but the misapprehension was not of long continuance. The
introduction to Schumann impelled that master, now drawing near the
tragic close of his career, to write the famous article "Neue Bahnen,"
in which the young Brahms was proclaimed to be the great composer of the
future, "he who was to come." The critical insight in Schumann's article
is all the more surprising when it is remembered how small was the list
of Brahms's works at the time. A string quartet, the first pianoforte
sonata, the scherzo already mentioned, and the earliest group of songs,
containing the dramatic "Liebestreu," are the works which drew forth the
warm commendations of Schumann. In December 1853 Brahms gave a concert
at Leipzig, as a result of which the firms of Breitkopf & Haertel and of
Senff undertook to publish his compositions. In 1854 he was given the
post of choir-director and music-master to the prince of Lippe-Detmold,
but he resigned it after a few years, going first to Hamburg, and then
to Zürich, where he enjoyed the friendship and artistic counsel of
Theodor Kirchner. The unfavourable verdict of the Leipzig Gewandhaus
audience upon his pianoforte concerto in D minor op. 15, and several
remarkably successful appearances in Vienna, where he was appointed
director of Ihe Singakademie in 1863, were the most important external
events of Brahms's life, but again he gave up the conductorship after a
few months of valuable work, and for about three years had no fixed
place of abode. Concert tours with Joachim or Stockhausen were
undertaken, and it was not until 1867 that he returned to Vienna, or
till 1872 that he chose it definitely as his home, his longest absence
from the Austrian capital being between 1874 and 1878, when he lived
near Heidelberg. From 1871 to 1874 he conducted the concerts of the
"Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde," but after the later date he occupied no
official position of any kind. With the exception of journeys to Italy
in the spring, or to Switzerland in the summer, he rarely left Vienna.
He refused to come to England to take the honorary degree of Mus.D.
offered by the university of Cambridge; the university of Breslau made
him Ph.D. in 1881; in 1886 he was created a knight of the Prussian order
_Pour le mérite_, and in 1889 was presented with the freedom of his
native city. He died in Vienna on the 3rd of April 1897.

The works of Brahms may be summarized as follows:--Various _sacred
compositions for chorus_, op. 12, 13, 22, 27, 29, 30, 37, leading up to
op. 45, the "German Requiem" first performed at Bremen in 1868, and
subsequently completed by a soprano solo with chorus; the "Triumphlied"
in commemoration of the German victories of 1870-71; and some choral
songs and motets, op. 74, 109 and 110. _Secular choral works_, op. 17,
41, 42, 44, 50 ("Rinaldo" for tenor solo and male choir), 53
("Rhapsodie," alto solo and male choir), 54 ("Schicksalslied"), 62, 82
(Schiller's Nänie), 89 ("Gesang der Parzen"), 93, 104, 113. _Concerted
vocal-works_, op. 20, 28, 31, 52 ("Liebeslieder-Walzer"), 61, 64, 65
("Neue Liebeslieder"), 75, 92, 103, 112. _Solo songs_, nearly 300.
_Orchestral works_: four symphonies, op. 68, 73, 90 and 98; two
serenades, op. 11 and 16; two pianoforte concertos, op. 15 and 83, one
violin concerto, op. 77; concerto for violin and violoncello, op. 102;
variations on a theme by Haydn, op. 56; two overtures, "Academische
Festouvertüre," op. 80, and "Tragic Overture," op. 81. _Chamber music_:
two sextets, op. 18 and 36; quintet, piano and strings, op. 34, strings,
op. 88 and 111, clarinet and strings, op. 115; three string quartets,
op. 51 and 67, three quartets for piano and strings, op. 25, 26 and 60.
Three trios for piano and strings, op. 8, 87 and 101; trio for piano,
violin and horn, op. 40; piano, clarinet and violoncello, op. 114. Duet
sonatas, three for piano and violin, op. 78, 100 and 108; two for piano
and violoncello, op. 38 and 99; two for piano and clarinet, op. 120.
_Pianoforte solos_: three sonatas, op. 1, 2 and 5; scherzo, op. 4;
variations, op. 9, 21, 23, 24, 35; 4 ballads, op. 10; waltzes, op. 39;
two rhapsodies, op. 79; caprices and intermezzi, op. 76, 116, 117, 118
and 119. 5 _studies_ and 51 _Uebungen_ without opus-number, and a
_chorale-prelude and fugue_ for organ, besides four books of _Hungarian
Dances_ arranged for pianoforte duet.

Brahms has often been called the last of the great classical masters, in
a sense wider than that of his place in the long line of the great
composers of Germany. Though only the most superficial observers could
deny him the possession of qualities which distinguish the masters of
the romantic school, it is as a classicist that he must be ranked among
modern musicians. From the beginning of his career until its close, his
ideas were clothed by preference in the forms which had sufficed for
Beethoven, and the instances in which he departed from structural
precedent are so rare that they might be disregarded, were they not of
such high value that they must be considered as the signs of a logical
development of musical form, and not as indicating a spirit of rebellion
against existing modes of structure. His practice, more frequent in
later than in earlier life, of welding together the "working-out" and
the "recapitulation" sections of his movements in a closer union than
any of his predecessors had attempted, is an innovation which cannot
fail to have important results in the future; and if the skill of
younger writers is not adequate to such a display of ingenuity as occurs
in the finale of the fourth symphony, where the "passacaglia" form has
been used with an effect that is almost bewildering to the ordinary
listener, that at least stands as a monument of inventiveness finely
subordinated to the emotional and intellectual purport of the thoughts
expressed. His themes are always noble, and even from the point of view
of emotional appeal their deep intensity of expression is of a kind
which grows upon all who have once been awakened to their beauty, or
have been at the pains to grasp the composer's characteristics of
utterance. His vocal music, whether for one voice or many, is remarkable
for its fidelity to natural inflection and accentuation of the words,
and for its perfect reflection of the poet's mood. His songs, vocal
quartets and choral works abound in passages that prove him a master of
effects of sound; and throughout his chamber music, in his treatment of
the piano, of the strings, or of the solo wind instruments he employs,
there are numberless examples which sufficiently show the irrelevance of
a charge sometimes brought against his music, that it is deficient in a
sense of what is called "tone-colour." It is perfectly true that the
mere acoustic effect of a passage was of far less importance to him than
its inherent beauty, poetic import, or logical fitness in a definite
scheme of development; and that often in his orchestral music the casual
hearer receives an impression of complexity rather than of clearness,
and is apt to imagine that the "thickness" of instrumentation is the
result of clumsiness or carelessness. Such instances as the introduction
to the finale of the first symphony, the close of the first movement of
the second, what may be called the epilogue of the third, or the whole
of the variations on a theme of Haydn, are not only marvels of delicate
workmanship in regard to structure, but are instinct with the sense of
the peculiar beauty and characteristics of each instrument. The
"Academic Festival" overture proves Brahms a master of musical humour,
in his treatment of the student songs which serve as its themes; and the
companion piece, the "Tragic" overture, reaches a height of sublimity
which is in no way lessened because no particular tragedy has ever been
named in conjunction with the work.

As with all creative artists of supreme rank, the work of Brahms took a
considerable time before it was very generally appreciated. The change
in public opinion is strikingly illustrated in regard to the songs,
which, once voted ineffective and unvocal, have now taken a place in
every eminent singer's repertory. The outline in his greater works must
be grasped with some definiteness before the separate ideas can be
properly understood in their true relation to each other; and while it
is his wonderful power of handling the recognized classical forms, so as
to make them seem absolutely new, which stamps him as the greatest
musical architect since Beethoven, the necessity for realizing in some
degree what musical form signifies has undoubtedly been a bar to the
rapid acceptance of his greater works by the uneducated lovers of music.
These are of course far more easily moved by effects of colour than by
the subtler beauties of organic structure, and Brahms's attitude towards
tone-colour was scarcely such as would endear him to the large number of
musicians in whose view tone-colour is pre-eminent. His mastery of form,
again, has been attacked as formalism by superficial critics, blind to
the real inspiration and distinction of his ideas, and to their
perfection in regard to style and the appropriateness of every theme to
the exact emotional state to be expressed. In his larger vocal works
there are some which treat of emotional conditions far removed from the
usual stock of subjects taken by the average composer; to compare the
ideas in the "German Requiem" with those of the "Schicksalslied" or
"Nänie" is to learn a lesson in artistic style which can never be
forgotten. In the songs, too, it is scarcely too much to say that the
whole range of human emotion finds expression in noble lyrics that yield
to none in actual musical beauty. The four "Ernste Gesänge," Brahms's
last composition, must be considered as his supreme achievement in
dignified utterance of noble thoughts in a style that perfectly fits
them. The choice of words for these as well as for the "Requiem" and
others of his serious works reveals a strong sense of the vanity and
emptiness of human life, but at least as strong a confidence in the
divine consolations.

It has been the misfortune of the musical world in Germany that every
prominent musician is ranged by critics and amateurs in one of two
hostile camps, and it was probably due in the main to the
misrepresentations of the followers of Wagner that the idea was so
generally held that Brahms was a man of narrow sympathies and hard, not
to say brutal manners. The latter impression was fostered, no doubt, by
the master's natural detestation of the methods by which the average
lionizer seeks to gain his object, and both alike are disproved in the
_Recollections_ of J.V. Widmann, an intimate friend for many years,
which throw a new light on the master, revealing him as a man of the
widest artistic sympathies, neither intolerant of excellence in a line
opposed to his own, nor weakly enthusiastic over mediocre productions by
composers whose views were in complete sympathy with him. His admiration
for Verdi and Wagner is enough to show that the absence of any operatic
work from his list of compositions was simply due to the difficulty of
finding a libretto which appealed to him, not to any antagonism to the
lyric stage in its modern developments. How far he stood from the
prejudices of the typical pedant may be seen in the passionate love he
showed throughout his life for national music, especially that of
Hungary. Not only were his arrangements of Hungarian dances the first
work by which his name was known outside his native land, but his first
pianoforte quartet, op. 25 in G minor, incurred the wrath of the critics
of the time by its introduction of some characteristics of Hungarian
music into the finale. His arrangement of a number of children's
traditional songs was published without his name, and dedicated to the
children of Robert and Clara Schumann in the earliest years of his
creative life; and among the last of his publications was a collection
of forty-nine German Volkslieder, arranged with the utmost skill, taste
and simplicity. He had a great admiration for the waltzes of Strauss,
and in many passages of his own works the _entrain_ that is
characteristic of the Viennese dance-writers is present in a striking
degree.

  See also W.H. Hadow, _Studies in Modern Music_ (2nd series, 1908); and
  the articles MUSIC, SONG.     (J. A. F. M.)



BRAHUI, a people of Baluchistan, inhabiting the Brahui mountains, which
extend continuously from near the Bolan Pass to Cape Monze on the
Arabian Sea. The khan of Kalat, the native ruler of Baluchistan, is
himself a Brahui, and a lineal descendant of Kumbar, former chief of the
Kumbarini, a Brahui tribe. The origin of the Brahuis is an ethnological
mystery. Bishop Robert Caldwell and other authorities declare them
Dravidians, and regard them as the western borderers of Dravidian India.
Others believe them to be Scythians,[1] and others again connect them
with Tatar mountaineers who early settled in southern parts of Asia.
The origin of the word itself is in doubt. It is variously derived as a
corruption of the Persian _Ba Rohi_ (literally "of the hills"); as an
eponym from Braho, otherwise Brahin or Ibrahim, a legendary hero of
alleged Arab descent who led his people "out of the west," while Dr
Gustav Oppert believes that the name is in some way related to, if not
identical with, that of the Baluchis. He recognizes in the name of the
Paratas and Paradas, who dwelt in north-eastern Baluchistan, the origin
of the modern Brahui. He gives reasons for regarding the _Bra_ as a
contraction of Bara and obtains "thus in Barahui a name whose
resemblance to that of the ancient Barrhai (the modern Bhars), as well
as to that of the Paratas and Paravar and their kindred the Maratha
Paravari and Dravidian Parheyas of Palaman, is striking." The Brahuis
declare themselves to be the aborigines of the country they now occupy,
their ancestors coming from Aleppo. For this there seems little
foundation, and their language, which has no affinities with Persian,
Pushtu or Baluchi, must be, according to the most eminent scholars,
classed among the Dravidian tongues of southern India. Probably the
Brahuis are of Dravidian stock, a branch long isolated from their
kindred and much Arabized, and thus exhibiting a marked hybridism.

Whatever their origin, the Brahuis are found in a position of
considerable power in Baluchistan from earliest times. Their authentic
history begins with Mir Ahmad, who was their chief in the 17th century.
The title of "khan" was assumed by Nasir the Great in the middle of the
18th century. The Brahuis are a confederacy of tribes possessing common
lands and uniting from time to time for purposes of offence or defence.
At their head is the khan, who formerly seems to have been regarded as
semi-divine, it being customary for the tribesmen on visiting Kalat to
make offerings at the Ahmadzai gate before entering. The Brahuis are a
nomadic race, who dwell in tents made of goats' hair, black or striped,
and live chiefly on the products of their herds. They are Sunnite
Mahommedans, but are not fanatical. In physique they are very easily
distinguished from their neighbours, the Baluchis and Pathans, being a
smaller, sturdier people with rounder faces characterized by the flat,
blunt and coarse features of the Dravidian races. They are of a dark
brown colour, their hair and beards being often brown not black. They
are an active, hardy race, and though as avaricious as the Pathans, are
more trustworthy and less turbulent. Their ordinary dress is a tunic or
shirt, trousers gathered in at the ankles and a cloak usually of brown
felt. A few wear turbans, but generally their headgear is a round
skullcap with tassel or button. Their women are not strictly veiled.
Sandals of deer or goat skin are worn by all classes. Their weapons are
rifles, swords and shields. They do not use the Afghan knife or any
spears. Some few Brahuis are enlisted in the Bombay Native Infantry.

  See Dr Bellew, _Indus to Euphrates_ (London, 1874); Gustav Oppert,
  _The Original Inhabitants of India_ (1893); Dr Theodore Duka, _Essay
  on the Brahui Grammar_ (after the German of Dr Trumpp of Munich
  University).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Compare Mountstuart Elphinstone's (_History of India_, 9th ed.,
    1905, p. 249) description of Scythians with physique of Brahuis. A
    relationship between the Jats (q.v.) and the Brahuis has been
    suggested, and it is generally held that the former were of Scythic
    stock. The Mengals, Bizanjos and Zehris, the three largest Brahui
    tribes, are called Jadgal or Jagdal, i.e. Jats, by some of their
    neighbours. The Zaghar Mengal, a superior division of the Mengal
    tribe, believe they themselves came from a district called Zughd,
    somewhere near Samarkand in central Asia. _Gal_ appears to be a
    collective suffix in Baluchi, and _Men_ or _Min_ occurs on the lists
    of the Behistun inscriptions as the name of one of the Scythian
    tribes deported by Darius, the Achaemenian, for their turbulence (see
    _Kalat, A Memoir on the County and Family of the Ahmadzai Khans of
    Kalat_, by G.P. Tate). Sajdi, another Brahui tribal name, is
    Scythian, the principal clan of which tribe is the Saga, both names
    being identifiable with the Sagetae and Saki of ancient writers. Thus
    there seems some reason for believing that the former occupants of at
    least some portions of the Brahui domain were of Scythian blood.



BRAID (from the O. Eng. _bregdan_, to move quickly to and fro, hence to
weave), a plait, especially a plait of hair, also a plaited tape woven
of wool, silk, gold thread, &c., used for trimming or binding. A
particular use is for the narrow bands, bordered with open work, used in
making point lace.



BRAIDWOOD, THOMAS (1715-1806), British teacher of the deaf and dumb, was
born in Scotland in 1715, and educated at Edinburgh University. He
became a school teacher, and in 1760 opened in Edinburgh, with one
pupil, the first school in Great Britain for the deaf and dumb,
following the system of Dr John Wallis, described in _Philosophical
Transactions_ nearly a hundred years before. This school was the model
for all of the early English institutions of the kind. Dr Johnson
visited it in 1773, and describes it as "a subject of philosophical
curiosity ... which no other city has to show," and Braidwood's dozen
pupils as able "to hear with the eye." In 1783 Braidwood moved to
Hackney, where he died on the 24th of October 1806.



BRAILA (in Rumanian _Braila_, formerly IBRAILA), the capital of the
department of Braila, Rumania; situated amid flat and dreary country on
the left bank of the river Danube, about 100 m. from its mouth at
Sulina. Pop. (1900) 58,392, including 10,811 Jews. Southward, the Danube
encircles a vast fen, tenanted only by waterfowl and herds of half-wild
swine, while the plain which extends to the north-east and east only
grows fertile at some distance inland. Braila itself is plainly built on
a bank rising about 50 ft. above sea-level; but partly on a narrow strip
of ground which separates this bank from the water's edge. Along the
crest of the bank a public park is laid out, commanding a view of the
desolate Dobrudja hills, across the river.

On the landward side, Braila has the shape of a crescent, the curve of
its outer streets following the line of the old fortifications,
dismantled in 1829. Few houses, among the older quarters, exceed two
storeys in height, but the main streets are paved, and there is a
regular supply of filtered water. A wide avenue, the _Strada
Bulivardului_, divides the town proper from the suburbs. The principal
church, among many, is the cathedral of St Michael, a large, ungainly
building of grey sandstone. Electric tramways intersect the town, and
are continued for 3 m. to Lacul Sarat (Salt Lake), where there are
mineral springs and mud-baths, owned by the state. The waters, which
contain over 45% of salt, iodine and sulphur, are among the strongest of
their kind in Europe; and are of high repute, being annually visited by
more than a thousand patients. Braila is the seat of a chamber of
commerce. It is the chief port of entry for Walachia, and the
headquarters of the grain trade; for, besides its advantageous position
on the river, it is connected with the central Walachian railways by a
line to Buzeu, and with the Russian and Moldavian systems by a line to
Galatz. Quays, where ships drawing 15 ft. of water can discharge, line
the river front; and there are large docks, grain elevators and
warehouses, besides paper mills, roperies, and soap and candle works.
Over 20 steamers, maintained by the state, ply between Braila and
Rotterdam. Among the vessels of all nations, the British are first in
numbers and tonnage, the Greek second. Grain and timber form the chief
articles of export; textiles, machinery, iron goods and coal being most
largely imported.

Many events connected with the history of Walachia took place in the
neighbourhood of Braila. In 1475 Stephen the Great, having dethroned the
voivode Radu, burned the town. In 1573 another Moldavian prince took the
city by storm, and massacred the Turkish garrison. In 1659 it was again
burned by the Walachian prince Mircea, and for the time the Turks were
expelled, but afterwards returned. In the latter part of the 18th
century Braila was several times captured by the Russians, and in 1770
it was burned. By the peace of Bucharest (1812) the Turks retained the
right of garrisoning Braila. In 1828 it was gallantly defended by
Soliman Pasha, who, after holding out from the middle of May until the
end of June, was allowed to march out with the honours of war. At the
peace of Adrianople (1829) the place was definitely assigned to
Walachia; but before giving it up, the grand-duke Michael of Russia
razed the citadel, and in this ruinous condition it was handed over to
the Walachians. Braila was the spot chosen by the Russian general
Gorchakov for crossing the Danube with his division in 1854. On the
banks of the Danube, a little above the city, are some remains of the
piles of a bridge said by a very doubtful tradition to have been built
by Darius (c. 500 B.C.).



BRAIN (A.S. _braegen_), that part of the central nervous system which in
vertebrate animals is contained within the cranium or skull; it is
divided into the great brain or cerebrum, the hind brain or cerebellum,
and the medulla oblongata, which is the transitional part between the
spinal cord and the other two parts already named. Except where stated,
we deal here primarily with the brain in man.


1. ANATOMY

  _Membranes of the Human Brain._

  [Illustration: Fig. 1.--Dura Mater and Cranial Sinuses.

     1. Falx cerebri.
     2. Tentorium.
     3,3. Superior longitudinal sinus.
     4. Lateral sinus.
     5. Internal jugular vein.
     6. Occipital sinus.
     6'. Torcular Herophili.
     7. Inferior longitudinal sinus.
     8. Veins of Galen.
     9 and 10. Superior and inferior petrosal sinus.
    11. Cavernous sinus.
    12. Circular sinus which connects the two cavernous sinuses together.
    13. Ophthalmic vein, from 15, the eyeball.
    14. Crista galli of ethmoid bone.]

  Three membranes named the _dura mater, arachnoid_ and _pia mater_
  cover the brain and lie between it and the cranial cavity. The most
  external of the three is the _dura mater_, which consists of a cranial
  and a spinal portion. The cranial part is in contact with the inner
  table of the skull, and is adherent along the lines of the sutures and
  to the margins of the foramina, which transmit the nerves, more
  especially to the foramen magnum. It forms, therefore, for these bones
  an internal periosteum, and the meningeal arteries which ramify in it
  are the nutrient arteries of the inner table. As the growth of bone is
  more active in infancy and youth than in the adult, the adhesion
  between the dura mater and the cranial bones is greater in early life
  than at maturity. From the inner surface of the dura mater strong
  bands pass into the cranial cavity, and form partitions between
  certain of the subdivisions of the brain. A vertical longitudinal
  mesial band, named, from its sickle shape, _falx cerebri_, dips
  between the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. A smaller sickle-shaped
  vertical mesial band, the _falx cerebelli_, attached to the internal
  occipital crest, passes between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum.
  A large band arches forward in the horizontal plane of the cavity,
  from the transverse groove in the occipital bone to the clinoid
  processes of the sphenoid, and is attached laterally to the upper
  border of the petrous part of each temporal bone. It separates the
  cerebrum from the cerebellum, and, as it forms a tent-like covering
  for the latter, is named _tentorium cerebelli_. Along certain lines
  the cranial dura mater splits into two layers to form tubular passages
  for the transmission of venous blood. These passages are named the
  _venous blood sinuses_ of the dura mater, and they are lodged in the
  grooves on the inner surface of the skull referred to in the
  description of the cranial bones. Opening into these sinuses are
  numerous veins which convey from the brain the blood that has been
  circulating through it; and two of these sinuses, called _cavernous_,
  which lie at the sides of the body of the sphenoid bone, receive the
  ophthalmic veins from the eyeballs situated in the orbital cavities.
  These blood sinuses pass usually from before backwards: a _superior
  longitudinal_ along the upper border of the falx cerebri as far as the
  internal occipital protuberance; an _inferior longitudinal_ along its
  lower border as far as the tentorium, where it joins the _straight
  sinus_, which passes back as far as the same protuberance. One or two
  small _occipital sinuses_, which lie in the falx cerebelli, also pass
  to join the straight and longitudinal sinuses opposite this
  protuberance; several currents of blood meet, therefore, at this spot,
  and as Herophilus supposed that a sort of whirlpool was formed in the
  blood, the name _torcular Herophili_ has been used to express the
  meeting of these sinuses. From the torcular the blood is drained away
  by two large sinuses, named _lateral_, which curve forward and
  downward to the jugular foramina to terminate in the internal jugular
  veins. In its course each lateral sinus receives two _petrosal_
  sinuses, which pass from the cavernous sinus backwards along the upper
  and lower borders of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The dura
  mater consists of a tough, fibrous membrane, somewhat flocculent
  externally, but smooth, glistening, and free on its inner surface. The
  inner surface has the appearance of a serous membrane, and when
  examined microscopically is seen to consist of a layer of squamous
  endothelial cells. Hence the dura mater is sometimes called a
  fibro-serous membrane. The dura mater is well provided with lymph
  vessels, which in all probability open by stomata on the free inner
  surface. Between the dura mater and the subjacent arachnoid membrane
  is a fine space containing a minute quantity of limpid serum, which
  moistens the smooth inner surface of the dura and the corresponding
  smooth outer surface of the arachnoid. It is regarded as equivalent to
  the cavity of a serous membrane, and is named the _sub-dural space_.

  _Arachnoid Mater._--The arachnoid is a membrane of great delicacy and
  transparency, which loosely envelops both the brain and spinal cord.
  It is separated from these organs by the pia mater; but between it and
  the latter membrane is a distinct space, called _sub-arachnoid_. The
  sub-arachnoid space is more distinctly marked beneath the spinal than
  beneath the cerebral parts of the membrane, which forms a looser
  investment for the cord than for the brain. At the base of the brain,
  and opposite the fissures between the convolutions of the cerebrum,
  the interval between the arachnoid and the pia mater can, however,
  always be seen, for the arachnoid does not, like the pia mater, clothe
  the sides of the fissures, but passes directly across between the
  summits of adjacent convolutions. The sub-arachnoid space is
  subdivided into numerous freely-communicating loculi by bundles of
  delicate areolar tissue, which bundles are invested, as Key and
  Retzius have shown, by a layer of squamous endothelium. The space
  contains a limpid cerebro-spinal fluid, which varies in quantity from
  2 drachms to 2 oz., and is most plentiful in the dilatations at the
  base of the brain known as _cisternae_. It should be clearly
  understood that there is no communication between the subdural and
  sub-arachnoid spaces, but that the latter communicates with the
  ventricles through openings in the roof of the fourth, and in the
  descending cornua of the lateral ventricles.

  When the skull cap is removed, clusters of granular bodies are usually
  to be seen imbedded in the dura mater on each side of the superior
  longitudinal sinus; these are named the _Pacchionian bodies_. When
  traced through the dura mater they are found to spring from the
  arachnoid. The observations of Luschka and Cleland have proved that
  villous processes invariably grow from the free surface of that
  membrane, and that when these villi greatly increase in size they form
  the bodies in question. Sometimes the Pacchionian bodies greatly
  hypertrophy, occasioning absorption of the bones of the cranial vault
  and depressions on the upper surface of the brain.

  [Illustration: After D.J. Cunningham's _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 2.--Front View of the Medulla, Pons and Mesencephalon of a
  full-time Human Foetus.]

  _Pia Mater._--This membrane closely invests the whole outer surface of
  the brain. It dips into the fissures between the convolutions, and a
  wide prolongation, named _velum interpositum_, lies in the interior of
  the cerebrum. With a little care it can be stripped off the brain
  without causing injury to its substance. At the base of the brain the
  pia mater is prolonged on to the roots of the cranial nerves. This
  membrane consists of a delicate connective tissue, in which the
  arteries of the brain and spinal cord ramify and subdivide into small
  branches before they penetrate the nervous substance, and in which the
  veins conveying the blood from the nerve centres lie before they open
  into the blood sinuses of the cranial dura mater and the extradural
  venus plexus of the spinal canal.


  _Medulla Oblongata._

  The _Medulla Oblongata_ rests upon the basi-occipital. It is somewhat
  pyramidal in form, about 1¼ in. long, and 1 in. broad in its widest
  part. It is a bilateral organ, and is divided into a right and a left
  half by shallow anterior and posterior median fissures, continuous
  with the corresponding fissures in the spinal cord; the posterior
  fissure ends above in the fourth ventricle. Each half is subdivided
  into elongated tracts of nervous matter. Next to, and parallel with
  the anterior fissure is the _anterior pyramid_ (see fig. 2). This
  pyramid is continuous below with the cord, and the place of continuity
  is marked by the passage across the fissure of three or four bundles
  of nerve fibres, from each half of the cord to the opposite anterior
  pyramid; this crossing is called the _decussation of the pyramids_. To
  the side of the pyramid, and separated from it by a faint fissure, is
  the _olivary fasciculus_, which at its upper end is elevated into the
  projecting oval-shaped _olivary body_. Behind the olivary body in the
  lower half of the medulla are three tracts named from before backward
  the _funiculus of Rolando_, the _funiculus cuneatus_ and the
  _funiculus gracilis_ (see fig. 3). The two _funiculi graciles_ of
  opposite sides are in contact in the mid dorsal line and have between
  them the _postero median_ fissure. When the fourth ventricle is
  reached they diverge to form the lower limit of that diamond-shaped
  space and are slightly swollen to form the _clavae_. All these three
  bundles appear to be continued up into the cerebellum as the restiform
  bodies or inferior cerebellar peduncles, but really the continuity is
  very slight, as the restiform bodies are formed from the direct
  cerebellar tracts of the spinal cord joining with the superficial
  arcuate fibres which curve back just below the olivary bodies. The
  upper part of the fourth ventricle is bounded by the superior
  cerebellar peduncles which meet just before the inferior quadrigeminal
  bodies are reached. Stretching across between them is the superior
  medullary velum or valve of Vieussens, forming the upper part of the
  roof, while the inferior velum forms the lower part, and has an
  opening called the _foramen_ of Majendie, through which the
  sub-arachnoid space communicates with the ventricle. The floor (see
  fig. 3) has two triangular depressions on each side of a median
  furrow; these are the superior and inferior _fovea_, the significance
  of which will be noticed in the development of the rhombencephalon.
  Running horizontally across the middle of the floor are the _striae
  acusticae_ which are continued into the auditory nerve. The floor of
  the fourth ventricle is of special interest because a little way from
  the surface are the deep origins of all the cranial nerves from the
  fifth to the twelfth. (See NERVE, _cranial_). If a section is made
  transversely through the medulla about the apex of the fourth
  ventricle three important bundles of fibres are cut close to the mid
  line on each side (see fig. 4). The most anterior is the pyramid or
  motor tract, the decussation of which has been seen. Behind this is
  the mesial fillet or sensory tract, which has also decussated a little
  below the point of section, while farther back still is the posterior
  longitudinal bundle which is coming up from the anterior basis bundle
  of the cord. External to and behind the pyramid is the crenated
  section of the olivary nucleus, the surface bulging of which forms the
  olivary body.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy._

  FIG. 3.--Back View of the Medulla, Pons and Mesencephalon of a
  full-time Human Foetus.]

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy._

  FIG. 4.--Transverse Section through the Human Medulla in the Lower
  Olivary Region.]

  The grey matter of the medulla oblongata, which contains numerous
  multipolar nerve cells, is in part continuous with the grey matter of
  the spinal cord, and in part consists of independent masses. As the
  grey matter of the cord enters the medulla it loses its crescentic
  arrangement. The posterior cornua are thrown outwards towards the
  surface, lose their pointed form, and dilate into rounded masses named
  the grey tubercles of Rolando. The grey matter of the anterior cornua
  is cut off from the rest by the decussating pyramids and finally
  disappears. The _formatio reticularis_ which is feebly developed in
  the cord becomes well developed in the medulla. In the lower part of
  the medulla a central canal continuous with that of the cord exists,
  but when the clavae on the opposite sides of the medulla diverge from
  each other, the central canal loses its posterior boundary, and
  dilates into the cavity of the fourth ventricle. The grey matter in
  the interior of the medulla appears, therefore, on the floor of the
  ventricle and is continuous with the grey matter near the central
  canal of the cord. This grey matter forms collections of nerve cells,
  which are the centres of origin of several cranial nerves. Crossing
  the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata, immediately below the
  pons, in the majority of mammals is a transverse arrangement of fibres
  forming the _trapezium_, which contains a grey nucleus, named by van
  der Kolk the _superior olive_. In the human brain the trapezium is
  concealed by the lower transverse fibres of the pons, but when
  sections are made through it, as L. Clarke pointed out, the grey
  matter of the superior olive can be seen. These fibres of the
  _trapezium_ come from the cochlear nucleus of the auditory nerve, and
  run up as the lateral fillet.

  The _Pons Varolii_ or BRIDGE is cuboidal in form (see fig. 2): its
  anterior surface rests upon the dorsum sellae of the sphenoid, and is
  marked by a median longitudinal groove; its inferior surface receives
  the pyramidal and olivary tracts of the medulla oblongata; at its
  superior surface are the two crura cerebri; each lateral surface is in
  relation to a hemisphere of the cerebellum, and a peduncle passes from
  the pons into the interior of each hemisphere; the posterior surface
  forms in part the upper portion of the floor of the fourth ventricle,
  and in part is in contact with the corpora quadrigemina.

  The pons consists of white and grey matter: the nerve fibres of the
  white matter pass through the substance of the pons, in either a
  transverse or a longitudinal direction. The transverse fibres go from
  one hemisphere of the cerebellum to that of the opposite side; some
  are situated on the anterior surface of the pons, and form its
  superficial transverse fibres, whilst others pass through its
  substance and form the deep transverse fibres. The longitudinal fibres
  ascend from the medulla oblongata and leave the pons by emerging from
  its upper surface as fibres of the two crura cerebri. The pons
  possesses a median raphe continuous with that of the medulla
  oblongata, and formed like it by a decussation of fibres in the mesial
  plane. In a horizontal section through the pons and upper part of the
  fourth ventricle the superficial transverse fibres are seen most
  anteriorly; then come the anterior pyramidal fibres, then the deep
  transverse pontine fibres, then the fillet, while most posteriorly and
  close to the floor of the fourth ventricle the posterior longitudinal
  bundle is seen (see fig. 5).

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 5.--Section through the Lower Part of the Human Pons Varolli
  immediately above the Medulla.]

  The grey matter of the pons is scattered irregularly through its
  substance, and appears on its posterior surface; but not on the
  anterior surface, composed exclusively of the superficial transverse
  fibres.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy._

  FIG. 6.--Mesial section through the Corpus Callosum, the
  Mesencephalon, the Pons, Medulla and Cerebellum. Showing the third and
  fourth ventricles joined by the aqueduct of Sylvius.]


  _The Cerebellum._

  The _Cerebellum_, LITTLE BRAIN, or AFTER BRAIN occupies the inferior
  pair of occipital fossae, and lies below the plane of the tentorium
  cerebelli. It consists of two hemispheres or lateral lobes, and of a
  median or central lobe, which in human anatomy is called the vermis.
  It is connected below with the medulla oblongata by the two restiform
  bodies which form its _inferior peduncles_, and above with the corpora
  quadrigemina of the cerebrum by two bands, which form its _superior
  peduncles_; whilst the two hemispheres are connected together by the
  transverse fibres of the pons, which form the _middle peduncles_ of
  the cerebellum. On the superior or tentorial surface of the cerebellum
  the median or vermiform lobe is a mere elevation, but on its inferior
  or occipital surface this lobe forms a well-defined process, which
  lies at the bottom of a deep fossa or _vallecula_; this fossa is
  prolonged to the posterior border of the cerebellum, and forms there a
  deep notch which separates the two hemispheres from each other; in
  this notch the falx cerebelli is lodged. Extending horizontally
  backwards from the middle cerebellar peduncle, along the outer border
  of each hemisphere is the _great horizontal fissure_, which divides
  the hemisphere into its tentorial and occipital surfaces. Each of
  these surfaces is again subdivided by fissures into smaller lobes, of
  which the most important are the _amygdala_ or _tonsil_, which forms
  the lateral boundary of the anterior part of the vallecula, and the
  _flocculus_, which is situated immediately behind the middle peduncle
  of the cerebellum. The inferior vermiform process is subdivided into a
  posterior part or _pyramid_; an elevation or _uvula_, situated between
  the two tonsils; and an anterior pointed process or _nodule_.
  Stretching between the two flocculi, and attached midway to the sides
  of the nodule, is a thin, white, semilunar-shaped plate of nervous
  matter, called the inferior _medullary velum_.

  The whole outer surface of the cerebellum possesses a characteristic
  foliated or laminated appearance, due to its subdivision into
  multitudes of thin plates or lamellae by numerous fissures. The
  cerebellum consists of both grey and white matter. The grey matter
  forms the exterior or cortex of the lamellae, and passes from one to
  the other across the bottoms of the several fissures. The white matter
  lies in the interior of the organ, and extends into the core of each
  lamella. When a vertical section is made through the organ, the
  prolongations of white matter branching off into the interior of the
  several lamellae give to the section an arborescent appearance, known
  by the fanciful name of _arbor vitae_ (see fig. 6). Independent masses
  of grey matter are, however, found in the interior of the cerebellum.
  If the hemisphere be cut through a little to the outer side of the
  median lobe, a zigzag arrangement of grey matter, similar in
  appearance and structure to the nucleus of the olivary body in the
  medulla oblongata, and known as the _corpus dentatum_ of the
  cerebellum, is seen; it lies in the midst of the white core of the
  hemisphere, and encloses white fibres, which leave the interior of the
  corpus at its inner and lower side. On the mesial side of this _corpus
  dentatum_ lie three smaller nuclei. The white matter is more abundant
  in the hemispheres than in the median lobe, and is for the most part
  directly continuous with the fibres of the peduncles of the
  cerebellum. Thus the restiform or inferior peduncles pass from below
  upward through the white core, to end in the grey matter of the
  tentorial surface of the cerebellum, more especially in that of the
  central lobe; on their way they are connected with the grey matter of
  the corpus dentatum. The superior peduncles, which descend from the
  corpora quadrigemina of the cerebrum, form connexions mainly with the
  corpus dentatum. The middle peduncles form a large proportion of the
  white core, and their fibres terminate in the grey matter of the
  foliated cortex of the hemispheres. It has been noticed that those
  fibres which are lowest in the pons go to the upper surface of the
  cerebellum and vice versa.

  _Histology of the Cerebellum._--The white centre of the cerebellum is
  composed of numbers of medullated nerve fibres coursing to and from
  the grey matter of the cortex. These fibres are supported in a
  groundwork of neuroglial tissue, their nutrition being supplied by a
  small number of blood vessels.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 7.--Transverse Section through a Cerebellar Folium (after
  Kölliker). Treated by the Golgi method.

    P. Axon of cell of Purkinje.
    F. Moss fibres.
    K and K^1. Fibres from white core of folium ending in molecular
      layer in connexion with the dendrites of the cells of Purkinje.
    M. Small cell of the molecular layer
    GR. Granule cell.
    GR^1. Axons of granule cells in molecular layer cut transversely.
    M^1. Basket-cells.
    ZK. Basket-work around the cells of Purkinje.
    GL. Neuroglial cell.
    N. Axon of an association cell.]

  The cortex (see fig. 7) consists of a thin layer of grey material
  forming an outer coat of somewhat varying thickness over the whole
  external surface of the laminae of the organ. When examined
  microscopically it is found to be made up of two layers, an outer
  "molecular" and an inner "granular" layer. Forming a layer lying at
  the junction of these two are a number of cells, the _cells of
  Purkinje_, which constitute the most characteristic feature of the
  cerebellum. The bodies of these cells are pear-shaped. Their inner
  ends taper and finally end in a nerve fibre which may be traced into
  the white centre. In their course through the granule layer they give
  off a number of branching collaterals, some turning back and passing
  between the cells of Purkinje into the molecular layer. Their inner
  ends terminate in one or sometimes two stout processes which
  repeatedly branch dichotomously, thus forming a very elaborate dendron
  in the molecular layer. The branchings of this dendron are also highly
  characteristic in that they are approximately restricted to a single
  plane like an espalier fruit tree, and those for neighbouring cells
  are all parallel to one another and at right angles to the general
  direction of the folium to which they belong. In the molecular layer
  are found two types of cells. The most abundant are the so-called
  _basket cells_ which are distributed through the whole thickness of
  the layer. They have a rounded body giving off many branching dendrons
  to their immediate neighbourhood and one long neuraxon which runs
  parallel to the surface and to the long axis of the lamina. In its
  course, this gives off numerous collaterals which run downward to the
  bodies of Purkinje's cells. Their terminal branchings together with
  similar terminals of other collaterals form the basket-work around the
  bodies of these cells.

  The granular layer is sometimes termed the rust-coloured layer from
  its appearance to the naked eye. It contains two types of nerve cells,
  the small granule cells and the large granule cells. The former are
  the more numerous. They give off a number of short dendrites with
  claw-like endings, and a fine non-medullated neuraxon process. This
  runs upward to the cortex, where it divides into two branches in the
  form of a T. The branches run for some distance parallel to the axis
  of the folium and terminate in unbranched ends. The large granule
  cells are multipolar cells, many of the branchings penetrating well
  into the molecular layer. The neuraxon process turns into the opposite
  direction and forms a richly branching system through the entire
  thickness of the granular layer. There is also an abundant plexus of
  fine medullated fibres within the granule layer.

  The fibres of the white central matter are partly centrifugal, the
  neuraxons of the cells of Purkinje, and partly centripetal. The
  position of the cells of these latter fibres is not known. The fibres
  give rise to an abundant plexus of fibrils in the granular layer, and
  many reaching into the molecular layer ramify there, especially in the
  immediate neighbourhood of the dendrites of Purkinje's cells. From the
  appearance of their plexus of fibrils these are sometimes called _moss
  fibres_.

  The _Fourth Ventricle_ is the dilated upper end of the central canal
  of the medulla oblongata. Its shape is like an heraldic lozenge. Its
  floor is formed by the grey matter of the posterior surfaces of the
  medulla oblongata and pons, already described (see figs. 3 and 6); its
  roof partly by the inferior vermis of the cerebellum, the _nodule_ of
  which projects into its cavity, and partly by a thin layer, called
  _valve of Vieussens_, or superior _medullary velum_; its lower lateral
  boundaries by the divergent clavae and restiform bodies; its upper
  lateral boundaries by the superior peduncles of the cerebellum. The
  _inferior medullary velum_, a reflection of the pia mater and
  epithelium from the back of the medulla to the inferior vermis, closes
  it in below. Above, it communicates with the _aqueduct of Sylvius_,
  which is tunnelled below the substance of the corpora quadrigemina.
  Along the centre of the floor is the median furrow, which terminates
  below in a pen-shaped form, the so-called _calamus scriptorius._
  Situated on its floor are the fasciculi teretes, striae acusticae, and
  deposits of grey matter described in connexion with the medulla
  oblongata. Its epithelial lining is continuous with that of the
  central canal.


  _The Cerebrum._

  The _Cerebrum_ or GREAT BRAIN lies above the plane of the tentorium,
  and forms much the largest division of the encephalon. It is customary
  in human anatomy to include under the name of cerebrum, not only the
  convolutions, the corpora striata, and the optic thalami, developed in
  the anterior cerebral vesicle, but also the corpora quadrigemina and
  crura cerebri developed in the mesencephalon or middle cerebral
  vesicle. The cerebrum is ovoid in shape, and presents superiorly,
  anteriorly and posteriorly a deep _median longitudinal fissure_, which
  subdivides it into two hemispheres. Inferiorly there is a continuity
  of structure between the two hemispheres across the mesial plane, and
  if the two hemispheres be drawn asunder by opening out the
  longitudinal fissure, a broad white band, the _corpus callosum_, may
  be seen at the bottom of the fissure passing across the mesial plane
  from one hemisphere to the other. The outer surface of each hemisphere
  is convex, and adapted in shape to the concavity of the inner table of
  the cranial bones; its inner surface, which bounds the longitudinal
  fissure, is flat and is separated from the opposite hemisphere by the
  falx cerebri; its under surface, where it rests on the tentorium, is
  concave, and is separated by that membrane from the cerebellum and
  pons. From the front of the pons two strong white bands, the _crura
  cerebri_ or _cerebral peduncles_, pass forward and upward (see fig.
  2). Winding round the outer side of each crus is a flat white band,
  the _optic tract_. These tracts converge in front, and join to form
  the _optic commissure_, from which the two _optic nerves_ arise. The
  crura cerebri, optic tracts, and optic commissure enclose a
  lozenge-shaped space, which includes--(a) a grey layer, which, from
  being perforated by several small arteries, is called _locus
  perforatus posticus_; (b) two white mammillae, the _corpora
  albicantia_; (c) a grey nodule, the _tuber cinereum_, from which (d)
  the _infundibulum_ projects to join the _pituitary body_. Immediately
  in front of the optic commissure is a grey layer, the _lamina cinerea_
  of the third ventricle; and between the optic commissure and the inner
  end of each Sylvian fissure is a grey spot perforated by small
  arteries, the _locus perforatus anticus_.

  If a transverse section is made at right angles to the surface of the
  crura cerebri it will pass right through the mesencephalon and come
  out on the dorsal side through the corpora quadrigemina (see fig. 8).
  The ventral part of each crus forms the crusta, which is the
  continuation forward of the anterior pyramidal fibres of the medulla
  and pons, and is the great motor path from the brain to the cord.
  Dorsal to this is a layer of pigmented grey matter, called the
  _substantia nigra_, and dorsal to this again is the tegmentum, which
  is a continuation upward of the formatio reticularis of the medulla,
  and passing through it are seen three important nerve bundles. The
  superior cerebellar peduncle is the most internal of these and
  decussates with its fellow of the opposite side so that the two
  tegmenta are continuous across the middle line. More externally the
  mesial fillet is seen, while dorsal to the cerebellar peduncle is the
  posterior longitudinal bundle. If the section happens to pass through
  the superior corpus quadrigeminum a characteristic circular area
  appears between the cerebellar peduncle and the fillet, which, from
  its tint, is called the red nucleus. More dorsally still the section
  will pass through the Sylvian aqueduct or passage from the third to
  the fourth ventricle, and this is surrounded by a mass of grey matter
  in the ventral part of which are the nuclei of the third and fourth
  nerves. The third nerve is seen at the level of the superior corpus
  quadrigeminum running from its nucleus of origin, through the red
  nucleus, to a groove on the inner side of the crus called the
  _oculo-motor_ groove, which marks the separation between the crusta
  and tegmentum. Dorsal to the Sylvian aqueduct is a layer called the
  _lamina quadrigemina_ and on this the corpora quadrigemina rest. The
  superior pair of these bodies is overlapped by the pineal body and
  forms part of the lower visual centres. Connexions can be traced to
  the optic tract, the higher visual centre on the mesial surface of the
  occipital lobe, the deep origin of the third or oculo-motor nerve as
  well as to the mesial and lateral fillet. The inferior pair of
  quadrigeminal bodies are more closely in touch with the organs of
  hearing, and are connected by the lateral fillet with the cochlear
  nucleus of the auditory nerve.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 8.--Transverse Section through the Human Mesencephalon at the
  level of the superior Quadrigeminal Body.]


  _Surface of the Brain._

  The peripheral part of each hemisphere, which consists of grey matter,
  exhibits a characteristic folded appearance, known as gyri (or
  convolutions) of the cerebrum. These gyri are separated from each
  other by _fissures_ and _sulci_, some of which are considered to
  subdivide the hemisphere into lobes, whilst others separate the gyri
  in each lobe from each other. In each hemisphere of the human brain
  five lobes are recognized: the temporo-sphenoidal, frontal, parietal,
  occipital, and the central lobe or Island of Reil; it should, however,
  be realized that these lobes do not exactly correspond to the outlines
  of the bones after which they are named. Passing obliquely on the
  outer face of the hemisphere from before, upward and backward, is the
  well marked _Sylvian fissure_ (fig. 9, s), which is the first to
  appear in the development of the hemisphere. Below it lies the
  temporo-sphenoidal lobe, and above and in front of it, the parietal
  and frontal lobes. As soon as it appears on the external surface of
  the brain the fissure divides into three limbs, anterior horizontal
  (s^1), ascending (s^2), and posterior horizontal (s^3), the latter
  being by far the longest. The place whence these diverge is the
  Sylvian point and corresponds to the pterion on the surface of the
  skull (see ANATOMY: _Superficial and Artistic_). Between these three
  limbs and the vallecula or main stem of the fissure are four
  triangular tongues or opercula; these are named, according to their
  position, orbital (fig. 9, C), frontal (pars triangularis) (B),
  fronto-parietal (pars basilaris) (A) and temporal. The frontal lobe is
  separated from the parietal by the _fissure of Rolando_ (fig. 9, r)
  which extends on the outer face of the hemisphere from the
  longitudinal fissure obliquely downward and forward towards the
  Sylvian fissure. About 2 in. from the hinder end of the hemisphere is
  the _parieto-occipital fissure_, which, commencing at the longitudinal
  fissure, passes down the inner surface of the hemisphere, and
  transversely outwards for a short distance on the outer surface of the
  hemisphere; it separates the parietal and occipital lobes from each
  other.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 9.--Gyri and Sulci, on the outer surface of the Cerebral
  Hemisphere.

    f^1, Sulcus frontalis superior.
    f^2, Sulcus frontalis inferior.
    f.m, Sulcus frontalis medius.
    p.m, Sulcus paramedialis.
    A, Pars basilaris.
    B, Pars triangularis.
    C, Pars orbitalis.
    S, Sylvian fissure.
    s^1, Anterior horizontal limb (Sylvian fissure).
    s^2, Ascending limb (Sylvian fissure).
    s^3. Posterior horizontal limb (Sylvian fissure).
    s.asc, Ascending terminal part of the posterior horizontal limb of
       the Sylvianfissure.
    p.c.i, Inferior praecentral sulcus.
    p.c.s, Superior praecentral sulcus.
    r, Fissure of Rolando.
    g.s, Superior genu.
    g.i, Inferior genu.
    d, Sulcus diagonalis.
    t^1, Superior temporal sulcus (parallel sulcus).
    t^2, Inferior temporal sulcus.
    p^1, Inferior postcentral sulcus.
    p^2, Superior postcentral sulcus.
    p^3, Ramus horizontalis.
    p^4, Ramus occipitalis.
    s.o.t, Sulcus occipitalis transversus.
    occ. lat, Sulcus occipitalis lateralis (the sulcus lunatus of Elliot
       Smith).
    c.m, Calloso-marginal sulcus.
    c.t.r, Inferior transverse furrow.]

  The _Temporo-Sphenoidal Lobe_ presents on the outer surface of the
  hemisphere three convolutions, arranged in parallel _tiers_ from above
  downward, and named _superior, middle and inferior temporal_ gyri. The
  fissure which separates the superior and middle of these convolutions
  is called the _parallel fissure_ (fig. 9, t^1). The _Occipital Lobe_
  also consists from above downwards of three parallel gyri, named
  _superior, middle and inferior occipital_. The _Frontal Lobe_ is more
  complex; immediately in front of the fissure of Rolando, and forming
  indeed its anterior boundary, is a convolution named _ascending
  frontal_ or pre-central, which ascends obliquely backward and upward
  from the Sylvian to the longitudinal fissure. Springing from the front
  of this gyrus, and passing forward to the anterior end of the
  cerebrum, are three gyri, arranged in parallel _tiers_ from above
  downwards, and named _superior, middle and inferior frontal_ gyri,
  which are also prolonged on to the orbital face of the frontal lobe.
  The _Parietal Lobe_ is also complex; its most anterior gyrus, named
  _ascending parietal_ or post-central, ascends parallel to and
  immediately behind the fissure of Rolando. Springing from the upper
  end of the back of this gyrus is the supra-parietal lobule, which,
  forming the boundary of the longitudinal fissure, extends as far back
  as the parieto-occipital fissure; springing from the lower end of the
  back of this gyrus is the _supra-marginal_, which forms the upper
  boundary of the hinder part of the Sylvian fissure; as this gyrus
  occupies the hollow in the parietal bone, which corresponds to the
  eminence, it may appropriately be named the _gyrus_ of the _parietal
  eminence_. Above and behind the gyrus of the parietal eminence is the
  _angular gyrus_, which bends round the posterior extremity of the
  parallel fissure, while arching over the hinder end of the inferior
  temporo-sphenoidal sulcus is the post-parietal gyrus. Lying in the
  parietal lobe is the _intra-parietal_ fissure (fig. 9, p^3 and p^4),
  which separates the gyrus of the parietal eminence from the
  supra-parietal lobule.

  The _Central Lobe_ of the hemisphere, more usually called the _insula_
  or _island of Reil_, does not come to the surface of the hemisphere,
  but lies deeply within the Sylvian fissure, the opercula forming the
  margin of which, conceal it. It consists of four or five short gyri,
  which radiate from the _locus perforatus anticus_, situated at the
  inner end of the fissure. This lobe is almost entirely surrounded by a
  deep sulcus called the limiting sulcus of Reil, which insulates it
  from the adjacent gyri. It lies opposite the upper part of the
  ali-sphenoid, where it articulates with the parietal and
  squamous-temporal.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Orbital surface of the left frontal lobe and
  the island of Reil; the tip of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe has been
  removed to display the latter.

    17. Convolution of the margin of the longitudinal fissure.
    O. Olfactory fissure, over which the olfactory peduncle and lobe are
       situated.
    TR. Orbital sulcus.
    1" 1"'. Convolutions on the orbital suface.
    1,1,1,1. Under surface of infero-frontal convolution.
    4. Under surface of ascending frontal; and 5, of ascending parietal
       convolutions.
    C. Central lobe or insula.]

  In front of the central lobe, on the base of the brain, are the
  _orbital gyri_, which are separated from one another by the _orbital
  sulcus_. This is usually H-shaped, and the gyri are therefore
  anterior, posterior, external and internal. Bisecting the internal
  orbital gyrus is an antero-posteripr sulcus (_s. rectus_), beneath
  which lies the olfactory lobe, bulbous in front, for the olfactory
  nerves to arise from.

  On the mesial surface of the hemisphere, as seen when the brain is
  longitudinally bisected and the cerebellum and medulla removed by
  cutting through the crus cerebri (see fig. 11), the divided corpus
  callosum is the most central object, while below it are seen the
  fornix, septum lucidum and third ventricle, the description of which
  will follow. The cerebral surface, above and in front of the corpus
  callosum, is divided into two by a sulcus, the contour of which
  closely resembles that of the upper margin of the corpus callosum.
  This is the _calloso-marginal sulcus_, so called because it separates
  the callosal gyrus, which lies between it and the corpus callosum,
  from the marginal gyri nearer the margin of the brain. When the sulcus
  reaches a point vertically above the hind end of the corpus callosum
  it turns sharply upward and so forms the hinder limit of the marginal
  gyri, the posterior inch or two of which is more or less distinctly
  marked off to form the _paracentral lobule_, where the upper part of
  the central fissure of Rolando turns over the margin of the brain. The
  callosal gyrus, which is also called the gyrus fornicatus from its
  arched appearance, is continued backward round the posterior end of
  the corpus callosum, and so to the mesial surface of the temporal
  lobe. Behind the upturned end of the calloso-marginal sulcus there is
  a square area which is called the _precuneus_ or _quadrate lobe_; it
  is bounded behind by the deeply cut internal parieto-occipital fissure
  and this runs from the margin of the brain downward and forward to
  join another fissure, the calcarine, at an acute angle, thus enclosing
  a wedge-shaped piece of brain called the _cuneus_ between them. The
  _calcarine_ fissure is fairly horizontal, and is joined about its
  middle by the internal parieto-occipital, so that the part in front
  of the junction is called the _pre-calcarine_, and that behind the
  _post-calcarine_ fissure. The internal parieto-occipital and calcarine
  are real fissures, because they cause an elevation in the interior of
  the brain, known as the hippocampus minor. Just in front of the
  anterior end of the calcarine fissure the callosal gyrus is
  constricted to form the isthmus which connects it with the hippocampal
  or uncinate gyrus. Below the calcarine fissure is a gyrus called the
  _gyrus lingualis_, and this is bounded below by another true fissure,
  the _collateral_, which runs parallel to the calcarine, but is
  continued much farther forward into the temporal lobe and so forms the
  lower boundary of the hippocampal gyrus. It will thus be seen that the
  hippocampal gyrus is continuous posteriorly with the callosal gyrus
  above by means of the isthmus, and with the gyrus lingualis below. The
  hippocampal gyrus is bounded above by the dentate or hippocampal
  fissure which causes the hippocampus major in the descending cornu and
  so is a complete fissure. If its lips are separated the fascia dentata
  or gyrus dentatus and the fimbria continued from the posterior pillar
  of the fornix are seen. Anteriorly the fissure is arrested by the
  recurved process of the upper part of the hippocampal gyrus, called
  the _uncus_, and in front of this a slight sulcus, the _incisura
  temporalis_, marks off the temporal pole or tip of the temporal lobe
  from the region of the uncus. It will be seen that the callosal gyrus,
  isthmus, and hippocampal gyrus form nearly a complete ring, and to
  this the name of _limbic lobe_ is given.


  _Interior of the Cerebrum._

  If a horizontal slice be removed from the upper part of each
  hemisphere (see fig. 12), the peripheral grey matter of the gyri will
  be seen to follow their various windings, whilst the core of each
  gyrus consists of white matter continuous with a mass of white matter
  in the interior of the hemisphere. If a deeper slice be now made down
  to the plane of the corpus callosum, the white matter of that
  structure will be seen to be continuous with the white centre of each
  hemisphere known as the centrum ovale. The _corpus callosum_ does not
  equal the hemispheres in length, but approaches nearer to their
  anterior than their posterior ends. It terminates behind in a free
  rounded end, named the splenium (see fig. 11), whilst in front it
  forms a knee-shaped bend, and passes downwards and backwards as far as
  the lamina cinerea. If the dissection be performed on a brain which
  has been hardened in spirit, the corpus callosum is seen to consist
  almost entirely of bundles of nerve fibres, passing transversely
  across the mesial plane between the two hemispheres; these fibres may
  be traced into the white cores and grey matter of the gyri, and
  connect the gyri, though by no means always corresponding ones, in the
  opposite hemispheres. Hence the corpus callosum is a connecting or
  commissural structure, which brings the gyri of the two hemispheres
  into anatomical and physiological relation with each other. On the
  surface of the corpus callosum a few fibres, the _striae
  longitudinales_, run in the antero-posterior or longitudinal direction
  (see fig. 12, b). Their morphological interest is referred to in the
  section below on _Comparative Anatomy_. In the sulcus between the
  corpus callosum and the limbic lobe a narrow band of fibres called the
  _cingulum_ is seen, most of its fibres only run a short distance in it
  and link together adjacent parts of the brain. If the corpus callosum
  be now cut through on each side of its mesial line, the large cavity
  or _lateral ventricle_ in each hemisphere will be opened into.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-The book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 11.--The Gyri and Sulci on the Mesial Aspect of the Cerebral
  Hemisphere, r, Fissure of Rolando. r, o, Rostral sulcus. i, t,
  Incisura temporalis.]

  The lateral ventricle is subdivided into a _central space_ or body,
  and three bent prolongations or _cornua_; the _anterior cornu_ extends
  forward, outward and downward into the frontal lobe; the _posterior
  cornu_ curves backward, outward and inward into the occipital lobe;
  the _descending cornu_ curves backward, outward, downward, forward
  and inward, behind and below the optic thalamus into the
  temporo-sphenoidal lobe. On the floor of the central space may be seen
  from before backward the grey upper surface of the pear-shaped caudate
  nucleus of the _corpus striatum_ (figs. 12 and 13, f), and to its
  inner and posterior part a small portion of the _optic thalamus_,
  whilst between the two is the curved flat band, the _taenia
  semicircularis_ (figs. 12 and 13, g). Resting on the upper surface of
  the thalamus is the vascular fringe of the velum interpositum, named
  _choroid plexus_, and immediately internal to this fringe is the free
  edge of the white _posterior pillar of the fornix_. The anterior cornu
  has the anterior end of the corpus striatum projecting into it. The
  posterior cornu has an elevation on its floor, the _hippocampus minor_
  (fig. 12, n), and between this cornu and the descending cornu is the
  elevation called _eminentia collateralis_, formed by the collateral
  fissure (fig. 12, o).

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--To show the Right Ventricle and the left half
  of the Corpus Callosum.

    a, Transverse fibres, and
    b, Longitudinal fibres of corpus callosum.
    c, Anterior, and
    d, Posterior cornua of lateral ventricle.
    e, Septum lucidum.
    f, Corpus striatum.
    g, Taenia semicircularis.
    h, Optic thalamus.
    k, Choroid plexus.
    l, Taenia hippocampi.
    m, Hippocampus major.
    n, Hippocampus minor.
    o, Eminentia collateralis.]

  Extending down the descending cornu and following its curvature is the
  _hippocampus major_, which terminates below in a nodular end, the _pes
  hippocampi_; on its inner border is the white _taenia hippocampi_,
  continuous above with the posterior pillar of the fornix. If the
  taenia be drawn to one side the hippocampal fissure is exposed, at the
  bottom of which the grey matter of the gyrus hippocampi may be seen to
  form a well-defined dentated border (the so-called _fascia dentala_).
  The choroid plexus of the pia mater turns round the gyrus hippocampi,
  and enters the descending cornu through the lateral part of the great
  transverse fissure between the taenia hippocampi and optic thalamus.
  The lateral ventricle is lined by a ciliated epithelium called the
  _ependyma._ This lining is continuous through the foramen of Monro
  with that of the third ventricle, which again is continuous with the
  lining of the fourth ventricle through the aqueduct of Sylvius. A
  little fluid is contained in the cerebral ventricles, which, under
  some pathological conditions, may increase greatly in quantity, so as
  to occasion considerable dilatation of the ventricular cavities.

  If the corpus callosum be now divided about its middle by a transverse
  incision, and the posterior half of this structure be turned back (see
  fig. 13), the body of the fornix on which the corpus callosum rests is
  exposed. If the anterior half of the corpus callosum be now turned
  forward, the grey partition, or _septum lucidum_, between the two
  lateral ventricles is exposed. This septum fits into the interval
  between the under surface of the corpus callosum and the upper surface
  of the anterior part of the fornix. It consists of two layers of grey
  matter, between which is a narrow vertical mesial space, the _fifth
  ventricle_ (fig. 13, e), and this space does not communicate with the
  other ventricles nor is it lined with ependyma. If the septum be now
  removed, the anterior part of the fornix is brought into view.

  The _fornix_ is an arch-shaped band of nerve fibres extending in the
  antero-posterior direction. Its anterior end forms the _anterior_
  pillars of the arch, its posterior end the _posterior pillars_, whilst
  the intermediate _body_ of the fornix forms the crown of the arch. It
  consists of two lateral halves, one belonging to each hemisphere. At
  the summit of the arch the two lateral halves are joined to form the
  _body_; but in front the two halves separate from each other, and form
  two anterior pillars, which descend in front of the third ventricle to
  the base of the cerebrum, where they form the _corpora albicantia_,
  and from these some white fibres called the bundle of Vicq d'Azyr
  ascend to the optic thalamus (see fig. 11). Behind the body the two
  halves diverge much more from each other, and form the posterior
  pillars, in the triangular interval between which is a thin lamina of
  commissural fibres called the _lyra_ (fig. 13, a). Each posterior
  pillar curves downward and outward into the descending cornu of the
  ventricle, and, under the name of _taenia hippocampi_, forms the
  mesial free border of the hippocampus major (fig. 13, l). Eventually
  it ends in the substance of the hippocampus and in the uncus of the
  temporal lobe. If the body of the fornix be now divided by a
  transverse incision, its anterior part thrown forward, and its
  posterior part backward, the great transverse fissure of the cerebrum
  is opened into, and the velum interpositum lying in that fissure is
  exposed.

  The _velum interpositum_ is an expanded fold of pia mater, which
  passes into the anterior of the hemispheres through the great
  transverse fissure. It is triangular in shape; its base is a line with
  the posterior end of the corpus callosum, where it is continuous with
  the external pia mater; its lateral margins are fringed by the choroid
  plexuses, which are seen in the bodies and descending cornua of the
  lateral ventricles, where they are invested by the endothelial lining
  of those cavities. Its apex, where the two choroid plexuses blend with
  each other, lies just behind the anterior pillars of the fornix. The
  interval between the apex and these pillars is the aperture of
  communication between the two lateral ventricles and the third,
  already referred to as the foramen of Monro. The choroid plexuses
  contain the small _choroidal arteries_; and the blood from these is
  returned by small veins, which join to form the _veins of Galen._
  These veins pass along the centre of the velum, and, as is shown in
  fig. 1, open into the straight sinus. If the velum interpositum be now
  carefully raised from before backward, the optic thalami, third
  ventricle, pineal body and corpora quadrigemina are exposed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--A deeper dissection of the Lateral Ventricle,
  and of the Velum Interpositum.

    a, Lyra, turned back.
    b, b, Posterior pillars of the fornix, turned back.
    c, c, Anterior pillars of the fornix.
    d, Velum interpositum and veins of Galen.
    e, Fifth ventricle.
    f, f, Corpus striatum.
    g, g, Taenia semicircularis.
    h, h, Optic thalamus.
    k, Choroid plexus.
    l, Taenia hippocampi.
    m, Hippocampus major in descending cornu.
    n, Hippocampus minor.
    o, Eminentia collateralis.]

  The _optic thalamus_ is a large, somewhat ovoid body situated behind
  the corpus striatum, and above the crus cerebri. Its upper surface is
  partly seen in the floor of the body of the lateral ventricle, but is
  for the most part covered by the fornix and velum interpositum. Its
  postero-inferior surface forms the roof of the descending cornu of
  the ventricle, whilst its inner surface forms the side wall of the
  third ventricle. At its outer and posterior part are two slight
  elevations, in close relation to the optic tract, and named
  respectively corpus geniculatum internum and externum.

  The posterior knob-like extremity of the thalamus is called the
  _pulvinar_; this, as well as the two corpora geniculata and the
  superior corpus quadrigeminum, is connected with the optic tract.

  The _third ventricle_ (see fig. 6) is a cavity situated in the mesial
  plane between the two optic thalami. Its roof is formed by the velum
  interpositum and body of the fornix; its floor by the posterior
  perforated space, corpora albicantia, tuber cinereum, infundibulum,
  and optic commissure; its anterior boundary by the anterior pillars of
  the fornix, anterior commissure and lamina cinerea; its posterior
  boundary by the corpora quadrigemina and posterior commissure. The
  cavity of this ventricle is of small size in the living head, for the
  inner surfaces of the two thalami are connected together by
  intermediate grey matter, named the _middle_ or _soft commissure_.
  Immediately in front of the corpora quadrigemina, the white fibres of
  the _posterior commissure_ pass across between the two optic thalami.
  If the anterior pillars of the fornix be separated from each other,
  the white fibres of the _anterior commissure_ may be seen lying in
  front of them.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  FIG. 14.--Horizontal Section through the Right Cerebral Hemisphere at
  the Level of the Widest Part of the Lenticular Nucleus.]

  The _pineal body_ is a reddish cone-shaped body situated upon the
  anterior pair of the corpora quadrigemina (see figs. 3 and 6). From
  its broad anterior end two white bands, the _peduncles_ of the _pineal
  body_, pass forward, one on the inner side of each optic thalamus.
  Each peduncle joins, along with the taenia semicircularis, the
  anterior pillar of the fornix of its own side. In its structure this
  body consists of tubular gland tissue containing gritty calcareous
  particles, constituting the _brain sand_. Its morphology will be
  referred to later.

  A general idea of the internal structure of the brain is best obtained
  by studying a horizontal section made just below the level of the
  Sylvian point and just above the great transverse fissure (see fig.
  14). Such a section will cut the corpus callosum anteriorly at the
  genu and posteriorly at the splenium, but the body is above the plane
  of section. Behind the genu the fifth ventricle is cut, and behind
  that the two pillars of the fornix which here form the anterior
  boundary of the third ventricle. At the posterior end of this is the
  pineal body, which the section has just escaped. To the outer side of
  the fornix is seen the foramen of Munro, leading into the front of the
  body and anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. It will be seen that
  the lateral boundary of this horn is the cut caudate nucleus of the
  corpus striatum, while the lateral boundary of the third ventricle is
  the cut optic thalamus, both of which bodies have been already
  described, but external to these is a third triangular grey mass, with
  its apex directed inward, which cannot be seen except in a section.
  This is the lenticular nucleus of the corpus striatum, the inner or
  apical half of which is of a light colour and is called the _globus
  pallidus_, while the basal half is reader and is known as the
  _putamen._ External to the putamen is a long narrow strip of grey
  matter called the _claustrum_, which is sometimes regarded as a third
  nucleus of the corpus striatum. These masses of grey matter, taken
  together, are the basal nuclei of the brain. Internal to the
  lenticular nucleus, and between it and the caudate nucleus in front
  and the thalamus behind, is the _internal capsule_, through which run
  most of the fibres connecting the cerebral cortex with the crus
  cerebri. The capsule adapts itself to the contour of the lenticular
  nucleus and has an anterior limb, a bend or genu, and a posterior
  limb. Just behind the genu of the internal capsule is a very important
  region, for here the great motor tract from the Rolandic region of the
  cortex passes on its way to the crusta and spinal cord. Besides this
  there are fibres passing from the cortex to the deep origins of the
  facial and hypo-glossal nerves. Behind the motor tracts are the
  sensory, including the fillet, the superior cerebellar peduncle and
  the inferior quadrigeminal tract, while quite at the back of the
  capsule are found the auditory and optic radiations linking up the
  higher (cortical) and lower auditory and visual centres. Between the
  putamen and the claustrum is the _external capsule_, which is smaller
  and of less importance than the internal, while on the lateral side of
  the claustrum is the white and then the grey matter of the central
  lobe. As the fibres of the internal capsule run up toward the cortex
  they decussate with the transverse fibres of the corpus callosum and
  spread out to form the _corona radiata._ It has only been possible to
  deal with a few of the more important bundles of fibres here, but it
  should be mentioned that much of the white matter of the brain is
  formed of association fibres which link up different cortical areas,
  and which become medullated and functional after birth.


  _Weight of the Brain._

  This has been the subject of a great deal of research, but the results
  are not altogether conclusive; it seems, however, that, although the
  male brain is 4 to 5 oz. heavier than that of the female, its relative
  weight to that of the body is about the same in the two sexes. An
  average male brain weighs about 48 oz. and a female 43½ oz. The
  greatest absolute weight is found between twenty-five and thirty-five
  years of age in the male and a little later in the female. At birth
  the brain weighs comparatively much more than it does later on, its
  proportion to the body weight being about 1 to 6. At the tenth year it
  is about 1 to 14, at the twentieth 1 to 30, and after that about 1 to
  36.5. In old age there is a further slight decrease in proportion. In
  many men of great intellectual eminence the brain weight has been
  large--Cuvier's brain weighed 64½ oz., Goodsir's 57½, for
  instance--but the exceptions are numerous. Brains over 60 oz. in
  weight are frequently found in quite undistinguished people, and even
  in idiots 60 oz. has been recorded. On the other hand, microcephalic
  idiots may have a brain as low as 10 or even 8½ oz., but it is
  doubtful whether normal intelligence is possible with a brain weighing
  less than 32 oz. The taller the individual the greater is his brain
  weight, but short people have proportionally heavier brains than tall.
  The weight of the cerebellum is usually one-eighth of that of the
  entire brain. Attempts have been made to estimate the surface area of
  the grey matter by dissecting it off and measuring it, and also by
  covering it with gold leaf and measuring that. The results, however,
  have not been conclusive.

  Further details of the brain, abundantly illustrated, will be found in
  the later editions of any of the standard text-books on anatomy,
  references to which will be found in the article on ANATOMY: _Modern
  Human. Das Menschenhirn_, by G. Retzius (Stockholm, 1896), and
  numerous recent memoirs by G. Elliot Smith and D.J. Cunningham in the
  _Journ. Anat. and Phys._ and _Anatomisch Anzeig._, may be consulted.


  _Histology of Cerebral Cortex._

  The cerebral cortex (see fig. 15) consists of a continuous sheet of
  grey matter completely enveloping the white matter of the hemispheres.
  It varies in thickness in different parts, and becomes thinner in old
  age, but all parts show a somewhat similar microscopic structure.
  Thus, in vertical section, the following layers may be made out:--

  1. _The Molecular Layer (Stratum zonale)._--This is made up of a large
  number of fine nerve branchings both medullated and non-medullated.
  The whole forms a close network, the fibres of which run chiefly a
  tangential course. The cells of this layer are the so-called _cells of
  Cajal_. They possess an irregular body, giving off 4 or 5 dendrites,
  which terminate within the molecular layer and a long nerve fibre
  process or neuraxon which runs parallel to the surface of the
  convolution.

  2. _The Layer of small Pyramidal Cells._--The typical cells of this
  layer are pyramid-shaped, the apices of the pyramids being directed
  towards the surface. The apex terminates in a dendron which reaches
  into the molecular layer, giving off several collateral horizontal
  branches in its course. The final branches in the molecular layer take
  a direction parallel to the surface. Smaller dendrites arise from the
  lateral and basal surfaces of these cells, but do not extend far from
  the body of the cell. The neuraxon always arises from the base of the
  cell and passes towards the central white matter, thus forming one of
  the nerve-fibres of that substance. In its path it gives off a number
  of collaterals at right angles, which are distributed to the adjacent
  grey matter.

  [Illustration: From Cunningham, _Text-book of Anatomy_.

  Fig. 15.--Diagram to illustrate Minute Structure of the Cerebral
  Cortex.

    A. Neuroglia cells.
    B.    "        "
    C. Cell with short axon (N) which breaks up in a free arborization.
    D. Spindle-shaped cell in stratum zonale.
    E. Small pyramidal cell.
    F. Large pyramidal cell.
    G. Cell of Martinotti.
    H. Polymorphic cell.
    K. Corticipetal fibres.]

  3. _The Layer of large Pyramidal Cells._--This is characterized by the
  presence of numbers of cells of the same type as those of the
  preceding layer, but of larger size. The nerve-fibre process becomes a
  medullated fibre of the white matter.

  4. _The Layer of Polymorphous Cells._--The cells of this layer are
  irregular in outline, and give off several dendrites branching into
  the surrounding grey matter. The neuraxon gives off a number of
  collaterals, and then becomes a nerve-fibre of the central white
  matter.

  Scattered through these three layers there are also a number of cells
  (_cells of Golgi_) whose neuraxon divides at once, the divisions
  terminating within the immediate vicinity of the cell-body. Some cells
  are also found in which the neuraxon, instead of running into the
  white matter of the brain, passes toward the surface; these are called
  _cells of Martinotti_.

  The medullated nerve-fibres of the white matter when traced into the
  cortex are seen to enter in bundles set vertically to the surface.
  These bundles taper and are resolved into isolated fibres in the upper
  parts of the pyramidal layers. The fibres constituting the bundles
  form two sets. (a) The centrifugal fibres consist as above described
  of the fibre processes of the pyramidal and polymorphous cells. (b)
  The centripetal fibres ascend through the cortex to terminate within
  the molecular layer by horizontally running branches. As they pass
  through they give off a number of collaterals. The position of the
  cells from which these fibres arise is not known. In addition to the
  radially arranged bundles of fibres, networks are formed by the
  interlacement with them of large numbers of fine medullated fibres
  running tangentially to the surface. These are derived chiefly from
  the collaterals of the pyramidal cells and of the centripetal fibres.
  They form two specially marked bundles, one within the layer of the
  polymorphous cells known as the _inner band of Baillarger_, and
  another in the layer of large pyramidal cells called the _outer band
  of Baillarger_. This latter is very thick in the calcarine region, and
  forms the _white stria of Gennin_, while the inner band is best seen
  in the precentral gyrus. As both these strands cross the already
  mentioned radial bundles at right angles, they are regarded as
  specialized parts of an _interradial reticulum_ of fibres, but, nearer
  the surface than the radial bundles penetrate, tangential fibres are
  found, and here they are called the _supraradial reticulum_. In
  certain parts of the brain the fibres of this reticulum are more
  closely set, and form the _band of Bechterew_ in the superficial part
  of the small pyramidal cell zone.

  [Illustration: From _The Museum Catalogue of the Royal College of
  Surgeons of England_.

  Fig. 16.--Brain of _Petromyzon marinus_ (dorsal view). A, Brain; B,
  choroid plexus removed.]

  For further information on the structure of the cerebral cortex, see
  A.W. Campbell, _Proc. R. Soc._ vols. lxxii. and lxxiv.


  _Comparative Anatomy._

  A useful introduction to the study of the vertebrate brain is that of
  the Amphioxus, one of the lowest of the Chordata or animals having a
  notochord. Here the brain is a very slightly modified part of the
  dorsal tubular nerve-cord, and, on the surface, shows no distinction
  from the rest of that cord. When a section is made the central canal
  is seen to be enlarged into a cavity, the neurocoele, which, in the
  young animal, communicates by an opening, the neuropore, with the
  bottom of the olfactory pit, and so with the exterior. More ventrally
  another slight diverticulum probably represents the infundibulum. The
  only trace of an eye is a patch of pigment at the anterior end of the
  brain, and there are no signs of any auditory apparatus. There are
  only two pairs of cerebral nerves, both of which are sensory (Willey,
  _Amphioxus_, 1894). In the Cyclostomata, of which the lamprey
  (Petromyzon) is an example, the minute brain is much more complex,
  though it is still only a very slight enlargement of the anterior end
  of the cord. The single cavity seen in Amphioxus is here subdivided
  into three: an anterior or prosencephalon, a middle or mesencephalon,
  and a hinder or rhombencephalon. The rhombencephalon has a very slight
  transverse thickening in the fore-part of its roof, this is the
  rudimentary cerebellum (_Cer._); the rest of this part of the brain is
  taken up by the large medulla, the cavity of which is the _fossa
  rhomboidalis_ or fourth ventricle. This fossa is roofed over by the
  epithelium lining the cavity of the ventricle, by pia mater and
  blood-vessels constituting a choroid plexus (fig. 16, B). The fourth
  ventricle communicates with the parts in front by means of a passage
  known as the aqueduct of Sylvius.

  The mesencephalon or mid-brain, when looked at from the dorsal
  surface, shows a pair of large hollow swellings, the optic lobes or
  _corpora bigemina_. Their cavities open out from the aqueduct of
  Sylvius, and from the nervous tissue in their walls the optic nerves
  derive their fibres. From the front of the prosencephalon or anterior
  vesicle the olfactory nerves come off, and at the base of each of
  these are two hollow swellings; the larger and more anterior is the
  olfactory bulb, the smaller and more posterior the cerebral
  hemisphere. Both these swellings must be regarded as lateral
  outgrowths from the blind front end of the original single vesicle of
  the brain as seen in Amphioxus, and from the anterior subdivision or
  prosencephalon in the lamprey. The anterior vesicle, however, is now
  again subdivided, and that part from which the cerebral hemispheres
  bud out, and the hemispheres themselves, is called the telencephalon,
  while the posterior part of the original prosencephalon is known as
  the thalamencephalon, or more rarely the diencephalon. On the dorsal
  surface of the thalamencephalon are two nervous masses called the
  ganglia habenulae; the right is much larger than the left, and from it
  a stalk runs forward and upward to end in the vestigial pineal body
  (or epiphysis), which contains rudiments of a pigmented retina and of
  a lens, and which is usually regarded as the remains of one of a pair
  of median eyes, though it has been suggested that it may be an organ
  for the appreciation of temperature. From the small left ganglion
  habenulae a still more rudimentary pineal stalk projects, and there
  are signs of a third outgrowth (paraphysis) in front of these. On the
  floor of the thalamencephalon the blind pouch-like infundibulum is in
  contact with the pituitary body, an outgrowth from the combined
  pituitary and olfactory pouch, which in the adult opens on to the top
  of the head just in front of the pineal area. The anterior closed end
  of the nerve-tube, in front of the foramina of Munro or openings from
  which the hemispheres have grown out, is known as the _lamina
  terminalis_, and in this is seen a little white commissure, connecting
  the hemispheres of opposite sides and belonging entirely to the
  telencephalon, known as the anterior commissure. The roof of the
  telencephalon is mainly epithelial, and contains no traces of cortical
  structure. In the posterior part of the roof of the thalamencephalon
  is the small posterior commissure (Ahlborn, _Zeits. wiss. Zool._ Bd.
  xxxix., 1883, p. 191). In the Elasmobranch Fish, such as the sharks
  and rays, the cerebellum (_Cer._ fig. 17) is very large and contains
  the layers found in all the higher vertebrates. In the mesencephalon
  fibres corresponding with those of the fillet of higher vertebrates
  can be seen, and there is a nucleus in the hinder part of the _corpora
  bigemina_ foreshadowing the separation into corpora quadrigemina.
  There is only one pineal stalk in the roof of the thalamencephalon,
  and the ganglia habenulae--very constant structures in the vertebrate
  brain--are not so marked as in Petromyzon, but are, as usual,
  connected with the olfactory parts of the cerebrum, with the surface
  of the optic lobes (_tectum opticum_), and with the _corpus
  interpedunculare_ (Meynert's bundle). They are united across the
  middle line by a small _superior_ or _habenular commissure_. In the
  floor of the thalamencephalon are two masses of ganglionic tissue, the
  optic thalami. The infundibulum dilates into two rounded bodies, the
  _lobi inferiores_, while the pituitary body or _hypophysis cerebri_
  has two lateral diverticula known as _sacci vasculosi_. Ganglia
  geniculata are found for the first time in connexion with the optic
  tracts in the lower part of the thalamus. The olfactory lobes (fig.
  17, _Olf. Bulb_) are very large and often separated by long stalks
  from the cerebral hemispheres, which are comparatively much larger
  than those of the Cyclostomata; their roof or pallium is nervous, but
  devoid of cortical structure, while in the floor in some species large
  anterior basal ganglia or _corpora striata_ are found
  (Miklucho-Maclay, _Beiträge z. vergl. Neurol._, 1870; Edinger, _Arch.
  mikr. Anat._ Bd. lviii., 1901, p. 661, "Cerebellum"). The Teleostean
  Fish are chiefly remarkable for the great development of the optic
  lobes and suppression of the olfactory apparatus. The pallium is
  non-nervous, and the optic tracts merely cross one another instead of
  forming a commissure. A process of the cerebellum called _valvula
  cerebelli_ projects into the cavity of each optic lobe (Rabl.
  Ruckhard, _Arch. Anat. u. Phys_., 1898, p. 345 [Pallium]; Haller,
  _Morph. Jahrb._ Bd. xxvi., 1898, p. 632 [Histology and Bibliography]).
  The brain of the Dipnoi, or mud fish, shows no very important
  developments, except that the anterior pineal organ or paraphysis is
  large (Saunders, _Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist._ ser. 6, vol. iii., 1889,
  p. 157; Burkhardt, _Centralnervensystem v. Protopterus_, Berlin,
  1892).

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 17.--Section of the Brain of Porbeagle Shark (_Lamna_).]

  In the Amphibia the brain is of a low type, the most marked advances
  on that of the fish being that the anterior commissure is divided into
  a dorsal and ventral part, of which the ventral is the true anterior
  commissure of higher vertebrates, while the dorsal is a hippocampal
  commissure and coincides in its appearance with the presence of a
  small mass of cells in the outer layer of the median wall of the
  pallium, which is probably the first indication of a hippocampal
  cortex or cortex of any kind (Osborn, _Journ. Morph._ vol. ii., 1889,
  p. 51).

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  Fig. 18.--Section of Brain of Turtle (_Chelone_).]

  In the Reptilia the medulla has a marked flexure with a ventral
  convexity, and an undoubted cerebral cortex for the first time makes
  its appearance. The mesial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is divided
  into a large dorsal hippocampal area (fig. 18, _Hip._) and a smaller
  ventral olfactory tubercle. Between these two a narrow area of
  ganglionic matter runs forward from the side of the _lamina
  terminalis_ and is known as the paraterminal or precommissural area
  (Elliot Smith, _Journ. Anat. and Phys._ vol. xxxii. p. 411). To the
  upper lateral part of the hemisphere Elliot Smith has given the name
  of _neopallium_, while the lower lateral part, imperfectly separated
  from it, is called the _pyriform lobe_. In the Lacertilia the pineal
  eye, if it be an eye, is better developed than in any existing
  vertebrate, though even in them there is no evidence of its being used
  for sight. Behind the so-called pineal eye and its stalk is the
  _epiphysis_ or pineal body, and sometimes there is a dorsal sac
  between them (see fig. 18).[1] The middle or soft commissure appears
  in certain reptiles (_Crocodilia_ and _Chelonia_), as does also the
  _corpus mammillare_ (Edinger, Senckenberg, _Naturf. Gesell._ Bd. xix.,
  1896, and Bd. xxii., 1899; Haller, _Morph. Jahrb._ Bd. xxviii., 1900,
  p. 252). Among the birds there is great unity of type, the cerebellum
  is large and, by its forward projection, presses the optic lobes down
  toward the ventro-lateral part of the brain. The cerebral hemispheres
  are also large, owing chiefly to the great size of the _corpora
  striata_, which already show a differentiation into caudate nucleus,
  putamen and globus pallidus. The pallium is reptilian in character,
  though its cortical area is more extensive. The geniculate bodies are
  very large (Bumm, _Zeits. wiss. Zool._ Bd. xxxviii., 1883, p. 430;
  Brandis, _Arch. mikr. Anat._ Bd. xli., 1893, p. 623, and xliii., 1894,
  p. 96, and xliv., 1895, p. 534; Boyce and Warrington, _Phil. Trans._
  vol. cxci., 1899, p. 293).

  Among the Mammalia the Monotremata have a cerebellum which shows, in
  addition to the central lobe of the lower vertebrates, a flocculus on
  each side, and the two halves of the cerebellum are united by a
  ventral commissure, the _pons varolii_. The pallium is reptilian in
  its arrangement, but that part of it which Elliot Smith has named the
  neopallium is very large, both in the Ornithorynchus and Echidna, a
  fact very difficult to account for. In the latter animal the cortical
  area is so extensive as to be thrown into many and deep sulci, and yet
  the Echidna is one of the lowliest of mammals in other respects. A
  well-marked rhinal fissure separates the pyriform lobe from the
  neopallium, while, on the mesial surface, the hippocampal fissure
  separates the neopallium from the hippocampal area. Just below the
  hippocampal fissure a specially coloured tract indicates the first
  appearance of the fascia dentata (see fig. 20). The anterior
  commissure is divided, as in reptiles, into dorsal and ventral parts,
  of which the latter is the larger (fig. 20, _Comm. V. and D_.), while
  just behind the dorsal part is the first appearance of the fimbria or
  fornix. In addition to the two fissures already named, there is, in
  the Echidna, one which in position and mode of formation corresponds
  with the Sylvian fissure of higher mammals. Elliot Smith, however,
  wisely refuses to homologize it absolutely with that fissure, and
  proposes the name of pseudosylvian for it. The pineal body is
  rudimentary, and the optic lobes are now, and throughout the Mammalia,
  subdivided into four _corpora quadrigemina_.

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 19.--Ventral and Dorsal Views of the Brain of Ornithorynchus.]

  Among the Marsupialia the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus) gives a very
  good idea of a generalized mammalian brain, and shows a large
  development of the parts concerned in the sense of smell. The most
  important advance on the monotreme brain is that the calcarine fissure
  has now appeared on the posterior part of the mesial surface and
  causes a bulging into the ventricle, called the _calcar avis_ or
  hippocampus minor, just as the hippocampal fissure causes the
  _hippocampus major_ (Gervais, _Nuov. Arch. Mus_. tom. v., 1869;
  Ziehen, _Jenaische Denkschr_. Bd. vi., 1897).

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 20.--Mesial and Lateral Views of the Brain of Ornithorynchus.]

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 2l.--Mesial and Lateral Views of the Brain of the Tasmanian Devil
  (_Sarcophilus_).]

  In the Eutheria or mammals above the marsupials, the cerebellum
  gradually becomes more complex, owing to the appearance of lateral
  lobes between the flocculus and the vermis, as well as the
  paraflocculus on the outer side of the flocculus. The corpus callosum
  now first appears as a bridge between the neopallia, and its
  development leads to the stretching of the hippocampal formation, so
  that in the higher mammals the hippocampus is only found in the lower
  and back part of the ventricle, while the rudiments of the dorsal part
  remain as the _striae longitudinals_ on the corpus callosum. The
  dorsal part of the original anterior commissure becomes the fornix,
  and the paraterminal area is modified to form the septum lucidum. The
  first appearance of the fissure of Rolando is probably in some of the
  Carnivora, in which, as the _sulcus crucialis_, it forms the posterior
  boundary of the "ursine lozenge" described by Mivart (_Journ. Linn.
  Soc_. vol. xix., 1886) (see fig. 22, _Sulc. Cru_.). In the higher apes
  or Anthropoidea the human fissures and sulci are largely recognizable,
  so that a gibbon's brain, apart from all question of comparative
  anatomy, forms a useful means of demonstrating to a junior class the
  main gyri and sulci of Man in a simple and diagrammatic way. The main
  points of difference, apart from greater simplicity, are that the
  central lobe or island of Reil is exposed on the surface of the brain,
  as it is in the human foetus, and that the anterior part of the
  occipital lobe has a well-marked vertical sulcus, called the simian
  sulcus or _Affenspalte_; this often has a semilunar shape with its
  convexity forward, and is then called the _sulcus lunatus_. It is
  usually concealed in European brains by the overgrowth of the
  surrounding gyri, but it occasionally remains, though less frequently
  than in the brains of Egyptian fellaheen. Its relation to the _white
  stria of Gennari_ is especially interesting, and is recorded by Elliot
  Smith in the _Anatomischer Anzeiger_, Bd. xxiv., 1904, p. 436. The
  rhinal fissure, which is so characteristic a feature of the lower
  mammals, almost disappears in Man, and is only represented by the
  _incisura temporalis_ (see fig. 11, _i.t_). The hippocampal fissure
  persists with little modification all through the mammalian class. The
  calcarine fissure remains with many modifications from the marsupials
  to man, and in view of the famous controversy of 1864, in which Owen,
  Huxley and the then bishop of Oxford took part, it is interesting to
  note that its hippocampus minor can now be clearly demonstrated, even
  in the Marsupialia. Another very ancient and stable sulcus is the
  _orbital_, which is a simple antero-posterior line until Man is
  reached (see fig. 23, _Sulc. Orb._). The great point of importance,
  however, in the evolution of the mammalian brain is the gradual
  suppression of the olfactory region, and the development of the
  neopallium, a development which takes a sudden stride between the
  Anthropoid apes and Man. (For further particulars of this and other
  points in the comparative anatomy of the brain, see _Catalogue of the
  Physiological Series_ of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons
  of England, vol. ii. 2nd ed., by R.H. Burne and G. Elliot Smith,
  London, 1902.)

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 22.--Dorsal and Lateral Views of the Brain of a Ratel (_Mellivora
  indica_).]


  _Embryology._

  The brain, like the rest of the nervous system, is developed from the
  ectoderm or outer layer of the embryo by the formation of a groove in
  the mid-dorsal line. The lips of this _medullary groove_ unite to form
  a canal beginning at the place where the neck of the embryo is to be.
  The part of the neural canal in front of the earliest union forms the
  brain and very early becomes constricted into three vesicles, to which
  the names of _prosencephalon_, _mesencephalon_ and _rhombencephalon_
  are now usually given. The simple tubular brain we have seen as a
  permanent arrangement in Amphioxus, but the stage of the three
  vesicles is a transitory one, and is not found in the adult of any
  existing animal. From the sides of the prosencephalon, the optic
  vesicles grow out before the neural tube is completely closed, and
  eventually form the optic nerves and retinae, while, soon after this,
  the cerebral hemispheres bulge from the antero-dorsal part of the
  first primary vesicle, their points of evagination being the _foramina
  of Munro_. From the ventral parts of these cerebral hemispheres the
  olfactory lobes are constricted off, while just behind the openings
  of the foramina of Munro a constriction occurs which divides the
  prosencephalon into two secondary vesicles, the anterior of which,
  containing the foramina of Munro, is called the _telencephalon_, while
  the posterior is the _thalamencephalon_ or _diencephalon_. A
  constriction also occurs in the hind vesicle or _rhombencephalon_,
  dividing it into an anterior part, the _metencephalon_, from which the
  cerebellum is developed, and a posterior or _myelencephalon_, the
  primitive _medulla oblongata_. At this stage the general resemblance
  of the brain to that of the lamprey is striking.

  Before the secondary constrictions occur three vertical flexures begin
  to form. The first is known as the _cephalic_, and is caused by the
  prosencephalon bending sharply downward, below and in front of the
  mesencephalon. The second is the _cervical_, and marks the place where
  the brain ends and the spinal cord begins; the concavity of this
  flexure is ventral. The third to appear has a ventral convexity and is
  known as the _pontine_, since it marks the site of the future _pons
  Varolii_; it resembles the permanent flexure in the reptilian brain.

  [Illustration: From _Cat. R.C.S. England_.

  FIG. 23.--Lateral view of cerebral hemisphere of Gorilla
  (_Anthropopithecus gorilla_).]

  It will now be seen that the original neural canal, which is lined by
  ciliated epithelium, forms the ventricles of the brain, while
  superficial to this epithelium (_ependyma_) the grey and white matter
  is subsequently formed. It has been shown by His that the whole neural
  tube may be divided into _dorsal_ or _alar_, and _ventral_ or _basal_
  laminae, and, as the cerebral hemispheres bud out from the dorsal part
  of the anterior primary vesicle, they consist entirely of alar
  laminae. The most characteristic feature of the human and anthropoid
  brain is the rapid and great expansion of these hemispheres,
  especially in a backward direction, so that the mesencephalon and
  metencephalon are hidden by them from above at the seventh month of
  intra-uterine life. At first the foramina of Munro form a
  communication not only between the third and lateral ventricles, but
  between the two lateral ventricles, so that the cavity of each
  hemisphere is continuous with that of the other; soon, however, a
  median longitudinal fissure forms, into which the mesoderm grows to
  form the falx, and so the foramina of Munro are constricted into a
  V-shaped canal. In the floor of the hemispheres the corpora striata
  are developed at an early date by a multiplication of nerve cells, and
  on the external surface a depression, called the _Sylvian fossa_,
  marks the position of the future central lobe, which is afterwards
  hidden as the lips of the fossa (_opercula_) gradually close in on it
  to form the Sylvian fissure. The real fissures are complete infoldings
  of the whole thickness of the vesicular wall and produce swellings in
  the cavity. Some of them, like the choroidal on the mesial surface,
  are developed very early, while the vesicle is little more than
  epithelial, and contain between their walls an inpushing of mesoderm
  to form the choroid plexus. Others, like the hippocampal and
  calcarine, appear in the second and third months and correspond to
  invaginations of the nervous tissue, the hippocampus major and minor.
  The sulci appear later than the fissures and do not affect the
  internal cavity; they are due to the rapid growth of the cortex in
  certain areas. The corpus callosum and fornix appear about the third
  month and their development is somewhat doubtful; they are probably
  modifications of the lamina terminalis, but they may be secondary
  adhesions between the adjacent surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres
  where the cortical grey matter has not covered the white. They begin
  at their antero-ventral part near the genu of the corpus callosum and
  the anterior pillars of the fornix, and these are the parts which
  first appear in the lower mammals. The original anterior vesicle from
  which the hemispheres evaginate is composed, as already shown, of an
  anterior part or telencephalon and a posterior or thalamencephalon;
  the whole forming the third ventricle in the adult. Here the alar and
  basal laminae are both found, but the former is the more important;
  from it the optic thalami are derived, and more posteriorly the
  geniculate bodies. The anterior wall, of course, is the lamina
  terminalis, and from it are formed the _lamina cinerea_, the _corpus
  callosum_, _fornix_ and _septum lucidum_. The roof largely remains
  epithelial and is invaginated into the ventricle by the mesoderm to
  form the _choroid plexuses_ of the third ventricle, but at the
  posterior part it develops the _ganglia habenulae_ and the pineal
  body, from a structure just in front of which both a lens and retinal
  elements are derived in the lower forms. This is one great difference
  between the development of this organ and that of the true eyes;
  indeed it has been suggested that the pineal is an organ of thermal
  sense and not the remains of a median eye at all. The floor of the
  third ventricle is developed from the basal laminae, which here are
  not very important and from which the _tuber cinereum_ and, until the
  fourth month, single _corpus mammillare_ are developed. The
  _infundibulum_ or stalk of the posterior part of the pituitary body at
  first grows down in front of the _tuber cinereum_ and, according to
  Gaskel's theory, represents an ancestral mouth to which the ventricles
  of the brain and the central canal of the cord acted as the stomach
  and intestine (_Quart. Journ. of Mic. Sci._ 31, p. 379; and _Journ. of
  Phys._ v. 10, p. 153). The reason why the basal lamina is here small
  is because it contains the nuclei of no cranial nerves. The anterior
  and posterior commissures appear before the middle and the middle
  before the _corpus callosum_, as they do in phylogeny. In connexion
  with the thalamencephalon, though not really belonging to it, may be
  mentioned the anterior lobes of the pituitary body; these begin as an
  upward _diverticulum_ from the posterior wall of the primitive pharynx
  or _stomatodaeum_ about the fourth week. This _pouch of Rathke_, as it
  is called, becomes nipped off by the developing base of the skull, and
  its bifid blind end meets and becomes applied to the posterior part of
  the body, which comes down from the brain. In the mesencephalon the
  alar laminae form the _corpora quadrigemina_; these at first are
  bigeminal and hollow as they are in the lower vertebrates. The basal
  laminae thicken to form the _crura cerebri_. In the rhombencephalon
  the division into basal and alar laminae is better marked than in any
  other part; there is a definite groove inside the fourth ventricle,
  which remains in the adult as the superior and inferior _fovea_ and
  which marks the separation between the two laminae. In the basal
  laminae are found the deep origins of most of the motor cranial
  nerves, while those of the sensory are situated in the alar laminae.
  The roof of the fourth ventricle widens out very much and remains
  largely epithelial as the superior and inferior medullary vela. The
  cerebellum develops in the anterior part of the roof of the
  rhombencephalon as two lateral rudiments which unite in the mid line
  and so form a transverse bar similar to that seen in the adult
  lamprey; at the end of the second month the flocculus and
  paraflocculus become marked, and later on a series of transverse
  fissures occur dividing the various lobes. Of the cerebellar peduncles
  the inferior develops first (third month), then the middle forming the
  _pons_ (fourth month), and lastly the _superior_ (fifth month) (Elliot
  Smith, _Review of Neurology and Psychiatry_, October 1903; W. Kuithan,
  "Die Entwicklung des Kleinhirns bei Säugetieren," _Munchener Med.
  Abhandl._, 1895; B. Stroud, "Mammalian cerebellum," _Journ. of Comp.
  Neurology_, 1895). Much of our knowledge of the tracts of fibres in
  the brain is due to the fact that they acquire their white sheaths at
  different stages of development, some long after birth.

  For further details and references see Quain's _Anat._ vol. i. (1908);
  Minot's _Human Embryology_ (New York); W. His, _Anat. menschlicher
  Embryonen_ (Leipzig, 1881); Marshall's _Vertebrate Embryology_;
  Kölliker, _Grundriss der Entwickelungsgeschichte_ (Leipzig, 1880); A.
  Keith, _Human Embryology and Morphology_ (London, 1904); O. Hertwig,
  _Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwickelungslehre
  der Wirbeltiere_, Bd. 2, part 3 (Jena, 1902-1906); _Development of the
  Human Body_, J.P. McMurrich (1906).     (F. G. P.)


2. PHYSIOLOGY

The nervous system has as its function the co-ordinating of the
activities of the organs one with another. It puts the organs into such
mutual relation that the animal reacts as a whole with speed, accuracy
and self-advantage, in response to the environmental agencies which
stimulate it. For this office of the nervous system there are two
fundamental conditions. The system must be thrown into action by
agencies at work in the environment. Light, gravity, mechanical impacts,
and so on, which are conditions significant for animal existence, must
find the system responsive and through it evoke appropriate activity in
the animal organs. And in fact there have been evolved in the animal a
number of structures called receptive organs which are selectively
excitable by different environmental agencies. Connected with these
receptive organs lies that division of the nervous system which is
termed _afferent_ because it conducts impulses inwards towards the
nervous centres. This division consists of elongated nerve-cells, in man
some two million in number for each half of the body. These are living
threads of microscopic tenuity, each extending from a receptive organ to
a central nervous mass. These central nervous masses are in vertebrates
all fused into one, of which the part which lies in the head is
especially large and complex, because directly connected with
particularly important and delicate receptive organs. The part of the
central nervous organ which lies in the head has, in consequence of its
connexion with the most important receptive organs, evolved a dominant
importance in the nervous system, and this is especially true of the
higher animal forms. This head part of the central nervous organ is
sufficiently different from the rest, even to anatomical examination, to
have received a separate name, the _brain_. But the fact of its having
received a separate name ought not to obscure the singleness and
solidarity of the whole central nervous organ as one entity. The
functions of the whole central nervous organ from region to region are
essentially similar throughout. One of its essential functions is
reception, via afferent nerves, of nervous impulses generated in the
receptive organs by environmental agents as stimuli. In other words,
whatever the nature of the agent, its result on the receptive organs
enters the central nervous organ as a nervous impulse, and all segments
of the central nervous organ receive impulses so generated. Further, it
is not known that nervous impulses present qualitative differences among
themselves. It is with these impulses that the central nervous organ
whether spinal cord or brain has to deal.

_Material and Psychical Signs of Cerebral Activity._--In the central
nervous organ the action resulting from entrant impulses has issue in
three kinds of ways. The reaction may die out, be suppressed, and so far
as discoverable lead to nothing; or the impulses may evoke effect in
either or both of two forms. Just as from the receptive organs, nerves
lead into the central nervous organ, so conversely from the central
organ other nerves, termed _efferent_, lead to various organs of the
body, especially glands and muscles. The reaction of the central nervous
organ to impulses poured into it commonly leads to a discharge of
impulses from it into glands and muscles. These centrifugal impulses
are, so far as is known, qualitatively like the centripetal impulses. On
reaching the glands and muscles they influence the activity of those
organs. Since those organs are therefore the mechanisms in which the
ultimate effect of the nervous reaction takes place, they are often
termed from this point of view _effector organs_. A change ensuing in
effector organs is often the only sign an observer has that a nervous
reaction has occurred, unless the nervous system under observation be
the observer's own.

If the observer turns to his own nervous system for evidence of
reaction, he meets at once in numberless instances with _sensation_ as
an outcome or sign of its reaction. This effect he cannot show to any
being beside himself. He can only describe it, and in describing it he
cannot strictly translate it into any term of material existence. The
unbridged gulf between sensation and the changes produced in effector
organs necessitates a separate handling of the functions of the nervous
system according as their office under consideration is sensation or
material effect. This holds especially in the case of the brain, and for
the following reasons.

_Psychosis and the Fore-Brain._--Hippocrates wrote, "It is through the
brain that we become mad, that delirium seizes us, that fears and
terrors assail us." "We know that pleasure and joy on the one hand and
pain and grief on the other are referable to the brain. It is in virtue
of it that we think, understand, see, hear, know ugliness and beauty,
evil and good, the agreeable and the disagreeable." Similarly and more
precisely Descartes indicated the brain, and the brain alone, as the
seat of consciousness. Finally, it was Flourens who perhaps first
definitely insisted on the restriction of the seat of consciousness in
higher animals to that part of the brain which is the fore-brain. A
functional distinction between the fore-brain and the remainder of the
nervous system seems, in fact, that consciousness and physical reactions
are adjunct to the fore-brain in a way in which they are not to the rest
of the system. After transection of the spinal cord, or of the brain
behind the fore-brain, psychical phenomena do not belong to the
reactions of the nervous arcs posterior to the transection, whereas they
do still accompany reactions of the nervous arcs in front and still
connected with the fore-brain. A man after severance of the spinal cord
does not possess in the strict sense consciousness of the limbs whose
afferent nerves lie behind the place of spinal severance. He can see
them with his eyes, and if the severance lie between the arms and the
legs, can feel the latter with his hands. He knows them to be a part of
his body. But they are detached from his consciousness. Sensations
derived from them through all other channels of sense than their own do
not suffice to restore them in any adequate measure to his
consciousness. He must have the sensations so called "resident" in them,
that is, referred to them, without need of any logical inference. These
can be yielded only by the receptive organs resident in the part itself,
its skin, its joints, its muscles, &c., and can only be yielded by those
receptive organs so long as the nerve impulses from them have access to
the fore-brain. Consciousness, therefore, does not seem to attach to any
portion of the nervous system of higher animals from which the
fore-brain has been cut off. In the dog it has been found that no sign
of memory, let alone intelligence, has been forthcoming after removal of
the greater part of the fore-brain.

In lower vertebrates it is not clear that consciousness in primitive
form requires always the co-operation of the fore-brain. In them the
fore-brain does not seem a _conditio sine qua non_ for psychosis--so far
as we may trust the rather hazardous inferences which study of the
behaviour of fish, &c., allows. And the difference between higher and
lowlier animal forms in respect of the fore-brain as a condition for
psychosis becomes more marked when the Arthropoda are examined. The
behaviour of some Insecta points strongly to their possessing memory,
rudimentary in kind though it may be. But in them no homologue of the
fore-brain of vertebrates can be indisputably made out. The head ganglia
in these Invertebrates may, it is true, be analogous in function in
certain ways to the brain of vertebrates. Some experiments, not
plentiful, indicate that destruction of these head ganglia induces
deterioration of behaviour such as follows loss of psychical functions
in cases of destruction of the fore-brain in vertebrates. Though,
therefore, we cannot be clear that the head ganglia of these
Invertebrates are the same structure morphologically as the brain of
vertebrates, they seem to hold a similar office, exercising analogous
functions, including psychosis of a rudimentary kind. We can, therefore,
speak of the head ganglia of Arthropods as a brain, and in doing so must
remember that we define by physiological evidence rather than by
morphological.

_Cerebral Control over Lower Nervous Centres._--There accrues to the
brain, especially to the fore-brain of higher Vertebrates, another
function besides that of grafting psychical qualities upon the reactions
of the nervous system. This function is exhibited as power to control in
greater or less measure the pure reflexes enacted by the system. These
pure reflexes have the character of fatality, in the sense that, given a
particular stimulus, a particular reaction unvaryingly follows; the same
group of muscles or the same gland is invariably thrown into action in
the same way. Removal of the fore-brain, i.e. of that portion of the
central nervous organ to which psychosis is adjunct, renders the nervous
reactions of the animal more predictable and less variable. The animal,
for instance, a dog, is given over more completely to simple reflexes.
Its skin is touched and it scratches the spot, its jaw is stroked and it
yawns, its rump is rubbed and it shakes itself, like a dog coming out of
water; and these reactions occur fatally and inopportunely, for
instance, when food is being offered to it, when the dog normally would
allow no such insignificant skin stimuli as the above to defer his
appropriate reaction. Goltz relates the behaviour of a dog from which
almost the whole fore-brain had been removed. The animal lived healthily
under the careful treatment accorded it. At feeding time a little
quinine (bitter) added to its sop of meat and milk led to the morsels,
after being taken into the mouth, being at once and regularly rejected.
None was ever swallowed, nor was the slightest hesitation in their
rejection ever obtained by any coaxing or command, or encouragement of
the animal by the attendant who constantly had charge of it. On the
other hand, directly an undoctored piece had entered the mouth it was
swallowed at once. Goltz threw to his own house-dog a piece of the same
doctored meat. The creature wagged its tail and took it eagerly, then
after receiving it into its mouth pulled a wry face and hesitated,
astonished. But on encouragement to go on eating it the dog did so.
Perhaps it deemed it unseemly to appear ungrateful to the giver and
reject the gift. It overcame its reflex of rejection, and by its
self-control gave proof of the intact cerebrum it possessed.

There seems a connexion between consciousness and the power to modify
reflex action to meet the exigencies of the occasion. Pure reflexes are
admirably adapted to certain ends. They are reactions which have long
proved advantageous to the phylum of which the existent animal is the
representative embodiment. But the reflexes have a machine-like
fatality, and conscious aim does not forerun their execution. The
subject as active agent does not direct them. Yet they lie under the
control of higher centres. The cough, the eye-closure, the impulse to
smile, all these can be suppressed. The innate respiratory rhythm can be
modified to meet the requirements of vocal utterance. In other words,
the reaction of reflex arcs is controllable by the mechanism to whose
activity consciousness is adjunct. The reflexes controlled are often
reactions but slightly affecting consciousness, but consciousness is
very distinctly operative with the centres which exert the control. It
may be that the primary aim, object and purpose of consciousness is
control. "Consciousness in a mere automaton," writes Professor Lloyd
Morgan, "is a useless and unnecessary epiphenomenon." As to _how_ this
conscious control is operative on reflexes, how it intrudes its
influence on the running of the reflex machinery, little is known.

_The Cerebrum an Organ giving Adaptation and Readjustment of Motor
Acts._--The exercise of this control and the acquirement of skilled
actions have obviously elements in common. By skilled actions, we
understand actions not innately given, actions acquired by training in
individual experience. The controlling centres pick out from an
ancestral motor action some part, and isolate and enhance that until it
becomes a skilled act. The motor co-ordination ancestrally provided for
the ring finger gives an extending of it only in company with extension
of the fingers on either side of it. The isolated lifting of the ring
finger can, however, soon be acquired by training. In such cases the
higher centre with conscious effort is able to dissociate a part from an
ancestral co-ordination, and in that way to add a skilled adapted act to
the powers of the individual.

The nervous organs of control form, therefore, a special instrument of
adaptation and of readjustment of reaction, for better accommodation to
requirements which may be new. The attainment of more precision and
speed in the use of a tool, or the handling of a weapon, means a process
in which nervous organs of control modify activities of reflex centres
themselves already perfected ancestrally for other though kindred
actions. This process of learning is accompanied by conscious effort.
The effort consists not so much in any course of reasoning but rather in
the acquiring of new sensorimotor experience. To learn swimming or
skating by simple cogitation or mere visual observation is of course
impossible. The new ideas requisite cannot be constructed without motor
experience, and the training must include that motor experience. Hence
the training for a new skilled motor manoeuvre must be simply _ad hoc_,
and is of itself no training for another motor co-ordination.

The more complex an organism the more points of contact does it have
with its environment, and the more does it need readjustment amid an
environment of shifting relationships. Hence the organs of consciousness
and control, being organs of adaptation and readjustment of reaction,
will be more pronounced the farther the animal scale is followed upward
to its crowning species, man. The cerebrum and especially the cerebral
cortex may be regarded as the highest expression of the nervous organ
of individual adaptation of reactions. Its high development in man makes
him the most successful animal on earth's surface at the present epoch.
The most important part of all this adjustment in his case, as he stands
now, consists doubtless in that nervous activity which is intellectual.
The mentality attached to his cerebrum includes reason in higher measure
than is possessed by the mentality of other animals. He, therefore, more
than they, can profitably forecast the future and act suitably to meet
it from memory of the past. The cerebrum has proved itself by his case
the most potent weapon existent for extending animal dominance over the
environment.

_Means and Present Aims of Physiological Study of the Brain._--The
aspects of cerebral activity are therefore twofold. There is the
contribution which it makes to the behaviour of the animal as seen in
the creature's doings. On the other hand there is its product in the
psychical life of the animal. The former of these is subject matter for
physiology; the latter is especially the province of psychology.
Physiology does, however, concern itself with the psychical aspect of
cerebral functions. Its scope, embracing the study of the bodily organs
in regard to function, includes the psychic as well as the material,
because as just shown the former inextricably interlace with the latter.
But the relation between the psychic phenomena and the working of the
brain in regard to any data of fundamental or intimate character
connecting the two remains practically as unknown to us as to the Greek
philosophers. What physiology has at present to be content with in this
respect is the mere assigning of certain kinds of psychic events to
certain local regions of the cerebrum. This primitive quest constitutes
the greater part of the "neurology" of our day, and some advance has
been made along its lines. Yet how meagre are really significant facts
will be clear from the brief survey that follows. Before passing finally
from these general considerations, we may note that it becomes more and
more clear that the brain, although an organ than can be treated as a
whole, is complex in the sense that separable functions belong in some
measure to its several parts.

The means principally adopted in studying the functions of the
brain--and it must be remembered that this study in its present phase is
almost exclusively a mere search for localization--are four. These are
the physiological, the clinico-pathological, the histological and the
zoological. The first named proceeds by observing the effects of
artificial excitation, chiefly electric, of various parts of the brain,
and the defects produced by destruction or removal of circumscribed
portions. The clinico-pathological proceeds by observing the
disturbances of body and mind occurring in disease or injury, and
ascertaining the extent of the disease or injury, for the most part
_post mortem_. The histological method examines the microscopic
structure of the various regions of the brain and the characters and
arrangement of the nerve-cells composing it. The zoological follows and
compares the general features of the brain, as represented in the
various types of animal creation.

It is on the functions of the fore-brain that interest now mainly
focuses, for the reasons mentioned above. And the interest in the
fore-brain itself chiefly attaches to the functions of its cortex. This
is due to several causes. In man and the animals nearest him the cortex
forms by far the larger part of the whole cerebral hemisphere. More than
any other part it constitutes the distinctively human feature. It lies
accessible to various experimental observations, as also to traumatic
lesions and to the surgeon's art. It is composed of a great unbroken
sheet of grey matter; for that reason it is a structure wherein
processes of peculiar interest for the investigation in view are likely
to occur. To make this last inference more clear a reference to the
histology of nervous tissue must be made. The whole physiological
function of the nervous system may be summed up in the one word
"conduction." This "conduction" may be defined as the transmission of
states of excitement (nerve-impulses) along the neural arcs composing
the system. The whole nervous system is built up of chains of
nerve-cells (neurones) which are nervous conductors, the chains often
being termed arcs. Each neurone is an elongated cell which transmits
nerve-impulses from its one end to its other, without so far as is known
modifying the impulses in transit, unless in that part of the nerve-cell
where the nucleus lies. That part of the neurone or nerve-cell is called
the perikaryon or cell-body, and from that part usually many branches of
the cell (each branch being a nerve-fibre) ramify. There is no evidence
that impulses are modified in transit along a branch of a nerve-cell,
but there is clear evidence of manifold modification of nerve-impulses
in transit along the nerve-arcs of the nervous system. These nerve-arcs
are neurone-chains. In them one neurone continues the line of conduction
where the immediately foregoing neurone left it. That is, the neurones
are laid in conductive series, the far end of one apposed to the near
end of its precursor. The place of juxtaposition of the end of one
neurone against the beginning of another is called the _synapse_. At it
the conduction which has so far been wholly intra-neuronic is replaced
by an inter-neuronic process, in which the nerve impulse passes from one
neurone to the next. The process there, it is natural to think, must be
physiologically different from that conductive process that serves for
transmission merely within the neurone itself. It may be that to this
inter-neuronic conduction are due the differences between conduction in
nerve-_arcs_ and nerve-_trunks_ (nerve-fibres) respectively. Significant
of the former are changes in rhythm, intensity, excitability and
modifications by summation and inhibition; in fact a number of the main
features of nervous reaction. These characters impressed upon conduction
in nerve arcs (neurone-chains) would therefore be traceable to the
intercalation of perikarya and synapses, for both these structures are
absent from nerve-trunks. It is therefore probably to perikarya and
synapses that the greater part of the co-ordination, elaboration and
differentiation of nervous reactions is due. Now, perikarya and synapses
are not present in the _white_ matter of the central nervous organ, any
more than they are in nerve-trunks. They are confined exclusively to
those portions of the central organ which consist of _grey_ matter (so
called from its naked-eye appearance). Hence it is to the great sheet of
grey matter which enfolds the cerebrum that the physiologist turns, as
to a field where he would expect to find evidences of the processes of
cerebral co-ordination at work. It is therefore to items regarding the
functions of the great sheet of cerebral cortex that we may now pass.

_The Cerebral Cortex and its Functions._--The main question which vexed
the study of the physiology of the cerebral hemispheres in the 19th
century was whether differences of function are detectible in the
different regions of the hemisphere and especially in those of its
cortex. One camp of experimenters and observers held that the cortex was
identical in function throughout its extent. These authorities taught
that the various faculties and senses suffer damage in proportion to the
amount of cortex removed or injured, and that it is a matter of
indifference what may be the particular region wherein the destruction
takes place. Against this an opposed set of observers held that
different regions perform different functions, and this latter
"differential" view was raised in two wholly dissimilar forms in the
first and last quarters of the 19th century respectively. In the first
quarter of the century, a school, with which the name of Gall is
prominently associated, held that each faculty of a set of particular
so-called "faculties," which it assumed constituted intelligence, has in
the brain a spatially separate organ proper to itself. Gall's doctrine
had two fundamental propositions. The first was that intelligence
resides exclusively in the brain: the second, that intelligence consists
of twenty-seven "faculties," each with a separate local seat in the
brain. The first proposition was not new. It is met with in Hippocrates,
and it had been elaborated by Descartes and others. But Bichat in his
_Anatomie generale_ had partly wandered from the gradually established
truth and referred the emotions to the visceral organs, returning to a
naive view popularly prevalent. Gall's first proposition was probably
raised especially in reaction against Bichat. But Gall's proposition was
retrograde from the true position of the science of his time. Flourens
and others of his contemporaries had already shown not only that
intelligence was resident exclusively in the brain, but that it was
resident exclusively in that part of the brain which is the fore-brain.
Now Gall placed certain of his twenty-seven intellectual faculties in
the cerebellum, which is part of the hind-brain.

_Phrenology._--As to Gall's second proposition, the set of faculties
into which he analysed intelligence shows his power of psychological
analysis to have been so weak that it is matter of surprise his doctrine
could obtain even the ephemeral vogue it actually did. Among his
twenty-seven faculties are, for instance, "_l'amour de la progéniture,
l'instinct carnassier, l'amitié, la ruse, la sagacité comparative,
l'esprit métaphysique, le talent poétique, la mimique_," &c. Such
crudity of speculation is remarkable in one who had undoubtedly
considerable insight into human character. Each of the twenty-seven
faculties had its seat in a part of the brain, and that part of the
brain was called its "organ." The mere spatial juxtaposition or
remoteness of these organs one from another in the brain had, according
to Gall, an influence on the constitution of the mind. "_Comme l'organe
des arts est placé loin de l'organe du sens des couleurs, cette
circonstance explique pourquoi les peintres d'histoire ont été rarement
coloristes_." All these "faculty-organs" were placed by Gall at the
surface of the brain. "This explains the correspondence which exists
between craniology and the doctrine of the functions of the brain
(cerebral physiology), the single aim of my researches." Gall wrote that
he found the bump of pride (_la bosse de l'orgueil_) as far down in the
animal series as the goat. Broussais traced the "organ" of veneration as
far down as the sheep. Gall found the bump of murder (_bosse du
meurtre_) in the carnivora. Later it was traced also in herbivora.
Broussais added apologetically that "the herbivora cause a real
destruction of plants."

Gall's doctrine enjoyed enormous vogue. He himself had the gifts and the
demerits of quackery. His doctrine possessed, apart from its falsity,
certain other mischievous qualities. "_Que ces hommes si glorieux, qui
font égorger les nations par millions, sachent qu'ils n'agissent point
de leur propre chef, que c'est la nature qui a placé dans leur coeur la
rage de la destruction_." One of his scientific opponents rejoined,
"Nay, it is not that which they should know. What they should know is
that if providence has allowed to man the possibility of doing evil, it
has also endowed him with the power to do good." The main cause of the
success of phrenology (q.v.) has been no doubt the common desire of men
to read the characters and hidden thoughts of others by external signs.
Each bump or "bosse" on the cranium was supposed to indicate the
existence and degree of development of one or other of the twenty-seven
"faculties." One such "bosse" showed the development of the organ of
"goodness," and another the development of the organ of "murder." Such
an easy means to arrive at information so curious delighted many
persons, and they were not willingly undeceived.

_Modern Localization Doctrines._--The crude localization of the
phrenologists is therefore too clumsy to possess an interest it might
otherwise have had as an early expression of belief in cerebral
localization, a belief which other labours have subsequently justified,
although on facts and lines quite different from these imagined by Gall
and his followers. Patient scientific toil by the hands of E. Hitzig and
D. Ferrier and their followers has slowly succeeded in obtaining certain
facts about the _cortex cerebri_ which not only show that different
regions of it are concerned with different functions, but, for some
regions at least, outline to some extent the kind of function exercised.
It is true that the greater part of the cortex remains still _terra
incognita_ unless we are content with mere descriptive features
concerning its coarse anatomy. For several scattered regions some
knowledge of their function has been gained by physiological
investigation. These scattered regions are the _visual_, the _auditory_,
the _olfactory_ and the _precentral_.

The grey matter of the cerebral cortex is broadly characterized
histologically by the perikarya (nerve-cells bodies) which lie in it
possessing a special shape; they are pyramidal. The dendrite fibres of
these cells--that is, their fibres which conduct _towards_ the
perikarya--are branches from the apex and corners of the pyramid. From
the base often near its middle arises one large fibre--the axone fibre,
which conducts impulses away from the perikaryon. The general appearance
and arrangement of the neurones in a particle of cortical grey matter
are shown in fig. 15, above. The apices of the pyramidal perikarya are
turned towards the free surface of the cortex. The figure as interpreted
in terms of functional conduction means that the cortex is beset with
conductors, each of which collects nerve-impulses, from a minute but
relatively wide field by its branched dendrites, and that these
nerve-impulses converge through its perikaryon, issue by its axone, and
are carried whithersoever the axone runs. In some few cells the axone
breaks up into branches in the immediate neighbourhood of its own
perikaryon in the cortex. In most cases, however, the axone runs off
into the subjacent white matter, leaving the cortex altogether. On
reaching the subjacent white matter it mingles with other fibres and
takes one of the following courses:--(1) to the grey matter of the
cortex of the same hemisphere, (2) to the grey matter of the cortex of
the opposite hemisphere, (3) to the grey matter of the pons, (4) to the
grey matter of the bulb or spinal cord. It is noteworthy that the
dendrite fibres of these cortical neurones do not transgress the limits
of the grey cortex and the immediate neighbourhood of the perikaryon to
which they belong; whereas the discharging or axone fibre does in the
vast majority of cases transgress the limits of the grey matter wherein
its perikaryon lies. The cortical neurone therefore collects impulses in
the region of cortex just about its perikaryon and discharges them to
other regions, some not cortical or even cerebral, but spinal, &c. One
question which naturally arises is, do these cells spontaneously
generate their impulses or are they stirred to activity by impulses
which reach them from without? The tendency of physiology is to regard
the actions of the cortex as reactions to impulses communicated to the
cortical cells by nerve-channels reaching them from the sense organs.
The neurone conductors in the cortex are in so far considered to
resemble those of reflex centres, though their reactions are more
variable and complex than in the use of the spinal. The chains of
neurones passing through the cortex are more complex and connected with
greater numbers of associate complex chains than are those of the spinal
centres. But just as the reflex centres of the cord are each attached to
afferent channels arriving from this or that receptive-organ, for
instance, tactile-organs of the skin, or spindles of muscle-sense, &c.,
so the regions of cortex whose function is to-day with some certainty
localized seem to be severally related each to some particular
sense-organ. The localization, so far as ascertained, is a localization
which attaches separate areas of cortex to the several species of sense,
namely the visual, the auditory, the olfactory, and so on. This being
so, we should expect to find the sensual representation in the cortex
especially marked for the organs of the great distance-receptors, the
organs which--considered as _sense_ organs--initiate sensations having
the quality of projicience into the sensible environment. The organs of
distance-receptors are the olfactory, the visual and the auditory. The
environmental agent which acts as stimulus in the case of the first
named is chemical, in the second is radiant, and in the last is
mechanical.

_Olfactory Region of Cortex._--There is phylogenetic evidence that the
development of the _cortex cerebri_ first occurred in connexion with the
distance-receptors for chemical stimuli--that is, expressed with
reference to psychosis, in connexion with olfaction. The olfactory
apparatus even in mammals still exhibits a neural architecture of
primitive pattern. The cell which conducts impulses to the brain from
the olfactory membrane in the nose resembles cells in the skin of the
earthworm, in that its cell-body lies actually amid the epithelium of
the skin-surface and is not deeply buried near or in the central nervous
organ. Further, it has at its external end tiny hairlets such as occur
in specially receptive-cells but not usually in purely nervous cells.
Hence we must think that one and the same cell by its external end
receives the environmental stimulus and by its deep end excites the
central nervous organ. The cell under the stimulation of the
environmental agent will therefore generate in itself a nervous impulse.
This is the clearest instance we have of a neurone being actually
excited under natural circumstances by an agent of the environment
_directly_, not indirectly. The deep ends of these olfactory neurones
having entered the central nervous organ come into contact with the
dendrites of large neurones, called, from their shape, mitral. In the
dog, an animal with high olfactory sense, the axone of each olfactory
neurone is connected with five or six mitral cells. In man each
olfactory neurone is connected with a single mitral cell only. We may
suppose that the former arrangement conduces to intensification of the
central reaction by summation. At the same time it is an arrangement
which could tend to smother sharp differentiation of the central
reaction in respect to locality of stimulus at the receptive surface.
Considering the diffuse way in which olfactory stimuli are applied in
comparison, for instance, with visual, the exact localization of the
former can obviously yield little information of use for locating the
exact position of their source. On the other hand, in the case of visual
stimuli the locus of incidence, owing to the rectilinear propagation of
light, can serve with extraordinary exactitude for inferences as to the
position of their source. The adaptation of the neural connexions of the
two organs in this respect is therefore in accord with expectation.

The earliest cerebral cortex is formed in connexion with the
neurone-chains coming into the central nervous organ from the patch of
olfactory cells on the surface of the head. The region of cerebrum thus
developed is the so-called olfactory lobe and hippocampal formation. The
greater part of the cerebral hemisphere is often termed the _pallium_,
because as its development extends it folds cloak-wise over the older
structures at the base of the brain. The olfactory lobe, from its
position, is sometimes called the _pallium basale_, and the hippocampal
formation the _pallium marginale_; and these two parts of the pallium
form what, on account of their phylogenetic history, Elliott Smith well
terms the _archipallium_. A fissure, the limbic fissure, marks off more
or less distinctly this archipallium from the rest of the pallium, a
remainder which is of later development and therefore designated by
Elliott Smith the _neopallium_. Of the archipallium, the portion which
constitutes the olfactory lobe is well formed in the selachian fish. In
the reptilian cerebrum the hippocampal region, the pallium marginale,
coexists in addition. These are both of them olfactory in function. Even
so high up in the animal scale as the lowest mammals they still form one
half of the entire pallium. But in the higher apes and in man the
olfactory portion of the pallium is but a small fraction of the pallium
as a whole. It is indeed so relatively dwarfed and obscured as to be
invisible when the brain is regarded from the side or above. The
olfactory part of the pallium exhibits little variation in form as
traced up through the higher animals. It is of course small in such
animals as Cetaceans, which are _anosmatic_. In highly osmatic such as
the dog it is large. The _uncus_, and _subiculum cornu ammonis_ of the
human brain, belong to it. Disease of these parts has been accompanied
by disturbance of the sense of smell. When stimulated electrically (in
the rabbit) the olfactory pallium occasions peculiar torsion of the nose
and lips (Ferrier), and change, often slowing or arrested, of the
respiratory rhythm. P.E. Flechsig has shown that the nerve-fibres of
this part of the pallium attain the final stage of their growth, that is
to say, acquire their sheaths of myelin, early in the ontogenetic
development of the brain. In the human brain they are myelinate before
birth. This is significant from the point of view of function, for
reasons which have been made clear especially by the researches of
Flechsig himself.

The completion of the growth of the nerve-fibres entering and leaving
the cortex occurs at very various periods in the growth of the brain.
Study of the development of the fibres entering and leaving the various
regions of the pallium in the human brain, discovers that the regions
may be conveniently grouped into those whose fibres are perfected before
birth and those whose fibres are perfected during the first post-natal
month, and those whose fibres are perfected after the first but before
the end of the fourth post-natal month. The regions thus marked out by
completion before birth are five in number, and are each connected, as
also shown by collateral evidence, with one or other particular species
of sense-organ. And these regions have another character in common
recognizable in the nerve-fibres entering and leaving them, namely, they
possess fibres projected to or from parts of the nervous system
altogether outside the cortex itself. These fibres are termed
"projection" fibres. Other regions of the cortex possess fibres coming
from or going to various regions of the cortex itself, but do not
possess in addition, as do the five primitive cortical fields, the
fibres of projection. So that the facts established by Flechsig for the
regions of pallium, which other evidence already indicated as connected
with the sense-organ of smell, support that evidence and bring the
olfactory region of cortex into line with certain other regions of
cortex similarly primarily connected with organs of sense.

It will be noted that what has been achieved by these various means of
study in regard to the region of the cortex to which olfactory functions
are attributed amounts at present to little more than the bare
ascertainment of the existence there of nervous mechanisms connected
with olfaction, and to the delimiting roughly of their extent and of
their ability to influence certain movements, and in man sensations,
habitually associated with exercise of the olfactory organ. As to what
part the cortical mechanism has in the elaboration or association of
mental processes to which olfaction contributes, no evidence worth the
name seems as yet forthcoming. In this respect our knowledge, or rather
our want of knowledge, of the functions of the olfactory region of the
cortex, is fairly typical of that to which we have to confess in regard
to the other regions of the cortex, even the best known.

_Visual Region of the Cortex._--There is a region of the cortex
especially connected with vision. The _optic nerve_ and _tract_
constitute the second link in the chain of neurones joining the retina
to the brain. They may therefore be regarded as the equivalent of an
intraspinal tract connecting the deep ends of the afferent neurones from
the skin with higher nervous centres. In the bony fishes the optic tract
reaches the grey matter of the optic lobe, a part of the mid-brain, to
which the so-called anterior colliculus is equivalent in the mammalian
brain. In the optic lobe the axones of the neurones of the optic tract
meet neurones whose axones pass in turn to the motor neurones of the
muscles moving the eyeballs, and also to other motor neurones. But in
these fish the optic tract has no obvious connexion with the fore-brain
or with any cerebral pallium. Ascending, however, to the reptilian brain
is found an additional arrangement: a small portion of the optic tract
passes to grey matter in front of the optic lobe. This grey matter is
the lateral geniculate body. From this geniculate body a number of
neurones extend to the pallial portion of the cerebrum, for in the
reptilian brain the pallium is present. The portion of pallium connected
with the lateral geniculate body lies above and behind the olfactory or
archipallium. It is a part of what was mentioned above as neopallium.

In the mammalian brain the portion of the optic tract which goes to the
optic lobe (_ant. colliculus_ of the mammal) is dwarfed by great
development of the part which goes to the geniculate body and an
adjoining grey mass, the pulvinar (part of the optic thalamus). From
these latter pass large bands of fibres to the occipital region of the
neopallium. In mammals this visual region of the cortex is distinguished
in its microscopic features from the cortex elsewhere by a layer of
myelinate nerve-fibres, many of which are the axones of neurones of the
geniculate body and pulvinar. Thus, whereas in the bony fishes all the
third links of the conductive chain from the retina lead exclusively to
the final neurones of motor centres for muscles, in the mammal the
majority of the third links conduct to grey matter of the cortex
cerebri.

The application of electric stimuli to the surface of the cortex does
not for the greater part of the extent of the cortex evoke in higher
mammalian brains any obvious effect; no muscular act is provoked. But
from certain limited regions of the cortex such stimulation does evoke
muscular acts, and one of these regions is that to which the neurones
forming the third link of the conductive chain from the retina pass. The
muscular acts thus provoked from that region are movements of the
eyeballs and of the neck turning the head. In the monkey the movement is
the turning of both eyeballs and the head away from the side stimulated.
In short, the gaze is directed as to an object on the opposite side. The
newer conductive chain traceable through the cortex does therefore,
after all, like the older one through the optic lobe, lead ultimately to
the motor neurones of the eye muscles and the neck, only it takes a
longer course thither and is undoubtedly much more complex. What gain is
effected by this new and as it were alternative and longer route, which
takes a path up to the cerebral cortex and down again, we can only
conjecture, but of one point we may rest well assured, namely, that a
much richer inter-connexion with other arcs of the nervous system is
obtained by the path that passes via the cortex. The functional
difference between the old conductive circuit and the new can at present
hardly indeed be stated even in outline. A natural inference might be
that the phylogenetically older and less complex path is concerned with
functions purely reflex-motor, not possessing sensation as an attribute.
But fish, which possess only the older path, can be trained to seize
bait of one colour and not of another colour, even against what appeared
to be an original colour-preference in them. Such discrimination
individually acquired seems to involve memory, though it may be
rudimentary in kind. Where motor reaction to visual stimuli appears to
involve memory--and without memory the training could hardly be
effective--some germ of consciousness can hardly be denied to the visual
reactions, although the reactions occurred in complete absence of a
cortical path and indeed of a visual cortex altogether.

Removal of the visual pallium in the tortoise produces little or no
obvious defect in vision; but in the bird such a lesion greatly impairs
the vision of the eye of the side opposite to the lesion. The impairment
does not, however, amount to absolute blindness. Schrader's hawk, after
removal of the pallium, reacted to movements of the mice with which it
was caged. But the reactions were impaired: they lacked the sustained
purpose of the normal reactions. The bird saw the mice; that was
certain, for their movements across its field of vision made it turn its
gaze towards them. But on their ceasing to move, the reaction on the
part of the bird lapsed. Neither did their continuing to move excite the
attack upon them which would have been the natural reaction on the part
of the bird of prey towards its food. The bird apparently did not
recognize them as prey, but saw them merely as moving objects. It saw
them perhaps as things to which mental association gave no significance.
Similarly, a dog after ablation of the occipital lobes of the cortex is
able to see, for it avoids obstacles in its path; but if food is offered
to it or the whip held up to it, it does not turn towards the food or
away from the whip. It sees these things as if it saw them for the first
time, but without curiosity, and as if it had no experience of their
meaning. It gives no hint that it any longer understands the meaning of
even familiar objects so long as these are presented to it through the
sense of vision. Destruction of the visual cortex of one hemisphere
alone produces in the dog impairment of vision, not as in the bird
practically exclusively in the opposite eye, but in one lateral half of
each eye, and that half the half opposite the hemisphere injured. Thus
when the cortex destroyed is of the right cerebral hemisphere, the
resultant visual defect is in the left half of the field of vision of
both eyes. And this is so in man also.

In man disturbances of sensation can be better studied because it is
possible to obtain from him his description of his condition. The
relation of the _cortex cerebri_ to human vision can be summarized
briefly as follows. The visual cortex is distinguishable in higher
mammals by a thin white stripe, the stripe of Gennari, seen in its grey
matter when that is sectioned. This stripe results from a layer of
nerve-fibres, many of which are axones from the neurones of the lateral
geniculate body and the pulvinar, the grey masses directly connected
with the optic nerve-fibres. In the dog, and in such monkeys as the
Macaque, the region of cortex containing this stripe traceable to optic
fibres forms practically the whole occipital lobe. But in the man-like
apes and in man this kind of cortex is confined to one region of the
occipital lobe, namely, that of the calcarine fissure and the _cuneus_
behind that. This region of cortex thus delimited in man is one of
Flechsig's areas of earlier myelinization. It is also one of his areas
possessing projection fibres; and this last fact agrees with the
yielding by this area, when under electrical stimulation, of movements
indicating that impulses have been discharged from it into the motor
neurones of the muscles of the eyes and neck. Evidence from cases of
disease show that destruction of the cortex of the upper lip of the
calcarine fissure, say in the right half of the brain, causes in man
impairment in the upper right-hand quadrant of both retinae: destruction
of the lower lip of the fissure causes impairment in the lower
right-hand quadrants. Destruction of the calcarine region of one
hemisphere produces therefore "crossed hemianopia," that is, loss of the
opposite half of the field of vision. But in this hemianopia the region
of central vision is always spared. That is, the piece of visual field
which corresponds with the yellow spot of the retina is not affected in
either eye, unless the calcarine regions of both hemispheres are
destroyed. This central point of vision is connected therefore not with
one side of the brain only but with both.

The impairment of sight is more severe in men than in lower animals.
Where the destruction of the visuo-sensory cortex in one calcarine
region is complete, a candle-flame offered in the hemianopic field
cannot even be perceived. It may hardly excite a reflex contraction of
the pupil. In such cases the visual defect amounts to blindness. But
this is a greater defect than is found in the dog even after entire
removal of both occipital lobes. The dog still avoids obstacles as it
walks. Its defect is rather, as said above, a complete loss of interest
in the visual images of things. But a dog or monkey after loss of the
visual cortex hesitates more and avoids obstacles less well in a
familiar place than it does when entirely blind from loss of the
peripheral organ of vision. In man extensive destruction of the visual
cortex has as one of its symptoms loss of memory of localities, thus, of
the paths of a garden, of the position of furniture, and of accustomed
objects in the patient's own room. This loss of memory of position does
not extend to spatial relations ordinarily appreciated by touch, such as
parts of the patient's own person or clothing. There is nothing like
this in the symptoms following blindness by loss of the eye itself.
Those who lose their sight by disease of the retina retain good memorial
pictures of positions and directions appreciated primarily by vision.

Cases of disease are on record in which loss of visual memory has
occurred without hemianopia. Visual hallucinations referred to the
hemianopic side have been observed. This suggests that the function of
visual memory in regard to certain kinds of percepts must belong to
localities of cortex different from those pertaining to other visual
percepts. The area of cortex characterized by the stripe of Gennari
occupies in man, as mentioned, the calcarine and cuneate region. It is
surrounded by a cortical field which, though intimately connected with
it by manifold conducting fibres, &c., is yet on various grounds
distinct from it. This field of cortex surrounding the visuo-sensory of
the calcarine-cuneate region is a far newer part of the neopallium than
the region it surrounds. Both in the individual (Flechsig) and in the
phylum (Bolton, Campbell, Mott) its development occurs far later than
that of the visuo-sensory which it surrounds. Flechsig finds that it has
no "projection" fibres, that is, that it receives none of the optic
radiations from the lower visual centres and gives no centrifugal fibres
in the reverse direction. This field encompassing the visuo-sensory
region differs from the latter in its microscopic structure by absence
of the lower layer of stellate cells and by the presence in it of a
third or deep layer of pyramidal cells (Mott). Its fibres are on the
average smaller than are those of the visuo-sensory (W.A. Campbell).
This zonal field is small in the lower apes, and hardly discoverable in
the dog. In the anthropoid apes it is much larger. In man it is
relatively much larger still. The impairment of visual memory and visual
understanding in regard to direction and locality is said to be observed
in man only when the injury of the cortex includes not only the
calcarine-cuneate region but a wide area of the occipital lobe. From
this it is argued that the zonal field is concerned with memories and
recognitions of a kind based on visual perceptions. It has therefore
been termed the _visuo-psychic_ area. It is one of Flechsig's
"association-areas" of the cortex.

Adjoining the antero-lateral border of the just-described _visuo-psychic
area_ lies another region separate from it and yet related to it. This
area is even later in its course of development than is the
visuo-psychic. It is one of Flechsig's "terminal fields," and its fibres
are among the last to ripen in the whole cortex. This terminal field is
large in man. It runs forward in the parietal lobe above and in the
temporal lobe below. Its wide extent explains, in the opinion of Mott,
the displacement of the visuo-sensory field from the outer aspect of the
hemisphere in the lower monkeys to the median aspect in man. To this
terminal field all the more interest attaches because it includes the
angular gyrus, which authorities hold to be concerned with the visual
memory of words. Study of diseased conditions of speech has shown that
the power to understand _written_ words may be lost or severely impaired
although the words may be perfectly distinct to the sight and although
the power to understand _heard_ words remains good. This condition is
asserted by many physicians to be referable to destruction of part of
the angular gyrus. Close beneath the cortex of the angular gyrus runs a
large tract of long fibres which pass from the visual cortex (see above)
to the auditory cortex (see below) in the superior temporal gyrus and to
the lower part of the frontal lobe. This lower part of the frontal lobe
is believed--and has long been believed--to be concerned intimately with
the production of the movements of speech. A difficulty besetting the
investigation of the function of the angular gyrus is the fact that
lesion of the cortex there is likely to implicate the underlying tract
of fibres in its damage. It cannot be considered to have been as yet
clearly ascertained whether the condition of want of recognition of seen
words--"word-blindness"--is due to cortical injury apart from
subcortical, to the angular gyrus itself apart from the underlying
tract. Word-blindness seems, in the right-handed, to resemble the
aphasia believed to be connected with the lower part of the frontal
lobe, in that it ensues upon lesions of the left hemisphere, not of the
right. In left-handed persons, on the contrary, it seems to attach to
the right hemisphere.

_Auditory Region of the Cortex._--Besides the two great organs of
distance-receptors, namely, the nose and eye, whose cerebral apparatus
for sensation has just been mentioned, those of a third great
distance-receptor have to be considered. The agents of stimulation of
the two former are respectively chemical (olfactory) and radiant
(visual); the mode of stimulation of the third is mechanical, and the
sensations obtained by it are termed auditory. Their cerebral
localization is very imperfectly ascertained. Electric stimuli applied
to a part of the uppermost temporal gyrus excites movements of the ears
and eyes in the dog. Destruction of the same region when executed on
both hemispheres is argued by several observers to impair the sense of
hearing. To this region of cortex fibres have been traced from the lower
centres connected with the nerve-fibres coming from the cochlea of the
ear. From each cochlear nerve a path has been traced which passes to the
_insulae_ and the above-mentioned _temporal_ region of cortex of both
the cerebral hemispheres. The insula is a deeper-seated area of cortex
adjoining the uppermost temporal convolution. To it Flechsig's
chronological studies also impute a connexion with the nerves of the
ear. Early myelinization of fibres, presence of ascending and descending
"projection" tracts to and from lower centres outside the cortex,
calibre of fibres, microscopic characters of its cortical cells, all
those kinds of indirect items of evidence that obtain for the visual
cortex likewise mark out this insular-temporal area as connected fairly
directly with a special sense-organ, as in fact a sensory field of the
cortex; and the suspicion is that it is auditory. Clinical observation
supports the view in a striking way, but one requiring, in the opinion
of some, further confirmation. It is widely believed that destruction of
the upper and middle part of the uppermost temporal convolution produces
"word-deafness," that is, an inability to recognize familiar words when
heard, although the words are recognized when seen.

More precise information regarding this auditory region of the cortex
has recently been obtained by the experiments of Kalischer. These show
that after removal of this region from both sides of the brain in the
dog the animal shows great defect in answering to the call of its
master. Whereas prior to the operation the animal will prick its ears
and attend at once to the lightest call, it requires after the removal
of the auditory regions great loudness and insistence of calling to make
it attend and react as it did. This is the more striking in view of
other experimental results obtained. Kalischer trained a number of his
dogs not to take meat offered them except at the sound of a particular
note given by an organ pipe or a harmonium. The dogs rapidly learned not
to take the food on the sounding of notes of other pitch than the one
taught them as the permissive signal. This reaction on the part of the
animal was not impaired by the removal of the so-called auditory regions
of the cortex. Kalischer suggests that this reaction taught by training
is not destroyed by the operation which so greatly impairs the common
reaction to the master's call, because the former is a simpler process
more allied to reflex action. In it the attention of the dog is already
fastened upon the object, namely the food, and the stimulus given by the
note excites a reaction which simply allows the act of seizing the food
to take place, or on the other hand stops it. In the case of answering
the call of the master the stimulus has to excite attention, to produce
perception of the locality whence it comes, and to invoke a complicated
series of movements of response. He finds that destruction of the
posterior colliculi of the mid-brain, which have long been known to be
in some way connected with hearing, likewise destroys the response to
the call of the master, but did not destroy the trick taught to his dogs
of taking meat offered at the sound of a note of one particular pitch
but not at notes of other pitch given by the same instrument.

_Other Senses and Localization in the Cortex Cerebri._--Turning now to
the connexion between the function of the cortex and the senses other
than those of the great distance-receptors just dealt with, even less is
known. Disturbance and impairment of skin sensations are observable both
in experiments on the cerebrum of animals and in cases of cerebral
disease in man. But the localization in the cortex of regions specially
or mainly concerned with cutaneous sensation has not been made
sufficiently clear to warrant statement here. Still less is there
satisfactory knowledge regarding the existence of cortical areas
concerned with sensations originated in the alimentary canal. The least
equivocal of such evidence regards the sense of taste. There is some
slight evidence of a connexion between this sense and a region of the
hippocampal gyrus near to but behind that related to smell.

As to the sensations excited by the numerous receptors which lie not in
any of the surface membranes of the body but embedded in the masses of
the organs and between them, the _proprioceptors_, buried in muscles,
tendons and joints, there is little doubt that these sensations may be
disturbed or impaired by injury of the _cortex cerebri_. They may
probably also be excited by cortical stimulation. But evidence of
localization of their seat in, and their details of connexion with, the
cortex, is at present uncertain. Many authorities consider it probable
that sensations of touch and the sensations initiated by the
proprioceptors of muscles and joints (the organs of the so-called
muscular sense) are specially related to the post-central gyrus and
perhaps to the pre-central gyrus also. The clearest items on this point
are perhaps the following.

Besides the regions instanced above, in the limbic (olfactory),
occipital (visual), and temporal (auditory) lobes, as exhibiting
precocity of development, there is a region showing similar precocity in
the fronto-parietal portion of the hemisphere. This is the region which
in the Primates includes the large _central fissure_ (sometimes called
the fissure of Rolando). To it fibres are traced which seem to continue
a path of conduction that began with afferent tracts belonging to the
spinal cord, and tracts which there is reason to think conduct impulses
from the receptor-organs of skin and muscles. The part of the cortex
immediately behind the _central fissure_ seems to be the main cortical
goal for these upward-conducting paths. That _post-central_ strip of
cortex would in this view bear to these paths a relation similar to that
which the occipital and temporal regions bear to afferent tracts from
the retina and the cochlea. There are observations which associate
impaired tactual sense and impaired perception of posture and movement
of a limb with injury of the _central region_ of the cortex. But there
are a number also which show that the motor defect which is a
well-ascertained result of injury of the _pre-central_ gyrus is
sometimes unaccompanied by any obvious defect either of touch or of
muscular sense. It seems then that the motor centres of this region are
closely connected with the centres for cutaneous and muscular sense, yet
are not so closely interwoven with them that mechanical damage inflicted
on the one of necessity heavily damages the other as well. There is
evidence that the sensory cortex in this region lies posterior to that
which has been conveniently termed the "motor." These latter in the
monkey and the man-like apes and man lie in front of the central
fissure: the sensory lie probably behind it. A.W. Campbell has found
changes in the cortex of the post-central convolution ensuing in the
essentially sensory disease, _tabes dorsalis_, a disease in which
degeneration of sensory nerve-fibres of the muscular sense and of the
skin senses is prominent. He considers that in man and the man-like apes
the part of the post-central gyrus which lies next to and enters into
the _central fissure_ is concerned with simpler sensual recognitions,
while the adjoining part of that convolution farther back is a "psychic
region" concerned with more complex psychosis connected with the senses
of skin and muscle. His subdivision of the post-central gyrus is based
on histological differences which he discovers between its anterior and
its posterior parts and on the above-described analogous differentiation
of a "sensory" from a "psychic" part in the visual region of cortex.

It will be noted that although certain regions of the cortex are found
connected closely with certain of the main sense organs, there are
important receptive organs which do not appear to have any special
region of cortex assigned to their sensual products. Thus, there is the
"vestibular labyrinth" of the ear. This great receptive organ, so
closely connected in function with the movements and adjustment of the
postures of the head and eyes, and indeed of the whole body, is
prominent in the co-ordination necessary for the equilibrium of the
body, an essential part of the fundamental acts of progression,
standing, &c. Yet neither structural nor functional connexion with any
special region of the cortex has been traced as yet for the labyrinthine
receptors. Perceptions of the position of the head and of the body are
of course part of our habitual and everyday experience. It may perhaps
be that these perceptions are almost entirely obtained through sense
organs which are not labyrinthine, but visual, muscular, tactual, and so
on. The labyrinth may, though it controls and adjusts the muscular
activities which maintain the balance of the body, operate reflexly
without in its operation exciting of itself sensations. The results of
the unconscious reflexes it initiated and guided would be perceptible
through other organs of sense. But against this purely unconscious
functioning of the labyrinth and its nervous apparatus stands the fact
that galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth is accompanied by well-known
distinctive sensations--including giddiness, &c. Moreover, the prominent
factor in sea-sickness, a disorder richly suffused with sensations, is
probably the labyrinth. Yet there is marked absence of evidence of any
special and direct connexion between the _cortex cerebri_ and the
labyrinth organs.

Also there is curiously little evidence of connexion of the cortex with
the nervous paths of conduction concerned with pain. As far as the
present writer can find from reference to books and from the clinical
experience of others, "pain" is unknown as an _aura_ in cortical
epilepsy, or at most is of equivocal occurrence.

The preceding brief exposition of some of the main features of the
localization of function in the _cortex cerebri_, gradually deciphered
by patient inquiry, shows that the scheme of partition of function so
far perceptible does not follow the quaint lines of analysis of the
phrenologists with their supposed mental entities, so-called
"faculties." On the contrary it is based, as some of those who early
favoured a differential arrangement of function in the cerebrum had
surmised, on the _separateness of the incoming channels from peripheral
organs of sense_. These organs fall into groups separate one from
another not only by reason of their spatial differentiation at the
surface and in the thickness of the body, but also because each group
generates sensations which introspection tells us are of a species
unbridgeably separate from those generated by the other groups. Between
sensations of hearing and sensations of sight there is a dissimilarity
across which no intermediate series of sensual phenomena extend. The two
species of sensations are wholly disparate. Similarly there is a total
and impassable gap between sensations of touch and sensations of sight
and sound. In other words the sensations fall into groups which are
wholly disparate and are hence termed species. But within each species
there exist multifold varieties of the specific sensation, e.g.
sensations of red, of yellow, &c. We should expect, therefore, that the
conducting paths from the receptive organs which in their function as
sense-organs yield wholly disparate sensations would in so far as
subserving sensation diverge and pass to separate neural mechanisms.
That these sense-organs should in fact be found to possess in the cortex
of the cerebrum separate fields for their sensual nervous apparatus is,
therefore, in harmony with what would be the _a priori_ supposition.

But, as emphasized at the beginning of this article, the receptive
organs belonging to the surfaces and the depths of the body and forming
the starting-points for the whole system of the afferent nerves, have
two functions more or less separate. One of these functions is to excite
sensations and the other is to excite movements, by reflex action,
especially in glands and muscles. In this latter function, namely the
reflexifacient, all that the receptive organs effect is effected by
means of the efferent nerves. They all have to use the efferent,
especially the motor, nerves of the body. So rich is the connexion of
the receptive organs with the efferent nerves that it is not improbable
that, through the central nervous organ, each receptive organ is
connected with every motor nerve of the whole nervous system,--the facts
of strychnine poisoning show that if this is not literally true it is at
least approximately so. Hence one of the goals to which each afferent
fibre from a receptive organ leads is a number of motor nerves. Their
conducting paths must, therefore, converge in passing to the
starting-points of the motor nerves; because these latter are
instruments common to the use of a number of different receptive organs
in so far as they excite reflex actions. On the other hand those of
their conducting paths which are concerned in the genesis of sensation,
instead of converging, diverge, at least as far as the _cortex cerebri_,
or if not divergent, remain separate. These considerations would make it
appear likely that the conducting path from each receptive organ divides
in the central nervous system into two main lines, one of which goes off
to its own particular region of the _cortex cerebri_ whither run
conductors only of similar sensual species to itself, while the other
main line passes with many others to a great motor station where, as at
a telephone exchange, coordinate use of the outgoing lines is assured to
them all. Now there is in fact a portion of the cortex in mammals the
functions of which are so pre-eminently motor, as judged by our present
methods, that it is commonly designated the _motor cortex_ (see fig.
24). This region of the cortex occupies in the Primates, including Man,
the pre-central gyrus. Among the items of evidence which reveal its
motor capabilities are the following.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Diagram of the Topography of the Main Groups of
Foci in the Motor Field of Chimpanzee.]

_The Precentral or Motor Region of the Cortex._--The application to it
of electric currents excites movements in the skeletal muscles. The
movements occur in the half of the body of the side crossed from that of
the hemisphere excited. The "motor representation," as it is termed, is
in the cortex better described as a representation of definite actions
than of particular muscles. The actions "represented" in the top part of
the gyrus, namely next the great longitudinal fissure, move the leg;
those in the lowest part of the gyrus belong to the tongue and mouth.
The topical distribution along the length of the gyrus may be described
in a general way as following a sequence resembling that of the motor
representation in the spinal cord, the top of the gyrus being taken as
corresponding with the caudal end of the spinal cord. The sequence as
the gyrus is followed downwards runs: perineum, foot, knee, hip,
abdomen, chest, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, eyelids and ear, nose,
mouth and tongue. The nature of the movement is very fairly constant for
separate points of this motor cortex as observed both in the same and in
similar experiments. Thus flexion of the arm will be excitable from one
set of points, and extension of the arm from another set of points;
opening of the jaw from one set and closure from another, and so on.
These various movements if excited strongly tend to have characters like
those of the movements seen in an epileptic convulsion. Strong
stimulation excites in fact a convulsion like that of epilepsy,
beginning with the movement usual for the point stimulated and spreading
so as to assume the proportions of a convulsion affecting the entire
skeletal musculature of one half or even of the whole body. The
resemblance to an epileptic seizure is the closer because the movement
before it subsides becomes clonic (rhythmic) as in epilepsy. The
determination of the exact spots of cortex in which are represented the
various movements of the body has served a useful practical purpose in
indicating the particular places in the cortex which are the seat of
disease. These the physician can localize more exactly by reason of this
knowledge. Hence the surgeon, if the nature of the disease is such as
can be dealt with by surgical means, can without unnecessarily damaging
the skull and brain, proceed directly to the point which is the seat of
the mischief.

The motor representation of certain parts of the body is much more
liberal than is that of others. There is little correspondence between
the mere mass of musculature involved and the area of the cortex devoted
to its representation. Variety of movement rather than force or energy
of movement seems to demand extent of cortex. The cortical area for the
thumb is larger than those for the whole abdomen and chest combined. The
cortical area for the tongue is larger than that for the neck. Different
movements of one and the same part are very unequally represented in the
cortex. Thus, flexion of the leg is more extensively represented than is
extension, opening of the jaw has a much larger cortical area than has
closure of the jaws. It is interesting that certain agents, for instance
strychnine, and the poison of the bacilli which cause the disease known
as tetanus or lock-jaw, upset this normal topography, and replace in the
cortex flexion of the limb by extension of the limb, and opening of the
jaw by closure of the jaw. There is, however, no evidence that they do
this by changing in any way the cortical mechanisms themselves. It is
more likely that their action is confined to the lower centres, bulbar
and spinal, upon which the discharge excited from the cortex plays. The
change thus induced in the movement excited by the cortex does, however,
show that the point of cortex which causes for instance opening of the
mouth is connected with the motor nerves to the closing muscles as well
as with those of the opening muscles. This is an item of evidence that
the "centres" of the cortex are connected with the motor nerves of
antagonistic muscles in such a way that when the "centre" excites one
set of the muscles to contract, it simultaneously under normal
circumstances causes inhibition of the motor neurones of the opposed set
of muscles (reciprocal innervation). In the great majority of movements
excited from the motor cortex of a single hemisphere of the cerebrum,
the movement evoked is confined to one side of the body, namely to that
opposite to the hemisphere stimulated. There are, however, important
exceptions to this. Thus, adduction of both vocal cords is excited from
the cortex of either hemisphere. The movement of closure of the eyelids
is usually bilateral, unless the stimulation be very weak; then the
movement is of the eyelids of the opposite side only. The same holds
true for the movements of the jaw. It, therefore, seems clear that with
many movements which are usually bilaterally performed in ordinary life,
such as opening of the jaw, blinking, &c., the symmetrical areas of the
motor regions of both hemispheres are simultaneously in action.

In regard to all these movements elicitable by artificial stimuli from
the motor cortex it is obvious that were there clearer evidence that the
pallial region from which they are elicitable is fairly directly
connected with corticopetal paths subserving cutaneous sensation or
"muscular sense," the movements might be regarded as falling into the
category of higher reflexes connected with the organs of touch, muscular
sense, &c., just as the movements of the eyeball excitable from the
visual cortex may be regarded as higher reflexes connected with vision.
The evidence of the connexion of the reactions of the motor cortex with
cutaneous and muscular senses appears, however, scarcely sufficient to
countenance at present this otherwise plausible view, which has on
general grounds much to commend it.

It is remarkable that movements of the eyeball itself, i.e. apart from
movement of the lids, are not in the category of movements elicitable
from the precentral gyrus, the "motor" cortex. They are found
represented in a region farther forward, namely in front of the
precentral gyrus altogether, and occupying a scattered set of points in
the direction frontal from the areas for movements of arm and face. This
frontal area yields on excitation conjugate movements of both eyeballs
extremely like if not exactly similar to those yielded by excitation of
the occipital (visual) region of the cortex. It is supposed by some that
this frontal area yielding eye-movements has its function in this
respect based upon afferent conductors from other parts of the eyeball
than the retina, for instance upon kinaesthetic (Bastian) impressions or
upon sensual impressions derived from the cornea and the coats of the
eyeball including the ciliary and iris muscles. The ocular muscles are
certainly a source of centripetal impulses, but their connexion with the
cortex is not clear as to either their nature or their seat. The
question seems for the present to allow no clearer answer. It is
certain, however, that the frontal area of eye movements has
corticofugal paths descending from it to the lower motor centres of the
eyeballs quite independent of those descending from the occipital
(visual) area of eye-movements. Further, it seems clear that in many
animals there is another cortical region, a third region, the region
which we saw above might be considered auditory, where movements of the
eyeball similar to those elicitable in the occipital and frontal cortex
can be provoked. A. Tschermak is inclined to give the eyeball movements
of the frontal region the significance of reflex movements which carry
the visual field in various directions in answer to demands made by
sensory data derived from touch, &c., as for instance from the hand. The
movements of the eyeballs elicitable from the occipital region of the
cortex he regards as probably concerned with directing the gaze toward
something seen, for instance, in the peripheral field of vision. The
occipital movement would, therefore, be excited through the retina, and
would result in bringing the yellow spot region of the retinae of both
eyes to bear upon the object. This view has much to justify it. The
movements of the eyeballs excited from the cortex of the auditory region
would in a similar way be explicable as bringing the gaze to bear upon a
direction in which a sound had been located, auditory initiation
replacing the visual and tactual of the occipital and the frontal
regions respectively.

Turning from these still speculative matters to others less suggestive
but of actual ascertainment, we find that the motor nature of the
precentral cortex as ascertained by electric stimuli is further
certified by the occurrence of disturbance and impairment of motor power
and adjustment following destruction of that region of the cortex. The
movements which such a part as a limb executes are of course manifold in
purpose. The hind limb of a dog is used for standing, for stepping, for
scratching, for squatting, and, where a dog, for instance, has been
trained to stand or walk on its hind legs alone, for skilled acts
requiring a special training for their acquisition. It is found that
when the motor area of the brain has been destroyed, the limb is at
first paralysed for all these movements, but after a time the limb
recovers the ability to execute some of them, though not all. The
scratching movement suffers little, and rapid improvement after cerebral
injury soon effaces the impairment, at first somewhat pronounced, in the
use of the limb for walking, running, &c., and ordinary movements of
progression. Even when both hemispheres have been destroyed the dog can
still stand and walk and run. Destruction of the motor region of the
cortex renders the fore limbs of the dog unable to execute such skilled
movements as the steadying of a bone for gnawing or the trained act of
offering the paw in answer to the command of the master. Skilled acts of
the limb, apart from conjoined movements in which it, together with all
the other limbs, takes part, assume of course a larger share of the
office of the limb in the Primates than in the dog; and this is
especially true for the fore limb. It is when the fore-foot becomes a
hand that opportunity is given for its more skilled individual use and
for its training in movements as a tool, or for the handling of tools
and weapons. It is these movements which suffer most heavily and for the
longest period after injury of the motor region of the cortex. Hence the
disablement ensuing upon injury to the cortex would be expected to be
most apparent in the Primates; and it is so, and most of all in Man.
Further, in Man there ensues a condition called "contracture," which is
not so apparent or frequent a result in other animals,--indeed, does not
occur at all in other animals except the monkey. In contracture the
muscles of the paretic limb are not flaccid, as they are usually in
paralysis, but they are tense and the limb is more or less rigidly fixed
by them in a certain position, usually one of flexion at elbow and
wrist. This condition does not occur at first, but gradually supervenes
in the course of a number of weeks. In Man the destruction of the motor
area of the cortex cripples the limb even for the part it should play in
the combined limb movements of walking, &c., and cripples it to an
extent markedly contrasting with the slight disturbances seen in the
lower mammals, e.g. the dog.

As regards the recovery of motor power after lesions of the motor
cortex, two processes seem at work which are termed respectively
_restitution_ and _compensation_. By the former is understood the
recovery obtained when a part of a "centre" is destroyed, and the rest
of the centre, although thrown out of function at first, recovers and
supplements the deficiency later. An example of restitution would be the
recovery from temporary hemianopia caused by a small injury in one
occipital lobe. By compensation is understood the improvement of an
impaired nervous function, traceable to other centres different from
those destroyed supplying means to compass the reaction originally
dependent on the centres subsequently destroyed. Instances of such
compensation are the recovery of taxis for equilibrium subsequent to
destruction of the labyrinth of the ear, where the recovery is traceable
to assistance obtained through the eye. It will be noted that these
instances of recovery by restitution and by compensation respectively
are taken, from cases of injury inflicted on receptive rather than on
motor centres. It is doubtful how far they really apply to the undoubted
improvement that does within certain limits progress and succeed in
partially effacing the paresis immediately consequent on lesions of the
motor area. It has to be remembered that in all cases of traumatic
injury to the nervous system, especially where the trauma implicates the
central nervous organ, the first effects and impairment of function
resulting are due to a mixed cause, namely on the one hand the
mechanical rupture of conducting paths actually broken by solution of
their continuity, and on the other hand the temporary interruption of
conducting paths by "shock." Shock effects are not permanent: they pass
off. They are supposed to be due to a change at the synapses connecting
neurone with neurone in the grey matter. They amount in effect to a
long-lasting and gradually subsiding inhibition.

  For diseases of the brain see NEUROPATHOLOGY, INSANITY, SKULL
  (_Surgery_), &c.     (C. S. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The literature of the pineal region is enormous. Studnicka (in
    _Oppels Vergleichende mikrosk. Anat._ Teile 4-5, 1904, 1905) gives
    285 references. The present conception of the generalized arrangement
    is: ([alpha]) A single glandular median organ from the fore-brain
    called the paraphysis. ([beta]) A pouch of the ependymal roof of the
    ventricle called the dorsal sac. ([gamma]) A right and left
    epiphysis, one of which may be wholly or partially suppressed. These
    may change their position to anterior and posterior in some animals.



BRAINERD, DAVID (1718-1747), American missionary among the Indians, was
born at Haddam, Connecticut, on the 20th of April 1718. He was orphaned
at fourteen, and studied for nearly three years (1739-1742) at Yale. He
then prepared for the ministry, being licensed to preach in 1742, and
early in 1743 decided to devote himself to missionary work among the
Indians. Supported by the Scottish "Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge," he worked first at Kaunaumeek, an Indian settlement about 20
m. from Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and subsequently, until his death,
among the Delaware Indians in Pennsylvania (near Easton) and New Jersey
(near Cranbury). His heroic and self-denying labours, both for the
spiritual and for the temporal welfare of the Indians, wore out a
naturally feeble constitution, and on the 19th of October 1747 he died
at the house of his friend, Jonathan Edwards, in Northampton,
Massachusetts.

  His _Journal_ was published in two parts in 1746 by the Scottish
  Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; and in 1749, at Boston,
  Jonathan Edwards published _An Account of the Life of the Late Rev.
  David Brainerd, chiefly taken from his own Diary and other Private
  Writings_, which has become a missionary classic. A new edition, with
  the _Journal_ and Brainerd's letters embodied, was published by Sereno
  E. Dwight at New Haven in 1822; and in 1884 was published what is
  substantially another edition, _The Memoirs of David Brainerd_, edited
  by James M. Sherwood.



BRAINERD, a city and the county-seat of Crow Wing county, Minnesota,
U.S.A., on the E. bank of the Mississippi river, about 127 m. N.W. of
Minneapolis. Pop. (1890) 5703; (1900) 7524, of whom 2193 were
foreign-born; (1905) 8133; (1910) 8526. It is served by the Minnesota &
International and the Northern Pacific railways. The latter maintains
here large car and repair shops, and a sanatorium for its employees.
There are also the Sisters of St Joseph hospital, a county court house,
a public library and a Y.M.C.A. building. A dam across the Mississippi
provides water power (about 60,000 H.P.) which is utilized extensively
for manufacturing purposes. Lumbering is an important industry, and
there are saw mills and planing mills, and an extensive creosote plant
for treating railway ties and timber. There are also flour mills, paper
and pulp mills, cigar factories, a brewery, a large foundry and a grain
elevator. In 1906 large quantities of iron ore were discovered in the
vicinity, the new range, the Cuyuna, running through the city from
north-east to south-west. Brainerd, named in honour of David Brainerd,
was settled in 1870, and chartered as a city in 1883.



BRAINTREE, a market town in the Maldon parliamentary division of Essex,
England; 45 m. N.E. of London by a branch line from Witham of the Great
Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district, 5330. The parish church of St
Michael is a fine edifice of Early English work with later additions. A
corn exchange, mechanics' institute and public hall may also be
mentioned. The bishops of London had formerly a palace in the town, but
there are no remains of the building. The manufactures of silk and crape
have superseded that of woollen cloth, which was introduced by the
Flemings who fled to England to escape the persecution of the duke of
Alva. Matting and brushes are also made. On the north lies the large
village of BOCKING, with the Perpendicular parish church of St Mary,
similar industries, and a population of 3347.



BRAINTREE, a township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on the
Monatiquot river about 10 m. S. of Boston. Pop. (1890) 4848; (1900)
598l, including 1250 foreign-born; (1905, state census) 6879; (1910)
8066. The New York, New Haven & Hartford railway crosses the town and
has stations at its villages of Braintree, South Braintree and East
Braintree, which are also served by suburban electric railways. In South
Braintree are the Thayer Academy (co-educational; opened 1877) and the
Thayer public library, both founded by and named in honour of General
Sylvanus Thayer (1785-1872), a well-known military engineer born in
Braintree, who was superintendent of the United States Military Academy
in 1817-1833 and has been called the "father of West Point." There are
large shoe factories and other manufactories. Bog iron was early found
in Braintree, and iron-works, among the first in America, were
established here in 1644. Braintree was first incorporated in 1640 from
land belonging to Boston and called Mount Wollaston, and was named from
the town in England. At Merry Mount, in that part of Braintree which is
now Quincy, a settlement was established by Thomas Morton in 1625, but
the gay life of the settlers and their selling rum and firearms to the
Indians greatly offended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, who in 1627 arrested
Morton; soon afterward Governor John Endecott of Massachusetts Bay
visited Merry Mount, rebuked the inhabitants and cut down their Maypole.
Later the place was abandoned, and in 1634 a Puritan settlement was made
here. In 1708 the town was divided into the North Precinct and the South
Precinct, and it was in the former, now Quincy, that John Adams, John
Hancock and John Quincy Adams were born. Quincy was separated from
Braintree in 1792 (there were further additions to Quincy from Braintree
in 1856), and Randolph in 1793.

  See D.M. Wilson, _Quincy, Old Braintree and Merry Mount_ (Boston,
  1906); C.F. Adams, Jr., _Three Episodes of Massachusetts History_
  (Boston, 1892 and 1896); W.S. Pattee, _History of Old Braintree and
  Quincy_ (Quincy, 1878).



BRAKE, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Oldenburg, on the left
bank of the Weser, about halfway between Bremen and the mouth of the
river. Pop. 5000. It was for centuries the port of Bremen; and though,
since the founding of Bremerhaven, it no longer possesses a monopoly of
the river traffic as before, it still continues to flourish. Large docks
have been constructed, and the place has a considerable import trade in
English coal. Shipbuilding and weaving are carried on to some extent.

Brake in Oldenburg must be distinguished from the village of the same
name in the principality of Lippe, known as Brake bei Limgo, which gave
its name to the cadet line of the counts of Lippe-Brake (1621-1709).



BRAKE. (1) A term for rough-tangled undergrowth, connected, according to
the _New English Dictionary_, with "break," to separate. The
"brake-fern" (_Pteris aquilina_) is the common "bracken," and is a
shortened form of that northern Eng. word, derived from a Scand. word
for "fern" (cf. Swed. _bräken_), though often confused with "brake,"
undergrowth. (2) A term applied to many implements and mechanical and
other appliances, often spelled "break." Here there are probably several
words, difficult to separate in origin, connected either with "break,"
to separate, and its derived meanings, or with the Fr. _braquer_
(appearing in such expressions as _braquer un canon_, to turn or point a
gun), from O. Fr. _brac_, modern _bras_, an arm, Lat. _bracchium_. The
word is thus used of a toothed instrument for separating the fibre of
flax and hemp; of the "break-rolls" employed in flour manufacture; of a
heavy wheeled vehicle used for "breaking in" horses, and hence of a
large carriage of the wagonette type; of an arm or lever, and so of the
winch of a crossbow and of a pump handle, cf. "brake-pump"; of a curb or
bridle for a horse; and of a mechanical appliance for checking the speed
of moving vehicles, &c. It is noteworthy that the two last meanings are
also possessed by the Fr. _frein_ and the Ger. _Bremse_.

Brakes, in engineering, are instruments by means of which mechanical
energy may be expended in overcoming friction. They are used for two
main classes of purpose: (1) to limit or decrease the velocity of a
moving body, or to bring it completely to rest; and (2) to measure
directly the amount of frictional resistance between two bodies, or
indirectly the amount of energy given out by a body or bodies in motion.
Machines in which brakes are employed for purposes of the second class
are commonly known as dynamometers (q.v.). The other class is
exemplified in the brakes used on wheeled vehicles and on cranes, lifts,
&c. Here a body, or system of bodies, originally at rest, has been set
in motion and has received acceleration up to a certain velocity, the
work which has been done in that acceleration being stored up as "actual
energy" in the body itself. Before the body can be brought to rest it
must part with this energy, expending it in overcoming some external
resistance. If the energy be great in proportion to the usual resistance
tending to stop the body, the motion will continue for a long time, or
through a long distance, before the energy has been completely expended
and the body brought to rest. But in certain cases considerations of
safety or convenience require that this time or distance be greatly
shortened, and this is done by artificially increasing the external
resistance for the time being, by means of a brake.

A simple method of obtaining this increased resistance is by pressing a
block or shoe of metal or wood against the rim of a moving wheel, or by
tightening a flexible strap or band on a rotating pulley or drum. In
wheeled road vehicles, a wheel may be prevented from rotating by a chain
passed through its spokes and attached to the body of the vehicle, when
the resistance is increased by the substitution of a rubbing for a
rolling action; or the same effect may be produced by fixing a slipper
or skid under the wheel. Other forms of brake depend, not on the
friction between two solid bodies, but on the frictional resistance of a
fluid, as in "fan" and "pump" brakes. Thus the motion of revolving
blades may be opposed by the resistance of the air or of a liquid in
which they are made to work, or the motion of a plunger fitting tightly
in a cylinder filled with a fluid may be checked by the fluid being
prevented from escape except through a narrow orifice. The fly used to
regulate the speed of the striking train in a clock is an example of a
fan brake, while a pump brake is utilized for controlling the recoil of
guns and in the hydraulic buffers sometimes fitted at terminal railway
stations to stop trains that enter at excessive speed. On electric
tramcars a braking effect is sometimes obtained by arranging the
connexions of the motors so that they act as generators driven by the
moving car. In this way a counter-torque is exerted on the axles. The
current produced is expended by some means, as by being made to operate
some frictional braking device, or to magnetize iron shoes carried on
the car just over, but clear of, the running rails, to which they are
then magnetically attracted (see TRACTION).

The simplest way of applying a brake is by muscular force, exerted
through a hand or foot lever or through a screw, by which the brake
block is pressed against the rim of the wheel or the band brake
tightened on its drum. This method is sufficient in the case of most
road vehicles, and is largely used on railway vehicles. But the power
thus available is limited, and becomes inadequate for heavy vehicles
moving at high speeds. Moreover, on a train consisting of a number of
vehicles, the hand brakes on each of which are independent of all
others, either a brakesman must be carried on each, or a number of the
brakes must be left unused, with consequent loss of stopping power;
while even if there is a brakesman on every vehicle it is impossible to
secure that all the brakes throughout the train are applied with the
promptness that is necessary in case of emergency.

Considerations of this sort led to the development of power brakes for
railway trains. Of these there are five main classes:--


  Railway power brakes.

(1) Mechanical brakes, worked by springs, friction wheels on the axle,
chains wound on drums, or other mechanical devices, or by the force
produced when, by reason of a sudden checking of the speed of the
locomotive, the momentum of the cars causes pressure on the draw-bars or
buffing devices. (2) Hydraulic brakes, worked by means of water forced
through pipes into proper mechanism for transmitting its force to the
brake-shoes. (3) Electric brakes. (4) Air and vacuum brakes, worked by
compressed air or by air at atmospheric pressure operating on a vacuum.
(5) Brakes worked by steam or water from the boiler of the engine,
operating by means of a cylinder; the use of these is generally limited
to the locomotive. Of this kind is the counter-pressure or water brake
of L. le Chatelier. If the valve gear of a locomotive in motion be
reversed and the steam regulator be left open, the cylinders act as
compressors, pumping air from the exhaust pipe into the boiler against
the steam pressure. A retarding effect is thus exercised, but at the
cost of certain inconveniences due to the passage of hot air and cinders
from the smoke box through the cylinders. To remedy these, le Chatelier
arranged that a jet of hot water from the boiler should be delivered
into the exhaust pipe, so that steam and not the hot flue gases should
be pumped back.

Power brakes may be either continuous or independent--continuous if
connected throughout the train and with the locomotive by pipes, wires,
&c., as the compressed air, vacuum and electric brakes; independent if
not so connected, as the buffer-brakes and hand-brakes. Continuous
brakes may be divided into two other great classes--automatic and
non-automatic. The former are so arranged that they are applied
automatically on all the coaches of the train if any important part of
the apparatus is broken, or the couplings between cars are ruptured; in
an emergency they can be put on by the guard, or (in some cases) by a
passenger. Non-automatic brakes can be applied only by the person
(usually the engine-driver) to whom the management of them is given;
they may become inoperative on all the coaches, and always on those
which have become detached, if a coupling or other important and
generally essential part is broken. Many mechanical and several
hydraulic and electrical continuous brakes have been invented and tried;
but experience has shown them so inadequate in practice that they have
all practically disappeared, leaving the field to the air and the vacuum
brakes. At first these were non-automatic, but in 1872 the automatic
air-brake was invented by George Westinghouse, and the automatic
vacuum-brake was developed a few years later.

Those respects in which non-automatic brakes are inadequate will be
understood from the following summary of the requirements most important
in a train-braking apparatus: (1) It must be capable of application to
every wheel throughout the train. (2) It must be so prompt in action
that the shortest possible time shall elapse between its first
application and the moment when the full power can be exerted throughout
the train. (3) It must be capable of being applied by the engine-driver
or by any of the officials in charge of the train, either in concert or
independently. (4) The motion of the train must be arrested in the
shortest possible distance. (5) The failure of a vital part must declare
itself by causing the brake to be applied and to remain applied until
the cause of failure is removed. (6) The breaking of the train in two or
more parts must cause immediate automatic application of the brakes on
all the coaches. (7) When used in ordinary service stops it must be
capable of gradual and uniform application (followed, if necessary, by a
full emergency application at any part of the service application) and
of prompt release under all conditions of application. (8) It must be
simple in operation and construction, not liable to derangement, and
inexpensive in maintenance.


    Simple air-brake.

  The Westinghouse non-automatic or "straight" air-brake, patented in
  1869, consists in its simplest form of a direct-acting, steam-driven
  air-pump, carried on the locomotive, which forces compressed air into
  a reservoir, usually placed under the foot-plate of the locomotive.
  From this reservoir a pipe is led through the engine cab, where it is
  fitted with a three-way cock, to the rear of the locomotive tender,
  where it terminates in a flexible hose, on the end of which is a
  coupling. The coaches are furnished with a similar pipe, having hose
  and coupling at each end, which communicates with one end of a
  cylinder containing a piston, to the rod of which the brake-rods and
  levers are connected. The application of the brakes is effected by the
  engine-driver turning the three-way cock, so that compressed air flows
  through the pipe and, acting against one side of the brake-cylinder
  piston, applies the brake-shoes to the wheels by the movement of this
  piston and the rods and levers connected to it. To release the brakes
  the three-way cock is turned to cut off communication between the main
  reservoir and the train-pipe, and to open a port permitting the escape
  of the compressed air in the train-pipe and brake-cylinders. This
  brake was soon found defective and inadequate in many ways. An
  appreciable time was required for the air to flow through the pipes
  from the locomotive to the car-cylinders, and this time increased
  quickly with the length of the trains. Still more objectionable,
  however, was the fact that on detached coaches the air-brakes could
  not be applied, the result being sometimes serious collisions between
  the front and rear portions of the train.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Westinghouse Air-Brake.

  Section through Triple-Valve and Brake-Cylinder.]


    Automatic air-brake.

  In the Westinghouse "ordinary" automatic air-brake a main air
  reservoir on the engine is kept charged with compressed air at 80 lb.
  per sq. in. by means of the steam-pump, which may be controlled by an
  automatic governor. On electric railways a pump, driven by an electric
  motor, is generally employed; but occasionally, on trains which run
  short distances, no pump is carried, the main reservoir being charged
  at the terminal points with sufficient compressed air for the journey.
  Conveniently placed to the driver's hand is the driver's valve, by
  means of which he controls the flow of air from the main reservoir to
  the train-pipe, or from the train-pipe to the atmosphere. A
  reducing-valve is attached to the driver's valve, and in the normal or
  running position of the latter reduces the pressure of the air flowing
  from the main reservoir to the train-pipe by 10 or 15 lb. per sq. in.
  From the engine a train-pipe runs the whole length of the train, being
  rendered continuous between each vehicle and between the engine and
  the rest of the train by flexible hose couplings. Each vehicle is
  provided with a brake-cylinder H (fig. 1), containing a piston, the
  movement of which applies the brake blocks to the wheels, an
  "auxiliary air-reservoir" G, and an automatic "triple-valve" F. The
  auxiliary reservoir receives compressed air from the train-pipe and
  stores it for use in the brake-cylinder of its own vehicle, and both
  the auxiliary reservoir and the triple-valve are connected directly or
  indirectly with the train-pipe through the pipe E. The automatic
  action of the brake is due to the construction of the triple-valve,
  the principal parts of which are a piston and slide-valve, so arranged
  that the air in the auxiliary reservoir acts at all times on the side
  of the piston to which the slide-valve is attached, while the air in
  the train-pipe exerts its pressure on the opposite side. So long as
  the brakes are not in operation, the pressures in the train-pipe,
  triple-valve and auxiliary reservoir are all equal, and there is no
  compressed air in the brake-cylinder. But when, in order to apply the
  brake, the driver discharges air from the train-pipe, this
  equilibrium is destroyed, and the greater pressure in the auxiliary
  reservoir forces the triple-valve to a position which allows air from
  the auxiliary reservoir to pass directly into the brake-cylinder. This
  air forces out the piston of the brake-cylinder and applies the
  brakes, connexion being made with the brake-rigging at R. The purpose
  of the small groove n which establishes communication between the two
  sides of the piston when the brakes are off, is to prevent their
  unintended application through slight leakage from the train-pipe. To
  release the brakes, the driver, by moving the handle of his valve to
  the release position, admits air from the main reservoir to the
  train-pipe, the pressure in which thus becomes greater than that in
  the auxiliary reservoir; the piston and slide-valve of the
  triple-valve are thereby forced back to their normal position, the
  compressed air in the brake-cylinder is discharged, and the piston is
  brought back by the coiled spring, thus releasing the brakes. At the
  same time the auxiliary reservoir is recharged.


    Quick-acting air-brake.

  With this "ordinary" brake, since an appreciable time is required for
  the reduction of pressure to travel along the train-pipe from the
  engine, the brakes are applied sensibly sooner at the front than at
  the end of the train, and with long trains this difference in the time
  of application becomes a matter of importance. The "quick-acting"
  brake was introduced to remedy this defect. For it the triple valve is
  provided with a supplementary mechanism, which, when the air pressure
  in the train-pipe is suddenly or violently reduced, opens a passage
  whereby air from the train-pipe is permitted to enter the
  brake-cylinder directly. The result is twofold: not only is the
  pressure from the auxiliary reservoir acting in the brake-cylinder
  reinforced by the pressure in the train-pipe, but the pressure in the
  train-pipe is reduced locally in every vehicle in extremely rapid
  succession instead of at the engine only, and in consequence all the
  brakes are applied almost simultaneously throughout the train. The
  same effect is produced should the train break in two, or a hose or
  any part of the train-pipe burst; but during ordinary or "service"
  stops the triple-valve acts exactly as in the ordinary brake, the
  quick-acting portion, that is, the vertical piston and valve seen in
  fig. 1, not coming into operation. When the handle Z is turned to the
  position X the quick-acting mechanism is rendered inoperative, and
  when it is at Y the brake on the vehicle concerned is wholly cut out
  of action.

  A further improvement introduced in the Westinghouse brake in 1906 was
  designed to give quick action for service as well as emergency stops.
  In this the triple-valve is substantially the same as in the ordinary
  brake. The additional mechanism of the quick-acting portion is
  dispensed with, but instead, a small chamber, normally containing air
  at atmospheric pressure, is provided on each vehicle, and is so
  arranged that it is put into communication with the train-pipe by the
  first movement of the triple-valve. As soon, therefore, as the driver,
  by lowering the pressure in the train-pipe, causes the triple-valve in
  the foremost vehicle of the train to operate, a certain quantity of
  air rushes out of the train-pipe into the small chamber; a further
  local reduction in the pressure of the train-pipe in that vehicle is
  thereby effected, and this almost instantaneously actuates the
  triple-valve of the succeeding vehicle, and so on throughout the
  train. In this way, on a train 1800 ft. long, consisting of sixty
  30-ft. vehicles, the brake-blocks may be applied, with equal force, on
  the last vehicle about 2½ seconds later than on the first.


    High-speed air-brake.

  Brake-blocks can be applied, without skidding the wheels, with greater
  pressure at high speeds than at low. Advantage is taken of this fact
  in the design of the Westinghouse "high-speed" brake, invented in
  1894, which consists of attachments enabling the pressure in the
  train-pipe and reservoirs to be increased at the will of the driver.
  The increased pressure acting in the brake-cylinder increases in the
  same proportion the pressure of the brake-shoes against the wheels.
  Attached to the brake cylinder is a valve for automatically reducing
  the pressure therein proportionately to the reduction in speed, until
  the maximum pressure under which the brakes are operated in making
  ordinary stops is reached, when this valve closes and the maximum safe
  pressure for operating the brakes at ordinary speeds is retained until
  a stop is made.

  [Illustration: Fig. 2--Automatic Vacuum-Brake, showing its general
  arrangement.]


    Automatic Vacuum-Brake.

  In the automatic vacuum-brake, the exhausting apparatus generally
  consists of a combined large and small ejector (a form of jet-pump)
  worked by steam and under the control of the driver, though sometimes
  a mechanical air-pump, driven from the crosshead of the locomotive, is
  substituted for the small ejector. These ejectors, of which the small
  one is at work continuously while the large one is only employed when
  it is necessary to create vacuum quickly, e.g. to take off the brakes
  after a short stop, produce in the train-pipe a vacuum equal to about
  20 in. of mercury, or in other words reduce the pressure within it to
  about one-third of an atmosphere. The train-pipe extends the whole
  length of the train and communicates under each vehicle with a
  cylinder, to the piston of which, by suitable rods and levers, the
  brake-shoes are connected. The communication between the train-pipe
  and the cylinder is controlled by a ball-valve, one form of which is
  shown in fig. 2. The release-valve is for the purpose of withdrawing
  the ball from its seat when it is necessary to take off the brakes by
  hand; it is made air-tight by a small diaphragm, the pressure of
  which, when there is vacuum in the pipe, pulls in the spindle and
  allows the ball to fall freely into its seat. When air is exhausted
  through the train-pipe it travels out from below the piston direct,
  and from above it past the ball, which is thus forced off its seat, to
  roll back again when the exhaustion is complete. In this state of
  affairs the piston is held in equilibrium and the brake-blocks are
  free of the wheels. To apply them, air is admitted to the train-pipe,
  either purposely by the guard or driver, or accidentally by the
  rupture of the train-pipe or coupling-hose between the vehicles. The
  air passes to the lower side of the piston, but is prevented from
  gaining access to the upper side by the ball-valve which blocks the
  passage; hence the pressure becomes different on the two sides of the
  piston, which in consequence is forced upwards and thus applies the
  brakes. They are released by the re-establishment of equilibrium (by
  the use of the large ejector if necessary); when this is done the
  piston falls and the brakes drop off. The general arrangement of the
  apparatus is shown in fig. 2. To render the application of the brakes
  nearly simultaneous throughout a long train, the valve in the guard's
  van is arranged to open automatically when the driver suddenly lets in
  air to the train-pipe. This valve has a small hole through its stem,
  and is secured at the top by a diaphragm to a small dome-like chamber,
  which is exhausted when a vacuum is created in the train-pipe. A
  gradual application destroys the vacuum in the chamber as quickly as
  in the pipe and the diaphragm remains unmoved; but with a sudden one
  the vacuum below the valve is destroyed more quickly, and with the
  difference of pressure the diaphragm lifts the valve and admits air. A
  rapid-acting valve (fig. 3) is sometimes interposed between the
  train-pipe and the cylinder on each vehicle. In the normal or running
  position, a vacuum is maintained below the valve A and above the
  diaphragm B, while the chamber below B and above A is at atmospheric
  pressure. For an emergency application of the brake, air is suddenly
  admitted to the train-pipe and thus to the lower side of A, and the
  pressure acting on the under side of B is sufficient to cause it to
  lift the valve A, and to admit air from the atmosphere, both to the
  brake-cylinder and the train-pipe, through the clappet-valve D, which
  also rises because of the difference of pressure on its two sides. In
  a graduated application, neither D nor A rises from its seat, but air
  from the train-pipe finds access to the brake-cylinder by passing
  around the peg C, which is so proportioned as to allow the necessary
  amount of air to enter the brake-cylinder, and so obtain simultaneous
  action of the brake throughout the train. When the handle E is turned
  so as to prevent the clappet D from rising, the rapid action is cut
  out and the brake acts as an ordinary vacuum automatic brake. A
  modification of the device for obtaining accelerated action, described
  above in connexion with the Westinghouse brake, is also applicable.
  Accelerating chambers, again containing air at atmospheric pressure,
  are provided on each vehicle and are connected with the train-pipe by
  valves which open as the vacuum in the latter begins to decrease with
  the operation of the driver's valve. The air thus admitted into the
  train-pipe effects a still further local reduction of the vacuum,
  which is sufficient to actuate the accelerating valve of each next
  succeeding vehicle and is thus rapidly propagated throughout the
  train.


    Brake trials.

  Famous tests of railway brakes were those made by Sir Douglas Galton
  and Mr George Westinghouse on the London, Brighton and South Coast
  railway, in England, in 1878, and by a committee of the Master Car
  Builders' Association, near Burlington, Iowa, in 1886 and 1887. The
  object of the former series (for accounts of which see _Proc. Inst.
  Mech. Eng._, 1878, 1879) was to determine the co-efficient of friction
  between the brake-shoe and the wheel, and between the wheel and rail
  at different velocities when the wheels were revolving and when
  skidded, i.e. stopped in their rotation and caused to slide. These
  experiments were the first of their kind ever undertaken, and for many
  years their results furnished most of the trustworthy data obtainable
  on the friction of motion. It was found that the co-efficient of
  friction between cast-iron shoes and steel-tired wheels increased as
  the speed of the train decreased, varying from 0.111 at 55 m. an hour
  to 0.33 when the train was just moving. It also decreased with the
  time during which the brakes were applied; thus at 20 m. an hour the
  co-efficient was at the beginning 0.182, after ten seconds 0.133,
  after twenty seconds 0.099. Generally speaking, especially at moderate
  speeds, the decrease in the co-efficient of friction due to time is
  less than the increase due to decrease of speed, although when the
  time is long the reverse may be true. When the wheels are skidded the
  retardation of the train is always reduced; therefore, for the
  greatest braking effect, the pressures on the brake-shoes should never
  be sufficient to cause the wheels to slide on the rails. The
  Burlington brake tests were undertaken to determine the practicability
  of using power brakes on long and heavy freight trains. In the 1886
  tests there were five competitors--three buffer-brakes, one
  compressed-air brake, and one vacuum-brake. The tests comprised stops
  with trains of twenty-five and fifty vehicles, at 20 and 40 m. an
  hour, on the level and on gradients of 1 in 100. They demonstrated
  that the buffer-brakes were inadequate for long trains, and that
  considerable improvements in the continuous brakes, both
  compressed-air and vacuum, would be needed to make them act quickly
  enough to avoid excessive shocks in the rear vehicles. In 1887 the
  trials of the year before were repeated by the same committee, and at
  the same place. Trains of fifty vehicles, about 2000 ft. long and
  fitted with each brake, were again provided, and there were again five
  competitors, but they all entered continuous brakes--three
  compressed-air brakes, one vacuum and one electric. The results of the
  first day's test of the train equipped with Westinghouse brakes are
  shown in Table I., the distances in which are the feet run by the
  train after the brakes were set, and the times the seconds that
  elapsed from the application of the brakes to full stop.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3--Rapid-acting Vacuum-Brake Valve.]


  TABLE I.--_Stops of a Train of Fifty Empty Cars, 1887--Automatic
  Air-Brakes._

    +-----------+----------+----------+---------------------+
    | Speed in  | Distance | Time in  | Equivalent Distance |
    | Miles per | in Feet. | Seconds. |  at 20 m. and 40 m. |
    |   Hour.   |          |          |                     |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |    19½    |   186    |     9¾   |   196    |    ··    |
    |    19¼    |   215    |    11    |   233    |    ··    |
    |    36½    |   588    |    17    |   ··     |    693   |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

  The remarkable shortness of these stops is the more evident when they
  are compared with the best results obtained in 1886, as shown in Table
  II.


  TABLE II.--_Stops of a Train of Fifty Empty Cars, 1886--Automatic
  Air-Brakes._

    +-----------+----------+----------+---------------------+
    | Speed in  | Distance | Time in  | Equivalent Distance |
    |   Miles.  | in Feet. | Seconds. |  at 20 m. and 40 m. |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |   23.5    |   424    |    17½   |   307    |    ··    |
    |   20.3    |   354    |    16    |   340    |    ··    |
    |   40      |   922    |    22½   |   ··     |    922   |
    |   40      |   927    |    22¾   |   ··     |    927   |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

  The time that elapsed between the application of the brakes on the
  engine and on the fiftieth vehicle was almost twice as great in 1886
  as in 1887, being in the latter tests only five to six seconds, and in
  1887 the stops were made in less than two-thirds the distance required
  in 1886. Still, violent shocks were caused by the rear vehicles
  running against those in front, before the brakes on the former were
  applied with sufficient force to hold them, and these shocks were so
  severe as to make the use of the brakes in practice impossible on long
  trains. When the triple-valves were actuated electrically, however,
  the stops were still further improved, as shown in Table III.


  Table III.--_Stops of a Train of Fifty Empty Cars--Electric
  Application of Air-Brakes._

    +-----------+----------+----------+---------------------+
    | Speed in  | Distance | Time in  | Equivalent Distance |
    |   Miles.  | in Feet. | Seconds. |  at 20 m. and 40 m. |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |    21½    |   160    |     7    |   139    |    ··    |
    |    23     |   183    |     8    |   138    |    ··    |
    |    38     |   475    |    14½   |   ··     |    519   |
    |    36½    |   460    |    14    |   ··     |    545   |
    +-----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

  Although the same levers, shoes, rods and other connexions were used,
  there were no shocks in the fiftieth car of the train on any stop,
  whether on the level or on a gradient. The committee in charge
  reported that the best type of brake for long freight trains was one
  operated by air, in which the valves were actuated by electricity, but
  they expressed doubt of the practicability of using electricity on
  freight trains. The Westinghouse Company then proceeded to quicken the
  action of the triple-valve, operated by air only, so that stops with
  fifty-car trains could be made without shock, and without electrically
  operated valves; and they were so successful in this respect that,
  towards the end of the same year, 1887, with a train of fifty
  vehicles, stops were made without shock, fully equalling in quickness
  and shortness of distance run any that had been made at the trials by
  the electrically operated brakes.

  In 1889 some further tests were made by Sir Douglas Galton with the
  automatic vacuum-brake, on a practically level portion of the
  Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire railway (now the Great Central).
  The train was composed of an engine, tender and forty carriages, the
  total length over buffers being 1464 ft., and the total weight 574
  tons, of which 423 tons were braked. At a speed of about 32 m. an hour
  this train was brought to a standstill in twelve seconds after the
  application of the brakes, in a distance of 342 ft.



BRAKELOND, JOCELYN DE (fl. 1200), English monk, and author of a
chronicle narrating the fortunes of the monastery of Bury St Edmunds
between 1173 and 1202. He is only known to us through his own work. He
was a native of Bury St Edmunds; he served his novitiate under Samson of
Tottington, who was at that time master of the novices, but afterwards
sub-sacrist, and, from 1182, abbot of the house. Jocelyn took the habit
of religion in 1173, during the time of Abbot Hugo (1157-1180), through
whose improvidence and laxity the abbey had become impoverished and the
inmates dead to all respect for discipline. The fortunes of the abbey
changed for the better with the election of Samson as Hugo's successor.
Jocelyn, who became abbot's chaplain within four months of the election,
describes the administration of Samson at considerable length. He tells
us that he was with Samson night and day for six years; the picture
which he gives of his master, although coloured by enthusiastic
admiration, is singularly frank and intimate. It is all the more
convincing since Jocelyn is no stylist. His Latin is familiar and easy,
but the reverse of classical. He thinks and writes as one whose
interests are wrapped up in his house; and the unique interest of his
work lies in the minuteness with which it describes the policy of a
monastic administrator who was in his own day considered as a model.

Jocelyn has also been credited with an extant but unprinted tract on the
election of Abbot Hugo (Harleian MS. 1005, fo. 165); from internal
evidence this appears to be an error. He mentions a (non-extant) work
which he wrote, before the _Cronica_, on the miracles of St Robert, a
boy whom the Jews of Bury St Edmunds were alleged to have murdered
(1181).

  See the editions of the _Cronica Jocelini de Brakelonda_ by T. Arnold
  (in _Memorials of St Edmund's Abbey_, vol. i. Rolls series, 1890), and
  by J.G. Rokewood (Camden Society, 1840); also Carlyle's _Past and
  Present_, book ii. A translation and notes are given in T.E. Tomlin's
  _Monastic and Social Life in the Twelfth Century in the Chronicle of
  Jocelyn de Brakelond_ (1844). There is also a translation of Jocelyn
  by Sir E. Clarke (1907).



BRAMAH, JOSEPH (1748-1814), English engineer and inventor, was the son
of a farmer, and was born at Stainborough, Yorkshire, on the 13th of
April 1748. Incapacitated for agricultural labour by an accident to his
ankle, on the expiry of his indentures he worked as a cabinet-maker in
London, where he subsequently started business on his own account. His
first patent for some improvements in the mechanism of water-closets was
taken out in 1778. In 1784 he patented the lock known by his name, and
in 1795 he invented the hydraulic press. For an important part of this,
the collar which secured water-tightness between the plunger and the
cylinder in which it worked, he was indebted to Henry Maudslay, one of
his workmen, who also helped him in designing machines for the
manufacture of his locks. In 1806 he devised for the Bank of England a
numerical printing machine, specially adapted for bank-notes. Other
inventions of his included the beer-engine for drawing beer, machinery
for making aerated waters, planing machines, and improvements in
steam-engines and boilers and in paper-making machinery. In 1785 he
suggested the possibility of screw propulsion for ships, and in 1802 the
hydraulic transmission of power; and he constructed waterworks at
Norwich in 1790 and 1793. He died in London on the 9th of December 1814.



BRAMANTE, or BRAMANTE LAZZARI (c. 1444-1514), Italian architect and
painter, whose real name was Donate d'Augnolo, was born at
Monte-Asdrualdo in Urbino, in July 1444. He showed a great taste for
drawing, and was at an early age placed under Fra Bartolommeo, called
Fra Carnavale. But though he afterwards gained some fame as a painter,
his attention was soon absorbed by architecture. He appears to have
studied under Scirro Scirri, an architect in his native place, and
perhaps under other masters. He then set out from Urbino, and proceeded
through several of the towns of Lombardy, executing works of various
magnitudes, and examining patiently all remains of ancient art. At last,
attracted by the fame of the great Duomo, he reached Milan, where he
remained from 1476 to 1499. He seems to have left Milan for Rome about
1500. He painted some frescoes at Rome, and devoted himself to the study
of the ancient buildings, both in the city and as far south as Naples.
About this time the Cardinal Caraffa commissioned him to rebuild the
cloister of the Convent della Pace. Owing to the celerity and skill with
which Bramante did this, the cardinal introduced him to Pope Alexander
VI. He began to be consulted on nearly all the great architectural
operations in Rome, and executed for the pope the palace of the
Cancelleria or chancery. Under Julius II., Alexander's successor,
Bramante's talents began to obtain adequate sphere of exercise. His
first large work was to unite the straggling buildings of the palace and
the Belvedere. This he accomplished by means of two long galleries or
corridors enclosing a court. The design was only in part completed
before the death of Julius and of the architect. So impatient was the
pope and so eager was Bramante, that the foundations were not
sufficiently well attended to; great part of it had, therefore, soon to
be rebuilt, and the whole is now so much altered that it is hardly
possible to decipher the original design.

Besides executing numerous smaller works at Rome and Bologna, among
which is specially mentioned by older writers a round temple in the
cloister of San Pietro-a-Montorio, Bramante was called upon by Pope
Julius to take the first part in one of the greatest architectural
enterprises ever attempted--the rebuilding of St Peter's. Bramante's
designs were complete, and he pushed on the work so fast that before his
death he had erected the four great piers and their arches, and
completed the cornice and the vaulting in of this portion. He also
vaulted in the principal chapel. After his death on the 11th of March
1514, his design was much altered, in particular by Michelangelo.

  See Pungileoni, _Memoire intorno alla vita ed alle opere di Bramante_
  (Rome, 1836); H. Semper, _Donato Bramante_ (Leipzig, 1879).



BRAMPTON, HENRY HAWKINS, BARON (1817-1907), English judge, was born at
Hitchin, on the 14th of September 1817. He received his education at
Bedford school. The son of a solicitor, he was early familiarized with
legal principles. Called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1843, he at
once joined the old home circuit, and after enjoying a lucrative
practice as a junior, took silk in 1859. His name is identified with
many of the famous trials of the reign of Queen Victoria. He was engaged
in the Simon Bernard case (of the Orsini plot celebrity), in that of
_Roupell_ v. _Waite_, and in the Overend-Gurney prosecutions. The two
_causes célèbres_, however, in which Hawkins attained his highest legal
distinction were the Tichborne trials and the great will case of
_Sugden_ v. _Lord St Leonards_. In both of these he was victorious. In
the first his masterly cross-examination of the witness Baigent was one
of the great features of the trial. He did a lucrative business in
references and arbitrations, and acted for the royal commissioners in
the purchase of the site for the new law courts. Election petitions also
formed another branch of his extensive practice. Hawkins was raised to
the bench in 1876, and was assigned to the then exchequer division of
the High Court, not as baron (an appellation which was being abolished
by the Judicature Act), but with the title of Sir Henry Hawkins. He was
a great advocate rather than a great lawyer. His searching voice, his
manner, and the variety of his facial expression, gave him an enormous
influence with juries, and as a cross-examiner he was seldom, if ever,
surpassed. He was an excellent judge in chambers, where he displayed a
clear and vigorous grasp of details and questions of fact. His knowledge
of the criminal law was extensive and intimate, the reputation he gained
as a "hanging" judge making him a terror to evil-doers; and the court
for crown cases reserved was never considered complete without his
assistance. In 1898 he retired from the bench, and was raised to the
peerage under the title of Baron Brampton. He frequently took part in
determining House of Lords appeals, and his judgments were distinguished
by their lucidity and grasp. He held for many years the office of
counsel to the Jockey Club, and as an active member of that body found
relaxation from his legal and judicial duties at the leading race
meetings, and was considered a capable judge of horses. In 1898 he was
received into the Roman Catholic Church, and in 1903 he presented, in
conjunction with Lady Brampton (his second wife), the chapel of SS.
Augustine and Gregory to the Roman Catholic cathedral of Westminster,
which was consecrated in that year. In 1904 he published his
_Reminiscences_. He died in London on the 6th of October 1907, and Lady
Brampton in the following year.



BRAMPTON, a market town in the Eskdale parliamentary division of
Cumberland, England, 9 m. E.N.E. of Carlisle, on a branch of the North
Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 2494. It is picturesquely situated in a
narrow valley opening upon that of the Irthing. The town has an
agricultural trade, breweries, and manufactures of cotton and tweeds.
The neighbourhood is rich in historical associations. Two miles N.E. of
Brampton is the castle of Naworth, a fine example of a Border fortress.
It was built in the reign of Edward III., by a member of the family of
Dacre, who for many generations had had their stronghold here.
Overlooking a deep wooded ravine, with streams to the east and west, the
great quadrangular castle was naturally defended except on the south,
where it was rendered secure by a double moat and drawbridge. By
marriage in 1577 with Lady Elizabeth Dacre it passed into the hands of
William Howard, afterwards lord warden of the Marches, the "Belted Will"
of Sir Walter Scott and the Border ballads, who acquired great fame by
his victories over the Scottish moss-troopers. The castle, the walls of
which have many secret passages and hiding-places, is inhabited, and in
its hall are numerous fine pictures, including a portrait of Charles I.
by Van Dyck. Not far distant is Lanercost Priory, where in 1169 an
Augustinian monastery was established. In 1311 Robert Bruce and his army
were quartered here, and the priory was pillaged in 1346 by David, king
of Scotland. From this time its prosperity declined, and at its
dissolution under Henry VIII. it consisted only of a prior and seven
canons. The Early English church has a restored nave, but retains much
fine carving. The chancel is ruined, but the interesting crypt is
preserved.



BRAMWELL, GEORGE WILLIAM WILSHERE BRAMWELL, BARON (1808-1892), English
judge, was born in London on the 12th of June 1808, being the eldest son
of George Bramwell, of the banking firm of Dorrien, Magens, Dorrien &
Mello. He was educated privately, and at the age of sixteen he entered
Dorriens' bank. In 1830 he gave up this business for the law, being
admitted as a student at Lincoln's Inn in 1830, and at the Inner Temple
in 1836. At first he practised as a special pleader, but was eventually
called to the bar at both Inns in 1838. He soon worked his way into a
good practice both in London and the home circuit, his knowledge of law
and procedure being so well recognized that in 1850 he was appointed a
member of the Common Law Procedure Commission, which resulted in the
Common Law Procedure Act of 1852. This act he drafted jointly with his
friend Mr (afterwards Mr Justice) Willes, and thus began the abolition
of the system of special pleading. In 1851 Lord Cranworth made Bramwell
a queen's counsel, and the Inner Temple elected him a bencher--he had
ceased to be a member of Lincoln's Inn in 1841. In 1853 he served on the
royal commission to inquire into the assimilation of the mercantile laws
of Scotland and England and the law of partnership, which had as its
result the Companies Act of 1862. It was he who, during the sitting of
this commission, suggested the addition of the word "limited" to the
title of companies that sought to limit their liability, in order to
prevent the obvious danger to persons trading with them in ignorance of
their limitation of liability. As a queen's counsel Bramwell enjoyed a
large and steadily increasing practice, and in 1856 he was raised to the
bench as a baron of the court of exchequer. In 1867, with Mr Justice
Blackburn and Sir John Coleridge, he was made a member of the judicature
commission. In 1871 he was one of the three judges who refused the seat
on the judicial committee of the privy council to which Sir Robert
Collier, in evasion of the spirit of the act creating the appointment,
was appointed; and in 1876 he was raised to the court of appeal, where
he sat till the autumn of 1881. As a puisne judge he had been
conspicuous as a sound lawyer, with a strong logical mind unfettered by
technicalities, but endowed with considerable respect for the common
law. His rulings were always clear and decisive, while the same quality
marked his dealings with fact, and, coupled with a straightforward,
unpretentious manner, gave him great influence with juries. In the court
of appeal he was perhaps not so entirely in his element as at _nisi
prius_, but the same combination of sound law, strong common sense and
clear expression characterized his judgments. His decisions during the
three stages of his practical career are too numerous to be referred to
particularly, although _Ryder_ v. _Wombwell_ (L.R. 3 Ex. 95); _R._ v.
_Bradshaw_ (14 Cox C.C. 84); _Household Fire Insurance Company_ v.
_Grant_ (4 Ex. Div. 216); _Stonor_ v. _Fowle_ (13 App. Cas. 20), _The
Bank of England_ v. _Vagliano Brothers_ (App. Cas. 1891) are good
examples. Upon his retirement, announced in the long vacation of 1881,
twenty-six judges and a huge gathering of the bar entertained him at a
banquet in the Inner Temple hall. In December of the same year he was
raised to the peerage, taking the title Baron Bramwell of Hever, from
his home in Kent. In private life Bramwell had simple tastes and enjoyed
simple pleasures. He was musical and fond of sports. He was twice
married: in 1830 to Jane (d. 1836), daughter of Bruno Silva, by whom he
had one daughter, and in 1861 to Martha Sinden. He died on the 9th of
May 1892.

His younger brother, Sir Frederick Bramwell (1818-1903), was a
well-known consulting engineer and "expert witness."

  At all times Lord Bramwell had been fond of controversy and
  controversial writing, and he wrote constant letters to _The Times_
  over the signature B. (he also signed himself at different times
  Bramwell, G.B. and L.L.). He joined in 1882 the Liberty and Property
  Defence League, and some of his writings after that date took the form
  of pamphlets published by that society.



BRAN, in Celtic legend, the name of (1) the hero of the Welsh _Mabinogi
of Branwen_, who dies in the attempt to avenge his sister's wrongs; he
is the son of Llyr (= the Irish sea-god Ler), identified with the Irish
Bran mac Allait, Allait being a synonym of Ler; (2) the son of Febal,
known only through the 8th-century Irish epic, _The Voyage of Bran_ (to
the world below); (3) the dog of Ossian's Fingal. Bran also appears as a
historical name, Latinized as _Brennus_. See Kuno Meyer and D. Nutt,
_The Voyage of Bran_ (London, 1895).



BRAN, the ground husk of wheat, oats, barley or other cereals, used for
feeding cattle, packing and other purposes (see FLOUR). The word occurs
in French _bren_ or _bran_, in the dialects of other Romanic languages,
and also in Celtic, cf. Breton _brenn_, Gaelic _bran_. The _New English
Dictionary_ considers these Celtic forms to be borrowed from French or
English. In modern French _bren_ means filth, refuse, and this points to
some connexion with Celtic words, e.g. Irish _brean_, manure. If so, the
original meaning would be refuse. "Bran-new," i.e. quite new, is now
the common form of "brand-new," that which is fresh from the "brand,"
the branding-iron used for marking objects, &c.



BRANCH (from the Fr. _branche_, late Lat. _branca_, an animal's paw), a
limb of a tree; hence any offshoot, e.g. of a river, railway, &c., of a
deer's antlers, of a family or genealogical tree, and generally a
subdivision or department, as in "a branch of learning." The phrase, to
destroy "root and branch," meaning to destroy utterly, taken originally
from Malachi iv. 1, was made famous in 1641 by the so-called "Root and
Branch" Bill and Petition for the abolition of episcopal government, in
which petition occurred the sentence, "That the said government, with
all its dependencies, roots and branches, be destroyed." Among technical
senses of the word "branch" are: the certificate of proficiency given to
pilots by Trinity House; and in siege-craft a length of trench forming
part of a zigzag approach.



BRANCO, or PARIMA, a river of northern Brazil and tributary of the Rio
Negro, formed by the confluence of the Takutú, or "Upper Rio Branco,"
and Uraricoera, about 3° N. lat. and 60° 28' W. long., and flowing south
by west to a junction with the Negro. It has rapids in its upper course,
but the greater part of its length of 348 m. is navigable for steamers
of light draught. The Takutú rises in the Roraima and Coïrrit ranges on
the Guiana frontier, while the Uraricoera rises in the Serra de Parima,
on the Venezuelan frontier, and has a length of 360 m. before reaching
the Branco. These are white water rivers, from which the Branco (white)
derives its name, and at its junction with the Negro the two
differently-coloured streams flow side by side for some distance before
mingling.



BRANCOVAN, or BRANCOVEANU, the name of a family which has played an
important part in the history of Rumania. It was of Servian origin and
was connected with the family of Branko or Brankovich. Constantine
Brancovan, the most eminent member of the family, was born in 1654, and
became prince of Walachia in 1689. In consequence of his anti-Turkish
policy of forming an alliance first with Austria and then with Russia,
he was denounced to the Porte, deposed from his throne, brought under
arrest to Constantinople and imprisoned (1710) in the fortress of Yedi
Kuleh (Seven Towers). Here he was tortured by the Turks, who hoped thus
to discover the fortune of £3,000,000, which Constantine was alleged to
have amassed. He was beheaded with his four sons on the 26th of August
1714. His faithful friend Enake Vacarescu shared his fate. Constantine
Brancovan became, through his tragic death, the hero of Rumanian popular
ballads. His family founded and endowed the largest hospital in
Walachia, the so-called Spital Brancovanescu.

  See O.G. Lecca, _Familiile Boeresti Române_ (Bucharest, 1899), p. 90,
  sqq.     (M. G.)



BRAND, JOHN (1744-1806), English antiquary, was born on the 19th of
August 1744 at Washington, Durham, where his father was parish clerk.
His early years were spent at Newcastle-on-Tyne with his uncle, a
cordwainer, to whom he was apprentice in his fourteenth year. Showing
promise, however, at Newcastle grammar school, friends interested
themselves in him and assisted him to go to Oxford. It was not, however,
until his twenty-eighth year that he matriculated at Lincoln College,
but before this he had been ordained, holding in succession the curacies
of Bolam, Northumberland, of St Andrew's, Newcastle, and of Cramlington,
8 m. from the county town. He graduated in 1775 and two years later was
elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Having for a short time
been under-usher at the Newcastle grammar school, the duke of
Northumberland, a former patron, gave him in 1784 the rectory of the
combined parishes of St Mary-at-Hill and St Mary Hubbard, London.
Appointed secretary to the Society of Antiquaries in the same year, he
was annually re-elected until his death in 1806. He was buried in the
chancel of his church. His most important work is _Observations on
Popular Antiquities: including the whole of Mr Bourne's "Antiquitates
Vulgares," with addenda to every chapter of that work_. This was
published in London in 1777, and after Brand's death, a new edition
embodying the MSS. left by him, was published by Sir Henry Ellis in
1813. Brand also published a poem entitled: _On Illicit Love, written
among the ruins of Godstow Nunnery, near Oxford_ (1775, Newcastle); _The
History and Antiquities of Newcastle-upon-Tyne_ (2 vols., London, 1789),
and many papers in the _Archaeologia_.



BRAND, SIR JOHN HENRY (1823-1888), president of the Orange Free State,
was the son of Sir Christoffel Brand, speaker of the House of Assembly
of the Cape Colony. He was born at Cape Town on the 6th of December
1823, and was educated at the South African College in that city.
Continuing his studies at Leiden, he took the degree of D.C.L. in 1845.
He was called to the English bar from the Inner Temple in 1849, and
practised as an advocate in the supreme court of the Cape of Good Hope
from that year until 1863. In 1858 he was appointed professor of law in
the South African College. He was elected president of the Orange Free
State in 1863, and subsequently re-elected for five years in 1869, 1874,
1879 and 1884. In 1864 he resisted the pressure of the Basuto on the
Free State boundary, and after vainly endeavouring to induce Moshesh,
the Basuto chief, to keep his people within bounds, he took up arms
against them in 1865. This first war ended in the treaty of Thaba
Bosigo, signed on the 3rd of April 1866; and a second war, caused by the
treachery of the Basuto, ended in the treaty of Aliwal North, concluded
on the 12th of February 1869. In 1871 Brand was solicited by a large
party to become president of the Transvaal, and thus unite the two Dutch
republics of South Africa; but as the project was hostile to Great
Britain he declined to do so, and maintained his constant policy of
friendship towards England, where his merits were recognized in 1882 by
the honour of the G.C.M.G. He died on the 14th of July 1888. (See ORANGE
FREE STATE: _History_.)



BRANDE, WILLIAM THOMAS (1788-1866), English chemist, was born in London
on the 11th of January 1788. After leaving Westminster school, he was
apprenticed, in 1802, to his brother, an apothecary, with the view of
adopting the profession of medicine, but his bent was towards chemistry,
a sound knowledge of which he acquired in his spare time. In 1812 he was
appointed professor of chemistry to the Apothecaries' Society, and
delivered a course of lectures before the Board of Agriculture in place
of Sir Humphry Davy, whom in the following year he succeeded in the
chair of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London. His _Manual of
Chemistry_, first published in 1819, enjoyed wide popularity, and among
other works he brought out a _Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art_
in 1842, on a new edition of which he was engaged when he died at
Tunbridge Wells on the 11th of February 1866.



BRANDENBURG, the name of a margraviate and electorate which played an
important part in German history, and afterwards grew into the kingdom
of Prussia. During the early years of the Christian era, the district
was inhabited by the Semnones, and afterwards by various Slavonic
tribes, who were partially subdued by Charlemagne, but soon regained
their independence. The history of Brandenburg begins when the German
king, Henry the Fowler, defeated the Havelli, or Hevelli, and took their
capital, Brennibor, from which the name Brandenburg is derived. It soon
came under the rule of Gero, margrave of the Saxon east mark, who
pressed the campaign against the Slavs with vigour, while Otto the Great
founded bishoprics at Havelberg and Brandenburg. When Gero died in 965,
his mark was divided into two parts, the northern portion, lying along
both banks of the middle Elbe, being called the north or old mark, and
forming the nucleus of the later margraviate of Brandenburg. After Otto
the Great died, the Slavs regained much of their territory, Brandenburg
fell again into their hands, and a succession of feeble margraves ruled
only the district west of the Elbe, together with a small district east
of that river.


  Albert the Bear.

A new era began in 1106 when Lothair, count of Supplinburg, became duke
of Saxony. Aided by Albert the Bear, count of Ballenstädt, he renewed
the attack on the Slavs, and in 1134 appointed Albert margrave of the
north mark. The new margrave continued the work of Lothair, and about
1140 made a treaty with Pribislaus, the childless duke of Brandenburg,
by which he was recognized as the duke's heir. He took at once the
title margrave of Brandenburg, but when Pribislaus died in 1150, a
stubborn contest followed with Jazko, a relation of the late duke, which
was terminated in 1157 in Albert's favour. Albert was the real founder
of Brandenburg. Under his rule Christianity and civilization were
extended, bishoprics were restored and monasteries founded. The country
was colonized with settlers from the lower Rhineland, land was brought
under cultivation, forts were built, German laws and customs introduced,
and gradually the woods and marshes were converted into lands of
comparative fertility.


  Otto III.

When Albert died in 1170, Brandenburg fell to his eldest son, Otto I.
(c. 1130-1184), who compelled the duke of Pomerania to own his
supremacy, and slightly increased by conquest the area of the mark.
Otto's son, Otto II., was the succeeding margrave, and having quarrelled
with his powerful neighbour, Ludolf, archbishop of Magdeburg, was forced
to own the archbishop's supremacy over his allodial lands. He died in
1205, and was followed by his step-brother, Albert II. (c. 1174-1220),
who assisted the emperor Otto IV. in various campaigns, but later
transferred his allegiance to Otto's rival, Frederick of Hohenstaufen,
afterwards the emperor Frederick II. His sons, John I. and Otto III.,
ruled Brandenburg in common until the death of John in 1266, and their
reign was a period of growth and prosperity. Districts were conquered or
purchased from the surrounding dukes; the marriage of Otto with
Beatrice, daughter of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, in 1253, added upper
Lusatia to Brandenburg; and the authority of the margraves was extended
beyond the Oder. Many monasteries and towns were founded, among them
Berlin; the work of Albert the Bear was continued, and the prosperity of
Brandenburg formed a marked contrast to the disorder which prevailed
elsewhere in Germany. Brandenburg appears about this time to have fallen
into three divisions--the old mark lying west of the Elbe, the middle
mark between the Elbe and the Oder, and the new mark, as the newly
conquered lands beyond the Oder began to be called. When Otto died in
1267, the area of the mark had been almost doubled, and the margraves
had attained to an influential position in the Empire. The
_Sachsenspiegel_, written before 1235, mentions the margrave as one of
the electors, by virtue of the office of chamberlain, which had probably
been conferred on Albert the Bear by the German king Conrad III.


  Otto IV.

In 1258 John and Otto had agreed upon a division of their lands, but the
arrangement only took effect on Otto's death in 1267, when John's son,
John II., received the electoral dignity, together with the southern
part of the margraviate, which centred around Stendal, and Otto's son,
John III., the northern or Saltzwedel portion. John II.'s brother, Otto
IV., who became elector in 1281, had passed his early years in struggles
with the archbishop of Magdeburg, whose lands stretched like a wedge
into the heart of Brandenburg. In 1280 he was wounded in the head with a
dart, and as he retained there a part of the weapon for a year, he was
called "Otto with the dart." He secured the appointment of his brother
Eric as archbishop of Magdeburg in 1283, and was afterwards engaged in
various feuds. Songs attributed to him are found in F.H. von der Hagen's
_Minnesinger_. Otto was succeeded in 1309 by his nephew, Valdemar, who,
assisted by other members of his family, conquered Pomerellen, which he
shared with the Teutonic order in 1310, and held his own in a struggle
with the kings of Poland, Sweden and Denmark and others, over the
possession of Stralsund.

In order to pay for these wars, and to meet the expenses of a splendid
court, the later margraves had sold various rights to the towns and
provinces of Brandenburg, and so aided the development of local
government. John III. of Saltzwedel had shared his possessions with his
brothers, but in 1303 they were reunited by his nephew Hermann, who
purchased lower Lusatia in the same year. Hermann's daughter Agnes
married the elector Valdemar, and on the death of her only brother, John
VI., in 1317, the possessions of the Saltzwedel branch of the family
passed to Valdemar, together with Landsberg and the Saxon Palatinate,
which had been purchased from Albert the Degenerate, landgrave of
Thuringia. Valdemar thus gathered the whole of the mark under his rule,
together with upper and lower Lusatia, and various outlying districts.
He died childless in 1319, and was succeeded by his nephew Henry II.,
who died in 1320, when the Ascanian family, as the descendants of Albert
the Bear were called, from the Latinized form of the name of their
ancestral castle of Aschersleben, became extinct.


  Wittelsbach dynasty.

Brandenburg now fell into a deplorable condition, portions were seized
by neighbouring princes, and the mark itself was disputed for by various
claimants. In 1323 King Louis IV. took advantage of this condition to
bestow the mark upon his young son, Louis, and thus Brandenburg was
added to the possessions of the Wittelsbach family, although Louis did
not receive the extensive lands of the Ascanian margraves. Upper and
lower Lusatia, Landsberg, and the Saxon Palatinate had been inherited by
female members of the family, and passed into the hands of other
princes, the old mark was retained by Agnes, the widow of Valdemar, who
was married again to Otto II., duke of Brunswick, and the king was
forced to acknowledge these claims, and to cede districts to Mecklenburg
and Bohemia. During the early years of the reign of Louis, who was
called the margrave Louis IV. or V., Brandenburg was administered by
Bertold, count of Henneberg, who established the authority of the
Wittelsbachs in the middle mark, which, centring round Berlin, was the
most important part of the margraviate. The quarrel between King Louis
and Pope John XXII. was inimical to the interests of Brandenburg, which
was ravaged by the Poles, torn by the strife of contending clerical
factions, and alternately neglected and oppressed by the margrave. Trade
and commerce were at a standstill, agriculture was neglected, the
privileges and estates of the margrave passed into private hands, the
nobles were virtually independent, and the towns sought to defend
themselves by means of alliances. During the struggle between the
families of Wittelsbach and Luxemburg, which began in 1342, there
appeared in Brandenburg an old man who claimed to be the margrave
Valdemar. He was gladly received by the king of Poland, and other
neighbouring princes, welcomed by a large number of the people, and in
1348 invested with the margraviate by King Charles IV., who eagerly
seized this opportunity to deal a blow at his enemy. This step compelled
Louis to make peace with Charles, who abandoned the false Valdemar,
invested Louis and his step-brothers with Brandenburg, and in return was
recognized as king. Louis recovered the old mark in 1348, drove his
opponent from the land, and in 1350 made a treaty with his
step-brothers, Louis the younger and Otto, at Frankfort-on-Oder, by
which Brandenburg was handed over to Louis the younger and Otto. Louis,
who then undertook the government, made peace with his neighbours,
finally defeated the false Valdemar, and was recognized by the Golden
Bull of 1356 as one of the seven electors. The emperor Charles IV. took
advantage of a family quarrel over the possessions of Louis the elder,
who died in 1361, to obtain a promise from Louis the younger and Otto,
that the margraviate should come to his own son, Wenceslaus, in case the
electors died childless. Louis the younger died in 1365, and when his
brother Otto, who had married a daughter of Charles IV., wished to leave
Brandenburg to his own family Charles began hostilities; but in 1373 an
arrangement was made, and Otto, by the treaty of Fürstenwalde, abandoned
the margraviate for a sum of 500,000 gold gulden.


  Imperial control.

Under the Wittelsbach rule, the estates of the various provinces of
Brandenburg had obtained the right to coin money, to build fortresses,
to execute justice, and to form alliances with foreign states. Charles
invested Wenceslaus with the margraviate in 1373, but undertook its
administration himself, and passed much of his time at a castle which he
built at Tangermünde. He diminished the burden of taxation, suppressed
the violence of the nobles, improved navigation on the Elbe and Oder,
and encouraged commerce by alliances with the Hanse towns, and in other
ways. He caused a _Landbook_ to be drawn up in 1375, in which are
recorded all the castles, towns and villages of the land with their
estates and incomes. When Charles died in 1378, and Wenceslaus became
German and Bohemian king, Brandenburg passed to the new king's
half-brother Sigismund, then a minor, and a period of disorder ensued.
Soon after Sigismund came of age, he pledged a part of Brandenburg to
his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, to whom in 1388 he handed over
the remainder of the electorate in return for a large sum of money, and
as the money was not repaid, Jobst obtained the investiture in 1397 from
King Wenceslaus. Sigismund had also obtained the new mark on the death
of his brother John in 1396, but sold this in 1402 to the Teutonic
order. Jobst paid very little attention to Brandenburg, and the period
was used by many of the noble families to enrich themselves at the
expense of the poorer and weaker towns, to plunder traders, and to carry
on feuds with neighbouring princes. When in 1410 Sigismund and Jobst
were rivals for the German throne, Sigismund, anxious to obtain another
vote in the electoral college, declared the bargain with Jobst void, and
empowered Frederick VI. of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, to
exercise the Brandenburg vote at the election. (See FREDERICK I.,
ELECTOR OF BRANDENBURG.) In 1411 Jobst died and Brandenburg reverted to
Sigismund, who appointed Frederick as his representative to govern the
margraviate, and a further step was taken when, on the 30th of April
1415, the king invested Frederick of Hohenzollern and his heirs with
Brandenburg, together with the electoral privilege and the office of
chamberlain, in return for a payment of 400,000 gold gulden, but the
formal ceremony of investiture was delayed until the 18th of April 1417,
when it took place at Constance.


  Condition before the Hohenzollern rule.

During the century which preceded the advent of the Hohenzollerns in
Brandenburg its internal condition had become gradually worse and worse,
and had been accompanied by a considerable loss of territory. The
central power had become weakened and the central organization relaxed,
while the electorate had lost most of the advantages which formerly
distinguished it from other German fiefs. Under the rule of the earliest
margraves, it was the official side of their position that was
prominent, and it was not forgotten that they were technically only the
representatives of the emperor. But in the 13th century this feeling
began to disappear, and Brandenburg enjoyed an independence and carried
out an independent policy in a way that was not paralleled by any other
German state. The emperor was still suzerain indeed, but his relations
with the mark were so insignificant that they exercised practically no
influence on its development; and so the power of the Ascanian margraves
was virtually unlimited. This independence was enhanced by the fact that
few great nobles had followed Albert the Bear in his work of conquest,
and that consequently there were few large lordships with their crowd of
dependents. The towns, the village communities and the knights held
their lands and derived their rights directly from the margraves. The
towns and villages had generally been laid out by contractors or
_locatores_, men not necessarily of noble birth, who were installed as
hereditary chief magistrates of the communities, and received numerous
encouragements to reclaim waste lands. This mode of colonization was
especially favourable to the peasantry, who seem in Brandenburg to have
retained the disposal of their persons and property at a time when
villenage or serfdom was the ordinary _status_ of their class elsewhere.
The dues paid by these contractors in return for the concessions formed
the main source of the revenue of the margraves. Gradually, however, the
expenses of warfare, liberal donations to the clergy, and the
maintenance of numerous and expensive households, compelled them to
pledge these dues for sums of ready money. This proceeding gave the
barons and knights an opportunity to buy out the village magistrates and
to replace them with nominees of their own. Thus the condition of the
peasants grew worse, and their freedom was practically destroyed when
the emperor Louis IV. recognized the jurisdiction of the nobles over
their estates. Henceforth the power of the nobles steadily increased at
the expense of the peasants, who soon sank into servitude. Instead of
communicating directly with the margrave through his burgraves and
bailiffs, or _vogts_, the village communities came to be represented by
the nobles who had obtained possession of their lands. Many of the towns
were forced into the same position. Others were able to maintain their
independence, and to make use of the pecuniary needs of the margraves to
become practically municipal republics. Their strength, however, was
perhaps more usefully shown in their ability to resist the nobles, a
proceeding which saved industry and commerce from extinction at a time
of unbridled lawlessness. In the pecuniary embarrassments of the
margraves also originated the power of the _Stände_, or estates,
consisting of the nobles, the clergy and the towns. The first recorded
instance of the _Stände_ co-operating with the rulers occurred in 1170;
but it was not till 1280 that the margrave solemnly bound himself not to
raise a _bede_ or special voluntary contribution without the consent of
the estates. In 1355 the _Stände_ secured the appointment of a permanent
councillor, without whose concurrence the decrees of the margraves were
invalid. In the century which followed the extinction of the Ascanian
house, liberty degenerated into licence, and the country was given over
to anarchy. Only the most powerful towns were able to maintain their
independence; others, together with the clergy, regularly paid blackmail
to the neighbouring nobles. Under these conditions it is no wonder that
the electorate not only completely lost its political importance, but
also suffered a considerable diminution of territory. Upper and lower
Lusatia, the new mark of Brandenburg, and other outlying districts had
been shorn away, and the electorate now consisted of the old mark, the
middle mark with Priegnitz, Uckermark and Sternberg, a total area of not
more than 10,000 sq.m.


  Frederick of Hohenzollern, 1412.

Such was the condition and extent of Brandenburg in 1411 when Frederick
of Hohenzollern became the representative of King Sigismund therein.
Entering the electorate with a strong force in June 1412, his authority
was quickly recognized in the middle mark, but the nobles of the old
mark and of Priegnitz refused to follow this example. The two succeeding
years were skilfully used by Frederick to make peace with the
neighbouring princes, and having thus isolated his domestic enemies, he
turned his arms against them early in 1414. Their strongholds were
stormed, and in a few weeks their leaders were either prisoners or
fugitives. A general peace was then declared at Tangermünde which
enabled Frederick to leave the mark to the rule of his wife, Elizabeth,
and to turn his attention elsewhere. Returning to Brandenburg as elector
in 1416, the last flickers of the insurrection were extinguished; and
when Frederick was invested at Constance in April 1417 his authority
over the mark was undisputed. His next difficulty was with Pomerania,
which had been nominally under the suzerainty of Brandenburg since 1181.
The revival of this claim by the elector provoked an invasion of the
mark by an army of Pomeranians with their allies in 1420, when Frederick
inflicted a severe defeat upon them at Angermünde; but in 1424 a
temporary coolness between the elector and the emperor Sigismund led to
a renewal of the attack which Frederick was unable to repulse. This
reverse, together with the pressure of other business, induced him to
leave Brandenburg in January 1426, after handing over its government to
his eldest son, John. John, called the "Alchemist," who was born in
1403, had been disappointed in his hope of obtaining the vacant
electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg in 1423. Lacking the diplomatic and
military qualities of his father, his difficulties were augmented by the
poverty of the country, and the evils which Frederick had suppressed
quickly returned. The feeling of security vanished, the towns banded
themselves together for defensive purposes, the rights of the margrave
were again pledged to provide money, and in 1432 the land was ravaged by
the Hussites. John never attained to the electoral dignity; for, in
1437, his father in arranging a division of his territories decided that
Brandenburg should pass to his second and fourth sons, both of whom were
named Frederick. The elder of the two took up the government at once,
whereupon John left the mark for South Germany, where he remained until
his death in 1464.


  Frederick II.

Frederick II., who became elector on his father's death in September
1440, was born on the 19th of November 1413, and earned the surname of
"Iron" through his sternness to his country's enemies. He had little
difficulty in repressing the turbulence of the nobles which had been
quickened into life during the regency of his brother, but found it less
easy to deal with the towns. Three strong leagues had been formed among
them about 1431, and the spirit of municipal independence was most
prominently represented by the neighbouring and allied towns of Berlin
and Cöln. In his conflict with the towns over his refusal to ratify all
their privileges the elector's task was lightened by a quarrel between
the magistrates and the burghers of Berlin, which he was called in to
decide in 1442. He deposed the governing oligarchy, changed the
constitution of the town, forbade all alliances and laid the foundations
of a castle. The inhabitants soon chafed under these restrictions. A
revolt broke out in 1447, but the power of the elector overawed the
people, who submitted their case to the estates, with the result that
the arrangement of 1442 was re-established. In 1447 Frederick was
compelled to cede the old mark and Priegnitz to his younger brother,
Frederick, under whose feeble rule they quickly fell into disorder. In
1463, however, when the younger Frederick died childless, the elector
united them again with his own possessions and took measures to suppress
the prevailing anarchy. In his dealings with neighbouring rulers
Frederick pursued a peaceful and conciliatory policy. In 1442 he
obtained some small additions to his territory, and the right of
succession to the duchy of Mecklenburg in case the ducal family should
die out. In 1445 an old feud with the archbishop of Magdeburg was
settled, and in 1457 a treaty of mutual succession was made with the
houses of Saxony and Hesse. Cottbus and Peitz in Lusatia were acquired,
and retained after a quarrel with George Podiebrad, king of Bohemia, and
the new mark of Brandenburg was purchased from the Teutonic order in
1454. An attempt, however, to secure the duchy of Pomerania-Stettin
failed, and the concluding years of this reign were troubled by warfare
with the Pomeranians.

The general success of Frederick's rule was secured by the sedulous care
with which he confined himself to the work of government. He is said to
have refused the thrones of Poland and Bohemia; and although he made
pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to Rome, his interest in ecclesiastical
questions was mainly directed towards quickening the religious life of
his people. He obtained important concessions from Pope Nicholas V. with
regard to the appointment of bishops and other ecclesiastical matters in
1447, and in general maintained cordial relations with the papacy. About
1467 his only son, John, died, and increasing infirmity led him to
contemplate abdication. An arrangement was made with his brother, Albert
Achilles, to whom early in 1470 the mark was handed over, and Frederick
retired to Plassenburg where he died on the 10th of February 1471.


  Albert Achilles.

Albert appeared in Brandenburg early in the same year, and after
receiving the homage of his people took up the struggle with the
Pomeranians, which he soon brought to a satisfactory conclusion; for in
May 1472 he not only obtained the cession of several districts, but was
recognized as the suzerain of Pomerania and as its future ruler. The
expenses of this war led to a quarrel with the estates. A subsidy was
granted which the elector did not regard as adequate, and by a dexterous
use of his power he established his right to take an excise on beer.
Albert's most important contribution to the history of Brandenburg was
the issue on the 24th of February 1473 of the _Dispositio Achillea_. By
this instrument the elector decreed that the electoral mark should pass
in its entirety to his eldest son, an establishment of primogeniture
which had considerable influence on the future development of the
country. He then entrusted the government to his eldest son, John, and
left Brandenburg. Handicapped by poverty, John had to face attacks from
two quarters. The Pomeranians, inspired by the declaration of the
emperor Frederick III. that their land was a direct fief of the Empire,
and aided by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, took up arms; and a
quarrel broke out with John, duke of Sagan, over the possessions of
John's brother-in-law, Henry XI., duke of Glogau. To deal with these
difficulties Albert returned to Brandenburg in 1478, and during his stay
drove back the Pomeranians, and added Crossen and other parts of duke
Henry's possessions to the electorate. Again left in charge of the
country, John beat back a fresh attack made by John of Sagan in 1482;
and he became elector on his father's death in March 1486. He added the
county of Zossen to his possessions in 1490, and in 1493 made a fresh
treaty with the duke of Pomerania. Although he brought a certain degree
of order into the finances, his poverty and the constant inroads of
external enemies prevented him from seriously improving the condition of
the country. John, who was called "Cicero," either on account of his
eloquence, or of his knowledge of Latin, was interested in learning,
welcomed Italian scholars to the electorate, and strove to improve the
education of his people. He died at Arneburg on the 9th of January 1499,
and was succeeded by his son Joachim I.


  Joachim.

When Joachim undertook the government of Brandenburg he had to deal with
an amount of disorder almost as great as that which had taxed the
energies of Frederick I. a century before. Highway robbery was general,
the lives and property of traders were in continual jeopardy, and the
machinery for the enforcement of the laws was almost at a standstill.
About 1504 an attack of unusual ferocity on some Frankfort traders
aroused the elector's wrath, and during the next few years the execution
of many lawbreakers and other stern measures restored some degree of
order. In this and in other ways Joachim proved himself a sincere friend
to the towns and a protector of industry. Following the economic
tendencies of the time he issued sumptuary laws and encouraged
manufactures; while to suppress the rivalry among the towns he
established an order of precedence for them. Equally important was his
work in improving the administration of justice, and in this direction
he was aided by scholars from the university which he had founded at
Frankfort-on-Oder in 1506. He gave a new organization to the highest
court of justice, the _Kammergericht_, secured for himself an important
voice in the choice of its members, and ordered that the local law
should be supplemented by the law of Rome. He did not largely increase
the area of Brandenburg, but in 1524 he acquired the county of Ruppin,
and in 1529 he made a treaty at Grimnitz with George and Barnim XI.,
dukes of Pomerania, by which he surrendered the vexatious claim to
suzerainty in return for a fresh promise of the succession in case the
ducal family should become extinct. Joachim's attitude towards the
teaching of Martin Luther which had already won many adherents in the
electorate, was one of unrelenting hostility. The Jews also felt the
weight of his displeasure, and were banished in 1510.


  Joachim II.

Ignoring the _Dispositio Achillea_, the elector bequeathed Brandenburg
to his two sons. When he died in July 1535 the elder, Joachim II.,
became elector, and obtained the old and middle marks, while the
younger, John, received the new mark. John went definitely over to the
side of the Lutherans in 1538, while Joachim allowed the reformed
doctrines free entrance into his dominions in 1539. The elector,
however, unlike his brother, did not break with the forms of the Church
of Rome, but established an ecclesiastical organization independent of
the pope, and took up a position similar to that of King Henry VIII. in
England. Many of the monasteries were suppressed, a consistory was set
up to take over the functions of the bishops and to act as the highest
ecclesiastical court of the country. In 1541 the new ecclesiastical
system was confirmed by the emperor Charles V. With regard to this
policy the elector was probably influenced by considerations of greed.
The bishoprics of Brandenburg, Havelberg and Lebus were secularized;
their administration was entrusted to members of the elector's family;
and their revenues formed a welcome addition to his impoverished
exchequer. Nor did Joachim neglect other opportunities for adding to his
wealth and possessions. In 1537 he had concluded a treaty with Frederick
III., duke of Liegnitz, which guaranteed to the Hohenzollerns the
succession to the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau in the
event of the ducal family becoming extinct; this arrangement is
important as the basis of the claim made by Frederick the Great on
Silesia in 1740. The treaty was declared invalid by the German king,
Ferdinand I.; but the elector insisted on its legality, and in 1545
strengthened his position by arranging a double marriage between members
of his own family and that of Duke Frederick. Of more immediate
consequence was an arrangement made in 1569 with the representatives of
Joachim's kinsman, Albert Frederick, duke of Prussia, after which the
elector obtained the joint investiture of the duchy of Prussia from
Sigismund II., king of Poland, and was assured of the succession if the
duke's family became extinct. Joachim's luxurious habits, his partiality
for adventurers, and his delight in building, led him to incur such a
heavy expenditure that after pledging many of his lands and rights he
was compelled in 1540 to appeal for help to the estates. Taking
advantage of his difficulties, the estates voted him a sum of money as
the price of valuable concessions, the most important of which was that
the elector should make no alliance without their consent. Fresh
liabilities were soon incurred, and in spite of frequent contributions
from the estates Joachim left at his death in January 1571 a heavy
burden of debt to his son and successor, John George.


  John George.

The elector's death was followed ten days later by that of his brother,
John, and as John left no sons the whole of Brandenburg, together with
the districts of Beeskow and Storkow which had been added by purchase to
the new mark, were united under the rule of his nephew, John George.
Born on the 11th of September 1525 this prince had served in the field
under Charles V., and, disliking his father's policy and associates, had
absented himself from Berlin, and mainly confined his attention to
administering the secularized bishopric of Brandenburg which he had
obtained in 1560. When he became elector he hastened to put his ideas
into practice. His father's favourites were exiled; foreigners were
ousted from public positions and their places taken by natives; and
important economies were effected, which earned for John George the
surname of _Oekonom_, or steward. To lighten the heavy burden of debt
left by Joachim the elector proposed a tax on wheat and other cereals.
Some opposition was shown, but eventually the estates of both divisions
of the mark assented; only, however at the price of concessions to the
nobles, predominant in the diet, which thrust the peasantry into
servitude. Thus the rule of John George was popular with the nobles, and
to some extent with the towns. Protestant refugees from France and the
Netherlands were encouraged to settle in Brandenburg, and a period of
peace was beneficial to a land, the condition of which was still much
inferior to that of other parts of Germany. In religion the elector was
a follower of Luther, whose doctrines were prevalent among his people.
He had accepted the _Formula Concordiae_, a Lutheran document
promulgated in June 1580, and sought to prevent any departure from its
tenets. His dislike of Calvinism, or his antipathy to external
complications, however, prevented him from taking any serious steps to
defend Protestantism from the attacks of the counter-reformation. He did
indeed join the league of Torgau, which voted assistance to Henry IV. of
France in 1591; but he refused to aid the United Provinces, or even to
give assistance to his eldest son, Joachim Frederick, administrator of
the archbishopric of Magdeburg, whose claim to sit and vote in the
imperial diet was contested, or to his grandson, John George, whose
election to the bishopric of Strassburg was opposed by a Roman Catholic
minority in the chapter. This indifference to the welfare of the
Protestants added to the estrangement between the elector and his eldest
son, which was further accentuated when John George, ignoring the
_Dispositio Achillea_, bequeathed the new mark to one of his younger
sons. He died on the 8th of January 1598.


  Joachim Frederick.

Joachim Frederick, who now became elector, was born on the 27th of
January 1546. Since 1553 he had held the bishopric of Havelberg, since
1555 that of Lebus; he had been administrator of Magdeburg since 1566,
and of Brandenburg since 1571. Resigning these dignities in 1598, he
contested his father's will, and was successful in preventing a
division of the electorate. An agreement with George Frederick, the
childless margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth, paved the way for an
arrangement with the elector's younger brothers, who after the
margrave's death in April 1603, shared his lands in Franconia, and were
compensated in other ways for surrendering all claims on Brandenburg.
This agreement, known as the Gera Bond, ratified the _Dispositio
Achillea_. By George Frederick's death, Joachim became administrator of
the duchy of Prussia, ruled nominally by the weak-minded Albert
Frederick, but he had some difficulty in asserting his position. In
Brandenburg he made concessions to the nobles at the expense of the
peasantry, and admitted the right of the estates to control taxation. In
religious matters he was convinced of the necessity of a union between
Lutherans and Calvinists, and took steps to bring this about. Public
opinion, however, in Brandenburg was too strong for him, and he was
compelled to fall back upon the Lutheran _Formula_ and the religious
policy of his father. Joachim seems to have been a wise ruler, who
improved in various ways the condition of the mark. He married
Catherine, daughter of John, margrave of Brandenburg-Cüstrin, and when
he died, on the 18th of July 1608, was succeeded by his eldest son John
Sigismund.


  John Sigismund.

The new elector, born on the 8th of November 1572, had married in 1594
Anna, daughter of Albert Frederick of Prussia, a union which not only
strengthened the pretensions of the electors of Brandenburg to the
succession in that duchy, but gave to John Sigismund a claim on the
duchies of Cleves, Jülich and Berg, and other Rhenish lands should the
ruling family become extinct. In March 1609 the death of Duke John
William left these duchies without a ruler, and by arrangement they were
occupied jointly by the elector and by his principal rival, Wolfgang,
son of Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg. This proceeding aroused
some opposition, and, complicated by religious considerations and by the
excited state of European politics, almost precipitated a general war.
However, in November 1614 the dispute was temporarily settled by the
treaty of Xanten. Brandenburg obtained the duchy of Cleves with the
counties of Mark and Ravensberg, but as the Dutch and Spanish garrisons
were not withdrawn, these lands were only nominally under the elector's
rule. In 1609, John Sigismund had joined the Evangelical Union, probably
to win support in the Rhineland, and the same consideration was
doubtless one reason why, in 1613, he forsook the Lutheran doctrines of
his family, and became an adherent of the reformed, or Calvinist, faith.
This step aroused grave discontent in the electorate, and, quickly
abandoning his attempts to proselytize, the elector practically conceded
religious liberty to his subjects. Over the Cleves-Jülich succession,
John Sigismund had incurred heavy expenses, and the public debt had
again mounted up. He was thus obliged to seek aid from the estates, and
in return for grants to make concessions to the nobles. The elector
spent much of his time in Prussia striving to assert his authority in
that duchy, and in August 1618, according to the arrangement of 1569,
became duke by the death of Albert Frederick. He only enjoyed this
dignity for a short time, as he died on the 23rd of December 1619. He
was succeeded by his eldest son, George William.


  George William.

The new elector, born on the 3rd of November 1597, proved a weak and
incapable ruler. He had married Elizabeth, daughter of Frederick IV.,
elector palatine of the Rhine, and sister of the elector Frederick V.,
afterwards king of Bohemia, and before his accession had acted as his
father's representative in Cleves. Although a Protestant he was under
the influence of Adam, count of Schwarzenberg, who was a Roman Catholic
of imperialist sympathies. As a result the elector remained neutral
during the early years of the Thirty Years' War in spite of his
relationship with Frederick of the Palatinate, and the obvious danger to
his Rhenish lands. This attitude was not successful. Brandenburg was
ravaged impartially by both parties, and in 1627 George William attacked
his brother-in-law, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who was using Prussia
as a base of operations for his war against Poland. This campaign was
short and inglorious for Brandenburg, and the elector was soon compelled
to make peace. Although alarmed by the edict of restitution of 1629,
George William took no steps to help the Protestants. In 1631, however,
Gustavus Adolphus marched on Berlin, compelled the elector to cede the
fortress of Spandau, and to aid him with men and money. The Brandenburg
troops then assisted the Swedes until after the death of Gustavus in
1632, and the Swedish defeat at Nördlingen in 1634, when the elector
assented to the treaty of Prague, which was made in May 1635 between the
emperor Ferdinand II. and John George I., elector of Saxony. The
imperialists did nothing, however, to drive the Swedes from Brandenburg,
and the unfortunate land was entirely at the mercy of the enemy. This
was the principal reason why the elector was unable to annex Pomerania
when its last duke, Bogislaus XIV., died in 1637. In 1638 George William
transferred his residence to Königsberg, leaving Schwarzenberg to
administer the electorate. Although his harsh measures aroused some
irritation, the count did something to rid the land of the Swedes and to
mitigate its many evils; but its condition was still very deplorable
when George William died at Königsberg on the 1st of December 1640,
leaving an only son, Frederick William. The most important facts in the
internal history of Brandenburg during the 16th century were the
increase in the power of the estates, owing chiefly to the continuous
pecuniary needs of the electors; the gradual decline in the political
importance of the towns, due mainly to intestine feuds; and the lapse of
the peasantry into servitude. These events gave a preponderance of power
to the nobles, but concurrently a number of circumstances were silently
preparing the way for a great increase of authority on the part of the
ruler. The substitution of the elector for the pope as head of the
church; the introduction of Roman law with its emphasis on a central
authority and a central administration; the determined and successful
efforts to avoid any partition of the electorate; and the increasing
tendency of the separate sections of the diet to act independently; all
tended in this direction. This new order was heralded in 1604 by the
establishment of a council of state, devoted to the interests of the
elector, which strengthened his authority, and paved the way for a
bureaucratic government.


  Frederick William, the "Great Elector."

When Frederick William, the "Great Elector," became ruler of Brandenburg
in 1640 he found the country in a very deplorable condition. Trade and
agriculture were almost destroyed, and the inhabitants, compelled to
support the Swedish army of occupation, suffered also from the
disorderly conduct of the native soldiers. Although the young elector
spent the two first years of his reign mainly in Prussia, he was by no
means forgetful of Brandenburg, and began resolutely to root out the
many evils which had sprung up during the feeble rule of his father. The
powers of Schwarzenberg were curtailed; the state council was restored;
and the licence of the soldiers was restrained, while their numbers were
reduced. Then turning his attention to the Swedes a truce was arranged,
and soon afterwards, in return for an indemnity, they agreed to evacuate
the electorate. Having returned to Brandenburg in 1643, Frederick
William remained neutral during the concluding years of the Thirty
Years' War, and set to work to organize an army and to effect financial
reforms. About the same time diplomatic methods freed Cleves, Mark and
Ravensberg from foreign troops, but the estates of these lands gained a
temporary victory when the elector attacked their privileges. However,
in 1647 his title was formally admitted by Wolfgang, count palatine of
Neuburg.

The terms of the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 are the best commentary on
the general success of the elector's policy. Although he was obliged to
give up his claim to the western part of Pomerania in favour of Sweden,
he secured the eastern part of that duchy, together with the secularized
bishoprics of Halberstadt, Minden and Kammin, and other lands, the whole
forming a welcome addition to the area of Brandenburg. He was also
promised the archbishopric of Magdeburg when its administrator,
Augustus, duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, should die. This event happened in
1680 when he secured the lands of the archbishopric. The elector did
not, however, take possession of the newly-acquired territories at once.
Fresh difficulties arose with Sweden, and it was not until 1653 that
eastern Pomerania was freed from her soldiers. Meanwhile a new quarrel
had broken out with Wolfgang of Neuburg. In 1650 Frederick William
attacked his rival, but a variety of circumstances, among others a
change of government in the Netherlands, and the resistance of the
estates of Cleves, thwarted his plans, and he was compelled to listen to
the mediating powers, and to acquiesce in the _status quo_.

Profiting by these reverses the elector then undertook a series of
internal reforms, tending to strengthen the central authority, and to
mitigate the constant lack of money, which was perhaps his chief
obstacle to success; a work in which he was aided by George, count of
Waldeck (1620-1692), who became his chief adviser about this time. In
1651 the powers of the state council were extended to include all the
lands under the elector's rule; and a special committee was appointed to
effect financial economies, and so to augment the electoral resources.
In imperial politics Frederick William supported the election of
Ferdinand, son of the emperor Ferdinand III., as king of the Romans in
1653; but when the emperor failed to fulfil his promises, influenced by
Waldeck, he acted in opposition to the imperial interests, and even
formed a plan for a great alliance against the Habsburgs. These projects
were disturbed by the war which broke out in 1655 between Sweden and
Poland. In this struggle the elector fought first on one side and then
on the other; but the important consequences of his conduct belong
rather to the history of the duchy of Prussia (q.v.). The transfer of
the elector's support from Sweden to Poland in 1656 was followed by the
fall from power of Waldeck, who was succeeded by Otto von Schwerin
(1616-1679), under whose influence the elector's relations with the
emperor became more cordial.

The increase in the prestige of Brandenburg was due chiefly to his army,
which was gradually brought to a high state of efficiency. A proper
organization was established to superintend the pay and maintenance of
the soldiers, and they were commanded by experienced officers, among
others by Georg Derfflingen (1606-1695), and Otto von Sparr (1605-1668).
The general poverty, however, made the estates reluctant to support a
standing army, and after the peace of Oliva in 1660, it was reduced to
about 3500 men. The continual difficulties with the estates of his
different dominions had harassed and hampered the elector, and the
general peace which followed the treaty of Oliva offered a favourable
opportunity to curtail their powers. Undaunted by two previous rebuffs
he attacked the estates of Cleves, and by a display of force gained a
substantial victory. Some important privileges were annulled, and he
obtained a considerable sum of money. The _Landtag_ of Brandenburg was
not cowed so easily into submission, but an increase of revenue was
obtained, and the stubborn struggle which ensued in Prussia ended in a
victory for the ruler. This increased income enabled the elector to take
a more considerable part in European politics. In 1663 he assisted the
imperialists in their struggle with the Turks; in 1666 the dispute over
Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg was finally settled, and Brandenburg were
confirmed in the possession of these lands; and in the same year a
reconciliation was effected with Sweden. Several disputes which
threatened to disturb the peace of the Empire were settled through his
mediation, and he compelled the citizens of Magdeburg to do homage to
him. In religious matters he interceded with the emperor and the diet
for the Protestants, and sought, but without success, to bring about a
reconciliation between Lutherans and Calvinists in Brandenburg.

The elector's relations with Louis XIV. of France are full of interest.
After the conclusion of the war of devolution in 1667, he allied himself
with Louis, and together they agreed to support the candidature of
Wolfgang of Neuburg for the vacant Polish throne. In 1668, moreover, he
refused to join the triple alliance against France, but soon afterwards
became aware of the danger to his country from the aggressive policy of
Louis. The United Provinces were bound to him by religious interests,
political considerations, and family ties alike, and he could not be
indifferent when their position was threatened by France. In spite of
tempting offers from Louis, he was the first to join the Dutch when they
were attacked by Louis in 1672, and conducted an ineffectual campaign on
the Rhine until June 1673, when he was forced to make peace. In July
1674, however, he joined the Empire, the United Provinces and Spain, and
in return for a subsidy, fought against France in Alsace. Meanwhile
Louis had instigated the Swedes to invade Brandenburg, which had been
left to the care of John George II., prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Hastening
from Franconia to defend the electorate, Frederick William gained a
complete victory over a superior number of the enemy at Fehrbellin on
the 28th of June 1675, a great and glorious day for the arms of
Brandenburg. Aided by the imperialists and the Danes, he followed up
this success, and cleared Brandenburg and Pomerania of the Swedes,
capturing Stettin in 1677 and Stralsund in 1678, while an attack made by
Sweden on Prussia was successfully repelled. The general peace of
Nijmwegen was followed by the treaty of St Germain-en-Laye in June 1679
between Sweden and Brandenburg. Owing, however, to the insistence of
Louis XIV. and the indifference, or weakness, of the emperor Leopold I.,
the elector was forced to restore western Pomerania to Sweden, in return
for the payment of 300,000 crowns by France. This feebleness on the part
of his ally induced Frederick William to listen more readily to the
overtures of Louis, and in 1679, and again in 1681, he bound himself to
support the interests of France. He had, moreover, a further grievance
against the emperor as Leopold refused to recognize his right to the
Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau, which had been left
without a ruler in 1675. About 1684, however, the foreign policy of
Brandenburg underwent another change. Disliking the harshness shown by
Louis to the Protestants, the elector concluded an alliance with
William, prince of Orange, in August 1685; and entered into more
friendly relations with the emperor. Further incensed against France by
the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, he made an alliance with
Leopold in January 1686, agreeing in return for a subsidy to send troops
against the Turks. Soon afterwards he received Schwiebus to compensate
him for abandoning his claim on the Silesian duchies, and in a secret
treaty made promises of support to Leopold. The great elector died in
May 1688, leaving his territories to his eldest son, Frederick.

The remarkable services of Frederick William to his country can best be
judged by comparing its condition in 1640 with that in 1688. At his
accession the greater part of his territory was occupied by strangers
and devastated by war, and in European politics Brandenburg was merely
an appendage of the empire. Its army was useless; its soil was poor; its
revenue was insignificant. At his death the state of Brandenburg-Prussia
was a power to be reckoned with in all European combinations. Inferior
to Austria alone among the states of the Empire, it was regarded as the
head of the German Protestantism; while the fact that one-third of its
territory lay outside the Empire added to its importance. Its area had
been increased to over 40,000 sq. m.; its revenue had multiplied
sevenfold; and its small army was unsurpassed for efficiency. The
elector had overthrown Sweden and inherited her position on the Baltic,
and had offered a steady and not ineffectual resistance to the ambition
of France.

While thus winning for himself a position in the councils of Europe,
Frederick William was not less active in strengthening the central
authority within his own dominions. He found Brandenburg a
constitutional state, in which the legislative power was shared between
the elector and the diet; he left it to his successor substantially an
absolute monarchy. Many circumstances assisted to bring about this
change, among the chief of which were the want of harmonious action on
the part of the estates, and the decline in the political power of the
towns. The substitution of a permanent excise for the subsidies granted
from time to time by the estates also tended to increase his
independence, and the officials or _Steuerräthe_, appointed by him to
collect this tax in the towns, gradually absorbed many of the
administrative functions of the local authorities. The nobles and
prelates generally preferred to raise their share of the revenue by the
old method of a _bede_, or contribution, thus weakening the remaining
bond between them and the burghers.

In matters of general administration Frederick William showed himself a
prudent and careful ruler, and laid the foundation of the future
greatness of Prussia in almost every department. The wounds inflicted by
the Thirty Years' War were in a great measure healed, and the finances
and credit of the state were established on a firm basis. Agriculture
and commerce were improved and encouraged by a variety of useful
measures, and in this connexion the settlement of a large number of
Flemings, and the welcome extended to French Protestants, both before
and after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, were of incalculable
service. A small but efficient navy was founded, and strict economy,
together with increasing resources, enabled a disciplined army to be
maintained. Education was not neglected, a trading company was
established, and colonies were founded on the west coast of Africa. In
religious matters Calvinists and Lutherans were placed upon an equality,
but the elector was unable to impress his own spirit of tolerance upon
the clergy, who were occupied with ecclesiastical squabbles while the
state of education and of public morals left much to be desired. The
condition of the peasantry, however, during this reign reached its
lowest point, and the "recess," or charter, of 1653 practically
recognizes the existence of villenage. While the nobles had been losing
power with regard to the ruler they had been increasing it at the
expense of the peasants. The Thirty Years' War afforded them frequent
opportunities of replacing the village _Schulzen_, or magistrates, with
officials of their own; and the fact that their share of taxation was
wholly wrung from the peasants made the burden of the latter much
heavier than that of the townsmen.


  Frederick III.

The new elector, Frederick III., followed in general the policy of his
father. Having persuaded his step-brothers to surrender the
principalities bequeathed to them by the great elector, he assisted
William of Orange to make his descent on England; then in 1688 allied
himself with other German princes against Louis XIV., and afterwards
fought for the Empire against both France and Turkey. Before he became
elector Frederick had promised the emperor that he would restore
Schwiebus, and he was now called upon to fulfil this engagement, which
after some murmuring he did in 1695. This fact, however, together with
some slights put upon him at the peace of 1697, led him to look with
less favour upon imperial interests. Frederick's chief adviser about
this time was Eberhard Danckelmann (1643-1722), whose services in
continuing the reforming work of the great elector were very valuable;
but having made many enemies, the electress Sophia among them, he fell
from power in 1697, and was imprisoned for several years. The most
important work of the elector was to crown the labours of his father by
securing the kingly title for himself and his descendants. Broached in
1692 this matter was brought up again in 1698 when the emperor and his
ministers, faced with the prospect of a fight over the Spanish
succession, were anxious to conciliate Brandenburg. It was at length
decided that the title should be taken from Prussia rather than from
Brandenburg as the former country lay outside the Empire, and in return
Frederick promised to assist Leopold with 8000 men. The coronation
ceremony took place at Königsberg on the 18th of January 1701. The
territorial additions to Brandenburg during this reign were few and
unimportant, but the comparative wealth and prosperity enabled the
elector to do a good deal for education, and to spend some money on
buildings. In 1694 the university of Halle was founded; academies for
arts and sciences were established, and Berlin was greatly improved. The
subsequent history of Brandenburg is merged in that of Prussia (q.v.).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--H. Brosien, _Geschichte der Mark Brandenburg in
  Mittelalter_ (Leipzig, 1887); G.G. Küster, _Bibliotheca historica
  Brandenburgensis_ (Breslau, 1743); and _Accessiones_ (Breslau, 1768),
  and _Collectio opusculorum historiam marchicam illustrantium_
  (Breslau, 1731-1733); A. Voss and G. Stimming, _Vorgeschichtliche
  Alterthümer aus der Mark Brandenburg_ (Berlin, 1886-1890); F. Voigt,
  _Geschichte des brandenburgisch-preussischen Staats_ (Berlin, 1878);
  E. Berner, _Geschichte des preussischen Staats_ (Berlin, 1890-1891);
  A.F. Riedel, _Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis_ (Berlin,
  1838-1865); J. Heidemann, _Die Reformation in der Mark Brandenburg_
  (Berlin, 1889); _Forschungen zur brandenburgischen und preussischen
  Geschichte_, edited by R. Koser (Leipzig, 1888 fol.); T. Carlyle,
  _History of Frederick the Great_, vol. i. (London, 1858); J.G.
  Droysen, _Geschichte der preussischen Politik_ (Berlin, 1855-1886); E.
  Lavisse, _Étude sur une des origines de la monarchie prussienne_
  (Paris, 1875); B. Gebhardt, _Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte_, Band
  ii. (Leipzig, 1901).     (A. W. H.*)



BRANDENBURG, the central and one of the largest provinces of Prussia,
consisting of a part of the former electorate of Brandenburg from which
it derives its name. With the other territories of the elector of
Brandenburg, it was merged in 1701 in the kingdom of Prussia, and when
the administration of Prussia was reformed in 1815, Brandenburg became
one of the provinces of Prussia. The boundaries of the new province,
however, differed considerably from those of the old district. The old
mark, the district on the left bank of the Elbe, was added to the
province of Saxony, and in return a district to the south, taken from
the kingdom of Saxony, was added to the province of Brandenburg. It has
an area of 15,382 sq. m., and is divided into the two governments of
Potsdam and Frankfort-on-Oder; the capital, Berlin, forming a separate
jurisdiction. The province is a sandy plain interspersed with numerous
fertile districts and considerable stretches of woodland, mostly pine
and fir. Its barrenness was formerly much exaggerated, when it was
popularly described as the "sandbox of the Holy Roman Empire." It is
generally well watered by tributaries of its two principal rivers, the
Elbe and the Oder, and is besides remarkable for the number of its
lakes, of which it contains between 600 and 700. The mineral products
comprise lignite, limestone, gypsum, alum and potter's earth; barley and
rye are the usual cereals; fruits and vegetables are abundant; and
considerable quantities of hemp, flax, hops and tobacco are raised. The
breeding of sheep receives much attention, and the province exports wool
in considerable quantity. Bees are largely kept, and there is an
abundance of game. The rivers and lakes also furnish fish, particularly
carp, of excellent quality. The climate is cold and raw in winter,
excessively hot in summer, and there are frequently violent storms of
wind. The manufacturing industry of the province is both varied and
extensive, but is for the most part concentrated in the principal towns.
The most important branches are the spinning and weaving of wool and
cotton, the manufacturing of paper, and the distillation of brandy. Pop.
(1895) 2,821,695; (1905) 3,529,839.



BRANDENBURG, a town of Germany, capital of the district and province of
same name, on the river Havel, 36 m. S.W. from Berlin, on the main line
to Magdeburg and the west. Pop. (1905) 51,251, including 3643 military.
The town is enclosed by walls, and is divided into three parts by the
river--the old town on the right and the new town on the left bank,
while on an island between them is the "cathedral town,"--and is also
called, from its position, "Venice." Many of the houses are built on
piles in the river. There are five old churches (Protestant), all more
or less noteworthy. These are the Katharinenkirche (nave 1381-1401,
choir c. 1410, western tower 1583-1585), a Gothic brick church with a
fine carved wooden altar and several interesting medieval tombs; the
Petrikirche (14th century Gothic); the cathedral (Domkirche), originally
a Romanesque basilica (1170), but rebuilt in the Gothic style in the
14th century, with a good altar-piece (1465), &c., and noted for its
remarkable collection of medieval vestments; the Gothardskirche, partly
Romanesque (1160), partly Gothic (1348); the Nikolaikirche (12th and
13th centuries), now no longer used. There is also a Roman Catholic
church. Of other buildings may be mentioned the former town hall of the
"old town" (Altstadt Rathaus), built in the 13th and 14th centuries, now
used as government offices; the new Real-gymnasium; and the town hall in
the Neustadt, before which, in the market-place, stands a Rolandssäule,
a colossal figure 18 ft. in height, hewn out of a single block of stone.
A little north of the town is the Marienberg, or Harlungerberg, on which
the heathen temple of Triglaff and afterwards the church and convent of
St Mary were built. On the top stands a lofty monument to the soldiers
from the Mark who fell in the wars of 1864, 1866 and 1870-71. The town
has a considerable trade, with manufactures of woollens, silks, linens,
hosiery and paper, as well as breweries, tanneries, boat-building and
bicycle factories.

Brandenburg, originally _Brennaburg_ (_Brennabor_) or _Brendanburg_, was
originally a town of the Slavic tribe of the Hevelli, from whom it was
captured (927-928) by the German king Henry I. In 948 Otto I. founded a
bishopric here, which was subordinated first to the archdiocese of
Mainz, but from 968 onwards to the newly created archbishopric of
Magdeburg. It was, however, destroyed by the heathen Wends in 983, and
was only restored when Albert the Bear recaptured the town from them in
1153. In 1539 the bishop of Brandenburg, Matthias von Jagow, embraced
the Lutheran faith, and five years later the Protestant worship was
established in the cathedral. The see was administered by the elector of
Brandenburg until 1598 and then abolished, its territories being for the
most part incorporated in the electoral domains. The cathedral chapter,
however, survived, and though suppressed in 1810, it was restored in
1824. It consists of twelve canons, of whom three only are spiritual,
the other nine prebends being held by noblemen; all are in the gift of
the king of Prussia.

The "old" and "new" towns of Brandenburg were for centuries separate
towns, having been united under a single municipality so late as 1717.

  See Schillmann, _Geschichte der Stadt Brandenburg_ (Brandenburg,
  1874-1882).



BRANDER, GUSTAVUS (1720-1787), English naturalist, who came of a Swedish
family, was born in London in 1720, and was brought up as a merchant, in
which capacity he achieved success and became a director of the Bank of
England. His leisure time was occupied in scientific pursuits, and at
his country residence at Christchurch in Hampshire he became interested
in the fossils so abundant in the clays of Hordwell and Barton. A set of
these was presented by him to the British Museum, and they were
described by D.C. Solander in the beautifully illustrated work entitled
_Fossilia Hantoniensia collecta, et in Musaeo Britannico deposita a
Gustavo Brander_ (London, 1766). Brander was elected F.R.S. in 1754, and
he was also a trustee of the British Museum. He died on the 21st of
January 1787.



BRANDES, GEORG MORRIS COHEN (1842- ), Danish critic and literary
historian, was born in Copenhagen on the 4th of February 1842. He became
a student in the university in 1859, and first studied jurisprudence.
From this, however, his maturer taste soon turned to philosophy and
aesthetics. In 1862 he won the gold medal of the university for an essay
on _The Nemesis Idea among the Ancients_. Before this, indeed since
1858, he had shown a remarkable gift for verse-writing, the results of
which, however, were not abundant enough to justify separate
publication. Brandes, indeed, did not collect his poems till so late as
1898. At the university, which he left in 1864, Brandes was much under
the influence of the writings of Heiberg in criticism and Sören
Kierkegaard in philosophy, influences which have continued to leave
traces on his work. In 1866 he took part in the controversy raised by
the works of Rasmus Nielsen in a treatise on "Dualism in our Recent
Philosophy." From 1865 to 1871 he travelled much in Europe, acquainting
himself with the condition of literature in the principal centres of
learning. His first important contribution to letters was his _Aesthetic
Studies_ (1868), in which, in several brief monographs on Danish poets,
his maturer method is already foreshadowed. In 1870 he published several
important volumes, _The French Aesthetics of Our Days_, dealing chiefly
with Taine, _Criticisms and Portraits_, and a translation of _The
Subjection of Women_ of John Stuart Mill, whom he had met that year
during a visit to England. Brandes now took his place as the leading
critic of the north of Europe, applying to local conditions and habits
of thought the methods of Taine. He became _docent_ or reader in _Belles
Lettres_ at the university of Copenhagen, where his lectures were the
sensation of the hour. On the professorship of Aesthetics becoming
vacant in 1872, it was taken as a matter of course that Brandes would be
appointed. But the young critic had offended many susceptibilities by
his ardent advocacy of modern ideas; he was known to be a Jew, he was
convicted of being a Radical, he was suspected of being an atheist. The
authorities refused to elect him, but his fitness for the post was so
obvious that the chair of Aesthetics in the university of Copenhagen
remained vacant, no one else daring to place himself in comparison with
Brandes. In the midst of these polemics the critic began to issue the
most ambitious of his works, _Main Streams in the Literature of the
Nineteenth Century_, of which four volumes appeared between 1872 and
1875 (English translation, 1901-1905). The brilliant novelty of this
criticism of the literature of the chief countries of Europe at the
beginning of the 19th century, and his description of the general revolt
against the pseudo-classicism of the 18th century, at once attracted
attention outside Denmark. The tumult which gathered round the person of
the critic increased the success of the work, and the reputation of
Brandes grew apace, especially in Germany and Russia. Among his later
writings must be mentioned the monographs on _Sören Kierkegaard_ (1877),
on _Esaias Tegnér_ (1878), on _Benjamin Disraeli_ (1878), _Ferdinand
Lassalle_ (in German, 1877), _Ludvig Holberg_ (1884), on _Henrik Ibsen_
(1899) and on _Anatole France_ (1905). Brandes has written with great
fulness on the main contemporary poets and novelists of his own country
and of Norway, and he and his disciples have long been the arbiters of
literary fame in the north. His _Danish Poets_ (1877), containing
studies of Carsten Hauch, Ludwig Bödtcher, Christian Winther, and
Paludan-Müller, his _Men of the Modern Transition_ (1883), and his
_Essays_ (1889), are volumes essential to the proper study of modern
Scandinavian literature. He wrote an excellent book on _Poland_ (1888;
English translation, 1903), and was one of the editors of the German
version of _Ibsen_. In 1877 Brandes left Copenhagen and settled in
Berlin, taking a considerable part in the aesthetic life of that city.
His political views, however, made Prussia uncomfortable for him, and he
returned in 1883 to Copenhagen, where he found a whole new school of
writers and thinkers eager to receive him as their leader. The most
important of his recent works has been his study of Shakespeare
(1897-1898), which was translated into English by William Archer, and at
once took a high position. It was, perhaps, the most authoritative work
on Shakespeare, not principally intended for an English-speaking
audience, which had been published in any country. He was afterwards
engaged on a history of modern Scandinavian literature. In his critical
work, which extends over a wider field than that of any other living
writer, Brandes has been aided by a singularly charming style, lucid and
reasonable, enthusiastic without extravagance, brilliant and coloured
without affectation. His influence on the Scandinavian writers of the
'eighties was very great, but a reaction, headed by Holger Drachmann,
against his "realistic" doctrines, began in 1885 (see DENMARK:
_Literature_). In 1900 he collected his works for the first time in a
complete and popular edition, and began to superintend a German complete
edition in 1902.

His brother Edvard Brandes (b. 1847), also a well-known critic, was the
author of a number of plays, and of two psychological novels: _A
Politician_ (1889), and _Young Blood_ (1899).



BRANDING (from Teutonic _brinnan_, to burn), in criminal law a mode of
punishment; also a method of marking goods or animals; in either case by
stamping with a hot iron. The Greeks branded their slaves with a Delta,
[Delta], for [Greek: doulos]. Robbers and runaway slaves were marked by
the Romans with the letter F (_fur_, _fugitivus_); and the toilers in
the mines, and convicts condemned to figure in gladiatorial shows, were
branded on the forehead for identification. Under Constantine the face
was not permitted to be so disfigured, the branding being on the hand,
arm or calf. The canon law sanctioned the punishment, and in France
galley-slaves could be branded "TF" (_travaux forcés_) until 1832. In
Germany, however, branding was illegal. The punishment was adopted by
the Anglo-Saxons, and the ancient law of England authorized the penalty.
By the Statute of Vagabonds (1547) under Edward VI. vagabonds, gipsies
and brawlers were ordered to be branded, the first two with a large V on
the breast, the last with F for "fraymaker." Slaves, too, who ran away
were branded with S on cheek or forehead. This law was repealed in 1636.
From the time of Henry VII. branding was inflicted for all offences
which received benefit of clergy (q.v.), but it was abolished for such
in 1822. In 1698 it was enacted that those convicted of petty theft or
larceny, who were entitled to benefit of clergy, should be "burnt in the
most visible part of the left cheek, nearest the nose." This special
ordinance was repealed in 1707. James Nayler, the mad Quaker, who in the
year 1655 claimed to be the Messiah, had his tongue bored through and
his forehead branded B for blasphemer.

In the Lancaster criminal court a branding-iron is still preserved in
the dock. It is a long bolt with a wooden handle at one end and an M
(malefactor) at the other. Close by are two iron loops for firmly
securing the hands during the operation. The brander, after examination,
would turn to the judge and exclaim, "A fair mark, my lord." Criminals
were formerly ordered to hold up their hands before sentence to show if
they had been previously convicted.

Cold branding or branding with cold irons became in the 18th century the
mode of nominally inflicting the punishment on prisoners of higher rank.
"When Charles Moritz, a young German, visited England in 1782 he was
much surprised at this custom, and in his diary mentioned the case of a
clergyman who had fought a duel and killed his man in Hyde Park. Found
guilty of manslaughter he was _burnt_ in the hand, if that could be
called burning which was done with a cold iron" (Markham's _Ancient
Punishments of Northants_, 1886). Such cases led to branding becoming
obsolete, and it was abolished in 1829 except in the case of deserters
from the army. These were marked with the letter D, not with hot irons
but by tattooing with ink or gunpowder. Notoriously bad soldiers were
also branded with BC (bad character). By the British Mutiny Act of 1858
it was enacted that the court-martial, in addition to any other penalty,
may order deserters to be marked on the left side, 2 in. below the
armpit, with the letter D, such letter to be not less than 1 in. long.
In 1879 this was abolished.

  See W. Andrews, _Old Time Punishments_ (Hull, 1890); A.M. Earle,
  _Curious Punishments of Bygone Days_ (London, 1896).



BRANDIS, CHRISTIAN AUGUST (1790-1867), German philologist and historian
of philosophy, was born at Hildesheim and educated at Kiel University.
In 1812 he graduated at Copenhagen, with a thesis _Commentationes
Eleaticae_ (a collection of fragments from Xenophanes, Parmenides and
Melissus). For a time he studied at Göttingen, and in 1815 presented as
his inaugural dissertation at Berlin his essay _Von dem Begriff der
Geschichte der Philosophie_. In 1816 he refused an extraordinary
professorship at Heidelberg in order to accompany B.G. Niebuhr to Italy
as secretary to the Prussian embassy. Subsequently he assisted I. Bekker
in the preparation of his edition of Aristotle. In 1821 he became
professor of philosophy in the newly founded university of Bonn, and in
1823 published his _Aristotelius et Theophrasti Metaphysica_. With
Boeckh and Niebuhr he edited the _Rheinisches Museum_, to which he
contributed important articles on Socrates (1827, 1829). In 1836-1839 he
was tutor to the young king Otho of Greece. His great work, the
_Handbuch der Geschichte der griechisch-röm. Philos_. (1835-1866;
republished in a smaller and more systematic form, _Gesch. d.
Entwickelungen d. griech. Philos_., 1862-1866), is characterized by
sound criticism. Brandis died on the 21st of July 1867.

  See Trendelenburg, _Zur Erinnerung an C. A. B_. (Berlin, 1868).



BRANDON, a city and port of entry of Manitoba, Canada, on the
Assiniboine river, and the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern
railways, situated 132 m. W. of Winnipeg, 1184 ft. above the sea. Pop.
(1891) 3778; (1907) 12,519. It is in one of the finest agricultural
sections and contains a government experimental farm, grain elevators,
saw and grist mills. It was first settled in 1881, and incorporated as a
city in 1882.



BRANDON, a market town in the Stowmarket parliamentary division of
Suffolk, England, on the Little Ouse or Brandon river, 86½ m. N.N.E.
from London by the Ely-Norwich line of the Great Eastern railway. Pop.
(1901) 2327. The church of St Peter is Early English with earlier
portions; there is a free grammar school founded in 1646; and the town
has some carrying trade by the Little Ouse in corn, coal and timber.
Rabbit skins of fine texture are dressed and exported. Extensive
deposits of flint are worked in the neighbourhood, and the work of the
"flint-knappers" has had its counterpart here from the earliest eras of
man. Close to Brandon, but in Norfolk across the river, at the village
of Weeting, are the so-called Grimes' Graves, which, long supposed to
show the foundations of a British village, and probably so occupied,
were proved by excavation to have been actually neolithic flint
workings. The pits, though almost completely filled up (probably as they
became exhausted), were sunk through the overlying chalk to the depth of
20 to 60 ft., and numbered 254 in all. Passages branched out from them,
and among other remains picks of deer-horn were discovered, one actually
bearing in the chalk which coated it the print of the workman's hand.



BRANDY, an alcoholic, potable spirit, obtained by the distillation of
grape wine. The frequently occurring statement that the word "brandy" is
derived from the High German _Branntwein_ is incorrect, inasmuch as the
English word (as Fairley has pointed out) is quite as old as any of its
continental equivalents. It is simply an abbreviation of the Old English
_brandewine_, _brand-wine_ or _brandy wine_, the word "brand" being
common to all the Teutonic languages of northern Europe, meaning a thing
burning or that has been burnt. John Fletcher's _Beggar's Bush_ (1622)
contains the passage, "Buy brand wine"; and from the Roxburgh _Ballads_
(1650) we have "It is more fine than brandewine." The word "brandy" came
into familiar use about the middle of the 17th century, but the
expression "brandywine" was retained in legal documents until 1702
(Fairley). Thus in 1697 (_View Penal Laws_, 173) there occurs the
sentence, "No aqua vitae or brandywine shall be imported into England."
The _British Pharmacopoeia_ formerly defined French brandy, which was
the only variety mentioned (officially _spiritus vini gallici_), as
"Spirit distilled from French wine; it has a characteristic flavour, and
a light sherry colour derived from the cask in which it has been kept."
In the latest edition the Latin title _spiritus vini gallici_ is
retained, but the word _French_ is dropped from the text, which now
reads as follows: "A spirituous liquid distilled from wine and matured
by age, and containing not less than 36½% by weight or 43½% by volume of
ethyl hydroxide." The _United States Pharmacopoeia_ (1905), retains the
Latin expression _spiritus vini gallici_ (English title _Brandy_),
defined as "an alcoholic liquid obtained by the distillation of the
fermented, unmodified juice of fresh grapes."

Very little of the brandy of commerce corresponds exactly to the former
definition of the _British Pharmacopoeia_ as regards colouring matter,
inasmuch as trade requirements necessitate the addition of a small
quantity of caramel (burnt sugar) colouring to the spirit in the
majority of cases. The object of this is, as a rule, not that of
deceiving the consumer as to the apparent age of the brandy, but that of
keeping a standard article of commerce at a standard level of colour. It
is practically impossible to do this without having recourse to caramel
colouring, as, practically speaking, the contents of any cask will
always differ slightly, and often very appreciably, in colour intensity
from the contents of another cask, even though the age and quality of
the spirits are identical.

The finest brandies are produced in a district covering an area of
rather less than three million acres, situated in the departments of
Charente and Charente Inférieure, of which the centre is the town of
Cognac. It is generally held that only brandies produced within this
district have a right to the name "cognac." The Cognac district is
separated into district zones of production, according to the quality of
the spirit which each yields. In the centre of the district, on the left
bank of the Charente, is the _Grande Champagne_, and radiating beyond it
are (in order of merit of the spirit produced) the _Petite Champagne_,
the _Borderies_ (or _Premiers Bois_), the _Fins Bois_, the _Bons Bois_,
the _Bois Ordinaires_, and finally the _Bois communs dits à terroir_.
Many hold that the brandy produced in the two latter districts is not
entitled to the name of "cognac," but this is a matter of controversy,
as is also the question as to whether another district called the
_Grande Fine Champagne_, namely, that in the immediate neighbourhood of
the little village of Juillac-le-Coq, should be added to the list. The
pre-eminent quality of the Cognac brandies is largely due to the
character of the soil, the climate, and the scientific and systematic
cultivation of the vines. For a period--from the middle 'seventies to
the 'nineties of the 19th century--the cognac industry was, owing to the
inroads of the phylloxera, threatened with almost total extinction, but
after a lengthy series of experiments, a system of replanting and
hybridizing, based on the characteristics of the soils of the various
districts, was evolved, which effectually put a stop to the further
progress of the disease. In 1907 the area actually planted with the vine
in the Cognac district proper was about 200,000 acres, and the
production of cognac brandy, which, however, varies widely in different
years, may be put down at about five million gallons per annum. The
latter figure is based on the amount of wine produced in the two
Charentes (about forty-five million gallons in 1905).


GENUINE COGNAC BRANDIES.

(Excepting the alcohol, results are expressed in grammes per 100 litres
of absolute alcohol.)

  +-------------------------------------+---------+-----+--------+-------+----------+---------+---------+
  |                                     | Alcohol |Total|  Non-  |       | "Higher  |         |         |
  |               Age, &c.              |% by vol.|Acid.|volatile|Esters.|Alcohols."|Aldehyde.|Furfural.|
  |                                     |         |     |  Acid. |       |          |         |         |
  +-------------------------------------+---------+-----+--------+-------+----------+---------+---------+
  | 1. _New_ 1904                       |  61.7   |  45 |    5   |   82  |   125    |    8    |   2.3   |
  | 2. _New_, still heated by steam coil|  56.3   |  22 |    4   |   61  |   100    |    3    |   1.2   |
  | 3. _New_                            |  67.7   |  51 |   ··   |  158  |   152    |    6    |   1.3   |
  | 4. _Five years old_, 1900 vintage   |  57.7   |  92 |   37   |  125  |   ··     |   ··    |   ··    |
  | 5. _1875 vintage_, pale             |  46.7   | 144 |   37   |  177  |   261    |   55    |   1.0   |
  | 6. _1848 vintage_, brown            |  38.5   | 254 |  109   |  190  |   488    |   32    |   2.1   |
  +-------------------------------------+---------+-----+--------+-------+----------+---------+---------+

  _Note._--In the above table the acid is expressed in terms of acetic
  acid, the esters are expressed as ethyl acetate, and the aldehyde as
  acetaldehyde. The "Higher Alcohol" figures do not actually represent
  these substances, but indicate the relative coloration obtained with
  sulphuric acid when compared with an iso-butyl standard under certain
  conditions.

Brandy is also manufactured in numerous other districts in France, and
in general order of commercial merit may be mentioned the brandies of
Armagnac, Marmande, Nantes and Anjou. The brandies commanding the lowest
prices are broadly known as the _Trois-Six de Monlpellier_. In a class
by themselves are the _Eaux-de-vie de Marc_, made from the wine
pressings or from the solid residues of the stills. Some of these,
particularly those made in Burgundy, have characteristic qualities, and
are considered by many to be very fine. The consumption is chiefly
local. Brandy of fair quality is also made in other wine-producing
countries, particularly in Spain, and of late years colonial (Australian
and Cape) brandies have attracted some attention. The comsumption of
brandy in the United Kingdom amounts to about two million gallons.

Brandy, in common with other potable spirits, owes its flavour and aroma
to the presence of small quantities of substances termed secondary or
by-products (sometimes "impurities"). These are dissolved in the ethyl
alcohol and water which form over 99% of the spirit. The nature and
quantity of all of these by-products have not yet been fully
ascertained, but the knowledge in this direction is rapidly progressing.
Ch. Ordonneau fractionally distilled 100 litres of 25-year-old cognac
brandy, and obtained the following substances and quantities thereof:--

                                        Grammes in
                                        100 Litres.

  Normal propyl alcohol                     40.0
  Normal butyl alcohol                     218.6
  Amyl alcohol                              83.8
  Hexyl alcohol                              0.6
  Heptyl alcohol                             1.5
  Ethyl acetate                             35.0
  Ethyl propionate, butyrate and caproate    3.0
  Oenanthic ether (about)                    4.0
  Aldehyde                                   3.0
  Acetal                                   traces
  Amines                                   traces

Most of the above substances, in fact probably all of them, excepting
the oenanthic ether, are contained in other spirits, such as whisky and
rum. The oenanthic ether (ethyl pelargonate) is one of the main
characteristics which enable us chemically to differentiate between
brandy and other distilled liquors. Brandy also contains a certain
quantity of free acid, which increases with age, furfural, which
decreases, and small quantities of other matters of which we have as yet
little knowledge.

The table gives analyses, by the present author (excepting No. 3, which
is by F. Lusson), of undoubtedly genuine commercial cognac brandies of
various ages.

_Storage and Maturation._--Brandy is stored in specially selected oak
casks, from which it extracts a certain quantity of colouring matter and
tannin, &c. Commercial cognac brandies are generally blends of different
growths and vintages, the blending being accomplished in large vats some
little time prior to bottling. The necessary colouring and sweetening
matter is added in the vat. In the case of pale brandies very little
colouring and sweetening are added, the usual quantity being in the
neighbourhood of ½ to 1%. Old "brown brandies," which are nowadays not
in great demand, require more caramel and sugar than do the pale
varieties. The preparation of the "liqueur," as the mixed caramel and
sugar syrup is termed, is an operation requiring much experience, and
the methods employed are kept strictly secret. Fine "liqueur" is
prepared with high-class brandy, and is stored a number of years prior
to use. Brandy, as is well known, improves very much with age (for
chemical aspects of maturation see SPIRITS), but this only holds good
when the spirit is in _wood_, for there is no material appreciation in
quality after bottling. It is a mistake to believe, however, that brandy
improves indefinitely, even when kept in wood, for, as a matter of fact,
after a certain time--which varies considerably according to the type of
brandy, the vintage, &c.--there is so much evaporation of alcohol that a
number of undesirable changes come about. The brandy begins to "go
back," and becomes, as it is called, "worn" or "tired." It is necessary,
therefore, that the bottling should not be deferred too long. Sometimes,
for trade reasons, it is necessary to keep brandy in cask for a long
period, and under these conditions the practice is to keep a series of
casks, which are treated as follows:--The last cask is kept filled by
occasionally adding some spirit from the cask next in order, the latter
is filled up by spirit taken from the third cask from the end, and so
on, until the first cask in the row is reached. The latter is filled up
or "topped" with some relatively fresh spirit.

Brandy is much employed medicinally as a food capable of supplying
energy in a particularly labile form to the body, as a stimulant,
carminative, and as a hypnotic.

_Adulteration._--A good deal has been written about the preparation of
artificial brandy by means of the addition of essential oils to potato
or beetroot spirit, but it is more than doubtful whether this practice
was really carried on on a large scale formerly. What undoubtedly did
occur was that much beet, potato or grain spirit was used for blending
with genuine grape spirit. Prosecutions under the Food and Drugs Act, by
certain English local authorities in the year 1904, resulted in the
practical fixation of certain chemical standards which, in the opinion
of the present writer, have, owing to their arbitrary and unscientific
nature, resulted in much adulteration of a type previously non-existent.
There is no doubt that at the present time artificial esters and higher
alcohols, &c., are being used on an extensive scale for the preparation
of cheap brandies, and the position, in this respect, therefore, has not
been inproved. Where formerly fraud was practically confined to the
blending of genuine brandy with spirit other than that derived from the
grape, it is now enhanced by the addition of artificial essences to the
blend of the two spirits.     (P. S.)



BRANDYWINE, the name of a stream in Pennsylvania and Delaware, U.S.A.,
which runs into the Delaware river a few miles east of Wilmington,
Delaware. It is famous as the scene of the battle of Brandywine in the
American War of Independence, fought on the 11th of September 1777 about
10 m. north-west of Wilmington, and a few miles inside the Pennsylvania
border. Sir William Howe, the British commander-in-chief, while opposed
to Washington's army in New Jersey, had formed the plan of capturing
Philadelphia from the south side by a movement by sea to the head of
Delaware Bay. But contrary winds and accidents delayed the British
transports so long that Washington, who was at first puzzled, was able
to divine his opponents' intentions in time; and rapidly moving to the
threatened point he occupied a strong entrenched position at the fords
over the Brandywine, 25 m. south-west of Philadelphia. Here on the 11th
of September the British attacked him. Howe's plan, which was carefully
worked out and exactly executed, was to deliver an energetic feint
attack against the American front, to take a strong column 12 m. up the
stream, and crossing beyond Washington's right to attack his
entrenchments in rear. Washington was successfully held in play during
the movement, and General Sullivan, the commander of the American right
wing, misled by the conflicting intelligence which reached him from
up-stream, was surprised about noon by definite information as to the
approach of Cornwallis on his right rear. Changing front "right back" in
the dense country, he yet managed to oppose a stubborn resistance to the
flanking attack, and with other troops that were hurried to the scene
his division held its ground for a time near Birmingham meeting-house.
But Howe pressed his attack sharply and drove back the Americans for 2
m.; the holding attack of the British right was converted into a real
one, and by nightfall Washington was in full retreat northward toward
Chester, protected by General Greene and a steady rear-guard, which held
off Howe's column for the necessary time. The British were too exhausted
to pursue, and part of Howe's force was inextricably mixed up with the
advancing troops of the frontal attack. The American loss in killed,
wounded and prisoners was about 1000; that of the British less than 600.
Howe followed up his victory, and on the 27th of September entered
Philadelphia.



BRANFORD, a township, including a borough of the same name, in New Haven
county, Connecticut, U.S.A., at the mouth of the Branford river and at
the head of a short arm of Long Island Sound, about 7 m. E.S.E. of New
Haven. Pop. of the township (1890) 4460; (1900) 5706 (1968
foreign-born);(1910) 6047; of the borough (1910) 2560. The borough is
served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and by an electric
line connecting with New Haven. A range of rocky hills commands fine
views of the Sound, the shore is deeply indented, the harbour and bays
are dotted with islands, and the harbour is deep enough for small craft,
and these natural features attract many visitors during the summer
season. In Branford is the James Blackstone Memorial library (1896),
designed by Solon Spencer Beman (b. 1853) in the Ionic style (the
details being taken from the Erechtheum at Athens). On the interior of
the dome which covers the rotunda are a series of paintings by Oliver
Dennett Grover (b. 1861) illustrating the evolution of book-making, and
between the arches are medallion portraits, by the same artist, of New
England authors--Longfellow, Emerson, Hawthorne, Lowell, Bryant,
Whittier, Holmes and Mrs Stowe. The library was erected by Timothy B.
Blackstone (1829-1900), a native of Branford, and president of the
Chicago & Alton railway from 1864 to 1899--as a memorial to his father,
a descendant of William Blackstone (d. 1675), the New England pioneer.
The principal industries of Branford are the manufacture of malleable
iron fittings, locks and general hardware, the quarrying of granite, and
oyster culture.

The territory of Totoket (now the township of Branford) was purchased
from the Indians by the New Haven Plantation, in December 1638, for
eleven coats of trucking cloth and one coat of English cloth, but with
the reservation for a few Indians of what is still known as Indian Neck.
In 1640 the general court of New Haven granted it to the Rev. Samuel
Eaton (1596?-1665), a brother of Theophilus Eaton, on condition that he
brought friends from England to settle it. As Eaton went to England and
did not return, Totoket was granted in 1644 to settlers mostly from
Wethersfield, Conn., on condition that they should organize a church
state after the New Haven model and join the New Haven Jurisdiction. The
settlement was made in the same year, and about two years later several
new families came from Southampton, Long Island, under the leadership of
the Rev. Abraham Pierson (c. 1608-1678), an ardent advocate of the
church state, who was chosen pastor at Totoket. The present name of the
township, derived from Brentford, England, was adopted about 1645. After
the members of the New Haven Jurisdiction had submitted to Connecticut,
Pierson, in 1666-1667, led the most prominent citizens of Branford to
New Jersey, where they were leaders in founding Newark. The borough of
Branford was incorporated in 1893.

  See E.C. Baldwin, _Branford Annals_, in Papers of New Haven Colony
  Historical Society (New Haven, 1882 and 1888).



BRANGWYN, FRANK (1867-), English painter, was born at Bruges, and
received his first instruction from his father, the owner of an
establishment for church embroideries and kindred objects, who took a
leading part in the Gothic revival under Pugin. When the family moved to
England, Brangwyn attracted the attention of William Morris by a drawing
on which he was engaged at South Kensington museum. He worked for some
time in Morris's studio, and then travelled more than once to the East,
whereby his sense of colour and the whole further development of his art
became deeply influenced. Indeed, the impressions he then received, and
his love of Oriental decorative art--tiles and carpets--exercised a
greater influence on him than any early training or the works of any
European master. His whole tendency is essentially decorative: a
colour-sense of sumptuous richness is wedded to an equally strong sense
of well-balanced, harmonious design. These qualities, together with a
summary suppression of the details which tie a subject to time and
place, give his compositions a nobly impressive and universal character,
such as may be seen in his decorative panel "Modern Commerce" in the
ambulatory of the Royal Exchange, London. Among other decorative schemes
executed by him are those for "L'Art nouveau" in the rue de Provence,
Paris; for the hall of the Skinners' Company, London; and for the
British room at the Venice International Exhibition, 1905. The
Luxembourg museum has his "Trade on the Beach"; the Venice municipal
museum, the "St Simon Stylites"; the Stuttgart gallery, the "St John the
Baptist"; the Munich Pinakothek, the "Assisi"; the Carnegie Institute in
Pittsburg, his "Sweetmeat Seller"; the Prague gallery, his "Turkish
Boatmen"; and the National Gallery of New South Wales, "The Scoffers."
Brangwyn embarked successfully in many fields of applied art, and made
admirable designs for book decoration, stained glass, furniture,
tapestry, metal-work and pottery. He devoted himself extensively to
etching, and executed many plates of astonishing vigour and dramatic
intensity. He was elected associate of the Royal Academy in 1904.



BRANKS, (probably akin to Irish _brancas_, a halter; Ger. _Pranger_,
fetter, pillory), or SCOLDING-BRIDLE, a contrivance formerly in use
throughout England and Scotland for the punishment of scolding women. It
is said to have originated in the latter country. It seems to have never
been a legalized form of punishment; but corporations and lords of
manors in England, town councils, kirk-sessions and barony courts in
Scotland assumed a right to inflict it. While specially known as the
"Gossip's or Scold's Bridle" the branks was also used for women
convicted of petty offences, breaches of the peace, street-brawling and
abusive language. It was the equivalent of the male punishments of the
stocks and pillory. In its earliest form it consisted of a hoop
head-piece of iron, opening by hinges at the side so as to enclose the
head, with a flat piece of iron projecting inwards so as to fit into
the mouth and press the tongue down. Later it was made, by a
multiplication of hoops, more like a cage, the front forming a mask of
iron with holes for mouth, nose and eyes. Sometimes the mouth-plate was
armed with a short spike. With this on her head the offending woman was
marched through the streets by the beadle or chained to the market-cross
to be gibed at by passers. The date of origin is doubtful. It was used
at Edinburgh in 1567, at Glasgow in 1574, but not before the 17th
century in any English town. A brank in the church of Walton-on-Thames,
Surrey, bears date 1633; while another in a private collection has the
crowned cipher of William III. The Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, the
Scottish National Museum of Antiquities at Edinburgh, the towns of
Lichfield, Shrewsbury, Leicester and Chester have examples of the brank.
As late as 1856 it was in use at Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire.

  See W. Andrews, _Old Time Punishments_ (Hull, 1890); A.M. Earle,
  _Curious Punishments of Bygone Days_ (Chicago, 1896).



BRANT, JOSEPH (1742-1807), American Indian chief of the Mohawk tribe,
known also by his Indian name, THAYENDANEGEA, was born on the banks of
the Ohio river in 1742. In early youth he attracted the attention of Sir
William Johnson, who sent him to be educated by Dr Eleazar Wheelock at
Lebanon, Conn., in Moor's Indian charity school, in which Dartmouth
College had its origin. He took part, on the side of the English, in the
French and Indian War, and in 1763 fought with the Iroquois against
Pontiac. Subsequently he settled at Canajoharie, or Upper Mohawk Castle
(in what is now Montgomery county, New York), where, being a devout
churchman, he devoted himself to missionary work, and translated the
Prayer Book and St Mark's Gospel into the Mohawk tongue (1787). When Guy
Johnson (1740-1788) succeeded his uncle, Sir William, as superintendent
of Indian affairs in 1774, Brant became his secretary. At the outbreak
of the War of Independence, he remained loyal, was commissioned colonel,
and organized and led the Mohawks and other Indians allied to the
British against the settlements on the New York frontier. He took part
in the Cherry Valley Massacre, in the attack on Minisink and the
expedition of General St Leger which resulted in the battle of Oriskany
on the 6th of August 1777. After the war he discouraged the continuance
of Indian warfare on the frontier, and aided the commissioners of the
United States in securing treaties of peace with the Miamis and other
western tribes. Settling in Upper Canada, he again devoted himself to
missionary work and in 1786 visited England, where he raised funds with
which was erected the first Episcopal church in Upper Canada. His
character was a peculiar compound of the traits of an Indian
warrior--with few rivals for daring leadership--and of a civilized
politician and diplomat of the more conservative type. He died on an
estate granted him by the British government on the banks of Lake
Ontario on the 24th of November 1807. A monument was erected to his
memory at Brantford, Ontario, Canada (named in his honour) in 1886.

  See W.L. Stone, _Life of Joseph Brant_ (2 vols., New York, 1838; new
  ed., Albany, 1865); Edward Eggleston and Elizabeth E. Seelye, _Brant
  and Red Jacket_ in "Famous American Indians" (New York, 1879); and a
  _Memoir_ (Brantford, 1872).



BRANT, SEBASTIAN (1457-1521), German humanist and satirist, was born at
Strassburg about the year 1457. He studied at Basel, took the degree of
doctor of laws in 1489, and for some time held a professorship of
jurisprudence there. Returning to Strassburg, he was made syndic of the
town, and died on the 10th of May 1521. He first attracted attention in
humanistic circles by his Latin poetry, and edited many ecclesiastical
and legal works; but he is now only known by his famous satire, _Das
Narrenschiff_(1494), a work the popularity and influence of which were
not limited to Germany. Under the form of an allegory--a ship laden with
fools and steered by fools to the fools' paradise of Narragenia--Brant
here lashes with unsparing vigour the weaknesses and vices of his time.
Although, like most of the German humanists, essentially conservative in
his religious views, Brant's eyes were open to the abuses in the church,
and the _Narrenschiff_ was a most effective preparation for the
Protestant Reformalion. Alexander Barclay's _Ship of Fools_ (1509) is a
free imitation of the German poem, and a Latin version by Jacobus
Locher (1497) was hardly less popular than the German original. There is
also a large quantity of other "fool literature." Nigel, called Wireker
(fl. 1190), a monk of Christ Church Priory, Canterbury, wrote a
satirical _Speculum stultorum_, in which the ambitious and discontented
monk figured as the ass Brunellus, who wanted a longer tail. Brunellus,
who has been educated at Paris, decides to found an order of fools,
which shall combine the good points of all the existing monastic orders.
_Cock Lovell's Bote_ (printed by Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1510) is another
imitation of the _Narrenschiff_. Cock Lovell is a fraudulent currier who
gathers round him a rascally collection of tradesmen. They sail off in a
riotous fashion up hill and down dale throughout England. Brant's other
works, of which the chief was a version of Freidank's _Bescheidenheit_
(1508), are of inferior interest and importance.

  Brant's _Narrenschiff_ has been edited by F. Zarncke (1854); by K.
  Goedeke (1872); and by F. Bobertag (Kürschner's _Deutsche
  Nationalliteratur_, vol. xvi., 1889). A modern German translation was
  published by K. Simrock in 1872. On the influence of Brant in England
  see especially C.H. Herford, _The Literary Relations of England and
  Germany in the 16th Century_ (1886).



BRANTFORD, a city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, on the Grand
river, and on the Grand Trunk, and Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo railways.
The river is navigable to within 2½ m. of the town; for the remaining
distance a canal has been constructed. Agricultural implements, plough,
engine, bicycle and stove works, potteries and large railway shops
constitute the important industrial establishments. It contains an
institute for the education of the blind, maintained by the provincial
government, and a women's college. The city is named in honour of the
Mohawk Indian chief, Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), who settled in the
neighbourhood after the American War of Independence, in which he had
led the Six Nations (Iroquois) on the British side. The amalgamated
tribes of the Six Nations still make it their headquarters, and a
monument to Brant has been erected in Victoria Square. Brantford is one
of the most flourishing industrial towns of the province, and its
population rose from 9616 in 1881 to 20,713 in 1907.



BRANTINGHAM, THOMAS DE (d. 1394), English lord treasurer and bishop of
Exeter, came of a Durham family. An older relative, Ralph de
Brantingham, had served Edward II. and Edward III., and Thomas was made
a clerk in the treasury. Edward III. obtained preferment for him in the
church, and from 1361 to 1368 he was employed in France in responsible
positions. He was closely associated with William of Wykeham, and while
the latter was in power as chancellor, Brantingham was lord treasurer
(1369-1371, and 1377-1381), being made bishop of Exeter in 1370. He
continued to play a prominent part in public affairs under Richard II.,
and in 1389 was again lord treasurer for a few months. He died in 1394
and was buried in Exeter cathedral.



BRANTÔME, PIERRE DE BOURDEILLE, SEIGNEUR AND ABBÉ DE (c. 1540-1614),
French historian and biographer, was born in Périgord about 1540. He was
the third son of the baron de Bourdeille. His mother and his maternal
grandmother were both attached to the court of Marguerite of Valois, and
at her death in 1549 he went to Paris, and later (1555) to Poitiers, to
finish his education. He was given several benefices, the most important
of which was the abbey of Brantôme (see below), but he had no
inclination for an ecclesiastical career. At an early age he entered the
profession of arms. He showed himself a brave soldier, and was brought
into contact with most of the great leaders who were seeking fame or
fortune in the wars that distracted the continent. He travelled much in
Italy; in Scotland, where he accompanied Mary Stuart (then the widow of
Francis I.); in England, where he saw Queen Elizabeth (1561, 1579); in
Morocco (1564); and in Spain and Portugal. He fought on the galleys of
the order of Malta, and accompanied his great friend, the French
commander Philippe Strozzi (grandson of Filippo Strozzi, the Italian
general, and nephew of Piero), in his expedition against Terceira, in
which Strozzi was killed (1582). During the wars of religion under
Charles IX. he fought in the ranks of the Catholics, but he allowed
himself to be won over temporarily by the ideas of the reformers, and
though he publicly separated himself from Protestantism it had a marked
effect on his mind. A fall from his horse compelled him to retire into
private life about 1589, and he spent his last years in writing his
_Memoirs_ of the illustrious men and women whom he had known. He died on
the 15th of July 1614.

Brantôme left distinct orders that his manuscript should be printed; a
first edition appeared, however, late (1665-1666) and not very complete.
Of the later editions the most valuable are: one in 15 volumes (1740);
another by Louis Jean Nicolas Monmerqué (1780-1860) in 8 volumes
(1821-1824), reproduced in Buchan's _Panthéon littéraire_; that of the
Bibliothèque elzévirienne, begun (1858) by P. Mérimée and L. Lacour, and
finished, with vol. xiii., only in 1893; and Lalanne's edition for the
Société de l'Histoire de France (12 vols., 1864-1896). Brantôme can
hardly be regarded as a historian proper, and his _Memoirs_ cannot be
accepted as a very trustworthy source of information. But he writes in a
quaint conversational way, pouring forth his thoughts, observations or
facts without order or system, and with the greatest frankness and
naïveté. His works certainly gave an admirable picture of the general
court-life of the time, with its unblushing and undisguised profligacy.
There is not a _homme illustre_ or a _dame galante_ in all his gallery
of portraits who is not stained with vice; and yet the whole is narrated
with the most complete unconsciousness that there is anything
objectionable in their conduct.

  The edition of L. Lalanne has great merit, being the first to indicate
  the Spanish, Italian and French sources on which Brantôme drew, but it
  did not utilize all the existing MSS. It was only after Lalanne's
  death that the earliest were obtained for the Bibliothèque Nationale.
  At Paris and at Chantilly (Musée Condé) all Brantôme's original MSS.,
  as revised by him several times, are now collected (see the
  _Bibliothèque de l'école des Chartes_, 1904), and a new and definitive
  edition has therefore become possible. Brantôme's poems (which amount
  to more than 2200 verses) were first published in 1881; see Lalanne's
  edition.



BRANTÔME, a town of south-western France, in the department of Dordogne,
20 m. N. by W. of Périgueux by steam-tramway. Pop. (1906) 1230. The town
is built, in great part, on an island in the river Dronne. It is well
known for the remains of an abbey founded by Charlemagne about 770 and
afterwards destroyed by the Normans. The oldest existing portion is a
square tower dating from the 11th century, built upon a rock beside the
church which it overlooks. It communicates by a staircase with the
church, a rectangular building partly Romanesque, partly Gothic, to the
west of which are the remains of a cloister. The abbey buildings date
from the 18th century, and now serve as hôtel-de-ville, magistrature and
schools. Caves in the neighbouring rocks were inhabited by the monks
before the building of the abbey; one of them, used as an oratory,
contains curious carvings, representing the Last Judgment and the
Crucifixion. In the middle of the 16th century Pierre de Bourdeille came
into possession of the abbey, from which he took the name of Brantôme.

Brantôme has some old houses and a church of the 15th century, which was
once fortified and is now used as a market. Truffles are the chief
article of commerce; and there are quarries of freestone in the
neighbourhood. The dolmen which is known as Pierre-Levée, to the east of
the town, is the most remarkable in Périgord.



BRANXHOLM, or BRANKSOME, a feudal castle, now modernized, and an ancient
seat of the Buccleuchs, on the Teviot, 3 m. S.W. of Hawick, Roxburgh,
Scotland. It was at Branksome Hall that Sir Walter Scott laid the scene
of _The Lay of the Last Minstrel_.



BRANXTON, or BRANKSTON, a village of Northumberland, England, 10½ m. E.
by N. of Kelso, and 2 m. E.S.E. of Coldstream, and 10 m. N.W. of Wooler.
It was on Branxton Hill, immediately south of the village, that the
battle of Flodden (q.v.) was fought between the English and the Scots on
the 9th of September 1513. During the fight the Scots centre pushed as
far as Branxton church, but "the King's Stone," which lies N.W. of the
church and is popularly supposed to mark the spot where James IV. fell,
is some three-quarters of a mile from the scene of the battle; it is
believed in reality to mark the sepulchre of a chieftain, whose name had
already perished in the 16th century. Branxton church, dedicated to St
Paul, was rebuilt in 1849 in Norman style. Of the older building nothing
remains save the chancel arch.



BRAOSE, WILLIAM DE (d. 1211), lord of Brecknock, Radnor and Limerick,
spent the early part of his life fighting the Welsh in Radnorshire. He
was high in King John's favour, received a large number of honours, and
was even given the custody of Prince Arthur. But John and he quarrelled,
probably over money (1207). In 1208 John began to suspect the fidelity
of the whole family, and William had to fly to Ireland. After a number
of attempted reconciliations, he was outlawed (1210) and died at Corbeil
(1211). It is said that his wife and son were starved to death by John.

  See _Foedera_, i. 107; _Histoire des ducs_ (ed. Michel), Wendover;
  Kate Norgate's _John Lackland_.

A descendant, William de Braose (d. 1326), lord of Gower, was a devoted
follower of Edward I., and in 1299 was summoned to parliament as baron
de Braose; and his nephew Thomas de Braose (d. 1361) also distinguished
himself in the wars and was summoned as baron de Braose in 1342. This
latter barony became extinct in 1399; but a claim to the barony of
William de Braose, which, as he had no son, fell into abeyance between
his two daughters and co-heirs, Alina (wife of Lord Mowbray) and Joan
(wife of John de Bohun), or their descendants, may still be traced by
careful genealogists in various noble English families.



BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND (1804-1867), French painter, was born at
Bordeaux, and studied art in Paris, where in 1825 he won a _prix de
Rome_ with a picture ("Chasse de Méléagre") now in the Bordeaux gallery.
He went to Italy and painted a number of landscapes which were exhibited
between 1827 and 1835; but subsequently he devoted himself mainly to
animal-painting, in which his reputation as an artist was made. His
"Lutte de taureaux" (1837), in the _musée_ at Nantes, and his "Vache
attaquée par des loups" (1845), in the Leipzig museum, were perhaps the
best of his pictures; but he was remarkable for his accuracy of
observation and correct drawing. He was elected a member of the
Institute in 1846. He died at Paris on the 28th of February 1867.



BRAS D'OR, a landlocked and tideless gulf or lake of high irregular
outline, 50 m. long by 20 m. broad, almost separating Cape Breton Island
(province of Nova Scotia, Canada) into two parts. A ship canal across
the isthmus (about 1 m. wide) completes the severance of the island. The
entrance to the gulf is on the N.E. coast of the island, and it is
connected with the Atlantic by the Great and Little Bras d'Or channels,
which are divided by Boulardeire Island. One channel is 25 m. long and
from ¼ m. to 3 m. broad, but is of little depth, the other (used by
shipping) is 22 m. long, 1 to 1½ m. wide, and has a depth of 60 fathoms.
The gulf or lake is itself divided into two basins, the inner waters
being known as the Great Bras d'Or Lake. The waters are generally from
12 to 60 fathoms deep, but in the outer basin (known as the Little Bras
d'Or Lake) are soundings said to reach nearly 700 ft. The shores of the
gulf are very picturesque and well wooded and have attracted many
tourists. Sea fishing (cod, mackerel, &c.) is the chief industry. The
name is said to be a corruption of an Indian word, but it assumed its
present form during the French occupation of Cape Breton Island.



BRASDOR, PIERRE (1721-1799), French surgeon, was born in the province of
Maine. He took his degree in Paris as master of surgery in 1752, and was
appointed regius professor of anatomy and director of the Academy of
Surgery. He was a skilful operator, whose name was long attached to a
ligature of his invention; and he was an ardent advocate of inoculation.
He died in Paris on the 28th of September 1799.



BRASIDAS (d. 422 B.C.), a Spartan officer during the first decade of the
Peloponnesian War. He was the son of Tellis and Argileonis, and won his
first laurels by the relief of Methone, which was besieged by the
Athenians (431 B.C.). During the following year he seems to have been
eponymous ephor (Xen. _Hell_. ii. 3, 10), and in 429 he was sent out as
one of the three commissioners ([Greek: symbouloi]) to advise the
admiral Cnemus. As trierarch he distinguished himself in the assault on
the Athenian position at Pylos, during which he was severely wounded
(Thuc. iv. n. 12).

In the next year, while Brasidas mustered a force at Corinth for a
campaign in Thrace, he frustrated an Athenian attack on Megara (Thuc.
iv. 70-73), and immediately afterwards marched through Thessaly at the
head of 700 helots and 1000 Peloponnesian mercenaries to join the
Macedonian king Perdiccas. Refusing to be made a tool for the
furtherance of Perdiccas's ambitions, Brasidas set about the
accomplishment of his main object, and, partly by the rapidity and
boldness of his movements, partly by his personal charm and the
moderation of his demands, succeeded during the course of the winter in
winning over the important cities of Acanthus, Stagirus, Amphipolis and
Torone as well as a number of minor towns. An attack on Eion was foiled
by the arrival of Thucydides, the historian, at the head of an Athenian
squadron. In the spring of 423 a truce was concluded between Athens and
Sparta, but its operation was at once imperilled by Brasidas's refusal
to give up Scione, which, the Athenian partisans declared, revolted two
days after the truce began, and by his occupation of Mende shortly
afterwards. An Athenian fleet under Nicias and Nicostratus recovered
Mende and blockaded Scione, which fell two years later (421 B.C.).
Meanwhile Brasidas joined Perdiccas in a campaign against Arrhabaeus,
king of the Lyncesti, who was severely defeated. On the approach of a
body of Illyrians, who, though summoned by Perdiccas, unexpectedly
declared for Arrhabaeus, the Macedonians fled, and Brasidas's force was
rescued from a critical position only by his coolness and ability. This
brought to a head the quarrel between Brasidas and Perdiccas, who
promptly concluded a treaty with Athens, of which some fragments have
survived (_I.G._ i. 42).

In April 422 the truce with Sparta expired, and in the same summer Cleon
was despatched to Thrace, where he stormed Torone and Galepsus and
prepared for an attack on Amphipolis. But a carelessly conducted
reconnaissance gave Brasidas the opportunity for a vigorous and
successful sally. The Athenian army was routed with a loss of 600 men
and Cleon was slain. On the Spartan side only seven men are said to have
fallen, but amongst them was Brasidas. He was buried at Amphipolis with
impressive pomp, and for the future was regarded as the founder ([Greek:
oikistaes]) of the city and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices
(Thuc. iv. 78-v. 11). At Sparta a cenotaph was erected in his memory
near the tombs of Pausanias and Leonidas, and yearly speeches were made
and games celebrated in their honour, in which only Spartiates could
compete (Paus. in. 14).

Brasidas united in himself the personal courage characteristic of Sparta
with those virtues in which the typical Spartan was most signally
lacking. He was quick in forming his plans and carried them out without
delay or hesitation. With an oratorical power rare amongst the
Lacedaemonians he combined a conciliatory manner which everywhere won
friends for himself and for Sparta (Thuc. iv. 81).

  See in particular Thucydides, ii.-v.; what Diodorus xii. adds is
  mainly oratorical elaboration or pure invention. A fuller account will
  be found in the histories of Greece (e.g. those of Grote, Beloch,
  Busolt, Meyer) and in G. Schimmelpfeng, _De Brasidae Spartani rebus
  gestis atque ingenio_ (Marburg, 1857).



BRASS, a river, town and district of southern Nigeria, British West
Africa. The Brass river is one of the deltaic branches of the Niger,
lying east of the Rio Nun or main channel of the river. From the point
of divergence from the main stream to the sea the Brass has a course of
about 100 m., its mouth being in 6° 20' E., 4° 35' N. Brass town is a
flourishing trading settlement at the mouth of the river. It is the
headquarters of a district commissioner and the seat of a native court.
Its most conspicuous building is a fine church, the gift of a native
chief. The capital of the Brass tribes is Nimbé, 30 m. up river.

The Brass river, called by its Portuguese discoverers the Rio Bento, is
said to have received its English name from the brass rods and other
brass utensils imported by the early traders in exchange for palm-oil
and slaves. The Brass natives, of the pure negro type, were noted for
their savage character. In 1856 their chiefs concluded a treaty with
Great Britain agreeing to give up the slave-trade in exchange for a duty
on the palm-oil exported. Finding their profitable business as middlemen
between the up-river producer and the exporter threatened by the
appearance of European traders, they made ineffective complaints to the
British authorities. The establishment of the Royal Niger Company led to
further loss of trade, and on the 29th of January 1895 the natives
attacked and sacked the company's station at Akassa on the Rio Nun, over
forty prisoners being killed and eaten as a sacrifice to the fetish
gods. In the following month a punitive expedition partially destroyed
Nimbé, and a heavy fine was paid by the Brass chiefs. Since then the
country has settled down under British administration. The trade
regulations of which complaint had been made were removed in 1900 on the
establishment of the protectorate of Southern Nigeria (see NIGERIA).

  Valuable information concerning the country and people will be found
  in the _Report by Sir John Kirk on the Disturbances at Brass (Africa_,
  No. 3, 1896).



BRASS (O. Eng. _braes_), an alloy consisting mainly if not exclusively
of copper and zinc; in its older use the term was applied rather to
alloys of copper and tin, now known as bronze (q.v.)Thus the brass of
the Bible was probably bronze, and so also was much of the brass of
later times, until the distinction between zinc and tin became clearly
recognized. The Latin word _aes_ signifies either pure copper or bronze,
not brass, but the Romans comprehended a brass compound of copper and
zinc under the term _orichalcum_ or _aurichalcum_, into which Pliny
states that copper was converted by the aid of cadmia (a mineral of
zinc).

In England there is good evidence of the manufacture of brass with zinc
at the end of the 16th century, for Queen Elizabeth by patent granted to
William Humfrey and Christopher Schutz the exclusive right of working
calamine and making brass. This right subsequently devolved upon a body
called the "Governors, Assistants and Societies of the City of London of
and for the Mineral and Battery Works," which continued to exercise its
functions down to the year 1710.

When a small percentage of zinc is present, the colour of brass is
reddish, as in _tombac_ or red brass, which contains about 10%. With
about 20% the colour becomes more yellow, and a series of metals is
obtained which simulate gold more or less closely; such are _Dutch
metal, Mannheim gold, similar_ and _pinchbeck_, the last deriving its
name from a London clockmaker, Christopher Pinchbeck, who invented it in
1732. Ordinary brass contains about 30% of zinc, and when 40% is
present, as in _Muntz, yellow_ or _patent_ metal (invented by G.F. Muntz
in 1832), the colour becomes a full yellow. When the proportion of zinc
is largely increased the colour becomes silver-white and finally grey.
The limit of elasticity increases with the percentage of zinc, as also
does the amount of elongation before fracture, the maximum occurring
with 30%. The tenacity increases with the proportion of zinc up to a
maximum with 45%; then it decreases rapidly, and with 50% the metals are
fragile. By varying the proportion between 30 and 43% a series of alloys
may be prepared presenting very varied properties. The most malleable of
the series has an elongation of about 60%, with a tensile strength of
17.5 tons per sq. in. Increase in the proportion of zinc gives higher
tensile strength, accompanied, however, by a smaller percentage of
elongation and a materially increased tendency to produce unsound
castings. The quality of copper-zinc alloys is improved by the addition
of a small quantity of iron, a fact of which advantage is taken in the
production of Aich's metal and delta metal. Of the latter there are
several varieties, modified in composition to suit different purposes.
Some of them possess high tensile strength and ductility. They are
remarkably resistant to corrosion by sea-water, and are well suited for
screw-propellers as well as for pump-plungers, pistons and glands.
Heated to a dull red delta metal becomes malleable and can be worked
under the hammer, press or stamps. By such treatment an ultimate tensile
strength of 30 tons per sq. in. may be obtained, with an elongation of
32% in 2 in. and a contraction of area of 30%.

In the arts brass is a most important and widely used alloy. As compared
with copper its superior hardness makes it wear better, while being more
fusible it can be cast with greater facility. It is readily drawn into
fine wire, and formed into rolled sheets and rods which are machined
into a huge number of useful and ornamental articles. It is susceptible
of a fine polish, but tarnishes with exposure to the air; the brilliancy
of the surface can, however, be preserved if the metal is thoroughly
cleansed by "dipping" in nitric acid and "lacquered" with a coating of
varnish consisting of seed-lac dissolved in spirit.



BRASSES, MONUMENTAL, a species of engraved sepulchral memorials which in
the early part of the 13th century began to take the place of tombs and
effigies carved in stone. Made of hard _latten_ or sheet brass, let into
the pavement, and thus forming no obstruction in the space required for
the services of the church, they speedily came into general use, and
continued to be a favourite style of sepulchral memorial for three
centuries. Besides their great value as historical monuments, they are
interesting as authentic contemporary evidence of the varieties of
armour and costume, or the peculiarities of palaeography and heraldic
designs, and they are often the only authoritative records of the
intricate details of family history. Although the intrinsic value of the
metal has unfortunately contributed to the wholesale spoliation of these
interesting monuments, they are still found in remarkable profusion in
England, and they were at one time equally common in France, Germany and
the Low Countries. In France, however, those that survived the troubles
of the 16th century were totally swept away during the reign of terror,
and almost the only evidence of their existence is now supplied by the
collection of drawings bequeathed by Gough to the Bodleian library. The
fine memorials of the royal house of Saxony in the cathedrals of Meissen
and Freiberg are the most artistic and striking brasses in Germany.
Among the 13th-century examples existing in German churches are the
full-length memorials of Yso von Welpe, bishop of Verden (1231), and of
Bernard, bishop of Paderborn (1340). Many fine Flemish specimens exist
in Belgium, especially at Bruges. Only two or three examples, and these
of late date, are known in Scotland, among which are the memorials of
Alexander Cockburn (1564) at Ormiston; of the regent Murray (1569) in
the collegiate church of St Giles, Edinburgh; and of the Minto family
(1605) in the south aisle of the nave of Glasgow cathedral. England is
the only country which now possesses an extensive series of these
interesting memorials, of which it is calculated that there may be about
4000 still remaining in the various churches. They are most abundant in
the eastern counties, and this fact has been frequently adduced in
support of the opinion that they were of Flemish manufacture. But in the
days when sepulchral brasses were most in fashion the eastern counties
of England were full of commercial activity and wealth, and nowhere do
the engraved memorials of civilians and prosperous merchants more abound
than in the churches of Ipswich, Norwich, Lynn and Lincoln. Flemish
brasses do occur in England, but they were never numerous, and they are
readily distinguished from those of native workmanship. The Flemish
examples have the figures engraved in the centre of a large plate, the
background filled in with diapered or scroll work, and the inscription
placed round the edge of the plate. The English examples have the
figures cut out to the outline and inserted in corresponding cavities in
the slab, the darker colour of the stone serving as a background. This
is not an invariable distinction, however, as "figure-brasses" of
Flemish origin are found both at Bruges and in England. But the
character of the engraving is constant, the Flemish work being more
florid in design, the lines shallower, and the broad lines cut with a
chisel-pointed tool instead of the lozenge-shaped burin. The brass of
Robert Hallum, bishop of Salisbury, the envoy of Henry V. to the council
of Constance, who died and was interred there in 1416, precisely
resembles the brasses of England in the peculiarities which distinguish
them from continental specimens. Scarcely any of the brasses which now
exist in England can be confidently referred to the first half of the
13th century, though several undoubted examples of this period are on
record. The full-sized brass of Sir John d'Aubernon at Stoke d'Abernon
in Surrey (c. 1277) has the decorations of the shield filled in with a
species of enamel. Other examples of this occur, and the probability is,
that, in most cases, the lines of the engraving were filled with
colouring-matter, though brass would scarcely bear the heat requisite to
fuse the ordinary enamels. A well-known 13th-century example is that of
Sir Roger de Trumpington (c. 1290), who accompanied Prince Edward in his
expedition to Palestine and is represented cross-legged. About half a
dozen instances of this peculiarity are known. The 14th-century brasses
are much more numerous, and present a remarkable variety in their
details. The finest specimen is that of Nicholas Lord Burnell (1315) in
the church of Acton Burnell, Shropshire. In the 15th century the design
and execution of monumental brasses had attained their highest
excellence. The beautiful brass of Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d.
1401), and his wife Margaret, which formerly covered the tomb in St
Mary's church, Warwick, is a striking example. One of the best specimens
of plate armour is that of Sir Robert Stantoun (1458) in Castle
Donnington church, Leicestershire, and one of the finest existing
brasses of ecclesiastics is that of Abbot de la Mare of St Albans. It is
only in the 16th century that the engraved representations become
portraits. Previous to that period the features were invariably
represented conventionally, though sometimes personal peculiarities were
given. A large number of brasses in England are _palimpsests_, the back
of an ancient brass having been engraved for the more recent memorial.
Thus a brass commemorative of Margaret Bulstrode (1540) at Hedgerley, on
being removed from its position, was discovered to have been previously
the memorial of Thomas Totyngton, abbot of St Edmunds, Bury (1312). The
abbey was only surrendered to Henry VIII. in 1539, so that before the
year was out the work of spoliation had begun, and the abbot's brass had
been removed and re-engraved to Margaret Bulstrode. In explanation of
the frequency with which ancient brasses have thus been stolen and
re-erected after being engraved on the reverse, as at Berkhampstead, it
may be remarked that all the sheet brass used in England previous to the
establishment of a manufactory at Esher by a German in 1649, had to be
imported from the continent.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  Fig. 1.--Sir John D'Abernon, 1277. Stoke D'Abernon Surrey.

  Fig. 2.--Margaret de Camoys. 1310. Trotton, Sussex.

  Fig. 3.--Henry de Grofhurst, c. 1330 Horsemonden, Kent.

  Fig. 4.--Sir Nicholas Burnell, 1382. Acton Burnell, Shropshire.

  Fig. 5.--Margaret Lady Cobham, 1385. Cobham, Kent.

  Fig. 6.--Sir John Corp and Eleanor, his grand-daughter 1391, 1361.
  Stoke Fleming, Devonshire.

  Fig. 7.--Sir Symon de Felbrigge and Margaret his wife, 1400.
  Felbrigge, Norfolk.

  Figs. 1 and 6 from Waller's _Monumental Brasses._

  Figs. 5 and 7 from Boutell's _Monumental Brasses._

  Figs. 2, 3, and 4 by permission of the _Monumental Brass Society_.]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  Fig. 1.--Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick and Lady, 1406 and 1401.
  St. Mary's Church, Warwick.

  Fig. 2.--Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin, 1417. New College,
  Oxford.

  Fig. 3.--Sir William Vernon and Lady, 1467. Tong Church, Shropshire.

  Fig. 4.--John Shelley, Esq., 1526, and his wife Elizabeth, 1513.
  Clapham, Sussex.

  Fig. 5.--Dame Margaret Chute, 1614. Mardon, Herefordshire.

  Fig. 6.--Sir Edward Filmer and Lady, 1638. East Sutton, Kent.

  Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 6 from Waller's _Monumental Brasses_.

  Figs. 4 and 5 by permission of the _Monumental Brass Society_.]

  AUTHORITIES.--(1) General: _Manual for the Study of Monumental
  Brasses_ (Oxford, 1848); Boutell's _Monumental Brasses of England_,
  engravings on wood, folio (London, 1849); _Manual of Monumental
  Brasses_, by H. Haines (2 vols. 8vo, 1861); Waller's _Series of
  Monumental Brasses in England_ (London and Oxford, Parkers, 1863);
  _Monumental Brasses_, by H.W. Macklin (8vo, 1890); _The Brasses of
  England_, by H.W. Macklin (8vo, London, 1907). (2) English Counties:
  Cotman's _Engravings of the most Remarkable of the Sepulchral Brasses
  of Norfolk_ (4to, London, 1813-1816); and second edition, with plates
  and notes by Meyrick, Albert Way and Sir Harris Nicholas (2 vols.
  folio, London, 1839); _Illustrations of Monumental Brasses in
  Cambridge_ (4to, Camden Society, 1846); _Monumental Brasses of
  Northamptonshire_, by F. Hudson (folio, 1853); _The Monumental Brasses
  of Wiltshire_, by G. Kite (8vo, London, 1860); _Architectural and
  Historical Notes of the Churches of Cambridgeshire_, by A.C. Hill
  (8vo, 1880); _Monumental Brasses of Cornwall_, by E.H.W. Dunken (4to,
  London, 1882); _Monumental Brasses of Worcestershire and
  Herefordshire_, ed. by C.T. Davis (1884); _Kentish Brasses_, by W.D.
  Belcher (4to, London, 1888); _List of Monumental Brasses in the County
  of Norfolk_, by the Rev. E. Farrer (Norwich, 1890); _The Monumental
  Brasses of Lancashire and Cheshire_, by James Thornby (8vo, Hull,
  1893); _Monumental Brasses in the Bedfordshire Churches_, by Grace
  Isherwood (8vo, London, 1906), a large collection of rubbings of
  special interest and value. (3) Foreign: _Monumental Brasses and
  Incised Slabs in Belgium_ (8vo, 1849); _Books of Facsimiles of
  Monumental Brasses of the Continent of Europe_, folio (1884), by the
  Rev. W.F. Greeny.



BRASSEUR DE BOURBOURG, CHARLES ÉTIENNE (1814-1874), Belgian
ethnographer, was born at Bourbourg, near Dunkirk, on the 8th of
September 1814. He entered the Roman Catholic priesthood, was professor
of ecclesiastical history in the Quebec seminary in 1845, vicar-general
at Boston in 1846, and from 1848 to 1863 travelled as a missionary,
chiefly in Mexico and Central America. He gave great attention to
Mexican antiquities, published in 1857-1859 a history of Aztec
civilization, and from 1861 to 1864 edited a collection of documents in
the indigenous languages. In 1863 he announced the discovery of a key to
Mexican hieroglyphic writing, but its value is very questionable. In
1864 he was archaeologist to the French military expedition in Mexico,
and his _Monuments anciens du Mexique_ was published by the French
Government in 1866. Perhaps his greatest service was the publication in
1861 of a French translation of the _Popol Vuh_, a sacred book of the
Quiché Indians, together with a Quiché grammar, and an essay on Central
American mythology. In 1871 he brought out his _Bibliothèque
Mexico-Guatemalienne_, and in 1869-1870 gave the principles of his
decipherment of Indian picture-writing in his _Manuscrit Troano, études
sur le système graphique et la langue des Mayas._ He died at Nice on the
8th of January 1874. His chief merit is his diligent collection of
materials; his interpretations are generally fanciful.



BRASSEY, THOMAS (1805-1870), English railway contractor, was born at
Buerton, near Chester, on the 7th of November 1805. His father, besides
cultivating land of his own, held a large farm of the marquess of
Westminster; his ancestors, according to family tradition, having been
settled for several centuries at Bulkeley, near Malpas, Cheshire, before
they went to Buerton in 1663. Thomas Brassey received an ordinary
commercial education at a Chester school. At the age of sixteen he was
apprenticed to a surveyor, and on the completion of his term became the
partner of his master, eventually assuming the sole management of the
business. In the local surveys to which he devoted his attention during
his early years he acquired the knowledge and practical experience which
were the necessary foundation of his great reputation. His first
engagement as railway contractor was entered upon in 1835, when he
undertook the execution of a portion of the Grand Junction railway, on
the invitation of the distinguished engineer Joseph Locke, who soon
afterwards entrusted him with the completion of the London and
Southampton railway, a task which involved contracts to the amount of
£4,000,000 sterling and the employment of a body of 3000 men. At the
same time he was engaged on portions of several other lines in the north
of England and in Scotland. In conjunction with his partner, W.
Mackenzie, Brassey undertook, in 1840, the construction of the railway
from Paris to Rouen, of which Locke was engineer. He subsequently
carried out the extension of the same line. A few years later he was
engaged with his partner on five other French lines, and on his own
account on the same number of lines in England, Wales and Scotland.
Brassey was now in control of an industrial army of 75,000 men, and the
capital involved in his various contracts amounted to some £36,000,000.
But his energy and capacity were equal to still larger tasks. He
undertook in 1851 other works in England and Scotland; and in the
following year he engaged in the construction of railways in Holland,
Prussia, Spain and Italy. One of his largest undertakings was the Grand
Trunk railway of Canada, 1100 m. in length, with its fine bridge over
the St Lawrence. In this work he was associated with Sir M. Peto and
E.L. Betts. In the following years divisions of his industrial army were
found in almost every country in Europe, in India, in Australia and in
South America. Besides actual railway works, he originated and
maintained a great number of subordinate assistant establishments, coal
and iron works, dockyards, &c., the direction of which alone would be
sufficient to strain the energies of an ordinary mind. His profits were,
of course, enormous, but prosperity did not intoxicate him; and when
heavy losses came, as sometimes they did, he took them bravely and
quietly. Among the greatest of his pecuniary disasters were those caused
by the fall of the great Barentin viaduct on the Rouen and Havre
railway, and by the failure of Peto and Betts. Brassey was one of the
first to aim at improving the relations between engineers and
contractors, by setting himself against the corrupt practices which were
common. He resolutely resisted the "scamping" of work and the bribery of
inspectors, and what he called the "smothering of the engineer"; and he
did much in this way to bring about a better state of things.
Large-hearted and generous to a rare degree, modest and simple in his
taste and manners, he was conscious of his power as a leader in his
calling, and knew how to use it wisely and for noble ends. Honours came
to him unsought. The cross of the Legion of Honour was conferred on him.
From Victor Emmanuel he received the cross of the Order of St Maurice
and St Lazarus; and from the emperor of Austria the decoration of the
Iron Crown, which it is said had not before been given to a foreigner.
He died at St Leonards on the 8th of December 1870. His life and labours
are commemorated in a volume by Sir Arthur Helps (1872).

He left three sons, of whom the eldest, THOMAS (b. 1836), was knighted
and afterwards (1886) created BARON BRASSEY. Lord Brassey, who was
educated at Rugby and Oxford, entered parliament as a liberal in 1865,
and devoted himself largely to naval affairs. He was civil lord of the
admiralty (1880-1883), and secretary to the admiralty (1883-1885); and
both before and after his elevation to the peerage did important work on
naval and statistical inquiries for the government. In 1893-1805 he was
president of the Institution of Naval Architects. In 1894 he was a
lord-in-waiting, and from 1895 to 1900 was governor of Victoria. In 1908
he was appointed lord warden of the Cinque Ports. His voyages in his
yacht "Sunbeam" from 1876 onwards, with his first wife (d. 1887), who
published an interesting book on the subject, took him all over the
world. Lord Brassey married a second time in 1890. Among other
publications, his inauguration of the _Naval Annual_ (1886 onwards), and
his volumes on _The British Navy_, are the most important. His eldest
son Thomas, who edited the _Naval Annual_ (1890-1904), and
unsuccessfully contested several parliamentary constituencies, was born
in 1862.



BRASSÓ (Ger. _Kronstadt_; Rumanian, _Brasov_), a town of Hungary, in
Transylvania, 206 m. S.E. of Kolozsvár by rail. Pop. (1900) 34,511. It
is the capital of the comitat (county) of the same name, also known as
Burzenland, a fertile country inhabited by an industrious population of
Germans, Magyars and Rumanians. Brassó is beautifully situated on the
slopes of the Transylvanian Alps, in a narrow valley, shut in by
mountains, and presenting only one opening on the north-west towards the
Burzen plain. The town is entirely dominated by the Zinne of
Kapellenberg, a mountain rising 1276 ft. above the town (total altitude
3153 ft.), from which a beautiful view is obtained of the lofty
mountains around and of the carefully cultivated plain of the
Burzenland, dotted with tastefully built and well-kept villages. On the
summit of the mountain is one of the numerous monuments erected in 1896
in different parts of the country to commemorate the thousandth
anniversary of the foundation of the Hungarian state. It is known as
Árpád's Monument, and consists of a Doric column erected on a circular
pedestal, which supports the bronze figure of a warrior from the time of
Árpád.

Brassó consists of the inner town, which is the commercial centre, and
the suburbs of Blumenau, Altstadt and Obere Vorstadt or Bolgárszeg,
inhabited respectively by Germans, Magyars and Rumanians. To the east of
the inner town rises the Schlossberg, crowned by the citadel, which was
erected in 1553, and constitutes the principal remaining fragment of the
old fortifications with which Brassó was encircled. The most interesting
building in the town is the Protestant church, popularly called the
Black Church, owing to its smoke-stained walls, caused by the great fire
of 1689. This church, the finest in Transylvania, is a Gothic edifice
with traces of Romanesque influence, and was built in 1385-1425. In the
square in front of it is the statue of Johannes Honterus (1498-1549),
"the apostle of Transylvania," who was born in Brassó, and established
here the first printing-press in Transylvania. In the principal square
of the inner town stands the town hall, built in 1420 and restored in
the 18th century, with a tower 190 ft. high. Brassó is the most
important commercial and manufacturing town of Transylvania. Lying near
the frontier of Rumania, with easy access through the Tömös pass, it
developed from the earliest time an active trade with that country and
with the whole of the Balkan states. Its chief industries are iron and
copper works, wool-spinning, turkey-red dyeing, leather goods, paper,
cement and petroleum refineries. The timber industry in all its
branches, with a speciality for the manufacture of the wooden bottles
largely used by the peasantry in Hungary and in the Balkan states, as
well as the dairy industry, and ham-curing are also fully developed. A
peculiarity of Brassó, which constitutes a survival of the old methods
of trade with the Balkan states, is the number of money-changers who ply
their trade at small movable tables in the market-place and in the open
street. Brassó is the most populous town of Transylvania, and its
population is composed in about equal numbers of Germans, Magyars and
Rumanians. The town, especially on market days, presents an animated and
picturesque aspect. Here are seen Germans, Szeklers, Magyars, Rumanians,
Armenians and Gipsies, each of them wearing their distinctive national
costume, and talking and bargaining in their own special idiom.

Amongst the places of interest round Brassó is the watering-place
Zaizon, 15 m. to the east, with ferruginous and iodine waters; while
about 17 m. to the south-west lies the pretty Rumanian village of
Zernest, where in 1690 the Austrian general Heussler was defeated and
taken prisoner by Imre (Emerich) Tököly, the usurper of the
Transylvanian throne.

Brassó was founded by the Teutonic Order in 1211, and soon became a
flourishing town. Through the activity of Honterus it played a leading
part in the introduction of the Reformation in Transylvania in the 16th
century. The town was almost completely destroyed by the big fire of
1689. During the revolution of 1848-1849 it was besieged by the
Hungarians under General Bern from March to July 1849, and several
engagements between the Austrian and the Hungarian troops took place in
its neighbourhood.



BRATHWAIT, RICHARD (1588-1673), English poet, son of Thomas Brathwait,
was born in 1588 at his father's manor of Burneshead, near Kendal,
Westmorland. He entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1604, and remained
there for some years, pursuing the study of poetry and Roman history. He
removed to Cambridge to study law and afterwards to London to the Inns
of Court. Thomas Brathwait died in 1610, and the son went down to live
on the estate he inherited from his father. In 1617 he married Frances
Lawson of Nesham, near Darlington. On the death of his elder brother,
Sir Thomas Brathwait, in 1618, Richard became the head of the family,
and an important personage in the county, being deputy-lieutenant and
justice of the peace. In 1633 his wife died, and in 1639 he married
again. His only son by this second marriage, Sir Stafford Brathwait, was
killed in a sea-fight against the Algerian pirates. Richard Brathwait's
most famous work is _Barnabae Itinerarium or Barnabees Journall_ [1638],
by "Corymbaeus," written in English and Latin rhyme. The title-page says
it is written for the "travellers' solace" and is to be chanted to the
old tune of "Barnabe." The story of "drunken Barnabee's" four journeys
to the north of England contains much amusing topographical information,
and its gaiety is unflagging. Barnabee rarely visits a town or village
without some notice of an excellent inn or a charming hostess, but he
hardly deserves the epithet "drunken." At Banbury he saw the Puritan who
has become proverbial,

  "Hanging of his cat on Monday
   For killing of a Mouse on Sunday."

Brathwait's identity with "Corymbaeus" was first established by Joseph
Haslewood. In his later years he removed to Catterick, where he died on
the 4th of May 1673. Among his other works are: _The Golden Fleece_
(1611), with a second title-page announcing "sonnets and madrigals," and
a treatise on the _Art of Poesy_, which is not preserved; _The Poets
Willow; or the Passionate Shepheard_ (1614); _The Prodigals Teares_
(1614); _The Schollers Medley, or an intermixt Discourse upon Historicall
and Poeticall relations_ (1614), known in later editions as a _Survey of
History_ (1638, &c.); a collection of epigrams and satires entitled _A
Strappado for the Divell_ (1615), with which was published incongruously
_Loves Labyrinth_ (edited, 1878, by J.W. Ebsworth); _Natures Embassie;
or, the wildemans measures; danced naked by twelve satyres_ (1621),
thirty satires finding antique parallels for modern vices; with these are
bound up _The Shepheards Tales_ (1621), a collection of pastorals, one
section of which was reprinted by Sir Egerton Brydges in 1815; two
treatises on manners, _The English Gentleman_ (1630) and _The English
Gentlewoman_ (1631); _Anniversaries upon his Panarete_ (1634), a poem in
memory of his wife; _Essaies upon the Five Senses_ (1620); _The Psalmes
of David ... and other holy Prophets, paraphras'd in English_ (1638); _A
Comment upon Two Tales of ... Jeffray Chaucer_ (1665; edited for the
Chaucer Soc. by C. Spurgeon, 1901). Thomas Hearne, on whose testimony
(MS. collections for the year 1713, vol. 47, p. 127) the authorship of
the _Itinerarium_ chiefly rests, not inappropriately called him "the
scribler of those times," and the list just given of his works, published
under various pseudonyms, is by no means complete.

  A full bibliography is given in Joseph Haslewood's edition of
  _Barnabee's Journall_ (ed. W.C. Hazlitt, 1876). See also J. Corser,
  _Collectanea_ (Chetham Soc., 1860, &c.).



BRATIANU (or BRATIANO), ION C. (1821-1891), Rumanian statesman, was born
at Pitesci in Walachia on the 2nd of June 1821. He entered the Walachian
army in 1838, and visited Paris in 1841 for purposes of study. Returning
to Walachia, he took part, with his friend C.A. Rosetti and other
prominent politicians, in the Rumanian rebellion of 1848, and acted as
prefect of police in the provisional government formed in that year. The
restoration of Russian and Turkish authority shortly afterwards drove
him into exile. He took refuge in Paris, and endeavoured to influence
French opinion in favour of the proposed union and autonomy of the
Danubian principalities. In 1854, however, he was sentenced to a fine of
£120 and three months' imprisonment for sedition, and later confined in
a lunatic asylum; but in 1856 he returned home with his brother,
Dimitrie Bratianu, afterwards one of his foremost political opponents.
During the reign of Prince Cuza (1859-1866), Bratianu figured
prominently as one of the Liberal leaders. He assisted in 1866 in the
deposition of Cuza and the election of Prince Charles of Hohenzollern,
under whom he held several ministerial appointments during the next four
years. He was arrested for complicity in the revolution of 1870, but
soon released. In 1876, aided by C.A. Rosetti, he formed a Liberal
cabinet, which remained in power until 1888. For an account of his work
in connexion with the Russo-Turkish War of 1877, the Berlin congress,
the establishment of the Rumanian kingdom, the revision of the
constitution, and other reforms, see RUMANIA. After 1883 Bratianu acted
as sole leader of the Liberals, owing to a quarrel with C.A. Rosetti,
his friend and political ally for nearly forty years. His long tenure of
office, without parallel in Rumanian history, rendered Bratianu
extremely unpopular, and at its close his impeachment appeared
inevitable. But any proceedings taken against the minister would have
involved charges against the king, who was largely responsible for his
policy; and the impeachment was averted by a vote of parliament in
February 1890. Bratianu died on the 16th of May 1891. Besides being the
leading statesman of Rumania during the critical years 1876-1888, he
attained some eminence as a writer. His French political pamphlets,
_Mémoire sur l'empire d'Autriche dans la question d'Orient_ (1855),
_Réflexions sur la situation_ (1856), _Mémoire sur la situation de la
Moldavie depuis le traité de Paris_ (1857), and _La Question religieuse
en Roumanie_ (1866), were all published in Paris.

  For his other writings and speeches see _Din Scrierile si cuvîntarile
  lui I.C. Bratianu_, 1821-1891 (Bucharest, 1903, &c.), edited with a
  biographical introduction by D.A. Sturza. A brief anonymous biography,
  _Ion C. Bratianu_, appeared at Bucharest in 1893.



BRATLANDSDAL (i.e. Bratland valley), a gorge of southern Norway in
Stavanger _amt_ (county), formed by the Bratland river, a powerful
torrent issuing into Lake Suldal. A remarkable road traverses the gorge
by means of cuttings and a tunnel, and the scenery is among the most
magnificent in Norway. It is usually approached from Stavanger by way of
Sand and Lake Suldal, and the road divides above the gorge, branches
running north to Odde and south-east through Telemarken. The junction
of the roads is near Breifond, 13 m. above Naes at the mouth of the
river, on the west shore of Lake Roldal, which is fed by the snowfield
to the west, north and east, and is drained by the Bratland river.



BRATTISHING, or BRANDISHING (from the Fr. _bretèche_), in architecture,
a sort of crest or ridge on a parapet, or species of embattlement. The
term, however, is generally employed to describe the ranges of flowers
which form the crests of so many parapets in the Tudor period.



BRATTLEBORO, a village of Windham county, Vermont, U.S.A., in a township
(pop. 1910, 7541) of the same name, in the south-east part of the state,
60 m. N. of Springfield, Massachusetts, on the Connecticut river. Pop.
(1890) 5467; (1900) 5297 (686 foreign-born); (1910) 6517. It is served
by the Central Vermont and the Boston & Maine railways. Situated in a
hilly, heavily wooded country, it is an attractive place, with a few
houses dating from the 18th century. Among the manufactures are toys,
furniture, overalls and organs, the Estey and the Carpenter organs being
made there. First settled about 1753, Brattleboro took its name from one
of the original patentees, William Brattle (1702-1776), a Massachusetts
loyalist. It was incorporated ten years later.

  See H. Burnham, _Brattleboro_ (Brattleboro, 1880), and H.M. Burt, _The
  Attractions of Brattleboro, Glimpses of Past and Present_
  (Brattleboro, 1866).



BRAUNAU (Czech _Broumov_), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 139 m. E.N.E. of
Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 7622, chiefly German. The town is built on a
rocky eminence on the right bank of the Steine. It has an imposing
Benedictine abbey, once a castle, but converted into a religious house
in 1322, when Ottakar I. gave the district to the Benedictines.
Noteworthy also is the great church of Saints Wenceslaus and Adalbert,
built between 1683 and 1733. This stands on the site where, in 1618, the
Protestants attempted to build a church, the forcible prevention of
which by Abbot Wolfgang Solander was the immediate cause of the protest
of the Bohemian estates and the "defenestration" of the ministers
Martinic and Slavata, which opened the Thirty Years' War. After the
battle of the White Hill, near Prague (1620), the town was deprived of
all its privileges, which were, however, in great part restored nine
years later. It is now a manufacturing centre (cloth, woollen and cotton
stuffs, &c.) and has a considerable trade.



BRAUNSBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, 38 m. by rail
S.W. of Königsberg, on the Passarge, 4 m. from its mouth in the Frisches
Haff. Pop. (1900) 12,497. It possesses numerous Roman Catholic
institutions, of which the most important is the Lyceum Hosianum
(enjoying university rank), founded in 1564 by the cardinal bishop
Stanislaus Hosius. Brewing, tanning, and the manufactures of soap,
yeast, carriages and bricks are the most important industries of the
town, which also carries on a certain amount of trade in corn, ship
timber and yarn. The river is navigable for small vessels. The castle of
Braunsberg was built by the Teutonic knights in 1241, and the town was
founded ten years later. Destroyed by the Prussians in 1262, it was
restored in 1279. The town, which was the seat of the bishops of
Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the "law of Lübeck" by its
bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League. After numerous
vicissitudes it fell into the hands of the Poles in 1520, and in 1626 it
was captured by Gustavus Adolphus. The Swedes kept possession till 1635.
It fell to Prussia by the first partition of Poland in 1772.



BRAVO (Ital. for "brave"), the name for hired assassins such as were
formerly common in Italy. The word had at first no evil meaning, but was
applied to the retainers of the great noble houses, or to the
cavalier-type of swashbucklers familiar in fiction. In later Italian
history, especially in that of Venice, the _bravi_ were desperate
ruffians who for payment were ready to commit any crime, however foul.



BRAWLING (probably connected with Ger. _brallen_, to roar, shout), in
law, the offence of quarrelling, or creating a disturbance in a church
or churchyard. During the early stages of the Reformation in England
religious controversy too often became converted into actual
disturbance, and the ritual lawlessness of the parochial clergy very
frequently provoked popular violence. To repress these disturbances an
act was passed in 1551, by which it was enacted "that if any person
shall, by words only, quarrel, chide or brawl in any church or
churchyard, it shall be lawful for the ordinary of the place where the
same shall be done and proved by two lawful witnesses, to suspend any
person so offending, if he be a layman, from the entrance of the church,
and if he be a clerk, from the ministration of his office, for so long
as the said ordinary shall think meet, according to the fault." An act
of 1553 added the punishment of imprisonment until the party should
repent. The act of 1551 was partly repealed in 1828 and wholly repealed
as regards laymen by the Ecclesiastical Courts Jurisdiction Act 1860.
Under that act, which applies to Ireland as well as to England, persons
guilty of riotous, violent or indecent behaviour, in churches and
chapels of the Church of England or Ireland, or in any chapel of any
religious denomination, or in England in any place of religious worship
duly certified, or in churchyards or burial-grounds, are liable on
conviction before two justices to a penalty of not more than £5, or
imprisonment for any term not exceeding two months. This enactment
applies to clergy as well as to laity, and a clergyman of the Church of
England convicted under it may also be dealt with under the Clergy
Discipline Act of 1892 (_Girt v. Fillingham_, 1901, L.R. Prob. 176).
When Mr J. Kensit during an ordination service in St Paul's cathedral
"objected" to one of the candidates for ordination, on grounds which did
not constitute an impediment or notable crime within the meaning of the
ordination service, he was held to have unlawfully disturbed the bishop
of London in the conduct of the service, and to be liable to conviction
under the act of 1860 (_Kensit_ v. _Dean and Chapter of St Paul's_,
1905, L.R. 2 K.B. 249). The public worship of Protestant Dissenters,
Roman Catholics and Jews in England had before 1860 been protected by a
series of statutes beginning with the Toleration Act of 1689, and ending
with the Liberty of Religious Worship Act 1855. These enactments, though
not repealed, are for practical purposes superseded by the summary
remedy given by the act of 1860. In Scotland disturbance of public
worship is punishable as a breach of the peace (_Dougall_ v. _Dykes_,
1861, 4 Irvine 101).

In British possessions abroad interference with religious worship is
usually dealt with by legislation, and not as a common-law offence. In
India it is an offence voluntarily to cause disturbance to any assembly
lawfully engaged in the performance of religious worship or religious
ceremonies (Penal Code, s. 296). Under the Queensland Criminal Code of
1899 (s. 207) penalties are imposed on persons who wilfully and without
lawful justification or excuse (the proof of which lies on them)
disquiet or disturb any meeting of persons lawfully assembled for
religious worship, or assault any forces lawfully officiating at such
meeting, or any of the persons there assembled.

In the United States disturbance of religious worship is treated as an
offence under the common law, which is in many states supplemented by
legislation (see Bishop, _Amer. Crim. Law_, 8th ed. 1892, vol. i. s.
542, vol. ii. ss. 303-305; California Penal Code, s. 302; _Revised Laws
of Massachusetts_, 1902, chap. 212, s. 30.).



BRAY, SIR REGINALD (d. 1503), British statesman and architect, was the
second son of Sir Richard Bray, one of the privy council of Henry VI.
Reginald was born in the parish of St John Bedwardine, near Worcester,
but the date of his birth is uncertain. He was receiver-general and
steward of the household to Sir Henry Stafford, second husband of
Margaret, countess of Richmond, whose son afterwards became King Henry
VII. The accession of the king Henry VII. favoured the fortunes of
Reginald Bray, who was created a knight of the Bath at the coronation
and afterwards a knight of the Garter. In the first year of Henry VII.'s
reign he was given a grant of the constableship of Oakham Castle in
Rutland, and was appointed joint chief justice with Lord Fitz Walter of
all the forest south of Trent and chosen of the privy council.
Subsequently he was made high treasurer and chancellor of the duchy of
Lancaster. In October 1494 he became high steward of the university of
Oxford, and he was a member of the parliament summoned in the 11th year
of Henry VII's reign. In June 1497 he was at the battle of Blackheath,
and his services in repressing the Cornish rebels were rewarded with a
gift of estates and the title of knight banneret. His taste and skill in
architecture are attested by Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster and St
George's chapel at Windsor. He directed the building of the former, and
the finishing and decoration of the latter, to which, moreover, he was a
liberal contributor, building at his own expense a chapel still called
by his name and ornamented with his crest, the initial letters of his
name, and a device representing the hemp-bray, an instrument used by
hemp manufacturers. He died in 1503, before the Westminster chapel was
completed, and was interred in St George's chapel.



BRAY, THOMAS (1656-1730), English divine, was born at Marton,
Shropshire, in 1656, and educated at All Souls' College, Oxford. After
leaving the university he was appointed vicar of Over-Whitacre, and
rector of Sheldon in Warwickshire, where he wrote his famous
_Catechetical Lectures_. Henry Compton, bishop of London, appointed him
in 1696 as his commissary to organize the Anglican church in Maryland,
and he was in that colony in 1699-1700. He took a great interest in
colonial missions, especially among the American Indians, and it is to
his exertions that the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel owes
its existence. He also projected a successful scheme for establishing
parish libraries in England and America, out of which grew the Society
for Promoting Christian Knowledge. From 1706 till his death in February
1730 he was rector of St Botolph-Without, Aldgate, London, being
unceasingly engaged in philanthropic and literary pursuits.



BRAY, a village in the Wokingham parliamentary division of Berkshire,
England, beautifully situated on the west (right) bank of the Thames, 1
m. S. of Maidenhead Bridge. Pop. (1901) 2978. There are numerous
riverside residences in the locality. The church of St Michael has
portions of various dates from the Early English period onward, and is
much restored. It contains a number of brasses of the 14th, 15th, 16th
and 17th centuries. A well-known ballad, "The Vicar of Bray," tells how
a vicar held his position by easy conversions of faith according to
necessity, from the days of Charles II. until the accession of George I.
and the foundation of "the illustrious house of Hanover" (1714). One
Francis Carswell, who is buried in the church, was vicar for forty-two
years, approximately during this period, dying in 1709; but the legend
is earlier, and the name of the vicar who gave rise to it is not
certainly known. That of Simon Aleyn, who held the office from c. 1540
to 1588, is generally accepted, as, in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward
VI., Mary and Elizabeth, he is said to have been successively Papist,
Protestant, Papist and Protestant. The name of Simon Simonds is also
given on the authority of the vicar of the parish in 1745; Simonds died
a canon of Windsor in 1551, but had been vicar of Bray. Tradition
ascribes the song to a soldier in Colonel Fuller's troop of dragoons in
the reign of George I.



BRAY, a seaport and watering-place of Co. Wicklow, Ireland, 12 m. S.S.E.
of Dublin on the Dublin & South-Eastern railway, situated on both sides
of the river Bray. Pop. of urban district (1901) 7424. For parliamentary
purposes it is divided between the eastern division of county Wicklow
and the southern of county Dublin. A harbour was constructed by the
urban district council (the harbour authority) which accommodates ships
of 400 tons. There is some industry in brewing, milling and fishing, but
the town, which is known as the "Irish Brighton," is almost wholly
dependent for its prosperity on visitors from Dublin and elsewhere. It
therefore possesses all the equipments of a modern seaside resort; there
is a fine sea-wall with esplanade upwards of a mile in length; the
bathing is good, and race meetings are held. The town is rapidly
increasing in size. The coast, especially towards the promontory of Bray
Head, offers beautiful sea-views, and some of the best inland scenery in
the county is readily accessible, such as the Glens of the Dargle and
the Downs, the demesne of Powerscourt, the Bray river, with its loughs,
and the pass of the Scalp. The demesne of Kilruddery, the seat of the
earls of Meath, is specially beautiful. About 1170 Bray was bestowed by
Richard de Clare or Strongbow, earl of Pembroke and Strigul, on Walter
de Reddesford, who took the title of baron of Bray, and built a castle.



BRAYLEY, EDWARD WEDLAKE (1773-1854), English antiquary and topographer,
was born at Lambeth, London, in 1773. He was apprenticed to the
enamelling trade, but early developed literary tastes. He formed a close
friendship with John Britton, which lasted for sixty-five years. They
entered into a literary partnership, and after some small successes at
song and play writing they became joint editors of _The Beauties of
England and Wales_, themselves writing many of the volumes. Long after
he had become famous as a topographer, Brayley continued his enamel
work. In 1823 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. He
died in London on the 23rd of September 1854. His other works include
_Sir Reginalde or the Black Tower_ (1803); _Views in Suffolk, Norfolk
and Northamptonshire, illustrative of works of Robt. Bloowifield_
(1806); _Lambeth Palace_ (1806); _The History of the Abbey Church of
Westminster_ (2 vols., 1818); _Topographical Sketches of
Brighthelmstone_ (1825); _Historical and Descriptive Accounts of
Theatres of London_ (1826); _Londiniana_ (1829); _History of Surrey_ (5
vols., 1841-1848).



BRAZIER (from the Fr. _brasier_, which comes from _braise_, hot
charcoal), a metal receptacle for holding burning coals or charcoal,
much used in southern Europe and the East for warming rooms. Braziers
are often elegant in form, and highly artistic in ornamentation, with
chased or embossed feet and decorated exteriors.



BRAZIL, or BRASIL, a legendary island in the Atlantic Ocean. The name
connects itself with the red dye-woods so called in the middle ages,
possibly also applied to other vegetable dyes, and so descending from
the _Insulae Purpurariae_ of Pliny. It first appears as the _I. de
Brazi_ in the Venetian map of Andrea Bianco (1436), where it is found
attached to one of the larger islands of the Azores. When this group
became better known and was colonized, the island in question was
renamed Terceira. It is probable that the familiar existence of "Brazil"
as a geographical name led to its bestowal upon the vast region of South
America, which was found to supply dye-woods kindred to those which the
name properly denoted. The older memory survived also, and the Island of
Brazil retained its place in mid-ocean, some hundred miles to the west
of Ireland, both in the traditions of the forecastle and in charts. In
J. Purdy's _General Chart of the Atlantic_, "corrected to 1830," the
"Brazil Rock (high)" is marked with no indication of doubt, in 51° 10'
N. and 15° 50' W. In a chart of currents by A.G. Findlay, dated 1853,
these names appear again. But in his 12th edition of Purdy's _Memoir
Descriptive and Explanatory of the N. Atlantic Ocean_ (1865), the
existence of Brazil and some other legendary islands is briefly
discussed and rejected. (See also ATLANTIS.)



BRAZIL, a republic of South America, the largest political division of
that continent and the third largest of the western hemisphere. It is
larger than the continental United States excluding Alaska, and slightly
larger than the great bulk of Europe lying east of France. Its extreme
dimensions are 2629 m. from Cape Orange (4° 21' N.) almost due south to
the river Chuy (33° 45' S. lat.), and 2691 m. from Olinda (Ponta de
Pedra, 8° 0' 57" S., 34° 50' W.) due west to the Peruvian frontier
(about 73° 50' W.). The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the
Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m. farther
north than Cape Orange. The area, which was augmented by more than
60,000 sq. m. in 1903 and diminished slightly in the boundary adjustment
with British Guiana (1904), is estimated to have been 3,228,452 sq. m.
in 1900 (A. Supan, _Die Bevölkerung der Erde_, Gotha, 1904). A
subsequent planimetric calculation, which takes into account these
territorial changes, increases the area to 3,270,000 sq. m.

_Boundaries._--Brazil is bounded N. by Colombia, Venezuela and the
Guianas, N.E., E. and S.E. by the Atlantic, S. by Uruguay, Paraguay and
Bolivia, and W. by Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and
Colombia. Its territory touches that of every South American nation,
except Chile, and with each one there has been a boundary dispute at
some stage in its political life. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns
attempted to define the limits between their American colonies in 1750
and 1777, and the lines adopted still serve in great part to separate
Brazil from its neighbours. Lack of information regarding the
geographical features of the interior, however, led to some indefinite
descriptions, and these have been fruitful sources of dispute ever
since. The Portuguese were persistent trespassers in early colonial
times, and their land-hunger took them far beyond the limits fixed by
Pope Alexander VI. In the boundary disputes which have followed, Brazil
seems to have pursued this traditional policy, and generally with
success.

Beginning at the mouth of the Arroyo del Chuy, at the southern extremity
of a long sandbank separating Lake Mirim from the Atlantic (33°45' S.
lat.), the boundary line between Brazil and Uruguay passes up that
rivulet and across to the most southerly tributary of Lake Mirim, thence
down the western shore of that lake to the Jaguarão and up that river to
its most southerly source. The line then crosses to the hill-range
called Cuchilla de Sant' Anna, which is followed in a north-west
direction to the source of the Cuareim, or Quarahy, this river becoming
the boundary down to the Uruguay. This line was fixed by the treaty of
1851, by which the control of Lake Mirim remains with Brazil. Beginning
at the mouth of the Quarahy, the boundary line between Brazil and
Argentina ascends the Uruguay, crosses to the source of the Santo
Antonio, and descends that small stream and the Iguassú to the Paraná,
where it terminates. This line was defined by the treaty of 1857, and by
the decision of President Cleveland in 1895 with regard to the small
section between the Uruguay and Iguassú rivers. The boundary with
Paraguay was definitely settled in 1872. It ascends the Paraná to the
great falls of Guayrá, or Sete Quedas, and thence westward along the
water-parting of the Sierra de Maracayú to the _cerro_ of that name,
thence northerly along the Sierra d'Amambay to the source of the
Estrella, a small tributary of the Apá, and thence down those two
streams to the Paraguay. From this point the line ascends the Paraguay
to the mouth of the Rio Negro, the outlet of the Bahia Negra, where the
Bolivian boundary begins. As regards the Peruvian boundary, an agreement
was reached in 1904 to submit the dispute to the arbitration of the
president of Argentina in case further efforts to reach an amicable
settlement failed. The provisional line, representing the Brazilian
claim, begins at the termination of the Bolivian section (the
intersection of the 11th parallel with the meridian of 72° 26' W.
approx.) and follows a semicircular direction north-west and north to
the source of the Javary (or Yavary), to include the basins of the Purús
and Juruá within Brazilian jurisdiction. The line follows the Javary to
its junction with the Amazon, and runs thence north by east direct to
the mouth of the Apaporis, a tributary of the Yapurá, in about 1° 30' S.
lat., 69° 20' W. long., where the Peruvian section ends. The whole of
this line, however, was subject to future adjustments, Peru claiming all
that part of the Amazon valley extending eastward to the Madeira and
lying between the Beni and the east and west boundary line agreed upon
by Spain and Portugal in 1750 and 1777, which is near the 7th parallel.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river,
already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in
protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of
limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in
1905. The boundary with Colombia, fixed by treaty of April 24, 1907,
follows the lower rim of the Amazon basin, as defined by Brazil. The
Colombian claim included the left bank of the Amazon eastward to the
Auahy or Avahy-paraná channel between the Amazon and Yapurá, whence the
line ran northward to the Negro near the intersection of the 66th
meridian. The Brazilian line ran north and north-west from the mouth of
the Apaporis to the 70th meridian, which was followed to the
water-parting south of the Uaupés basin, thence north-east to the Uaupés
river, which was crossed close to the 69th meridian, thence easterly
along the Serra Tunaji and Isana river to Cuyari, thence northerly up
the Cuyari and one of its small tributaries to the Serra Capparro, and
thence east and south-east along this range to the Cucuhy rock (Pedra de
Cucuhy) on the left bank of the Negro, where the Colombian section ends.
Negotiations for the settlement of this controversy, which involved
fully one-third of the state of Amazonas, were broken off in 1870, but
were resumed in 1905. The boundary with Venezuela, which was defined by
a treaty of 1859, runs south-eastward from Cucuhy across a level country
intersected by rivers and channels tributary to both the Negro and
Orinoco, to the Serra Cupuy watershed which separates the rivers of the
Amazon and Orinoco valleys. This watershed includes the ranges running
eastward and northward under the names of Imeri, Tapiira-peco, Curupira,
Parima and Pacaraima, the Venezuelan section terminating at Mt. Roraima.
On the 9th of December 1905 protocols were signed at Caracas accepting
the line between Cucuhy and the Serra Cupuy located in 1880, and
referring the remainder, which had been located by a Brazilian
commission in 1882 and 1884, to a mixed commission for verification.

The disputed boundary between Brazil and British Guiana, which involved
the possession of a territory having an estimated area of 12,741 sq. m.,
was settled by arbitration in 1904 with the king of Italy as arbitrator,
the award being a compromise division by which Great Britain received
about 7336 sq. m. and Brazil about 5405. The definite boundary line
starts from Mt. Roraima and follows the water-parting east and south to
the source of the Ireng or Mahu river, which with the Takutú forms the
boundary as far south as 1° N. to enclose the basin of the Essequibo and
its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra
Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near
the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.
Negotiations were initiated in 1905 for the definite location of the
boundary with Dutch Guiana. Running north-east and south-east to enclose
the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2°
10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the
Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the
divisional line to the Atlantic coast. The boundary with French Guiana
(see GUIANA), which had long been a subject of dispute, was settled by
arbitration in 1900, the award being rendered by the government of
Switzerland. The area of the disputed territory was about 34,750 sq. m.

  _Physical Geography._--A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular
  divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the
  Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low
  elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling
  the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the
  plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
  Besides these there are a narrow coastal plain, the low plains of Rio
  Grande do Sul, and the Guiana highlands on the northern slope of the
  Amazon basin below the Rio Negro.


    Relief.

  The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus
  formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches
  and obstructed river channels. Mangrove swamps, lagoons and marshes,
  with inland canals following the coast line for long distances, are
  characteristic features of a large extent of the Brazilian coast.
  Parts of this coastal plain, however, have an elevation of 100 to 200
  ft., are rolling and fertile in character, and terminate on the coast
  in a line of bluffs. In the larger depressions, like that of the
  Reconcavo of Bahia, there are large alluvial areas celebrated for
  their fertility. This plain is of varying width, and on some parts of
  the coast it disappears altogether. In Rio Grande do Sul, where two
  large lakes have been created by uplifted sand beaches, the coastal
  plain widens greatly, and is merged in an extensive open, rolling
  grassy plain, traversed by ridges of low hills (_cuchillas_), similar
  to the neighbouring republic of Uruguay. The western part of this
  plain is drained by the Uruguay and its tributaries, which places it
  within the river Plate (La Plata) basin.

  The two great river basins of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata
  comprise within themselves, approximately, three-fifths of the total
  area of Brazil. Large areas of these great river plains are annually
  flooded, the flood-plains of the Amazon extending nearly across the
  whole country and comprising thousands of square miles. The Amazon
  plain is heavily forested and has a slope of less than one inch to the
  mile within Brazilian territory--one competent authority placing it at
  about one-fifth of an inch per mile. The La Plata basin is less
  heavily wooded, its surface more varied, and its Brazilian part stands
  at a much higher elevation.

  Of the two highland regions of Brazil, that of the northern slope of
  the Amazon basin belongs physically to the isolated mountain system
  extending eastward from the Negro and Orinoco to the Atlantic, the
  water-parting of which forms the boundary line between the Guianas and
  Brazil. The culminating point is near the western extremity of this
  chain and its altitude is estimated at 8500 ft. The ranges gradually
  diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the
  Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600
  ft. The Brazilian plateau slopes southward and eastward, traversed by
  broken ranges of low mountains and deeply eroded by river courses. The
  table-topped hills of Almeyrin (or Almeirim) and Ereré, which lie near
  the lower Amazon and rise to heights of 800 and 900 ft., are generally
  considered the southernmost margin of this plateau, though Agassiz and
  others describe them as remains of a great sandstone sheet which once
  covered the entire Amazon valley. Its general elevation has been
  estimated to be about 2000 ft. It is a stony, semi-arid region, thinly
  wooded, having good grazing _campos_ in its extreme western section.
  Its semi-arid character is due to the mountain ranges on its northern
  frontier, which extract the moisture from the north-east trades and
  leave the Brazilian plateau behind them with a very limited rainfall,
  except near the Atlantic coast. The more arid districts offer no
  inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands
  of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing
  districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of
  adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east. In
  general, Brazilian Guiana, as this plateau region is sometimes called,
  is one of the least attractive parts of the republic.

  The great Brazilian plateau, which is the most important physical
  division of Brazil, consists of an elevated tableland 1000 to 3000 ft.
  above the sea-level, traversed by two great mountain systems, and
  deeply eroded and indented by numerous rivers. A thick sandstone sheet
  once covered the greater part if not all of it, remains of which are
  found on the elevated _chapadas_ of the interior and on isolated
  elevations extending across the republic toward its western frontier.
  These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain
  ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the
  original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here
  and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower
  ranges of hills between river courses. From the valleys their rugged,
  deeply indented escarpments, stretching away to the horizon, have the
  appearance of a continuous chain of mountains. The only true mountain
  systems, however, so far as known, are the two parallel ranges which
  follow the contour of the coast, and the central, or Goyana, system.
  The first consists of an almost continuous range crossing the northern
  end of Rio Grande do Sul and following the coast northward to the
  vicinity of Cape Frio, and thence northward in broken ranges to the
  vicinity of Cape St Roque, and a second parallel range running from
  eastern São Paulo northeast and north to the eastern margin of the São
  Francisco basin in northern Bahia, where that river turns eastward to
  the Atlantic. The first of these is generally known as the Serra do
  Mar, or Coast Range, though it is locally known under many names. Its
  culminating point is in the Organ Mountains (Serra dos Orgãos), near
  Rio de Janeiro, which reaches an elevation of 7323 ft. The inland
  range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio
  de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the
  Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to
  form the eastern rim of the São Francisco basin, as the Serra do
  Espinhaço. This range is also known under various local names. Its
  culminating point is toward the western extremity of the Mantiqueira
  range where the Itatiaya, or Itatiaia-assu, peak rises to an elevation
  of 8898 ft. (other measurements give 9823 ft.), probably the highest
  summit in Brazil. This range forms the true backbone of the maritime
  mountainous belt and rises from the plateau itself, while the Coast
  Range rises on its eastern margin and forms a rim to the plateau.
  North of Cape Frio the Coast Range is much broken and less elevated,
  while the Serra do Espinhaço takes a more inland course and is
  separated from the coast by great gently-sloping, semi-barren
  terraces. The second system--the Central or Goyana--consists of two
  distinct chains of mountains converging toward the north in the
  elevated _chapadão_ between the Tocantins and São Francisco basins.
  The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas
  Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the
  Paracatú, a western tributary of the São Francisco, is called the
  Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde. Its culminating point
  is toward its southern extremity in the Serra da Canastra, 4206 ft.
  above sea-level. The western range, or what is definitely known of it,
  runs across southern Goyaz, south-west to north-east, and forms the
  water-parting between the Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaya basins. Its
  culminating point is in the Montes Pyreneos, near the city of Goyaz,
  and is about 4500 ft. above sea-level.

  The great part of this immense region consists of _chapadões_, as the
  larger table-land areas are called, _chapadas_ or smaller sections of
  the same, and broadly excavated river valleys. How extensive this work
  of erosion has been may be seen in the Tocantins-Araguaya basin, where
  a great pear-shaped depression, approximately 100 to 500 m. wide, 700
  m. long, and from 1000 to 1500 ft. deep, has been excavated northward
  from the centre of the plateau. Southward the Paraná has excavated
  another great basin and eastward the São Francisco another. Add to
  these the eroded river basins of the Xingú, Tapajós and Guaporé on the
  north and west, the Paraguay on the south-west, and the scores of
  smaller rivers along the Atlantic coast, and we may have some
  conception of the agencies that have been at work in breaking down and
  shaping this great table-land, perhaps the oldest part of the
  continent. The most southern of these _chapadões_, that of the Paraná
  basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and
  eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the
  states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Paraná and São Paulo,
  the south-western corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz,
  and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso. The greatest elevation
  is on its eastern or Atlantic margin where the average is about 3280
  ft. above sea-level. The plateau breaks down abruptly toward the sea,
  and slopes gradually some hundreds of feet toward the south and west.
  There has been considerable denudation toward the west, the eastern
  tributaries of the Paraná rising very near the coast. The northern and
  western parts of this plateau have an average elevation a little less
  than that of the Atlantic margin, and their slopes are toward the
  south and east, those of Goyaz and Matto Grosso being abrupt and
  deeply eroded. This great _chapadão_ is in many respects the best part
  of Brazil, having a temperate climate, extensive areas of fertile
  soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall. Its Atlantic slopes are
  heavily wooded, but the western slopes exhibit grass-covered _campos_
  between the river courses. The São Francisco _chapadão_, which has a
  general elevation of about 2600 ft., covers the greater part of the
  states of Minas Geraes and Bahia, and a small part of western
  Pernambuco, and might also be considered continuous with those of the
  Parnahyba and Tocantins-Araguaya basins. This region is more tropical
  in character, partially barren, and has an uncertain rainfall, a large
  part of the São Francisco basin and the upper Atlantic slope of its
  eastern rim being subject to long-continued droughts. This region is
  well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower
  Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau
  proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where
  the rainfall is heavy and regular. It has extensive _campos_ and large
  areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with
  mineral deposits. It breaks down less abruptly toward the Atlantic,
  the slopes in Bahia being long and gradual. The Parnahyba _chapadão_
  covers the state of Piauhy, the southern part of Maranhão, and the
  western part of Ceará. Its general elevation is less than that of the
  São Francisco region, owing to the slope of the plateau surface toward
  the Amazon depression and to denudation. It resembles the São
  Francisco region in its uncertain rainfall and exposure to droughts,
  and in having large areas of _campos_ suitable for grazing purposes.
  It is thinly wooded, except in the north, where the climatic
  conditions approach those of the Amazon valley. Its climate is more
  tropical and its development has gone forward less rapidly than in the
  more temperate regions of the south. The Amazonian _chapadão_, which
  includes the remainder of the great Brazilian plateau west of the São
  Francisco and Parnahyba regions and which appears to be the
  continuation of these tablelands westward, is much the largest of
  these plateau divisions. It covers the greater part of the states of
  Matto Grosso and Goyaz, a large part of southern Pará, the southern
  margin of Amazonas, and a considerable part of western Maranhão. It
  includes the river basins of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingú, Tapajós,
  and the eastern tributaries of the Guaporé-Madeira. A considerable
  part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives
  their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated
  hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal
  sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a
  highland region. The southern margin of this plateau breaks down
  abruptly toward the south and overlooks the Paraná and Paraguay basins
  from elevations of 2600 to 3000 ft. There is great diversity in the
  character and appearance of this extensive region. It lies wholly
  within the tropics, though its more elevated districts enjoy a
  temperate climate. Its _chapadas_ are covered with extensive _campos_,
  its shallow valleys with open woodlands, and its deeper valleys with
  heavy forests. The rainfall is good, but not heavy. The general slope
  is toward the Amazon, and its rivers debouch upon the Amazonian plain
  through a succession of falls and rapids.

  There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying
  between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and
  the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the
  city of São Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north
  of that point. It includes a small part of eastern São Paulo, the
  greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of
  Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas
  Geraes. It is traversed by two mountain chains, the Serra da
  Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, and the broad, fertile valley of the
  Parahyba do Sul which lies between them, and which slopes gently
  toward the east from a general elevation exceeding 2000 ft. in São
  Paulo. This region is the smallest of the _chapadão_ divisions of the
  great plateau, and might be considered either a southward extension of
  the São Francisco or an eastward extension of the Paraná _chapadão_.
  It is one of the most favoured regions of Brazil, having an abundant
  rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of
  fertile soil. The mountain slopes are still masses of dense forest,
  though their lower elevations and neighbouring valleys have been
  cleared for cultivation and by dealers in rosewood and other valuable
  woods. This elevated valley is noted for its fertility and was once
  the principal coffee-producing district of Brazil.

  [Illustration: BRAZIL

  Scale, 1:17,000,000]


    Rivers.

  Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio
  de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the
  rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three
  or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions
  directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire
  north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the
  whole of Pará and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by
  this great river and its tributaries. If the Tocantins-Araguaya basin
  is included in the hydrographic system, the greater part of Goyaz and
  a small part of Maranhão should be added to this drainage area. The
  Tocantins is sometimes treated as a tributary of the Amazon because
  its outlet, called the Rio Pará, is connected with that great river by
  a number of inland channels. It is an entirely separate river,
  however, and the inland communication between them is due to the
  slight elevation of the intervening country above their ordinary
  levels and to the enormous volume of water brought down by the Amazon,
  especially in the flood season. As the outlet of the Tocantins is so
  near to that of the Amazon, and their lower valleys are conterminous,
  it is convenient to treat them as parts of the same hydrographic
  basin.

  In the extreme north-east corner of the republic where the Brazilian
  Guiana plateau slopes toward the Atlantic there is a small area lying
  outside the drainage basin of the Amazon. Its rivers flow easterly
  into the Atlantic and drain a triangular-shaped area of the plateau
  lying between the northern frontier and the southern and western
  watersheds of the Araguary, whose extreme limits are about 0° 30' N.
  lat. and 53° 50' W. long. The more important of these rivers are the
  Araguary, Amapá, Calçoene, Cassiporé and Oyapok. The Araguary rises in
  the Tumuc-Humac mountains, in about 2° 30' N. lat., 52° 10' W. long.,
  and follows a tortuous course south and north-east to the Atlantic.
  Its largest tributary, the Amapary, rises still farther west. Little
  is known of the country through which it flows, and its channel is
  broken by rapids and waterfalls where it descends to the coastal
  plain. The Amapá is a short river rising on the eastern slopes of the
  same range and flowing across a low, wooded plain, filled with
  lagoons. The Calçoene and Cassiporé enter the Atlantic farther north
  and have a north-east course across the same plain. All these small
  rivers are described as auriferous and have attracted attention for
  this reason. The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the
  group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana
  under the arbitration award of 1900. It rises in about 2° 05' N., 53°
  48' W., and flows easterly and north-easterly to the Atlantic. Its
  course is less tortuous than that of the Araguary.

  The rivers of the great Brazilian plateau which flow directly to the
  Atlantic coast may be divided into two classes: those of its northward
  slope which flow in a northerly and north-easterly direction to the
  north-east coast of the republic, and those which drain its eastern
  slope and flow to the sea in an easterly direction. The former reach
  the coastal plain over long and gradual descents, and are navigable
  for considerable distances. The latter descend from the plateau much
  nearer the coast, and are in most cases navigable for short distances
  only. In both classes navigation is greatly impeded by sandbars at the
  mouths of these rivers, while in the districts of periodical rainfall
  it is greatly restricted in the dry season. The more important rivers
  of the first division, which are described in more detail under the
  titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the
  following: the Gurupy, Tury-assú, Mearim, Itapicurú and Balsas, in the
  state of Maranhão; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy;
  Jaguaribe in Ceará; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
  Of these the Parnahyba is the most important, having a total length of
  about 900 m., broken at intervals by rapids and navigable in sections.
  It receives only one important tributary from Maranhão--the Rio das
  Balsas, 447 m. long--and five from Piauhy, the Urussuhy-assú,
  Gurgueia, Canindé, Poty and Longa. Piauhy is wholly within its
  drainage basin, although the river forms the boundary line between
  that state and Maranhão throughout its entire length. All the rivers
  in this division are influenced by the periodical character of the
  rainfall, their navigable channels being greatly shortened in the dry
  season (August-January). In Ceará the smaller rivers become dry
  channels in the dry season, and in protracted droughts the larger ones
  disappear also.

  The rivers of the second division are included in a very great
  extension of coast and are influenced by wide differences in climate.
  Their character is also determined by the distance of the Serra do Mar
  from the coast, the more southern rivers having short precipitous
  courses. The more northern rivers are subject to periodical variations
  in volume caused by wet and dry seasons, but the greater distance of
  the coast range and the more gradual breaking down of the plateau
  toward the sea, give them longer courses and a greater extent of
  navigable water. North of the São Francisco the watershed projecting
  from the plateau eastward toward Cape St Roque, known as the Serra da
  Borborema in Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte where its direction
  becomes north-east, leaves a triangular section of the easterly slope
  in which the river courses are short and much broken by rapids. The
  rainfall, also, is limited and uncertain. The largest of this group of
  small rivers is the Parahyba do Norte, belonging to the state of
  Parahyba, whose length is said to be less than 200 m., only 5 or 6 m.
  of which are navigable for small steamers. The São Francisco, which
  belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the
  eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions
  wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic.
  The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to
  the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper
  river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several
  large affluents. The river is navigable up to the Paulo Affonso falls,
  192 m. from the coast, and above the falls there is a much longer
  stretch of navigable water.

  From the São Francisco to Cape Frio there are many short rivers rising
  on the slopes of the plateau and crossing the narrow coastal plain to
  the sea. There are also a few of greater length which rise far back on
  the plateau itself and flow down to the plain through deeply cut,
  precipitous courses. The navigable channels of these rivers are
  restricted to the coastal plain, except where a river has excavated
  for itself a valley back into the plateau. The more important of these
  rivers are the Itapicurú, Paraguassú, Contas or Jussiape, Pardo or
  Patype, and Jequitinhonha, of Bahia; the Mucury, and Doce, of Espirito
  Santo; and the Parahyba do Sul of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of the
  Bahia group, the Jequitinhonha, sometimes called the Belmonte on its
  lower course, is the longest and most important, rising near Serro in
  the state of Minas Geraes and flowing in a curving north-east
  direction for a distance of about 500 m., 84 of which are navigable
  inland from the sea. The Mucury and Doce also rise in Minas Geraes,
  and are much broken in their descent to the lower plains, the former
  having a navigable channel of 98 m. and the latter of 138 m. The
  Parahyba, or Parahyba do Sul, which enters the sea about 30 m. north
  of Cape S. Thomé, is the largest and most important of the Atlantic
  coast rivers south of the São Francisco. It rises on an elevated
  tableland in the state of São Paulo and flows across the state of Rio
  de Janeiro from west to east, through a broad fertile valley producing
  coffee in its most elevated districts and sugar on its alluvial
  bottom-lands nearer the sea. It has a total length of 658 m., 57 of
  which are navigable between S. Fidelis and its mouth, and about 90 m.
  of its upper course.

  South of Cape Frio there are no large rivers along the coast because
  of the proximity of the Serra do Mar--the coastal plain being very
  narrow and in places disappearing altogether. There are many short
  streams along this coast, fed by heavy rainfalls, but they have no
  geographic importance and no economic value under existing conditions.
  The largest of these and the only one of commercial value is the
  Ribeira de Iguape, which has its source on the tablelands of Paraná
  and after receiving several affluents west of the Serra do Mar breaks
  through a depression in that range and discharges into the Atlantic
  some miles below Santos on the southern boundary of the state of São
  Paulo. This river has a navigable channel of 118 m. below Xiririca,
  and communicates with an inland canal or waterway extending for many
  miles along this coast and known as the Iguape, or Mar Pequeno. In Rio
  Grande do Sul the Atlantic coastal plain extends westward more than
  half-way across the state, and is well watered by numerous streams
  flowing eastward to the Lagôa dos Patos. Of these only two are of
  large size--the Guayba and Camaquam. The first is formed by the
  confluence of the Jacuhy, Cahy, Sinos and Gravatahy, and is known
  under this name only from Porto Alegre to the Ponta de Itapuã, where
  it enters the Lagôa dos Patos. This river system drains a large part
  of the northern mountainous region of the state, and has a
  considerable extension of navigable channels between the plateau
  margin and the lake. In the extreme southern part of the state, the
  Lagôa Mirim empties into the Lagôa dos Patos through a navigable
  channel 61½ m. long, called the Rio São Gonçalo.

  The Brazilian rivers of the Rio de la Plata system are numerous and
  important. Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto
  Grosso, and the tributaries of the Paraná cover the western slopes of
  the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part
  of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and
  the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin. This is one of
  the most important fluvial systems of Brazil, but its economic value
  is impaired by the great waterfalls of Guayrá, or Sete Quedas, and
  Uribú-punga, and by the rapids and waterfalls in the majority of its
  affluents near their junction with the main stream. Between the two
  great waterfalls of the Paraná there is an open channel of 276 m.,
  passing through a rich and healthy country, and receiving large
  tributaries from one of the most fertile regions of Brazil. Among the
  larger of these are the great falls of the Iguassú, near the junction
  of that river with the Paraná. Though the Uruguay plays a less
  important part, its relations to the country are similar to those of
  the Paraná, and its tributaries from the plateau region are similarly
  broken by falls and rapids. The Paraguay is in great part a lowland
  river, with a sluggish current, and is navigable by large river
  steamers up to Corumbá, and by smaller steamers to Cuyabá and the
  mouth of the Jaurú.


    Lakes.

  Compared with the number, length and volume of its rivers, Brazil has
  very few lakes, only two of which are noticeable for their size. There
  are a number of lakes in the lowland region of the Amazon valley, but
  these are mainly overflow reservoirs whose areas expand and contract
  with the rise and fall of the great river. The coastal plain is also
  intersected by lagoons, lakes and inland channels formed by uplifted
  beaches. These inland channels often afford many miles of sheltered
  navigation. The lakes formed in this manner are generally shallow, and
  are sometimes associated with extensive swamps, as in southern Bahia.
  The lakes of the Alagôas coast, however, are long, narrow and deep,
  occupying valleys which were deeply excavated when the land stood at a
  higher level, and which were transformed into lakes by the elevation
  of the coast. The largest of these are the Lagôa do Norte, on whose
  margin stands the city of Maceió, and the Lagôa do Sul, a few miles
  south of that city. Both have outlets to the sea, and the former is
  salt There is a large number of these lakes along the coasts of
  Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, some of them of considerable size.
  The two largest lakes of this class are on the coast of Rio Grande do
  Sul and are known as the Lagôa dos Patos and Lagôa Mirim. Both of
  these lakes lie nearly parallel with the coast line, are separated
  from the ocean by broad sand beaches filled with small lakes, and
  communicate with the ocean through the same channel. The Lagôa dos
  Patos is about 124 m. long with a maximum width of 37 m., and Lagôa
  Mirim is 108 m. long with a maximum width of 15 m. Both are navigable,
  though comparatively shallow and filled with sandbanks. So far as
  known, there are no lakes of noteworthy size in the interior of the
  country. There are a few small lakes in Maranhão and Piauhy, some in
  Goyaz in the great valley of the Araguaya, and a considerable number
  in Matto Grosso, especially in the Paraguay basin, where the sluggish
  current of that river is unable to carry away the rainfall in the
  rainy season.


    Coast.

  The coast of Brazil is indented with a number of almost landlocked
  bays, forming spacious and accessible harbours. The larger and more
  important of these are Todos os Santos, on which is located the city
  of São Salvador or Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro or Guanabara, beside
  which stands the capital of the republic. These two are freely
  accessible to the largest ships afloat. The bays of Espirito Santo,
  Paranaguá and São Francisco have similar characteristics, but they are
  smaller and more difficult of access. The first is the harbour for the
  city of Victoria, and the other two for ports of the same name in
  southern Brazil. The port of Pernambuco, or Recife, is formed by a
  stone reef lying across the entrance to a shallow bay at the mouth of
  two small rivers, Beberibe and Capibaribe, and is accessible to
  steamers of medium draught. Santa Catharina and Maranhão have
  well-sheltered harbours formed by an island lying in the mouth of a
  large bay, but the latter is shallow and difficult of access. Pará,
  Parnahyba, Parahyba, Santos and Rio Grande do Sul are river ports
  situated near the sea on rivers having the same name; but, with the
  exception of Pará and Santos, they are difficult of access and are of
  secondary importance. There are still other bays along the coast which
  are well adapted for commercial purposes but are used only in the
  coasting trade. Many of the Atlantic coast rivers would afford
  excellent port facilities if obstructions were removed from their
  mouths.

  _Geology._--Brazil is a region which has been free from violent
  disturbances since an early geological period. It has, indeed, been
  subject to oscillations, but the movements have been regional in
  character and have not been accompanied by the formation of any
  mountain chain or any belt of intense folding. From the Devonian
  onwards the beds lie flat or dip at low angles. They are faulted but
  not sharply folded. The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from
  Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of
  crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Some of the metamorphic rocks may
  belong to the older Palaeozoic period, but the greater part of the
  series is probably Archaean. Similar rocks cover a large area in the
  province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form,
  also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines
  of Venezuela and Guiana. They constitute, in fact, an incomplete rim
  around the basin of sedimentary beds which occupies the Amazonian
  depression. In a large part of this basin the covering of sedimentary
  deposits is comparatively thin. The crystalline floor is exposed in
  the valleys of the Madeira, Xingú, &c. Some of the rocks thus exposed
  are, however, eruptive (e.g. in the Tapajoz), and probably do not
  belong to the Archaean. The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds
  which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the
  valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the
  Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the
  Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian. In the Maecuru, another
  northern affluent, graptolites of Ordovician age have been discovered,
  and Silurian fossils are said to have been found in the Maraca.
  Elsewhere the identification of the Silurian and older systems does
  not rest on palaeontological evidence. Devonian beds cover a much more
  extensive area. They crop out in a band some 25 to 50 m. north of the
  lower Amazon and in another band at a still greater distance south of
  that river. These bands are often concealed by more recent deposits,
  but it is clear that in this region the Devonian beds form a basin or
  synclinal with the Amazon for its axis. Devonian beds also lie upon
  the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the
  interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly
  horizontal strata. Fossils have been found in many localities. They
  belong to either the lower or the middle division of the Devonian
  system. The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld
  beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of
  North America on the other. The Carboniferous system in Brazil
  presents itself under two facies, the one marine and the other
  terrestrial. In the basin of the Lower Amazon the Carboniferous beds
  lie within the Devonian synclinal and crop out on both sides of the
  river next to the Devonian bands. There is a lower series consisting
  of sandstone and an upper series of limestone. The former appears to
  be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna,
  which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the
  Permo-carboniferous. In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio
  Grande do Sul, Paraná, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial
  origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants. Some of the
  plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora
  characteristic of India and South Africa. The beds are homotaxial with
  the Karharbári series of India, and represent either the top of the
  Carboniferous or the base of the Permian of Europe. The only Mesozoic
  system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the
  Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the
  basin of the Amazon. In the province of Sergipe, on the east coast,
  the beds are approximately on the horizon of the Cenomanian; in the
  valley of the Amazon they belong to the highest parts of the
  Cretaceous system, and the fauna shows Tertiary affinities. In the
  interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a
  series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental
  origin and of which the age is uncertain. Tertiary beds cover a
  considerable area, especially in the Amazonian depression. They
  consist chiefly of sands and clays of aeolian and freshwater origin.
  Of the Pleistocene and recent deposits the most interesting are the
  remains of extinct animals (_Glyptodon_, _Mylodon_, _Megatherium_,
  &c.) in the caves of the São Francisco.

  From the above account it will appear that, excepting near the coast
  and in the basin of the Amazon, there is no evidence that any part of
  Brazil has been under the sea since the close of the Devonian period.
  During the Triassic and Jurassic periods even the basin of the Amazon
  appears to have been dry land. Eruptive rocks occur in the Devonian
  and Carboniferous beds, but there is no evidence of volcanic activity
  since the Palaeozoic epoch. The remarkable "stone reefs" of the
  north-east coast are ancient beaches hardened by the infiltration of
  carbonate of lime. They are quite distinct in their formation from the
  coral reefs of the same coast.

  _Climate._--Brazil lies almost wholly within the torrid zone, less
  than one-twelfth of its area lying south of the tropic of Capricorn.
  In general terms, it is a tropical country, with sub-tropical and
  temperate areas covering its three southern states and a great part of
  the elevated central plateau. The forest-covered, lowland valley of
  the Amazon is a region of high temperatures which vary little
  throughout the year, and of heavy rainfall. There is no appreciable
  change of seasons, except that produced by increased rainfall in the
  rainy season. The average temperature according to Castelnau is about
  78°F., or 82.40° to 84.20° F. according to Agassiz. There is an
  increase in the rainfall from August to October, and again from
  November to March, the latter being the regular rainy season, but the
  time varies considerably between the valley of the upper Amazon and
  those of the upper Madeira and Negro. There is usually a short dry
  season on the upper Amazon in January and February, which causes two
  annual floods--that of November-December, and the great flood of
  March-June. The subsidence of the latter usually lasts until October.
  The average rainfall throughout the whole Amazon valley is estimated
  by Reclus as "probably in excess of 2 metres" (78.7 in.), and the
  maximum rise of the great flood is about 45 ft. The prevailing winds
  in the Amazon valley are easterly and westerly (or south-westerly),
  the former warm and charged with moisture, the latter dry and cold.
  The easterly winds, which are deflections of the trade winds, blow
  upstream with great regularity and force, more especially in the
  winter or dry season, and are felt as far inland as the mouths of the
  Madeira and Negro. Above these they are less regular and are attracted
  northward by the heated _llanos_ of Venezuela in winter, or southward
  by the heated _campos_ of Matto Grosso in summer. The cold
  south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator,
  and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a
  _tempo da friagem_ (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the
  upper Amazon region. There are winter winds from the Andes, but in the
  summer season there are cold currents of air from up-river (_ventos da
  cima_) which are usually followed by downpours of rain.

  The coastal plain as far south as Santos is a region of high
  temperatures and great humidity. The year is usually divided into a
  winter (_inverno_) and summer (_verão_), corresponding approximately
  to a dry and wet season. The "dry" season, however, is a season of
  moderate rainfall, except on the north-east coast where arid
  conditions prevail. Another exception is that of the Pernambuco coast,
  where the rainy season comes between March and August, with the
  heaviest rainfall from May to July, which is the time of the southern
  winter. Going southward there is also a gradual decrease in the mean
  annual temperature, the difference between Rio de Janeiro and the
  Amazon being about 5°. The north-east coast, which is sandy and
  barren, shows an average mean annual temperature (at Fortaleza) of
  nearly 80° F., which is slightly higher than those of Maranhão and
  Pará. At Pernambuco the mean summer temperature is 79.5° and that of
  winter 76.8°, which are about 3° lower than the mean temperature of
  Bahia in summer, and 5° higher than the Bahia mean in winter. South of
  Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de
  Janeiro exceeding 43 in. per annum. At Santos the rainfall is
  exceptionally heavy and the mean temperature high, but below that
  point the climatic conditions are considerably modified, the range in
  temperature being greater, the mean annual temperature lower, and the
  rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year. The winds are
  more variable, and the seasons are more sharply defined. In Rio Grande
  do Sul the range in temperature is from 26° to 80°, the climate being
  similar to that of Uruguay. At Pelotas, a sea-level port on Lagôa dos
  Patos, the mean annual temperature is about 63° and the annual
  rainfall about 42 in. Extreme variations in temperature are often
  produced by cold south-west storms from the Argentine pampas, which
  sweep across southern Brazil as far north as Cape Frio, the fall in
  temperature sometimes being 22° to 27°. These storms usually last from
  two to three days and cause much discomfort. Winter rains are more
  frequent in southern Brazil, and violent storms prevail in August and
  September. At Blumenau, on the Santa Catharina coast, the annual
  rainfall is 53 in.

  The climatic conditions of the Brazilian plateau are widely different
  from those of the coast in many respects. There is less uniformity in
  temperature, and the elevated _chapadas_ are generally hotter during
  the day and cooler at night than are localities of the same latitude
  on the coast. The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of
  the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert. Geographically it
  belongs to the Amazon basin, as its western and southern slopes are
  drained by tributaries of that great river. Climatically, however, it
  is a region apart. It lies in the north-east trade winds belt, but the
  mountain chain on its northern frontier robs these winds of their
  moisture and leaves the greater part of the Brazilian plateau
  rainless. Its eastern and western extremities, however, receive more
  rain, the former being well forested, while the latter is covered with
  grassy _campos_. South of the Amazon valley and filling a great part
  of the eastern projection of the continent, is another arid,
  semi-barren plateau, lying within the south-east trade winds belt, and
  extending from Piauhy southward to southern Bahia. It covers the state
  of Piauhy and the western or inland parts of the states of Ceará, Rio
  Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Pernambuco and Bahia. The year is divided
  into a dry and wet season, the first from June to December, when rain
  rarely falls, the streams dry up and the _campos_ are burned bare, and
  the second from January to May when the rains are sometimes heavy and
  the _campos_ are covered with luxuriant verdure. The rains are neither
  regular nor certain, however, and sometimes fail for a succession of
  years, causing destructive _sêccas_ (droughts). The interior districts
  of Ceará, Pernambuco and Bahia have suffered severely from these
  _sêccas_. The sun temperature is high on these barren tablelands, but
  the nights are cool and refreshing. The prevailing winds are the
  south-east trades, which have lost some of their moisture in rising
  from the coastal plain. In summer, becoming warmed by the heated
  surface of the plateau, they sweep across it without a cloud or drop
  of rain. In winter the plateau is less heated, and cold currents of
  air from the west and south-west cause precipitation over a part if
  not all of this region. South and south-west of this arid plateau lie
  the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas
  Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant
  vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation. Minas
  Geraes is forested along its water courses and along its southern
  border only; its sun temperature, therefore, is high and the rainfall
  in its northern districts is comparatively light. São Paulo is partly
  covered by open _campos_, and these also serve to augment the maximum
  temperature. In both of these states, however, the nights are cool,
  and the mean annual temperature ranges from 68° to 77°, the northern
  districts of Minas Geraes being much warmer than the southern. In São
  Paulo and southern Minas Geraes there are sometimes frosts. In the
  Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the
  mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in São Paulo and Minas
  Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra
  do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate. The rainfall throughout
  this region is abundant, except in northern Minas Geraes, where the
  climatic conditions are influenced to some extent by the arid eastern
  plateau. South of São Paulo the tablelands of Paraná, Santa Catharina
  and Rio Grande do Sul enjoy a temperate climate, with an abundant
  rainfall. There are occasional frosts, but snow is never seen. Of
  Goyaz and Matto Grosso very little can be said. The lower river
  valleys of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingú, Tapajós and Paraguay are
  essentially tropical, their climate being hot and humid like that of
  the Amazon. The higher valleys of the Paraná and its tributaries, and
  of the rivers which flow northward, are sub-tropical in character,
  having high sun temperatures and cool nights. Above these, the
  _chapadas_ lie open to the sun and wind and have a cool, bracing
  atmosphere even where high sun temperatures prevail. The mean annual
  temperature at Goyaz (city), according to a limited number of
  observations, is about 77°. There is no absolutely dry season in this
  part of the great Brazilian plateau, though the year is customarily
  divided into a dry and wet season, the latter running from September
  to April in Goyaz, and from November to April in Matto Grosso. The
  prevailing winds are from the north-west in this region, and westerly
  winds in the rainy season are usually accompanied by rain.

  _Fauna._--The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for
  the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its
  deficiency in the larger mammals. Of this, one of the best authorities
  on the subject (H.W. Bates in _The Naturalist on the River Amazons_)
  says: "Brazil, moreover, is throughout poor in terrestrial mammals,
  and the species are of small size." It is noteworthy, also, for the
  large number of species having arboreal habits, the density and extent
  of the Amazon forests favouring their development rather than the
  development of those of terrestrial habits. Of Quadrumana there are
  about fifty species in Brazil, all arboreal, thirty-eight of which
  inhabit the Amazon region. They belong mostly to the _Cebidae_ family,
  and are provided with prehensile tails. The Carnivora are represented
  by six species of the _Felidae_, the best known of which is the onça,
  or jaguar (_F. onça, L_.), and the cougar, or puma (_F. concolor_);
  three species of the _Canidae_, the South American wolf (_C.
  jubatus_), and two small jackals (_C. brasiliensis_ and _C. vetulus_);
  and a few species of the Mustelina including two of the otter, two
  _Galictis_ and one _Mephitis_. Of the plantigrades, Brazil has no
  bears, but has the related species of raccoon (_Nasua socialis_ and
  _N. solitaria_), popularly called _coatis_. The opossum (_Didelphis_)
  is represented by three or four species, two of which are so small
  that they are generally called wood rats. The rodents are numerous and
  include several peculiar species. Only one species of hare is found in
  Brazil, the _Lepus brasiliensis_, and but one also of the squirrel
  (_Scyurus_). Of the amphibious rodents, the prêá (_Cavia aperea_),
  mocó (_C. rupestris_), paca (_Coelogenys paca_), cutia (_Dasyprocta
  aguti_) and capybara (_Hydrochoerus capybara_) are noteworthy for
  their size and extensive range. Their flesh is used as an article of
  food, that of the paca being highly esteemed. Of the Muridae there are
  several genera and a large number of species, some of them evidently
  importations from the Old World. Brazil has three groups of animals
  similar to the common rat--the _Capromydae_, _Loncheridae_ and
  _Psammoryctidae_--the best known of which is the "tuco-tuco"
  (_Clenomys brasiliensis_), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do
  Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and
  bulbs. One of the characteristic orders of the Brazilian fauna is that
  of the Edentata, which comprises the sloth, armadillo and ant-eater.
  These animals are found only in the tropical regions of South America.
  The range of the sloth is from the Guianas south into Minas Geraes,
  the armadillo as far south as the Argentine pampas and the ant-eater
  from the Amazon south to Paraguay, though it is found in the Amazon
  region principally. The sloth (_Bradypus_) is an arboreal animal which
  feeds almost exclusively on the foliage of the Cecropias. It includes
  two recognized genera and half a dozen species, the best known of
  which is _B. didactylus_. The common name in Brazil is _preguiça_,
  which is equivalent to its English name. Of armadillos, commonly
  called _tatú_ in Brazil, the largest species is the _Dasypus gigas_,
  but the best known is the _tatú-été_ (_D. octocinctus_), which is
  highly esteemed for its flesh. The ant-eaters (_Myrmecophaga_) are
  divided into three or four species, one of which (_M. jubata_) is
  exclusively terrestrial, and the others arboreal. The popular name for
  the animal is _tamanduá_. The _M. jubata_, or _tamanduá bandeira_, is
  sometimes found as far south as Paraguay. Of the ruminants, Brazil has
  only four or five species of _Cervidae_, which are likewise common to
  other countries of South America. The largest of these is the marsh
  deer (_C. paludosus_), which in size resembles its European congeners.
  The others are the _C. campestris_, _C. nemorivagus_, _C. rufus_ and a
  small species or variety called _C. nanus_ by the Danish naturalist Dr
  P.W. Lund. The pachyderms are represented by three species of the
  peccary (_Dicotyles_) and two of the anta, or tapir (_Tapirus_). The
  former are found over a wide range of country, extending into Bolivia
  and Argentina, and are noted for their impetuous pugnacity. The tapir
  also has an extensive range between the coast and the foothills of the
  Andes, and from northern Argentina to south-eastern Colombia. It is
  the largest of the Brazilian mammals, and inhabits densely forested
  tracts near river courses. The two species are _T. americanus_, which
  is the larger and best known, and the _anta chure_, found in Minas
  Geraes, which is said to be identical with the _T. Roulini_ of
  Colombia. Perhaps the most interesting mammal of Brazil is the
  _manati_, or sea-cow (_Manatus americanus_), which inhabits the lower
  Amazon and sometimes reaches a length of 15 to 20 ft. It is taken with
  the harpoon and its oil is one of the commercial products of the
  Amazon valley.

  The avifauna of Brazil is rich in genera, species and individuals,
  especially in species with brilliantly-coloured plumage. It is
  estimated that more than half the birds of Brazil are insectivorous,
  and that more than one-eighth are climbers. The range in size is a
  wide one--from the tiny humming-bird to the ema, rhea, or American
  ostrich. Although the order which includes song-birds is numerous in
  species and individuals, it is noticeably poor in really good
  songsters. On the other hand it is exceptionally rich in species
  having strident voices and peculiar unmusical calls, like the _pacô_
  (_Coracina scuttata_) and the _araponga_ (_Chasmorhynchus
  nudicollis_). Two species of vultures, twenty-three of falcons and
  eight of owls represent the birds of prey. The best known vulture is
  the common _urubú_ (_Cathartes foetens_, Illig), which is the
  universal scavenger of the tropics. The climbers comprise a large
  number of species, some of which, like those of the parrot
  (_Psittacidae_) and woodpecker (_Picus_), are particularly noticeable
  in every wooded region of the country. One of the most striking
  species of the former is the brilliantly-coloured _arara_
  (_Macrocercus_, L.), which is common throughout northern Brazil.
  Another interesting species is the toucan (_Ramphastos_), whose
  enormous beak, awkward flight and raucous voice make it a conspicuous
  object in the great forests of northern Brazil. In strong contrast to
  the ungainly toucan is the tiny humming-bird, whose beautiful plumage,
  swiftness of flight and power of wing are sources of constant wonder
  and admiration. Of this smallest of birds there are fifty-nine
  well-known species, divided into two groups, the _Phaethorninae_,
  which prefer the forest shade and live on insects, and the
  _Trochilinae_, which frequent open sunny places where flowers are to
  be found. One of the Brazilian birds whose habits have attracted much
  interest is the _João de Barro_ (Clay John) or oven bird (_Furnarius
  rufus_), which builds a house of reddish clay for its nest and
  attaches it to the branch of a tree, usually in a fork. The thrush is
  represented by a number of species, one of which, the _sabiá_
  (_Mimus_), has become the popular song-bird of Brazil through a poem
  written by Gonçalves Dias. The dove and pigeon have also a number of
  native species, one of which, the _pomba jurity_ (_Peristera
  frontalis_), is a highly-appreciated table luxury. The gallinaceous
  birds are well represented, especially in game birds. The most
  numerous of these are the _perdiz_ (partridge), the best known of
  which is the _Tinamus maculosa_ which frequents the _campos_ of the
  south, the _inhambú_ (_Crypturus_), _capoeira_ (_Odontophorus_), and
  several species of the penelope family popularly known as the
  _jacutinga, jacú_ and _jacú-assú_. The common domesticated fowl is not
  indigenous. Among the wading and running birds, of which the _ema_ is
  the largest representative, there are many species of both
  descriptions. In the Amazon lowlands are white herons (_Ardea
  candidissima_), egrets (_A. egretta_), bitterns (_A. exilis_), blue
  herons (_A. herodias_) scarlet ibises (_Ibis rubra_), roseate
  spoonbills (_Platalea ajaja_); on higher ground the beautiful peacock
  heron (_A. helias_) which is easily domesticated; and on the dry
  elevated _campos_ the _ceriema_ (_Dicholophus cristatus_) which is
  prized for its flesh, and the _jacamin_ (_Psophia crepitans_) which is
  frequently domesticated. Prominent among the storks is the great
  black-headed white crane, called the _jaburú_ (_Mycteria americana_),
  which is found along the Amazon and down the coast and grows to a
  height of 4½ ft. Of the swimmers, the number of species is smaller,
  but some of them are widely distributed and numerous in individuals.
  There are but few species of ducks, and they are apparently more
  numerous in southern Brazil than on the Amazon.

  The reptilian fauna exhibits an exceptionally large number of
  interesting genera and species. A great part of the river systems of
  the country with their flooded areas are highly favourable to the
  development of reptilian life. Most prominent among these is the
  American alligator, of which there are, according to Netterer, two
  genera and eight species in Brazil. They are very numerous in the
  Amazon and its tributaries and in the Paraguay, and are found in all
  the rivers of the Atlantic coast. Three of the Brazilian species are
  voracious and dangerous. The largest of the Amazon species are the
  _jacaré-assú_ (_Caïman niger_), _jacaré_ (_C. fissipes_) and
  _jacaré-tinga_ (_C. sclerops_). The Amazon is also the home of one of
  the largest fresh-water turtles known, the _Emys amazonica_, locally
  called the _jurará-assú_ or _tartaruga grande_. These turtles are so
  numerous that their flesh and eggs have long been a principal food
  supply for the Indian population of that region. Another Amazon
  species, the _E. tracaxa_, is still more highly esteemed for its
  flesh, but it is smaller and deposits fewer eggs in the sandy river
  beaches. Lagartos (_Iguanas_) and lizards are common everywhere. The
  ophidians are also numerous, especially in the wooded lowlands
  valleys, and the poisonous species, though less numerous than others,
  include some of the most dangerous known--the rattlesnake _surucucú_
  (_Lachesis rhombeatus_), and _jararáca_ (_Bothrops_). The Amazon
  region is frequented by the _giboia_ (boa constrictor), and the
  central plateau by the _sucuriú_ (_Eunectes murinus_), both
  distinguished for their enormous size. The batrachians include a very
  large number of genera and species, especially in the Amazon valley.

  The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and
  individuals than that of the land. All the rivers are richly stocked,
  and valuable fishing grounds are to be found along the coast,
  especially that of southern Bahia and Espirito Santo where the
  _garoupa_ (_Serranus_) is found in large numbers. Some of the small
  fish along the coast are highly esteemed for their flavour. Whales
  were once numerous between Capes St Roque and Frio, but are now rarely
  seen. Of the edible river fish, the best known is the _pirarucú_
  (_Sudis gigas_), a large fish of the Amazon which is salted and dried
  for market during the low-water season. Fish is a staple food of the
  Indian tribes of the Amazon region, and their fishing season is during
  the period of low water. The visit of Professor Louis Agassiz to the
  Amazon in 1865 resulted in a list of 1143 species, but it is believed
  that no less than 1800 to 2000 species are to be found in that great
  river and its tributaries.

  In strong contrast to the poverty of Brazil in the larger mammals is
  the astonishing profusion of insect life in every part of the country.
  The Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are especially numerous, both in
  species and individuals. A striking illustration of this extraordinary
  profusion was given by the English naturalist H.W. Bates, who found
  7000 species of insects in the vicinity of only one of his collecting
  places on the Amazon (Ega), of which 550 species were of butterflies.
  Within an hour's walk of Pará are to be found, he says, about 700
  species of butterflies, "whilst the total number found in the British
  Islands does not exceed 66, and the whole of Europe supports only
  321." (H.W. Bates, _The Naturalist on the River Amazons_.) One of the
  rare species of the Amazon _Morphos_ (_M. hecuba_) measures 8 to 9 in.
  across its expanded wings. Dipterous insects are also very numerous in
  species, especially in those of sanguinary habits, such as the
  mosquito, _pium_, _maroim_, _carapana_, _borochudo_, &c. In some
  places these insects constitute a veritable plague, and the infested
  regions are practically uninhabitable. The related species of the
  _Oestridae_ family, which include the widely disseminated _chigoe_ or
  _bicho do pé_ (_Pulex penetrans_), and the equally troublesome _berne_
  (_Cutiterebra noxialis_), which is so injurious to animals, are
  equally numerous. The most numerous of all, however, and perhaps the
  most harmful to civilized man, are the termites and ants, which are
  found everywhere in the uninhabited campo and forest regions, as well
  as in the cultivated districts. Nature has provided several species of
  animals, birds and reptiles, to feed upon these insects, and various
  poisonous and suffocating compounds are used to destroy them, but with
  no great degree of success. It is not uncommon to find once cultivated
  fields abandoned because of their ravages and to see large _campos_
  completely covered with enormous ant-hills. The termites, or "white
  ants," are exceptionally destructive because of their habit of
  tunnelling through the softer woods of habitations and furniture,
  while some species of ants, like the _saúba_, are equally destructive
  to plantations because of the rapidity with which they strip a tree of
  its foliage. Spiders are represented by a very large number of
  species, some of which are beautifully coloured. The largest of these
  is the _Mygale_ with a body 2 in. in length and outstretched legs
  covering 7 in., a monster strong enough to capture and kill small
  birds. A large _Mygale_ found on the island of Siriba, of the Abrolhos
  group, feeds upon lizards, and has been known to attack and kill young
  chickens. One of the most troublesome pests of the interior is a
  minute degenerate spider of the genus _Ixodes_, called _carrapato_, or
  bush-tick, which breeds on the ground and then creeps up the grass
  blades and bushes where it waits for some passing man or beast. Its
  habit is to bury its head in its victim's skin and remain there until
  gorged with blood, when it drops off. Scorpions are common, but are
  considered less poisonous than some European species.

  _Flora._--Brazil not only is marvellously rich in botanical species,
  but included at the beginning of the 20th century the largest area of
  virgin forest on the surface of the earth. The flora falls naturally
  into three great divisions: that of the Amazon basin where exceptional
  conditions of heat and moisture prevail; that of the coast where heat,
  varying rainfall, oceanic influences and changing seasons have greatly
  modified the general character of the vegetation; and that of the
  elevated interior, or _sertao_, where dryer conditions, rocky
  surfaces, higher sun temperatures and large open spaces produce a
  vegetation widely different from those of the other two regions.
  Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that
  of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is
  essentially distinct from the Amazon. The latter region is densely
  forested from the Atlantic to the Andes, but with a varying width of
  about 200 m. on the coast to about 900 m. between the Bolivian and
  Venezuelan _llanos_, and thus far civilization has made only a very
  slight impression upon it. Even where settlements have been located,
  constant effort is required to keep the vegetation down. Along the
  coast, much of the virgin forest has been cut away, not only for the
  creation of cultivated plantations, but to meet the commercial demand
  for Brazil-wood and furniture woods.

  The chief characteristic of the Amazonian forest, aside from its
  magnitude, is the great diversity of genera and species. In the
  northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of
  three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of
  growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of
  species--palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias,
  malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas,
  malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower
  river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some
  particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is
  to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and
  between the Amazon and its principal tributaries. The density of the
  forest is greatly augmented by the _cipós_, or lianas, which overgrow
  the largest trees to their tops, and by a profusion of epiphytes which
  cover the highest branches. As a rule the trees of the Amazon forest
  are not conspicuously high, a few species rarely reaching a height of
  200 ft. The average is probably less than one-half that height. This
  is especially true of the flood plains where the annual inundations
  prevent the formation of humus and retard forest growth. The largest
  of the Amazon forest trees are the _massaranduba_ (_Mimusops elata_),
  called the cow-tree because of its milky sap, the _samaúma_
  (_Eriodendron samauma_) or silk-cotton tree, the _páu d' arco_
  (_Tecoma speciosa_), _páu d' alho_ (_Catraeva tapia_), _bacori_
  (_Symphonea coccinea_), _sapucaia_ (_Lecythis ollaria_), and
  _castanheira_ or brazil-nut tree (_Bertholletia excelsa_). The Amazon
  region has a comparatively narrow frontage on the Atlantic. In
  Maranhão, which belongs to the coast region, open spaces or _campos_
  appear, though the state is well wooded and its forests have the
  general characteristics of the lower Amazon. South-east of the
  Parnahyba the coast region becomes dryer and more sandy and the
  forests disappear. The coast and tide-water rivers are fringed with
  mangrove, and the sandy plain reaching back to the margin of the
  inland plateau is generally bare of vegetation, though the carnahuba
  palm (_Copernicia cerifera_) and some species of low-growing trees are
  to be found in many places. The higher levels of this plain are
  covered with shrubs and small trees, principally mimosas. The slopes
  of the plateau, which receive a better rainfall, are more heavily
  forested, some districts being covered with deciduous trees, forming
  _catingas_ in local parlance. This dry, thinly-wooded region extends
  south to the states of Parahyba, where a more regular rainfall favours
  forest growth nearer the coast. Between Parahyba and southern Bahia
  forests and open plains are intermingled; thence southward the narrow
  coastal plain and bordering mountain slopes are heavily forested. The
  sea-coast, bays and tide-water rivers are still fringed with mangrove,
  and on the sandy shores above Cape Frio grow large numbers of the
  exotic cocoa-nut palm. Many species of indigenous palms abound, and in
  places the forests are indescribably luxuriant. These are made up, as
  Prince Max zu Neuwied found in southern Bahia in 1817, "of the genera
  _Cocos_, _Melastoma_, _Bignonia_, _Rhexia_, _Mimosa_, _Ingá_,
  _Bombax_, _Ilex_, _Laurus_, _Myrthus_, _Eugenia_, _Jacarandá_,
  _Jatropha_, _Visinia_, _Lecythis_, _Ficus_, and a thousand other, for
  the most part, unknown species of trees." Further inland the higher
  country becomes more open and the forests are less luxuriant. Giant
  cacti and spiny scrub abound. Then come the _catinga_ tracts, and,
  beyond these, the open _campos_ of the elevated plateau, dotted with
  clumps of low growing bushes and broken by tracts of _carrasco_, a
  thick, matted, bushy growth 10 to 12 ft. in height. Formerly this
  coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (_Caesalpinia
  echinata_), and the river valleys have long been the principal source
  of Brazil's best cabinet-wood--rosewood (_Dalbergia nigra_), jacarandá
  (_Machaeriumfirmum_, Benth.), vinhatico (_Plathymenia foliosa_,
  Benth.), peroba (_Aspidosperma peroba_), cedro, &c. The exotic
  _mangabeira_ (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together
  with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.

  Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the
  north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto
  Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical
  lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given
  without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better
  advantage in describing the individual states. In general, the
  _carrasco_ growth extends over the whole central plateau, and heavy
  forests are found only in the deep river valleys. Those opening
  northward have the characteristic flora of the Amazon basin. The
  Paraguay basin is covered with extensive marshy tracts and open
  woodlands, the palms being the conspicuous feature. The vegetation is
  similar to that of Paraguay and the Chaco, and aquatic plants are
  specially numerous and luxuriant. On the temperate uplands of the
  southern states there are imposing forests of South American pine
  (_Araucaria brasiliensis_), whose bare trunks and umbrella-like tops
  give to them the appearance of open woodland. These forests extend
  from Paraná into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found
  in Minas Geraes. Large tracts of _Ilex paraguayensis_, from which
  _maté_, or Paraguay-tea, is gathered, are found in this same region.

  The economic plants of Brazil, both indigenous and exotic, are
  noticeably numerous. Coffee naturally occupies first place, and is
  grown wherever frosts are not severe from the Amazon south to Paraná.
  The states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the
  largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo,
  Bahia and Ceará. The export in 1905 was 10,820,604 bags of 132 lb.
  each, with an official valuation of £21,420,330. Sugar cane, another
  exotic, has an equally wide distribution, and cotton is grown along
  the coast from Maranhão to São Paulo. Other economic plants and fruits
  having a wide distribution are tobacco, maize, rice, beans, sweet
  potatoes, bananas, cacáo (_Theobroma cacao_), mandioca or cassava
  (_Manihot utilitissima_), _aipim_ or sweet mandioca (_M. aipi_),
  guavas (_Psidium guayava_, Raddi), oranges, lemons, limes, grapes,
  pineapples, _mamão_ (_Carica papaya_), bread-fruit (_Artocarpus
  incisa_), jack fruit (_A. integrifolia_), and many others less known
  outside the tropics. Among the palms there are several of great
  economic value, not only as food producers but also for various
  domestic uses. The fruit of the _pupunha_ or peach palm (_Guilielma
  speciosa_) is an important food among the Indians of the Amazon
  valley, where the tree was cultivated by them long before the
  discovery of America. Humboldt found it among the native tribes of the
  Orinoco valley, where it is called _pirijao_. The ita palm,
  _Mauritia_, _flexuosa_ (a fan-leaf palm) provides an edible fruit,
  medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on
  the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco. The _assaí_ (_Euterpe
  oleracea_) is another highly-prized palm because of a beverage made
  from its fruit along the lower Amazon. A closely-related species or
  variety (_Euterpe edulis_) is the well-known palmito or cabbage palm
  found over the greater part of Brazil, whose terminal phylophore is
  cooked and eaten as a vegetable. Another highly useful palm is the
  _carnauba_ or _carnahuba_ (_Copernicia cerifera_) which supplies
  fruit, medullary meal, food for cattle, boards and timber, fibre, wax
  and medicine. The fibre of the _piassava (Leopoldinia piassava_, or
  _Attalea funifera_) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms.
  There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely
  into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how
  important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants
  of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the
  people of tropical Brazil. Another vegetable product of the Amazon
  region is made from the fruit of the _Paullinia sorbilis_, Mart., and
  is known by the name of _guaraná_. It is largely consumed in Bolivia
  and Matto Grosso, where it is used in the preparation of a beverage
  which has excellent medicinal properties. The Brazilian flora is also
  rich in medicinal and aromatic plants, dye-woods, and a wide range of
  gum and resin-producing shrubs and trees. The best known of these are
  sarsaparilla, ipecacuanhá, cinchona, jaborandi and copaiba; vanilla,
  tonka beans and cloves; Brazil-wood and anatto (_Bixa orellana_);
  india-rubber and balata. India-rubber is derived principally from the
  _Hevea guayanensis_, sometimes called the _Siphonia elastica_, which
  is found on the Amazon and its tributaries as far inland as the
  foothills of the Andes. Other rubber-producing trees are the
  _maniçoba_ (_Jatropha Glasiovii_) of Ceará, and the _mangabeira_
  (_Hancornia speciosa_), of the central upland regions.

_Population._--The first explorers of Brazil reported a numerous Indian
population, but, as the sea-coast afforded a larger and more easily
acquired food supply than did the interior, the Indian population was
probably numerous only in a comparatively small part of this immense
territory, along the sea-coast. Modern explorations have shown that the
unsettled inland regions of Brazil are populated by Indians only where
the conditions are favourable. They are to be found in wooded districts
near rivers, and are rarely found on the elevated _campos_. The
immediate result of European colonization was the enslavement and
extermination of the Indians along the coast and in all those favoured
inland localities where the whites came into contact with them. The
southern districts and the Amazon and its tributaries were often raided
by slave-hunting expeditions, and their Indian populations were either
decimated, or driven farther into the inaccessible forests. But there is
no record that the inland districts of western and north-western Brazil
were treated in this manner, and their present population may be assumed
to represent approximately what it was when the Europeans first came.
According to the census of 1890 the Indian population was 1,295,796, but
so far as the migratory tribes are concerned the figures are only
guesswork. A considerable number of these Indians have been gathered
together in _aldeas_ under the charge of government tutors, but the
larger part still live in their own villages or as nomads.

Down to the beginning of the 19th century the white colonists were
almost exclusively Portuguese. The immigration from countries other than
Portugal during the first half of that century was small, but before its
close it increased rapidly, particularly from Italy. Fully nine-tenths
of these immigrants, including those from the mother country, were of
the Latin race. The introduction of African slaves followed closely upon
the development of agricultural industries, and continued nominally
until 1850, actually until 1854, and according to some authors until
1860. About 1826 it was estimated that the negro population numbered
2,500,000 or three times the white population of that period. The
unrestricted intermixture of these three races forms the principal basis
of the Brazilian population at the beginning of the 20th century. Brazil
has never had a "colour line," and there has never been any popular
prejudice against race mixtures. According to the census of 1872 the
total population was 9,930,478, of which 1,510,806 were slaves; the race
enumeration gave 3,787,289 whites, 1,959,452 Africans, 386,955 Indians,
and 3,801,782 mixed bloods. The Indian population certainly exceeded the
total given, and the white population must have included many of mixed
blood, the habit of so describing themselves being common among the
better classes of South American mestizos. The census of 1890 increased
the total population to 14,333,915, which, according to an unofficial
analysis (_Statesman's Year Book_, 1905), was made up of 6,302,198
whites, 4,638,495 mixed bloods, 2,097,426 Africans, and 1,295,796
Indians. This analysis, if correct, indicates that the vegetative
increase of the whites has been greater than that of the Africans and
mixed races. This is not the conclusion of many observers, but it may
be due to the excessive infant mortality among the lower classes, where
an observance of the simplest sanitary laws is practically unknown. The
census of the 31st of December 1900 was strikingly defective; it was
wholly discarded for the city of Rio de Janeiro, and had to be completed
by office computations in the returns from several states. The
compilation of the returns was not completed and published until May
1908, according to which the total population was 17,318,556, of which
8,825,636 were males and 8,492,920 females. Not including the city of
Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity
with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was
16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727
Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths. The returns also show a total of
3,038,500 domiciles outside the federal capital, which gives an average
of 5.472 to the domicile. These returns will serve to correct the
exaggerated estimate of 22,315,000 for 1900 which was published in
Brazil and accepted by many foreign publications.

The racial character of the people is not uniform throughout the
republic, the whites predominating in the southern states, the Indians
in Amazonas and, probably, Matto Grosso, and the mixed races in the
central and northern coast states. The excess of whites over the
coloured races in the southern states is due to their smaller slave
population and to the large number of immigrants attracted to them.
Slavery was not abolished until the 13th of May 1888, but a number of
successful colonies had already been founded in these states. Other
colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during
the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the
competition of slave labour. Since the abolition of slavery immigration
has poured a large number of labourers into the coffee-producing states,
and with beneficial results. This strengthening of the white population
of the South with fresh European blood must eventually divide Brazil
into two distinct sections: the white states of the south, and the mixed
or coloured states of the north. The introduction of European immigrants
dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near
Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the
aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic.
Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and
some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The old system of locating immigrants in colonies, or colonial nuclei,
which involved an enormous outlay of money with but slight benefit to
the country, has been superseded by a system of locating the immigrants
on the large plantations under formal contracts. In some of the coffee
districts these contracts have resulted very profitably to the Italian
labourers. The total number of colonists and immigrants entering Brazil
between 1804 and 1902, inclusive, according to official returns, was
2,208,353. The arrivals fluctuate greatly in number from year to year,
influenced by the prevailing economic conditions in the country. At
first the Portuguese outnumbered all other nationalities in the
immigration returns, but since the abolition of slavery the Italians
have passed all competitors and number more than one-half the total
arrivals. Of the 700,211 immigrants located in the state of São Paulo
from 1827 to the end of 1896, no less than 493,535 were Italians, and
their aggregate throughout the republic was estimated in 1906 at more
than 1,100,000. The German immigration, of which so much has been
written for political ends, has been greatly over-estimated; trustworthy
estimates in 1906 made the German contingent in the population vary from
350,000 to 500,000. They are settled chiefly in colonies in the southern
states, and form a most desirable body of settlers.

_Divisions and Towns._--The republic is divided into twenty states and
one federal district, which are the same as the provinces and "municipio
neutro" of the empire. Their names also remain unchanged, except that of
the federalized district in which the national capital is located, which
is called the "districto federal." The republic has no territories,
although Amazonas, Matto Grosso, Pará and Goyaz cover an immense region
of uninhabited and only partially explored territory. The states are
subdivided into _comarcas_, or judicial districts, and into
_municipios_, or townships, which is the smallest autonomous division.
The constitution provides for the autonomy of the municipalities in
order to safeguard the permanence of representative institutions. The
_parochia_, or parish, an ecclesiastical division, is often used for
administrative purposes, but it has no political organization. The
names, areas, and populations of the states, together with the names and
populations of their capitals, are as follows:--

  +--------------------+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------+--------+
  |                    |Area,[1] |     Population[2]     |                       |Popula- |
  |      States.       |   Sq.   +-----------+-----------+    State Capitals.    |tion,[3]|
  |                    |  miles. |  Census   |  Census   |                       | Census |
  |                    |         |   1890.   |   1900.   |                       |  1890. |
  +--------------------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------+--------+
  | Alagôas            |  22,584 |   511,440 |   649,273 | Maceió                | 31,498 |
  | Amazonas           | 742,123 |   147,915 |   249,756 | Manáos                | 38,720 |
  | Bahia              | 164,650 | 1,919,802 | 2,117,956 | São Salvador[4]       |174,412 |
  | Ceará              |  40,253 |   805,687 |   849,127 | Fortaleza             | 40,902 |
  | Espirito Santo     |  17,313 |   135,997 |   209,783 | Victoria              | 16,887 |
  | Federal District   |     538 |   522,651 |   691,565 | Rio de Janeiro        |522,651 |
  | Goyaz              | 288,549 |   227,572 |   255,284 | Goyaz[4]              | 17,181 |
  | Maranhão           | 177,569 |   430,854 |   499,308 | S. Luiz do Maranhão[4]| 29,308 |
  | Matto Grosso       | 532,370 |    92,827 |   118,025 | Cuyabá                | 17,815 |
  | Minas Geraes       | 221,961 | 3,184,099 | 3,594,471 | Ouro Preto[5]         | 59,249 |
  | Pará               | 443,922 |   328,455 |   445,356 | Belem[4]              | 50,064 |
  | Parahyba           |  28,855 |   457,232 |   490,784 | Parahyba              | 18,645 |
  | Paraná             |  85,455 |   249,491 |   327,136 | Curityba              | 24,553 |
  | Pernambuco         |  49,575 | 1,030,224 | 1,178,150 | Recife[4]             |111,556 |
  | Piauhy             | 116,529 |   267,609 |   334,328 | Therezina             | 31,523 |
  | Rio de Janeiro     |  26,635 |   276,884 |   274,317 | Nictheroy             | 34,269 |
  | Rio Grande do Norte|  22,196 |   268,273 | 1,149,070 | Natal                 | 13,725 |
  | Rio Grande do Sul  |  91,337 |   897,455 |   926,035 | Porto Alegre          | 52,421 |
  | Santa Catharina    |  28,633 |   283,769 |   320,289 | Desterro[6]           | 30,637 |
  | São Paulo          | 112,312 | 1,384,753 | 2,282,279 | São Paulo             | 64,934 |
  | Sergipe            |  15,093 |   310,926 |   356,264 | Ararajú               | 16,336 |
  |                    +---------+-----------+-----------+                       |        |
  |       Brazil       |3,228,452|14,333,915 |17,318,556 |                       |        |
  +--------------------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------------------+--------+

  _Communications._--Railway construction in Brazil dates from 1852,
  when work was initiated on the Mauá railway running from the head of
  the bay of Rio de Janeiro to the foot of the Serra where Petropolis is
  situated. The road is 10 m. long, and its first section was opened to
  traffic on April 30, 1854, and its second December 16, 1856. The
  mountain section, 5½ m. long, which uses the Riggenbach system from
  the terminal to Petropolis, was constructed between 1881 and 1883. The
  development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a
  great extent by two unfavourable conditions--by the chain of mountains
  or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct
  communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the
  settlements along the Atlantic, which compel the building of lines
  from many widely separated points on the coast into a sparsely
  populated hinterland. A majority of the ports, from which these roads
  are built, are small and difficult of access, and the coasting trade
  is restricted to vessels carrying the Brazilian flag. The only ports
  having a rich and well-populated country behind them are Rio de
  Janeiro and Santos, and these are the terminals of long lines of
  railway which are being slowly extended farther into the interior.

  The total mileage under traffic at the beginning of 1905 was 10,600
  m., divided into 94 separate lines. There were also 745 m. under
  construction, 1740 m. under survey, and about 1600 m. projected. Of
  the 94 lines under traffic, 45 were operating by virtue of national
  and 49 by provincial and state concessions. They were grouped in the
  official reports of 1905 as follows:--

    Government lines (21):--                  Miles.
      Administered by the state  (6)            2228
      Leased to private parties (15)            2174
                                               -----   4402
    Private lines (24)--
      With national interest guarantees (12)    1290
      Without such guarantees (12)               815
                                               -----   2105
    Private and state lines operated by
      virtue of state concessions, with and
      without interest guarantees (49)                 4093
                                                     ------
                                                     10,600
                                                     ======

  The policy of the national government has been gradually to lease all
  its lines except the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brazil, which is
  retained for sentimental reasons. This great railway runs from the
  city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of São Paulo and northward
  into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the
  beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m. to
  Pirapora, on the São Francisco river. It was formerly known as the "E.
  de F. Dom Pedro II.," in honour of the sovereign who encouraged its
  construction. The main line has a gauge of 63 in. (1.60 m.) and
  affords an outlet for a number of inland metre-gauge lines. The first
  two sections of this great railway, which carry it across the coast
  range, were opened to traffic in 1858 and 1864. The series of trunk
  lines terminating at the port of Santos are owned by private companies
  and are formed by the São Paulo, Paulista and Mogyana lines, the first
  owned by an English company, and the other two by Brazilian companies.
  The Mogyana carries the system entirely across the state of São Paulo
  into the western districts of Minas Geraes. The principal trunk lines
  (the São Paulo and Paulista) have a broad gauge, while their
  extensions and feeders have a narrow gauge. The comparatively short
  lines extending inland from the ports of São Salvador (Bahia),
  Pernambuco, Maceió, Victoria and Paranaguá serve only a narrow zone
  along the coast. To encourage the investment of private capital in the
  construction of railways, the general railway law of 1853 authorized
  the national government to grant guarantees of interest on the capital
  invested. Under this law companies were organized in England for
  building the São Paulo railway, and the lines running from Bahia and
  Pernambuco toward the São Francisco river. Political considerations
  also led to the construction of similar lines in the states of Rio
  Grande do Norte, Parahyba, Alagôas, Sergipe, Espirito Santo, Paraná,
  Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul. The result was that the
  national treasury became burdened with a heavy annual interest charge,
  payable abroad in gold, which did not tend to diminish, and had a long
  period to run before the expiration of the contracts. The government
  finally determined to take over these guaranteed lines from the
  foreign companies owning them, and a statement issued in October 1902
  showed that 1335 m. had been acquired at a cost of £14,605,000 in
  bonds, the interest on which is £584,200 a year against an aggregate
  of £831,750 in interest guarantees which the government had been
  paying. In addition to this economy it was calculated that the lines
  could be leased for £132,000 a year. The loan finally issued in London
  to cover the purchase of these railways aggregated £16,619,320. All
  but three of these lines had been leased in 1905.

  The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities
  dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line
  of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with
  its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American
  company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian
  company. Subsequently the tramways of the city have been mostly
  concentrated in the hands of a single Canadian company. All the large
  cities of Brazil are liberally provided with tramways, those of the
  city of São Paulo, where electric traction is used, being noticeably
  good. The substitution of electricity for animal traction was begun in
  São Salvador in 1906. Mules are universally employed for animal
  traction, and narrow gauge lines with single-mule trams are generally
  used where the traffic is light.

  Brazil is lamentably deficient in steamship communication considering
  its importance in a country where the centres of population are
  separated by such distances of coasts and river. Previous to the
  creation of the republic, the coastwise service was performed by two
  national companies (now united), and partially by foreign lines
  calling at two or more ports. A considerable number of foreign sailing
  vessels also carried on an important coasting trade. The coastwise
  service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd
  Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to
  Pará and Manáos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.
  From Montevideo river steamers are sent up the Paraná and Paraguay
  rivers to Corumbá and Cuyabá, in the state of Matto Grosso. The
  company receives a heavy subsidy from the national government. Parts
  of this coastwise traffic are covered by other companies, two of which
  receive subsidies. There were also six lines of river steamers
  receiving subsidies from the national government in 1904, and the
  aggregate paid to these and the coastwise lines was 2,830,061 milreis.
  The largest of the river lines is the Amazon Steam Navigation Co. (an
  English corporation), whose service covers the main river and several
  of its principal tributaries. Two subsidized companies maintain
  services on the São Francisco river--one below the Paulo Affonso
  falls, and the other above, the latter covering 854 m. of navigable
  channel between Joazeiro and Pirapora. Besides these there are other
  companies engaged in the coasting and river traffic, either with
  subsidies from the state governments, as feeders for railway lines, or
  as private unsubsidized undertakings.

  The telegraph lines, which date from 1852, are owned and operated by
  the national government, with the exception of the lines constructed
  by private railway companies, and the cable lines of the Amazon and
  the coast. The government lines extend from Pará to the Argentine and
  Uruguayan frontiers, where they connect with the telegraph systems of
  those republics, and from Rio de Janeiro westward across country, in
  great part unsettled, to the capitals of Goyaz and Matto Grosso. At
  Pará connexion is made with the cable laid in the bed of the Amazon to
  Manáos, which is owned and operated by a subsidized English company.
  At Vizeu, Pará, connexion is made with a French cable to the West
  Indies and the United States, and at Pernambuco with two cable lines
  to Europe. A coastwise cable runs from Pará to Montevideo with double
  cables between Pernambuco and Montevideo. There were in 1903 a total
  of 15,150 m. of land lines, with 29,310 m. of wire and 1102 telegraph
  offices. The government maintains reciprocal rates with most of the
  private railway lines.

  The Brazilian postal service is under the general supervision of the
  minister of communications and public works, and is administered by a
  director-general. Owing to the size of the country and the
  sparsely-populated state of a large part of the interior, the
  transportation of the mails is attended with much difficulty and
  expense. Although the postal rates are high, the service is not
  self-sustaining, the receipts for 1904 being 7,018,344 milreis,
  against a total expenditure of 10,099,545 milreis. There were 2847
  post offices (_agencias_), of which 2166 were of the 4th or lowest
  grade. Brazil is a member of the Postal Union, and like Argentina
  exacts higher nominal rates of postage upon outgoing mail than those
  agreed upon to cover the depreciation in her own currency. The letter
  rate was at first 200 reis (nearly 5½ d.), but it has been increased
  to 300 reis, which is equivalent to 8 d. at par and 4½ d. at 15 d.
  exchange. An inland parcel post was in operation long before the
  overthrow of the monarchy, and a similar service with Portugal has
  been successfully maintained for a number of years, notwithstanding
  the difficulties interposed by customs regulations. National and
  international money order systems are also in operation.

  The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be
  carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into
  effect until 1896. And even then, because of the insufficient number
  of Brazilian vessels it was provided in the regulations that foreign
  vessels could be enrolled in that trade by using the Brazilian flag
  and employing a certain proportion of Brazilians on the crew. One of
  the purposes of this restrictive provision was that of creating a
  national merchant marine, but the disinclination of Brazilians for
  maritime pursuits has been a serious obstacle to its realization. In
  1901 the merchant navy included 228 steamers of 91,465 tons net, and
  343 sailing vessels of 76,992 tons net. These vessels are all engaged
  in the coasting and river trade of the country. Efforts have been
  made, however, to engage in foreign trade, and subsidies were offered
  for a passenger and freight service to the United States. On the 23rd
  of February 1906 the government completed a new contract with the
  Lloyd Brazileiro Company for its coastwise and river service, and
  included clauses providing for a line to the United States. This
  foreign service (monthly) began in August 1906.

  Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and
  tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial
  ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to
  less than a dozen. The others are either difficult of access, or are
  rendered practically useless by dangerous reefs, sand bars and shoals.
  Important improvements have been undertaken in some of these ports.
  Those at Santos and Manáos, for example, have produced good results.
  In many cases, as at Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Manáos, the cost and
  maintenance of the new port-works are met by an additional tax on
  merchandise, though the immediate expenditures are met by advances
  from the national treasury, and at Rio de Janeiro by a foreign loan.

  _Commerce._--The imports, exports and domestic trade of Brazil are
  by reason of their magnitude and peculiar character the most important
  in South America, though the _per capita_ aggregate is less than that
  of Argentina. Although an agricultural country, Brazil does not
  produce all its own bread and meat, and the imports of wheat, wheat
  flour, rice, fish, jerked beef and preserved meats, lard, butter,
  beans, potatoes, packed fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and other
  food-stuffs, are surprisingly large. Since the creation of the
  republic, extreme protective measures have caused the creation of a
  large number of cotton factories and other manufactures, but these are
  able to supply only a part of the consumption, and the importation of
  cotton and woollen fabrics, silks, ready-made clothing, boots and
  shoes, &c., is large. Modern industrial development in some of the
  states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric
  supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also
  figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for
  consumption by some cities. The exports cover a wide range of
  agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee,
  rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, _maté_ (Paraguay tea),
  hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and
  medicinal leaves, roots and resins. Coffee and rubber, however,
  represent from 80 to 90% of the official valuation of all exports.
  High import duties are imposed by the national government and export
  duties by the states. The exchange of domestic products between the
  states is greatly restricted through lack of cheap transportation
  facilities, and by the suicidal imposition of import and export duties
  by the states, either for revenue or for the protection of home
  industries.

  According to a summary for the six years 1901 to 1906, derived from
  official sources and published in the annual _Retrospecto_ of the
  _Jornal do Commercio_, of Rio de Janeiro, the values of the imports
  and exports for those years (exclusive of coin), reduced to pounds
  sterling at the average rate of exchange (or value of one milreis) for
  each year, were as follows:--

    +------+-----------+------------+-------------+
    |      |  Average  |            |             |
    | Year.| Value of  | Imports in | Exports in  |
    |      |the Milreis|Pounds Ster.| Pounds Ster.|
    |      | in Pence. |            |             |
    +------+-----------+------------+-------------+
    |      |           |     £      |      £      |
    | 1901 |   11.33   | 21,377,270 |  40,621,993 |
    | 1902 |   11.93   | 23,279,418 |  36,437,456 |
    | 1903 |   11.99   | 24,207,811 |  36,883,175 |
    | 1904 |   12.22   | 25,915,423 |  39,430,136 |
    | 1905 |   15.94   | 29,830,050 |  44,643,113 |
    | 1906 |   16.17   | 33,204,041 |  53,059,480 |
    +------+-----------+------------+-------------+

  Nearly 76½% of the exports of 1906 were of coffee and rubber, the
  official valuations of these being: coffee 245,474,525 milreis gold
  (£27,615,884), and rubber (including maniçoba and mangabeira),
  124,941,433 milreis gold (£14,055,911).

  Brazil is essentially an agricultural country. No other country has
  been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under
  better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost
  in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco. Besides these it
  might easily excel in producing many of the tropical fruits for which
  there is a commercial demand. During the colonial period sugar cane
  was cultivated from Parahyba S. to the vicinity of Santos, and sugar
  was the principal export of the colony. Before the middle of the 19th
  century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation
  in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been
  so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in
  value of the total export of agricultural produce. The principal
  sugar-producing states are Alagôas, Sergipe, Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio
  de Janeiro, and the production is between 200,000 and 300,000 tons,
  the greater part of which is consumed in the country. Cotton has been
  widely cultivated since early colonial days, principally in the
  northern Atlantic states. Tobacco is also widely cultivated, and the
  product of some states, such as Bahia, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, has a
  high local reputation for its excellence. Cacáu (cocoa) is cultivated
  extensively in the Amazon Valley and along the coast as far south as
  southern Bahia, and forms one of the leading exports. In 1906 São
  Paulo offered premiums for its cultivation in the state. Rice has been
  cultivated in places, but without much success, although the quality
  produced compared favourably with the imported article. Indian corn
  grows luxuriantly everywhere, but it does not mature well in the humid
  regions of the Amazon region and the coast. The product of the
  elevated inland regions is good, but the costs of transportation and
  the small profits afforded have prevented its extensive cultivation,
  and it is imported from the La Plata republics for consumption along
  the coast. Much has been said in regard to the production of wheat,
  and efforts have been made in various places to promote its
  cultivation. It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some
  success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and São Paulo, but in
  no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent
  standing among the productions of the country. The great majority of
  the people are unused to wheaten bread, using the coarse flour of the
  mandioca root instead, consequently the demand for wheat and flour is
  confined to the large cities, which can obtain them from Argentina
  more cheaply than they can be produced in the country. One of the most
  common and important productions of Brazil is _mandioca_ (_Manihot_),
  of which there are two well-known species, _M. utilissima_ and _M.
  aipi_. The first named, which is poisonous in its native state, is the
  _cassava_ of Spanish America. From it is made _farinha de mandioca_,
  which is the bread of the common people of Brazil, and tapioca. The
  poison is extracted by soaking the bruised or grated roots in water,
  after which the coarse flour is roasted. Mandioca was cultivated by
  the natives before the discovery of America, and the wide area over
  which it has been distributed warrants the conclusion that the
  discovery of its value as a food and the means of separating its
  poisonous properties must have occurred at a very remote period. The
  peanut, or ground-nut (_Arachis hypogaea_), is another
  widely-cultivated plant, dating from pre-Columbian times. Very little
  attention has thus far been given to the cultivation of fruit for
  exportation, the exceptions being bananas for the Argentine and
  Uruguayan markets, and oranges and pineapples for European markets.
  The coast region from Ceará to Rio de Janeiro is adapted to the
  cultivation of a great variety of fruits of a superior quality. Ceará,
  Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and
  Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples. Tangerines, lemons, limes,
  grapes, guavas, figs, cashews or cajús (_Anacardium occidentale_),
  mangabas (_Hancornia speciosa_), joboticabas (_Eugenia cauliflora_ and
  _E. jaboticaba_, Mart.), cocoa-nuts, mangos, _fruitas de conde_
  (_Anona squamosa_), plantains, &c. are produced in abundance and with
  little labour. In some parts of southern Brazil the fruits and
  vegetables of the temperate zone do well, but within the tropics they
  thrive well only at a considerable elevation above sea-level. Apples,
  peaches, quinces, raspberries, strawberries, &c., are produced under
  such conditions, but the flavour of their kind grown in colder
  climates is usually wanting. The vegetable productions are less
  numerous, but they include sweet potatoes, cabbages, cauliflower,
  lettuce, beans, peas, onions, garlic, tomatoes, okra, radishes,
  cucumbers, couve, chuchu (_Sechium edule_), and aipim (_Manihot
  aipi_). The white potato, known as "batata inglez" (English potato),
  is grown in elevated localities, but it deteriorates so greatly after
  the first planting that fresh imported seed is necessary every second
  or third year.

  The pastoral industries, which date from early colonial times, have
  suffered many vicissitudes, and their development has failed to keep
  pace with the country's growth in population. Horses are used to some
  extent for riding, but very little for carriage and draught purposes,
  consequently there has been no great incentive for their breeding.
  They are largely used and raised in Rio Grande do Sul, but in the
  warmer regions of the north only to a limited extent. The hardier
  mules are generally employed for draught, carriage, and saddle
  purposes in every part of the country, and their breeding is a
  lucrative industry in the southern states. Cattle-raising is the
  principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable
  attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Paraná,
  Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte. It was estimated that there were
  30,000,000 head of cattle in the republic in 1904, but the estimate
  was unquestionably too large. A very large part of the jerked beef
  consumed in Brazil is imported from Argentina and Uruguay, and some
  beef cattle also are imported. These importations at Rio de Janeiro in
  1906 were 12,464,170 kilograms of jerked beef and 12,575 head of
  cattle. In the Rio Branco region of Amazonas and in Piauhy, where the
  national government has long been the owner of extensive cattle
  ranges, the industry is in a state of decadence. This is partly due to
  such pests as the vampire bat and bush ticks (_carrapatos_), and
  partly to the unprogressiveness of the cattlemen. Cattle-raising was
  once a flourishing industry on the island of Marajó, at the mouth of
  the Amazon, and it is followed to some extent at Alemquer and other
  points along the Amazon, but the cattle are small, and commonly in bad
  condition. In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished
  through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de
  Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds. Minas Geraes produces
  cheese, butter and milk, as well as beef cattle for neighbouring
  cities. Matto Grosso classifies cattle-raising as a principal
  industry, but under present conditions the accessible markets are too
  small for any large development. In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has
  attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are
  slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (_xarque_),
  beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil
  except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
  They were to be found in Ceará and Piauhy in colonial times, and small
  flocks are still to be seen in the latter state, but no use is made of
  their wool, and the market for mutton is extremely limited because of
  popular prejudices. Woollen manufactures have been established in Rio
  de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. The exportation of wool
  amounted to 1,130,160 lb. in 1906. Goats have been found highly
  profitable in many of the middle Atlantic states, where the long dry
  seasons render the campos unsuitable for cattle pasturage. The export
  of goat skins from these states is large. Swine do well in all parts
  of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
  Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and domestic pork and lard are slowly
  supplanting the heavily-taxed foreign products.

  Although the coast and river fisheries of Brazil are numerous and
  valuable, cured fish is one of the staple imports, and foreign
  products are to be found even along the Amazon. In the Amazon valley
  fish is a principal article of food, and large quantities of
  _pirarucú_ (_Sudis gigas_) are caught during the season of low water
  and prepared for storage or market by drying in the sun. This and the
  collection of turtle eggs for their oil, or butter, are chiefly Indian
  industries, and contribute largely to the support of the native
  population of that region. Along the coast the best known fisheries
  are among the Abrolhos islands and in the shallow waters of Espirito
  Santo, where the garoupa, pargo and vermelho (species of _Serranus_)
  abound in great numbers.

  The extractive or forest industries of Brazil were among the first to
  engage the attention of Europeans, and have always been considered a
  principal source of colonial and national wealth. The varied uses of
  india-rubber in modern times, however, have given them a greatly
  enhanced importance and value. Of the exports of 1905, 36% were of
  this class, while those of the pastoral and mining industries combined
  were not quite 6½%. In 1906 the percentages were 31 and 6.67, showing
  a considerable loss for the former and a slight gain for the latter.
  The principal products of this class are india-rubber, maté, Brazil
  nuts, vegetable wax, palm fibre, cabinet woods, and medicinal leaves,
  roots, resins, &c. Before the discovery of the cheaper aniline
  colours, dye-woods were among the most valuable products of the
  country; in fact, Brazil derives her name from that of a dye-wood
  (Brazil-wood--_Caesalpinia echinata_), known as _bresill, brasilly,
  bresilji, braxilis_, or _brasile_ long before the discovery of America
  (see Humboldt's _Géographic du nouveau continent_, tom. ii. p. 214),
  which for many generations was the most highly prized of her natural
  productions. Of the total exports of this group (1905) very nearly 90%
  was of india-rubber, which percentage was reduced to 85 in the
  following year. The exportation for 1906 was 69,761,123 lb. of Hevea,
  5,871,968 lb. of maniçoba, and 1,440,131 lb. of mangabeira rubber, the
  whole valued at 124,941,433 milreis gold. The dried leaves and smaller
  twigs of maté (Paraguayan tea--_Ilex paraguayensis_) are exported to
  the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do
  Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular. The export in 1906 amounted
  to 127,417,950 lb., officially valued at 16,502,881 milreis gold. The
  collection of Brazil nuts along the Amazon and its tributaries is
  essentially a poor man's industry, requiring no other plant than a
  boat. The harvest comes in January and February, in the rainy season,
  and the nut-gatherers often come one or two hundred miles in their
  boats to the best forests. The nuts are the fruit of the _Bertholletia
  excelsa_, one of the largest trees of the Amazon forest region, and
  are enclosed, sixteen to eighteen in number, in a hard, thick
  pericarp. Another nut-producing tree is the _sapucaia_ (_Lecythis
  ollaria_), whose nuts are enclosed in a larger pericarp, and are
  considered to be better flavoured than those first described. The crop
  is a variable one, the export in 1905 having been 198,226 hectolitres,
  while that of 1906 was 96,770 hectolitres. It could undoubtedly be
  largely increased. Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for
  beeswax, is a product of the _carnahuba_ palm (_Copernicia cerifera_),
  and is an important export from Ceará. Palm, or piassava fibre,
  derived from the _piassava_ palm, is used in the manufacture of
  brooms, brushes, &c. It is found as far south as southern Bahia, and
  the export could be very largely increased. The export of cabinet
  woods is not large, considering the forest area of Brazil and the
  variety and quality of the woods. This is principally due to the cost
  and difficulties of transporting timbers to the coast. The export is
  confined principally to rosewood. Of the medicinal plants, the
  best-known products are ipecacuanhá, sarsaparilla, copaiba, jaborandi
  and cinchona, but this is only a part of the list. Besides these,
  tonka beans, anatto, vanilla, and castor-oil seeds form a part of the
  exports.

  The mineral exports are surprisingly small. Gold was discovered by the
  Portuguese soon after their settlement of the coast in the 16th
  century, but the washings were poor and attracted little attention.
  The richer deposits of Minas Geraes were discovered about 1693, and
  those of Matto Grosso early in the following century. Abandoned placer
  mines are to be found in every part of the unsettled interior, showing
  how thoroughly it had been explored by gold-hunters in those early
  days. Some good mines, like Morro Velho and the abandoned Gongo Soco,
  have been developed in Minas Geraes, but the great majority are small
  and not very productive. Diamonds were discovered in Minas Geraes,
  near the town now called Diamantina, during the first half of the 18th
  century, the dates given ranging from 1725 to 1746, but the
  productiveness of the district has greatly decreased. Diamonds have
  also been found in Bahia, Goyaz and Paraná. Other precious stones
  found in Brazil are the topaz, ruby aquamarine, tourmaline,
  chrysoberyl, garnet and amethyst. Among the minerals are silver,
  platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver,
  bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have
  been regularly mined. The copper deposits of Minas Geraes are said to
  be promising. Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export. Iron ores
  have been found in most of the states, and are especially abundant in
  Minas Geraes. The Ypanema mine and ironworks, near Sorocaba, São
  Paulo, which belong to the national government, have been in operation
  since 1810 and small charcoal forges were in operation in colonial
  times and supplied the mines with a considerable part of the iron
  needed by them. Many of the richer deposits have never been developed
  because of a lack of fuel and limestone. Bituminous coal of an
  inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul,
  and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina. These coal
  deposits extend from Rio Grande do Sul north into the state of São
  Paulo. Salt, which does not figure in the list of exports, is produced
  along the coast between Pernambuco and Cape St Roque. The annual
  production is about 240,000 tons.

  To illustrate the comparative productiveness and relationship of these
  sources of national wealth and industry, the following official
  returns of export for the years 1905 and 1906 are arranged in the four
  general classes previously discussed, the values being in Brazilian
  gold milreis, worth 2s. 3d. or 54.6 cents to the milreis:--

      _Agricultural._

                                    1905.              1906.
                                Milreis, gold.    Milreis, gold.

    Coffee   .   .   .   .   .  190,404,576        245,474,525
    Cotton   .   .   .   .   .   10,290,790         14,726,492
    Cacau    .   .   .   .   .    9,240,313         12,323,922
    Tobacco  .   .   .   .   .    7,335,163          8,283,150
    Sugar    .   .   .   .   .    3,608,476          5,388,596
    Bran[7]  .   .   .   .   .    1,490,312          1,128,761
    Cottonseed   .   .   .   .      964,074          1,084,742
    Mandioca flour   .   .   .      692,079            789,913
    Fruits   .   .   .   .   .      606,678            714,332
    Castor-oil seeds .   .   .      214,016            333,250
                                -----------        -----------
                                224,846,477        290,247,683

      _Natural and Forest._

    Rubber:
      Mangabeira     .   .   .    1,286,672          1,376,014
      Maniçoba   .   .   .   .    7,418,559          7,335,870
      Hevea (Pará)   .   .   .  119,434,947        116,229,549
    Maté (Paraguay tea)  .   .   11,088,108         16,502,881
    Brazil nuts  .   .   .   .    2,064,049          1,190,177
    Palm wax (Carnahuba) .   .    1,847,273          3,733,478
    Cabinet woods    .   .   .      390,070            318,873
    Piassaya fibre   .   .   .      336,668            347,323
    Medicinal leaves, roots,
        resins, &c.  .   .   .      191,534            263,137
                                -----------        -----------
                                143,331,142        147,297,302

      _Pastoral and Animal._

    Salted hides .   .   .   .    7,010,498          9,691,180
    Dry hides    .   .   .   .    5,330,440          7,675,715
    Skins.   .   .   .   .   .    4,117,590          4,639,512
    Horse hair   .   .   .   .      307,505            403,541
    Horns    .   .   .   .   .      276,172            277,488
    Wool .   .   .   .   .   .      142,414            354,045
    Beef extract, &c .   .   .       81,607            110,925
                                 ----------         ----------
                                 17,266,226         23,152,406

       _Mineral Products._

    Gold, in bars    .   .   .    3,734,469          4,379,160
    Manganese ore    .   .   .    2,958,462          1,594,486
    Monazite sand    .   .   .      889,231            881,289
    Precious stones  .   .   .      633,916          1,480,260
                                  ---------          ---------
                                  8,216,078          8,335,195

      _Miscellaneous._

    Old metals[8].   .   .   .      263,506            382,073
    Sundry products  .   .   .    2,177,512          2,225,163
                                  ---------          ---------
                                  2,441,018          2,607,236
                                -----------        -----------
    Total, all products  .   .  396,827,679        471,639,822

  _Manufactures._--Before the establishment of the republic very little
  attention had been given to manufacturing industries beyond what was
  necessary to prepare certain crude products for market. Sugar and rum
  were essentially plantation products down to the last ten years of the
  empire, when central usines using improved machinery and methods were
  introduced as a means of saving the sugar plantations from ruin. The
  crude methods of preparing jerked beef were also modified to some
  extent by better equipped abattoirs and establishments for preparing
  beef extract, preserved meats, &c. There were also mills for crushing
  the dried maté leaves, cigar and cigarette factories, small chocolate
  factories, hat factories, brick and tile yards, potteries, tanneries,
  saddleries, and many other small industries common to all large
  communities. Considerable protection was afforded to many of these
  industries by the customs tariff of that time, but protection did not
  become an acknowledged national policy until after 1889. After that
  time the duties on imports were repeatedly and largely increased, both
  as a means of raising larger revenues and as an encouragement to
  manufacturing enterprise. Although the protective tariffs thus imposed
  have resulted in a large increase in manufacturing industries, some of
  them have been antagonistic to the productive interests of the
  country, as in the case of weaving mills which use imported yarns.
  Other industries are carried on entirely with imported materials, and
  are national only in name. Among these are flour mills, factories for
  the cutting of wire nails and making hollow ware from sheet iron, and
  factories for the manufacture of umbrellas, boots and shoes, &c. The
  greatest progress has been made in the manufacture of cotton fabrics,
  principally of the plainer and coarser grades used by the common
  people. There were 155 of these factories in 1895, but in 1905 only
  108 were in operation, with 715,000 spindles, and about 37,000
  operatives. Nearly one-half of these were weaving mills, using
  imported yarn. The factories are widely distributed, and some are
  favoured by state legislation in addition to the national tariff. The
  largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of
  Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, though the greater part of the raw
  cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight
  rates. The manufacture of woollen blankets, cashmeres, flannels, &c.,
  had also undergone noteworthy development and is carried on in fifteen
  factories, located principally in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro
  and São Paulo. Biscuit-making is represented by a large number of
  factories, for the most part in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and
  there are a number of breweries of the most modern type in the same
  two states. The manufacture of boots and shoes has also received much
  attention, but the materials used are for the most part imported.
  Among other manufactures are butter and cheese, canned fruits and
  vegetables, glass and earthenware, printing and wrapping paper,
  furniture, matches, hats, clothing, pharmaceutical products, soaps and
  perfumery, ice, artificial drinks, cigars and cigarettes, fireworks
  and candles.

_Government._--The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio
de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal
republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do
Brazil). The constitution under which the republic is governed was
drafted by a constituent assembly convened on the 15th of November 1890,
and was adopted on the 24th of February 1891. The supreme powers of the
nation are vested in three partially independent branches of
government--executive, legislative, and judicial--represented by the
president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a
supreme tribunal. The states forming the federation consist of the
twenty provinces and municipal district of the empire, but the number
may be increased or diminished by the states concerned with the approval
of the national congress. The states are self-governed, and have
exclusive control of the public lands, mines, industries, and all local
affairs. They have the sole right also to impose duties on exports and
taxes upon real estate, industries and professions, and transfers of
property. Among other things they are charged with the supervision and
support of primary education, with the maintenance of order, and with
the organization and support of a system of state courts. Both the
national and state governments exercise the right to impose stamp and
consumption taxes, and the municipalities likewise are permitted to
impose licence and consumption taxes. The national government reserves
for itself the exclusive right to direct the foreign affairs of the
republic, to maintain an army and navy, to impose duties on imports, to
regulate foreign commerce, to collect port dues, to issue money and
create banks of issue, and to maintain a postal and national telegraph
service. It also supervises secondary and superior education, issues
patents, and provides federal courts for the trial of cases amenable to
federal laws. The national government is forbidden to interfere in the
peculiar affairs of the states except to repel foreign invasion, to
maintain a republican form of government, to re-establish order at the
request of a state, or to enforce federal laws and sentences. The states
are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state
commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist
the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states. The
separation of church and state is provided for by the constitution, and
both the nation and the states are forbidden to establish, subsidize or
restrict the exercise of any religious worship. Foreigners are eligible
to Brazilian citizenship, and the right of suffrage is conferred upon
all male citizens over twenty-one years of age, except beggars,
illiterates, the rank and file of the armed forces, members of monastic
orders, &c., bound by private vows, and all unregistered citizens.

The executive power of the nation is vested in a president, elected for
a term of four years by a direct vote of the electors. He must be a
native Brazilian over thirty-five years of age, in the full enjoyment of
his political rights, and is ineligible for the next succeeding term. A
vice-president is elected at the same time and under the same
conditions, who is president of the senate _ex officio_, and succeeds to
the presidency in case the office becomes vacant during the last two
years of the presidential term. Should the vacancy occur during the
first two years of the term, a new election must be held. The president
receives a salary of 120,000 milreis and the vice-president of 36,000
milreis. The president is advised and assisted by a cabinet of six
ministers, viz. foreign affairs; finance; agriculture, industry and
commerce;[9] communications (_Viacao_) and public works;[9] war; and
marine. The ministers are appointed and removed by the president, take
no part in the sessions of congress, and are responsible to the
president alone for their advisory acts. The president sanctions and
promulgates, or vetoes, or ignores the laws, and resolutions voted by
congress, and issues decrees and regulations for their execution. His
veto may be over-ridden by a two-thirds vote in each chamber, and
permitting ten days to pass without signing an act is considered as
acquiescence and it is promulgated by congress. The president is charged
with the duties (among others) of commanding the armed forces of the
republic, appointing the prefect of the national capital, designating
members of the supreme tribunal and diplomatic representatives for the
approval of the senate, to negotiate treaties, &c., _ad referendum_ to
congress, and maintain relations with foreign powers, to declare war in
case of invasion and to declare martial law in case of grave internal
disorder, and to advise congress at the opening of the annual session of
the progress and state of public affairs. He may be impeached before the
senate for his official acts and suspended from office, or tried by the
supreme tribunal for criminal offences.

The legislative power is vested in a national congress of two chambers,
elected by direct suffrage, and convened on the 3rd of May each year.
The regular annual sessions are of four months' duration, but they may
be extended to complete necessary legislation. The senate consists of
sixty-three members (three from each state and the federal district)
elected for a period of nine years, one-third of each delegation being
renewed every three years. The senators must be not less than
thirty-five years of age, and are exempt from all legal processes not
previously authorized by the senate during their term of office, except
in cases of arrest _in flagrante delicto_ for a capital crime. The
chamber of deputies contains 212 members, the membership being
distributed among the states on a basis of one for each 70,000 of
population, but with a minimum representation of four for each state.
The deputies are elected by direct suffrage for the legislative session
of three years, and have the same immunities from legal process as the
senators. The chamber has the right of initiative in the organization of
the annual budget laws and those relative to the numerical strength of
the army and navy. The members of both houses receive a _per diem_
subsidy.

The judicial system of the republic consists of a supreme federal
tribunal of fifteen judges in the national capital, and a district
tribunal in the capital of each state, which forms a federal judicial
district. The judges are appointed for life and can be removed only by
judicial sentence and impeachment. One member of the supreme tribunal
holds the position of solicitor-general of the republic. The judges and
solicitor-general are appointed by the president with the approval of
the senate, but the tribunal chooses its own presiding officers and
secretaries and, nominally, is independent of executive control. The
supreme tribunal has original and appellate jurisdiction, but its power
to pass on the constitutionality of federal laws and executive acts
seems to fall short of that of the United States Supreme Court. It has
authority, however, to review the acts and laws of state governments and
to decide upon their constitutionality. The district federal court has
but one judge (_juiz de secção_) and a solicitor of the republic, and
has original jurisdiction in federal causes. Each state has its own
local laws and courts, independent of federal control, but subject to
the review of the supreme tribunal, and with rights of appeal to that
tribunal in specified cases. The federal district, which has a municipal
council instead of a legislature, has a system of municipal and higher
courts peculiar to itself. Limited judicial powers are exercised by
chiefs of police, and by certain department commissions, or boards, of
an executive character. The members of the army and navy are governed by
special laws, enjoy immunities from civil process, and are subject to
the jurisdiction of military courts. The civil code of the republic is
based upon Roman law.

_Army._--The nominal strength of the army in 1906 was 29,489, including
the officers of the general and subordinate staffs and the officers and
cadets of the military schools. This total represents the nominal
strength of the army in times of peace. Its actual strength, however, is
about 15,000 men, some of the regimental and battalion organizations
being skeletons. Its organization consists of 40 battalions of infantry
with one transport and one depot company, 14 regiments of cavalry of 4
squadrons each, 6 regiments of field artillery with 24 batteries and 6
battalions of heavy artillery with 24 batteries, and two battalions of
engineers. Efforts to organize a national guard have been unsuccessful,
although officers have been appointed and the organization perfected, on
paper. The police force, however, is organized on a military footing and
armed, and is available for service in case of necessity. It is credited
with 20,000 men. According to law military service is obligatory, but
the government has been unable to enforce it. Impressment is commonly
employed to fill the ranks, and in cases of emergency the prison
population is drawn upon for recruits. The president is nominally
commander-in-chief of the army, but the actual command is vested in a
general staff in the national capital, and in the general commanding
each of the seven military districts into which the republic is divided.
The most important of these districts is that of Rio Grande do Sul,
where a force of 11,226 men is stationed. The principal war arsenal is
in Rio de Janeiro. The rifle used by the infantry is a modified Mauser
of the German 1888 model. Military instruction is given at the Eschola
Militar of Rio de Janeiro. The military organization is provided with an
elaborate code and systems of military courts, which culminate in a
supreme military tribunal composed of 15 judges holding office for life,
of which 8 are general army officers, 4 general naval officers and 3
civil judges.

_Navy._--The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a
collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of
construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two
designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers
and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what
may be termed the effective fighting force. The loss of the armoured
turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of
Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one
fighting vessel (the "Reachuelo") of any importance. Many of the wooden
and iron vessels listed in the Naval Annual, 1906, though obsolete and
of no value whatever as fighting machines, are used for river and
harbour service, and in the suppression of trifling insurrections. The
Annual describes 21 vessels of various types, and mentions 23 small
gunboats used for river and harbour service. Besides these there are a
number of practice boats (small school-ships), transports, dispatch
boats and launches. A considerable part of the armament is old, but the
more modern vessels are armed with Armstrong rifled guns. The naval
programme of the republic for 1905 provided for the prompt construction
of 3 battleships of the largest displacement, 3 armoured cruisers, 6
destroyers, 12 torpedo boats and 3 submarine boats; and by 1909 the
reorganization of the navy was far advanced. The principal naval arsenal
is located at Rio de Janeiro. The government possesses dry docks at Rio
de Janeiro. The naval school, which has always enjoyed a high reputation
among Brazilians, is situated on the island of Enxadas in the bay of Rio
de Janeiro. There are smaller arsenals at Pará, Pernambuco, São Salvador
and Ladario (Matto Grosso) and a shipbuilding yard of considerable
importance at the Rio de Janeiro arsenal.

_Education._--Education is in a backward condition, and it is estimated
that 80% of the population can neither read nor write. The lowest rate
of illiteracy is to be found in the southern half of the republic.
Public instruction, is, by constitutional provision, under secular
control, but religious denominations are permitted to have their own
schools. Primary instruction is free but not compulsory, and the schools
are supported and supervised by the states. An incomplete return in 1891
gave 8793 schools and 376,399 pupils. Secondary and higher education are
under both federal and state control, the former being represented by
lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio
Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro. Many of
the states also maintain normal schools of an inferior type, that of São
Paulo being the best and most modern of the number. Higher, or superior,
instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools--the
medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of São
Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school
of mines of Ouro Preto. There are many private schools in all the large
cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various
corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and
collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis,
Piracicaba, Juiz de Fóra, São Paulo and Paraná, the Lyceu de Artes e
Ofiicios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of
São Paulo. Perhaps the best educational work in Brazil is done in these
private schools. In addition to these there are a number of seminaries
for the education of priests, where special attention is given to the
classics and belles-lettres.

_Religion._--The revolution of 1889 and the constitution adopted in 1891
not only effected a radical change in the form of government, but also
brought about the separation of church and state. Before that time the
Roman Catholic Church had been recognized and supported by the state.
Not only are the national and state governments forbidden by the
constitution to establish or subsidize religious worship, but its
freedom is guaranteed by a prohibition against placing obstructions upon
its exercise. The relations of the state with the disestablished church
since 1889 have been somewhat anomalous, the government having decided
to continue during their lives the stipends of the church functionaries
at the time of disestablishment. The census of 1890 divided the
population into 14,179,615 Roman Catholics, 143,743 Protestants, 3300 of
all other faiths, 7257 of no religious profession, and 600,000
unchristianized Indians. The increase of population through immigration
is overwhelmingly Catholic, and the nation must, therefore, continue
Roman Catholic whether the church is subsidized by the state or not. The
moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by
many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is
probably largely due to their failings. The church had exercised a
preponderating influence in all matters relating to education and the
social life of the people, and it was felt that no sweeping reforms
could be secured until its domination had been broken. The immediate
results of disestablishment were civil marriage, the civil registry of
births and deaths, and the secularization of cemeteries; but the church
retains its influence over all loyal churchmen through the confessional,
the last rites of the church, and their sentiment against the
profanation of holy ground. Formerly Brazil constituted an
ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an
archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12
vicars-general and about 2000 curates. In 1892 the diocese of Rio de
Janeiro was made an archbishopric, and four new dioceses were created.
Three more have been added since, making twenty dioceses in all. In 1905
the archbishop of Rio de Janeiro was made a cardinal. The church has
eleven seminaries for the education of priests, and maintains a large
number of private schools, especially for girls, which are patronized by
the better classes. The church likewise exercises a far-reaching
influence over the people through the beneficent work of its lay orders,
and through the hospitals and asylums under its control in every part of
the country. A Misericordia hospital is to be found in almost every town
of importance, and _recolhimentos_ for orphan girls in all the large
cities. In no country have these charities received more generous
support than in Brazil. The Protestant contingent consists of a number
of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few
Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists
settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of
the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil. The
Positivists are few in number, but their congregations are made up of
educated and influential people.

_Art, Science and Literature._--The Brazilian people have the natural
taste for art, music and literature so common among the Latin nations of
the Old World. The emperor Dom Pedro II. did much to encourage these
pursuits, and many promising young men received their education in
Europe at his personal expense. Still earlier in the century (1815) the
regent Dom John VI. brought out a number of French artists to educate
his subjects in the fine arts, and the _Escola Real de Sciencias, Artes
e Officios_ was founded in the following year. From this beginning
resulted the _Academia de Bellas Artes_ of a later date, to which was
added a conservatory of music in 1841. The institution is now called the
_Escola Nacional de Bellas Artes_. Free instruction in the fine arts has
been given in this school. The higher results of artistic training,
however, are less marked than a widespread dilettantism. The Brazilian
composer Carlos Gomes (1839-1896) is the best known of those who have
adopted music as a profession, his opera _Il Guarani_ having been
produced at most of the European capitals. The most prominent among
Brazilian painters is Pedro Americo, and in sculpture Rodolpho
Bernardelli has done good work. In science Brazil has accomplished very
little, although many eminent foreign naturalists have spent years of
study within her borders. João Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work
in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and João
Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the
national museum of Rio de Janeiro. There are several scientific
societies and institutions in the country, but they rarely undertake
original work. The most active are the geographical societies, but very
little has been done in the direction of scientific exploration. Some
interesting results have been obtained from the boundary surveys, from
Dr E. Cruls's exploration of a section of the Goyaz plateau in 1892 in
search of a site for the future capital of the republic, and from some
of the river and railway surveys. In 1875 a geological commission was
organized under the direction of Professor Charles Frederick Hartt, but
it was disbanded two years later. In 1906 Congress resolved to undertake
a national geological survey under the direction of Mr Orville A. Derby,
one of Professor Hartt's assistants. The coal resources of the southern
states were investigated in 1904, under the auspices of the national
government, by Dr J.C. White, of the U.S. Geological Survey, who found
strata of fairly good coal at depths of 100 to 200 ft. extending from
Rio Grande do Sul north to São Paulo. The more important contributions
to our present knowledge of Brazil, however, have been obtained through
the labours of foreign naturalists. Beginning with the German
mineralogist W.L. von Eschwege, who spent nineteen years in Brazil
(1809-1828), the list includes A. de Saint-Hilaire (1816-1820 and
1830), J.B. von Spix and C.F. von Martins (1817-1820), Prince Max zu
Neuwied (1815-1817), P.W. Lund (1827-1830, and 1830 to 1880, the year of
his death), George Gardner (1836-1841), A.R. Wallace (1848-1852), H.W.
Bates (1848-1859), Hermann Burmeister (1850-1852), Louis Agassiz
(1865-1866), Charles Frederick Hartt (1865-1866, 1872 and 1875-1878) and
Karl von den Steinen (1884-1885 and 1887-1888). These explorations cover
every branch of natural science and resulted in publications of
inestimable scientific value. There should also be mentioned the
monumental work of C.F.P. von Martius on the _Flora Braziliensis_, and
the explorations of Agassiz and Lund. Among other scientists of a later
date who have published important works on Brazil are the American
geologists O.A. Derby and J.C. Branner, the Swiss naturalist E.A.
Goeldi, the German botanist J. Huber, the German ethnologist H. von
Ihring, and'the German geographer Fried. Katzer. The _Instituto
Historico e Geographico Brazileiro_, though devoted chiefly to
historical research, has rendered noteworthy service in its
encouragement of geographical exploration and by its publication of
various scientific memoirs. The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which
has occupied the imperial palace of São Christovão since the overthrow
of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value,
but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of
comparatively slight service. The Observatorio Nacional at Rio de
Janeiro is another prominent public institution. The botanical gardens
of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the
regions in which they are located. That of Rio de Janeiro is widely
celebrated for its avenues of royal palms, but it has also rendered an
important service to the country in the dissemination of exotic plants.

Brazilian literature has been seriously prejudiced by partisan politics
and dilettantism. The colonial period was one of strict repression, the
intellectual life of the people being jealously supervised by the church
to protect itself against heresy, and their progress being restricted by
the Portuguese crown to protect its monopoly of the natural resources of
the country. The arrival of Dom John VI. in 1808 broke down some of
these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de
Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and
the publication of an official gazette. There was no freedom of the
press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the
constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a political discussion
that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation,
and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in
journalistic and polemical writings. In no country, perhaps, has the
press exercised a more direct and powerful influence upon government
than in Brazil, and in no other country can there be found so high a
percentage of journalists in official life. Some of the political
writers have played an important part in moulding public opinion on
certain questions, as in the case of A.C. Tavares Bastos, whose _Cartas
do Solitario_ were highly instrumental in causing the Amazon to be
thrown open to the world's commerce and also in preparing the way for
the abolition of slavery; and in that of Joaquim Saldanha Marinho, whose
discussions in 1874-1876 of the relations between church and state
prepared the way for their separation. The personal element is
conspicuous in the Brazilian journalism, and for a considerable period
of its history libellous attacks on persons, signed by professional
sponsors, popularly called _testas de ferro_ (iron heads), were admitted
at so much a line in the best newspapers.

The singular adaptability of the Portuguese language to poetical
expression, coupled with the imaginative temperament of the people, has
led to an unusual production and appreciation of poetry. The percentage
of educated men who have written little volumes of lyrics is
surprisingly large, and this may be accounted for by the old Portuguese
custom of reciting poetry with musical accompaniment. The most popular
of the Brazilian poets are Thomaz Antonio Gonzaga, Antonio Gonçalves
Dias and Bernardo Guimarães. Among the dramatists and novelists may be
mentioned Joaquim Manoel de Macedo, José Martiniano de Alencar, Bernardo
Guimarães, A. de Escrangnolle Taunay and J.M. Machado de Assis. José M.
de Alencar is usually described as the greatest of Brazilian novelists.
The most popular of his romances are _Iracema_ and _O Guarany_. In
historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high
standing--Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose
_Historia Geral do Brazil_ is a standard authority on that subject. The
two English authorities, Robert Southey's _History of Brazil_, covering
the colonial period, and John Armitage's _History of Brazil_, covering
the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the
abdication of Dom Pedro I. (1831), have been translated into Portuguese.
Another Brazilian historian of recognized merit is João Manoel Pereira
da Silva, whose historical writings cover the first years of the empire,
from its foundation to 1840. Among the later writers João Capistrano de
Abren has produced some short historical studies of great merit. In the
field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples
in Brazil.

  _Finance._--The national revenue is derived largely from the duties on
  imports, the duties on exports having been surrendered to the states
  when the republic was organized. Other sources of revenue are stamp
  taxes on business transactions, domestic consumption taxes (usually
  payable in stamps) on manufactured tobaccos, beverages, boots and
  shoes, textiles, matches, salt, preserved foods, hats, pharmaceutical
  preparations, perfumeries, candles, vinegar, walking sticks and
  playing cards, and taxes on lotteries, passenger tickets, salaries and
  dividends of joint-stock companies. Formerly import duties were
  payable in currency, but in 1899 it was decided to collect 10% of them
  in gold to provide the government with specie for its foreign
  remittances. The revenues and expenditures have since then been
  calculated in gold and currency together, to the complete
  mystification of the average citizen, and the gold percentage of the
  duties on imports has been increased to 35 and 50% (in 1907), the
  higher rate to apply to specified articles and rule when exchange on
  London is above 14 pence per milreis, and the lower when it is below.
  The service of the national debt absorbs a very large part of the
  expenditure, about 45% of the estimates for 1907 being assigned to the
  department of finance. The department of industry, communications and
  public works takes the next highest proportion, but about half its
  expenditures are met by special taxes, as in the case of port works
  and railway inspection, and by the revenues of the state railways,
  telegraph lines and post office. The depreciation and unstable
  character of the paper currency render it difficult to give a clear
  statement of receipts and expenditures for a term of years, the
  sterling equivalents often showing a decrease, through a fall in the
  value of the milreis, where there has been an actual increase in
  currency returns. This was most noticeable between 1889 and 1898, when
  exchange, which represents the value of the milreis, fell from a
  maximum of 27¾ pence (27d. being the par value of the milreis) to a
  minimum of 5-5/8 pence. Since 1898 there has been an upward movement
  of exchange, the average rate for 1905 having been very nearly 16
  pence. In this period the increase in the sterling equivalents would
  be proportionately greater than that of the currency values. The gold
  and currency receipts and expenditures for the six years 1900 to 1905,
  inclusive, according to official returns, were as follows:--

    +------+---------+---------------------------+--------------------------+
    |      | Average |         Revenue.          |       Expenditure.       |
    | Year.| Rate of +-------------+-------------+------------+-------------+
    |      |Exchange.|    Gold     |  Currency   |    Gold    |  Currency   |
    |      | Pence.  |   Milreis.  |   Milreis.  |   Milreis. |   Milreis.  |
    +------+---------+-------------+-------------+------------+-------------+
    | 1900 |   9.50  |  49,955,522 | 263,687,253 | 41,892,150 | 372,753,986 |
    | 1901 |  11.38  |  44,041,302 | 239,284,702 | 40,493,241 | 261,629,212 |
    | 1902 |  11.97  |  42,904,844 | 266,584,912 | 34,574,643 | 236,458,862 |
    | 1903 |  12     |  45,121,844 | 327,370,063 | 48,324,642 | 291,198,960 |
    | 1904 |  12.28  |  50,566,572 | 342,782,191 | 48,476,413 | 352,292,147 |
    | 1905 |  15.89  |  64,207,004 | 243,355,396 | 51,606,272 | 265,699,281 |
    +------+---------+-------------+-------------+------------+-------------+

  Reducing gold to a currency basis at 15d. per milreis (the official
  valuation adopted in 1906), the budget for 1907 provided for a revenue
  of 353,590,593 milreis and an expenditure of 409,482,284 milreis,
  showing a deficit of 55,891,691 milreis. These deficits were common
  enough under the monarchy, but they have become still more prominent
  under the republic. According to the "Retrospecto Commercial" for 1906
  of the _Jornal do Commercio_ (Rio de Janeiro, March 5, 1907), the
  aggregate deficits for the eleven years 1891 to 1904 were 692,000,000
  milreis, or, say, £43,250,000.

  The natural result of such a regime is increasing indebtedness. In
  1888, a year before the republic was proclaimed, the internal and
  external national debts amounted to £74,000,000 sterling, with the
  currency at par. Ten years later, when the currency had fallen to
  5-5/8 pence per milreis, the government found itself unable to meet
  the interest obligations on its debt and railway guarantees, and an
  arrangement was made with its creditors in London for the issue of a
  5% funding loan to an amount not to exceed £10,000,000, and the
  suspension of all amortization for thirteen years. On the other hand
  the government agreed to withdraw currency, which had reached a total
  of 788,364,614 ½-milreis, _pari passu_ with the issue of the loan, the
  milreis being computed at 18 pence. The purpose of this condition was
  in order to improve the value of the paper milreis in order to
  increase the specie value of the revenues. The scheme came into
  operation in June 1898, and not only was a complete suspension of
  payments avoided but the financial situation was greatly improved. The
  government even withdrew more of its currency issues than required by
  the agreement, and the value of the milreis steadily improved. At the
  same time the government carried out the forced conversion of the
  national loans into lower interest-bearing issues, which greatly
  reduced the annual interest charges. These measures would have put the
  financial affairs of the nation on a solid footing in a very few years
  had the government been able to keep its expenditure within its
  income. The naval revolt of 1893-1894, however, had aroused the spirit
  of militarism in the ruling classes, and the effort to perfect the
  organization and equipment of the army, strengthen the fortifications
  of Rio de Janeiro, and increase the navy, have kept expenditures in
  excess of the revenues. The purchase of guaranteed railways owned by
  foreign companies likewise added largely to the bonded indebtedness,
  though the onus was in existence in another form. The result of these
  measures was a large addition to the public debt, which on 31st
  December 1906 was approximately as follows (_apolices_ being the name
  given to bonds inscribed to the holder):--

    External debt:                               £        s.  d.
      Loans of 1883, 1888 and 1889.          26,478,500
      Oestede Minas R.R. loan                 3,388,100
      Loan of 1898                            7,331,600
      Funding loan of 1898                    8,613,717   9   9
      Railway rescission loan of 1901        15,467,015  16   1
      Port works loan of 1903                 8,500,000
                                            -------------------
                                            £69,778,933   5  10
                                            ===================

    Internal debt, funded:                            Milreis
      5 % apolices, Law of 1827                     483,546,600
      4½%    "         "   1879                      20,548,000
      6 %    "         "   1897                      37,082,000
      5 %    "         "   1903                      17,300,000
                                                    -----------
                 Total, funded                      558,476,600
                    (at 15d. £34,904,787)           ===========

    Internal debt, not funded:                          Milreis
      Paper money                                   664,792,960
      Savings bank and other deposits:
        In paper                                    246,812,407
        In gold, 19,053,861 r (say)                  34,296,950
    Floating indebtedness (a/cs current, bills, &c.)     ?
                                                    -----------
                 Total, not funded, approx.         945,902,317
                    (at 15d. £59,118,895 stg.)      ===========

    Approximate total indebtedness                 £163,802,675

  In addition to these, the government was still responsible for
  interest guarantees on fourteen railways, or sections of existing
  lines, with an aggregate capital of about £4,900,000 held in Europe
  and 12,055,440 milreis held in Brazil, on which the national treasury
  paid in interest £191,324 and 1,398,493 milreis.

  The paper currency of Brazil consists of both treasury issues and
  bank-notes, the latter issued under government supervision. Its
  fluctuations in value have been not only a serious inconvenience in
  commercial transactions, but also the cause of heavy loss to the
  people. Under the provisions of the funding loan of 1898 a scheme for
  the withdrawal of the paper money was carried into effect, and by the
  end of December 1906 the amount in circulation had been reduced from
  788,364,614 ½-milreis (the outstanding circulation 31st August 1898)
  to 664,792,960 ½-milreis. Two funds were created for the redemption
  and guarantee of paper issues, the latter receiving 5% of the import
  duties payable in gold. Up to 1906 the Caixa da Amortisação
  (redemption bureau), which has charge of the service of the internal
  funded debt, superintended the redemption of the currency, but in that
  year (December 6, 1906) a Caixa de Conversão (conversion bureau) was
  created for this special service. It is modelled after the Argentine
  Conversion office, and is authorized to issue notes to bearer against
  deposits of gold at the rate of 15 pence per milreis although exchange
  was above 17d. when the scheme was proposed. The notes are to be
  redeemable in gold at sight, the Caixa de Conversão to keep the gold
  paid in for that express purpose. The coffee producers of São Paulo
  and other states found that the appreciation in value of the milreis
  was reducing their profits, and they advocated this measure (at first
  with a valuation of 12d.) to check the upward movement in exchange.
  Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the
  government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of
  pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis
  (½-milreis). Gold is the nominal standard of value, the monetary unit
  being the gold milreis worth 2s. 2½d. at par. The 10-milreis gold
  piece weighs 8.9648 grammes, 916 fine, and contains 8.2178 grammes of
  pure gold. There is no gold in circulation, however, and gold duties
  are paid with gold cheques purchased at certain banks with paper
  money. The banking facilities of the republic have undergone many
  changes under the new regime. A fruitful cause of disaster has been
  the practice of issuing agricultural and industrial loans under
  government authorization. Commercial business at the principal ports
  is largely transacted through foreign banks, of which there are a
  large number.

  In addition to the indebtedness of the national government, the
  individual states have also incurred funded debts of their own. The
  aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several
  loans made during the next two years, including those of the
  municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manáos, add fully
  two and a half millions more to the total. (A. J. L.)


HISTORY

  The Portuguese in Brazil.

Brazil was discovered in February 1499 (o.s.) by Vicente Yañez Pinzon, a
companion of Columbus. He descried the land near Cape St Augustine, and
sailed along the coast as far as the river Amazon, whence he proceeded
to the mouth of the Orinoco. He made no settlement, but took possession
of the country in the name of the Spanish government, and carried home,
as specimens of its natural productions, some drugs, gems and
Brazil-wood. Next year the Portuguese commander, Pedro Alvares Cabral,
appointed by his monarch to follow the course of Vasco da Gama in the
East, was driven by adverse winds so far from his track, that he reached
the Brazilian coast, April 24, and anchored in Porto Seguro (16° S.
lat.) on Good Friday. On Easter day an altar was erected, mass
celebrated in presence of the natives, the country declared an apanage
of Portugal, and a stone cross erected in commemoration of the event.
Cabral despatched a small vessel to Lisbon to announce his discovery,
and, without forming any settlement, proceeded to India on the 3rd of
May. On the arrival of the news in Portugal, Emanuel invited Amerigo
Vespucci to enter his service, and despatched him with three vessels to
explore the country. The navigator's first voyage was unsuccessful; but,
according to his own account, in a second he discovered a safe port, to
which he gave the name of All-Saints and where he erected a small fort.
Vespucci's narrative is, however, suspected of being apocryphal (see
VESPUCCI, AMERIGO).

The poor and barbarous tribes of Brazil, and their country, the mineral
riches of which were not immediately discovered, offered but few
attractions to a government into the coffers of which the wealth of
India and Africa was flowing. For nearly thirty years the kings of
Portugal paid no further attention to their newly-acquired territory
than what consisted, in combating the attempts of the Spaniards to
occupy it, and dispersing the private adventurers from France who sought
its shores for the purposes of commerce. The colonization of Brazil was
prosecuted, however, by subjects of the Portuguese monarchy, who traded
thither chiefly for Brazil-wood. The government also sought to make
criminals of some use to the state, by placing them in a situation where
they could do little harm to society, and might help to uphold the
dominion of their nation.


  First organization in Brazil.

The first attempt on the part of a Portuguese monarch to introduce an
organized government into his dominions was made by John III. He adopted
a plan which had been found to succeed well in Madeira and the
Azores,--dividing the country into hereditary captaincies, and granting
them to such persons as were willing to undertake their settlement, with
unlimited powers of jurisdiction, both civil and criminal. Each
captaincy extended along fifty leagues of coast. The boundaries in the
interior were undefined. The first settlement made under this new system
was that of São Vicente Piratininga, in the present province of São
Paulo. Martim Affonso de Sousa, having obtained a grant, fitted out a
considerable armament and proceeded to explore the country in person. He
began to survey the coast about Rio de Janeiro, to which he gave that
name, because he discovered it on the 1st of January 1531. He proceeded
south as far as La Plata, naming the places he surveyed on the way from
the days on which the respective discoveries were made. He fixed upon an
island in 24½° S. lat., called by the natives Guaibe, for his
settlement. The Goagnazes, or prevailing tribe of Indians in that
neighbourhood, as soon as they discovered the intentions of the
new-comers to fix themselves permanently there, collected for the
purpose of expelling them. Fortunately, however, a shipwrecked
Portuguese, who had lived many years under the protection of the
principal chief, was successful in concluding a treaty of perpetual
alliance between his countrymen and the natives. Finding the spot chosen
for the new town inconvenient, the colonists removed to the adjoining
island of São Vicente, from which the captaincy derived its name. Cattle
and the sugar-cane were at an early period introduced from Madeira, and
here the other captaincies supplied themselves with both.

Pero Lopes de Sousa received the grant of a captaincy, and set sail from
Portugal at the same time as his brother, the founder of São Vicente. He
chose to have his fifty leagues in two allotments. That to which he gave
the name of Santo Amaro adjoined São Vicente, the two towns being only
three leagues asunder. The other division lay much nearer to the line
between Parahyba and Pernambuco. He experienced considerable difficulty
in founding this second colony, from the strenuous opposition of a
neighbouring tribe, the Petiguares; at length he succeeded in clearing
his lands of them, but not long afterwards he perished by shipwreck.

Rio de Janeiro was not settled till a later period; and for a
considerable time the nearest captaincy to Santo Amaro, sailing along
the coast northwards, was that of Espirito Santo. It was founded by
Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, who having acquired a large fortune in India,
sank it in this scheme of colonization. He carried with him no less than
sixty fidalgos. They named their town by anticipation, Our Lady of the
Victory (Victoria); but it cost them some hard fighting with the
Goagnazes to justify the title.

Pedro de Campo Tourinho, a nobleman and excellent navigator, received a
grant of the adjoining captaincy of Porto Seguro. This, it will be
remembered, is the spot where Cabral first took possession of Brazil.
The Tupinoquins at first offered some opposition; but having made peace,
they observed it faithfully, notwithstanding that the oppression of the
Portuguese obliged them to forsake the country. Sugar-works were
established, and considerable quantities of the produce exported to the
mother country.

Jorge de Figueiredo, _Escrivam da Fazenda_, was the first donatory of
the captaincy Ilhéos, 140 m. south of Bahia. His office preventing him
from taking possession in person, he deputed the task to Francisco
Romeiro, a Castilian. The Tupinoquins, the most tractable of the
Brazilian tribes, made peace with the settlers, and the colony was
founded without a struggle.

The coast from the Rio São Francisco to Bahia was granted to Francisco
Pereira Coutinho; the bay itself, with all its creeks, was afterwards
added to the grant. When Coutinho formed his establishment, where Villa
Velha now stands, he found a noble Portuguese living in the
neighbourhood who, having been shipwrecked, had, by means of his
fire-arms, raised himself to the rank of chief among the natives. He was
surrounded by a patriarchal establishment of wives and children; and to
him most of the distinguished families of Bahia still trace their
lineage. The regard entertained by the natives for Caramuru (signifying
_man of fire_) induced them to extend a hospitable welcome to his
countrymen, and for a time everything went on well. Coutinho had,
however, learned in India to be an oppressor, and the Tupinambas were
the fiercest and most powerful of the native tribes. The Portuguese were
obliged to abandon their settlement; but several of them returned at a
later period, with Caramuru, and thus a European community was
established in the district.

Some time before the period at which these captaincies were established,
a factory had been planted at Pernambuco. A ship from Marseilles took
it, and left seventy men in it as a garrison; but she was captured on
her return, and carried into Lisbon, and immediate measures were taken
for reoccupying the place. The captaincy of Pernambuco was granted to
Don Duarte Coelho Pereira as the reward of his services in India. It
extended along the coast from the Rio São Francisco, northward to the
Rio de Juraza. Duarte sailed with his wife and children, and many of his
kinsmen, to take possession, of his new colony, and landed in the port
of Pernambuco. To the town which was there founded he gave the name of
Olinda. The Cabetes, who possessed the soil, were fierce and
pertinacious; and, assisted by the French, who traded to that coast,
Coelho had to gain by inches what was granted him by leagues. The
Portuguese managed, however, to beat off their enemies; and, having
entered into an alliance with the Tobayanes, followed up their success.

Attempts were made about this time to establish two other captaincies,
but without success. Pedro de Goes obtained a grant of the captaincy of
Parahyba between those of São Vicente and Espirito Santo; but his means
were too feeble to enable him to make head against the aborigines, and
the colony was broken up after a painful struggle of seven years. João
de Barros, the historian, obtained the captaincy of Maranhão. For the
sake of increasing his capital, he divided his grant with Fernão Alvares
de Andrade and Aires da Cunha. They projected a scheme of conquest and
colonization upon a large scale. Nine hundred men, of whom one hundred
and thirteen were horsemen, embarked in ten ships under the command of
Aires da Cunha. But the vessels were wrecked upon some shoals about one
hundred leagues to the south of Maranhão; the few survivors, after
suffering immense hardships, escaped to the nearest settlements, and the
undertaking was abandoned.

By these adventures the whole line of Brazilian coast, from the mouth of
La Plata to the mouth of the Amazon, had become studded at intervals
with Portuguese settlements, in all of which law and justice were
administered, however inadequately. It is worthy of observation, that
Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural
principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive
attraction. Sufficient capital was attracted between the year 1531 (in
which De Sousa founded the first captaincy) and the year 1548 to render
these colonies an object of importance to the mother country. Their
organization, however, in regard to their means of defence against both
external aggression and internal violence, was extremely defective.
Their territories were surrounded and partly occupied by large tribes of
savages. Behind them the Spaniards, who had an establishment at
Asuncion, had penetrated almost to the sources of the waters of
Paraguay, and had succeeded in establishing communication with Peru.
Orellana, on the other hand, setting out from Peru, had crossed the
mountains and sailed down the Amazon. Nor had the French abandoned their
hopes of effecting an establishment on the coast.

The obvious remedy for these evils was to concentrate the executive
power, to render the petty chiefs amenable to one tribunal, and to
confide the management of the defensive force to one hand. In order to
this the powers of the several captains were revoked, whilst their
property in their grants was reserved to them. A governor-general was
appointed, with full powers, civil and criminal. The judicial and
financial functions in each province were vested in the _Ouvidor_, whose
authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the
governor. Every colonist was enrolled either in the _Milicias_ or
_Ordenanzas_. The former were obliged to serve beyond the boundaries of
the province, the latter only at home. The chief cities received
municipal constitutions, as in Portugal. Thome de Sousa was the first
person nominated to the important post of governor-general. He was
instructed to build a strong city in Bahia and to establish there the
seat of his government. In pursuance of his commission he arrived at
Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were
three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred
convicts and about three hundred free colonists. Care had been taken for
the spiritual wants of the provinces by associating six Jesuits with the
expedition.


  First Jesuit missions.

Old Caramuru, who still survived, rendered the governor essential
service by gaining for his countrymen the goodwill of the natives. The
new city, to which the name of São Salvador was given, was established
on the heights above the Bay of All Saints (Todos os Santos), from which
its later name of Bahia is taken. Within four months one hundred houses
were built, and surrounded by a mud wall. Sugar plantations were laid
out in the vicinity. During the four years of Sousa's government there
were sent out at different times supplies of all kinds. Female orphans
of noble families were given in marriage to the officers, and portioned
from the royal estates, and orphan boys were sent to be educated by the
Jesuits. The capital rose rapidly in importance, and the captaincies
learned to regard it as a common head and centre of wealth. Meanwhile
the Jesuits undertook the moral and religious culture of the natives,
and of the scarcely less savage colonists. Strong opposition was at
first experienced from the gross ignorance of the Indians, and the
depravity of the Portuguese, fostered by the licentious encouragement of
some abandoned priests who had found their way to Brazil. Over these
persons the Jesuits had no authority; and it was not until the arrival
of the first bishop of Brazil in 1552, that anything like an efficient
check was imposed upon them. Next year Sousa was succeeded by Duarte da
Costa, who brought with him a reinforcement of Jesuits, at the head of
whom was Luis de Gran, appointed, with Nobrega the chief of the first
mission, joint provincial of Brazil.

Nobrega's first act was one which has exercised the most beneficial
influence over the social system of Brazil, namely, the establishment of
a college on the then unreclaimed plains of Piratininga. It was named
São Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and
civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a
colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive
swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior. The good intentions
of the Jesuits were in part frustrated by the opposition of Costa the
governor; and it was not until 1558, when Mem de Sa was sent out to
supersede him, that their projects were allowed free scope.


  Settlement of Rio de Janeiro.

Rio de Janeiro was first occupied by French settlers. Nicholas Durand de
Villegagnon, a bold and skilful seaman, having visited Brazil, saw at
once the advantages which might accrue his country from a settlement
there. In order to secure the interest of Coligny, he gave out that his
projected colony was intended to serve as a place of refuge for the
persecuted Huguenots. Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at
Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable
colonists. As soon, however, as he thought his power secure, he threw
off the mask, and began to harass and oppress the Huguenots by every
means he could devise. Many of them were forced by his tyranny to return
to France; and ten thousand Protestants, ready to embark for the new
colony, were deterred by their representations. Villegagnon, finding his
force much diminished in consequence of his treachery, sailed for France
in quest of recruits; and during his absence the Portuguese governor, by
order of his court, attacked and dispersed the settlement. For some
years the French kept up a kind of bush warfare; but in 1567 the
Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement at Rio.

Mem de Sa continued to hold the reins of government in Brazil upon terms
of the best understanding with the clergy, and to the great advantage of
the colonies, for fourteen years. On the expiration of his power, which
was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to
divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the
territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenço da
Veiga was appointed governor. At this time the colonies, although not
yet independent of supplies from the mother country, were in a
flourishing condition; but the usurpation of the crown of Portugal by
Philip II. changed the aspect of affairs. Brazil, believed to be
inferior to the Spanish possessions in mines, was consequently abandoned
in comparative neglect for the period intervening between 1578 and 1640,
during which it continued an apanage of Spain.


  English and French aggressions.

No sooner had Brazil passed under the Spanish crown, than English
adventurers directed their hostile enterprises against its shores. In
1586 Witherington plundered Bahia; in 1591 Cavendish made an abortive
attack on Santos; in 1595 Lancaster attacked Olinda. These exploits,
however, were transient in their effects. In 1612 the French attempted
to found a permanent colony in the island of Marajò, where they
succeeded in maintaining themselves till 1618. This attempt led to the
erection of Maranhão and Pará into a separate _Estado_. But it was on
the part of the Dutch that the most skilful and pertinacious efforts
were made for securing a footing in Brazil; and they alone of all the
rivals of the Portuguese have left traces of their presence in the
national spirit and institutions of Brazil.


  Struggle with the Dutch.

The success of the Dutch East India Company led to the establishment of
a similar one for the West Indies, to which a monopoly of the trade to
America and Africa was granted. This body despatched in 1624 a fleet
against Bahia. The town yielded almost without a struggle. The fleet
soon after sailed, a squadron being detached against Angola, with the
intention of taking possession of that colony, in order to secure a
supply of slaves. The fall of Bahia for once roused the Spaniards and
Portuguese to joint action, and a great expedition speedily sailed from
Cadiz and Lisbon for Bahia. Once more, though strongly garrisoned, the
town was retaken without any serious fighting in May 1625. The honours
bestowed upon the Indian chiefs for their assistance in this war broke
down in a great measure the barrier between the two races; and there is
at this day a greater admixture of their blood among the better classes
in Bahia than is to be found elsewhere in Brazil.


  Dutch settlement in Brazil.

In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda,
with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was
fortified and held, reinforcements and supplies being sent by sea from
Holland. The Dutch were unable, however, to extend their power beyond
the limits of the town, until the arrival of Count John Maurice of
Nassau-Siegen in 1636. His first step was to introduce a regular
government among his countrymen; his second, to send to the African
coast one of his officers, who took possession of a Portuguese
settlement, and thus secured a supply of slaves. In the course of eight
years, the limited period of his government, he succeeded in asserting
the Dutch supremacy along the coast of Brazil from the mouth of São
Francisco to Maranhão. The Recife was rebuilt and adorned with splendid
residences and gardens and received from its founder the name of
Mauritstad. He promoted the amalgamation of the different races, and
sought to conciliate the Portuguese by the confidence he reposed in
them. His object was to found a great empire; but this was a project at
variance with the wishes of his employers--an association of merchants,
who were dissatisfied because the wealth which they expected to see
flowing into their coffers was expended in promoting the permanent
interests of a distant country. Count Maurice resigned his post in 1644.
His successors possessed neither his political nor his military talents,
and had to contend with more difficult circumstances.

In 1640 the revolution which placed the house of Braganza on the throne
of Portugal restored Brazil to masters more inclined to promote its
interests and assert its possession than the Spaniards. It was indeed
high time that some exertion should be made. The northern provinces had
fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great
measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had
issued on all sides from the central establishment of São Paulo, had
learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court
independence. They had ascended the waters of the Paraguay to their
sources. They had extended their limits southwards till they reached
the Spanish settlements of La Plata. They had reduced to slavery
numerous tribes of the natives. They were rich in cattle, and had
commenced the discovery of the mines. When, therefore, the inhabitants
of São Paulo saw themselves about to be transferred, as a dependency of
Portugal, from one master to another, they conceived the idea of
erecting their country into an independent state. Their attempt,
however, was frustrated by Amador Bueno, the person whom they had
selected for their king. When the people shouted "Long live King
Amador," he cried out "Long live John IV.," and took refuge in a
convent. The multitude, left without a leader, acquiesced, and this
important province was secured to the house of Braganza.


  Revolt against the Dutch.

  French expedition to Brazil, 1710.

Rio and Santos, although both evinced a desire of independence, followed
the example of the Paulistas. Bahia, as capital of the Brazilian states,
felt that its ascendancy depended upon the union with Portugal. The
government, thus left in quiet possession of the rest of Brazil, had
time to concentrate its attention upon the Dutch conquests. The crown of
Portugal was, however, much too weak to adopt energetic measures. But
the Brazilian colonists, now that the mother country had thrown off the
Spanish yoke, determined even without assistance from the homeland to
rise in revolt against foreign domination. The departure of Count
Maurice, moreover, had seriously weakened the position of the Dutch, for
his successors had neither his conciliatory manners nor his capacity.
João Fernandes Vieyra, a native of Madeira, organized the insurrection
which broke out in 1645. This insurrection gave birth to one of those
wars in which a whole nation, destitute of pecuniary resources, military
organization and skilful leaders, but familiar with the country, is
opposed to a handful of soldiers advantageously posted and well
officered. But home difficulties and financial necessities prevented the
West India Company from sending adequate reinforcements from Holland. In
1649 a rival company was started in Portugal known as the Brazil
Company, which sent out a fleet to help the colonists in Pernambuco.
Slowly the Dutch lost ground and the outbreak of war with England
sounded the knell of their dominion in Brazil. In 1654 their capital and
last stronghold fell into the hands of Vieyra. It was not, however, till
1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all
territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash
indemnity and certain commercial privileges. After this, except some
inroads on the frontiers, the only foreign invasion which Brazil had to
suffer was from France. In 1710 a squadron, commanded by Duclerc,
disembarked 1000 men, and attacked Rio de Janeiro. After having lost
half of his men in a battle, Duclerc and all his surviving companions
were made prisoners. The governor treated them cruelly. A new squadron
with 6000 troops was entrusted to the famous admiral Duguay Trouin to
revenge this injury. They arrived at Rio on the 12th of September 1711.
After four days of hard fighting the town was taken. The governor
retreated to a position out of it, and was only awaiting reinforcements
from Minas to retake it; but, Duguay Trouin threatening to burn it, he
was obliged on the 10th of October to sign a capitulation, and pay to
the French admiral 610,000 crusados, 500 cases of sugar, and provisions
for the return of the fleet to Europe. Duguay Trouin departed to Bahia
to obtain fresh spoils; but having lost in a storm two of his best
ships, with an important part of the money received, he renounced this
plan and returned directly to France.

After this the Portuguese governed their colony undisturbed. The
approach of foreign traders was prohibited, while the regalities
reserved by the crown drained the country of a great proportion of its
wealth.

The important part which the inhabitants of São Paulo have played in the
history of Brazil has been already adverted to. The establishment of the
Jesuit college had attracted settlers to its neighbourhood, and frequent
marriages had taken place between the Indians of the district and the
colonists. A hardy and enterprising race of men had sprung from this
mixture, who, first searching whether their new country were rich in
metals, soon began adventurous raids into the interior, making
excursions also against the remote Indian tribes with a view to
obtaining slaves, and from the year 1629 onwards repeatedly attacked the
Indian reductions of the Jesuits in Paraguay, although both provinces
were then nominally subject to the crown of Spain. Other bands
penetrated into Minas and still farther north and westward, discovering
mines there and in Goyaz and Cuyabá. New colonies were thus formed round
those districts in which gold had been found, and in the beginning of
the 18th century five principal settlements in Minas Geraes had been
elevated by royal charter to the privileges of towns. In 1720 this
district was separated from São Paulo, to which it had previously been
dependent. As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the
mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and
judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a _provedor_,
and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and
superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account
of all discoveries and produce. For many years, however, these laws were
little more than a dead letter. The same infatuated passion for mining
speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South
America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were
drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in
great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of
the English and French. A new source of wealth was now opened up; some
adventurers from Villa do Principe in Minas, going north to the Seria
Frio, made the discovery of diamonds about the year 1710, but it was not
till 1730 that the discovery was for the first time announced to the
government, which immediately declared them _regalia_. While the
population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual
culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they
grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by
the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal
ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to
habits of violence and oppression. The Jesuits from the first moment of
their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the
natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary
clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many _aldeas_, over which
officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority. A
more efficacious stop, however, was put to the persecution of the
Indians by the importation of large numbers of negroes from the
Portuguese possessions in Africa, these being found more active and
serviceable than the native tribes.


  Reforms of Pombal.

The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho,
afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold
spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts. The proud minister
had been resisted in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and,
determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all
temporal power in the state of Maranhão and Pará. These ordinances soon
spread to the whole of Brazil, and a pretext being found in the
suspicion of Jesuit influence in some partial revolts of the Indian
troops on the Rio Negro, the order was expelled from Brazil under
circumstances of great severity in 1760. The Brazilian Company founded
by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South
American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.;
but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal,
he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively
with Maranhão and Pará; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the
British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and
Pernambuco. Pombal's arrangements extended also to the interior of the
country, where he extinguished at once the now indefinite and oppressive
claims of the original donatories of the captaincies, and strengthened
and enforced the regulations of the mining districts. The policy of many
of Pombal's measures is more than questionable; but his admission of all
races to equal rights in the eye of the law, his abolition of feudal
privileges, and the firmer organization of the powers of the land which
he introduced, powerfully co-operated towards the development of the
capabilities of Brazil. Yet on the death of his king and patron in 1777,
when court intrigue forced him from his high station, he who had done so
much for his country's institutions was reviled on all hands.

The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first
thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of
Minas in 1789. The successful issue of the recent revolution of the
English colonies in North America had filled the minds of some of the
more educated youth of that province; and in imitation, a project to
throw off the Portuguese yoke was formed,--a cavalry officer, Silva
Xavier, nicknamed Tira-dentes (tooth-drawer), being the chief
conspirator. But the plot being discovered during their inactivity, the
conspirators were banished to Africa, and Tira-dentes, the leader, was
hanged. Thenceforward affairs went on prosperously; the mining districts
continued to be enlarged; the trading companies of the littoral
provinces were abolished, but the impulse they had given to agriculture
remained.


  Portuguese royal family in Brazil, 1807.

  Reorganization on Portuguese model.

Removed from all communication with the rest of the world except through
the mother country, Brazil remained unaffected by the first years of the
great revolutionary war in Europe. Indirectly, however, the fate of this
isolated country was decided by the consequences of the French
Revolution. Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of
the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of
Napoleon. When he resolved upon the invasion and conquest of Portugal,
the prince regent, afterwards Dom John VI., having no means of
resistance, decided to take refuge in Brazil. He created a regency in
Lisbon, and departed for Brazil on the 29th of November 1807,
accompanied by the queen Donna Maria I., the royal family, all the great
officers of state, a large part of the nobility and numerous retainers.
They arrived at Bahia on the 21st of January 1808, and were received
with enthusiasm. The regent was requested to establish there the seat of
his government, but a more secure asylum presented itself in Rio de
Janeiro, where the royal fugitives arrived on the 7th of March. Before
leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil,
opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all
Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and
Brazil-wood excepted. Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government
of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative
machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in
Portugal. Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, the
council of state, and the departments of the four ministries of home,
finances, war and marine then existing, there were created in the course
of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and
administration of the property of the church and military orders, an
inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the
royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a
large scale, and a supreme military court. The maintenance of the court,
and the salaries of so large a number of high officials, entailed the
imposition of new taxes to meet these expenses. Notwithstanding this the
expenses continued to augment, and the government had recourse to the
reprehensible measure of altering the money standard, and the whole
monetary system was soon thrown into the greatest confusion. The bank,
in addition to its private functions, farmed many of the _regalia_, and
was in the practice of advancing large sums to the state, transactions
which gave rise to extensive corruption, and terminated some years later
in the breaking of the bank.

Thus the government of the prince regent began its career in the new
world with dangerous errors in the financial system; yet the increased
activity which a multitude of new customers and the increase of
circulating medium gave to the trade of Rio, added a new stimulus to the
industry of the whole nation. Numbers of English artisans and
shipbuilders, Swedish iron-founders, German engineers and French
manufacturers sought fortunes in the new country, and diffused industry
by their example.

In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal,
an expedition was sent from Pará to the French colony of Guiana, and
after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.
This conquest was, however, of short duration; for, by the treaty of
Vienna in 1815, the colony was restored to France. Its occupation
contributed to the improvement of agriculture in Brazil; it had been the
policy of Portugal up to this time to separate the productions of its
colonies, to reserve sugar for Brazil, and spices to the East Indies,
and to prohibit the cultivation of these in the African possessions.
Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from
India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence
distributed. The same principle which dictated the conquest of French
Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo
and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain. The chiefs of
these colonies were invited to place them under the protection of the
Portuguese crown, but these at first affecting loyalty to Spain declined
the offer, then threw off the mask and declared themselves independent,
and the Spanish governor, Elio, was afterwards defeated by Artigas, the
leader of the independents.


  Brazil declared an integral portion of the monarchy.

The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and São Paulo decided
the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; a force of 5000
troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps;
and the irregulars of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops,
were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the River
Uruguay. The Portuguese took possession of the city of Montevideo in
January 1817, and the territory of Misiones was afterwards occupied. The
importance which Brazil was acquiring decided the regent to give it the
title of kingdom, and by decree of the 16th January 1815, the Portuguese
sovereignty thenceforward took the title of the United Kingdom of
Portugal, Brazil and Algarves. Thus the old colonial government
disappeared even in name. In March 1816 the queen Donna Maria I. died,
and the prince regent became king under the title of Dom John VI.


  Pedro proclaims the independence of Brazil, 1822.

Although Brazil had now become in fact the head of its own mother
country, the government was not in the hands of Brazilians, but of the
Portuguese, who had followed the court. The discontent arising among
Brazilians from this cause was heightened by a decree assigning a heavy
tax on the chief Brazilian custom houses, to be in operation for forty
years, for the benefit of the Portuguese noblemen who had suffered
during the war with France. The amiable character of the king preserved
his own popularity, but the government was ignorant and profligate,
justice was ill administered, negligence and disorder reigned in all its
departments. Nor was the discontent less in Portugal on account of its
anomalous position. These causes and the fermentation of liberal
principles produced by the French Revolution originated a conspiracy in
Lisbon in 1817, which was, however, discovered in time to prevent its
success. A similar plot and rebellion took place in the province of
Pernambuco, where the inhabitants of the important commercial city of
Recife (Pernambuco) were jealous of Rio and the sacrifices they were
compelled to make for the support of the luxurious court there. Another
conspiracy to establish a republican government was promptly smothered
in Bahia, and the outbreak in Pernambuco was put down after a republic
had been formed there for ninety days. Still the progress of the
republican spirit in Brazil caused Dom João to send to Portugal for
bodies of picked troops, which were stationed throughout the provincial
capitals. In Portugal the popular discontent produced the revolution of
1820, when representative government was proclaimed--the Spanish
constitution of 1812 being provisionally adopted. In Rio, the Portuguese
troops with which the king had surrounded himself as the defence against
the liberal spirit of the Brazilians, took up arms on the 26th of
February 1821, to force him to accept the system proclaimed in
Portugal. The prince Dom Pedro, heir to the crown, who now for the first
time took part in public affairs, actively exerted himself as a
negotiator between the king and the troops, who were joined by bodies of
the people. After attempting a compromise the king finally submitted,
took the oath and named a new ministry. The idea of free government
filled the people with enthusiasm, and the principles of a
representative legislature were freely adopted, the first care being for
the election of deputies to the Cortes of Lisbon to take part in framing
the new constitution. As the king could not abandon Portugal to itself
he determined at first to send the prince thither as regent, but Dom
Pedro had acquired such popularity by his conduct in the revolution, and
had exhibited such a thirst for glory, that the king feared to trust his
adventurous spirit in Europe, and decided to go himself. The Brazilian
deputies on arriving in Lisbon expressed dissatisfaction with the Cortes
for having begun the framing of the constitution before their arrival,
for Brazil could not be treated as a secondary part of the monarchy.
Sharp discussions and angry words passed between the Brazilian and
Portuguese deputies, the news of which excited great discontent in
Brazil. An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the
prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with
alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would
fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal. The
provisional government of São Paulo, influenced by the brothers Andrada,
began a movement for independence by asking the prince to disobey the
Cortes and remain in Brazil, and the council of Rio de Janeiro followed
with a similar representation, to which the prince assented. The
Portuguese troops of the capital at first assumed a coercive attitude,
but were forced to give way before the ardour and military preparations
of the Brazilians, and submitted to embark for Portugal. These scenes
were repeated in Pernambuco, where the Portuguese, after various
conflicts, were obliged to leave the country; in Bahia, however, as well
as in Maranhão and Pará, the Portuguese prevailed. In the agitation for
independence continued. The two brothers Andrada were called to the
ministry; and the municipal council conferred upon the prince regent the
title of Perpetual Defender of Brazil. With great activity he set off to
the central provinces of Minas and São Paulo to suppress disaffected
movements and direct the revolution. In São Paulo, on the 7th of
September 1822, he proclaimed the independence of Brazil. On his return
to Rio de Janeiro on the l2th of October he was proclaimed
constitutional emperor with great enthusiasm.

The Cortes at Lisbon chose Bahia as a centre for resisting the
independence, and large forces were sent thither. But the city was
vigorously besieged by the Brazilians by land, and finally the
Portuguese were obliged to re-embark on the 2nd of July 1823. A
Brazilian squadron, under command of Lord Cochrane, attacked the
Portuguese vessels, embarrassed with troops, and took several of them.
Taylor, another Englishman in Brazilian service, followed the vessels
across the Atlantic, and even captured some of the ships in sight of the
land of Portugal. The troops in Montevideo also embarked for Portugal,
and the Banda Oriental remained a part of Brazil with the title of the
_Provincia Cisplatina_. Before the end of 1823 the authority of the new
emperor and the independence of Brazil were undisputed throughout the
whole country.


  Constitution of 1824.

Republican movements now began to spread, to suppress which the
authorities made use of the Portuguese remaining in the country; and the
disposition of the emperor to consider these as his firmest supporters
much influenced the course of his government and his future destiny. The
two Andradas, who imagined they could govern the young emperor as a
sovereign of their own creation, encountered great opposition in the
constitutional assembly, which had been opened in Rio in May 1823, to
discuss the project of a new constitution. In July the emperor resolved
to dismiss them and form a new ministry, but against this the brothers
raised a violent opposition. In November the emperor put an end to the
angry debates which ensued in the assembly by dissolving it, exiling
the Andradas to France, and convoking a new assembly to deliberate on a
proposed constitution more liberal than the former project. The
proclamation of a republic in the provinces of Pernambuco and Ceará,
with the rebellion of the Cisplatina province, favoured by Buenos Aires
and its ultimate loss to Brazil, were the result of the _coup d'état_ of
November 1823. The Brazilians were universally discontented--on one side
fearing absolutism if they supported the emperor, on the other anarchy
if he fell. Knowing the danger of an undefined position, the emperor
caused the councils to dispense with their deliberations, and adopt, as
the constitution of the empire, the project framed by the council of
state. Accordingly, on the 25th of March 1824, the emperor swore to the
constitution with great solemnity and public rejoicings. By this stroke
of policy he saved himself and Brazil. Negotiations were opened in
London between the Brazilian and Portuguese plenipotentiaries, treating
for the recognition of the independence of Brazil; and on the 25th of
August 1825 a treaty was signed by which the Portuguese king, Dom John
VI., assumed the title of emperor of Brazil, and immediately abdicated
in favour of his son, acknowledging Brazil as an independent empire, but
the treaty obliged Brazil to take upon herself the Portuguese debt,
amounting to nearly two millions sterling.

The rebellion of the Banda Oriental was followed by a declaration of war
with Buenos Aires which had supported it, and operations by sea and land
were conducted against that republic in a feeble way. Meanwhile the
well-deserved popularity of the emperor began to decline. He had given
himself up to the influence of the Portuguese; the most popular men who
had worked for the independence were banished; and a continual change of
ministry showed a disposition on the part of the sovereign to prosecute
obstinately measures of which his advisers disapproved. His popularity
was regained, however, to some extent, when, on the death of his father,
he was unanimously acknowledged king of Portugal, and especially when he
abdicated that crown in favour of his daughter, Donna Maria; but his
line of policy was not altered, and commercial treaties entered into
with European states conceding them favours, which were popularly
considered to be injurious to Brazilian trade, met with bitter censure.

During the year 1827 the public debt was consolidated, and a department
was created for the application of a sinking fund.


  Abdication of Pedro I., 1831.

The year 1828 was a calamitous one for Brazil. It began with the defeat
of the Brazilian army by the Argentine forces, and this entirely through
the incapacity of the commander-in-chief; and misunderstandings,
afterwards compensated by humbling money-payments on the part of Brazil,
arose with the United States, France and England on account of merchant
vessels captured by the Brazilian squadron blockading Buenos Aires.
Financial embarrassments increased to an alarming extent; the emperor
was compelled by the British government to make peace with Buenos Aires
and to renounce the Banda Oriental; and to fill the sum of disasters Dom
Miguel had treacherously usurped the crown of Portugal. It was under
these unlucky auspices that the elections of new deputies took place in
1829. As was expected the result was the election everywhere of
ultra-liberals opposed to the emperor, and in the succeeding year people
everywhere exhibited their disaffection. During the session of 1830 the
chambers adopted a criminal code in which punishment by death for
political offences was abolished. It was openly suggested in the
journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent
federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the
United States. Alarmed at length at the ground gained by this idea in
the provinces, the emperor set off to Minas to stir up the former
enthusiasm in his favour from recollections of the independence, but was
coldly received. On his return to Rio in March 1831 scenes of disorder
occurred, and great agitation among the Liberal party. Imagining himself
sure of a brilliant destiny in Europe if he lost his Brazilian crown,
the emperor attempted to risk a decisive attack against the Liberals,
and to form a new ministry composed of men favourable to absolutism.
This step caused excited public meetings in the capital, which were
joined in by the troops, and deputations went to ask the emperor to
dismiss the unpopular ministry. He replied by dissolving the ministry
without naming another, and by abdicating the crown in favour of the
heir apparent, then only five years of age. Dom Pedro immediately
embarked in an English ship, leaving the new emperor Dom Pedro II. and
the princesses Januaria, Francisca and Paula. The subsequent career of
this unfortunate prince belongs to the history of Portugal.

A provisional and afterwards a permanent regency, composed of three
members, was now formed in Brazil, but scenes of disorder succeeded, and
discussions and struggles between the republican party and the
government, and a reactionary third party in favour of the restoration
of Dom Pedro, occupied the succeeding years. In 1834 a reform which was
well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of
three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen
by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the
councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial
assemblies. Virtually, this was a republican government like that of the
United States, for no difference existed in the mode of election of the
regent from that of a president. The ex-minister Feijoó was chosen for
this office. With the exception of Pará and Rio Grande the provinces
were at peace, but these were in open rebellion; the former was reduced
to obedience, but in the latter, though the imperial troops occupied the
town, the country was ravaged by its warlike inhabitants. The regent was
now accused of conniving at this rebellion, and the opposition of the
chamber of deputies became so violent as to necessitate his resignation.
Araujo Lima, minister of the home department, who strove to give his
government the character of a monarchical reaction against the
principles of democracy, was chosen by a large majority in his stead.
The experiment of republican government had proved so discreditable, and
had so wearied the country of cabals, that men hitherto known for their
sympathy with democratic principles became more monarchical than the
regent himself; and under this influence a movement to give the regency
into the hands of the princess Donna Januaria, now in her 18th year, was
set on foot. It was soon perceived, however, that if the empire could be
governed by a princess of eighteen it could be managed better by the
emperor himself, who was then fourteen.


  Majority of Pedro II., 1840.

A bill was accordingly presented to the legislature dispensing with the
age of the emperor and declaring his majority, which after a noisy
discussion was carried. The majority of the emperor Dom Pedro II. was
proclaimed on the 23rd of July 1840. Several ministries, in which
various parties predominated for a time, now governed the country till
1848, during which period the rebellious province of Rio Grande was
pacified, more by negotiation than force of arms. In 1848 hostilities
were roused with the British government through the neglect shown by the
Brazilians in putting in force a treaty for the abolition of the slave
trade, which had been concluded as far back as 1826; on the other hand
the governor of Buenos Aires, General Rosas, was endeavouring to stir up
revolution again in Rio Grande. The appearance of yellow fever in 1849,
until then unknown in Brazil, was attributed to the importation of
slaves. Public opinion declared against the traffic; severe laws were
passed against it, and were so firmly enforced that in 1853 not a single
disembarkation took place. The ministry of the Visconde de Olinda in
1849 entered into alliances with the governors of Montevideo, Paraguay
and the states of Entre Rios and Corrientes, for the purpose of
maintaining the integrity of the republics of Uruguay and Paraguay,
which Rosas intended to reunite to Buenos Aires, and the troops of
Rosa's which besieged Montevideo were forced to capitulate. Rosas then
declared war formally against Brazil. An army of Correntine, Uruguayan
and Brazilian troops, under General Urquiza, assisted by a Brazilian
naval squadron, advanced on Buenos Aires, completely routed the forces
of Rosas, and crushed for ever the power of that dictator. From 1844
Brazil was free from intestine commotions, and had resumed its activity.
Public works and education were advanced, and the finances rose to a
degree of prosperity previously unknown.


  War with Paraguay.

In 1855 the emperor of Brazil sent a squadron of eleven men-of-war and
as many transports up the Paraná to adjust several questions pending
between the empire and the republic of Paraguay, the most important of
which was that of the right of way by the Paraguay river to the interior
Brazilian province of Matto Grosso. This right had been in dispute for
several years. The expedition was not permitted to ascend the river
Paraguay, and returned completely foiled in its main purpose. Though the
discord resulting between the states on account of this failure was
subsequently allayed for a time by a treaty granting to Brazil the right
to navigate the river, every obstacle was thrown in the way by the
Paraguayan government, and indignities of all kinds were offered not
only to Brazil but to the representatives of the Argentine and the
United States. In 1864 the ambitious dictator of Paraguay, Francisco
Solano Lopez, without previous declaration of war, captured a Brazilian
vessel in the Paraguay, and rapidly followed up this outrage by an armed
invasion of the provinces of Matto Grosso and Rio Grande in Brazil, and
that of Corrientes in the Argentine Republic. A triple alliance of the
invaded states with Uruguay ensued, and the tide of war was soon turned
from being an offensive one on the part of Paraguay to a defensive
struggle within that republic against the superior number of the allies.
So strong was the natural position of Paraguay, however, and so complete
the subjection of its inhabitants to the will of the dictator, that it
was not until the year 1870, after the republic had been completely
drained of its manhood and resources, that the long war was terminated
by the capture and death of Lopez with his last handful of men by the
pursuing Brazilians. From its duration and frequent battles and sieges
this war involved an immense sacrifice of life to Brazil, the army in
the field having been constantly maintained at between 20,000 and 30,000
men, and the expenditure in maintaining it was very great, having been
calculated at upwards of fifty millions sterling. Large deficits in the
financial budgets of the state resulted, involving increased taxation
and the contracting of loans from foreign countries.

Notwithstanding this the sources of public wealth in Brazil were
unaffected, and commerce continued steadily to increase. A grand social
reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted
that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free,
and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the
imperial household free from that time. The same law provided an
emancipation fund, to be annually applied to the ransom of a certain
number of slaves owned by private individuals.


  Character of Pedro II.'s reign.

Under the long reign of Dom Pedro II. progress and material prosperity
made steady advancement in Brazil. Occasional political outbreaks
occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul,
where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial
authority. The emperor occupied himself to a far greater extent with the
economic development of his people and country than with active
political life. Unostentatious in his habits, Dom Pedro always had at
heart the true interests of the Brazilians. Himself a highly-educated
man, he sincerely desired to further the cause of education, and devoted
a large portion of his time to the study of this question. His extreme
liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines
preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant. Begun about 1880, this
propaganda took deep root in the educated classes, creating a desire for
change and culminating in the military conspiracy of November 1889, by
which monarchy was replaced by a republican form of government.

At first the revolutionary propaganda produced no personal animosity
against the emperor, who continued to be treated by his people with
every mark of respect and affection, but this state of things gradually
changed. In 1864 the princess Isabella, the eldest daughter of the
emperor and empress, had married the Comte d'Eu, a member of the Orleans
family. The marriage was never popular in the country, owing partly to
the fact that the Comte d'Eu was a reserved man who made few intimate
friends and never attempted to become a favourite. Princess Isabella was
charitable in many ways, always ready to take her full share of the
duties falling upon her as the future empress, and thoroughly realizing
the responsibilities of her position; but she was greatly influenced by
the clerical party and the priesthood, and she thereby incurred the
hostility of the Progressives. When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the
purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he
appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so
swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling
became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength
to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any
compensation to slave-owners. The planters, the principal possessors of
wealth, regarded the measure as unnecessary in view of the act which had
been passed in 1885 providing for the gradual freeing of all slaves. The
arguments used were, however, of no avail with the regent, and the
decree was promulgated on the 13th of May 1888. No active opposition was
offered to this measure, but the feelings of unrest and discontent
spread rapidly.


  Establishment of the Republic, 1889.

Towards the close of 1888 the emperor returned and was received by the
populace with every demonstration of affection and esteem. Even among
the advocates of republicanism there was no intention of dethroning Dom
Pedro, excepting a few extreme members of the party, now gained the
upper hand. They argued that it would be much more difficult to carry
out a successful coup _d'état_ when the good-natured, confiding emperor
had been succeeded by his more suspicious and energetic daughter.
Discontented officers in the army and navy rallied to this idea, and a
conspiracy was organized to depose the emperor and declare a republic.
On the 14th of November 1889 the palace was quietly surrounded, and on
the following morning the emperor and his family were placed on board
ship and sent off to Portugal. A provisional government was then formed
and a proclamation issued to the effect that the country would
henceforth be known as the United States of Brazil, and that in due time
a republican constitution would be framed. The only voice raised in
protest was that of the minister of war, and he was shot at and severely
wounded as a consequence. Dom Pedro, completely broken down by the
ingratitude of the people whom he had loved so much and laboured for so
strenuously, made no attempt at resistance. The republican government
offered to compensate him for the property he had held in Brazil as
emperor, but this proposal was declined. His private possessions were
respected, and were afterwards still held by Princess Isabella.

The citizen named as president of the provisional government, was
General Deodoro da Fonseca, who owed his advancement to the personal
friendship and assistance of Dom Pedro. Second in authority was placed
General Floriano Peixoto, an officer also under heavy obligations to the
deposed monarch, as indeed were nearly all of those who took active part
in the conspiracy.


  Brazil under the Republic.

Though the overthrow of the imperial dynasty was totally unexpected
throughout, the new regime was accepted without any disturbances. Under
the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of
government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into
existence, and continued till February 1891, when a national congress
assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of
Brazil. The former provinces were converted into states, the only right
of the federal government to interfere in their administration being for
the purposes of national defence, the maintenance of public order or the
enforcement of the federal laws. The constitution of the United States
of America was taken as a model for drawing up that of Brazil, and the
general terms were as far as possible adhered to (see above, section
_Government_).

General da Fonseca and General Floriano Peixoto were elected to fill the
offices of president and vice-president until the 15th of November 1894.
This implied the continuance of praetorian methods of administration.
The older class of more conservative Brazilians, who had formerly taken
part in the administration under the emperor, withdrew altogether from
public life. Many left Brazil and went into voluntary exile, while
others retired to their estates. In the absence of these more
respectable elements, the government fell into the hands of a gang of
military adventurers and unscrupulous politicians, whose only object was
to exploit the national resources for their own benefit. As a
consequence, deep-rooted discontent rapidly arose. A conspiracy, of
which Admiral Wandenkolk was the prime instigator, was discovered, and
those who had taken part in it were banished to the distant state of
Amazonas. Disturbances then broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, in
consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living
in the country districts. Under the leadership of Gumercindo Saraïva the
country people broke into open revolt in September 1891. This outbreak
was partially suppressed, but afterwards it again burst into flame with
great vigour. In view of the discontent, conspiracies and revolutionary
movements, President da Fonseca declared himself dictator. This act,
however, met with such strong opposition that he resigned office on the
23rd of November 1891, and Vice-President Floriano Peixoto assumed the
presidency.

Floriano Peixoto had been accustomed all his life to use harsh measures.
For the first year of his term of office he kept seditious attempts in
check, but discontent grew apace. Nor was this surprising to those who
knew the corruption in the administration. Concessions and subsidies
were given broadcast for worthless undertakings in order to benefit the
friends of the president. Brazilian credit gave way under the strain,
and evidences were not wanting at the beginning of 1893 that an outburst
of public opinion was not far distant. Nevertheless President Peixoto
made no effort to reform the methods of administration. Meanwhile, the
revolution in Rio Grande do Sul had revived; and in July 1893 the
federal government was forced to send most of the available regular
troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check.


  Naval revolt and civil war, 1893.

On the 6th of September prevailing discontent took definite shape in the
form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. Admiral Custodio de
Mello took command of the naval forces, and demanded the resignation of
the president. General Peixoto replied by organizing a defence against
any attack from the squadron. Admiral Mello, finding that his demands
were not complied with, began a bombardment of the city, but did not
effect his purpose of compelling Peixoto to resign. The foreign
ministers then arranged a compromise between the contending parties,
according to which President Peixoto was to place no artillery in the
city, while Admiral Mello was to refrain from bombarding the town, which
was thus saved from destruction. Shortly afterwards the cruiser
"Republica" and a transport ran the gauntlet of the government forts at
the entrance of the bay, and proceeded south to the province of Santa
Catharina, taking possession of Desterro, its capital. A provisional
government was proclaimed by the insurgents, with headquarters at
Desterro, and communication was opened with Gumercindo Saraïva, the
leader of the insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul. It was proposed that
the army of some 10,000 men under his command should advance northwards
towards Rio de Janeiro, while the insurgent squadron threatened the city
of Rio. In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured
cruiser "Aquidaban" and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay
being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist,
who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause. All was, apparently,
going well with the revolt, Saraïva having invaded the states of Santa
Catharina and Paraná, and defeated the government troops in several
encounters. Meanwhile, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches
to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the
United States and organized the National Guard.

Early in 1894 dissensions occurred between Saraïva and Mello, which
prevented any advance of the insurgent forces, and allowed Peixoto to
perfect his plans. Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de
Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the
civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for
Admiral Mello to return from Desterro. In the meantime the ships bought
by President Peixoto arrived off Rio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama
from escaping. On the 15th of March 1894 the rebel forces evacuated
their positions on the islands of Villegaignon, Cobras and Enxadas,
abandoned their vessels, and were received on board two Portuguese
warships then in the harbour, whence they were conveyed to Montevideo.
The action of the Portuguese commander was prompted by a desire to save
life, for had the rebels fallen into the hands of Peixoto, they would
assuredly have been executed.

When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama reached Gumercindo
Saraïva, then at Curitiba in Paraná, he proceeded to retire to Rio
Grande do Sul. Government troops were despatched to intercept his
retreat, and in one of the skirmishes which followed Saraïva was killed.
The rebel army then dispersed. Admiral Mello made an unsuccessful attack
on the town of Rio Grande, and then sailed to Buenos Aires, there
surrendering the rebel squadron to the Argentine authorities, by whom it
was immediately delivered to the Brazilian government. After six months
of civil war peace was once more established, but there still remained
some small rebel groups in Rio Grande do Sul. These were joined by
Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from
Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with
the government troops. After the cessation of hostilities, the greatest
barbarities were practised upon those who, although they had taken no
part in the insurrection, were known to have desired the overthrow of
President Peixoto. The baron Cerro Azul was shot down without trial;
Marshal de Gama Eza, an old imperial soldier of eighty years of age, was
murdered in cold blood, and numerous executions of men of lesser note
took place, among these being two Frenchmen for whose death the
Brazilian government was subsequently called upon to pay heavy
compensation.

General Peixoto was succeeded as president on the 15th of November 1894
by Dr Prudente de Moraes Barros. It was a moot question whether Peixoto,
after the revolt was crushed, would not declare himself dictator;
certainly many of his friends were anxious that he should follow this
course, but he was broken down by the strain which had been imposed upon
him and was glad to surrender his duties. He did not recover his health
and died shortly afterwards.

From the first day that he assumed office, President Moraes showed that
he intended to suppress praetorian systems and reduce militarism to a
minimum. This policy received the approval and sympathy of the majority
of Brazilians, but naturally met with bitter opposition from the
military element. The president gradually drew to him some members of
the better conservative class to assist in his administration, and felt
confident that he had the support of public opinion. Early in 1895
murmurings and disorderly conduct against the authorities began to take
place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which had always been a
hotbed of intrigue. Some of the officers and students were promptly
expelled, and the president closed the school for several months. This
salutary lesson had due effect, and no more discontent was fomented from
that quarter. Two great difficulties stood in the way of steering the
country to prosperity. The first was the chaotic confusion of the
finances resulting from the maladministration of the national resources
since the deposition of Dom Pedro II., and the corruption that had crept
into every branch of the public service. Much was done by President
Moraes to correct abuses, but the task was of too herculean a nature to
allow of accomplishment within the four years during which he was at
the head of affairs. The second difficulty was the war waged by
religious fanatics under the leadership of Antonio Maciel, known as
"Conselheiro," against the constituted authorities of Brazil.

The story of Conselheiro is a remarkable one. A native of Pernambuco,
when a young man he married against the wishes of his mother, who took a
violent dislike to the bride. Shortly after the marriage the mother
assured her son that his wife held clandestine meetings with a lover,
and stated that if he would go to a certain spot not far from the house
that evening he would himself see that her assertion was true. The
mother invented some plea to send the wife to the trysting-place, and
then, dressing herself in male clothing, prepared to come suddenly on
the scene as the lover, trusting to be able to make her escape before
she was recognized. The three met almost simultaneously. Conselheiro,
deeming his worst suspicions confirmed, shot and killed his wife and his
mother before explanations could be offered. He was tried and allowed to
go at liberty after some detention in prison. From that time Conselheiro
was a victim of remorse, and to expiate his sin became a missionary in
the _sertao_ or interior of Brazil among the wild Jagunço people. He
built places of worship in many different districts, and at length
became the recognized chief of the people among whom he had thus
strangely cast his lot. Eventually he formed a settlement near Canudos,
situated about 400 m. inland from Bahia. Difficulty arose between the
governor of Bahia and this fanatical missionary, with the result that
Conselheiro was ordered to leave the settlement and take away his
people. This order was met with a sturdy refusal to move. Early in 1897
a police force was sent to eject the settlers, but encountered strong
resistance, and suffered heavy loss without being able to effect the
purpose intended. In March 1897 a body of 1500 troops, with four guns,
was despatched to bring the Jagunçoes to reason, but was totally
defeated. An army comprising some 5000 officers and men was then sent to
crush Conselheiro and his people at all costs. Little progress was made,
the country being difficult of access and the Jagunçoes laying
ambuscades at every available place. Finally strong reinforcements were
sent forward, the minister of war himself proceeding to take command of
the army, now numbering nearly 13,000 men. Canudos was besieged and
captured in September 1897, Conselheiro being killed in the final
assault. The expense of these expeditions was very heavy, and prevented
President Moraes from carrying out many of the retrenchments he had
planned.

Soon after the Canudos affair a conspiracy was hatched to assassinate
the president. He was watching the disembarkation of some troops when a
shot was fired which narrowly missed him, and killed General Bitencourt,
the minister of war. The actual perpetrator of the deed, a soldier, was
tried and executed, but he was apparently ignorant of the persons who
procured his services. Three other men implicated in the conspiracy were
subsequently sentenced to imprisonment for a term of thirty years. The
remainder of the presidency of Dr Moraes was uneventful; and on the 15th
of November 1898 he was succeeded by Dr Campos Salles, who had
previously been governor of the state of São Paulo. President Salles
publicly promised political reform, economy in the administration, and
absolute respect for civil rights, and speedily made efforts to fulfil
these pledges.


  Reform under President Campos Salles.

The difficulties in the reorganization of the finances of the state,
which Dr Campos Salles had to face on his accession to power, were very
great. The heavy cost involved in the suppression of internal disorders,
maladministration, and the hindrances placed in the way of economical
development by the semi-independence of the federal states had seriously
depreciated the national credit. The president-elect accordingly
undertook with the full approval of Dr Moraes, who was still in office,
the task of visiting Europe with the object of endeavouring to make an
arrangement with the creditors of the state for a temporary suspension
of payments. He was successful in his object, and an agreement was made
by which bonds should be issued instead of interest payments from the
1st of July 1898, the promise being given that every effort should be
made for the resumption of cash payments in 1901. President Campos
Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898,
and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of
reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue. He had to face
opposition from sectional interests and from the jealousy of
interference with their rights on the part of provincial
administrations, but he was able to achieve a considerable measure of
success and to lay the foundation of a sounder system under which the
financial position of the republic has made steady progress. The chief
feature of the administration of Dr Campos Salles was the statesmanlike
ability with which various disputes with foreign powers on boundary
questions were seriously taken in hand and brought to a satisfactory and
pacific settlement. There had for a long period been difficulties with
France with regard to the territory which lay between the mouth of the
Amazon and Cayenne or French Guiana. The language of various treatises
was doubtful and ambiguous, largely owing to the ignorance of the
diplomatists who drew up the articles of the exact geography of the
territory in question. Napoleon had forced the Portuguese government to
cede to him the northernmost arm of the mouth of the Amazon as the
southern boundary of French Guiana with a large slice of the unexplored
interior westwards. A few years later the Portuguese had in their turn
conquered French Guiana, but had been compelled to restore it at the
peace of Paris. The old ambiguity attaching to the interpretation of
earlier treaties, however, remained, and in April 1899 the question by
an agreement between the two states was referred to the arbitration of
the president of the Swiss confederation. The decision was given in
December 1900 and was entirely in favour of the Brazilian contention. A
still more interesting boundary dispute was that between Great Britain
and Brazil, as to the southern frontier line of British Guiana. The
dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in
1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela
regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to
arbitration in that same year of the Franco-Brazilian dispute, led to an
agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the
submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
The district in dispute was the site of the fabled Lake of Parima and
the Golden City of Manoa, the search for which in the early days of
European settlement attracted so many adventurous expeditions, and which
fascinated the imagination of Raleigh and drew him to his doom. The
question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch
and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana
during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy
gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and
grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.
Before this decision was given Senhor Rodrigues Alves had been elected
president in 1902. Dr Campos Salles had signalized his administration,
not only by the settlement of disputes with European powers, but by
efforts to arrive at a good understanding with the neighbouring South
American republics. In July 1899 President Roca had visited Rio de
Janeiro accompanied by an Argentine squadron, this being the first
official visit that any South American president had ever paid to one of
the adjoining states. In October 1900 Dr Campos Salles returned the
visit and met with an excellent reception at Buenos Aires. The result
was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms
with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in
bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and
Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to
hostilities. This was indeed a time when questions concerning boundaries
were springing up on every side, for it was only through the moderation
with which the high-handed action of Bolivia in regard to the Acré
rubber-producing territory was met by the Brazilian government that war
was avoided. Negotiations were set on foot, and finally by treating the
matter in a give-and-take spirit a settlement was reached and a treaty
for an amicable exchange of territories in the district in question,
accompanied by a pecuniary indemnity, was signed by President Alves at
Petropolis on the 17th of November 1903. During the remainder of the
term of this president internal and financial progress were undisturbed
save by an outbreak in 1904 in the Cunani district, the very portion of
disputed territory which had been assigned to Brazil by the arbitration
with France. This province, being difficult of access, was able for a
time to assert a practical independence. In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three
times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state
of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello
Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the
other states against São Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had
belonged. Penna's presidency was distinguished by his successful efforts
to place the finances on a sound basis. He died in office on the 14th of
June 1909.     (K. J.; C. E. A.; G. E.)

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--History: Capistrano de Abreu, _Descobrimento do Brazil
  e seu desenvolvimento no seculo xix_. (Rio de Janeiro, 1883); John
  Armitage, _History of Brazil from 1808 to 1831_ (2 vols., London,
  1836); Moreira de Azevedo, _Historia do Brazil de 1831 à 1840_ (Rio de
  Janeiro, 1841); V.L. Basil, _L'Empire du Brésil_ (Paris, 1862); Caspar
  Barlaeus, _Rerun per octennium in Brasiliâ ... sub praefecturâ
  Mauritii Nassovii... historia_ (Amsterdam, 1647); F.S. Constancio,
  _Historia do Brazil_ (Pernambuco, 1843); Anfonso Fialho, _Historia
  d'estabelecimento da republica "Estados Unidos do Brazil"_ (Rio de
  Janeiro 1890); P. Gaffarel, _Histoire du Brésil français_ (Paris,
  1878); E. Grosse, _Dom Pedro I._ (Leipzig, 1836); E. Levasseur,
  _L'Abolition de I'esclavage en Brésil_ (Paris, 1888); J.M. de Macedo,
  _Anno biographico brazileiro_ (3 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1876); A.J.
  Mello Moraes, _Brazil historico_ (4 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1839);
  _Chorographia historica, chronographica genealogica, nobiliaria e
  politica do Brazil_ (5 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1858-1863); _A
  Independencia e o imperio do Brazil_ (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); B. Mossé,
  _Dom Pedro II., empereur du Brésil_ (Paris, 1889); P. Netscher, _Les
  Hollandais au Brésil_ (Hague, 1853); J.M. Pereira da Silva, _Varões
  illustres do Brazil_ (2 vols., Paris, 1888); _Historia da fundação do
  imperio brazileiro_ (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); _Segundo Periodo do
  reinado de D. Pedro I._ (Paris, 1875); _Historia do Brazil de 1831 à
  1840_ (Rio de Janeiro, 1888); J.P. Oliveira Martins, _O Brazil e as
  colonias Portuguezas_ (Lisbon, 1888); S. da Rocha Pitta, _Historia da
  America Portugueza_ (Lisbon, 1730); C. da Silva. _L'Oyapock et
  I'Amazone_ (2 vols., Paris, 1861); R. Southey, _History of Brazil_ (3
  vols., London, 1810-1819); J.B. Spix and C.F. von Martius, _Reise in
  Brasilien_, 1817-1820 (3 parts, Munich, 1823-1831); F.A. de Varnhagen,
  _Historia geral do Brazil_ (2 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1877); _Historia
  das luctas com os Hollandeses_ (Vienna, 187:); C.E. Akers, _Hist. of
  South America, 1854-1904_ (1904); the _Revista trimensal do Instituto
  Historico e Geographico do Brazil_ (1839-1908), one or two volumes
  annually, is a storehouse of papers, studies and original documents
  bearing on the history of Brazil.

  Geography, &c.: Elisée Reclus, _Universal Geography_ (1875-1894), vol.
  xix. pp. 77-291; J.E. Wappãus, _Geographica physica do Brazil_ (Rio de
  Janeiro, 1884); A. Moreira Pinto, _Chorographia do Brazil_ (5th ed.,
  Rip de Janeiro, 1895); Therese Prinzessin von Bayern, _Meine Reise
  indenbrasilianischen Tropen_ (Berlin, 1897); M. Lamberg, _Brasilien,
  Land und Leute_ (Leipzig, 1899); L. Hutchinson, _Report_ on Trade in
  Brazil (Washington, 1906); F. Katzer, _Grundzüge der Geologie des
  unteren Amazonegebietes_ (Leipzig, 1903); J.C. Branner, _A
  Bibliography of the Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Brazil_
  (Rio de Janeiro, 1903); J.W. Evans, "The Rocks of the Cataracts of the
  River Madeira and the adjoining Portions of the Beni and Mamoré,"
  _Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._, London, vol. lxii., 1906, pp. 88-124, pl.
  v.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at
    Gotha and used by A. Supan in _Die Bevölkerung der Erde_ (1904). They
    are corrected to cover all boundary changes to 1906.

  [2] The census of 1890 is the last one of which complete returns are
    published. That of 1900 was notoriously inaccurate in many instances.

  [3] The census returns are for municipalities, and not for cities
    proper. As a municipality covers a large extent of country, the
    population given is larger than that of the urban parishes, and is
    therefore not strictly correct according to European practice.

  [4] The Brazilian official titles are given for the state capitals:
    Belem for Pará; São Luiz for Maranhão; São Salvador for Bahia; and
    Recife for Pernambuco.

  [5] The capital of Minas Geraes in 1890 was Ouro Preto; it has since
    been transferred to Bello Horizonte, or Cidade de Minas, which has an
    estimated population of 25,000.

  [6] Since the naval revolt of 1893-1894 the name of the capital of
    Santa Catharina has been changed from Desterro to Florianopolis in
    honour of President Floriano Peixoto.

  [7] The "bran" exported is from imported wheat and cannot be
    considered a national product.

  [8] The "old metals" consist of old iron, brass, &c., derived from
    railway material, machinery, &c., all imported, and should not be
    considered a Brazilian product.

    The "sundry products" would probably be included in the four general
    classes were the items given.

  [9] Previous to 1907 these two departments were united in one under
    the designation of "Industry, Communications and Public Works." The
    division was decreed December 29, 1906.



BRAZIL, a city and the county-seat of Clay county, Indiana, U.S.A.,
situated in the west central part of the state, about 16 m. E. of Terre
Haute and about 57 m. W.S.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1890) 5905; (1900)
7786 (723 foreign-born); (1910) 9340. It is served by the Central
Indiana, the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Evansville & Indianapolis
and the Vandalia railways, and is connected with Indianapolis, Terre
Haute and other cities by an interurban electric line. The principal
business thoroughfare is part of the old National Road. Brazil's chief
industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the
"Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost
perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its
manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and
enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe
and pottery. The municipality owns and operates its water-works. The
first settlement here was in 1844; and Brazil was incorporated as a town
in 1866, and was chartered as a city in 1873.



BRAZIL NUTS, the seeds of _Bertholletia excelsa_, a gigantic tree
belonging to the natural order Lecythidaceae, which grows in the valleys
of the Amazons and generally throughout tropical America. The tree
attains an average height of 130 ft., having a smooth cylindrical trunk,
with a diameter of 14 ft. 50 ft. from the ground, and branching at a
height of about 100 ft. The lower portion of the trunk presents a
buttressed aspect, owing to the upward extension of the roots in the
form of thin prop-like walls surrounding the stem. The fruit of the tree
is globular, with a diameter of 5 or 6 in., and consists of a thick hard
woody shell, within which are closely packed the seeds which constitute
the so-called nuts of commerce. The seeds are triangular in form, having
a hard woody testa enclosing the "kernel"; and of these each fruit
contains from eighteen to twenty-five. The fruits as they ripen fall
from their lofty position, and they are at the proper season annually
collected and broken open by the Indians. Brazil nuts are largely eaten;
they also yield in the proportion of about 9 oz. to each lb. of kernels
a fine bland fluid oil, highly valued for use in cookery, and used by
watchmakers and artists.



BRAZIL WOOD, a dye wood of commercial importance, obtained from the West
Indies and South America, belonging to the genera _Caesalpinia_ and
_Peltophorum_ of the natural order Leguminosae. There are several woods
of the kind, commercially distinguished as Brazil wood, Nicaragua or
Peach wood, Pernambuco wood and Lima wood, each of which has a different
commercial value, although the tinctorial principle they yield is
similar. Commercial Brazil wood is imported for the use of dyers in
billets of large size, and is a dense compact wood of a reddish brown
colour, rather bright when freshly cut, but becoming dull on exposure.
The colouring-matter of Brazil wood, brazilin, C16H14O5, crystallizes
with 1½ H2O, and is freely soluble in water; it is extracted for use by
simple infusion or decoction of the coarsely-powdered wood. When freshly
prepared the extract is of a yellowish tint; but by contact with the
air, or the addition of an alkaline solution, it develops a brick-red
colour. This is due to the formation of brazilein, C16H12O5·H2O, which
is the colouring matter used by the dyer. Brazilin crystallizes in
hexagonal amber yellow crystals, which are soluble in water and alcohol.
The solution when free of oxygen is colourless, but on the access of air
it assumes first a yellow and thereafter a reddish yellow colour. With
soda-ley it takes a brilliant deep carmine tint, which colour may be
discharged by heating in a closed vessel with zinc dust, in which
condition, the solution is excessively sensitive to oxygen, the
slightest exposure to air immediately giving a deep carmine. With tin
mordants Brazil wood gives brilliant but fugitive steam reds in
calico-printing; but on account of the loose nature of its dyes it is
seldom used except as an adjunct to other colours. It is used to form
lakes which are employed in tinting papers, staining paper-hangings, and
for various other decorative purposes.



BRAZING AND SOLDERING, in metal work, termed respectively hard and soft
soldering, are processes which correspond with soldering done at high
and at low temperatures. The first embraces jointing effected with
soldering mixtures into which copper, brass, or silver largely enter,
the second those in which lead and tin are the only, or the principal,
constituents. Some metals, as aluminium and cast iron, are less easily
soldered than others. Aluminium, owing to its high conductivity, removes
the heat from the solder rapidly. Aluminium enters into the composition
of most of the solders for these metals, and the "soldering bit" is of
pure nickel.

The hard solders are the spelter and the silver solders. Soft spelter
solder is composed of equal parts of copper and zinc, melted and
granulated and passed through a sieve. As some of the zinc volatilizes
the ultimate proportions are not quite equal. The proportion of zinc is
increased if the solder is required to be softer or more fusible. A
valuable property of the zinc is that its volatilization indicates the
fusing of the solder. Silver solder is used for jewelry and other fine
metal work, arid has the advantage of high fusing points. The hardest
contains from 4 parts of silver to 1 of copper; the softest 2 of silver
to 1 of brass wire. Borax is the flux used, with silver solder as with
spelter.

The soft solders are composed mainly of tin and lead. They occur in a
large range. Common tinner's solder is composed of equal parts of tin
and lead, and melts at 370° Fah. Plumber's solder has 2 of lead to 1 of
tin. Excess of lead in plumber's solder renders the solder difficult to
work, excess of tin allows it to melt too easily. Pewterers add bismuth
to render the solder more fusible, e.g. lead 4, tin 3, bismuth 2; or
lead 1, tin 2, bismuth 1. Unless these are cooled quickly the bismuth
separates out.

The essentials of a soldered joint are the contact of absolutely clean
surfaces, free from oxide and dirt. The surfaces are therefore scraped,
filed and otherwise treated, and then, in order to cleanse and preserve
them from any trace of oxide which might form during subsequent
manipulation, a fluxing material is used. The soldering material is
compelled to follow the areas prepared for it by the flux, and it will
not adhere anywhere else. There is much similarity between soldering and
welding in this respect. A weld joint must as a rule be fluxed, or metal
will not adhere to metal. There is not, however, the absolute need for
fluxing that there is in soldered joints, and many welds in good fibrous
iron are made without a flux. But the explanation here is that the metal
is brought to a temperature of semifusion, and the shapes of joints are
generally such that particles of scale are squeezed out from between the
joint in the act of closing the weld. But in brazing and soldering the
parts to be united are generally nearly cold, and only the soldering
material is fused, so that the conditions are less favourable to the
removal of oxide than in welding processes.

Fluxes are either liquid or solid, but the latter are not efficient
until they fuse and cover the surfaces to be united. Hydrochloric acid
(spirits of salts) is the one used chiefly for soft soldering. It is
"killed" by the addition of a little zinc, the resulting chloride of
zinc rendering its action quiet. Common fluxes are powdered resin, and
tallow (used chiefly by plumbers for wiped joints). These, with others,
are employed for soft solder joints, the temperature of which rarely
exceeds about 600° Fah. The best flux for zinc is chloride of zinc. For
brazed joints, spelter or powdered brass is employed, and the flux is
usually borax. The borax will not cover the joint until it has been
deprived of its water of crystallization, and this is effected by
raising it to a full red heat, when it swells in bulk, "boils," and
afterwards sinks quietly and spreads over, or into the joint. There are
differences in details of working. The borax is generally powdered and
mixed with the spelter, and both with water. But sometimes they are
applied separately, the borax first and over this the particles of
spelter. Another flux used for copper is sal ammoniac, either alone or
mixed with powdered resin.

As brazed joints often have to be very strong, other precautions are
frequently taken beyond that of the mere overlapping of the joint edges.
In pipes subjected to high steam pressures, and articles subjected to
severe stresses, the joints are "cramped" before the solder is applied.
That is, the edges are notched in a manner having somewhat the
appearance of the dovetails of the carpenter; the notched portions
overlap the opposite edges, and on alternate sides. Such joints when
brazed are stronger than plain overlapping joints would be. Steam dome
coverings are jointed thus longitudinally as cylinders, and the crown is
jointed thereto, also by cramping. Another common method of union is
that of flanges to copper pipes. In these the pipe passes freely within
a hole bored right through the flange, and the solder is run between.
The pipe is suspended vertically, flange downwards, and the spelter run
in from the back of the flange. The fused borax works its way in by
capillary action, and the spelter follows.

The "copper bit" is used in soft soldering. Its end is a prismatic
pyramid of copper, riveted to an iron shank in a wooden handle. It is
made hot, and the contained heat is sufficient to melt the solder. It
has to be "tinned," by being heated to a dull red, filed, rubbed with
sal ammoniac, and then rubbed upon the solder. It is wiped with tow
before use. For small brazed work the blow-pipe is commonly employed;
large works are done on the brazier's hearth, or in any clear coke fire.
If coal is used it must be kept away from the joint.

In "sweating on," a variation in soldering, the surfaces to be united
are cleaned, and solder melted and spread over them. They are then
brought together, and the temperature raised sufficiently to melt the
solder.

A detail of first importance is the essential difference between the
melting points of the objects to be brazed or soldered, and that of the
solder used. The latter must always be lower than the former. This
explains why soldering materials are used in a large range of
temperatures. A few will melt at the temperature of boiling water. At
the other extreme 2000° Fah. is required to melt a solder for brazing.
If this point is neglected, it will often happen that the object to be
soldered will fuse before the solder melts. This accident may occur in
the soft Britannia and white metals at the one extreme, and in the
softer brasses at the other. It would not do, for example, to use
flanges of common brass, or even ordinary gun-metal, to be brazed to
copper pipe, for they would begin to fuse before the joint was made.
Such flanges must be made of nearly pure copper, to withstand the
temperature, usually 98 of copper to 2 of tin (brazing metal). A most
valuable feature in solder is that by varying the proportions of the
metals used a great range in hardness and fusibility is obtainable. The
useful solders therefore number many scores. This is also a source of
danger, unless regard be had to the relative fusing points of solders,
and of the parts they unite.     (J. G. H.)



BRAZZA, PIERRE PAUL FRANÇOIS CAMILLE SAVORGNAN DE, COUNT (1852-1905),
French explorer and administrator, founder of French Congo, was born on
board ship in the harbour of Rio de Janeiro on the 26th of January 1852.
He was of Italian parentage, the family name being de Brazza Savorgnani.
Through the instrumentality of the astronomer Secchi he was sent to the
Jesuit college in Paris, and in 1868 obtained authorization to enter as
a foreigner the marine college at Brest. In the Franco-Prussian War of
1870-71 he took part in the operations of the French fleet. In 1874 when
the warship on which he was serving was in the Gabun, Alfred Marche and
the marquis de Compiègne arrived at Libreville from an expedition in the
lower Ogowé district. Interested in the reports of these travellers, de
Brazza conceived the idea of exploring the Ogowé, which he thought might
prove to be the lower course of the Lualaba, a river then recently
discovered by David Livingstone. Having meantime been naturalized as a
Frenchman, de Brazza in 1875 obtained permission to undertake his
African scheme, and with the naval doctor, Noel Ballay, he explored the
Ogowé river. Penetrating beyond the basin of that river, he discovered
the Alima and Likona, but did not descend either stream. Thence turning
northwards the travellers eventually regained the coast at the end of
November 1878, having left Paris in August 1875. On arrival in Paris, de
Brazza learned of the navigation of the Congo by H.M. Stanley, and
recognized that the rivers he had discovered were affluents of that
stream.

De Brazza was anxious to obtain for France some part of the Congo. The
French ministry, however, determined to utilize his energies in another
quarter of Africa. Their attention had been drawn to the Niger through
the formation of the United African Company by Sir George Goldie (then
Mr Goldie Taubman) in July 1879, Goldie's object being to secure Nigeria
for Great Britain. A new expedition was fitted out, and de Brazza left
Paris at the end of 1879 with orders to go to the Niger, make treaties,
and plant French flags. When on the point of sailing; from Lisbon he
received a telegram cancelling these instructions, and altering his
destination to the Congo. This was a decision of great moment. Had the
Nigerian policy of France been maintained the International African
Association (afterwards the Congo Free State) would have had a clear
field on the Congo, while the young British Company would have been
crushed out by French opposition; so that the two great basins of the
Niger and the Congo would have had a vastly different history.

Acting on his new instructions, de Brazza, who was again accompanied by
Ballay, reached the Gabun early in 1880. Rapidly ascending the Ogowé he
founded the station of Franceville on the upper waters of that river and
pushed on to the Congo at Stanley Pool, where Brazzaville was
subsequently founded. With Makoko, chief of the Bateke tribe, de Brazza
concluded treaties in September and October 1880, placing the country
under French protection. With these treaties in his possession Brazza
proceeded down the Congo, and at Isangila on the 7th of November met
Stanley, who was working his way up stream concluding treaties with the
chiefs on behalf of the International African Association. De Brazza
spent the next eighteen months exploring the hinterland of the Gabun,
and returned to France in June 1882. The ratification by the French
chambers in the following November of the treaties with Makoko
(described by Stanley as worthless pieces of paper) committed France to
the action of her agent.

Furnished with funds by the French government, de Brazza returned in
1883 to the Congo to open up the new colony, of which he was named
commissioner-general in 1886. This post he held until January 1898, when
he was recalled. During his period of office the work of exploration was
systematically carried out by numerous expeditions which he organized.
The incessant demands on the resources of the infant colony for these
and other expeditions to the far interior greatly retarded its progress.
De Brazza's administration was severely criticized; but that its
comparative failure was largely due to inadequate support from the home
authorities was recognized in the grant to him in 1902 of a pension by
the chambers. Both as explorer and administrator his dealings with the
natives were marked by consideration, kindness and patience, and he
earned the title of "Father of the Slaves." His efforts to connect the
upper Congo with the Atlantic by a railway through French territory
showed that he understood the chief economic needs of the colony. After
seven years of retirement in France de Brazza accepted, in February
1905, a mission to investigate charges of cruelty to natives brought
against officials of the Congo colony. Having concluded his inquiry he
sailed for France, but died at Dakar, Senegal, on the 4th of September
1905. His body was taken to Paris for burial, but in 1908 was reinterred
at Algiers.

  See D. Neuville et Ch. Bréard, _Les Voyages de Savorgnan de Brazza,
  Ogooué et Congo, 1875-1882_ (Paris, 1884), and _Conférences et lettres
  de P. Savorgnan de Brazza sur ses trois explorations dans l'ouest
  africain de 1875 à 1886_ (Paris, 1887); A.J. Wauters, "Savorgnan de
  Brazza et la conquête du Congo français," in _Le Mouvement
  geographique_, vol. xxii., No. 39 (Brussels, 1905). Giacomo or Jacques
  de Brazza (1859-1883), a younger brother of Savorgnan, and one of the
  men he employed in the work of exploration, published in collaboration
  with his companion A. Pecile, _Tre Anni e mezzo nella regione del
  Congo e dell' Ogowe_ (Rome, 1887).     (G. T. G.)



BRAZZA (Serbo-Croatian, _Brac;_ Lat. _Brattia_), an island in the
Adriatic Sea, forming part of Dalmatia, Austria. Pop. (1900) 24,408.
With an area of 170 sq. m. Brazza is the largest of the Dalmatian
Islands; it is also the most thickly populated, and one of the most
fertile. Its closely cultivated surface though ragged and mountainous
yields an abundance of olives, figs, almonds and saffron, while its
wines are of good quality. The corn-crop, however, barely suffices for
three months' food. Other local industries are fishing and
silkworm-rearing. The most important among twenty small villages on the
island is Milná (pop. 2579), a steamship station, provided with
shipwrights' wharves. The early history of Brazza is obscure. In the
first years of the 13th century it was ruled by the piratical counts of
Almissa; but after a successful revolt and a brief period of liberty it
came under the dominion of Hungary. From 1413 to 1416 it was subject to
Ragusa; and in 1420 it passed, with the greater part of Dalmatia, under
Venetian sovereignty.



BREACH (Mid. Eng. _breche_, derived from the common Teutonic root
_brec_, which appears in "break," Ger. _brechen_, &c.), in general, a
breaking, or an opening made by breaking; in law, the infringement of a
right or the violation of an obligation or duty. The word is used in
various phrases: _breach of close_, the unlawful entry upon another
person's land (see TRESPASS); _breach of covenant or contract_, the
non-fulfilment of an agreement either to do or not to do some act (see
DAMAGES); _breach of the peace_, a disturbance of the public order (see
PEACE, BREACH OF); _breach of pound_, the taking by force out of a pound
things lawfully impounded (see POUND); _breach of promise of marriage_,
the non-fulfilment of a contract mutually entered into by a man and a
woman that they will marry each other (see MARRIAGE); _breach of trust_,
any deviation by a trustee from the duty imposed upon him by the
instrument creating the trust (_q.v_.).



BREAD, the name given to the staple food-product prepared by the baking
of flour. The word itself, O. Eng. _bréad_, is common in various forms
to many Teutonic languages; cf. Ger. _Brot_, Dutch, _brood_, and Swed.
and Dan. _bröt_; it has been derived from the root of "brew," but more
probably is connected with the root of "break," for its early uses are
confined to "broken pieces, or bits" of bread, the Lat. _frustum_, and
it was not till the 12th century that it took the place, as the generic
name of bread, of _hlaf_, "loaf," which appears to be the oldest
Teutonic name, cf. Old High Ger. _hleib_, and modern Ger. _Laib_.

_History._--Bread-baking, or at any rate the preparation of cakes from
flour or parched grain by means of heat, is one of the most ancient of
human arts. At Wangen and Robenhausen have been found the calcined
remains of cakes made from coarsely-ground grain in Swiss lake-dwellings
that date back to the Stone Age. The cakes were made of different kinds
of grain, barley and one-grained wheat (_Triticum monococcum_) being
among the ingredients. This bread was made, not from fine meal, but from
grain crushed between some hard surfaces, and in these lake-dwellings
many round-shaped stones have been found, which were evidently used for
pounding or crushing grain against the surface, more or less concave, of
another stone (see FLOUR AND FLOUR MANUFACTURE). Perhaps the earliest
form of bread, if that word may be used, was prepared from acorns and
beech nuts. To this day a sort of cake prepared from crushed acorns is
eaten by the Indians of the Pacific slopes. The flour extracted from
acorns is bitter and unfit to eat till it has been thoroughly soaked in
boiling water. The saturated flour is squeezed into a kind of cake and
dried in the sun. Pliny speaks of a similar crude process in connexion
with wheat; the grain was evidently pounded, and the crushed remnant,
soaked into a sort of pulp, then made into a cake and dried in the sun.
Virgil (_Georgics_, i. 267) refers to the husbandman first torrefying
and then crushing his grain between stones:--"_Nunc torrete igni fruges,
nunc frangite saxo._"

The question naturally arises, how did the lake-dwellers bake their
cakes of bruised grain? Probably the dough was laid on a flat or
convex-shaped stone, which was heated, while the cake was covered with
hot ashes. Stones have been found among prehistoric remains which were
apparently used for this purpose. In ancient Egyptian tombs cakes of
durra have been found, of concave shape, suggesting the use of such
baking-slabs; here the cake was evidently prepared from coarsely-cracked
grain. In primitive times milling and baking were twin arts. The
housewife, and the daughters or handmaids, crushed or ground the grain
and prepared the bread or cakes. When Abraham entertained the angels
unawares (Genesis xviii.) he bade his wife Sarah "make ready quickly
three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes upon the hearth."
Professor Maspero says that an oven for baking bread was to be found in
the courtyard of every house in Chaldaea; close by were kept the
grinding stones. That bread prepared by means of leaven was known in the
days of the patriarchs may be fairly inferred from the passage in
Genesis ML, where it is said of Lot that he "made a feast, and did bake
unleavened bread." Whether the shew-bread of the Jewish tabernacle was
leavened is an open question, but it is significant that the Passover
cakes eaten by Jews to-day, known as Matzos, are innocent of leaven.
Made from flour and water only, they are about 12 in. in diameter, and
have somewhat the look of water biscuits.

The ancient Egyptians carried the art of baking to high perfection.
Herodotus remarks of them, "dough they knead with their feet, but clay
with their hands." The practice of using the feet for dough kneading,
however repulsive, long persisted in Scotland, if indeed it is yet
defunct. The Egyptians used for their bread, wheat, spelt, barley and
durra (sorghum). In the opinion of Dr Wallis Budge, barley was in Egypt
the grain of most primitive culture. However that may be, it is certain
that even in ancient Egypt white bread made from wheat was used by the
rich. The form of the bread is revealed by ancient monuments. A common
shape was a small, round loaf, something like the muffin of to-day.
Other loaves were elongated rolls, and curiously enough were sprinkled
on the top with seeds like modern Vienna bread.

The history of baking in classical Greece and Italy can be clearly
traced. Athenaeus in his _Deipnosophists_ minutely describes many
different kinds of bread, which may be assumed to have been currently
used in Greece. According to Pliny (_Nat. Hist_, xviii. II. § 28) Rome
had no public bakers till after the war with Perseus (171-168 B.C.).
That long after public bakehouses came into use the Romans and other
urban dwellers in Italy continued to make a great deal of bread at home
is certain. In Pompeii several private houses had their own mill and
bakehouse. That city must also have possessed bakers by trade, as loaves
of bread have been found, round in form, and stamped with the maker's
name, possibly to fix responsibility for weight and purity. In the time
of the Republic, public bakehouses were under the control of the
aediles. Grain was delivered to the public granaries by the _Saccarii_,
while another body called _Catabolenses_ distributed the grain to the
bakers. The latter were known as _Pistores_ or "pounders," a
reminiscence no doubt of the primitive time when grain was pounded by a
pestle in a mortar. Slaves were largely employed in the irksome work of
grinding, and when Constantine abolished slavery the staff of the
_pistrinae_ was largely recruited from criminals. The emperor Trajan
incorporated about A.D. 100 the college of _Pistores_ (millers and
bakers), but its members were employers, not operatives. The work of a
bakery is depicted in a set of bas-reliefs on the tomb of a master
Pistor named Eurysaces, who flourished about a century before the
foundation of the college. Here the grain is being brought and paid for;
mills driven by horse and ass (or mule) power are busy; men are sieving
out the bran from the flour by hand (bolters); bakers are moulding
loaves on a board; an oven of domelike shape is being charged by means
of a shovel (peel); and baskets of bread are being weighed on the one
hand and carried off on men's backs on the other.

_Regulation of Sale._--In the middle ages bakers were subjected to
special regulations in all European lands. These regulations were
supposed to be conceived in the interests of bread consumers, and no
doubt were intended to secure fair dealing on the part of bread vendors.
The legislators appear, however, to have been unduly biased against the
baker, who was often beset by harassing restrictions. Bakers were formed
into gilds, which were under the control, not only of their own
officials, but of the municipality. In London the bakers formed a
brotherhood as early as 1155, and were incorporated in 1307. There were
two distinct corporate bodies concerned with bread-making, the Company
of White Bakers and the Company of Brown Bakers; these were nominally
united in 1509, but the union did not become complete till the middle of
the 17th century. In Austria, bakers who offended against police
regulations respecting the sale of bread were liable, until
comparatively recent times, to fine, imprisonment and even corporal
punishment. In Turkey the lot of the baker was very hard. Baron de Tott,
writing of Constantinople in the 18th century, says that it was usual,
when bread went to famine prices, to hang a baker or two. He would have
us believe that it was the custom of master bakers to keep a second
hand, who, in consideration of a small increase of his weekly wage, was
willing to appear before the cadi in case a victim were wanted. A
barbarous punishment, inflicted in Turkey and in Egypt on bakers who
sold light or adulterated bread, consisted in nailing the culprit by his
ear to the door-post of his shop. In France a decree of 1863 relieved
bakers from many of the restrictions under which they previously
suffered, but it did not touch the powers of the municipalities to
regulate the quality and sale of bread. It left them the right conferred
in 1791, to enforce the _taxe du pain_, the object of which was to
prevent bakers from increasing the price of bread beyond a point
justified by the price of the raw materials; but the right was exercised
on their own responsibility, subject to appeal to higher authorities,
and by a circular issued in 1863 they were invited to abolish this _taxe
officielle_. In places where it exists it is fixed every week or
fortnight, according to the average price of grain in the local markets.

In England an act of parliament was passed in 1266 for regulating the
price of bread by a public assize, and that system continued in
operation till 1822 in the case of the city of London, and till 1836 for
the rest of the country. The price of bread was determined by adding a
certain sum to the price of every quarter of flour, to cover the baker's
expenses and profit; and for the sum so arrived at tradesmen were
required to bake and sell eighty quartern loaves or a like proportion of
other sizes, which it was reckoned each quarter of flour ought to yield.
The acts now regulating the manufacture and sale of bread in Great
Britain are one of 1822 (Sale of Bread in the City of London and within
10 m. of the Royal Exchange), and the Bread Act of 1836, as to sale of
bread beyond 10 m. of the Royal Exchange. The acts require that bread
shall be sold by weight, and in no other manner, under a penalty not
exceeding forty shillings. This does not, however, mean that a seller is
bound to sell at any particular weight; the words quartern and
half-quartern, though commonly used and taken to indicate a 4-lb. and
2-lb. loaf respectively, have no legal sanction. That is to say, a baker
is not bound to sell a loaf weighing either 4 lb. or 2; all he has to
do, when a customer asks for a loaf, is to put one on the scale, weigh
it, and declare the weight. When bread is sold over the counter it is
usual for the vendor to cut off and tender a piece of bread to make up
any deficiency in the loaf. This is known as the "overweight." There is
little doubt the somewhat misty wording of the bread acts lends itself
to a good deal of fraudulent dealing. For instance, when bread is sold
over the counter, two loaves may be 5 or 6 oz. short, while the piece of
makeweight may not reach an ounce. The customer sees the bread put on
the scale, but in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred does not trouble to
verify the weight, and unless he expressly asks for 2 lb. or some
specific weight of bread, it is very doubtful whether the seller, having
satisfied the letter of the law by placing the bread on the scales,
could be convicted of fraud. The provision as to selling by weight does
not apply to fancy bread and rolls. No exact definition of "fancy bread"
has ever been laid down, and it must be largely a question of fact in
each particular case. All bakers or sellers of bread must use
avoirdupois weight, and must provide, in a conspicuous place in the
shop, beams, scales and weights, in order that all bread there sold may
from time to time be weighed in the presence of the purchaser. The
penalty for using any other weight than avoirdupois is a sum not
exceeding £5 nor less than forty shillings, and for failing to provide
beams and scales a sum not exceeding £5. Also every baker and seller of
bread, delivering by cart or other conveyance, must be provided with
scales and weights for weighing bread; but since the Weights and
Measures Act 1889, no penalty is incurred by omission to weigh, unless
there has been a request on the part of the purchaser. The acts also
define precisely what ingredients may be employed in the manufacture of
bread, and impose a penalty not exceeding £10 nor less than £5 for the
adulteration of bread. (See further under ADULTERATION.)

Although the act of 1836 extends to the whole of the United Kingdom
(Ireland excepted) out of the city of London and beyond 10 m. of the
Royal Exchange, yet in many Scottish burghs this act is replaced by
local acts on the sale of bread. These are in all cases of a much more
stringent nature, requiring all batch or household bread to be stamped
with the reputed weight. Any deficiency within a certain time from the
withdrawal of the bread from the oven is an offence. The London County
Council desired to introduce a similar system into the area under their
jurisdiction, and promoted a bill to that effect in 1905, but it fell
through. The bill was opposed not only by the National Association of
Master Bakers, the London Master Bakers' Protection Society, and by the
West End metropolitan bakers in a body, but also by the Home Office,
which objected to what it termed exceptional legislation.

It may be noted that the acts of 1822 and 1836 define precisely what may
and may not be sold as bread. It is laid down in section 2 that "it
shall and may be lawful ... to make and sell ... bread made of flour or
meal of wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat, Indian corn, peas, beans,
rice or potatoes, or any of them, and with any (common) salt, pure
water, eggs, milk, barm, leaven, potato or other yeast, and mixed in
such proportions as they shall think fit, and with no other ingredients
or matter whatsoever."

_Sanitation of Bakehouses._--The sanitary arrangements of bakehouses in
England were first regulated by the Bakehouse Regulation Act 1863, which
was repealed and replaced by the Factory and Workshop Act 1878; this
act, with various amending acts, was in turn repealed and replaced by
the Factory and Workshop Act 1901. By the act of 1901 a bakehouse is
defined as a place in which are baked bread, biscuits or confectionery,
from the baking or selling of which a profit is derived. The act of 1863
placed the sanitary supervision of bakehouses in the hands of local
authorities; from 1878 to 1883 supervision was in the hands of
inspectors of factories, but in 1883 the supervision of retail
bakehouses was placed in the hands of local authorities. Under the act
of 1901 the supervision of bakehouses which are "workshops" is carried
out by local authorities, and for the purposes of the act every
bakehouse is a workshop unless within it, or its close or curtilage or
precincts, steam, water or other mechanical power is used in aid of the
manufacturing process carried on there, in which case it is treated as a
non-textile factory, and is under the supervision of factory inspectors.

  The more important regulations laid down by the act are: (1) No
  water-closet, &c., must be within or communicate directly with the
  bakehouse; every cistern for supplying water to the bakehouse must be
  separate and distinct from any cistern supplying a water-closet; no
  drain or pipe for carrying off sewage matter shall have an opening
  within the bakehouse. (2) The interior of all bakehouses must be
  limewashed, painted or varnished at stated periods. (3) No place on
  the same level with a bakehouse or forming part of the same building
  may be used as a sleeping place, unless specially constructed to meet
  the requirements of the act. (4) No underground bakehouse (one of
  which the floor is more than 3 ft. below the surface of the footway of
  the adjoining street) shall be used unless certified by the district
  council as suitable for the purpose (see Redgrave, _Factory Acts_;
  Evans Austin, _Factory Acts_).

_Bread Sluffs._--As compared with wheat-flour, all other materials used
for making bread are of secondary importance. Rye bread is largely
consumed in some of the northern parts of Europe, and cakes of maize
meal are eaten in the United States. In southern Europe the meal of
various species of millet is used, and in India and China durra and
other cereal grains are baked for food. Of non-cereal flour, the
principal used for bread-making is buckwheat (_Fagopyrum esculentum_),
extensively employed in Russia, Holland and the United States. The flour
of pease, beans and other leguminous seeds is also baked into cakes, and
in South America the meal of the tapioca plant, _Jatropha Manihot_, is
employed. But, excepting rye, none of these substances is used for
making vesiculated or fermented bread.


  Quality of flour.

A normal sample of wheat-flour consists roughly of 10 parts of moisture,
72 of starch, 14 of nitrogenous matter, 2.25 of fatty matters, and 1.75%
of mineral matter. Starch is thus the predominating component; it is
not, however, the dough-forming ingredient. By itself, starch, when
saturated with water, forms a putty-like mass devoid of coherence, and
it is the gluten of the nitrogenous matter which is the binding
constituent in dough-making, because when wetted it forms a more or less
elastic body. The proportion of gluten in wheat-flour varies from 7 to
15%, but the mere quantity of gluten is by no means the only standard of
the commercial value of the flour, the quality also counting for much.
One of the functions of gluten is to produce a high or well-piled loaf,
and its value for this purpose depends largely on its quality. This is
turn depends largely on the variety of wheat; certain races of wheat are
much richer in nitrogenous elements than others, but such wheats
usually only flourish in certain countries. Soil and climate are
undoubtedly factors in modifying the character of wheat, and necessarily
therefore of the flour. The same wheat grown in the same soil will show
very varying degrees of strength (i.e. of gluten) in different seasons.
For instance, the north-western districts of America grow a hard spring
wheat which in a normal season is of almost unequalled strength. In 1904
an excess of moisture and deficiency in sun in the Red River Valley
during the critical months of June and July caused a serious attack of
red and black rust in these wheat fields, the disease being more
virulent in the American than the Canadian side of the valley. The
result was that the quality of the gluten of that season's American
spring wheat was most seriously affected, its famed strength being
almost gone. Wheat from the Canadian side was also affected, but not
nearly to so great an extent. Flour milled from hard winter wheat in the
American winter districts is sometimes nearly as strong as the spring
wheat of the North-west. Hungarian flour milled from Theis wheat is also
very strong, and so is the flour milled from some south Russian spring
wheats. But here again the degree of strength will vary from season to
season in a remarkable manner. In the main each land has its own clearly
marked type of wheat. While the United States, Canada, Hungary and
Russia are each capable of growing strong wheat, Great Britain, France
and Germany produce wheat more or less weak. It follows that the bread
baked from flour milled from wheat from British, French or German wheat
alone would not make a loaf of sufficient volume, judged by present
British standards. As a matter of fact, except in some country
districts, British bakers either use strong foreign flour to blend with
English country flour, or, more frequently, they are supplied with flour
by British millers milled from a blend in which very often English wheat
has a small, or no place at all. If the baker's trade calls for the
making of household bread, especially of the London type, he must use a
strong flour, with plenty of staple gluten in it, because it is this
element which supplies the driving or lifting force, without which a
high, bold loaf cannot be produced. If the demand is for tin or (as it
is called in many parts of the north of England) pan bread, a weaker
flour will suffice, as the tin will keep it up. A Vienna loaf should be
made with at least a certain proportion of Hungarian patent flour, which
is normally the highest-priced flour in the market, though probably the
bulk of the Vienna rolls made in London contain no Hungarian flour. A
cake of flat shape can be very well made with a rather weak flour, but
any cake that is required to present a domed top cannot be prepared
without a flour of some strength.


  Flavour of flour.

It is a general opinion, though contested by some authorities, that
soft, weak flours contain more flavour than strong, harsh flours. The
strong wheats of the American and Canadian North-West make less flavoury
flour than soft red winter from the American South-West. It would not,
however, be correct to say that all strong wheats are necessarily less
full of flavour than weak wheats. Hungarian wheat, for instance, is one
of the strongest wheats of the world, but has a characteristic and
pleasant flavour of its own. Indian wheats, on the other hand, are not
particularly strong, but are liable to give a rather harsh flavour to
the bread. English, French and German wheats, when harvested in good
condition, produce flour of more or less agreeable flavour. None of
these wheats could be classified as strong, though from each of those
lands wheat of fair strength may be obtained under favourable
meteorological conditions. The Australasian continent raises white wheat
of fine quality which has much affinity with British wheat--it is the
descendant in many cases of seed wheats imported from England--but it is
occasionally stronger. The resultant flour is noted for its sweetness.
Both millers and bakers who are concerned with the supply of high-class
bread and flour make free use of what may be termed flavoury wheats. The
proportion of English wheat used in London mills is very small, but
millers who supply West-End bakeries with what is known as top-price
flour are careful to use a certain amount of English wheat, if it is to
be had in prime condition. They term this ingredient of their mixture
"sugar." London bakers again, with customers who appreciate nicely
flavoured bread, will "pitch" into their trough a certain proportion of
English country flour, that is, flour milled entirely or chiefly from
English wheat, which under such conditions is strengthened by a blend of
strong flour, a patent flour for choice. It has been objected that as
English wheat contains a large proportion of starch, and as starch is
admittedly destitute of flavour, there is no reason why flour milled
from English wheat should possess a sweeter flavour than any other
starchy wheat flour. Experience, however, has amply proved that
well-ripened English wheat produces bread with an agreeable flavour,
though it does not follow that all English wheat is under all conditions
capable of baking bread of the highest quality. But it would be as
fallacious to hold that weak flour is necessarily flavoury, as that all
strong flour is insipid and harsh. Different wheats are undoubtedly
possessed of different flavours, but not all these flavours are of a
pleasing character. In some cases the very reverse is true. Californian
and Australian wheats have occasionally aromatic odours, due to the
presence of certain seeds, that will impart an objectionable flavour to
the resultant bread.

While the essential character of particular wheats will account for a
good deal of the flavour that may be detected in the bread made from
them, the baking process must also be responsible to some extent for
flavour. The temperature of the oven and the degree of fermentation must
be factors in the question. It has been asserted that the same flour
will bake into bread of very different flavour according as the
fermentation is carried out slowly or quickly, or as the oven is hot or
the reverse. A high temperature seems to have the effect of quickly
drawing out the subtle essences which go to give flavour to the bread,
but it is a question whether they are not subsequently rapidly
volatilized and partially or wholly lost. The rapid formation of a solid
crust is no doubt likely to retain some of these flavouring essences. A
moist, or "slack," sponge, or dough, appears distinctly favourable to
the retention of flavour, the theory being that under such conditions
the yeast, having more room to "breathe," works more easily, and is
therefore less likely to convert into food those soluble constituents of
the flour which give flavour.


  Colour of flour.

The colour of flour is a valuable, though not an infallible, index to
its baking qualities. Thus, a flour of good colour, by which bakers mean
a flour of bright appearance, white, but not a dull dead white, will
usually bake into a loaf of good appearance. At the same time, a flour
of pronounced white tint may bake into a dirty grey loaf. This has been
particularly noted in the case of flours milled in Argentina. The colour
of flour will vary from a rich, creamy white to a dull grey, according
to its quality. The different shades are many and various, but the
prevailing tints are comparatively few. Perhaps Blandy's classification
of the colours as white, yellow, red, brown and grey is as serviceable
as any. Each of these tints is directly caused by the presence of
certain substances. White denotes the presence of a considerable
proportion of starch, while a pronounced yellow tint proclaims gluten of
more or less good quality. Red and brown are tints only found in flours
of low grade, because they are sure proofs of an undue proportion of
branny or fibrous particles. A greyish flour invariably contains
impurities, such as crease dirt, from the wheat, the intensity of the
tint varying in proportion to their amount. With regard to a yellow
tint, though this always denotes the presence of gluten, it is difficult
to estimate the baking quality of the flour by the shade of yellow. In
the best Hungarian patent flour the whole sample will be suffused by an
amber tint, known to Budapest and Vienna bakers as _gelblicher Stich_.
Rolls baked from the best Hungarian flour will not infrequently cut
yellow as if eggs had been used in making them up, though nothing more
than flour, yeast and water has been employed. Strong flour milled from
American or Canadian spring wheat is also yellowish in colour, but the
tint is not so deep as with Hungarian flour. On the other hand, there
are flours of no great strength, such as those from some Australian
wheats, which are apt to look yellow. When the colour of flour is not
maintained in the bread, the reason is generally to be found in the
baking process employed. Colour is a fairly trustworthy, but not an
absolute guide to the chemical composition of flour.


  Damp and flour.

Unfortunately not all flour of good colour is sound for bread-making
purposes. Wheat which has been harvested in a damp condition, or has
been thoroughly soaked, by drenching showers previous to cutting, or has
got wet in the stook, is liable, unless carefully handled, to produce
flour that will only bake flat, sodden loaves. Wheat which has received
too much rain as it is approaching maturity, and has then been exposed
to strong sunlight, is peculiarly liable to sprout. This seems to happen
not infrequently to La Plata wheat, and though wheat shippers in that
country are usually careful to clean off the little green spikes, this
outward cleansing does not remedy the mischief wrought to the internal
constitution of the berry. Such wheat makes flour lacking in strength
and stability. Its gluten is immature and low in percentage, while the
soluble albuminoids are in high percentage and in a more or less active
diastasic state. The starch granules are liable to have weakened or
fissured walls, and the proportion of moisture and of soluble extract
will be high. With regard to the beneficial action of kiln or other
drying on damp flour, William Jago was convinced by a series of
experiments that the gentle artificial drying of flour increases its
water-absorbing capacity to about three times the amount of water lost
by evaporation. On the other hand, a damp flour dried too quickly and at
too great a heat is liable to be made more instead of less susceptible
to diastasic changes.

  _Alum._--Strictly speaking, when employed with weak and unstable
  flours alum is a remedial agent. The popular idea that it acts as a
  kind of bleacher of flour, having the faculty of converting flour that
  is dark-coloured through containing a sensible proportion of branny
  particles and woody fibre, into white-coloured loaves, is erroneous.
  Its action as a producer of white bread is indirect, not direct,
  though it is none the less effective. It seems to act as a brace to or
  steadier of unstable gluten. If from the same wheat a certain
  proportion of gluten be extracted and divided into two parts, of which
  one is placed in a glass of water containing a strong solution of
  alum, and the other in a glass of plain water, the gluten in the
  latter case will become spent days and perhaps weeks before the sample
  in the alumed water is disintegrated. The place of alum in the process
  of fermentation is well marked. By holding together unstable gluten,
  it checks the diastasic action, and the proportion of starch converted
  into glucose (grape sugar) is reduced, with the result that a whiter
  and more porous loaf is produced. It is generally admitted that by the
  use of alum more or less eatable bread may be baked from flour which
  otherwise could hardly be made into bread at all. Strictly, therefore,
  this substance is not an adulterant, inasmuch as it is not a
  substitute in any sense for flour. But it is admittedly unwholesome,
  and therefore its legal interdiction for alimentary purposes is quite
  justifiable. Another aspect of the use of alum is that it is employed
  for the purpose of enabling bakers to use poor flour.

  A fairly satisfactory test for alum in bread (or flour) is afforded by
  an alkaline solution of logwood and a saturated solution of ammonium
  carbonate. The presence of alum is shown by a lavender or full blue
  colour. The depth of the tint is said to be a rough guide to the
  quantity of alum present. According to Jago this test is so sensitive
  that it has resulted in the detection of 7 grains of alum in a 4-lb
  loaf.

  Besides alum, small quantities of copper sulphate have been used for
  checking diastasis and retarding fermentation. This substance has the
  same effect as alum, but as all copper salts are active poisons, the
  employment of copper sulphate is most strongly to be condemned.

  _Lime-water._--The object of using either alum or copper sulphate is
  to check over-rapid diastasis during fermentation. Baron Liebig
  pointed out a much less objectionable means of attaining the same end
  by means of lime-water, about 1½ oz. of fresh quicklime being
  dissolved in the water used for doughing one sack of flour. Bread made
  in this way is said to be spongy in texture, of agreeable flavour, and
  perfectly free from acidity. In the baked loaf the lime is transformed
  into calcium carbonate (chalk) by the carbon dioxide resulting from
  the panary fermentation. It is said that an increased yield of bread
  may be obtained by the use of lime-water; the explanation may be that
  lime-water, by retarding the degradation of the gluten and the
  diastasis of the starch, increases the water-retaining power of the
  flour, so that the same weight of flour yields a greater volume of
  bread.

_Unvesiculated and Vesiculated Bread._--Wheaten bread may be divided
into two main divisions, unvesiculated and vesiculated. The term
vesiculated simply means provided with vesicles, or small membranous
cavities, such as are found in all bread that has been treated by yeast,
leaven or any other agent for rendering it spongiform in structure by
the action of carbonic acid gas. Nearly all bread eaten by civilized
folk is vesiculated, though there are different methods and processes
for attaining this result. Into the category of unvesiculated bread
enter such products as the Australian damper, a flat cake prepared from
flour, water and salt, and baked in the hot ashes of a wood fire. The
dough is spread on a flat stone and covered with a tin plate, while the
hot ashes are heaped around and over it; the heat should not be much in
excess of 212° Fahr. The scone, the bannock and other similar cakes,
still much appreciated in Scotland and the north of England, are also
examples of unvesiculated bread. They are baked on hot plates or
"griddles," on hearths, and sometimes in ovens. Biscuits differ from
these cakes in the fact that they are baked by a high instead of a
moderate heat. But they enter so far into the class of unvesiculated
bread that they are generally prepared without the aid of any such
aerating agent as carbon dioxide. (See BISCUIT.)

Vesiculated bread is now the only article of diet made from flour to
which the term bread is applied, and there are various ways of producing
the spongiform texture by which it is characterized. The ordinary and
doubtless the most satisfactory way is by developing the carbon dioxide
within the dough itself by the use of yeast (q.v.) or leaven, which sets
up alcoholic fermentation, splitting up the saccharine matters in the
flour into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The latter is retained by the
dough and distends it, causing the bread to "rise." Or the carbon
dioxide may be artificially introduced, as in the so-called "aerated"
bread (see below), or it may be produced by the agency of certain
chemicals, as for instance of baking powders.


  Baking powders.

Such powders are mixtures which, under the influence of either water or
heat, evolve carbon dioxide. These powders have been divided by Jago
into three groups:--(1) _Tartrate_ powders, in which the acid
constituent is either free or partly combined tartaric acid; (2)
_Phosphate_ powders, in which the acid is some form of phosphoric acid;
(3) _Alum_ powders. All these powders have a more or less aperient
action on the human system. Tartrate powders have the disadvantage that
both commercial tartaric acid and cream of tartar frequently contain
lead, a poisonous substance. Phosphate powders are less open to
objection, as they are more easy to obtain free from lead and other
metallic impurities. Alum powders contain potassium bisulphate and alum.
It is somewhat remarkable that while the presence of alum in bread is
regarded by the law of England as adulteration, its use in baking powder
was pronounced legal in _James_ v. _Jones_, 1894, 1, Q.B. 304, on the
ground that baking powder is not food within the meaning of the Sale of
Food and Drugs Act 1875. In making wholemeal bread, hydrochloric acid
and sodium bicarbonate are often used in such proportions that they
neutralize each other. Carbon dioxide is evolved and raises the dough.
In preparing wholemeal bread the use of this combination has the
advantage that the acid acting rapidly on the sodium bicarbonate soon
produces enough carbon dioxide to aerate the dough, and thus hasten its
entry into the oven. Wholemeal flour contains so large a proportion of
cerealin that diastasis is apt to proceed rapidly, the result being a
clammy, sodden loaf. For this reason, perhaps the so-called aerated
process is even more suitable for making wholemeal than white bread.


  Methods of making dough.

Methods of dough-making differ in different countries, and even in
different parts of the same land. In the _off hand_ method the dough is
made right off, without any preliminary stages of ferment or sponge.
This plan is sometimes adopted for making tin bread, and occasionally
for crusty loaves. For tin bread a strong flour would be used and made
into a slack dough, and about 1½ lb. to 2 lb. of distillers' yeast would
be used for the sack (280 lb.) of flour, occasionally with the addition
of a little brewers' yeast. Salt is used in the proportion of 3 lb. to
3½ lb. per sack. Formerly also it was the custom to add 10-14 lb. of
boiled potatoes, but the use of potatoes has greatly decreased. A
tin-bread dough would be made slack, with about 70 quarts of water to
the sack, and after being mixed, would be fermented at a temperature of
76-80° Fahr. It should lie for about ten hours. A dough for crusty bread
such as cottage loaves, would be made much tighter, not more than 60
quarts of water being allowed to the sack. It would be fermented at a
higher temperature, and would not lie more than about six hours. A slack
dough is much less laborious to work (when the dough is hand-made) than
a tight dough, for which a mechanical kneader is very suitable, but as a
matter of fact the use of machinery (see below) is still the exception,
not the rule. When a stiff dough is made by hand, it is usually made
somewhat slack to begin with, and then "cut back" and "dusted" at
regular intervals, that is to say, more and more flour is added till a
dough of the required consistency has been obtained. (In the British
baker's vocabulary "dust" means flour, and good dust stands for good
flour.) This system, on the one hand, saves the labour involved for
"sponging" and other operations, and the bread is produced in less time;
but on the other hand more yeast is used, and bakers generally hold that
the system sacrifices the colour and texture of the loaf to convenience
of working and yield. The high porportion of yeast enables the dough to
carry a large quantity of water, and about 104 4-lb. loaves to the sack
is said by Jago to be a not unusual yield in the case of slack doughs.
But such a result would only be possible with very strong flour. In an
ordinary way 96 loaves to the sack is a very high yield, unattainable
except with strong flour, and probably the average yield is not more
than 90 loaves to the sack. In London the manager of a "tied" shop is
usually held to account for 92 loaves to the sack.

In the _ferment and dough_ system, the ferment usually consists of 10 to
14 lb. of potatoes to the sack of flour, boiled or steamed, and mashed
with water, so as to yield about 3 gallons of liquor. There are several
substitutes for potatoes, including raw and scalded flour, malt, malt
extracts, &c.; brewers' or distillers' yeast may also be used. A ferment
should contain saccharine matters and yeast stimulants in such a form as
to favour the growth and reproduction of yeast in a vigorous condition.
Hence it should not be too concentrated. About six hours are required
for its preparation. It is added, together with 2 to 3 lb. of salt, to
the dough, which is prepared with about 56 quarts of water to the sack,
and worked at a temperature of 80-84° Fahr. The dough is allowed to lie
from two to five hours according to the flour used, the character of the
ferment, and the working temperature. In this system the proportion of
strong flour is usually reduced to 40% of the dough, and no doubt in
some cases only soft or weak flours are used. Naturally the yield of
bread is not so high as in the case of an off hand dough made entirely
from strong flour, and it will probably not exceed 90 loaves to the
sack. This method has many advantages. After the ferment is made the
labour required is not much greater than with the off hand doughs, and
less yeast is required, while potatoes, which are somewhat troublesome,
from the necessary cleaning, can be replaced by the substitutes already
mentioned. The method produces good-looking and palatable bread, though
the loaves should be eaten within some twelve hours of leaving the oven.

The _sponge and dough_ system, which is probably in widest use in
England, is adapted to almost every kind of bread, and has the advantage
that any kind of flour can be employed. The stronger flours which need
long fermentation can be and usually are used in the "sponge" stage,
while soft flours are utilized in the dough. (The sponge is a certain
proportion, varying from a quarter to one-half, of the flour necessary
for making the batch.) In London the baker often uses for the sponge a
bag (140 lb) of American spring wheat flour, and for the dough a sack
(280 lb) of British milled flour, which, whether it be country flour
milled largely from English wheat or London milled, is always softer and
weaker than that used for the sponge. The sponge is made very slack, 26
to 32 quarts of water being used to say 100 lb. of flour. Yeast, either
distillers' or brewers', must be added, in proportions varying according
to its character and strength. Of distillers' yeast 6 to 10 oz. may be
used for 280 lb. of flour (including sponge and dough). Salt is added to
the sponge sparingly, at the rate of about ½ lb. to the sack of 280 lb.
The object of making the sponge so slack is to quicken the fermentation.
When set the sponge is allowed to ferment from six to ten hours,
according to temperature and other conditions. Sometimes all the water
it is intended to use is put into the sponge, which is then known as a
"batter" sponge. The sponge, when ready, is incorporated with the rest
of the flour to which the necessary amount of water and salt is added.
The whole mass is then doughed up into the requisite consistency, the
dough being allowed to lie for about two hours. Bread made by this
method, always assuming that over-fermentation has been avoided, is of
good appearance, presenting a bold loaf, with even texture and a nice
sheen. Owing to the use of soft flours, the flavour should be agreeable,
and the loaves ought to keep much longer than bread made by ferment and
dough. The yield may rise as high as 96 loaves per sack, if strong flour
has been used in the sponge.

A combination of the above two methods, known as the _ferment, sponge
and dough_ system, is often used with brewers' yeast. In this case the
yeast is not added to the sponge direct, but goes into the ferment. This
method is rather in favour with bakers who make their own yeast.

The system of bread-making generally used in Scotland is known as the
_flour barm, sponge and dough_. The barm is a combination of a malt and
hop yeast, with a slow, scalded flour ferment. To make the so-called
"virgin" barm a Scottish baker would use a 30-gallon tub; a smaller
vessel for malt-mashing; 10 lb. malt; 3 oz. hops and a jar for infusing
them; 40 lb flour; 2 to 3 oz. malt; 8 to 12 oz. sugar, and 18 gallons of
boiling water. With these materials a powerful ferment is produced,
which it is considered best to use in the sponge the fourth or fifth day
after brewing. The sponges used in Scotland are "half" or "quarter."
About 6 lb. of malt go to the sack, one-sixth going into the sponge. As
in England, strong flours are used for the sponge, but rather stronger
flours are used for the dough than is usual in England. Scottish loaves
are largely of the "brick" type, high and narrow. Such bread has an
attractive appearance and keeps well. It has a rather sharp flavour,
approaching acidity but avoiding sourness, while the large quantity of
malt used adds a characteristic taste. The yield rises in some Glasgow
bread factories to 100 loaves to the sack.


  Leavened bread.

In many parts of Europe bread is still made from leaven, which, properly
speaking, consists of a portion of dough held over from the previous
baking. This substance, known to French bakers as _levain_, is called in
Germany _Sauerteig_ (_anglice_ "sour dough"). The lump of old dough,
placed aside in a uniform temperature for some eight hours, swells and
acquires an alcoholic odour, becoming the _levain de chef_ of the French
bakers. It is then worked up with flour and water to a firm paste double
its original volume, when it becomes the _levain de première_. Six hours
later, by the addition of more flour and water its amount is again
doubled, though its consistency is made rather softer, and it becomes
the _levain de seconde_. Finally, by another addition of flour and
water, the amount is again doubled, and the _levain de tous points_ is
obtained. This mass is divided into two parts; one is baked yielding
rather dark sour bread, while the other is mixed with more flour and
water. This second portion is in turn halved, part is baked, and part
again mixed with more flour, this last batch yielding the best and
whitest bread. In North Germany leaven is generally used for making rye
bread, and loaves baked from a mixture of wheat and rye flour. In the
bakery of the Krupp works at Essen, each batch of the so-called
Paderborn bread is prepared entirely with leaven from 270 kilos of rye
flour (patent quality), 100 of wheat flour (seconds), 2 of buckwheat
meal, 6 of salt, 5 of leaven, and one litre of oil. In Vienna leaven is
never used for making the rolls and small goods for which that city is
famous. Viennese bakers use either brewers' yeast or a ferment, prepared
by themselves, of which the basis is an infusion of hops. Brewers' yeast
is added to the ferment, which takes the form of a very slack dough.
With 100 kilos (220.46 lb.) of flour about 17 litres or nearly 2 gallons
of ferment are used.


  Aerated bread.

In the original Dauglish process for the manufacture of aerated bread,
which was brought into operation in Great Britain in 1859, carbonic acid
gas was evolved in a generating vessel by the action of sulphuric acid
on chalk, and after purification was forced at high pressure into water,
which was then used for doughing the flour. In this process the flour
that had to be made into bread was submitted to the action of the
super-aerated water by direct transference. It was found, however, in
practice that much difficulty occurred in making the gas admix readily
with the flour and water, great pressure being required, and to lessen
the difficulties a new process, called the "wine whey," was introduced.
To carry this out, a vat placed on the upper storey of the factory is
charged with a portion of malt and flour, which is mashed and allowed to
ferment until a weak and slightly acid thin wine is produced; this after
passing through the coolers is stored until it is transformed into a
vinous whey. This whey is then introduced into a strong cylinder partly
filled with water, and is aerated by letting in the gas (now stored in a
highly compressed form in bottles), the pressure required being only a
quarter of that necessary with the original method. The flour having
been placed in the mixers, which are of globular form containing
revolving arms, the aerated fluid is admitted, and in a short period the
flour and fluid are completely incorporated. By means of an ingenious
appliance termed a dough cock, the exact amount of dough for a single
loaf of bread is forced out under the pressure of the gas, and by
reversing the lever the dough, which expands as it falls into a baking
tin, is cut off. Two sacks of flour can be converted with ease into 400
2-lb. loaves in forty minutes, whereas the ordinary baker's process
would require about ten hours. At first a difficulty was encountered in
the fact that the dough became discoloured by the action of the "wine
whey" on the iron, but it was overcome by Killingworth Hedges, who
discovered a non-poisonous vitreous enamel for coating the interior of
the mixers, &c. It has been claimed for the Dauglish process that it
saves the baker risks attendant on the production of carbon dioxide by
the ordinary process of fermentation, in that he is no longer liable to
have his dough spoilt by variations of temperature and other
incalculable factors, the results being certain and uniform. A further
claim is the saving of the proportion of starch consumed by conversion
into glucose during the process of fermentation. The original objection,
that, by the absence of fermentation, those subtle changes which help to
produce flavour are lost, is annulled by the use of the wine whey
process. The Dauglish process is well suited for producing small goods,
such as cakes and scones, where flavour can be artificially imparted by
means of currants, flavouring essences, &c. An undoubted advantage of
the aerating process of bread-making is adaptability for utilizing flour
with unstable gluten, which can thus be made into an excellent quality
of bread. For wholemeal bread, too, there is probably no more suitable
process than the Dauglish. The strong diastasic action of the cerealin,
inevitable in fermentation, is entirely avoided. The Aerated Bread
Company have about a hundred depots in London, which are supplied from a
central factory.


  Apostolov process.

The essence of the bread-making process recently invented by Serge
Apostolov is the combination of a flour mill and bakery. The wheat,
after a preliminary cleaning, is ground into flour by a mill composed of
metal disks dressed, that is furrowed, very much like the surfaces of a
pair of mill-stones. The disks are not set to grind very close, because
it is desired, by minimizing friction, to keep the meal cool. From the
middlings obtained by this milling process about 10% of bran is
separated, and the remainder of the middlings is treated by a peculiar
process, akin to mashing, termed "lixiviation." The middlings are
saturated with tepid water containing a small proportion of yeast, which
causes a certain amount of fermentation. It is claimed that by this
process a solution is obtained of the floury constituents of the
middlings. From the vats the solution is poured on an inclined sieve
which has a gentle reciprocating motion. The floury particles pass
through the meshes, while the bran tails over the sieve; the proportion
of the wheat berry thus rejected is given as about 2½%. On the other
hand, the milky-looking solution, called "lactus," is caught in a
special vessel, and delivered by a shoot into a trough, which may be
either a mechanical kneader of an ordinary trough. This lactus takes
the place of the ordinary sponge. The flour is added in the proportion
necessary to make the required batch and the whole mass is doughed,
either by hand or power. The resultant dough is moulded in the ordinary
way into loaves, which are baked in due course. The advantages claimed
for the process are that it permits of the utilization in bread-making
of about 87½% of the wheat berry, that the resultant bread is fairly
white in colour and is agreeable in flavour, and that it is extremely
simple and provides a ready and cheap means of flour-making.

  _Machine Bakeries._--Bread-baking, though one of the most important of
  human industries, was long carried out in a most primitive manner, and
  machinery is still practically unknown in the bulk of British
  bakehouses. The reasons for this apparently anomalous condition of
  things are not very far to seek. Bread, unlike biscuits, is a food
  quite unfitted for long storage, and must be consumed within a
  comparatively short time of being drawn from the oven. Hence the
  bread-baker's output is necessarily limited to a greater or lesser
  degree. This will be the more apparent when it is considered that the
  cost of distributing bread is high relatively to the profits to be
  realized. A baker's bread trade is therefore usually limited to local
  requirements, and trading on a small scale he has less inducement to
  lay out capital on the installation of machinery than other classes of
  manufacturers. But there are now many machine bakeries (known in
  Scotland as bread factories), both in London and in other parts of
  Great Britain, where the manufacture of bread is carried out more or
  less on a large scale. The evolution of the machine bakery has been
  slow, and the mechanical operations of the bakehouse were long limited
  to the mixing of the sponge and the kneading of the dough, but now the
  work of the bakery engineer extends over almost every operation of
  bread-making.

  A bread-baking plant should be installed in a building of at least two
  storeys. The ground floor may be used for the shop, with possibly a
  bread-cooling and delivery room at the rear. The flour may be hoisted
  to an attic at the top of the building, or to the top floor; in any
  case there must be sufficient floor space to accommodate the flour
  sacks and bags. Underneath the floor of the flour store should be
  installed a flour sifter, a simple apparatus consisting essentially of
  a hopper through which the flour enters a cylinder with a spiral
  brush, by which it is thoroughly agitated previously to passing
  through one or more sieves placed under the brush. A sack of flour may
  be passed through this sifter in a couple of minutes, the operation
  freeing the flour from lumps and pieces of string or other foreign
  substances which may have found their way into the sack. The sifter
  may also be combined with a blender or mixer, so that the baker may by
  its means thoroughly blend different flours in any desired proportion.
  The operation of blending is usually effected by a revolving blade of
  suitable design or by a worm conveyor placed underneath the sieve or
  sleeve. From the sifter and blender the flour descends by a sleeve
  into the dough kneading machine on the floor below. But in cases where
  it is desired merely to sift and blend flour ready for future use, it
  may be received in a worm and elevated again to the storage floor by
  an ordinary belt and bucket elevator. The water required for doughing
  purposes is contained in an iron tank, fixed to the wall in convenient
  proximity to the dough kneader. This tank, known as a water
  attemperating and measuring tank, is provided with a gauge and
  thermometer, and from it the exact quantity of water needed for
  doughing can be rapidly drawn off at the desired temperature. The cold
  water supply may be let into the tank at the top, and the hot water
  supply at the bottom, the idea being that each supply shall permeate
  the whole mass by gravity, the hot water ascending and the cold
  descending. The chief types of dough kneader will be described
  subsequently, but here it should be noted that not only have machines
  been devised for cutting out the exact sizes of dough required for
  small goods, such as buns and tartlets, but that the operations of
  weighing and dividing dough for quartern and half-quartern loaves can
  also be neatly and economically effected by machinery. Further, at
  least two machines have been built which successfully mould loaves (of
  simple shape), and the problem of moulding household bread by
  machinery has certainly been solved, but whether delicate twists and
  other fancy shapes could be equally well moulded mechanically is less
  certain.

  The machine bakery, however complete, is not likely ever to be quite
  automatic and continuous like a modern flour mill, where the plant is
  connected throughout and virtually forms one machine (see FLOUR AND
  FLOUR MANUFACTURE), and though the engineer has at least managed to
  effect every operation of the bakehouse by mechanical means, it is not
  yet possible to shoot a sack of flour into the hopper of the sifter on
  the top floor, and to turn it into bread, without any human
  intervention whatever, though as things are, the moulded dough can be
  put into the oven without undergoing actual contact with human hands.
  In practice, some of the machines mentioned above are often dispensed
  with, even in so-called machine bakeries. The flour sifter and blender
  is indeed found in many bakeries where mechanical kneaders are
  unknown, while not in all machine bakeries would be found dough
  weighers and dividers, still less moulding machines. The economical
  side of the argument on behalf of machinery is presented in the
  familiar shape that a properly equipped machine bakery can turn out
  better work at a lower cost (by dispensing with labour), or at any
  rate can carry on a bigger trade with the same staff. There is
  plausibility in this argument, but it must be admitted that
  innumerable bakeries of capacities varying from 10 to 20 sacks per
  week are carried on more or less successfully without machinery of any
  kind, beyond perhaps a sifter or blender. Moreover, some of these
  bakehouses produce bread which can hardly be improved on.

  One advantage claimed for flour sifters, besides removing the
  impurities, is that by thoroughly aerating flour they cause it to
  become more "lively," in which condition it kneads more readily. It is
  also quite possible that the air which is thus incorporated with the
  dough has a stimulating effect on the yeast, causing a more energetic
  fermentation. A strong argument in favour of dough kneaders is their
  hygienic aspect. It is agreed that the operation of dough stirring by
  hand, since it involves severe labour conducted in a heated
  atmosphere, must be liable to cause contamination of the dough through
  emanations from the bodies of the operatives. In well-managed bakeries
  the utmost personal cleanliness on the part of the staff is exacted,
  but the unpleasant contingency alluded to is certainly possible. It is
  also contended that the use of machinery for dough kneading and batter
  whisking will ensure better work, in the sense that the mass under
  treatment will be more thoroughly worked by mechanically driven arms
  of iron or steel than by human limbs, liable to weariness and fatigue.
  The better worked the dough, the greater its power of expansion, and
  consequently the greater its bread-making value.


    Dough kneaders.

  The most widely known machine used in connexion with bread-baking,
  next to the sifter, is the dough kneadcr. The dough kneader is no new
  invention. As far back as 1760, a kind of dough kneader was
  constructed in France by one Salignac. It is described as consisting
  of a trough, inside which the dough was agitated by arms shaped
  somewhat like harrows. This machine is said to have been tested before
  a committee of the Academy of Sciences, who reported that in their
  presence dough had been prepared in fourteen to fifteen minutes. The
  bread baked from this dough is said to have been most satisfactory,
  but for some reason the machine never came into general use. For one
  thing, the power problem would have been almost insuperable to a baker
  in the France of those days. In general design this kneader
  approximated to the machines which have since done good work in
  bakeries all the world over. Salignac was quickly followed by another
  inventor, Cousin, also a Frenchman, who brought out in 1761, or
  thereabouts, a dough-kneading machine, which, however, had no better
  success than its predecessor. The first kneading machine which appears
  to have been in actual use in a bakery was constructed by a Paris
  baker of the name of Lembert, after whom it was called the Lembertine.
  Lembert is said to have been experimenting with this apparatus as
  early as 1796. Be that as it may, it was not brought out till 1810,
  when a prize of 1500 francs (£60) was offered by the Société
  d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale. This reward was won by
  Lembert, and his machine thereupon came into a certain amount of use
  in France. It is remarkable that France long remained the only country
  in which dough kneaders were employed, but even there their use was
  limited.

  The Fontaine, another French kneader, called after its inventor, was
  first made in 1835. It had a certain success, but has long passed out
  of use. It appears to have been a copy to a great extent of the
  Lembertine. The objection against both these machines was that their
  blades, while exercising a mixing action, were deficient in kneading
  effect. Probably the first machine which achieved the task of
  efficiently replacing the work of human arms in sponge breaking and
  dough kneading was the Boland kneader. This was also a French machine,
  and dates back to about the middle of the 19th century. It is believed
  to have been first used in the Scipion bakery in Paris. It consists
  essentially of a trough, inside which revolve a pair of blades so
  arranged as to work somewhat like alternate screws: it is claimed for
  these blades that their action has the effect of tossing the dough
  backwards and forwards when it is slack, and of drawing it out when it
  happens to be stiff. It is further claimed that the blades are so
  shaped that their revolution has the effect of moving the dough from
  right to left and left to right in the trough. The machine is geared
  to give two speeds, the faster being suitable for sponge setting,
  while the slow and most powerful speed is intended for the doughing.
  The Boland machine has been widely adopted in other countries than
  France, and was certainly one of the first dough kneaders to be used
  in the United Kingdom. It was installed in the great Boland bakery in
  Dublin, where it proved a great success. The proprietor of this
  bakery, with which was also connected a flour mill, is said to have
  had his attention first drawn to this machine by the fact that its
  inventor was his namesake, though no relative.

  The Deliry-Desboves dough kneader, also of French origin, and in
  general use in France, consists essentially of a cast iron trough,
  shaped somewhat like a basin, and turning on a vertical axis. The
  kneading arms inside the trough are shaped after the pattern of a
  lyre, and have the effect of first working up and then dividing the
  dough right through the kneading process. Two helical blades, which
  also form part of the mechanism, serve to draw out and aerate the
  dough, as effectively, it is claimed, as can be done by the most
  skilled operative. The force of the kneading operations can be
  regulated without stopping the machine. A thoroughly kneaded dough
  can, it is said, be made in this machine in twelve to fifteen minutes.

  In Great Britain the type of machine that used to be most in favour
  was the trough within which the kneading arms worked on horizontal
  axis. The trough was either open or provided with a lid. The kneading
  blades were variously shaped, but generally were more or less
  straight, and were designed to both mix and aerate the dough. In some
  cases the kneading blades were worked on a single axis, in others two
  different sets of arms worked on two axes running parallel to one
  another. Generally the kneader was geared to two speeds, the fast
  motion being most suitable for sponge setting, and the earlier stages
  of dough-making, while the slower motion was intended to draw out and
  thoroughly aerate the dough. To discharge the dough, the trough was
  tilted by means of a worm and worm wheel, the latter being secured to
  the trough. Several variations of this type of kneader are still in
  use. The machine known as the "Universal" kneader consists of a trough
  set horizontally, within which rotate on horizontal axes a pair of
  blades lying in the same plane. These blades are curved and are geared
  together by means of differential spur wheels, with the object of
  running the two spindles at unequal speeds. The bottom of the trough
  is divided into two semi-cylindrical cavities, separated by a ridge.
  Each blade plunges into its own cavity, and the action of these arms
  tends, while pressing the dough against the sides and base of the
  trough, to bring it quickly back towards the centre. The differential
  speed has the advantage of effecting a more thorough mixing of the
  dough, as it brings together pieces of dough which have not yet been
  mingled, the blades pushing the dough from one cavity to the other. To
  hasten the kneading process it is desirable occasionally to reverse
  the motion by a turn of a hand wheel on the same shaft as the two
  pulleys. This wheel governs all the motions of the blades. The trough,
  which is set low, is tilted over, when the dough is ready, by an
  endless chain operated by a hand winch. The effort required for this
  operation is very slight, as the trough is balanced by two weights.
  The action of tilting does not interfere with the blades, which
  continue rotating until stopped by the hand wheel. The Universal
  kneader was designed to imitate as closely as possible the action of a
  pair of skilled human arms and hands, but of course works at a much
  greater speed.

  Another form of dough mixer which is extensively used consists simply
  of a drum made of sheet steel supported by two A-shaped standards at a
  sufficient height from the floor to allow a trough to be run
  underneath to receive the dough when ready for the moulding board. In
  this drum are two tight-fitting doors. The interior is fitted with no
  blades or knives, but presents a free cylindrical space, with the sole
  exception that, set not very far from the circumference, there are
  several fixed rods passing from one side of the drum to the other.
  These act as mixers of the dough. The door is opened and the flour and
  water poured in, whereupon the door is again fastened and the drum is
  made to rotate. As the rotation proceeds, the dough begins to form,
  and being lifted up by the revolving drum falls by its own weight. In
  this process, which is repeated again and again, the dough is caught
  by and tumbled over by the rods, which act as mixers and take the
  place of the revolving arms of the trough kneader. The kneading action
  of the rotating arms is absent, but the steady tumbling over these
  rods appears to have a thorough mixing effect, and the dough is
  discharged from the drum in good condition for moulding. The time
  occupied for making a dough by this apparatus varies from four to six
  minutes. The advantages claimed for this machine are that it consumes
  comparatively little power, and that there is not so much danger of
  "felling" or over-kneading dough as in some of the machines with
  revolving blades. The compactness of this rotating drum mixer, often
  known as the Rotary mixer, recommends it on shipboard and in other
  places where space is limited.


    Dough dividers and moulders.

  In the earlier days of machine bakeries the accurate dividing of
  dough, and still more the moulding of loaves by mechanical means, was
  considered an unattainable ideal. The first step in this direction was
  made by the Lewis-Pointon dough divider and weigher, which was
  intended for dividing and weighing out dough ready for the moulding
  table. In an ordinary way a baker who wishes to bake a batch of
  half-quartern or 2-lb. loaves scales off 2 lb. 2 oz. of dough for each
  loaf. The 2 oz. are a sort of insurance against light weight. The
  evaporation of moisture from dough in the oven is bound to reduce to
  some extent the weight of the baked loaf, but with normally baked
  bread, 2 lb. 2 oz. in the case of half-quarterns, and 4 lb. 4 oz. in
  the case of quartern loaves, is sufficient to ensure full weight. As
  the accurate scaling of dough requires some pains and trouble, it
  would be surprising if hand scaling were always accurate. The
  Lewis-Pointon machine can, it is claimed, be set to turn out lumps of
  dough of the exact weight required either for 1-lb., 2-lb., or 4-lb.
  loaves. The apparatus does not measure the dough by weight but by
  volume by an ingenious piston arrangement. The machine when first put
  on the market was a little complicated, but its mechanism has since
  been simplified. It has been successfully worked on doughs of all
  descriptions, ranging from the tightest to those made with 20 gallons
  of water to the sack. The same firm which brought out this dough
  divider has also produced a dough-moulding machine, which has a wide
  range of work. In this apparatus the dough is introduced between a
  trough and a revolving table at a point on the outer periphery of the
  latter. The order of things observed in hand moulding is here
  reversed, as the trough, unlike the hand, is fixed, while the table
  revolves around a vertical axis. This table is sharply coned, and can
  be made to work the dough as much or as little as may be required. In
  working dough for tin or Coburg loaves only one trough is used, but
  for cottage loaves two parallel troughs are fitted, one taking the
  lower and the other the upper half of the loaf. In the latter case, a
  single piece of dough is fed into the machine and passed through an
  automatic splitter, the two portions being automatically carried into
  the troughs and simultaneously delivered at the other side of the
  machine ready to be put together. With doughs which require
  "handing-up," two machines may be used for moulding, the dough being
  automatically fed from the divider to the handing-up machine, and
  after a short proof passed through the finisher. But the moulding
  machine may also be used as a "hander-up."

  Another ingenious dough moulder, known as the Baker-Callow, works on a
  rather different principle. Here the pieces of dough coming from the
  divider are fed into the moulder by a canvas band, and are worked
  between a large cylindrical roller and a vertically running canvas and
  leather belt. To prevent pieces from dropping through, and to assist
  the moulding process, a smaller roller is placed under and between the
  cylindrical roller and canvas belt. A wooden puncher also assists in
  working the loaves, which are finished by being rolled between a band
  and a special shaped wooden moulding. This machine delivers the dough
  in spherical shaped pieces. If intended for cottage bread they are at
  once placed on the dough table at the side, and one piece is put on
  the top of the other ready for the oven. It is claimed the machine
  will deal equally well with large and small pieces at the same time,
  so that the tops and bottoms can be made together. Should the machine
  be intended for tinned bread, a special attachment is used, into which
  the spherical pieces are delivered from the machine and rolled into
  cylindrical shapes, ready to be dropped into the pan. A capacity of
  sixty loaves per minute is claimed for this moulder.

  _Ovens._--The ordinary baker's oven is a vaulted chamber, about 10 ft.
  in length, by 8 ft. in width and 30 in. in height; it is constructed
  of brick or stone, and has a small door in front through which the
  oven is charged (by means of a "peel" or long wooden shovel) and the
  batch withdrawn. The furnace and fire-grate are often placed at the
  side of the oven door, but with the oldest ovens, which were heated by
  wood, there generally was only one door for the fuel and for the
  bread. Whether the furnace is heated by coal, as is usual in England,
  or by coke, as is often the case in Scotland, the oven mouth remains
  in the bakehouse itself; hence the stoking and scuffling must be
  carried out within the bakehouse. This is in many ways objectionable.
  For one thing, the fuel must almost of necessity be kept in the
  bakehouse itself, and it is obvious that the products of combustion
  are liable to get into the oven. In the old type of oven a flue was
  frequently placed on the other side of the furnace door, both furnace
  and flue being on the front of the oven. After firing the furnace, the
  oven is allowed to "lie down" for a certain time, and secure an even
  distribution of heat. The furnace and flue are then shut, and the oven
  charged, the batch being baked by the heat stored within the oven
  chamber. With ovens of this type, each batch of bread requires a
  separate firing. This kind of oven has undergone several improvements
  of detail, but the principle of internal heating, that is, of firing
  the furnace inside the bakehouse, has remained unchanged.

  A new era in bakers' ovens began about the middle of the 19th century
  with the introduction of the "Perkins" oven, a system which, with
  slight modifications, has persisted till to-day. In this oven the
  baking chamber is heated by steam pipes. The latter consist of tubes
  of iron or mild steel which are partly filled with water and are
  hermetically sealed by welded ends. The pipes are arranged in two
  parallel rows, the one at the crown and the other at the sole of the
  oven. The pipes project at one end into the furnace, which is set at
  the back of the oven and is usually outside the bakehouse. This is
  termed an externally heated oven. As the ends of the pipes get red hot
  the water is converted into superheated steam, which being under high
  pressure soon raises the chamber to baking heat, say 450° to 500° F.
  In an oven of this description the heat can be continuously
  maintained, and batch after batch can be baked without refiring. The
  only drawback is that a flash heat cannot be raised. In another type
  of externally fired oven the heat is conveyed by flues placed at the
  bottom and top of the oven, which discharge into a chimney. Excellent
  results have been attained with ovens of this kind. The distribution
  of the heat can be well regulated; for instance, it is quite possible
  to build ovens to be cooler at the back than front, an arrangement
  which is useful when the bread is withdrawn by means of a hand peel.
  As the baker has to withdraw each loaf one at a time, it is clear that
  the withdrawal of the batch through the oven door must take time,
  probably not less than half-an-hour. Hence the bread drawn from near
  the oven's mouth may be underbaked as compared with that at the back
  of the chamber. The latter, on the other hand, may be overbaked and
  deficient in weight.

  By means of a draw-plate, however, an oven can be expeditiously
  charged. This appliance consists of a sliding plate or tray, mounted
  on wheels running on rails, which is drawn out of the oven loaded with
  bread, and then returned. The plate itself is often made of iron, but
  one well-known oven is fitted with a withdrawable iron frame, in which
  are laid, edge to edge, tiles of a special make, which are cemented in
  place, and form a continuous baking surface. This seems an excellent
  arrangement, as the baker has all the advantages of a brick oven, that
  is to say, his bread is baked both on top and bottom by heat evolved
  from tiled surfaces, and the undoubted drawbacks incidental to baking
  bread on an iron surface are avoided. A draw-plate fitted to an oven
  capable of baking a batch made from a sack (280 lb) of flour can be
  run out, charged and run in again, in about two minutes. The
  draw-plate has the incidental advantage, by expediting the loading and
  discharge of the oven, of ensuring a more uniform baking of the batch,
  and therefore of minimizing the loss of weight. Some bakers have gone
  so far as to estimate the saving in this respect from the use of a
  draw-plate at half an ounce per 2-lb. loaf. With decker ovens a double
  draw-plate may be used, the feet of the pedestal supporting the upper
  draw-plate running on a rail outside, but parallel to the rail on
  which the lower draw-plate runs. This arrangement, however, is more
  applicable to small than large ovens. Or the lower oven may be fitted
  with a draw-plate while the upper oven is served with a peel. The
  draw-plate being at a lower level than the sole of an ordinary oven,
  the upper deck may be worked with a peel without much difficulty.

  The _decker_ oven is, as its name implies, an oven built over another
  oven: in fact, sometimes a tier of three ovens is employed, placed one
  above the other. The object is to secure a double or treble baking
  surface without a very much larger outlay on fuel than would be
  necessary for one oven. It is easy to understand that a double or
  three decker oven might be constructed under conditions where it would
  be impossible to place two or three ordinary ovens side by side.
  Practical bakers are somewhat divided as to the actual economy of the
  decker system; possibly it is a question of management. The upper oven
  is heated by the gases which have passed under the oven beneath. A
  double-decker oven on the flue principle could be heated by three
  flues, one beneath the lower oven, another passing between the crown
  of the lower and the sole of the top oven, and the third over the
  crown of the upper oven. If a third oven were built over the second,
  then a fourth flue would pass over the crown of the third and top
  oven. In such an arrangement of flues the distribution of heat to the
  ovens would be fairly equal, but no doubt the lower oven would be the
  hottest. In addition to the flues, which should be straight and
  accessible for cleaning, there ought also to be auxiliary flues by
  which heat may be allowed to pass dampers to the upper portions of the
  series of ovens. In this way the heat of the upper oven or ovens can
  be regulated independently to a great extent of the bottom oven. The
  power of regulating the heat of the ovens is very necessary, because a
  baker doing what is called a mixed trade, that is to say, producing
  cakes and pastry in addition to bread, must work his ovens at varying
  temperatures. Cakes cannot be baked at the heat (about 450° F.)
  required by a batch of household bread. The richest fancy goods, such
  as wedding and Christmas cakes, require the coolest ovens. Flue ovens
  are best worked with coke, as coal is apt to choke the flues; retort
  coke is recommended in place of oven coke. An oven should be fitted
  with some kind of thermal register, and both high-temperature
  thermometers and pyrometers are used for this purpose.     (G. F. Z.)



BREADALBANE, JOHN CAMPBELL, 1ST EARL OF (c. 1636-1717), son of Sir John
Campbell of Glenorchy, Bart., and of the Lady Mary Graham, daughter of
William, earl of Airth and Menteith, was born about 1636. He took part
in the abortive royalist rising under Glencairn in 1654, and was one of
those who urged Monk to declare a free parliament in England to
facilitate the restoration. He sat in the Scottish parliament as member
for Argyllshire from 1669 to 1674. As principal creditor he obtained in
October 1672, from George, 6th earl of Caithness, a conveyance of his
dignities, lands and heritable jurisdictions; and after the latter's
death he was created on the 28th of June 1677 earl of Caithness and
viscount of Breadalbane. In 1678 he married the widowed countess of
Caithness, an economical step which saved him the alimentary provision
of 12,000 merks a year he had covenanted to pay. In 1680 he invaded
Caithness with a band of 700 men and defeated and dispossessed the
earl's heir male. The latter, however, was subsequently confirmed in his
lands and titles, and Campbell on the 13th of August 1681 obtained a new
patent with the precedency of the former one, creating him earl of
Breadalbane and Holland, viscount of Tay and Paintland, Lord Glenorchy,
Benederaloch, Ormelie and Weick in the peerage of Scotland, with special
power to nominate his successor from among the sons of his first wife.
In 1685 he was a member of the Scottish privy council. Though nominally
a Presbyterian he had assisted the intolerant and despotic government
of Lauderdale in 1678 with 1700 men. He is described as having "neither
honour nor religion but where they are mixed with interest," as of "fair
complexion, of the gravity of the Spaniard, cunning as a Fox, wise as a
Serpent and supple as an Eel."[1] He was reputed the best headpiece in
Scotland.[2] His influence, owing to his position and abilities, was
greater than that of any man in Scotland after Argyll, and it was of
high moment to King William to gain him and obtain his services in
conciliating the Highlanders. Breadalbane at first carried on
communications with Dundee and was implicated in the royalist intrigue
called the "Montgomery plot," but after the battle of Killiecrankie in
July 1689 he made overtures to the government, subsequently took the
oath of allegiance, and was entrusted with a large sum of money by the
government to secure the submission of the clans. On the 30th of June
1691 he met the Jacobite chiefs and concluded with them secret articles
by which they undertook to refrain from acts of hostility till October,
gaining their consent by threats and promises rather than by the
distribution of the money entrusted to him, the greater part of which,
it was believed, he retained himself. When asked to give an account of
the expenditure he replied: "The money is spent, the Highlands are
quiet, and this is the only way of accounting between friends."[3]

On the 27th of August a proclamation was issued offering indemnity to
all those who should submit and take the oath of allegiance before the
1st of January 1692, and threatening all those who should refuse with a
military execution and the penalties of treason. All the chiefs took the
oath except MacIan, the chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, who
postponed his submission till the 31st of December, and was then
prevented from taking the oath till the 6th of January 1692 through the
absence of a magistrate at Fort William, whither he had repaired for the
purpose. This irregularity gave Breadalbane an immediate opportunity of
destroying the clan of thieves which had for generations lived by
plundering his lands and those of his neighbours. Accordingly, together
with Argyll and Sir John Dalrymple (afterwards Lord Stair), Breadalbane
organized the atrocious crime known as the "Massacre of Glencoe," when
the unfortunate MacDonalds, deceived by assurances of friendship, and at
the moment when they were lavishing their hospitality upon their
murderers, were butchered in cold blood on the 13th of February 1692.
Breadalbane's astuteness, however, prevented the disclosure of any
evidence against him in the inquiry afterwards instituted in 1695,
beyond the deposition of a person who professed to have been sent on
Breadalbane's behalf to obtain a declaration of his innocence from
MacIan's sons, who had escaped. The discovery of his former negotiations
with the Jacobite chiefs caused his imprisonment in Edinburgh Castle in
September, but he was released when it was known that he had been acting
with William's knowledge.

Breadalbane did not vote for the Union in 1707, but was chosen a
representative peer in the parliament of Great Britain of 1713-1715. His
co-operation with the English government in securing the temporary
submission of the Highlands was inspired by no real loyalty or
allegiance, and he encouraged the attempted French descent in 1708,
refusing, however, to commit himself to paper. On the occasion of the
Jacobite rising in 1715 he excused himself on the 19th of September from
obeying the summons to appear at Edinburgh on the ground of his age and
infirmities; but nevertheless the next day visited Mar's camp at
Logierait and afterwards the camp at Perth, his real business being,
according to the Master of Sinclair, "to trick others, not to be
trickt," and to obtain a share of the French subsidies. He had taken
money for the whole 1200 men he had promised and only sent 300. His 300
men were withdrawn after the battle of Sheriffmuir, and his death, which
took place on the 19th of March 1717, rendered unnecessary any inquiry
into his conduct. He married (1) Mary, daughter of Henry Rich, 1st earl
of Holland, by whom he had two sons, Duncan, styled Lord Ormelie, who
was passed over in the succession, and John, and earl of Breadalbane;
(2) Mary, daughter of Archibald, marquis of Argyll, and widow of George,
6th earl of Caithness, by whom he had one son, Colin. By Mrs Mildred
Littler, who has sometimes but probably in error been named as his third
wife, he had a daughter, Mary.

JOHN CAMPBELL, 2nd earl of Breadalbane (1662-1752), an eccentric
nobleman, who was known as "Old Rag," was succeeded by his only son,
John (c. 1696-1782). This earl was a diplomatist, being British
ambassador to Denmark and to Russia, and a politician, being for a long
time a member of the House of Commons and a supporter of Sir Robert
Walpole, in addition to holding several official positions. All his sons
having predeceased their father, the title passed on his death, on the
26th of January 1782, to a cousin, John (1762-1834), who became 4th earl
and was created a British peer as marquess of Breadalbane in 1831. His
son John, the 2nd marquess (1796-1862), a prominent leader of the Free
Church during the ecclesiastical disputes in Scotland, died without sons
in November 1862. The marquessate now became extinct, but the Scottish
earldom passed to a cousin John Alexander (1824-1871), whose son and
successor, Gavin (b. 1851), was created marquess of Breadalbane in 1885.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Memoirs_ of John Macky (Roxburghe Club, 1895), 121.

  [2] _Corr. of Col. N. Hooke_ (Roxburghe, Club, 1870), i. 49.

  [3] Note by Sir W. Scott in Sinclair's _Mem. of Insurrection in
    Scotland_ (Abbotsford Club, 1858), 185.



BREADALBANE, a large district of Perthshire, Scotland, bordered N. by
Atholl, E. by Strathtay, S. by Strathearn and W. by the districts of
Argyll and Lorne, and occupying some 1020 sq. m. Most of the surface is
mountainous, Ben Lawers (3984 ft.), Ben More (3843), and Ben Lui (3708),
being the principal hills. Loch Tay is the chief lake, and among the
rivers are the Orchy, Dochart, Lochay, Lyon, Almond and the Tay (during
the early part of its course). Population mostly centres in Aberfeldy,
Fortingal, Kenmore and Killin. The soil is not cultivable excepting in
some of the glens and straths. Game is plentiful, the lakes and rivers
afford good sport, and the deer forests and shootings are valuable. The
district has given the titles of earl and marquess to the Campbells of
Glenorchy.



BREAD-FRUIT. This most important food staple of the tropical islands in
the Pacific Ocean is the fruit of _Artocarpus incisa_ (nat. ord.
Moraceae). The tree attains a moderate height, has very large, acutely
lobed, glossy leaves, the male flowers in spikes, and the female flowers
in a dense head, which by consolidation of their fleshy carpels and
receptacles form the fruit. The fruit is globular in shape, about the
size of a melon, with a tuberculated or (in some varieties) nearly
smooth surface. Many varieties of the tree are cultivated, the fruits of
some ripening numerous seeds, which are eaten as chestnuts; but in the
best kinds the seeds are aborted, and it is only these that are highly
prized as vegetables. The tree is a native of the South Sea Islands,
where its fruit occupies the important position that is held by cereals
in temperate latitudes. The fruit, which on distinct varieties ripens at
different periods, affording a nearly constant supply throughout the
year, is gathered for use just before it ripens, when it is found to be
gorged with starchy matter, to which its esculent value is due. It may
be cooked and prepared for use in a great variety of ways, the common
practice in the South Sea Islands being to bake it entire in hot embers,
and scoop out the interior, which when properly cooked should have a
soft smooth consistence, fibrous only towards the heart, with a taste
which has been compared to that of boiled potatoes and sweet milk. Of
this fruit A.R. Wallace, in his _Malay Archipelago_, says: "With meat
and gravy it is a vegetable superior to anything I know either in
temperate or tropical countries. With sugar, milk, butter or treacle it
is a delicious pudding, having a very slight and delicate but
characteristic flavour, which, like that of good bread and potatoes, one
never gets tired of." In the Pacific Islands the fruit is preserved for
use by storing in pits, where the fruits ferment and resolve themselves
into a mass similar in consistency to new cheese, in which state they
emit an offensive odour; but after baking under hot stones they yield a
pleasant and nutritious food. Another and more common method of
preserving the fruit for use consists in cutting it into thin slices,
which are dried in the sun. From such dried slices a flour is prepared
which is useful for the preparation of puddings, bread and biscuits, or
the slices are baked and eaten without grinding. The tree yields other
products of economic value, such as native cloth from the fibrous inner
bark of young trees; the wood is used for canoes and articles of
furniture; and a kind of glue and caulking material are obtained from
the viscid milky juice which exudes from incisions made in the stem.

[Illustration: _Artocarpus incisa_, the Bread-fruit tree.

  Fig. 1. Branch reduced about a 6th natural size, with cuneate-ovate
    pinnatifid leaves, male flowers in a club-shaped deciduous catkin,
    and female flowers in rounded clusters.
  Fig. 2. Transverse section of the male spike with numerous flowers.
  Fig. 3. Male flowers.
  Fig. 4. Single male flower separated, with a perianth in 2 segments
    and a single stamen.
  Fig. 5. Female flowers.
  Fig. 6. Single female flower separated, with ovary, style and bifid
    stigma.
  Fig. 7. Ovary.
  Fig. 8. Ovary laid open to show the ovule.
  Fig. 9. A variety of the ovary with 2 loculaments.
  Fig. 10. Transverse section of a bilocular ovary.]

The bread-fruit is found throughout the tropical regions of both
hemispheres, and its first introduction into the West Indies is
connected with the famous mutiny of the "Bounty," and the remarkable
history of a small company of the mutineers at Pitcairn Island.
Attention was directed to the fruit in 1688 by Captain Dampier, and
later by Captain Cook, who recommended its transplantation to the West
Indian colonies. In 1787 the "Bounty" was fitted out under command of
Lieutenant William Bligh (q.v.) to proceed to Tahiti to carry plants
thence to the West Indian Islands; and it was after the cargo had been
secured and the vessel was on her way that the mutiny broke out, and
Lieutenant Bligh and some of his crew were turned adrift in a small boat
in the open sea. The mutineers returned with the vessel to Tahiti,
whence a number of them, with a few native men and women, sailed to the
desolate and lone islet of Pitcairn. Lieutenant Bligh ultimately reached
England, and was again commissioned to undertake the work of
transplanting the plants, which in the year 1792-1793 he successfully
accomplished.

A somewhat similar but inferior fruit is produced by an allied species,
the Jack or Jak, _Artocarpus integrifolia_, growing in India, Ceylon and
the Eastern Archipelago. The large fruit is from 12 to 18 in. long by 6
to 8 in. in diameter, and is much eaten by the natives in India. This
tree is chiefly valuable on account of its timber, which has a grain
very similar to mahogany, and although at first light-coloured it
gradually assumes much of the appearance of that wood.



BREAKING BULK, a nautical term for the taking out of a portion of the
cargo of a ship, or the beginning to unload; and used in a legal sense
for taking anything out of a package or parcel, or in any way destroying
its entirety. It was thus important in connexion with the subject of
bailment, involving as it did the curious distinction that where a
bailee received possession of goods in a box or package, and then sold
them as a whole, he was guilty only of a breach of trust, but if he
"broke bulk" or caused a separation of the goods, and sold a part or
all, he was guilty of felony. This distinction was abolished by the
Larceny Act 1861, which enacted that whoever, being a bailee of any
chattel, money or valuable security, should fraudulently take or convert
the same to his own use, or the use of any person other than the owner,
although he should not break bulk or otherwise determine the bailment,
should be guilty of larceny (s. 3).



BREAKWATER. When a harbour (q.v.) is proposed to be established on an
exposed coast, whether for naval or commercial purposes, to provide a
protected approach to a port or river, or to serve as a refuge for
vessels from storms, the necessary shelter, so far as it is not
naturally furnished by a bay or projecting headlands, has to be secured
by the construction of one or more "breakwaters." These breakwaters,
having to prevent the waves that beat upon the coast from reaching the
site which they are designed to protect, must be made sufficiently
strong to withstand the shocks of the waves during the worst storms to
which they are exposed. It is therefore essential, before constructing a
breakwater, to investigate most carefully the force, periods and
duration of the winds from the quarters to which the work will be
exposed, the distance of any sheltering land from the site in the most
stormy direction, the slope of the beach and the depth of the sea in the
neighbourhood of the shore, and the protection, if any, afforded by
outlying shoals or sandbanks. In a tidal sea, the height required for a
breakwater is affected by the amount of tidal range; and the extent of
breakwater exposed to breaking waves depends upon the difference in
level between low and high water. The existence, also, of any drift of
sand or shingle along the shore must be ascertained, and its extent; for
the projection of a solid breakwater out from the shore is certain to
affect this littoral drift, which, if large in amount, may necessitate
important modifications in the design for the harbour.


  Winds.

Observations of the force and prevalence of the winds from the different
quarters at the various periods of the year, and the instruments by
which they are recorded, belong to the science of meteorology; but such
records are very valuable to the maritime engineer in indicating from
which directions, open to the sea, the worst storms, and, consequently,
the greatest waves, may be expected, and against which the most
efficient shelter has to be provided. Moreover, it is necessary, for
constructing or repairing a breakwater, to know the period of the year
when the calmest weather may be safely anticipated, and also the stormy
season during which no work should be attempted, and in preparation for
which unfinished works have to be guarded by protective measures. In the
parts of the world subject to periodical winds, such as the monsoons,
the direction and force of the winds vary with remarkable regularity
according to the seasons; and even such uncertain occurrences as
hurricanes and cyclones generally visit the regions in their track at
definite periods of the year, according to the locality. Even in western
Europe, where the winds are extremely variable, violent gales are much
more liable to beat upon the western and northern coasts in the winter
months than at any other period of the year; whilst the calmest weather
may be expected between May and August.


  Waves.

The size of waves depends upon the force of the wind, and the distance
along which it blows continuously, in approximately the same direction,
over a large expanse of ocean. The greatest waves are, accordingly,
encountered where the maximum distance in a certain direction from the
nearest land, or, as it is termed, the "fetch," coincides with the line
travelled by the strongest gales. The dimensions, indeed, of waves in
the worst storms depend primarily on the extent of the sea in which they
are raised; though in certain seas they are occasionally greatly
increased by the exceptional velocities attained by hurricanes and
typhoons, which, however, are fortunately restricted to fairly well
defined and limited regions. Waves have been found to attain a maximum
height of about 10 ft. in the Lake of Geneva, 17 ft. in the
Mediterranean Sea, 23 ft. in the Bay of Biscay, and 40 ft. in the
Atlantic Ocean; whilst waves of 50 to 60 ft. in height have been
observed in the Pacific Ocean off the Cape of Good Hope, where the
expanse of sea reaches a maximum, and the exposure to gales is complete.
The length of large waves bears no definite relation to their height,
and is apparently due, in the long waves often observed in exposed
situations, to the combination of several shorter waves in their onward
course, which is naturally dependent on the extent of the exposure. Thus
waves about 560 ft. in length have been met with during severe gales in
the Atlantic Ocean; whilst waves from 600 to 1000 ft. long are regarded
as of common occurrence in the Pacific Ocean during storms.

The rate of transmission of the undulation also varies with the
exposure; for the ordinary velocity of the apparent travel of waves in
storms has been found to amount to about 22 m. an hour in the Atlantic
Ocean, and to attain about 27 m. an hour off Cape Horn. The large waves,
however, observed in mid-ocean do not reach the coast, because their
progress is checked, and their height and length reduced, by
encountering the shelving sea-bottom, which diminishes the depth of
water on approaching the shore; and the actual waves which have to be
arrested by breakwaters depend on the exposure of the site, the
existence of continuous deep water close up to the shore, and the depth
in which the breakwater is situated. On the other hand, the height, and,
consequently, the destructive force of waves, is increased on running up
a funnel-shaped bay, by the increasing concentration of the waves in the
narrowing width, just as the tidal range of a moderate tidal current is
much augmented by its passage up the Bay of Fundy, or up the Bristol
Channel into the Severn estuary, or by filling the shallow enclosed bay
of St Malo. This effect is intensified when the bay faces the direction
of the strongest winds. Thus at Wick a mass of masonry weighing 1350
tons, placed at the head of the breakwater projecting half-way across
the bay and facing the entrance, was moved by the waves during a violent
storm; and a portion of Peterhead breakwater, weighing 3300 tons, was
shifted 2 in. in 1898, indicating a wave-stroke of 2 tons per sq. ft.
Southwesterly gales, blowing up the Gulf of Genoa, cause large waves to
roll into the bay, reaching a height of about 21 ft. in the worst
storms.

Where outlying sandbanks stretch in front of a coast, as for instance
the Stroombank in front of Ostend and the adjacent shore, and the
sandbanks opposite Yarmouth sheltering Yarmouth Roads, large waves
cannot approach the land, for they break on the sandbanks outside.
Waves, indeed, always break when, on running up a shoaling beach, they
reach a depth approximately equal to their height; and the largest waves
which can reach a shore protected by intervening sandbanks, are those
which are low enough to pass over the banks without breaking.

The force of the wind, as transmitted by degrees to the sea, is
manifested as a series of progressing undulations without any material
displacement of the body of water, each undulation transmitting its
accumulated force to the next in the direction the wind is blowing, till
at last, on encountering an obstacle to its onward course, each wave, no
longer finding any water to which to communicate its energy, deals a
blow against the obstacle proportionate to its size and rate of
transmission; or on reaching shoal water near the shore, the undulation
is finally transformed into a breaking wave rushing up the sloping
beach. till, on its energy being spent, it recoils back to the sea down
the beach. A breaking wave concentrates its transmitted force on a
portion of the water forming the undulation, which, consequently,
strikes a more powerful blow over a limited area against any structure
than the more distributed shock of a simple undulation beating against a
vertical wall. Moreover, the recoil of broken waves down a sloping beach
or rubble mound produces a greater scour than the simple reflection of
an undulation from a vertical wall, especially where the depth is
sufficient to provide a cushion of water below the undulation,
protecting the toe of the wall from the wash of recoil.

_Types of Breakwaters_.--There are three distinct types of
breakwaters:--(1) A simple rubble or concrete-block mound; (2) a mound
for the bottom portion, surmounted on the top by a solid superstructure
of masonry or concrete; and (3) an upright-wall breakwater, built up
solid from the sea-bottom to the top. The second type forms a sort of
combination of the first and third types; and each type presents several
varieties. In a few harbours, two different types have been adopted for
different situations at the same place; but generally the choice of type
is determined by the materials available at the site for the
construction of the breakwater, the nature of the sea-bottom and the
depth into which the breakwater has to be carried.


    Rubble mound.

  1. _Rubble and Concrete-Block Mound Breakwaters._--A rubble mound
  consists merely of a mass of rubble stone, just as it is obtained from
  a neighbouring quarry, tipped into the sea along a predetermined line,
  till the mound emerges out of water. The rubble stone is deposited,
  either from barges, as adopted for the construction of the detached
  breakwater sheltering Plymouth Bay, or from wagons, having hinged
  opening flaps at the bottom for dropping their load, run out from the
  shore along staging erected in the proposed line, according to the
  method employed for the outer breakwater enclosing Portland Harbour,
  and the north-east breakwater at Colombo Harbour. The mound thus
  deposited is gradually consolidated under the action of the sea; and a
  tolerably stable form is by degrees attained by continued deposits of
  stone. This system of construction is very wasteful of materials, and
  can only be resorted to where extensive quarries close at hand are
  able to furnish readily and cheaply very large quantities of stone,
  especially where, as at Portland and Table Bay, convict labour has
  been advantageously utilized in quarrying. When the site is very
  exposed, the large waves in storms, dashing over a rubble-mound
  breakwater, carry the stones on the top, if unprotected, over on to
  the harbour slope, and in recoiling down the outer slope, draw down
  the stones on the face, so that the top and sea slope of the mound
  need replenishing with a fresh deposit of stones after severe storms.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--Table Bay Breakwater]

  Under the action of the breaking and recoiling waves, the mound
  assumes a very flat slope on the sea side, from a few feet above
  high-water down to several feet below low-wafer level (fig. 1). The
  flatness of the sea slope depends on the exposure of the site, and the
  limited size of the stones covering the outer portion of the mound;
  and its extent increases with the range of tide, as a large tidal rise
  exposes a greater length of slope to the action of the waves. This
  flattening of the sea slope greatly increases the amount of stone
  required for a rubble-mound breakwater, in proportion to the exposure
  and the range of tide; and the amount is also affected, but in a
  proportionately minor degree, by the depth in which the breakwater is
  situated. In order to avoid the injuries to which an ordinary rubble
  mound is subjected by waves, certain methods have been devised for
  protecting the top and sea slope of the mound. For instance, the upper
  portion of Plymouth breakwater has been covered over by granite paving
  set in cement, to diminish the displacement of the stones by the
  waves. Frequently, on the continent of Europe, rubble mounds have been
  formed of materials so sorted that the smallest stones are placed in
  the centre of the lower part of the mound, and covered over along the
  slopes and top by layers of larger stones, increasing in size towards
  the outer part of the mound, so that the largest stones obtainable are
  deposited on the outside, and especially on the top and sea slope of
  the mound. This is, no doubt, theoretically the correct method of
  construction of rubble mounds exposed to the sea; but it involves a
  considerable amount of trouble and expense.


    Concrete blocks with rubble mound.

  Practically the chief point of importance is to cover the outer slope
  and the top of the mound with the largest stones that can be procured,
  and where large stones are not readily obtainable concrete blocks
  furnish a very convenient substitute. These blocks are generally
  deposited as the outer covering on the top and sea slope of a rubble
  mound, as for example at the mound breakwaters in deep water
  sheltering Algiers harbour, and at the French parts of Cette and Bona
  on the Mediterranean; whilst they furnish the protection of the top
  and upper part of the sea slope of the rubble-mound extension of
  Marseilles breakwater down to 20 ft. below sea-level. At Alexandria,
  concrete blocks compose the outer half of the mound, sheltering the
  inner half consisting of small rubble (fig. 2); at Biarritz the mound
  breakwater is formed mainly of concrete blocks, with rubble stone
  filling the interstices and on the top; whereas at the outer end of
  the western breakwater at Port Said, protecting the entrance to the
  Suez Canal, a bottom layer of rubble is surmounted by concrete blocks.
  These blocks are generally deposited at random; but at Cette (fig. 3),
  and at the breakwater in deep water at Civita Vecchia, the concrete
  blocks covering the rubble have been laid in stepped, horizontal
  courses. This arrangement necessitates more care and better appliances
  in construction; but, in compensation, the blocks so placed are less
  exposed to disturbance and injury by the waves.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Alexandria Breakwater.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Cette Breakwater.]

  Concrete blocks possess the great advantages for breakwaters that they
  can be made wherever sand and shingle can be procured, and of a size
  only limited by the appliances which are available for handling them.
  In fact, in places where stone of any kind is difficult to procure at
  a reasonable cost, as for instance at Port Said, concrete blocks are
  indispensable for the construction of breakwaters. Large concrete
  blocks, moreover, by enabling a comparatively steep slope to be formed
  with them on the sea side of a mound breakwater, reduce considerably
  the amount of materials required, especially at exposed sites, and
  also for breakwaters extended into deep water, such as those of
  Algiers and Marseilles.

  [Illustration: FIG.4.--Port Said Western Breakwater.]


    Concrete block mound.

  Occasionally, in the absence of suitable rubble stone, a mound
  breakwater has been formed entirely with concrete blocks; and of this
  the main portion of the western breakwater at Port Said furnishes a
  notable example (fig. 4). Sometimes, in exposed situations, the mounds
  of the composite type of breakwaters have been constructed exclusively
  with concrete blocks, such, for instance, as in the curved breakwater
  protecting the outer harbour at Leghorn, and in the central breakwater
  in deep water sheltering the harbour of St Jean de Luz, and directly
  facing the Bay of Biscay. These large concrete blocks are deposited by
  cranes from staging, tipped into the sea from a sloping platform on
  barges, or floated out between pontoons, or slung out from floating
  derricks. This last method proved so expeditious for the upper blocks
  at Alexandria, that, in conjunction with the tipping of the lower
  blocks from the inclined planes on the decks of barges and the deposit
  of the rubble from hopper barges, provided also with side flaps for
  the higher portions, the detached breakwater, nearly 2 m. long,
  sheltering a very spacious harbour, was constructed in two years
  (1870-1872). Sometimes, when a mound breakwater has been raised out of
  water, advantage is taken of a calm period of the year and a low tide
  to form large blocks of concrete within timber framing on the top of
  the mound, so as to provide a very efficient protection.

  The large masses composing mound breakwaters give them great stability
  against the attacks of the sea; and, moreover, the wide base of the
  mounds enables them to be deposited on a sandy or silty sea-bottom,
  without any fear of settlement or undermining. A mound breakwater,
  however, has the disadvantages of requiring a large amount of
  material, and of occupying a wide space on the bed of the sea, more
  especially where the mound consists of rubble stone and is in deep
  water, so that the system, though simple, is costly, and is unsuited
  for harbours where the available space to be sheltered is limited.
  Nevertheless, a mound breakwater can be rapidly constructed by the
  employment of a large number of barges; and by the adoption of large
  concrete blocks, the quantity of materials and the space occupied by
  the mound can be considerably reduced. This form of breakwater, with
  its long outer slope exposed to breaking waves, particularly where the
  tidal range is considerable, is, indeed, more subject to frequent
  small injuries than the other types, but they are readily repaired;
  and a mound is not generally liable to the serious breaches which
  occasionally are formed in solid superstructures and upright walls in
  exceptional storms.

  2. _Breakwaters formed of a Mound surmounted by a Superstructure._--The
  second type of breakwater consists of a mound, composed of rubble or
  concrete blocks, or generally a combination of the two, carried up from
  the sea-bottom, on the top of which some form of solid superstructure
  is erected. This superstructure reduces considerably the amount of
  materials required (which, on account of the slopes of the mound,
  increases rapidly with the height) in proportion to the depth at which
  the superstructure is founded; and the solid capping on the mound
  serves also to protect the top of the mound from the action of the
  waves. In the case, however, of a mound breakwater, portions of the
  highest waves generally pass over the top of the mound, and also to
  some extent expend their force in passing through the interstices
  between the blocks; whereas a superstructure presents a solid face to
  the impact of the waves. A superstructure, accordingly, must be very
  strongly built in proportion to the exposure, and also to the size of
  the waves liable to reach it, which depends upon the height and
  flatness of the slope of the mound just in front of it on the sea side.
  Special care, moreover, has to be taken to prevent the superstructure
  from being undermined; for the waves in storms, dashing up against this
  nearly vertical, solid obstacle, tend in their recoil down the face to
  scour out the materials of the mound at the outer toe of the
  superstructure, and thereby undermine it, especially where the
  superstructure is founded on the mound near low-water level, and there
  is, therefore, no adequate cushion of water above the mound to diminish
  the effect of the recoil on the foundation.

  The mound constituting the lower portion of the composite type of
  breakwater has been formed in the same varied way as simple mound
  breakwaters, namely, of rubble, sorted rubble, rubble protected by
  concrete blocks, and wholly of concrete blocks. The only differences
  introduced in the mound in this case are, that it is not carried up so
  high, that the top portion covered by the superstructure needs no
  further protection, and that special protection has to be provided on
  the slope of the mound adjacent to the outer toe of the
  superstructure.


    Superstructures.

  The forms of the superstructures exhibit considerable variations,
  ranging from a few concrete blocks laid in courses on the top of the
  mound, or a paving furnishing a quay protected by a narrow parapet
  wall on the sea side, up to a large, solid structure, only differing
  from an upright-wall breakwater in being founded upon a mound, instead
  of on the sea-bottom. Notwithstanding, however, this great variety in
  design, these breakwaters may be divided into two distinct classes,
  namely, breakwaters having their superstructures founded at or near
  low-water level, and breakwaters with superstructures founded some
  depth below low water. The object in the first case is to lay the
  foundations of the superstructure on the mound at the lowest level
  consistent with building a solid structure with blocks set in mortar,
  out of water, in the ordinary manner; and, in the second case, to stop
  the raising of the mound at such a depth under water as to secure it
  from displacement by the waves. In fact, the solidity and facility of
  construction of the superstructure were the primary considerations in
  the older form of breakwater; whereas the stability of the mound and
  the avoidance of the undermining of the superstructure have been
  regarded as the most important provisions in the more modern form.


    Superstructures at low-water level.

  Well-known examples of breakwaters formed of a rubble mound surmounted
  by a superstructure founded at or near low water or sea-level, are
  furnished by Cherbourg and Holyhead breakwaters, the inner breakwater
  at Portland, and the breakwaters at Marseilles, Genoa, Civita Vecchia,
  Naples, Trieste and other Mediterranean ports. The very exposed
  breakwater at Alderney was commenced on this principle about the
  middle of the 19th century; and the outer breakwaters at Leghorn and
  St Jean de Luz have superstructures founded at low water on
  concrete-block mounds.

  The long, detached breakwater sheltering the series of basins formed
  by wide projecting jetties along the sea coast at Marseilles (see
  DOCK), is a typical instance of a breakwater where a quay has been
  formed on the top of a sorted rubble mound, sheltered on the sea side
  by a high wall, or narrow superstructure, founded at sea-level, and
  protected on the sea slope of the mound from undermining by large
  concrete blocks deposited at random (fig. 5). In this case the quay
  has been rendered accessible for vessels on the harbour side by a quay
  wall, formed of concrete blocks deposited one above the other,
  providing a vertical face to a depth of about 22¾ ft. below sea-level;
  and a similar arrangement has been adopted at Trieste, and in a less
  effective manner at Civita Vecchia and Naples. At Marseilles, however,
  when the breakwater reached great depths, the quay was abandoned on
  account of the increased exposure, and the extension made of a simple
  rubble mound, protected on the sea side, from the top down to 20 ft.
  below sea-level, by large concrete blocks deposited at random.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Marseilles Breakwater, central portion.]

  The superstructures at Holyhead and Portland, being built on the old
  weak system of a sea wall and a harbour wall, with rubble filling
  between, are protected on the sea side by raising the rubble against
  them from low water up to high water of spring tides; whereas the
  superstructure of Cherbourg breakwater, being built solid and less
  exposed, is only protected on the sea side by large rubble and some
  concrete blocks, forming an apron raised slightly above low water.
  These three breakwaters are provided with a quay sheltered by a raised
  wall or promenade on the sea side; but as the mound on the harbour
  side is raised up to, or a little above low water, the quay is only
  accessible for vessels near high water. This, however, is of
  comparatively little importance, since these quays, though very useful
  for access to the end of the breakwater in fairly calm weather, are
  inaccessible in exposed situations with a rough sea; and quays for the
  accommodation of vessels are better provided well within the sheltered
  harbour.

  The outer portions of the main breakwaters at Genoa and at Naples
  (fig. 6), extending into depths of about 75 ft. and 110 ft.
  respectively, have been provided with superstructures, similar in
  type, but more solid than the superstructure at Marseilles; and the
  sorted rubble mounds upon which the superstructures rest are protected
  on the sea slope by stepped courses of concrete blocks from a depth of
  26 ft. below sea-level, covered over at the top by a masonry apron
  forming a prolongation of the superstructure. The outer extension of
  the main breakwater at Civita Vecchia furnishes an interesting example
  of a composite form of breakwater, in which the rubble mound has been
  protected, and greatly reduced in volume and extent in deep water, by
  stepped courses of concrete blocks carried up from near the bottom of
  the mound (fig. 7).

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--San Vincenzo Breakwater, Naples.]

  The breakwaters in front of Havre, constructed in 1896-1907, for
  sheltering the altered entrance to the port, were formed of a sorted
  rubble mound, protected on the sea slope by concrete blocks, and
  raised a little above low water of spring tides, upon which large
  blocks of masonry, built on land, were deposited with their upper
  surfaces about 18 in. above low water of neap tides. As soon as
  settlement of the mound under the action of the sea appeared to have
  ceased, these masonry blocks were connected together by filling the
  spaces between them with masonry; and a solid masonry superstructure
  was built during low tide on this foundation layer, as shown in fig.
  8.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--Civita Vecchia Outer Breakwater.]

  The breakwaters constructed for forming harbours on the sea coast of
  the United States are almost all rubble-mound breakwaters. The two old
  detached breakwaters sheltering Delaware Harbour near the
  south-eastern extremity of Delaware Bay, were formed of simple rubble
  mounds raised about 13 ft. above low water; but in closing the gap
  between them towards the close of the 19th century, the rubble mound
  was stopped at low water, and a sort of superstructure, consisting of
  stepped courses of large rectangular blocks of stone on the sea and
  harbour sides, with tightly packed rubble between them and capped
  across the top for a width of 20 ft. with a course of large blocks,
  was raised to 14 ft. above low water, resembling, on a small scale,
  the upper part of the Civita Vecchia mound (fig. 7). A similar
  construction was adopted for the new breakwater formed in 1897-1901
  for providing a harbour of refuge at the mouth of Delaware Bay; but in
  this instance the mound was made considerably wider at the top, and
  had to be protected along the toe of the superstructure on the sea
  side by large stones. The same form of superstructure, also, on a
  narrower base, was resorted to for a breakwater in deeper water at San
  Pedro in California with satisfactory results. When, however, a
  breakwater of the Delaware type was in progress for forming a harbour
  of refuge in Sandy Bay, Massachusetts, in front of Rockport to the
  north of Boston, the upper 13 ft. of the 600 ft. of completed
  superstructure were carried away during a severe storm in 1898 leaving
  only a portion about 5 ft. in height above low water, the average rise
  of tide there being 8-3/5 ft. The design was, accordingly, modified in
  1902, by commencing the stepped courses of large stones at 12 ft.
  below mean low water on each slope, instead of at low water raising
  this kind of superstructure to 22 ft. above low water in place of 18
  ft., and capping the stepped courses at the top by large blocks of
  stone, 20 ft. long and 5 ft. deep, laid across the breakwater, which
  thus presented a marked resemblance to the upper section of the mound
  at Civita Vecchia.


    Superstructure below low-water level.

  The breakwater at Sandy Bay just referred to, and the one at Civita
  Vecchia, which it somewhat resembles, approximate to that class of
  breakwater which has a superstructure founded below low-water level,
  so far as stepped courses of blocks can be regarded as forming part of
  a superstructure; but as the protection afforded by these courses
  differs only in the arrangement of the blocks from that obtained by
  blocks deposited at random, it appears expedient to restrict this
  class to the more solid structures, resembling upright-wall
  breakwaters, founded on a mound at some depth below low water As the
  main object of this class of breakwater is to keep the mound below the
  zone of disturbance by waves in severe storms, it is evident that the
  depth at which the superstructure is founded should vary directly with
  the exposure of the site, and inversely with the size of the materials
  forming the mound.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--Havre Breakwater.]

  The depth at which waves striking against a superstructure may affect
  a rubble mound near its toe by the recoil, has been only very
  gradually realized. Thus, in 1847, the Alderney breakwater, though
  fully exposed to the Atlantic Ocean, was begun with a superstructure
  founded at low water of spring tides upon a rubble mound; but within
  two years the foundations had to be carried down 12 it. below low
  water, and this was adhered to till close to the head, though the
  breakwater, completed in 1864, extended 4700 ft. from the shore into a
  depth of 130 ft. at low tide, the rise of springs being 17 ft. The
  great recoil of the waves in storms from the promenade wall on the sea
  side of the superstructure, raised 33 ft. above low water, disturbed
  the sea slope of the mound along the outer portion, situated in depths
  of 80 to 130 ft. at low water, out to a distance of 90 ft. from the
  superstructure and to a depth of 20 ft.; whilst the outer toe of the
  superstructure was only preserved from being undermined by frequent
  deposits of stone along the sea face.

  The south-west breakwater at Colombo Harbour, constructed in
  1876-1884, facing the seas raised by the south-west monsoon, extends
  into a depth of 39 ft. at low water, where the rise of tide is only 2
  ft. at springs, and was built with a superstructure founded upon a
  rubble mound at a depth of 20 ft. below low water, but raised only 12
  ft. above this level without any parapet, and protected along its sea
  face by an apron of concrete in bags. In this case, not only was the
  depth of the sea much less than at Alderney, but the small elevation
  of the superstructure above low water enabled a portion of the waves
  in storms to pass over it without materially impairing the shelter
  inside. These circumstances reduced the shock and recoil of the waves;
  and the greater depth of the foundations and the protection of the toe
  of the superstructure greatly diminished the danger of undermining.
  Consequently, the Colombo breakwater has been preserved from the
  injuries to which the outer part of the Alderney breakwater succumbed.
  Nevertheless, in subsequently constructing the north-west detached
  breakwater, less exposed to the south-west monsoon, but in somewhat
  deeper water (see COLOMBO), the experience of the action of the sea on
  the south-west breakwater led to the laying of the foundations of the
  superstructure on the rubble mound at 30¾ ft. below low water (fig.
  9).

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--Colombo North-West Breakwater.]

  The breakwater for sheltering Peterhead Bay, where the rise of springs
  is 11¼ ft., was begun in 1888, and designed to extend into a depth of
  9½ fathoms at low water (see HARBOUR). It was built as an upright wall
  upon the rocky bottom for 1000 ft. from the shore; but owing to the
  increase in depth it was decided to construct the outer portion with a
  rubble base, surmounted by a superstructure originally designed to be
  founded 30 ft. below low water. As, however, during a storm in October
  1898, the recoil of the waves from the breakwater, which is provided
  with a promenade wall rising about 35 ft. above low water, disturbed
  rubble to a depth of 36½ ft., the superstructure has been founded 43
  ft. below low water on the rubble base; and its outer toe is protected
  from being undermined by two rows of concrete blocks on the rubble
  mound.


    Construction of the superstructure.

  Formerly, in constructing a large superstructure upon a rubble mound,
  it was a common practice to build a sea wall and a harbour wall
  several feet apart, and to fill up the intermediate,. space between
  them with rubble, so as economically to form a wide structure on the
  top of the mound, and provide an adequate width for a quay along the
  top. A sheltering wall was also generally erected on the sea side.
  This, for instance, was the system of construction adopted for the
  superstructures, founded at low water, of Holyhead breakwater,
  Portland inner breakwater, and St Catherine's, Jersey, breakwater.
  Alderney breakwater, the Tyne breakwaters and Colombo south-west
  breakwater were also commenced with a precisely similar method of
  construction. The system, however, possesses a Very serious defect for
  exposed situations, namely, that if once the sea can force a small
  opening through the sea wall, the scooping out of the rubble filling,
  and the overthrow of the thinner harbour wall are rapidly accomplished
  if the storm continues or recurs before repairs can be effected.
  Experience soon proved at Alderney and Tynemouth the unsuitability of
  the system for very exposed situations; and the intermediate rubble
  filling was replaced by solid hearting down to a certain depth. At
  Colombo, after the first 1326 ft. of the south-west breakwater had
  been built with two walls and intermediate rubble for the
  superstructure, as the exposure proved greater than had been
  anticipated, and a slight displacement of part of the sea wall, 24 ft.
  wide, had occurred, the rubble filling was discontinued, and the two
  walls were united into a solid superstructure 34 ft. in width.


    sloping block system.

  A difficulty experienced in constructing a solid superstructure on the
  top of a rubble mound consists in the settlement of the mound which
  takes place when the weight of the superstructure comes on it, in
  spite of the consolidation of the rubble under the action of the sea
  for one or two years before the erection of the superstructure on it
  is undertaken. When the superstructure is carried out in long
  stepped-forward courses, irregular settlement is particularly liable
  to occur, as the weight is progressively imposed in an uneven manner
  on the yielding rubble, in proportion to the height of the rubble base
  and its deficiency in compactness. The open joints between the blocks
  laid below low water enable the air to penetrate, on the recoil of the
  waves at low tide, into any internal fissures resulting from
  settlement; and the following wave, on striking the superstructure,
  compresses the air inside, which, on its expansion when the wave
  recedes, forces out any unconnected face stones. The hole thus formed
  is rapidly enlarged by the sea if the storm continues; and a breach is
  eventually formed. The sloping-block system was, accordingly devised
  to provide against the dislocation of superstructures by the
  inevitable irregular settlement, by forming them of a series of
  sloping sections, composed of concrete blocks laid at an angle, free
  to settle independently on the mound, as shown in fig. 10. In the
  first superstructure thus constructed, in 1869-1874, at the entrance
  to Karachi harbour, founded 15 ft. below low water on a rubble mound
  and 24 ft. high, the blocks in each section, consisting of two rows of
  three superposed blocks laid at an inclination of 76° shorewards, were
  entirely unconnected; and, consequently, though the superstructure
  offered as little opposition as practicable to the waves by having its
  top slightly below high water, the waves in a storm forcing their way
  into the vertical joint between the two rows, threw some of the top
  27-ton blocks of the inner row down on the harbour slope of the mound.
  This cause of damage was obviated in effecting the repairs, by
  connecting the top blocks with the next ones by stone dowels. The
  superstructures of the breakwaters forming Madras harbour, commenced
  in 1876, were similarly constructed in sloping, independent sections,
  4½ ft. thick, composed of two distinct rows of four tiers of blocks
  founded upon a rubble mound 22 ft. below low water (the rise of tide
  at springs being 3-1/3 ft.), and raised 3½ ft. above high water. The
  blocks in each row were connected by a tenon, projecting at the top of
  each block, fitting into a mortise in the block above it. The
  retention of the vertical joint however, between the two rows led to
  the overthrow of the greater part of the superstructures of the outer
  arms at Madras, situated in a depth of 45 ft. and facing the Indian
  Ocean, during a cyclone of 1881. In the reconstruction of these
  superstructures, bond was introduced in the successive tiers of each
  sloping section; and the blocks of the two upper tiers were cramped
  together. Alter settlement on the mound had ceased, a thick capping of
  mass concrete was laid all along the top of the superstructure; and,
  finally, a mound of concrete blocks was deposited at random on the
  mound in front of the sea face of the superstructure to break the
  force of the waves and prevent undermining. A similar wave-breaker,
  with blocks somewhat specially arranged, was deposited in front of the
  sloping concrete-block superstructure of the breakwater sheltering the
  Portuguese harbour of Marmagao on the west coast of India, more
  particularly with the object of preventing the undermining of the
  superstructure founded only 18 ft. below low water of spring tides, on
  a layer of rubble spread on the muddy sea-bottom, the settlement in
  this case being occasioned by the yielding of the soft clay bed. This
  breakwater having been commenced in 1884, subsequently to the failure
  at Madras, the superstructure, formed of concrete blocks weighing 28½
  to 37½ tons was built in accordance with the design adopted for the
  reconstructed outer arms at Madras, with the exceptions that the
  separate sections were given a slope of 70° instead of 76° shorewards
  to ensure greater stability, that the superstructure was made 30 ft in
  width instead of 24 ft., that the top tier of blocks in each section
  was secured to the next tier by two dowels, each formed of a bundle of
  four rails, penetrating 3½ ft. into each tier, so as to enable the top
  courses to be more correctly aligned than with tenons and mortises,
  and that the outer side of the continuous concrete-in-mass capping was
  raised about 22 ft. above low water (fig. 11). The rise of spring
  tides at Marmagao is 6 ft.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Colombo North-West Breakwater with Titan
  Crane.]

  At Colombo the superstructures of both the south-west and north-west
  breakwaters were built on the sloping-block system in sections 5½ ft.
  thick, and built at an angle of 68° shorewards (fig. 10); and the
  blocks, from 16½ to 31 tons in weight, were laid in bonded courses
  across each section, with four tiers of blocks in the south-west
  breakwater founded 20 ft. below low water on the rubble mound, and six
  tiers of blocks in the north-west breakwater, founded 30¾ ft below low
  water. Five oblong grooves, moreover, were formed in moulding the
  blocks, in the adjacent faces of each sloping section, extending from
  top to bottom of the sections. These, when settlement on the mound had
  ceased, were filled with concrete in bags which not only connected the
  tiers of blocks in each section together, but also joined the several
  sections to one another, and effectually closed the transverse joints
  between the successive sections, which were further connected together
  by a continuous capping of concrete-in-mass along the whole length of
  the breakwater.

  These sloping blocks are laid by powerful overhanging, block-setting
  cranes, called Titans (see CRANES), which travel along the completed
  portion of the breakwater, and lay the blocks in advance on the mound
  levelled by divers, as shown in fig. 10. The earlier Titans, employed
  for the sloping-block superstructures at Karachi and Madras, were
  constructed to travel only backwards and forwards on the completed
  work, with sufficient sideways movement of the little trolley
  travelling along the overhanging arm, from which the block is
  suspended at the proper angle, to lay the blocks for each side of the
  superstructure. In later forms, however, such for instance as the
  Titan laying the 14-ton blocks at Peterhead breakwater in horizontal
  courses, the overhanging arm is supported centrally on a ring of
  rollers, placed on the top of the truck on which the Titan travels, so
  that it can revolve and deposit blocks at the side of the
  superstructure for protecting the mound, as well as in advance of the
  finished work. These Titans possess the important advantage over the
  timber staging formerly employed for such breakwaters, that, in
  exposed situations, they can be moved back into shelter on the
  approach of a storm, or for the winter or stormy months, instead of,
  as in the case of staging, remaining out exposed to the danger of
  being carried away during stormy weather, or necessitating loss of
  time in erection at the beginning of the working season.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Marmagao Breakwater.]

  Though composite breakwaters are still occasionally constructed with a
  superstructure founded on a rubble mound at, or above, low-water
  level, these breakwaters are now almost always constructed with the
  superstructure founded at some depth below low water, even at harbours
  on the continent of Europe, where formerly broad quays founded at
  sea-level, protected by a parapet wall and outer concrete blocks, were
  the regular form of superstructure adopted. The breakwater for the
  extension of the harbour at Naples provides an interesting example of
  this change of design. A solid superstructure, formed of large
  concrete blocks capped with masonry, about 50 ft. wide at the base, is
  laid on a high rubble mound at a depth of 31 ft. below mean sea-level,
  and provides a quay on the top, 24½ ft. wide, protected on the sea
  side by a promenade wall, 10 ft. high and 12½ ft. wide at the top,
  raised 19-2/3 ft. above sea-level (fig. 12). In view of the increased
  depth at which superstructures are now founded upon rubble mounds,
  causing the breakwaters to approximate more and more to the
  upright-wall type, it might seem at first sight that the rubble base
  might be dispensed with, and the superstructure founded directly on
  the bed of the sea. Two circumstances, however, still render the
  composite form of breakwater indispensable in certain cases: (1) the
  great depth into which breakwaters have sometimes to extend, reaching
  about 56 ft. below low water at Peterhead, and 102 ft. below mean
  sea-level at Naples; and (2) the necessity, where the sea-bottom is
  soft or liable: to be eroded by scour, of interposing a wide base
  between the upright superstructure and the bed of the sea.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Naples Harbor Extension Breakwater.]

  The injuries to which composite breakwaters appear to have been
  specially subject must be attributed to the greater exposure and depth
  of the sites in which they have been frequently constructed, as
  compared with rubble mounds or upright walls. The latter types,
  indeed, are not well suited for erection in deep water, in the first
  case, on account of the very large quantity of materials required for
  a high mound with flat slopes, and in the second, owing to the
  increased pressure of air under which divers have to work in laying
  blocks for an upright wall in deep water. The ample depth in which
  superstructures are founded, the due protection afforded to their
  outer toe, the adoption of the sloping-block system for their
  construction, and the dispensing in most cases with a high sheltering
  wall on the sea side of the superstructure, render modern
  superstructures as stable as upright-wall breakwaters of similar
  height. Nevertheless, superstructures require to be given a greater
  thickness than similar upright walls, because the greater depth of
  water in which such composite breakwaters are built causes them to be
  exposed to larger waves under similar conditions.

  The superstructures of composite breakwaters erected by the United
  States for harbours on the shores of Lake Superior were formerly in
  some cases composed of timber cribs floated into position and sunk by
  filling them with rubble stone. On account of the cheapness of timber
  several years ago in those regions, this simple mode of construction
  was also economical, even though the rapid decay of the timber in the
  portions of the cribs where it was alternately wet and dry involved
  its renewal about every fifteen years on the average. Owing, however,
  to the fact that the price of timber has increased considerably,
  whilst that of Portland cement has been reduced, durable concrete
  superstructures are beginning to be substituted for the rapidly
  decaying cribwork structures.

  With the exception perhaps of the Alderney breakwater, which, owing to
  its exceptional exposure and the unparalleled depth into which it
  extended, had its superstructure so often breached by the sea that,
  owing to the cost of maintenance, the inner portion only has been kept
  in repair, the composite breakwater of Bilbao harbour has probably
  proved the most difficult to construct on account of its great
  exposure. The original design consisted of a wide rubble mound up to
  about 16½ ft. below low water, a mound of large concrete blocks up to
  low water of equinoctial spring tides, and a solid masonry
  superstructure well protected at its outer toe by a projection of
  masonry, and raised several feet above high water, forming a quay
  sheltered by a promenade wall. The rise of equinoctial spring tides at
  the mouth of the river Nervion is 14¾ ft. In carrying out the work,
  however, the superstructure built in the summer months was for the
  most part destroyed by the following winter storms; and, accordingly,
  the superstructure was eventually constructed on a widened rubble
  base, so as to be sheltered to some extent by the outlying
  concrete-block mound already deposited, a system subsequently adopted
  in rebuilding the damaged portion of the North Pier at Tynemouth under
  shelter of the ruins of the previous work. The modified superstructure
  of the Bilbao breakwater was founded on the extended rubble mound at a
  depth of 16¼ ft. below low water, and formed of iron caissons
  partially filled with concrete and floated out, sunk in position, and
  filled up with concrete blocks and concrete. It thus consists of a
  continuous row of concrete blocks, each of them being 42-2/3 ft. in
  width across the breakwater, 23 ft. in length along the line of the
  breakwater, 23 ft. high, and weighing 1400 tons. These caisson blocks,
  raised 6¾ ft. above low water, form the base of the superstructure,
  upon which the upper part was built of concrete blocks on each face
  with mass concrete filling between them, forming a continuous quay, 24
  ft. wide, raised 8 ft. above high tide, and slightly sheltered by a
  curved parapet block only 5 ft. high. The outer toe of the caisson
  blocks is protected from being undermined by two tiers of large
  concrete blocks laid flat on the rubble mound. This superstructure has
  successfully resisted the attacks of the Atlantic waves rolling into
  the bay. At this breakwater and at Tynemouth advantage has been taken
  of the protection unintentionally provided by previous failures, by
  which the waves are broken before reaching the superstructure and pier
  respectively; but instead of introducing a wave-breaker of concrete
  blocks, for a protection to the superstructure, as arranged at
  Marmagao (fig. 11) and the outer arms at Madras, it would appear
  preferable to increase the width of the solid superstructure, if
  necessary, as carried out at Naples (fig. 12). and to dispense with a
  parapet and keep the superstructure low, as being unsuitable for a
  quay in exposed situations, according to the plan adopted at Colombo
  (fig. 9).

  3. _Upright-Wall Breakwaters._--The third type of breakwater consists
  of a solid structure founded directly on the sea-bottom, in the form
  of an upright wall, with only a moderate batter on each face. This
  form of breakwater is strictly limited to sites where the bed of the
  sea consists of rock, chalk, boulders, or other hard bottom not
  subject to erosion by scour, and where the depth does not exceed about
  40 to 50 ft. If a solid breakwater were erected on a soft yielding
  bottom, it would be exposed to dislocation from irregular settlement;
  and such a structure, by obstructing or diverting the existing
  currents, tends to create a scour along its base; whilst the waves in
  recoiling from its sea face are very liable to produce erosion of the
  sea-bottom along its outer toe. Moreover, when the foundations for an
  upright-wall breakwater have to be levelled by divers, and the blocks
  laid under water by their help, the extension of such a breakwater
  into a considerable depth is undesirable on account of the increased
  pressure imposed upon diving operations.

  The Admiralty pier at Dover was begun about the middle of the 19th
  century, and furnishes an early and notable example of an upright-wall
  breakwater resting upon a hard chalk bottom; and it was subsequently
  extended to a depth of about 42 ft. at low tide, in connexion with
  the works for forming a closed naval harbour at Dover. This
  breakwater, the Prince of Wales pier of the commercial harbour, and
  the eastern breakwater and detached south breakwater for the naval
  harbour, were all founded on a levelled bottom, carried down to the
  hard chalk underlying the surface layer, by means of men in
  diving-bells. The extension of the Admiralty pier and the other
  breakwaters of Dover harbour consist of bonded courses of concrete
  blocks, from 26 to 40 tons in weight, as shown in figs. 13 and 14, the
  outer blocks above low water being formed on their exposed side with a
  facing of granite rubble. The blocks, composed of six parts of sand
  and stones to one part of Portland cement, moulded in frames, and left
  to set thoroughly in the block-yard before being used, are all joggled
  together, and above low-water level are bedded in cement and the
  joints filled with cement grout. The blocks were laid by Goliath
  travelling cranes running on temporary staging supported at intervals
  of 50¼ ft. by clusters of iron piles carried down into the chalk
  bottom. On each line of staging there were four Goliaths, preceded by
  a stage-erecting machine. The front Goliath was used for working a
  grab for excavating the surface layer of chalk, which was finally
  levelled by divers, the second for carrying the diving-bell, the third
  for laying the blocks below low water, and the fourth for setting the
  blocks above low water. This succession of Goliaths enabled more rapid
  progress to be made than with a single Titan at the end of a
  breakwater; but it involved a considerable increase in the cost of the
  plant, owing to the temporary staging required. The foundations were
  carried down from 4 to 6 ft. into the chalk bottom, the deepest being
  53 ft. below low water of spring tides, and the average 47 ft. With a
  rise of tide at springs of 18¾ ft., the average depth is thus
  approximately 66 ft. at high tide, necessitating a pressure of 29 lb.
  on the square inch, which is the limit at which men can work without
  inconvenience in the diving-bells. The breakwaters are raised about 11
  ft. above high water of springs. The detached southern breakwater was
  finished off at this level; but the extended western breakwater, or
  Admiralty pier, is provided with a promenade parapet on its exposed
  side, rising 13 ft. above the quay; and the eastern breakwater also
  has a parapet on its exposed eastern side, raised, however, only 9 ft.
  above its quay. The breakwaters are protected from scour along their
  outer toe by an apron of concrete blocks, extending 25 ft. out from
  their sea face.

  [Illustration: Dover Breakwater.

  FIG. 13. South Breakwater.

  FIG. 14. Admiralty Pier Extension.]


    Concrete bag foundations.

  The levelling of the foundations for laying the courses of an
  upright-wall breakwater is costly and tedious, even in chalk; and the
  expense and delay are considerably enhanced where the bottom is hard
  rock. Accordingly, in constructing two breakwaters at the entrance to
  Aberdeen harbour on a bottom of granite in 1870-1877, concrete bags
  were laid on the sea-bed; and these bags, by adapting themselves to
  the rocky irregularities, obviated levelling the bottom. They formed
  the foundation for the concrete blocks in the south breakwater; and by
  the deposit of successive layers of 50-ton concrete bags till they
  rose above low water, they constituted the whole of the submerged
  portion of the north breakwater. The 50-ton bags were deposited from
  hopper barges towed out to the site; and the portions of both
  breakwaters above low water were carried up with mass concrete.
  Subsequently, the breakwater at Newhaven was constructed on a
  foundation of chalk, with lop-ton concrete bags up to low water, and
  mass concrete above. Still later, the two breakwaters sheltering the
  approach to the river Wear (see HARBOUR) and the Sunderland docks were
  built with a foundation mound of concrete in bags, 56 to 116 tons in
  weight, on the uneven sea-bottom, raised slightly above low water of
  spring tides, on which a solid upright wall was erected, formed of
  concrete blocks on each side faced with granite, filled in the centre
  and capped on the top with mass concrete. The most exposed northern
  Roker breakwater, raised about 11 ft. above high water of springs
  where the rise is 14 ft. 5 in., is devoid of a parapet; but a subway
  formed near the top in each breakwater gives access to the light on
  the pierhead in stormy weather (fig. 15). These concrete bags are made
  by lining the hopper of the barge with jute canvas, which receives the
  concrete and is sewn up to form a bag whilst the barge is being towed
  to the site. The concrete is thus deposited unset, and readily
  accommodates itself to the irregularities of the bottom or of the
  mound of bags; and sufficient liquid grout oozes out of the canvas
  when the bag is compressed, to unite the bags into a solid mass, so
  that with the mass concrete on the top, the breakwater forms a
  monolith. This system has been extended to the portion of the
  superstructure of the eastern, little-exposed breakwater of Bilbao
  harbour below low water, where the rubble mound is of moderate height;
  but this application of the system appears less satisfactory, as
  settlement of the superstructure on the mound would produce cracks in
  the set concrete in the bags.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Sunderland Southern Breakwater.]


    Foundations with large blocks.

  Foundation blocks of 2500 to 3000 tons have been deposited for raising
  the walls on each side of the wide portion of the Zeebrugge breakwater
  (fig. 16) from the sea-bottom to above low water, and also 4400-ton
  blocks along the narrow outer portion (see HARBOUR), by building iron
  caissons, open at the top, in the dry bed of the Bruges ship-canal,
  lining them with concrete, and after the canal was filled with water,
  floating them out one by one in calm weather, sinking them in position
  by admitting water, and then filling them with concrete under water
  from closed skips which open at the bottom directly they begin to be
  raised. The firm sea-bed is levelled by small rubble for receiving the
  large blocks, whose outer toe is protected from undermining by a layer
  of big blocks of stone extending out for a width of 50 ft.; and then
  the breakwater walls are raised above high water by 55-ton concrete
  blocks, set in cement at low tide; and the upper portions are
  completed by concrete-in-mass within framing.


    Concrete monoliths.

  Sometimes funds are not available for a large plant; and in such cases
  small upright-wall breakwaters may be constructed in a moderate depth
  of water on a hard bottom of rock, chalk or boulders, by erecting
  timber framing in suitable lengths, lining it inside with jute cloth,
  and then depositing concrete below low water in closed hopper skips
  lowered to the bottom before releasing the concrete, which must be
  effected with great care to avoid allowing the concrete to fall
  through the water. The portion of the breakwater above low water is
  then raised by tide-work with mass concrete within frames, in which
  large blocks of stone may be bedded, provided they do not touch one
  another and are kept away from the face, which should be formed with
  concrete containing a larger proportion of cement. As long continuous
  lengths of concrete crack across under variations in temperature, it
  is advisable to form fine straight divisions across the upper part of
  a concrete breakwater in construction, as substitutes for irregular
  cracks.

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Zeebrugge Harbour Breakwater with Quay.]

  Upright-wall breakwaters should not be formed with two narrow walls
  and intermediate filling, as the safety of such a breakwater depends
  entirely on the sea-wall being maintained intact. A warning of the
  danger of this system of construction, combined with a high parapet,
  was furnished by the south breakwater of Newcastle harbour in Dundrum
  Bay, Ireland, which was breached by a storm in 1868, and eventually
  almost wholly destroyed; whilst its ruins for many years filled up the
  harbour which it had been erected to protect. In designing its
  reconstruction in 1897, it was found possible to provide a solid
  upright wall of suitable strength with the materials scattered over
  the harbour, together with an extension needed for providing proper
  protection at the entrance. This work was completed in 1906.

  Upright-wall breakwaters and superstructures are generally made of the
  same thickness throughout, irrespective of the differences in depth
  and exposure which are often met with in different parts of the same
  breakwater. This may be accounted for by the general custom of
  regarding the top of an upright wall or superstructure as a quay,
  which should naturally be given a uniform width; and this view has
  also led to the very general practice of sheltering the top of these
  structures with a parapet. Generally the width is proportioned to the
  most exposed part, so that the only result is an excess of
  expenditure in the inner portion to secure uniformity. When, however,
  as at Madras, the width of the structure is reduced to a minimum, the
  action of the sea demonstrates that the strength of the structure must
  be proportioned to the depth and exposure. In small fishery piers,
  where great economy is essential to obtain the maximum shelter at
  limited expense, it appears expedient to make the width of the
  breakwater proportionate to the depth. This was done in Babbacombe
  Bay; and in reconstructing the southern breakwater at Newcastle,
  Ireland, advantage was taken of a change in direction of the outer
  half to introduce an addition to the width, so as to make the strength
  of the breakwater proportionate to the increase in depth and exposure.
  In large structures, however, uniformity of design may be desirable
  for each straight length of breakwater; though where two or more
  breakwaters or outer arms enclose a harbour, the design should
  obviously be modified to suit the depth and exposure. At Colombo
  harbour, the superstructure of the less exposed north-west breakwater
  has been made slightly narrower than that of the south-west
  breakwater; and a simple rubble mound shelters the harbour from the
  moderate north-east monsoon. In special cases, where a breakwater has
  to serve as a quay, like the Admiralty pier at Dover, a high parapet
  wall is essential; but in most cases, where a parapet merely enables
  the breakwater to be more readily accessible in moderate weather, it
  would be advisable to keep it very low, or to dispense with it
  altogether, as at the southern Dover breakwater, the northern
  breakwater at Sunderland, and the Colombo western breakwaters. This
  course is particularly expedient in very exposed sites, as a high
  parapet intensifies the shock of the waves against a breakwater and
  their erosive recoil. Moreover, when a light has to be attended to at
  the end of a breakwater, sheltered access can be provided by a subway,
  as at Sunderland.

  Structures in the sea almost always require works of maintenance; and
  when a severe storm has caused any injury, it is most important to
  carry out the repairs at the earliest available moment, as the waves
  rapidly enlarge any holes that they may have formed in weak places.
      (L. F. V.-H.)



BRÉAL, MICHEL JULES ALFRED (1832-   ), French philologist, was born on
the 26th of March 1832, at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria, of French parents.
After studying at Weissenburg, Metz and Paris, he entered the École
Normale in 1852. In 1857 he went to Berlin, where he studied Sanskrit
under Bopp and Weber. On his return to France he obtained an appointment
in the department of oriental MSS. at the Bibliothèque Impériale. In
1864 he became professor of comparative grammar at the Collège de
France, in 1875 member of the Académie des Inscriptions et
Belles-lettres, in 1879 _inspecteur-général_ of public instruction for
higher schools until the abolition of the office in 1888. In 1890 he was
made commander of the Legion of Honour. Among his works, which deal
mainly with mythological and philological subjects, may be mentioned:
_L'Étude des origines de la religion Zoroastrienne_ (1862), for which a
prize was awarded him by the Académie des Inscriptions; _Hercule et
Cacus_ (1863), in which he disputes the principles of the symbolic
school in the interpretation of myths; _Le Mythe d'Oedipe_ (1864); _Les
Tables Eugubines_ (1875); _Mélanges de mythologie et de linguistique_
(2nd. ed., 1882); _Leçons de mots_ (1882,1886), _Dictionnaire
étymologique latin_ (1885) and _Grammaire latine_ (1890). His _Essai de
Sémantique_ (1897), on the signification of words, has been translated
into English by Mrs H. Cust with preface by J.P. Postgate. His
translation of Bopp's _Comparative Grammar_ (1866-1874), with
introductions, is highly valued. He has also written pamphlets on
education in France, the teaching of ancient languages, and the reform
of French orthography. In 1906 he published _Pour mieux connaître
Homère_.



BREAM (_Abramis_), a fish of the Cyprinid family, characterized by a
deep, strongly compressed body, with short dorsal and long anal fins,
the latter with more than sixteen branched rays, and the small inferior
mouth. There are two species in the British Isles, the common bream, _A.
brama_, reaching a length of 2 ft. and a weight of 12 lb., and the white
bream or bream flat, _A. blicca_, a smaller and, in most places, rarer
species. Both occur in slow-running rivers, canals, ponds and
reservoirs. Bream are usually despised for the table in England, but
fish from large lakes, if well prepared, are by no means deserving of
ostracism. In the days of medieval abbeys, when the provident Cistercian
monks attached great importance to pond culture, they gave the first
place to the tench and bream, the carp still being unknown in the
greater part of Europe. At the present day, the poorer Jews in large
English cities make a great consumption of bream--and other Cyprinids,
most of them being imported alive from Holland and sold in the Jewish
fish markets. In America the name bream is commonly given to the golden
shiner minnow (_Abramis chrysoleucus_), to the pumpkin-seed sunfish
(_Eupomotis gibbosus_), and to some kinds of porgy (_Sparidae_).



BREAST (a word common to Teutonic languages, of the Ger. _Brust_,
possibly connected with an O. Sax. _brustian_, to bud), the term
properly confined to the external projecting parts of the thorax in
females, which contain the mammary glands (for anatomy, and diseases,
see MAMMARY GLAND); more generally it is used of the external part of
the thorax in animals, including man, lying between the neck and the
abdomen.



BREAUTÉ, FALKES DE (d. 1226), one of the foreign mercenaries of King
John of England, from whom he received in marriage the heiress of the
earldom of Devon. On the outbreak of the Barons' War (1215) the king
gave him the sheriffdoms of six midland shires and the custody of many
castles. He fulfilled his military duties with as much skill as cruelty.
The royalists owed to his daring the decisive victory of Lin