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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6 - "Dodwell" to "Drama"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6 - "Dodwell" to "Drama"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subsctipts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Letters topped by Macron are represented as [=x].

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article DOLOMITES, THE: "On the north it is limited by the railway
      line from Innichen to Franzensfeste, and on the south by the
      railway and road from Trent to Feltre." 'Franzensfeste' amended
      from 'Franzenfeste'.

    Article DOMICILE: "As the result of the most recent English and
      Scottish cases it may be laid down that the necessary intention is
      incompatible with the contemplation by the person in question of
      any event on the occurrence of which his residence in the territory
      in question would cease ..." 'occurrence' from 'occurence'.

    Article DORSETSHIRE: "It contains the following municipal
      boroughs-Blandford Forum (pop. 3649), Bridport (5710), Dorchester,
      the county town (9458)," 'It' from 'In'.

    Article DORT, SYNOD OF: "During the interval between the citation
      and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the
      synod were instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute
      the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with
      deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible ..." 'were'
      amended from 'was'.

    Article DOWN: "There are several popular watering-places on the
      coast, notably Newcastle, Donaghadee, Ardglass and Rosstrevor."
      'watering-places' amended from 'watering-place'.

    Article DRACO: "hoplite census, nobody to hold office a second time
      until all duly qualified persons had been exhausted, fine of one
      drachma for non-attendance in Boule ..." 'been' amended from
      'beeen'.

    Article DRAMA: "Though in some respects Sicilian comedy seems to
      have resembled the Middle rather than the Old Attic comedy, its
      subjects sometimes, like those of the latter, coincided with the
      myths of tragedy, of which they were doubtless parodies." 'rather'
      amended from 'rathet'.

    Article DRAMA: "and the wily sharper (dorsenus) became accepted
      comic types, and, with others of a similar kind, were handed down,
      to reappear in the modern Italian drama." 'similar' amended from
      'smiliar'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME VIII, SLICE VI

             Dodwell to Drama



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  DODWELL, EDWARD                 DORLÉANS, LOUIS
  DODWELL, HENRY                  DORMER
  DOG                             DORMITORY
  DOGE                            DORMOUSE
  DOG-FISH                        DORNBIRN
  DOGGER BANK                     DORNBURG
  DOGGETT THOMAS                  DORNER, ISAAC AUGUST
  DOGMA                           DORNOCH
  DOGMATIC THEOLOGY               DOROHOI
  DOGRA                           DOROTHEUS
  DOGS, ISLE OF                   D'ORSAY, ALFRED GUILLAUME GABRIEL
  DOG-TOOTH                       DORSET, EARLS, MARQUESSES AND DUKES OF
  DOGWOOD                         DORSETSHIRE
  DOL                             DORSIVENTRAL
  DOLABELLA, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS    DORT, SYNOD OF
  DOLBEN, JOHN                    DORTMUND
  DOLCE, LUDOVICO                 DORY
  DOLCI, CARLO                    DOSITHEUS MAGISTER
  DOLDRUMS                        DOSSAL
  DÔLE                            DOSSERET
  DOLE                            DOST MAHOMMED KHAN
  DOLERITE                        DOSTOIEVSKY, FEODOR MIKHAILOVICH
  DOLET, ÉTIENNE                  DOUAI
  DOLGELLEY                       DOUARNENEZ
  DOLGORUKI, VASILY LUKICH        DOUBLE
  DOLHAIN                         DOUBLE BASS
  DOLICHOCEPHALIC                 DOUBLEDAY, ABNER
  DOLL                            DOUBLEDAY, THOMAS
  DOLLAR (town of Scotland)       DOUBLET
  DOLLAR (money)                  DOUBS (river of France)
  DOLLING, ROBERT RADCLYFFE       DOUBS (department of France)
  DÖLLINGER, JOHANN IGNAZ VON     DOUCE, FRANCIS
  DOLLOND, JOHN                   DOUGLAS
  DOLMAN                          DOUGLAS, SIR CHARLES
  DOLNJA TUZLA                    DOUGLAS, GAVIN
  DOLOMIEU, TANCRÈDE GRATET DE    DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD
  DOLOMITE                        DOUGLAS, JOHN
  DOLOMITES, THE                  DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD
  DOLPHIN                         DOUGLAS (capital of the Isle of Man)
  DOMAT JEAN                      DOUGLAS (village of Scotland)
  DOMBES                          DOUGLASS, FREDERICK
  DOMBROWSKI, JAN HENRYK          DOUKHOBORS
  DOME                            DOULLENS
  DOMENICHINO ZAMPIERI            DOULTON, SIR HENRY
  DOMESDAY BOOK                   DOUMER, PAUL
  DOMESTIC RELATIONS              DOUMIC, RENÉ
  DOMETT, ALFRED                  DOUNE
  DOMFRONT                        DOURO
  DOMICILE                        DOUROUCOULI
  DOMINIC, SAINT                  DOUSA, JANUS
  DOMINICA                        DOUVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE
  DOMINICANS                      DOUW GERHARD
  DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE       DOVE (river of England)
  DOMINOES                        DOVE (bird)
  DOMINUS                         DOVER, GEORGE JAMES WELBORE AGAR-ELLIS
  DOMITIAN                        DOVER, HENRY JERMYN
  DOMRÉMY-LA-PUCELLE              DOVER, ROBERT
  DON (river of Russia)           DOVER (capital of Delaware, U.S.A.)
  DON (river of Scotland)         DOVER (borough of Kent, England)
  DONAGHADEE                      DOVER (city of New Hampshire, U.S.A.)
  DONALDSON, SIR JAMES            DOVER (town of New Jersey, U.S.A.)
  DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM         DOVERCOURT
  DONATELLO                       DOW, LORENZO
  DONATI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA       DOW, NEAL
  DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA            DOWAGER
  DONATION OF CONSTANTINE         DOWDEN, EDWARD
  DONATISTS                       DOWDESWELL, WILLIAM
  DONATUS, AELIUS                 DOWER
  DONAUWÖRTH                      DOWIE, JOHN ALEXANDER
  DON BENÍTO                      DOWLAS
  DONCASTER                       DOWN (county of Ireland)
  DON COSSACKS, TERRITORY OF THE  DOWN (smooth rounded hill)
  DONEGAL (county of Ireland)     DOWNES ANDREW
  DONEGAL (town of Ireland)       DOWNING, SIR GEORGE
  DONELSON, FORT                  DOWNMAN, JOHN
  DONGA                           DOWNPATRICK
  DONGOLA (province of Sudan)     DOWNS
  DONGOLA (town of Sudan)         DOWNSHIRE, WILLS HILL
  DONIZETTI, GAETANO              DOWRY
  DONJON                          DOWSER and DOWSING
  DON JUAN                        DOXOLOGY
  DONKIN, SIR RUFANE SHAW         DOYEN, GABRIEL FRANÇOIS
  DONNAY, CHARLES MAURICE         DOYLE, SIR ARTHUR CONAN
  DONNE, JOHN                     DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS CHARLES
  DONNYBROOK                      DOYLE, JOHN ANDREW
  DONOSO CORTÉS, JUAN             DOYLE, RICHARD
  DONOVAN, EDWARD                 DOZSA, GYÖRGY
  DOOM                            DOZY, REINHART PIETER ANNE
  DOON DE MAYENCE                 DRACAENA
  DOOR                            DRACHMANN, HOLGER HENRIK HERBOLDT
  DOORWAY                         DRACO (Athenian statesman)
  DOPPLERITE                      DRACO (constellation)
  DORAN, JOHN                     DRACONTIUS, BLOSSIUS AEMILIUS
  DORAT, CLAUDE JOSEPH            DRAFTED MASONRY
  DORCHESTER, DUDLEY CARLETON     DRAG
  DORCHESTER, GUY CARLETON        DRAGASHANI
  DORCHESTER (town of England)    DRAGOMAN
  DORCHESTER (village of England) DRAGOMIROV, MICHAEL IVANOVICH
  DORCHESTER (Boston, U.S.A.)     DRAGON
  DORDOGNE (river of France)      DRAGONETTI, DOMENICO
  DORDOGNE (department of France) DRAGON-FLY
  DORDRECHT                       DRAGON'S BLOOD
  DORÉ, LOUIS AUGUSTE GUSTAVE     DRAGOON
  DORIA, ANDREA                   DRAGUIGNAN
  DORIANS                         DRAINAGE OF LAND
  DORIA-PAMPHILII-LANDI           DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS
  DORION, SIR ANTOINE AIMÉ        DRAKE, NATHAN
  DORIS                           DRAKENBORCH, ARNOLD
  DORISLAUS, ISAAC                DRAKENSBERG
  DORKING                         DRAMA (part)



DODWELL, EDWARD (1767-1832), English traveller and writer on
archaeology. He belonged to the same family as Henry Dodwell the
theologian, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He travelled
from 1801 to 1806 in Greece, and spent the rest of his life for the most
part in Italy, at Naples and Rome. He died at Rome on the 13th of May
1832, from the effects of an illness contracted in 1830 during a visit
of exploration to the Sabine Mountains. His widow, a daughter of Count
Giraud, thirty years his junior, subsequently became famous as the
"beautiful" countess of Spaur, and played a considerable rôle in the
political life of the papal city. He published _A Classical and
Topographical Tour through Greece_ (1819), of which a German translation
appeared in 1821; _Views in Greece_, thirty coloured plates (1821); and
_Views and Descriptions of Cyclopian or Pelasgic Remains in Italy and
Greece_ (London and Paris, with French text, 1834).



DODWELL, HENRY (1641-1711), scholar, theologian and controversial
writer, was born at Dublin in October, 1641. His father, having lost his
property in Connaught during the rebellion, settled at York in 1648.
Here Henry received his preliminary education at the free school. In
1654 he was sent by his uncle to Trinity College, Dublin, of which he
subsequently became scholar and fellow. Having conscientious objections
to taking orders he relinquished his fellowship in 1666, but in 1688 he
was elected Camden professor of history at Oxford. In 1691 he was
deprived of his professorship for refusing to take the oath of
allegiance to William and Mary. Retiring to Shottesbrooke in Berkshire,
and living on the produce of a small estate in Ireland, he devoted
himself to the study of chronology and ecclesiastical polity. Gibbon
speaks of his learning as "immense," and says that his "skill in
employing facts is equal to his learning," although he severely
criticizes his method and style. Dodwell's works on ecclesiastical
polity are more numerous and of much less value than those on
chronology, his judgment being far inferior to his power of research. In
his earlier writings he was regarded as one of the greatest champions of
the non-jurors; but the doctrine which he afterwards promulgated, that
the soul is naturally mortal, and that immortality could be enjoyed only
by those who had received baptism from the hands of one set of regularly
ordained clergy, and was therefore a privilege from which dissenters
were hopelessly excluded, did not strengthen his reputation. Dodwell
died at Shottesbrooke on the 7th of June 1711. His chief works on
classical chronology are: _A Discourse concerning Sanchoniathon's
Phoenician History_ (1681); _Annales Thucydidei et Xenophontei_ (1702);
_Chronologia Graeco-Romana pro hypothesibus Dion. Halicarnassei_ (1692);
_Annales Velleiani, Quintilianei, Statiani_ (1698); and a larger
treatise entitled _De veteribus Graecorum Romanorumque Cyclis_ (1701).

His eldest son Henry (d. 1784) is known as the author of a pamphlet
entitled _Christianity not founded on Argument_, to which a reply was
published by his brother William (1709-1785), who was besides engaged in
a controversy with Dr Conyers Middleton on the subject of miracles.

  See _The Works of H. D. ... abridg'd with an account of his life_, by
  F. Brokesby (2nd ed., 1723) and Thomas Hearne's _Diaries_.



DOG, the English generic term for the quadruped of the domesticated
variety of _Canis_ (Fr. _chien_). The etymology of the word is unknown;
"hound" represents the common Teutonic term (Ger. _Hund_), and it is
suggested that the "English _dog_"--for this was a regular phrase in
continental European countries--represented a special breed. Most canine
experts believe that the dog is descended from the wolf, although
zoologists are less certain (see CARNIVORA); the osteology of one does
not differ materially from that of the other: the dog and the wolf breed
with each other, and the progeny thus obtained will again breed with the
dog. There is one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a
difference between the two animals: the eye of the dog of every country
and species has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil
is oblique in the wolf. W. Youatt says there is also a marked difference
in the temper and habits of the two. The dog is generally easily
managed, and although H. C. Brooke of Welling, Kent, succeeded in making
a wolf fairly tractable, the experience of others has been the reverse
of encouraging. G. Cuvier gives an interesting account of a young wolf
which, having been trained to follow his master, showed affection and
submission scarcely inferior to the domesticated dog. During the absence
from home of his owner the wolf was sent to a menagerie, but pined for
his master and would scarcely take any food for a considerable time. At
length, however, he became attached to his keepers and appeared to have
forgotten his former associate. At the end of eighteen months his master
returned, and, the moment his voice was heard, the wolf recognized him
and lavished on him the most affectionate caresses. A still longer
separation followed, but the wolf again remembered his old associate and
showed great affection upon his return. Such an association proves that
there is very little difference between the dog and the wolf in
recognition of man as an object of affection and veneration. H. C.
Brooke succeeded in training his wolf so well that it was no uncommon
sight to see the latter following his master like a dog. The wolf did
not like strangers, however, and was very shy in their presence.

In the Old and New Testaments the dog is spoken of almost with
abhorrence; it ranked amongst the unclean beasts: traffic in it was
considered as an abomination, and it was forbidden to be offered in the
sanctuary in the discharge of any vow. Part of the Jewish ritual was the
preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time
prevailed among every other people. Dogs were held in considerable
veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just
escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples,
and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being. Herodotus,
speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the
Egyptians, says that the people of every family in which a dog died
shaved themselves--their expression of mourning--adding that this was a
custom of his own time.

The cause of this attachment to and veneration for the dog is, however,
explained in a far more probable and pleasing way than by many of the
fables of ancient mythology. The prosperity of Lower Egypt, and almost
the very subsistence of its inhabitants, depended upon the annual
overflowing of the Nile; and they looked for it with the utmost anxiety.
Its approach was announced by the appearance of a certain star, Sirius,
and as soon as that star was seen above the horizon the people hastened
to remove their flocks to the higher ground and abandoned the lower
pastures to the fertilizing influence of the stream. They hailed it as
their guard and protector; and, associating with its apparent
watchfulness the well-known fidelity of the dog, they called it the
"dog-star" and worshipped it. It was in far later periods and in other
countries that the appearance of the dog-star was regarded as the signal
of insufferable heat or prevalent disease. In Ethiopia, not only was
great veneration paid to the dog, but the inhabitants used to elect a
dog as their king. It was kept in great state, and surrounded by a
numerous train of officers and guards: when it fawned upon them it was
supposed to be pleased with their proceedings; when it growled, it
disapproved of the manner in which their government was conducted. Such
indications of will were implicitly obeyed, or were translated by the
worshippers as their own caprice or interest indicated.

Even 1000 years after this period, the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt
for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for when Pythagoras,
after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton
in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at
the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals.
After the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to
the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying
that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than
that quadruped. It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors
and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such
idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with
utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the
continuance of the Israelites in Palestine.


  Plate I. TYPICAL NON-SPORTING DOGS.
   (_From Photos by Bowden Bros._)

[Illustration: GREAT DANE.]

[Illustration: SAINT BERNARD.]

[Illustration: DALMATIAN.]

[Illustration: MASTIFF.]

[Illustration: OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG.]

[Illustration: COLLIE.]

[Illustration: CHOW.]

[Illustration: NEWFOUNDLAND.]

[Illustration: POODLE.]

[Illustration: BULL DOG.]

[Illustration: FRENCH BULL DOG.]

[Illustration: _From "Country Life in America."_

BOSTON TERRIER.]


  Plate II. TYPICAL SPORTING DOGS.
    (_From Photos by Bowden Bros._)

[Illustration: ENGLISH SETTER.]

[Illustration: POINTER.]

[Illustration: IRISH SETTER.]

[Illustration: LABRADOR RETRIEVER.]

[Illustration: FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER.]

[Illustration: IRISH WOLF-HOUND.]

[Illustration: IRISH TERRIER.]

[Illustration: DACHSHUND.]

[Illustration: ROUGH-COATED FOX TERRIER.]

[Illustration: FIELD SPANIEL.]


The Hindus also regard the dog as unclean, and submit to various
purifications if they accidentally come in contact with it, believing
that every dog is animated by a wicked and malignant spirit condemned to
do penance in that form for crimes committed in a previous state of
existence. In every Mahommedan and Hindu country the most scurrilous
epithet bestowed on a European or a Christian is "a dog," and that
accounts for the fact that in the whole of the Jewish history there is
not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Mention is made of nets and
snares, but the dog does not seem to have been used in the pursuit of
game.

In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to
have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had
become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home;
and in the 2nd century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is
as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and
ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret
piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval
engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis." The first
hint of the employment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals is
given by Oppian in his _Cynegetica_, who attributes it to Pollux about
200 years after the promulgation of the Levitical law. The precise
species of dog that was cultivated in Greece at that early period cannot
be affirmed, although a beautiful piece of sculpture in the possession
of Lord Feversham at Duncombe Hall, representing the favourite dog of
Alcibiades, differs but little from the Newfoundland dog of the present
day. In the British Museum is another piece of early sculpture from the
ruins of the villa of Antoninus, near Rome. The greyhound puppies which
it represents are identical with a brace of saplings of the present day.
In the early periods of their history the Greeks depended too much on
their nets to capture game, and it was not until later times that they
pursued their prey with dogs, and then not with greyhounds, which run by
sight, but with beagles, the dwarf hound which is still very popular.
Later, mention is made of large and ferocious dogs which were employed
to guard sheep and cattle, or to watch at the door of the house, or even
to act as a companion, and G. Cuvier expresses the opinion that the dog
exhibits the most complete and the most useful conquest that man has
made. Each individual is entirely devoted to his master, adopts his
manners, distinguishes and defends his property, and remains attached to
him even unto death; and all this springs not from mere necessity nor
from constraint, but simply from gratitude and true friendship.

The swiftness, the strength and the highly developed power of scent in
the dog, have made it a powerful ally of man against the other animals;
and perhaps these qualities in the dog were necessary to the
establishment of society. Instances of dogs having saved the lives of
their owners by that strange intuition of approaching danger which they
appear to possess, or by their protection, are innumerable: their
attachment to man has inspired the poet and formed the subject of many
notable books, while in Daniel's _Rural Sports_ is related a story of a
dog dying in the fulness of joy caused by the return of his master after
a two years' absence from home.

It is not improbable that all dogs sprang from one common source, but
climate, food and cross-breeding caused variations of form which
suggested particular uses, and these being either designedly or
accidentally perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs arose, and became
numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization. Among the ruder
or savage tribes they possess but one form; but the ingenuity of man has
devised many inventions to increase his comforts; he has varied and
multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same
purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, cattle and dogs. The
parent stock it is now impossible to trace; but the wild dog, wherever
found on the continent of Asia, or northern Europe, has nearly the same
character, and bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the British dog of
the ordinary type; while many of those from the southern hemisphere can
scarcely be distinguished from the cross-bred poaching dog, the lurcher.

Dogs were first classified into three groups:--(1) Those having the head
more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at
the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend,
the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper
molar teeth. The greyhound and all its varieties belong to this class.
(2) The head moderately elongated and the parietals diverging from each
other for a certain space as they rise upon the side of the head,
enlarging the cerebral cavity and the frontal sinus. To this class
belong most of the useful dogs, such as the spaniel, the setter, the
pointer and the sheepdog. (3) The muzzle more or less shortened, the
frontal sinus enlarged, and the cranium elevated and diminished in
capacity. To this class belong some of the terriers and most of the toy
dogs.

Later, however, "Stonehenge" (J.H. Walsh), in _British Rural Sports_,
classified dogs as follows:--(a) Dogs that find game for man, leaving
him to kill it himself--the pointer, setters, spaniels and water
spaniels. (b) Dogs which kill game when found for them--the English
greyhound. (c) Dogs which find and also kill their game--the bloodhound,
the foxhound, the harrier, the beagle, the otterhound, the fox terrier
and the truffle dog. (d) Dogs which retrieve game that has been wounded
by man--the retriever, the deerhound. (e) Useful companions of man--the
mastiff, the Newfoundland, the St Bernard dog, the bulldog, the bull
terrier, terriers, sheepdogs, Pomeranian or Spitz, and Dalmatian dogs.
(f) Ladies' toy dogs--King Charles spaniel, the Blenheim spaniel, the
Italian greyhound, the pug dog, the Maltese dog, toy terriers, toy
poodles, the lion dog, Chinese and Japanese spaniels. In 1894 _Modern
Dogs_ (Rawdon B. Lee) was issued, the simple classification of sporting
and non-sporting dog--terriers and toy dogs, being adopted; but although
there had been an understanding since 1874, when the first volume of the
_Kennel Club Stud Book_ (Frank C. S. Pearce) was issued, as to the
identity of the two great divisions of dogs, an incident at Altrincham
Show in September 1900--an exhibitor entering a Russian wolfhound in
both the sporting and non-sporting competitions--made it necessary for
authoritative information to be given as to how the breeds should be
separated. Following petitions to the Kennel Club from exhibitors at the
club's own show at the Crystal Palace, and also at the show of the
Scottish Kennel Club in Edinburgh during the autumn of 1900, the
divisions were decided upon as follows:--

_Sporting._--Bloodhound, otterhound, foxhound, harrier, beagle, basset
hound (smooth and rough), dachshund, greyhound, deerhound, Borzoi, Irish
wolfhound, whippet, pointer, setter (English, Irish and black and tan),
retriever (flat-coated, curly-coated and Labrador), spaniel (Irish
water, water other than Irish, Clumber, Sussex, field, English springer,
other than Clumber, Sussex and field: Welsh springer, red and white and
Cocker); fox terriers (smooth- and wire-coated); Irish terrier, Scotch
terrier, Welsh terrier, Dandie Dinmont terrier, Skye terrier
(prick-eared and drop-eared), Airedale terrier and Bedlington terrier.

_Non-Sporting._--Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane,
Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard
(rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth),
Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan
terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or
red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese,
Italian greyhound, chow-chow, black and tan terrier (miniature),
Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois,
foreign dogs (bouledogues français, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers,
Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).

On the 4th of May 1898 a sub-committee of the Kennel Club decided that
the following breeds should be classified as "toy dogs":--Black and tan
terriers (under 7 lb.), bull terriers (under 8 lb.), griffons, Italian
greyhounds, Japanese, Maltese, Pekingese, poodles (under 15 in.), pugs,
toy spaniels, Yorkshire terriers and Pomeranians.

All these varieties were represented at the annual show of the Kennel
Club in the autumn of 1905, and at the representative exhibition of
America held under the management of the Westminster Kennel Club in the
following spring the classification was substantially the same,
additional breeds, however, being Boston terriers--practically unknown
in England,--Chesapeake Bay dogs, Chihuahuas, Papillons and Roseneath
terriers. The latter were only recently introduced into the United
States, though well known in Great Britain as the West Highland or
Poltalloch terrier; an application which was made (1900) by some of
their admirers for separate classification was refused by the Kennel
Club, but afterwards it was granted, the breed being classified as the
West Highland white terrier.

The establishment of shows at Newcastle-on-Tyne in June 1859 secured for
dogs attention which had been denied them up to that time, although
sportsmen had appreciated their value for centuries and there had been
public coursing meetings since the reign of Charles I. Lord Orford,
however, established the first club at Marham Smeeth near Swaffham, where
coursing is still carried on, in 1776. The members were in number
confined to that of the letters in the alphabet; and when any vacancy
happened it was filled up by ballot. On the decease of the founder of the
club, the members agreed to purchase a silver cup to be run for annually,
and it was intended to pass from one to the other, like the whip at
Newmarket, but before starting for it, in the year 1792, it was decided
that the winner of the cup should keep it and that one should be annually
purchased to be run for in November. At the formation of the club each
member assumed a colour, and also a letter, which he used as the initial
of his dog's name. The Newcastle dog show of 1859 was promoted by Mr
Pape--a local sporting gunmaker--and Mr Shorthose, and although only
pointers and setters were entered for in two classes immense interest was
taken in the show. But neither the promoters nor the sportsmen who
supported it could have had the faintest idea as to how popular dog shows
would become. The judges at that historic gathering were: Messrs J.
Jobling (Morpeth), T. Robson (Newcastle-on-Tyne) and J. H. Walsh (London)
for pointers, and E. Foulger (Alnwick), R. Brailsford (Knowsley) and J.
H. Walsh for the setters. Sixty dogs were shown, and it was said that
such a collection had not been seen together before; while so even was
the quality that the judges had great difficulty in making their awards.
The prizes were sporting guns made by Mr Pape and presented by him to the
promoters of the show. So great a success was scored that other shows
were held in the same year at Birmingham and Edinburgh; while the
Cleveland Agricultural Society also established a show of foxhounds at
Redcar, the latter being the forerunner of that very fine show of hounds
which is now held at Peterborough every summer and is looked upon as the
out-of-season society gathering of hunting men and women.

Mr Brailsford was the secretary of the show at Birmingham, and he had
classes for pointers, English and Irish setters, retrievers and Clumber
spaniels. Another big success was scored, and the National Dog Show
Society was established for the purpose of holding a show of sporting
dogs in Birmingham every winter. Three years later proposals were made
in _The Field_ to promote public trials of pointers and setters over
game, but it was not until the 18th of April 1865 that a further step
was taken in the recognition of the value of the dog by the promotion of
working trials. They were held at Southill, near Bedford, on the estate
of S. Whitbread, M.P., and they attracted great interest. The order of
procedure at the early field trials was similar to what it is to-day,
only the awards were given in accordance with a scale of points as
follows: nose, 40; pace and range, 30; temperament, 10; staunchness
before, 10; behind, 10. Style of working was also taken into
consideration. In 1865 a show was held in Paris, and after the National
Dog Club--not the Birmingham society--had failed, as the result of a
disastrous show at the Crystal Palace, a further exhibition was arranged
to be held in June 1870 under the management of G. Nutt and a very
strong committee, among whom were many of the most noted owners of
sporting dogs of that time. The details of the show were arranged by S.
E. Shirley and J. H. Murchison, but the exhibition, although a most
interesting one, was a failure, and the guarantors had to face a heavy
loss. A second venture proved to be a little more encouraging, although
again there was a loss; but in April 1873, the Kennel Club, which is now
the governing body of the canine world, was founded by S. E. Shirley,
who, after acting as its chairman for many years, was elected the
president, and occupied that position until his death in March 1904. His
successor was the duke of Connaught and Strathearn; the vice-presidents
including the duke of Portland, Lord Algernon Gordon Lennox, J. H.
Salter and H. Richards. The progress of the club has been remarkable,
and that its formation did much to improve the conditions of the various
breeds of dogs, to encourage their use in the field by the promotion of
working trials, and to check abuses which were common with regard to the
registration of pedigrees, &c., cannot be denied. The abolition of the
cropping of the ears of Great Danes, bull terriers, black and tan
terriers, white English terriers, Irish terriers and toy terriers, in
1889 gained the approval of all humane lovers of dogs, and although
attempts have been made to induce the club to modify the rule which
prohibits the exhibition of cropped dogs, the practice has not been
revived; it is declared, however, that the toy terriers and white
English terriers have lost such smartness by the retention of the ears
that they are becoming extinct. The club has control over all the shows
held in the United Kingdom, no fewer than 519 being held in 1905, the
actual number of dogs which were entered at the leading fixtures being:
Kennel Club show 1789, Cruft's 1768, Ladies' Kennel Association 1306,
Manchester 1190, Edinburgh 896 and Birmingham 892. In 1906, however, no
fewer than 1956 dogs were entered at the show of the Westminster Kennel
Club, held in Madison Square Garden, New York; a fact proving that the
show is as popular in America as it is in the United Kingdom, the home
of the movement. The enormous sum of £1500 has been paid for a collie,
and 1000 guineas for a bulldog, both show dogs pure and simple; while
£500 is no uncommon price for a fox terrier. Excepting for greyhounds,
however, high prices are rarely offered for sporting dogs, 300 guineas
for the pointer "Coronation" and 200 guineas for the retriever "High
Legh Blarney" being the best reported prices for gun dogs during the
last few years.

The foreign and colonial clubs which are affiliated to the Kennel Club
are: the Guernsey Dog Club, the Italian Kennel Club, the Jersey Dog
Club, La Société Centrale (Paris), Moscow Gun Club of the Emperor
Alexander II., New South Wales Kennel Club, Nimrod Club (Amsterdam),
Northern Indian Kennel Association, Royal St Hubert's Society (Brussels)
and the South African Kennel Club (Cape Town). Its ramifications
therefore extend to all parts of the world; while its rules are the
basis of those adopted by the American Kennel Club, the governing body
of the "fancy" in the United States. A joint conference between
representatives of the two bodies, held in London in 1900, did much
towards securing the uniformity of ideas which is so essential between
associations having interests in common.

Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been
founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their
favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated),
the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier
Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders--under whose management the
first man-hunting trials were held,--the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the
Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the
English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom,
the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish
Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the
Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy
Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds
they represent before the dog-owning public and encouraging the breeding
of dogs to type. Each club has a standard of points; some hold their own
shows; while others issue club gazettes. All this has been brought about
by the establishment of a show for sporting dogs at Newcastle-on-Tyne in
the summer of 1859.

America can claim a list of over twenty specialist clubs, and in both
countries women exhibitors have their independent associations, Queen
Alexandra having become one of the chief supporters of the Ladies'
Kennel Association (England). There is a ladies' branch of the Kennel
Club, and the corresponding clubs in America are the Ladies' Kennel
Association of America and the Ladies' Kennel Association of
Massachusetts.

_The Gazette_ is the official organ of the Kennel Club. _The Field_,
however, retains its position as the leading canine journal, the
influence of J. H. Walsh ("Stonehenge"), who did so much towards
establishing the first dog shows and field trials, having never forsaken
it: the work he began was carried on by its kennel editor, Rawdon B. Lee
(d. 1908), whose volumes on _Modern Dogs_ (sporting, non-sporting and
terriers) are the standard works on dogs. _Our Dogs_, _The Kennel
Magazine_, and _The Illustrated Kennel News_ are the remaining canine
journals in England. Several weekly papers published on the continent of
Europe devote a considerable portion of their space to dogs, and canine
journals have been started in America, South Africa and even India:
while apart from Lee's volumes and other carefully compiled works
treating on the dog in general, the various breeds have been written
about, and the books or monographs have large sales. At the end of 1905
E. W. Jaquet wrote _The Kennel Club: a History and Record of its Work_,
and an _edition de luxe_ of _Dogs_ is edited by Mr Harding Cox; Mr
Sidney Turner, the chairman of the Kennel Club committee, edited _The
Kennel Encyclopaedia_, the first number of which was issued in 1907. Dog
lovers are now numbered by their tens of thousands, and in addition to
shows of their favourites, owners are also liberally catered for in the
shape of working trials, for during the season competitions for
bloodhounds, pointers, setters, retrievers, spaniels and sheepdogs are
held.


_Breeds of Dog._

Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of
breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive
changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by
fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in
museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at
different dates. No scientific classification of the breeds of dogs is
at present possible, but whilst the division already given into
"sporting" and "non-sporting" is of some practical value, for
descriptive purposes it is convenient to make a division into the six
groups:--wolfdogs, greyhounds, spaniels, hounds, mastiffs and terriers.
It is to be remembered, however, that all these types interbreed freely,
and that many intermediate, and forms of wholly doubtful position,
occur.

_Wolfhounds._--Throughout the northern regions of both hemispheres there
are several breeds of semi-domesticated dogs which are wolf-like, with
erect ears and long woolly hair. The Eskimo dog has been regarded as
nothing more than a reclaimed wolf, and the Eskimo are stated to
maintain the size and strength of their dogs by crossing them with
wolves. The domestic dogs of some North American Indian tribes closely
resemble the coyote; the black wolfdog of Florida resembles the black
wolf of the same region; the sheepdogs of Europe and Asia resemble the
wolves of those countries, whilst the pariah dog of India is closely
similar to the Indian wolf. The Eskimo dog has small, upright ears, a
straight bushy tail, moderately sharp muzzle and rough coat. Like a
wolf, it howls but does not bark. It occurs throughout the greater part
of the Arctic regions, the varieties in the old and new world differing
slightly in colour. They are fed on fish, game and meat. They are good
hunters and wonderfully cunning and enduring. Their services to their
owners and to Arctic explorers are well known, but Eskimo dogs are so
rapacious that it is impossible to train them to refrain from attacking
sheep, goats or any small domesticated animals. The Hare Indian dog of
the Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie river is more slender, gentle and
affectionate than the Eskimo dog, but is impatient of restraint, and
preserves many of the characters of its wild ally, the coyote, and is
practically unable to bark.

The Pomeranian dog is a close ally of the Eskimo breed and was formerly
used as a wolfdog, but has been much modified. The larger variety of the
race has a sharp muzzle, upright pointed ears, and a bushy tail
generally carried over the back. It varies in colour from black through
grey to reddish brown and white. The smaller variety, sometimes known as
the Spitz, was formerly in some repute as a fancy dog, a white variety
with a black tip to the nose and a pure black variety being specially
prized. Pomeranians have been given most attention in Germany and
Belgium, while the so-called Spitz has been popular in England and
America.

The sheepdogs and collies are still further removed from the wolf type,
and have the tip of the ear pendent. The tail is thick and bushy, the
feet and legs particularly strong, and there is usually a double
dew-claw on each hind limb. The many varieties found in different
countries have the same general characters. The bark is completely
dog-like, and the primitive hunting instincts have been cultivated into
a marvellous aptitude for herding sheep and cattle. The training takes
place during the first year, and the work is learned with extreme
facility. The Scotch collie is lighter and more elegant, and has a
sharper muzzle. Since it became popular as a pet dog, its appearance has
been greatly improved, and whilst it has lost its old sullen
concentration, it has retained unusual intelligence and has become
playful and affectionate. The wolfdogs all hunt chiefly by scent.

_Greyhounds._--These are characterized by slight build, small ears
falling at the tips, elongated limbs and tails and long narrow muzzles.
They hunt entirely by sight, the sense of smell being defective. The
English greyhound is the most conspicuous and best-known member of the
group, and has been supposed to be the parent of most of the others. The
animal is thoroughly adapted for extreme speed, the long, rat-like tail
being used in balancing the body in quick turns. The favourite colour is
a uniform sandy, or pale grey tone, but characters directly related to
capacity for speed have received most attention. The Italian greyhound
is a miniature greyhound, still capable of considerable speed but so
delicate that it is almost unable to pull down even a rabbit, and is
kept simply as a pet. The eyes are large and soft, and a golden fawn is
the colour most prized. The Scotch deerhound is a larger and heavier
variety of the English greyhound, with rough and shaggy hair. It has
been used both for deer stalking and for coursing, and several varieties
exist. The Irish wolfhound is now extinct, but appears to have been a
powerful race heavier than the deerhound but similar to it in general
characters. Greyhounds have been bred from time immemorial in Eastern
Europe and Western Asia, while unmistakable representatives are figured
on the monuments of ancient Egypt. The existing Oriental varieties are
in most cases characterized by silky hair. The hairless dogs of Central
Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there
are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.

The whippet is a local English dog, used chiefly in rabbit coursing and
racing, and is almost certainly a cross between greyhounds and terriers.

The lurcher is a dog with the general shape of a greyhound, but with a
heavier body, larger ears and rougher coat. Lurchers are cross-bred
dogs, greyhounds and sheepdogs, or deerhounds and collies, being the
parents.

_Spaniels_ are heavily built dogs with short and very wide skulls rising
suddenly at the eyes. The brain is relatively large and the intelligence
high. The muzzle is short, the ears large and pendent, the limbs
relatively short and heavy, and the coat thick and frequently long. It
is supposed, from their name, that they are of Spanish origin. They may
be divided into field spaniels, water spaniels and the smaller breeds
kept as pets. Field spaniels are excellent shooting dogs, and are
readily trained to give notice of the proximity of game. The Clumber,
Sussex, Norfolk and Cocker breeds are the best established. The Clumber
is long, low and heavy. It is silent when hunting, and has long ears
shaped like vine leaves. The ground colour of the coat is white with
yellow spots. The Sussex is a lighter, more noisy animal, with a wavy,
golden coat. The Cockers are smaller spaniels, brown, or brown-and-white
in the Welsh variety, black in the more common modern English form. The
head is short, and the coat silky and wavy. Of the water spaniels the
Irish breeds are best known. They are relatively large dogs, with broad
splay feet, and silky oily coats.

The poodle is probably derived from spaniels, but is of slighter, more
graceful build, and is pre-eminent even among spaniels for intelligence.
The best known pet spaniels are the King Charles and the Blenheim, small
dogs with fine coats, probably descended from Cockers.

Setters owe their name to their having been trained originally to crouch
when marking game, so as to admit of the net with which the quarry was
taken being drawn over their heads. Since the general adoption of
shooting in place of netting or bagging game, setters have been trained
to act as pointers. They are pre-eminently dogs for sporting purposes,
and special strains or breeds adapted to the peculiarities of different
kinds of sporting have been produced. Great Britain is probably the
country where setters were first produced, and as early as the 17th
century spaniels were used in England as setting dogs. It is probable
that pointer blood was introduced in the course of shaping the various
breeds of setter. The English setter should have a silky coat with the
hair waved but not curly; the legs and toes should be hairy, and the
tail should have a bushy fringe of hairs hanging down from the dorsal
border. The colour varies much, ranging according to the strains, from
black-and-white through orange-and-white and liver-and-white to pure
white, whilst black, white, liver, and red or yellow self-coloured
setters are common. The Irish setter is red without trace of black, but
occasionally flecked with white. The Gordon setter, the chief Scottish
variety, is a heavier animal with coarser hair, black-and-tan in colour.
The Russian setter has a woolly and matted coat.

The retriever is a large dog used for retrieving game on land, as a
water spaniel is used for the same purpose in water. The breed is almost
certainly derived from water-spaniels, with a strong admixture of
Newfoundland blood. The colour is black or tan, and the hair of the
face, body and tail is close and curly, although wavy-coated strains
exist.

The Newfoundland is simply an enormous spaniel, and shows its origin by
the facility with which it takes to water and the readiness with which
it mates with spaniels and setters. It has developed a definite instinct
to save human beings from drowning, this probably being an evolution of
the retrieving instinct of the original spaniels. The true Newfoundland
is a very large dog and may reach 31 in. in height at the shoulder. The
coat is shaggy and oily, and is preferred with as little white as
possible, but the general black coloration may have rusty shades. The
eyes and ears are relatively small, and the forehead white and
dome-shaped, giving the face the well-known appearance of benignity and
intelligence. Although these dogs were originally brought to Great
Britain from Newfoundland and are still bred in the latter country,
greater size, perfection and intelligence have been attained in England,
where Newfoundlands for many years have been the most popular large
dogs. They are easily taught to retrieve on land or water, and their
strength, intelligence and fidelity make them specially suitable as
watchdogs or guardians. The Landseer Newfoundland is a black and white
variety brought into notice by Sir Edwin Landseer, but the exact
ancestry of which is unknown. The Labrador Newfoundland is a smaller
black variety with a less massive head. It occurs both in Newfoundland
and England, and has been used largely in producing crosses, being
almost certainly one parent of the retriever.

The St Bernard is a large breed taking its name from the monastery of
Mount St Bernard in the Alps, and remarkable for high intelligence and
use in rescuing travellers from the snow. The origin of the breed is
unknown, but undoubtedly it is closely related to spaniels. The St
Bernard attains as great a size as that of any other breed, a fine
specimen being between 60 and 70 in. from the tip of the nose to the
root of the tail. The colour varies, but shades of tawny-red and white
are more frequent than in Newfoundlands. In the rough-haired breed the
coat is long and wavy, but there exists a smooth breed with a nearly
smooth coat.

_Hounds._--These are large dogs, hunting by smell, with massive
structure, large drooping ears, and usually smooth coats, without
fringes of hair on the ears, limbs or tail. The bloodhound is probably
the stock from which all the English races of hounds have been derived.
The chief character is the magnificent head, narrow and dome-like
between the huge pendulous ears, and with transverse puckers on the
forehead and between the eyes. The prevailing colour is tan with large
black spots. Bloodhounds, or, as they are sometimes termed,
sleuthhounds, have been employed since the time of the Romans in
pursuing and hunting down human beings, and a small variety, known as
the Cuban bloodhound, probably of Spanish origin, was used to track
fugitive negroes in slaveholding times. Bloodhounds quest slowly and
carefully, and when they lose the scent cast backwards until they
recover the original trail and make a fresh attempt to follow it.

Staghounds are close derivatives of the bloodhound, and formerly
occurred in England in two strains, known respectively as the northern
and southern hounds. Both breeds were large and heavy, with pendulous
ears and thick throats with dewlaps. These strains seem to be now
extinct, having been replaced by foxhounds, a large variety of which is
employed in stag-hunting.

The modern English foxhound has been bred from the old northern and
southern hounds, and is more lightly built, having been bred for speed and
endurance. The favourite and most common colour is black-white-and-tan.
The ears are usually artificially clipped so as to present a rounded lower
margin. Their dash and vigour in the chase is much greater than that of
the bloodhound, foxhounds casting forwards when they have lost the trail.

Harriers are a smaller breed of foxhounds, distinguished by their
pointed ears, as it is not the custom to trim these. They are used in
the pursuit of hares, and, although they are capable of very fast runs,
have less endurance than foxhounds, and follow the trail with more care
and deliberation.

Otterhounds are thick, woolly harriers with oily underfur. They are
savage and quarrelsome, but are naturally excellent water-dogs.

Beagles are small foxhounds with long bodies and short limbs. They have
a full bell-like cry and great cunning and perseverance in the tracking
of hares and rabbits. They are relatively slow, and are followed on
foot.

Turnspits were a small, hound-like race of dogs with long bodies,
pendulous ears, out-turned feet and generally black-and-tan coloration.
They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round
the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of
mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.

Basset hounds are long and crooked-legged dogs, with pendulous ears.
They appear to have been produced in Normandy and the Vendée, where they
were employed for sporting purposes, and originally were no very
definite breed. In comparatively recent times they have been adopted by
English fanciers, and a definite strain with special points has been
produced.

The dachshund, or badger hound, is of German origin, and like the basset
hound was originally an elongated distorted hound with crooked legs,
employed in baiting and hunting badgers, but now greatly improved and
made more definite by the arts of the breeder. The colour is generally
black-and-tan or brownish, the body is extremely long and cylindrical;
the ears are large and pendulous, the legs broad, thick and twisted,
with everted paws. The coat is short, thick and silky, and the tail is
long and tapering.

The pointers, of which there are breeds slightly differing in most
European countries, are descendants of the foxhound which have been
taught to follow game by general body scent, not by tracking, nose to
the ground, the traces left by the feet of the quarry, and, on
approaching within sight of the game, to stand rigid, "pointing" in its
direction. The general shape is like that of the foxhound, but the build
is lighter and better knit, and the coat is soft, whilst white and
spotted colorations are preferred. Pointers are employed to mark game
for guns, and are especially useful in low cover such as that afforded
by turnip fields.


  Plate III. TYPICAL SPORTING DOGS.
    (_From Photos by Bowden Bros._)

[Illustration: BORZOI.]

[Illustration: GREYHOUND.]

[Illustration: DEERHOUND.]

[Illustration: BLOODHOUND.]

[Illustration: FOX HOUND.]

[Illustration: HARRIER.]

[Illustration: OTTER HOUND.]

[Illustration: AUSTRALIAN TERRIER.]

[Illustration: SKYE TERRIER.]

[Illustration: SCOTCH TERRIER.]

[Illustration: BEDLINGTON TERRIER.]


  Plate IV. TYPICAL TOY DOGS.

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

POMERANIAN.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Thos. Fall._

ITALIAN GREYHOUND.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

TOY BULL TERRIER.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

TOY SPANIEL.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Walker._

BLENHEIM.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Thos. Fall._

PAPILLON.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

SCHIPPERKE.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

MALTESE.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Thos. Fall._

TOY BLACK AND TAN.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

YORKSHIRE TERRIER.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

PUG.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

GRIFFON.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

JAPANESE.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Bowden Bros._

PEKINGESE.]


The Dalmatian or coach dog (sometimes called the plum-pudding dog) is a
lightly built pointer, distinguished by its spotted coloration,
consisting of evenly disposed circular black spots on a white ground.
The original breed is said to have been used as a pointer in the country
from which it takes its name, but has been much modified by the
fancier's art, and almost certainly the original strain has been crossed
with bull-terriers.

_Mastiffs_ are powerful, heavily built dogs, with short muzzles,
frequently protruding lower jaws, skulls raised above the eyes, ears
erect or pendulous, pendulous upper lips, short coats and thin tails.
The English mastiff is a huge and powerful dog with pendent ears but
short and silky coat. Fawn and brindle are the colours preferred. The
Tibetan mastiff is equally powerful, but has still larger pendent ears,
a shaggy coat and a long brush-like tail. Mastiffs are employed for
fighting or as watchdogs, and for the most part are of uncertain temper
and not high intelligence.

The bulldog is a small, compact but extremely heavily built animal of
great strength, vigour and tenacity. The lower jaw should be strongly
protruding, the ears should be small and erect, the forehead deeply
wrinkled with an indentation between the eyes, known as the "stop." The
coat should be thick, short and very silky, the favourite colours being
white and white marked with brindle. Bulldogs were formerly employed in
bull-baiting, and the tenacity of their grip is proverbial. Their
ferocious appearance, and not infrequently the habits of their owners,
have given this breed a reputation for ferocity and low intelligence. As
puppies, however, bulldogs are highly intelligent and unusually docile
and affectionate, and if well trained retain throughout life an unusual
sweetness of disposition, the universal friendliness of which makes them
of little use as guardians.

The German boarhound is one of the largest races of dogs, originally
used in Germany and Denmark for hunting boars or deer, but now employed
chiefly as watchdogs. The build is rather slighter than that of the
English mastiff, and the ears are small and carried erect.

The Great Dane is somewhat similar in general character, but is still
more gracefully built, with slender limbs and more pointed muzzle. The
ears, naturally pendent at the tips, are always cropped. It is probable
that the strain contains greyhound blood.

The bull-terrier, as its name implies, is a cross between the bulldog
and the smooth terrier. It is a clever, agile and powerful dog,
extremely pugnacious in disposition.

The pugdog is a dwarf race, probably of mastiff origin, and kept solely
as a pet. The Chinese pug is slender legged, with long hair and a bushy
tail.

_Terriers_ are small dogs of agile and light build, short muzzles, and
very highly arched skulls. The brains are large, and the intelligence
and educability extraordinarily high. The number of breeds is very
large, the two extreme types being the smooth fox-terrier with compact
shape, relatively long legs, and the long-bodied, short-legged Skye
terrier, with long hair and pendent ears.

All the well-known breeds of dogs are highly artificial and their
maintenance requires the constant care of the breeder in mating, and in
rejecting aberrant progeny. The frequency with which even the most
highly cultivated strains produce degenerate offspring is notorious, and
is probably the reason for the profound belief in telegonic action
asserted by most breeders. When amongst the litter of a properly mated,
highly bred fox-terrier, pups are found with long bodies and thick short
legs and feet, breeders are disposed to excuse the result by the
supposition that the bitch has been contaminated by some earlier mating.
There is ample evidence, however, that such departures from type are
equally frequent when there was no possibility of earlier mismating (see
TELEGONY).

    _Glossary of Points of the Dog._

  _Apple Head._ A rounded head, instead of flat on top.
  _Blaze._ A white mark up the face.
  _Brisket._ The part of body in front of the chest.
  _Brush._ The tail, usually applied to sheepdogs.
  _Butterfly Nose._ A spotted nose.
  _Button Ear._ Where the tip falls over and covers the orifice.
  _Cat Foot._ A short round foot, knuckles high and well developed.
  _Cheeky._ When the cheek bumps are strongly defined.
  _Chest._ Underneath a dog from brisket to belly.
  _Chops._ The pendulous lip of the bulldog.
  _Cobby._ Well ribbed up, short and compact in proportion.
  _Couplings._ Space between tops of shoulder blades and tops of hip
    joints.
  _Cow Hocks._ Hocks that turn in.
  _Dew Claw._ Extra claw, found occasionally on all breeds.
  _Dewlap._ Pendulous skin under the throat.
  _Dish Faced._ When nose is higher than muzzle at the stop.
  _Dudley Nose._ A yellow or flesh-coloured nose.
  _Elbow._ The joint at the top of the forearm.
  _Feather._ The hair at the back of the legs and under the tail.
  _Flag._ A term for the tail, applied to a setter.
  _Flews._ The pendulous lips of the bloodhound and other breeds.
  _Forearm._ Part of foreleg extending from elbow to pastern.
  _Frill._ A mass of hair on the chest, especially on collies.
  _Hare Foot._ A long narrow foot, carried forward.
  _Haw._ Red inside eyelid, shown in bloodhounds and St Bernards.
  _Height._ Measured at the shoulder, bending head gently down.
  _Hocks._ The hock joints.
  _Hucklebones._ Tops of the hip joints.
  _Knee._ The joint attaching fore-pastern and forearm.
  _Leather._ The skin of the ear.
  _Occiput._ The projecting bone or bump at the back of the head.
  _Overshot._ The upper teeth projecting beyond the under.
  _Pastern._ Lowest section of leg, below the knee or hock.
  _Pig Jaw._ Exaggeration of overshot.
  _Pily._ A term applied to soft coat.
  _Rose Ear._ Where the tip of ear turns back, showing interior.
  _Septum._ The division between the nostrils.
  _Smudge Nose._ A nose which is not wholly black, but not spotted.
  _Stifles._ The top joints of the hind legs.
  _Stop._ The indentation below the eyes, most prominent in bulldogs.
  _Tulip Ear._ An erect or pricked ear.
  _Undershot._ The lower teeth projecting in front of the upper ones.

       (W. B.; P. C. M.)



DOGE (a modified form of the Ital. _duca_, Lat. _dux_, a leader, or
duke), the title of the chief magistrate in the extinct republics of
Venice and Genoa.

In Venice the office of doge was first instituted about 700. John the
Deacon, referring to this incident in his _Chronicon Venetum_, written
about 1000, says "all the Venetian cities (_omnes Venetiae_) determined
that it would be more honourable henceforth to be under dukes than under
tribunes." The result was that the several tribunes were replaced by a
single official who was called a doge and who became the head of the
whole state. The first doge was Paolo Lucio Anafesto, and some
authorities think that the early doges were subject to the authority of
the emperors of Constantinople, but in any case this subordination was
of short duration. The doge held office for life and was regarded as the
ecclesiastical, the civil and the military chief; his duties and
prerogatives were not defined with precision and the limits of his
ability and ambition were practically the limits of his power. About 800
his independence was slightly diminished by the appointment of two
assistants for judicial work, but these officers soon fell into the
background and the doge acquired a greater and more irresponsible
authority. Concurrently with this process the position was entrusted to
members of one or other of the powerful Venetian families, while several
doges associated a son with themselves in the ducal office. Matters
reached a climax after the fall of the Orseole family in 1026. In 1033,
during the dogeship of Dominico Flabianico, this tendency towards a
hereditary despotism was checked by a law which decreed that no doge had
the right to associate any member of his family with himself in his
office, or to name his successor. It was probably at this time also that
two councillors were appointed to advise the doge, who must, moreover,
invite the aid of prominent citizens when discussing important matters
of state. In 1172 a still more important change was introduced. The
ducal councillors were increased in number from two to six; universal
suffrage, which theoretically still existed, was replaced by a system
which entrusted the election of the doge to a committee of eleven, who
were chosen by a great council of 480 members, the great council being
nominated annually by twelve persons. When a new doge was chosen he was
presented to the people with the formula "this is your doge, if it
please you." Nominally the citizens confirmed the election, thus
maintaining as a constitutional fiction the right of the whole people to
choose their chief magistrate. Five years later this committee of
eleven gave way to a committee of forty who were chosen by four persons
selected by the great council. After the abdication of Doge Pietro Ziani
in 1229 two commissions were appointed which obtained a permanent place
in the constitution and which gave emphatic testimony to the fact that
the doge was merely the highest servant of the community. The first of
these commissions consisted of five _Correttori della promissione
ducale_, whose duty was to consider if any change ought to be made in
the terms of the oath of investiture (_promissione_) administered to
each incoming doge, this oath, which was prepared by three officials,
being a potent factor in limiting the powers of the doge. The second
commission consisted of three _inquisitori sopra il doge defunto_, their
business being to examine and pass judgment upon the acts of a deceased
doge, whose estate was liable to be mulcted in accordance with their
decision. In consequence of a tie at the election of 1229 the number of
electors was increased from forty to forty-one. The official income of
the doge was never large, and from early times many holders of the
office were engaged in trading ventures. One of the principal duties of
the doge was to celebrate the symbolic marriage of Venice with the sea.
This was done by casting a precious ring from the state ship, the
"Bucentaur," into the Adriatic. In its earlier form this ceremony was
instituted to commemorate the conquest of Dalmatia by Doge Pietro
Orseole II. in 1000, and was celebrated on Ascension day. It took its
later and more magnificent form after the visit of Pope Alexander III.
and the emperor Frederick I. to Venice in 1177.

New regulations for the elections of the doge were introduced in 1268,
and, with some modifications, these remained in force until the end of
the republic. Their object was to minimize as far as possible the
influence of the individual families, and this was effected by a very
complex machinery. Thirty members of the great council, chosen by lot,
were reduced, again by lot, to nine; the nine chose forty and the forty
were reduced by lot to twelve, who chose twenty-five. The twenty-five
were reduced by lot to nine and the nine elected forty-five. Then the
forty-five were reduced by lot to eleven, and the eleven chose the
forty-one, who actually elected the doge. As the oligarchical element in
the constitution developed, the more important functions of the ducal
office were assigned to other officials, or to administrative boards,
and he who had once been the pilot of the ship became little more than
an animated figurehead, properly draped and garnished. On state
occasions he was surrounded by an increasing amount of ceremonial, and
in international relations he had the status of a sovereign prince of
the first rank. But he was under the strictest surveillance. He must
wait for the presence of other officials before opening despatches from
foreign powers; he was forbidden to leave the city and was not allowed
to possess any property in a foreign land. To quote H. F. Brown, "his
pomp was splendid, his power limited; he appears as a symbol rather than
as a factor in the constitution, the outward and visible sign of the
impersonal oligarchy." The office, however, was maintained until the
closing days of the republic, and from time to time it was held by men
who were able to make it something more than a sonorous title. The last
doge was Lodovico Manin, who abdicated in May 1797, when Venice passed
under the power of Napoleon.

In Genoa the institution of the doge dates from 1339. At first he was
elected without restriction and by popular suffrage, holding office for
life; but after the reform effected by Andrea Doria in 1528 the term of
his office was reduced to two years. At the same time plebeians were
declared ineligible, and the appointment of the doge was entrusted to
the members of the great and the little councils, who employed for this
purpose a machinery almost as complex as that of the later Venetians.
The Napoleonic Wars put an end to the office of doge at Genoa.

  See Cecchetti, _Il Doge di Venezia_ (1864); Musatti, _Storia della
  promissione ducale_ (Padua, 1888); and H. F. Brown, _Venice: a
  Historical Sketch_ (1893).



DOG-FISH, a name applied to several species of the smaller sharks, and
given in common with such names as hound and beagle, owing to the habit
these fishes have of pursuing or hunting their prey in packs. The
small-spotted dog-fish or rough hound (_Scyllium canicula_) and the
large-spotted or nurse hound (_Scyllium catulus_) are also known as
ground-sharks. They keep near the sea bottom, feeding chiefly on the
smaller fishes and Crustacea, and causing great annoyance to the
fishermen by the readiness with which they take bait. They differ from
the majority of sharks, and resemble the rays in being oviparous. The
eggs are enclosed in semi-transparent horny cases, known on the British
coasts as "mermaids' purses," and these have tendril-like prolongations
from each of the four corners, by means of which they are moored to
sea-weed or some other fixed object near the shore, until the young
dog-fish is ready to make its exit. The larger of these species attains
a length of 4 to 5 ft., the smaller rarely more than 30 in. The picked
dog-fish (_Acanthias vulgaris_, formerly known as _Squalus acanthias_)
is pre-eminently _the_ dog-fish. It is the most abundant of the British
sharks, and occurs in the temperate seas of both northern, and southern
hemispheres. It attains a length of 4 ft., but the usual length is 2 to
3 ft., the female, as in most sharks, being larger than the male. The
body is round and tapering, the snout projects, and the mouth is placed
ventrally some distance from the end of the snout. There are two dorsal
fins, each of which is armed on its anterior edge with a sharp and
slightly curved spine, hence its name "picked." This species is
viviparous, the female producing five to nine young at a birth; the
young when born are 9 to 10 in. long and quite similar to the parents in
all respects except size. It is gregarious, and is abundant at all
seasons everywhere on the British coasts. In 1858 an enormous shoal of
dog-fish, many square miles in extent, appeared in the north of
Scotland, when, says J. Couch, "they were to be found floating in
myriads on the surface of every harbour." They are the special enemies
of the fisherman, injuring his nets, removing the hooks from his lines,
and spoiling his fish for the market by biting pieces out of them as
they hang on his lines. They are however eaten, both fresh and salted,
by fishermen, especially on the west coast of England, and they are sold
regularly in the French markets.



DOGGER BANK, an extensive shoal in the North Sea, about 60 m. E. of the
coast of Northumberland, England. Over its most elevated parts there is
a depth of only about six fathoms, but the depth is generally from ten
to twenty fathoms. It is well known as a fishing ground. The origin of
the name is obscure; but the middle Dutch _dogger_ signifies a trawling
vessel, and was formerly applied generally to the two-masted type of
vessel employed in the North Sea fisheries, and also to their crews
(doggermen) and the fish taken (dogger-fish). Off the south end of the
bank an engagement took place between English and Dutch fleets in 1781.
On the night of the 21st of October 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War,
some British trawlers of the Hull fishing fleet were fired upon by
vessels of the Russian Baltic fleet under Admiral Rozhdestvensky on its
voyage to the Far East, one trawler being sunk, other boats injured, two
men killed and six wounded. This incident created an acute crisis in the
relations between Russia and England for several days, the Russian
version being that they had seen Japanese torpedo-boats, but on the 28th
Mr Balfour, the English prime minister, announced that the tsar had
expressed regret and that an international commission would investigate
the facts with a view to the punishment of any responsible parties. The
terms were settled on 25th November, the commission being composed of
five officers (British, Russian, American and French, and one selected
by them), to meet in Paris. On the 22nd of December the four original
members, Vice-admiral Sir Lewis Beaumont, Vice-admiral Kaznakov
(afterwards replaced by Vice-admiral Dubassov), Rear-admiral Davis and
Vice-admiral Fournier, met and chose Admiral Baron von Spaun
(Austria-Hungary) as the fifth. Their report was issued on the 25th of
February 1905. While recognizing that the information received as to a
possible attack led the admiral to mistake the trawlers for the enemy,
the majority of the commissioners held Rozhdestvensky responsible for
the firing and its results, and "being of opinion that there were no
torpedo-boats either among the trawlers nor anywhere near" concluded
that "the opening of fire was not justifiable," though they absolved him
and his squadron from discredit either to their "military qualities" or
their "humanity." The affair ended in compensation being paid by the
Russian government.



DOGGETT (or DOGGET), THOMAS (d. 1721), English actor, was born in
Dublin, and made his first appearance in London in 1691 as Nincompoop in
D'Urfey's _Love for Money_. In this part, and as Solon in the same
author's _Marriage-hater matched_, he gained the favour of the public.
He followed Betterton to Lincoln's Inn Fields, creating the part of Ben,
especially written for him, in Congreve's _Love for Love_, with which
the theatre opened (1695); and next year played Young Hobb in his own
_The Country Wake_. He was associated with Cibber and others in the
management of the Haymarket and Drury Lane, and he continued to play
comedy parts at the former until his retirement in 1713. Doggett is
highly spoken of by his contemporaries, both as an actor and as a man,
and is frequently referred to in _The Tatler_ and _Spectator_. It was he
who in 1715 founded the prize of "Doggett's Coat and Badge" in honour of
the house of Hanover, "in commemoration of his Majesty King George's
happy Accession to the Brittish Throne." The prize was a red coat with a
large silver badge on the arm, bearing the white horse of Hanover, and
the race had to be rowed annually on the 1st of August on the Thames, by
six young watermen who were not to have exceeded the time of their
apprenticeship by twelve months. Although the first contest took place
in 1715, the names of the winners have only been preserved since 1791.
The race is still rowed each year, but under modified conditions.

  See _Thomas Doggett, Deceased_ (London, 1908).



DOGMA (Gr. [Greek: dogma], from [Greek: dokein], to seem; literally
"that which seems, sc. good or true or useful" to any one), a term which
has passed through many senses both general and technical, and is now
chiefly used in theology. In Greek constitutional history the decision
of--"that which seemed good to"--an assembly was called a [Greek: dogma]
(i.e. decree), and throughout its history the word has generally implied
a decision, or body of decisions or opinions, officially adopted and
regarded by those who make it as possessing authority. As a technical
term in theology, it has various shades of meaning according to the
degree of authority which is postulated and the nature of the evidence
on which it is based. Thus it has been used broadly of all theological
doctrines, and also in a narrower sense of fundamental beliefs only,
confession of which is insisted upon as a term of church communion. By
sceptics the word "dogma" is generally used contemptuously, for an
opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude
is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that
theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are
not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
Again, popularly, an unproved _ex cathedra_ statement of any kind is
called "dogmatic," with perhaps an insinuation that it is being
obstinately adhered to without, or beyond, or in defiance of, obtainable
evidence. But again to "dogmatize" may mean simply to assert, instead of
hesitating or suspending judgment.

Three pre-Christian or extra-ecclesiastical usages are recorded by a
half-heretical churchman, Marcellus of Ancyra (in Eusebius of Caesarea,
_Contra Marcellum_, i. 4);--words which Adolf Harnack has placed on the
title-page of his larger _History of Dogma_. First there is a medical
usage--empirical versus dogmatic medicine. On this old-world technical
controversy we need not dwell. Secondly, there is a philosophical usage
(e.g. Cicero, Seneca and others). First principles--speculative or
practical--are [Greek: dogmata], Lat. _decreta_, _scita_ or _placita_.
The strongest statement regarding the inviolability of such dogmas is in
Cicero's _Academics_, ii. chap. 9. But we have to remember that this is
dialogue; that the speaker, Hortensius, represents a more dogmatic type
of opinion than Cicero's own; that it is the maxims of "wisdom," not of
any special school, which are described as unchangeable.[1] Marcellus's
third type of dogma is legal or political, the decree (says Marcellus)
of the legislative assembly; but it might also be of the emperor (Luke
ii. 1; Acts xvii. 7), or of a church gathering (Acts xvi. 4), or of Old
Testament law; so especially in Philo the Jew, and in Flavius Josephus
(even perhaps at _Contra Apionem_, i. 8).


  Greek Fathers.

While the New Testament knows only the political usage of [Greek:
dogma], the Greek Fathers follow one which is more in keeping with
philosophical tradition. With few and early exceptions, such as we may
note in the Epistle of Barnabas, chap, i., they confine the word to
doctrine. Either dogma (sing.) or dogmas (plural) may be spoken of.
Actually, as J. B. Lightfoot points out, the best Greek commentators
among the Fathers are so dominated by this new usage, that they
misinterpret Col. ii. 14 (20) and Eph. ii. 15 of _Christian_ doctrines.
Along with this goes the fundamental Catholic view of "dogmatic
faith"--the expression is as old as Cyril of Jerusalem (died 386), if
not older--according to which it consists in obedient assent to the
voice of authority. All doctrines are "dogmas" to the Greek Fathers, not
simply the central teachings of their system, as with the philosophers.
Very noteworthy is Cyril of Jerusalem's fourth _Catechetical Discourse_
on the "Ten Dogmas" (we might render "Ten Great Doctrines"). The figure
ten may be taken from the commandments,[2] as in Gregory Nazianzen's
later, and more incidental, decalogue of belief. In any case, Cyril
marks out the way for the subsequent division of the creeds into twelve
or fourteen "articles" or heads of belief (see below). In saying that
all doctrines rank as "dogmas" during the Greek period, we ought to add
a qualification. They do so, in so far as they are held to be of
authority. Clement of Alexandria or Origen would not call his
speculations dogmas. Yet these audacious spirits start from a basis of
authority, and insist upon [Greek: orthotomia dogmatôn] (_Stromata_,
vii. 763). The "dogma" or "dogmas" of heretics are frequently mentioned
by orthodox writers. There can be no question of confining even orthodox
"dogma" to conciliar decisions in an age when definition is so
incomplete; still, we do meet with references to the Nicene "dogma"
(e.g. letter in Theodoret, _H.E._ ii. 15). But dogma is not yet
technical for what is Christian or churchly. The word which emerges in
Greek for that purpose is "orthodox," "orthodoxy," as in John of
Damascus (d. 760), or as in the official title still claimed by the Holy
Orthodox Church of the East.


  Latin Fathers.

  Medieval usages.

Latin Fathers borrow the word "dogma," though sparingly, and employ it
in all the Greek usages. Something novel is added by Jerome's phrase (in
the _De viris illustribus_, cc. xxxi., cix.) _ecclesiastica
dogmata_,--found again in the title of the treatise now generally
ascribed to Gennadius, and occurring once more in another writer of
southern Gaul.[3] The phrase is a serviceable one, contrasting _church_
teachings with _heretical_ "dogmas." But the main Latin use of dogma in
patristic times is found in Vincent of Lerins (d. c. 450) in his brief
but influential _Commonitorium_; again from southern Gaul. Thereafter
the usage gradually drops. In Thomas Aquinas[4] it does not once occur.
On the other hand Thomas has his own technical name--doctrine (sing.) or
rather _sacra doctrina_; and this expression holds its ground, though
the usage of Abelard, _Theologia_, was destined to an even more
important place (see THEOLOGY). Another medieval usage of importance is
the division of the creed into twelve articles corresponding to the
number of the apostles, who, according to a legend already found in
Rufinus (d. 410) _On the Apostles' Creed_, composed that formula by
contributing each a single sentence. The division is found applied also
to the "Nicene-Constantinopolitan" creed, both in East and West.
Sometimes fourteen articles are detected (in either creed), 7 + 7; the
sacred number twice over.[5]


  The Reformation.

The Reformation set up a new idea of faith, or recurred to one of the
oldest of all. Faith was not belief in authoritative teachings; it was
trust in the promises of God and in Jesus Christ as their fulfilment.
But the Protestant view was apt to seem intangible, and the influence of
the learned tradition was strong--for a time, indeed, doctrine was more
cultivated among Protestants than in the Church of Rome. The result was
a structure which is well named the Protestant scholasticism. The new
view of faith is bracketed with the old, and practically neutralized by
it; as was already the case in Melanchthon's theological definitions in
the 1552-1553 edition of _Loci Communes_, also printed in other works by
him. This brings back again the Catholic view of "dogmatic faith."


  Article.

The word "article" for a time holds the field. Pope Leo X. in 1520
condemns among other propositions of Martin Luther's the
twenty-seventh--_"Certum est in manu Papae, aut ecclesiae, prorsus non
esse statuere articulos fidei (imo nec leges morum seu bonorum
operum)."_ The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous
"articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under
three "articles"--Creation, Redemption, Sanctification. Where moderns
would speak of the "doctrine" of this or that, Lutherans especially, but
also churchmen of other communions, wrote upon this or that "article."
Nikolaus Hunnius ([Greek: diaskepsis], &c., 1626), A. Quenstedt (c.
1685) and others--in a controversial interest, to blacken the Calvinists
still more--distinguished which articles were "fundamental." Modern
Lutheranism (G. Thomasius, _Dogmengeschichte_, 1874-1876, influenced by
T. F. D. Kliefoth 1839) speaks rather of "central dogmas";[6] and the
Roman Catholic J. B. Heinrich[7] is willing to speak of "fundamental
dogmas," those which must be _known_ for salvation; those for which
"implicit" faith does not suffice. When Addis and Arnold's _Catholic
Dictionary_ denounces the conception of central dogmas, what they desire
to exclude as uncatholic is the belief that dogmas lying upon the
circumference may be questioned or perhaps denied.[8] This suggests the
great ambiguity both in Roman Catholic and Protestant writers of the
17th century as to the relation between "articles" and "dogmas." Many
writers in each communion felt that an "article" is a higher thing.
Others, in each communion, made the identification absolute. Perhaps the
Roman theologians of that age were more concerned than the Protestants
to draw a line round necessary truths. This attempt was made by Dr Henry
Holden (_Div. Fidei Analysis_, 1652) in connexion with the word
"articles.[9]"


  Decreta.

Another term to be considered is _decretum_, the old Latin equivalent
for [Greek: dogma]. Another of Luther's assertions branded by the pope
in 1520--the twenty-ninth--claimed liberty _judicandi conciliorum
decreta_. On the other hand, the Augsburg Confession protests its
loyalty to the _decretum_ of Nice. What Protestantism saw in the distant
past, Trent naturally recognized in the present. Every one of its own
findings is a _decretum_--except five, among the sacramental chapters,
each of which is headed _doctrina_. Holden again quotes the (indefinite)
_decretum_ of the Council of Basel regarding the Immaculate Conception.


  Dogmata in revived use.

The word "dogma" was however to revive, and, with more or less success,
to differentiate itself from "doctrine." Early writers of the modern
period, Protestant or Roman Catholic, use it frequently of heretics;
thus the Augsburg Confession protests that the Protestants have
carefully avoided _nova dogmata_. A Roman Catholic writer, Jan Driedo of
Louvain, revives the reference to _Ecclesiastica dogmata--De
ecclesiasticis scripturis et dogmatibus_ (1533)--using the word, though
not exclusively yet emphatically, of teachings _extra canonem scripturae
sacrae_. Philip Melanchthon's preface to his _Loci communes_ (ed. 1535)
protests that he has not expressed himself _de ullo dogmate_--on any
point of doctrine--without careful consideration of what has been said
before him. Richard Hooker (d. 1600) in bk. viii. of _Eccl. Polity_
(pub. 1648 or perhaps 1651) quotes Thomas Stapleton, the Roman Catholic
(_De principiis doctrinalibus fidei_, 1579), on the royal right or duty
to enforce "dogmas," and adds a gloss of his own--"very articles of the
faith,"--a surprising and probably isolated usage. Many identified
Dogmas and Articles by levelling down or broadening out; but Hooker
levels up. The statement of the Council of Trent (1545-1562) may be
quoted here. The Council will rely chiefly upon Scriptures[10] _in
reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus_; the Roman
reply to the two sets of _articuli_ of Augsburg, and the Roman
counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible[11] is
the "only rule of faith and practice." At Trent, therefore, once more,
dogma means doctrine. It still means "doctrine" when the collected
_decreta_ of Trent bear on their title-page (1564) reference to an
_Index dogmatum et reformationis_; but here "dogma" is already verging
towards the narrower and more precise sense--truth defined by church
authority. In other words, it is already edging away from its
identification with (all or any) doctrines. On the Protestant side the
identity is still clear in the Lutheran Formula of Concord (1577). This
creed formulates its relation to Scripture over and over, as the one
_regula_ by which all _dogmata_ are to be tried. That characteristic
Protestant assertion had been still earlier pushed to the front in
"Reformed" creeds, e.g. the First Helvetic Confession (1536), and more
notably in the Second (1566).


  Definition in Protestant scholasticism.

Protestant creeds had clearly affirmed that _nothing possessed
authority_ which _was not in Scripture_: in a short time, Protestant
theologians--following an impulse common to all Christian
communions--define more sharply the identity of what is authoritative
with the letter of Scripture, _and call these entire contents dogmas_.
Here then, under Protestant scholasticism (Lutheran and Reformed), we
have the first perfectly definite conception of dogma, and the most
definite ever reached. Dogma is the whole text of the Bible, doctrinal,
historical, scientific, or what not. Thus dogma is _revealed_ and is
_infallibly_ true. Dogma is doctrine, viz. that body of doctrines and
related facts which God Himself has propounded for dogmatic faith. Every
true dogma, says Johann Gerhard[12]--the most representative figure of
Lutheran scholasticism--occurs in plain terms somewhere in Scripture.


  Roman Catholic replies.

Over against these sweeping assumptions and deductions, the Roman
Catholic Church had to build up its own statement of the basis of
belief. Its early controversialists--like Driedo or Cardinal
Bellarmine--meet assertions such as Gerhard's with a flat denial. The
great dogmas are not, literally and verbally, in the Bible. Along with
the Bible we must accept unwritten traditions; the Council of Trent
makes this perfectly clear. But not any and every tradition; only such
as the church stamps with her approval. And that raises the question
whether the church has not a further part to play? A. M. Fairbairn holds
that D. Petavius's great work _De theologicis dogmatibus_ (especially
the 1st vol., 1644) made the word "dogma" current for _doctrines which
were authoritative as formulated by the church_. We must keep in mind,
however, that the question is not simply one as to the meaning of a
word. The equation holds, more firmly than ever; dogma=the contents of
faith. It has to be established on the Roman Catholic side that faith
(or dogma; the two are inseparable) deals with divine truths
historically revealed long ago but now administered with authority,
according to God's will, by the church. The Englishman Henry Holden (see
above), the Frenchman Veronius (François Veron, S.J., 1575-1649) in his
_Règle générale de la foy catholique_ (1652), the German Philipp Neri
Chrismann,[13] in his _Regula fidei catholicae et collectio dogmatum
credendorum_ (1792),[14] all work at this task. Dogmas or articles of
faith (taken as synonymous) depend upon revelation in Scripture or
tradition, as confirmed by the church whether acting in general councils
or through the pope (in some undefined way; Holden)--in general councils
or by universal consent (Chrismann; of bishops? the definite Gallican
theory?). Veronius is willing to waive the difficult point of church
infallibility as the Council of Trent did not define it. Holden insists
strongly upon infallibility. Church traditions are infallible; and
church dogmas reach us (from the original revelation) through an
infallible medium, the Catholic Church, which the Protestants sadly
lack. In Chrismann the word "dogma" has superseded the word "article";
Holden uses both, though "article" has the preponderance. All three
writers seek to draw a sharp line round what is "of faith." Hence in
Chrismann (who is in other respects the most definite of the three) we
have a view of dogma almost as clear-cut as that of the Protestant
schoolmen. Dogmas are _revealed_; dogmas are _infallible_; the church is
infallible on dogmas (for this statement he cites Muratori) _and on
nothing else_.

This whole period of theology, Protestant and Roman Catholic, is
statical. Men are defining and protecting the positions they have
inherited; they do not think of progress. And yet the Roman Catholic
Church had upon its hands one great unsettled question--the thesis of
the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. This became the standing type
of an assertion which, while favoured by the church and on the very
verge of dogma, was yet not a dogma[15]--till the definition came
through Pius IX. in 1854. Here then the frontier of dogma had
unquestionably moved forward. Its conception must become dynamic; there
was need of some theory of development like J. H. Newman's (1845). It
does not happen, however, that the papal definition of 1854 employs the
_word_ "dogma"; that honour was withheld from the word until the Vatican
decrees of 1870 affirmed the personal infallibility of the pope as
_divinitus revelatum dogma_. With this, one line of tendency in Roman
Catholic doctrine reached its climax; the pope and the council use
"dogma" in a distinctive sense for what is definitely formulated by
authority. But there is another line of tendency. The same council
defines not indeed dogma but faith--inseparable from dogma--as[16] (1)
revealed, (a) in Scripture or (b) in unwritten tradition, and (2) taught
by the church, (a) in formulated decrees, or (b) in her ordinary
_magisterium_. This is a correction of Chrismann. Not only does the
correction involve the substitution of papal authority for a universal
consent of "pastors" and "the faithful"; it also deliberately ranks the
unformulated teachings of the church on points of doctrine as no less
_de fide_ than those formulated. This amounts to a serious warning
against trying to draw a definite line round dogma. The modern Roman
Catholic temper must be eager to believe and eager to submit. New dogmas
have been precipitated more than once during the 19th century; there may
still be others held in solution in the church's teaching. If so, these
are likely one day to crystallize into full dogmas; and, even while not
yet "declared," they have the same claim upon faith.

Thus there seems to be a measure of uncertainty as to what the Church of
Rome now calls "dogma"--only in part relieved by the distinction
between "dogmas strictly" and mere "dogmatic truths." Again, the
assertion that the church is infallible upon some questions, not
belonging to the area of revelation (properly so-called in Roman
Catholic theology), destroys the identification of "dogmas" with
"infallible certainties" which we noted both in the Protestant schoolmen
and in Chrismann. The identification of dogma with revelation remains,
with another distinction in support of it, between "material dogmas"
(all scriptural or traditional truth) and "formal" or ecclesiastically
formulated dogmas.[17] On the other hand, there is absolute certainty on
a point long disputed. Questions about church authority are henceforth
questions about the pope's authority. What he calls heresy, under the
sanction of excommunication or that more formal excommunication known as
anathema, is heresy. What he finds it necessary to condemn even in
milder terms as bad doctrine is infallibily condemned; that is certain,
Roman Catholic theologians tell us, though not yet _de fide_.

Finally we have to glance at a new list of definitions which perhaps in
some cases seek more or less to formulate modern Protestant ideas, but
which in general represent rather the world of disinterested historical
scholarship. That world of the learned offers us non-dogmatic
definitions, drawn up from the outside; definitions which do not share
the root assumptions either of Catholicism or of post-Reformation
Protestant orthodoxy. It might have been best to surrender the term
"dogma" to the dogmatists; but few scholars have consented to do so.

1. We may brush aside the view[18] for which J. C. Döderlein, J. A. A.
Tittmann, and more recently C. F. A. Kahnis are quoted. According to
this definition, "dogma" means the opinion of some individual theologian
of distinction. That might be a conceivable development of usage. It has
been said that persons who dislike authority often show great devotion
to "authorities"; and the word dogma might make a similar transition.
But, in its case, such a usage would constitute a violent break with the
past.

2. Though there is no formal definition in the passage, it is worth
recording that, towards the end of his _Chief End of Revelation_ (1881),
A. B. Bruce sharply contrasts "dogmas of theology" with "doctrines of
faith."[19] While he manifests no wholesale dislike to doctrine, such as
is seen in the Broad Church school, Bruce inverts the Catholic estimate.
Dogma stands lowest, not highest. It seems hardly better than a _caput
mortuum_, out of relation to the original faith or the original facts
that are held to have given it birth. There is more than a touch of
Matthew Arnold in this; though, while Arnold held nothing in religious
experience beyond morality to be objectively genuine, Bruce believed in
God's "gracious" purpose.[20]

3. Much more like Chrismann's view is the "generally accepted position"
among Protestant scholars, as its leading representative to-day, F.
Loofs, has called it;[21] the doctrine enforced within any one church
community is dogma. This definition is significant. It means that
historians recognize the peculiar importance of those beliefs which are
constitutive of church agreement; and it finds some support from the
philosophical and political associations of ancient "dogma." Also Roman
Catholic writers could accept the definition in so far as their own
church's authoritative teachings are concerned. But can a _historian_
separate the opinions which rose to authority in the church from the
other opinions which succumbed? Or the accepted modifications of a
theory from those which were rejected? Again, can we substitute church
authority for that which is always the background of "dogma" as
interpreted from inside--divine authority?[22] Or, again, can we say
definitely which doctrines _are_ "enforced" in Protestant communions and
so _are_ "dogmas"? It has even been asserted by A. Schweizer
(_Christliche Glaubenslehre nach prot. Grundsätzen_, 1863-1872) that
Protestantism ought not to speak of dogmas at all, except as things of
its imperfect past.[23] And historically it seems plain that--since the
age of Protestant scholasticism--there has been nothing in Protestant
church life to which the name "dogma" can be assigned, without dropping
a good deal of its original connotation. Dogma is no longer[24] held to
be of immediate divine authority. Hence Catholic, and scientific or
historical, definitions of dogma are on different planes. They never
properly meet.[25]

4. A. Harnack varies in his usage. He is not prepared to exclude the
great medieval pronouncements, or the modern Roman Catholic definitions,
from the list of dogmas; but on the whole he prefers to keep in view
"one historical species"--Loofs suggests that he ought perhaps rather to
say one _individual_ type--that greatest group of Christian dogmas which
"was created by the Greek spirit upon the soil of the gospel" (_Hist. of
Dogma_, Eng. tr., vol. i. pp. 17, 21, 22). Thus Harnack agrees with
Catholic theologians in holding that, in the fullest sense, there is no
dogma except the Catholic. He differs, of course, in holding dogma to be
obsolete now. While Protestants, he thinks, have undermined it by a
deeper conception of faith,[26] Roman Catholics have come to attach more
value to obedience and "implicit belief" than to knowledge; and even the
Eastern Church lives to-day by the cultus more than by the vision of
supernatural truth. Again, Harnack gravely differs from Catholic
dogmatists in assigning a historical origin to what in their view is
essentially divine--supernatural in origin, supernatural even in its
declaration by the church. If they do not deny that Greek philosophy has
entered into Christian doctrine, they consider it a colourless medium
used in fixing the contents of revelation. In all this, Harnack speaks
from a point of view of his own. He is no friend of Catholicism or of
dogma. Perhaps his detachment makes for clearness of thought; Loofs's
friendliness towards dogma, but in a much humbler sense than the
Catholic, involves the risk of confusion.

Both Loofs and Harnack contrast with "dogma" the work of individual
thinkers, calling the latter "theology." Hence they and other
authorities wish to see "History of Dogma" supplemented by "Histories of
Theology." Our usual English phrase "History of Doctrine" ignores that
distinction.

5. A place must be made for the definition proposed by a philosopher, J.
M. E. McTaggart. In _Some Dogmas of Religion_ (1906), he uses "dogma" of
affirmations, whether supported by reasoning or merely asserted, if they
claim "metaphysical" value, metaphysics being defined as "the systematic
study of the ultimate nature of reality." Briefly, a dogma is what
claims ultimate, not relative, truth. This agrees with one feature in
ordinary literary usage--the contrast between "dogmatizing" and
suspending judgment, or taking refuge in conjecture. But it ignores
another quality marked out in common speech--that in respect of which
"dogmatism" is opposed to proof. Also it omits the political or social
reference so much insisted on by Loofs and others. There are materials
for misunderstanding here.

6. A very different view is implied in the _symbolo-fidéisme_ of
Athanase Sabatier and some other French Protestants: religious dogma
consists of symbols in contrast to a scientific gnosis of reality. This
is a radical version of the early Protestant idea of faith, and yields a
theory of what in English we call "doctrine." More precisely, it is a
theory of what doctrine ought to be, or a deeper analysis of its nature;
it is not a statement of what doctrine has been held to be in the past.
And therefore the definition does not proceed from historical
scholarship. Nor yet does it throw light upon "dogma," if dogma is to be
distinguished--somehow--from doctrine.

  LITERATURE.--Matthew Arnold's _Literature, and Dogma_ (1873) is
  important for literary usage: cf. A. B. Bruce, op. cit. Classical and
  early Christian usages, E. Hatch, _Hibbert Lect._ (1888), pp. 119,
  120; J. B. Lightfoot on Colossians ii. 14 (20); W. Schmidt,
  _Dogmatik_, vol. i. (1895)--many quotations _in extenso_; C. Stange,
  _Das Dogma und seine Beurteilung in der neueren Dogmengeschichte_
  (1898)--a pamphlet protesting against what Loofs terms the "generally
  accepted view." Articles in the (Roman Catholic) _Kirchenlexikon_ of
  Wetzer and Welte, 2nd ed; (by Hergenröther and Kaulen), 1882-1901,
  Arts. "Dogmatik" (J. Köstlin), "Dogmengeschichte" (F. Loofs) in
  Herzog-Hauck's _Encykl. f. prot. Theol._ (vol. iv., 1898). Art.
  "Glaubensartikel" in previous ed. (Herzog-Plitt, vol. v., 1879) by C.
  F. Kling and L. F. Schoeberlein. For works on the history of dogma see
  THEOLOGY. See also DOGMATIC THEOLOGY.     (R. MA.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Sextus Empiricus (c. A.D. 240) denounces all forms of dogmatism,
    even perhaps the scepticism of definite denial. Blaise Pascal and
    Immanuel Kant, among others, have Sextus's grouping in mind when they
    oppose themselves to "dogmatism" and "scepticism" alike. A new shade
    of condemnation for dogmas as things merely assumed comes to be
    noticeable here, especially in Kant.

  [2] But there is a variant reading--eleven--supported by a different
    arrangement.

  [3] Quoted by C. H. Turner in _Journal of Theol. Studies_ (Oct. 1906,
    and cf. Oct. 1905). G. Elmenhorst's statement, that Musanus and
    Didymus in an earlier age wrote treatises with the name _De
    ecclesiasticis dogmatibus_, seems a plain blunder, if we compare
    Jerome's Latin with Eusebius's Greek.

  [4] _"So viel uns bekannt"_--J. B. Heinrich, "Dogma," in Wetzer and
    Welte's (Catholic) _Kirchenlexikon_.

  [5] See G. Hoffmann, _Fides implicita_, vol. i. (1903), pp. 82, &c.;
    and cf. the 17th-century creed of Bishop Mogilas adopted by the whole
    Greek Church.

  [6] A. Schweizer's _Protestant Central Dogmas_ (1854-1856) was an
    historical study of Reformed, i.e. Calvinist-Zwinglian theology.

  [7] "Dogma," &c., in Wetzer and Welte's _Kirchenlexikon_.

  [8] The distinction of pure and mixed articles--those of revelation
    and those taught in common by revelation and natural
    theology--reappears in modern Roman Catholic theology as a
    distinction between pure and mixed _dogmas_.

  [9] Luther's Schmalkalden Articles and the Thirty-Nine Articles of
    the Church of England should also be mentioned.

  [10] That seems to be what is meant.

  [11] Early Protestantism lived too much in the thought of
    justification to mark out the boundaries of creed with this
    scholastic precision.

  [12] _Loci communes_ (1610-1622), on Interpretation of Sacred
    Scripture, ix. 149.

  [13] Three writers mentioned in Wetzer's and Welte's
    _Kirchenlexikon_.

  [14] Also quoted as having appeared 1745, but that is an error; he
    quotes F. A. Blau, _On the Rule of Faith_ (Mainz, 1780). See further
    the sketch of Chrismann in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_,
    supplement.

  [15] G. Perrone, e.g. _De immaculato B. V. Mariae conceptu; an
    dogmatico decreto definiri possit?_ (1847).

  [16] These divisions and subdivisions are not numbered in the
    Decrees, as for clearness they have been numbered above.

  [17] Three zones apparently (1) the church's formal decrees, (2) the
    church's general teaching, (3) points of revelation which the church
    may not yet have overtaken. _Per contra_, much that was only
    "implicit" in the deposit of faith has become "explicit" in dogma.
    (The reader must note that "implicit" is used here in a different
    sense from that referred to earlier in this article. Here, church
    dogma has explicated what was implicit in revelation. There, the
    unlearned accept by _implication_, i.e. by a general acceptance of
    church belief and teaching, dogmas they perhaps have never heard of.
    Both usages are current in Roman Catholic theology.)

  [18] Or the view of D. Schenkel, that dogma is what is enforced by
    civil and criminal law.

  [19] Cf. also preface to 2nd ed. pp. ix., x.

  [20] Cf. pp. 279, 280; the undogmatic words of religious emotion are
    "thrown out," not at "a cloud mistaken for a mountain," but at a
    "majestic" and "veritable mountain range."

  [21] See art. "Dogmengeschichte" in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencykl. für
    prot. Theol._ Cf. also Prof. Loofs's _Leitfaden zum Studium der
    Dogmengeschichte_.

  [22] It should be noted that Loofs does not speak merely as a
    historian. He places himself in a sense within the dogmatic circle by
    his declaration that guidance is to be expected from developments--in
    a "free Protestant evangelical spirit"--out of the old confessions of
    the Protestant churches. This belief may be called what Loofs has
    called Harnack's definition of dogma--_individuell berechtigt_, and
    perhaps _nur individuell_. Others, who hold no less strongly to
    theological progress by evolution, not revolution, will hesitate to
    grant that the line of advance passes through the symbolical books.

  [23] Cf. DOGMATIC THEOLOGY, and the footnote above.

  [24] Unless in certain confined circles.

  [25] When Loofs declares (art. "Dogmengeschichte" in Herzog-Hauck's
    _Realencykl._, 1898) that dogma is historically equivalent to _regula
    fidei_, he is in flat contradiction to the "dogma" of his own church
    as stated in the Formula of Concord. See above.

  [26] Here perhaps Harnack speaks from inside his own type of
    religious faith; but not from inside dogma.



DOGMATIC THEOLOGY, the name usually given in modern times to the
systematic study of Christian doctrine or of dogma in the widest sense
possible (see DOGMA). Among the many terms used in the early days of
Protestant theology to denote the great systems, three deserve special
notice--Thetic Theology, Positive Theology, Dogmatic Theology. "Thetic
theology" is connected with academic life. It recalls the literal and
original meaning of graduation "theses," also Martin Luther's memorable
theses and the replies made to him. "Thetic theology," a name now
obsolete, naturally included the whole of doctrine, i.e. whatever would
be argued for or against; and "dogmatic theology" came into use
absolutely as a synonymous expression. "Positive theology" is also a
term employed by Petau (_De theologicis dogmatibus_, 1644-1650), and
more or less current even to-day in Roman Catholic scholarship (e.g.
Joseph Turmel, _Histoire de la théologie positive_, 1906). "Dogmatic
theology" proved to have most vitality in it. After some partial
precedents of early date (e.g. F. Turrianus--one of the papal
theologians at the Council of Trent,--_Dogmaticus (liber?) de
Justificatione_, 1557), the title was used in 1659 by the Lutheran Lukas
Friedrich Reinhard (1623-1688), professor of theology at Altdorf
(_Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae_, eds. 1659, 1660, 1661), and his
influence is already seen on the Reformed theologian Andreas van Essen
(Essenius, 1618-1677), who, in 1659, published his _Systematis
theologiae pars prior_, the _tomus secundus_ in 1661, but _Systematis
dogmatici tomus tertius et ultimus_ in 1665. The same author published a
shorter _Compendium theologiae dogmaticum_ in 1669. A. M. Fairbairn
holds that it was the fame of Petau which gave currency to the new
coinage "dogmatic theology"; and though the same or kindred phrases had
been used repeatedly by writers of less influence since Reinhard and
Essenius, F. Buddeus (_Institutiones theol. dogmat._, 1723;
_Compendium_, 1728) is held to have given the expression its supremacy.
Noël Alexandre, the Gallican divine, possibly introduced it in the Roman
Catholic Church (1693; _Theologia dogmatica et moralis_). Both Roman
Catholic and Protestant authorities agree that the expression was
connected with the new habit of distinguishing dogmatics from Christian
ethics or moral theology, though A. Schweizer denies this of Reinhard.
In another direction dogmas and dogmatic theology were also contrasted
with truths of reason and natural theology.[1] F. E. D. Schleiermacher,
in his _Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums_, and again in his
great System, _Der christliche Glaube ... dargestellt_, ingeniously
proposed to treat dogmatic as an historical statement, or report, of
beliefs held in the writer's communion at the time of writing. He also
insisted, however, upon personal conviction in writers on dogmatic. The
expression _Glaubenslehre_--doctrine of faith--which he did much to
bring into a wider currency, and which Schweizer, the most loyal of all
his disciples, holds to be alone fitted for Protestant use, emphasizes
the latter requirement. But "dogmatic" has also continued in use among
Protestant theologians of the Left no less than among the orthodox. When
we consider the different attitude towards dogma of Roman Catholicism,
we feel constrained to question whether the expression "dogmatic
theology" can be equally suitable for both communions. Roman theologians
may properly define dogmatic as the scientific study of dogmas;
Protestant scholars have come to use "dogma" in ways which make that
impossible. Indeed, many of them bid us regard "dogmatic" as falling
under the history of _theology_ and not of dogma (see DOGMA). Still,
usage is decisive. It will be impossible to uproot the phrase "dogmatic
theology" among Protestants. When A. Harnack[2] praises Schleiermacher's
description of dogmatic as "historical," he rather strains the meaning
of the remark, and creates fresh confusion. Harnack's point is that
"dogmatic theology" ought to be used in a sense corresponding to what he
regards as the true meaning of "dogma"--Christian belief in its main
traditional outlines. This claim is an innovation, and finds no
precedent in Schleiermacher. The latter regarded dogmatic as stating in
scientific connexion "the doctrine prevailing in a (single) Christian
church at a given time"--as "not merely historical (_geschichtlich_),"
but containing an "apologetic element"--as "not confined to the
symbolical books, but" including all--even local expressions of the
common faith which produce no breach of harmony--and as having for its
"very business and task" to "purify and perfect" doctrine (_Der
christliche Glaube_, § 19). The one merit which "dogmatic" may claim as
a term in Protestant theology is that it contrasts positive statements
of belief with mere reports (e.g. Biblical theology; history of
doctrine) of what has been taught in the past. (See DOGMA; and
THEOLOGY.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For "mixed articles" see DOGMA.

  [2] _Hist. of Dogma_; Eng. trans. i. p. 21, footnote.



DOGRA, a race of Hill Rajputs in India, inhabiting Kashmir and the
adjacent valleys of the Himalayas. They form the ruling race in Kashmir.
"Dogra" is the name given to the country round Jammu, and is said to be
derived from a word meaning the "two lakes," as the original home of the
Dogra people was situated between the lakes of Siroensar and Mansar.
There are numerous castes in the Dogra country, and the Hindu,
Mahommedan and Sikh religions are represented. All, whether Hindus or
Mahommedans, whether high-born Rajputs of the Maharaja's caste or
low-born menials, are known as Dogras. At the time of the first Sikh War
the Dogras had a great reputation as soldiers, which they have worthily
maintained in the ranks of the Indian native army. They are classed as
fighting men with the Sikh and Punjabi Mahommedan. They distinguished
themselves in the Hunza Nagar Expedition and the affair at Chilas in
1891, and in the Tirah campaign of 1897-98.



DOGS, ISLE OF, a district of London, England, on the north bank of the
Thames, which surrounds it on three sides. It falls within the
metropolitan borough of Poplar. It is occupied by docks, riverside works
and poor houses. The origin of the name is not known. The suggestion
that it is corrupted from the Isle of Docks falls to the ground on the
question of chronology; another, that there were royal kennels here, is
improbable, though they were situated at Deptford in the 17th century.
(See POPLAR.)



DOG-TOOTH (the French _dent-de-scie_), in architecture, an ornament
found in the mouldings of medieval work of the commencement of the 12th
century, which is thought to have been introduced by the Crusaders from
the East. The earliest example is found in the hall at Rabbath-Ammon in
Moab (c. A.D. 614) built by the Sassanians, where it decorates the arch
moulding of the blind arcades and the string courses. In the apse of the
church at Murano, near Venice, it is similarly employed. In the 12th and
13th centuries it was further elaborated with carving, losing therefore
its primitive form, but constituting a most beautiful decorative
feature. In Elgin cathedral the dog-tooth ornament in the archivolt
becomes a four-lobed leaf, and in Stone church, Kent, a much more
enriched type of flower. The term has been supposed to originate in a
resemblance to the dog-tooth violet, but the original idea of a
projecting tooth is a sufficient explanation.



DOGWOOD (i.e. wood of the dog-tree; referred by the _New English
Dictionary_ to "dog," apparently as indicating inferiority; but by
others connected with "dag," "dagger," and by Prior with A.S. _dolc_, a
brooch-pin), the name applied to plants of the genus _Cornus_, of the
natural order Cornaceae. The common dogwood, prick-wood, skewer-wood,
cornel or dogberry, _C. sanguinea_, is a shrub reaching a height of 8 or
9 ft., common in hedges, thickets and plantations in Great Britain. Its
branches are dark red; the leaves egg-shaped, pointed, about 2 in. long
by 1½ broad, and turning red in autumn; the flowers are dull white, in
terminal clusters. The berries are small, of a black-purple, bitter and
one-seeded, and contain a considerable percentage of oil, which in some
places is employed for lamps, and in the manufacture of soap. The wood
is white and very hard, and like that of other species of the genus is
used for making ladder-spokes, wheel-work, skewers, forks and other
implements, and gunpowder charcoal. The red berries of the dwarf
species, _C. suecica_, of the Scottish Highlands, are eaten, and are
reputed to be tonic in properties. _C. mas_, the Cornelian cherry, a
native of Europe and Northern Asia, bears a pulpy and edible fruit,
which when unripe contains much tannin. It is a good garden plant, as is
also the North American species _C. florida_, one of the commonest trees
of the deciduous forests of the middle and southern states. Professor C.
S. Sargent (_Silva of North America_) describes it as "one of the most
beautiful of the small trees of the American forests, which it enlivens
in early spring with the whiteness of its floral leaves and in autumn
with the splendour of its foliage and the brilliancy of its fruit. No
tree is more desirable in the garden or park in regions where the
summer's sun is sufficiently hot to ensure the production of its flowers
through the perfect development of the branchlets." The Jamaica dogwood,
the root-bark of which is poisonous, is the species _Piscidia
Erythrina_, of the natural order Leguminosae.



DOL, a town of north-western France, in the department of
Ille-et-Vilaine, 36 m. N. of Rennes on the Western railway. Pop. (1906)
3543. Dol is situated to the south-west of the rich agricultural
district known as the marsh of Dol, where market-gardening is especially
flourishing. The streets are still rendered picturesque by houses of the
14th and 15th centuries, which form deep arcades by the projection of
their upper storeys: and, high above all, rises the grey granite of the
cathedral, mainly of the 13th century, which in the middle ages ranked
as the metropolitan church of all Brittany, and still keeps fresh the
name of Bishop St Samson, who, having fled, as the legend tells, from
the Saxon invaders of England, selected this spot as the site of his
monastery. To the architect it is interesting for the English character
of its design, and to the antiquarian, for its stained-glass windows of
the 13th century, and for the finely sculptured tomb of Bishop Thomas
James (d. 1504). About 1½ m. from the town is the _pierre de Champ
Dolent_, a menhir some 30 ft. in height; not far off stands the great
granite rock of Mont Dol, over 200 ft. in height, surmounted by the
statue and chapel of Notre-Dame de l'Espérance. Dol has trade in grain,
vegetables and fruit, tobacco is cultivated in the neighbourhood and
there are salt-marshes. Tanning and leather-currying are carried on in
the town. The town was unsuccessfully besieged by William the Conqueror,
taken by Henry II. in 1164 and by Guy de Thouars in 1204. In 1793 it
witnessed the defeat of the republican forces by the Vendeans who had
taken refuge within its walls. The bishopric established in the 6th
century was suppressed in 1790.



DOLABELLA, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero,
was born about 70 B.C. He was by far the most important of the
Dolabellae, a family of the patrician gens Cornelia. In the civil wars
he at first took the side of Pompey, but afterwards went over to Caesar,
and was present at the battle of Pharsalus. To escape the urgent demands
of his creditors, he introduced (as one of the tribunes) a bill
proposing that all debts should be cancelled. This was strongly resisted
by his colleagues, and led to serious disturbances in the city. Caesar,
on his return from Alexandria, seeing the expediency of removing
Dolabella from Rome, took him as one of his generals in the expedition
to Africa and Spain. On Caesar's death Dolabella seized the insignia of
the consulship (which had already been conditionally promised him), and,
by making friends with Brutus and the other assassins, was confirmed in
his office. When, however, M. Antonius offered him the command of the
expedition against the Parthians and the province of Syria he changed
sides at once. His journey to the province was marked by plundering,
extortion and the murder of C. Trebonius, proconsul of Asia, who refused
to allow him to enter Smyrna. He was thereupon declared a public enemy
and superseded by C. Cassius (the murderer of Caesar), who attacked him
in Laodicea. On the capture of the place, Dolabella ordered one of his
soldiers to kill him (43). Throughout his life he was a profligate and a
spendthrift.

  See Cicero's _Letters_ (ed. Tyrrell and Purser); G. Boissier, _Cicero
  and his Friends_ (Eng. trans., 1897); Orelli, _Onomasticon Tullianum_;
  Dio Cassius xli. 40, xlii. 29, xliii. 51, xliv. 22, xlvi. 40, xlvii.
  30; Appian, _Bell. civ._ iii. 7, iv. 60.



DOLBEN, JOHN (1625-1686), English divine, was the son of William Dolben
(d. 1631), prebendary of Lincoln and bishop-designate of Gloucester. He
was educated at Westminster under Richard Busby and at Christ Church,
Oxford. He fought on the royalist side at Marston Moor, 1644.
Subsequently he took orders and maintained in private the proscribed
Anglican service. At the Restoration he became canon of Christ Church
(1660) and prebendary of St Paul's, London (1661). As dean of
Westminster (1662-1683) he opposed an attempt to bring the abbey under
diocesan rule. In 1666 he was made bishop of Rochester, and in 1683
archbishop of York; he distinguished himself by reforming the discipline
of the cathedrals in these dioceses. His son John Dolben (1662-1710) was
a barrister and politician; he was M.P. for Liskeard from 1707 to 1710
and manager of Sacheverell's impeachment in 1709.



DOLCE, LUDOVICO, or LUIGI (1508-1568 or 1569), Italian writer, was a
native of Venice, and belonged to a family of honourable tradition but
decadent fortune. He received a good education, and early undertook the
task of maintaining himself by his pen. Translations from Greek and
Latin epics, satires, histories, plays and treatises on language and art
followed each other in rapid succession, till the whole number amounted
to upwards of seventy works. But he is now mainly memorable as the
author of _Marianna_, a tragedy from the life of Herod, which was recast
in French by Tristan and by Voltaire, and still keeps a place on the
stage. Four licentious comedies, _Il Ragazzo_ (1541), _Il Capitano_
(1545), _Il Marito_ (1560), _Il Ruffiano_ (1560), and seven of Seneca's
tragedies complete the list of his dramatic efforts. In one epic--to
translate the title-page--"he has marvellously reduced into _ottava
rima_ and united into one narrative the stories of the Iliad and the
Aeneid"; in another he devotes thirty-nine cantos to a certain
Primaleone, son of Palmerius; in a third he celebrates the first
exploits of Count Orlando; and in a fourth he sings of the Paladin
Sacripante. A life of the emperor Charles V. and a similar account of
Ferdinand I., published respectively in 1560 and 1566, are his chief
historical productions; and among his minor treatises it is enough to
mention the _Osservazioni sulla lingua volgare_ (1550); the _Dialogo
della pittura_ (1557); and the _Dialogo nel quale si ragiona del modo di
accrescar la memoria_ (1552).



DOLCI, CARLO, or CARLINO (1616-1686), Italian painter, was born in
Florence in May 1616. He was the grandson of a painter on the mother's
side, and became a disciple of Jacopo Vignali; and when only eleven
years of age he attempted a whole figure of St John, and a head of the
infant Christ, which received extraordinary approbation. He afterwards
painted a portrait of his mother, and displayed a new and delicate style
which brought him into notice, and procured him extensive employment at
Florence (from which city he hardly ever moved) and in other parts of
Italy. Dolci used his pencil chiefly in sacred subjects, and bestowed
much labour on his pictures. In his manner of working he was remarkably
slow. It is said that his brain was affected by seeing Luca Giordano, in
1682, despatch more business in four or five hours than he could have
executed in as many months, and that he hence fell into a state of
hypochondria, which compelled him to relinquish his art, and soon
brought him to the grave. His works are not very numerous. He generally
painted in a small size, although there are a few pictures by him as
large as life. He died in Florence in January 1686, leaving a daughter
(Agnese), who arrived at some degree of excellence in copying the works
of her father.

Carlo Dolci holds somewhat the same rank in the Florentine that
Sassoferrato does in the Roman school. Without the possession of much
genius, invention or elevation of type, both these artists produced
highly wrought pictures, extremely attractive to some tastes. The works
of Dolci are easily distinguishable by the delicacy of the composition,
and by an agreeable tint of colour, improved by judicious management of
the chiaroscuro, which gives his figures a striking relief; he affected
the use of ultramarine, much loaded in tint. "His pencil," says
Pilkington, "was tender, his touch inexpressibly neat, and his colouring
transparent; though he has often been censured for the excessive labour
bestowed on his pictures, and also for giving his carnations more of the
appearance of ivory than the look of flesh." All his best productions
are of a devout description; they frequently represent the patient
suffering of Christ or the sorrows of the Mater Dolorosa. Dolci was, in
fact, from early youth, exceedingly pious; it is said that during
passion week every year he painted a half-figure of the Saviour. His
sacred heads are marked with pathetic or at least strongly sentimental
emotion. There is a want of character in his pictures, and his grouping
lacks harmonious unison, but the general tone accords with the idea of
the passion portrayed. Among the best works of this master are the "St
Sebastian"; the "Four Evangelists," at Florence; "Christ Breaking the
Bread," in the marquess of Exeter's collection at Burleigh; the "St
Cecilia" in Dresden; an "Adoration of the Magi"; and in especial "St
Andrew praying before his Crucifixion," in the Pitti gallery, his most
important composition, painted in 1646; also several smaller pictures,
which are highly valued, and occupy honourable places in the richest
galleries.     (W. M. R.)



DOLDRUMS (a slang term, _dol_ = dull; cf. tantrum), the region of calms
near the equator where the trade-winds die away, a region of constant
precipitation in which the weather is close, hot, vaporous and extremely
dispiriting. In the old days of sailing vessels, a becalmed ship
sometimes lay helpless for weeks. A letter from this region saying "we
are in the doldrums" ("in the dumps") seems to have been regarded as
written from "The Doldrums," which thus became the name of this
undesirable locality.



DÔLE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Jura, 29 m. S.E. of Dijon on the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop.
(1906) 11,166. It occupies the slope of a hill overlooking the forest of
Chaux, on the right bank of the Doubs, and of the canal from the Rhone
to the Rhine which accompanies that river. The streets, which in general
are steep and narrow, contain many old houses recalling, in their
architecture, the Spanish occupation of the town. The principal
buildings are the church of Notre Dame, a Gothic structure of the 16th
century; the college, once a Jesuit establishment, which contains the
library and a museum of paintings and has a chapel of the Renaissance
period; the Hôtel-Dieu and hôtel de ville, both 17th-century buildings;
and the law court occupying an old convent of the Cordeliers. In the
courtyard of the hôtel de ville there stands an old tower dating from
the 15th century. The birth of Louis Pasteur (1822) in the town is
commemorated by a monument, and there is also a monument to Jules Grévy.
Dôle is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first instance
and of commerce and a communal college. Metal-founding and the
manufacture of fire-pumps, kitchen-ranges and other iron goods, chemical
products, machinery, leather, liqueurs and pastry, are among the
industries. There is a good trade in agricultural produce and live
stock, and in wood, iron, coal and the stone of the vicinity. Wine is
largely grown in the district.

Dôle, the ancient _Dola_, was in Roman times the meeting place of
several roads, and considerable remains have been found there; in the
later middle ages and till 1648 it was the capital of Franche Comté and
seat of a parlement and a university; but in the year 1479 the town was
taken by the forces of Louis XI., and so completely sacked that only the
house of Jean Vurry, as it is still called, and two other buildings were
left standing. It subsequently came into the hands of Maximilian of
Austria, and in 1530 was fortified by Charles V. In 1668 and 1674 it was
captured by the French and lost its parlement and its university, both
of which were transferred by Louis XIV. to Besançon.



DOLE (from Old Eng. _dal_, cf. mod. "deal"), a portion, a distribution
of gifts, especially of food and money given in charity. The derivation
from O. Fr. _doel_, Late Lat. _dolium_, "grief," suggested by the custom
of funeral doles, is wrong. In early Christian days, St Chrysostom says:
"doles were used at funerals to procure the rest of the soul of the
deceased, that he might find his judge propitious." The distribution of
alms to the local poor at funerals was a universal custom in the middle
ages. The amount of doles was usually stated in the will. Thus in 1399
Eleanor, duchess of Gloucester, ordered that fifteen poor men should
carry torches at her funeral, "each having a gown and hood lined with
white, breeches of blue cloth, shoes and a shirt, and twenty pounds
amongst them." Later doles usually took the form of bequests of land or
money, the interest or rent of which was to be annually employed in
charity. Often the distribution took place at the grave of the donor.
Thus one William Robinson of Hull at his death in 1708 left money to buy
annually a dozen loaves, costing a shilling each, to be given to twelve
poor widows at his grave every Christmas. Lenten doles were also
formerly common. A will of 1537 bade a barrel of white herrings and a
case of red herrings be given yearly to the poor of Clavering, Essex, to
help them tide over the fast. One or two London doles are still
distributed, e.g. that of St Peter's, Walworth, where a Christmas dinner
is each year served to 300 parish poor in the crypt. No one under sixty
is eligible, and the dinner is unique in that it is cooked in the
church. A pilgrim's dole of bread and ale can be claimed by all
wayfarers at the Hospital of St Cross, Winchester. This is said to have
been founded by William of Wykeham. Emerson, when visiting Winchester,
claimed and received the dole. What were known as _Scrambling Doles_, so
called because the meat and bread distributed were thrown among the poor
to be scrambled for, were not uncommon in England. Such a dole existed
at St Briavel's, Gloucestershire, baskets of bread and cheese cut into
small squares being thrown by the churchwardens from the gallery into
the body of the church on Whit Sunday. At Wath near Ripon a testator in
1810 ordered that forty penny loaves should be thrown from the church
leads at midnight on every Christmas eve. The best known dole in the
United States is the "Leake Dole of Bread." John Leake, a millionaire
dying in 1792, left £1000 to Trinity Church, New York, the income to be
laid out in wheaten loaves and distributed every Sabbath morning after
service. The dole still survives, though the day has been altered to
Saturday, each week sixty-seven loaves being given away.



DOLERITE (from Gr. [Greek: doleros], deceptive), in petrology, the name
given by Haüy to those basaltic rocks which are comparatively coarse
grained and nearly, if not quite, holocrystalline. As may be inferred
from their highly crystalline state they are very often intrusive, and
occur as dikes and sills, but many of them form lava flows. Their
essential minerals are those of basalt, viz. olivine, augite and
plagioclase felspar, while hornblende, ilmenite, apatite and biotite are
their commonest accessory ingredients. The chemical and microscopic
features of these minerals agree generally with those presented in the
basalts, and only their exceptional peculiarities need be mentioned
here. Many dolerites are porphyritic and carry phenocrysts of olivine,
augite and plagioclase felspar (or of one or more of these). Others,
probably the majority, are non-porphyritic, and these are generally
coarser grained than the ground-mass of the former group, though
lacking their large conspicuous phenocrysts. The commonest type of
structure in dolerite is the ophitic, which results from the felspar of
the rock having crystallized before the augite; the latter mineral forms
shapeless masses in which the idiomorphic felspars lie. The augite
enclosing the felspars is well crystallized, though its continuity is
interrupted more or less completely by the numerous crystals of felspar
which it envelops, and in polarized light the former often behaves as a
single individual over a considerable area, while the latter mineral
consists of independent crystals. This structure may be so coarse as to
be easily detected by the unaided eye, or so fine that it cannot be seen
except in microscopic sections. Some of the porphyritic dolerites have
ophitic ground-masses; in others this structure is imperfect
(subophitic); while in many the augite, like the felspar, occurs as
small and distinct individuals, which react differently on polarized
light, and have the outlines of more or less perfectly shaped crystals.
Ophitic structure is commonest in olivine-dolerites, though the olivine
takes no part in it.

The quartz-dolerites are an important group, hardly less common than the
olivine-dolerites. They contain a small amount of quartz, and often
micropegmatite, as the last element to consolidate, filling up little
angular interspaces between the felspars and pyroxenes, which had
previously crystallized. They rarely contain olivine, but pleochroic
hypersthene is by no means rare in them (hypersthene-dolerites). Some
contain larger individuals of pale green, rather pleochroic augite (the
so-called sahlite), and a little brown mica, and brownish-green
hornblende may also be present.

Allied to these are olivine-free dolerites with more or less of
interstitial glassy base (tholeites, &c.). In the rocks of this group
ophitic structure is typically absent, and the presence of an
interstitial finely crystalline or amorphous material gives rise to the
structure which is known as "intersertal." Transitions to the
porphyritic dolerites and basalts arise by increase in the proportion of
this ground-mass. The edges of dolerite sills and dikes often contain
much dark brown glass, and pass into tachylytes, in which this material
preponderates.

Another interesting group of doleritic rocks contains analcite. They may
be ophitic, though often they are not, and they usually contain olivine,
while their augite has distinctly purple shades, and a feeble dichroism.

Their characteristic feature is the presence of a small amount of
analcite, which never shows crystalline outlines but fills up the
interspaces between the other minerals. Some writers held that this
mineral has resulted from the decomposition of nepheline; others regard
it as a primary mineral. Usually it can be clearly shown to be secondary
to some extent, but there is reason to suppose that it is really a
pneumatolytic deposit. These rocks are known as teschenites, and have a
wide distribution in England, Scotland, on the continent and in America.
Often they are comparatively rich in brown hornblende. This last-named
mineral is not usually abundant in dolerites, but in a special group,
the proterobases, it to a large extent replaces the customary augite. A
few dolerites contain much brown mica (mica-dolerites). Nepheline may
appear in these rocks, as in the basalts. Typical nepheline-dolerites
are scarce, and consist of idiomorphic augite, surrounded by nepheline.
Examples are known from the Tertiary volcanic districts of the Rhine.

Dolerites have a very wide distribution, as they are found wherever
basalts occur in any number. It is superfluous to cite localities for
them as they are among the commonest of igneous rocks. They are much
employed for road-mending and for kerbstones, though their dark colour
and the tendency they have to weather with a dingy brown crust make them
unsuitable for the better classes of architectural work.     (J. S. F.)



DOLET, ÉTIENNE (1509-1546), French scholar and printer, was born at
Orleans on the 3rd of August 1509. A doubtful tradition makes him the
illegitimate son of Francis I.; but it is evident that he was at least
connected with some family of rank and wealth. From Orleans he was taken
to Paris about 1521; and after studying under Nicolas Bérauld, the
teacher of Coligny, he proceeded in 1526 to Padua. The death of his
friend and master, Simon de Villanova, led him, in 1530, to accept the
post of secretary to Jean de Langeac, bishop of Limoges and French
ambassador to the republic of Venice; he contrived, however, to attend
the lectures of the Venetian scholar Battista Egnazio, and found time to
write Latin love poems to some Venetian Elena. Returning to France soon
afterwards he proceeded to Toulouse to study law; but there he soon
became involved in the violent disputes between the different "nations"
of the university, was thrown into prison, and finally banished by a
decree of the parlement. In 1535 he entered the lists against Erasmus in
the famous Ciceronian controversy, by publishing through Sebastien
Gryphe (Gryphius) at Lyons a _Dialogus de imitatione Ciceroniana_; and
the following year saw the appearance of his two folio volumes
_Commentariorum linguae Latinae_. This work was dedicated to Francis I.,
who gave him the privilege of printing during ten years any works in
Latin, Greek, Italian or French, which were the product of his own pen
or had received his supervision; and accordingly, on his release from an
imprisonment occasioned by his justifiable homicide of a painter named
Compaing, he began at Lyons his typographical and editorial labours.
That he was not altogether unaware of the dangers to which he was
exposed from the bigotry of the time is shown not only by the tone of
his mottoes--_Préserve moi, Seigneur, des calomnies des hommes_, and
_Durior est spectatae virtutis quam incognitae conditio_--but also by
the fact that he endeavoured first of all to conciliate his opponents by
publishing a _Cato christianus_, or Christian moralist, in which he made
profession of his creed. The catholicity of his literary appreciation,
in spite of his ultra-Ciceronianism, was soon displayed by the works
which proceeded from his press--ancient and modern, sacred and secular,
from the New Testament in Latin to Rabelais in French. But before the
term of his privilege expired his labours were interrupted by his
enemies, who succeeded in imprisoning him (1542) on the charge of
atheism. From a first imprisonment of fifteen months Dolet was released
by the advocacy of Pierre Duchâtel, bishop of Tulle; from a second
(1544) he escaped by his own ingenuity; but, venturing back from
Piedmont, whither he had fled in order that he might print at Lyons the
letters by which he appealed for justice to the king of France, the
queen of Navarre and the parlement of Paris, he was again arrested,
branded as a relapsed atheist by the theological faculty of the
Sorbonne, and on the 3rd of August 1546 put to the torture, strangled
and burned in the Place Maubert. On his way thither he is said to have
composed the punning pentameter--_Non dolet ipse Dolet, sed pia turba
dolet_.

Whether Dolet is to be classed with the representatives of Protestantism
or with the advocates of anti-Christian rationalism has been frequently
disputed; by the principal Protestants of his own time he was not
recognized, and by Calvin he is formally condemned, along with Agrippa
and his master Villanova, as having uttered execrable blasphemies
against the Son of God; but, to judge by the religious character of a
large number of the books which he translated or published, such a
condemnation is altogether misplaced. His repeated advocacy of the
reading of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue is especially noticeable.
A statue of Dolet was erected on the Place Maubert in 1889.

  See J. F. Née de la Rochelle, _Vie d'Étienne Dolet_ (1779); Joseph
  Boulmier, _E. Dolet, sa vie, ses oeuvres, son martyre_ (1857); A. F.
  Didot, _Essai sur la typographie_ (1852) and article in the _Nouvelle
  Biographie générale_; L. Michel. _Dolet: sa statue, place Maubert: ses
  amis, ses ennemis_ (1889); R. C. Christie, _Étienne Dolet, the Martyr
  of the Renaissance_ (2nd ed., 1889), containing a full bibliography of
  works published by him as author or printer; O. Galtier, _Étienne
  Dolet_ (Paris, 1908). The _procès_, or trial, of Dolet was published
  (1836) by A. H. Taillandier from the registers of the parlement of
  Paris.



DOLGELLEY (_Dolgellau_, dale of hazels), a market town and the county
town of Merionethshire, North Wales, situated on the streams Wnion and
Aran at the north base of Cader Idris, on the Cambrian and Great Western
railways, 232 m. from London. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2437. It
consists of small squares and narrow streets, with a free grammar school
(1665), market hall, assize hall, county gaol, &c. The so-called
parliament house (1404) of Owen Glendower's members has been demolished.
There is some trade in coarse flannel and tweed. Glendower's treaty
with Charles of France (_Owinus D.G. princeps Walliae ... Datum apud
Dolguelli ..._) was dated here. The families of county rank in the
neighbourhood include those of Nannau, Hengwrt (the famous Hengwrt Welsh
MSS. are at Peniarth), Caerynwch, Fronwnion, Bron-y-gadair, Brynygwin,
Brynadda, Abergwynnant, Garthangharad. The county family, Vaughan,
claims descent from Rodric Fawr, king of North Wales, Glendower's
kinsman and enemy lived at Nannau. Scott (_Marmion_, vi. canto, note)
refers to the demon oak at Nannau in 1813. Among neighbouring hills are
Moel Offrwm (or _Orthrwm_--of sacrifice or of oppression) and Moel
Cynwch.



DOLGORUKI, VASILY LUKICH, COUNT (1672-1739), Russian diplomatist and
minister, was one of the first batch of young Russians whom Peter the
Great sent abroad to be educated. From 1687 to 1700 he resided at Paris,
where he learned thoroughly the principal European languages, acquired
the superficial elegance of the court of Versailles, and associated with
the Jesuits, whose moral system he is said to have appropriated. On his
return home he entered the diplomatic service. From 1706 to 1707 he
represented Russia in Poland; and from 1707 to 1720 he was her minister
at Copenhagen, where he succeeded in persuading King Frederick IV. to
join the second coalition against Charles XII. At the end of 1720 he was
transferred to Versailles, in order to seek the mediation of France in
the projected negotiations with Sweden and obtain the recognition of
Peter's imperial title by the French court. In 1724 he represented
Russia at Warsaw and in 1726 at Stockholm, the object of the latter
mission being to detach Sweden from the Hanoverian alliance, in which he
did not succeed. During the reign of Peter II. (1727-1730) Dolgoruki was
appointed a member of the supreme privy council, and after procuring the
banishment of Menshikov he appropriated the person of the young emperor,
whom he would have forced to marry his niece Catherine but for Peter's
untimely death. He then drew up a letter purporting to be the last will
of the emperor, appointing Catherine Dolgoruki his successor, but
shortly afterwards abandoned the nefarious scheme as impracticable, and
was one of the first to support the election of Anne of Courland to the
throne on condition that she first signed nine "articles of limitation,"
which left the supreme power in the hands of the Russian council. Anne,
who repudiated the "articles" on the first opportunity, never forgave
Dolgoruki for this. He was deprived of all his offices and dignities on
the 17th of April 1730, and banished first to his country seat and then
to the Solovetsky monastery. Nine years later the charge of forging the
will of Peter II. was revived against him, and he was tortured and then
beheaded at Novgorod on the 8th of November 1739.

  See Robert Nisbet Bain, _The Pupils of Peter the Great_ (London,
  1895).     (R. N. B.)



DOLHAIN, the most eastern town of Belgium, situated on the Vesdre, N. E.
of Verviers and close to the Prussian frontier. Pop. (1904) 4757. It is
quite a modern town, occupying the site of the lower town of the ancient
city of Limburg, which was destroyed by Louis XIV. in 1675. On a rocky
eminence above Dolhain are still to be seen the fine ruins of the old
castle of Limburg, the cradle of the ancient family of that name from
which sprang the Luxemburg family and several emperors of Germany. The
Gothic church of St George of the 13th century has been restored. At a
short distance from Dolhain is the famous dam of the Gileppe, the vast
reservoir constructed to supply Verviers with water free from lime for
its cloth manufactures. The aqueduct from Gileppe to Verviers is nearly
5½ m. in length.



DOLICHOCEPHALIC (long-headed), a term invented by Andreas Retzius to
denote (as opposed to "brachycephalic") those skulls the diameter of
which from side to side, or the transverse diameter, is small in
comparison with the longitudinal diameter or that from front to back.
Retzius, though inventing the term, did not define it precisely. Paul
Broca applied it to skulls having a cephalic index of seventy-five and
under, and this limit is generally adopted. Dolichocephaly, according to
Retzius, was the distinctive cranial feature of the earliest inhabitants
of Europe. To-day it is characteristic of the negro races, of the
Papuans, the Polynesians and the Australians, though among the negritos
and some of the pigmy races of Africa brachycephalic skulls are the
rule. Of the yellow races the Eskimo is the most dolichocephalic. Of
white races the Arabs and Kabyles of Algeria, and the Guanchos of the
Canary Islands, are most notable for dolichocephalic tendency.
Dolichocephaly is sometimes frontal, as among adult whites, sometimes
occipital or confined to the back of the head, as among inferior
negro-races, Australians, Papuans and newly-born whites.



DOLL, a child's plaything in the shape of a human figure or taken as
representing one. The word "doll" was not in common use in the middle
ages, "children's babies" and other terms being substituted for it; the
commonly accepted view is that it is abbreviated from the name Dorothy
(cf. Scottish "Doroty"). "Idol" has also been connected with it; but the
accent is held to tell against this. Another derivation is from Norse
_daul_ (woman), with which may be compared O.H.G. _toccha_, M.H.G.
_docke_, a girl, doll, used also in the sense of butterfly, nightmare,
&c., thus connecting the doll with magic and superstition. The same
connexion is found in Asia Minor, South India, among the Pueblo peoples
and in South Africa; philology apart, therefore, the derivation from
"idol" has much to recommend it, and some side influence from this word
may well have caused the selection of the form "doll." Dolls proper
should be distinguished from (a) idols, (b) magical figurines, (c)
votive offerings, (d) costume figures. The festival figures of Japan,
like the bambino of Italy, given to the child only on certain saints'
days, hardly come within the category of dolls.

Dolls were known in ancient Egypt (XVIIIth Dynasty) and Asia Minor; they
were common both in Greece and Rome; Persius mentions that girls vowed
them to Venus when they got married; dolls found in the catacombs are
preserved in the Vatican and the Museum Carpegna. The [Greek:
neurospaston] (Lat. _crepundia_) of Greek finds of the 6th and later
centuries B.C. was a marionette. Dolls were in use among the Arabs at
the time of Mahomet, and the prophet's nine-year-old wife Ayesha is said
to have induced him to join her in her play with them. Although
Mahommedanism prohibits the making of figures in human shape, dolls do
not seem to have disappeared from Mahommedan countries, though
substitutes for them are perhaps more common there than elsewhere.

Dolls are extremely common in Africa. There seem to be forms peculiar to
different regions, such as the flat, spade-shaped figure on the Gold
Coast. Among the Wasaramo the girls carry from the age of puberty till
the birth of their first child an object indistinguishable from the
ordinary doll; it is called _mwana ya kiti_ (stool-child) because it is
placed on a stool at home; it probably has a magical significance. The
same may be said of the Australian figurines; others, made of cane, are
undoubtedly children's dolls; excellently moulded wax figures are also
found. In Asia dolls properly so-called are apparently rare; but there
are specimens in museums from the Malay peninsula, Persia and South
India, and in Asia Minor children use cushions, &c., as surrogates. They
are found in Alaska among the Eskimo. Most Red Indian tribes had them; a
mother who has lost her child carries its dolls and other playthings.
Cortes is said to have found Montezuma and his court playing with
elaborate dolls; they have been dug up from prehistoric Peruvian graves.
In the Gran Chaco metacarpal bones of the rhea are in use, wrapped in a
blanket when they represent male, in a petticoat when they are female.

But little attention has been paid to the psychological side of dolls.
Though many boys play with them, dolls are mainly confined to girls; and
female dolls predominate in the proportion of twelve to one. The
culmination of the doll instinct is between the age of eight and nine;
but they are not entirely dropped till much later; in fact unmarried and
childless women sometimes keep it up for years. In children it is said
by Hall to be by no means always a manifestation of the maternal
instinct; for dolls are not always regarded as children, and the
proportion of adults increases with the age of the children. But the
important point is whether the child regarded itself as older or younger
than the doll. There is, on the other hand, a tendency to neglect dolls
for babies and a reverse current of love of dolls which arises out of
love of babies.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For a list of works see A. MacDonald, _Man and Abnormal
  Man_ (U. S. Senate Document, 1905, vol. ix. No. 187, p. 275); see
  also Andree, _Ethnographische Parallelen_ N. F.; Schlegel, _Indische
  Bibliothek_. i. 139; _Brandenburgia_, xi. 28; _Delineator_, lviii.
  927; _Globus_, lxxv. 354, lxxx. 205; _Internat. Archiv f. Ethnog._
  vii. 45; _Ladies' Home Journ._ xvi.; _Westermann's Monatshefte_ (Feb.
  1899, &c.); _Man_ (1903, No. 22). For the psychological side see
  _Paedagogical Seminary_, iv. 129, discussed in _Contemporary Rev._
  lxxv. 58; Mrs F. H. Burnett, "The One I know best of all"; Sully,
  _Studies of Childhood_; G. Sand, _Histoire de ma vie_.     (N. W. T.)



DOLLAR, a town of Clackmannanshire, Scotland, 6 m. N.E. of Alloa by the
North British railway, not far from the Devon. Pop. (1901) 1619. The
village, which is beautifully situated, contains several handsome stone
villas occupied by families attracted to the town by its educational
facilities. The academy, housed in a fine mass of buildings of the
Grecian order (opened about 1819), was founded by Captain John McNab
(1732-1802), a native who began life as a herdboy, and afterwards became
a rich shipowner. From the burn of Dollar (or Dolour), which runs
through the ravine of Dollar Glen, the town draws its water-supply. On
an isolated hill above the junction of the parent streams, named Sorrow
and Care, stands the ruin of Castle Campbell, known also as Gloom
Castle, an old stronghold of the Argyll family. The castle was burned by
the Macleans in 1644, in the interest of the marquess of Montrose, and
not again restored. Although a ruin it is carefully preserved. The Rev.
Dr James Aitken Wylie (1808-1890), the historian of Protestantism, was a
minister in Dollar for several years. Patrick Gibson, the etcher and
landscape-painter, was drawing-master at the academy from 1824 to 1829,
and William Tennant, the author of _Anster Fair_, was a teacher of
classics from 1819 till 1834, when he was appointed to the chair of
Hebrew in St Andrews University. Harviestoun Castle, about midway
between Dollar and Tillicoultry, once belonged to the Tait family, and
here Archibald Campbell Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, spent some of
his boyhood.



DOLLAR, a silver coin at one time current in many European countries,
and adopted under varying forms of the name elsewhere. The word "dollar"
is a modified form of _thaler_, which, with the variant forms (daler,
dalar, daalder, tallero, &c.), is said to be a shortened form of
_Joachimsthaler_. This _Joachimsthaler_ was the name given to a coin
intended to be the silver equivalent of the gold gulden, a coin current
in Germany from the 14th century. In 1516 a rich silver mine was
discovered in Joachimsthal (Joachim's dale), a mining district of
Bohemia, and the count of Schlitz, by whom it was appropriated, caused a
great number of silver coins to be struck (the first having the date
1518), bearing an effigy of St Joachim, hence the name. The
_Joachimsthaler_ was also sometimes known as the _Schlickenthaler_. The
first use of the word dollar in English was as applied to this silver
coin, the thaler, which was current in Germany at various values from
the 16th century onwards, as well as, more particularly, to the unit of
the German monetary union from 1857 to 1873, when the mark was
substituted for the thaler. The Spanish piece-of-eight (_reals_) was
also commonly referred to as a dollar. When the Bank of England
suspended cash payments in 1797, and the scarcity of coin was very
great, a large number of these Spanish coins, which were held by the
bank, were put into circulation, after having been countermarked at the
Mint with a small oval bust of George III., such as was used by the
Goldsmiths' Company for marking plate. Others were simply overstamped
with the initials G.R. enclosed in a shield. In 1804 the Maundy penny
head set in an octagonal compartment was employed. Several millions of
these coins were issued. These Spanish pieces-of-eight were also current
in the Spanish-American colonies, and were very largely used in the
British North American colonies. As the reckoning was by pounds,
shillings and pence in the British-American colonies, great
inconveniences naturally arose, but these were to some extent lessened
by the adoption of a tariff list, by which the various gold and silver
coins circulating were rated. In 1787 the dollar was introduced as the
unit in the United States, and it has remained as the standard of value
either in silver or gold in that country. For the history of the various
changes in the weights and value of the coin see NUMISMATICS. The
Spanish piece-of-eight was also the ancestor of the Mexican dollar, the
Newfoundland dollar, the British dollar circulating in Hong Kong and the
Straits Settlements, and the dollar of the South American republics,
although many of them are now dollars only in name.



DOLLING, ROBERT WILLIAM RADCLYFFE (1851-1902), English divine, known as
Father Dolling, was born at Magheralin, Co. Down, and educated at Harrow
and Cambridge. From 1878 to 1882 he was warden of one of the houses of
the Postmen's League, started by Father Stanton of St Alban's, Holborn.
He was ordained in 1883 to a curacy at Corscombe, Dorset, but resided in
London as head of St Martin's mission, Stepney. In 1885 a difficulty as
to the relation of his mission to Holy Trinity parish, Stepney, led to
his resignation, and he next accepted the charge of St Agatha's,
Landport, the Winchester College mission. The remarkable reforms he
accomplished there may be ascertained from his _Ten years in a
Portsmouth slum_ (London 1896). In 1885 he again resigned, owing to the
bishop of Winchester's refusal to sanction the extreme ritual used in
the service at St Agatha's. In 1897 he visited America, where his
preaching made a great impression. He returned to England in the
following year as vicar of St Saviour's, Poplar, and retained that
living until his death.

  An account of Dolling's person and missionary work among the poor is
  given in _The Life of Father Dolling_ (London, 1903), by the Rev. C.
  E. Osborne.



DÖLLINGER, JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON (1799-1890), German theologian and
church historian, was born at Bamberg, Bavaria, on the 28th of February
1799. He came of an intellectual stock, his grandfather and father
having both been physicians of eminence and professors of one or other
of the branches of medical science; his mother too belonged to a family
not undistinguished in intellectual power. Young Döllinger was first
educated in the gymnasium at Wurzburg, and then began to study natural
philosophy at the university in that city, where his father now held a
professorship. In 1817 he began the study of mental philosophy and
philology, and in 1818 turned to the study of theology, which he
believed to lie beneath every other science. He particularly devoted
himself to an independent study of ecclesiastical history, a subject
very indifferently taught in Roman Catholic Germany at that time. In
1820 he became acquainted with Victor Aimé Huber (1800-1869), a fact
which largely influenced his life. On the 5th of April 1822 he was
ordained priest, after studying at Bamberg, and in 1823 he became
professor of ecclesiastical history and canon law in the lyceum at
Aschaffenburg. He then took his doctor's degree, and in 1826 became
professor of theology at Munich, where he spent the rest of his life.
About this time Döllinger brought upon himself the animadversion of
Heine, who was then editor of a Munich paper. The unsparing satirist
described the professor's face as the "gloomiest" in the whole
procession of ecclesiastics which took place on Good Friday.

It has been stated that in his earlier years Döllinger was a pronounced
Ultramontane. This does not appear to have been altogether the case;
for, very early in his professorial career at Munich, the Jesuits
attacked his teaching of ecclesiastical history, and the celebrated J.
A. Möhler (q.v.) who afterwards became his friend, on being appealed to,
pronounced on the whole in his favour. He also entered into relations
with the well-known French Liberal Catholic Lamennais, whose views on
the reconciliation of the Roman Catholic Church with the principles of
modern society had aroused much suspicion in Ultramontane circles. In
1832 Lamennais, with his friends Lacordaire and Montalembert, visited
Germany, and obtained considerable sympathy in their attempts to bring
about a modification of the Roman Catholic attitude to modern problems.
Döllinger seems to have regarded favourably the removal, by the Bavarian
government, in 1841, of Professor Kaiser from his chair, because he had
taught the infallibility of the pope. On the other hand, he published a
treatise in 1838 against mixed marriages, and in 1843 wrote strongly in
favour of requiring Protestant soldiers to kneel at the consecration of
the Host when compelled officially to be present at Mass. Moreover, in
his works on _The Reformation_ (3 vols. Regensburg, 1846-1848) and on
_Luther_ (1851, Eng, tr., 1853) he is very severe on the Protestant
leaders, and he also accepts, in his earlier works, the Ultramontane
view then current on the practical condition of the Church of England, a
view which in later days he found reason to change. Meanwhile he had
visited England, where he was well received; and he afterwards travelled
in Holland, Belgium and France, acquainting himself with the condition
and prospects of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1842 he entered into
correspondence with the leaders of the Tractarian movement in England,
and some interesting letters have been preserved which were exchanged
between him and Pusey, Gladstone and Hope Scott. When the last-named
joined the Church of Rome he was warmly congratulated by Döllinger on
the step he had taken. He, however, much regretted the gradual and very
natural trend of his new English allies towards extreme Ultramontane
views, of which Archdeacon, afterwards Cardinal, Manning ultimately
became an enthusiastic advocate. In 1845 Döllinger was made
representative of his university in the second chamber of the Bavarian
legislature. In 1847, in consequence of the fall from power of the Abel
ministry in Bavaria, with which he had been in close relations, he was
removed from his professorship at Munich, but in 1849 he was invited to
occupy the chair of ecclesiastical history. In 1848, when nearly every
throne in Europe was shaken by the spread of revolutionary sentiments,
he was elected delegate to the national German assembly at Frankfort,--a
sufficient proof that at this time he was regarded as no mere narrow and
technical theologian, but as a man of wide and independent views.

It has been said that his change of relations to the Papacy dated from
the Italian war in 1859, but no sufficient reason has been given for
this statement. It is more probable that, like Grosseteste, he had
imbibed in early youth an enthusiastic sentiment of attachment to the
Papacy as the only centre of authority, and the only guarantee for
public order in the Church, but that his experience of the actual
working of the papal system (and especially a visit to Rome in 1857) had
to a certain extent convinced him how little correspondence there was
between his ideal and the reality. He may also have been unfavourably
impressed with the promulgation by Pius IX. in 1854 of the dogma of the
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. But whatever may have been
his reasons, he ultimately became the leader of those who were
energetically opposed to any addition to, or more stringent definition
of, the powers which the Papacy had possessed for centuries. In some
speeches delivered at Munich in 1861 he outspokenly declared his view
that the maintenance of the Roman Catholic Church did not depend on the
temporal sovereignty of the pope. His book on _The Church and the
Churches_ (Munich, 1861) dealt to a certain extent with the same
question. In 1863 he invited 100 theologians to meet at Malines and
discuss the question which Lamennais and Lacordaire had prematurely
raised in France, namely, the attitude that should be assumed by the
Roman Catholic Church towards modern ideas. His address to the assembled
divines was "practically a declaration of war against the Ultramontane
party." He had spoken boldly in favour of freedom for the Church in the
Frankfort national assembly in 1848, but he had found the authorities of
his Church claiming a freedom of a very different kind from that for
which he had contended. The freedom he claimed for the Church was
freedom to manage her affairs without the interference of the state; the
champions of the papal monarchy, and notably the Jesuits, desired
freedom in order to put a stop to the dissemination of modern ideas. The
addresses delivered in the Catholic congress at Malines were a
declaration in the direction of a Liberal solution of the problem of the
relations of Church and State. The pope for a moment seemed to hesitate,
but there could be little doubt what course he would ultimately pursue,
and after four days' debate the assembly was closed at his command. On
the 8th of December 1864 Pius IX. issued the famous _Syllabus_, in
which he declared war against modern science and progress (see
SYLLABUS). It was in connexion with this question that Döllinger
published his _Past and Present of Catholic Theology_ (1863) and his
_Universities Past and Present_ (Munich, 1867).

We now approach the critical period of Döllinger's life. It was about
this time that some of the leading theologians of the Roman Catholic
Church, conceiving that the best way of meeting present perils was to
emphasize, as well as to define more clearly, the authority of the pope,
advised him to make his personal infallibility a dogma of the Church,
and urged strenuously on him the necessity of calling a council for that
purpose. There was considerable opposition in various quarters. Many
bishops and divines considered the proposed definition a false one.
Others, though accepting it as the truth, declared its promulgation to
be inopportune. But the headquarters of the opposition was Germany, and
its leader was Döllinger, whose high reputation and vast stores of
learning placed him far above any other member of the band of the
theological experts who now gathered around him. Among them were his
intimate friends Johann Friedrich (q.v.) and J. N. Huber, in Bavaria. In
the rest of Germany he found many supporters, chiefly professors in the
Catholic faculty of theology at Bonn: among these were the famous
canonist von Schulte, Franz Heinrich Reusch, the ecclesiastical
historian Joseph Langen, as well as J. H. Reinkens, afterwards bishop of
the Old Catholic Church in Germany, Knoodt, and other distinguished
scholars. In Switzerland, Professor Edward Herzog, who became Old (or,
as it is sometimes called, Christ-) Catholic bishop in Switzerland, and
other learned men supported the movement. Early in 1869 the famous
_Letters of Janus_ (which were at once translated into English; 2nd ed.
_Das Papsttum_, 1891) began to appear. They were written by Döllinger in
conjunction with Huber and Friedrich, afterwards professor at Munich. In
these the tendency of the _Syllabus_ towards obscurantism and papal
despotism, and its incompatibility with modern thought, were clearly
pointed out; and the evidence against papal infallibility, resting, as
the _Letters_ asserted, on the False Decretals, and accepted without
controversy in an age of ignorance, was ably marshalled for the guidance
of the council. When, on the 8th of December 1869, it had actually
assembled, the world was kept informed of what was going on in the
_Letters of Quirinus_, written by Döllinger and Huber while the debates
of the council were proceeding. Some of these letters appeared in the
German newspapers, and an English translation was published by
Rivington. Augustin Theiner, the librarian at the Vatican, then in
disgrace with the pope for his outspoken Liberalism, kept his German
friends well informed of the course of the discussions. The proceedings
of the council were frequently very stormy, and the opponents of the
dogma of infallibility complained that they were not unfrequently
interrupted, and that endeavours were made to put them down by clamour.
The dogma was at length carried by an overwhelming majority, and the
dissentient bishops, who--with the exception of two--had left the
council before the final division, one by one submitted (see VATICAN
COUNCIL). Döllinger, however, was not to be silenced. He headed a
protest by forty-four professors in the university of Munich, and
gathered together a congress at Nuremberg, which met in August 1870 and
issued a declaration adverse to the Vatican decrees. An immense ferment
took place. In Bavaria, where Döllinger's influence was greatest, the
strongest determination to resist the resolutions of the council
prevailed. But the authority of the council was held by the archbishop
of Munich to be paramount, and he called upon Döllinger to submit.
Instead of submitting, Döllinger, on the 28th of March 1871, addressed a
memorable letter to the archbishop, refusing to subscribe the decrees.
They were, he said, opposed to Holy Scripture, to the traditions of the
Church for the first 1000 years, to historical evidence, to the decrees
of the general councils, and to the existing relations of the Roman
Catholic Church to the state in every country in the world. "As a
Christian, as a theologian, as an historian, and as a citizen," he
added, "I cannot accept this doctrine."

The archbishop replied by excommunicating the disobedient professor.
This aroused fresh opposition. Döllinger was almost unanimously elected
rector-magnificus of the university of Munich, and Oxford, Edinburgh and
Marburg universities conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor of
laws and Vienna that of philosophy. The Bavarian clergy invited Bishop
Loos of the Jansenist Church in Holland, which for more than 150 years
had existed independent of the Papacy and had adopted the name of "Old
Catholic," to hold confirmations in Bavaria. The offer was accepted, and
the bishop was received with triumphal arches and other demonstrations
of joy. The three Dutch Old Catholic bishops declared themselves ready
to consecrate a bishop, if it were desired. The momentous question was
discussed at a meeting of the opponents of the Vatican decrees, and it
was resolved to elect a bishop and ask the Dutch bishops to consecrate
him. Döllinger, however, voted against the proposition, and withdrew
from any further steps towards the promotion of the movement. This was
the critical moment in the history of the resistance to the decrees. Had
Döllinger, with his immense reputation as a scholar, as a divine and as
a man, allowed himself to be consecrated bishop of the Old Catholic
Church, it is impossible to say how wide the schism would have been. But
he declined to initiate a schism. His refusal lost Bavaria to the
movement; and the number of Bavarian sympathizers was still further
reduced when the seceders, in 1878, allowed their priests to marry, a
decision which Döllinger, as was known, sincerely regretted. The Old
Catholic Communion, however, was formally constituted, with Reinkens at
its head as bishop, and it still continues to exist (see OLD CATHOLICS).

Döllinger's attitude to the new community was not very clearly defined.
It may be difficult to reconcile the two declarations made by him at
different times: "I do not wish to join a schismatic society; I am
isolated," and "As for myself, I consider that I belong by conviction to
the Old Catholic community." The latter declaration was made some years
after the former, in a letter to Pastor Widmann. The nearest approach to
a reconciliation of the two statements would appear to be that while, at
his advanced age, he did not wish to assume the responsibility of being
head of a new denomination, formed in circumstances of exceptional
difficulty, he was unwilling to condemn those who were ready to hazard
the new departure. "By conviction" he belonged to the Old Catholics, but
he never formally joined them. Yet at least he was ready to meet their
leaders, to address them, and to discuss difficult problems with them.
His addresses on the reunion of the Churches, delivered at the Bonn
Conference of 1872, show that he was by no means hostile to the newly
formed communion, in whose interests these conferences were held. In
1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at
Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and
from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth
of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of
Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and
Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg. At the latter of these two
conferences, when Döllinger was seventy-six years of age, he delivered a
series of marvellous addresses in German and English, in which he
discussed the state of theology on the continent, the reunion question,
and the religious condition of the various countries of Europe in which
the Roman Catholic Church held sway. Not the least of his achievements
on this occasion was the successful attempt, made with extraordinary
tact, ability, knowledge and perseverance, to induce the Orientals,
Anglicans and Old Catholics present to accept a formula of concord,
drawn from the writings of the leading theologians of the Greek Church,
on the long-vexed question of the Procession of the Holy Spirit. This
result having been attained, he passed the rest of his days in
retirement, emerging sometimes from his retreat to give addresses on
theological questions, and also writing, in conjunction with his friend
Reusch, his last book, _Geschichte der Moralstreitigkeiten in der
römisch-katholischen Kirche seit dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert mit
Beiträgen zur Geschichte und Charakteristik des Jesuitenordens_
(Nordlingen, 1889), in which he deals with the moral theology of St
Alfonso de' Liguori. He died in Munich, on the 14th of January 1890, at
the age of ninety-one. Even _in articulo mortis_ he refused to receive
the sacraments from the parish priest at the cost of submission, but the
last offices were performed by his friend Professor Friedrich.

  In addition to the works referred to in the foregoing sketch, we may
  mention _The Eucharist in the First Three Centuries_ (Mainz, 1826); a
  _Church History_ (1836, Eng. trans. 1840); _Hippolytus and Callistus_
  (1854, Eng. trans., 1876); _First Age of Christianity_ (1860);
  _Lectures on the Reunion of the Churches_; _The Vatican Decrees;
  Studies in European History_ (tr. M. Warre, 1890); _Miscellaneous
  Addresses_ (tr. M. Warre, 1894).

  See _Life_ by J. Friedrich (3 vols. 1899-1901); obituary notice in
  _The Times_, 11th January 1890; L. von Kobell, _Conversations of Dr
  Döllinger_ (tr. by K. Gould, 1892).     (J. J. L.*)



DOLLOND, JOHN (1706-1761), English optician, was the son of a Huguenot
refugee, a silk-weaver at Spitalfields, London, where he was born on the
10th of June 1706. He followed his father's trade, but found time to
acquire a knowledge of Latin, Greek, mathematics, physics, anatomy and
other subjects. In 1752 he abandoned silk-weaving and joined his eldest
son, Peter Dollond (1730-1820), who in 1750 had started in business as a
maker of optical instruments. His reputation grew rapidly, and in 1761
he was appointed optician to the king. In 1758 he published an "Account
of some experiments concerning the different refrangibility of light"
(_Phil. Trans._, 1758), describing the experiments that led him to the
achievement with which his name is specially associated, the discovery
of a means of constructing achromatic lenses by the combination of crown
and flint glasses. Leonhard Euler in 1747 had suggested that achromatism
might be obtained by the combination of glass and water lenses. Relying
on statements made by Sir Isaac Newton, Dollond disputed this
possibility (_Phil. Trans._, 1753), but subsequently, after the Swedish
physicist, Samuel Klingenstjerna (1698-1765), had pointed out that
Newton's law of dispersion did not harmonize with certain observed
facts, he began experiments to settle the question. Early in 1757 he
succeeded in producing refraction without colour by the aid of glass and
water lenses, and a few months later he made a successful attempt to get
the same result by a combination of glasses of different qualities (see
TELESCOPE). For this achievement the Royal Society awarded him the
Copley medal in 1758, and three years later elected him one of its
fellows. Dollond also published two papers on apparatus for measuring
small angles (_Phil. Trans._, 1753, 1754). He died in London, of
apoplexy, on the 30th of November 1761.

  An account of his life, privately printed, was written by the Rev.
  John Kelly (1750-1809), the Manx scholar, who married one of his
  granddaughters.



DOLMAN (from Turk. _d[=o]l[=a]m[=a]n_), originally a long and loose
garment left unfastened in front, and with narrow sleeves. It is worn
generally by the Turks, and is not unlike a cassock in shape. The name
was given to the uniform jacket, worn by hussars, and slung from the
shoulders with the sleeves hanging loose; and it is also used for a
similar garment worn by ladies, with wide cape-like arrangements instead
of sleeves.



DOLNJA TUZLA, or DONJI SOLI, the capital of the Dolnja Tuzla district,
in Bosnia, beautifully situated on the Jala or Julla, a small stream
flowing into the Spreca, which joins the Bosna at Doboj, 39 m. W.N.W.;
and on a branch railway from Doboj. Pop. (1895) 10,227; almost all,
including a permanent colony of gipsies, being Moslems. Dolnja Tuzla is
the seat of a district court and an Orthodox bishop; with several
churches, many mosques, a hospital, gymnasium and commercial school.
Besides large alkali works, it has a vigorous trade in grain, livestock,
timber and coal, from the surrounding hills, where there is a colony of
Hungarian miners; while the salt springs, owned by the state both at
Dolnja, or Lower, and Gornja, or Upper Tuzla, 6 m. E., are without a
rival in the Balkan Peninsula.

Dolnja Tuzla was called by the Romans _Ad Salinas_. Constantine
Porphyrogenitus mentions it, in the 10th century, as _Salenes_; in other
medieval documents it appears as _Sou_, _Sow_ or _Soli_. Its modern name
is derived from the Turkish _tuz_, "salt." In 1690 the Austrians routed
the Turks at Gornja Tuzla, and removed the Franciscan friars, with about
3000 other Roman Catholics, into Slavonia.



DOLOMIEU, DÉODAT GUY SILVAIN TANCRÈDE GRATET DE (1750-1801), French
geologist and mineralogist, was born at Dolomieu, near Tour-du-Pin, in
the department of Isère in France, on the 24th of June 1750. He was
admitted in his infancy a member of the Order of Malta. In his
nineteenth year he quarrelled with a knight of the galley on which he
was serving, and in the duel that ensued killed him. He was condemned to
death for his crime, but in consideration of his youth the grand master
granted him a pardon, which, at the instance of Cardinal Torrigiani, was
confirmed by Pope Clement XIII., and after nine months' imprisonment he
was set at liberty. Throughout that period he had solaced himself with
the study of the physical sciences, and during his subsequent residence
at Metz he continued to devote himself to them. In 1775 he published his
_Recherches sur la pesanteur des corps à differentes distances du centre
de la terre_, and two Italian translations of mineralogical treatises by
A. F. Cronstedt (1702-1765) and T. O. Bergman (1735-1784). These works
gained for him the honour of election as a corresponding member of the
Académie des Sciences at Paris. To obtain leisure to follow his
favourite pursuits Dolomieu now threw up the commission which, since the
age of fifteen, he had held in the carabineers, and in 1777 he
accompanied the _bailli_ (afterwards Cardinal L. R. E.) de Rohan to
Portugal. In the following year he visited Spain, and in 1780 and 1781
Sicily and the adjacent islands. Two months of the year 1782 were spent
in examining the geological structure of the Pyrenees, and in 1783 the
earthquake of Calabria induced him to go to Italy. The scientific
results of these excursions are given in his _Voyage aux îles de Lipari_
(1783); _Mémoire sur le tremblement de terre de la Calabre_ (1784);
_Mémoire sur les îles Ponces, et catalogue raisonné des produits de
l'Etna_ (1788) and other works. In 1789 and 1790 he busied himself with
an examination of the Alps, his observations on which form the subject
of numerous memoirs published in the _Journal de physique_. The mineral
_dolomite_, which was named after him, was described by Dolomieu in
1791. He returned to France in that year, bringing with him rich
collections of minerals. On the 14th of September 1792 the duc de la
Rochefoucauld, with whom he had been for twenty years on terms of the
closest intimacy, was assassinated at Forges, and Dolomieu retired with
the widow and daughter of the duke to their estate of Roche Guyon, where
he wrote several important scientific papers. The events of the 9th
Thermidor (July 27, 1794) having restored the country to some
tranquillity, Dolomieu recommenced his geological tours, and visited
various parts of France with which he had been previously unacquainted.
He was in 1796 appointed engineer and professor at the school of mines,
and was chosen a member of the Institute at the time of its formation.
At the end of 1797 he joined the scientific staff which in 1798
accompanied Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt. He had proceeded up the
Nile as far as Cairo when ill-health made his return to Europe
necessary, and on the 7th of March 1799 he set sail from Alexandria. His
ship proving unseaworthy put into Taranto, and as Naples was then at war
with France, all the French passengers were made prisoners. On the 22nd
of May they were carried by ship to Messina, whence, with the exception
of Dolomieu, they embarked for the coast of France. Dolomieu had been an
object of the hatred of the Neapolitan court since 1783, when he
revealed to the grand master of his order its designs against Malta, and
the calumnies of his enemies on that island served now as a pretext for
his detention. He was confined in a pestilential dungeon, where, clothed
in rags, and having nothing but a little straw for a bed, he languished
during twenty-one months. Dolomieu, however, did not abandon himself to
despair. Deprived of writing materials, he made a piece of wood his pen,
and with the smoke of his lamp for ink he wrote upon the margins of a
Bible, the only book he still possessed, his treatise _Sur la
philosophie minéralogique et sur l'espèce minérale_ (1801). Friends
entreated, but in vain, for his liberty; it was with difficulty that
they succeeded in furnishing him with a little assistance, and it was
only by virtue of a special clause in the treaty between France and
Naples that, on the 15th of March 1801, he was released. On his arrival
in France he commenced the duties of the chair of mineralogy at the
museum of natural history, to which, after the death of Daubenton, he
had been elected in January 1800. His course of lectures concluded, he
revisited Switzerland. Returning thence he reached the residence of his
brother-in-law at Château-Neuf, in the department of Saône-et-Loire,
where he was seized with a fever, to which in a few days he succumbed,
on the 26th of November 1801.

Dolomieu's geological theories are remarkable for originality and
boldness of conception. The materials constituting the primordial globe
he held to have arranged themselves according to their specific
gravities, so as to have constituted a fluid central sphere, a solid
crust external to this, next a stratum of water, and lastly the
atmosphere. Where water penetrated through the crust, solidification
took place in the underlying fluid mass, which enlarging in consequence
produced rifts in the superincumbent rocks. Water rushing down through
the rifts became decomposed, and the resulting effervescence occasioned
submarine volcanoes. The crust of the earth he believed to be
continually increasing in thickness, owing to the deposition of aqueous
rocks, and to the gradual solidification of the molten interior, so that
the volcanic eruptions and other geological phenomena of former must
have been of far greater magnitude and frequency than those of recent
times.

  See Lacépède, "Éloge historique de Dolomieu," in _Mémoires de la
  classe des sciences de l'Institut_ (1806); Thomson, in _Annals of
  Philosophy_, vol. xii. p. 161 (1808).



DOLOMITE, a mineral species consisting of calcium and magnesium
carbonate, CaMg(CO3)2, and occurring as rhombohedral crystals or large
rock-masses. Analyses of most well-crystallized specimens correspond
closely with the above formula, the two carbonates being present in
equal molecular proportions (CaCO3, 54.35; MgCO3, 45.65%). Normal
dolomite is thus not an isomorphous mixture of calcium and magnesium
carbonates, but a double salt; and any variations in composition are to
be explained by the isomorphous mixing of this double salt with
carbonates of calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and rarely of zinc
and cobalt.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

In crystalline form dolomite is very similar to calcite, belonging to
the same group of rhombohedral carbonates; the primitive rhombohedron,
_r_ (100), parallel to the faces of which there are perfect cleavages,
has interfacial angles of 73° 45', the angle of the cleavage
rhombohedron of calcite being 74° 55'. A specially characteristic
feature is that this rhombohedron is frequently the only form present on
the crystals (in calcite it is rare except in combination with other
forms); the faces are also usually curved (fig. 1), sometimes to an
extraordinary degree giving rise to saddle-shaped crystals (fig. 2).
Crystals with plane faces are usually twinned, there being an
interpenetration of two rhombohedra with the vertical axes parallel. The
secondary twin-lamination, parallel to the obtuse rhombohedron _e_
(110), so common in calcite, does not exist in dolomite. In the degree
of symmetry possessed by the crystals there is, however, an important
difference between calcite and dolomite; the former has the full number
of planes and axes of symmetry of a rhombohedral crystal, whilst the
latter is hemihedral with parallel faces, having only an axis of triad
symmetry and a centre of symmetry. This lower degree of symmetry, which
is the same as that of dioptase and phenacite, is occasionally shown by
the presence of an obliquely placed rhombohedron, and also by the want
of symmetry in the etching and elasticity figures on the faces of the
primitive rhombohedron.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Dolomite is both harder (H. = 3½-4) and denser (sp. gr. 2.85) than
calcite. The two minerals may also be readily distinguished by the fact
that dolomite is not acted upon by cold, dilute acids (see below,
_Dolomite Rock_). Crystals of dolomite vary from transparent to
translucent, and often exhibit a pearly lustre, especially when the
faces are curved; the colour is usually white or yellowish.

The crystallized mineral was first examined chemically by P. Woulfe in
1779, and was named compound-spar by R. Kirwan in 1784; other early
names are bitter-spar, rhomb-spar and pearl-spar (but these included
other rhombohedral carbonates). The name dolomite (_dolomie_ of N. T. de
Saussure, 1792) is in honour of the French geologist, D. G. Dolomieu,
who in 1791 noted that certain Tyrolese calcareous rocks and Italian
marbles effervesce only slightly in contact with acid; this name was for
many years applied to the rock only, but was later extended to the
crystallized mineral, first in the form dolomite-spar.

In the white crystalline dolomite-rock of the Binnenthal near Brieg in
Switzerland beautiful water-clear crystals of dolomite are found; and
crystallized masses occur embedded in serpentine, talc-schist and other
magnesian silicate rocks. The best crystallized specimens are, however,
usually found in metalliferous deposits; for example, in the iron mines
of Traversella near Ivrea in Piedmont (as large twinned rhombohedra) and
Cleator Moor in Cumberland; in the deposits of lead and zinc ores at
Alston in Cumberland, Laxey in the Isle of Man, Joplin in Missouri; and
in the silver veins of Schemnitz in Hungary and Guanajuato in Mexico.

Several varieties of dolomite have been distinguished, depending on
differences in structure and chemical composition. Miemite is a
crystallized or columnar variety, of a pale asparagus-green colour, from
Miemo near Volterra in Tuscany; taraspite is a similar variety from
Tarasp in Switzerland. Gurhofite, from Gurhof near Aggsbach in Lower
Austria, is snow-white, compact and porcellanous. Brossite, from the
Brosso valley near Ivrea in Piedmont, and tharandite, from Tharand in
Saxony, are crystallized varieties containing iron. Closely related is
the species ankerite (q.v.).     (L. J. S.)

_Dolomite Rock._--The rock dolomite, also known as dolomitic or
magnesian limestone, consists principally of the mineral of the same
name, but often contains admixture of other substances, such as calcite,
quartz, carbonate and oxides of iron, argillaceous material, and chert
or chalcedony. Dolomites when very pure and well crystallized may be
snowy white (e.g. some examples from the eastern Alps), but are commonly
yellow, creamy, brownish or grey from the presence of impurities. They
tend to be crystalline, though on a fine scale, and appear under the
microscope composed of small sharply angular rhombohedra, with a perfect
cleavage and very strong double refraction. They can be often recognized
by this, but are most certainly distinguished from similar limestones or
marbles by tests with weak acid. Dolomite dissolves only very slowly in
dilute hydrochloric acid in the cold, but readily when the acid is
warmed; limestones are freely attacked by the acid in either state.
Magnesian limestones, which contain both dolomite and calcite, may be
etched by exposing polished surfaces for a brief time to cold weak acid;
the calcite is removed, leaving small pits or depressions. The
distribution of the calcite may be rendered more clear by using ferric
chloride solution. This is decomposed, leaving a yellow stain of ferric
hydrate where the calcite occurred. Alternatively, a solution of
aluminium chloride will serve; this precipitates gelantinous alumina on
contact with calcite and the film can be stained with aniline dyes
(Lemberg's solution). The dolomite is not affected by these processes.

Dolomites of compact structure have a higher specific gravity than
limestones, but they very often have a cavernous or drusy character, the
walls of the hollows being lined with small crystals of dolomite with a
pearly lustre and rounded faces. They are also slightly harder, and for
these and other reasons they last better as building stones and wear
better when used for paving or road-mending. Dolomites are rarely
fossiliferous, as the process of dolomitization tends to destroy any
organic remains originally present. As compared with limestones they are
less frequently well bedded, but there are exceptions to this rule. Many
dolomites, particularly those of the north of England, show a very
remarkable concretionary structure. The beds look as if made up of
rounded balls of all sizes from a foot or two in diameter downwards.
Often they are stuck together like piles of shot or bunches of grapes.
They are composed of fibrous radiate calcite crystals, which by some
kind of concretionary action have segregated from the dolomitic material
and grouped themselves together in this way. Other concretions from
these beds resemble bunches of corals, tufts of plants, or present
various strange imitative forms.

Dolomite, unlike calcite, is not secreted by marine animals to build up
the hard parts of their skeletons, and it is generally agreed also that
dolomite is only very rarely and under exceptional conditions deposited
directly from solution in water. On the other hand, there is much
evidence to show that limestones may absorb or be partly replaced by
magnesium carbonate, and the double salt dolomite substituted for
calcite by one of those processes which are described as "metasomatic."
Thus the Carboniferous limestones of various parts of Britain pass into
dolomites along lines of joint, fissure or fault, or occasionally along
certain bedding planes. At the same time the rock becomes crystalline,
its minute structure is altered, its fossils are effaced, and as
dolomite has a higher specific gravity than limestone, contraction
results and cavities are formed. The prevalence of crystalline,
concretionary and drusy structures in dolomite can thus be simply
explained. The process may actually be studied in many "magnesian
limestones," in which by means of the microscope we may trace the
gradual growth of dolomite crystals taking place simultaneously with the
destruction of the original features of the limestone. Recent
investigations in coral reefs show that these changes are going on at
the present day at no considerable depths and in rocks which have not
long consolidated.

All this goes to prove that the double carbonate of calcium and
magnesium is under certain conditions a more stable salt than either of
the simple carbonates, and that these conditions recur in nature with
considerable frequency. Experiments have proved that at moderately high
temperatures (100° to 200° C.) solutions of magnesium salts will convert
calcite into dolomite in the laboratory, and that aragonite is even more
readily affected than calcite. The analogy with dolomitization of
limestones is strong but not complete, as the latter process must take
place at ordinary temperatures and approximately under atmospheric
pressures. No completely satisfactory explanation of the change, from
the standpoint of the geologist, has as yet been advanced, though much
light has been thrown upon the problem. Many limestones are rich in
aragonite, but this in course of time tends to recrystallize as calcite.
Magnesium salts are abundant in sea-water, and in the waters of
evaporating enclosed coral lagoons and of many bitter lakes. Calcite is
more soluble than dolomite in water saturated with carbonic acid and
would tend to be slowly removed from a limestone, while the dolomite
increased in relative proportion. Dolomite also being denser than
calcite may be supposed to replace it more readily when pressure is
increased. These and many other factors probably co-operate to effect
the transmutation of limestones into dolomites.

Examples of dolomitization may be obtained in practically every
geological formation in which limestones occur. The oldest rocks are
most generally affected, e.g. the Cambrian limestones of Scotland, but
the change occurs, as has already been stated, even in the upraised
coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific oceans which are very recent
formations. It is very interesting to note that dolomites are very
frequent among rocks which indicate that desert or salt-lake conditions
prevailed at the time of their deposit. The dolomite or magnesian
limestone of the English Permian is an instance of this. The explanation
may be found in the fact that the waters of bitter lakes are usually
rich in magnesium salts which, percolating through beds of limestone,
would convert them into dolomite. Among the most famous dolomites are
those of the Dolomite Alps of Tirol. They are of Triassic age and yield
remarkably picturesque mountain scenery; it is believed that some were
originally coral reefs; they are now highly crystalline and often
contain interesting minerals and ores. The galena limestone of the
North American Trenton rocks is mostly a dolomite.

Dolomites furnish excellent building stones, and those of the north-east
of England (Mansfield stone, &c.) have long been regarded with great
favour on account of their resistance to decomposition. They vary a good
deal in quality, and have not all proved equally satisfactory in
practice. Part of the Houses of Parliament at Westminster is built of
dolomite.     (J. S. F.)



DOLOMITES, THE, a mountain district in the South Tirolese Alps, though
sometimes it is erroneously considered to form part of some other chain
than the Alps. The distinguishing feature of this district is that it is
composed of magnesian limestone, which rises in peaks of a most singular
degree of sharpness and streaked by veins of the most startling colours.
Nowadays it has become well known to tourists, who, however, keep mainly
to a few great centres, though most of the more striking peaks were
first ascended in the late sixties and early seventies of the 19th
century by English mountaineers. Roughly speaking the Dolomite region
lies between the Brenner railway from Franzensfeste to Trent (W.) and
the road over the Monte Croce Pass from Innichen in the Drave valley by
way of the Sexten glen and the Piave valley to Belluno and Feltre (E.).
On the north it is limited by the railway line from Innichen to
Franzensfeste, and on the south by the railway and road from Trent to
Feltre. The highest summit is the Marmolata (10,972 ft.), but far more
typical are the Sorapiss, the Cimon della Pala, the Langkofel, the
Pelmo, the Drei Zinnen, the Sass Maor and the Rosengarten (see ALPS).
Among the chief tourist resorts are St Ulrich (in the Gröden valley),
San Martino di Castrozza (near Primiero), Caprile and Cortina d'Ampezzo.

Besides the Dolomites included in the above region there are several
other Dolomite groups (though less extensive) in the Alps. N.W. of Trent
rises the Tosa group, while in Switzerland there are the Piz d'Aela
group, S.W. of Bergün on the Albula Pass route, and the curious little
group N. of the village of Splügen, besides other isolated peaks between
the St Gotthard and Lukmanier Passes. In Dauphiné itself (the home of
the geologist Dolomieu) the mountain districts of the Royannais, of the
Vercors, and of the Dévoluy (all S.W. of Grenoble) are more or less
Dolomitic in character.

  See J. Gilbert and G. C. Churchill, _The Dolomite Mountains_ (London,
  1864); Miss L. Tuckett, _Zigzagging among Dolomites_ (London, 1871);
  P. Grohmann, _Wanderungen in den Dolomiten_ (Vienna, 1877); L.
  Sinigaglia, _Climbing Reminiscences of the Dolomites_ (London, 1896);
  _The Climbs of Norman-Neruda_ (London, 1899); V. Wolf von Glanvell,
  _Dolomitenfuhrer_ (Vienna, 1898); J. Ball, _Western Alps_ (new ed.,
  London, 1898, section 9, Rte. P. French Dolomites).     (W. A. B. C.)



DOLPHIN, a name properly belonging to the common cetacean mammal known
as _Delphinus delphis_, but also applied to a number of more or less
nearly allied species. The dolphins, bottle-noses, or, as they are more
commonly called, "porpoises," are found in abundance in all seas, while
some species are inhabitants of large rivers, as the Amazon. They are
among the smaller members of the cetacean order, none exceeding 10 ft.
in length. Their food is chiefly fish, for the capture of which their
long narrow beaks, armed with numerous sharp-pointed teeth, are well
adapted, but some also devour crustaceans and molluscs. They are mostly
gregarious, and the agility and grace of their movements in the water
are themes of admiration to the spectators when a "school of porpoises"
is playing round the bows of a vessel at sea.

[Illustration: The Common Dolphin (_Delphinus delphis_).]

The type of the group is the common dolphin (_D. delphis_) of the
Mediterranean and Atlantic, which usually measures 6 to 8 ft. in length,
and is thickest near the centre, where the back fin rises to a height
of 9 or 10 in., and whence the body tapers towards both extremities. The
forehead descends abruptly to the base of the slightly flattened beak,
which is about 6 in. long, and is separated from the forehead by a
transverse depression. The mouth is armed with sharp, slightly curved
teeth, of uniform size, varying in number from forty to fifty on each
side of both jaws. The aperture of the ear is exceedingly minute; the
eyes are of moderate size and the blow-hole is crescent-shaped. The
colour of the upper surface is black, becoming lighter on the flanks,
and perfectly white below. Dolphins are gregarious, and large herds
often follow ships. They exhibit remarkable agility, individuals having
been known to leap to such a height out of the water as to fall upon the
deck. Their gambols and apparent relish for human society have attracted
the attention of mariners in all ages, and have probably given rise to
the many fabulous stories told of dolphins. Their appearance at sea was
regarded as a good omen, for although it presaged a tempest, yet it
enabled the sailors to steer for a place of safety. The dolphin is
exceedingly voracious, feeding on fish, cuttlefishes and crustaceans. On
the south coast of England it lives chiefly on pilchard and mackerel,
and when in pursuit of these is often taken in the nets. The female
brings forth a single young one, which she nurses most carefully. Her
milk is abundant and rich, and during the operation of suckling, the
mother floats in a slightly sidelong position, so as to allow of the
necessary respiration in herself and her young. The dolphin was formerly
supposed to be a fish, and allowed to be eaten by Roman Catholics when
the use of flesh was prohibited, and it seems to have been esteemed as a
delicacy by the French. Among the seafaring population of Britain the
name "dolphin" is most usually given to the beautifully coloured fish
_Coryphaena hippuris_--the dorado of the Portuguese, and it is to the
latter the poet is alluding when he speaks of "the dying dolphin's
changing hues."

Many other allied genera, such as _Prodelphinus_, _Steno_,
_Lagenorhynchus_, &c., are also included in the family _Delphinidae_,
some of which live wholly in rivers.

Beside these there is another group of largely freshwater species,
constituting the family _Platanistidae_, and typified by the susu
(_Platanista gangetica_), extensively distributed throughout nearly the
whole of the river-systems of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus,
ascending as high as there is water enough to swim in, but never passing
out to sea. It is about 8 ft. long, blind and feeds on small fish and
crustaceans for which it gropes with its long snout in the muddy waters
at the bottom. _Inia geoffroyensis_, the single species of its genus,
frequents the Amazon, and reaches an extreme length of 8 ft. It is
wholly pink or flesh-coloured, or entirely black, or black above and
pink beneath. A third is the La Plata dolphin, _Stenodelphis
blainvillei_, a species about 5 ft. in length. Its colour is palish
brown, which harmonizes with the brown-coloured water of the estuary of
the Rio de la Plata. See CETACEA.     (R. L.*)



DOMAT, or DAUMAT, JEAN (1625-1696), French jurisconsult, was born at
Clermont in Auvergne, on the 30th of November 1625. He was closely in
sympathy with the Port-Royalists, was intimate with Pascal, and at the
death of that celebrated philosopher was entrusted with his private
papers. He is principally known from his elaborate legal digest, in
three volumes 4to, under the title of _Lois civiles dans leur ordre
naturel_ (1689),--an undertaking for which Louis XIV. settled on him a
pension of 2000 livres. A fourth volume, _Le Droit public_, was
published in 1697, a year after his death. This is one of the most
important works on the science of law that France has produced. Domat
endeavoured to found all law upon ethical or religious principles, his
motto being _L'homme est fait par Dieu et pour Dieu_. Besides the _Lois
Civiles_, Domat made in Latin a selection of the most common laws in the
collections of Justinian, under the title of _Legum delectus_ (Paris,
1700; Amsterdam, 1703); it was subsequently appended to the _Lois
civiles_. His works have been translated into English. Domat died in
Paris on the 14th of March 1696.

  In the _Journal des savants_ for 1843 are several papers on Domat by
  Victor Cousin, giving much information not otherwise accessible.



DOMBES, a district of eastern France, formerly part of the province of
Burgundy, now comprised in the department of Ain, and bounded W. by the
Saône, S. by the Rhone, E. by the Ain and N. by the district of Bresse.
The region forms an undulating plateau with a slight slope towards the
north-west, the higher ground bordering the Ain and the Rhone attaining
an average height of about 1000 ft. The Dombes is characterized by an
impervious surface consisting of boulder clay and other relics of
glacial action. To this fact is due the large number of rain-water
pools, varying for the most part from 35 to 250 acres in size which
cover some 23,000 acres of its total area of 282,000 acres. These pools,
artificially created, date in many cases from the 15th century, some to
earlier periods, and were formed by landed proprietors who in those
disturbed times saw a surer source of revenue in fish-breeding than in
agriculture. Disease and depopulation resulted from this policy and at
the end of the 18th century the Legislative Assembly decided to reduce
the area of the pools which then covered twice their present extent.
Drainage works were continued, roads cut, and other improvements
effected during the 19th century. Large numbers of fish, principally
carp, pike and tench are still reared profitably, the pools being
periodically dried up and the ground cultivated.

The Dombes (Lat. _Dumbae_) once formed part of the kingdom of Arles. In
the 11th century, when the kingdom began to break up, the northern part
of the Dombes came under the power of the lords of Baugé, and in 1218,
by the marriage of Marguerite de Baugé with Humbert IV. of Beaujeu,
passed to the lords of Beaujeu. The southern portion was held in
succession by the lords of Villars and of Thoire. Its lords took
advantage of the excommunication of the emperor Frederick II. to assert
their complete independence of the Empire. In 1400, Louis II., duke of
Bourbon, acquired the northern part of the Dombes, together with the
lordship of Beaujeu, and two years later bought the southern part from
the sires de Thoire, forming the whole into a new sovereign principality
of the Dombes, with Trévoux as its capital. The principality was
confiscated by King Francis I. in 1523, along with the other possessions
of the Constable de Bourbon, was granted in 1527 to the queen-mother,
Louise of Savoy, and after her death was held successively by kings
Francis I., Henry II. and Francis II., and by Catherine de' Medici. In
1561 it was granted to Louis, duke of Bourbon-Montpensier, by whose
descendants it was held till, in 1682, "Mademoiselle," the duchess of
Montpensier, gave it to Louis XIV.'s bastard, the duke of Maine, as part
of the price for the release of her lover Lauzun. The eldest son of the
duke of Maine, Louis Auguste de Bourbon (1700-1755), prince of Dombes,
served in the army of Prince Eugene against the Turks (1717), took part
in the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1734), and in that of the
Austrian Succession (1742-1747). He was made colonel-general of the
Swiss regiment, governor of Languedoc and master of the hounds of
France. He was succeeded, as prince of Dombes, by his brother the count
of Eu (q.v.), who in 1762 surrendered the principality to the crown. The
little principality of Dombes showed in some respects signs of a
vigorous life; the prince's mint and printing works at Trévoux were long
famous, and the college at Thoissey was well endowed and influential.

  See A. M. H. J. Stokvis, _Manuel d'histoire_ (Leiden, 1889);
  Guichenon, _Histoire de Dombes_ (1863, 1872); and various works by M.
  C. Guigue, including _Bibliotheca Dumbensis_ (with Valentin Smith)
  (1856-1885).



DOMBROWSKI, JAN HENRYK (1755-1818), Polish general, was born at
Pierszowice in the palatinate of Cracow, on the 29th of August 1755.
Brought up in Saxony, he served for some years in the Saxon army; but
when, in 1791, the Polish diet recalled all Poles serving abroad, he
returned to his native land. Under Poniatowski, he took part in the
campaign of 1792 against the Russians. In 1794 he distinguished himself
under Kosciusko in the defence of Warsaw. For two years thereafter he
lived in retirement, declining the offers of high ranks in their armies
made to him by Russia and Prussia. He then went to Paris, and in January
1797 was authorized by the government of the Cisalpine Republic to
organize a Polish legion. This task he executed at Milan. In command of
his legion he played an important part in the war in Italy, entered Rome
in May 1798, and distinguished himself greatly at the Trebbia (June 19,
1799), and in other battles and combats of 1799-1801. After the peace of
Amiens he passed, as general of division, into the service of the
Italian republic. Summoned by Napoleon in 1806 to promote a rising in
Poland, he organized several divisions of Poles, and distinguished
himself at Danzig and at Friedland. In 1809 he served in the Polish
campaign and in 1812 he commanded a Polish division in the _Grande
Armée_, being wounded at the passage of the Beresina. He fought under
Marmont at the battle of Leipzig (1813), and in the following year
returned to Poland. He was one of the generals entrusted by the tsar
with the reorganization of the Polish army, and was named in 1815
general of cavalry and senator palatine of the new kingdom of Poland. He
retired, however, in the following year, to his estates in Posen.
General Dombrowski died at his seat of Wina-Gora in Posen on the 26th of
June 1818. He wrote several military historical works in the Polish
language.



DOME (Lat _domus_, house; Ital. _duomo_, cathedral), an architectural
term, derived from a characteristic feature of Italian cathedrals,
correctly applied only to a spherical or spheroidal vault, the
horizontal plan of which is always a circle. It may be supported on a
circular wall, as in the Pantheon at Rome; or on a drum, as in the later
Byzantine churches and generally so in the Renaissance styles; or be
carried over a square or polygonal area, in which case the base of the
dome is connected to the lines of the main wall by pendentives,
squinches, corbels or a series of concentric arches, or two of these
combined. Its section may be semicircular, pointed, ovoid or segmental;
in the latter case it is usually termed a cupola, although the
pendentives which carry it continue, on the diagonal lines, the complete
spherical dome, as in the entrance vestibule on the south side of the
Sanctuary at Jerusalem, attributed to Herod, or in those crowning the
bays of the Golden Gateway by Justinian. The dome may be constructed in
horizontal courses, as in the "beehive" tombs at Mycenae, with joints
radiating to the centre, or a compromise between the two, in a series of
small segments of circles, as in the Temple of Jupiter in Diocletian's
palace at Spalato, or again with the lower portion in horizontal courses
and the upper portion with arches, as in the Pantheon at Rome.

The dome is probably one of the earliest forms of covering invented by
man, but owing probably to its construction in ephemeral materials, such
as the unburnt bricks in Chaldaea, there are no examples existing. But
in a bas-relief (see ARCHITECTURE, fig. 10), brought by Layard from
Kuyunjik, are representations of semicircular and ovoid domes, which
show that the feature was well known in Assyria, and as they build domes
of the same nature down to the present day and without centring of any
kind, it suggests that they may have existed from the remotest ages. The
most ancient examples in Europe are those of the "beehive" tombs at
Mycenae and elsewhere in Greece, ascribed generally to the 11th century
B.C. In a sense, they are not true domes, because they are built in
horizontal courses of stone, which act like the voussoirs of an arch in
resisting the thrust of the earth at the back. This did not exist in the
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates or other circular buildings in Greece,
because their vertical sections were not portions of circles. For this
reason, the conical vault of the Baths in Pompeii is not a dome. The
circular Laconicon in the Baths of Titus (A.D. 72) may have been domed,
and the great hemicycles in the Thermae must certainly have been roofed
with semi-domes.

The earliest Roman domes are those of the great circular halls at Baiae
near Naples, described as temples, but really forming part of the
immense bathing establishments there, the favourite place of resort of
the Romans during the latter part of the Republic. The largest on the
east side of the Lake of Avernus, known as the Temple of Apollo, is a
circular hall with an internal diameter of 100 ft. Those of Diana,
Mercury and Venus at Baiae, were 96, 66 and 60 ft. respectively. The
vaults were all built in tufa with horizontal courses in brick and
cement. Half of the dome of the Temple of Mercury had fallen down,
showing the section to have been nearly that of an equilateral arch.
From the fact that there were pierced openings or windows in all these
domes, they probably constituted the _frigidaria_ of the baths.

The first example still existing in Rome is that of the Pantheon (A.D.
112), where a circular dome, 142 ft. in diameter, rests on a circular
wall, its height being about equal to its diameter. The lower courses of
this dome, built in the Roman brick or tile, were, up to the top of the
third coffer, all laid in horizontal courses; above that, the
construction is not known for certain; externally a series of small
arches is shown, but they rested on a shell already built. The so-called
Temple of Minerva Medica (now recognized as the Nymphaeum of the Baths
of Gallienus, A.D. 366) is the next dated example. The Nymphaeum was
decagonal on plan, so that small pendentives were required to carry the
brick dome.

The domed Laconicon of the Thermae of Diocletian (A.D. 302) still exists
as the vestibule of the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli. Of
Constantine's time there are two small domed examples in the tomb of S.
Costanza and the Baptistery of the Lateran, both in Rome, and one in the
tomb of Galla Placidia at Ravenna (c. A.D. 450). From these we pass to
the Sassanian domes at Serbistan and Firuzabad, of the 4th and 5th
centuries respectively. These were built in brick and rested on square
pendentives. In section they were ovoid. In Syria, the dome over the
octagonal church at Esra, built in stone and dated A.D. 515, is also
ovoid, its height being equal to its diameter, i.e. 28 ft. This, as well
as the Sassanian domes, was built without centring. The next example is
that of the church of Sta Sophia at Constantinople, the finest example
existing, both in its conception and execution. It was built by
Justinian (537-552) from the designs of Anthemius of Tralles and
Isidorus of Miletus. The dome is 104 ft. in diameter, and is carried on
pendentives over a square area. The construction is of brick and stone
in alternate courses, and the lower part of the dome is pierced with
forty windows, which give it an extraordinary lightness. The height from
the pavement of the church to the soffit of the dome is 179 ft. No dome
of similar dimensions was ever again attempted by the Byzantine
architects, and the principal difference in later examples was the
raising of the dome on a circular drum pierced with windows.

In order to lighten the dome erected over the church of San Vitale, at
Ravenna, it was constructed with hollow cylindrical jars, fitted, the
end of one into the mouth of the other; a similar contrivance was
adopted in the tomb of the empress Helena (the Torre Pignatiara), the
vaults of the Circus of Maxentius on the Via Appia, and the outer aisles
of San Stefano, all at Rome, thus dispensing with the buttresses of Sta
Sophia.

The domes of the earlier mosques in Cairo were built on the model of Sta
Sophia, with windows pierced round the base of the dome and external
buttresses between them; these domes were all built in brick coated over
with cement or stucco. At a later date, and when built in stone, the
upper portion was raised in height and terminated with a point on which
a finial was placed. These are the domes inside and outside Cairo, which
are carved with an infinity of geometrical patterns interwoven with
conventional floral decoration. The upper portion of the dome is very
thin, so that there is little weight and comparatively no thrust, and it
is to these facts that we probably owe their preservation.

In India, in the "great mosque" of Jama Masjid (A.D. 1560) and the Gol
Gumbaz, or tomb of Mahommed Adil Shah (A.D. 1630) at Bijapur, the domes
are carried on pendentives consisting of arches crossing one another and
projecting inwards, and their weight counteracts any thrust there may be
in the dome. It is possibly for a similar reason that in the Jama Masjid
of Shah Jahan at Delhi (1632-1638) and the Taj Mahal (A.D. 1630) the
domes assume a bulbous form, the increased thickness of the dome below
the haunches by its weight served as a counterpoise to any thrust the
upper part of the dome might exert. The form is not much to be admired,
and when exaggerated, as it is in the churches of Russia, where it was
introduced by the Tatars, at times it became monstrous.

From these we pass to the domes of Périgord and La Charente, the
earliest of which date from the commencement of the 11th century. Of the
western dome of St Étienne at Périgueux (A.D. 14) only the pendentives
remain, sufficient, however, with later examples, to show that these
French domes were different from the Byzantine both in construction and
form. The pendentives are built on horizontal courses of stone, and the
voussoirs of the pointed arches which carried them form part of the
pendentives; a few feet above the top of the arches is a moulding and a
ledge, above which the dome, ovoid in section, is built. The principal
examples following St Étienne are those of S. Jean-de-Cole, Cahors,
Souillac, Solignac, Angoulême, Fontevrault, and lastly St Front at
Périgueux, built about 1150, in imitation of St Mark's at Venice. The
domes of the latter church were introduced into the old basilica about
1063, and were based on the church of the Apostles at Constantinople,
which was pulled down in the 15th century, so that we have only the
clear description of Procopius to go by. The domes over the north and
south transepts and the choir of St Mark's are smaller than those over
the nave and crossing, because they had to be fitted in between more
ancient structures. The construction of the domes of St Mark's is not
known, but at St Front the general design only was copied, and they
built them in the Périgordian manner. The masons from Périgord are also
responsible for the domes of the Crusaders' churches in Palestine and
for some of the early churches still remaining in Cyprus. The domes of
San Cyriaco at Ancona and Sant' Antonio at Padua were based upon those
of St Mark's at Venice.

In central Italy we have the dome (elliptical in plan) of the cathedral
of Pisa, and it was a favourite feature over the crossing of the
churches throughout Italy, being generally carried on squinch
pendentives. The domes of the baptisteries of Florence, Parma, Trieste
and Piacenza, are only internal, being enclosed with vertical walls and
a sloping roof. In Sicily, on account of the strong Saracenic influence,
the squinches are simple versions of the stalactite pendentives
described under ARCHITECTURE: _Mahommedan_ (q.v.), the earliest example
being found in the church of San Giovanni-dei-Leprosi (A.D. 1072), all
the domes being ovoid in section.

Except in Périgord and La Charente, domes are not found in the churches
in France, but in Spain they were introduced over the crossing at
Burgos, Tarragona and Salamanca cathedrals, and were made architectural
features externally. This is rarely found in Germany, for although in
the cathedrals of Worms, Spires and Mainz, and in the churches of St
Martin and Sankt Maria im Capitol at Cologne, the crossings are covered
by domes, always carried on squinch pendentives, externally they built
lanterns round them.

In the Renaissance styles, the dome was at once accepted as the
principal characteristic feature, and its erection over the crossing of
Santa Maria del Fiore at Florence was the first important work entrusted
to Brunelleschi. The dome was begun in 1422, and finished in 1431, with
the exception of the lantern, begun the year of his death in 1444, and
completed in 1471. The dome, which is octagonal on plan, is 139 ft. in
diameter, and is built with an inner and outer casing, concentric one
with the other, tied together by ribs between them: the lower portion is
stone, the upper part is brick.

The double shell was also employed by Michelangelo in the dome of St
Peter's at Rome, the outer shell being raised higher than the lower and
connected by ribs one with the other. The diameter is 140 ft. and the
construction in brick, similar to that at Florence, but the ribs are in
stone from Tivoli. In both these cases the weight of the lantern was a
very important consideration, and is responsible for the repeated
repairs required and the introduction of additional ties.

In this respect Sir Christopher Wren solved the difficulty at St Paul's
cathedral, London, in another way: he provided three shells, the lower
one with an eye in the centre forming the inner dome as seen from the
interior; the middle one of conical form, and the outer one framed in
timber and covered with lead. The conical shell carries the lantern, the
weight of which is carried direct to the base, bound with iron ties,
with such additional strength as may be given by the portico round.

In all these cases these domes are built on lofty drums, so that
externally they present quite a different appearance to those of the
Pantheon at Rome, or Sta Sophia in Constantinople.

Of other examples, the domes of the Invalides in Paris, by Mansard
(1706), and of the Panthéon by Soufflot (1735), have each three shells,
the former having a graceful outline. In Spain the dome of the cathedral
at Granada (1530) and the Escurial (1563); in Italy those of Sta Maria
della Salute at Venice, the small example of Bramante at Todi (1480) and
of the Carignano at Genoa, are worth recording, as also the dome of the
Suleimanie mosque at Constantinople (1550). See plates illustrating
ARCHITECTURE; and INDIAN ARCHITECTURE.     (R. P. S.)



DOMENICHINO (or DOMENICO), ZAMPIERI (1581-1641), Italian painter, born
at Bologna, on the 21st of October 1581, was the son of a shoemaker. The
diminutive form of Christian name by which he is constantly known
indicates his short stature. He was placed, when young, under the
tuition of Denis Calvart; but having been treated with great severity by
that master, he left him, and became a pupil in the academy of the
Caracci, under Agostino. Towards the beginning of the 17th century he
went to Rome, at the invitation of his fellow-pupil and intimate Albani,
and prosecuted his studies under Annibale Caracci. The faculty of
Domenichino was slow in its development. He was at first timid and
distrustful of his powers; while his studious, unready and reserved
manners were misunderstood by his companions for dulness, and he
obtained the nickname of the "Ox" (Bue). But Annibale Caracci, who
observed his faculties with more attention, predicted that the apparent
slowness of Domenichino's genius would in time produce what would be an
honour to the art of painting. When his early productions had brought
him into notice, he studied with extreme application, and made such
advance as to raise his works into a comparison with those of the most
admired masters of the time. From his acting as a continual censor of
his own works, he became distinguished amongst his fellow-pupils as an
accurate and expressive designer; his colours were the truest to nature;
Mengs, indeed, found nothing to desire in his works, except a somewhat
larger proportion of elegance. That he might devote his whole powers to
the art, Domenichino shunned all society; or, if he occasionally sought
it in the public theatres and walks, this was in order better to observe
the play of the passions in the features of the people--those of joy,
anger, grief, terror and every affection of the mind--and to commit them
vividly to his tablets; thus, says Bellori, it was that he succeeded in
delineating the soul, in colouring life, and calling forth heartfelt
emotions, at which all his works aim. In personal character he is
credited with temperance and modesty; but, besides his want of
sociability, he became somewhat suspicious, and jealous of his master.

In Rome, Domenichino obtained employment from Cardinals Borghese,
Farnese and Aldobrandini, for all of whom he painted works in fresco.
The distinguished reputation which he had acquired excited the envy of
some of his contemporaries. Lanfranco in particular, one of his most
inveterate enemies, asserted that his celebrated "Communion of St
Jerome" (painted for the church of La Carità towards 1614, for a
pittance of about ten guineas, now in the Vatican Gallery, and
ordinarily, but most irrationally, spoken of as the second or third best
oil picture in the world) was an imitation from Agostino Caracci; and he
procured an engraving of this master's picture of the same subject (now
in the Gallery of Bologna), copies of which were circulated for the
purpose of proving that Domenichino was a plagiarist. There is in truth
a very marked resemblance between the two compositions. The pictures
which Zampieri painted immediately afterwards, representing subjects
from the life of St Cecilia, only increased the alarm of his
competitors, and redoubled their injustice and malignity. Disgusted with
these cabals, he left Rome for Bologna, where he remained until he was
recalled by Pope Gregory XV., who appointed him principal painter and
architect to the pontifical palace. In this architectural post he seems
to have done little or nothing, although he was not inexpert in the
art. He designed in great part the Villa di Belvedere at Frascati, and
the whole of the Villa Ludovisi, and some other edifices. From 1630
onwards Domenichino was engaged in Naples, chiefly on a series of
frescoes (never wholly completed) of the life of St Januarius in the
Cappella del Tesoro. He settled in that city with his family, and opened
a school. There the persecution against him became far more shameful
than in any previous instance. The notorious so-called "Cabal of
Naples"--the painters Corenzio, Ribera and Caracciolo--leagued together
as they were to exclude all alien competition, plagued and decried the
Bolognese artist in all possible ways; for instance, on returning in the
morning to his fresco work, he would find not infrequently that someone
had rubbed out the performance of the previous day. Perpetual worry is
believed to have brought the life of Domenichino to a close;
contemporary suspicion did not scruple to speak broadly of poison, but
this has remained unconfirmed. He died in Naples, after two days'
illness, on the 15th of April 1641.

Domenichino, in correctness of design, expression of the passions, and
simplicity and variety in the airs of his heads, has been considered
little inferior to Raphael; but in fact there is the greatest gulf fixed
between the two. Critics of the 18th century adulated the Bolognese
beyond all reason or toleration; he is now regarded as commonplace in
mind and invention, lacking any innate ideality, though undoubtedly a
forcible, resolute and learned executant. "We must," says Lanzi,
"despair to find paintings exhibiting richer or more varied draperies,
details of costume more beautifully adapted, or more majestic mantles.
The figures are finely disposed both in place and action, conducing to
the general effect; whilst a light pervades the whole which seems to
rejoice the spirit, growing brighter and brighter in the aspect of the
best countenances, whence they first attract the eye and heart of the
beholder. The persons delineated could not tell their tale to the ear
more plainly than they speak it to the eye. The 'Scourging of St
Andrew,' which he executed in competition with Guido Reni at Rome (a
fresco in the church of San Gregorio), is a powerful illustration of
this truthful expression. Of the two works of these masters, Annibale
Caracci preferred that of Domenichino. It is said that in painting one
of the executioners the artist actually wrought himself into a passion,
using threatening words and actions, and that Annibale Caracci,
surprising him at that moment, embraced him, exclaiming with joy,
'To-day, my dear Domenichino, thou art teaching me.' So novel, and at
the same time so natural, it appeared to him that the artist, like the
orator, should feel within himself all that he is representing to
others." Domenichino is esteemed the most distinguished disciple of the
Caracci, or second only to Guido Reni. Algarotti preferred him to the
greatest masters; and Nicolas Poussin considered the painter of the
"Communion of St Jerome" to be the first after Raphael. His pictures of
"Adam and Eve," and the "Martyrdom of St Agnes," in the Gallery of
Bologna, are amongst his leading works. Others of superior interest are
his first known picture, a fresco of the "Death of Adonis," in the
Loggia of the Giardino Farnese, Rome; the "Martyrdom of St Sebastian,"
in Santa Maria degli Angeli; the "Four Evangelists," in Sant' Andrea
della Valle; "Diana and her Nymphs," in the Borghese gallery; the
"Assumption of the Virgin," in Santa Maria di Trastevere; and frescoes
in the neighbouring abbey of Grotta Ferrata, lives of SS. Nilus and
Bartholomew. His portraits are also highly reputed. It is admitted that
in his compositions he often borrowed figures and arrangements from
previous painters. Domenichino was potent in fresco. He excelled also in
landscape painting. In that style (in which he was one of the earliest
practitioners) the natural elegance of his scenery, his trees, his
well-broken grounds, the character and expression of his figures, gained
him as much public admiration as any of his other performances.

  See Bolognini, _Life of Domenichino_ (1839); C. Landon, _Works of
  Domenichino, with a Memoir_ (1823).     (W. M. R.)



DOMESDAY BOOK, or simply DOMESDAY, the record of the great survey of
England executed for William the Conqueror. We learn from the English
Chronicle that the scheme of this survey was discussed and determined
in the Christmas assembly of 1085, and from the colophon of Domesday
Book that the survey (_descriptio_) was completed in 1086. But Domesday
Book (_liber_) although compiled from the returns of that survey, must
be carefully distinguished from them; nor is it certain that it was
compiled in the year in which the survey was made. For the making of the
survey each county was visited by a group of royal officers (_legati_),
who held a public inquiry, probably in the great assembly known as the
county court, which was attended by representatives of every township as
well as of the local lords. The unit of inquiry was the Hundred (a
subdivision of the county which had then an administrative entity), and
the return for each Hundred was sworn to by twelve local jurors, half of
them English and half Normans. What is believed to be a full transcript
of these original returns is preserved for several of the Cambridgeshire
Hundreds, and is of great illustrative importance. The _Inquisitio
Eliensis_, the "Exon Domesday" (so called from the preservation of the
volume at Exeter), and the second volume of Domesday Book, also all
contain the full details which the original returns supplied.

The original MS. of Domesday Book consists of two volumes, of which the
second is devoted to the three eastern counties, while the first, which
is of much larger size, comprises the rest of England except the most
northerly counties. Of these the north-westerly portion, which had
Carlisle for its head, was not conquered till some years after the
survey was made; but the omission of Northumberland and Durham has not
been satisfactorily explained. There are also no surveys of London,
Winchester and some other towns. For both volumes the contents of the
returns were entirely rearranged and classified according to fiefs.
Instead of appearing under the Hundreds and townships they now appeared
under the names of the local "barons," i.e. those who held the lands
directly of the crown in fee. In each county the list opened with the
holding of the king himself (which had possibly formed the subject of
separate inquiry); then came those of the churchmen and religious
houses; next were entered those of the lay tenants-in-chief (_barones_);
and last of all those of women, of the king's serjeants (_servientes_),
of the few English "thegns" who retained land, and so forth. In some
counties one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate
section; in some the _clamores_ (disputed titles to land) were similarly
treated apart. But this description applies more specially to the larger
and principal volume; in the smaller one the system is more confused,
the execution less perfect. The two volumes are distinguished even more
sharply by the exclusion, in the larger one, of certain details, such as
the enumeration of the live stock, which would have added greatly to its
size. It has, indeed, been suggested that the eastern counties' volume
represents a first attempt, and that it was found impossible, or at
least inconvenient, to complete the work on the same scale.

For the object of the survey we have three sources of information: (1)
the passage in the English Chronicle, which tells us why it was ordered,
(2) the list of questions which the jurors were asked, as preserved in
the _Inquisitio Eliensis_, (3) the contents of Domesday Book and the
allied records mentioned above. Although these can by no means be
reconciled in every detail, it is now generally recognized that the
primary object of the survey was to acertain and record the fiscal
rights of the king. These were mainly (1) the national land-tax
(_geldum_), paid on a fixed assessment, (2) certain miscellaneous dues,
(3) the proceeds of the crown lands. After a great political convulsion
such as the Norman conquest, and the wholesale confiscation of landed
estates which followed it, it was William's interest to make sure that
the rights of the crown, which he claimed to have inherited, had not
suffered in the process. More especially was this the case as his Norman
followers were disposed to evade the liabilities of their English
predecessors. The Domesday survey therefore recorded the names of the
new holders of lands and the assessments on which their tax was to be
paid. But it did more than this; by the king's instructions it
endeavoured to make a national valuation list, estimating the annual
value of all the land in the country, (1) at the time of King Edward's
death, (2) when the new owners received it, (3) at the time of the
survey, and further, it reckoned, by command, the potential value as
well. It is evident that William desired to know the financial resources
of his kingdom, and probable that he wished to compare them with the
existing assessment, which was one of considerable antiquity, though
there are traces that it had been occasionally modified. The great bulk
of Domesday Book is devoted to the somewhat arid details of the
assessment and valuation of rural estates, which were as yet the only
important source of national wealth. After stating the assessment of the
manor, the record sets forth the amount of arable land, and the number
of plough-teams (each reckoned at eight oxen) available for working it,
with the additional number (if any) that might be employed; then the
river-meadows, woodland, pasture, fisheries (i.e. weirs in the streams),
water-mills, saltpans (if by the sea) and other subsidiary sources of
revenue; the peasants are enumerated in their several classes; and
finally the annual value of the whole, past and present, is roughly
estimated. It is obvious that, both in its values and in its
measurements, the survey's reckoning is very crude.

Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk,
Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of the towns,
which were probably made because of their bearing on the fiscal rights
of the crown therein. These include fragments of custumals, records of
the military service due, of markets, mints, and so forth. From the
towns, from the counties as wholes, and from many of its ancient
lordships, the crown was entitled to archaic dues in kind, such as
honey. The information of most general interest found in the great
record is that on political, personal, ecclesiastical and social
history, which only occurs sporadically and, as it were, by accident.
Much of this was used by E. A. Freeman for his work on the Norman
Conquest. Although unique in character and of priceless value to the
student, Domesday will be found disappointing and largely unintelligible
to any but the specialist. Even scholars are unable to explain portions
of its language and of its system. This is partly due to its very early
date, which has placed between it and later records a gulf that is hard
to bridge.

But in the _Dialogus de scaccario_ (_temp._ Hen. II.) it is spoken of as
a record from the arbitrament of which there was no appeal (from which
its popular name of "Domesday" is said to be derived). In the middle
ages its evidence was frequently invoked in the law-courts; and even now
there are certain cases in which appeal is made to its testimony. To the
topographer, as to the genealogist, its evidence is of primary
importance; for it not only contains the earliest survey of a township
or manor, but affords in the majority of cases the clue to its
subsequent descent. The rearrangement, on a feudal basis, of the
original returns (as described above) enabled the Conqueror and his
officers to see with ease the extent of a baron's possessions; but it
also had the effect of showing how far he had enfeoffed "under-tenants,"
and who those under-tenants were. This was of great importance to
William, not only for military reasons, but also because of his firm
resolve to make the under-tenants (though the "men" of their lords)
swear allegiance directly to himself. As Domesday normally records only
the Christian name of an under-tenant, it is vain to seek for the
surnames of families claiming a Norman origin; but much has been and is
still being done to identify the under-tenants, the great bulk of whom
bear foreign names.

Domesday Book was originally preserved in the royal treasury at
Winchester (the Norman kings' capital), whence it speaks of itself (in
one later addition) as _Liber de Wintonia_. When the treasury was
removed to Westminster (probably under Henry II.) the book went with it.
Here it remained until the days of Queen Victoria, being preserved from
1696 onwards in the Chapter House, and only removed in special
circumstances, as when it was sent to Southampton for photozincographic
reproduction. It was eventually placed in the Public Record Office,
London, where it can be seen in a glass case in the museum. In 1869 it
received a modern binding. The ancient Domesday chest, in which it used
to be kept, is also preserved in the building.

The printing of Domesday, in "record type," was begun by government in
1773, and the book was published, in two volumes fol. in 1783; in 1811 a
volume of indexes was added, and in 1816 a supplementary volume,
separately indexed, containing (1) the "Exon Domesday" (for the
south-western counties), (2) the _Inquisitio Eliensis_, (3) the _Liber
Winton_ (surveys of Winchester early in the 12th century), and (4) the
_Boldon Book_--a survey of the bishopric of Durham a century later than
Domesday. Photographic facsimiles of Domesday Book, for each county
separately, were published in 1861-1863, also by government.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The following are the more important works to be
  consulted:--R. Kelham, _Domesday Book_, illustrated (1788); H. Ellis,
  _General Introduction to Domesday Book_ (1833), 2 vols., containing
  valuable indexes to the names of persons; N. E. S. A. Hamilton,
  _Inquisitio Cantabrigiensis_ (1876), containing the only transcripts
  of the original returns and the text of the _Inquisitio Eliensis_; E.
  A. Freeman, _History of the Norman Conquest_, vols. iv. and v.; F.
  Seebohm, _The English Village Community_ (1883); _Domesday Studies_, 2
  vols. (1888, 1891), on the occasion of the Domesday Commemoration
  (1886), by various writers, with bibliography to date; J. H. Round,
  _Feudal England_ (1895); F. W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and Beyond_
  (1897); P. Vinogradoff, _Villainage in England_ (1892) and _Growth of
  the Manor_; A. Ballard, _The Domesday Boroughs_ (1904) and _The
  Domesday Inquest_ (1906), an excellent summary; W. H. Stevenson, "A
  contemporary description of the Domesday Survey" in _The English
  Historical Review_ (the general index to which should be consulted)
  (1907). _The Victoria County History_ contains a translation of the
  Domesday text, a map, and an explanatory introduction for each county.
       (J. H. R.)



DOMESTIC RELATIONS, a term used to express the legal relations
subsisting between the various units that comprise the family or
domestic group. Those units which go to build up the domestic structure
of modern society are parent, child, husband, wife, master and servant.
The law which deals with the various relations subsisting between them
is made up largely of the law of agency, of contract and of tort. See
HUSBAND AND WIFE; MASTER AND SERVANT; CHILDREN, _Law relating to_;
INFANT.



DOMETT, ALFRED (1811-1887), British colonial statesman and poet, was
born at Camberwell Grove, Surrey, on the 20th of May 1811. He entered St
John's College, Cambridge, but left the university in 1833. He published
one or two volumes of poetry and contributed several poems to
_Blackwood's Magazine_, one of which, "A Christmas Hymn," attracted much
admiring attention. For ten years he lived a life of ease in London,
where he became the intimate friend of Robert Browning, of whose poem
"Waring" he was the subject. An interesting account of the friendship
between the two men appeared in _The Contemporary Review_ for January
1905, by W. H. Griffin. (See also _Robert Browning and Alfred Domett_,
edited by F. G. Kenyon, 1906). In 1842 Domett emigrated to New Zealand
where he filled many important administrative posts, being colonial
secretary for New Munster in 1848, secretary for the colony in 1851, and
prime minister in 1862. He returned to England in 1871, was created
C.M.G. in 1880, and died on the 2nd of November 1887. Among his books of
poetry, _Ranolf and Amohia, a South Sea Day Dream_, is the best known
(1872), and _Flotsam and Jetsam_ (1877) is dedicated to Browning.



DOMFRONT, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Orne, 43 m. W.N.W. of Alençon by rail. Pop. (1906)
of the town, 2215; of the commune, 4663. The town, which is
picturesquely situated on a bluff overlooking the Varenne, has a church,
Notre-Dame-sur-l'Eau, dating from the 11th century. In the middle ages
it was one of the chief strongholds in Normandy, and there still remain
several towers of its ramparts, and ruins of the keep of its castle
built in 1011, rebuilt in the 12th century by Henry II., king of
England, and dismantled at the end of the 16th century. The town is the
seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance and a
communal college. Cloth is manufactured, and there are granite quarries
in the vicinity. Domfront is said to have grown up in the 6th century
round the oratory of the hermit St Front, and played an important part
in the wars against the English and the Religious Wars. In 1574 it was
occupied by the Protestant leader Gabriel de Montgomery, who after a
stubborn siege was forced to yield it to Jacques Goyon, count of
Matignon.



DOMICILE (Lat. _domicilium_, from _domus_, home), in law, a term which
may be defined generally as the place of a man's permanent abode; a
precise definition is a matter of acknowledged difficulty. Its use in
Roman jurisprudence was to fix the jurisdiction to which a person was
subject generally, not by reason of a particular circumstance, as the
place where a contract was made or where property is situate. Hence it
was admitted that a person might have as many domiciles as he had
residences possessing some degree of permanence. In the middle ages,
when a great diversity of laws had arisen, questions concerning personal
status, as the age of majority or the capacity to contract a given
marriage, came naturally to depend on the law to which the person was
subject by reason of the general jurisdiction over him; and questions
relating to the various items of his movable property grouped together,
as those of his testamentary capacity or of the succession on his
intestacy, had to be considered from a similarly personal point of view.
There resulted a general agreement that a man's legal character, so to
speak, should be determined by his domicile, and this introduced a
stricter notion of domicile, allowing each person to have but one. He
might be subjected without great inconvenience to more than one
jurisdiction, but not to more than one law. This is the position which
domicile now holds in English jurisprudence. It is the criterion of the
law applicable in a large class of cases, and it must be single for each
person; and English courts have continually to struggle with the
difficulty of selecting his domicile from among the various places in
any of which he may be said to reside.

Since the beginning of the 19th century most of the leading continental
states have unified their internal laws; and attachment to a province by
domicile having thus become an unnecessary consideration, they have
adopted political nationality as the criterion of the law to be applied
in most of the questions which used to depend on domicile. Thus as
between themselves they have greatly simplified the determination of
those questions, but a similar elimination of domicile is impossible in
what concerns British subjects, because the British empire continues to
include a great variety of laws, as those of England, Scotland, the
province of Quebec, the Cape Colony, &c. Within the British dominions
domicile is the only available criterion of the legal character of a
British subject, and all British courts continue to apply the same
criterion to British subjects outside those dominions and to foreigners,
so that, for example, the age of majority of a British subject or of a
Frenchman domiciled in Germany would be referred by a British court to
German law. Indeed so deeply is the principle of domicile seated in
British law that only legislative action could allow a British court to
substitute a new principle. And even a French, Italian or German court,
applying political nationality as its new criterion to the legal
character of a British subject, could obtain no definite result unless
it supplemented that criterion by the old one, domicile, in order to
connect the person in question with one of the legal systems existing in
the British dominions.

Again, so long as the change of the criterion has not become universal,
a new question is introduced by its having been made in some countries
only. Denmark being one of those European states which still adhere to
the principle of domicile, we will take it as an example in order not to
complicate the illustration by such differences of internal law as exist
in the British dominions. Suppose that a Danish court has to decide on
the age of majority of a Danish subject domiciled in France, Italy or
Germany. Its rule refers the question to the law of the domicile, and
the law of the domicile refers it back to the law of the political
nationality. What is to be done? This and all other questions relating
to the application of the principle of domicile, which has been only
summarily indicated, are treated under INTERNATIONAL LAW (Private). Here
we shall deal briefly with the determination of domicile itself.

The Roman jurists defined domicile to be the place "ubi quis larem
rerumque ac fortunarum summam constituit; unde rursus non sit
discessurus si nihil avocet: unde cum profectus est, peregrinari
videtur: quo si rediit peregrinari jam destitit." This makes that place
the domicile which may be described as the headquarters of the person
concerned; but a man's habits of life may point to no place, or may
point equally to two places, as his headquarters, and the connexion of
domicile with law requires that a man shall always have a domicile, and
never more than one. The former of these difficulties is met in the
manner described by Lord Westbury in _Udny_ v. _Udny_ (_Law Reports_, 1
House of Lords, Scottish Appeals). "It is," he said, "a settled
principle that no man shall be without a domicile, and to secure this
end the law attributes to every individual as soon as he is born the
domicile of his father, if the child be legitimate, and the domicile of
his mother, if the child be illegitimate. This is called the domicile of
origin, and is involuntary. It is the creation of the law, not of the
party. It may be extinguished by act of law, as for example by sentence
of death or exile for life, which destroys the _status civilis_ of the
criminal; but it cannot be destroyed by the will and act of the party.
Domicile of choice is the creation of the party. When a domicile of
choice is acquired, the domicile of origin is in abeyance, but is not
absolutely extinguished or obliterated. When a domicile of choice is
abandoned, the domicile of origin revives, a special intention to revert
to it not being necessary. A natural-born Englishman may domicile
himself in Holland, but if he breaks up his establishment there and
quits Holland, declaring that he will never return, it is absurd to
suppose that his Dutch domicile clings to him until he has set up his
tabernacle elsewhere." If to this we add that legitimate minors follow
the changes of the father's domicile and a married woman follows the
domicile of her husband, also that compulsory detention will not create
a domicile, the outlines of involuntary domicile will have been
sufficiently sketched.

For the establishment of a domicile of choice there must be both
_animus_ and _factum_, intention and fact. The fact need not be more
than arrival in the territory of the new domicile if there be the
necessary intention, while any number of years' continuance there will
not found a domicile if the necessary intention is absent. As the result
of the most recent English and Scottish cases it may be laid down that
the necessary intention is incompatible with the contemplation by the
person in question of any event on the occurrence of which his residence
in the territory in question would cease, and that if he has not formed
a fixed and settled purpose of settling in that territory, at least his
conduct and declarations must lead to the belief that he would have
declared such a purpose if the necessity of making an election between
that territory and his former one had arisen. The word territory,
meaning a country having a certain legal system, is used advisedly, for
neither the intention nor the fact need refer to a locality. It is
possible that a Scotsman or a foreigner may have clearly established a
domicile of choice in England, although it may be impossible to say
whether London, Brighton or a house in the country is his true or
principal residence. What is here laid down has been gradually attained.
In the older English cases an intention to return to the former domicile
was not excluded, if the event on which the return depended was highly
uncertain and regarded by the person in question as remote. Afterwards a
tendency towards the opposite extreme was manifested by requiring for a
domicile of choice the intention to associate oneself with the ideas and
habits of the new territory--_Quatenus in illo exuere patriam_, not in
the political sense, which it was never attempted to connect with change
of domicile, but in the social and legal sense. At present it is agreed
that the only intention to be considered is that of residence, but that,
if the intention to reside in the territory be proved to amount to what
has been above stated, a domicile will be acquired from which the legal
consequences will follow, even defeating intentions about them so
clearly expressed as, for instance, by making a will which by reason of
the change of domicile is invalid. The two most important cases are
_Douglas_ v. _Douglas_, 1871, L. R. 12 Equity 617, before
Vice-chancellor Wickens, and _Winans_ v. _Att. Gen._, 1904, Appeal Cases
287, before the House of Lords.

When the circumstances of a person's life point to two territories as
domiciles, the selection of the one which alone can fill that character
often leads to appeals even up to the highest court. The residence of a
man's wife and family as contrasted with his place of business, his
exercise of political or municipal functions, and any conduct which
tends to connect his children with a given country, as by their
education or the start given them in life, as well as other indications,
are often cited as important; but none of them are in themselves
decisive. The situation must be considered as a whole. When the question
is between the domicile of origin and an alleged one of choice, its
solution is rendered a little easier than it is when the question is
between two alleged domiciles of choice, the burden of proof lying on
the party which contends that the domicile of origin has been abandoned.

In the state of the law which has been described it will not be found
surprising that an act of parliament, 24 & 25 Vict. c. 121, recites that
by the operation of the law of domicile the expectation and belief of
British subjects dying abroad with regard to the distribution of their
property are often defeated, and enacts that when a convention to that
effect has been made with any foreign country, no British subject dying
in such country shall be deemed to have acquired a domicile therein,
unless he has been resident in such country for one year previous to
death and has made a declaration in writing of his intention to become
domiciled; and that British subjects so dying without having so resided
and made such declaration shall be deemed for all purposes of testate or
intestate succession as to movables to retain the domicile they
possessed at the time of going to reside in such foreign country.
Similar exemptions are conferred on the subjects of the foreign state
dying in Great Britain or Ireland. But the act does not apply to
foreigners who have obtained letters of naturalization in any part of
the British dominions. It has not been availed of, and is indeed an
anachronism, ignoring as it does the fact that domicile has no longer a
world-wide importance, owing to the substitution for it of political
nationality as a test of private law in so many important countries. The
United States of America is not one of those countries, but there the
importance of domicile suffers from the habit of referring questions of
capacity to the law of the place of contract instead of to any personal
law.     (JNO. W.)



DOMINIC, SAINT (1170-1221), founder of the Dominican Order of Preaching
Friars, was born in 1170 at Calaroga in Old Castile. He spent ten or
twelve years in study, chiefly theological, at Palencia, and then, about
1195, he was ordained and became a canon in the cathedral chapter of
Osma, his native diocese. The bishop induced his canons to follow the
Rule of St Augustine and thus make themselves Augustinian Canons (q.v.);
and so Dominic became a canon regular and soon the prior or provost of
the cathedral community. The years from 1195 to 1203 have been filled up
with fabulous stories of missions to the Moors; but Dominic stayed at
Osma, preaching much in the cathedral, until 1203, when he accompanied
the bishop on an embassy in behalf of the king of Castile to "The
Marches." This has commonly been taken as Denmark, but more probably it
was the French or Italian Marches. When the embassy was over, the bishop
and Dominic repaired to Rome, and Innocent III. charged them to preach
among the Albigensian heretics in Languedoc. For ten years (1205-1215)
this mission in Languedoc was the work of Dominic's life.

The Albigenses (q.v.) have received much sympathy, as being a kind of
pre-Reformation Protestants; but it is now recognized that their tenets
were an extreme form of Manichaeism. They believed in the existence of
two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was
Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore
essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse,
even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and
the eating of flesh meat, and many other things. So great was the
abhorrence of matter that some even thought it an act of religion to
commit suicide by voluntary starvation, or to starve children to death
(see article "Neu-Manichäer" by Otto Zöckler in ed. 3 of Herzog's
_Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie_ (1903); or c. iii. of
Paul Sabatier's _Life of St Francis_). Such tenets were destructive not
only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society
itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor
Frederick II. tried to suppress the kindred sects in Italy. In 1208,
after the murder of a papal legate, Innocent III. called on the
Christian princes to suppress the Albigensian heresy by force of arms,
and for seven years the south of France was devastated by one of the
most bloodthirsty wars in history, the Albigenses being slaughtered by
thousands and their property confiscated wholesale.

During this time, it is the judgment of the most recent Protestant
writer on St Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de
Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms
during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the
sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavoured to carry
his spiritual activity on the same lines as before. The oldest
trustworthy sources know nothing of his having exercised the office of
Inquisitor during the Albigensian war" (Grützmacher). This verdict of a
fair-minded and highly competent Protestant church historian on the most
controverted point of Dominic's career is of great value. His method was
to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty,
simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and
villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting
and discussing with the heretics. He used often to organize formal
disputations with Albigensian leaders, lasting a number of days. Many
times plots were laid against his life. Though in his ten years of
preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that
the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and
after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian. A
sense of failure appears in Dominic's last sermon in Languedoc: "For
many years I have exhorted you in vain, with gentleness, preaching,
praying and weeping. But according to the proverb of my country, 'where
blessing can accomplish nothing, blows may avail.' We shall rouse
against you princes and prelates, who, alas, will arm nations and
kingdoms against this land ... and thus blows will avail where blessings
and gentleness have been powerless." The threat that seems to be
conveyed in these words, of trying to promote a new crusade, was never
carried out; the remaining years of Dominic's life were wholly given up
to the founding of his order.

The Order of Dominicans grew out of the little band of volunteers that
had joined Dominic in his mission among the Albigenses. He had become
possessed with the idea of addressing wider circles and of forming an
order whose vocation should be to preach and missionize throughout the
whole world. By 1214 the nucleus of such an institute was formed round
Dominic and was known as the "Holy Preaching." In 1215 the bishop of
Toulouse, Dominic's great friend, established them in a church and house
of the city, and Dominic went to Rome to obtain the permission of
Innocent III. to found his order of preachers. The course of events is
traced in the article DOMINICANS. After three years, in 1218, the full
permission he desired was given by Honorius III. These last years of his
life were spent in journeying backwards and forwards between Toulouse
and Rome, where his abode was at the basilica of Santa Sabina on the
Aventine, given to him by the pope; and then in extended journeys all
over Italy, and to Paris, and into Spain, establishing friaries and
organizing the order wherever he went. It propagated and spread with
extraordinary rapidity, so that by Dominic's death in 1221, only five or
six years after the first practical steps towards the execution of the
idea, there were over 500 friars and 60 friaries, divided into 8
provinces embracing the whole of western Europe. Thus Dominic was at his
death able to contemplate his great creation solidly established, and
well launched on its career to preach to the whole world.

It appears that at the end of his life Dominic had the idea of going
himself to preach to the heathen Kuman Tatars on the Dnieper and the
Volga. But this was not to be; he was worn out by the incessant toils
and fatigues and austerities of his laborious life, and he died at his
monastery at Bologna, on the 6th of August 1221. He was canonized in
1234 by Gregory IX., who, as Cardinal Ugolino, had been the great friend
and supporter both of Dominic and of Francis of Assisi. As St Dominic's
character and work do not receive the same general recognition as do St
Francis of Assisi's, it will be worth while to quote from the
appreciation by Prof. Grützmacher of Heidelberg:--"It is certain that
Dominic was a noble personality of genuine and true piety.... Only by
the preaching of pure doctrine would he overcome heretics.... He was by
nature soft-hearted, so that he often shed tears through warm
sympathy.... In the purity of his intention and the earnestness with
which he strove to carry out his ideal, he was not inferior to Francis."

  The chief sources for St Dominic's life are the account by Jordan of
  Saxony, his successor as master-general of the order, and the evidence
  of the witnesses at the Process of Canonization,--all in the
  Bollandists' _Acta sanctorum_, Aug. 4. Probably the best modern Life
  is that by Jean Guiraud, in the series _Les Saints_ (translated into
  English by Katharine de Mattos, 1901); the bibliography contains a
  useful list of the chief sources for the history of St Dominic and the
  order, and of the best modern works thereon. See also the article
  "Dominicus" in ed. 2 of Wetzer and Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_, and
  Grützmacher's excellent article "Dominikus," in ed. 3 of Herzog,
  _Realencyklopadie für protestantische Theologie_, already referred to.
       (E. C. B.)



DOMINICA, the largest of the five presidencies in the colony of the
Leeward Islands, British West Indies. It lies in 15° 30' N. and 61° 20'
W., between the French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, at a
distance of about 25 m. from each, is 29 m. long, has a maximum breadth
of 16 m. and an area of 291 sq. m. A range of lofty rugged mountains
traverses the island from N. to S., broken in the centre by a narrow
plain drained by the rivers Layou and Pagoua, flowing W. and E.
respectively. The highest point is Morne Diablotin (5314 ft.), situated
in the northern half of the range. Signs of volcanic activity abound in
the shape of solfataras, subterranean vapours and hot springs; while in
the south is the greatest natural curiosity, the renowned Boiling Lake.
It lies on the mountain side, 2300 ft. above the sea, its banks are
steep and its depth unknown, being more than 300 ft. at a short distance
from the margin. Its seething waters are often forced 3 ft. above the
normal level by the pressure of the escaping gases; and the fumes rising
from the lake are occasionally poisonous. The island is botanically
remarkable for its great number of peculiar species, offering in this
respect a marked contrast to the poverty of the adjacent islands. The
hills are covered with valuable timber, while coffee, limes, oranges,
india-rubber trees, spices and all tropical fruits grow luxuriantly in
the rich brown mould of the lowlands. There are some thirty streams of
considerable size, besides numerous mountain torrents, and this
abundance of water renders the island very fertile. The fisheries are
productive, and honey and wax are furnished by wild bees, originally
introduced from Europe. The temperature varies from 78° to 86° F. in the
hot season from August to October, and from 72° to 84° in the cooler
months; the rainfall varies in different parts from 50 to 162 in. per
annum, but the porous soil soon absorbs the rain, rendering the
atmosphere dry and invigorating.

The manufactures include sugar, lime-juice and essential oils; the
exports are coffee, cocoa, sugar, limes and lime-juice, essential oils
and fruit of all kinds. The inhabitants in 1901 numbered 28,894. The
majority are negroes; the whites are of French and British descent.
There are also a few Caribs, the remnant of the aboriginal population. A
French _patois_ is the language of the peasantry, but English is
generally understood. The capital, Roseau (5764), is a fortified town
and a port; Portsmouth, the only other town, possesses the better
harbour in Prince Rupert's Bay on the north-west. In religion the Roman
Catholics predominate, and a bishop resides at Roseau, but there is no
established church. Education is free and compulsory, and the Cambridge
local examinations are held annually.

Dominica was so named on its discovery by Columbus in 1493, in
commemoration of the date, Sunday (_Dies Dominica_) the 3rd of November.
Dominica was included in the grant of various islands in the Caribbean
Sea made in 1627 by Charles I. to the earl of Carlisle, but the first
European settlers (1632) were French. They brought with them negro
slaves and lived on terms of friendship with the Caribs, who were then
a numerous body. In 1660 a treaty appears to have been made between the
French, British and the natives assigning St Vincent and Dominica to the
Caribs, but shortly afterwards attempts were made by the British to gain
a foothold in the island. These attempts failed, and in 1748 it was once
more agreed by France and Great Britain that Dominica should be left in
the undisturbed possession of the natives. Nevertheless the French
settlers increased, and the island came under the rule of a French
governor. It was captured by the British in 1761 and formally ceded by
France at the peace of Paris, 1763, French settlers being secured in
their estates. In 1778 a French force from Martinique seized the island.
Rodney's victory over De Grasse in the neighbouring sea in 1782 was
followed by the restoration of the island to Britain in 1783; in the
interval the trade of Dominica had been ruined. In 1795 a force from
Guadeloupe made an unsuccessful descent on the island, and in 1805 the
French general La Grange, at the head of 4000 troops, took Roseau and
pillaged the island--an event now remembered as the most memorable in
its history. The French were, however, unable to make good their hold,
and Dominica has remained since undisturbed in British possession. Its
later history presents few features not common to the other British West
Indian islands.

Since 1872 Dominica has formed part of the colony of the Leeward
Islands, but local affairs are in the hands of an administrator, aided
by an executive council of ten members. In 1898 the local legislature,
in consideration of pecuniary assistance from Great Britain, passed an
act abrogating the semi-elective constitution and providing for a
legislative council of twelve nominated members, six of whom sit _ex
officio_.



DOMINICANS, otherwise called Friars Preachers, and in England Black
Friars, from the black mantle worn over a white habit, an order of
friars founded by St Dominic (q.v.). Their first house was in Toulouse,
where the bishop established them at the church of St Romain, 1215.
Dominic at once went to Rome to obtain permission to found an order of
preachers whose sphere of activity should be the whole world, but
Innocent III. said they must adopt one of the existing rules. Dominic
returned to Toulouse and it was resolved to take the Rule of St
Augustine, Dominic himself having been an Augustinian canon at Osma (see
AUGUSTINIAN CANONS). Dominic went again to Rome, and during the year
1216 he obtained from Honorius III. a series of confirmations of the
community at Toulouse as a congregation of Canons Regular of St
Augustine with a special mission to preach. Early in 1218 an encyclical
bull was issued to the bishops of the whole Catholic world recommending
to them the "Order of Friars Preachers," followed in 1221 by another
ordering them to give to the friars faculties to preach and hear
confessions in their dioceses. Already in 1217 Dominic had scattered the
little band of seventeen over the world--to Paris, into Spain, and one
he took with himself to Rome. Within a few months there were forty
friars in Rome, at Santa Sabina on the Aventine, and thirty in Paris;
and before Dominic's death in 1221 friaries had been established at
Lyons, Limoges, Reims, Metz, Poitiers and Orleans; at Bologna, Milan,
Florence, Verona, Piacenza and Venice; at Madrid, Palencia, Barcelona
and Seville; at Friesach in Carinthia; at Cracow and Prague; and friars
were on their way to Hungary and England.

The order took definite shape at the two general chapters held at
Bologna in 1220 and 1221. At first it had been but a congregation of
canons regular and had worn the canons' black cassock with white linen
rochet. But now a white woollen habit with a black cloak or mantle was
assumed. The Rule of St Augustine was supplemented by a body of
regulations, adopted mostly from those of the Premonstratensian canons.
At the head of the order was the master-general, elected for life until
recent times, when the term of office was limited to six and then to
twelve years; he enjoys supreme power over the entire order, both houses
and individuals, all of whom are directly subject to him. He dwells in
Rome and is assisted by a council. The order is divided into provinces
and over each is a provincial, elected for four years. Each friary has
its prior, elected by the community every four years. The friars belong
not to the house or province in which they make their profession, but to
the order; and it rests with the master-general to assign to each his
place of residence. The manner of life was very austere--midnight
office, perpetual abstinence from meat, frequent disciplines, prolonged
fasts and silence. At St Dominic's suggestion, and under his strong
pressure, but not without considerable opposition, the general chapter
determined that the poverty practised in the order should be not merely
individual, as in the monastic orders, but corporate, as among the
Franciscans; so that the order should have no possessions, except the
monastic buildings and churches, no property, no fixed income, but
should live on charity and by begging. Thus, doubtless in imitation of
the Franciscans, the Dominicans became a mendicant order.

The extraordinarily rapid propagation of the institute suffered no
diminution through the founder's death; this was mainly due to the fact
that his four immediate successors in the generalate were men of
conspicuous ability and high character. In a few years the Dominicans
penetrated into Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Prussia and Poland, preaching
and missionizing in the still pagan districts of these countries; and
soon they made their way to Greece and Palestine and thence to central
Asia. St Hyacinth, a Pole received by St Dominic, during missionary
journeys extending over thirty-five years travelled over the north and
east of Europe and into Tatary, Tibet and northern China. In 1252 the
pope addressed a letter to the Dominicans who were preaching "among the
Saracens, Greeks, Bulgarians, Kumans, Syrians, Goths, Jacobites,
Armenians, Jews, Tatars, Hungarians." From the 14th century until the
middle of the 17th the Dominicans had numerous missions in Persia, India
and China, and in the northern parts of Africa. They followed the
Spanish and Portuguese explorers and conquerors both to the East and to
the West, converting, protecting and civilizing the aborigines. On these
missionary enterprises great numbers of Dominicans laid down their life
for the Gospel.

Another conspicuous field of work of the Dominicans lay in the
universities. It had been St Dominic's policy to aim at founding houses
first of all in the great university towns--at Paris, Bologna, Palencia,
Oxford. This policy was adhered to, and the Dominicans soon became a
power in the universities, occupying chairs in those just named and in
Padua, Cologne, Vienna, Prague and Salamanca. The scholastic doctors
Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas were the leaders in this side of
Dominican activity, and the order's influence on the course of medieval
theological development was exercised mainly by these doctors and by the
Dominican school of theology, which to this day has maintained the
principles and methods elaborated by St Thomas.

The Dominican name is in an especial way associated with the
Inquisition, the office of Inquisitor in all countries, including Spain,
having usually been held by Dominicans. The vicissitudes of the order
have been much like those of other orders--periods of relaxation being
followed by periods of revival and reform; but there were not any
reforms of the same historical importance as in most other orders, the
policy having been to keep all such movements strictly within the
organization of the order. In 1425 Martin V. relaxed for some houses the
law of corporate poverty, allowing them to hold property, and to have
fixed sources of income; and fifty years later Sixtus IV. extended this
mitigation to the entire order, which thereby ceased to be mendicant.
This change caused no troubles, as among the Franciscans, for it was
felt that it did not touch St Dominic's fundamental idea.

The Friars Preachers came to England and were established at Oxford in
1221, and by the end of the century fifty friaries were founded all over
England, usually in the towns, and several in Ireland and Scotland. In
London they were first on the site of Lincoln's Inn, but in 1275 they
migrated to that now occupied by Printing-house Square, and their name
survives in Blackfriars Bridge. The only nunnery was at Dartford. At the
Dissolution there were fifty-seven friaries (see lists in F. A.
Gasquet's _English Monastic Life_, _Catholic Dictionary_ and C. F.
Palmer's _Life of Cardinal Howard_, where historical notes are added).
In Mary's reign some of the scattered friars were brought together and
established in Smithfield, and the remnant of the nuns were restored to
Dartford. In 1559 these houses were suppressed and the nuns and two
friars expatriated, and for a hundred years there was no English
Dominican community. But throughout the reigns of Elizabeth and the
early Stuarts there were usually some Dominicans, either Englishmen
professed in foreign monasteries or foreigners, labouring on the English
mission or attached to the foreign embassies. In 1658 Friar Thomas
Howard (afterwards Cardinal) succeeded in establishing at Bornhem near
Antwerp a house for the English friars. From that time there has always
been an organized body of English Dominicans, again and again reduced
almost to extinction, but ever surviving; it now has half a dozen
thriving friaries. The Irish province also survived the days of
persecution and possesses a dozen friaries. In 1840 Lacordaire restored
the French province. In 1900 there were 4350 Dominicans, including lay
brothers, and 300 friaries, scattered all over the world. Missionary
work still holds a prominent place in Dominican life; there are missions
in Annam, Tongking and China, and in Mesopotamia, Mosul and Kurdistan.
They have also a remarkable school for Biblical studies and research at
Jerusalem, and the theological faculty in the Roman Catholic university
at Fribourg in Switzerland is in their hands. There have been four
Dominican popes: Innocent V. (+ 1276), Benedict XI. (+ 1304), Pius V. (+
1572), Benedict XIII. (+ 1730).

The friars form the "First Order"; the nuns, or Dominicanesses, the
"Second Order." The latter may claim to have chronological precedence
over the friars, for the first nunnery was established by St Dominic in
1206 at Prouille in the diocese of Toulouse, as a refuge for women
converted from the Albigensian heresy. The second convent was at San
Sisto in Rome, also founded by Dominic himself. From that time the
institute spread widely. The rule resembled that of the friars, except
that the nuns were to be strictly enclosed and purely contemplative; in
course of time, however, they undertook educational work. In 1909 there
were nearly 100 nunneries of the Second Order, with some 1500 nuns. They
have schools and orphanages in South Africa, especially in the
Transvaal.

A considerable number of other convents for women follow the Rule of the
"Third Order." This rule was not written until the 15th century, and it
is controverted whether, and in what sense, it can be held that the
"Third Order" really goes back to St Dominic, or whether it grew up in
imitation of the Franciscan Tertiaries. Besides the conventual
Tertiaries, there are confraternities of lay men and women who strive to
carry out this rule while living their family life in the world (see
TERTIARIES). St Catharine of Siena was a Dominican Tertiary.

  See the authorities cited in the article DOMINIC, SAINT; also Helyot,
  _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1714), iii. cc. 24-29, and Max
  Heimbucher, _Orden u. Kongregationen_ (1896), §§ 86-91; and C. F.
  Palmer, _Life of Cardinal Howard_ (1867), which gives a special
  account of the English Dominican province.     (E. C. B.)



DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE (1560-1624), Italian theologian and natural
philosopher, was born of a noble Venetian family in 1560 in the island
of Arbe, off the coast of Dalmatia. He was educated by the Jesuits in
their colleges at Loreto and Padua, and is supposed by some to have
joined their order; the more usual opinion, however, is that he was
dissuaded from doing so by Cardinal Aldobrandini. For some time he was
employed as a teacher at Verona, as professor of mathematics at Padua,
and professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Brescia. In 1596 he was
appointed to the bishopric of Segnia (Zengg) in Dalmatia, and two years
later was raised to the archbishopric of Spalato and primacy of Dalmatia
and Croatia. His endeavours to reform the Church soon brought him into
conflict with his suffragans; and the interference of the papal court
with his rights as metropolitan, an attitude intensified by the quarrel
between the papacy and Venice, made his position intolerable. This, at
any rate, is the account given in his own apology--the _Consilium
profectionis_--in which he also states that it was these troubles that
led him to those researches into ecclesiastical law, church history and
dogmatic theology, which, while confirming him in his love for the ideal
of "the true Catholic Church," revealed to him how far the papal system
was from approximating to it. After a visit to Rome, when he in vain
attempted to gain the ear of Pope Paul V., he resigned his see in
September 1616, wrote at Venice his _Consilium profectionis_, and then
went by way of Switzerland, Heidelberg and Rotterdam to England, where
he arrived in December. He was welcomed by the king and the Anglican
clergy with great respect, was received into the Church of England in St
Paul's cathedral, and was appointed master of the Savoy (1618) and dean
of Windsor (1619); he subsequently presented himself to the living of
West Ilsley, Berkshire. Contemporary writers give no pleasant account of
him, describing him as fat, irascible, pretentious and very avaricious;
but his ability was undoubted, and in the theological controversies of
the time he soon took a foremost place. His published attacks on the
papacy succeeded each other in rapid succession: the _Papatus Romanus_,
issued anonymously (London, 1617; Frankfort, 1618), the _Scogli del
naufragio Christiano_, written in Switzerland (London, (?) 1618), of
which English, French and German translations also appeared, and a
_Sermon preached in Italian, &c._, before the king. But his principal
work was the _De republica ecclesiastica_, of which the first
part--after revision by Anglican theologians--was published under royal
patronage in London (1617), in which he set forth with a great display
of erudition his theory of the church. In the main it is an elaborate
treatise on the historic organization of the church, its principal note
being its insistence on the divine prerogatives of the Catholic
episcopate as against the encroachments of the papal monarchy. In 1619
Dominis published in London, with a dedication to James I., Paolo
Sarpi's _Historia del Concilio Tridentino_, the MS. of which he had
brought with him from Venice. It is characteristic of the man that he
refused to hand over to Sarpi a penny of the money present given to him
by the king as a reward for this work.

Three years later the ex-archbishop was back again in Rome, doing
penance for his heresies in St Peter's with a cord round his neck. The
reasons for this sudden revolution in his opinions, which caused grave
scandal in England, have been much debated; it is probably no libel on
his memory, however, to say that they were connected with the hopes
raised by the elevation of his kinsman, Alessandro Ludovisi, to the
papal throne as Gregory XV. (1621). It is said that he was enticed back
to Rome by the promise of pardon and rich preferment. If so, he was
doomed to bitter disappointment. He had barely time to publish at Rome
(1623) his _Sui reditus ex Angliae consilium_, an abject repudiation of
his anti-papal works as written "non ex cordis sinceritate, non ex bona
conscientia, non ex fide," when Gregory died (July 1623). During the
interregnum that followed, the proceedings of the Inquisition against
the archbishop were revived, and they continued under Urban VIII. Before
they were concluded, however, Dominis died in prison, on the 8th of
September 1624. Even this did not end his trial, and on the 20th of
December judgment was pronounced over his corpse in the church of Santa
Maria sopra Minerva. By order of the Inquisition his body was taken from
the coffin, dragged through the streets of Rome, and publicly burnt in
the Campo di Fiore. By a strange irony of fate the publication of his
_Reditus consilium_ was subsequently forbidden in Venice because of its
uncompromising advocacy of the supremacy of the pope over the temporal
powers. As a theologian and an ecclesiastic Dominis was thoroughly
discredited; as a man of science he was more happy. He was the first to
put forward a true theory of the rainbow, in his _De radiis visus et
lucis in vitris perspectivis et iride_ (Venice, 1611).

  See the article by Canon G. G. Perry in the Dict. _Nat. Biog._, and
  that by Benrath in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 1898), iv. p.
  781, where a full bibliography is given. Also H. Newland, _Life and
  Contemporaneous Church History of Antonio de Dominis_ (Oxford, 1859).



DOMINOES, a game unknown until the 18th century, and probably invented
in Italy, played with twenty-eight oblong pieces, or dominoes, known
also as _cards_ or _stones_, having ivory faces backed with ebony; from
this ebony backing, as resembling the cloak (usually black) called a
domino (see MASK), the name is said to be derived. Cardboard dominoes to
be held in the hand are also in use. The face of each card is divided
into two squares by a black line, and in each square half the value of
the card is indicated by its being either a blank or marked with one or
more black pips, generally up to six, but some sets run as high as
double-nine. There are various ways of playing dominoes described below.

  _The Block and Draw Games._--The dominoes are shuffled face downwards
  on the table. The lead is usually decided by drawing for the highest
  card, but it is sometimes held that any doublet takes precedence. The
  cards are then reshuffled, and each player draws at random the number
  of cards required for the particular form of the game, usually seven.
  The cards left behind are called the _stock_. To play a card is known
  technically as to _pose_. The leader poses first, generally playing
  his highest domino, since at the end the player loses according to the
  number of pips in the cards he has left in his hand. By some rules, a
  player after playing a double may play another card which matches it:
  e.g. if he plays double-six he may play another card which has a six
  at one end. The second player has to match the leader's pose by
  putting one of his cards in juxtaposition at one end, i.e. if the
  leader plays four-five, the second player has to play a card which
  contains either a four or a five, the five being applied to the five,
  or the four to the four. Doublets are placed _à cheval_ (_crosswise_).
  If a player cannot match, he says "go," and his opponent plays, unless
  the Draw game--the usual game--is being played, in which case the
  player who cannot match draws from the stock (two cards must always be
  left in the stock) till he takes a card that matches. If a player
  succeeds in posing all his cards, he calls "Domino!" and wins the
  hand, scoring as many points as there are pips on the cards still held
  by his opponent. If neither player can match, that player wins who has
  the fewest pips left in his hand, and he scores as many points as are
  left in the two hands combined (sometimes only the excess held by his
  opponent); but when a player has called "Go!" his adversary must match
  if he can, in which case the other player may be able to match in
  turn. A game is generally 100 points.

  _All Fives_ (or _Muggins_).--Each player takes five cards. If the
  leader poses either double-five, six-four, five-blank, or three-two,
  he scores the number of pips that are on the card. If in the course of
  play a player can play such a card as makes the sum of the end pips,
  5, 10, 15 or 20, he scores that number; e.g. if to two-four he can
  play double-four (_à cheval_) he scores 10; if to six-one he plays
  six-four he scores 5. He must pose if he can match; if he cannot, he
  draws till he can. Scores are called and taken immediately. At the
  point of domino, the winner scores in points the multiple of five
  which is nearest to the number of pips in his adversary's hand: e.g.
  he scores 25 if his adversary has 27 pips, 30 if he has 28. If neither
  hand can match, the lowest number of pips wins, and the score is taken
  as before, without addition or subtraction, according to the
  adversary's pips.

  _All Threes_ is played in the same manner as Muggins, save that three
  or some multiple of three are aimed at.

  _Threes-and-Fives_ is similar, but only one point is scored for each
  five or three made at the two ends, though they can be scored in
  combination. Thus A plays six-five; B six-one; B scores 2 points for
  5-1 (two threes). A plays one-five; B double five; B now scores 8
  more, 5 for five threes and 3 for three fives.

  _Domino-Whist_ is played by four players. Partners are drawn for as at
  Whist, the player drawing the highest card leading. Each player takes
  seven cards. There are no tricks, trumps or honours. The cards are
  played as in ordinary dominoes, a hand being finished when one of the
  players plays his last card, or when both ends are blocked. Pips are
  then counted, and the holder or holders of the highest number score to
  their debit the aggregate number of points. The side that is first
  debited with 100 points loses the game. Strength in a _suit_ is
  indicated by the lead; _i.e._ a lead of double-blank or double-six
  implies strength in blanks or sixes respectively.

  _Matador_ (from the Spanish word meaning "killer," i.e. of the bull in
  a bull-fight). This is a favourite and perhaps the most scientific
  form of the game. It is played on a different principle from the
  preceding variations, the object being not to match the end number,
  but to pose such a number, as, added to the end, will make seven;
  _e.g._ to a five a two must be played, to a three a four, &c. Seven
  dominoes are drawn and the highest double begins. When a player cannot
  make a seven on either end he must draw from the stock until he
  secures a card that will enable him to make seven, two cards remaining
  in the stock. As Matador is played with dominoes no higher than six, a
  blank means the blocking of that end. In this case no further play can
  take place at that end excepting by posing a _matador_, which may be
  played at any time. There are four matadors, the 6-1, 5-2, 4-3 and
  double-blank. It is often better to draw one or more fresh cards than
  to play one's last matador, as it may save the game at a critical
  juncture. In posing a double counts as a single number only, but in
  scoring the full number of pips is counted. When the game has been
  definitely blocked the player whose pips aggregate the lower number
  scores the number of the combined hands (sometimes only the excess in
  his opponent's hand), the game being usually 100. Matador can be
  played by three persons, in which case the two having the lowest
  scores usually combine against the threatening winner; and also by
  four, either each for himself or two on a side.

  Other varieties of the game not often played are the Bergen game,
  Sevastopol and Domino Loo.

  See _Card and Table Games_ by Hoffmann (London, G. Routledge & Sons).



DOMINUS (from an Indo-European root _dam-_, cf. Gr. [Greek: daman], to
subdue, and Eng. "tame"), the Latin word for master or owner. As a title
of sovereignty the term under the republic at Rome had all the
associations of the Greek [Greek: tyrannos]; refused during the early
principate, it finally became an official title of the Roman emperors
under Diocletian. _Dominus_, the French equivalent being _sieur_, was
the Latin title of the feudal (superior and mesne) lords, and also an
ecclesiastical and academical title. The ecclesiastical title was
rendered in English "sir," which was a common prefix before the
Reformation for parsons, as in "Sir Hugh Evans" in Shakespeare's _Merry
Wives of Windsor_. The academical use was for a bachelor of arts, and so
is still used at Cambridge and other universities. The shortened form
"dom" is used as a prefix of honour for ecclesiastics of the Roman
Church, and especially for members of the Benedictine and other
religious orders. The same form is also a title of honour in Portugal,
as formerly in Brazil, used by members of the blood royal and others on
whom it has been conferred by the sovereign. The Spanish form "don" is
also a title, formerly applicable only to the nobility, and now one of
courtesy and respect applied to any member of the better classes. The
feminine form "donna" is similarly applied to a lady. The English
colloquial use of "don" for a fellow or tutor of a college at a
university is derived either from an application of the Spanish title to
one having authority or position, or from the academical use of
_dominus_. The earliest use of the word in this sense appears, according
to the _New English Dictionary_, in South's _Sermons_ (1660). An English
corruption "dan" was in early use as a title of respect, equivalent to
"master." The particular literary application to poets is due to
Spenser's use of "Dan Chaucer, well of English undefyled" (_Faëry
Queen_, IV. ii. 32).



DOMITIAN (TITUS FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS), Roman emperor A.D. 81-96, the
second son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla, twelfth of
the Caesars, and third of the Flavian dynasty, was born at Rome on the
24th of October A.D. 51. When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at
Alexandria, Domitian escaped with difficulty from the temple of the
Capitol, which had been set on fire by the Vitellians, and remained in
hiding till his father's party proved victorious. After the fall of
Vitellius he was saluted as Caesar, or prince imperial, by the troops,
obtained the city praetorship, and was entrusted with the administration
of Italy till his father's return from the East. But although in his
father's lifetime he several times filled the office of consul, and
after his death was nominally the partner in the empire with his brother
Titus, he never took any part in public business, but lived in great
retirement, devoting himself to a life of pleasure and of literary
pursuits till he succeeded to the throne. The death of Titus, if not
hastened by foul means, was at least eagerly welcomed by his brother.
Domitian's succession (on the 13th of September 81) was unquestioned,
and it would seem that he had intended, so far as his weak volition and
mean abilities would allow, to govern well. Like Augustus, he attempted
a reformation of morals and religion. As chief pontiff he inquired
rigorously into the character of the vestal virgins, three of whom were
buried alive; he enforced the laws against adultery, mutilation, and the
grosser forms of immorality, and forbade the public acting of mimes. He
erected many temples and public buildings (amongst them the Odeum, a
kind of theatre for musical performances) and restored the temple of the
Capitol. He passed many sumptuary laws, and issued an edict forbidding
the over-cultivation of vines to the neglect of corn-growing. Finally,
he took a personal share in the administration of justice at Rome,
checked the activity of the informers (_delatores_), and exercised a
jealous supervision over the governors of provinces. Such public virtues
at first counterbalanced his private vices in the eyes of the people.
Domitian was the first emperor who arrogated divine honours in his
lifetime, and caused himself to be styled _Our Lord and God_ in public
documents. Doubtless in the poems of writers like Martial this
deification was nothing but fulsome flattery, but in the case of the
provincials it was a sincere tribute to the impersonation of the Roman
Empire, as the administrator of good government and the peacemaker of
the world. Even when Rome and Italy smarted beneath his proscriptions
and extortions, the provinces were undisturbed.

Though he took the title of imperator more than twenty times, and
enjoyed at least one triumph, Domitian's military achievements were
insignificant. He defeated the Chatti, annexed the district of the
Taunus, and established the _Limes_ as a line of defence; but he
suffered defeats at the hands of the Quadi, Sarmatae and Marcomanni; in
Dacia he received a severe check, and was obliged to purchase peace (90)
from Decebalus by the payment of a large sum of money and by
guaranteeing a yearly tribute--the first instance in Roman history. His
jealousy was provoked by the successes of Agricola in Britain, who was
recalled to Rome (85) in the midst of his conquests, condemned to
retirement, and perhaps removed by poison. The revolt of Antonius
Saturninus, the commander of the Roman forces in Upper Germany (88 or
89), marks the turning-point in his reign (on the date see H. Schiller,
_Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit_, i. pt. 2, p. 524, note 2). It was
speedily crushed; but from that moment Domitian's character changed. He
got rid of all whom he disliked on the charge of having taken part in
the conspiracy, and no man of eminence was safe against him. He was in
constant fear of assassination and distrusted all around him. During the
last three years of his life his behaviour was that of a madman. He
sentenced to death his own cousin and nephew by marriage, Flavius
Clemens, whose wife he banished for her supposed leaning towards Judaism
(Christianity). A conspiracy among his own freedmen--set on foot, it is
said, by his wife Domitia Longina, who knew her own life to be
threatened--cut short his career. He was stabbed in his bedroom by a
freedman of Clemens named Stephanus on the 18th of September 96.

  AUTHORITIES. _Ancient._--Tacitus, _Histories_, iii. iv.; Suetonius,
  _Domitian_; Dio Cassius lxvi., lxvii.; Tacitus, _Agricola_, 18-22.
  Modern accounts by A. Imhof, _T. Flavius Domitianus_ (Halle, 1857),
  which, while not claiming any special originality, is based on a
  conscientious study of authorities; A. Halberstadt, _De imperatoris
  Domitiani moribus et rebus_ (Amsterdam, 1877), an attempt to
  rehabilitate Domitian; S. Gsell, _Essai sur le règne de l'empereur
  Domitien_ (1894), very complete in every respect; H. Schiller (as
  above), pp. 520-538; C. Merivale, _Hist. of the Romans under the
  Empire_, ch. 61, 62. For Domitian's attitude towards Christianity see
  V. Schultze in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopadie fur protestantische
  Theologie_, iv. (1898); Sir W. M. Ramsay, _The Church in the Roman
  Empire_ (1903); E. G. Hardy, _Christianity and the Roman Government_
  (1894); J. B. Bury, Appendix 8 to vol. ii. of his edition of Gibbon.



DOMRÉMY-LA-PUCELLE, a village of eastern France, in the department of
Vosges, on the left bank of the Meuse, 7 m. N. of Neufchâteau by road.
Pop. (1906) 233. Domrémy was the birthplace of Joan of Arc, and the
cottage in which she was born still stands. Above the door are the arms
of France and of Joan of Arc and an inscription of 1481 reading "Vive
labeur; vive le roi Louys." There are several monuments to the heroine,
and a modern basilica has been erected in her honour on a neighbouring
hill, where she is said to have heard the voices in obedience to which
she took up the sword. The story of the heroine is annually celebrated
by a play in which the villagers take part.



DON (anc. _Tanais_), a river of European Russia, called _Tuna_ or _Duna_
by the Tatars, rising in Lake Ivan (580 ft. above sea-level) in the
government of Tula, where it has communication with the Volga by means
of the Yepifan Canal, which links it with the Upa, a tributary of the
Oka, which itself enters the Volga. The Don, after curving east through
the government of Ryazan, flows generally south through the governments
of Tambov, Orel, Voronezh and the Don Cossacks territory, describing in
the last-named a sweeping loop to the east, in the course of which it
approaches within 48 m. of the Volga in 49° N. In the middle of the Don
Cossacks territory it turns definitely south-west, and finally enters
the north-east extremity of the Sea of Azov, forming a delta 130 sq. m.
in extent. Its total length is 1325 m., and its drainage area is
calculated at 166,000 sq. m. The average fall of the river is about 5¼
in. to the mile. In its upper course, which may be regarded as extending
to the confluence of the Voronezh in 51° 40', the Don flows for the most
part through a low-lying, fertile country, though in the government of
Ryazan its banks are rocky and steep, and in some places even
precipitous. In the middle division, or from the mouth of the Voronezh
to the point where it makes its nearest approach to the Volga, the
stream cuts its way for the most part through Cretaceous rocks, which in
many places rise on either side in steep and elevated banks, and at
intervals encroach on the river-bed. A short distance below the town of
Rostov it breaks up into several channels, of which the largest and most
southern retains the name of the river. Before it receives the Voronezh
the Don has a breadth of 500 to 700, or even in a few places 1000 ft.,
while its depth varies from 4 to 20 ft.; by the time it reaches its most
eastern point the depth has increased to 8-50 ft., and the ordinary
breadth to 700-1000 ft., with an occasional maximum of 1400 ft.; in the
lowest division the depth is frequently 70 ft., and the breadth in many
places 1870 ft. Generally speaking, the right bank is high and the left
flat and low. Shallow reaches are not uncommon, and there are at least
seven considerable shoals in the south-western part of the course;
partly owing to this cause, and partly to the scarcity of ship-timber in
the Voronezh government, the Don, although navigable as far up as
Voronezh, does not attain any great importance as a means of
communication till it reaches Kachalinskaya in the vicinity of the
Volga. From that point, or rather from Kalach, where the railway (built
in 1862) from the Volga has its western terminus, the traffic is very
extensive. Of the tributaries of the river, the Voronezh, the Khoper,
the Medvyeditsa and the Donets are navigable--the Donets having a course
of 680 m., and during high water affording access to the government of
Kharkov. The Manych, another large affluent on the left, marks the
ancient line of water connexion between the Sea of Azov and the Caspian
Sea. The lower section of the Don is subject to two annual floods, of
which the earlier, known as the "cold water," is caused by the melting
of the snow in the country of the Don Cossacks, and the later, or the
"warm water," is due to the same process taking place in the region
drained by the upper parts of the stream. About the beginning of June
the river begins to subside with great rapidity; in August the water is
very low and navigation almost ceases; but occasionally after the
September rains the traffic with small craft is again practicable. Since
the middle of the 18th century there have been five floods of
extraordinary magnitude,--namely, in 1748, 1786, 1805, 1820 and 1845.
The river is usually closed by ice from November or December to March or
April, and at rare intervals it freezes in October. At Aksai, in the
delta, it remains open on the average for 250 days in the year, at the
mouth of the Medvyeditsa for 239, and at Novo-Cherkask, on another arm
of the delta, for 246. This river supports a considerable fishing
population, who despatch salt fish and caviare all over Russia. Salmon
and herrings are taken in large numbers.     (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)



DON, a river in the south of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, rising in
peat-moss to the east of Glen Avon on the borders of Banffshire, at a
height of nearly 2000 ft. above the sea. It follows a generally easterly
course, roughly parallel with that of the Dee, and a few miles to the
south of it, falling into the North Sea close to Old Aberdeen, after a
run of 82 m. At the mouth the two rivers are only 2-1/3 m. apart. Like
its greater neighbour, the Don is an excellent salmon stream. On the
left its chief affluents are the Ernan, Nochty, Bucket and Urie; on the
right, the Conrie, Carvie, Deskry and Strow. The principal places of
interest on its banks are Strathdon, Towie, Kildrummy, Alford, Keig,
Monymusk, Inverurie, Kintore and Dyce.



DONAGHADEE, a market town of Co. Down, Ireland, in the north
parliamentary division, near the south of Belfast Lough, on the Irish
Channel, 25 m. E. by N. of Belfast by a branch of the Belfast and Co.
Down railway. Pop. (1901) 2073. It is the nearest port in Ireland to
Great Britain, being 21½ m. S.W. of Portpatrick in Wigtownshire.
Telegraph and telephone cables join these ports, but a regular passenger
route does not exist owing to the unsuitability of Portpatrick.
Donaghadee harbour admits vessels up to 200 tons. On the north-east
side of the town there is a rath or encampment 70 ft. high, in which a
powder magazine is erected. The parish church dates from 1626. There are
two holy wells in the town. The town is frequented as a seaside
watering-place in the summer months.



DONALDSON, SIR JAMES (1831-   ), Scottish classical scholar, educational
and theological writer, was born at Aberdeen on the 26th of April 1831.
He was educated at Aberdeen University and New College, London. In 1854
he was appointed rector of the Stirling high school, in 1866 rector of
that of Edinburgh, in 1881 professor of humanity in the university of
Aberdeen, and in 1890 principal of the university of St Andrews, by the
Universities (Scotland) Act. His chief works are: _Modern Greek Grammar_
(1853); _Lyra Graeca_ (1854), specimens of Greek lyric poetry from
Callinus to Soutsos; _A Critical History of Christian Literature and
Doctrine from the Death of the Apostles to the Nicene Council_ (i.-iii.,
1864-1866; new ed. of i. as _The Apostolical Fathers_, 1874), a book
unique of its kind in England at the time of its appearance and one
which adds materially to the knowledge of Christian antiquities as
deduced from the apostolic fathers; _Lectures on the History of
Education in Prussia and England_ (1874); _The Westminster Confession of
Faith and the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England_ (1905);
_Woman, her position and influence in ancient Greece and Rome_ (1907).
He was knighted in 1907.



DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM (1811-1861), English philologist and biblical
critic, was born in London on the 7th of June 1811. He was educated at
University College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which
society he subsequently became fellow. In 1841 he was elected headmaster
of King Edward's school, Bury St Edmunds. In 1855 he resigned his post
and returned to Cambridge, where his time was divided between literary
work and private tuition. He died on the 10th of February 1861. He is
remembered as a pioneer of philology in England, and as a great scholar
in his day, though much of his work is now obsolete. The _New Cratylus_
(1839), the book on which his fame mainly rests, was an attempt to apply
to the Greek language the principles of comparative philology. It was
founded mainly on the comparative grammar of Bopp, but a large part of
it was original, Bopp's grammar not being completed till ten years after
the first edition of the _Cratylus_. In the _Varronianus_ (1844) the
same method was applied to Latin, Umbrian and Oscan. His _Jashar_
(1854), written in Latin as an appeal to the learned world, and
especially to German theologians, was an attempt to reconstitute the
lost biblical book of Jashar from the remains of old songs and
historical records, which, according to the author, are incorporated in
the existing text of the Old Testament. His bold views on the nature of
inspiration, and his free handling of the sacred text, aroused the anger
of the theologians. Of his numerous other works the most important are
_The Theatre of the Greeks; The History of the Literature of Ancient
Greece_ (a translation and completion of C. O. Müller's unfinished
work); editions of the _Odes_ of Pindar and the _Antigone_ of Sophocles;
a Hebrew, a Greek and a Latin Grammar.



DONATELLO (diminutive of Donato) (c. 1386-1466), Italian sculptor, was
the son of Niccolò di Betto Bardi, a member of the Florentine
Woolcombers' Gild, and was born in Florence probably in 1386. The date
is conjectural, since the scanty contemporary records of Donatello's
life are contradictory, the earliest documentary reference to the master
bearing the date 1406, when a payment is made to him as an independent
sculptor. That Donatello was educated in the house of the Martelli
family, as stated by Vasari, and that he owed to them his introduction
to his future friend and patron, Cosimo de' Medici, is very doubtful, in
view of the fact that his father had espoused the cause of the Albizzi
against the Medici, and was in consequence banished from Florence, where
his property was confiscated. It is, however, certain that Donatello
received his first training, according to the custom of the period, in a
goldsmith's workshop, and that he worked for a short time in Ghiberti's
studio. He was too young to enter the competition for the baptistery
gates in 1402, from which Ghiberti issued victorious against
Brunelleschi, Jacopo della Quercia, Niccolò d'Arezzo and other rivals.
But when Brunelleschi in his disappointment left Florence and went to
Rome to study the remains of classic art he was accompanied by young
Donatello. Whilst pursuing their studies and excavations on classic
soil, which made them talked about amongst the Romans of the day as
"treasure seekers," the two young men made a living by working at the
goldsmiths' shops. This Roman sojourn was decisive for the entire
development of Italian art in the 15th century, for it was during this
period that Brunelleschi undertook his measurements of the Pantheon dome
and of other Roman buildings, which enabled him to construct the noble
cupola of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence, while Donatello acquired his
knowledge of classic forms and ornamentation. The two masters, each in
his own sphere, were to become the leading spirits in the art movement
of the 15th century. Brunelleschi's buildings and Donatello's monuments
are the supreme expression of the spirit of the early Renaissance in
architecture and sculpture and exercised a potent influence upon the
painters of that age.

Donatello probably did not return to Florence before 1405, since the
earliest works in that city that can be traced to his chisel are two
small statues of "prophets" for the north door of the cathedral, for
which he received payment in November 1406 and in the beginning of 1408.
In the latter year he was entrusted with the important commissions for
the marble "David," now at the Bargello, and for the colossal seated
figure of "St John the Evangelist," which until 1588 occupied a niche of
the old cathedral façade, and is now placed in a dark chapel of the
Duomo. We find him next employed at Or San Michele, where between 1340
and 1406 only four of the fourteen niches had been filled. As the result
of a reminder sent by the Signory to the gilds who had undertaken to
furnish the statues, the services of Ciuffagni, Nanni di Banco, Ghiberti
and Donatello were enlisted, and Donatello completed between 1412 and
1415 the "St Peter," the "St George" (the original, now in the Bargello,
has been replaced by a copy) and the "St Mark." He probably also
assisted Nanni di Banco in his group of four saints. To this early
period--in spite of Dr Bode's contention, who places it about twenty
years later--belongs the wooden crucifix in S. Croce, the most striking
instance of Donatello's realism in rendering the human form and his
first attempt at carving the nude. It is said that this crucifix was
executed in rivalry with Brunelleschi's noble work at S. Maria Novella,
and that Donatello, at the sight of his friend's work, exclaimed, "It
has been left to you to shape a real Christ, whilst I have made a
peasant." In this early group of statues, from the prophets for the
cathedral door to the "St George," can be followed the gradual advance
from Gothic stiffness of attitude and draping to a forceful rendering of
the human form and of movement, which is a distinct approach to the
classic ideal; from the massiveness of the heavily draped figure to easy
poise and muscular litheness. All these figures were carved in marble
and are admirably conceived in relation to their architectural setting.
In fact, so strong is this tendency that the "St Mark," when inspected
at the master's workshop, was disapproved of by the heads of the Gild of
Linen-weavers, but aroused public enthusiasm when placed _in situ_, and
at a later date received Michelangelo's unstinted admiration.

Between the completion of the niches for Or San Michele and his second
journey to Rome in 1433, Donatello was chiefly occupied with statuary
work for the campanile and the cathedral, though from this period dates
the bronze figure of the Baptist for the christening font of Orvieto
Cathedral, which was never delivered and is now among the treasures of
the Berlin museum. This, and the "St Louis of Toulouse," which
originally occupied a niche at Or San Michele and is now badly placed at
S. Croce, were the first works in bronze which owed their origin to the
partnership of Donatello with Michelozzo, who undertook the casting of
the models supplied by his senior. The marble statues for the campanile,
which are either proved to be Donatello's by documentary evidence or can
be recognized as his work from their style, are the "Abraham," wrought
by the master in conjunction with Giovanni di Bartolo (il Rosso); the
"St John the Baptist"; the so-called "Zuccone" (Jonah?); "Jeremiah";
"Habakuk" (?); the unknown "prophet" who is supposed to bear the
features of the humanist Poggio Bracciolini; and possibly he may have
had a share in the completion of the "Joshua" commenced by Ciuffagni in
1415. All these statues, and the "St John" at the Bargello, mark a bold
departure from the statuesque balance of the "St Mark" and "St George"
to an almost instantaneous impression of life. The fall of the draperies
is no longer arranged in harmonious lines, but is treated in an
accidental, massive, bold manner. At the same time the heads are no
longer, as it were, impersonal, but almost cruelly realistic character
portraits of actual people, just as the arms and legs and necks are
faithfully copied from life with all their angularities and deviations
from the lines of beauty. During this period Donatello executed some
work for the baptismal font at S. Giovanni in Siena, which Jacopo della
Quercia and his assistants had begun in 1416. Though the Florentine's
share in it is confined to a relief which may have been designed, or
even begun, by Jacopo, and a few statuettes, it is of considerable
importance in Donatello's life-work, as it includes his first attempt at
relief sculpture--except the marble relief on the socle of the "St
George"--his first female figures,--"Faith" and "Hope," and his first
_putti_. The relief, "Herod's Feast," shows already that power of
dramatic narration and the skill of expressing the depth of space by
varying the treatment from plastic roundness to the finest _stiacciato_,
which was to find its mature expression in the panels of the altar of S.
Antonio in Padua and of the pulpit of S. Lorenzo in Florence. The
casting of the pieces for the Siena font was probably done by
Michelozzo, who is also credited with an important share in the next two
monumental works, in the designing of which Donatello had to face a new
problem--the tomb of John XXIII. in the baptistery (begun about 1425),
and that of Cardinal Brancacci at S. Angelo a Nilo in Naples (executed
in Pisa, 1427). The noble recumbent figure of the defunct on the former,
the relief on the sarcophagus, and the whole architectural design, are
unquestionably due to Donatello; the figure of the pope is the most
beautiful tomb figure of the 15th century, and served as the model on
which Rossellino, Desiderio, and other sculptors of the following period
based their treatment of similar problems. Donatello's share in the
Naples monument is probably confined to the characteristic low relief of
the "Ascension." The baptistery tomb shows how completely Donatello had
mastered the forms of Renaissance architecture, even before his second
visit to Rome. An earlier proof of his knowledge of classic art is his
niche for the "St Louis" at Or S. Michele, now occupied by Verrocchio's
"Christ and St Thomas." Similar in treatment to the "Ascension" relief
is the "Charge to St Peter" at South Kensington, which is almost
impressionistic in its suggestion of distance and intervening atmosphere
expressed by the extreme slightness of the relief. Another important
work of this period, and not, as Vasari maintains, of Donatello's youth,
is the "Annunciation" relief, with its wealth of delicately wrought
Renaissance _motifs_ in the architectural setting.

When Cosimo, the greatest art patron of his time, was exiled from
Florence in 1433, Michelozzo accompanied him to Venice, whilst Donatello
for the second time went to Rome to drink once more at the source of
classic art. The two works which still testify to his presence in this
city, the "Tomb of Giovanni Crivelli" at S. Maria in Aracoeli, and the
"Ciborium" at St Peter's, bear the stamp of classic influence.
Donatello's return to Florence in the following year almost coincides
with Cosimo's. Almost immediately, in May 1434, he signed a contract for
the marble pulpit on the façade of Prato cathedral, the last work
executed in collaboration with Michelozzo, a veritable bacchanalian
dance of half-nude _putti_, pagan in spirit, passionate in its wonderful
rhythmic movement--the forerunner of the "singing tribune" for Florence
cathedral, at which he worked intermittently from 1433 to 1440, and
which is now restored to its original complete form at the museum of the
Opera del Duomo. But Donatello's greatest achievement of his "classic
period" is the bronze "David" at the Bargello, the first nude statue of
the Renaissance, the first figure conceived in the round, independent of
any architectural surroundings--graceful, well-proportioned, superbly
balanced, suggestive of Greek art in the simplification of form, and yet
realistic, without any striving after ideal proportions. The same
tendencies are to be noted in the bronze _putto_ at the Bargello.

In 1443 Donatello was invited to Padua to undertake the decoration of
the high altar of S. Antonio, but in the period preceding his departure
he not only assisted Brunelleschi in the decoration of the sacristy of
S. Lorenzo, towards which the bronze doors are his chief contribution,
but found time to chisel, or model in wax or terra-cotta, for Cosimo and
other private patrons, most of the portrait busts and small reliefs,
which are now distributed over the museums of the world. His first work
in Padua was the bronze crucifix for the high altar, a work immeasurably
superior to the early wooden crucifix at S. Croce, both as regards
nobility of expression and subtlety of form. In the very year when
Donatello arrived in Padua the famous Condottiere Erasmo de' Narni,
called Gattamelata, had died, and when it was decided to honour his
memory with an equestrian statue, it was only natural that this master
should be chosen to undertake a task from the difficulties of which all
others may well have shrunk--had shrunk, indeed, since classic times.
This commission, and the reliefs and figures for the high altar, kept
Donatello in Padua for ten years, though during that time he visited
Venice (where he carved the wooden "St John" at the Frari) and probably
Mantua, Ferrara and Modena. At least, he was in communication with of
Borso d'Este of Modena about a project for an equestrian statue, and had
to give expert opinion about two equestrian statues at Ferrara. In his
workshop in Padua he gathered around him quite a small army of
assistants, stone-carvers, metal-workers, painters, gilders and
bronze-casters. The Gattamelata was finished and set up in 1453--a work
powerful and majestic in its very repose; there is no striving for
dramatic effect, no exaggerated muscular action, but the whole thing is
dominated by the strong, energetic head, which is modelled with the
searching realism of the Zuccone and the Poggio heads. The high altar,
for which Donatello executed twenty-two reliefs, seven statues and the
crucifix, was completed in 1450, but had subsequently to undergo many
changes, in the course of which the original disposition of the
sculptures was entirely lost sight of, the present arrangement being due
to Camillo Boito (1895). The chief features of the altar are the
wonderfully animated and dramatic bronze reliefs, four in number, of the
"Miracles of St Anthony."

With the exception of another visit to Siena in 1457, of which the
bronze "St John" in the cathedral is a reminder, Donatello spent the
remaining years of his life in Florence. Closely akin to the rugged "St
John" at Siena, and therefore probably contemporaneous, is the
repulsively ugly, emaciated "Magdalen" at the baptistery in Florence.
The dramatic intensity of the "Judith" group in the Loggia de' Lanzi,
which was originally placed in the court of the Medici Palace, marks it
as belonging to the post-Paduan period of the master's life. His last
work of importance was the bronze reliefs for the pulpit of S. Lorenzo,
commissioned about 1460, and finished after Donatello's death by his
pupil Bertoldo. The reliefs of the "Flagellation" and "Crucifixion" at
the Victoria and Albert Museum are typical examples of the master's
style at this closing period of his life. He died on the 13th of
December 1466.

As happened subsequently to Velazquez and Frans Hals, Donatello, whose
supreme mastery had been acknowledged by Michelangelo, Raphael and the
other giants of the late Renaissance, almost sank into oblivion during
the 18th and early 19th centuries, and only in comparatively recent
times has he been restored to the eminent position which is his due in
the history of art. The full power of his genius was only revealed to
the world when, at the quincentenary celebration of his birth, the
greater part of his life-work was brought together in Florence. The
large hall at the Bargello has ever since been devoted to the display of
his works, the numerous original bronzes and marbles and terra-cottas
being supplemented by casts of works at other places, such as the
colossal Gattamelata monument.

  AUTHORITIES.--Before the date of the Florence exhibition in 1886 the
  only books on the subject of Donatello--apart from references in
  general histories of art--were Pastor's _Donatello_ (Giessen, 1882)
  and Semper's _Donatello, seine Zeit und seine Schule_ (Vienna, 1875).
  Since then the great Florentine sculptor has received attention from
  many of the leading art writers, though England has only contributed a
  not very complete record of his life and work by Hope Rea, _Donatello_
  (London, 1900), and an excellent critical study by Lord Balcarres,
  _Donatello_ (London, 1903), besides a translation of A. G. Meyer's
  fully illustrated and exhaustive monograph in the Knackfuss series
  (London, 1904). Other notable books on the subject are:--Eugène Müntz,
  _Donatello_ (Paris, 1885), and in the series of _Les Artistes
  célèbres_ (Paris, 1890); Schmarzow, _Donatello_ (Breslau, 1886);
  Cavalucci, _Vita ed opere del Donatello_ (Milan, 1886); Tschudi,
  _Donatello e la critica moderna_ (Turin, 1887); Reymond, _Donatello_
  (Florence, 1899); and Bode, _Florentiner Bildhauer der Renaissance_
  (_Donatello als Architekt und Dekorator, Die Madonnenreliefs
  Donatellos_) (Berlin, 1902).     (P. G. K.)



DONATI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1826-1873), Italian astronomer, was born at
Pisa on the 16th of December 1826. He entered the observatory of
Florence as a student in 1852, became assistant to G. B. Amici in 1854,
and was appointed in 1864 to succeed him as director. A new observatory
at Arcetri near Florence, built under his supervision, was completed in
1872. During the ten years 1854-1864 Donati discovered six comets, one
of which, first seen on the 2nd of June 1858, bears his name (see
COMET). He observed the total solar eclipse of the 18th of July 1860, at
Torreblanca in Spain, and in the same year began experiments in stellar
spectroscopy. In 1862 he published a memoir, _Intorno alle strie degli
spettri stellari_, which indicated the feasibility of a physical
classification of the stars; and on the 5th of August 1864 discovered
the gaseous composition of comets by submitting to prismatic analysis
the light of one then visible. An investigation of the great aurora of
the 4th of February 1872 led him to refer such phenomena to a distinct
branch of science, designated by him "cosmical meteorology"; but he was
not destined to prosecute the subject. Attending the International
Meteorological Congress of August 1873 at Vienna, he fell ill of
cholera, and died a few hours after his arrival at Arcetri, on the 20th
of September 1873.

  See _Vierteljahrsschrift der astr. Gesellschaft_ (Leipzig), ix. 4;
  _Monthly Notices Roy. Astr. Society_, xxxiv. 153; _Memorie degli
  spettroscopisti italiani_, ii. 125 (G. Cacciatore); _Nature_, viii.
  556; &c.     (A. M. C.)



DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA (grant in case of death), in law, a gift of
personal property made in contemplation of death and intended either
expressly or impliedly to take complete effect only if the donor dies of
the illness affecting him at the time of the gift. The conception as
well as the name is borrowed from Roman law, and the definition given by
Justinian (_Inst._ ii. 7. 1) applies equally to a _donatio mortis causa_
in Roman and English law. A distinction, however, has arisen between the
English and civil codes; by English law delivery either actual or (when
from the nature of the thing actual delivery is impossible) constructive
is essential, and this delivery must pass not only the possession but
the dominion of the thing given; by the civil law, in some cases at
least, delivery of possession was not essential (see the judgment of
Lord Chancellor Hardwicke in _Ward_ v. _Turner_, 1751, 2 Ves. sen. 431,
where the whole question is exhaustively discussed). A _donatio mortis
causa_ stands halfway between a gift _inter vivos_ and a legacy, and has
some of the characteristics of each form of disposition. It resembles a
legacy in that (1) it is revocable during the donor's life, (2) it is
subject to legacy and estate duty, and (3) it is liable to satisfy debts
of the testator in default of other assets. On the other hand, it
resembles a gift _inter vivos_ in that it takes effect from delivery;
therefore the consent of the executor is not necessary. Anything may be
the subject of a _donatio mortis causa_, the absolute property in which
can be made to pass by delivery after the donor's death either in law or
equity; this will cover bankers' deposit notes, bills of exchange, and
notes and cheques of a third person, but not promissory notes and
cheques of the donor in favour of the donee, for the donor's signature
is merely an authority for his banker to pay, which is revoked by his
death.



DONATION OF CONSTANTINE (_Donatio Constantini_), the supposed grant by
the emperor Constantine, in gratitude for his conversion by Pope
Silvester, to that pope and his successors for ever, not only of
spiritual supremacy over the other great patriarchates and over all
matters of faith and worship, but also of temporal dominion over Rome,
Italy and "the provinces, places and _civitates_ of the western
regions." The famous document, known as the _Constitutum Constantini_
and compounded of various elements (notably the apocryphal _Vita S.
Silvestri_), was forged at Rome some time between the middle and end of
the 8th century, was included in the 9th century in the collection known
as the False Decretals, two centuries later was incorporated in the
_Decretum_ by a pupil of Gratian, and in Gibbon's day was still
"enrolled among the decrees of the canon law," though already rejected
"by the tacit or modest censure of the advocates of the Roman church."
It is now universally admitted to be a gross forgery.[1] In spite,
however, of Gibbon's characteristic scepticism on this point, it is
certain that the _Constitutum_ was regarded as genuine both by the
friends and the enemies of the papal pretensions throughout the middle
ages.[2] Though no use of it was made by the popes during the 9th and
10th centuries, it was quoted as authoritative by eminent ecclesiastics
of the Frankish empire (e.g. by Ado of Vienne and Hincmar of Reims), and
it was employed by two Frankish popes, Gregory V. and Silvester II., in
urging certain territorial claims. But not till 1050 was it made the
basis of the larger papal claims, when another Frankish pope, Leo IX.,
used it in his controversy with the Byzantines. From this time forward
it was increasingly used by popes and canonists in support of the papal
pretensions, and from the 12th century onwards became a powerful weapon
of the spiritual against the temporal powers. It is, however, as
Cardinal Hergenröther points out, possible to exaggerate its importance
in this respect; a charter purporting to be a grant by an emperor to a
pope of spiritual as well as temporal jurisdiction was at best a
double-edged weapon; and the popes generally preferred to base their
claim to universal sovereignty on their direct commission as vicars of
God. By the partisans of the Empire, on the other hand, the Donation was
looked upon as the _fons et origo malorum_, and Constantine was regarded
as having, in his new-born zeal, betrayed his imperial trust. The
expression of this opinion is not uncommon in medieval literature (e.g.
Walther von der Vogelweide, Pfeiffer's edition, 1880, Nos. 85 and 164),
the most famous instance being in the _Inferno_ of Dante (xix. 115):

  "Ahi, Costantin, di questo mal fu matre
    Non la tua conversion, ma quella dote
    Che da te prese il primo ricco patre!"

The genuineness of the _Constitutum_ was first critically assailed by
Laurentius Valla in 1440, whose _De falso credita et ementita
Constantini donatione declamatio_ opened a controversy that lasted
until, at the close of the 18th century, the defence was silenced. In
modern times the controversy as to the genuineness of the document has
been succeeded by a debate scarcely less lively as to its date, its
authorship and place of origin. The efforts of Roman Catholic scholars
have been directed (since Baronius ascribed the forgery to the Greeks)
to proving that the fraud was not committed at Rome. Thus Cardinal
Hergenröther holds that it was written by a Frank in the 9th century, in
order to prove that the Greeks had been rightfully expelled from Italy
and that Charlemagne was legitimate emperor. This view, with variations,
was maintained by the writer of an article in the _Civiltà cattolica_ in
1864 (_Serie_ v. vol. x. pp. 303, &c.) and supported by Grauert, who
maintains that the document was concocted at the abbey of St Denis,
after 840. The evidence now available, however, confirms those who
ascribe an earlier date to the forgery and place it at Rome. The view
held by Gibbon and Döllinger among others,[3] that the _Constitutum_ is
referred to in the letter of Pope Adrian I. to Charlemagne (778), is
now indeed largely rejected; there is nothing in the letter to make such
an assumption safe, and the same must be said of Friedrich's attempt to
find such reference in the letter addressed in 785 by the same pope to
Constantine VI., emperor of the East, and his mother Irene. Still less
safe is it to ascribe the authorship of the forgery to any particular
pope on the ground of its style; for papal letters were drawn up in the
papal chancery and the style employed there was apt to persist through
several pontificates. Friedrich's theory that the _Constitutum_ is a
composite document, part written in the 7th century, part added by Paul
I. when a deacon under Stephen II., though supported by a wealth of
learning, has been torn to tatters by more than one critic (G. Krüger,
L. Loening).

On one point, however, a fair amount of agreement seems now to have been
reached, a result due to the labour in collating documents of
Scheffer-Boichorst, namely, that the style of the _Constitutum_ is
generally that of the papal chancery in the latter half of the 8th
century. This being granted, there is room for plentiful speculation as
to where and why it was concocted. We may still hold the opinion of
Döllinger that it was intended to impress the barbarian Pippin and
justify in his eyes the Frank intervention in favour of the pope in
Italy; or we may share the view of Loening (rejected by Brunner,
_Rechtsgeschichte_) that the forgery was a pious fraud on the part of a
cleric of the Curia, committed under Adrian I.,[4] with the idea of
giving a legal basis to territorial dominion which that pope had
succeeded in establishing in Italy. The donations of Pippin and
Charlemagne established him as sovereign _de facto_; the donation of
Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign _de jure_. It is
significant in this connexion that it was under Adrian (c. 774) that the
papal chancery ceased to date by the regnal years of the Eastern emperor
and substituted that of the pontificate. Döllinger's view is supported
and carried a step further by H. Böhmer, who by an ingenious argument
endeavours to prove that the _Constitutum_ was forged in 753, probably
by the notary Christophorus, and was carried with him by Pope Stephen
II. to the court of Pippin, in 754, with an eye to the acquisition of
the Exarchate. In support of this argument it is to be noted that the
forged document first appears at the abbey of St Denis, where Stephen
spent the winter months of 754. E. Mayer, on the other hand, denies that
the _Constitutum_ can have been forged before the news of the
iconoclastic decrees of the council of Constantinople of 754 had reached
Rome. He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith
of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor
Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between
756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of
Rome and the holy images. The forgery thus had a double object: as a
weapon against Byzantine heresy and as a defence of the papal patrimony.
As the result of an exhaustive analysis of the text and of the political
and religious events of the time, Mayer comes to the conclusion that the
document was forged about 775, i.e. at the time when Charlemagne was
beginning to reverse the policy by which in 774 he had confirmed the
possession of the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento to the pope.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See Döllinger, _Papstfabeln des Mittelalters_ (Munich,
  1863; Eng. trans. A. Plummer, 1871); "Janus," _Der Pabst und das
  Konzil_ (Munich, 1869; Eng. trans. 1869); Hergenröther, _Catholic
  Church and Christian State_ (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1872; Eng. trans. 2
  vols. 1876); W. Martens, _Die römische Frage unter Pippin u. Karl d.
  Grossen_ (Stuttgart, 1881), with text; H. Grauert, "Die
  Konstantinische Schenkung" in _Hist. Jahrb. der Gorres-Gesellsch._
  iii. (1882), iv. (1883); Langen, "Entstehung u. Tendenz der Konst.
  Schenkungsurkunde" in Sybel's _Hist. Zeitschr. l._ (1883); L. Weiland,
  "Die Konst. Schenkung" in _Zeitschr. f. Kirchenrecht_, xxii.
  (1887-1888), maintains that the _Constitutum_ was forged at Rome
  between 813 and 875, in connexion with the papal claim to crown the
  emperors; H. Brunner and K. Zeumer, _Die Konstantinische
  Schenkungsurkunde_ (Berlin, 1888; Festgaben für R. v. Gneist), with
  text; Friedrich, _Die Konst. Schenkung_ (Nördlingen, 1889), with text;
  W. Martens, _Die falsche Generalkonzession Konstantins des Grossen_
  (Munich, 1889); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, "Neue Forschungen über die
  Konst. Schenkung," i. ii. _Mitteilungen des Instituts für österr.
  Geschichtsforschung_, x. (1889), xi. (1890); G. Krüger, "Die Frage der
  Entstehungszeit der Konst. Schenkung," in _Theologische
  Literaturzeitung_, xiv. (1889); J. Hodgkin, _Italy and her Invaders_,
  vol. vii. p. 135 (Oxford, 1899); article "Konstantinische Schenkung,"
  G. H. Böhmer, in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencykl._ (1902); E. Mayer, "Die
  Schenkungen Konstantins und Pipins" in _Deutsche Zeitschr. für
  Kirchenrecht_ (Tübingen, 1904). Laurentius Valla's treatise was issued
  in a new edition, with French translation and historical introduction,
  by A. Bonneau, _La Donation de Constantin_ (Lisieux, 1879).
       (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Dr Hodgkin's suggestion (_Italy and her Invaders_, vii. p. 153)
    that the _Constitutum_ may have been originally a mere pious romance,
    recognized as such by its author and his contemporaries, and laid up
    in the papal archives until its origin was forgotten, is wholly
    inconsistent with the unquestioned results of the critical analysis
    of the text.

  [2] Leo of Vercelli, the emperor Otto III.'s chancellor, protested
    that the _Constitutum_ was a forgery, but without effect. The attacks
    upon it by the heretical followers of Arnold of Brescia (1152)
    convinced neither the partisans of the pope nor those of the emperor.

  [3] So Langen (1883) and E. Mayer (1904).

  [4] This is also W. Mayer's view in his later work. In his _Die
    römische Frage_ (1881) he had placed the forgery in 805 or 806.



DONATISTS, a powerful sect which arose in the Christian church of
northern Africa at the beginning of the 4th century.[1] In its doctrine
it sprang from the same roots, and in its history it had in many things
the same character, as the earlier Novatians. The predisposing causes of
the Donatist schism were the belief, early introduced into the African
church, that the validity of all sacerdotal acts depended upon the
personal character of the agent, and the question, arising out of that
belief, as to the eligibility for sacerdotal office of the _traditores_,
or those who had delivered up their copies of the Scriptures under the
compulsion of the Diocletian persecution; the exciting cause was the
election of a successor to Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, who died in
311. Mensurius had held moderate views as to the treatment of the
_traditores_, and accordingly a strong fanatical party had formed itself
in Carthage in opposition to him, headed by a wealthy and influential
widow named Lucilla, and countenanced by Secundus of Tigisis, _episcopus
primae sedis_ in Numidia. There were thus two parties, each anxious to
secure the succession to the vacant see. The friends of the late bishop
fixed their choice on Caecilian, the archdeacon, and secured his
election and his consecration by Felix, the bishop of Aptunga, before
the other party were ready for action. It had been customary for the
Numidian bishops to be present at the election and consecration of the
bishop of Carthage, who as metropolitan of proconsular Africa occupied a
position of primacy towards all the African provinces. Caecilian's
party, however, had not waited for them, knowing them to be in sympathy
with their opponents. Soon after Caecilian's consecration, Secundus sent
a commission to Carthage, which appointed an interventor temporarily to
administer the bishopric which they regarded as vacant. Then Secundus
himself with seventy of the Numidian bishops arrived at Carthage. A
synod of Africa was formed, before which Caecilian was summoned; his
consecration was declared invalid, on the ground that Felix had been a
traditor; and finally, having refused to obey the summons to appear, he
was excommunicated, and the lector Majorinus, a dependant of Lucilla's,
consecrated in his stead. This synod forbade the African churches to
hold communion with Caecilian, the schism became overt, and in a very
short time there were rival bishops and rival churches throughout the
whole province.

It was soon clear, by the exclusion of the "Pars Majorini" from certain
privileges conferred on the African church, that the sympathies of
Constantine were with the other party (Eusebius, _Hist. eccl._ x. 6, 7).
To investigate the dispute an imperial commission was issued to five
Gallic bishops, under the presidency of Melchiades, bishop of Rome. The
number of referees was afterwards increased to twenty, and the case was
tried at Rome in 313.[2] Ten bishops appeared on each side, the leading
representative of the Donatists being Donatus of Casae Nigrae. The
decision was entirely in favour of Caecilian, and Donatus was found
guilty of various ecclesiastical offences. An appeal was taken and
allowed; but the decision of the synod of Arles in 314 not only
confirmed the position of Caecilian, but greatly strengthened it by
passing a canon that ordination was not invalid because performed by a
traditor, if otherwise regular. Felix had previously been declared
innocent after an examination of records and witnesses at Carthage. A
further appeal to the emperor in person was heard at Milan in 316, when
all points were finally decided in favour of Caecilian, probably on the
advice of Hosius, bishop of Cordova. Henceforward the power of the state
was directed to the suppression of the defeated party. Persistent
Donatists were no longer merely heretics; they were rebels and incurred
the confiscation of their church property and the forfeiture of their
civil rights.

The attempt to destroy the sect by force had the result of intensifying
its fanaticism. Majorinus, the Donatist bishop of Carthage, died in 315,
and was succeeded by Donatus, surnamed Magnus, a man of great force of
character, under whose influence the schism gained fresh strength from
the opposition it encountered. Force was met with force; the
Circumcelliones, bands of fugitive slaves and vagrant (_circum cellas_)
peasants, attached themselves to the Donatists, and their violence
reached such a height as to threaten civil war. In 321 Constantine,
seeing probably that he had been wrong in abandoning his usual policy of
toleration, sought to retrace his steps by granting the Donatists
liberty to act according to their consciences, and declaring that the
points in dispute between them and the orthodox should be left to the
judgment of God. This wise policy, to which he consistently adhered to
the close of his reign, was not followed by his son and successor
Constans, who, after repeated attempts to win over the sect by bribes,
resorted to persecution. The renewed excesses of the Circumcelliones,
among whom were ranged fugitive slaves, debtors and political
malcontents of all kinds, had given to the Donatist schism a
revolutionary aspect; and its forcible suppression may therefore have
seemed to Constans even more necessary for the preservation of the
empire than for the vindication of orthodoxy. The power which they had
been the first to invoke having thus declared so emphatically and
persistently against them, the Donatists revived the old world-alien
Christianity of the days of persecution, and repeated Tertullian's
question, "What has the emperor to do with the church?" (_Quid est
imperatori cum ecclesia?_) Such an attitude aggravated the lawlessness
of the Circumcellion adherents of the sect, and their outrages were in
turn made the justification for the most rigorous measures against the
whole Donatist party indiscriminately. Many of their bishops fell
victims to the persecution, and Donatus (Magnus) and several others were
banished from their sees.

With the accession of Julian (361) an entire change took place in the
treatment of the Donatists. Their churches were restored and their
bishops reinstated (Parmenianus succeeding the deceased Donatus at
Carthage), with the natural result of greatly increasing both the
numbers and the enthusiasm of the party. A return to the earlier policy
of repression was made under Valentinian I. and Gratian, by whom the
Donatist churches were again closed, and all their assemblies forbidden.
It was not, however, until the commencement of the 5th century that the
sect began to decline, owing largely to the rise among them of a group
of moderate and scholarly men like the grammarian Tychonius, who vainly
strove to overcome the more fanatical section. Against the house thus
divided against itself both state and church directed not unsuccessful
assaults. In 405 an edict was issued by the emperor Honorius commanding
the Donatists, under the severest penalties, to return to the Catholic
church. On the other hand, Augustine, bishop of Hippo, after several
years' negotiation, arranged a great conference between the Donatists
and the orthodox, which was held under the authority of the emperor at
Carthage in 411. There were present 286 Catholics and 279 Donatist
bishops. Before entering on the proceedings the Catholics pledged
themselves, if defeated, to give up their sees, while in the other event
they promised to recognize the Donatists as bishops on their simply
declaring their adherence to the Catholic church. The latter proposal,
though it was received with scorn at the time, had perhaps ultimately as
much influence as the logic of Augustine in breaking the strength of the
schism. The discussion, which lasted for three days, Augustine and
Aurelius of Carthage being the chief speakers on the one side, and
Primian and Petilian on the other, turned exclusively upon the two
questions that had given rise to the schism--first, the question of
fact, whether Felix of Aptunga who consecrated Caecilian had been a
traditor; and secondly, the question of doctrine, whether a church by
tolerance of unworthy members within its pale lost the essential
attributes of purity and catholicity. The Donatist position, like that
of the Novatians, was that the mark of the true church is to guard the
essential predicate of holiness by excluding all who have committed
mortal sin; the Catholic standpoint was that such holiness is not
destroyed by the presence of unworthy members in the church but rests
upon the divine foundation of the church and upon the gift of the Holy
Spirit and the communication of grace through the priesthood. In the
words of Optatus of Milevi, _sanctitas de sacramentis colligitur, non de
superbia personarum pondera_. And the much wider diffusion of the
orthodox church was also taken as practical confirmation that it alone
possessed what was regarded as the equally essential predicate of
catholicity.

The decision of Marcellinus, the imperial commissioner, was in favour of
the Catholic party on both questions, and it was at once confirmed on an
appeal to the emperor. The severest penal measures were enforced against
the schismatics; in 414 they were denied all civil rights, in 415 the
holding of assemblies was forbidden on pain of death. But they lived on,
suffering with their orthodox brethren in the Vandal invasions of the
5th century, and like them finally disappearing before the Saracen
onslaught two centuries later.

  AUTHORITIES.--1. Contemporary sources: Optatus Milevitanus _De
  Schismate Donatistarum adversus Parmenianum_, written c. 368 (Dupin's
  ed., Paris, 1700), and several of the works of Augustine. 2. Modern:
  C. W. F. Walch, _Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der Ketzereien_
  (Leipzig, 1768); Hauck-Herzog, _Realencyk. für prot. Theol._, art.
  "Donatismus" by N. Bonwetsch, who cites the literature very fully; W.
  Möller, _History of the Christian Church_ (vol. i. pp. 331 ff., 445
  ff.); D. Völter, _Der Ursprung des Donatismus_ (Freiburg, 1883).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] There were three prominent men named Donatus connected with the
    movement--Donatus of Casae Nigrae; Donatus surnamed Magnus, who
    succeeded Majorinus as the Donatist bishop of Carthage; and Donatus
    of Bagoi, a leader of the _circumcelliones_, who was captured and
    executed c. 350. The name of the sect was derived from the second of
    these. The Donatists themselves repudiated the designation, which was
    applied to them by their opponents as a reproach. They called
    themselves "Pars Majorini" or "Pars Donati."

  [2] The Donatist movement affords a valuable illustration of the new
    importance which the changed position of the church under Constantine
    gave to the synodal system of ecclesiastical legislation.



DONATUS, AELIUS, Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished in
the middle of the 4th century A.D. The only fact known regarding his
life is that he was the tutor of St Jerome. He was the author of a
number of professional works, of which there are still extant:--_Ars
grammatica_; the larger portion of his commentary on Terence (a
compilation from other commentaries), but probably not in its original
form; and a few fragments of his notes on Virgil, preserved and severely
criticized by Servius, together with the preface and introduction, and
life of Virgil. The first of these works, and especially the section on
the eight parts of speech, though possessing little claim to
originality, and in fact evidently based on the same authorities which
were used by the grammarians Charisius and Diomedes, attained such
popularity as a school-book that in the middle ages the writer's name,
like the French Calepin, became a common metonymy (in the form _donet_)
for a rudimentary treatise of any sort. On the introduction of printing
editions of the little book were multiplied to an enormous extent. It is
extant in the form of an _Ars Minor_, which only treats of the parts of
speech, and an _Ars Major_, which deals with grammar in general at
greater length.

Aelius Donatus is to be distinguished from Tiberius Claudius Donatus,
the author of a commentary (_Interpretationes_) on the Aeneid (of far
less value than that of Servius), who lived about fifty years later.

  The best text of the _Ars_ and the commentaries upon it by Servius and
  others is in H. Keil, _Grammatici Latini_, iv.; of the commentary on
  Terence there is an edition by P. Wessner (1902, Teubner series), with
  bibliography and full account of MSS. See generally E. A. Gräfenhan,
  _Geschichte der klassischen Philologie im Altertum_, iv. (1850); P.
  Rosenstock, _De Donato, Terenti ... explicatore_ (1886); H. T.
  Karsten, _De comm. Don. ad Terenti fabulas origine et compositione_
  (Leiden, 1907). For the commentary of Tiberius Donatus see O. Ribbeck,
  Prolegomena to Virgil, Gräfenhan (as above), and V. Burkas, _De
  Tiberii Claudii Donati in Aeneidem commentario_ (1889). The text will
  be found in G. Fabricius's edition of Virgil (1561), ed. by H. George,
  i. (1905 foll.).



DONAUWÖRTH, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the left
bank of the Danube, at the confluence of the Wörnitz, 25 m. N. of
Augsburg by rail and at the junction of lines to Ulm and Ingolstadt.
Pop. 5000. It is an ancient town and has several medieval buildings of
interest. Notable among its seven churches (six Roman Catholic) are the
Kloster-Kirche (monasterial), a beautiful Gothic edifice with the
sarcophagus of Maria of Brabant, and that of the former Benedictine
abbey, Heilig-Kreuz, with a lofty tower. Remarkable among secular
buildings are the Gothic town hall, and the so-called Tanz-haus, which
now includes both a theatre and a school. The industries embrace
machinery, brewing and saw-milling; the place is of some importance as a
river port, and the centre of a considerable agricultural trade.

Donauwörth grew up in the course of the 11th and 12th centuries under
the protection of the castle of Mangoldstein, became in the 13th a seat
of the duke of Upper Bavaria, who, however, soon withdrew to Munich to
escape from the _manes_ of his wife Maria of Brabant, whom he had there
beheaded on an unfounded suspicion of infidelity. The town received the
freedom of the Empire in 1308, and maintained its position in spite of
the encroachments of Bavaria till 1607, when the interference of the
Protestant inhabitants with the abbot of the Heilig-Kreuz called forth
an imperial law authorizing the duke of Bavaria to inflict chastisement
for the offence. In the Thirty Years' War it was stormed by Gustavus
Adolphus (1632), and captured by King Ferdinand (1634). In the vicinity,
on the Schellenberg, the Bavarians and French were defeated by
Marlborough and Prince Louis of Baden on the 2nd of July 1704. The
imperial freedom restored to the town by Joseph I. in 1705 was again
lost by reincorporation with Bavaria in 1714. In the neighbourhood the
Austrians under Mack were, on the 6th of October 1805, decisively
defeated by the French under Soult.

  See _Königsdörfer, Geschichte des Klosters zum Heiligen Kreuz in
  Donauwörth_ (1819-20).



DON BENÍTO, a town of western Spain, in the province of Badajoz; near
the left bank of the river Guadiana, on the Madrid-Badajoz-Lisbon
railway. Pop. (1900) 16,565. Don Beníto is a thriving and comparatively
modern town; for it dates only from the 15th century, when it was
founded by refugees from Don Llorente, who deserted their own town owing
to the danger of floods from the Guadiana. Besides manufactures of
brandy, flour, oil, soap, linen and cloth, it has an active trade in
wheat, wine and fruit, especially melons.



DONCASTER, a market-town and municipal borough in the Doncaster
parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 156 m.
N. by W. from London. Pop. (1901) 28,932. It lies in a flat plain on the
river Don, with slight hills rising westward. It is an important station
on the Great Northern railway, whose principal locomotive and carriage
works are here, and it is also served by the North Eastern, Great
Eastern, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire, and Midland railways.
The Don affords intercommunication with Goole and the Humber. The parish
church of St George, occupying the site of an older structure of the
same name, destroyed by fire in 1853, was finished in 1858 under the
direction of Sir G. G. Scott. It is a fine cruciform structure of
Decorated character, with a central tower 170 ft. high, and contains a
particularly fine organ. St James's church was erected, under the same
architect and Lord Grimthorpe, by the Great Northern railway company.
Other important buildings are the town hall, mansion house, free library
and art school, corn exchange and markets. The grammar school was
founded in 1553 and reorganized in 1862. Doncaster race-meetings are
widely famous. The racecourse lies 1 m. S.E. of the town. The old course
is 1 m. 7 fur. 70 yds. in length, and the Sandall course of 1 m. was
added in 1892. The grand stand was erected in 1777, but there are
several additional stands. Races have long been held at Doncaster, and
there was a stand on the course before the year 1615. The St Leger takes
its name from Lieut.-General St Leger, who originated the race in 1776;
but it was not so named till 1778. The meetings are held in the second
week of September. A system of electric tramways connects the town with
its principal suburbs. The agricultural trade is extensive, and there
are iron, brass and agricultural machine works. Doncaster lies on the
outskirts of a populous district extending up the valley of the Don.
Two miles S.W. is the urban district of Balby-with-Hexthorpe (pop.
6781); and 7 m. S. is that of Tickhill, where there are remains of a
Norman castle. Wheatley (3579) lies 2 m. N.E. The borough of Doncaster
is under a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 1695
acres.

_History._--There was a Roman station here, and numerous remains of the
Roman period have been found. In the reign of Edward the Confessor,
Doncaster, as a _berewic_ of the manor of Hexthorp, belonged to Earl
Tostig; but before 1086 it had been granted to Robert, earl of Mortain,
whose successor William was attainted for treason in the time of Henry
I. The overlordship then fell to the crown, and the families of
Frossard, Mauley and Salvin successively held the manor as underlords.
Doncaster was evidently a borough held of the crown for a fee farm rent
before 1194, when Richard I. granted and confirmed to the burgesses
their soke and town to hold by the ancient rent and by twenty-five marks
yearly. The town was incorporated in 1467 by Edward IV., who granted a
gild merchant and appointed that the town should be governed by a mayor
and two serjeants-at-mace elected every year by the burgesses. Henry
VII., while confirming this charter in 1505, granted further that the
burgesses should hold their town and soke with all the manors in the
soke on payment of a fee farm. He also by another charter in 1508
confirmed letters patent granted by Peter de Mauley in 1341, by which
the latter renounced to the inhabitants of Doncaster all the manorial
claims which he had upon them, with the "pernicious customs" which his
ancestors claimed from bakers, brewers, butchers, fishers and
wind-fallen trees. In 1623 Ralph Salvin tried to regain the manor of
Doncaster from the mayor and burgesses, who, fearing that the case would
go against them, agreed to pay about £3000, in return for which he gave
up his claim to all the manors in the soke. Charles II. in 1664 gave the
town a new charter, granting that it should be governed by a mayor,
twelve aldermen and twenty-four capital burgesses, but since this was
not enrolled and was therefore of no effect the burgesses obtained
another charter from James II. in 1684 by which the town was governed
until the Municipal Corporation Act. In 1200 a fair at Doncaster on the
vigil and day of St James the Apostle was confirmed to Robert de
Turnham, who held the manor in right of his wife, with the addition of
an extra day, for which he had to give the king two palfreys worth 100
s. each. By the charter of 1194 the burgesses received licence to hold a
fair on the vigil, feast and morrow of the Annunciation, and this with
the fair on St James's day was confirmed to them by Henry VII. in 1505.
The fairs and markets are still held under these charters.

  See _Victoria County History, Yorkshire_; Edward Miller, _The History
  and Antiquities of Doncaster_ (1828-1831); _Calendar to the Records of
  the Borough of Doncaster_, published by the Corporation.



DON COSSACKS, TERRITORY OF THE (Russ. _Donskaya Oblast_), a government
of S.E. Russia, bounded W. by the governments of Voronezh, Kharkov and
Ekaterinoslav, S.W. by the Sea of Azov, S. by the governments of Kuban
and Stavropol, and E. by those of Astrakhan and Saratov. Area, 63,532
sq. m. Pop. 1,010,135 in 1867, 2,585,920 in 1897 and 3,125,400
(estimate) in 1906. It belongs almost entirely to the region of the
South Russian steppes, but in the N., W. and S.W. presents more the
aspects of elevated plains gapped with ravine-like river-courses, while
in the S.E., towards the Manych depression, it passes over into the arid
Aral-Caspian steppes (e.g. Zadonsk Steppe), dotted over with salt lakes.
Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay
slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous
marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands--chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany
the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays. The surface,
especially W. of the Don, is the fertile black earth, intermingled here
and there, especially in the Zadonsk Steppe, with clay impregnated with
salt. The government is drained by the Don and its tributaries, of which
the Donets, Chir and Mius enter from the right and the Khoper and
Medvyeditsa from the left. The Don is navigable throughout the
government, and at Kalach is connected by a railway, 45 m. long, with
Tsaritsyn on the Volga, routes by which an enormous amount of heavy
merchandise is transported. The climate is continental and dry, the
average temperatures being--year 43° Fahr., January 13°, July 72° at
Uryupina (in 50° 48' N.; alt. 92 ft.); and year 48°, January 21°, July
73° at Taganrog. The annual rainfall at the same two places is 13.4 and
17.4 in. respectively. Forests cover only 2% of the area.

Nearly one-half of the population are Cossacks, the other ethnological
groups being (1897) 27,234 Armenians, 2255 Greeks, 1267 Albanians,
16,000 Jews and some 30,000 Kalmuck Tatars, who are Lamaists in
religion. Nearly all the rest of the people, except the Jews and about
3000 Mahommedans, belong to the Orthodox Eastern Church. The Cossacks
own nearly 30,000,000 acres of land. The government is well provided
with schools, especially on the Cossack territory. Agriculture is the
principal occupation, but the crops vary very greatly from year to year,
owing to deficiency of rain. Vines are cultivated on a large scale, and
tobacco is grown in the south. Cattle-breeding is important, and there
are fine breeds of horses and large flocks of sheep. Productive
fisheries are carried on at the mouth of the Don. Nearly 13,000 persons
are engaged in coal-mining; the coalfields form part of the vast Donets
coal basin (10,420 sq. m., with a total output of nearly 13,000,000 tons
annually). Some iron ore, gypsum, salt and limestone are also produced.
The principal branches of manufacturing industry are flour-milling,
potteries, ironworks and tobacco factories. The exports consist chiefly
of cereals, cattle, horses, sheep, wine, fish and hides. The government
is under the administration of the ministry of war, and is divided into
nine districts--Donets (chief town, Kamenskaya with 23,576 inhabitants
in 1897), First Don district (Konstantinovskaya, 8800), Second Don
district (Nizhne-Chirskaya, 15,196), Rostov (Rostov-on-Don, 119,889),
Salsky (Velikoknyazheskaya), Taganrog (Taganrog, 58,928 in 1900),
Ust-medvyeditsa (Ust-medvyeditsa, 16,000), Khoper (Uryupina, 9600),
Cherkasky (Novo-cherkassk, 52,005). The capital of the government is
Novo-cherkassk. Many of the Cossack _stanitsas_ (villages) are very
populous.     (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)



DONEGAL, a county in the extreme north-west of Ireland, in the province
of Ulster, bounded N. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean, E. by Lough Foyle
and the counties Londonderry and Tyrone, and S. by Donegal Bay and the
counties Fermanagh and Leitrim. The area is 1,197,153 acres, or about
1871 sq. m., the county being the largest in Ireland after Cork and
Mayo. This portion of the country possesses little natural wealth; its
physical characteristics are against easy communications, and although
its northern coast affords one or two good natural harbours, there is no
commercial inducement to take advantage of them. The fine scenery and
other natural attractions of Donegal thus remained practically unknown
until late in the 19th century, but an effort was then made by Lord
George Hill to introduce wealth from without into the county, and to
develop its resources in this, almost the only possible direction. The
county possesses a large extent of sea-coast indented by numerous
inlets. Ballyshannon harbour, the most southern of these, is small, and
has a bar at its mouth, as has Donegal harbour farther north. Killybegs
harbour is well sheltered, and capable of receiving large vessels.
These, with Bruckles or M'Swiney's Bay, and Teelin harbour, suitable for
small vessels, are arms of the fine inlet of Donegal Bay. The western
shore is beautified by the indentations of Loughros Beg, Gweebarra,
Trawenagh and Inishfree Bays. On the north is Sheephaven, within which
is Dunfanaghy Bay, where the largest ships may lie in safety, as they
may also in Mulroy Bay and Lough Swilly farther east. Lough Foyle, which
divides Donegal from Londonderry, is a noble sheet of water, but is
shallow and in part dry at ebb tide, contracted at its entrance, and
encumbered with shoals. A few miles west of Malin Head, the most
northerly point of the mainland of Ireland, the varied and extensive
Lough Swilly runs far into the interior. From these two loughs much land
has been reclaimed. Numerous islands and rocks stud the coast. The
largest island is North Aran, about 15 m. in circumference, with a lofty
hill in its centre, and a gradual declivity down to the sea. On the
northern coast are Tory Island, and, farther east, Inishtrahull, the
_ultima Thule_ of Ireland. The inhabitants of these islands obtain a
precarious livelihood by fishing, kelp-burning and rude husbandry, but
are often reduced to extreme destitution.

Mountains and irregular groups of highlands occupy the whole interior of
the county, and a considerable portion is bog and moorland. Errigal
mountain in the north-west attains an elevation of 2466 ft. and commands
from its summit a fine view over a considerable portion of the country.
In its vicinity, the Derryveagh mountains reach 2240 ft. in Slieve
Snaght; Muckish is 2197 ft.; in the south Bluestack reaches 2219 ft.;
and in the Innishowen peninsula between Loughs Swilly and Foyle, another
Slieve Snaght is 2019 ft. in elevation. At the western extremity of the
north coast of Donegal Bay stands Slieve League, whose western flank
consists of a mighty cliff, descending almost sheer to the Atlantic,
exhibiting beautiful variegated colouring, and reaching an extreme
height of 1972 ft. From these details it will appear that the scenery of
the highlands and the sea-coast often attain a character of savage and
romantic grandeur; whereas the eastern and southern portions are
generally less elevated and more fertile, but still possess considerable
beauty. A considerable portion of the surface, however, is occupied by
bogs, and entirely destitute of timber.

With the exception of the tidal river Foyle, which forms the boundary
between this county and Tyrone and Londonderry, the rivers, though
numerous, are of small size. The branches of the Foyle which rise in
Donegal are the Derg, issuing from Lough Derg, and the Finn, rising in
the beautiful little lake of the same name in the highlands, and passing
through some of the best cultivated land in the county. The Foyle,
augmented by their contributions, and by those of several other branches
from the counties Tyrone and Londonderry, proceeds northward,
discharging its waters into the southern extremity of Lough Foyle, at
the city of Londonderry. It is navigable for vessels of large burden to
this place, and thence by lighters of fifty tons as far as Lifford.
Boats of fourteen tons can proceed up the Finn river as far as
Castlefinn. The fine river Erne flows from Lough Erne through the
southern extremity of the county into the southern extremity of Donegal
Bay. Its navigation is prevented by a fall of 12 ft., generally called
the Salmon Leap, in the neighbourhood of Ballyshannon, and by rapids
between Ballyshannon and Belleek, on the confines of Co. Fermanagh. The
Gweebarra, the Owenea, and the Eask are the only other streams of any
note. Lakes are very numerous in Donegal. The most remarkable, and also
the largest, is Lough Derg, comprising within its waters several islets,
on one of which, Station Island, is the cave named St Patrick's
Purgatory, a celebrated place of resort for pilgrims and devotees. The
circumference of the lake is about 9 m., and the extent of the island to
which the pilgrims are ferried over is less than 1 acre. The landscape
round Lough Derg is desolate and sombre in the extreme, barren moors and
heathy hills surrounding it on all sides. Salmon, sea-trout and brown
trout afford sport in most of the rivers and loughs, and Glenties for
the Owenea river, and Gweedore for the Clady, in the west; Killybegs for
the Eanymore and Eask, in the south; and Rathmelton and Rosapenna for
the Owencarrow and Leannan, in the north, may be mentioned as centres.
Ballyshannon and Bundoran, in the extreme south, are centres for the
Erne and other waters outside the county.

  _Geology._--The dominant feature in the geology of this county is the
  north-east and south-west strike forced upon the older rocks during
  earth-movements that set in at the close of Silurian times. The
  granite that forms characteristically the core of the folds is
  probably of the same age as that of Leinster, or may possibly
  represent older igneous masses, brought into a general parallelism
  during the main epoch of stress. The oldest recognizable series of
  rocks is the Dalradian, and its quartzites form the white summits of
  Muckish, Errigal and Aghla. The intruding granite, which predominates
  in the north-west, has frequently united with the metamorphic series
  to form composite gneiss. In the southern mass near Pettigo, once
  regarded as Archaean and fundamental, residual "eyes" of the
  hornblendic rocks that are associated with the Dalradian series remain
  floating, as it were, in the gneiss. North of this, the country is
  wilder, consisting largely of mica-schist, through which a grand mass
  of unfoliated granite rises at Barnesmore. The course of the
  Gweebarra, or Glen Beagh, of the Glendowan mountains, and the Aghla
  ridge, have all been determined by the general strike imparted to the
  country. At Donegal Bay the Lower Carboniferous sandstone and
  limestone come in as a synclinal, and the limestone extends to
  Bundoran. Small Carboniferous outliers on the summits of the great
  cliff of Slieve League show the former extension of these strata. Bog
  iron-ore is raised as a gas-purifier; and talc-schist has been worked
  for steatite at Crohy Head. In most parts of the west the patches of
  glacial drift form the only agricultural land. The fine-grained
  sandstone of Mount Charles near Donegal is a well-known building
  stone, and the granites of the north-west have attracted much
  attention.

_Industries._--The modes of agriculture present little that is peculiar
to the county, and the spade still supplies the place of the plough
where the rocky nature of the surface prevents the application of the
latter implement. The soil of the greater portion of the county, i.e.
the granite, quartz and mica slate districts, is thin and cold, while
that on the carboniferous limestone is warm and friable. Owing to the
boggy nature of the soil, agriculture has not made much progress,
although in certain districts (Gweedore, for instance) much land has
been brought under cultivation through the enterprise of the
proprietors. Roughly speaking, however, about 45% of the land is waste,
35% pasture and 15% tillage. Wheat and barley are quite an
inconsiderable crop, and in this as well as in other respects Donegal is
much behind the rest of Ulster in the extent of its crops. It bears,
however, a more favourable comparison as regards its live stock, as
cattle, sheep and poultry are extensively kept.

In Donegal, as in other counties of Ulster, the linen manufacture
affords employment to a number of inhabitants, especially at Raphoe,
while the manufacture of excellent homespun, woollen stockings and
worked muslin is carried on pretty extensively. The trade in these
manufactures and in the domestic produce of the county finds its
principal outlets through the port of Londonderry and the inland town of
Strabane, Co. Tyrone. The deep-sea fisheries are important, and are
centred at Killybegs, Gweedore and Rathmullen. The salmon fishery is
also prosecuted to a considerable extent, the principal seats of the
trade being at Ballyshannon and Letterkenny.

The railway system includes the County Donegal railway from Londonderry
south-west to Donegal town and Killybegs, with branches to Glenties, a
village near the west coast, and to Ballyshannon; and the Londonderry
and Lough Swilly, serving Letterkenny, and continuing to Burtonport with
a branch north to Buncrana, a watering-place on Lough Swilly, and
Cardonagh in the Innishowen peninsula. From Letterkenny the line
continues to Dunfanaghy on the north coast, thence to Gweedore and
Burtonport.

_Population and Administration._--The population (185,635 in 1891;
173,722 in 1901) decreases less seriously than in most Irish counties,
though the proportion of emigrants is large. About 78% of the population
is Roman Catholic, and almost the whole is rural. The native Erse
naturally dies out slowly in this remote county, and the Donegal dialect
is said to be the purest in the Irish language. The towns are small in
extent and importance. Lifford (pop. 446), the county town, is
practically a suburb of Strabane, in the neighbouring Co. Tyrone.
Ballyshannon (2359) on the river Erne, Letterkenny (2370) at the head of
Lough Swilly, and Donegal (1214) at the head of the bay of that name,
are the other principal towns. The principal watering-places are Moville
on Lough Foyle, Buncrana and Rathmelton on Lough Swilly; while,
following the coast from north to south, Rosapenna, Dunfanaghy,
Gweedore, Dungloe and Ardara, with Bundoran in the extreme south, are
seaside villages frequently visited. Resorts deserving mention for the
attractive scenery for which they are centres, are--Ardara, on the
Owenea river, where the cliffs of the neighbouring coast are
particularly fine; Carrick, Malin Head, the beautiful land-locked bay of
Mulroy, Narin on Boylagh Bay, Portsalon on Lough Swilly, and Stranorlar,
a small market town near the fine mountain pass of Barnesmore.

Donegal contains seven baronies and fifty parishes. Assizes are held at
Lifford, and quarter sessions at Ballyshannon, Buncrana, Donegal,
Cardonagh, Glenties, Letterkenny and Lifford. The county is in the
Protestant dioceses of Clogher and Derry, and the Roman Catholic
dioceses of Raphoe, Clogher and Derry. The county returned twelve
members to the Irish parliament; after the Union it returned two; but it
is now divided into north, east, south and west divisions, each
returning one member.

_History and Antiquities._--The greater part of Donegal was anciently
called Tyrconnell (q.v.) or the country of Conall; and it was sometimes
called O'Donnell's country, after the head chieftains of the district.
This district was formed into the county of Donegal in the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, by the lord-deputy Sir John Perrott. The most
noteworthy architectural remains of antiquity in the county are to be
found at the head of Lough Swilly, where, situated on the summit of a
hill 802 ft. high, some remarkable remains exist of a fortress or palace
of the northern Irish kings. These are known as the Grianan of Aileach,
and evidently date from a period prior to the 12th century. On Tory
Island there are one of the best specimens of a round tower and some
other interesting remains. Numerous ruins of ancient castles along the
coast prove that much attention was formerly paid to the defence of the
country from invasion. The principal are--Kilbarron Castle, an ancient
stronghold of the O'Clerys, near Ballyshannon; Donegal Castle, built by
the O'Donnells, anciently their chief residence, and now a fine ruin
standing close to the water's edge; Burt Castle, built in the reign of
Henry VIII. on the shores of Lough Swilly by Sir Cahir O'Dogherty, to
whom is also attributed the erection of Green Castle, one of the
strongholds of the clan on Lough Foyle. Near the Castle of Doe, or
M'Swiney's Castle, at Horn Head, is a natural perforation in the roof of
a cave, called M'Swiney's Gun, formed by the workings of the ocean into
the overhanging cliff. When the wind blows due north, and the tide is at
half flood, the gun is seen to spout up jets of water to a height of 100
ft., attended with explosions heard occasionally in favourable weather
at an immense distance. Gulmore Fort, on the coast of Lough Swilly,
supposed to have been erected by the O'Doghertys, having come into the
possession of the crown, was granted in 1609 to the corporation of
London. It was afterwards enlarged or rebuilt, and acted a prominent
part in the celebrated siege of Derry. Traces of religious houses, some
existing only in traditionary or documental records, are also numerous.
The ruins of that of Donegal, founded in 1474, afford proofs of its
ancient grandeur. At Raphoe, 5 m. N.W. of Lifford, is the cathedral of a
former diocese united to that of Derry in 1835.



DONEGAL, a small seaport and market town of Co. Donegal, Ireland (not,
as its name would suggest, the county town, which is Lifford), in the
south parliamentary division, at the head of Donegal Bay, and the mouth
of the river Eask, on the Donegal railway. Pop. (1901) 1214. Its trade
in agricultural produce is hampered by the unsatisfactory condition of
its harbour, the approach to which is beset with shoals. Here are the
ruins of a fine Jacobean castle, occupying the site of a fortress of the
O'Donnells of Tyrconnell, but built by Sir Basil Brooke in 1610. There
are also considerable remains of a Franciscan monastery, founded in 1474
by one of the O'Donnells, and here were compiled the famous "Annals of
the Four Masters," a record of Irish history completed in 1636 by one
Michael O'Clery and his coadjutors. There is a chalybeate well near the
town, and 7½ m. S., at Ballintra, a small stream forms a series of
limestone caverns known as the Pullins. Donegal received a charter from
James I., and returned two members to the Irish parliament. The name is
said to signify the "fortress of the foreigners," and to allude to a
settlement by the Northmen.



DONELSON, FORT, an entrenched camp at Dover, Tennessee, U.S.A., erected
by the Confederates in the Civil War to guard the lower Cumberland
river, and taken by the Federals on the 16th of February 1862. It
consisted of two continuous lines of entrenchments on the land side, and
water batteries commanding the river. After the capture (Feb. 6) of Fort
Henry on the lower Tennessee the Union army (three divisions) under
Brigadier-General U. S. Grant marched overland to invest Donelson, and
the gunboat flotilla (Commodore A. H. Foote) descended the Tennessee and
ascended the Cumberland to meet him. Albert Sidney Johnston, the
Confederate commander in Kentucky, had thrown a large garrison under
General Floyd into Donelson, and Grant was at first outnumbered; though
continually reinforced, the latter had at no time more than three men to
the Confederates' two. The troops of both sides were untrained but
eager.

On the 12th and 13th of February 1862 the Union divisions, skirmishing
heavily, took up their positions investing the fort, and on the 14th
Foote's gunboats attacked the water batteries. The latter received a
severe repulse, Foote himself being amongst the wounded, and soon
afterwards the Confederates determined to cut their way through Grant's
lines. On the 15th General Pillow attacked the Federal division of
McClernand and drove it off the Nashville road; having done this,
however, he halted, and even retired. Grant ordered General C. F.
Smith's division to assault a part of the lines which had been denuded
of its defenders in order to reinforce Pillow. Smith personally led his
young volunteers in the charge and carried all before him. The
Confederates returning from the sortie were quite unable to shake his
hold on the captured works, and, Grant having reinforced McClernand with
Lew Wallace's division, these two generals reoccupied the lost position
on the Nashville road. On the 16th, the two senior Confederate generals
Floyd and Pillow having escaped by steamer, the infantry left in the
fort under General S. B. Buckner surrendered unconditionally. The
Confederate cavalry under Colonel Forrest made its escape by road. The
prisoners numbered about 15,000 out of an original total of 18,000.



DONGA, a Bantu word for a ravine, narrow watercourse or gully formed by
the action of water. Adopted by the European residents of South Africa
from the Kaffirs, the use of the word has been extended by English
writers to ravines or watercourses of the nature indicated in various
other parts of the world. It is almost equivalent to the Arabic _khor_,
which, however, also means the dry bed of a stream, or a stream flowing
through a ravine. The Indian word _nullah_ (properly a watercourse) has
also the same significance. The three words are often used
interchangeably by English writers.



DONGOLA, a _mudiria_ (province) of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It lies
wholly within the region known as Nubia and extends along both banks of
the Nile from about 18° N. to 20° N. The rainfall is very slight, and
the area of fertility is mainly confined to the lands watered by the
Nile. Beyond stretches eastward the Nubian desert, westward the Libyan
desert. The Wadi el Kab (Gab), west of and parallel to the Nile,
contains, however, a good deal of arable land. This wadi, which is some
63 m. long, obtains water by percolation from the Nile. Farther west is
the extensive plateau of Jebel Abiad, and beyond, some 250 m. due west
of Debba, is Bir Natron, or Bir Sultan, a valley whence natron is
obtained. In this desert region is found the addax, the rarest of Sudan
antelopes. The chief grain crops are durra and barley, and date palms
are extensively cultivated. The province is also noted for a breed of
strong, hardy horses. The largest town is Dongola, but the
administrative headquarters of the mudiria are at New Merawi (Merowe,
Meroe), on the left bank of the Nile, below the 4th cataract. Other
towns, also on the Nile, are Debba and Korti, whence start caravan
routes to Kordofan and Omdurman. At Jebel Barkal, in the neighbourhood
of Merawi, and elsewhere in the mudiria, are ancient ruins (see SUDAN:
_Anglo-Egyptian_). Old Merawi, on the right bank of the Nile, and Sanam
Abu Dom, on the left bank, indicate the site of the Ethiopian city of
Napata. From Kareima, on the right or northern bank of the Nile, 6 m.
above New Merawi, a railway (opened in March 1906) runs to Abu Hamed,
whence there is railway connexion with the Red Sea, Khartum and Egypt.
From Kareima downstream the Nile is navigable to Kerma, just above the
3rd cataract. Between 1896 and 1904 a railway ran between Kerma and Wadi
Halfa. In the last-named year this railway was closed. It had been built
for purely military purposes and was unremunerative as a commerical
undertaking.

The Dongolese (Dongolawi, Danaglas, Danagalehs) are Nubas in type and
language, but have a large admixture of Arab, Turk and other blood. They
are great agriculturists and keen traders, and were notorious
slave-dealers. South of Old Dongola the inhabitants are not Nubians but
Shagia (q.v.), and the Nubian tongue is replaced by Arabic. Of the nomad
desert tribes the chief are the Hawawir and Kabbabish.

The country now forming the mudiria was once part of the ancient empire
of Ethiopia (q.v.), Napata being one of its capital cities. From about
the beginning of the Christian era the chief tribes in the region
immediately south of Egypt were the Blemmyes and the Nobatae. The last
named became converted to Christianity about the middle of the 6th
century, through the instrumentality, it is stated, of the empress
Theodora. A chieftain of the Nobatae, named Silko, between the middle
and the close of that century, conquered the Blemmyes, founded a new
state, apparently on the ruins of that of the southern Meroe
(Bakarawiya), made Christianity the official religion of the country,
and fixed his capital at (Old) Dongola. This state, now generally
referred to as the Christian kingdom of Dongola, lasted for eight or
nine hundred years. Though late in reaching Nubia, Christianity, after
the wars of Silko, spread rapidly, and when the Arab conquerors of Egypt
sought to subdue Nubia also they met with stout resistance. Dongola,
however, was captured by the Moslems in 652, and the country laid under
tribute (_bakt_)--400 men having to be sent yearly to Egypt. This
tribute was paid when it could be enforced; at periods the Nubians
gained the upper hand, as in 737 when Cyriacus, their then king, marched
into Egypt with a large army to redress the grievances of the Copts.
There is a record of an embassy sent by a king Zacharias in the 9th
century to Bagdad concerning the tribute, while by the close of the 10th
century the Nubians seem to have regained almost complete independence.
They did not, however, possess any part of the Red Sea coast, which was
held by the Egyptians, who, during the 9th and 10th centuries, worked
the emerald and gold mines between the Nile and the Red Sea. The
kingdom, according to the Armenian historian Abu Salih, was in a very
flourishing condition in the 12th century. It then extended from Assuan
southward to the 4th cataract, and contained several large cities. Gold
and copper mines were worked. The liturgy used was in Greek. In 1173
Shams addaula, a brother of Saladin, attacked the Nubians, captured the
city of Ibrim (Primis), and among other deeds destroyed 700 pigs found
therein. The Egyptians then retired, and for about 100 years the country
was at peace. In 1275 the Mameluke sultan Bibars aided a rebel prince to
oust his uncle from the throne of Nubia; the sultans Kalaun and Nasir
also sent expeditions to Dongola, which was several times captured.
Though willing to pay tribute to the Moslems, the Nubians clung
tenaciously to Christianity, and, despite the raids to which the country
was subjected, it appears during the 12th and 13th centuries to have
been fairly prosperous. No serious attempt was made by the Egyptians to
penetrate south of Napata, nor is it certain how far south of that place
the authority of the Dongola kingdom (sometimes known as Mukarra)
extended. It was neighboured on the south by another Christian state,
Aloa (Alwa), with its capital Soba on the Blue Nile.

Cut off more and more from free intercourse with the Copts in Egypt, the
Nubian Christians at length began to embrace Jewish and Mahommedan
doctrines; the decay of the state was hastened by dissensions between
Mukarra and Aloa. Nevertheless, the Nubians were strong enough to invade
upper Egypt during the reign of Nawaya Krestos (1342-1372), because the
governor of Cairo had thrown the patriarch of Alexandria into prison.
The date usually assigned for the overthrow of the Christian kingdom is
1351. Only the northern part of the country (as far as the 3rd cataract)
came under the rule of Egypt. Nevertheless, according to Leo Africanus,
at the close of the 15th century Christianity and native states still
survived in Nubia, and in the 16th century the Nubians sent messengers
to Abyssinia to Father Alvarez, begging him to appoint priests to
administer the sacraments to them--a request with which he was not able
to comply. Thereafter the Nubian Church is without records. The Moslems
may have extinguished it in blood, for the region between Dongola and
Shendi appears to have been depopulated. Between Assuan and Hannek the
Turks introduced in the 16th century numbers of Bosnians, whose
descendants ruled the district, paying but a nominal allegiance to the
Porte. At Ibrim, Mahass, and elsewhere along the banks and in the
islands of the Nile, they built castles, now in ruins. South of Hannek
the kings of Sennar became overlords of the country. As the power of the
Sennari declined, the nomad Shagia (or Shaikiyeh) attained pre-eminence
in the Dongola district.

About 1812 Mamelukes fleeing from Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt, made
themselves masters of part of the country, destroying the old capital
and building a new one lower down the Nile. In 1820 both Mamelukes and
Shagia were conquered by the Egyptians, and the Dongola province annexed
to Egypt. In consequence of the rising of the Dervishes Egypt evacuated
Dongola in 1886. The attempt to set up an independent government failed,
and the Dervishes held the town until September 1896, when it was
reoccupied by an Egyptian force.

  See J. L. Burckhardt, _Travels in Nubia_ (London, 1819); Naum Bey
  Shucair, The _History and Geography of the Sudan_ (in Arabic, 3 vols.,
  Cairo, 1903); E. A. Wallis Budge, _The Egyptian Sudan_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1907).



DONGOLA, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, which gives its name to a
mudiria. It is situated on the W. bank of the Nile, about 45 m. above
the 3rd cataract, in 19° 10' N., 30° 29' E. Pop. about 10,000. It is
1082 m. S. of Cairo by river and 638 m. N. of Khartum by the same route.
Its commerical outlet, however, is Port Sudan, on the Red Sea, 600 m.
E.S.E. by steamer and railway. It is a thriving, well-built town; an
important agricultural and trading centre. Lignite is found on the east
bank of the Nile opposite the town. Founded c. 1812 by Mamelukes who
fled to Nubia from the persecutions of Mehemet Ali, the town is called
Dongola Makara (New Dongola) to distinguish it from Dongola Agusa (Old
Dongola), which it supplanted. It is also called El Ordi (the barracks),
a reminiscence of the buildings erected by the Egyptians after their
occupation of the town in 1820. The Mahdi Mahommed Ahmed was a native of
Dongola. In 1884-1885 the town was the base of the British troops in
their advance on Khartum.

Dongola Agusa, 75 m. upstream from New Dongola, now a heap of ruins, was
the capital of the Nubian state usually called the Christian kingdom of
Dongola. An Arab historian of the 11th century describes it as a large
city with many churches, fine houses and wide streets. It is said to
have been finally destroyed by the Mamelukes. On a hill near the ruins
is a mosque in which is an Arabic inscription stating that the building
was opened "on the 20th Rabi el Aneh in the year 717 (June 1, 1317 A.D.)
after the victory of Sefeddin Abdallah en Nasir over the Infidels."



DONIZETTI, GAETANO (1798-1848), Italian musical composer, was born at
Bergamo in 1798, the son of a government official of limited means.
Originally destined for the bar, he showed at an early age a strong
taste for art. At first, strangely enough, he mistook architecture for
his vocation, and only after an unsuccessful trial in that direction did
he discover his real talent. He entered the conservatoire of his native
city, where he studied under Simon Mayr, the fertile operatic composer.
His second master was Mattei, the head master of the celebrated music
school of Bologna, where Donizetti resided for three years. After his
return to Bergamo the young composer determined to devote himself to
dramatic music, but his father insisted upon his giving lessons with a
view to immediate gain. The disputes arising from this cause ultimately
led to Donizetti's enlisting in the army. But this desperate step proved
beneficial against all expectation. The regiment was quartered at
Venice, and here the young composer's first dramatic attempt, an opera
called _Enrico comte di Borgogna_, saw the light in 1818.

The success of this work, and of a second opera brought out in the
following year, established Donizetti's reputation. He obtained his
discharge from the army, and henceforth his operas followed each other
in rapid and uninterrupted succession at the rate of three or four a
year. Although he had to contend successively with two such dangerous
rivals as Rossini and Bellini, he succeeded in taking firm hold of the
public, and the brilliant reception accorded to his _Anna Bolena_ at
Milan carried his name beyond the limits of his own country. In 1835
Donizetti went for the first time to Paris, where, however, his _Marino
Faliero_ failed to hold its own against Bellini's _Puritani_, then
recently produced at the Théâtre Italien. The disappointed composer went
to Naples, where the enormous success of his _Lucia di Lammermoor_
consoled him for his failure in Paris. For Naples he wrote a number of
works, none of which is worth notice. In 1840 the censorship refused to
pass his _Poliuto_, an Italian version of Corneille's _Polyeucte_, in
consequence of which the disgusted composer once more left his country
for Paris. Here he produced at the Opéra Comique his most popular opera,
_La Fille du régiment_, but again with little success. It was not till
after the work had made the round of the theatres of Germany and Italy
that the Parisians reconsidered their unfavourable verdict. A serious
opera, _Les Martyrs_, produced about the same time with the _Daughter of
the Regiment_, was equally unsuccessful, and it was reserved to _La
Favorita_, generally considered as Donizetti's masterpiece, to break the
evil spell. His next important work, _Linda di Chamounix_, was written
for Vienna, where it was received most favourably in 1842, and the same
success accompanied the production of _Don Pasquale_ after Donizetti's
return to Paris in 1843. Soon after this event the first signs of a
fatal disease, caused to a great extent by overwork, began to show
themselves. The utter failure of _Don Sebastian_, a large opera produced
soon after _Don Pasquale_, is said to have hastened the catastrophe. A
paralytic stroke in 1844 deprived Donizetti of his reason; for four
years he lingered on in a state of mental and physical prostration. A
visit to his country was proposed as a last resource, but he reached his
native place only to die there on the 1st of April 1848.

The sum total of his operas amounts to sixty-four. The large number of
his works accounts for many of their chief defects. His rapidity of
working made all revision impossible. It is said that he once wrote the
instrumentation of a whole opera within thirty hours, a time hardly
sufficient, one would think, to put the notes on paper. And yet it may
be doubted whether more elaboration would have essentially improved his
work; for the last act of the _Favorita_, infinitely superior to the
preceding ones, is also said to have been the product of a single night.

There is a strange parallelism observable in the lives of Rossini,
Bellini and Donizetti. They had no sooner established their reputations
on the Italian stage than they left their own country for Paris, at that
time the centre of the musical world. All three settled in France, and
all three were anxious to adapt the style of their music to the taste
and artistic traditions of their adopted country. The difference which
exists between Rossini's _Tell_ and his _Semiramide_ may, although in a
less striking degree, be noticed between Donizetti's _Fille du régiment_
and one of his earlier Italian operas. But here the parallel ends. As
regards artistic genius Donizetti can by no means be compared with his
illustrious countrymen. He has little of Bellini's melancholy sweetness,
less of Rossini's sparkle, and is all but devoid of spontaneous dramatic
impulse. For these shortcomings he atones by a considerable though by no
means extraordinary store of fluent melody, and by his rare skill in
writing for the voice. The duet in the last act of the _Favorita_ and
the ensemble in _Lucia_ following upon the signing of the contract, are
masterpieces of concerted music in the Italian style. These advantages,
together with considerable power of humorous delineation, as evinced in
_Don Pasquale_ and _L'Elisir d'amore_, must account for the unimpaired
vitality of many of his works on the stage.



DONJON (from a Late Lat. accusative form _domnionem_, connected with
_domnus_ or _dominus_, a lord), the French term for the keep of a
medieval castle, used now in distinction to "dungeon" (q.v.), the
prison, which is only an anglicized spelling (see also KEEP).



DON JUAN, a legendary character, whose story has found currency in
various European countries. He was introduced into formal literature in
the Spanish _El Burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra_, a play which
was first printed at Barcelona in 1630, and is usually attributed to
Tirso de Molina; but the story of a profligate inviting a dead man to
supper, and finding his invitation accepted, was current before 1630,
and is not peculiar to Spain. A Don Juan Tenorio is said to have
frequented the court of Peter the Cruel, and at a later period another
Don Juan Tenorio, a dissolute gallant, is reported as living at Seville;
but there is no satisfactory evidence of their existence, and it is
unlikely that the Don Juan legend is based on historical facts. It
exists in Picardy as _Le Souper de fantôme_, and variants of it have
been found at points so far apart as Iceland and the Azores; the
available evidence goes to show that Don Juan is a universal type, that
he is the subject of local myths in many countries, that he received his
name in Spain, and that the Spanish version of his legend has absorbed
certain elements from the French story of Robert the Devil. Some points
of resemblance are observable between _El Burlador de Sevilla_ and
_Dineros son calidad_, a play of earlier date by Lope de Vega; but these
resemblances are superficial, and the character of Don Juan, the
incarnation of perverse sensuality and arrogant blasphemy, may be
considered as the creation of Tirso de Molina, though the ascription to
him of _El Burlador de Sevilla_ has been disputed. The Spanish drama was
apparently more popular in Italy than in Spain, and was frequently given
in pantomime by the Italian actors, who accounted for its permanent
vogue by saying that Tirso de Molina had sold his soul to the devil for
fame. A company of these Italian mimes took the story into France in
1657, and it was dramatized by Dorimond in 1659 and by De Villiers in
1661; their attempts suggested _Le Festin de pierre_ (1665) to Molière,
who, apparently with the Spanish original before his eyes, substituted
prose for verse, reduced the supernatural element, and interpolated
comic effects completely out of keeping with the earlier conception.
Later adaptations by Rosimond and Thomas Corneille were even less
successful. The story was introduced into England by Sir Aston Cokain in
his unreadable _Tragedy of Ovid_ (1669), and was the theme of _The
Libertine_ (1676), a dull and obscene play by Shadwell. Goldoni's _D.
Giovanni Tenorio osia Il Dissoluto_, based upon the adaptations of
Molière and Thomas Corneille, is one of his least interesting
productions. Tirso de Molina's play was recast, but not improved, by
Antonio de Zamora early in the 18th century. A hundred years later the
character of Don Juan was endowed with a new name in Espronceda's
_Estudiante de Salamanca_; Don Félix de Montemar is plainly modelled on
Don Juan Tenorio, and rivals the original in licentiousness, impiety and
grim humour. But the most curious resuscitation of the type in Spain is
the protagonist in Zorrilla's _Don Juan Tenorio_, which is usually
played in all large cities during the first week in November, and has
come to be regarded as an essentially national work. It is in fact
little more than an adaptation of the elder Dumas' _Don Juan de Marana_,
which, in its turn, derives chiefly from Mérimée's novel, _Les Âmes du
purgatoire_. Less exotic are Zorrilla's two poems on the same
subject--_El Desafío del diablo_ and _El Testigo de bronce_. Byron's
_Don Juan_ presents a Regency lady-killer who resembles Ulloa's murderer
in nothing but his name.

The sustained popularity of the Don Juan legend is undoubtedly due in
great measure to Mozart's incomparable setting of Da Ponte's mediocre
libretto. In this pale version of _El Burlador de Sevilla_ the French
romantic school made acquaintance with Don Juan, and hence, no doubt,
the works of Mérimée and Dumas already mentioned, Balzac's _Élexir d'une
longue vie_, and Alfred de Musset's _Une Matinée de Don Juan_ and
_Namouna_. The legend has been treated subsequently by Flaubert and
Barbey d'Aurevilly in France, by Landau and Heyse in Germany, and by
Sacher-Masoch in Austria. It has always fascinated composers. Mozart's
_Don Giovanni_ has annihilated the earlier operas of Le Tellier,
Righini, Tritto, Gardi and Gazzaniga; but Gluck's ballet-music still
survives, and Henry Purcell's setting--the oldest of all--has saved some
of Shadwell's insipid lyrics from oblivion.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--F. de Simone Brouwer, _Don Giovanni nella poesia e
  nell' arte musicale_ (Napoli, 1894); A. Farinelli, _Don Giovanni: Note
  critiche_ (Torino, 1896); A. Farinelli, _Cuatro palabras sobre Don
  Juan y la literatura donjuanesca del porvenir_ in the _Homenaje á
  Menéndez y Pelayo_ (Madrid, 1899), vol. i. pp. 205-222.     (J. F.-K.)



DONKIN, SIR RUFANE SHAW (1773-1841), British soldier, came of a military
family. His father, who died, a full general, in 1821, served with
almost all British commanders from Wolfe to Gage. Rufane Donkin was the
eldest child, and received his first commission at the age of five in
his father's regiment; he joined, at fourteen, with eight years'
seniority as a lieutenant. Becoming a captain in 1793, he was on active
service in the West Indies in 1794, and (as major) in 1796. At the age
of twenty-five he became lieutenant-colonel, and in 1798 led a light
battalion with distinction in the Ostend expedition. He served with
Cathcart in Denmark in 1807, and two years later was given a brigade in
the army in Portugal, which he led at Oporto and Talavera. He was soon
transferred, as quartermaster-general, to the Mediterranean command, in
which he served from 1810 to 1813, taking part in the Catalonian
expeditions. Sir John Murray's failure at Tarragona did not involve
Donkin, whose advice was proved to be uniformly ignored by the British
commander. In July 1815 Major-General Donkin went out to India, and
distinguished himself as a divisional commander in Hastings' operations
against the Mahrattas (1817-1818), receiving the K.C.B. as his reward.
The death of his young wife seriously affected him, and he went to the
Cape of Good Hope on sick leave. From 1820 to 1821 he administered the
colony with success, and named the rising seaport of Algoa Bay Port
Elizabeth in memory of his wife. In 1821 he became lieutenant-general
and G.C.H. The rest of his life was spent in literary and political
work. He was one of the original fellows of the Royal Geographical
Society, and was a member of the Royal Society and of many other learned
bodies. His theories as to the course of the river Niger, published
under the title _Dissertation on the Course and Probable Termination of
the Niger_ (London, 1829), involved him in a good deal of controversy.
From 1832 onwards he sat in the House of Commons, and in 1835 was made
surveyor-general of the ordnance. He committed suicide at Southampton in
1841. He was then a general, and colonel of the 11th Foot.

  See Jerdan, _National Portraits_, vol. iii.; _Gentleman's Magazine_,
  xcii. i. 273.



DONNAY, CHARLES MAURICE (1859-   ), French dramatist, was born of
middle-class parents in Paris in 1859. He made his serious début as a
dramatist on the little stage of the Chat Noir with _Phryné_ (1891), a
series of Greek scenes. _Lysistrata_, a four-act comedy, was produced at
the Grand Théâtre in 1892 with Mme Réjane in the title part. Later plays
were _Folle Entreprise_ (1894); _Pension de famille_ (1894); _Complices_
(1895), in collaboration with M. Groselande; _Amants_ (1895), produced
at the Renaissance theatre with Mme Jeanne Granier as Claudine Rozeray;
_La Douloureuse_ (1897); _L'Affranchie_ (1898); _Georgette Lemeunier_
(1898); _Le Torrent_ (1899), at the Comédie Française; _Éducation de
prince_ (1900); _La Clairière_ (1900), and _Oiseaux de passage_ (1904),
in collaboration with L. Descaves; _La Bascule_ (1901); _L'Autre
danger_, at the Comédie Française (1902); _Le Retour de Jérusalem_
(1903); _L'Escalade_ (1904); and _Paraître_ (1906). With _Amants_ he won
a great success, and the play was hailed by Jules Lemaître as the
_Bérénice_ of contemporary French drama. Very advanced ideas on the
relations between the sexes dominate the whole series of plays, and the
witty dialogue is written with an apparent carelessness that
approximates very closely to the language of every day.



DONNE, JOHN (1573-1631), English poet and divine of the reign of James
I., was born in 1573 in the parish of St Nicholas Olave, in the city of
London. His father was a wealthy merchant, who next year became warden
of the Company of Ironmongers, but died early in 1576. Donne's parents
were Catholics, and his mother, Elizabeth Heywood, was directly
descended from the sister of the great Sir Thomas More; she was the
daughter of John Heywood the epigrammatist. As a child, Donne's
precocity was such that it was said of him that "this age hath brought
forth another Pico della Mirandola." He entered Hart Hall, Oxford, in
October 1584, and left it in 1587, proceeding for a time to Cambridge,
where he took his degree. At Oxford he began his friendship with Henry
Wotton, and at Cambridge, probably, with Christopher Brooke. Donne was
"removed to London" about 1590, and in 1592 he entered Lincoln's Inn
with the intention of studying the law.

When he came of age, he found himself in possession of a considerable
fortune, and about the same time rejected the Catholic doctrine in
favour of the Anglican communion. He began to produce _Satires_, which
were not printed, but eagerly passed from hand to hand; the first three
are known to belong to 1593, the fourth to 1594, while the other three
are probably some years later. In 1596 Donne engaged himself for foreign
service under the earl of Essex, and "waited upon his lordship" on board
the "Repulse," in the magnificent victory of the 11th of June. We
possess several poems written by Donne during this expedition, and
during the Islands Voyage of 1597, in which he accompanied Essex to the
Azores. According to Walton, Donne spent some time in Italy and Spain,
and intended to proceed to Palestine, "but at his being in the farthest
parts of Italy, the disappointment of company, or of a safe convoy, or
the uncertainty of returns of money into those remote parts, denied him
that happiness." There is some reason to suppose that he was on the
continent at intervals between 1595 and the winter of 1597. His lyrical
poetry was mainly the product of his exile, if we are to believe Ben
Jonson, who told Drummond of Hawthornden that Donne "wrote all his best
pieces ere he was 25 years old." At his return to England he became
private secretary in London to Sir Thomas Egerton, the lord keeper
(afterwards Lord Brackley), in whose family he remained four years. In
1600 he found himself in love with his master's niece, Anne More, whom
he married secretly in December 1601. As soon as this act was
discovered, Donne was dismissed, and then thrown into the Fleet prison
(February 1602), from which he was soon released. His circumstances,
however, were now very much straitened. His own fortune had all been
spent and "troubles did still multiply upon him." Mrs Donne's cousin,
Sir Francis Wooley, offered the young couple an asylum at his country
house of Pyrford, where they resided until the end of 1604.

During the latter part of his residence in Sir Thomas Egerton's house,
Donne had composed the longest of his existing poems, _The Progress of
the Soul_, not published until 1633. In the spring of 1605 we find the
Donnes living at Camberwell, and a little later in a small house at
Mitcham. He had by this time "acquired such a perfection" in civil and
common law that he was able to take up professional work, and he now
acted as a helper to Thomas Morton in his controversies with the
Catholics. Donne is believed to have had a considerable share in writing
the pamphlets against the papists which Morton issued between 1604 and
1607. In the latter year, Morton offered the poet certain preferment in
the Church, if he would only consent to take holy orders. Donne,
however, although he was at this time become deeply serious on religious
matters, did not think himself fitted for the clerical life. In 1607 he
started a correspondence with Mrs Magdalen Herbert of Montgomery Castle,
the mother of George Herbert. Some of these pious epistles were printed
by Izaak Walton. These exercises were not of a nature to add to his
income, which was extremely small. His uncomfortable little house he
speaks of as his "hospital" and his "prison;" his wife's health was
broken and he was bowed down by the number of his children, who often
lacked even clothes and food. In the autumn of 1608, however, his
father-in-law, Sir George More, became reconciled with them, and agreed
to make them a generous allowance. Donne soon after formed part of the
brilliant assemblage which Lucy, countess of Bradford, gathered around
her at Twickenham; we possess several of the verse epistles he addressed
to this lady. In 1609 Donne was engaged in composing his great
controversial prose treatise, the _Pseudo-Martyr_, printed in 1610; this
was an attempt to convince Roman Catholics in England that they might,
without any inconsistency, take the oath of allegiance to James I. In
1611 Donne wrote a curious and bitter prose squib against the Jesuits,
entitled _Ignatius his Conclave_. To the same period, but possibly
somewhat earlier, belongs the apology for the principle of suicide,
which was not published until 1644, long after Donne's death. This work,
the _Biathanatos_, is an attempt to show that "the scandalous disease
of headlong dying," to which Donne himself in his unhappy moods had
"often such a sickly inclination," was not necessarily and essentially
sinful.

In 1610 Donne formed the acquaintance of a wealthy gentleman, Sir Robert
Drury of Hawsted, who offered him and his wife an apartment in his large
house in Drury Lane. Drury lost his only daughter, and in 1611 Donne
published an extravagant elegy on her, entitled _An Anatomy of the
World_, to which he added in 1612 a _Progress of the Soul_ on the same
subject; he threatened to celebrate the "blessèd Maid," Elizabeth Drury,
in a fresh elegy on each anniversary of her death, but he happily
refrained from the third occasion onwards. At the close of 1611 Sir
Robert Drury determined to visit Paris (but not, as Walton supposed, on
an embassy of any kind), and he took Donne with him. When he left
London, his wife was expecting an eighth child. It seems almost certain
that her fear to have him absent led him to compose one of his loveliest
poems:

  "Sweetest Love, I do not go
       For weariness of thee."

He is said to have had a vision, while he was at Amiens, of his wife,
with her hair over her shoulders, bearing a dead child in her arms, on
the very night that Mrs Donne, in London (or more probably in the Isle
of Wight), was delivered of a still-born infant. He suffered,
accordingly, a great anxiety, which was not removed until he reached
Paris, where he received reassuring accounts of his wife's health. The
Drurys and Donne left Paris for Spa in May 1612, and travelled in the
Low Countries and Germany until September, when they returned to London.
In 1613 Donne contributed to the _Lachrymae lachrymarum_ an obscure and
frigid elegy on the death of the prince of Wales, and wrote his famous
Marriage Song for St Valentine's Day to celebrate the nuptials of the
elector palatine with the princess Elizabeth. About this time Donne
became intimate with Robert Ker, then Viscount Rochester and afterwards
the infamous earl of Somerset, from whom he had hopes of preferment at
court. Donne was now in weak health, and in a highly neurotic condition.
He suggested to Rochester that if he should enter the church, a place
there might be found for him. But he was more useful to the courtier in
his legal capacity, and Rochester dissuaded him from the ministry. At
the close of 1614, however, the king sent for Donne to Theobald's, and
"descended to a persuasion, almost to a solicitation of him, to enter
into sacred orders," but Donne asked for a few days to consider.
Finally, early in 1614, King, bishop of London, "proceeded with all
convenient speed to ordain him, first deacon, then priest." He was,
perhaps, a curate first at Paddington, and presently was appointed royal
chaplain.

His earliest sermon before the king at Whitehall carried his audience
"to heaven, in holy raptures." In April, not without much bad grace, the
university of Cambridge consented to make the new divine a D.D. In the
spring of 1616, Donne was presented to the living of Keyston, in Hunts.,
and a little later he became rector of Sevenoaks; the latter preferment
he held until his death. In October he was appointed reader in divinity
to the benchers of Lincoln's Inn. His anxieties about money now ceased,
but in August 1617 his wife died, leaving seven young children in his
charge. Perhaps in consequence of his bereavement, Donne seems to have
passed through a spiritual crisis, which inspired him with a peculiar
fervour of devotion. In 1618 he wrote two cycles of religious sonnets,
_La Corona_ and the _Holy Sonnets_, the latter not printed in complete
form until by Mr Gosse in 1899. Of the very numerous sermons preached by
Donne at Lincoln's Inn, fourteen have come down to us. His health
suffered from the austerity of his life, and it was probably in
connexion with this fact that he allowed himself to be persuaded in May
1619 to accompany Lord Doncaster as his chaplain on an embassy to
Germany. Having visited Heidelberg, Frankfort and other German cities,
the embassy returned to England at the opening of 1620.

In November 1621, James I., knowing that London was "a dish" which Donne
"loved well," "carved" for him the deanery of St Paul's. He resigned
Keyston, and his preachership in Lincoln's Inn (Feb., 1622). In October
1623 he suffered from a dangerous attack of illness, and during a long
convalescence wrote his _Devotions_, a volume published in 1624. He was
now appointed to the vicarage of St Dunstan's in the West. In April 1625
Donne preached before the new king, Charles I., a sermon which was
immediately printed, and he now published his _Four Sermons upon Special
Occasions_, the earliest collection of his discourses. When the plague
broke out he retired with his children to the house of Sir John Danvers
in Chiswick, and for a time he disappeared so completely that a rumour
arose that he was dead. Sir John had married Donne's old friend, Mrs
Magdalen Herbert, for whom Donne wrote two of the most ingenious of his
lyrics, "The Primrose" and "The Autumnal." The popularity of Donne as a
preacher rose to its zenith when he returned to his pulpit, and it
continued there until his death. Walton, who seems to have known him
first in 1624, now became an intimate and adoring friend. In 1630
Donne's health, always feeble, broke down completely, so that, although
in August of that year he was to have been made a bishop, the entire
breakdown of his health made it worse than useless to promote him. The
greater part of that winter he spent at Abury Hatch, in Epping Forest,
with his widowed daughter, Constance Alleyn, and was too ill to preach
before the king at Christmas. It is believed that his disease was a
malarial form of recurrent quinsy acting upon an extremely neurotic
system. He came back to London, and was able to preach at Whitehall on
the 12th of February 1631. This, his latest sermon, was published, soon
after his demise, as _Death's Duel_. He now stood for his statue to the
sculptor, Nicholas Stone, standing before a fire in his study at the
Deanery, with his winding-sheet wrapped and tied round him, his eyes
shut, and his feet resting on a funeral urn. This lugubrious work of art
was set up in white marble after his death in St Paul's cathedral, where
it may still be seen. Donne died on the 31st of March 1631, after he had
lain "fifteen days earnestly expecting his hourly change." His aged
mother, who had lived in the Deanery, survived him, dying in 1632.

Donne's poems were first collected in 1633, and afterwards in 1635,
1639, 1649, 1650, 1654 and 1669. Of his prose works, the _Juvenilia_
appeared in 1633; the _LXXX Sermons_ in 1640; _Biathanatos_ in 1644;
_Fifty Sermons_ in 1649; _Essays in Divinity_, 1651; his _Letters to
Several Persons of Honour_, 1651; _Paradoxes, Problems and Essays_,
1652; and _Six and Twenty Sermons_, 1661. Izaak Walton's _Life of
Donne_, an admirably written but not entirely correct biography,
preceded the _Sermons_ of 1640. The principal editor of his posthumous
writings was his son, John Donne the younger (1604-1662), a man of
eccentric and scandalous character, but of considerable talent.

The influence of Donne upon the literature of England was singularly
wide and deep, although almost wholly malign. His originality and the
fervour of his imaginative passion made him extremely attractive to the
younger generation of poets, who saw that he had broken through the old
tradition, and were ready to follow him implicitly into new fields. In
the 18th century his reputation almost disappeared, to return, with many
vicissitudes in the course of the 19th. It is, indeed, singularly
difficult to pronounce a judicious opinion on the writings of Donne.
They were excessively admired by his own and the next generation,
praised by Dryden, paraphrased by Pope, and then entirely neglected for
a whole century. The first impression of an unbiassed reader who dips
into the poems of Donne is unfavourable. He is repulsed by the
intolerably harsh and crabbed versification, by the recondite choice of
theme and expression, and by the oddity of the thought. In time,
however, he perceives that behind the fantastic garb of language there
is an earnest and vigorous mind, an imagination that harbours fire
within its cloudy folds, and an insight into the mysteries of spiritual
life which is often startling. Donne excels in brief flashes of wit and
beauty, and in sudden daring phrases that have the full perfume of
poetry in them. Some of his lyrics and one or two of his elegies
excepted, the _Satires_ are his most important contribution to
literature. They are probably the earliest poems of their kind in the
language, and they are full of force and picturesqueness. Their obscure
and knotty language only serves to give peculiar brilliancy to the not
uncommon passages of noble perspicacity. To the odd terminology of
Donne's poetic philosophy Dryden gave the name of "metaphysics," and
Johnson, borrowing the suggestion, invented the title of the
"metaphysical school" to describe, not Donne only, but all the amorous
and philosophical poets who succeeded him, and who employed a similarly
fantastic language, and who affected odd figurative inversions.

  Izaak Walton's _Life_, first published in 1640, and entirely recast in
  1659, has been constantly reprinted. The best edition of Donne's
  _Poems_ was edited by E. K. Chambers in 1896. His prose works have not
  been collected. In 1899 Edmund Gosse published in two volumes _The
  Life and Letters of John Donne_, for the first time revised and
  collected. (E. G.)



DONNYBROOK, a part of Dublin, Ireland, in the south-east of the city.
The former village of the name was famous for a fair held under licence
from King John in 1204. It gained, however, such a scandalous notoriety
for disorder that it was discontinued in 1855, the rights being
purchased for £3000.



DONOSO CORTÉS, JUAN, Marquis de Valdegamas (1809-1853), Spanish author
and diplomatist, was born at Valle de la Serena (Extremadura) on the 6th
of May 1809, studied law at Seville, and entered politics as an advanced
liberal under the influence of Quintana (q.v.). His views began to
modify after the rising at La Granja, and this tendency towards
conservatism, which became more marked on his appointment as private
secretary to the Queen Regent, finds expression in his _Lecciones de
derecho politico_ (1837). Alarmed by the proceedings of the French
revolutionary party in 1848-1849, Donoso Cortés issued his _Ensayo sobre
el catolicismo, el liberalismo, y el socialismo considerados en sus
principios fundamentales_ (1851), denouncing reason as the enemy of
truth and liberalism as leading to social ruin. He became ambassador at
Paris, and died there on the 3rd of May 1853. The _Ensayo_ has failed to
arrest the movement against which it was directed, and is weakened by
its extravagant paradoxes; but, with all its rhetorical excesses, it
remains the finest specimen of impassioned prose published in Spain
during the 19th century.

  Donoso Cortés' works were collected in five volumes at Madrid
  (1854-1855) under the editorship of Gavino Tejado.



DONOVAN, EDWARD (1768-1837), English naturalist, was the author of many
popular works on natural history and botany. In 1792 appeared the first
volume of his _Natural History of British Insects_, which extended to
sixteen volumes, and was completed in 1813. He also published _Natural
Histories of British Birds_, in 10 vols. 8vo (1799-1819), _of British
Fishes_, in 5 vols. (1802-1808), _of British Shells_, in 5 vols.
(1800-1804), a series of illustrated works on _The Insects of India,
China, New Holland, &c._, in 3 vols. 4to (1798-1805), and _Excursions in
South Wales and Monmouthshire_ (1805). To these works must be added his
periodical entitled _The Naturalist's Repository_, a monthly
publication, of which three volumes were completed (1823-1825), and an
_Essay on the Minute Parts of Plants in general_. Donovan was author of
the articles on natural history in Rees's _Cyclopaedia_. In 1833 he
published a _Memorial respecting my Publications in Natural History_, in
which he complains that he had been nearly ruined by his publishers. He
was a fellow of the Linnean Society, and died in London on the 1st of
February 1837.



DOOM (Old Eng. _dóm_, a word common to Teut. languages for that which is
set up or ordered, from "do," in its original meaning of "place"; cf.
Gr. [Greek: themis], from stem of [Greek: tithêmi]), originally a law or
enactment, the legal decision of a judge, and particularly an adverse
sentence on a criminal. The word is thus applicable to the adverse
decrees of fate, and particularly to the day of judgment. The verb
"deem," to deliver a judgment, and hence to give or hold an opinion, is
a derivative, and appears also in various old Teutonic forms. It is seen
in "deemster," the name of the two judges of the Isle of Man.



DOON DE MAYENCE, a hero of romance, who gives his name to the third
cycle of the Charlemagne romances, those dealing with the feudal
revolts. There is no real unity in the _geste_ of Doon de Mayence. The
rebellious barons are connected by the _trouvères_ with Doon by
imaginary genealogical ties, and all are represented as in opposition to
Charlemagne, though their adventures, in so far as they possess a
historical basis, must generally be referred to earlier or later periods
than the reign of the great emperor. The general insolence of their
attitude to the sovereign suggests that Charlemagne is here only a name
for his weaker successors. The tradition of a traitorous family of
Mayence, which was developed in Italy into a series of stories of
criminals, was however anterior to the Carolingian cycle, for an
interpolator in the chronicle of Fredegarius states (iv. 87) that the
army of Sigebert was betrayed from within its own ranks by men of
Mayence in a battle fought with Radulf on the banks of the Unstrut in
Thuringia. The chief heroes of the poems which make up the _geste_ of
Doon de Mayence are Ogier the Dane (q.v.), the four sons of Aymon (see
RENAUD), and HUON OF BORDEAUX (q.v.). It is probable that Doon himself
was one of the last personages to be clearly defined, and that the
_chanson de geste_ relating his exploits was drawn up partly with the
view of supplying a suitable ancestor for the other heroes. The latter
half of the poem, the story of Doon's wars in Saxony, is perhaps based
on historical events, but the earlier half, which is really a separate
romance dealing with his romantic childhood, is obviously pure fiction
and dates from the 13th century. Doon had twelve sons: Gaufrey de Dane
Marche (Ardennes?), the father of Ogier; Doon de Nanteuil, whose son
Garnier married the beautiful Aye d'Avignon; Griffon d'Hauteville,
father of the arch-traitor Ganelon; Aymon de Dordone or Dourdan, whose
four sons were so relentlessly pursued by Charles; Beuves d'Aigremont,
whose son was the enchanter Maugis; Sevin or Seguin, the father of Huon
of Bordeaux; Girard de Roussillon, and others less known. The history of
these personages is given in _Doon de Mayence_, _Gaufrey_, the romances
relating to Ogier, _Aye d'Avignon_, the fragmentary _Doon de Nanteuil_,
_Gui de Nanteuil_, _Tristan de Nanteuil_, _Parise la Duchesse_, _Maugis
d'Aigremont_, _Vivien l'amachour de Monbranc_, _Renaus de Montauban or
Les Quatre Fils Aymon_, and _Huon de Bordeaux_. Some of this material,
which dates in its existing form from the 12th and 13th centuries,
remains unpublished, but the chief poems are available in the series of
_Anciens Poètes de la France_ (1859, &c).

  See _Hist. litt. de la France_, vols. xxii. and xxvi. (1852 and 1873),
  for analyses of these poems by Paulin Paris; also J. Barrois,
  _Éléments carolingiens_ (Paris, 1846); W. Niederstadt, _Alter und
  Heimat der altfr. Doon_ (Greifswald, 1889). The prose romance, _La
  Fleur des batailles Doolin de Mayence_, was printed by Antoine Vérard
  (Paris, 1501), by Alain Lotrian and Denis Janot (Paris, c. 1530), by
  N. Bonfons (Paris; no date), by J. Waesbergue (Rotterdam, 1604), &c.



DOOR (corresponding to the Gr. [Greek: thura], Lat. _fores_ or _valvae_;
the English word, with other forms common in allied languages, comes
from the same Indo-European stem as the Gr. [Greek: thura] and Lat.
_fores_), in architecture, the slab, flap or leaf forming the enclosure
of a doorway (q.v.), either in wood, metal or stone. The earliest
records are those represented in the paintings of the Egyptian tombs, in
which they are shown as single or double doors, each in a single piece
of wood. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, there would be no
fear of their warping, but in other countries it would be necessary to
frame them, which according to Vitruvius (iv. 6.) was done with stiles
(_scapi_) and rails (_impages_): the spaces enclosed being filled with
panels (_tympana_) let into grooves made in the stiles and rails. The
stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is
known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile.
The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or
intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were in timber, those made
for King Solomon's temple being in olive wood (1 Kings vi. 31-35), which
were carved and overlaid with gold. The doors dwelt upon in Homer would
appear to have been cased in silver or brass. Besides olive wood, elm,
cedar, oak and cyprus were used. All ancient doors were hung by pivots
at the top and bottom of the hanging stile which worked in sockets in
the lintel and cill, the latter being always in some hard stone such as
basalt or granite. Those found at Nippur by Dr Hilprecht, dating from
2000 B.C.. were in dolorite. The tenons of the gates at Balawat (see
fig.) (895-825 B.C.) were sheathed with bronze (now in the British
Museum). These doors or gates were hung in two leaves, each about 8 ft.
4 in. wide and 27 ft. high; they were encased with bronze bands or
strips, 10 in. high, covered with repoussé decoration of figures, &c.
The wood doors would seem to have been about 3 in. thick, but the
hanging stile was over 14 in. in diameter. Other sheathings of various
sizes in bronze have been found, which proves this to have been the
universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In the Hauran in
Syria, where timber is scarce, the doors were made in stone, and one
measuring 5 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 7 in. is in the British Museum; the band
on the meeting stile shows that it was one of the leaves of a double
door. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 9
to 10 ft. high, being the entrance doors of the town. In Etruria many
stone doors are referred to by Dennis.

[Illustration: Balawat Gates, sheath and socket.

From _History of Art in Chaldaea and Assyria_, by permission of Chapman
& Hall Ltd.]

The ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors ([Greek:
monothyrai], _unifores_), double doors ([Greek: dithyrai], _bifores_ or
_geminae_) or folding doors ([Greek: ptyches], _valvae_); in the last
case the leaves were hinged and folded back one over the other. At
Pompeii, in the portico of Eumachia, is a painting of a door with three
leaves, the two outer ones of which were presumably hung, the inner leaf
folding on one or the other; hinges connecting the folding leaves of a
door have been found in Pompeii. In the tomb of Theron at Agrigentum
there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. In the Blundell
collection is a bas-relief of a temple with double doors, each leaf with
five panels. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of
SS. Cosmas and Damiano, in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal
work of the best period; they are in two leaves, each with two panels,
and are framed in bronze. Those of the Pantheon are similar in design,
with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top, bottom and
middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran
Basilica.

The doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century) are
covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns: those of Sta Sophia
at Constantinople, of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze,
and the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (9th century), of
similar manufacture, were probably brought from Constantinople, as also
some of those in St Mark's, Venice.

Of the 11th and 12th centuries there are numerous examples of bronze
doors, the earliest being one at Hildesheim, Germany (1015). Of others
in South Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant'
Andrea, Amalfi (1060); Salerno (1099); Canosa (1111); Troja, two doors
(1119 and 1124); Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made
doors for Trani cathedral; and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by
Bonano of Pisa. In all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the
top and bottom. The exact period when the hinge was substituted is not
quite known, but the change apparently brought about another method of
strengthening and decorating doors, viz. with wrought-iron bands of
infinite varieties of design. As a rule three bands from which the
ornamental work springs constitute the hinges, which have rings outside
the hanging stiles fitting on to vertical tenons run into the masonry or
wooden frame. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln;
in France the metal work of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is perhaps
the most beautiful in execution, but examples are endless throughout
France and England.

Returning to Italy, the most celebrated doors are those of the
Baptistery of Florence, which together with the door frames are all in
bronze, the borders of the latter being perhaps the most remarkable: the
modelling of the figures, birds and foliage of the south doorway, by
Andrea Pisano (1330), and of the east doorway by Ghiberti (1425-1452),
are of great beauty; in the north door (1402-1424) Ghiberti adopted the
same scheme of design for the panelling and figure subjects in them as
Andrea Pisano, but in the east door the rectangular panels are all
filled with bas-reliefs, in which Scripture subjects are illustrated
with innumerable figures, these being probably the gates of Paradise of
which Michelangelo speaks.

The doors of the mosques in Cairo were of two kinds; those which,
externally, were cased with sheets of bronze or iron, cut out in
decorative patterns, and incised or inlaid, with bosses in relief; and
those in wood, which were framed with interlaced designs of the square
and diamond, this latter description of work being Coptic in its origin.
The doors of the palace at Palermo, which were made by Saracenic workmen
for the Normans, are fine examples and in good preservation. A somewhat
similar decorative class of door to these latter is found in Verona,
where the edges of the stiles and rails are bevelled and notched.

In the Renaissance period the Italian doors are quite simple, their
architects trusting more to the doorways for effect; but in France and
Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved,
especially in the Louis XIV. and Louis XV. periods, and sometimes with
architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment
and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. While in Italy the
tendency was to give scale by increasing the number of panels, in France
the contrary seems to have been the rule; and one of the great doors at
Fontainebleau, which is in two leaves, is entirely carried out as if
consisting of one great panel only.

The earliest Renaissance doors in France are those of the cathedral of
St Sauveur at Aix (1503); in the lower panels there are figures 3 ft.
high in Gothic niches, and in the upper panels a double range of niches
with figures about 2 ft. high with canopies over them, all carved in
cedar. The south door of Beauvais cathedral is in some respects the
finest in France; the upper panels are carved in high relief with figure
subjects and canopies over them. The doors of the church at Gisors
(1575) are carved with figures in niches subdivided by classic pilasters
superimposed. In St Maclou at Rouen are three magnificently carved
doors; those by Jean Goujon have figures in niches on each side, and
others in a group of great beauty in the centre. The other doors,
probably about forty to fifty years later, are enriched with
bas-reliefs, landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders.

In England in the 17th century the door panels were raised with
"bolection" or projecting mouldings, sometimes richly carved, round
them; in the 18th century the mouldings worked on the stiles and rails
were carved with the egg and tongue ornament.     (R. P. S.)



DOORWAY (corresponding to the Gr. [Greek: pylê], Lat. _porta_), in
architecture, the entrance to a building, apartment or enclosure. The
term is more generally applied to the framing of the opening in wood,
stone or metal. The representations in painting, and existing examples,
show that whilst the jambs of the doorway in Egyptian architecture were
vertical, the outer side had almost the same batter as the walls of the
temples. In the doorways of enclosures or screen walls there was no
lintel, but a small projection inwards at the top, to hold the pivot of
the door. In Greece the linings of the earliest doorways at Tiryns were
in wood, and in order to lessen the bearing of the lintel the dressings
or jambs (_antepagmenta_) sloped inwards, so that the width of the
doorway opening was less at the top than at the bottom. In the entrance
doorway of the tomb of Agamemnon at Mycenae, 18 ft. in height, the width
is about 6 in. less at the top than at the bottom. The lintel of the
Greek doorway projected on either side beyond the dressings,
constituting what are known as the shoulders or knees (_projecturae_), a
characteristic feature which has been retained down to our time. The
next step was to work a projecting moulding round the dressings and
lintel forming the architrave. Examples with shoulders in stone exist in
the Beulé doorway of the Acropolis at Athens, in the tomb of Theron, and
in a temple at Agrigentum in Sicily; also in the temples of Hercules at
Cora, and of Vesta at Trivoli, and with a peculiar pendant in all the
Etruscan tombs. The most beautiful example of a Greek doorway is that
under the north portico of the Erechtheum (420 B.C.). There is a slight
diminution in the width at the top of the opening, and outside the
ordinary architrave mouldings (which here and in all classic examples
are derived from those of the architrave of an order) is a band with
rosettes, which recall the early decorative features in Crete and
Mycenae; the band being carried across the top of the lintel and
surmounted by a cornice supported on each side by corbels (ancones).

In the Roman doorways, excepting those at Cora and Tivoli, there is, as
a rule, no diminishing of the width, which is generally speaking half of
the height. The dimensions of some of the Roman doorways are enormous;
in the temple of the Sun at Palmyra the doorway is 15 ft. 6 in. wide and
33 ft. high; and in the temple of Jupiter at Baalbec, 20 ft. wide and 45
ft. high, the lintel is composed of three stones forming voussoirs the
keystone measuring 7 ft. at the bottom, 8 ft. at the top, 10 ft. high
and 7 ft. 6 in. deep.

All the doorways mentioned above have cornices, and in those at Palmyra
and Baalbec richly carved friezes with side corbels. In the Pantheon
there is a plain convex frieze, but the outer mouldings of the
architrave and the bed-mould of the cornice are richly carved. In the
Byzantine doorways at Sta Sophia, Constantinople, a bold convex moulding
and a hollow take the place of the fasciae of the classic architrave.

So far we have only referred to square-headed doorways, but the side
openings of the triumphal arches of Titus and Constantine are virtually
doorways, and they have semicircular heads, the mouldings of which are
the same as those of the square-headed examples. In Saxon doorways,
which had semicircular heads, the outer mouldings projected more boldly
than in classic examples, and were sometimes cut in a separate ring of
stone like the hood mould of later date.

During the Romanesque period in all countries, the doorway becomes the
chief characteristic feature, and consists of two or more orders, the
term "order" in this case being applied to the concentric rings of
voussoirs forming the door-head. In classic work the faces of these
concentric rings were nearly always flush one with the other; in
Romanesque work the upper one projected over the ring immediately below,
and the employment of a different design in the carving of each ring
produced a magnificent and imposing effect: in the Italian churches the
decoration of the arch mould is frequently carried down the door jambs,
and the same is found, but less often, in the English and French
doorways; but as a rule each ring or order is carried by a nook shaft,
those in England and France being plain, but in Italy and Sicily
elaborately carved with spirals or other ornaments and sometimes inlaid
with mosaic.

The deeply recessed Norman doorways in English work required a great
thickness of wall, and this was sometimes obtained by an addition
outside, as at Iffley, Adel, Kirkstall and other churches.

In France, during the Gothic period, the several orders were carved with
figure sculpture, as also the door jambs; and the great recessing of
these doorways brought them more into the categories of porches. In
England much less importance was given to the Gothic doorways, and
although they consisted of many orders, these were emphasized only by
deep hollows and converse mouldings and always carried on angle or nook
shafts. In the perpendicular period the pointed-arch doorway was often
enclosed within a square head-moulding, the spandrel being enriched with
foliage or quatrefoil tracery.

In the Mahommedan style the doorway itself is comparatively simple,
except that the voussoirs of its lintel are joggled with a series of
curves, and being of different coloured stones have a decorative effect.
These doorways are placed in a rectangular recess roofed with the
stalactite vault.

With the Renaissance architect, the doorway continued as the principal
characteristic of the style; the actual door-frame was simply moulded,
by enclosing it with pilasters or columns, isolated or semi-detached,
raised on pedestals and carrying an entablature with pediment and other
kind of super-doorway; and great importance was given to the feature. In
the Italian cinquecento period, the panels of the side pilasters were
enriched with the most elaborate carving, and this would seem to have
been an ancient Roman method, to judge by portions of carved panels now
in the museums of Rome. The doorways of Venice are remarkable in this
respect. At Como the two side doorways of the cathedral, one of which is
said to be by Bramante, are of great beauty, and the same rich
decoration is found throughout Spain and France. In Germany and England
the pattern book too often suggested designs of an extremely rococo
character, and it was under the influence of Palladio, through Inigo
Jones, that in England the architect returned to the simpler and purer
Italian style.     (R. P. S.)



DOPPLERITE, a naturally occurring organic substance found in amorphous,
elastic or jelly-like masses, of brownish-black colour, in peat beds in
Styria and in Switzerland. It is tasteless, insoluble in alcohol and
ether, and is described by Dana as an acid substance, or mixture of
different acids, related to humic acid.



DORAN, JOHN (1807-1878), English author, was born in London of Irish
parentage on the 11th of March 1807. He became tutor in several
distinguished families, and while travelling on the continent
contributed journalistic sketches to _The Literary Chronicle_, a paper
which was afterwards incorporated with _The Athenaeum_. His play,
_Justice or the Venetian Jew_, was produced at the Surrey theatre in
1824, and in 1830 he began to write translations from French, German,
Latin and Italian authors for _The Bath Journal_. After some years of
travel on the continent he became in 1841 literary editor of _The Church
and State Gazette_, and in 1852 under the title of _Filia dolorosa_
produced a memoir of Maria Thérèse Charlotte, duchesse d'Angoulême. Two
years later he became a regular contributor to _The Athenaeum_,
succeeding Hepworth Dixon as editor for a short time in 1869, until he
became editor of _Notes and Queries_ in 1870. His most elaborate work,
_Their Majesties' Servants_, a history of the English stage from
Betterton to Kean, was published in 1860, and was supplemented by _In
and About Drury Lane_, which was written for _Temple Bar_ and was not
published in book form till 1885, after Doran's death. Among his other
works may be mentioned _Table Traits_ and _Habits of Men_ (1854), _The
Queens of the House of Hanover_ (1855), _Knights and their Days_ (1856),
_Monarchs retired from Business_ (1856), _The History of Court Fools_
(1858), an edition of the _Bentley Ballads_ (1858), _The Last Journals
of Horace Walpole_ (2 vols., 1859), _The Princess of Wales_ (1860), and
the _Memoirs of Queen Adelaide_ (1861). These were followed by _A Lady
of the Last Century_ (1873), an account of Mrs Elizabeth Montagu and the
blue-stockings; _London in Jacobite Times_ (1877); and _Memories of our
Great Towns_ (1878). Doran died in London, on the 25th of January 1878.



DORAT, CLAUDE JOSEPH (1734-1780), French man of letters, was born in
Paris on the 31st of December 1734. He belonged to a family whose
members had for generations been lawyers, and he entered the corps of
the king's musketeers. He obtained a great vogue by his _Réponse
d'Abailard à Héloïse_, and followed up this first success with a number
of heroic epistles, _Les Victimes de l'amour, ou lettres de quelques
amants célèbres_ (1776). Dorat was possessed by an ambition quite out of
proportion to his very mediocre ability. Besides light verse he wrote
comedies, fables and, among other novels, _Les Sacrifices de l'amour, ou
lettres de la vicomtesse de Senanges et du chevalier de Versenay_
(1771). He tried to cover his failures as a dramatist by buying up a
great number of seats, and his books were lavishly illustrated by good
artists and expensively produced, to secure their success. He was
maladroit enough to draw down on himself the hatred both of the
_philosophe_ party and of their arch-enemy Charles Palissot, and thus
cut himself off from the possibility of academic honours. _Le Tartufe
littéraire_ (1777) attacked La Harpe and Palissot, and at the same time
D'Alembert and Mlle de Lespinasse. Dorat died on the 29th of April 1780
in Paris.

  See G. Desnoireterres, _Le Chevalier Dorat et les poètes légers au
  XVIII^e siècle_ (1887). For the bibliographical value of his works,
  see Henry Cohen, _Guide de l'amateur de livres à figures et à
  vignettes du XVIII^e siècle_ (editions of Ch. Mehl, 1876, and R.
  Portalis, 1887).



DORCHESTER, DUDLEY CARLETON, VISCOUNT (1573-1632), English diplomatist,
son of Antony Carleton of Baldwin Brightwell, Oxfordshire, and of
Jocosa, daughter of John Goodwin of Winchington, Buckinghamshire, was
born on the 10th of March 1573, and educated at Westminster school and
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1600. He travelled
abroad, and was returned to the parliament of 1604 as member for St
Mawes. Through his connexion as secretary with the earl of
Northumberland his name was associated with the Gunpowder Plot, but
after a short confinement he succeeded in clearing himself of any share
in the conspiracy. In 1610 he was knighted and was sent as ambassador to
Venice, where he was the means of concluding the treaty of Asti. He
returned in 1615, and next year was appointed ambassador to Holland. The
policy of England on the continent depended mainly upon its relations
with that state, and Carleton succeeded in improving these, in spite of
his firm attitude on the subject of the massacre of Amboyna, the bitter
commercial disputes between the two countries, and the fatal tendency of
James I. to seek alliance with Spain. It was in his house at the Hague
that the unfortunate Elector Frederick and the princess Elizabeth took
refuge in 1621. Carleton returned to England in 1625 with the duke of
Buckingham, and was made vice-chamberlain of the household and a privy
councillor. Shortly afterwards he took part in an abortive mission to
France in favour of the French Protestants and to inspire a league
against the house of Austria. On his return in 1626 he found the
attention of parliament, to which he had been elected for Hastings,
completely occupied with the attack upon Buckingham. Carleton
endeavoured to defend his patron, and supported the king's violent
exercise of his prerogative. It was perhaps fortunate that his further
career in the Commons was cut short by his elevation in May to the
peerage as Baron Carleton of Imbercourt. Shortly afterwards he was
despatched on another mission to the Hague, on his return from which he
was created Viscount Dorchester in July 1628. He was active in
forwarding the conferences between Buckingham and Contarini for a peace
with France on the eve of the duke's intended departure for La Rochelle,
which was prevented by the latter's assassination. In December 1628 he
was made principal secretary of state, and died on the 15th of February
1632, being buried in Westminster Abbey. He was twice married, and had
children, but all died in infancy, and the title became extinct.
Carleton was one of the ablest diplomatists of the time, and his talents
would have secured greater triumphs had he not been persistently
hampered by the mistaken and hesitating foreign policy of the court.

  His voluminous correspondence, remarkable for its clear, easy and
  effective style, and for the writer's grasp of the main points of
  policy, covers practically the whole history of foreign affairs during
  the period 1610-1628, and furnishes valuable material for the study of
  the Thirty Years' War. His letters as ambassador at the Hague, January
  1616 to December 1620, were first edited by Philip Yorke, afterwards
  second earl of Hardwicke, with a biographical and historical preface,
  in 1757; his correspondence from the Hague in 1627 by Sir Thomas
  Phillipps in 1841; other letters are printed in the _Cabala_, and in
  T. Birch's _Court and Times of James I. and Charles I._, but by far
  the greater portion remains in MS. among the state papers.



DORCHESTER, GUY CARLETON, 1st BARON (1724-1808), British general and
administrator, was born at Strabane, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, on the 3rd of
September 1724. He served with distinction on the continent under the
duke of Cumberland, and in 1759 in America as quartermaster-general,
under his friend Wolfe. He was wounded at the capture of Quebec, and
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. In 1766 he was appointed
governor-general of Canada, which position he held till 1778. His
justice and kindliness greatly endeared him to the recently conquered
French-Canadians, and did much to hold them neutral during the War of
American Independence. He ordered the first codification of the civil
law of the province, and was largely responsible for the passing of the
Quebec Act. On the American invasion of Canada in 1775 he was compelled
to abandon Montreal and narrowly escaped capture, but defended Quebec
(q.v.) with skill and success. In October of the same year he destroyed
the American flotilla on Lake Champlain. In 1777 he was superseded in
his command of the military forces by Major-General John Burgoyne, and
asked to be recalled. He returned, however, to America in May 1782 as
commander-in-chief, remaining till November 1783. In 1786 he was again
sent to Canada as governor-general and commander of the forces, with the
title of Baron Dorchester. Many important reforms marked his rule; he
administered the country with tact and moderation, and kept it loyal to
the British crown amid the ferment caused by the French Revolution, and
by the attempts of American emissaries to arouse discontent. In 1791 the
province was divided into Upper and Lower Canada by the Constitutional
Act. Of this division Carleton disapproved, as he did also of a
provision tending to create in the new colony an hereditary aristocracy.
In 1796 he insisted on retiring, and returned to England. He died on the
10th of November 1808. He married in 1772 a daughter of the 2nd earl of
Effingham, and had nine children, being succeeded in the title by his
grandson Arthur. On the death in 1897 of the 4th baron (another
grandson) the title became extinct, but was revived in 1899 for his
cousin and co-heiress Henrietta Anne as Baroness Dorchester.

  J. C. Dent's _Canadian Portrait Gallery_ (Toronto, 1880) gives a
  sketch of Lord Dorchester's Canadian career. His life by A. G. Bradley
  is included in the _Makers of Canada_ series (Toronto). Most of his
  letters and state papers, which are indispensable for a knowledge of
  the period, are in the archives department at Ottawa, and are
  calendared in Brymner's _Reports on Canadian Archives_ (Ottawa, 1885,
  seq.).     (W. L. G.)



DORCHESTER, a market town and municipal borough and the county town of
Dorsetshire, England, in the southern parliamentary division, 135 m.
S.W. by W. from London by the London & South Western railway; served
also by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 9458. It stands on an
eminence on the right bank of the river Frome, within a wide open tract
of land, containing 3400 acres, held under the duchy of Cornwall, called
Fordington Field. Several of the streets are planted with trees, and the
town is nearly surrounded by fine avenues. St Peter's church is a
Perpendicular building with a fine tower. All Saints and Holy Trinity
churches are modern, but Fordington church retains Norman and
Transitional details. Of public buildings the principal are--the
town-hall, with market-house, shire-hall, county prison and county
hospital; there is also a county museum, containing many local objects
of much interest. The grammar school (founded in 1569) is endowed with
exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. There is a statue to William Barnes
the Dorsetshire poet (1801-1886). The town is noted also for its ale. It
is a place of considerable agricultural trade, and large sheep and lamb
fairs are held annually. The borough is under a mayor, six aldermen and
eighteen councillors. Area 1648 acres.

_History._--_Durnovaria_ was here, a Romano-British country town of
considerable size, probably successor to a British tribal centre of the
Durotriges. The walls can be traced in part, and many mosaics, remains
of houses, &c., have been found. The remains of an amphitheatre are seen
at Maumbury Rings, near the town. Maiden Castle, 2 m. S.W. of the town,
is a vast earthwork considered to have been a stronghold of the tribe of
the Durotriges. There are other such remains in the vicinity. Little
mention of Dorchester (_Dornceaster_, _Dorcestre_) occurs in Saxon
annals, but a charter from Æthelstan to Milton Abbey in 939 is dated at
_villa regalis quae dicitur Doracestria_, and at this period it
possessed a mint. According to the Domesday Survey it was a royal
borough, and at the time of Edward the Confessor contained 172 houses,
of which 100 had been totally destroyed since the Conquest. Mention is
made of a castle at Dorchester in records of the 12th and 13th
centuries; and the Franciscan priory, founded some time before 1331, is
thought to have been constructed out of its ruins. The latter was
suppressed among the lesser monasteries in 1536. Edward II. granted the
borough to the bailiffs and burgesses at a fee-farm rent of £20 for five
years, and the grant was renewed in perpetuity by Edward III. Richard
III. empowered the burgesses to elect a coroner and two constables, to
be exempt from tolls, and to try minor pleas in the king's court within
the borough before a steward to be chosen by themselves. The first
charter of incorporation, granted by James I. in 1610, established a
governing council of two bailiffs and fifteen capital burgesses.
Charles I. in 1629 instituted a mayor, six aldermen and six capital
burgesses, and also incorporated all the freemen of the borough, for the
purposes of trade, under the government of a council consisting of a
governor, assistants and twenty-four freemen, the governor and four
assistants to be chosen out of the twenty-four by the freemen, and five
other assistants to be chosen by the mayor out of the capital burgesses;
the Council was empowered to hold four courts yearly and to make laws
for the regulation of the markets and trade. Dorchester returned two
members to parliament from 1295, until the Representation of the People
Act of 1868 reduced the number to one; by the Redistribution Act of 1885
the representation was merged in the county. Edward III. granted to the
burgesses the perquisites from three fairs lasting one day at the feasts
of Holy Trinity, St John Baptist and St James, and markets on Wednesday,
Friday and Saturday. Elizabeth granted an additional three days' fair at
Candlemas. The days of the fairs and markets have remained unchanged.
The cloth industry which flourished during the 16th century never
recovered from the depression following on the Civil War. The malting
and brewing industries came into prominence in the 17th century, when
there was also a considerable serge manufacture, which has since
declined.

  See _Victoria County History, Dorsetshire_; John Hutchins, _The
  History and Antiquities of the Town and Borough of Dorchester_ (3rd
  edition, corrected, augmented and improved by W. Shipp and J. W.
  Hodson, Blandford, 1865).



DORCHESTER, a large village in the south parliamentary division of
Oxfordshire, England, 9 m. S.S.E. of Oxford by road, on the river Thame,
1 m. from its junction with the Thames. This is a site of much
historical interest. There was a Roman station near the present village,
facing, across the Thames, the double isolated mound known as Wittenham
Hills (historically _Sinodun_), on one summit of which are strong early
earthworks. In Dorchester itself the chief point of interest is the
abbey church of St Peter and St Paul. This consists of a nave of great
length, primarily of the transitional Norman period; a choir with
arcades of the finest Decorated work; north choir aisle of the close of
the 13th century, south choir aisle (c. 1300) and south nave aisle (c.
1320). The tower (western) is an erection of the late 17th century. The
eastern bay of the choir is considered to have been added as a Lady
chapel, and the north window is a magnificent example of a "Jesse
window," in which the tracery represents the genealogical tree of Jesse,
the complete execution of the design being carried on in the glass. The
sedilia and piscina are very fine. The Decorated windows on the south
side of the church form a beautiful series, and there are monuments and
brasses of great interest.

Dorchester (_Dorcinia_, _Dornacestre_, _Dorchecestre_) was conquered by
the West Saxons about 560. It occupied a commanding position at the
junction of the Thames and the Thame, and in 635 was made the seat of a
bishopric which at its foundation was the largest in England, comprising
the whole of Wessex and Mercia. The witenagemot of Wessex was held at
Dorchester three times in the 9th century, and in 958 Æthelstan held a
council here. In the 11th century, however, the town is described as
small and ill-peopled and remarkable only for the majesty of its
churches, and in about 1086 William I. and Bishop Remigius removed the
bishop's stool to Lincoln, as a city more worthy of the distinction.
According to the Domesday Survey Dorchester was held by the bishop of
Lincoln; it was assessed at 100 hides and comprised two mills. In 1140
Alexander bishop of Lincoln founded an abbey of Black Canons at
Dorchester, but the town declined in importance after the removal of the
cathedral, and is described by 16th-century writers as a mere
agricultural village and destitute of trade.

  See _Victoria County History, Oxfordshire_; Henry Addington, _Some
  Account of the Abbey Church of St Peter and St Paul at Dorchester,
  Oxfordshire_, reissue with additional notes (Oxford, 1860).



DORCHESTER, a residential and manufacturing district of Boston,
Massachusetts, U.S.A., a separate town until 1870, between the Neponset
river on the S. and South Boston and Boston proper on the N. It is
served by three lines of the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway. A
ridge, with an average height of about 100 ft. above the sea, extends
through the district from N. to S. and commands delightful views of
Boston Bay to the E. and of the Blue Hills to the S. There are many
large private estates, with beautiful lawns, and Franklin Field and
Franklin Park, one of the largest parks of the Boston park system, are
in Dorchester. The Shawmut school for girls is in the district. Among
the landmarks are the Barnard Capen house, built in the fourth decade of
the 17th century and now probably the second oldest house in New
England; and the James Blake house (1648), now the home of the
Dorchester Historical Society, which has a library and a museum.
Opposite the Blake house formerly stood the house in which Edward
Everett was born. Not far away is the old Dorchester burying ground,
which dates from 1634; it has many curious epitaphs, and contains the
graves of Barnard Capen, who died in 1638 (probably the oldest marked
grave in the United States); of William Stoughton (1631-1701), chief
justice of the court which tried the Salem "witches" in 1692,
lieutenant-governor of the colony from 1692, acting governor in
1694-1699 and 1700-1701, and founder of the original Stoughton Hall,
Harvard; and of Richard Mather, pastor of the First Parish church here
from 1636 until his death. In Dorchester Maria Susana Cummins
(1827-1866) wrote _The Lamplighter_ (1854), one of the most popular
novels of its time, and William T. Adams ("Oliver Optic") and Charles
Follen Adams ("Yawcob Strauss") did much of their writing; it was long
the home of Mrs Lucy Stone (Blackwell). Among the manufactures are
cocoa, chocolate, &c. (of the long-established Walter Baker & Co.),
paper, crushing and grinding machinery (Sturtevant Mill Co.), chemicals,
horseshoe nails, valves, organs and pianos, lumber, automobiles and shoe
machinery.

Dorchester was founded by about 140 colonists from Dorsetshire, England,
with whom the movement for planting the colony in Massachusetts Bay was
begun under the leadership of Rev. John White. They organized as a
church while at Plymouth, England, in March 1630, then embarked in the
ship "Mary and John," arrived in Boston Bay two weeks before Governor
Winthrop with the rest of the fleet, and in June selected Savin Hill (E.
of what is now Dorchester Avenue and between Crescent Avenue and
Dorchester Bay) as the site for their settlement. At the time the place
was known as Mattapanock, but they named it Dorchester. Town affairs
were at first managed by the church, but in October 1633 a town
government was organized, and the example was followed by the
neighbouring settlements; this seems to have been the beginning of the
town-meeting form of government in America. Up to this time Dorchester
was the largest town in the colony, but dissatisfaction arose with the
location (Boston had a better one chiefly on account of the deeper water
in its harbour), and in 1635-1637 many of the original settlers removed
to the valley of the Connecticut where they planted Windsor. New
settlers, however, arrived at Dorchester and in 1639 that town
established a school supported by a public tax; this was the first free
school in America supported by direct taxation or assessment on the
inhabitants of a town.[1] In October 1695, a few of the inhabitants of
Dorchester organized a church and in December removed to South Carolina
where they planted another Dorchester (on the N. bank of the Ashley
river, about 26 m. from Charleston); by 1752 they had become
dissatisfied with their location, which was unhealthy, and they
gradually removed to Georgia, where they settled at Medway (half way
between the Ogeechee and Altamaha rivers), their settlement soon
developing into St John's Parish (see GEORGIA: _History_). It was the
fortification of Dorchester Heights, under orders from General
Washington, on the night of the 4th and 5th of March 1776, that forced
the British to evacuate Boston. At one time Dorchester extended from
Boston nearly to the Rhode Island line; but its territory was gradually
reduced by the creation of new townships and additions to old ones.
Dorchester Neck was annexed to Boston in 1804, Thompson's Island in
1834, and the remaining portions in 1855 and 1870.

  See W. D. Orcutt, _Good Old Dorchester_ (Cambridge, 1893).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1635 the general court of the colony of Massachusetts Bay had
    granted to Dorchester Thompson's Island, situated near the coast of
    the township. By the township of Dorchester this island was
    apportioned among the freemen of the township. On the 20th of May
    1639 it was ordered that the proprietors of land in this island
    should collectively pay a "rent of twenty pounds a year forever,"
    this rent "to be paid to such a school-master as shall undertake to
    teach English, Latin, and other tongues, and also writing," it being
    "left to the discretion of the elders and the seven men for the time
    being whether maids shall be taught with the boys or not." In 1642
    the proprietors of the island conveyed it to the township "for and
    toward the maintenance of a free school in Dorchester aforesaid for
    the instructing and teaching of children and youth in good literature
    and learning."



DORDOGNE, a river of central and south-western France, rising at a
height of 5640 ft. on the Puy-de-Sancy, a mountain of the department of
Puy-de-Dôme, and flowing to the Garonne with which it unites at Bec
d'Ambès to form the Gironde estuary. It has a length of 295 m. and the
area of its basin is 9214 sq. m. Descending rapidly from its source,
sometimes over cascades, the river soon enters deep gorges through which
it flows as far as Beaulieu (department of Corrèze) where it debouches
into a wide and fertile valley and is shortly after joined by the Cère.
Entering the department of Lot, it abandons a south-westerly for a
westerly course and flowing in a sinuous channel traverses the
department of Dordogne, where it receives the waters of the Vézère.
Below the town of Bergerac it enters the department of Gironde, where at
Libourne it is joined by the Isle and widens out, attaining at its union
with the Garonne 45 m. from the sea a width of nearly 3300 yds. A few
miles above this point the river is spanned by the magnificent bridges
of Cubzac-les-Ponts, which carry a road and railway. Below its
confluence with the Vézère, over the last 112 m. of its course, the
river carries considerable navigation. The influence of the highest
tides is felt at Pessac, a distance of 100 m. from the ocean.



DORDOGNE, an inland department of south-western France, formed in 1790
from nearly the whole of Périgord, a part of Agenais, and small portions
of Limousin and of Angoumois. Area 3560 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 447,052. It
is bounded N. by Haute-Vienne, W. by Charente, Charente-Inférieure and
Gironde, S. by Lot-et-Garonne, and E. by Lot and Corrèze. Situated on
the western slopes of the Massif Central, Dordogne consists in the
north-east and centre of sterile plateaus sloping towards the west,
where they end in a region of pine forests known as the Double. The
greatest altitudes are found in the highlands of the north, where many
points exceed 1300 ft. in height. The department is intersected by many
fertile and beautiful river valleys, which converge from its northern
and eastern borders towards the south-west. The Dordogne is the
principal river of the department and its chief affluent is the Isle,
which crosses the centre of the department and flows into the Dordogne
at Libourne, in the neighbouring department of Gironde. The Dronne and
the Auvézère, both tributaries of the Isle, are the other main rivers.
The climate is generally agreeable and healthy, but rather humid,
especially in the north-east. Agriculture flourishes in the south and
south-west of the department, especially in the valleys of the Dordogne
and Isle, the rest of its surface being covered to a great extent by
woods and heath. Pasture and forage amply suffice for the raising of
large flocks and herds. The vine, cultivated mainly in the neighbourhood
of Bergerac, and tobacco are important sources of profit. Wheat and
maize are the chief cereals and potatoes are largely grown. The truffles
of Périgord are famous for their abundance and quality. The plum and
cider-apple yield good crops. In the forests the prevailing trees are
the oak and chestnut. The fruit of the latter is much used both as food
by the people and for fattening hogs, which are reared in large numbers.
The walnut is extensively grown for its oil. The department has mines of
lignite, and produces freestone, lime, cement, mill-stone, peat,
potter's clay and fireclay. The leather industry and the preparation of
preserved foods are important, and there are flour-mills, brick and tile
works, earthenware manufactories, printing works, chemical works and a
few iron foundries. Exports consist of truffles, wine, chestnuts and
other fruit, live stock, poultry, and minerals of various kinds.
Dordogne is served by the Orléans railway; the Dordogne, the Isle and
the Vézère furnish nearly 200 m. of navigable waterway. It is divided
into the arrondissements of Périgueux, Bergerac, Nontron, Ribérac and
Sarlat, with 47 cantons and 587 communes, and belongs to the
ecclesiastical province of Bordeaux, to the académie (educational
division) of Bordeaux and to the region of the XII. army corps, which
has its headquarters at Limoges. Its court of appeal is at Bordeaux.

Périgueux, the capital, Bergerac, Sarlat and Brantôme are the principal
towns (see separate articles). There are several other places of
interest. Bourdeilles has two finely preserved châteaux, one of the 14th
century, with an imposing keep, the other in the Renaissance style of
the 16th century. Both buildings are contained within the same fortified
enceinte. The celebrated château of Biron, founded in the 11th century,
preserves examples of many subsequent architectural styles, among them a
beautiful chapel of late Gothic and early Renaissance workmanship. The
château of Jumilhac-le-Grand belongs to the 15th century. Dordogne
possesses several medieval _bastides_, the most perfect of which is
Monpazier. At Cadouin there are the remains of a Cistercian abbey. Its
church is a fine cruciform building in the Romanesque style, while the
cloister is an excellent example of Flamboyant architecture. St
Jean-de-Côle has an interesting Romanesque church and a château of the
15th, 16th and 18th centuries. In the rocks of the valley of the lower
Vézère there are prehistoric caves of great archaeological importance,
in which have been found tools, and carvings on bone, flint and ivory.
Troglodytic dwellings are to be found in many other places in Dordogne
(see CAVE).



DORDRECHT (abbreviated _Dordt_, or DORT), a town and river-port of
Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the south side of the
Merwede, and a junction station 12½ m. by rail S.E. of Rotterdam. Steam
ferries connect it with Papendrecht and Zwyndrecht on the opposite
shore, and it has excellent communication by water in every direction.
Pop. (1900) 38,386. Dordrecht presents a picturesque appearance with its
busy quays and numerous canals and windmills, its quaint streets and
curiously gabled houses. The Groote Kerk, of Our Lady, whose massive
tower forms a conspicuous object in the views of the town, dates from
the 14th century and contains some finely carved stalls (1540) by Jan
Terween Aertsz, a remarkable pulpit (1759), many old monuments and a set
of gold communion plate. In the town museum is an interesting collection
of paintings, chiefly by modern artists, but including also pictures by
some of the older masters, among whom Ferdinand Bol, the two Cuyps,
Nicolas Maes, Godefried Schalcken, and in later times Ary Scheffer, were
all natives of Dordrecht. The celebrated 17th-century statesman John de
Witt was also a native of the town. Close to the museum is one of the
old city gates, rebuilt in 1618, and now containing a collection of
antiquities belonging to the Oud-Dordrecht Society. The South African
Museum (1902) contains memorials of the Boer War of 1899-1902. The
harbour of Dordrecht still has a large trade, but much has been diverted
to Rotterdam. Large quantities of wood are imported from Germany,
Scandinavia and America. There are numerous saw-mills, shipbuilding
yards, engineering works, distilleries, sugar refineries, tobacco
factories, linen bleacheries and stained glass, salt and white lead
works.

Dordrecht was founded by Count Dirk III. of Holland in 1018, becoming a
town about 1200. One of the first towns in the Netherlands to embrace
the reformed religion and to throw off the yoke of Spain, it was in 1572
the meeting-place of the deputies who asserted the independence of the
United Provinces. In 1618 and 1619 it was the seat of the synod of Dort
(q.v.).



DORÉ, LOUIS AUGUSTE GUSTAVE (1832-1883), French artist, the son of a
civil engineer, was born at Strassburg on the 6th of January 1832. In
1848 he came to Paris and secured a three years' engagement on the
_Journal pour rire_. His facility as a draughtsman was extraordinary,
and among the books he illustrated in rapid succession were Balzac's
_Contes drolatiques_ (1855), Dante's _Inferno_ (1861), _Don Quixote_
(1863), _The Bible_ (1866), _Paradise Lost_ (1866), and the works of
Rabelais (1873). He painted also many large and ambitious compositions
of a religious or historical character, and made some success as a
sculptor, his statue of Alexandre Dumas in Paris being perhaps his
best-known work in this line. He died on the 25th of January 1883.



DORIA, ANDREA (1466-1560), Genoese _condottiere_ and admiral, was born
at Oneglia of an ancient Genoese family. Being left an orphan at an
early age, he became a soldier of fortune, and served first in the papal
guard and then under various Italian princes. In 1503 we find him
fighting in Corsica in the service of Genoa, at that time under French
vassalage, and he took part in the rising of Genoa against the French,
whom he compelled to evacuate the city. From that time forth it was as a
naval captain that he became famous. For several years he scoured the
Mediterranean in command of the Genoese fleet, waging war on the Turks
and the Barbary pirates. In the meanwhile Genoa had been recaptured by
the French, and in 1522 by the Imperialists. But Doria now veered round
to the French or popular faction and entered the service of King Francis
I., who made him captain-general; in 1524 he relieved Marseilles, which
was besieged by the Imperialists, and helped to place his native city
once more under French domination. But he was dissatisfied with his
treatment at the hands of Francis, who was mean about payment, and he
resented the king's behaviour in connexion with Savona, which he delayed
to hand back to the Genoese as he had promised; consequently on the
expiry of Doria's contract we find him in the service of the emperor
Charles V. (1528). He ordered his nephew Filippino, who was then
blockading Naples in concert with a French army, to withdraw, and sailed
for Genoa, where, with the help of some leading citizens, he expelled
the French once more and re-established the republic under imperial
protection. He reformed the constitution in an aristocratic sense, most
of the nobility being Imperialists, and put an end to the factions which
divided the city. He refused the lordship of Genoa and even the
dogeship, but accepted the position of perpetual censor, and exercised
predominant influence in the councils of the republic until his death.
He was given two palaces, many privileges, and the title of _Liberator
et Pater Patriae_. As imperial admiral he commanded several expeditions
against the Turks, capturing Corona and Patras, and co-operating with
the emperor himself in the capture of Tunis (1535). Charles found him an
invaluable ally in the wars with Francis, and through him extended his
domination over the whole of Italy. Doria's defeat by the Turks at
Preveza in 1538 was said to be not involuntary, and designed to spite
the Venetians whom he detested. He accompanied Charles on the ill-fated
Algerian expedition of 1541, of which he disapproved, and by his ability
just saved the whole force from complete disaster. For the next five
years he continued to serve the emperor in various wars, in which he was
generally successful and always active, although now over seventy years
old; there was hardly an important event in Europe in which he had not
some share. After the peace of Crépy between Francis and Charles in 1544
he hoped to end his days in quiet. But his great wealth and power, as
well as the arrogance of his nephew and heir Giannettino Doria, made him
many enemies, and in 1547 the Fiesco conspiracy to upset the power of
his house took place. Giannettino was murdered, but the conspirators
were defeated, and Andrea showed great vindictiveness in punishing them.
Many of their fiefs he seized for himself, and he was implicated in the
murder of Pier Luigi Farnese, duke of Parma (see FARNESE), who had
helped Fiesco. Other conspiracies followed, of which the most important
was that of Giulio Cibò (1548), but all failed. Although Doria was
ambitious and harsh, he was a good patriot and successfully opposed the
emperor Charles's repeated attempts to have a citadel built in Genoa and
garrisoned by Spaniards; neither blandishments nor threats could win him
over to the scheme. Nor did age lessen his energy, for in 1550, when
eighty-four years old, he again put to sea to punish the raids of his
old enemies the Barbary pirates, but with no great success. War between
France and the Empire having broken out once more, the French seized
Corsica, then administered by the Genoese Bank of St George; Doria was
again summoned, and he spent two years (1553-1555) in the island
fighting the French with varying fortune. He returned to Genoa for good
in 1555, and being very old and infirm he gave over the command of the
galleys to his great-nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria, who conducted an
expedition against Tripoli, but proved even more unsuccessful than his
uncle had been at Algiers, barely escaping with his life. Andrea Doria
died on the 25th of November 1560, leaving his estates to Giovanni
Andrea. The family of Doria-Pamphilii-Landi (q.v.) is descended from him
and bears his title of prince of Melfi. Doria was a man of indomitable
energy and a great admiral. If he appears unscrupulous and even
treacherous he did but conform to the standards of 16th-century Italy.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--E. Petit's _André Doria_ (Paris, 1887) is an accurate
  and documented biography, indicating all the chief works on the
  subject, but the author is perhaps unduly harsh in his judgment of the
  admiral; F. D. Guerrazzi's _Vita di Andrea Doria_ (3rd ed., Milan,
  1874); among the earlier works L. Cappelloni's _Vita di Andrea Doria_
  (Italian edition, Genoa, 1863) and V. Sigonius's _Vita Andreae Doriae_
  (1576) may be mentioned; see also "Documenti ispano-genovesi
  dell'Archivio di Simancas" in the _Atti della Società ligure di Storia
  patria_, vol. viii.; the _Archivio storico italiano_ (serie iii. tome
  iv. parte i., 1866) contains a bibliography, but a great deal has been
  published since that date.     (L. V.*)



DORIANS, a name applied by the Greeks to one of the principal groups of
Hellenic peoples, in contradistinction to Ionians and Aeolians. In
Hellenic times a small district known as Doris in north Greece, between
Mount Parnassus and Mount Oeta, counted as "Dorian" in a special sense.
Practically all Peloponnese, except Achaea and Elis, was "Dorian,"
together with Megara, Aegina, Crete, Melos, Thera, the Sporades Islands
and the S.W. coast of Asia Minor, where Rhodes, Cos, Cnidus and
(formerly) Halicarnassus formed a "Dorian" confederacy. "Dorian"
colonies, from Corinth, Megara, and the Dorian islands, occupied the
southern coasts of Sicily from Syracuse to Selinus. Dorian states
usually had in common the "Doric" dialect, a peculiar calendar and cycle
of festivals of which the Hyacinthia and Carneia were the chief, and
certain political and social institutions, such as the threefold "Dorian
tribes." The worships of Apollo and Heracles, though not confined to
Dorians, were widely regarded as in some sense "Dorian" in character.

But those common characters are not to be pressed too far. The northern
Doris, for example, spoke Aeolic, while Elis, Phocis, and many
non-Dorian districts of north-west Greece spoke dialects akin to Doric.
Many Dorian states had additional "non-Dorian tribes"; Sparta, which
claimed to be of pure and typical Dorian origin, maintained institutions
and a mode of life which were without parallel in Peloponnese, in the
Parnassian and in the Asiatic Doris, and were partially reflected in
Crete only.

Most non-Dorian Greeks, in fact, seem to have accepted much as Dorian
which was in fact only Spartan: this was particularly the case in the
political, ethical and aesthetic controversies of the 5th and 4th
centuries B.C. Much, however, which was common (in art, for example) to
Olympia, Argolis and Aegina, and might thus have been regarded as
Dorian, was conspicuously absent from the culture of Sparta.

_Traditional History._--In the diagrammatic family tree of the Greek
people, as it appears in the Hesiodic catalogue (6th century) and in
Hellanicus (5th century), the "sons of Hellen" are Dorus, Xuthus (father
of Ion and Achaeus) and Aeolus. Dorus' share of the inheritance of
Hellen lay in central Greece, north of the Corinthian Gulf, between
Xuthus in north Peloponnese and Aeolus in Thessaly. His descendants,
either under Dorus or under a later king Aegimius, occupied Histiaeotis,
a district of northern Thessaly, and afterwards conquered from the
Dryopes the head-waters of the Boeotian Cephissus between Mount
Parnassus and Mount Oeta. This became "Doris" _par excellence_. Services
rendered to Aegimius by Heracles led (1) to the adoption of Hyllus, son
of Heracles, by Aegimius, side by side with his own sons Dymas and
Pamphylus, and to a threefold grouping of the Dorian clans, as Hylleis,
Dymanes and Pamphyli; (2) to the association of the people of Aegimius
in the repeated attempts of Hyllus and his family to recover their lost
inheritance in Peloponnese (see HERACLIDAE). The last of these attempts
resulted in the "Dorian conquest" of the "Achaeans" and "Ionians" of
Peloponnese, and in the assignment of Argolis, Laconia and Messenia to
the Heracleid leaders, Temenus, Aristodemus and Cresphontes
respectively; of Elis to their Aetolian allies; and of the north coast
to the remnants of the conquered Achaeans. The conquest of Corinth and
Megara was placed a generation later: Arcadia alone claimed to have
escaped invasion. This conquest was dated relatively by Thucydides (i.
12) at eighty years after the Trojan War and twenty years after the
conquest of Thessaly and Boeotia by the similar "invaders from Arne";
absolutely by Hellanicus and his school (5th century) at 1149 B.C.; by
Isocrates and Ephorus (4th century B.C.) at about 1070 B.C.; and by
Sosibius, Eratosthenes (3rd century), and later writers generally, at
the generations from 1125 to 1100 B.C.

The invasion was commonly believed to have proceeded by way of Aetolia
and Elis, and the name Naupactus was interpreted as an allusion to the
needful "shipbuilding" on the Corinthian Gulf. One legend made Dorus
himself originally an Aetolian prince; the participation of Oxylus, and
the Aetolian claim to Elis, appear first in Ephorus (4th century). The
conquest of Laconia at least is represented in 5th-century tradition as
immediate and complete, though one legend admits the previous death of
the Heracleid leader Aristodemus, and another describes a protracted
struggle in the case of Corinth. Pausanias, however (following
Sosibius), interprets a long series of conflicts in Arcadia as stages in
a gradual advance southward, ending with the conquest of Amyclae by King
Teleclus (c. 800 B.C.) and of Helos by King Alcamenes (c. 770 B.C.).

Of the invasion of Argolis a quite different version was already current
in the 4th century. This represents the Argive Dorians as having come by
sea (apparently from the Maliac Gulf, the nearest seashore to Parnassian
Doris), accompanied by survivors of the Dryopes (former inhabitants of
that Doris), whose traces in south Euboea (Styra and Carystus), in
Cythnus, and at Eion (Halieis), Hermione and Asine in Argolis, were held
to indicate their probable route.

The Homeric Dorians of Crete were also interpreted by Andron and others
(3rd century) as an advance-guard of this sea-borne migration, and as
having separated from the other Dorians while still in Histiaeotis. The
5th-century tradition that the Heracleid kings of Macedon were Temenid
exiles from Argos may belong to the same cycle.

The fate of the Dorian invaders was represented as differing locally. In
Messenia (according to a legend dramatized by Euripides in the 5th
century, and renovated for political ends in the 4th century) the
descendants of Cresphontes quarrelled among themselves and were
exterminated by the natives. In Laconia Aristodemus (or his twin sons)
effected a rigid military occupation which eventually embraced the whole
district, and permitted (a) the colonization of Melos, Thera and parts
of Crete (before 800 B.C.), (b) the reconquest and annexation of
Messenia (about 750 B.C.), (c) a settlement of half-breed Spartans at
Tarentum in south Italy, 700 B.C. In Argos and other cities of Argolis
the descendants of the Achaean chiefs were taken into political
partnership, but a tradition of race-feud lasted till historic times.
Corinth, Sicyon and Megara, with similar political compromises, mark the
limits of Dorian conquest; a Dorian invasion of Attica (c. 1066 B.C.)
was checked by the self-sacrifice of King Codrus: "Either Athens must
perish or her king." Aegina was reckoned a colony of Epidaurus. Rhodes,
and some Cretan towns, traced descent from Argos; Cnidus from Argos and
Sparta; the rest of Asiatic Doris from Epidaurus or Troezen in Argolis.
The colonies of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara, and the Sicilian offshoots
of the Asiatic Dorians, belong to historic times (8th-6th centuries).

_Criticism of the Traditional History._--The following are the
problems:--(1) Was there a Dorian invasion as described in the legends;
and, if not, how did the tradition arise? (2) Who were the Dorian
invaders, and in what relation did they stand to the rest of the
population of Greece? (3) How far do the Dorian states, or their
characteristics, represent the descendants, or the culture, of the
original invaders?

The Homeric poems (12th-10th centuries) know of Dorians only in Crete,
with the obscure epithet [Greek: trichaikes], and no hint of their
origin. All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic
times were "Dorian" are ruled by recently established dynasties of
"Achaean" chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply "Caria"; and
the geographical "catalogue" in _Iliad_ ii. ignores the northern Doris
altogether.

The almost total absence from Homer not only of "Dorians" but of
"Ionians" and even of "Hellenes" leads to the conclusion that the
diagrammatic genealogy of the "sons of Hellen" is of post-Homeric date;
and that it originated as an attempt to classify the Doric, Ionic and
Aeolic groups of Hellenic settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor,
for here alone do the three names correspond to territorial, linguistic
and political divisions. The addition of an "Achaean" group, and the
inclusion of this and the Ionic group under a single generic name, would
naturally follow the recognition of the real kinship of the "Achaean"
colonies of Magna Graecia with those of Ionia. But the attempt to
interpret, in terms of this Asiatic diagram, the actual distribution of
dialects and peoples in European Greece, led to difficulties. Here, in
the 8th-6th centuries, all the Dorian states were in the hands of
exclusive aristocracies, which presented a marked contrast to the
subject populations. Since the kinship of the latter with the members of
adjacent non-Dorian states was admitted, two different explanations seem
to have been made, (1) on behalf of the non-Dorian populations, either
that the Dorians were no true sons of Hellen, but were of some other
northerly ancestry; or that they were merely Achaean exiles; and in
either case that their historic predominance resulted from an act of
violence, ill-disguised by their association with the ancient claims of
the Peloponnesian Heraclidae; (2) on behalf of the Dorian aristocracies,
that they were in some special sense "sons of Hellen," if not the only
genuine Hellenes; the rest of the European Greeks, and in particular the
anti-Dorian Athenians (with their marked likeness to Ionians), being
regarded as Hellenized barbarians of "Pelasgian" origin (see
PELASGIANS). This process of Hellenization, or at least its final stage,
was further regarded as intimately connected with a movement of peoples
which had brought the "Dorians" from the northern highlands into those
parts of Greece which they occupied in historic times.

So long as the Homeric poems were believed to represent Hellenic (and
mainly Ionian) beliefs of the 9th century or later, the historical value
of the traditions of a Dorian invasion was repeatedly questioned; most
recently and thoroughly by J. Beloch (_Gr. Geschichte_, i., Strassburg,
1893), as being simply an attempt to reconcile the political geography
of Homer (i.e. of 8th-century Ionians describing 12th-century events)
with that of historic Greece, by explaining discrepancies (due to
Homeric ignorance) as the result of "migrations" in the interval. Such
legends often arise to connect towns bearing identical or similar names
(such as are common in Greece) and to justify political events or
ambitions by legendary precedents; and this certainly happened during
the successive political rivalries of Dorian Sparta with non-Dorian
Athens and Thebes. But in proportion as an earlier date has become more
probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less
tenable, and the belief better founded (1) that the poems represent
accurately a well-defined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and
(2) that this "Homeric" or "Achaean" phase was closed by some such
general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.

The legend of a Dorian invasion appears first in Tyrtaeus, a 7th-century
poet, in the service of Sparta, who brings the Spartan Heracleids to
Peloponnese from Erineon in the northern Doris; and the lost Epic of
Aegimius, of about the same date, seems to have presupposed the same
story. In the 5th century Pindar ascribes to Aegimius the institutions
of the Peloponnesian Dorians, and describes them as the "Dorian folk of
Hyllus and Aegimius," and as "originating from Pindus" (_Pyth._ v. 75:
cf. Fr. 4). Herodotus, also in the 5th century, describes them as the
typical (perhaps in contrast to Athenians as the _only_ genuine)
Hellenes, and traces their numerous wanderings from (1) an original home
"in Deucalion's time" in Phthiotis (the Homeric "Hellas") in south
Thessaly, to (2) Histiaeotis "below Ossa and Olympus" in north-east
Thessaly (note that the _historic_ Histiaeotis is "below _Pindus_" in
north-_west_ Thessaly): this was "in the days of Dorus," i.e. it is at
this stage that the Dorians are regarded as becoming specifically
distinct from the generic "Hellene": thence (3) to a residence "in
Pindus," where they passed as a "Macedonian people." Hence (4) they
moved south to the Parnassian Doris, which had been held by Dryopes: and
hence finally (5) to Peloponnese. Elsewhere he assigns the expulsion of
the Dryopes to Heracles in co-operation not with Dorians but with
Malians. Here clearly two traditions are combined:--one, in which the
Dorians originated from Hellas in south Thessaly, and so are "children
of Hellen"; another, in which they were a "Macedonian people" intruded
from the north, from Pindus, past Histiaeotis to Doris and beyond. It is
a noteworthy coincidence that in Macedonia also the royal family claimed
Heracleid descent; and that "Pindus" is the name both of the mountains
above Histiaeotis and of a stream in Doris. It is noteworthy also that
later writers (e.g. Andron in Strabo 475) derived the Cretan Dorians of
Homer from those of Histiaeotis, and that other legends connected Cretan
peoples and places with certain districts of Macedon.

Thucydides agrees in regarding the Parnassian Doris as the
"mother-state" of the Dorians (i. 107) and dates the invasion (as above)
eighty years after the Trojan War; this agrees approximately with the
pedigree of the kings of Sparta, as given by Herodotus, and with that of
Hecataeus of Miletus (considered as evidence for the foundation date of
an Ionian refugee-colony). Thucydides also accepts the story of
Heracleid leadership.

The legend of an organized apportionment of Peloponnese amongst the
Heracleid leaders appears first in the 5th-century tragedians,--not
earlier, that is, than the rise of the Peloponnesian League,--and was
amplified in the 4th century; the Aetolians' aid, and claim to Elis,
appear first in Ephorus. The numerous details and variant legends
preserved by later writers, particularly Strabo and Pausanias, may go
back to early sources (e.g. Herodotus distinguished the "local" from the
"poetic" versions of events in early Spartan history); but much seems to
be referable to Ephorus and the 4th-century political and rhetorical
historians:--e.g. the enlarged version of the Heracleid claims in
Isocrates (_Archidamus_, 120) and the theory that the Dorians were mere
disowned Achaeans (Plato, _Laws_, 3). Moreover, many independent
considerations suggest that in its main outlines the Dorian invasion is
historical.

_The Doric Dialects._--These dialects have strongly marked features in
common (future in [Greek: -seô -siô -sô]; 1st pers. plur. in [Greek:
-mes]; [Greek: ka] for [Greek: an]; [Greek: -ae -aê = ê]), but differ
more among themselves than do the Ionic. Laconia with its colonies
(including those in south Italy) form a clear group, in which [Greek:
-e] and [Greek: -o] lengthen to [Greek: -ê] and [Greek: -ô] as in
Aeolic. Corinth (with its Sicilian colonies), the Argolid towns, and the
Asiatic Doris, form another group, in which [Greek: -e] and [Greek: -o]
become [Greek: -ei] and [Greek: -ou] as in Ionic. Connected with the
latter (e.g. by [Greek: -ei] and [Greek: -ou]) are the "northern"
group:--Phocis, including Delphi, with Aetolia, Acarnania, Epirus and
Phthiotis in south Thessaly. But these have also some forms in common
with the "Aeolic" dialect of Boeotia and Thessaly, which in historic
times was spoken also in Doris; Locris and Elis present similar northern
"Achaean-Doric" dialects. Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of
Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin
to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This
distribution makes it clear (1) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese
represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2)
that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, [Greek: -ê] and
[Greek: -ô] which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that
those parts of "Dorian" Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian
population "Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the
conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic [Greek:
-ei] and [Greek: -ou]; (4) that as we go north, similar though more
barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern
Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5)
that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has
legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in
the northern Doris. All this points on the one hand to an intrusion of
Doric dialect into an Arcadian-and-Ionic-speaking area; on the other
hand to a subsequent expansion of Aeolic over the north-eastern edge of
an area which once was Dorian. But this distribution does not by itself
prove that Doric speech was the language of the Dorian invaders. Its
area coincides also approximately with that of the previous Achaean
conquests; and if the Dorians were as backward culturally as traditions
and archaeology suggest, it is not improbable that they soon adopted the
language of the conquered, as the Norman conquerors did in England. As
evidence of an intrusion of northerly folk, however, the distribution of
dialects remains important. See GREEK LANGUAGE.

_The common calendar and cycle of festivals_, observed by all Dorians
(of which the Carneia was chief), and the distribution in Greece of the
worships of Apollo and Heracles, which attained pre-eminence mainly in
or near districts historically "Dorian," suggest that these cults, or an
important element in them, were introduced comparatively late, and
represent the beliefs of a fresh ethnic superstratum. The steady
dependence of Sparta on the Delphic oracle, for example, is best
explained as an observance inherited from Parnassian ancestors.

_The social and political structure_ of the Dorian states of Peloponnese
presupposes likewise a conquest of an older highly civilized population
by small bands of comparatively barbarous raiders. Sparta in particular
remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic
times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some
5000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of
invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of
professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of
agricultural and industrial serfs. The serfs were rigidly debarred from
intermixture or social advancement, and were watched by their masters
with a suspicion fully justified by recurrent ineffectual revolts. The
other states, such as Argos and Corinth, exhibited just such compromises
between conquerors and conquered as the legends described, conceding to
the older population, or to sections of it, political incorporation more
or less incomplete. The Cretan cities, irrespective of origin, exhibit
serfage, militant aristocracy, rigid martial discipline of all citizens,
and other marked analogies with Sparta; but the Asiatic Dorians and the
other Dorian colonies do not differ appreciably in their social and
political history from their Ionian and Aeolic neighbours. Tarentum
alone, partly from Spartan origin, partly through stress of local
conditions, shows traces of militant asceticism for a while.

_Archaeological evidence_ points clearly now to the conclusion that the
splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or "late Minoan"
period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid
succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the
European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly
by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon
and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east
Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than
1500 B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political
situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as
the "Achaean" age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia,
Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this
régime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks
somewhat earlier than 1000 B.C. These latter events correspond in
character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and
their associates.

The nationality of these invaders is disputed. Survival of fair hair and
complexion and light eyes among the upper classes in Thebes and some
other localities shows that the blonde type of mankind which is
characteristic of north-western Europe had already penetrated into Greek
lands before classical times; but the ascription of the same physical
traits to the Achaeans of Homer forbids us to regard them as peculiar to
that latest wave of pre-classical immigrants to which the Dorians
belong; and there is no satisfactory evidence as to the coloration of
the Spartans, who alone were reputed to be pure-blooded Dorians in
historic times.

Language is no better guide, for it is not clear that the Dorian dialect
is that of the most recent conquerors, and not rather that of the
conquered Achaean inhabitants of southern Greece; in any case it
presents no such affinities with any non-Hellenic speech as would serve
to trace its origin. Even in northern and west-central Greece, all
vestige of any former prevalence has been obliterated by the spread of
"Aeolic" dialects akin to those of Thessaly and Boeotia; even the
northern Doris, for example, spoke "Aeolic" in historic times.

The doubt already suggested as to language applies still more to such
characteristics as Dorian music and other forms of art, and to Dorian
customs generally. It is clear from the traditions about Lycurgus
(q.v.), for example, that even the Spartans had been a long while in
Laconia before their state was rescued from disorder by his reforms; and
if there be truth in the legend that the new institutions were borrowed
from Crete, we perhaps have here too a late echo of the legislative fame
of the land of Minos. Certainly the Spartans adopted, together with the
political traditions of the Heracleids, many old Laconian cults and
observances such as those connected with the Tyndaridae.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--K. O. Muller, _Die Dorier_ (ed. F. W. Schneidewin,
  Breslau, 1844); G. Gilbert, _Studien zur altspartanischen Geschichte_
  (Gottingen, 1872); H. Gelzer, "Die Wanderzuge der lakedamonischen
  Dorier," in _Rhein. Museum_, xxxii. (1877), p. 259; G. Busolt, _Die
  Lakedaimonier und ihre Bundesgenossen_, i. (Leipzig, 1878); S. Beloch,
  "Die dorische Wanderung," in _Rhein. Mus._ xlv. (1890). 555 ff.; H.
  Collitz, _Sammlung der gr. Dialekt-Inschriften_, iii. (Gottingen,
  1899-1905); R. Meister, "Dorier und Achaer" in _Abh. d. K. Sachs. Ges.
  Wiss._ (Phil.-hist. Kl.), xxiv. 3 (Leipzig, 1904).     (J. L. M.)



DORIA-PAMPHILII-LANDI, a princely Roman family of Genoese extraction.
The founder of the house was Ansaldo d'Oria, consul of Genoa in the 12th
century, but the authentic pedigree is traced no further back than to
Paolo d'Oria (1335). The most famous member of the family was Andrea
Doria (q.v.), perpetual censor of Genoa in 1528 and admiral to the
emperor Charles V., who was created prince of Melfi (1531) and marquis
of Tursi (in the kingdom of Naples) in 1555. The marquisate of Civiez
and the county of Cavallamonte were conferred on the family in 1576, the
duchy of Tursi in 1594, the principality of Avella in 1607, the duchy of
Avigliano in 1613. In 1760 the title of _Reichsfurst_ or prince of the
Holy Roman Empire was added and attached to the lordship of Torriglia
and the marquisate of Borgo San Stefano, together with the qualification
of _Hochgeboren_. That same year the Dorias inherited the fiefs and
titles of the house of Pamphilii-Landi of Gubbio, patricians of Rome and
princes of San Martino, Valmontano, Val di Toro, Bardi and Corupiano.
The Doria-Pamphilii palace in Rome, a splendid edifice, was built in the
17th century, and contains a valuable collection of paintings. The Villa
Doria-Pamphilii with its gardens is one of the loveliest round Rome.
During the siege of 1849 it was Garibaldi's headquarters.



DORION, SIR ANTOINE AIMÉ[1] (1816-1891), Canadian lawyer and statesman,
son of Pierre Dorion and Geneviève Bureau, was born in the parish of
Sainte Anne de la Pérade on the 17th of January 1816. He was educated at
Nicolet College, and in his twenty-second year went to Montreal to read
law with M. Cherrier, an eminent lawyer for whom he retained a lasting
friendship. On the 6th of January 1842 he was admitted to the bar of the
province, became the partner of M. Cherrier, and in the course of a few
years attained the highest rank in his profession. He married in 1848
Iphigénie, daughter of Dr Jean Baptiste Trestler, of Vaudreuil. Dorion
descended from an old Liberal family which from early days had supported
the reform party in Canada. His father, a merchant of Sainte Anne, was a
member of the legislative assembly for the county of Champlain, from
1830 to 1838, and his grandfather, on the maternal side, represented
the county of Saint Maurice in the same body from 1819 to 1830. At the
time that Dorion commenced the study of law, Canada was entering upon a
new phase of her political life. The rebellion of 1837 had resulted in
the suspension of the constitution of 1791, and the union of the
provinces, effected under the Imperial Act of 1840, was framed to compel
the obedience of the refractory population. It was an unsatisfactory
measure, providing a single legislature for two provinces, with an equal
number of representatives from each province, irrespective of
population. At the time the lower province was the larger, but it was
foreseen that a tide of English emigration would eventually place the
upper province in the stronger position. Indeed, at the date of the
Union, there were many English residents in the lower province, so that
in the aggregate the English had then the majority. From the first it
was apparent that representation by population would become an issue,
and for several years there was a constant struggle for the
establishment of responsible government, which was only achieved after
the contest of 1848, when the La Fontaine-Baldwin administration was
maintained in power. The difficulty had been avoided during the first
years of the Union by La Fontaine, who succeeded in uniting English and
French Liberals, and by substituting principles for race carried out a
policy based upon a broader conception of human interests. Although a
decisive victory had been gained by La Fontaine and Baldwin in 1848,
they did not press for an immediate overthrow of institutions which for
years had been a cause of contention, and their influence gradually
diminished until, on the 28th of October 1851, the administration was
handed over to Hincks and Morin. Liberal principles had now become
aggressive; the new leaders did not keep abreast of the spirit of the
times, their majority decreased, and, on the 11th of September 1854, a
government was formed by McNab and Morin.

The elections of 1854 had brought new blood into the ranks of the
Liberal party, young men eager to carry out measures of reform, and
Dorion was chosen as leader. Under the coalition brought about by McNab
between the Tories of Upper Canada and the Liberals of the lower
province old abuses were removed, and, after the abolition of
seigneurial tenure and clergy reserves, it appeared that the political
atmosphere was clear. In 1856 the question of representation by
population was again prominent. Upper Canada had increased, and it
contributed a larger share to the revenue, and demanded proportionate
representation. La Fontaine had pointed out, at the time he was prime
minister, that representation by population would subject the weaker
province to the control of the stronger, and that as he would not impose
the principle upon Upper Canada at the time he would not concede it,
without constitutional restraint, if her position were reversed. Upper
Canada now became aggressive and the question had to be settled.
Macdonald, who became prime minister in 1856, and had formed a new
government with Cartier in 1857, maintained that no amendment to the
constitution was necessary; that existing conditions were satisfactory.
Brown, on the opposite side of the House, declared that representation
by population was imperative, with or without constitutional changes;
and Dorion appears to have suggested the true remedy, when he gave
notice of a motion in 1856:--

  "That a committee be appointed to inquire into the means that should
  be adopted to form a new political and legislative organization of the
  heretofore provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, either by the
  establishment of their former territorial divisions or by a division
  of each province, so as to form a federation, having a federal
  government and a local legislature for each one of the new provinces,
  and to deliberate as to the course which should be adopted to regulate
  the affairs of united Canada, in a manner which would be equitable to
  the different sections of the province."

Dorion was in advance of the time. He understood the true principle of
federative union as applicable to Canada. But he did not pursue this
idea, and in fact his following was never sufficiently strong to enable
him to give effect to the sound measures he was so capable of
formulating. This, perhaps, was his special weakness. On the 2nd of
August 1858 he formed an administration with Brown, but was forced to
resign after being in office three days. When the question of
confederation was discussed a few years later he opposed the scheme,
believing there was nothing to justify the union at the time, although
he admitted "that commercial intercourse may increase sufficiently to
render confederation desirable." In 1873 he accepted the portfolio of
minister of justice in the Mackenzie government, and during the six
months that he was in office passed the Electoral Law of 1874 and the
Controverted Elections Act. Dorion sat as member of the assembly for the
province of Canada for the city of Montreal from 1854 to 1861, for the
county of Hochelaga from 1862 to 1867; as member of the House of Commons
for the county of Hochelaga from 1867 to July 1872, and for the county
of Napierville from September 1872 to June 1874, when he was appointed
chief justice of the province. In 1878 he was created a knight bachelor.
He died at Montreal on the 31st of May 1891. No more able or upright
judge ever adorned the Canadian bench. He had a broad, clear mind, vast
knowledge, and commanded respect from the loftiness of his character and
the strength of his abilities. The keynote of his life was an unswerving
devotion to duty.

  See _Dorion, a Sketch_, by Fennings Taylor (Montreal, 1865); and "Sir
  Antoine Amié Dorion," by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, in _The Week_ (1887).
       (A. G. D.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In the baptismal certificate the name is entered as "Emé" (=
    Edmé-Aimé).



DORIS, in ancient geography, a small district in central Greece, forming
a wedge between Mts. Oeta and Parnassus, and containing the head-waters
of the Cephissus, which passes at the gorge of Dadion into the
neighbouring land of Phocis. This little valley, which nowhere exceeds 4
m. in breadth and could barely give sustenance to four small townships,
owed its importance partly to its command over the strategic road from
Heracleia to Amphissa, which pierced the Parnassus range near Cytinium,
but chiefly to its prestige as the alleged mother-country of the Dorian
conquerors of Peloponnesus (see DORIANS). Its history is mainly made up
of petty wars with the neighbouring Oetaeans and Phocians. The latter
pressed them hard in 457, when the Spartans, admitting their claim to be
the Dorian metropolis, sent an army to their aid, and again during the
second Sacred War (356-346). Except for a casual mention of its cantonal
league in 196, Doris passed early out of history; the inhabitants may
have been exterminated during the conflicts between Aetolia and
Macedonia.

  See Strabo, pp. 417, 427; Herodotus i. 56, viii. 31; Thucydides i.
  107, iii. 92; Diodorus xii. 29, 33; W. M. Leake, _Travels in Northern
  Greece_, chap. xi. (London, 1835).     (M. O. B. C.)



DORISLAUS, ISAAC (1595-1649), Anglo-Dutch lawyer and diplomatist, was
born in 1595 at Alkmaar, Holland, the son of a minister of the Dutch
reformed church. He was educated at Leiden, removed to England about
1627, and was appointed to a lectureship in history at Cambridge, where
his attempt to justify the Dutch revolt against Spain led to his early
resignation. In 1629 he was admitted a commoner of the College of
Advocates. In 1632 he made his peace at court, and on two occasions
acted as judge advocate, in the bishops' war of 1640 and in 1642 in the
army commanded by Essex. In 1648 he became one of the judges of the
admiralty court, and was sent on a diplomatic errand to the states
general of Holland. He assisted in preparing the charge of high treason
against Charles I., and, while negotiating an alliance between the
Commonwealth and the Dutch Republic, was murdered at the Hague by
royalist refugees on the 10th of May 1649. His remains were buried in
Westminster Abbey, and moved in 1661 to St Margaret's churchyard.



DORKING, a market town in the Reigate parliamentary division of Surrey,
England, 26 m. S.S.W. of London, on the London, Brighton & South Coast
and the South-Eastern & Chatham railways. Pop. of urban district (1901)
7670. It is pleasantly situated on the river Mole, in a sheltered vale
near the base of Box Hill. It is the centre of an extensive residential
district. The parish church of St Martin's is a handsome edifice rebuilt
in 1873. Lime of exceptionally good quality is burnt to a large extent
in the neighbourhood, and forms an important article of trade; it is
derived from the Lower Chalk formation. Dorking has long been famous for
a finely flavoured breed of fowl distinguished by its having five toes.
Several fine mansions are in the vicinity of the town, notably that of
Deepdene, containing part of a gallery of sculpture collected here by
Thomas Hope, the author of _Anastasius_. A Roman road, which crossed
from the Sussex coast to the Thames, passed near the present churchyard
of St Martin.



DORLÉANS, LOUIS (1542-1629), French poet and political pamphleteer, was
born in 1542, in Paris. He studied under Jean Daurat, and after taking
his degree in law began to practise at the bar with but slight success.
He wrote indifferent verses, but was a redoubtable pamphleteer. After
the League had arrested the royalist members of parliament, he was
appointed (1589) advocate-general. His _"Avertissement des catholiques
anglais aux Français catholiques du danger où ils sont de perdre la
religion et d'expérimenter, comme en Angleterre, la cruauté des
ministres s'ils reçoivent à la couronne un roi qui soit hérétique"_ went
through several editions, and was translated into English. One of his
pamphlets, _Le Banquet ou après-dînée du comte d'Arète_, in which he
accused Henry of insincerity in his return to the Roman Catholic faith,
was so scurrilous as to be disapproved of by many members of the League.
When Henry at length entered Paris, Dorléans was among the number of the
proscribed. He took refuge in Antwerp, where he remained for nine years.
At the expiration of that period he received a pardon, and returned to
Paris, but was soon imprisoned for sedition. The king, however, released
him after three months in the Conciergerie, and by this means attached
him permanently to his cause. His last years were passed in obscurity,
and he died in 1629.



DORMER (from Lat. _dormire_, to sleep), in architecture, a window rising
out of the roof and lighting the room in it: sometimes, however, pierced
in a small gable built flush with the wall below, or corbelled out, as
frequently in Scotland. In Germany, where the roofs are very lofty,
there are three or four rows of dormers, one above the other, but it
does not follow that the space in the roof is necessarily subdivided by
floors. In some of the French châteaux the dormers (Fr. _lucarne_) are
highly elaborated, and in some cases, as in Chambord, they form the
principal architectural features. In these cases they are either placed
flush with the wall or recede behind a parapet and gutter only, so as to
rest on the solid wall, as they are built in stone. In Germany they
assume larger proportions and constitute small gables with two or three
storeys of windows. The term "dormer" arose from the windows being those
of sleeping-rooms. In the phrase "dormer beam" or "dormant beam,"
meaning a tie-beam, we have the same sense as in the modern "sleeper."



DORMITORY (Lat. _dormitorium_, a sleeping place), the name given in
monasteries to the monks' sleeping apartment. Sometimes it formed one
long room, but was more generally subdivided into as many cells or
partitions as there were monks. It was generally placed on the first
floor with a direct entrance into the church. The dormitories were
sometimes of great length; the longest known, in the monastery of S.
Michele in Bosco near Bologna (now suppressed), is said to have been
over 400 ft. In some of the larger mansions of the Elizabethan period
the space in the roof constitutes a long gallery, which in those days
was occasionally utilized as a dormitory. The name "dormitory" is also
applied to the large bedrooms with a number of beds, in schools and
similar modern institutes.



DORMOUSE (a word usually taken to be connected with Lat. _dormire_, to
sleep, with "mouse" added, cf. Germ. _Schlafratte_; it is not a
corruption of Fr. _dormeuse_; Skeat suggests a connexion with Icel.
_dár_, benumbed, cf. Eng. "doze"), the name of a small British rodent
mammal having the general appearance of a squirrel. This rodent,
_Muscardinus avellanarius_, is the sole representative of its genus, but
belongs to a family--the _Gliridae_, or _Myoxidae_--containing a small
number of Old World species. All the dormice are small rodents (although
many of them are double the size of the British species), of arboreal
habits, and for the most part of squirrel-like appearance; some of their
most distinctive features being internal. In the more typical members of
the group, forming the subfamily _Glirinae_, there are four pairs of
cheek-teeth, which are rooted and have transverse enamel-folds. As the
characters of the genera are given in the article RODENTIA it will
suffice to state that the typical genus _Glis_ is represented by the
large European edible dormouse, _G. vulgaris_ (or _G. glis_), a grey
species with black markings known in Germany as _Siebenschläfer_; the
genus ranges from continental Europe to Japan. The common dormouse
_Muscardinus avellanarius_, ranging from England to Russia and Asia, is
of the size of a mouse and mainly chestnut-coloured. The third genus is
represented by the continental _lerot_, or garden-dormouse, _Eliomys
guercinus_, which is a large parti-coloured species, with several local
forms--either species or races. Lastly, _Graphiurus_, of which the
species are also large, is solely African. In their arboreal life, and
the habit of sitting up on their hind-legs with their food grasped in
the fore-paws, dormice are like squirrels, from which they differ in
being completely nocturnal. They live either among bushes or in trees,
and make a neat nest for the reception of their young, which are born
blind. The species inhabiting cold climates construct a winter nest in
which they hibernate, waking up at times to feed on an accumulated store
of nuts and other food. Before retiring they become very fat, and at
such times the edible dormouse is a favourite article of diet on the
Continent. At the beginning of the cold season the common dormouse
retires to its nest, and curling itself up in a ball, becomes dormant. A
warmer day than usual restores it to temporary activity, and then it
supplies itself with food from its autumn hoard, again becoming torpid
till roused by the advent of spring. The young are generally four in
number, and are produced twice a year. They are born blind, but in a
marvellously short period are able to cater for themselves; and their
hibernation begins later in the season than with the adults. The fur of
the dormouse is tawny above and paler beneath, with a white patch on the
throat. A second subfamily is represented by the Indian _Platacanthomys_
and the Chinese _Typhlomys_, in which there are only three pairs of
cheek-teeth; thus connecting the more typical members of the family with
the _Muridae_.     (R. L.*)



DORNBIRN, a township in the Austrian province of the Vorarlberg, on the
right bank of the Dornbirner Ach, at the point where it flows out of the
hilly region of the Bregenzerwald into the broad valley of the Rhine, on
its way to the Lake of Constance. It is by rail 7½ m. S. of Bregenz,
and 15 m. N. of Feldkirch. It is the most populous town in the
Vorarlberg, its population in 1900 being 13,052. The name Dornbirn is a
collective appellation for four villages--Dornbirn, Hatlerdorf, Oberdorf
and Haselstauden--which straggle over a distance of about 3 m. It is the
chief industrial centre in the Vorarlberg, the regulated Dornbirner Ach
furnishing motive power for several factories for cotton spinning and
weaving, worked muslin, dyeing, iron-founding and so on.
     (W. A. B. C.)



DORNBURG, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar,
romantically situated on a hill 400 ft. above the Saale, on the railway
Grossheringen-Jena and 7 m. N.E. of the latter. Pop. 700. Dornburg is an
ancient town, but is chiefly famous for its three grand-ducal castles.
Of these, the Altes Schloss is built on the site of an imperial
stronghold (Kaiserpfalz), once a bulwark against the Slavs, often a
residence of the emperors Otto II. and Otto III., and where the emperor
Henry II. held a diet in 1005; the Neues Schloss in Italian style of
architecture, built 1728-1748, with pretty gardens. Here Goethe was
often a guest, "healing the blows of fate and the wounds of the heart in
Dornburg." The third and southernmost of the three is the so-called
Stohmannsches Rittergut, purchased in 1824 and fitted as a modern
palace.



DORNER, ISAAC AUGUST (1809-1884), German Lutheran divine, was born at
Neuhausen-ob-Eck in Württemberg on the 20th of June 1809. His father was
pastor at Neuhausen. He was educated at Maulbronn and the university of
Tübingen. After acting for two years as assistant to his father in his
native place he travelled in England and Holland to complete his studies
and acquaint himself with different types of Protestantism. He returned
to Tübingen in 1834, and in 1837 was made professor extraordinarius of
theology. As a student at the university, one of his teachers had been
Christian Friedrich Schmid (1794-1852), author of a well-known book,
_Biblische Theologie des Neuen Testamentes_, and one of the most
vigorous opponents of F. C. Baur. At Schmid's suggestion, and with his
encouragement, Dorner set to work upon a history of the development of
the doctrine of the person of Christ, _Entwicklungsgeschichte der Lehre
von der Person Christi_. He published the first part of it in 1835, the
year in which Strauss, his colleague, gave to the public his _Life of
Jesus_; completed it in 1839, and afterwards considerably enlarged it
for a second edition (1845-1856). It was an indirect reply to Strauss,
which showed "profound learning, objectivity of judgment, and fine
appreciation of the moving ideas of history" (Otto Pfleiderer). The
author at once took high rank as a theologian and historian, and in 1839
was invited to Kiel as professor ordinarius. It was here that he
produced, amongst other works, _Das Princip unserer Kirche nach dem
innern Verhältniss seiner zwei Seiten betrachtet_ (1841). In 1843 he
removed as professor of theology to Königsberg. Thence he was called to
Bonn in 1847, and to Göttingen in 1853. Finally in 1862 he settled in
the same capacity at Berlin, where he was a member of the supreme
consistorial council. A few years later (1867) he published his valuable
_Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie_ (Eng. trans., _History of
Protestant Theology_, 2 vols.; 1871), in which he "developed and
elaborated," as Pfleiderer says, "his own convictions by his diligent
and loving study of the history of the Church's thought and belief." The
theological positions to which he ultimately attained are best seen in
his _Christliche Glaubenslehre_, published shortly before his death
(1879-1881). It is "a work extremely rich in thought and matter. It
takes the reader through a mass of historical material by the
examination and discussion of ancient and modern teachers, and so leads
up to the author's own view, which is mostly one intermediate between
the opposite extremes, and appears as a more or less successful
synthesis of antagonistic theses" (Pfleiderer). The companion work,
_System der christlichen Sittenlehre_, was published by his son August
Dorner in 1886. He also contributed articles to Herzog-Hauck's
_Realencyklopädie_, and was the founder and for many years one of the
editors of the _Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie_. He died at Wiesbaden
on the 8th of July 1884. One of the most noteworthy of the "mediating"
theologians, he has been ranked with Friedrich Schleiermacher, J. A. W.
Neander, Karl Nitzsch, Julius Müller and Richard Rothe.

His son, AUGUST (b. 1846), after studying at Berlin and acting as
_Repetent_ at Göttingen (1870-1873), became professor of theology and
co-director of the theological seminary at Wittenberg. Amongst his works
is _Augustinus, sein theologisches System und seine religionsphilosoph.
Anschauung_ (1873), and he is the author of the article on Isaac Dorner
in the _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_.

  See Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_; _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_
  (1904); Otto Pfleiderer, _The Development of Theology in Germany since
  Kant_ (1890); F. Lichtenberger, _History of German Theology in the
  Nineteenth Century_ (1889); Carl Schwarz, _Zur Geschichte der neuesten
  Theologie_ (1869).     (M. A. C.)



DORNOCH, a royal and police burgh and county town of Sutherlandshire,
Scotland. Pop. (1901) 624. It lies on the north shore of Dornoch Firth,
an arm of the North Sea, 7¾ m. S.S.E. of Mound station on the Highland
railway by light railway. Its dry and bracing climate and fine golf
course have brought it into great repute as a health and holiday resort.
Before the Reformation it was the see of the bishopric of Caithness and
Sutherland. The cathedral, built by Bishop Gilbert de Moravia (Moray)
(d. 1245), the last Scot enrolled in the Calendar of Scottish saints,
was damaged by fire in 1570, during the raid of the Master of Caithness
and Mackay of Strathnaver, and afterwards neglected till 1837, when it
was restored by the 2nd duke of Sutherland, and has since been used as
the parish church. Noticeable for its high roof, low tower and dwarf
spire, the church consists of an aisleless nave, chancel (adorned with
Chantrey's statue of the 1st duke) and transepts. It is the
burying-place of the Sutherland family and contains the remains of
sixteen earls. Of the ancient castle, which was also the bishop's
palace, only the west tower exists, the rest of the structure having
been destroyed in the outrage of 1570. The county buildings adjoin it.
Dornoch became a royal burgh in 1628, and, as one of the Wick burghs,
returns a member to parliament. It was the scene of the last execution
for witchcraft in Scotland (1722). At Embo, 2 m. N.N.E., a sculptured
stone commemorates the battle with the Danes in the 13th century, in
which Richard de Moravia was killed. He was buried in the cathedral,
where his effigy was found in the chancel. Skibo castle, about 4 m. W.
of Dornoch, once a residence of the bishops of Caithness, was acquired
in 1898 by Andrew Carnegie.



DOROHOI, or DOROGOI, the capital of the department of Dorohoi, Rumania;
on the right bank of the river Jijia, which broadens into a lake on the
north. Pop. (1900) 12,701, more than half being Jews. The Russian
frontier is about 30 m. E., the Austrian 20 m. W.; and there is railway
communication with Botoshani and Jassy. Dorohoi is a market for the
timber and farm produce of the north Moldavian highlands; merchants from
the neighbouring states flock to its great fair, held on the 12th of
June. There is a church built by Stephen the Great (1458-1504).



DOROTHEUS, a professor of jurisprudence in the law school of Berytus in
Syria, and one of the three commissioners appointed by the emperor
Justinian to draw up a book of Institutes, after the model of the
_Institutes_ of Gaius, which should serve as an introduction to the
_Digest_ already completed. His colleagues were Tribonian and
Theophilus; and their work was accomplished in 533. Dorotheus was
subsequently the author of a commentary on the _Digest_, which is called
the _Index_, and was published by him in 542. Fragments of this
commentary, which was in the Greek language, have been preserved in the
_Scholia_ appended to the body of law compiled by order of the emperor
Basilius the Macedonian and his son Leo the Wise, in the 9th century,
known as the _Basilico_, from which it seems probable that the
commentary of Dorotheus contained the substance of a course of lectures
on the _Digest_ delivered by him in the law school of Berytus, although
it is not cast in a form so precisely didactic as the _Index_ of
Theophilus.



D'ORSAY, ALFRED GUILLAUME GABRIEL, COUNT (1801-1852), the famous dandy
and wit, was born in Paris on the 4th of September 1801, and was the son
of General D'Orsay, from whom he inherited an exceptionally handsome
person. Through his mother he was grandson by a morganatic marriage of
the king of Württemberg. In his youth he entered the French army, and
served as a _garde du corps_ of Louis XVIII. In 1822, while stationed at
Valence on the Rhone, he formed an acquaintance with the earl and
countess of Blessington (q.v.) which quickly ripened into intimacy, and
at the invitation of the earl he accompanied the party on their tour
through Italy. In the spring of 1823 he met Lord Byron at Genoa, and the
published correspondence of the poet at this period contains numerous
references to the count's gifts and accomplishments, and to his peculiar
relationship to the Blessington family. A diary which D'Orsay had kept
during a visit to London in 1821-1822 was submitted to Byron's
inspection, and was much praised by him for the knowledge of men and
manners and the keen faculty of observation it displayed. On the 1st of
December 1827 Count D'Orsay married Lady Harriet Gardiner, a girl of
fifteen, the daughter of Lord Blessington by his previous wife. The
union, if it rendered his connection with the Blessington family less
ostensibly equivocal than before, was in other respects an unhappy one,
and a separation took place almost immediately. After the death of Lord
Blessington, which occurred in 1829, the widowed countess returned to
England, accompanied by Count D'Orsay, and her home, first at Seamore
Place, then at Gore House, soon became a resort of the fashionable
literary and artistic society of London, which found an equal attraction
in host and in hostess. The count's charming manner, brilliant wit, and
artistic faculty were accompanied by benevolent moral qualities, which
endeared him to all his associates. His skill as a painter and sculptor
was shown in numerous portraits and statuettes representing his friends,
which were marked by great vigour and truthfulness, if wanting in the
finish that can only be reached by persistent discipline. Count D'Orsay
had been from his youth a zealous Bonapartist, and one of the most
frequent guests at Gore House was Prince Louis Napoleon. In 1849 he went
bankrupt, and the establishment at Gore House being broken up, he went
to Paris with Lady Blessington, who died a few weeks after their
arrival. He endeavoured to provide for himself by painting portraits.
He was deep in the counsels of the prince president, but the relation
between them was less cordial after the _coup d'état_, of which the
count had by anticipation expressed his strong disapproval. His
appointment to the post of director of fine arts was announced only a
few days before his death, which occurred on the 4th of August 1852.

  Much information as to the life and character of Count D'Orsay is to
  be found in Richard Madden's _Literary Life and Correspondence of the
  Countess of Blessington_ (1855).



DORSET, EARLS, MARQUESSES AND DUKES OF, English titles one or more of
which have been borne by the families of Beaufort, Grey and Sackville.
About 1070 Osmund, or Osmer, an alleged son of Henry, count of Séez, by
a sister of William the Conqueror, is said to have been created earl of
Dorset, but the authority is a very late one and Osmund describes
himself simply as bishop (of Salisbury). William de Mohun of Dunster, a
partisan of the empress Matilda, appears as earl of Dorset or Somerset,
these two shires being in early times united under a single sheriff. In
1397 John Beaufort, earl of Somerset (d. 1410), the eldest son of John
of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Catherine Swinford, was created
marquess of Dorset; two years later, however, he was reduced to his
former rank of earl of Somerset. In 1411 his brother Thomas, afterwards
duke of Exeter, was created earl of Dorset, and in 1441 his youngest son
Edmund obtained the same dignity. Two years later Edmund was created
marquess of Dorset and still later duke of Somerset. Edmund's son Henry,
duke of Somerset and marquess of Dorset, was attainted during the Wars
of the Roses, and was beheaded after the battle of Hexham in May 1464,
when the titles became extinct. In 1475 Thomas Grey, 8th Lord Ferrers of
Groby (1451-1501), a son of Sir John Grey (d. 1461) and a stepson of
King Edward IV., having resigned the earldom of Huntingdon, which he had
received in 1471, was created marquess of Dorset (see below). He was
succeeded in this title by his son Thomas (1477-1530), and then by his
grandson Henry (c. 1510-1554), who was created duke of Suffolk in 1551.
When in February 1554 Suffolk was beheaded for sharing in the rising of
Sir Thomas Wyat, the marquessate of Dorset again became extinct; but in
1604 Thomas Sackville (see the account of the family under SACKVILLE,
1ST BARON) was created earl of Dorset (see below), and his descendant
the 7th earl was created duke in 1720. In 1843 the titles became
extinct.


  The Grey line.

THOMAS GREY, 1ST MARQUESS OF DORSET (1451-1501), was the elder son of
Sir John Grey, 7th Lord Ferrers of Groby (1432-1461), by his wife
Elizabeth Woodville, afterwards queen of Edward IV. He fought for Edward
at Tewkesbury, and became Lord Harington and Bonville by right of his
wife Cecilia, daughter of William Bonville, 6th Lord Harington (d.
1460); in 1475 he was created marquess of Dorset, and he was also a
knight of the Garter and a privy councillor. After the death of Edward
IV. Dorset and his brother Richard Grey were among the supporters of
their half-brother, the young king Edward V.; thus they incurred the
enmity of Richard duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., and
Richard Grey having been arrested, was beheaded at Pontefract in June
1483, while his elder brother, the marquess, saved his life by flight.
Dorset was one of the leaders of the duke of Buckingham's insurrection,
and when this failed he joined Henry earl of Richmond in Brittany, but
he was left behind in Paris when the future king crossed over to England
in 1485. After Henry's victory at Bosworth the marquess returned to
England and his attainder was reversed, but he was suspected and
imprisoned when Lambert Simnel revolted; he had, however, been released
and pardoned, had marched into France and had helped to quell the
Cornish rising, when he died on the 20th of September 1501.

Dorset's sixth son, Lord Leonard Grey (c. 1490-1541), went to Ireland as
marshal of the English army in 1535, being created an Irish peer as
Viscount Grane in the same year, but he never assumed this title. In
1536 Grey was appointed lord deputy of Ireland in succession to Sir
William Skeffington; he was active in marching against the rebels and he
presided over the important parliament of 1536, but he was soon at
variance with the powerful family of the Butlers and with some of the
privy councillors.

He did not relax his energy in seeking to restore order, but he was
accused, probably with truth, of favouring the family of the Geraldines,
to whom he was related, and the quarrel with the Butlers became fiercer
than ever. Returning to England in 1540 he was thrown into prison and
was condemned to death for treason. He was beheaded on the 28th of July
1541 (see R. Bagwell, _Ireland under the Tudors_, vol. i., 1885).


THOMAS GREY, 2ND MARQUESS OF DORSET (1477-1530), the eldest son of the
1st marquess, fled to Brittany with his father in 1484; after receiving
several marks of the royal favour and succeeding to the title, he was
imprisoned by Henry VII., and remained in prison until 1509. He was on
very good terms with Henry VIII., who in 1512 appointed him to command
the English army which was to invade France in conjunction with the
Spanish forces under Ferdinand of Aragon. In spite of the failure which
attended this enterprise, Dorset again served in France in the following
year, and in 1516 he was made lieutenant of the order of the Garter.
Later he was at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and he was warden of the
eastern and middle marches towards Scotland in 1523 and the following
years. He received many other positions of trust and profit from the
king, and he helped to bring about the fall of Cardinal Wolsey, under
whom he had probably been educated. He was famous for his skill in the
tournament. He died on the 10th of October 1530.

His eldest son Henry Grey, 3rd marquess of Dorset, was in 1551 created
duke of Suffolk (q.v.). A younger son, Lord Thomas Grey, was beheaded in
April 1554 for sharing in the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat; another son,
Lord John Grey, was also sentenced to death for his share in this
rising, but his life was spared owing to the efforts of his wife Mary,
daughter of Sir Anthony Browne. Under Elizabeth, Lord John, a strong
Protestant, was restored to the royal favour, and he died on the 19th of
November 1569. In 1603 his son Henry (d. 1614) was created Baron Grey of
Groby, and in 1628 his great-grandson Henry was made earl of Stamford.


  The Sackville line.

THOMAS SACKVILLE, 1ST EARL OF DORSET (c. 1530-1608), English statesman
and poet, son of Sir Richard Sackville and his wife Winifrede, daughter
of Sir John Bruges or Bridges, lord mayor of London, was born at
Buckhurst, in the parish of Withyham, Sussex. In his fifteenth or
sixteenth year he is said to have been entered at Hart Hall, Oxford; but
it was at Cambridge that he completed his studies and took the degree of
M.A. He joined the Inner Temple, and was called to the bar. He married
at the age of eighteen Cicely, daughter of Sir John Baker of
Sissinghurst, Kent; in 1558 he entered parliament as member for
Westmorland, in 1559 he sat for East Grinstead, Sussex, and in 1563 for
Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire. A visit to the continent in 1565 was
interrupted by an imprisonment at Rome, caused by a rash declaration of
Protestant opinions. The news of his father's death on the 21st of April
1566 recalled him to England. On his return he was knighted in the
queen's presence, receiving at the same time the title of baron of
Buckhurst. With his mother he lived at the queen's palace of Sheen,
where he entertained in 1568 Odet de Coligni, cardinal de Châtillon. In
1571 he was sent to France to congratulate Charles IX. on his marriage
with Elizabeth of Austria, and he took part in the negotiations for the
projected marriage of Elizabeth with the duke of Anjou. He became a
member of the privy council, and acted as a commissioner at the state
trials. In 1572 he was one of the peers who tried Thomas Howard, duke of
Norfolk, and in 1586 he was selected to convey the sentence of death to
Mary, queen of Scots, a task he is said to have performed with great
consideration. He was sent in 1587 as ambassador to the Hague "to
expostulate in favour of peace with a people who knew that their
existence depended on war, to reconcile those to delay who felt that
delay was death, and to heal animosities between men who were enemies
from their cradles to their graves."[1] This task was further
complicated by the parsimony and prevarication of Elizabeth. Buckhurst
carried out under protest the foolish and often contradictory orders he
received. His plain speaking on the subject of Leicester's action in the
Netherlands displeased the queen still more. She accused him on his
return of having followed his instructions too slavishly, and ordered
him to keep to his own house for nine months. His disgrace was short,
for in 1588 he was presented with the order of the Garter, and was sent
again to the Netherlands in 1589 and 1598. He was elected chancellor of
the university of Oxford in 1591, and in 1599 he succeeded Lord Burghley
as lord high treasurer of England. In 1601 as high steward he pronounced
sentence on Essex, who had been his rival for the chancellorship and his
opponent in politics. James I. confirmed him in the office of lord
treasurer, the duties of which he performed with the greatest
impartiality. He was created earl of Dorset in 1604, and died suddenly
on the 19th of April 1608, as he was sitting at the council table at
Whitehall. His eldest son, Robert, the 2nd earl (1561-1609), was a
member of parliament and a man of great learning. Two other sons were
William (c. 1568-1591), a soldier who was killed in the service of Henry
IV. of France, and Thomas (1571-1646), also a soldier.

It is not by his political career, distinguished as it was, that
Sackville is remembered, but by his share in early life in two works,
each of which was, in its way, a new departure in English literature. In
_A Myrroure for Magistrates_, printed by Thomas Marshe in 1559, he has
sometimes been erroneously credited with the inception of the general
plan as well as with the most valuable contributions. But there had been
an earlier edition, for the editor, William Baldwin, states in his
preface that the work was begun and partly printed "four years agone."
He also says that the printer (John Wayland) had designed the work as a
continuation of Lydgate's _Fall of Princes_ derived from the narrative
of Bochas. Fragments of this early edition are extant, the title page
being sometimes found bound up with Lydgate's book. It runs _A Memoriall
of such princes, as since the tyme of Richard the seconde, have been
unfortunate in the realme of England_, while the 1559 edition has the
running title _A briefe memorial of unfortunate Englysh princes_. The
disconnected poems by various authors were given a certain continuity by
the simple device of allowing the ghost of each unfortunate hero "to
bewail unto me [Baldwin] his grievous chances, heavy destinies and
woefull misfortunes." After a delay caused by an examination by Stephen
Gardiner, bishop of Worcester, the book appeared. It contained nineteen
tragic legends by six poets, William Baldwin, George Ferrers, "Master"
Cavyll, Thomas Chaloner, Thomas Phaer and John Skelton. In 1563 appeared
a second edition with eight additional poems by William Baldwin, John
Dolman, Sackville, Francis Segar, Thomas Churchyard and Cavyll.
Sackville contributed the _Complaint_ of Henry Stafford, duke of
Buckingham, to which he prefixed an _Induction_. This was evidently
designed as an introduction to a version of the whole work, and, being
arbitrarily transposed (1610) to the beginning by a later editor,
Richard Niccols, led to the attribution of the general design to
Sackville, an error which was repeated by Thomas Warton. The originators
were certainly Baldwin and his "printer." In 1574 Thomas Marshe printed
a series of new tragedies by John Higgins as the _Firste parte of the
Mirour for Magistrates.... From the coming of Brute to the Incarnation._
The seventh edition (1578) contained for the first time the two
tragedies of Eleanor Cobham and Humphrey duke of Gloucester. In 1587,
when the original editor was dead, the two quite separate publications
of Baldwin and Higgins were combined. The primary object of this
earliest of English miscellanies was didactic. It was to be a kind of
textbook of British history, illustrating the evils of ambition. The
writers pretended to historical accuracy, but with the notable
exceptions of Churchyard and Sackville they paid little attention to
form. The book did much to promote interest in English history, and Mr
W. J. Courthope has pointed out that the subjects of Marlowe's _Edward
II._, of Shakespeare's _Henry VI._, _Richard II._ and _Richard III._ are
already dealt with in the _Myrroure_.

Sackville's _Induction_ opens with a description of the oncoming of
winter. The poet meets with Sorrow, who offers to lead him to the
infernal regions that he may see the sad estate of those ruined by their
ambition, and thus learn the transient character of earthly joy. At the
approaches of Hell he sees a group of terrible abstractions, Remorse of
Conscience, Dread, Misery, Revenge, Care, &c., each vividly described.
The last of these was War, on whose shield he saw depicted the great
battles of antiquity. Finally, penetrating to the realm of Pluto
himself, he is surrounded by the shades, of whom the duke of Buckingham
is the first to advance, thus introducing the _Complaint_. To this
induction the epithet "Dantesque" has been frequently applied, but in
truth Sackville's models were Gavin Douglas and Virgil. The dignity and
artistic quality of the narrative of the fall of Buckingham are in
strong contrast to the crude attempts of Ferrers and Baldwin, and make
the work one of the most important between the _Canterbury Tales_ and
the _Faerie Queene_.

Sackville has also the credit of being part author with Thomas Norton of
the first legitimate tragedy in the English language. This was
_Gorboduc_ or _Ferrex and Porrex_, performed as part of the Christmas
festivities (1560-1561) by the society of the Inner Temple, and
afterwards on the 18th of January 1561 before Elizabeth at Whitehall.
The argument is as follows:

  "Gorboduc, king of Brittaine, devided his Realme in his lyfe time to
  his Sones, Ferrex and Porrex. The Sonnes fell to dyvision and
  discention. The yonger kylled the elder. The Mother, that more dearely
  loved thelder, fr revenge kylled the yonger. The people, moved with
  the Crueltie of the facte, rose in Rebellion, and Slewe both father
  and mother. The Nobilitie assembled, and most terribly destroyed the
  Rebelles. And afterwards for want of Issue of the Prince, wherby the
  Succession of the Crowne became uncertayne, they fell to Ciuill warre,
  in whiche both they and many of their Issues were slayne, and the
  Lande for a longe tyme almoste desolate, and myserablye wasted."

The argument shows plainly enough the didactic intention of the whole,
and points the moral of the evils of civil discord. The story is taken
from Book II. chap. xvi. of Geoffrey of Monmouth's history. It was first
printed (1565) in an unauthorized edition as _The Tragedie of Gorboduc_
"whereof three Actes were wrytten by Thomas Nortone, and the two laste
by Thomas Sackvyle." Norton's share has been generally minimized, and it
seems safe to assume that Sackville is responsible for the general
design. In 1570 appeared an authentic edition, _The Tragedie of Ferrex
and Porrex_, with a preface from the printer to the reader stating that
the authors were "very much displeased that she (the tragedy) so ran
abroad without leave." The tragedies of Seneca were now being
translated, and the play is conceived on Senecan lines. The plot was no
doubt chosen for its accumulated horrors from analogy with the tragic
subjects of Oedipus and Thyestes. None of the crimes occur on the stage,
but the action is described in lofty language by the characters. The
most famous and harrowing scene is that in which Marcello relates the
murder of Porrex by his mother (Act IV. sc. ii.). The paucity of action
is eked out by a dumb show to precede each act, and the place of the
Chorus is supplied by four "ancient and sage men of Britain." In the
variety of incident, however, the authors departed from the classical
model. The play is written in excellent blank verse, and is the first
example of the application of Surrey's innovation to drama. Jasper
Heywood in the poetical address prefixed to his translation of the
Thyestes alludes to "Sackvylde's Sonnets sweetly sauste," but only one
of these has survived. It is prefixed to Sir T. Hoby's translation of
Castiglione's _Courtier_. Sackville's poetical preoccupations are
sufficiently marked in the subject matter of these two works, which
remain the sole literary productions of an original mind.

  The best edition of the _Mirror for Magistrates_ is that of Joseph
  Haslewood (1815). _Gorboduc_ was edited for the Shakespeare Society by
  W. D. Cooper in 1847; in 1883 by Miss L. Toulmin Smith for C.
  Vollmöller's _Englische Sprach-und Litteraturdenkmale_ (Heilbronn,
  1883). The _Works_ of Sackville were edited by C. Chapple (1820) and
  by the Hon. and Rev. Reginald Sackville-West (1859). See also _A
  Mirror for Magistrates_ (1898) by Mr W. F. Trench; an excellent
  account in Mr W. J. Courthope's _History of English Poetry_, vol. i.
  pp. 111 et seq.; and an important article by Dr J. W. Cunliffe in the
  _Cambridge History of English Literature_, vol. iii.


EDWARD SACKVILLE, 4TH EARL OF DORSET (1591-1652), son of the 2nd earl,
succeeded his brother Richard, the 3rd earl (1590-1624), in March 1624.
He had attained much notoriety by killing Edward Bruce, 2nd Lord
Kinloss, in a duel, in August 1613, the place in the Netherlands where
this encounter took place being called Bruceland in quite recent times,
and in 1620 he was one of the leaders of the English contingent which
fought for James I.'s son-in-law, Frederick V., elector palatine of the
Rhine, at the battle of the White Hill, near Prague. In the House of
Commons, where he represented Sussex, Sackville was active in defending
Bacon and in advocating an aggressive policy with regard to the recovery
of the Rhenish Palatinate; twice he was ambassador to France, and he was
interested in Virginia and the Bermuda Islands. Under Charles I. he was
a privy councillor and lord chamberlain to Queen Henrietta Maria. He was
frequently employed by the government from the accession of Charles
until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he joined the king at York,
but he disliked the struggle and was constant in his efforts to secure
peace. At Oxford he was lord chamberlain to the king and lord president
of his council, but Charles did not altogether approve of his pacific
attitude, and is said on one occasion to have remarked to him "Your
voice is the voice of Jacob, but your hands are the hands of Esau." He
died on the 17th of July 1652. His wife Mary (d. 1645), daughter of Sir
George Curzon, was governess to the sons of Charles I., the future kings
Charles II. and James II. His character is thus summed up by S. R.
Gardiner: "Pre-eminent in beauty of person, and in the vigour of a
cultivated intellect, he wanted nothing to fit him for the highest
places in the commonwealth but that stern sense of duty without which no
man can be truly great."


CHARLES SACKVILLE, 6TH EARL OF DORSET (1638-1706), English poet and
courtier, son of Richard Sackville, 5th earl (1622-1677), was born on
the 24th of January 1638. His mother was Frances Cranfield, sister and
heiress of Lionel, 3rd earl of Middlesex, to whose estates and title he
succeeded in 1674, being created Baron Cranfield and 4th earl of
Middlesex in 1675. He succeeded to his father's estates and title in
August 1677. Buckhurst was educated privately, and spent some time
abroad with a private tutor, returning to England shortly before the
Restoration. In Charles II.'s first parliament he sat for East Grinstead
in Sussex. He had no taste for politics, however, but won a reputation
as courtier and wit at Whitehall. He bore his share in the excesses for
which Sir Charles Sedley and the earl of Rochester were notorious. In
1662 he and his brother Edward, with three other gentlemen, were
indicted for the robbery and murder of a tanner named Hoppy. The defence
was that they were in pursuit of thieves, and mistook Hoppy for a
highwayman. They appear to have been acquitted, for when in 1663 Sir
Charles Sedley was tried for a gross breach of public decency in Covent
Garden, Buckhurst, who had been one of the offenders, was asked by the
lord chief justice "whether he had so soon forgot his deliverance at
that time." Something in his character made his follies less obnoxious
to the citizens than those of the other rakes, for he was never
altogether unpopular, and Rochester is said to have told Charles II.
that he did not "know how it was, my Lord Dorset might do anything, yet
was never to blame." In 1665 he volunteered to serve under the duke of
York in the Dutch War. His famous song, "To all you ladies now at Land,"
was written, according to Prior, on the night before the victory gained
over "foggy Opdam" off Harwich (June 3, 1665). Dr Johnson, with the
remark that "seldom any splendid story is wholly true," says that the
earl of Orrery had told him it was only retouched on that occasion. In
1667 Pepys laments that Buckhurst had lured Nell Gwyn away from the
theatre, and that with Sedley the two kept "merry house" at Epsom. Next
year the king was paying court to Nell, and her "Charles the First," as
she called Buckhurst, was sent on a "sleeveless errand" into France to
be out of the way. His gaiety and wit secured the continued favour of
Charles II., but did not especially recommend him to James II., who
could not, moreover, forgive Dorset's lampoons on his mistress,
Catharine Sedley, countess of Dorchester. On James's accession,
therefore, he retired from court. He concurred in the invitation to
William of Orange, who made him privy councillor, lord chamberlain
(1689), and knight of the Garter (1692). During William's absences in
1695-1698 he was one of the lord justices of the realm.

He was a generous patron of men of letters. When Dryden was dismissed
from the laureateship, he made him an equivalent pension from his own
purse. Matthew Prior, in dedicating his _Poems on Several Occasions_
(1709) to Dorset's son, affirms that his opinion was consulted by Edmund
Waller; that the duke of Buckingham deferred the publication of his
_Rehearsal_ until he was assured that Dorset would not "rehearse upon
him again"; and that Samuel Butler and Wycherley both owed their first
recognition to him. Prior's praise of Dorset is no doubt extravagant,
but when his youthful follies were over he appears to have developed
sterling qualities, and although the poems he has left are very few,
none of them are devoid of merit. Dryden's "Essay on Satire" and the
dedication of the "Essay on Dramatic Poesy" are addressed to him.
Walpole (_Catalogue of Noble Authors_, iv.) says that he had as much wit
as his first master, or his contemporaries Buckingham and Rochester,
without the royal want of feeling, the duke's want of principles or the
earl's want of thought; and Congreve reported of him when he was dying
that he "slabbered" more wit than other people had in their best health.
He was three times married, his first wife being Mary, widow of Charles
Berkeley, earl of Falmouth. He died at Bath on the 29th of January 1706.

  The fourth act of _Pompey the Great, a tragedy translated out of
  French by certain persons of honour_, is by Dorset. The satires for
  which Pope classed him with the masters in that kind seem to have been
  short lampoons, with the exception of _A faithful catalogue of our
  most eminent ninnies_ (reprinted in _Bibliotheca Curiosa_, ed.
  Goldsmid, 1885). _The Works of the Earls of Rochester, Roscommon and
  Dorset, the Dukes of Devonshire, Buckinghamshire, &c., with Memoirs of
  their Lives_ (1731) is catalogued (No. 20841) by H. G. Bohn in 1841.
  His _Poems_ are included in Anderson's and other collections of the
  British poets.


LIONEL CRANFIELD SACKVILLE, 1ST DUKE OF DORSET (1688-1765), the only son
of the 6th earl, was born on the 18th of January 1688. He succeeded his
father as 7th earl of Dorset in January 1706, and was created duke of
Dorset in 1720. He was lord steward of the royal household from 1725 to
1730, and lord-lieutenant of Ireland from 1730 to 1737; he was again
lord steward from 1737 to 1745, and was lord president of the council
from 1745 to 1751. In 1750 he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland
for the second time, and after a stormy viceroyalty he was dismissed
from office in 1755. The duke, who was several times one of the lords
justices of Great Britain and held many other positions of trust, died
on the 10th of October 1765. He left three sons: Charles, the 2nd duke;
John Philip (d. 1765); and George, who took the additional name of
Germain in 1770, and in 1782 was created Viscount Sackville (q.v.).


CHARLES SACKVILLE, 2ND DUKE OF DORSET (1711-1769), an associate of
Frederick, prince of Wales, was a member of parliament for many years
and a lord of the treasury under Henry Pelham; he died on the 5th of
January 1769, when his nephew, John Frederick (1745-1799), became the
3rd duke. This nobleman was ambassador in Paris from 1783 to 1789, and
lord steward of the household from 1789 to 1799; he died on the 19th of
July 1799, and was succeeded by his only son, George John Frederick
(1793-1815). When the 4th duke died unmarried in February 1815, the
titles passed to his kinsman, Charles Sackville Germain (1767-1843), son
and heir of the 1st Viscount Sackville, who thus became 5th duke of
Dorset. When he died on the 29th of July 1843 the titles became extinct.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] J. L. Motley, _Hist. of the United Netherlands_ (vol. ii. p. 216,
    ed. 1867).



DORSETSHIRE (DORSET), a south-western county of England, bounded N.E. by
Wiltshire, E. by Hampshire, S. by the English Channel, W. by Devonshire
and N.W. by Somersetshire. The area is 987.9 sq. m. The surface is for
the most part broken. A line of hills or downs, forming part of the
system to which the general name of the Western Downs is applied, enters
the county in the north-east near Shaftesbury, and strikes across it in
a direction generally W. by S., leaving it towards Axminster and
Crewkerne in Devonshire. East of Beaminster in the south-west another
line, the Purbeck Downs, branches S.E. to the coast, which it follows as
far as the district called the Isle of Purbeck in the south-east of the
county. Both these ranges occasionally exceed a height of 900 ft. Of the
principal rivers and streams, the Stour rises just outside the county in
Wiltshire, and flows with a general south-easterly course to join the
Hampshire Avon close to its mouth. It receives the Cale, Lidden and
other streams in its upper course, and breaches the central hills in its
middle course between Sturminster Newton and Blandford. The Lidden and
Cale are the chief streams of the well-watered and fertile district
known as the Vale of Blackmore. The small river Piddle or Trent and the
larger Frome, rising in the central hills, traverse a plain tract of
open country between the central and southern ranges, and almost unite
their mouths in Poole Harbour. In the north-west the Yeo, collecting
many feeders, flows northward to join the Parret and so sends its waters
to the Bristol Channel. The Char, the Brit and the Bride, with their
feeders, water many picturesque short valleys in the south-west. The
coast is always beautiful, and in some parts magnificent. In the east it
is broken by the irregular, lake-like inlet of Poole Harbour, pleasantly
diversified with low islands, shallow, and at low tide largely drained.
South of this a bold foreland, the termination of the southern hills
(here called Ballard Down) divides Studland Bay from Swanage Bay, after
which the coast line turns abruptly westward round Durlston Head. The
peninsula thus formed with Poole Harbour on the north is known as the
Isle of Purbeck, an oblong projection measuring 10 m. by 7. St Albans or
Aldhelms Head is the next salient feature, after which the fine cliffs
are indented with many little bays, of which the most noteworthy is the
almost landlocked Lulworth Cove. The coast then turns southward to
embrace Weymouth Bay and Portland Roads, where a harbour of refuge with
massive breakwaters is protected to the south by the Isle of Portland.
The isle is connected with the mainland by Chesil Bank, a remarkable
beach of shingle. After this the coast is less broken than before and
continues highly picturesque as far as the confines of the county near
Lyme Regis. This small town, with Charmouth, Bridport, Weymouth,
Lulworth Cove and Swanage, are in considerable favour as
watering-places.

  _Geology._--Occupying as it does the central and most elevated part of
  the county, the Chalk is the most prominent geological formation in
  Dorsetshire. It sweeps in a south-westerly direction, as a belt of
  high ground about 12 m. in width, from Cranborne Chase, through
  Blandford, Milton Abbas and Frampton to Dorchester; westward it
  reaches a point just north of Beaminster. From about Dorchester the
  Chalk outcrop narrows and turns south-eastward by Portisham, Bincombe,
  to West Lulworth, thence the crop proceeds eastward as the ridge of
  the Purbeck Hills, and finally runs out to sea as the headland between
  Studland and Swanage Bays.

  Upon the Chalk in the eastern part of the county are the Eocene beds
  of the Hampshire Basin. These are fringed by the Reading Beds and
  London Clay, which occur as a narrow belt from Cranborne through
  Wimborne Minster, near Bere Regis and Piddletown; here the crop swings
  round south-eastward through West Knighton, Winfrith and Lulworth, and
  thence along the northern side of the Purbeck Hills to Studland. Most
  of the remaining Eocene area is occupied by the sands, gravel and clay
  of the Bagshot series. The Agglestone Rock near Studland is a hard
  mass of the Bagshot formation; certain clays in the same series in the
  Wareham district have a world-wide reputation for pottery purposes;
  since they are exported from Poole Harbour they are often known as
  "Poole Clay." From beneath the Chalk the Selbornian or Gault and Upper
  Greensand crops out as a narrow, irregular band. The Gault clay is
  only distinguishable in the northern and southern districts. Here and
  there the Greensand forms prominent hills, as that on which the town
  of Shaftesbury stands. The Upper Greensand appears again as outliers
  farther west, forming the high ground above Lyme Regis, Golden Cap,
  and Pillesden and Lewesden Pens. The Lower Greensand crops out on the
  south side of the Purbeck Hills and may be seen at Punfield Cove and
  Worbarrow Bay, but this formation thins out towards the west. By the
  action of the agencies of denudation upon the faulted anticline of the
  Isle of Purbeck, the Wealden beds are brought to light in the vale
  between Lulworth and Swanage; a similar cause has accounted for their
  appearance at East Chaldon. South of the strip of Weald Clay is an
  elevated plateau consisting of Purbeck Beds which rest upon Portland
  Stone and Portland Sand. Cropping out from beneath the Portland beds
  is the Kimmeridge Clay with so-called "Coal" bands, which forms the
  lower platform near the village of that name.

  The Middle Purbeck building stone and Upper Purbeck _Paludina_ marble
  have been extensively quarried in the Isle of Purbeck. An interesting
  feature in the Lower Purbeck is the "Dirt bed," the remains of a
  Jurassic forest, which may be seen near Mupe Bay and on the Isle of
  Portland, where both the Purbeck and Portland formations are well
  exposed, the latter yielding the well-known freestones. In the
  north-west of the county the Kimmeridge Clay crops in a N.-S.
  direction from the neighbourhood of Gillingham by Woolland to near
  Buckland Newton; in the south, a strip runs E. and W. between
  Abbotsbury, Upway and Osmington Mill. Next in order come the Corallian
  Beds and Oxford Clay which follow the line of the Kimmeridge Clay,
  that is, they run from the north to the south-west except in the
  neighbourhood of Abbotsbury and Weymouth, where these beds are
  striking east and west.

  Below the Oxford Clay is the Cornbrash, which may be seen near
  Redipole, Stalbridge and Stourton; then follows the Forest Marble,
  which usually forms a strong escarpment over the Fuller's Earth
  beneath--at Thornford the Fuller's Earth rock is quarried. Next comes
  the Inferior Oolite, quarried near Sherborne and Beaminster; the
  outcrop runs on to the coast at Bridport. Beneath the Oolites are the
  Midford sands, which are well exposed in the cliff between Bridport
  and Burton Brandstock. Except where the Greensand outliers occur, the
  south-western part of the county is occupied by Lower and Middle Lias
  beds. These are clays and marls in the upper portions and limestones
  below. Rhaetic beds, the so-called "White Lias," are exposed in Pinhay
  Bay.

  Many of the formations in Dorsetshire are highly fossiliferous,
  notably the Lias of Lyme Regis, whence _Ichthyosaurus_ and other large
  reptiles have been obtained; remains of the _Iguanodon_ have been
  taken from the Wealden beds of the Isle of Purbeck; the Kimmeridge
  Clay, Inferior Oolite, Forest Marble and Fuller's Earth are all
  fossil-bearing rocks. The coast exhibits geological sections of
  extreme interest and variety; the vertical and highly inclined strata
  of the Purbeck anticline are well exhibited at Gad Cliff or near
  Ballard Point; at the latter place the fractured fold is seen to pass
  into an "overthrust fault."

_Climate and Agriculture._--The air of Dorsetshire is remarkably mild,
and in some of the more sheltered spots on the coast semi-tropical
plants are found to flourish. The district of the clays obtains for the
county the somewhat exaggerated title of the "garden of England," though
the rich Vale of Blackmore and the luxuriant pastures and orchards in
the west may support the name. Yet Dorsetshire is not generally a
well-wooded county, though much fine timber appears in the richer soils,
in some of the sheltered valleys of the chalk district, and more
especially upon the Greensand. About three-fourths of the total area is
under cultivation, and of this nearly five-eighths is in permanent
pasture, while there are in addition about 26,000 acres of hill
pasturage; the chalk downs being celebrated of old as sheep-walks.
Wheat, barley and oats are grown about equally. Turnips occupy nearly
three-fourths of the average under green crops. Sheep are largely kept,
though in decreasing numbers. The old horned breed of Dorsetshire were
well known, but Southdowns or Hampshires are now frequently preferred.
Devons, shorthorns and Herefords are the most common breeds of cattle.
Dairy farming is an important industry.

_Other Industries._--The quarries of Isles of Portland and Purbeck are
important. The first supplies a white freestone employed for many of the
finest buildings in London and elsewhere. Purbeck marble is famous
through its frequent use by the architects of many of the most famous
Gothic churches in England. A valuable product of Purbeck is a white
pipeclay, largely applied to the manufacture of china, for which purpose
it is exported to the Potteries of Staffordshire. Industries, beyond
those of agriculture and quarrying, are slight, though some
shipbuilding is carried on at Poole, and paper is made at several
towns. Other small manufactures are those of flax and hemp in the
neighbourhood of Bridport and Beaminster, of bricks, tiles and pottery
in the Poole district, and of nets (braiding, as the industry is called)
in some of the villages. There are silk-mills at Sherborne and
elsewhere. There are numerous fishing stations along the coast, the
fishing being mostly coastal. There are oyster beds in Poole Harbour.
The chief ports are Poole, Weymouth, Swanage, Bridport, and Lyme Regis.
The harbour of refuge at Portland, under the Admiralty, is an important
naval station, and is fortified.

_Communications._--The main line of the London & South Western railway
serves Gillingham and Sherborne in the north of the county. Branches of
this system serve Wimborne, Poole, Swanage, Dorchester, Weymouth and
Portland. The two last towns, with Bridport, are served by the Great
Western railway; the Somerset & Dorset line (Midland and South Western
joint) follows the Stour valley by Blandford and Wimborne; and Lyme
Regis is the terminus of a light railway from Axminster on the South
Western line.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
632,270 acres, with a population in 1891 of 194,517, and in 1901 of
202,936. The area of the administrative county is 625,578 acres. The
county contains 35 hundreds. It is divided into northern, eastern,
southern and western parliamentary divisions, each returning one member.
It contains the following municipal boroughs--Blandford Forum (pop. 3649),
Bridport (5710), Dorchester, the county town (9458), Lyme Regis (2095),
Poole (19,463), Shaftesbury (2027), Wareham (2003), Weymouth and Melcombe
Regis (19,831). The following are other urban districts--Portland
(15,199), Sherborne (5760), Swanage (3408), Wimborne Minster (3696).
Dorsetshire is in the western circuit, and assizes are held at Dorchester.
It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into nine petty
sessional divisions. The boroughs of Bridport, Dorchester, Lyme Regis,
Poole, and Weymouth and Melcombe Regis have separate commissions of the
peace, and the borough of Poole has in addition a separate court of
quarter sessions. There are 289 civil parishes. The ancient county, which
is almost entirely in the diocese of Salisbury, contains 256
ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part.

_History._--The kingdom of Wessex originated with the settlement of
Cerdic and his followers in Hampshire in 495, and at some time before
the beginning of the 8th century the tide of conquest and colonization
spread beyond the Frome and Kennet valleys and swept over the district
which is now Dorsetshire. In 705 the West Saxon see was transferred to
Sherborne, and the numerous foundations of religious houses which
followed did much to further the social and industrial development of
the county; though the wild and uncivilized state in which the county
yet lay may be conjectured from the names of the hundreds and of their
meeting-places, at barrows, boulders and vales. In 787 the Danes landed
at Portland, and in 833 they arrived at Charmouth with thirty-five ships
and fought with Ecgbert. The shire is first mentioned by name in the
Saxon Chronicle in 845, when the Danes were completely routed at the
mouth of the Parret by the men of Dorsetshire under Osric the ealdorman.
In 876 the invaders captured Wareham, but were driven out next year by
Alfred, and 120 of their ships were wrecked at Swanage. During the two
following centuries Dorset was constantly ravaged by the Danes, and in
1015 Canute came on a plundering expedition to the mouth of the Frome.
Several of the West Saxon kings resided in Dorsetshire, and Æthelbald
and Æthelbert were buried at Sherborne, and Æthelred at Wimborne. In the
reign of Canute Wareham was the shire town; it was a thriving seaport,
with a house for the king when he came there on his hunting expeditions,
a dwelling for the shire-reeve and accommodation for the leading thegns
of the shire. At the time of the Conquest Dorset formed part of Harold's
earldom, and the resistance which it opposed to the Conqueror was
punished by a merciless harrying, in which Dorchester, Wareham and
Shaftesbury were much devastated, and Bridport utterly ruined.

No Englishman retained estates of any importance after the Conquest, and
at the time of the Survey the bulk of the land, with the exception of
the forty-six manors held by the king, was in the hands of religious
houses, the abbeys of Cerne, Milton and Shaftesbury being the most
wealthy. There were 272 mills in the county at the time of the Survey,
and nearly eighty men were employed in working salt along the coast.
Mints existed at Shaftesbury, Wareham, Dorchester and Bridport, the
three former having been founded by Æthelstan. The forests of
Dorsetshire were favourite hunting-grounds of the Norman kings, and King
John in particular paid frequent visits to the county.

No precise date can be assigned for the establishment of the shire
system in Wessex, but in the time of Ecgbert the kingdom was divided
into definite _pagi_, each under an ealdorman, which no doubt
represented the later shires. The _Inquisitio Geldi_, drawn up two years
before the Domesday Survey, gives the names of the 39 pre-Conquest
hundreds of Dorset. The 33 hundreds and 21 liberties of the present day
retain some of the original names, but the boundaries have suffered much
alteration. The 8000 acres of Stockland and Dalwood reckoned in the
Dorset Domesday are now annexed to Devon, and the manor of Holwell now
included in Dorset was reckoned with Somerset until the 19th century.
Until the reign of Elizabeth Dorset and Somerset were united under one
sheriff.

After the transference of the West Saxon see from Sherborne to Sarum in
1075, Dorset remained part of that diocese until 1542, when it was
included in the newly formed diocese of Bristol. The archdeaconry was
coextensive with the shire, and was divided into five rural deaneries at
least as early as 1291.

The vast power and wealth monopolized by the Church in Dorsetshire
tended to check the rise of any great county families. The
representatives of the families of Mohun, Brewer and Arundel held large
estates after the Conquest, and William Mohun was created earl of Dorset
by the empress Maud. The families of Clavel, Lovell, Maundeville,
Mautravers, Peverel and St Lo also came over with the Conqueror and
figure prominently in the early annals of the county.

Dorsetshire took no active part in the struggles of the Norman and
Plantagenet period. In 1627 the county refused to send men to La
Rochelle, and was reproved for its lack of zeal in the service of the
state. On the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century the general
feeling was in favour of the king, and after a series of royalist
successes in 1643 Lyme Regis and Poole were the only garrisons in the
county left to the parliament. By the next year however, the parliament
had gained the whole county with the exception of Sherborne and the Isle
of Portland. The general aversion of the Dorsetshire people to warlike
pursuits is demonstrated at this period by the rise of the "clubmen," so
called from their appearance without pikes or fire-arms at the county
musters, whose object was peace at all costs, and who punished members
of either party discovered in the act of plundering.

In the 14th century Dorsetshire produced large quantities of wheat and
wool, and had a prosperous clothing trade. In 1626 the county was
severely visited by the plague, and from this date the clothing industry
began to decline. The hundred of Pimperne produced large quantities of
saltpeter in the 17th century, and the serge manufacture was introduced
about this time. Portland freestone was first brought into use in the
reign of James I., when it was employed for the new banqueting house at
Whitehall, and after the Great Fire it was extensively used by Sir
Christopher Wren. In the 18th century Blandford, Sherborne and Lyme
Regis were famous for their lace, but the industry has now declined.

The county returned two members to parliament in 1290, and as the chief
towns acquired representation the number was increased, until in 1572
the county and nine boroughs returned a total of twenty members. Under
the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned three members, and Corfe
Castle was disfranchised. By the Representation of the People Act of
1868 Lyme Regis was disfranchised, and by the Redistribution Act of 1885
the remaining boroughs were disfranchised.

_Antiquities._--Remains of medieval castles are inconsiderable, with the
notable exception of Corfe Castle and the picturesque ruins of Sherborne
Castle, both destroyed after the Civil War of the 17th century. The
three finest churches in the county are the abbey church of Sherborne,
Wimborne Minster and Milton Abbey church, a Decorated and Perpendicular
structure erected on the site of a Norman church which was burnt. It has
transepts, chancel and central tower, but the nave was not built. This
was a Benedictine foundation of the 10th century, and the refectory of
the 15th century is incorporated in the mansion built in 1772. At Ford
Abbey part of the buildings of a Cistercian house are similarly
incorporated. There are lesser monastic remains at Abbotsbury, Cerne and
Bindon. The parish churches of Dorsetshire are not especially noteworthy
as a whole, but those at Cerne Abbas and Beaminster are fine examples of
the Perpendicular style, which is the most common in the county. A
little good Norman work remains, as in the churches of Bere Regis and
Piddletrenthide, but both these were reconstructed in the Perpendicular
period; Bere Regis church having a superb timber roof of that period.

The dialect of the county, perfectly distinguishable from those of
Wiltshire and Somersetshire, yet bearing many common marks of Saxon
origin, is admirably illustrated in some of the poems of William Barnes
(q.v.). Many towns, villages and localities are readily to be recognized
from their descriptions in the "Wessex" novels of Thomas Hardy (q.v.).

  A curious ancient _Survey of Dorsetshire_ was written by the Rev. Mr
  Coker, about the middle of the 17th century, and published from his
  MS. (London, 1732). See also J. Hutchins, _History and Antiquities of
  the County of Dorset_ (London, 1774); 2nd ed. by R. Gough and E. B.
  Nichols (1796-1815); 3rd ed. by W. Shipp and J. W. Hodson (1861-1873);
  C. Warne, _Ancient Dorset_ (London, 1865); R. W. Eyton, _A Key to
  Domesday, exemplified by an analysis and digest of the Dorset Survey_
  (London, 1878); C. H. Mayo, _Bibliotheca Dorsetiensis_ (London, 1885);
  W. Barnes, _Glossary of Dorset Dialect_ (Dorchester, 1886); H. J.
  Moule, _Old Dorset_ (London, 1893); _Victoria County History,
  Dorsetshire_.



DORSIVENTRAL (Lat. _dorsum_, the back, _venter_, the belly), a term used
to describe an organ which has two surfaces differing from each other in
appearance and structure, as an ordinary leaf.



DORT, SYNOD OF. An assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church, with deputies
from Switzerland, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen,
Scotland and England, called to decide the theological differences
existing between the Arminians (or Remonstrants) and the Calvinists (or
Counter-Remonstrants), was held at Dort or Dordrecht (q.v.) in the years
1618 and 1619. The government of Louis XIII. prohibited the attendance
of French delegates. During the life of Arminius a bitter controversy
had sprung up between his followers and the strict Calvinists, led by
Francis Gomar, his fellow-professor at Leiden; and, in order to decide
their disputes, a synodical conference was proposed, but Arminius died
before it could be held. At the conference held at the Hague in 1610 the
Arminians addressed a remonstrance to the states-general in the form of
five articles, which henceforth came to be known as the five points of
Arminianism. In these they reacted against both the supralapsarian and
the infralapsarian developments of the doctrine of predestination and
combated the irresistibility of grace; they held that Christ died for
all men and not only for the elect, and were not sure that the elect
might not fall from grace. This conference had no influence in
reconciling the opposing parties, and another, held at Delft in the year
1613, was equally unsuccessful. In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian
party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of
the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy
forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the
Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury. Gradually
the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions
became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of
Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the
bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and
Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism. In 1617 Prince Maurice of Orange
committed himself definitely to the Calvinistic party, found an occasion
for throwing Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius into prison, and in November of
that year called a synod intended to crush the Arminians. This synod,
which assembled at Dort in November 1618, was strictly national--called
by the national authority to decide a national dispute, and not intended
to have more than a national influence. The foreign deputies were
invited to attend, only to assist by their advice in the settlement of a
controversy which concerned the Netherland church alone, and which the
Netherland church alone could decide. At the fourth sitting it was
decided to cite Simon Episcopius and several other Remonstrants to
appear within fourteen days before the synod, to state and justify their
doctrines. It was also agreed to allow the Arminian deputies to take
part in the deliberations, only on condition that they forbore to
consult with, or in any way assist, their cited brethren, but this they
refused. During the interval between the citation and the appearance of
the accused, the professorial members of the synod were instructed to
prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the
synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the
Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching
the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of
the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were
admitted into their families. At the 25th sitting Episcopius and the
others cited appeared, when Episcopius surprised the deputies by a bold
and outspoken defence of his views, and even went so far as to say that
the synod, by excluding the Arminian deputies, could now only be
regarded as a schismatic assembly. The Remonstrants were asked to file
copious explanations of the five points in dispute (_Sententia
Remonstrantium_), but objecting to the manner in which they were
catechized, they were, at the 57th sitting, dismissed from the synod as
convicted "liars and deceivers." The synod then proceeded in their
absence to judge them from their published writings, and came to the
conclusion that as ecclesiastical rebels and trespassers they should be
deprived of all their offices. The synodical decision in regard to the
five points is contained in the canons adopted at the 136th session held
on the 23rd of April 1619; the points were: unconditional election,
limited atonement, total depravity, irresistibility of grace, final
perseverance of the saints. The issue of _supralapsarianism_ v.
_infralapsarianism_ was avoided. These doctrinal decisions and the
sentence against the Remonstrants were, at the 144th sitting, read in
Latin before a large audience in the great church. The Remonstrants were
required to subscribe the condemnation, and many of them refused and
were banished. The synod was concluded on the 9th of May 1619, by a
magnificent banquet given by the chief magistrate of Dort. The Dutch
deputies remained a fortnight longer to attend to ecclesiastical
business. Though the canons of Dort were adopted by but two churches
outside of Holland, the synod ranks as the most impressive assemblage of
the Reformed Church.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Acta synodi nationalis ... Dordrechti habitae_ (Lugd.
  Bat. 1620, official edition); _Acta der Nationale Synode te Dordrecht_
  1618 (Leiden, 1887), French translation (Leiden, 1622 and 1624, 2
  vols.), for the Canons, and the _Sententia Remonstrantium_, E. F. Karl
  Müller, _Die Bekenntnisschriften der reformierten Kirche_ (Leipzig,
  1903), p. lix. ff., 843 ff.; for canons and abridged translation used
  by the Reformed Church in America, P. Schaff, _The Creeds of
  Christendom_ (3rd ed., New York, 1877), 550 ff. See also H. Heppe, in
  _Niedner's Zeitschrift für die historische Theologie_, Bd. 23
  (Hamburg, 1853), 226-327 (letters of Hessian deputies); _Acta et
  scripta synodalia Dordracena ministrorum Remonstrantium_, Hardervici,
  1620 (valuable side-lights); A. Schweizer, _Die protestantischen
  Centraldogmen in ihrer Entwicklung innerhalb der reformierten Kirche_,
  zweite Hälfte (Zürich, 1856), 25-224; H. C. Rogge in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie_, Bd. 4 (Leipzig, 1898), 798-802; H. H. Kuyper, _De
  Post-Acta of Nahandelingen van de Nationale Synode van Dordrecht, een
  historische Studie_ (Amsterdam, 1899, new material); J. Reitsma,
  _Geschiednis van de Hervorming en de Hervormde Kerk der Nederlanden_
  (2nd ed. Groningen, 1899); F. Loofs, _Dogmengeschichte_ (4th ed.,
  Halle, 1906), 935 ff.; T. Van Oppenraij, _La Prédestination dans
  l'Eglise réformée des Pays-Bas depuis l'origine jusqu'au synode
  national de Dordrecht_ (Louvain, 1906).     (W. W. R.*)



DORTMUND, a town of Germany, the chief commercial centre of the Prussian
province of Westphalia, on the Emscher, in a fertile plain, 50 m. E.
from Düsseldorf by rail. Pop. (1875) 57,742; (1895) 111,232; (1905)
175,292. Since the abolition of the old walls in 1863 and the conversion
of their site into promenades, the town has rapidly assumed a modern
appearance. The central part, however, with its winding narrow streets,
is redolent of its historical past, when, as one of the leading cities
of the Hanseatic League, it enjoyed commercial supremacy over all the
towns of Westphalia. Among its ancient buildings must be mentioned the
Reinoldikirche, with fine stained-glass windows, the Marienkirche, the
nave of which dates from the 11th century, the Petrikirche, with a
curious altar, and the Dominican church, with beautiful cloisters. The
13th-century town hall was restored in 1899 and now contains the
municipal antiquarian museum, having been superseded by a more
commodious building. Among the chief modern structures may be mentioned
the magnificent post office, erected in 1895, the provincial law courts,
the municipal infirmary and the large railway station. To the W. of the
last there existed down to 1906 (when it was removed) one of the ancient
lime trees of the Königshof, where the meetings of the _Vehmgericht_
were held (see FEHMIC COURTS). But the real interest of Dortmund centres
in its vast industries, which owe their development to the situation of
the town in the centre of the great Westphalian coal basin. In the
immediate vicinity are also extensive beds of iron ore, and this
combination of mineral wealth has enabled the town to become a
competitor with Essen, Oberhausen, Duisburg and Hagen in the products of
the iron industry. These in Dortmund more particularly embrace steel
railway rails, mining plant, wire ropes, machinery, safes and sewing
machines. Dortmund has also extensive breweries, and, in addition to the
manufactured goods already enumerated, does a considerable trade in corn
and wood. Besides being well furnished with a convenient railway system,
linking it with the innumerable manufacturing towns and villages of the
iron district, it is also connected with the river Ems by the
Dortmund-Ems Canal, 170 m. in length.

Dortmund, the Throtmannia of early history, was already a town of some
importance in the 9th century. In 1005 the emperor Henry II. held here
an ecclesiastical council, and in 1016 an imperial diet. The town was
walled in the 12th century, and in 1387-1388 successfully withstood the
troops of the archbishop of Cologne, who besieged it for twenty-one
months. About the middle of the 13th century it joined the Hanseatic
League. At the close of the Thirty Years' War the population had become
reduced to 3000. In 1803 Dortmund lost its rights as a free town, and
was annexed to Nassau. The French occupied it in 1806, and in 1808 it
was made over by Napoleon to the grand-duke of Berg, and became the
chief town of the department of Ruhr. Through the cession of Westphalia
by the king of the Netherlands, on the 31st of May 1815, it became a
Prussian town.

  See Thiersch, _Geschichte der Freireichsstadt Dortmund_ (Dort, 1854),
  and Ludoff, _Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler in Dortmund_ (Paderborn, 1895);
  also A. Shadwell, _Industrial Efficiency_ (London, 1906).



DORY, or JOHN DORY (_Zeus faber_), an Acanthopterygian fish, the type of
the family _Zeidae_, held in such esteem by the ancient Greeks that they
called it _Zeus_ after their principal divinity. Its English name is
probably a corruption of the French _jaune dorée_, and has reference to
the prevailing golden-yellow colour of the living fish. The body in the
dory is much compressed, and is nearly oval in form, while the mouth is
large and capable of extensive protrusion. It possesses two dorsal fins,
of which the anterior is armed with long slender spines, and the
connecting membrane is produced into long tendril-like filaments; while
a row of short spines extends along the belly and the roots of the anal
and dorsal fins. The colour of the upper surface is olive-brown; the
sides are yellowish, and are marked with a prominent dark spot, on
account of which the dory divides with the haddock the reputation of
being the fish from which Peter took the tribute money. It is an
inhabitant of the Atlantic coasts of Europe, the Mediterranean and the
Australian seas. It is occasionally abundant on the coasts of Devon and
Cornwall, and is also found, though more sparingly, throughout the
British seas. It is exceedingly voracious, feeding on molluscs, shrimps
and the young of other fish; and Jonathan Couch (1789-1870), author of a
_History of British Fishes_, states that from the stomach of a single
dory he has taken 25 flounders, some 2½ in. long, 3 fatherlashers half
grown and 5 stones from the beach, one 1½ in. in length. They are often
taken in the fishermen's nets off the Cornwall and Devon coast, having
entered these in pursuit of pilchards. They are seldom found in deep
water, preferring sandy bays, among the weeds growing on the bottom of
which they lie in wait for their prey, and in securing this they are
greatly assisted by their great width of gape, by their power of
protruding the mouth, and by the slender filaments of the first dorsal
fins, which float like worms in the water, while the greater part of the
body is buried in the sand, and thus they entice the smaller fishes to
come within easy reach of the capacious jaws. The dory often attains a
weight of 12 lb., although those usually brought into the market do not
average more than 6 or 7 lb. It is highly valued as an article of food.

The family _Zeidae_ has assumed special interest of late, O. Thilo[1]
and G. A. Boulenger[2] having shown that they have much in common with
the flat-fishes or _Pleuronectidae_ and must be nearly related to the
original stock from which this asymmetrical type has been evolved,
especially if the Upper Eocene genus _Amphistium_ be taken into
consideration. This affinity is further supported by the observations
made by L. W. Byrne[3] on the asymmetry in the number and arrangement of
the bony plates at the base of the dorsal and anal fins in the young of
the John Dory.     (G. A. B.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "Die Vorfahren der Schollen," _Biol. Centralbl._ xxii. (1902), p.
    717.

  [2] "On the systematic position of the Pleuronectidae," _Ann. and
    Mag._ N. H. x. (1902), p. 295.

  [3] "On the number and arrangement of the bony plates of the young
    John Dory," _Biometrika_, ii. (1902), p. 115.



DOSITHEUS MAGISTER, Greek grammarian, flourished at Rome in the 4th
century A.D. He was the author of a Greek translation of a Latin
grammar, intended to assist the Greek-speaking inhabitants of the empire
in learning Latin. The translation, at first word for word, becomes less
frequent, and finally is discontinued altogether. The Latin grammar used
was based on the same authorities as those of Charisius and Diomedes,
which accounts for the many points of similarity. Dositheus contributed
very little of his own. Some Greek-Latin exercises by an unknown writer
of the 3rd century, to be learnt by heart and translated, were added to
the grammar. They are of considerable value as illustrating the social
life of the period and the history of the Latin language. Of these
[Greek: hermêneumata] (Interpretamenta), the third book, containing a
collection of words and phrases from everyday conversation ([Greek:
kathêmerinê homilia]) has been preserved. A further appendix consisted
of Anecdotes, Letters and Rescripts of the emperor Hadrian; fables of
Aesop; extracts from Hyginus; a history of the Trojan War, abridged from
the Iliad; and a legal fragment, [Greek: Peri eleutherôseôn] (_De
manumissionibus_).

  Editions: _Grammatica_ in H. Keil, _Grammatici Latini_, vii. and
  separately (1871); _Hermeneumata_ by G. Götz (1892) (in G. Löwe's
  _Corpus glossariorum Latinorum_, iii.) and E. Böcking (1832), which
  contains the appendix (including the legal fragment); see also C.
  Lachmann, _Versuch über Dositheus_ (1837); H. Hagen, _De Dosithei
  magistri quae feruntur glossis_ (1877).



DOSSAL (dossel, dorsel or dosel; Fr. _dos_, back), an ecclesiastical
ornamented cloth suspended behind the altar.



DOSSERET, or impost block (a Fr. term, from _dos_, back), in
architecture, the cubical block of stone above the capitals in a
Byzantine church, used to carry the arches and vault, the springing of
which had a superficial area greatly in excess of the column which
carried them.



DOST MAHOMMED KHAN (1793-1863), founder of the dynasty of the Barakzai
in Afghanistan, was born in 1793. His elder brother, the chief of the
Barakzai, Fatteh Khan, took an important part in raising Mahmud to the
sovereignty of Afghanistan in 1800 and in restoring him to the throne in
1809. That ruler repaid his services by causing him to be assassinated
in 1818, and thus incurred the enmity of his tribe. After a bloody
conflict Mahmud was deprived of all his possessions but Herat, the rest
of his dominions being divided among Fatteh Khan's brothers. Of these
Dost Mahommed received for his share Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added
Kabul, the richest of the Afghan provinces. From the commencement of his
reign he found himself involved in disputes with Ranjit Singh, the Sikh
ruler of the Punjab, who used the dethroned Saduzai prince,
Shuja-ul-Mulk, as his instrument. In 1834 Shuja made a last attempt to
recover his kingdom. He was defeated by Dost Mahommed under the walls of
Kandahar, but Ranjit Singh seized the opportunity to annex Peshawar. The
recovery of this fortress became the Afghan amir's great concern.
Rejecting overtures from Russia, he endeavoured to form an alliance with
England, and welcomed Alexander Burnes to Kabul in 1837. Burnes,
however, was unable to prevail on the governor-general, Lord Auckland,
to respond to the amir's advances. Dost Mahommed was enjoined to abandon
the attempt to recover Peshawar, and to place his foreign policy under
British guidance. In return he was only promised protection from Ranjit
Singh, of whom he had no fear. He replied by renewing his relations
with Russia, and in 1838 Lord Auckland set the British troops in motion
against him. In March 1839 the British force under Sir Willoughby Cotton
advanced through the Bolan Pass, and on the 26th of April it reached
Kandahar. Shah Shuja was proclaimed amir, and entered Kabul on the 7th
of August, while Dost Mahommed sought refuge in the wilds of the Hindu
Kush. Closely followed by the British, Dost was driven to extremities,
and on the 4th of November 1840 surrendered as a prisoner. He remained
in captivity during the British occupation, during the disastrous
retreat of the army of occupation in January 1842, and until the
recapture of Kabul in the autumn of 1842. He was then set at liberty, in
consequence of the resolve of the British government to abandon the
attempt to intervene in the internal politics of Afghanistan. On his
return from Hindustan Dost Mahommed was received in triumph at Kabul,
and set himself to re-establish his authority on a firm basis. From 1846
he renewed his policy of hostility to the British and allied himself
with the Sikhs; but after the defeat of his allies at Gujrat on the 21st
of February 1849 he abandoned his designs and led his troops back into
Afghanistan. In 1850 he conquered Balkh, and in 1854 he acquired control
over the southern Afghan tribes by the capture of Kandahar. On the 30th
of March 1855 Dost Mahommed reversed his former policy by concluding an
offensive and defensive alliance with the British government. In 1857 he
declared war on Persia in conjunction with the British, and in July a
treaty was concluded by which the province of Herat was placed under a
Barakzai prince. During the Indian Mutiny Dost Mahommed punctiliously
refrained from assisting the insurgents. His later years were disturbed
by troubles at Herat and in Bokhara. These he composed for a time, but
in 1862 a Persian army, acting in concert with Ahmad Khan, advanced
against Kandahar. The old amir called the British to his aid, and,
putting himself at the head of his warriors, drove the enemy from his
frontiers. On the 26th of May 1863 he captured Herat, but on the 9th of
June he died suddenly in the midst of victory, after playing a great
rôle in the history of Central Asia for forty years. He named as his
successor his son, Shere Ali Khan.     (E. I. C.)



DOSTOIEVSKY, FEODOR MIKHAILOVICH (1821-1881), Russian author, born at
Moscow, on the 30th of October 1821, was the second son of a retired
military surgeon of a decayed noble family. He was educated at Moscow
and at the military engineering academy at St Petersburg, which he left
in 1843 with the grade of sub-lieutenant. Next year his father died, and
he resigned his commission in order to devote himself to
literature--thus commencing a long struggle with ill-health and penury.
In addition to the old Russian masters Gogol and Pushkin, Balzac and
George Sand supplied him with literary ideals. He knew little of
Dickens, but his first story is thoroughly Dickensian in character. The
hero is a Russian "Tom Pinch," who entertains a pathetic, humble
adoration for a fair young girl, a solitary waif like himself.
Characteristically the Russian story ends in "tender gloom." The girl
marries a middle-aged man of property; the hero dies of a broken heart,
and his funeral is described in lamentable detail. The germ of all
Dostoievsky's imaginative work may be discovered here. The story was
submitted in manuscript to the Russian critic, Bielinski, and excited
his astonishment by its power over the emotions. It appeared in the
course of 1846 in the _Recueil de Saint-Pétersbourg_, under the title of
"Poor People." An English version, _Poor Folk_, with an introduction by
Mr George Moore, appeared in 1894. The successful author became a
regular contributor of short tales to the _Annals of the Country_, a
monthly periodical conducted by Kraevsky; but he was wretchedly paid,
and his work, though revealing extraordinary power and intensity,
commonly lacks both finish and proportion. Poverty and physical
suffering robbed him of the joy of life and filled him with bitter
thoughts and morbid imaginings. During 1847 he became an enthusiastic
member of the revolutionary reunions of the political agitator,
Petrachevski. Many of the students and younger members did little more
than discuss the theories of Fourier and other economists at these
gatherings. Exaggerated reports were eventually carried to the police,
and on the 23rd of April 1849 Dostoievsky and his brother, with thirty
other suspected personages, were arrested. After a short examination by
the secret police they were lodged in the fortress of St Peter and St
Paul at St Petersburg, in which confinement Feodor wrote his story _A
Little Hero_. On the 22nd of December 1849 the accused were all
condemned to death and conveyed in vans to a large scaffold in the
Simonovsky Place. As the soldiers were preparing to carry out the
sentence, the prisoners were informed that their penalty was commuted to
exile in Siberia. The novelist's sentence was, four years in Siberia and
enforced military service in the ranks for life. On Christmas eve 1849
he commenced the long journey to Omsk, and remained in Siberia, "like a
man buried alive, nailed down in his coffin," for four terrible years.
His Siberian experiences are graphically narrated in a volume to which
he gave the name of _Recollections of a Dead-House_ (1858). It was known
in an English translation as _Buried Alive in Siberia_ (1881; another
version, 1888). His release only subjected him to fresh indignities as a
common soldier at Semipalatinsk; but in 1858, through the intercession
of an old schoolfellow, General Todleben, he was made an under-officer;
and in 1859, upon the accession of Alexander II., he was finally
recalled from exile. In 1858 he had married a widow, Madame Isaiev, but
she died at St Petersburg in 1867 after a somewhat stormy married life.

After herding for years with the worst criminals, Dostoievsky obtained
an exceptional insight into the dark and seamy side of Russian life. He
formed new conceptions of human life, of the balance of good and evil in
man, and of the Russian character. Psychological studies have seldom, if
ever, found a more intense form of expression than that embodied by
Dostoievsky in his novel called _Crime and Punishment_. The hero
Raskolnikov is a poor student, who is led on to commit a murder partly
by self-conceit, partly by the contemplation of the abject misery around
him. Unsurpassed in poignancy in the whole of modern literature is the
sensation of compassion evoked by the scene between the self-tormented
Raskolnikov and the humble street-walker, Sonia, whom he loves, and from
whom, having confessed his crime, he derives the idea of expiation.
Raskolnikov finally gives himself up to the police and is exiled to
Siberia, whither Sonia follows him. The book gave currency to a number
of ideas, not in any sense new, but specially characteristic of
Dostoievsky: the theory, for instance, that in every life, however
fallen and degraded, there are ecstatic moments of self-devotion; the
doctrine of purification by suffering, and by suffering alone; and the
ideal of a Russian people forming a social state at some future period
bound together by no obligation save mutual love and the magic of
kindness. In this visionary prospect, as well as in his objection to the
use of physical force, Dostoievsky anticipated in a remarkable manner
some of the conspicuous tenets of his great successor Tolstoy. The book
electrified the reading public in Russia upon its appearance in 1866,
and its fame was confirmed when it appeared in Paris in 1867. To his
remarkable faculty of awakening reverberations of melancholy and
compassion, as shown in his early work, Dostoievsky had added, by the
admission of all, a rare mastery over the emotions of terror and pity.
But such mastery was not long to remain unimpaired. _Crime and
Punishment_ was written when he was at the zenith of his power. His
remaining works exhibit frequently a marvellous tragic and analytic
power, but they are unequal, and deficient in measure and in balance.
The chief of them are: _The Injured and the Insulted_, _The Demons_
(1867), _The Idiot_ (1869), _The Adult_ (1875), _The Brothers Karamzov_
(1881).

From 1865, when he settled in St Petersburg, Dostoievsky was absorbed in
a succession of journalistic enterprises, in the Slavophil interest, and
suffered severe pecuniary losses. He had to leave Russia, in order to
escape his creditors, and to seek refuge in Germany and Italy. He was
further harassed by troubles with his wife, and his work was interrupted
by epileptic fits and other physical ailments. It was under such
conditions as these that his most enduring works were created. He
managed finally to return to Russia early in the seventies, and was for
some time director of _The Russian World_. From 1876 he published a kind
of review, entitled _Carnet d'un écrivain_, to the pages of which he
committed many strange autobiographical facts and reflections. The last
eight years of his life were spent in comparative prosperity at St
Petersburg, where he died on the 9th of February 1881.

His life had been irremediably seared by his Siberian experiences. He
looked prematurely old; his face bore an expression of accumulated
sorrow; in disposition he had become distrustful, taciturn,
contemptuous--his favourite theme the superiority of the Russian peasant
over every other class; as an artist, though uncultured, he had ever
been subtle and sympathetic, but latterly he was tortured by tragic
visions and morbidly preoccupied by exceptional and perverted types. M.
de Vogüé, in his admirable _Ecrivains russes_, has worked out with some
success a parallel between the later years of Dostoievsky and those of
Jean Jacques Rousseau. Siberia effectually convinced the novelist of the
impotence of Nihilism in such a country as Russia; but though he was
assailed by ardent Liberals for the reactionary trend of his later
writings, Dostoievsky became, towards the end of his life, an extremely
popular figure, and his funeral, on the 12th of February 1881, was the
occasion of one of the most remarkable demonstrations of public feeling
ever witnessed in the Russian capital. The death of the Russian novelist
was not mentioned in the London press; it is only since 1885, when
_Crime and Punishment_ first appeared, in English, that his name has
become at all familiar in England, mainly through French translations.

  A complete edition of his novels was issued at St Petersburg in
  fourteen volumes (1882-1883). Two critical studies by Tchij and
  Zelinsky appeared at Moscow in 1885, and a German life by Hoffmann at
  Vienna in 1899.     (T. SE.)



DOUAI, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Nord, 20 m. S. of Lille on the Northern railway between
that city and Cambrai. Pop. (1906) town, 21,679; commune, 33,247. Douai
is situated in a marshy plain on the banks of the Scarpe which
intersects the town from south to north, and supplies water to a canal
skirting it on the west. The old fortifications, of which the Porte de
Valenciennes (15th century) is the chief survival, have been demolished
to make room for boulevards and public gardens. The industrial towns of
Dorignies, Sin-le-Noble and Aniche are practically suburbs of Douai. Of
the churches, that of Notre-Dame (12th and 14th centuries) is remarkable
for the possession of a fine altarpiece of the early 16th century,
composed of wooden panels painted by Jean Bellegambe, a native of Douai.
The principal building of the town is a handsome hôtel de ville, partly
of the 15th century, with a lofty belfry. The Palais de Justice (18th
century) was formerly the town house (_refuge_) of the abbey of
Marchiennes. Houses of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries are numerous.
There is a statue of Madame Desbordes Valmore, the poet (d. 1859), a
native of the town. The municipal museum contains a library of over
85,000 volumes as well as 1800 MSS., and a fine collection of sculpture
and paintings. Douai is the seat of a court of appeal, a court of
assizes and a subprefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a board
of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a chamber of commerce and a branch of
the Bank of France. Its educational institutions include a lycée,
training colleges, a school of mines, an artillery school, schools of
music, agriculture, drawing, architecture, &c., and a national school
for instruction in brewing and other industries connected with
agriculture. In addition to other iron and engineering works, Douai has
a large cannon foundry and an arsenal; coal-mining and the manufacture
of glass and bottles and chemicals are carried on a large scale in the
environs; among the other industries are flax-spinning, rope-making,
brewing and the manufacture of farm implements, oil, sugar, soap and
leather. Trade, which is largely water-borne, is in grain and
agricultural products, coal and building material.

Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (_Castrum Duacense_)
as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts
of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477
with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain. In 1667 it was captured by
Louis XIV., and was ultimately ceded to France by the treaty of Utrecht
in 1713. Historically Douai is mainly important as the centre of the
political and religious propaganda of the exiled English Roman
Catholics. In 1562 Philip II. of Spain founded a university here, in
which several English scholars were given chairs; and in connexion with
this William Allen (q.v.) in 1568 founded the celebrated English
college. It was here that the "Douai Bible" was prepared (see Vol. III.
p. 901). There were also an Irish and a Scots college and houses of
English Benedictines and Franciscans. All these survived till 1793, when
the university was suppressed.

  See F. Brassart, _Hist. du château et de la châtellenie de Douai_
  (Douai, 1877-87); C. Mine, _Hist. pop. de Douai_ (ib. 1861); B. Ward,
  _Dawn of the Catholic Revival_ (London, 1909); Handecoeur, _Hist. du
  Collège anglais, Douai_ (Reims, 1898); Daucoisne, _Établissements
  britanniques à Douai_ (Douai, 1881).



DOUARNENEZ, a fishing-port of western France, in the department of
Finistère, on the southern shore of the Bay of Douarnenez 15 m. N.W. of
Quimper by rail. Pop. (1906) 13,472. Its sardine fishery, which is
carried on from the end of June to the beginning of December, gives
occupation to about 800 boats, and between 3000 and 4000 men, and the
preserving of the fish is an important industry. Mackerel fishing,
boat-building and rope and net making also occupy the inhabitants. There
is a lighthouse on the small island of Tristan off Douarnenez.



DOUBLE (from the Mid. Eng. _duble_, the form which gives the present
pronunciation, through the Old Fr. _duble_, from Lat. _duplus_, twice as
much), twice as much, or large, having two parts, having a part
repeated, coupled, &c. The word appears as a substantive with the
special meaning of the appearance to a person of his own apparition,
generally regarded as a warning, or of such an apparition of one living
person to another, the German _Doppelgänger_ (see APPARITIONS). Another
word often used with this meaning is "fetch." According to the _New
English Dictionary_, "fetch" is chiefly of Irish usage, and may possibly
be connected with "fetch," to bring or carry away, but it may be a
separate word. The Corpus Glossary of the beginning of the 10th century
seems to identify a word _fæcce_ with _mære_, meaning a goblin which
appears in "nightmare." "Double" is also used of a person whose
resemblance to another is peculiarly striking or remarkable, so that
confusion between them may easily arise.



DOUBLE BASS (Fr. _contrebasse_; Ger. _Kontrabass_, _Gross Bass Geige_;
Ital. _contrabasso_, _violone_), the largest member of the modern family
of stringed instruments played with a bow, known as the violin family,
and the lowest in pitch. The double bass differs slightly in
construction from the other members of the family in that it has
slanting shoulders (one of the features of the _viola da gamba_, see
VIOLIN); that is to say that where the belly is joined by the neck and
finger-board, it has a decided point, whereas in the violin, viola and
violoncello, the finger-board is at right-angles to the horizontal part
of a wide curve. It is probable that the shoulders of the double bass
were made drooping for the sake of additional strength of construction
on account of the strain caused by the tension of the strings. The
double bass was formerly made with a flat back--another characteristic
of the viol family--whereas now the back is as often found arched as
flat. The bow is for obvious reasons shorter and stouter than the violin
bow.

  The technique of the double bass presents certain difficulties
  inherent in an instrument of such large proportions. The stretches for
  the fingers are very great, almost double those required for the
  violoncello, and owing to the thickness of the strings great force is
  required to press them against the finger-board when they are
  vibrating. The performer plays standing owing to the great size of the
  instrument.

  The double bass sometimes has three strings tuned in England and Italy
  in fourths; [Illustration: notes][1] in France and Germany to fifths.
  [Illustration: notes] Owing to the scoring of modern composers,
  however, it was found necessary to adopt an accordance of four strings
  in order to obtain the additional lower notes required, although this
  entails the sacrifice of beauty of tone, the three-stringed instrument
  being more sonorous. Some orchestras make a compromise dividing the
  double basses into two equal sections of three and four-stringed
  basses. The four strings are tuned in fourths:--[Illustration: notes].
  Mr A. C. White, finding that an additional lower compass was required,
  first tuned his double bass with three strings to [Illustration:
  notes] afterwards adding a fourth string, the lower D. By this
  accordance the third and fourth strings gain additional power and
  clearness from the fact that the first and second, being their octaves
  higher, vibrate in sympathy, obviating the necessity of making the
  'cello play in octaves with the double basses to increase the tone
  when the lowest register is used. In order to obtain equal sonority on
  his double bass with four strings, Mr White[2] found it necessary to
  have a wider bridge measuring about 5 in., so that the distance
  between the strings should remain the same as on a double bass with
  three strings, thus allowing plenty of room for vibration. The neck
  was also widened in proportion. A five-stringed double bass was
  sometimes used in Germany tuned either to [Illustration: notes] or to
  [Illustration: notes] but such instruments have been almost superseded
  by those with four strings. A somewhat larger double bass with five
  strings by Karl Otho of Leipzig was introduced between 1880 and 1890
  with the following accordance:--

  [Illustration: notes]

  The practical compass of the double bass extends from [Illustration:
  8va bassa.] (real sounds) with all chromatic intervals. In order to
  avoid using numerous ledger lines the music is written an octave
  higher. The quality of tone is very powerful but somewhat rough, and
  varies greatly in its gradations. The notes of the lowest register,
  when played _piano_, sound weird and sometimes grotesque, and are
  sometimes used instead of the kettledrum; when played _forte_ the tone
  is grand and full. The lowest octave is mainly used as a fundamental
  octave bass to 'cello, bassoon or trombone. The tone of the
  _pizzicato_ is full and rich owing to the slowness of the vibrations,
  and it changes character according to the harmonies which lie above
  it: with a chord of the diminished seventh above it, for instance, the
  _pizzicato_ sounds like a menace, but with the common chord calm and
  majestic. Both natural and artificial harmonics are possible on the
  double bass, the former being the best; but they are seldom used in
  orchestral works. As an instance of their use may be cited the scene
  by the Nile at the beginning of the third act of Verdi's _Aida_, where
  harmonics are indicated for both 'cellos and double basses.

  The technical capabilities of the double bass are necessarily somewhat
  more limited than those of the violoncello. Quick passages, though
  possible, are seldom written for it; they cannot sound clear owing to
  the time required for the strings to vibrate. An excellent effect is
  produced by what is known as the _intermittent tremolo_: owing to the
  elasticity of the bow, it rebounds several times on the strings when a
  single blow is sharply struck, forming a series of short tremolos. The
  double bass is the foundation of the whole orchestra and therefore of
  great importance; it plays the lowest part, often, as its name
  indicates, only doubling the 'cello part an octave lower. It is only
  since the beginning of the 19th century that an independent voice has
  occasionally been allotted to it, as in the Scherzo of Beethoven's
  Fifth Symphony in C minor:--

  [Illustration: CONTRABASSI.]

  These opening bars are played _soli_ by 'cellos and double basses, a
  daring innovation of Beethoven's which caused quite a consternation at
  first in musical circles.

The remote origin of the double bass is the same as that of the
violin.[3] It was evolved from the bass viol; whether the transformation
took place simultaneously with that of the violin from the treble viol
or preceded it, has not been definitely proved, but both Gasparo da Salo
and Maggini constructed double basses, which were in great request in
the churches. De Salo made one with three strings for St Mark's, Venice,
which is still preserved there.[4] It was Dragonetti's favourite concert
instrument, presented to him by the monks of St Mark, and, according to
the desire expressed in his will, the instrument was restored after his
death to St Mark's, where it is at present preserved. Dragonetti used a
straight bow similar to the violoncello bow, held overhand with the hair
slanting towards the neck of the instrument; it was introduced into
England from Paris, and is a favourite with orchestral players.
Praetorius gives an illustration of a sub-bass _viol da gamba_ or _gross
contra-bass geige_[5] "recently constructed," which displaced the other
large contra-bass viols; of which he also gives an illustration.[6]

Giovanni Bottesini (1822-1889) was the greatest virtuoso on the double
bass that the world has ever known. It was not only the perfection of
his technique and tone which won him artistic fame, but also the
delicacy of his style and his exquisite taste in phrasing.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The real sounds are an octave lower.

  [2] _The Double Bass_ (Novello, _Music Primers_, No. 32), p. 6.

  [3] See Kathleen Schlesinger, _The Instruments of the Orchestra_,
    Part II. "The Precursors of the Violin Family" (1908-1909).

  [4] See Laurent Grillet, _Les Ancêtres du violon et du violoncelle_
    (Paris, 1901), tome ii. p. 159; Willebald Leo von Lustgendorff, _Die
    Geigen und Lautenmacher vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart_ (Frankfurt
    a. M., 1904), p. 50; A. C. White, _The Double Bass_, p. 8.

  [5] M. Praetorius, _Syntagma music_. (Wolfenbüttel, 1618 and 1620),
    pp. 54-55 and pl. v. (1).

  [6] Ib. pl. vi. No. 4.



DOUBLEDAY, ABNER (1819-1893), American soldier, was born at Ballston
Spa, New York, on the 26th of June 1819, and graduated from West Point
in 1842. He served in the U.S. artillery during the Mexican War, being
present at the battles of Monterey and Buena Vista. He was second in
command at Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina, when it was
bombarded and taken by the Confederates in 1861, and later in the
campaign of that year he served in the Shenandoah valley as a field
officer. In February 1862 he was made a brigadier-general of volunteers
and employed in the lines of Washington. He commanded a division in the
Army of the Potomac in the second Bull Run campaign and at Antietam,
becoming major-general U.S.V. in November 1862. He continued to command
his division in the Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville campaigns, and
on the first day of the battle of Gettysburg he led the I. corps, and
for a time all the Union forces on the field, after the death of General
Reynolds. In the latter part of the war he was employed in various
administrative and military posts; in July 1863 he was breveted colonel,
and in March 1865 brigadier-general and major-general U.S.A. General
Doubleday continued in the army after the war, becoming colonel U.S.A.
in 1867; he retired in 1873. He published two important works on the
Civil War, _Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie_ (1876) and
_Chancellorsville and Gettysburg_ (1882), the latter being a volume of
the series "Campaigns of the Civil War." He died at Mendham, New Jersey,
on the 26th of January 1893.

His younger brother, ULYSSES DOUBLEDAY (1824-1893), fought through the
Civil War as an officer of volunteers, was breveted brigadier-general
U.S.V. in March 1865, and commanded a brigade at the battle of Five
Forks (1st April).



DOUBLEDAY, THOMAS (1790-1870), English politician and author, was born
at Newcastle-on-Tyne in February 1790. In early life he adopted the
views of William Cobbett, and was active in promoting the agitation
which resulted in the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832. As secretary
of the Northern Political Union of Whigs and Radicals he took a
prominent part in forwarding the interests of Earl Grey and the
reforming party. In 1858-1859 he was a member of the council of the
Northern Reform Union; and to the last he was a keen observer of
political events. He succeeded his father, George Doubleday, as partner
in a firm of soap manufacturers at Newcastle, but devoted his attention
rather to literature than to mercantile affairs. On the failure of the
firm he obtained the office of registrar of St Andrew's parish,
Newcastle, a post which he held until appointed secretary to the coal
trade. He died at Bulman's Village, Newcastle-on-Tyne, on the 18th of
December 1870. In 1832 Doubleday published an _Essay on Mundane Moral
Government_, and in 1842 he attacked some of the principles of Malthus
in his _True Law of Population_. He also wrote _A Political Life of Sir
Robert Peel_ (London, 1856); _A Financial, Statistical and Monetary
History of England from 1688_ (London, 1847); _Matter for Materialists_
(London, 1870); _The Eve of St Mark, a Romance of Venice_; and three
dramas, _The Statue Wife_, _Diocletian_ and _Caius Marius_, in addition
to some fishing songs, and many contributions to various newspapers and
periodicals.



DOUBLET (a Fr. word, diminutive of _double_, folded or of two
thicknesses), a close-fitting garment, with or without sleeves,
extending from the neck to a little below the waist, worn by men of all
ranks and ages from the 14th century to the time of Charles II., when
it began to be superseded by coat and waistcoat. The doublet was
introduced into England from France, and was originally padded for
defence or warmth. "Doublet" is also used of a pair or couple--a thing
that is the facsimile of another; as in philology, one of two words
differing in form, but represented by an identical root, as "alarm" or
"alarum"; in optics, of a pair of lenses, combined, for example, to
correct aberration. In the work of the lapidary a doublet is a
counterfeit gem, made by cementing two pieces of plain glass or crystal
on each side of a layer of glass (coloured to represent the stone
counterfeited); a thin portion of a genuine stone may be cemented upon
an inferior one, as a layer of diamond upon a topaz, or ruby on a
garnet.



DOUBS, a river of eastern France, rising in the Jura at the foot of the
Noirmont ridge at a height of 3074 ft. and flowing into the Saône. Its
course is 269 m. in length, though the distance from its source to its
mouth is only 56 m. in direct line; its basin has an area of 3020 sq. m.
Flowing N.E. the river traverses the lake of St Point and passes
Pontarlier; thenceforth its course lies chiefly through wooded gorges of
great grandeur. After skirting the town of Morteau, below which it
expands into the picturesque lake of Chaillexon and descends over the
Falls of the Doubs (88 ft. in height), the river for about 28 m. forms
the frontier between France and Switzerland. Flowing into the latter
country for a short distance, it turns abruptly west, then north, and
finally at Voujeaucourt, south-west. Just below that town the river is
joined by the canal from the Rhone to the Rhine, to accommodate which
its course has been canalized as far as Dole. Till it reaches Besançon
which lies on a peninsula formed by the river, the Doubs passes no town
of importance except Pontarlier. Some distance below Besançon it enters
the department of Jura, passes Dole, and leaving the region of hill and
mountain, issues into a wide plain. Traversing this, it receives the
waters of the Loue, its chief affluent, and broadening out to a width of
260 ft., at length reaches the Saône at Verdun. Below Dole the river is
navigable only for some 8 m. above its mouth.



DOUBS, a frontier department of eastern France, formed in 1790 of the
ancient principality of Montbéliard and of part of the province of
Franche-Comté. It is bounded E. and S.E. by Switzerland, N. by the
territory of Belfort and by Haute Saône, and W. and S.W. by Jura. Pop.
(1906) 298,438. Area, 2030 sq. m. The department takes its name from the
river Doubs, by which it is traversed. Between the Ognon, which forms
the north-western limit of the department, and the Doubs, runs a range
of low hills known as "the plain." The rest of Doubs is mountainous,
four parallel chains of the Jura crossing it from N.E. to S.W. The
Lomont range, the lowest of these chains, dominates the left bank of the
Doubs. The central region is occupied by hilly plateaux covered with
pasturage and forests, while the rest of the department is traversed by
the remaining three mountain ranges, the highest and most easterly of
which contains the Mont d'Or (4800 ft.), the culminating point of Doubs.
Besides the Doubs the chief rivers are its tributaries, the Dessoubre,
watering the east of the department, and the Loue, which traverses its
south-western portion. The climate is in general cold and rainy, and the
winters are severe. The soil is stony and loamy, and at the higher
levels there are numerous peat-bogs. Approximately a fifth of the total
area is planted with cereals; more than a third is occupied by pasture.
In its agricultural aspect the department may be divided into three
regions. The highest, on which the snow usually lies from six to eight
months in the year, is in part barren, but on its less exposed slopes is
occupied by forests of fir trees, and affords good pasturage for cattle.
In the second or lower region the oak, beech, walnut and sycamore
flourish; and the valleys are susceptible of cultivation. The region of
the plain is the most fertile, and produces all kinds of cereals as well
as hemp, vegetables, vines and fruit. Cattle-rearing and dairy-farming
receive much attention; large quantities of cheese, of the nature of
Gruyère, are produced, mainly by the co-operative cheese-factories or
_fruitières_. The rivers of the department abound in gorges and falls of
great beauty. The most important manufactures are watches, made chiefly
at Besançon and Morteau, hardware (Hérimoncourt and Valentigney), and
machinery. Large iron foundries are found at Audincourt (pop. 5317) and
other towns. The distillation of brandy and absinthe, and the
manufacture of cotton and woollen goods, automobiles and paper, are also
carried on. Exports include watches, live-stock, wine, vegetables, iron
and hardware; cattle, hides, timber, coal, wine and machinery are
imported. Large quantities of goods, in transit between France and
Switzerland, pass through the department. Among its mineral products are
building stone and lime, and there are peat workings. Doubs is served by
the Paris-Lyon railway, the line from Dôle to Switzerland passing, via
Pontarlier, through the south of the department. The canal from the
Rhône to the Rhine traverses it for 84 miles.

The department is divided into the arrondissements of Besançon,
Baume-les-Dames, Montbéliard and Pontarlier, with 27 cantons and 637
communes. It belongs to the _académie_ (educational circumscription) and
the diocese of Besançon, which is the capital, the seat of an archbishop
and of a court of appeal, and headquarters of the VII. army corps.
Besides Besançon the chief towns are Montbéliard and Pontarlier (qq.v.).
Ornans, a town on the Loue, has a church of the 16th century and ruins
of a feudal castle, which are of antiquarian interest. Montbenoît on the
Doubs near Pontarlier has the remains of an Augustine abbey (13th to
16th centuries). The cloisters are of the 15th century, and the church
contains, among other works of art, some fine stalls executed in the
16th century. Lower down the Doubs is the town of Morteau, with the
Maison Pertuisier, a house of the Renaissance period, and a church which
still preserves remains of a previous structure of the 13th century.
Baume-les-Dames owes the affix of its name to a Benedictine convent
founded in 763, to which only noble ladies were admitted. Numerous
antiquities have been found at Mandeure (near Montbéliard), which stands
on the site of the Roman town of _Epomanduodurum_.



DOUCE, FRANCIS (1757-1834), English antiquary, was born in London in
1757. His father was a clerk in Chancery. After completing his education
he entered his father's office, but soon quitted it to devote himself to
the study of antiquities. He became a prominent member of the Society of
Antiquaries, and for a time held the post of keeper of manuscripts in
the British Museum, but was compelled to resign it owing to a quarrel
with one of the trustees. In 1807 he published his _Illustrations of
Shakespeare and Ancient Manners_ (2 vols. 8vo), which contained some
curious information, along with a great deal of trifling criticism and
mistaken interpretation. An unfavourable notice of the work in _The
Edinburgh Review_ greatly irritated the author, and made him unwilling
to venture any further publications. He contributed, however, a
considerable number of papers to the _Archaeologia_ and _The Gentleman's
Magazine_. In 1833 he published a _Dissertation on the various Designs
of the Dance of Death_, the substance of which had appeared forty years
before. He died on the 30th of March 1834. By his will he left his
printed books, illuminated manuscripts, coins, &c., to the Bodleian
library; his own manuscript works to the British Museum, with directions
that the chest containing them should not be opened until the 1st of
January 1900; and his paintings, carvings and miscellaneous antiquities
to Sir Samuel Meyrick, who published an account of them, entitled _The
Doucean Museum_.



DOUGLAS, the name of a Scottish noble family, now represented by the
dukes of Hamilton (Douglas-Hamilton, heirs-male), the earls of Home
(Douglas-Home) who also bear the title of Baron Douglas of Douglas, the
dukes of Buccleuch and Queensberry (Montagu-Douglas-Scott), the earls of
Morton (Douglas), the earls of Wemyss (Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas), and
the baronets Douglas of Carr, of Springwood, of Glenbervie, &c. The
marquessate of Douglas and the earldom of Angus, the historic dignities
held by the two chief branches of the family, the Black and the Red
Douglas, are merged in the Hamilton peerage. The name represented the
Gaelic _dubh glas_, dark water, and Douglasdale, the home of the family
in Lanarkshire, is still in the possession of the earls of Home. The
first member of the family to emerge with any distinctness was William
de Douglas, or Dufglas, whose name frequently appears on charters from
1175 to 1213. He is said to have been brother, or brother-in-law, of
Freskin of Murray, the founder of the house of Murray. His second son,
Brice (d. 1222), became bishop of Moray, while the estate fell to the
eldest, Sir Archibald (d. c. 1240).


SIR WILLIAM OF DOUGLAS (d. 1298), called "_le hardi_," Archibald's
grandson, was the first formally to assume the title of lord of Douglas.
After the death of his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander the
Steward, he abducted from the manor of the La Zouches at Tranent an
heiress, Eleanor of Lovain, widow of William de Ferrers, lord of Groby
in Leicestershire, who in 1291 appeared by proxy in the court of the
English king, Edward I., to answer for the offence of marrying without
his permission. He gave a grudging allegiance to John de Baliol, and
swore fealty to Edward I. in 1291; but when the Scottish barons induced
Baliol to break his bond with Edward I. he commanded at Berwick Castle,
which he surrendered after the sack of the town by the English in 1296.
After a short imprisonment Douglas was restored to his Scottish estates
on renewing his homage to Edward I., but his English possessions were
forfeited. He joined Wallace's rising in 1297, and died in 1298, a
prisoner in the Tower of London.


His son, SIR JAMES OF DOUGLAS (1286-1330), lord of Douglas, called the
"Good," whose exploits are among the most romantic in Scottish history,
was educated in Paris. On his return he found an Englishman, Robert de
Clifford, in possession of his estates. His offer of allegiance to
Edward I. being refused, he cast in his lot with Robert Bruce, whom he
joined before his coronation at Scone in 1306. From the battle of
Methven he escaped with Bruce and the remnant of his followers, and
accompanied him in his wanderings in the Highlands. In the next year
they returned to the south of Scotland. He twice outwitted the English
garrison of Douglas and destroyed the castle. One of these exploits,
carried out on Palm Sunday, the 19th of March 1307, with barbarities
excessive even in those days, is known as the "Douglas Larder." Douglas
routed Sir John de Mowbray at Ederford Bridge, near Kilmarnock, and was
entrusted with the conduct of the war in the south, while Bruce turned
to the Highlands. In 1308 he captured Thomas Randolph (afterwards earl
of Moray), soon to become one of Bruce's firm supporters, and a friendly
rival of Douglas, whose exploits he shared. He made many successful
raids on the English border, which won for him the dreaded name of the
"Black Douglas" in English households. Through the capture of Roxburgh
Castle in 1314 by stratagem, the assailants being disguised as black
oxen, he secured Teviotdale; and at Bannockburn, where he was knighted
on the battlefield, he commanded the left wing with Walter the Steward.
During the thirteen years of intermittent warfare that followed he
repeatedly raided England. He slew Sir Robert de Nevill, the "Peacock of
the North," in single combat in 1316, and in 1319 he invaded Yorkshire,
in company with Randolph, defeating an army assembled by William de
Melton, archbishop of York, at Mitton-on-Swale (September 20), in a
fight known as "The Chapter of Myton." In 1322 he captured the pass of
Byland in Yorkshire, and forced the English army to retreat. He was
rewarded by the "Emerald Charter," granted by Bruce, which gave him
criminal jurisdiction over the family estates, and released the lords of
Douglas from various feudal obligations. The emerald ring which Bruce
gave Douglas in ratification of the charter is lost, but another of the
king's gifts, a large two-handed sword (bearing, however, a later
inscription), exists at Douglas Castle. In a daring night attack on the
English camp in Weardale in 1327 Douglas came near capturing Edward III.
himself. After laying waste the northern counties he retreated, without
giving battle to the English. Before his death in 1329 Bruce desired
Douglas to carry his heart to Palestine in redemption of his unfulfilled
vow to go on crusade. Accordingly Sir James set out in 1330, bearing
with him a silver casket containing the embalmed heart of Bruce. He fell
fighting with the Moors in Spain on the 25th of August of that year, and
was buried in St Bride's Church, Douglas. Since his day the Douglases
have borne a human heart in their coat of arms. Sir James was said to
have fought in seventy battles and to have conquered in fifty-seven. His
exploits, as told in Froissart's _Chronicles_ and in John Barbour's
_Bruce_, are familiar from Scott's _Tales of a Grandfather_ and _Castle
Dangerous_. His half-brother, Sir Archibald, defeated Edward Baliol at
Annan in 1332, and had just been appointed regent of Scotland for David
II. when he risked a pitched battle at Halidon Hill, where he was
defeated and killed (1333), with his nephew William, lord of Douglas.
The inheritance fell to his brother, a churchman, Hugh the "Dull" (b.
1294), who surrendered his lands to David II.; and a re-grant was made
to William Douglas, next referred to.


WILLIAM DOUGLAS, 1ST EARL OF DOUGLAS (c. 1327-1384), had been educated
in France, and returned to Scotland in 1348. In 1353 he killed in
Ettrick Forest his kinsman, William,[1] the knight of Liddesdale (c.
1300-1353), known as the "Flower of Chivalry," who had been warden of
the western marches during David II.'s minority, and had taken a heroic
share in driving the English from southern Scotland. Liddesdale had in
1342 lost the king's favour by the murder of Sir Alexander Ramsay of
Dalhousie, whom David had made constable of the castle of Roxburgh and
sheriff of Teviotdale in his place; he was taken prisoner at Nevill's
Cross in 1346, and only released on becoming liegeman of Edward III. for
the lands of Liddesdale and the castle of the Hermitage; Liddesdale[2]
was also accused of contriving the murder of Sir David Barclay in 1350.
Some of his lands fell to his kinsman and murderer, who was created earl
of Douglas in 1358. In 1357 his marriage with Margaret, sister and
heiress of Thomas, 13th earl of Mar, eventually brought him the estates
and the earldom of Mar. During a short truce with the warden of the
English marches he had served in France, being wounded at Poitiers in
1356. He was one of the securities for the payment of David II.'s
ransom, and in consequence of the royal misappropriation of some moneys
raised for this purpose Douglas was for a short time in rebellion in
1363. In 1364 he joined David II. in seeking a treaty with England which
should deprive Robert the Steward, formerly an ally of Douglas, of the
succession by putting an English prince on the Scottish throne. The
independence of Scotland was to be guaranteed, and a special clause
provided for the restoration of the English estates of the Douglas
family. On the accession of Robert II. he was nevertheless reconciled,
becoming justiciar of southern Scotland, and the last years of his life
were spent in making and repelling border raids. He died at Douglas in
May 1384, and was succeeded by his son James. By his wife's
sister-in-law, Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, and
widow of the 13th earl of Mar, he had a son George, afterwards 1st earl
of Angus.


JAMES, 2ND EARL OF DOUGLAS AND MAR (c. 1358-1388), married Lady Isabel
Stewart, daughter of Robert II. In 1385 he made war on the English with
the assistance of a French contingent under John de Vienne. He allowed
the English to advance to Edinburgh, wisely refusing battle, and
contented himself with a destructive counter-raid on Carlisle. Disputes
soon arose between the allies, and the French returned home at the end
of the year. In 1388 Douglas captured Hotspur Percy's pennon in a
skirmish near Newcastle. Percy sought revenge in the battle of Otterburn
(August 1388), which ended in a victory for the Scots and the capture of
Hotspur and his brother, though Douglas fell in the fight. The struggle,
narrated by Froissart, is celebrated in the English and Scottish ballads
called "Chevy Chase" and "The Battle of Otterburn." Sir Philip Sidney
"never heard the olde song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my
heart mooved more than with a trumpet" (_Apologie for Poetrie_). The 2nd
earl left no legitimate male issue. His natural sons William and
Archibald became the ancestors of the families of Douglas of Drumlanrig
(see QUEENSBERRY) and Douglas of Cavers. His sister Isabel became
countess of Mar, inheriting the lands of Mar and his unentailed estates.

The earldom and entailed estates of Douglas reverted by the patent of
1358 to ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 3RD EARL OF DOUGLAS, called "The Grim" (c.
1328-c. 1400), a natural son of the "good" Sir James. With his cousin,
the 1st earl of Douglas, he had fought at Poitiers, where he was taken
prisoner, but was released through ignorance of his real rank. On his
return to Scotland he became constable and sheriff of Edinburgh, and,
later, warden of the western marches, where his position was
strengthened by his becoming lord of Galloway in 1369 and by his
purchase of the earldom of Wigtown in 1372. He further increased his
estates by his marriage with Joanna Moray, heiress of Bothwell. During
the intervals of war with the English he imposed feudal law on the
border chieftains, drawing up a special code for the marches. He was
twice sent on missions to the French court. The power of the Black
Douglas overshadowed the crown under the weak rule of Robert III., and
in 1399 he arranged a marriage between David, duke of Rothesay, the
king's son and heir, and his own daughter, Marjory Douglas. Rothesay was
already contracted to marry Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter of the earl of
March, who had paid a large sum for the honour. March, alienated from
his allegiance by this breach of faith on the king's part, now joined
the English forces. A natural son of Archibald, Sir William of Douglas,
lord of Nithisdale (d. 1392), married Egidia, daughter of Robert III.

Archibald the Grim was succeeded by his eldest son, ARCHIBALD, 4TH EARL
OF DOUGLAS, 1st duke of Touraine, lord of Galloway and Annandale
(1372-1424), who married in 1390 Lady Margaret Stewart, eldest daughter
of John, earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III. In 1400 March and
Hotspur Percy had laid waste eastern Scotland as far as Lothian when
they were defeated by Douglas (then master of Douglas) near Preston.
With the regent, Robert, duke of Albany, he was suspected of complicity
in the murder (March 1402) of David, duke of Rothesay, who was in their
custody at Falkland Castle, but both were officially declared guiltless
by the parliament. In that year Douglas raided England and was taken
prisoner at Homildon Hill by the Percys. He fought on the side of his
captors at Shrewsbury (1403), and was taken prisoner by the English king
Henry IV. He became reconciled during his captivity with the earl of
March, whose lands had been conferred on Douglas, but were now, with the
exception of Annandale, restored. He returned to Scotland in 1409, but
was in constant communication with the English court for the release of
the captive king James I. In 1412 he had visited Paris, when he entered
into a personal alliance with John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, and
in 1423 he commanded a contingent of 10,000 Scots sent to the help of
Charles VII. against the English. He was made lieutenant-general in the
French army, and received the peerage-duchy of Touraine with remainder
to his heirs-male. The new duke was defeated and slain at Verneuil
(1424) with his second son, James; his persistent ill-luck earned him
the title of the Tyneman (the loser).


ARCHIBALD, 5TH EARL OF DOUGLAS (c. 1391-1439), succeeded to his father's
English and Scottish honours, though he never touched the revenues of
Touraine. He fought at Baugé in 1421, and was made count of Longueville
in Normandy.

His two sons, WILLIAM, 6TH EARL (1423?-1440), and David, were little
more than boys at the time of their father's death in 1439. They can
hardly have been guilty of any real offence when, on the 24th of
November 1440, they were summoned to court by Sir William Crichton, lord
chancellor of Scotland, and, after a mock trial in the young king's
presence, were beheaded forthwith in the courtyard of Edinburgh Castle.
This murder broke up the dangerous power wielded by the Douglases. The
lordships of Annandale and Bothwell fell to the crown; Galloway to the
earl's sister Margaret, the "Fair Maid of Galloway"; while the Douglas
lands passed to his great-uncle JAMES DOUGLAS, 7TH EARL OF DOUGLAS,
called the "Gross," of Balvany (1371-1444), lord of Abercorn and
Aberdour, earl of Avondale (cr. 1437), younger son of the 3rd earl.

The latter's sons, WILLIAM (c. 1425-1452) and James (1426-1488), became
8th and 9th earls respectively; Archibald became earl of Moray by
marriage with Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter and co-heiress of James, earl
of Moray; Hugh was created earl of Ormond in 1445; John was lord of
Balvany; Henry became bishop of Dunkeld.

The power of the Black Douglases was restored by the 8th earl, who
recovered Wigtown, Galloway and Bothwell by marriage (by papal
dispensation) with his cousin, the Fair Maid of Galloway. He was soon
high in favour with James II., and procured the disgrace of Crichton,
his kinsmen's murderer, by an alliance with his rival, Sir Alexander
Livingstone. In 1450 James raided the earl's lands during his absence on
a pilgrimage to Rome; but their relations seemed outwardly friendly
until in 1452 the king invited Douglas to Stirling Castle under a
safe-conduct, in itself, however, a proof of strained relations. There
James demanded the dissolution of a league into which Douglas had
entered with Alexander Lindsay, the "Tiger" earl (4th) of Crawford. On
Douglas's refusal the king murdered him (February 22) with his own
hands, the courtiers helping to despatch him. The tales of the hanging
of Sir Herbert Herries of Terregles and the murder of McLellan of Bombie
by Douglas rest on no sure evidence.


JAMES DOUGLAS, 9TH EARL (and last), denounced his brother's murderers
and took up arms, but was obliged by the desertion of his allies to
submit. He obtained a papal dispensation to marry his brother's widow,
in order to keep the family estates together. He intrigued with the
English court, and in 1455 rebelled once more. Meanwhile another branch
of the Douglas family, known as the Red Douglas, had risen into
importance (see ANGUS, EARLS OF), and George Douglas, 4th earl of Angus
(d. 1463), great-grandson of the 1st earl of Douglas, took sides with
the king against his kinsmen. James Douglas, again deserted by his chief
allies, fled to England, and his three brothers, Ormond, Moray and
Balvany, were defeated by Angus at Arkinholm on the Esk. Moray was
killed, Ormond taken prisoner and executed, while Balvany escaped to
England. Their last stronghold, the Thrieve in Galloway, fell, and the
lands of the Douglases were declared forfeit, and were divided among
their rivals, the lordship of Douglas falling to the Red Douglas, 4th
earl of Angus. In England the earl of Douglas intrigued against his
native land; he was employed by Edward IV. in 1461 to negotiate a league
with the western highlanders against the Scottish kingdom. In 1484 he
was taken prisoner while raiding southern Scotland, and was relegated to
the abbey of Lindores, where he died in 1488.

The title of Douglas was restored in 1633 when WILLIAM, 11th earl of
Angus (1589-1660), was created 1ST MARQUESS OF DOUGLAS by Charles I. In
1645 he joined Montrose at Philiphaugh, and was imprisoned in 1646 at
Edinburgh Castle, only obtaining his release by signing the Covenant.
His eldest son, Archibald, created earl of Ormond, Lord Bothwell and
Hartside, in 1651, predeceased his father; Lord James Douglas (c.
1617-1645) and his half-brother, Lord George Douglas (c. 1636-1692),
created earl of Dumbarton in 1675, successively commanded a Scots
regiment[3] in the French service. William (1635-1694), created earl of
Selkirk in 1646, became 3rd duke of Hamilton after his marriage (1656)
with Anne, duchess of Hamilton in her own right. By the failure of heirs
in the elder branches of the family the dukes of Hamilton (q.v.) became
heirs-male of the house of Douglas.


JAMES DOUGLAS, 2ND MARQUESS OF DOUGLAS (1646-1700), succeeded his
grandfather in 1660. His eldest son, John, by courtesy earl of Angus,
raised a regiment of 1200 men, first known as the Angus regiment, later
as the Cameronians (26th Foot). He was killed at its head at Steinkirk
in 1692. The younger son, ARCHIBALD, 3RD MARQUESS (1694-1761), was
created duke of Douglas in 1703, but the dukedom became extinct on his
death, without heirs, in 1761. He was a consistent supporter of the
Hanoverian cause, and fought at Sheriffmuir. The heir-presumptive to the
Douglas estates was his sister, Lady Jane Douglas (1698-1753), who in
1746 secretly married Colonel, afterwards Sir, John Steuart of
Grandtully, by whom she had twin sons, born in Paris in 1748. These
children were alleged to be spurious, and when Lady Jane and the younger
of the two boys died in 1753, the duke refused to acknowledge the
survivor as his nephew; but in 1760 he was induced, under the influence
of his wife, to revoke a will devising the estates to the Hamiltons in
favour of Lady Jane's son, Archibald James Edward Steuart (1748-1827),
1st baron Douglas of Douglas (cr. 1790) in the British peerage. The
inheritance of the estates was disputed by the Hamiltons, representing
the male line, but the House of Lords decided in favour of Douglas in
1769. Three of his sons succeeded Archibald Douglas as Baron Douglas,
but as they left no male issue the title passed to the earls of Home,
Cospatrick Alexander, 11th earl of Home, having married a granddaughter
of Archibald, 1st Baron Douglas. Their descendants, the earls of Home,
represent the main line of Douglas on the female side.

  AUTHORITIES.--David Hume of Godscroft (1560?-1630), who was secretary
  to Archibald Douglas, 8th earl of Angus, wrote a _History of the House
  and Race of Douglas and Angus_, printed under his daughter's
  superintendence (Edinburgh, 1644). He was a partial historian, and his
  account can only be accepted with caution. Modern authorities are Sir
  William Fraser, _The Douglas Book_ (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1885), and Sir
  H. Maxwell, _History of the House of Douglas_ (2 vols., 1902). See
  also G. E. C.[okayne]'s _Peerage_, and Douglas's _Scots Peerage_;
  _Calendar of State Papers_, _Scottish Series_, _The Hamilton Papers_,
  &c.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] A descendant of a younger son of the original William de Douglas.

  [2] On the murder of the knight of Liddesdale, his lands, with the
    exception of Liddesdale and the Hermitage forfeited to the crown and
    then secured by his nephew, fell to his nephew, Sir James Douglas of
    Dalkeith and Aberdour (d. 1420), whose great-grandson James Douglas,
    3rd Lord Dalkeith (d. 1504), became earl of Morton in 1458 on his
    marriage with Lady Joan Stewart, third daughter of James I. His
    grandson, the 3rd earl, left daughters only, of whom the eldest,
    Margaret, married James Hamilton, earl of Arran, regent of Scotland,
    ancestor of the dukes of Hamilton; Elizabeth married in 1543 James
    Douglas, who became by this marriage 4th earl of Morton.

  [3] Transferred to the British service in 1669 and eventually known
    as the Royal Scots regiment.



DOUGLAS, SIR CHARLES, Bart. (d. 1789), British admiral, a descendant of
the Scottish earls of Morton, was promoted lieutenant in the navy on the
4th of December 1753. Nothing is known of his early life. He became
commander on the 24th of February 1759, and attained to post rank in
1761. When the War of American Independence began, he took an active
part in the defence of Canada in 1775, and he afterwards commanded the
"Stirling Castle" 64 in the battle of the Ushant, 27th of July 1778. His
reputation is based first on the part he played in the battle of
Dominica, 12th of April 1782, and then on the improvements in gunnery
which he introduced into the British navy. It appears from the testimony
of Sir F. Thesiger (d. 1805), who was present on the quarter-deck of the
flagship, that Sir Charles Douglas, who was then captain of the fleet,
first pointed out to Rodney the possibility and the advantage of passing
through the French line. His advice was taken with reluctance. On the
other hand, Lord Hood accuses Douglas of living in such abject fear of
his admiral that he did not venture to speak with the freedom which his
important post entitled him to take. His more certain claim to be ranked
high among naval officers is founded on the many improvements he
introduced into naval gunnery. Some account of these will be found in
the writings of his son. He became rear-admiral on the 24th of September
1787, and died suddenly of apoplexy in February 1789. He was made a
baronet for his services in the West Indies.

  There is a life of Sir Charles Douglas in Charnock, _Biogr. Nav._ vi.
  427.



DOUGLAS, GAVIN (1474?-1522), Scottish poet and bishop, third son of
Archibald, 5th earl of Angus (called the "great earl of Angus" and
"Bell-the-Cat"), was born c. 1474, probably at one of his father's
seats. He was a student at St Andrews, 1489-1494, and thereafter, it is
supposed, at Paris. In 1496 he obtained the living of Monymusk,
Aberdeenshire, and later he became parson of Lynton (mod. Linton) and
rector of Hauch (mod. Prestonkirk), in East Lothian; and about 1501 was
preferred to the deanery or provostship of the collegiate church of St
Giles, Edinburgh, which he held with his parochial charges. From this
date till the battle of Flodden, in September 1513, he appears to have
been occupied with his ecclesiastical duties and literary work. Indeed
all the extant writings by which he has earned his place as a poet and
translator belong to this period. After the disaster at Flodden he was
completely absorbed in public business. Three weeks after the battle he,
still provost of St Giles, was admitted a burgess of Edinburgh, his
father, the "Great Earl," being then civil provost of the capital. The
latter dying soon afterwards (January 1514) in Wigtownshire, where he
had gone as justiciar, and his son having been killed at Flodden, the
succession fell to Gavin's nephew Archibald (6th earl). The marriage of
this youth to James IV.'s widow on the 6th of August 1514 did much to
identify the Douglases with the English party in Scotland, as against
the French party led by Albany, and incidentally to determine the
political career of his uncle Gavin. During the first weeks of the
queen's sorrow after the battle, Gavin, with one or two colleagues of
the council, acted as personal adviser, and it may be taken for granted
that he supported the pretensions of the young earl. His own hopes of
preferment had been strengthened by the death of many of the higher
clergy at Flodden. The first outcome of the new connexion was his
appointment to the abbacy of Aberbrothock by the queen regent, before
her marriage, probably in June 1514. Soon after the marriage she
nominated him archbishop of St Andrews, in succession to Elphinstone,
archbishop-designate. But Hepburn, prior of St Andrews, having obtained
the vote of the chapter, expelled him, and was himself in turn expelled
by Forman, bishop of Moray, who had been nominated by the pope. In the
interval, Douglas's rights in Aberbrothock had been transferred to James
Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, and he was now without title or
temporality. The breach between the queen's party and Albany's had
widened, and the queen's advisers had begun an intrigue with England, to
the end that the royal widow and her young son should be removed to
Henry's court. In those deliberations Gavin Douglas took an active part,
and for this reason stimulated the opposition which successfully
thwarted his preferment.

In January 1515 on the death of George Brown, bishop of Dunkeld,
Douglas's hopes revived. The queen nominated him to the see, which he
ultimately obtained, though not without trouble. For the earl of Athole
had forced his brother, Andrew Stewart, prebendary of Craig, upon the
chapter, and had put him in possession of the bishop's palace. The queen
appealed to the pope and was seconded by her brother of England, with
the result that the pope's sanction was obtained on the 18th of February
1515. Some of the correspondence of Douglas and his friends incident to
this transaction was intercepted. When Albany came from France and
assumed the regency, these documents and the "purchase" of the bishopric
from Rome contrary to statute were made the basis of an attack on
Douglas, who was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, thereafter in the
castle of St Andrews (under the charge of his old opponent, Archbishop
Hepburn), and later in the castle of Dunbar, and again in Edinburgh. The
pope's intervention procured his release, after nearly a year's
imprisonment. The queen meanwhile had retired to England. After July
1516 Douglas appears to have been in possession of his see, and to have
patched up a diplomatic peace with Albany.

On the 17th of May 1517 the bishop of Dunkeld proceeded with Albany to
France to conduct the negotiations which ended in the treaty of Rouen.
He was back in Scotland towards the end of June. Albany's longer absence
in France permitted the party-faction of the nobles to come to a head in
a plot by the earl of Arran to seize the earl of Angus, the queen's
husband. The issue of this plot was the well-known fight of
"Clear-the-Causeway," in which Gavin Douglas's part stands out in
picturesque relief. The triumph over the Hamiltons had an unsettling
effect upon the earl of Angus. He made free of the queen's rents and
abducted Lord Traquair's daughter. The queen set about to obtain a
divorce, and used her influence for the return of Albany as a means of
undoing her husband's power. Albany's arrival in November 1521, with a
large body of French men-at-arms, compelled Angus, with the bishop and
others, to flee to the Borders. From this retreat Gavin Douglas was sent
by the earl to the English court, to ask for aid against the French
party and against the queen, who was reported to be the mistress of the
regent. Meanwhile he was deprived of his bishopric, and forced, for
safety, to remain in England, where he effected nothing in the interests
of his nephew. The declaration of war by England against Scotland, in
answer to the recent Franco-Scottish negotiations, prevented his return.
His case was further complicated by the libellous animosity of Beaton,
archbishop of St Andrews (whose life he had saved in the
"Clear-the-Causeway" incident), who was anxious to thwart his election
to the archbishopric of St Andrews, now vacant by the death of Forman.
In 1522 Douglas was stricken by the plague which raged in London, and
died at the house of his friend Lord Dacre. During the closing years of
exile he was on intimate terms with the historian Polydore Vergil, and
one of his last acts was to arrange to give Polydore a corrected version
of Major's account of Scottish affairs. Douglas was buried in the church
of the Savoy, where a monumental brass (removed from its proper site
after the fire in 1864) still records his death and interment.

Douglas's literary work, now his chief claim to be remembered, belongs,
as has been stated, to the period 1501-1513, when he was provost of St
Giles. He left four poems.

1. _The Palice of Honour_, his earliest work, is a piece of the later
type of dream-allegory, extending to over 2000 lines in nine-lined
stanzas. In its descriptions of the various courts on their way to the
palace, and of the poet's adventures--first, when he incautiously
slanders the court of Venus, and later when after his pardon he joins in
the procession and passes to see the glories of the palace--the poem
carries on the literary traditions of the courts of love, as shown
especially in the "Romaunt of the Rose" and "The Hous of Fame." The poem
is dedicated to James IV., not without some lesson in commendation of
virtue and honour. No MS. of the poem is extant. The earliest known
edition (c. 1553) was printed at London by William Copland; an Edinburgh
edition, from the press of Henry Charteris, followed in 1579. From
certain indications in the latter and the evidence of some odd leaves
discovered by David Laing, it has been concluded that there was an
earlier Edinburgh edition, which has been ascribed to Thomas Davidson,
printer, and dated c. 1540.

2. _King Hart_ is another example of the later allegory, and, as such,
of higher literary merit. Its subject is human life told in the allegory
of King Heart in his castle, surrounded by his five servitors (the
senses), Queen Plesance, Foresight and other courtiers. The poem runs to
over 900 lines and is written in eight-lined stanzas. The text is
preserved in the Maitland folio MS. in the Pepysian library, Cambridge.
It is not known to have been printed before 1786, when it appeared in
Pinkerton's _Ancient Scottish Poems_.

3. _Conscience_ is in four seven-lined stanzas. Its subject is the
"conceit" that men first clipped away the "con" from "conscience" and
left "science" and "na mair." Then they lost "sci," and had nothing but
"ens" ("that schrew, Riches and geir").

4. Douglas's longest, last, and in some respects most important work is
his translation of the _Aeneid_, the first version of a great classic
poet in any English dialect. The work includes the thirteenth book by
Mapheus Vegius; and each of the thirteen books is introduced by a
prologue. The subjects and styles of these prologues show great variety:
some appear to be literary exercises with little or no connexion with
the books which they introduce, and were perhaps written earlier and for
other purposes. In the first, or general, prologue, Douglas claims a
higher position for Virgil than for his master Chaucer, and attacks
Caxton for his inadequate rendering of a French translation of the
_Aeneid_. That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for
more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a
prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent
of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature. Careful study of the
text will not support this view. Douglas is in all important respects
even more of a medievalist than his contemporaries; and, like Henryson
and Dunbar, strictly a member of the allegorical school and a follower,
in the most generous way, of Chaucer's art. There are several early MSS.
of the _Aeneid_ extant: (a) in the library of Trinity College,
Cambridge, c. 1525, (b) the Elphynstoun MS. in the library of the
university of Edinburgh, c. 1525, (c) the Ruthven MS. in the same
collection, c. 1535, (d) in the library of Lambeth Palace, 1545-1546.
The first printed edition appeared in London in 1553. An Edinburgh
edition was issued from the press of Thomas Ruddiman in 1710.

  For Douglas's career see, in addition to the public records and
  general histories, Bishop Sage's _Life_ in Ruddiman's edition, and
  that by John Small in the first volume of his edition of the _Works of
  Gavin_ _Douglas_ (4 vols., 1874, the only collected edition of
  Douglas's works). A new edition of the texts is much to be desired. On
  Douglas's place in Scottish literature see SCOTLAND: _Scottish
  Literature_, also G. Gregory Smith's _Transition Period_ (1900) and
  chapters in the _Cambridge History of English Literature_, vol. ii.
  (1908). P. Lange's dissertation _Chaucer's Einfluss auf die
  Originaldichtungen des Schotten Gavin Douglas_ (Halle, 1882) draws
  attention to Douglas's indebtedness to Chaucer. Further discussion of
  the question of Douglas's alleged Humanism will be found in
  Courthope's _History of English Poetry_, i. (1895), T. F. Henderson's
  _Scottish Vernacular Literature_ (1898), and J. H. Millar's _Literary
  History of Scotland_ (1903). For the language of the poems see G.
  Gregory Smith's _Specimens of Middle Scots_ (1902).     (G. G. S.)



DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD, Bart. (1776-1861), British general, younger son of
Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, was born at Gosport in 1776, and entered
the Royal Military Academy in 1790. He was commissioned second
lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1794, becoming first lieutenant a
few months later. In 1795 he was shipwrecked while in charge of a draft
for Canada, and lived with his men for a whole winter on the Labrador
coast. Soon after his return to England in 1799 he was made a
captain-lieutenant, and in the same year he married. In his regimental
service during the next few years, he was attached to all branches of
the artillery in succession, becoming captain in 1804, after which he
was placed on half-pay to serve at the Royal Military College. Douglas
was at this time (1804) appointed to a majority in the York Rangers, a
corps immediately afterwards reduced, and he remained on the roll of its
officers until promoted major-general. The senior department of the
R.M.C. at High Wycombe, of which he was in charge, was the forerunner of
the Staff College. Douglas, since 1806 a brevet lieutenant-colonel,
served in 1808-1809 in the Peninsula and was present at Corunna, after
which he took part in the Walcheren expedition. In 1809 he succeeded to
the baronetcy on the death of his half-brother, Vice-admiral Sir William
Henry Douglas. In 1812 he was employed in special missions in the north
of Spain, and took part in numerous minor operations in this region, but
he was soon recalled, the home government deeming his services
indispensable to the Royal Military College. He became brevet colonel in
1814 and C.B. in 1815. In 1816 appeared his _Essay on the Principles and
Construction of Military Bridges_ (subsequent editions 1832, 1853); in
1819, _Observations on the Motives, Errors and Tendency of M. Carnot's
System of Defence_, and in the following year his _Treatise on Naval
Gunnery_ (of which numerous editions and translations appeared up to the
general introduction of rifled ordnance). In 1821 he was promoted
major-general. Douglas's criticisms of Carnot led to an important
experiment being carried out at Woolwich in 1822, and his _Naval
Gunnery_ became a standard text-book, and indeed first drew attention to
the subject of which it treated. From 1823 to 1831 Sir Howard Douglas
was governor of New Brunswick, and, while there, he had to deal with the
Maine boundary dispute of 1828. He also founded Fredericton College, of
which he was the first chancellor. On his return to Europe he was
employed in various missions, and he published about this time _Naval
Evolutions_, a controversial work dealing with the question of "breaking
the line" (London, 1832). From 1835 to 1840 Douglas, now a G.C.M.G., was
lord high commissioner of the Ionian Islands, where, amongst other
reforms, he introduced a new code of laws. In 1837 he became a
lieutenant-general, in 1840 a K.C.B., in 1841 a civil G.C.B., and in
1851 a general. From 1842 to 1847 Douglas sat in parliament, where he
took a prominent part in debates on military and naval matters and on
the corn laws. He was frequently consulted on important military
questions. His later works included _Observations on the Modern System
of Fortification, &c._ (London, 1859), and _Naval Warfare Under Steam_
(London, 1858 and 1860). He died on the 9th of November 1861 at
Tunbridge Wells. Sir Howard Douglas was a F.R.S., one of the founders of
the R.G.S., and an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford University. Shortly before
his death he declined the offer of a military G.C.B.

  See S. W. Fullom, _Life of Sir Howard Douglas_ (London, 1862), and
  _Gentleman's Magazine_, 3rd series, xii. 90-92.



DOUGLAS, JOHN (1721-1807), Scottish man of letters and Anglican bishop,
was the son of a small shopkeeper at Pittenweem, Fife, where he was born
on the 14th of July 1721. He was educated at Dunbar and at Balliol
College, Oxford, where he took his M.A. degree in 1743, and as chaplain
to the 3rd regiment of foot guards he was at the battle of Fontenoy,
1745. He then returned to Balliol as a Snell exhibitioner; became vicar
of High Ercall, Shropshire, in 1750; canon of Windsor, 1762; bishop of
Carlisle, 1787 (and also dean of Windsor, 1788); bishop of Salisbury,
1791. Other honours were the degree of D.D., 1758, and those of F.R.S.
and F.S.A. in 1778. Douglas was not conspicuous as an ecclesiastical
administrator, preferring to his livings the delights of London in
winter and the fashionable watering-places in summer. Under the
patronage of the earl of Bath he entered into a good many literary
controversies, vindicating Milton from W. Lauder's charge of plagiarism
(1750), attacking David Hume's rationalism in his _Criterion of
Miracles_ (1752), and the Hutchinsonians in his _Apology for the Clergy_
(1755). He also edited Captain Cook's _Journals_, and Clarendon's _Diary
and Letters_ (1763). He died on the 18th of May 1807, and a volume of
_Miscellaneous Works_, prefaced by a short biography, was published in
1820.



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD (1813-1861), American statesman, was born at
Brandon, Vermont, on the 23rd of April 1813. His father, a physician,
died in July 1813, and the boy was under the care of a bachelor uncle
until he was fourteen, when his uncle married and Douglas was thrown
upon his own resources. He was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in
Middlebury, Vt., and then to another in Brandon, but soon abandoned this
trade. He attended schools at Brandon and Canandaigua (N.Y.), and began
the study of law. In 1833 he went West, and finally settled in
Jacksonville, Illinois, where he was admitted to the bar in March 1834,
and obtained a large practice. From the first he took an active interest
in politics, identifying himself with the Jackson Democrats, and his
rise was remarkably rapid even for the Middle West of that period. In
February 1835 he was elected public prosecutor of the first judicial
circuit, the most important at that time in Illinois; in 1835 he was one
of several Democrats in Morgan county to favour a state Democratic
convention to elect delegates to the national convention of 1836--an
important move toward party regularity; in December 1836 he became a
member of the state legislature. In 1837 he was appointed by President
Van Buren registrar of the land office at Springfield, which had just
become the state capital. In 1840 he did much to carry the state for Van
Buren; and for a few months he was secretary of state of Illinois. He
was a judge of the supreme court of Illinois from 1841 to 1843. In 1843
he was elected to the national House of Representatives.

In Congress, though one of the youngest members, he at once sprang into
prominence by his clever defence of Jackson during the consideration by
the House of a bill remitting the fine imposed on Jackson for contempt
of court in New Orleans. He was soon recognized as one of the ablest and
most energetic of the Democratic leaders. An enthusiastic believer in
the destiny of his country and more especially of the West, and a
thoroughgoing expansionist, he heartily favoured in Congress the
measures which resulted in the annexation of Texas and in the Mexican
War--in the discussion of the annexation of Texas he suggested as early
as 1845 that the states to be admitted should come in slave or free, as
their people should vote when they applied to Congress for admission,
thus foreshadowing his doctrine of "Popular Sovereignty." He took an
active share in the Oregon controversy, asserting his unalterable
determination, in spite of President Polk's faltering from the
declaration of his party's platform, not to "yield up one inch" of the
territory to Great Britain, and advocating its occupation by a military
force; indeed he consistently regarded Great Britain as the natural and
foremost rival of the United States, the interests of the two nations,
he thought, being always opposed, and few senators fought more
vigorously the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty or Great Britain's reassertion of
the right of search on the high seas. He ardently supported the policy
of making Federal appropriations (of land, but not of money) for
internal improvements of a national character, being a prominent
advocate of the construction, by government aid, of a trans-continental
railway, and the chief promoter (1850) of the Illinois Central; in 1854
he suggested that Congress should impose tonnage duties from which towns
and cities might themselves pay for harbour improvement, &c. To him as
chairman of the committee on territories, at first in the House, and
then in the Senate, of which he became a member in December 1847, it
fell to introduce the bills for admitting Texas, Florida, Iowa,
Wisconsin, Minnesota, California and Oregon into the Union, and for
organizing the territories of Minnesota, Oregon, New Mexico, Utah,
Washington, Kansas and Nebraska. In 1848 he introduced a bill proposing
that all the territory acquired from Mexico should be admitted into the
Union as a single state, and upon the defeat of this bill proposed
others providing for the immediate admission of parts of this territory.

In the bitter debates concerning the keenly disputed question of the
permission of slavery in the territories, Douglas was particularly
prominent. Against slavery itself he seems never to have had any moral
antipathy; he married (1847) the daughter[1] of a slaveholder, Colonel
Robert Martin of North Carolina, and a cousin of Douglas's colleague in
Congress, D. S. Reid; and his wife and children were by inheritance the
owners of slaves, though he himself never was. He did more probably than
any other one man, except Henry Clay, to secure the adoption of the
Compromise Measures of 1850. In 1849 the Illinois legislature demanded
that its representatives and senators should vote for the prohibition of
slavery in the Mexican cession, but next year this sentiment in Illinois
had grown much weaker, and, both there and in Congress, Douglas's name
was soon to become identified with the so-called "popular sovereignty"
or "squatter sovereignty" theory, previously enunciated by Lewis Cass,
by which each territory was to be left to decide for itself whether it
should or should not have slavery. In 1850 his power of specious
argument won back to him his Chicago constituents who had violently
attacked him for not opposing the Fugitive Slave Law.

The bill for organizing the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, which
Douglas reported in January 1854 and which in amended form was signed by
the president on the 30th of May, reopened the whole slavery
dispute--wantonly, his enemies charged, for the purpose of securing
Southern support,--and caused great popular excitement, as it repealed
the Missouri Compromise, and declared the people of "any state or
territory" "free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in
their own way, subject only to the Constitution of the United States."
The passage of this Kansas-Nebraska Bill, one of the most momentous in
its consequences ever passed by the Federal Congress, was largely a
personal triumph for Douglas, who showed marvellous energy, adroitness
and resourcefulness, and a genius for leadership. There was great
indignation throughout the free states; and even in Chicago Douglas was
unable to win for himself a hearing before a public meeting. In 1852,
and again in 1856, he was a candidate for the presidential nomination in
the national Democratic convention, and though on both occasions he was
unsuccessful, he received strong support. In 1857 he broke with
President Buchanan and the "administration" Democrats and lost much of
his prestige in the South, but partially restored himself to favour in
the North, and especially in Illinois, by his vigorous opposition to the
method of voting on the Lecompton constitution, which he maintained to
be fraudulent, and (in 1858) to the admission of Kansas into the Union
under this constitution. In 1858, when the Supreme Court, after the vote
of Kansas against the Lecompton constitution, had decided that Kansas
was a "slave" territory, thus quashing Douglas's theory of "popular
sovereignty," he engaged in Illinois in a close and very exciting
contest for the senatorship with Abraham Lincoln, the Republican
candidate, whom he met in a series of debates (at Ottawa, Freeport,
Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, Quincy and Alton), in one of which,
that at Freeport, Douglas was led to declare that any territory, by
"unfriendly legislation," could exclude slavery, no matter what the
action of the Supreme Court. This, the famous "Freeport Doctrine," lost
to Douglas the support of a large element of his party in the South, and
in Illinois his followers did not poll so large a vote as Lincoln's.
Douglas, however, won the senatorship by a vote in the legislature of 54
to 46. In the Senate he was not reappointed chairman of the committee on
territories. In 1860 in the Democratic national convention in Charleston
the adoption of Douglas's platform brought about the withdrawal from the
convention of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida,
Texas and Arkansas. The convention adjourned to Baltimore, where the
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Maryland delegations
left it, and where Douglas was nominated for the presidency by the
Northern Democrats; he campaigned vigorously but hopelessly, boldly
attacking disunion, and in the election, though he received a popular
vote of 1,376,957, he received an electoral vote of only 12--Lincoln
receiving 180. Douglas urged the South to acquiesce in Lincoln's
election. On the outbreak of the Civil War, he denounced secession as
criminal, and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the
integrity of the Union at all hazards. At Lincoln's request he undertook
a mission to the border states and the North-west to rouse the spirit of
Unionism; he spoke in West Virginia, Ohio and Illinois. He died on the
3rd of June 1861 at Chicago, where he was buried on the shore of Lake
Michigan; the site was afterwards bought by the state, and an imposing
monument with a statue by Leonard Volk now stands over his grave.

In person Douglas was conspicuously small, being hardly five feet in
height, but his large head and massive chest and shoulders gave him the
popular sobriquet "The Little Giant." His voice was strong and carried
far, he had little grace of delivery, and his gestures were often
violent. As a resourceful political leader, and an adroit, ready,
skilful tactician in debate, he has had few equals in American history.

  See Allen Johnson's _Stephen A. Douglas: A Study in American Politics_
  (New York, 1908), W. G. Brown's _Stephen Arnold Douglas_ (Boston,
  1902), and an excellent review of his later life in James Ford
  Rhodes's _History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850_
  (New York, 1893-1906); also P. O. Ray, _Repeal of the Missouri
  Compromise_ (Cleveland, Ohio, 1909), and E. C. Carr, _Stephen A.
  Douglas_ (Chicago, 1909).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Her death in 1853 was a great blow to him and embittered him. in
    November 1856 he married Adèle Cutts, a Maryland belle, a grandniece
    of Dolly Madison, and a Roman Catholic, who became the leader of
    Washington society, especially in the winter of 1857-1858, when
    Douglas was in revolt against Buchanan.



DOUGLAS, the capital of the Isle of Man, a municipal borough and a
favourite watering-place. Pop. (1901) 19,223. It stands on a fine
semicircular bay on the east coast of the island, at the common mouth of
two streams, the Awin-Dhoo and Awin-Glass, 62 m. W.N.W. of Fleetwood and
80 m. N.W. of Liverpool. The older streets are irregular and narrow, but
the town has greatly extended in modern times, with numerous terraces of
good dwelling-houses. A fine parade sweeps round the bay, which, from
Derby Castle on the north to Douglas Head on the south, has a circuit
exceeding 2 m. Low hills, penetrated by the valleys of the Dhoo and
Glass, encircle the town on the north, west and south, the southern spur
projecting seaward in the promontory of Douglas Head. The harbour, in
the river mouth, lies immediately north of this; vessels drawing 9 ft.
may enter it during neap tides, and those drawing 13 ft. during spring
tides. A castellated building, called the Tower of Refuge, erected in
1832, marks the dangerous Conister rocks, north of the harbour entrance.
The Battery pier protects the entrance on the south-west, and there is a
short pier (the Red pier) within the harbour, while the Victoria pier on
the north, at which passengers can land and embark at all heights of the
tide, was erected in 1872. There is regular daily communication with
Liverpool by the steamers of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, and
during the season there are connexions with Fleetwood, Barrow, Dublin,
Belfast and Glasgow. Douglas is connected by electric tramway northward
with Laxey, the summit of the mountain of Snaefell and Ramsey, and
southward with Port Soderick, while the Isle of Man railway runs to Peel
in the west, and Castletown and Port Erin in the south-west. The town
has services of cable and horse trams. The various popular attractions
of Douglas include theatres, dancing halls, a race-course and two golf
links Howstrake and Quarter Bridge. The shore of the bay is of firm
sand (covered at high tide), and the sea-bathing is good. Among
buildings and institutions in Douglas may be mentioned the legislative
buildings (1893), the town hall (1899), the large free library, the
court house and the Isle of Man hospital. Castle Mona, erected in 1804
by John, 4th duke of Arrol and lord of Man, is transformed into an
hotel. St George's church, the oldest remaining in Douglas, dates from
1780. Douglas was incorporated in 1895, and is governed by a mayor, six
aldermen and eighteen councillors.



DOUGLAS, a village of Lanarkshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 1206. It is
situated on Douglas water, 3 m. from Douglas station on the branch line
from Carstairs to Ayr, 11 m. by road S.S.W. of Lanark. It is a place of
ancient aspect, bearing evident signs of decay, but possesses peculiar
interest as the original home of the great Douglas family. Of the old
castle, Scott's _Castle Dangerous_, only a tower exists. The stronghold
repeatedly changed hands during the wars waged against Edward I. for the
independence of Scotland. The modern castle is the seat of the earl of
Home. Only the choir and spire remain of the 12th-century church of St
Bride, the patron saint of the Douglases. The vault beneath the choir
was, until 1761, the burial-place of the family, and it contains a
silver case said to hold the ashes of the heart of the "good Sir James"
(1286-1330). In 1879 the choir was restored and the tombs (including
that of Sir James Douglas) repaired. David Hackston of Rathillet, the
Covenanter, is stated to have been captured in the village (in a house
still standing) after the battle of Aird's Moss in 1680. On the hill of
Auchensaugh (1286 ft.), 2½ m. S.E., the Cameronians assembled in 1712
to renew the Solemn League and Covenant. This gathering, the
"Auchensaugh Wark," as it was called, led up to the secession of the
Reformed Presbyterians from the Kirk.



DOUGLASS, FREDERICK (1817-1895), American orator and journalist, was
born in Tuckahoe, Talbot county, Maryland, probably in February 1817.
His mother was a negro slave of exceptional intelligence, and his father
was a white man. Until nearly eight years of age, he was under the care
of his grandmother; then he lived for a year on the plantation of
Colonel Edward Lloyd, of whose vast estate his master, Captain Aaron
Anthony, was manager. After a year he was sent to Baltimore, where he
lived in the family of Hugh Auld, whose brother, Thomas, had married the
daughter of Captain Anthony; Mrs Auld treated him with marked kindness
and without her husband's knowledge began teaching him to read. With
money secretly earned by blacking boots he purchased his first book, the
_Columbian Orator_; he soon learned to write "free passes" for runaway
slaves. Upon the death of Captain Anthony in 1833, he was sent back to
the plantation to serve Thomas Auld, who hired him out for a year to one
Edward Covey, who had a wide reputation for disciplining slaves, but who
did not break Frederick's spirit. Although a new master, William
Freeland, who owned a large plantation near St Michael's, Md., treated
him with much kindness, he attempted to escape in 1836, but his plans
were suspected, and he was put in jail. From lack of evidence he was
soon released, and was then sent to Hugh Auld in Baltimore, where he was
apprenticed as a ship caulker. He learned his trade in one year, and in
September 1838, masquerading as a sailor, he escaped by railway train
from Baltimore to New York city. For the sake of greater safety he soon
removed to New Bedford, Massachusetts, where he changed his name from
Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey to Frederick Douglass, "Douglass"
being adopted at the suggestion of a friend who greatly admired Scott's
_Lady of the Lake_. For three years he worked as a day labourer in New
Bedford. An extempore speech made by him before an anti-slavery meeting
at Nantucket, Mass., in August 1841 led to his being appointed one of
the agents of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, and in this
capacity he delivered during the next four years numerous addresses
against slavery, chiefly in the New England and middle states. To quiet
the suspicion that he was an impostor, in 1845 he published the
_Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave_.
Fearing his recapture, his friends persuaded him to go to England, and
from August 1845 to April 1847 he lectured in Ireland, Scotland and
England, and did much to enlist the sympathy of the British public with
the Abolitionists in America. Before his return a sum of £150 was raised
by subscription to secure his legal manumission, thus relieving him from
the fear of being returned to slavery in pursuance of the Fugitive Slave
Law. From 1847 to 1860 he conducted an anti-slavery weekly journal,
known as _The North Star_, and later as _Frederick Douglass's Paper_, at
Rochester, New York, and, during this time, also was a frequent speaker
at anti-slavery meetings. At first a follower of Garrison and a
disunionist, he allied himself after 1851 with the more conservative
political abolitionists, who, under the leadership of James G. Birney,
adhered to the national Constitution and endeavoured to make slavery a
dominant political issue. He disapproved of John Brown's attack upon
Harper's Ferry in 1859, and declined to take any part in it. During the
Civil War he was among the first to suggest the employment of negro
troops by the United States government, and two of his sons served in
the Union army. After the war he was for several years a popular public
lecturer; in September 1866 he was a delegate to the national Loyalist
convention at Philadelphia; and in 1869 he became the editor, at
Washington, of a short-lived weekly paper, _The New National Era_,
devoted to the interests of the negro race. In 1871 he was assistant
secretary of the Santo Domingo commission, appointed by President Grant.
He was marshal of the District of Columbia from 1877 to 1881, was
recorder of deeds for the district from 1881 to 1886, and from 1889 to
1891 was the American minister resident and consul-general in the
Republic of Haiti. He died in Anacostia Heights, District of Columbia,
on the 20th of February 1895. He was widely known for his eloquence, and
was one of the most effective orators whom the negro race has produced
in America.

  His autobiography appeared, after two revisions, as _The Life and
  Times of Frederick Douglass_ (London, 1882). See F. M. Holland,
  _Frederick Douglass, The Colored Orator_ (New York, 1891); C. W.
  Chesnutt, _Frederick Douglass_, (Boston, 1899); and Booker T.
  Washington, _Frederick Douglass_ (Philadelphia, 1907), in the series
  of American Crisis Biographies.



DOUKHOBORS, a name given by the Russian Orthodox clergy to a community
of nonconformist peasants. The word etymologically signifies
"spirit-fighters," being originally intended by the priesthood to convey
that they fight against the Spirit of God; but the Doukhobors themselves
accepted the term as signifying that they fight, not against, but for
and with the Spirit. Of late, however, they have decided to give up this
name and call themselves "Christians of the Universal Brotherhood." This
religious community was first heard of in the middle of the 18th
century. By the end of that century or the beginning of the 19th their
doctrine had become so clearly defined, and the number of their members
had so greatly increased, that the Russian government and Church,
considering this sect to be peculiarly obnoxious, started an energetic
campaign against it. The foundation of the Doukhobors' teaching consists
in the belief that the Spirit of God is present in the soul of man, and
directs him by its word within him. They understand the coming of Christ
in the flesh, his works, teaching and sufferings, in a spiritual sense.
The object of the sufferings of Christ, in their view, was to give an
example of suffering for truth. Christ continues to suffer in us even
now when we do not live in accordance with the behests and spirit of his
teaching. The whole teaching of the Doukhobors is penetrated with the
Gospel spirit of love. Worshipping God in the spirit, they affirm that
the outward Church and all that is performed in it and concerns it has
no importance for them. The Church is where two or three are gathered
together, i.e. united in the name of Christ. They pray inwardly at all
times; on fixed days they assemble for prayer-meetings, at which they
greet each other fraternally with low bows, thereby acknowledging every
man as a bearer of the Divine Spirit. Their teaching is founded on
tradition, which is called among them the "Book of Life," because it
lives in their memory and hearts. It consists of sacred songs or chants,
partly composed independently, partly formed out of the contents of the
Bible, which, however, has evidently been gathered by them orally, as
until quite lately they were almost entirely illiterate and did not
possess any written book. They found alike their mutual relations and
their relations to other people--and not only to people, but to all
living creatures--exclusively on love, and therefore they hold all
people equal and brethren. They extend this idea of equality also to the
government authorities, obedience to whom they do not consider binding
upon them in those cases when the demands of these authorities are in
conflict with their conscience; while in all that does not infringe what
they regard as the will of God they willingly fulfil the desire of the
authorities. They consider killing, violence, and in general all
relations to living beings not based on love as opposed to their
conscience and to the will of God. They are industrious and abstemious
in their lives, and when living up to the standard of their faith they
present one of the nearest approaches to the realization of the
Christian ideal which have ever been attained. In many ways they have
thus a close resemblance to the Quakers or Society of Friends. For these
beliefs and practices the Doukhobors long endured cruel persecution.
Under Nicholas I., in the years 1840 and 1850, the Doukhobors, who on
religious grounds refused to participate in military service, were all
banished from the government of Tauris--whither they had been previously
transported from various parts of Russia by Alexander I.--to
Transcaucasia, near the Turkish frontier. But neither the severe climate
nor the neighbourhood of wild and warlike hillmen shook their faith, and
in the course of half a century, in one of the most unhealthy and
unfertile localities in the Caucasus, they transformed this wilderness
into flourishing colonies, and continued to live a Christian and
laborious life, making friends with, instead of fighting, the hillmen.
But the wealth to which they attained in the Caucasus weakened for a
time their moral fervour, and little by little they began to depart
somewhat from the requirements of their belief. As soon, however, as
events happened among them which disturbed their outward tranquillity,
the religious spirit which had guided their fathers immediately revived
within them. In 1887, in the reign of the tsar Alexander III., universal
military service was introduced in the Caucasus; and even those for
whom, as in the case of the Doukhobors, it had formerly been replaced
with banishment, were called upon to serve. This measure took the
Doukhobors unawares, and at first they outwardly submitted to it. About
the same time, by the decision of certain government officials, the
right to the possession of the public property of the Doukhobors (valued
at about £50,000) passed from the community to one of their members, who
had formed out of the more demoralized Doukhobors a group of his own
personal adherents, which was henceforth called the "Small Party." Soon
afterwards several of the most respected representatives of the
community were banished to the government of Archangel. This series of
calamities was accepted by the Doukhobors as a punishment from God, and
a spiritual awakening of a most energetic character ensued. The majority
(about 12,000 in number) resolved to revive in practice the traditions
left them by their fathers, which they had departed from during the
period of opulence. They again renounced tobacco, wine, meat and every
kind of excess, many of them dividing up all their property in order to
supply the needs of those who were in want, and they collected a new
public fund. They also renounced all participation in acts of violence,
and therefore refused military service. In confirmation of their
sincerity, in the summer of 1895 the Doukhobors of the "Great Party," as
they were called in distinction from the "Small Party," burnt all the
arms which they, like other inhabitants of the Caucasus, had taken up
for their protection from wild animals, and those who were in the army
refused to continue service. At the commencement of the reign of the
tsar Nicholas II., in 1895, the Doukhobors became the victims of a
series of persecutions, Cossack soldiers plundering, insulting, beating
and maltreating both men and women in every way. More than 400 families
of Doukhobors who were living in the province of Tiflis were ruined and
banished to Georgian villages. Of 4000 thus exiled, more than 1000 died
in the course of the first two years from exhaustion and disease; and
more would have perished had not information reached Count Leo Tolstoy
and his friends, and through them the Society of Friends in England.
Funds were immediately raised by sympathizers for alleviating the
sufferings of the starving victims. At the same time an appeal, written
by Tolstoy and some of his friends, requesting the help of public
opinion in favour of the oppressed Doukhobors, was circulated in St
Petersburg and sent to the emperor and higher government officials. The
Doukhobors themselves asked for permission to leave Russia, and the
Society of Friends petitioned the emperor to the same effect. In March
1898 the desired permission was granted, and the first party of
Doukhobors, 1126 in number, were able in the summer of 1898 to sail from
Batum for Cyprus, which was originally chosen for their settlement
because at that time funds were not sufficient for transferring them to
any other British territory. But as contributions accumulated, it was
found possible to send a number of Doukhobor emigrants to Canada,
whither they arrived in two parties, numbering above 4000, in January
1899. They were joined in the spring of the same year by the Cyprus
party, and another party of about 2000 arrived from the Caucasus. In all
about 7500 Doukhobor immigrants arrived in Canada. The Canadian
government did their best to facilitate the immigration, and allotted
land to the Doukhobors in the provinces of Assiniboia near Yorktown and
of Saskatchewan near Thunder Hill and Prince Albert. They were very
cordially received by the population of the Canadian port towns. In
April 1901, in the Canadian House of Commons, the minister of justice
made a statement about them in which he said that "not a single offence
had been committed by the Doukhobors; they were law-abiding, and if good
conduct was a recommendation, they were good immigrants.... The large
tracts of land demanded population, and if they were not given to crime,
the conclusion was that they would make good citizens." About eighteen
months after they arrived in Canada the Doukhobors sent the Society of
Friends a collective letter in which they sincerely thanked the English
and American Friends for all the generous help of every kind they had
received at their hands, but begged the Quakers to cease sending them
any more pecuniary support, as they were now able to stand on their own
feet, and therefore felt it right that any further help should be
directed to others who were more in need of it. At Yorktown in the
summer of 1907 the Doukhobors established one of the largest and best
brick-making plants in Canada, a significant testimony to the way in
which the leaders of the community were working in the interests of the
whole. Now and again small bodies broke off from the main community and
adopted a semi-nomadic life, but these formed a very small percentage of
the total number, which in 1908 was over 8000.

  See also _Christian Martyrdom in Russia_, by V. Tchertkoff (The Free
  Age Press, Christchurch, Hants); Aylmer Maude, _A Peculiar People, the
  Doukhobors_. (V. T.)



DOULLENS, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Somme, on the Authie, 27 m. N. of Amiens by rail. Pop.
(1906) 4495. It has a citadel of the 15th and 16th centuries which has
often served as a state prison and is now used as a reformatory for
girls. There are also a belfry of the 17th century and two old churches.
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first
instance; it has trade in phosphates, of which there are workings in the
vicinity, and carries on cotton-spinning and the manufacture of leather,
paper and sugar. Doullens, the ancient _Dulincum_, was seat of a
viscountship and an important stronghold in the middle ages. In 1475 it
was burnt by Louis XI. for openly siding with the house of Burgundy. In
1595 it was besieged and occupied by the Spaniards, but was restored to
France by the treaty of Vervins (1598).



DOULTON, SIR HENRY (1820-1897), English inventor and manufacturer of
pottery, born in Vauxhall on the 25th of July 1820, was from the age of
fifteen actively employed in the pottery works of his father, John
Doulton, at Lambeth. One of the first results of his many experiments
was the production of good enamel glazes. In 1846 he initiated in
Lambeth the pipe works, in which he superintended the manufacture of the
drainage and sanitary appliances which have helped to make the firm of
Doulton famous. In 1870 the manufacture of "Art pottery" was begun at
Lambeth, and in 1877 works were opened at Burslem, where almost every
variety of china and porcelain, as well as artistic earthenware, has
been produced. Works have since been opened at Rowley Regis, Smethwick,
St Helens, Paisley and Paris. After the Paris exhibition of 1878 Henry
Doulton was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. In 1872 the "Art
department" was instituted in the Doulton works, giving employment to
both male and female artists, amongst whom such workers as George
Tinworth and the Misses Barlow have obtained a reputation outside their
immediate sphere. In 1887 Doulton received the honour of knighthood, and
a few years later was awarded the Albert medal by the Society of Arts.
He married in 1849 the daughter of Mr J. L. Kennaby; she died in 1888.
Sir Henry Doulton took an active interest, as almoner, in St Thomas's
hospital. He died in London on the 18th of November 1897.



DOUMER, PAUL (1857-   ), French politician, was born at Aurillac. He
studied law and made his debut in politics as _chef de cabinet_ to
Floquet, when president of the chamber in 1885. In 1888 he was elected
Radical deputy for the department of the Aisne. Defeated in the general
elections of September 1889, he was elected again in 1890 by the
arrondissement of Auxerre. As minister of finance in the Bourgeois
cabinet (from the 3rd of November 1895 to the 21st of April 1896) he
tried without success to introduce an income-tax. In January 1897 he
became governor of Indo-China, where he carried out important public
works. In 1902 he returned to France and was elected by Laon to the
chamber as a Radical. He refused, however, to support the Combes
ministry, and formed a Radical dissident group, which grew in strength
and eventually caused the fall of the ministry. Doumer became a
prominent personage in Paris and was elected president of the chamber in
January 1905, being re-elected in January 1906. At the presidential
election of the 17th of January 1906 he was a candidate in opposition to
M. Fallières and obtained only 371 votes against 449; and the new
chamber passed him over as its new president in favour of Henri Brisson.
As an author he is known by his _L'Indo-Chine française_ (1904), and _Le
Livre de mes fils_ (1906).



DOUMIC, RENÉ (1860-   ), French critic and man of letters, was born in
Paris, and after a distinguished career at the École Normale began to
teach rhetoric at the Collège Stanislas. He was a contributor to the
_Moniteur_, the _Journal des Débats_ and the _Revue bleue_, but was best
known as the independent and uncompromising literary critic of the
_Revue des Deux Mondes_. His works include: _Éléments d'histoire
littéraire_ (1888); _Portraits d'écrivains_ (1892); _De Scribe à Ibsen_
(1893); _Écrivains d'aujour-d'hui_ (1894); _Études sur la littérature
française_ (5 vols., 1896-1905); _Les Jeunes_ (1896); _Essais sur le
théâtre contemporain_ (1897); _Les Hommes et les idées du XIX^e siècle_
(1903); and an edition of the _Lettres d'Elvire à Lamartine_ (1905).



DOUNE, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 8¾ m. N.W. of Stirling by
the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901) 930. It is situated on the left bank
of the Teith, here crossed by the bridge built in 1535 by Robert
Spittal, tailor to James IV. The town was once famous for its pistols
and sporrans (as the purses worn with the kilt are called), which were
in great request by the clansmen of the Highlands. Doune Castle, now in
ruins, occupies a commanding position on the Teith, at the point where
it is joined by the Ardoch. It is believed to have been built by
Murdoch, 2nd duke of Albany (d. 1425), and was sometimes a residence of
the sovereigns, among them James V. and Queen Mary. A nephew of Rob Roy
held it for Prince Charlie, and it figures in Scott's _Waverley_. It
belongs to the earl of Moray (Murray), who derives from it his title of
Lord Doune, and was the home of James Stewart, the "bonnie earl" of
Moray, murdered at Donibristle in Fife by the earl of Huntly (1592). The
braes of Doune lie to the north-west of the town and extend towards Uam
Var. Deanston (pop. 652), 1 m. S.W. of Doune, on the right bank of the
Teith, was the scene of the labours of James Smith (1789-1850), the
agricultural engineer, who was also manager of the cotton mills
established there in 1785. On his farm Smith carried out his experiments
in deep and thorough draining, and also invented a reaping machine, the
subsoil plough and numerous other valuable appliances.



DOURO (Span. _Duero_, Port. _Douro_, anc. _Durius_), a river of the
Iberian Peninsula. The Douro rises south of the Sierra de la Demanda, in
the Pico de Urbion, an isolated mountain mass 7389 ft. high. It
describes a wide curve eastwards past Soria, then flows westward across
the Castilian table-land, passing south of Valladolid, with Toro and
Zamora on its right bank; then from a point 3 m. E. of Paradella to
Barca d'Alva it flows south-west and forms the frontier between Spain
and Portugal for 65 m. It crosses Portugal in a westerly direction
through a narrow and tortuous bed, and enters the Atlantic 3 m. below
Oporto at São Jõao da Foz. The length of the Douro, which is greater
than that of any other Iberian river except the Tagus and Guadiana, is
probably about 485 m.; but competent authorities differ widely in their
estimates, the extremes given being 420 and 507 m. In Spain the Douro
receives from the right the rivers Pisuerga, Valderaduey and Esla, and
from the left several small streams which drain the Sierra Guadarrama,
besides the more important rivers Adaja, Tormes and Yeltes; in Portugal
it receives the Agueda, Côa and Paiva from the left, and the Sabor, Túa
and Tamega from the right. The area drained by the Douro and its
tributaries is upwards of 37,500 sq. m., and includes the greater part
of the vast plateau of Old Castile, between the watersheds of the
Cantabrian Mountains, on the north, and the Guadarrama, Gredos, Gata and
Estrella ranges, on the south. The lower stream is beset with numerous
rapids, called _pontos_, and is subject to swift and violent
inundations. On this account navigation is attended with difficulties
and risks between its mouth and Barca d'Alva; but a railway, running for
the most part along the right bank, skirts the river during the greater
part of its course through Portugal. The mouth of the river is partly
blocked by a sandy bar; only ships of light draught can enter, while
those of greater burden are accommodated at the harbour of Leixões, an
artificial basin constructed about 3 m. N. On its way through Portugal
the Douro traverses the Paiz do Vinho, one of the richest wine-producing
territories in the world; large quantities of wine are conveyed to
Oporto in sailing boats. The Douro yields an abundance of fish,
especially trout, shad and lampreys.



DOUROUCOULI, apparently the native name (perhaps derived from their
cries) of a small group of American monkeys ranging from Nicaragua to
Amazonia and eastern Peru, and forming the genus _Nyctipithecus_. In
addition to the absence of prehensile power in their tails,
douroucoulis, also known as night-apes, are distinguished by their large
eyes, the sockets of which occupy nearly the whole front of the upper
part of the skull, the partition between the nostrils being in
consequence narrower than usual. The ears are short, and the hair round
the eyes forms a disk. Douroucoulis live in parties, and are purely
nocturnal, sleeping during the day in hollow trees, and coming out at
night to feed on insects and fruits, when they utter piercing cat-like
screams.



DOUSA, JANUS [Jan van der Does], lord of Noordwyck (1545-1604), Dutch
statesman, historian, poet and philologist, and the heroic defender of
Leiden, was born at Noordwyck, in the province of Holland, on the 6th of
December 1545. He began his studies at Lier in Brabant, became a pupil
of Henry Junius at Delft in 1560, and then passed on in succession to
Louvain, Douai and Paris. Here he studied Greek under Pierre Dorat,
professor at the Collège Royal, and became acquainted with the
chancellor L'Hôpital, Turnebus, Ronsard and other eminent men. On his
return in 1565 he married Elizabeth van Zuylen. His name stands in the
list of nobles who in that year formed a league against Philip II. of
Spain, but he does not appear to have taken any active part in public
affairs till 1572, when he was sent as a member of an embassy to
England. He was not, however, at first very eager to commit himself to
the fortunes of William the Silent, prince of Orange, but having once
chosen his side, he threw himself heart and soul into the struggle for
freedom from the Spanish yoke. Fortunately for Leiden he was residing in
the town at the time of the famous siege. He held no post in the
government, but in the hour of need he, though not trained to arms,
took the command of a company of troops. His fearlessness and unshaken
resolution had no small influence in encouraging the regents and the
citizens to prolong the defence. On the foundation of the university of
Leiden by William the Silent, Dousa was appointed first curator, and he
held this office for nearly thirty years. Through his friendships with
foreign scholars he drew to Leiden many illustrious teachers and
professors. After the assassination of the prince of Orange in 1584,
Dousa undertook a private journey to England to try and persuade Queen
Elizabeth to support the cause of the states, and in 1585 he went at the
head of a formal embassy for the same purpose. About the same time he
was appointed keeper of the archives of Holland (_registermeester van
Holland_), and the opportunities thus afforded him of historical
research he turned to good account. He had three sons and five
daughters. All his sons acquired a reputation for learning, but two of
them died before their father. Dousa was author of several volumes of
Latin verse and of philological commentaries on Horace, Plautus,
Catullus and other Latin poets. His principal work is the _Annals of
Holland_, which first appeared in a metrical form in 1599, and was
published in prose under the title of _Bataviae Hollandiaeque annales_
in 1601. Dousa also took part as editor or contributor in various other
publications. He died at Noordwyck on the 8th of October 1604, and was
interred at the Hague; but no monument was erected to his memory till
1792, when one of his descendants placed a tomb to his honour in the
church of Noordwyck. There are good portraits of the Great Dousa, as he
is often called, by Visscher and Houbraken.



DOUVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE (1794?-1837), French traveller, was born at
Hambye, in the department of Manche. Having at an early age inherited a
fortune, he decided to gratify his taste for foreign travel. According
to his own profession he visited India, Kashmir, Khorasan, Persia, Asia
Minor and many parts of Europe. In 1826 he went to South America, and in
1827 left Brazil for the Portuguese possessions on the west coast of
Africa, where his presence in March 1828 is proved by the mention made
of him in letters of Castillo Branco, the governor-general of Loanda. In
May 1831 he reappeared in France, claiming to have pushed his
explorations into the very heart of central Africa. His story was
readily accepted by the Société de Géographie of Paris, which hastened
to recognize his services by assigning him the great gold medal, and
appointing him their secretary for the year 1832. On the publication of
his narrative, _Voyage au Congo et dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique
équinoxiale_, which occupied three volumes and was accompanied by an
elaborate atlas, public enthusiasm ran high. Before the year 1832 was
out, however, it was established that Douville's _Voyage_ was romance
and not verity. He had probably been inspired by the appearance of René
Caillié's account of his journey to Timbuktu, and wished to obtain a
share of the fame attaching to African explorers. Douville tried vainly
to establish the truth of his story in _Ma Défense_ (1832), and _Trente
mois de ma vie, ou quinze mois avant et quinze mois après mon voyage au
Congo_ (1833). Mlle Audrun, a lady to whom he was about to be married,
committed suicide from grief at the disgrace; and the adventurer
withdrew in 1833 to Brazil, and proceeded to make explorations in the
valley of the Amazon. According to Dr G. Gardner, in his _Travels in the
Interior of Brazil_ (1846), he was murdered in 1837 on the banks of the
Sao Francisco for charging too high for his medical assistance. Douville
may well have explored part of the province of Angola, and Sir Richard
Burton maintained that the Frenchman's descriptions of the country of
the Congo were lifelike; that his observations on the anthropology,
ceremonies, customs and maladies of the people were remarkably accurate;
and that even the native words used in his narrative were "for the most
part given with unusual correctness." It has been shown, however, that
the chief source of Douville's inspiration was a number of unpublished
Portuguese manuscripts to which he had access.



DOUW (or DOW), GERHARD (1613-1680), Dutch painter, was born at Leiden on
the 7th of April 1613. His first instructor in drawing and design was
Bartholomew Dolendo, an engraver; and he afterwards learned the art of
glass-painting under Peter Kouwhoorn. At the age of fifteen he became a
pupil of Rembrandt, with whom he continued for three years. From the
great master of the Flemish school he acquired his skill in colouring,
and in the more subtle effects of chiaroscuro; and the style of
Rembrandt is reflected in several of his earlier pictures, notably in a
portrait of himself at the age of twenty-two, in the Bridgewater House
gallery, and in the "Blind Tobit going to meet his Son," at Wardour
Castle. At a comparatively early point in his career, however, he had
formed a manner of his own distinct from, and indeed in some respects
antagonistic to, that of his master. Gifted with unusual clearness of
vision and precision of manipulation, he cultivated a minute and
elaborate style of treatment; and probably few painters ever spent more
time and pains on all the details of their pictures down to the most
trivial. He is said to have spent five days in painting a hand; and his
work was so fine that he found it necessary to manufacture his own
brushes. Notwithstanding the minuteness of his touch, however, the
general effect was harmonious and free from stiffness, and his colour
was always admirably fresh and transparent. He was fond of representing
subjects in lantern or candle light, the effects of which he reproduced
with a fidelity and skill which no other master has equalled. He
frequently painted by the aid of a concave mirror, and to obtain
exactness looked at his subject through a frame crossed with squares of
silk thread. His practice as a portrait painter, which was at first
considerable, gradually declined, sitters being unwilling to give him
the time that he deemed necessary. His pictures were always small in
size, and represented chiefly subjects in still life. Upwards of 200 are
attributed to him, and specimens are to be found in most of the great
public collections of Europe. His _chef-d'oeuvre_ is generally
considered to be the "Woman sick of the Dropsy," in the Louvre. The
"Evening School," in the Amsterdam gallery, is the best example of the
candlelight scenes in which he excelled. In the National Gallery,
London, favourable specimens are to be seen in the "Poulterer's Shop,"
and a portrait of himself. Douw's pictures brought high prices, and it
is said that President Van Spiring of the Hague paid him 1000 florins a
year simply for the right of pre-emption. Douw died in 1680. His most
celebrated pupil was Francis Mieris.



DOVE, a river of England, tributary to the Trent, rising in Axe Edge,
Derbyshire, and through almost its entire course forming the boundary of
that county with Staffordshire. In its upper course it traverses a fine
narrow valley, where the limestone hills exhibit many picturesque
cliffs, gullies and caves. Dovedale, that part of the valley which lies
between Dove Holes and Thorpe Cloud (or with a wider significance
between the towns of Hartington and Ashbourne), is especially famous.
Below Thorpe Cloud the Dove receives on the west the waters of the
Manifold, which, like its tributary the Hamps, and other streams in the
limestone district, has part of its course below ground. Near the
village of Rocester the Churnet joins the Dove on the west, and then the
course of the main stream, hitherto southerly, bends nearly easterly on
passing Uttoxeter, and, winding through a widening valley, joins the
Trent at Newton Solney, a short distance below Burton-on-Trent. The
length of the valley is about 40 m. and the total fall of the river
about 1450 ft. The Dove is well known for its trout-fishing, and the
portion of the upper valley called Beresford Dale, below Hartington, has
a special interest for fishermen through its associations with Izaak
Walton and his friend Charles Cotton, whose fishing-house stands near
the Pike Pool, a reach of the river with a lofty rock rising from its
centre.



DOVE (Dutch _duyve_, Dan. _due_, Ice. _dufa_, Ger. _Taube_), a name most
commonly applied by ornithologists to the smaller members of the group
of birds usually called pigeons (_Columbae_); but no sharp distinction
can be drawn between pigeons and doves, and in general literature the
two words are used almost indifferently, while no one species can be
pointed out to which the word dove, taken alone, seems to be absolutely
proper. The largest of the group to which the name is applicable is
perhaps the ring-dove, or wood-pigeon, also called in many parts of
Britain cushat and queest (_Columba palumbus_, Linn.), a very common
bird throughout the British Islands and most parts of Europe. It
associates in winter in large flocks, the numbers of which (owing partly
to the destruction of predaceous animals, but still more to the modern
system of agriculture, and the growth of plantations in many districts
that were before treeless) have increased enormously. In former days,
when the breadth of land in Britain under green crops was comparatively
small, these birds found little food in the dead season, and this
scarcity was a natural check on their superabundance. But since the
extended cultivation of turnips and plants of similar use the case is
altered, and perhaps at no time of the year has provender become more
plentiful than in winter. The ring-dove may be easily distinguished from
other European species by its larger size, and especially by the white
spot on either side of its neck, forming a nearly continuous "ring,"
whence the bird takes its name, and the large white patches in its
wings, which are very conspicuous in flight. It breeds several times in
the year, making for its nest a slight platform of sticks on the
horizontal bough of a tree, and laying therein two eggs--which, as in
all the _Columbae_, are white. It is semi-domestic in the London parks.


  PLATE I. (After the coloured drawings by Mme. Knip (Pauline de
  Courcelles), painter to the Empress Marie Louise, in _Les Pigeons_.
  Text by C. J. Themminck, Paris, 1811.)

[Illustration: ROCK DOVE OR BLUE ROCK PIGEON, _Columba livia_.]

[Illustration: STOCK DOVE, _Columba oenas_.]

[Illustration: AMERICAN WILD CARRIER PIGEON, _Ectopistes migratorius_.]

[Illustration: RING DOVE OR WOOD PIGEON, _Columba palumbus_.]


  PLATE II. By permission of the proprietors of the _Racing Pigeon_.

[Illustration: CROWNED PIGEON, _Goura coronata_ (After Mme. Knip, as
above.)]

[Illustration: NICOBAR PIGEON, _Caloenas nicobarica_. (After Mme. Knip,
as above.)]

[Illustration: Photographs of two typical pedigree Homing or Racing
Pigeons, colours black and blue chequer, bred and shown by Frederick
Romer, Esq., prize-winners in races from France to England.]


The stock-dove (_C. aenas_ of most authors) is a smaller species, with
many of the habits of the former, but breeding by preference in the
stocks of hollow trees or in rabbit-holes. It is darker in colour than
the ring-dove, without any white on its neck or wings, and is much less
common and more locally distributed.

The rock-dove (_C. livia_, Temm.) much resembles the stock-dove, but is
of a lighter colour, with two black bars on its wings, and a white rump.
In its wild state it haunts most of the rocky parts of the coast of
Europe, from the Faeroes to the Cyclades, and, seldom going inland, is
comparatively rare. Yet, as it is without contradiction the parent-stem
of all British domestic pigeons, its numbers must far exceed those of
both the former put together. In Egypt and various parts of Asia it is
represented by what Charles Darwin has called "wild races," which are
commonly accounted good "species" (_C. schimperi_, _C. affinis_, _C.
intermedia_, _C. leuconota_, and so forth), though they differ from one
another far less than do nearly all the domestic forms, of which more
than 150 kinds that "breed true," and have been separately named, are
known to exist. Very many of these, if found wild, would have
unquestionably been ranked by the best ornithologists as distinct
"species" and several of them would as undoubtedly have been placed in
different genera. These various breeds are classified by Darwin[1] in
_four_ groups as follows:--

  GROUP I., composed of a _single_ Race, that of the "Pouters," having
  the gullet of great size, barely separated from the crop, and often
  inflated, the body and legs elongated, and a moderate bill. The most
  strongly marked sub-race, the _Improved English Pouter_, is considered
  to be the most distinct of all domesticated pigeons.

  GROUP II. includes _three_ Races:--(1) "Carriers," with a long pointed
  bill, the eyes surrounded by much bare skin, and the neck and body
  much elongated; (2) "Runts," with a long, massive bill, and the body
  of great size; and (3) "Barbs," with a short, broad bill, much bare
  skin round the eyes, and the skin over the nostrils swollen. Of the
  first four and of the second five sub-races are distinguished.

  GROUP III. is confessedly artificial, and to it are assigned _five_
  Races:--(1) "Fan-tails," remarkable for the extraordinary development
  of their tails, which may consist of as many as forty-two rectrices in
  place of the ordinary twelve; (2) "Turbits" and "Owls," with the
  feathers of the throat diverging, and a short thick bill; (3)
  "Tumblers," possessing the marvellous habit of tumbling backwards
  during flight, or, in some breeds, even on the ground, and having a
  short, conical bill; (4) "Frill-backs," in which the feathers are
  reversed; and (5) "Jacobins," with the feathers of the neck forming a
  hood, and the wings and tail long.

  GROUP IV. greatly resembles the normal form, and comprises _two_
  Races:--(1) "Trumpeters," with a tuft of feathers at the base of the
  neck curling forward, the face much feathered, and a very peculiar
  voice, and (2) Pigeons scarcely differing in structure from the wild
  stock.

Besides these some three or four other little-known breeds exist, and
the whole number of breeds and sub-breeds almost defies computation. The
difference between them is in many cases far from being superficial,
for Darwin has shown that there is scarcely any part of the skeleton
which is constant, and the modifications that have been effected in the
proportions of the head and sternal apparatus are very remarkable. Yet
the proof that all these different birds have descended from one common
stock is nearly certain. Here there is no need to point out its bearing
upon the theory of natural selection. The antiquity of some of these
breeds is not the least interesting part of the subject, nor is the use
to which one at least of them has long been applied. The dove from the
earliest period in history has been associated with the idea of a
messenger (Genesis viii. 8-12), and the employment of pigeons in that
capacity, developed successively by Greeks, Romans, Mussulmans and
Christians, has come down to modern times.

The various foreign species, if not truly belonging to the genus
_Columba_, are barely separable therefrom. Of these examples may be
found in the Indian, Ethiopian and Neotropical regions. Innumerable
other forms entitled to the name of "dove" are to be found in almost
every part of the world, and nowhere more abundantly than in the
Australian Region. A. R. Wallace (_Ibis_, 1865, pp. 365-400) considers
that they attain their maximum development in the Papuan Subregion,
where, though the land area is less than one-sixth that of Europe, more
than a quarter of all the species (some 300 in number) known to exist
are found--owing, he suggests, to the absence of forest-haunting and
fruit-eating mammals, which are in most cases destructive to eggs also.

To a small group of birds the name dove is, however, especially
applicable in common parlance. This is the group containing the
turtle-doves--the time-honoured emblem of tenderness and conjugal love.
The common turtle-dove of Europe (_Turtur auritus_) is one of those
species which are gradually extending their area. In England, in the
18th century, it seems to have been chiefly, if not solely, known in the
southern and western counties. Though in the character of a straggler
only, it now reaches the extreme north of Scotland, and is perhaps
nowhere more abundant than in many of the midland and eastern counties
of England. On the continent of Europe the same thing has been observed,
though indeed not so definitely; and this species has appeared as a
casual visitor within the Arctic Circle. Its graceful form and the
delicate harmony of its modest colouring are proverbial. The species is
migratory, reaching Europe late in April and retiring in September.
Another species, and one perhaps better known from being commonly kept
in confinement, is that called by many the collared or Barbary dove (_T.
risorius_)--the second English name probably indicating that it was by
way of the Barbary coast that it was brought to England. This is
distinguished by its cream-coloured plumage and black necklace.
     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication_
    (London, 1868), vol. i. pp. 131-224.



DOVER, GEORGE JAMES WELBORE AGAR-ELLIS, BARON (1797-1833), English man
of letters, born on the 14th of January 1797, was the only son of the
2nd Viscount Clifden. He was educated at Westminster school and at
Christ Church, Oxford. In 1818 he was returned to parliament as member
for Heytesbury. He afterwards represented Seaford (1820), Ludgershall
(1826) and Okehampton (1830). He seconded Canning's motion in 1822 for a
bill to relieve the disabilities of Roman Catholic peers, and
consistently supported liberal principles. In party politics, however,
he took little interest, but he zealously advocated in parliament and
elsewhere that state encouragement should be given to the cause of
literature and the fine arts. In 1824 he was the leading promoter of the
grant of £57,000 for the purchase of John Julius Angerstein's collection
of pictures, which formed the foundation of the National Gallery. On the
formation of Lord Grey's administration, in November 1830, he was
appointed chief commissioner of woods and forests, but was compelled by
delicate health to resign it after two months' occupancy. In June 1831,
during the lifetime of his father, he was raised to the House of Lords,
receiving an English peerage with the title of Baron Dover. He was
president (1832) of the Royal Society of Literature, a trustee of the
British Museum and of the National Gallery, and a commissioner of public
records. He died on the 10th of July 1833. Lord Dover's works are
chiefly historical, and include _The True History of the Iron Mask,
extracted from Documents in The French Archives_ (1826), _Inquiries
respecting the Character of Clarendon_ (1827), and a _Life of Frederick
II._ (1831). He also edited the _Ellis Correspondence_ (1829) and
_Walpole's Letters to Sir Horace Mann_ (1833).



DOVER, HENRY JERMYN, EARL OF (c. 1636-1708), was the second son of Sir
Thomas Jermyn, of Rushbroke, Suffolk, elder brother of Henry Jermyn,
earl of St Albans (q.v.). Jermyn surpassed his uncle, St Albans, in
reputation for profligacy, figuring frequently as "the little Jermyn" in
the _Grammont Memoirs_, as the lover of Lady Castlemaine, Lady
Shrewsbury, Miss Jennings and other beauties of the court of Charles II.
He was also a noted duellist and a lifelong gambler. While the court was
in exile, he obtained a post in the household of the duke of York, to
whom he became master of the horse at the Restoration. Being a Roman
Catholic he enjoyed a position of influence with James II., who on his
accession raised Jermyn to the peerage as Baron Dover in 1685, and
appointed him lieutenant-general of the royal guard in 1686. At the
Revolution, Dover adhered to James, whom he followed abroad, and in July
1689 the deposed sovereign created him Baron Jermyn of Royston, Baron
Ipswich, Viscount Cheveley and earl of Dover; these honours being among
the "Jacobite peerages" which were not recognized by the English
government, though Jermyn became generally known as the earl of Dover.
He commanded a troop at the battle of the Boyne; but shortly afterwards
made his submission to William III. He succeeded his brother Thomas as
3rd Baron Jermyn of St Edmundsbury in 1703, and died in 1708. As he left
no children by his wife, Judith, daughter of Sir Edmund Poley, of
Badley, Suffolk, his titles became extinct at his death.

  See Samuel Pepys, _Diary_, edited by H. B. Wheatley, 9 vols. (London,
  1893); Anthony Hamilton, _Memoirs of Grammont_ (Bohn edition, London,
  1846); J. S. Clarke, _Life of James II._, 2 vols. (London, 1816);
  Narcissus Luttrell, _Brief Relation of State Affairs 1678-1714_, 6
  vols. (Oxford, 1857).



DOVER, ROBERT (1575-1641), English captain and attorney, is known as the
founder and director for many years of the "Cotswold Games," which he
originated as a protest against the growing Puritanism of the day. These
sports, which were referred to by contemporary writers as "Mr Robert
Dover's Olimpick Games upon the Cotswold Hills," consisted of
cudgel-playing, wrestling, running at the quintain, jumping, casting the
bar and hammer, hand-ball, gymnastics, rural dances and games and
horse-racing, the winners in which received valuable prizes. They
continued from about the year 1604 until three years after the death of
Dover, which took place in 1641. They were revived for a brief period in
the reign of Charles II.



DOVER, the capital of Delaware, U.S.A., and the county seat of Kent
county, on the St Jones River, in the central part of the state, about
48 m. S. of Wilmington and about 9 m. from Delaware Bay. Pop. (1890)
3061; (1900) 3329 (772 negroes); (1910) 3720. Dover is served by the
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington railway (Pennsylvania system). The
state house, built about 1722 for a court house, was remodelled for its
present purpose in 1791; it contains the state library, which in 1908
had about 50,000 bound volumes. Dover is the seat of the Wilmington
Conference Academy (Methodist Episcopal); and about 2 m. N. is the state
college for coloured students (co-educational; opened in 1892), an
agricultural and manual training school. The surrounding country is
largely devoted to the raising of small fruit. Among the manufactures
are canned fruit and meat (especially poultry), timber, machine shop
products, baskets and crates, and silk. The town was laid out in 1717;
in 1777 it replaced New Castle as the capital of the state, and in 1829
it was incorporated as a town. Dover was the birthplace of the American
patriot, Caesar Rodney (1728-1784), whose home near Dover is still
standing.



DOVER, a seaport and municipal and parliamentary borough of Kent,
England, one of the Cinque Ports, 76 m. E.S.E. of London by the
South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1891) 33,503; (1901) 41,794. It
is situated at the mouth of a small stream, the Dour, whose valley here
breaches the high chalk cliffs which fringe the coast on either hand. It
is an exceptionally healthy locality, and the steep shore and open downs
make it an agreeable summer resort. The better residential quarters lie
along the seaboard and on the higher ground, notably on a western spur
of the Castle Hill. The dominant object of the place is the castle, on
the east height, 375 ft. above sea-level, between which and the
batteries on the western heights lies the old town. The castle occupies
a space of 35 acres. Within its precincts are a Roman _pharos_ or
lighthouse, still exhibiting the Roman masonry; the ancient fortress
church (St Mary in Castro); some remains of the Saxon fort; and the
massive keep and subsidiary defences (such as the Constable's,
Avranche's, and other towers) of the Norman building. The church,
substantially unaltered, forms an almost unique Christian relic. It has
been called Roman, but is later. It is cruciform in shape, and the walls
are built mainly of flint, but jambs and arches are formed of Roman
bricks. At the end of the 12th century it was remodelled and given an
Early English character. In the beginning of the 18th century it was
dismantled and turned into a storehouse; and so continued until 1863,
when, having been restored by Sir G. G. Scott, it was again opened for
divine service, and is now the chapel of the castle garrison.

The view from the castle keep includes on a clear day the line of cliffs
from Folkestone to Ramsgate on the one side, and from Boulogne to
Gravelines on the other side of the strait. The cliffs are honeycombed
in all directions with military works. They are covered by modern works
on the north side known as Fort Burgoyne, and additional works extend
eastwards towards St Margaret's Bay. The western heights, where is the
foundation of another Roman lighthouse, form a further circuit of
fortifications. They are still more elevated than the castle. A military
shaft, locally known as the Corkscrew Staircase, affords communication
between the barracks and the town. Remains were discovered here in 1854
of a round church of the Templars (Holy Sepulchre), 32 ft. in diameter;
the church, doubtless, in which King John made his submission to the
Papal Nuncio in 1213. Archcliffe Fort lies to the south-west of old
Dover. There may further be mentioned the remnant of the Saxon
collegiate church of the canons of St Martin, and the parish church of
St Mary the Virgin. This last was rebuilt and enlarged in 1843-1844, but
preserves the three bays of the Saxon church, with its western narthex,
on which was superimposed the Norman tower, which presents its rich
front to the street. The rest of the church is mainly Norman and Early
English. A later Norman church stands under the Castle Hill, but its
parochial status was transferred to the modern church of St James.

The remains of the splendid foundation of St Martin's priory, of the
12th century, include the great gate, the house refectory, with
campanile, and the spacious strangers' refectory, now incorporated in
Dover College. The college of St Martin for twenty-two secular canons,
which had been established in the castle in 696, was removed into the
town in the beginning of the 8th century, and in 1139 became a
Benedictine priory under the jurisdiction of that at Canterbury, to
which see the lands are still attached. The interior of the refectory is
very fine. In High Street may be seen the noble hall and truncated
fabric of the Maison Dieu founded by Hubert de Burgh in the 13th century
for the reception of pilgrims of all nations. From the time of Henry
VIII. to 1830 it was used as a crown victualling office, but was
subsequently purchased by the corporation and adapted as a town hall.
The new town hall adjoining the old hall of the Maison Dieu was opened
in 1883. The museum (1849) contains an interesting collection of local
antiquities and a natural history collection.

Among various charitable institutions are the National Sailors' Home and
the Gordon Boys' and Victoria Seaside Orphanages. Besides the church of
St James, mentioned above, other modern churches are those of Holy
Trinity and Christ church, and further up the valley there are the
parish churches of Charlton (originally Norman) and Buckland (Early
English). Among educational establishments is Dover College, occupying
the site and remaining buildings of St Martin's priory, with additional
modern buildings. It was instituted in 1871, and educates about 220
boys. There is a separate junior school.

Dover is the only one of the Cinque Ports which is still a great port.
It is one of the principal ports for passenger communications across the
Channel, steamers connecting it with Calais and Ostend. The Admiralty
pier was begun in 1847 and practically completed to a length of about
2000 ft. in 1871. In 1888 the gates of Wellington dock were widened to
admit a larger type of Channel steamers; new coal stores were erected on
the Northampton quay; the slipway was lengthened 40 ft., and widened for
the reception of vessels up to 800 tons. In 1891 it was resolved to
construct a new commercial harbour at an estimated cost of about
£700,000. Begun in 1893, the works included the construction of an east
pier ("Prince of Wales's Pier"), running parallel to the general
direction of the Admiralty pier and in conjunction with it enclosing an
area of sheltered water amounting to seventy-five acres. This pier was
completed in 1902. A railway line connected with the South-Eastern and
Chatham system runs to its head, and in July 1903 it was brought into
use for the embarcation of passengers by transatlantic liners. In 1896
and subsequent years funds were voted by parliament for the construction
of an artificial harbour for naval purposes, having an area of 610
acres, of which 322 acres were to have a depth of not less than 30 ft.
at low water. The scheme comprised three enclosing breakwaters--on the
west an extension of the Admiralty pier in a south-easterly direction
for a length of 2000 ft.; on the south an isolated breakwater, 4200 ft.
long, curving round shoreward at its eastern end to accord with the
direction of the third breakwater; on the east, which runs out from the
shore in a southerly direction for a length of 3320 ft. These three
breakwaters, with a united length of rather more than 1¾ m., are each
built of massive concrete blocks in the form of a practically vertical
wall founded on the solid chalk and rising to a quay level of 10 ft.
above high water. Two entrances, one 800 ft. and the other 600 ft. in
width, with a depth of about seven fathoms at low water, are situated at
either end of the detached breakwater. The plan also included the
reclamation of the foreshore at the foot of the cliffs, between the
castle jetty and the root of the eastern breakwater, by means of a
massive sea-wall. The construction of three powerful forts was
undertaken in defence of the harbour, which was opened in 1909.

Besides the mail service and harbour trade, Dover has a trade in
shipbuilding, timber, rope and sail making, and ships' stores. Dover is
a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Canterbury. The parliamentary
borough returns one member. The town is governed by a mayor, six
aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 2026 acres.

_History._--Dover (_Dubris_) was one of the ports for continental
traffic in Roman times. In the 4th century it was guarded by a fort
lying down near the harbour, and forming part of the defences of the
Saxon shore (_Litus Saxonicum_). As a Cinque Port, Dover (Dofra,
Dovorra) had to contribute twenty of the quota of ships furnished by
those ports; in return for this service a charter of liberties was
granted to the ports by Edward the Confessor, making the townsmen quit
of shires and hundreds, with the right to be impleaded only at Shepway,
and other privileges, which were confirmed by subsequent kings, with
additions, down to James II. During the middle ages Dover Castle was an
object of contention both in civil wars and foreign invasions, and was
considered the key to England; the constable of the castle, who from the
reign of John was appointed by the crown, was also warden of the Cinque
Ports. The castle was successfully defended in 1216 against the French
under the dauphin Louis by Hubert de Burgh, who was also the founder of
the Maison Dieu established for the accommodation of pilgrims. The title
of mayor as chief municipal officer first occurs about the middle of the
13th century, when the town was governed by a mayor and twelve jurats.
The Cinque Ports were first represented in the parliament of 1265; Dover
returned two members until 1885 when the number was reduced to one. In
1685 Charles II. confirmed to the inhabitants of Dover a fair beginning
on the 11th of November, which had been held of old in the town, and
granted two others on the 23rd and 24th of April and the 25th and 26th
of September.

After the decay of Richborough harbour the passage from Dover to
Whitsand, and later to Calais, became the accustomed route to France,
and by a statute of 1465 no one might ship for Calais except at Dover.
The guardians of the harbour were incorporated by James I. in 1607.

  See S. P. H. Statham, _History of the Castle, Town and Port of Dover_
  (London, 1899); and _Dover Charters and other Documents_ (London,
  1902).


BATTLE OF DOVER

This famous and important naval victory was won off the town of Dover by
the ships of the Cinque Ports on the 21st of August 1217, during the
minority of King Henry III. The barons, who were in arms against his
father King John, had called Louis, son of Philip Augustus, king of the
French, to their aid. Having been recently defeated in Lincoln, they
were hard pressed, and reinforcements were sent to them from Calais in a
fleet commanded by a pirate and mercenary soldier called Eustace the
Monk. His real name is uncertain, but according to the chronicle of
Lanercost it was Matthew. He passed the Straits of Dover with a numerous
flotilla laden with military machines and stores, and also carrying many
knights and soldiers. The Monk's fleet was seen from Dover, where the
regent, Hubert de Burgh, lay with a naval force of the Cinque Ports,
said to have been very small. Sixteen vessels of large size for the
time, and a number of smaller craft, is said to have been their total
strength. But medieval estimates of numbers are never to be trusted, and
the strength of the Cinque Port squadron was probably diminished to
exalt the national glory. It put to sea, and by hugging the wind gained
the weather gage of the French adventurer. Eustace is said to have been
under the impression that they meant to attack Calais in his absence,
and to have derided them because he had left the town well guarded. When
they were to windward of his fleet the Cinque Port ships bore down on
the enemy. As they approached they threw unslaked lime in the air and
the wind blew it in the faces of the French. This form of attack, and
the flights of arrows discharged by the English (which flew with the
wind), produced confusion in the crowded benches of the French vessels,
which in most cases must have been little more than open boats. It is
further said that in some cases at least the English vessels were
"bearded," that is to say, strengthened by iron bands across the bows
for ramming, and that they sank many of the French. The Monk was
certainly defeated, and his fleet was entirely scattered, sunk or taken.
His own vessel was captured. Eustace, who had concealed himself in the
bilge, was dragged out. In answer to his appeals for quarter and
promises to pay ransom, he was told by Richard, the bastard son of King
John, that he was a traitor who would not be allowed to deceive more
men. His head was struck off by Richard, and was sent round the ports on
a pike. The Cinque Port seamen returned in triumph, towing their prizes,
after throwing the common soldiers overboard, and taking the knights to
ransom according to the custom of the age.

The political importance of the battle was very great, for it gave the
death-blow to the cause of the barons who supported Louis, and it fixed
Henry III. on the throne. But the defeat and death of the Monk was widely
regarded as in a peculiar sense a victory over the powers of evil. The man
became within a few years after his death the hero of many legends of
piracy and necromancy. It was said that after leaving the cloister he
studied the black art in Toledo, which had a great reputation in the
middle ages as a school of witchcraft. A French poem written seemingly
within a generation after his death represents him as a wizard. In a prose
narrative discovered and printed by M. Francisque Michel, it is said that
he made his ship invisible by magic spells. A brother wizard in the
English fleet, by name Stephen Crabbe, detected him while he was invisible
to others. The bold and patriotic Crabbe contrived to board the bewitched
flagship, and was seen apparently laying about him with an axe on the
water--which the spectators took to be a proof either that he was mad, or
that this was the devil in his shape. At last he struck off the head of
Eustace, upon which the spell was broken, and the ship appeared. Crabbe
was torn to pieces--presumably by the familiar spirits of the Monk--and
the fragments were scattered over the water. Saint Bartholomew, whose
feast is on the 21st of August, came to encourage the English by his
presence and his voice.

[Illustration: Dover]

Ascertainable fact concerning Eustace is less picturesque, but enough is
known to show that he was an adventurous and unscrupulous scoundrel. In
his youth he was a monk, and left the cloister to claim an inheritance
from the count of Boulogne. Not having received satisfaction he became a
freebooter on land and sea, and mercenary soldier. He is frequently
mentioned in the Pipe, Patent and Close Rolls. For a time he served King
John, but when the king made friends with the count of Boulogne, he fled
abroad, and entered the service of the French prince Louis and his
father Philip Augustus. Chroniclers lavish on him the titles of
"archipirata," "vir flagitiosissimus et nequissimus," and poets made him
an associate of the devil.

  The evidence concerning Eustace is collected by Herren Wendelin
  Forster and Johann Trost, in their edition of the French poem
  "Wistasse le moine" (Halle, 1891). See for the battle Sir N. Harris
  Nicolas, _History of the Royal Navy_ (London, 1847).



DOVER, a city and the county seat of Strafford county, New Hampshire,
U.S.A., on the Cochecho river, at the head of navigation, 10 m. N.W. of
Portsmouth. Pop. (1890) 12,790; (1900) 13,207, of whom 3298 were
foreign-born; (1910 census) 13,247. Land area, 26.4 sq m. It is at the
intersection of two branches of the Boston & Maine railway, and is
served by several interurban electric lines. The street plan is
irregular. Dover has a fine city hall of red brick and freestone; a
public library containing (1907) 34,000 volumes, the Wentworth hospital;
the Wentworth home for the aged, a children's and an orphans' home. The
Strafford Savings Bank is said to be the largest and oldest savings
institution in the state. Dover has long had a considerable commerce,
both by rail and by water, that by water being chiefly in coal and
building materials. The navigation of the Cochecho river has been
greatly improved by the Federal government, at a cost between 1829 and
1907 of about $300,000, and in 1909 there was a navigable channel, 60-75
ft. wide and 7 ft. deep at mean low water, from Dover to the mouth of
the river; the mean range of tides is 6.8 ft. The Cochecho river falls
31½ ft. within the city limits and furnishes water-power for factories;
among the manufactures are textiles, boots and shoes, leather belting,
sash, doors and blinds, carriages, machinery and bricks. In 1905 Dover
ranked fourth among the manufacturing cities of the state, and first in
manufactures of woollens; the value of the city's total factory product
in that year was $6,042,901. Dover is one of the two oldest cities in
the state. In May 1623 a settlement was established by Edward Hilton on
Dover Point, about 5 m. S.E. of the Cochecho Falls; the present name was
adopted in 1639, and with the development of manufacturing and trading
interests the population gradually removed nearer the falls; Hilton and
his followers were Anglicans, but in 1633 they were joined by several
Puritan families under Captain Thomas Wiggin, who settled on Dover Neck
(1 m. above Dover Point), which for 100 years was the business centre of
the town. As the settlement was outside the jurisdiction of any
province, and as trouble arose between the two sects, a plantation
covenant was drawn up and signed in 1640 by forty-one of the
inhabitants. Dissensions, however, continued, and in 1641, by the will
of the majority, Dover passed under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts
and so remained for nearly half a century. The town, between 1675 and
1725, suffered greatly from Indian attacks, particularly from that of
the 28th of June 1689 at Cochecho Falls. Dover was first chartered as a
city in 1855. Within the original territory of the town were included
Newington, set off in 1713, Somersworth (1729), Durham (1732), Medbury
(1755), Lee, set off from Durham in 1766, and Rollinsford, set off from
Somersworth in 1849.

  See Jeremy Belknap, _History of New Hampshire_ (Philadelphia,
  1784-1792); and _Rev. Dr A. H. Quint's Historical Memoranda of Persons
  and Places in Old Dover, N.H._, edited by John Scales (Dover, 1900).



DOVER, a town of Morris county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the Rockaway
river and the Morris canal, about 40 m. by rail W.N.W. of Hoboken. Pop.
(1900) 5938, of whom 947 were foreign-born; (1905) 6353; (1910) 7468.
The area of the town is 1.72 sq. m. Dover is at the junction of the main
line and the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna &
Western railway (which has large repair shops here), and is also served
by the High Bridge branch of the Central of New Jersey, and by an
electric line connecting with neighbouring towns. The town is situated
about 570 ft. above sea-level. Building stone, used extensively for
railway bridges, and iron ore abound in the vicinity. The river
furnishes good water-power, and the town has various manufactures,
including stoves and ranges, boilers, bar iron, rivets, steel castings,
rock drills, air compressors, silk hose and underwear, organzine or
thrown silk, and overalls. The waterworks are owned by the town, water
being obtained from wells varying in depth from 193 to 213 ft. Dover was
settled as early as 1748, and was separated from Randolph township and
incorporated as a town in 1869.



DOVERCOURT, a watering-place in the Harwich parliamentary division of
Essex, England, immediately S.W. of Harwich, with a station between
Parkeston Quay and Harwich town on the Great Eastern railway, 70 m. N.E.
by E. from London. Pop. (1901) 3894. The esplanade and sea-wall front
the North Sea, and there is a fine expanse of sand affording good
bathing. There is also a chalybeate spa. The scenery of the neighbouring
Orwell and Stour estuaries is pleasant. The church, which stands inland
in the old village distinguished as Upper Dovercourt, is Early English
and later; it formerly possessed a miraculous rood which became an
object of pilgrimage of wide repute. It is said to have been stolen and
burnt in 1532, three of the four thieves being subsequently taken and
hanged.



DOW, LORENZO (1777-1834), American preacher, noted for his
eccentricities of dress and manner, was born at Coventry, Connecticut,
on the 16th of October 1777. He was much troubled in his youth by
religious perplexities, but ultimately joined the Methodists, and in
1798 was appointed a preacher "on trial" in a New York circuit. In the
following year, however, he crossed the Atlantic and preached as a
missionary to the Catholics of Ireland, and thereafter was never
connected officially with the ministry of the Methodist Church, though
he remained essentially a Methodist in doctrine. Everywhere, in America
and Great Britain, he attracted great crowds to hear and see him, and he
was often persecuted as well as admired. In 1805 he visited England,
introduced the system of camp meetings, and thus led the way to the
formation of the Primitive Methodist Society. Dow's enthusiasm sustained
him through the incessant labours of more than thirty years, during
which he preached in almost all parts of the United States. His later
efforts were directed chiefly against the Jesuits; indeed he was in
general a vigorous opponent of Roman Catholicism. He died in Georgetown,
District of Columbia, on the 2nd of February 1834. Among his
publications are: _Polemical Works_ (1814); _The Stranger in Charleston,
or the Trial and Confession of Lorenzo Dow_ (1822); _A Short Account of
a Long Travel; with Beauties of Wesley_ (1823); and the _History of a
Cosmopolite; or the Four Volumes of the Rev. Lorenzo Dow's Journal,
concentrated in One, containing his Experience and Travels from
Childhood to 1814_ (1814; many later editions); this volume also
contains "All the Polemical Works of Lorenzo." The edition of 1854 was
entitled _The Dealings of God, Man, and the Devil as exemplified in the
Life, Experience and Travels of Lorenzo Dow_.



DOW, NEAL (1804-1897), American temperance reformer, was born at
Portland, Maine, on the 20th of March 1804. His parents were Quakers and
he was educated at the Friends' School in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He
subsequently became a merchant in his native city and rose to a position
of importance in its business and political life. His chief interest,
however, was in the temperance question, and he early attracted
attention as an ardent champion of the prohibition of the sale of
intoxicating drinks. He drafted the drastic Maine prohibitory law of
1851. He was mayor of Portland in 1851 and in 1855, and was a member of
the Maine legislature in 1858-1859. Early in the Civil War he became
colonel of the 13th Maine Volunteer Infantry. He served in General B. F.
Butler's New Orleans expedition, was commissioned brigadier-general of
volunteers in April 1862, and subsequently commanded for a time the
department of Florida. He was twice wounded in the attack on Port
Hudson, on the 27th of May 1863, and was taken prisoner, remaining eight
months in Libby and other prisons before he was exchanged. After the war
he devoted a great part of his time and energy to the extension of the
prohibition movement in America and England. Through his exertions the
prohibitory amendment was added to the Maine constitution in 1884. In
1880 he was the candidate of the National Prohibition Party for
president, polling 10,305 votes. He died at Portland on the 2nd of
October 1897.

  His _Reminiscences_ were published at Portland in 1898.



DOWAGER (from the Old Fr. _douagiere_, mod. _douairière_), strictly, a
widow in the enjoyment of dower. "Dowager" is also applied to widows of
high rank to distinguish them from the wives of their sons, as
queen-dowager, dowager-duchess, &c. The title was first used in England
of Catherine of Aragon, widow of Arthur, prince of Wales, who was styled
princess dowager till her marriage with Henry VIII. By transference the
word is used of an elderly lady.



DOWDEN, EDWARD (1843-   ), Irish critic and poet, son of John Wheeler
Dowden, merchant and landowner, was born at Cork on the 3rd of May 1843,
being three years junior to his brother John, who became bishop of
Edinburgh in 1886. His literary tastes were shown early, in a series of
essays written at the age of twelve. His home education was continued at
Queen's College, Cork, and Trinity College, Dublin; at the latter
university he had a distinguished career, becoming president of the
Philosophical Society, and winning the vice-chancellor's prize for
English verse and prose, and the first senior moderatorship in ethics
and logic. In 1867 he was elected professor of oratory and English
literature in Dublin University. His first book, _Shakespeare, his Mind
and Art_ (1875), was a revision of a course of lectures, and made him
widely known as a critic, being translated into German and Russian; and
his _Poems_ (1876) went into a second edition. His _Shakespeare Primer_
(1877) was also translated into Italian and German. In 1878 he was
awarded the Cunningham gold medal of the Royal Irish Academy "for his
literary writings, especially in the field of Shakespearian criticism."
Later works by him in this field were his _Shakespeare's Sonnets_
(1881), _Passionate Pilgrim_ (1883), _Introduction to Shakespeare_
(1893), _Hamlet_ (1899), _Romeo and Juliet_ (1900), _Cymbeline_ (1903),
and his article (_National Review_, July 1902) on "Shakespeare as a Man
of Science," criticizing T. E. Webb's _Mystery of William Shakespeare_.
His critical essays "Studies in Literature" (1878), "Transcripts and
Studies" (1888), "New Studies in Literature" (1895) showed a profound
knowledge of the currents and tendencies of thought in various ages and
countries; but it was his _Life of Shelley_ (1886) that made him best
known to the public at large. In 1900 he edited an edition of Shelley's
works. Other books by him which indicate his interests in literature are
his _Southey_ (in the "English Men of Letters" series, 1880), his
edition of _Southey's Correspondence with Caroline Bowles_ (1881), and
_Select Poems of Southey_ (1895), his _Correspondence of Sir Henry
Taylor_ (1888), his edition of _Wordsworth's Poetical Works_ (1892) and
of his _Lyrical Ballads_ (1890), his _French Revolution and English
Literature_ (1897; lectures given at Princeton University in 1896),
_History of French Literature_ (1897), _Puritan and Anglican_ (1900),
_Robert Browning_ (1904) and _Michel de Montaigne_ (1905). His devotion
to Goethe led to his succeeding Max Müller in 1888 as president of the
English Goethe Society. In 1889 he became the first Taylorian lecturer
at Oxford, and from 1892 to 1896 was Clark lecturer at Trinity College,
Cambridge. To his sagacity in research are due, among other matters of
literary interest, the first account of Carlyle's "Lectures on periods
of European culture"; the identification of Shelley as the author of a
review (in _The Critical Review_ of December 1814) of a lost romance by
Hogg; description of Shelley's "Philosophical View of Reform"; a MS.
diary of Fabre D'Eglantine; and a record by Dr Wilhelm Weissenborn of
Goethe's last days and death. He also discovered a "Narrative of a
Prisoner of War under Napoleon" (published in _Blackwood's Magazine_),
an unknown pamphlet by Bishop Berkeley, some unpublished writings of
Hayley relating to Cowper, and a unique copy of the _Tales of Terror_.
His wide sympathies and scholarly methods made his influence on
criticism both sound and stimulating, and his own ideals are well
described in his essay on "The Interpretation of Literature" in his
_Transcripts and Studies_. As commissioner of education in Ireland
(1896-1901), trustee of the National Library of Ireland, secretary of
the Irish Liberal Union and vice-president of the Irish Unionist
Alliance, he enforced his view that literature should not be divorced
from practical life. He married twice, first (1866) Mary Clerke, and
secondly (1895) Elizabeth Dickinson West, daughter of the dean of St
Patrick's.



DOWDESWELL, WILLIAM (1721-1775), English politician, was a son of
William Dowdeswell of Pull Court, Bushley, Worcestershire, and was
educated at Westminster school, at Christ Church, Oxford, and at the
university of Leiden. He became member of parliament for the family
borough of Tewkesbury in 1747, retaining this seat until 1754, and from
1761 until his death he was one of the representatives of
Worcestershire. Becoming prominent among the Whigs, Dowdeswell was made
chancellor of the exchequer in 1765 under the marquess of Rockingham,
and his short tenure of this position appears to have been a successful
one, he being in Lecky's words "a good financier, but nothing more." To
the general astonishment he refused to abandon his friends and to take
office under Lord Chatham, who succeeded Rockingham in August 1766.
Dowdeswell then led the Rockingham party in the House of Commons, taking
an active part in debate until his death at Nice on the 6th of February
1775. The highly eulogistic epitaph on his monument at Bushley was
written by Edmund Burke.



DOWER (through the Old Fr. _douaire_ from late Lat. _dotarium_,
classical Lat. _dos_, dowry), in law, the life interest of the widow in
a third part of her husband's lands. There were originally five kinds of
dower: (1) at common law; (2) by custom; (3) _ad ostium ecclesiae_, or
at the church porch; (4) _ex assensu patris_; (5) _de la plus belle_.
The last was a conveyance of tenure by knight service, and was abolished
in 1660, by the act which did away with old tenures. Dower _ad ostium
ecclesiae_, by which the bride was dowered at the church porch (where
all marriages used formerly to take place), and dower _ex assensu
patris_, by the father of the bridegroom, though long obsolete, were
formally abolished by the Dower Act 1834. Dower is governed in the
United Kingdom, so far as women married after the 1st of January 1834
are concerned, by the Dower Act 1834, and under it only attaches on the
husband's death to the lands which he actually possessed for an estate
of inheritance at the time of his death. It must be claimed within
twelve years of the time of its accrual, but only six years' arrears are
recoverable. The wife is also entitled to dower out of equitable
estates, but joint estates are exempt. By the act the wife's dower is
placed completely under her husband's control. It does not attach to any
land actually disposed of by him in his lifetime or by his will, nor to
any land from which he has declared by deed his wife shall not be
entitled to dower. He may also defeat her right, either as to any
particular land or to all his lands, by a declaration in his will; while
it is subject to all the deceased husband's debts and contracts, and to
any partial estates which he may have created during his life or by his
will. A widow tenant in dower may make leases for twenty-one years under
the Settled Estates Act 1878. Free-bench is an analogous right in regard
to copyhold land; it does not fall within the Dower Act 1834, and varies
with the custom of each manor. At common law, and prior to the act of
1834, dower was of a very different nature. The wife's right attached,
while the husband was still living, to any land whereof he was solely
seised in possession (excluding equitable and joint estates) for an
estate of inheritance at any time during the continuance of the
marriage, provided that any child the wife might have had could have
been heir to the same, even though no child was actually born. When once
this right had attached it adhered to the lands, notwithstanding any
sale or devise the husband might make; nor was it liable for his debts.
In this way dower proved an obstacle to the free alienation of land, for
it was necessary for a husband wishing to make a valid conveyance to
obtain the consent of his wife releasing her right to dower. This
release was only effected by a fine, the wife being separately examined.
Often, by reason of the expense involved, the wife's concurrence was not
obtained, and thus the title of the purchaser was defective during the
wife's lifetime. The acceptance of a jointure by the wife before
marriage was, however, destructive of dower, if after marriage she was
put to her election between it and dower. By the ingenuity of the old
conveyancers, devices, known as "uses to bar dower" (the effect of which
was that the purchaser never had at any time an estate of inheritance in
possession), were found to prevent dower attaching to newly purchased
lands, and so to enable the owner to give a clear title, without the
need of the wife's concurrence, in the event of his wishing, in his
turn, to convey the land. All this was, however, swept away by the Dower
Act 1834, and a purchaser of land no longer need trouble himself to
inquire whether the dower of the wife of the vendor has been barred, or
to insist on her concurrence in a fine.     (H. S. S.)



DOWIE, JOHN ALEXANDER (1848-1907), founder of "Zionism," was born in
Edinburgh, and went as a boy to South Australia with his parents. He
returned in 1868 to study for the Congregationalist ministry at
Edinburgh University, and subsequently became pastor of a church near
Sydney, Australia. He was a powerful preacher, and later, having become
imbued with belief in his powers as a healer of disease by prayer, he
obtained sufficient following to move to Melbourne, build a tabernacle,
and found "The Divine Healing Association of Australia and New Zealand."
In 1888 he went to America, preaching and "healing," and in spite of
opposition and ridicule attracted a number of adherents. In 1896 he
established "The Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion," with
himself as "First Apostle"; and in 1901, with money liberally
contributed by his followers, he founded Zion City, on a site covering
about 10 sq. m. on the west shore of Lake Michigan, with a central
temple for the Zionist church. In 1903 and 1904, in the course of a
visit to the branches of the Zionist movement throughout the world, he
appeared in London, but was mobbed. In April 1906 a revolt against his
domination took place in Zion City. He was charged with peculation and
with practising polygamy, and was deposed, with the assent of his own
wife and son. A suit brought by him in the United States district court
to recover possession of the Zion City property, valued at two millions
sterling, was unsuccessful, and his defalcations were fully proved.
Dowie was now broken in health and unmistakably insane; he was struck
with paralysis and gradually becoming weaker died in Zion City in March
1907.



DOWLAS, the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting, but
usually coarser. It is made in several qualities, from line warp and
weft to two warp and weft, and is used chiefly for aprons, pocketing,
soldiers' gaiters, linings and overalls. The finer makes are sometimes
made into shirts for workmen, and occasionally used for heavy
pillow-cases. The word is spelt in many different ways, but the above is
the common way of spelling adopted in factories, and it appears in the
same form in Shakespeare's _First Part of Henry IV._, Act III. scene 3.
The modern dowlas is a good, strong and closely woven linen fabric.



DOWN, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province of Ulster, occupying
the most easterly part of the island, bounded N. by Co. Antrim and
Belfast Lough, E. and S. by the Irish Sea, and W. by Co. Armagh. The
area is 607,916 acres, or nearly 950 sq. m. The coast line is indented
by several loughs and bays. The largest of these is Strangford Lough, a
fine sheet of water studded with 260 islets, 54 of which have names. All
are well wooded or rich in pasturage. The lough runs for 10 m.
northwards, and the ancient castles and ruined abbeys on some of the
islets render the scene one of singular interest and beauty. Farther
south Dundrum Bay forms a wider expanse of water. In the south-west
Carlingford Lough separates the county from Louth. There are no lakes of
importance. Between Strangford and Carlingford loughs the county is
occupied by a range of hills known in its south-western portion as the
Mourne Mountains, which give rise to the four principal rivers--the
Bann, the Lagan, the Annacloy and the Newry. This mass includes, several
striking peaks, of which the principal is Slieve Donard, rising finely
direct from the sea to a height of 2796 ft., which is exceeded in
Ireland only by one peak in the Wicklow range, and by the higher reeks
in Killarney. Several other summits exceed 2000 ft.

Holy wells and mineral springs are numerous in Co. Down. These are both
chalybeate and sulphurous, and occur at Ardmillan, Granshaw, Dundonnell,
Magheralin, Dromore, Newry, Banbridge and Tierkelly. Those of Struell
near Downpatrick were accredited with miraculous powers by the natives
until recent times, and religious observances of an extravagant nature
took place there.

  _Geology._--The foundation of this county is Silurian rock throughout,
  the slates and sandstones striking as a whole north-east, but giving
  rise to a country of abundant small hills. The granite that appears
  along the same axis in Armagh continues from Newry to Slieve Croob,
  furnishing an excellent building stone. South of it, the Eocene
  granite of the Mournes forms a group of rocky summits, set with scarps
  and tors, and divided by noble valleys, which are not yet choked by
  the detritus of these comparatively youthful mountains. Basalt dykes
  abound, being well seen along the coast south of Newcastle. At the
  head of Strangford Lough, the basalt, possibly as intrusive sheets,
  has protected Triassic sandstone, which is quarried at Scrabo Hill. A
  strip of marine Permian occurs on the shore at Holywood. The
  north-west of the county includes, at Moira, a part of the great
  basaltic plateaux, with Chalk and Trias protected by them. The
  haematite of dehomet near Banbridge is well spoken of. Topaz and
  aquamarine occur in hollows in the granite of the Mournes. The Mourne
  granite is quarried above Annalong, and an ornamental dolerite is
  worked at Rosstrevor.

_Industries._--The predominating soil is a loam of little depth, in most
places intermixed with considerable quantities of stones of various
sizes, but differing materially in character according to the nature of
the subsoil. Clay is mostly confined to the eastern coast, and to the
northern parts of Castlereagh. Of sandy soil the quantity is small; it
occurs chiefly near Dundrum. Moor grounds are mostly confined to the
skirts of the mountains. Bogs, though frequent, are scarcely sufficient
to furnish a supply of fuel to the population. Agriculture is in a
fairly satisfactory condition. The bulk of the labouring population is
orderly and industrious, and dwell in circumstances contrasting well
with those of others of their class in some other parts of Ireland.
Tillage land declines somewhat in favour of pasture land. Oats, potatoes
and turnips are the principal crops; flax, formerly important, is almost
neglected. The breed of horses is an object of much attention, and some
of the best racers in Ireland have been bred in this county. The native
breed of sheep, a small hardy race, is confined to the mountains. The
various other kinds of sheep have been much improved by judicious
crosses from the best breeds. Pigs are reared in great numbers, chiefly
for the Belfast market, where the large exportation occasions a constant
demand for them. Poultry farming is a growing industry. The fisheries,
of less value than formerly, are centred at Donaghadee, Newcastle,
Strangford and Ardglass, the headquarters of the herring fishery. The
chief industries in the county generally are linen manufacture and
bleaching, and brewing.

_Communications._--The Great Northern railway has an alternative branch
route to its main line by Portadown, from Lisburn through Banbridge to
Scarva, with a branch from Banbridge to Ballyroney and Newcastle. Newry
is on a branch from the Dublin-Belfast line to Warrenpoint on
Carlingford Lough. The main line between Lisburn and Portadown touches
the north-western extremity of the county. The eastern part of the
county is served by the Belfast & County Down railway with its main line
from Belfast to Newcastle to Dundrum Bay, and branches from Belfast to
Bangor, Comber to Newtownards and Donaghadee, Ballynahinch Junction to
Ballynahinch, and Downpatrick to Ardglass and Killough. The Newry Canal
skirts the west of the county, and the Lagan Canal intersects the rich
lands in the Lagan valley to the north.

_Population and Administration._--The population (219,405 in 1891;
205,889 in 1901) decreases slightly. The population in 1891 on the area
of the county before the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 was
224,008, for in this case the figures for part of the county borough of
Belfast were included. This is worth notice from the comparative point
of view, since, whereas emigration to foreign ports is considerable, a
large portion of the moving population travels no farther than the
metropolis of Belfast. About 39% of the population is of the
Presbyterian faith, about 31% Roman Catholic, among whom, as usual,
education is in the most backward condition; about 23% are Protestant
Episcopalians.

The following are the principal towns:--Newry (pop. 12,405), Newtownards
(9110), Banbridge (5006), Downpatrick (2993; the county town), Holywood
(3840), Gilford (1199), Bangor (5903), Dromore (2307), Donaghadee
(2073), Comber (2095) and Warrenpoint (1817). Other small towns are
Portaferry, Rathfryland, Killyleagh, Kilkeel, Ballynahinch, Dundrum, a
small port, and Hillsborough, near Dromore, where the castle is the seat
of the marquesses of Downshire. There are several popular
watering-places on the coast, notably Newcastle, Donaghadee, Ardglass
and Rosstrevor. On the shore of Belfast Lough are many pleasant
residential villages and seats of the wealthy class in Belfast. The
county is divided into fourteen baronies, and contains sixty-four
parishes. The assizes are held at Downpatrick, and quarter-sessions at
the same town and at Banbridge, Newry and Newtownards. The county is in
the Protestant diocese of Down, and the Roman Catholic dioceses of Down
and Dromore. Down returns four members to parliament--for the north,
south, east and west divisions. The borough of Newry returns a member.
Previous to the act of Union the county returned fourteen members to the
Irish parliament.

_History and Antiquities._--The period at which Down was constituted a
county is not certain. A district, however, appears to have borne this
name before the beginning of the 14th century, but little is known of it
even later than this. However, when in 1535 Sir John Perrot undertook
the shiring of Ulster, Down and Antrim were excepted as already settled
counties. That some such settlement would have been attempted at an
early period is likely, as this coast was a place of Anglo-Norman
colonization, and to this movement was due the settlement of the
baronies of Lecale, the Ards and others.

The county is not wanting in interesting remains. At Slidderyford, near
Dundrum, there is a group of ten or twelve pillar stones in a circle,
about 10 ft. in height. A very curious cairn on the summit of Slieve
Croob is 80 yds. in circumference at the base and 50 at the top, where
is a platform on which cairns of various heights are found standing. The
village of Anadorn is famed for a cairn covering a cave which contains
ashes and human bones. Cromlechs, or altars, are numerous, the most
remarkable being the Giant's Ring, which stands on the summit of a hill
near the borders of Antrim. This altar is formed of an unwrought stone 7
ft. long by 6½ broad, resting in an inclined position on rude pillars
about 3 ft. high. This solitary landmark is in the centre of an
enclosure about a third of a mile in circumference, formed of a rampart
about 20 ft. high, and broad enough on the top to permit two persons to
ride abreast. Near Downpatrick is a rath, or encampment, three-quarters
of a mile in circumference. In its vicinity are the ruins of Saul Abbey,
said to have been founded by St Patrick, and Inch Abbey, founded by Sir
John de Courcy in 1180. The number of monastic ruins is also
considerable. The most ancient and celebrated is the abbey or cathedral
of Downpatrick. Dundrum Castle, attributed to the de Courcy family,
stands finely above that town, and affords an unusual example (for
Ireland) of a donjon keep. The castle of Hillsborough is of Carolean
date. There are three round towers in the county, but all are
fragmentary.



DOWN, a smooth rounded hill, or more particularly an expanse of high
rolling ground bare of trees. The word comes from the Old English
_dún_, hill. This is usually taken to be a Celtic word. The Gaelic and
Irish _dun_ and Welsh _din_ are specifically used of a hill-fortress,
and thus frequently appear in place-names, e.g. Dumbarton, Dunkeld, and
in the Latinized termination--_dunum_, e.g. Lugdunum, Lyons. The Old
Dutch _duna_, which is the same word, was applied to the drifted
sandhills which are a prevailing feature of the south-eastern coast of
the North Sea (Denmark and the Low Countries), and the derivatives, Ger.
_Düne_, modern Dutch _duin_, Fr. _dune_, have this particular meaning.
The English "dune" is directly taken from the French. The low sandy
tracts north and south of Yarmouth, Norfolk, are known as the "Dunes,"
which may be a corruption of the Dutch or French words. From "down,"
hill, comes the adverb "down," from above, in the earlier form "adown,"
i.e. off the hill. The word for the soft under plumage of birds is
entirely different, and comes from the Old Norwegian _dun_, cf.
_ædar-dun_, eider-down. For the system of chalk hills in England known
as "The Downs" see DOWNS.



DOWNES [D(O)UNAEUS], ANDREW (c. 1549-1628), English classical scholar,
was born in the county of Shropshire. He was educated at Shrewsbury and
St John's College, Cambridge, where he did much to revive the study of
Greek, at that time at a very low ebb. In 1571 he was elected fellow of
his college, and, in 1585, he was appointed to the regius professorship
of Greek, which he held for nearly forty years. He died at Coton, near
Cambridge, on the 2nd of February 1627/1628. According to Simonds d'Ewes
(_Autobiography_, ed. J. O. Halliwell, i. pp. 139, 141), who attended
his lectures on Demosthenes and gives a slight sketch of his
personality, Downes was accounted "the ablest Grecian of Christendom."
He published little, but seems to have devoted his chief attention to
the Greek orators. He edited Lysias _Pro caede Eratosthenis_ (1593);
_Praelectiones in Philippicam de pace Demosthenis_ (1621), dedicated to
King James I.; some letters (written in Greek) to Isaac Casaubon,
printed in the _Epistolae_ of the latter; and notes to St Chrysostom, in
Sir Henry Savile's edition. Downes was also one of the seven translators
of the _Apocrypha_ for the "authorized" version of the Bible, and one of
the six learned men appointed to revise the new version after its
completion.



DOWNING, SIR GEORGE, Bart. (c. 1624-1684), English soldier and
diplomatist, son of Emmanuel Downing, barrister, and of Lucy, sister of
Governor John Winthrop, was born in England about 1624.[1] His family
joined Winthrop in America in 1638, settling in Salem, Massachusetts,
and Downing studied at Harvard College. In 1645 he sailed for the West
Indies as a preacher and instructor of the seamen, and arrived in
England some time afterwards, becoming chaplain to Colonel John Okey's
regiment. Subsequently he seems to have abandoned his religious vocation
for a military career, and in 1650 he was scout-master-general of
Cromwell's forces in Scotland, and as such received in 1657 a salary of
£365 and £500 as a teller of the exchequer. His marriage in 1654 with
Frances, daughter of Sir William Howard of Naworth, and sister of the
1st earl of Carlisle, aided his advancement. In Cromwell's parliament of
1654 he represented Edinburgh, and Carlisle in those of 1656 and 1659.
He was one of the first to urge Cromwell to take the royal title and
restore the old constitution. In 1655 he was sent to France to
remonstrate on the massacre of the Protestant Vaudois. Later in 1657 he
was appointed resident at The Hague, to effect a union of the Protestant
European powers, to mediate between Portugal and Holland and between
Sweden and Denmark, to defend the interests of the English traders
against the Dutch, and to inform the government concerning the movements
of the exiled royalists.

He showed himself in these negotiations an able diplomatist. He was
maintained in his post during the interregnum subsequent to the fall of
Richard Cromwell, and was thus enabled in April 1660 to make his peace
with Charles II., to whom he communicated Thurloe's despatches, and
declared his abandonment of "principles sucked in" in New England, of
which he now "saw the error." At the Restoration, therefore, Downing was
knighted (May 1660), was continued in his embassy in Holland, was
confirmed in his tellership of the exchequer, and was further rewarded
with a valuable piece of land adjoining St James's Park for building
purposes, now known as Downing Street.[2] Considering his past, he
showed a very indecent zeal in arresting in Holland and handing over for
execution the regicides Barkstead, Corbet and Okey. Pepys, who
characterized his conduct as odious though useful to the king, calls him
a "perfidious rogue," and remarks that "all the world took notice of him
for a most ungrateful villain for his pains."[3] On the 1st of July 1663
he was created a baronet. Downing had from the first been hostile to the
Dutch as the commercial rivals of England. He had strongly supported the
Navigation Act of 1660, and he now deliberately drew on the fatal and
disastrous war. During its continuance he took part at home in the
management of the treasury, introduced the appropriation of supplies,
opposed strongly by Clarendon as an encroachment on the prerogative, and
in May 1667 was made secretary to the commissioners, his appointment
being much welcomed by Pepys.[4] He had been returned for Morpeth in the
convention parliament of April 1660, a constituency which he represented
in every ensuing parliament till his death, and he spoke with ability on
financial and commercial questions. He was appointed a commissioner of
the customs in 1671. The same year he was again sent to Holland to
replace Sir William Temple, to break up the policy of the Triple
alliance and incite another war between Holland and England in
furtherance of the French policy. His unpopularity there was extreme,
and after three months' residence Downing fled to England, in fear of
the fury of the mob. For this unauthorized step he was sent to the Tower
on the 7th of February 1672, but released some few weeks afterwards. He
defended the Declaration of Indulgence the same year, and made himself
useful in supporting the court policy. He died in July 1684. Downing
Street, London, is named after him, while Downing College, Cambridge,
derived its name from his grandson, the 3rd baronet. The title became
extinct when the 4th baronet, Sir Jacob G. Downing, died in 1764.

Downing was undoubtedly a man of great political and diplomatic ability,
but his talents were rarely employed for the advantage of his country
and his character was marked by all the mean vices, treachery, avarice,
servility and ingratitude. "A George Downing" became a proverbial
expression in New England to denote a false man who betrayed his
trust.[5] He published a large number of declarations and discourses,
mostly in Dutch, enumerated in Sibley's biography, and wrote also "A
True Relation of the Progress of the Parliament's Forces in Scotland"
(1651), _Thomason Tracts_, Brit. Mus., E 640 (5).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The date of his birth is variously given as 1623, 1624 and 1625
    (Sibley's _Harvard Graduates_, 1883).

  [2] _Cal. of St Pap._; _Dom._ (1661-1662) p. 408; _Notes and
    Queries_, ix. ser. vii. 92.

  [3] _Diary_, March 12, 17, 1662.

  [4] Ib. May 27, 1667.

  [5] Sibley, i. 46.



DOWNMAN, JOHN (1750-1824), English portrait painter, was the son of
Francis Downman, attorney, of St Neots, by Charlotte Goodsend, eldest
daughter of the private secretary to George I.; his grandfather, Hugh
Downman (1672-1729), having been the master of the House of Ordnance at
Sheerness. He is believed to have been born near Ruabon, educated first
at Chester, then at Liverpool, and finally at the Royal Academy schools,
and he was for a while in the studio of Benjamin West. His exquisite
pencil portrait drawings, slightly tinted in colour, usually from the
reverse, are well known, and many of them are of remarkable beauty.
Several volumes of sketches for these drawings are still in existence.
Downman is believed to have been "pressed" for the navy as a young man,
and on his escape settled down for a while in Cambridge, eventually
coming to London, and later (1804) going to reside in Kent in the
village of West Malling. He afterwards spent some part of his life in
the west of England, especially in Exeter, and then travelled all over
the country painting his dainty portraits. In 1818 he settled down at
Chester, finally removing to Wrexham, where his only daughter married
and where he died and was buried. He was an associate of the Royal
Academy. The Downman family is usually known as a Devonshire one, but
the exact connexion between the artist and the Devonshire branch has
not been traced. Many of his portraits have attached to them remarks of
considerable importance respecting the persons represented.

  See _John Downman, his Life and Works_, by G. C. Williamson (London,
  1907).     (G. C. W.)



DOWNPATRICK, a market town and the county town of Co. Down, Ireland, in
the east parliamentary division, 28 m. S.S.E. of Belfast by the Belfast
& County Down railway. Pop. (1901) 2993. It stands picturesquely on a
sloping site near the south-west extremity of Strangford Lough. It is
the seat of the Protestant and Roman Catholic dioceses of Down. St
Patrick founded the see about 440, but the present Protestant cathedral
dates from 1790, the old structure, after suffering many vicissitudes,
having been in ruins for 250 years. The cathedral is said to contain the
remains of its founder, together with those of St Columba and St
Bridget. A round tower adjoining it was destroyed in 1790. A small trade
is carried on at Strangford Lough by means of vessels up to 100 tons,
which discharge at Quoile quay, about 1 m. from the town; but vessels of
larger tonnage can discharge at a steamboat quay lower down the Quoile.
The imports are principally iron, coal, salt and timber; the exports
barley, oats, cattle, pigs and potatoes. Linen manufacture is also
carried on, and brewing, tanning and soap-making give considerable
employment. The Down corporation race-meeting is important and attracts
visitors from far outside the county. The rath or dun from which the
town is named remains as one of the finest in Ireland. It was called
Rath-Keltair, or the rath of the hero Keltar, and covers an area of 10
acres. In the vicinity of the town are remnants of the monastery of
Saul, a foundation ascribed to St Patrick, and of Inch Abbey (1180),
founded by Sir John de Courcy. Three miles south is a fine stone circle,
and to the south-east are the wells of Struell, famous as miraculous
healers among the peasantry until modern times. The town is of extreme
antiquity. It was called _Dun-leth-glas_, the fort of the broken
fetters, from the miraculous deliverance from bondage of two sons of
Dichu, prince of Lecale, and the first convert of St Patrick. It is the
_Dunum_ of Ptolemy, and was a residence of the kings of Ulster. It was
already incorporated early in the 15th century. It returned two members
to the Irish parliament until the Union in 1800, and thereafter one to
the Imperial parliament until 1832.



DOWNS, the name of a system of chalk hills in the south-east of England.
For the etymology of the word and its meaning see DOWN. It is most
familiar in its application to the two ranges of the North and South
Downs. Of these the North Downs are confined chiefly to the counties of
Surrey and Kent, and the South to Sussex. Each forms a well-defined long
range springing from the chalk area of Dorsetshire and Hampshire, to
which, though broken up into a great number of short ranges and groups
of hills, the general name of the Western Downs is given. The Downs
enclose the rich district of the Weald (q.v.).

The North Downs, extending from a point near Farnham to the English
Channel between Dover and Folkestone, have a length along the crest
line, measured directly, of 95 m. The crest, however, is not continuous,
as the hills are breached by a succession of valleys, forming gaps
through which high-roads and railways converge upon London. The rivers
flowing through these gaps run northward, and, except in the extreme
east, are members of the Thames basin. These breaching valleys, which
are characteristic of the South Downs also, "carry us back to a time
when the greensand and chalk were continued across, or almost across,
the Weald in a great dome." The rivers "then ran down the slopes of the
dome, and as the chalk and greensand gradually weathered back ...
deepened and deepened their valleys, and thus were enabled to keep their
original course."[1] The western termination of the North Downs is the
Hog's Back, a narrow ridge, little more than a quarter of a mile broad
at the summit, sloping sharply north and south, and reaching 489 ft. in
height. At the west end a depression occurs where the rivers Wey and
Blackwater closely approach each other; and it is thought that the Wey
has beheaded the Blackwater, which formerly flowed through the gap. In
this depression lies Farnham, the first of a series of towns which have
grown up at these natural gateways through the hills. The Wey, flowing
south of the Hog's Back, breaches the Downs at its eastern extremity,
the town of Guildford standing at this point. The next gap is that of
the Mole, in which Dorking lies. Between Guildford and Dorking the main
line of the Downs reaches a height of 712 ft., but a lateral depression,
followed by the railway between these towns, marks off on the south a
loftier range of lower greensand, in which Leith Hill, famous as a
view-point, is 965 ft. in height. East of the Mole the northward slope
of the Downs is deeply cut by narrow valleys, and the depression above
Redhill may have been traversed by a stream subsequently beheaded by the
Mole. A height of 868 ft. is attained east of Caterham. The next river
to break through the main line is the Darent, but here another lateral
depression, watered by the headstreams of that river, marks off the
Ragstone Ridge, south of Sevenoaks, reaching 800 ft. The lateral
depression is continued along the valleys of streams tributary to the
Medway, so that nearly as far as Ashford the Downs consist of two
parallel ranges; but the Medway itself breaches both, Maidstone lying in
the gap. The elevation now begins to decrease, and 682 ft. is the
extreme height east of the Medway. The direction, hitherto E. by N.,
trends E.S.E. The final complete breach is made by the Great Stour,
between Ashford and Canterbury, east of which a height of 600 ft. is
rarely reached. The valley of the Little Stour, however, offers a
well-marked pass followed by the Folkestone-Canterbury railway, and the
North Downs finally fall to the sea in the grand white cliffs between
Dover and Folkestone.

The South Downs present similar characteristics on a minor scale.
Springing from the main mass of the chalk to the south of Petersfield
they have their greatest elevation (889 ft. in Butser Hill) at that
point, and extend E. by S. for 65 m. to the English Channel at the
cliffs of Beachy Head. As in the case of the North Downs a succession of
rivers breach the hills, and a succession of towns mark the gaps. These
are, from east to west, the Arun, with the town of Arundel, the Adur,
with Shoreham, the Ouse, with Lewes and Newhaven, and the Cuckmere, with
no considerable town. The steep slope of the South Downs is northward
towards the Weald. The southern slopes reach the coast east of Brighton,
but west of this town a flat coastal belt intervenes, widening westward.
Apart from the complete breaches mentioned, the South Downs, scored on
the south with many deep vales, are generally more easily penetrable
than the North Downs, and the coast is less continuous.

Smooth convex curves are characteristic of the Downs; their graceful and
striking outline gives them an importance in the landscape in excess of
their actual height; their flanks are well wooded, their summits covered
with close springy turf.

"THE DOWNS" is also the name of a roadstead in the English Channel off
Deal between the North and the South Foreland. It forms a favourite
anchorage during heavy weather, protected on the east by the Goodwin
Sands and on the north and west by the coast. It has depths down to 12
fathoms. Even during southerly gales some shelter is afforded, though
under this condition wrecks are not infrequent.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Avebury, _The Scenery of England_, ch. xi.



DOWNSHIRE, WILLS HILL, 1ST MARQUESS OF (1718-1793), son of Trevor Hill,
1st Viscount Hillsborough, was born at Fairford in Gloucestershire on
the 30th of May 1718. He became an English member of parliament in 1741,
and an Irish viscount on his father's death in the following year, thus
sitting in both the English and Irish parliaments. In 1751 he was
created earl of Hillsborough in the Irish peerage; in 1754 he was made
comptroller of the royal household and an English privy councillor; and
in 1756 he became a peer of Great Britain as baron of Harwich. For
nearly two years he was president of the board of trade and plantations
under George Grenville, and after a brief period of retirement he filled
the same position, and then that of joint postmaster-general, under the
earl of Chatham. From 1768 to 1772 Hillsborough was secretary of state
for the colonies and also president of the board of trade, becoming an
English earl on his retirement; in 1779 he was made secretary of state
for the northern department, and he was created marquess of Downshire
seven years after his final retirement in 1782. Both in and out of
office he opposed all concessions to the American colonists, but he
favoured the project for a union between England and Ireland. Reversing
an earlier opinion Horace Walpole says Downshire was "a pompous
composition of ignorance and want of judgment." He died on the 7th of
October 1793 and was succeeded by his son Arthur (1753-1801), from whom
the present marquess is descended.



DOWRY (in Anglo-Fr. _dowarie_, O. Fr. _douaire_, Med. Lat. _dotaria_,
from Lat. _dos_, from root of _dare_, to give; in Fr. _dot_), the
property which a woman brings with her at her marriage, a wife's
marriage portion (see SETTLEMENT).



DOWSER and DOWSING (from the Cornish "dowse," M.E. _duschen_, to strike
or fall), one who uses, or the art of using, the dowsing-rod (called
"deusing-rod" by John Locke in 1691), or "striking-rod" or divining-rod,
for discovering subterranean minerals or water. (See DIVINING-ROD.)



DOXOLOGY (Gr. [Greek: doxologia], a praising, giving glory), an
ascription of praise to the Deity. The early Christians continued the
Jewish practice of making such an ascription at the close of public
prayer (Origen, [Greek: Peri euchês], 33) and introduced it after the
sermon also. The name is often applied to the Trisagion (tersanctus), or
"Holy, Holy, Holy," the scriptural basis of which is found in Isaiah vi.
3, and which has had a place in the worship of the Christian church
since the 2nd century; to the Hallelujah of several of the Psalms and of
Rev. xix.; to such passages of glorification as Rom. ix. 5, xvi. 27,
Eph. iii. 21; and to the last clause of the Lord's Prayer as found in
Matt. vi. 13 (A.V.), which critics are generally agreed in regarding as
an interpolation, and which, while used in the Greek and the Protestant
churches, is omitted in the Roman rite. It is used, however, more
definitely as the designation of two hymns distinguished by liturgical
writers as the Greater and Lesser Doxologies.

The origin and history of these it is impossible to trace fully. The
germ of both is to be found in the Gospels; the first words of the
Greater Doxology, or _Gloria in Excelsis_, being taken from Luke ii. 14,
and the form of the Lesser Doxology, or _Gloria Patri_, having been in
all probability first suggested by Matt. xxviii. 19. The Greater
Doxology, in a form approximating to that of the English prayer-book, is
given in the _Apostolical Constitutions_ (vii. 47). At this time (c.
375) it ran thus: "Glory to God on high, and on earth peace to men of
(his) goodwill. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we
glorify thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory. O Lord God,
heavenly king, God the Father Almighty; O Lord, the only begotten Son,
Jesus Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest
away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us; Thou that takest away
the sins of the world, receive our prayer; Thou that sittest at the
right hand of the Father, have mercy upon us; For Thou alone art holy.
Thou only, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory
of God the Father. Amen." This is the earliest record of it, but it is
also found in the Alexandrine Codex. Alcuin attributes the authorship of
the Latin form--the _Gloria in Excelsis_--to St Hilary of Poitiers (died
367). The quotations from the hymn in the pseudo-Athanasian _De
Virginitate_, and in Chrysostom (_Hom. 69 in Matth._), include only the
opening words (those from St Luke's gospel), though the passage in
Athanasius shows by an _et caetera_ that only the beginning of the hymn
is given. These references indicate that the hymn was used in private
devotions; as it does not appear in any of the earliest liturgies,
whether Eastern or Western, its introduction into the public services of
the church was probably of a later date than has often been supposed.
Its first introduction into the Roman liturgy is due to Pope Symmachus
(498-514), who ordered it to be sung on Sundays and festival days. There
was much opposition to the expansion, but it was suppressed by the
fourth council of Toledo in 633. Until the end of the 11th century its
use was confined to bishops, and to priests at Easter and on their
installation. The Mozarabic liturgy provides for its eucharistic use on
Sundays and festivals. In these and other early liturgies the Greater
Doxology occurs immediately after the beginning of the service; in the
English prayer-book it introduced at the close of the communion office,
but it does not occur in either the morning or evening service. This
doxology is also used in the Protestant Episcopal and Methodist
Episcopal churches of America, as indeed in most Protestant churches at
the eucharist.

The Lesser Doxology, or _Gloria Patri_, combines the character of a
creed with that of a hymn. In its earliest form it ran simply--"Glory be
to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, world without end,
Amen," or "Glory be to the Father, in (or through) the Son, and in (or
through) the Holy Ghost." Until the rise of the Arian heresy these forms
were probably regarded as indifferent, both being equally capable of an
orthodox interpretation. When the Arians, however, finding the second
form more consistent with their views, adopted it persistently and
exclusively, its use was naturally discountenanced by the Catholics, and
the other form became the symbol of orthodoxy. To the influence of the
Arian heresy is also due the Catholic addition--"as it was in the
beginning, is now, and ever shall be," the use of which was, according
to some authorities, expressly enjoined by the council of Nicaea. There
is no sufficient evidence of this, but there exists a decree of the
second council of Vaison (529), asserting its use as already established
in the East _propter haereticorum astutiam_, and ordering its adoption
throughout the churches of the West. In the Western Church the _Gloria
Patri_ is repeated at the close of every psalm, in the Eastern Church at
the close of the last psalm. This last is the optional rule of the
American Episcopal Church.

Metrical doxologies are often sung at the end of hymns, and the term has
become especially associated with the stanza beginning "Praise God from
whom all blessings flow," with which Thomas Ken, bishop of Winchester,
concluded his morning and evening hymns.

  See J. Bingham, _Biog. eccles._ xiv. 2; Siegel, _Christl.
  Alterthümer_, i. 515, &c.; F. Procter, _Book of Common Prayer_, p.
  212; W. Palmer, _Orig. Liturg._ iv. § 23; art. "Liturgische Formeln"
  (by Drews) in Hauck-Herzog, _Realencyk. für prot. Theol._ xi. 547.



DOYEN, GABRIEL FRANÇOIS (1726-1806), French painter, was born at Paris
in 1726. His passion for art prevailed over his father's wish, and he
became in his twelfth year a pupil of Vanloo. Making rapid progress, he
obtained at twenty the Grand Prix, and in 1748 set out for Rome. He
studied the works of Annibale Caracci, Cortona, Giulio Romano and
Michelangelo, then visited Naples, Venice, Bologna and other Italian
cities, and in 1755 returned to Paris. At first unappreciated and
disparaged, he resolved by one grand effort to conquer a reputation, and
in 1758 he exhibited his "Death of Virginia." It was completely
successful, and procured him admission to the Academy. Among his
greatest works are reckoned the "Miracle des Ardents," painted for the
church of St Geneviève at St Roch (1773); the "Triumph of Thetis," for
the chapel of the Invalides; and the "Death of St Louis," for the chapel
of the Military School. In 1776 he was appointed professor at the
Academy of Painting. Soon after the beginning of the Revolution he
accepted the invitation of Catherine II. and settled at St Petersburg,
where he was loaded with honours and rewards. He died there on the 5th
of June 1806.



DOYLE, SIR ARTHUR CONAN (1859-   ), English novelist, eldest son of the
artist Charles Doyle, was born on the 22nd of May 1859. He was sent to
Stonyhurst College, and further pursued his education in Germany, and at
Edinburgh University where he graduated M.B. in 1881 and M.D. in 1885.
He had begun to practise as a doctor in Southsea when he published _A
Study in Scarlet_ in 1887. _Micah Clarke_ (1888), a tale of Monmouth's
rebellion, _The Sign of Four_ (1889), and _The White Company_ (1891), a
romance of Du Guesclin's time, followed. In _Rodney Stone_ (1896) he
drew an admirable sketch of the prince regent; and he collected a
popular series of stories of the Napoleonic wars in _The Exploits of
Brigadier Gerard_ (1896). In 1891 he attained immense popularity by _The
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes_, which first appeared in _The Strand
Magazine_. These ingenious stories of the success of the imperturbable
Sherlock Holmes, who had made his first appearance in _A Study in
Scarlet_ (1887), in detecting crime and disentangling mystery, found a
host of imitators. The novelist himself returned to his hero in _The
Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes_ (1893), _The Hound of the Baskervilles_
(1902), and _The Return of Sherlock Holmes_ (1905). His later books
include numerous novels; plays, _The Story of Waterloo_ (1894), in which
Sir Henry Irving played the leading part, _The Fires of Fate_ (1909),
and _The House of Temperley_ (1909); and two books in defence of the
British army in South Africa--_The Great Boer War_ (1900) and _The War
in South Africa; its Causes and Conduct_ (1902). Dr Conan Doyle served
as registrar of the Langman Field Hospital in South Africa, and was
knighted in 1902.



DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS CHARLES, Bart. (1810-1888), English man of
letters, was born at Nunappleton, Yorkshire, on the 21st of August 1810.
He was the son of Major-General Sir Francis Hastings Doyle, 1st baronet
(1783-1839), and was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford,
where he took a first-class in classics in 1831. He read for the bar and
was called in 1837. He had been elected to a fellowship of All Souls' in
1835, and his interests were chiefly literary. Among his intimate
friends was Mr Gladstone, at whose marriage he assisted as "best man";
but in later life their political opinions widely differed. In 1834 he
published _Miscellaneous Verses_, reissued with additions in 1840. This
was followed by _Two Destinies_ (1844), _The Duke's Funeral_ (1852),
_Return of the Guards and other Poems_ (1866); and from 1867 to 1877 he
was professor of poetry at Oxford. In 1869 some of the lectures he
delivered were published in book form. One of the most interesting was
his appreciation of William Barnes, and the essay on Newman's _Dream of
Gerontius_ was translated into French. In 1886 he published his
_Reminiscences_, full of records of the interesting people he had known.
Sir Francis Doyle succeeded his father (chairman of the board of excise)
as 2nd baronet in 1839, and in 1844 married Sidney, daughter of Charles
Watkin Williams Wynn (1775-1850). From 1845 he held various important
offices in the customs. He died on the 8th of June 1888. Doyle's poetry
is memorable for certain isolated and spirited pieces in praise of
British fortitude. The best-known are his ballads on the "Birkenhead"
disaster and on "The Private of the Buffs."



DOYLE, JOHN ANDREW (1844-1907), English historian, the son of Andrew
Doyle, editor of _The Morning Chronicle_, was born on the 14th of May
1844. He was educated at Eton and at Balliol College, Oxford, winning
the Arnold prize in 1868 for his essay, _The American Colonies_. He was
a fellow of All Souls' from 1870 until his death, which occurred at
Crickhowell, South Wales, on the 4th of August 1907. His principal work
is _The English Colonies in America_, in five volumes, as follows:
_Virginia, Maryland and the Carolinas_ (1 vol., 1882), _The Puritan
Colonies_ (2 vols., 1886), _The Middle Colonies_ (1 vol., 1907), and
_The Colonies under the House of Hanover_ (1 vol., 1907), the whole work
dealing with the history of the colonies from 1607 to 1759. Doyle also
wrote chapters i., ii., v. and vii. of vol. vii. of the _Cambridge
Modern History_, and edited William Bradford's _History of the Plimouth
Plantation_ (1896) and the _Correspondence of Susan Ferrier_ (1898).



DOYLE, RICHARD (1824-1883), English artist, son of John Doyle, the
caricaturist known as "H. B." (1797-1868), was born in London in 1824.
His father's "Political Sketches" took the town by storm in the days of
Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne. The son was an extremely precocious
artist, and in his "Home for the Holidays," done when he was twelve, and
in his "Comic English Histories," drawn four years later, he showed
extraordinary gifts of humour and fancy. He had no art training outside
his father's studio. In 1843 he joined the staff of _Punch_, drawing
cartoons and a vast number of illustrations, but he retired in 1850, in
consequence of the attitude adopted by that paper towards what was known
as "the papal aggression," and especially towards the pope himself. In
1854 he published his "Continental Tour of Brown, Jones and Robinson."
His illustrations to three of the _Christmas Books_ of Charles Dickens,
and to _The Newcomes_ by Thackeray, are reckoned among his principal
achievements; and his fanciful pictures of elves and fairies have always
been general favourites. He died on the 11th of December 1883. His most
popular drawing is his cover of _Punch_.



DOZSA, GYÖRGY (d. 1514), Hungarian revolutionist, was a Szekler squire
and soldier of fortune, who won such a reputation for valour in the
Turkish wars that the Hungarian chancellor, Tamás Bákocz, on his return
from Rome in 1514 with a papal bull preaching a holy war in Hungary
against the Moslems, appointed him to organize and direct the movement.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called _Kuruczok_ (a
corruption of _Cruciati_), consisting for the most part of small yeomen,
peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest
and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade
against the Turk could have the slightest attraction. They assembled in
their counties, and by the time Dozsa had drilled them into some sort of
discipline and self-confidence, they began to air the grievances of
their class. No measures had been taken to supply these voluntary
crusaders with food or clothing; as harvest-time approached, the
landlords commanded them to return to reap the fields, and on their
refusing to do so, proceeded to maltreat their wives and families and
set their armed retainers upon the half-starved multitudes. Instantly
the movement was diverted from its original object, and the peasants and
their leaders began a war of extermination against the landlords. By
this time Dozsa was losing control of the rabble, which had fallen under
the influence of the socialist parson of Czegled, Lörincz Mészáros. The
rebellion was the more dangerous as the town rabble was on the side of
the peasants, and in Buda and other places the cavalry sent against the
_Kuruczok_ were unhorsed as they passed through the gates. The rebellion
spread like lightning, principally in the central or purely Magyar
provinces, where hundreds of manor-houses and castles were burnt and
thousands of the gentry done to death by impalement, crucifixion and
other unspeakable methods. Dozsa's camp at Czegled was the centre of the
_jacquerie_, and from thence he sent out his bands in every direction,
pillaging and burning. In vain the papal bull was revoked, in vain the
king issued a proclamation commanding the peasantry to return to their
homes under pain of death. By this time the rising had attained the
dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were
called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice,
Bohemia and the emperor. Meanwhile Dozsa had captured the city and
fortress of Csánad, and signalized his victory by impaling the bishop
and the castellan. Subsequently, at Arad, the lord treasurer, István
Telegdy, was seized and tortured to death with satanic ingenuity. It
should, however, in fairness be added that only notorious bloodsuckers,
or obstinately resisting noblemen, were destroyed in this way. Those who
freely submitted were always released on parole, and Dozsa not only
never broke his given word, but frequently assisted the escape of
fugitives. But he could not always control his followers when their
blood was up, and infinite damage was done before he could stop it. At
first, too, it seemed as if the government were incapable of coping with
him. In the course of the summer he took the fortresses of Arad, Lippá
and Világos; provided himself with guns and trained gunners; and one of
his bands advanced to within five leagues of the capital. But his
half-naked, ill-armed ploughboys were at last overmatched by the
mailclad chivalry of the nobles. Dozsa, too, had become demoralized by
success. After Csánad, he issued proclamations which can only be
described as nihilistic. His suppression had become a political
necessity. He was finally routed at Temesvár by the combined forces of
János Zápolya and István Báthory, was captured, and condemned to sit on
a red-hot iron throne, with a red-hot iron crown on his head and a
red-hot sceptre in his hand. This infernal sentence was actually carried
out, and, life still lingering, the half-roasted carcass of the unhappy
wretch, who endured everything with invincible heroism, was finally
devoured by half-a-dozen of his fellow-rebels, who by way of preparation
had been starved for a whole week beforehand.

  See Sándor Marki, _Dozsa György_ (Hung.), Budapest, 1884. (R. N. B.)



DOZY, REINHART PIETER ANNE (1820-1883), Dutch Arabic scholar of French
(Huguenot) origin, was born at Leiden in February 1820. The Dozys, like so
many other contemporary French families, emigrated to the Low Countries
after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, but some of the former appear
to have settled in Holland as early as 1647. Dozy studied at the
university of Leiden, obtained the degree of doctor in 1844, was appointed
an extraordinary professor of history in 1850, and professor in 1857. The
first results of his extensive studies in Oriental literature, Arabic
language and history, manifested themselves in 1847, when he published
Al-Marrakushi's _History of the Almohades_ (Leiden, 2nd ed., 1881), which,
together with his _Scriptorum Arabum loci de Abbaditis_ (Leiden,
1846-1863, 3 vols.), his editions of Ibn-Adhari's _History of Africa and
Spain_ (Leiden, 1848-1852, 3 vols.), of Ibn-Badrun's _Historical
Commentary on the Poem of Ibn-Abdun_ (Leiden, 1848), and his _Dictionnaire
détaillé des noms des vêtements chez les Arabes_ (Amsterdam, 1845)--a work
crowned by the Dutch Institute--stamped Dozy as one of the most learned
and critical Arabic scholars of his day. But his real fame as a historian
mainly rests on his great work, _Histoire des Mussulmans d'Espagne,
jusqu'à la conquête de l'Andalousie par les Almoravides, 711-1110_
(Leiden, 1861; 2nd ed., ibid., 1881); a graphically written account of
Moorish dominion in Spain, which shed new light on many obscure points,
and has remained the standard work on the subject. Dozy's _Recherches sur
l'histoire et la littérature de l'Espagne pendant le moyen âge_ (Leiden, 2
vols., 1849; 2nd and 3rd ed., completely recast, 1860 and 1881) form a
needful and wonderfully trenchant supplement to his _Histoire des
Mussulmans_, in which he mercilessly exposes the many tricks and
falsehoods of the monks in their chronicles, and effectively demolishes a
good part of the Cid legends. As an Arabic scholar Dozy stands well-nigh
unsurpassed in his _Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes_ (Leiden,
1877-1881, 2 vols.), a work full of research and learning, a storehouse of
Arabic lore. To the same class belongs his _Glossaire des mots espagnols
et portugais, dérivés de l'Arabe_, edited with Dr W. H. Engelmann of
Leipzig (Leiden, 1866; 2nd ed., 1868), and a similar list of Dutch words
derived from the Arabic. Dozy also edited Al Makkari's _Analectes sur
l'histoire et la littérature des Arabes d'Espagne_ (Leiden, 1855-1861, 2
vols.), and, in conjunction with his friend and worthy successor,
Professor De Goeje, at Leiden, Idrisi's _Description de l'Afrique et de
l'Espagne_ (1866), also the _Calendrier de Cordoue de l'année 961; texte
arabe et ancienne traduction latine_ (Leiden, 1874). _Het Islamisme_
(_Islamism_; Haarlem, 1863, 2nd ed., 1880; French translation) is a
popular exposition of Mahommedanism, of a more controversial character;
and _De Israelieten te Mekka_ ("The Israelites at Mecca," Haarlem, 1864)
became the subject of a rather heated discussion in Jewish circles. Dozy
died at Leiden in May 1883.     (H. TI.)



DRACAENA, in botany, a genus of the natural order Liliaceae, containing
about fifty species in the warmer parts of the Old World. They are trees
or shrubs with long, generally narrow leaves, panicles of small whitish
flowers, and berried fruit. The most remarkable species is _Dracaena
Draco_, the dragon-tree of the Canary Isles, which reaches a great size
and age. The famous specimen in Teneriffe, which was blown down by a
hurricane in 1868, when measured by Alexander von Humboldt, was 70 ft.
high, with a circumference of 45 ft. several feet above the ground. A
resin exuding from the trunk is known as dragon's blood (q.v.).

Many of the cultivated so-called Dracaenas belong to the closely-allied
genus _Cordyline_. They are grown for the beauty of form, colour and
variegation of their foliage and are extremely useful as decorative
stove plants or summer greenhouse plants, or for room and table
decoration. They are easy to grow and may be increased by cuttings
planted in sandy soil in a temperature of from 65° to 70° by night, the
spring being the best time for propagation. The old stems laid flat in a
propagating frame will push young shoots, which may be taken off with a
heel when 2 or 3 in. long, and planted in sandy peat in 3-in. pots; the
tops can also be taken off and struck. The established plants do best in
fibry peat made porous by sand. In summer they should have a day
temperature of 75°, and in winter one of 65°. Shift as required, using
coarser soil as the pots become larger. By the end of the summer the
small cuttings will have made nice plants, and in the spring following
they can be kept growing by the use of manure water twice a week. Those
intended for the conservatory should be gradually inured to more air by
midsummer, but kept out of cold draughts. When the plants get too large
they can be headed down and the tops used for cuttings.

A large number of the garden species of Dracaena are varieties of
_Cordyline terminalis. D. Goldieana_ is a grandly variegated species
from west tropical Africa, and requires more heat.



DRACHMANN, HOLGER HENRIK HERBOLDT (1846-1908), Danish poet and
dramatist, son of Dr A. G. Drachmann, a physician of Copenhagen, whose
family was of German extraction, was born in Copenhagen on the 9th of
October 1846. Owing to the early death of his mother, who was a Dane,
the child was left much to his own devices. He soon developed a fondness
for semi-poetical performances, and loved to organize among his
companions heroic games, in which he himself took such parts as those of
Tordenskjold and Niels Juul. His studies were belated, and he did not
enter the university until 1865, leaving it in 1866 to become a student
in the Academy of Fine Arts. From 1866 to 1870 he was learning, under
Professor Sörensen, to become a marine painter, and not without success.
But about the latter date he came under the influence of Georg Brandes,
and, without abandoning art, he began to give himself more and more to
literature. At various periods he travelled very extensively in England,
Scotland, France, Spain and Italy, and his literary career began by his
sending letters about his journeys to the Danish newspapers. After
returning home, he settled for some time in the island of Bornholm,
painting seascapes. He now issued his earliest volume of poems, _Digte_
(1872), and joined the group of young Radical writers who gathered under
the banner of Brandes. Drachmann was unsettled, and still doubted
whether his real strength lay in the pencil or in the pen. By this time
he had enjoyed a surprising experience of life, especially among
sailors, fishermen, students and artists, and the issues of the
Franco-German War and the French Commune had persuaded him that a new
and glorious era was at hand. His volume of lyrics, _Daempede Melodier_
("Muffled Melodies," 1875), proved that Drachmann was a poet with a real
vocation, and he began to produce books in prose and verse with great
rapidity. _Ungt Blod_ ("Young Blood," 1876) contained three realistic
stories of contemporary life. But he returned to his true field in his
magnificent _Sange ved Havet; Venezia_ ("Songs of the Sea; Venice,"
1877), and won the passionate admiration of his countrymen by his prose
work, with interludes in verse, called _Derovre fra Graensen_ ("Over the
Frontier there," 1877), a series of impressions made on Drachmann by a
visit to the scenes of the war with Germany. During the succeeding years
he was a great traveller, visiting most of the principal countries of
the world, but particularly familiarizing himself, by protracted
voyages, with the sea and with the life of man in maritime places. In
1879 he published _Ranker og Roser_ ("Tendrils and Roses"), amatory
lyrics of a very high order of melody, in which he showed a great
advance in technical art. To the same period belongs _Paa Sömands Tro og
Love_ ("On the Faith and Honour of a Sailor," 1878), a volume of short
stories in prose. It was about this time that Drachmann broke with
Brandes and the Radicals, and set himself at the head of a sort of
"nationalist" or popular-Conservative party in Denmark. He continued to
celebrate the life of the fishermen and sailors in books, whether in
prose or verse, which were the most popular of their day. _Paul og
Virginie_ and _Lars Kruse_ (both 1879); _Östen for Sol og vesten for
Maone_ ("East of the Sun and Moon," 1880); _Puppe og Sommerfugl_
("Chrysalis and Butterfly," 1882); and _Strandby Folk_ (1883) were among
these. In 1882 Drachmann published his fine translation, or paraphrase,
of Byron's _Don Juan_. In 1885 his romantic play called _Der var en
Gang_ ("Once upon a Time") had a great success on the boards of the
Royal theatre, Copenhagen; and his tragedies of _Völund Smed_ ("Wayland
the Smith") and _Brav-Karl_ (1897) made him the most popular playwright
of Denmark. He published in 1894 a volume of exquisitely fantastic
_Melodramas_ in rhymed verse, a collection which contains some of
Drachmann's most perfect work. His novel _Med den brede Pensel_ ("With
a Broad Brush," 1887) was followed in 1890 by _Forskrevet_, the history
of a young painter, Henrik Gerhard, and his revolt against his bourgeois
surroundings. With this novel is closely connected _Den hellige Ild_
("The Sacred Fire," 1899), in which Drachmann speaks in his own person.
There is practically no story in this autobiographical volume, which
abounds in lyrical passages. In 1899 he produced his romantic play
called _Gurre_; in 1900 a brilliant lyrical drama, _Hallfred
Vandraadeskjald_; and in 1903, _Det grönne Haab_. He died in Copenhagen
on the 14th of January 1908.

  See an article by K. Gjellerup in Dansk _Biografisk Lexikon_ vol. iv.
  (Copenhagen, 1890).     (E. G.)



DRACO (7th century B.C.), Athenian statesman, was Archon Eponymus (but
see J. E. Sandys, _Constitution of Athens_, p. 12, note) in 621 B.C. His
name has become proverbial as an inexorable lawgiver. Up to his time the
laws of Athens were unwritten, and were administered arbitrarily by the
Eupatridae. As at Rome by the twelve Tables, so at Athens it was found
necessary to allay the discontent of the people by publishing these
unwritten laws in a codified form, and Draco, himself a Eupatrid,
carried this out. According to Plutarch (_Life of Solon_): "For nearly
all crimes there was the same penalty of death. The man who was
convicted of idleness, or who stole a cabbage or an apple, was liable to
death no less than the robber of temples or the murderer." For the
institution of the 51 Ephetae and their relation to the Areopagus in
criminal jurisdiction see GREEK LAW, The orator Demades (d. c. 318 B.C.)
said that Draco's laws were written in blood. Whether this implies
peculiar severity, or merely reflects the attitude of a more refined age
to the barbarous enactments of a primitive people, among whom the
penalty of death was almost universal for all crimes, cannot be decided.
According to Suidas, however, in his _Lexicon_, the people were so
overjoyed at the change he made, that they accidentally suffocated him
in the theatre at Aegina with the rain of caps and cloaks which they
flung at him in their enthusiasm.

The appearance in 1891 of Aristotle's lost treatise on the constitution
of Athens gave rise to a most important controversy on the subject of
Draco's work. From the statements contained in chapter iv. of this
treatise, and inferences drawn from them, many scholars attributed to
Draco the construction of an entirely new constitution for Athens, the
main features of which were: (1) extension of franchise to all who could
provide themselves with a suit of armour--or, as Gilbert
(_Constitutional Antiquities_, Eng. trans. p. 121) says, to the Zeugite
class, from which mainly the hoplites may be supposed to have come; (2)
the institution of a property qualification for office (archon 10 minae,
strategus 100 minae); (3) a council of 401 members (see BOUL[=E]); (4)
magistrates and councillors to be chosen by lot; further, the four
Solonian classes are said to be already in existence.

For some time, especially in Germany, this constitution was almost
universally accepted; now, the majority of scholars reject it. The
reasons against it, which are almost overwhelming, may be shortly
summarized. (1) It is ignored by every other ancient authority, except
an admittedly spurious passage in Plato[1]; whereas Aristotle says of
his laws "they are laws, but he _added the laws to an existing
constitution_" (Pol. ii. 9. 9). (2) It is inconsistent with other
passages in the _Constitution of Athens_. According to c. vii., Solon
repealed all laws of Draco except those relating to murder; yet some of
the most modern features of Solon's constitution are found in Draco's
constitution. (3) Its ideas are alien to the 7th century. It has been
said that the qualification of the strategus was ten times that of the
archon. This, reasonable in the 5th, is preposterous in the 7th century,
when the archon was unquestionably the supreme executive official.
Again, it is unlikely that Solon, a democratic reformer, would have
reverted from a democratic wealth' qualification such as is attributed
to Draco, to an aristocratic birth qualification. Thirdly, if Draco had
instituted a hoplite census, Solon would not have substituted
citizenship by birth. (4) The terminology of Draco's constitution is
that of the 5th, not the 7th, century, whereas the chief difficulty of
Solon's laws is the obsolete 6th-century phraseology. (5) Lastly, a
comparison between the ideals of the oligarchs under Theramenes (end of
5th century) and this alleged constitution shows a suspicious similarity
(hoplite census, nobody to hold office a second time until all duly
qualified persons had been exhausted, fine of one drachma for
non-attendance in Boul[=e]). It is reasonable, therefore, to conclude
that the constitution of Draco was invented by the school of Theramenes,
who wished to surround their revolutionary views with the halo of
antiquity; hence the allusion to "the constitution of our father"
([Greek: hê patrios politeia]).

This hypothesis is further corroborated by a criticism of the text. Not
only is chapter iv. considered to be an interpolation in the text as
originally written, but later chapters have been edited to accord with
it. Thus chapter iv. breaks the connexion of thought between chapters
iii. and v. Moreover, an interpolator has inserted phrases to remove
what would otherwise have been obvious contradictions: thus (a) in
chapter vii., where we are told that Solon divided the citizens into
four classes ([Greek: timêmata]), the interpolator had added the words
"according to the division formerly existing" ([Greek: kathaper diêrêtai
kai proteron]), which were necessary in view of the statement that Draco
gave the franchise to the Zeugites; (b) in chapter xli., where
successive constitutional changes are recorded, the words "the
Draconian" ([Greek: hê epi Drakontos]) are inserted, though the
subsequent figures are not accommodated to the change. Solon is also
here spoken of as the founder of democracy, whereas the Draconian
constitution of chap. iv. contains several democratic innovations. Two
further points may be added, namely, that whereas Aristotle's treatise
credits Draco with establishing a money fine, Pollux definitely quotes a
law of Draco in which fines are assessed at so many oxen; secondly, if
chapter iv. did exist in the original text, it is more than curious that
though the treatise was widely read in antiquity there is no other
reference to Draco's constitution except the two quoted above. In any
case, whatever were Draco's laws, we learn from Plutarch's life of Solon
that Solon abolished all of them, except those dealing with homicide.

  AUTHORITIES.--Beside the works of J. E. Sandys and G. Gilbert quoted
  above, see those quoted in article CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS; Grote,
  _Hist. of Greece_ (ed. 1907), pp. 9-11, with references; and histories
  of Greece published after 1894.     (J. M. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A passage (long overlooked) in Cicero, _De republica_, shows
    that, by the 1st century B.C. the interpolation had already been
    made; the quotation is evidently taken from the list in c. xli. of
    the _Constitution_, which it reproduces.



DRACO ("the Dragon"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.); it was catalogued by Ptolemy, 31 stars, Tycho Brahe, 32,
Hevelius, 40. The Greeks had many fables concerning this constellation;
one is that when Heracles killed the dragon guarding the Hesperian fruit
Hera transferred the creature to heaven as a reward for its services.
The planetary nebula _H. IV. 37 Draconis_ is of a decided pale blue
colour, and one of the most conspicuous objects of its class.



DRACONTIUS, BLOSSIUS AEMILIUS, of Carthage (according to the early
tradition, of Spanish origin), Christian poet, flourished in the latter
part of the 5th century A.D. He belonged to a family of landed
proprietors, and practised as an advocate in his native place. After the
conquest of the country by the Vandals, Dracontius was at first allowed
to retain possession of his estates, but was subsequently deprived of
his property and thrown into prison by the Vandal king, whose triumphs
he had omitted to celebrate, while he had written a panegyric on a
foreign and hostile ruler. He subsequently addressed an elegiac poem to
the king, asking pardon and pleading for release. The result is not
known, but it is supposed that Dracontius obtained his liberty and
migrated to northern Italy in search of peace and quietness. This is
consistent with the discovery at Bobbio of a 15th-century MS., now in
the Museo Borbonico at Naples, containing a number of poems by
Dracontius (the _Carmina minora_). The most important of his works is
the _De laudibus Dei_ or _De Deo_ in three books, wrongly attributed by
MS. tradition to St Augustine. The account of the creation, which
occupies the greater part of the first book, was at an early date edited
separately under the title of _Hexaëmeron_, and it was not till 1791
that the three books were edited by Cardinal Arevalo. The apology
(_Satisfactio_) consists of 158 elegiac couplets; it is generally
supposed that the king addressed is Gunthamund (484-496). The _Carmina
minora_, nearly all in hexameter verse, consist of school exercises and
rhetorical declamations, amongst others the fable of Hylas, with a
preface to his tutor, the grammarian Felicianus; the rape of Helen; the
story of Medea; two epithalamia. It is also probable that Dracontius was
the author of the _Orestis tragoedia_, a poem of some 1000 hexameters,
which in language, metre and general treatment of the subject exhibits a
striking resemblance to the other works of Dracontius. Opinions differ
as to his poetical merits, but, when due allowance is made for
rhetorical exaggeration and consequent want of lucidity, his works show
considerable vigour of expression, and a remarkable knowledge of the
Bible and of Roman classical literature.

  EDITIONS.--_De Deo_ and _Satisfactio_, ed. Arevalo, reprinted in
  Migne's _Patrologiae cursus_, lx.; _Carmina minora_, ed. F. de Duhn
  (1873). On Dracontius generally, see A. Ebert, _Allgemeine Geschichte
  der Lit. des Mittelalters im Abendlande_, i. (1874); C. Rossberg, _In
  D. Carmina minora_ (1878); H. Mailfait, _De Dracontii poëtae lingua_
  (1902). On the _Orestis tragoedia_, see editions by R. Peiper (1875)
  and C. Giarratino (Milan, 1906); pamphlets by C. Rossberg (1880, on
  the authorship; 1888, materials for a commentary).



DRAFTED MASONRY, in architecture, the term given to large stones, on the
face of which has been dressed round the edge a draft or sunken surface,
leaving the centre portion as it came from the quarry. The dressing is
worked with an adze of eight teeth to the inch, used in a vertical
direction and to a width of 2 to 4 in. The earliest example of drafted
masonry is found in the immense platform built by Cyrus 530 B.C. at
Pasargadae in Persia. It occurs again in the palace of Hyrcanus, known
as the Arak-el-Emir (176 B.C.), but is there inferior in execution. The
finest drafted masonry is that dating from the time of Herod, in the
tower of David and the walls of the Haram in Jerusalem, and at Hebron.
In the castles built by the Crusaders, the adze has been worked in a
diagonal direction instead of vertically. In all these examples the size
of the stones employed is sometimes enormous, so that the traditional
influence of the Phoenician masons seems to have lasted till the 12th
century.



DRAG (from the Old Eng. _dragan_, to draw; the word preserves the _g_
which phonetically developed into _w_), that which is drawn or pulled
along a surface, or is used for drawing or pulling. The term is thus
applied to a harrow for breaking up clods of earth, or for an apparatus,
such as a grapnel, net or dredge, used for searching water for drowned
bodies or other objects. As a name of a vehicle, "drag" is sometimes
used as equivalent to "break," a heavy carriage without a body used for
training horses, and also a large kind of wagonette, but is more usually
applied to a privately owned four-horse coach for four-in-hand driving.
The word is also given to the "shoe" of wood or iron, placed under the
wheel to act as a brake, and also to the "drift" or "sea-anchor,"
usually made of spars and sails, employed for checking the lee-way of a
ship when drifting. In fox-hunting, the "drag" is the line of scent left
by the fox, but more particularly the term is given to a substitute for
the hunting of a fox by hounds, an artificial line of scent being laid
by the dragging of a bag of aniseed or other strong smelling substance
which a pack will follow.



DRAGASHANI (Rumanian _Draga[s,]ani_), a town of Rumania, near the right
bank of the river Olt, and on the railway between Caracal and Râmnicu
Vâlcea. Pop. (1900) 4398. The town is of little commercial importance,
but the vineyards on the neighbouring hills produce some of the best
Walachian wines. Dragashani stands on the site of the Roman Rusidava. In
1821 the Turks routed the troops of Ypsilanti near the town.



DRAGOMAN (from the Arabic [Arabic: terjuman] _terjuman_, an interpreter
or translator; the same root occurs in the Hebrew word _targum_
signifying translation, the title of the Chaldaean translation of the
Bible), a comprehensive designation applied to all who act as
intermediaries between Europeans and Orientals, from the hotel tout or
travellers' guide, hired at a few shillings a day, to the chief dragoman
of a foreign embassy whose functions include the carrying on of the most
important political negotiations with the Ottoman government, or the
dragoman of the imperial divan (the grand master of the ceremonies).

The original employment of dragomans by the Turkish government arose
from its religious scruples to use any language save those of peoples
which had adopted Islamism. The political relations between the Porte
and the European states, more frequent in proportion as the Ottoman
power declined, compelled the sultan's ministers to make use of
interpreters, who rapidly acquired considerable influence. It soon
became necessary to create the important post of chief dragoman at the
Porte, and there was no choice save to appoint a Greek, as no other race
in Turkey combined the requisite knowledge of languages with the tact
and adroitness essential for conducting diplomatic negotiations. The
first chief dragoman of the Porte was Panayot Nikousia, who held his
office from 1665 to 1673. His successor, Alexander Mavrocordato,
surnamed Exaporritos, was charged by the Turkish government with the
delicate and arduous negotiation of the treaty of Carlowitz, and by his
dexterity succeeded, in spite of his questionable fidelity to the
interests of his employers, in gaining their entire confidence, and in
becoming the factotum of Ottoman policy. From that time until 1821 the
Greeks monopolized the management of Turkey's foreign relations, and
soon established the regular system whereby the chief dragoman passed on
as a matter of course to the dignity of hospodar of one of the Danubian
principalities.

In the same way, the foreign representatives accredited to the Porte
found it necessary, in the absence of duly qualified countrymen of their
own, to engage the services of natives, Greek, Armenian, or Levantine,
more or less thoroughly acquainted with the language, laws and
administration of the country. Their duties were by no means confined to
those of a mere translator, and they became the confidential and
indispensable go-betweens of the foreign missions and the Porte. Though
such dragomans enjoyed by treaty the protection of the country employing
them, they were by local interests and family ties very intimately
connected with the Turks, and the disadvantages of the system soon
became apparent. Accordingly as early as 1669 the French government
decided on the foundation of a school for French dragomans at
Constantinople, for which in later years was substituted the _École des
langues orientales_ in Paris; most of the great powers eventually took
some similar step, England also adopting in 1877 a system, since
modified, for the selection and tuition of a corps of British-born
dragomans.

The duties of an embassy dragoman are extensive and not easily defined.
They have been described as partaking at once of those of a diplomatist,
a magistrate, a legal adviser and an administrator. The functions of the
first dragoman are mainly political; he accompanies the ambassador or
minister at his audiences of the sultan and usually of the ministers,
and it is he who is charged with the bulk of diplomatic negotiations at
the palace or the Porte. The subordinate dragomans transact the less
important business, comprising routine matters such as requests for the
recognition of consuls, the settlement of claims or furthering of other
demands of their nationals, and in general all the various matters in
which the interests of foreign subjects may be concerned. An important
part of the dragoman's duties is to attend during any legal proceedings
to which a subject of his nationality is a party, as failing his
attendance and his concurrence in the judgment delivered such
proceedings are null and void. Moreover, the dragoman is frequently
enabled, through the close relations which he necessarily maintains with
different classes of Turkish officials, to furnish valuable and
confidential information not otherwise obtainable. The high estimation
in which the dragomans are held by most foreign powers is shown by the
fact that they are usually and in the regular course promoted to the
most important diplomatic posts. This is the case in the Russian and
Austrian services (where more than one ambassador began his career as a
junior dragoman) and generally in the German service; the French chief
dragoman usually attains the rank of minister plenipotentiary. The value
of a tactful and efficient intermediary can hardly be over-estimated,
and in the East a personal interview of a few minutes often results in
the conclusion of some important matter which would otherwise require
the exchange of a long and laborious correspondence. The more important
consulates in the provinces of Turkey are also provided with one or more
dragomans, whose duties, _mutatis mutandis_, are of a similar though
less important nature. In the same way banks, railway companies and
financial institutions employ dragomans for facilitating their business
relations with Turkish officials.



DRAGOMIROV, MICHAEL IVANOVICH (1830-1905), Russian general and military
writer, was born on the 8th of November 1830. He entered the Guard
infantry in 1849, becoming 2nd lieutenant in 1852 and lieutenant in
1854. In the latter year he was selected to study at the Nicholas
Academy (staff college), and here he distinguished himself so much that
he received a gold medal, an honour which, it is stated, was paid to a
student of the academy only twice in the 19th century. In 1856 he was
promoted staff-captain and in 1858 full captain, being sent in the
latter year to study the military methods in vogue in other countries.
He visited France, England and Belgium, and wrote voluminous reports on
the instructional and manoeuvre camps of these countries at Châlons,
Aldershot and Beverloo. In 1859 he was attached to the headquarters of
the king of Sardinia during the campaign of Magenta and Solferino, and
immediately upon his return to Russia he was sent to the Nicholas
Academy as professor of tactics. Dragomirov played a leading part in the
reorganization of the educational system of the army, and acted also as
instructor to several princes of the imperial family. This post he held
until 1863, when, as a lieutenant-colonel, he took part in the
suppression of the Polish insurrection of 1863-64, returning to St
Petersburg in the latter year as colonel and chief of staff to one of
the Guard divisions. During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Dragomirov
was attached to the headquarters of the II. Prussian army. He was
present at the battles on the upper Elbe and at Königgrätz, and his
comments on the operations which he witnessed are of the greatest value
to the student of tactics and of the war of 1866.

In 1868 he was made a major-general, and in the following year became
chief of the staff in the Kiev military circumscription. In 1873 he was
appointed to command the 14th division, and in this command he
distinguished himself very greatly in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
The 14th division led the way at the crossing of the Danube at Zimnitza,
Dragomirov being in charge of the delicate and difficult operation of
crossing and landing under fire, and fulfilling his mission with
complete success. Later, after the reverses before Plevna, he, with the
cesarevich and Generals Todleben and Milutine, strenuously opposed the
suggestion of the Grand-duke Nicholas that the Russian army should
retreat into Rumania, and the demoralization of the greater part of the
army was not permitted to spread to Dragomirov's division, which
retained its discipline unimpaired and gave a splendid example to the
rest.

He was wounded at the Shipka Pass, and, though promoted
lieutenant-general soon after this, was not able to see further active
service. He was also made adjutant-general to the tsar and chief of the
53rd Volhynia regiment of his old division. For eleven years thereafter
General Dragomirov was chief of the Nicholas Academy, and it was during
this period that he collated and introduced into the Russian army all
the best military literature of Europe, and in many other ways was
active in improving the moral and technical efficiency of the Russian
officer-corps, especially of the staff officer. In 1889 Dragomirov
became commander-in-chief of the Kiev military district, and
governor-general of Kiev, Podolsk and Volhynia, retaining this post
until 1903. He was promoted to the rank of general of infantry in 1891.
His advanced age and failing health prevented his employment at the
front during the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5, but his advice was
continually solicited by the general headquarters at St Petersburg, and
while he disagreed with General Kuropatkin in many important questions
of strategy and military policy, they both recommended a repetition of
the strategy of 1812, even though the total abandonment of Port Arthur
was involved therein. General Dragomirov died at Konotop on the 28th of
October 1905. In addition to the orders which he already possessed, he
received in 1901 the order of St Andrew.

His larger military works were mostly translated into French, and his
occasional papers, extending over a period of nearly fifty years,
appeared chiefly in the _Voienni Svornik_ and the _Razoiedschik_; his
later articles in the last-named paper were, like the general orders he
issued to his own troops, attentively studied throughout the Russian
army. His critique of Tolstoy's _War and Peace_ attracted even wider
attention. Dragomirov was, in formal tactics, the head of the "orthodox"
school. His conservatism was not, however, the result of habit and early
training, but of deliberate reasoning and choice. His model was, as he
admitted in the war of 1866, the British infantry of the Peninsular War,
but he sought to reach the ideal, not through the methods of repression
against which the "advanced" tacticians revolted, but by means of
thorough efficiency in the individual soldier and in the smaller units.
He inculcated the "offensive at all costs," and the combination of
crushing short-range fire and the bayonet charge. He carried out the
ideas of Suvarov to the fullest extent, and many thought that he pressed
them to a theoretical extreme unattainable in practice. His critics,
however, did not always realize that Dragomirov depended, for the
efficiency his unit required, on the capacity of the leader, and that an
essential part of the self-sacrificing discipline he exacted from his
officers was the power of assuming responsibility. The details of his
brilliant achievement of Zimnitza suffice to give a clear idea of
Dragomirov's personality and of the way in which his methods of training
conduced to success.



DRAGON (Fr. _dragon_, through Lat. _draco_, from the Greek; connected
with [Greek: derkomai], "see," and interpreted as "sharp-sighted"; O.H.
Ger. _tracho_, _dracho_, M.H.G. _trache_, Mod. Ger. _Drachen_; A.S.
_draca_, hence the equivalent English form "drake," "fire-drake," cf.
Low Ger. and Swed. _drake_, Dan. _drage_), a fabulous monster, usually
conceived as a huge winged fire-breathing lizard or snake. In Greece the
word [Greek: drakôn] was used originally of any large serpent, and the
dragon of mythology, whatever shape it may have assumed, remains
essentially a snake. For the part it has played in the myths and cults
of various peoples and ages see the article SERPENT-WORSHIP. Here it may
be said, in general, that in the East, where snakes are large and deadly
(Chaldea, Assyria, Phoenicia, to a less degree in Egypt), the serpent or
dragon was symbolic of the principle of evil. Thus Apophis, in the
Egyptian religion, was the great serpent of the world of darkness
vanquished by Ra, while in Chaldaea the goddess Ti[=a]mat, the female
principle of primeval Chaos, took the form of a dragon. Thus, too, in
the Hebrew sacred books the serpent or dragon is the source of death and
sin, a conception which was adopted in the New Testament and so passed
into Christian mythology. In Greece and Rome, on the other hand, while
the oriental idea of the serpent as an evil power found an entrance and
gave birth to a plentiful brood of terrors (the serpents of the Gorgons,
Hydra, Chimaera and the like), the _dracontes_ were also at times
conceived as beneficent powers, sharp-eyed dwellers in the inner parts
of the earth, wise to discover its secrets and utter them in oracles, or
powerful to invoke as guardian genii. Such were the sacred snakes in the
temples of Aesculapius and the _sacri dracontes_ in that of the Bona Dea
at Rome; or, as guardians, the Python at Delphi and the dragon of the
Hesperides.

In general, however, the evil reputation of dragons was the stronger,
and in Europe it outlived the other. Christianity, of course, confused
the benevolent and malevolent serpent-deities of the ancient cults in a
common condemnation. The very "wisdom of the serpent" made him suspect;
the devil, said St Augustine, "leo et draco est; leo propter impetum,
draco propter insidias." The dragon myths of the pagan East took new
shapes in the legends of the victories of St Michael and St George; and
the kindly snakes of the "good goddess" lived on in the _immanissimus
draco_ whose baneful activity in a cave of the Capitol was cut short by
the intervention of the saintly pope Silvester I. (Duchesne, _Liber
pontificalis_, i. 109 seq.). In this respect indeed Christian mythology
found itself in harmony with that of the pagan North. The similarity of
the Northern and Oriental snake myths seems to point to some common
origin in an antiquity too remote to be explored. Whatever be the origin
of the Northern dragon, the myths, when they first become articulate for
us, show him to be in all essentials the same as that of the South and
East. He is a power of evil, guardian of hoards, the greedy withholder
of good things from men; and the slaying of a dragon is the crowning
achievement of heroes--of Siegmund, of Beowulf, of Sigurd, of Arthur, of
Tristram--even of Lancelot, the beau idéal of medieval chivalry. Nor
were these dragons anything but very real terrors, even in the
imaginations of the learned, until comparatively modern times. As the
waste places were cleared, indeed, they withdrew farther from the haunts
of men, and in Europe their last lurking-places were the inaccessible
heights of the Alps, where they lingered till Jacques Balmain set the
fashion which has finally relegated them to the realm of myth. In the
works of the older naturalists, even in the great _Historia animalium_
of so critical a spirit as Conrad Gesner (d. 1564), they still figure as
part of the fauna known to science.

[Illustration: Dragon Lizard (_Draco taeniopterus_).]

As to their form, this varied from the beginning. The Chaldaean dragon
Ti[=a]mat had four legs, a scaly body, and wings. The Egyptian Apophis
was a monstrous snake, as were also, originally at least, the Greek
_dracontes_. The dragon of the Apocalypse (Rev. xii. 3), "the old
serpent," is many-headed, like the Greek Hydra. The dragon slain by
Beowulf is a snake (worm), for it "buckles like a bow "; but that done
to death by Sigurd, though its motions are heavy and snake-like, has
legs, for he wounds it "behind the shoulder." On the other hand, the
dragon seen by King Arthur in his dreams is, according to Malory, winged
and active, for it "swoughs" down from the sky. The belief in dragons
and the conceptions of their shape were undoubtedly often determined, in
Europe as in China, by the discovery of the remains of the gigantic
extinct saurians.

The qualities of dragons being protective and terror-inspiring, and
their effigies highly decorative, it is natural that they should have
been early used as warlike emblems. Thus, in Homer (_Iliad_ xi. 36
seq.), Agamemnon has on his shield, besides the Gorgon's head, a blue
three-headed snake ([Greek: drakôn]), just as ages afterwards the Norse
warriors painted dragons on their shields and carved dragons' heads on
the prows of their ships. From the conquered Dacians, too, the Romans in
Trajan's time borrowed the dragon ensign which became the standard of
the cohort as the eagle was that of the legion; whence, by a long
descent, the modern dragoon. Under the later East Roman emperors the
purple dragon ensign became the ceremonial standard of the emperors,
under the name of the [Greek: drakonteion]. The imperial fashion spread;
or similar causes elsewhere produced similar results. In England before
the Conquest the dragon was chief among the royal ensigns in war. Its
origin, according to the legend preserved in the _Flores historiarum_,
was as follows. Uther Pendragon, father of King Arthur, had a vision of
a flaming dragon in the sky, which his seers interpreted as meaning that
he should come to the kingdom. When this happened, after the death of
his brother Aurelius, "he ordered two golden dragons to be fashioned,
like to those he had seen in the circle of the star, one of which he
dedicated in the cathedral of Winchester, the other he kept by him to be
carried into battle." From Uther Dragonhead, as the English called him,
the Anglo-Saxon kings borrowed the ensign, their custom being, according
to the _Flores_, to stand in battle _inter draconem et standardum_. The
dragon ensign, which was borne before Richard I. in 1191 when on crusade
"to the terror of the heathen beyond the sea," was that of the dukes of
Normandy; but even after the loss of Normandy the dragon was the battle
standard of English kings (_signum regium quod Draconem vocant_), and
was displayed, e.g. by Henry III. in 1245 when he went to war against
the Welsh. Not till the 20th century, under King Edward VII., was the
dragon officially restored as proper only to the British race of Uther
Pendragon, by its incorporation in the armorial bearings of the prince
of Wales. As a matter of fact, however, the dragon ensign was common to
nearly all nations, the reason for its popularity being naïvely stated
in the romance of _Athis_ (quoted by Du Cange),

  "Ce souloient Romains porter,
   Ce nous fait moult à redouter:"

"This the Romans used to carry, This makes us very much to be feared."
Thus the dragon and wyvern (i.e. a two-legged snake, M.E. _wivere_,
viper) took their place as heraldic symbols (see HERALDRY).

As an ecclesiastical symbol it has remained consistent to the present
day. Wherever it is represented it means the principle of evil, the
devil and his works. In the middle ages the chief of these works was
heresy, and the dragon of the medieval church legends and mystery plays
was usually heresy. Thus the knightly order of the vanquished dragon,
instituted by the emperor Sigismund in 1418, celebrated the victory of
orthodoxy over John Huss. Hell, too, is represented in medieval art as a
dragon with gaping jaws belching fire. Of the dragons carried in effigy
in religious processions some have become famous, e.g. the Gargouille
(gargoyle) at Rouen, the Graülly at Metz, and the Tarasque at Tarascon.
Their popularity tended to disguise their evil significance and to
restore to them something of the beneficent qualities of the ancient
_dracontes_ as local tutelary genii.

In the East, at the present day, the dragon is the national symbol of
China and the badge of the imperial family, and as such it plays a large
part in Chinese art. Chinese and Japanese dragons, though regarded as
powers of the air, are wingless. They are among the deified forces of
nature of the Taoist religion, and the shrines of the dragon-kings, who
dwell partly in water and partly on land, are set along the banks of
rivers.

The constellation Draco (_anguis_, _serpens_) was probably so called
from its fanciful likeness to a snake. Numerous myths, in various
countries, are however connected with it. The general character of these
may be illustrated by the Greek story which explains the constellation
as being the dragon of the Hesperides slain by Heracles and translated
by Hera or Zeus to the heavens.

  See C. V. Daremberg and E. Saglio, _Dictionnaire des antiquités
  grecques et romaines_ (Paris, 1886, &c.), s.v. "Draco"; Pauly-Wissowa,
  _Realencyclopädie_, s.v. "Drakon"; Du Cange, _Glossarium_, s.v.
  "Draco"; _La Grande Encyclopédie_ s.v. "Dragon"; J. B. Panthot,
  _Histoire des dragons et des escarboucles_ (Lyons, 1691). See also the
  articles EGYPT: _Religion_, and BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
       (W. A. P.)

In zoology the name "dragon" is now applied to a highly interesting, but
very harmless, group of small flying lizards forming the genus _Draco_,
belonging to the _Agamidae_, a family of Saurian reptiles. About 20
species of "flying dragons" inhabit the various Indo-Malayan countries;
one, _D. dussumieri_, occurs in Madras. They are small creatures,
measuring about 10 in. long, including the tail, which in some cases is
more than half of the entire length. The head is small, and the throat
is provided with three pouches which are spread out when they lie on the
trunks of trees. They are, however, chiefly remarkable for the wing-like
cutaneous processes with which their sides are provided, and which are
extended and supported by greatly elongated ribs. These form a sort of
parachute by which the animals are enabled to glide from branch to
branch of the trees on which they live, but, being altogether
independent of the fore limbs, they cannot be regarded as true wings,
nor do they enable the lizard to fly, but merely to make extensive
leaps. But they have the habit of opening and folding these prettily
coloured organs, when resting upon a branch, which gives them the
appearance of butterflies. When not in use they are folded by the side
after the manner of a fan, and the dragon can then walk or run with
considerable agility. Its food consists of insects.



DRAGONETTI, DOMENICO (1763-1846), Italian double-bass player, was born
in Venice on the 7th of April 1763. Having become famous as a performer
on his instrument, he went to London in 1794, where his playing created
a furore. He was the friend of Haydn and of Beethoven, and a well-known
character in his day. He died in London on the 16th of April 1846.



DRAGON-FLY (Ger. _Wasserjungfer_; Swed. _trollslända_; Dan. _guldsmed_;
Dutch, _scherpstekendevlieg_; Fr. _demoiselle_), the popular English
name applied to the members of a remarkable group of insects which
formed the genus _Libellula_ of Linnaeus and the ancient authors. In
some parts of the United States they appear to be known as "devil's
darning needles," and in many parts of England are termed
"horse-stingers." It is almost needless to say that (excepting to other
insects upon which they prey) they are perfectly innocuous, though some
of the larger species can inflict a momentarily painful bite with their
powerful jaws. Their true systematic position is still contested and
somewhat uncertain. By most of the older systematists they were placed
as forming part of the heterogeneous order _Neuroptera_. J. C.
Fabricius, however, elevated them to the rank of a distinct order, which
he termed _Odonata_; and whatever may be the difference of opinion
amongst authors at the present day, that term is almost universally
employed for the group. W. F. Erichson transferred all the groups of
so-called _Neuroptera_ with incomplete metamorphoses, hence including
the dragon-flies, as a division of _Orthoptera_, which he termed
_Pseudo-Neuroptera_. K. E. A. Gerstäcker more recently also retains them
in the _Orthoptera_, terming those groups in which the earlier states
are subaquatic _Orthoptera amphibotica_. All entomologists are agreed in
maintaining the insects as forming a group marked by characters at once
extraordinary and isolated in their nature, and in most modern
classifications they are treated as a distinct order.

The group _Odonata_ is divided into three families, and each of these
again into two subfamilies. The families are the _Agrionidae_,
_Aeschnidae_ and _Libellulidae_--the first including the subfamilies
_Calopterygina_ and _Agrionina_, the second _Gomphina_ and _Aeschnina_,
and the third _Cordulina_ and _Libellulina_.

  _Anatomy._--The structure of a dragon-fly being so very remarkable, it
  is necessary to enter somewhat extensively into details. The head is
  comparatively small, and excavated posteriorly, connected very
  slightly with the prothorax, on which it turns almost as on a pivot.
  The eyes are, as a rule, enormous, often contiguous, and occupying
  nearly the whole of the upper surface of the head, but sometimes
  (_Agrionidae_ and _Gomphina_) widely distant; occupied by innumerable
  facets, which are often larger on the upper portion. The antennae,
  which are smaller in proportion than in almost any other insects,
  consist only of two short swollen basal joints and a 5 or 6-jointed
  bristle-like thread. The large labrum conceals the jaws and inner
  mouth parts. The lower lip, or labium (formed by the conjoined second
  maxillae), is attached to a very small chin piece (or mentum), and is
  generally very large, often (_Agrionidae_) divided almost to its base
  into two portions, or more frequently entire or nearly so; on each
  side of it are two usually enormous hypertrophied pieces, which form
  the "palpi," and which are often furnished at the tips with an
  articulated spine (or terminal joint), the whole structure serving to
  retain the prey. Considerable diversity of opinion exists with respect
  to the composition of the mouth parts, and by some authors the "palpi"
  have been termed the side pieces of the lower lip. The prothorax is
  extremely small, consisting of only a narrow ring. The rest of the
  thorax is very large, and consolidated into a single piece with
  oblique sutures on the sides beneath the wings.

  The abdomen varies excessively in form, the two extremes being the
  filiform structure observable in most _Agrionidae_, and the very broad
  and depressed formation seen in the familiar British _Libellula
  depressa_. It consists of ten distinct segments, whereof the basal two
  and those at the apex are short, the others elongate, the first being
  excessively short. In a slit on the under side of the second in the
  male, accompanied by external protuberances, are concealed the genital
  organs: on the under side of the eighth in the female is a scale-like
  formation, indicating the entrance to the oviduct. The tenth is always
  provided in both sexes with prominent appendages, differing greatly in
  form, and often furnishing the best specific (and even generic)
  characters.

  The legs vary in length and stoutness, but may, as a rule, be termed
  long and slender. The anterior pair probably assist in capturing and
  holding insect prey, but the greatest service all the legs render is
  possibly in enabling the creature to rest lightly, so that it can quit
  a position of repose in chase of passing prey in the quickest possible
  manner. The coxa is short and stout, followed by a still shorter
  trochanter; the femora and tibiae long and slender, almost invariably
  furnished on their under surface with two series of strong spines, as
  also are the tarsi, which consist of three slender joints, the last
  having two long and slender claws.

  The wings are always elongate, and furnished with strong longitudinal
  neuration and dense transverse nervules strengthening the already
  strong (although typically transparent) membrane. In the _Agrionidae_
  both pairs are nearly equal, and are carried vertically and
  longitudinally in repose, and the neuration and membrane are less
  strong; hence the species of this family are not so powerful on the
  wing as are those of the other groups in which the wings are
  horizontally extended in a position ready for instant service. The
  neuration is peculiar, and in many respects without precise analogy in
  other groups of insects, but it is not necessary here to enter into
  more than some special points. The arrangement of the nervures at the
  base of the wing is very singular, and slight differences in it form
  useful aids to classification. In the _Aeschnidae_ and _Libellulidae_
  this arrangement results in the formation of a triangular space (known
  as the "triangle"), which is either open or traversed by nervules; but
  in many _Agrionidae_ this space, instead of being triangular, is
  oblong or elongately quadrate, or with its upper edge partly straight
  and partly oblique. This fixitude of type in neuration is not one of
  the least important of the many peculiarities exhibited in these
  insects.

  The internal structure is comparatively simple. The existence of
  salivary glands, denied by L. Duprix, has been asserted by O.
  Poletajewa. The rest of the digestive apparatus consists of an
  elongate canal extending from mouth to anus, comprising the
  oesophagus, stomach and intestine, with certain dilatations and
  constrictions; the characteristic Malpighian vessels are stated to
  number about forty, placed round the posterior extremity of the
  stomach. Dragon-flies eat their prey completely, and do not content
  themselves by merely sucking its juices; the harder portions are
  rejected as elongate, nearly dry, pellets of excrement.

  _Pairing._--But the most extraordinary feature in the economy--one
  which has attracted the attention of naturalists from remote times--is
  the position of the genital organs, and the corresponding anomalous
  manner in which the pairing of the sexes and impregnation is effected.
  In the male the intromittent organ is situated in a slit on the under
  surface of the second abdominal segment; it is usually very crooked or
  sinuous in form, and is accompanied by sheaths, and by external hooks
  or secondary appendages, and also by seminal vessels. But the ducts of
  the vessels connected with the testes unite and open on the under
  surface of the ninth segment; hence, before copulation can take place,
  it is necessary that the vessels in the second segment be charged
  from this opening, and in the majority of cases this is done by the
  male previously to seeking the female. In the latter sex the entrance
  to the oviduct and genital organs is on the under surface of the
  eighth abdominal segment. The act of pairing may be briefly stated as
  follows. The male, when flying, seizes the prothorax of the female
  with the strong appendages at the extremity of the abdomen, and the
  abdomen of this latter sex is then curved upward so as to bring the
  under side of the eighth segment into contact with the organs of the
  second segment of the male. In the more powerful _Libellulidae_, &c.,
  the act is of short duration, and it is probable that polygamy and
  polyandry exist, for it possibly requires more than one almost
  momentary act to fertilize all the eggs in the ovaries of a female.
  But in many _Agrionidae_, and in some others, the male keeps his hold
  of the prothorax of the female for a lengthened period, retaining
  himself in flight in an almost perpendicular manner, and it may be
  that the deposition of eggs and pairing goes on alternately. There is,
  however, much yet to be learned on these points. The gravid female
  usually lays her eggs in masses (but perhaps sometimes singly), and
  the operation may be witnessed by any one in localities frequented by
  these insects. She hovers for a considerable time over nearly the same
  spot, rapidly dipping the apex of her abdomen into the water, or at
  any rate touching it, and often in places where there are no
  water-weeds, so that in all probability the eggs fall at once to the
  bottom. But in some of the _Agrionidae_ the female has been often
  noticed by trustworthy observers to creep down the stems of aquatic
  plants several inches below the surface, emerging after the act of
  oviposition has been effected; and in the case of _Lestes sponsa_, K.
  T. E. von Siebold saw the male descend with the female. The same exact
  observer noticed also in this species that the female makes slight
  incisions in the stems or leaves of water plants with the double
  serrated apparatus (vulva) forming a prolongation of the ninth segment
  beneath, depositing an egg in each incision. He has seen two pairs
  thus occupied beneath the surface on one and the same stem.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1--The anterior portion of the body of _Aeschna
  cynea_ freed from the nymph-cuticle.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--The tail being extricated.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--The whole body extricated.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--The perfect insect (the wings having acquired
  their full dimensions) resting to dry itself, preparatory to the wings
  being horizontally extended.]

_Larva and Nymph._--The duration of the subaquatic life of a dragon-fly
is no doubt variable, according to the species. In the smaller forms it
is probably less than a year, but precise evidence is wanting as to the
occurrence of two broods in one year. On the other hand, it is certain
that often a longer period is requisite to enable the creature to attain
its full growth, and three years have been stated to be necessary for
this in the large and powerful _Anax formosus._ Like all insects with
incomplete metamorphoses, there is no quiescent pupal condition, no
sharp line of demarcation between the larval and so-called "nymph" or
penultimate stage. The creature goes on eating and increasing in size
from the moment it emerges from the egg to the time when it leaves the
water to be transformed into the aerial perfect insect. The number of
moults is uncertain, but they are without doubt numerous. At probably
about the antepenultimate of these operations, the rudimentary wings
begin to appear as thoracic buddings, and in the full-grown nymph these
wings overlap about one-half of the dorsal surface of the abdomen. In
structure there is a certain amount of resemblance to the perfect
insect, but the body is always much stouter and shorter, in some cases
most disproportionately so, and the eyes are always separated; even in
those genera (e.g. _Aeschna_) in which the eyes of the imago are
absolutely contiguous, the most that can be seen in the larva is a
prolongation towards each other, and there are no ocelli. The legs are
shorter and more fitted for crawling about water plants and on the
bottom. In the mouth parts the mandibles and maxillae are similar in
form to those of the adult, but there is an extraordinary and unique
modification of the lower lip. This is attached to an elongate and
slender mentum articulated to the posterior portion of the lower surface
of the head, slightly widened at its extremity, to which is again
articulated the labium proper, which is very large, flattened, and
gradually dilated to its extremity; but its form differs according to
group as in the perfect insect. Thus in the _Agrionidae_ it is deeply
cleft, and with comparatively slender side-pieces (or palpi), and
strongly developed articulated spines; in the _Aeschnidae_ it is at the
most notched, with narrow side-pieces and very strong spines; in the
_Libellulidae_ it is entire, often triangular at its apex, and with
enormously developed palpi without spines, but having the opposing inner
edges furnished with interlocking serrations. The whole of this
apparatus is commonly termed the mask. In a state of repose it is
applied closely against the face, the elongated mentum directed backward
and lying between the anterior pair of legs; but when an approaching
victim is seen the whole apparatus is suddenly projected, and the prey
caught by the raptorial palpi; in some large species it is capable of
being projected fully half an inch in front of the head. The prey, once
caught and held by this apparatus, is devoured in the usual manner.
There are two pairs of thoracic spiracles, through which the nymph
breathes during its later life by thrusting the anterior end of the body
into the air; but respiration is mostly effected by a peculiar apparatus
at the tail end, and there are two different methods. In the
_Agrionidae_ there are three elongate flattened plates, or false gills,
full of tracheal ramifications, which extract the air from the water,
and convey it to the internal tracheae (in _Calopteryx_ these plates are
excessively long, nearly equalling the abdomen), the plates also serving
as means of locomotion. But in the other groups these external false
gills are absent, and in their place are five valves, which by their
sudden opening and closing force in the water to the rectum, the walls
of which are furnished with branchial lamellae. The alternate opening
and closing of these valves enables the creature to make quick jerks or
rushes (incorrectly termed "leaps") through the water,[1] and, in
conjunction with its mouth parts, to make sudden attacks upon prey from
a considerable distance. Well-developed Aeschnid larvae have been
observed to take atmospheric air into the rectum. The lateral angles of
the terminal abdominal segments are sometimes produced into long curved
spines. In colour these larvae are generally muddy, and they frequently
have a coating of muddy particles, and hence are less likely to be
observed by their victims. If among insects the perfect dragon-fly may be
termed the tyrant of the air, so may its larva be styled that of the
water. Aquatic insects and larvae form the principal food, but there can
be no doubt that worms, the fry of fish, and even younger larvae of
their own species, form part of the bill of fare. The "nymph" when
arrived at its full growth sallies forth from the water, and often
crawls a considerable distance (frequently many feet up the trunks of
trees) before it fixes itself for the final change, which is effected by
the thorax splitting longitudinally down the back, through which fissure
the perfect insect gradually drags itself. The figures indicate this
process as observed in _Aeschna cyanea_.

_The Complete Insect._-For a considerable time after its emergence a
dragon-fly is without any of its characteristic colours, and is flaccid
and weak, the wings (even in those groups in which they are afterwards
horizontally extended) being held vertically in a line with the abdomen.
By degrees the parts harden, and the insect essays its first flight, but
even then the wings have little power and are semi-opaque in appearance,
as if dipped in mucilage. In most species of _Calopterygina_, and in
some others, the prevailing colour of the body is a brilliant bronzy
green, blue or black, but the colours in the other groups vary much, and
often differ in the sexes. Thus in _Libellula depressa_ the abdomen of
the fully adult male is covered with a bluish bloom, whereas that of the
female is yellow; but several days elapse before this pulverulent
appearance is attained, and a comparatively young male is yellow like
the female. The wings are typically hyaline and colourless, but in many
species (especially _Calopterygina_ and _Libellulina_) they may be
wholly or in part opaque and often black, due apparently to gradual
oxydization of a pigment between the two membranes of which the wings
are composed; the brilliant iridescence, or metallic lustre, so
frequently found is no doubt due to interference--the effect of minute
irregularities of the surface--and not produced by a pigment. A
beautiful little genus (_Chalcopteryx_) of _Calopterygina_ from the
Amazon is a gem in the world of insects, the posterior wings being of
the most brilliant fiery metallic colour, whereas the anterior remain
hyaline.

These insects are pre-eminently lovers of the hottest sunshine (a few
are somewhat crepuscular), and the most powerful and daring on the wing
in fine weather become inert and comparatively lifeless when at rest in
dull weather, allowing themselves to be captured by the fingers without
making any effort to escape. Many of the larger species (_Aeschna_, &c.)
have a habit of affecting a particular twig or other resting place like
a fly-catcher among birds, darting off after prey and making long
excursions, but returning to the chosen spot. A. R. Wallace, in his
_Malay Archipelago_, states that the inhabitants of Lombok use the large
species for food, and catch them by means of limed twigs.

They are distributed over the whole world excepting the polar regions,
but are especially insects of the tropics. At the present day about 2200
species are known, dispersed unequally among the several subfamilies as
follows: Agrionina, 700 species; Calopterygina, 280; Gomphina, 320;
Aeschnina, 170; Corduliina, 130; Libellulina, 600. In Europe proper only
100 species have been observed, and about 46 of these occur in the
British islands. New Zealand is excessively poor, and can only number 8
species, whereas they are very numerous in Australia. Some species are
often seen at sea, far from land, in calm weather, in troops which are
no doubt migratory; the common _Libellula quadrimaculata_, which
inhabits the cold and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, has
been frequently seen in immense migratory swarms. One species (_Pantala
flavescens_) has about the widest range of any insect, occurring in the
Old World from Kamtchatka to Australia, and in the New from the Southern
States to Chili, also all over Africa and the Pacific islands, but is
not found in Europe. The largest species occur in the _Aeschnina_ and
_Agrionina_; a member of the former subfamily from Borneo expands to
nearly 6½ in., and with a moderately strong body and powerful form; in
the latter the Central American and Brazilian _Megaloprepus caerulatus_
and species of _Mecistogaster_ are very large, the former expanding to
nearly 7 in., and the latter to nearly as much, but the abdomen is not
thicker than an ordinary grass-stem and of extreme length (fully 5 in.
in _Mecistogaster_).

_Fossils._--Among fossil insects dragon-flies hold a conspicuous
position. Not only do they belong to what appears to have been a very
ancient type, but in addition, the large wings and strong dense
reticulation are extremely favourable for preservation in a fossil
condition, and in many cases all the intricate details can be as readily
followed as in a recent example. From the Carboniferous strata of
Commentry, France, C. Brongniart has described several genera of
gigantic insects allied to dragon-flies, but with less specialized
thoracic segments and simpler wing-neuration. These form a special
group--the Protodonata. True _Odonata_ referable to the existing
families are plentiful in Mesozoic formations; in England they have been
found more especially in the Purbeck beds of Swanage, and the vales of
Wardour and Aylesbury, in the Stonesfield Slate series, and in the Lias
and Rhaetic series of the west of England. But the richest strata appear
to be those of the Upper Miocene at Oeningen, near Schaffhausen in the
Rhine valley; the Middle Miocene at Radaboj, near Krapina in Croatia;
the Eocene of Aix, in Provence; and more especially the celebrated
Secondary rocks furnishing the lithographic stone of Solenhofen, in
Bavaria. This latter deposit would appear to have been of marine origin,
and it is significant that, although the remains of gigantic
dragon-flies discovered in it are very numerous and perfect, no traces
of their subaquatic conditions have been found, although these as a rule
are numerous in most of the other strata, hence the insects may be
regarded as having been drowned in the sea and washed on shore. Many of
these Solenhofen species differ considerably in form from those now
existing, so that Dr H. A. L. Hagen, who has especially studied them,
says that for nearly all it is necessary to make new genera. It is of
great interest, however, to find that a living Malayan genus (_Euphaea_)
and another living genus _Uropetala_, now confined to New Zealand, are
represented in the Solenhofen deposits, while a species of
_Megapodagrion_ now entirely Neotropical, occurs in the Eocene beds of
Wyoming.

A notice of fossil forms should not be concluded without the remark that
indications of at least two species have been found in amber, a number
disproportionately small if compared with other insects entombed
therein; but it must be remembered that a dragon-fly is, as a rule, an
insect of great power, and in all probability those then existing were
able to extricate themselves if accidentally entangled in the resin.

  See E. de Selys-Longchamps, _Monographie des Libellulidées d'Europe_
  (Brussels, 1840); _Synopses des Agrionines, Caloptérygines, Gomphines,
  et Cordulines_, with Supplements (Brussels, from 1853 to 1877); E. de
  Selys-Longchamps and H. A. L. Hagen, _Revue des Odonates d'Europe_
  (Brussels, 1850); _Monographie des Caloptérygines et des Gomphines_
  (Brussels, 1854 and 1858); Charpentier, _Libellulinae europeae_
  (Leipzig, 1840). For modern systematic work see various papers by R.
  M'Lachlan, P. P. Calvert, J. G. Needham, R. Martin, E. B. Williamson,
  F. Karsch, &c.; also H. Tumpel, _Die Geradflugler Mitteleuropas_
  (Eisenach, 1900); and W. F. Kirby, _Catalogue of Neuroptera Odonata_
  (London, 1890). For habits and details of transformation and larval
  life, see L. C. Miall, _Natural History of Aquatic Insects_ (London,
  1895); H. Dewitz, _Zool. Anz._ xiii. (1891); and J. G. Needham, _Bull.
  New York Museum_, lxviii. (1903). For geographical distribution, G. H.
  Carpenter, _Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc._ viii. (1897). For British
  species, W. J. Lucas, _Handbook of British Dragonflies_ (London,
  1899). For wings and mechanism of flight, R. von Lendenfeld, _S.B.
  Akad. Wien_, lxxxiii. (1881), and J. G. Needham, _Proc. U.S. Nat.
  Mus._ xxvi. (1903). For general morphology, R. Heymons, _Abhandl. k.
  preuss. Akad._ (1896), and _Ann. Hofmus. Wein_, xix. (1904).
       (R. M'L.; G. H. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A similar contrivance was suggested and (if the writer mistakes
    not) actually tried as a means of propelling steamships.



DRAGON'S BLOOD, a red-coloured resin obtained from several species of
plants. _Calamus draco_ (Willd.), one of the rotang or rattan palms,
which produces much of the dragon's blood of commerce, is a native of
Further India and the Eastern Archipelago. The fruit is round, pointed,
scaly, and the size of a large cherry, and when ripe is coated with the
resinous exudation known as dragon's blood. The finest dragon's blood,
called _jernang_ or _djernang_ in the East Indies, is obtained by
beating or shaking the gathered fruits, sifting out impurities, and
melting by exposure to the heat of the sun or by placing in boiling
water; the resin thus purified is then usually moulded into sticks or
quills, and after being wrapped in reeds or palm-leaves, is ready for
market. An impurer and inferior kind, sold in lumps of considerable
size, is extracted from the fruits by boiling. Dragon's blood is dark
red-brown, nearly opaque and brittle, contains small shell-like flakes,
and gives when ground a fine red powder; it is soluble in alcohol,
ether, and fixed and volatile oils. If heated it gives off benzoic acid.
In Europe it was once valued as a medicine on account of its astringent
properties, and is now used for colouring varnishes and lacquers; in
China, where it is mostly consumed, it is employed to give a red facing
to writing paper. The drop dragon's blood of commerce, called _cinnabar_
by Pliny (_N.H._ xxxiii. 39), and _sangre de dragon_ by Barbosa was
formerly and is still one of the products of Socotra, and is obtained
from _Dracaena cinnabari_. The dragon's blood of the Canary Islands is a
resin procured from the surface of the leaves and from cracks in the
trunk of _Dracaena draco_. The hardened juice of a euphorbiaceous tree,
_Croton draco_, a resin resembling kino, is the _sangre del drago_ or
dragon's blood of the Mexicans, used by them as a vulnerary and
astringent.



DRAGOON (Fr. _dragon_, Ger. _Dragoner_), originally a mounted soldier
trained to fight on foot only (see CAVALRY). This mounted infantryman of
the late 16th and 17th centuries, like his comrades of the infantry who
were styled "pike" and "shot," took his name from his weapon, a species
of carbine or short musket called the "dragon." Dragoons were organized
not in squadrons but in companies, like the foot, and their officers and
non-commissioned officers bore infantry titles. The invariable tendency
of the old-fashioned dragoon, who was always at a disadvantage when
engaged against true cavalry, was to improve his horsemanship and
armament to the cavalry standard. Thus "dragoon" came to mean medium
cavalry, and this significance the word has retained since the early
wars of Frederick the Great, save for a few local and temporary returns
to the original meaning. The phrases "to dragoon" and "dragonnade" bear
witness to the mounted infantry period, this arm being the most
efficient and economical form of cavalry for police work and guerrilla
warfare. The "Dragonnades," properly so called, were the operations of
the troops (chiefly mounted) engaged in enforcing Louis XIV.'s decrees
against Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. In the
British service the dragoons (1st Royals, 2nd Scots Greys, 6th
Inniskillings) are heavy cavalry, the Dragoon Guards (seven regiments)
are medium, as are the dragoons of other countries. The light cavalry of
the British army in the 18th and early 19th century was for the most
part called light dragoons.



DRAGUIGNAN, the chief town of the department of the Var in S.E. France;
51 m. N.E. of Toulon, and 28½ m. N.W. of Fréjus by rail; situated at a
height of 679 ft. above the level of the sea, at the southern foot of
the wooded heights of Malmont, and on the left bank of the Nartuby
river; pop. (1906) 7766. It possesses no notable buildings, save a
modern parish church, a prefecture, also modern, and a building wherein
are housed the town library and a picture gallery, with some fair works
of art. In modern times the ramparts have been demolished, and new wide
streets pierced through the town.



DRAINAGE OF LAND. The verb "to drain," with its substantives "drain" and
"drainage," represents the O. Eng. _dreahnian_, from the same root
found in "dry," and signifies generally the act of drawing off moisture
or liquid from somewhere, and so drinking dry, and (figuratively)
exhausting; the substantive "drain" being thus used not only in the
direct sense of a channel for carrying off liquid, but also figuratively
for a very small amount such as would be left as dregs. The term
"drainage" is applied generally to all operations involving the drawing
off of water or other liquid, but more particularly to those connected
with the treatment of the soil in agriculture, or with the removal of
water and refuse from streets and houses. For the last, see SEWERAGE;
the following article being devoted to the agricultural aspects of this
subject. See also the articles RECLAMATION OF LAND, CANAL, IRRIGATION,
RIVER ENGINEERING, WATER SUPPLY and (law) WATER RIGHTS.

Agricultural or field drainage consists in the freeing of the soil from
stagnant and superfluous water by means of surface or underground
channels. It may be distinguished from the draining of land on a large
scale which is exemplified in the reclamation of the English Fens (see
FENS). Surface drainage is usually effected by ploughing the land into
convex ridges off which the water runs into intervening furrows and is
conveyed into ditches. For several reasons this method is ineffective,
and, where possible, is now superseded by underground drainage by means
of pipe-tiles. Land is not in a satisfactory condition with respect to
drainage unless the rain that falls upon it can sink down to the minimum
depth required for the healthy development of the roots of crops and
thence find vent either through a naturally porous subsoil or by
artificial channels.

A few of the evils inseparable from the presence of overmuch water in
the soil may be enumerated. Wet land, if in grass, produces only the
coarser grasses, and many subaquatic plants and mosses, which are of
little or no value for pasturage; its herbage is late in spring, and
fails early in autumn; the animals grazed upon it are unduly liable to
disease, and sheep, especially, to foot-rot and liver-rot. In the case
of arable land the crops are poor and moisture-loving weeds flourish.
Tillage operations on such land are easily interrupted by rain, and the
period always much limited in which they can be prosecuted at all; the
compactness and toughness of the soil renders each operation more
arduous, and its repetition more necessary than in the case of dry land.
The surface must necessarily be thrown into ridges, and the furrows and
cross-cuts cleared out after each process of tillage, and upon this
surface-drainage as much labour is expended in twenty years as would
suffice to make under-drains enough to lay it permanently dry. With all
these precautions the best seed time is often missed, and this usually
proves the prelude to a scanty crop, or to a late and disastrous
harvest. The cultivation of the turnip and other root crops, which
require the soil to be wrought to a deep and free tilth, either becomes
altogether impracticable and must be abandoned for the safe but costly
bare fallow, or is carried out with great labour and hazard; and the
crop, when grown, can neither be removed from the ground, nor consumed
upon it by sheep without damage by "poaching."

The roots of plants require both air and warmth. A deep stratum through
which water can percolate, but in which it can never stagnate, is
therefore necessary. A waterlogged soil is impenetrable by air, and
owing to the continuous process of evaporation and radiation, its
temperature is much below that of drained soil. The surface of the water
in the supersaturated soil is known as the "water-table" and is
exemplified in water standing in a well. Water will rise in clay by
capillarity to a height of 50 in., in sand to 22 in. Above the
"water-table" the water is held by capillarity, and the percentage of
water held decreases as we approach the surface where there may be
perfect dryness. Draining reduces the "surface tension" of the capillary
water by removal of the excess, but the "water-table" may be many feet
below. Drains ordinarily remove only excess of capillary water, an
excess of percolating water in wet weather.

In setting about the draining of a field, or farm, or estate, the first
point is to secure a proper outfall. The lines of the receiving drains
must next be determined, and then the direction of the parallel drains.
The former must occupy the lowest part of the natural hollows, and the
latter must run in the line of the greatest slope of the ground. In the
case of flat land, where a fall is obtained chiefly by increasing the
depth of the drains at their lower ends, these lines may be disposed in
any direction that is found convenient; but in undulating ground a
single field may require several distinct sets of drains lying at
different angles, so as to suit its several slopes. When a field is
ridged in the line of the greatest ascent of the ground, there is an
obvious convenience in adopting the furrows as the site of the drains;
but wherever this is not the case the drains must be laid off to suit
the contour of the ground, irrespective of the furrows altogether. When
parts of a field are flat, and other parts have a considerable
acclivity, it is expedient to cut a receiving drain near to the bottom
of the slopes, and to give the flat ground an independent set of drains.
In laying off receiving drains it is essential to give hedgerows and
trees a good offing, lest the conduit be obstructed by the roots.

When a main drain is so placed that parallel ones empty into it from
both sides, care should be taken that the inlets of the latter are not
made exactly opposite to each other. Much of the success of draining
depends on the skilful planning of these main drains, and in making them
large enough to discharge the greatest flow of water to which they may
be exposed. Very long main drains are to be avoided. Numerous outlets
are also objectionable, from their liability to obstruction. An outlet
to an area of from 10 to 15 acres is a good arrangement. These outlets
should be faced with mason work, and guarded with iron gratings.

The distance and depth apart of the parallel drains is determined
chiefly by reference to the texture of the soil. In an impervious clay
the flow of the water is much impeded and the water-table can be
controlled only by frequent lines of pipes. On such land it is customary
to lay them about 3 ft. from the surface and from 15 to 21 ft. apart. In
lighter soils the depth, and proportionately the distance apart, is
increased, but the drains are rarely more than 4 ft. 6 in. below the
surface, though they may be 75 or 100 apart. A fall of at least 1 in 200
is desirable.

There are various forms of under-drainage, some of them alluded to in
the historical section below, but by far the commonest is by means of
cylindrical or oval pipes of burnt clay about 1 ft. in length, sometimes
supplemented by collars, though nowadays the use of these is being
abandoned. Pipes vary in bore from 2 in. for the parallel to 6 in. for
the main drains.

In constructing a drain, it is of importance that the bottom be cut out
just wide enough to admit the pipes and no more. Pipes, when accurately
fitted in, are much less liable to derangement than when laid in the
bottom of a trench several times their width, into which a mass of loose
earth must necessarily be returned. This is easily effected in the case
of soils tolerably free from stones by the use of draining spades and
the tile-hook which are represented in the accompanying cut. The
tile-hook is an implement by means of which the pipes may be lowered
from the edge of the trench and laid at the bottom. An implement,
sometimes propelled by steam, known as the draining plough, can be used
for opening the trenches. Draining can be carried on at all seasons, but
is usually best done in autumn or summer. A thoroughly trustworthy and
experienced workman should be selected to lay the pipes, with
instructions to set no pipes until he is satisfied that the depth of the
drains and level of the bottoms are correct. The expense of
tile-drainage may vary from about £2:10s. per acre on loose soils to £10
an acre on the most tenacious soils, the rate of wages and the cost of
the pipes, the depth of the trenches and the ease with which they can be
dug, all influencing the cost of the process.

Drainage is not a modern discovery. The Romans were careful to keep
their arable lands dry by means of open trenches or covered drains
filled with stones or twigs. It is at least several centuries since
covered channels of various kinds were used by British husbandmen for
drying their land. Walter Blith (see AGRICULTURE) about the middle of
the 17th century wrote of the improvement which might be effected in
barren land by freeing it from the excess of stagnant water on or near
the surface by means of channels filled with faggots or stones, but his
principles, never generally adopted, were ultimately forgotten. In the
latter half of the 18th century, Joseph Elkington, a Warwickshire
farmer, discovered a plan of laying dry sloping ground that is drowned
by the outbursting of springs. When the higher-lying portion of such
land is porous, rain falling upon it sinks down until it is arrested by
clay or other impervious matter, which causes it again to issue at the
surface and wet the lower-lying ground. Elkington showed that by cutting
a deep drain through the clay, aided when necessary by wells or auger
holes, the subjacent bed of sand or gravel in which a body of water is
pent up by the clay, as in a vessel, might be tapped and the water
conveyed harmlessly in the covered drain to the nearest ditch or stream.
In the circumstances to which it is applicable, and in the hands of
skilful drainers, Elkington's plan, known as "sink-hole drainage," by
bringing into play the natural drainage furnished by porous strata, is
often eminently successful.

[Illustration: Draining Implements.]

During the subsequent thirty or forty years most of the draining that
took place was on this system, and an immense capital was expended in
such works with varying results. Things continued in this position until
about 1823, when James Smith of Deanston, having discovered anew those
principles of draining so long before indicated by Blith, proceeded to
exemplify them in his own practice, and to expound them to the public in
a way that speedily effected a complete revolution in the art of
draining, and marked an era in agricultural progress. Instead of
persisting in fruitless attempts to dry extensive areas by a few
dexterous cuts, he insisted on the necessity of providing every field
that needed draining at all with a complete system of parallel
underground channels, running in the line of the greatest slope of the
ground, and so near to each other that the whole rain falling at any
time upon the surface should sink down and be carried off by the drains.
A main receiving drain was to be carried along the lowest part of the
ground, with sub-drains in every subordinate hollow that the ground
presented. The distances between drains he showed must be regulated by
the greater or less retentiveness of the ground operated upon, and gave
10 to 40 ft. as the limits of their distance apart. The depth which he
prescribed for his parallel drains was 30 in., and these were to be
filled with 12 in. of stones small enough to pass through a 3-in.
ring--in short a new edition of Blith's drain. Josiah Parkes, engineer
to the Royal Agricultural Society, advocated a greater distance apart
for the drains, and, in order that the subterranean water might be
reached, a depth of at least 4 ft.

The cultivated lands of Britain being disposed in ridges which usually
lie in the line of greatest ascent, it became customary to form the
drains in each furrow, or in each alternate, or third or fourth one, as
the case might require, or views of economy dictate and hence the system
soon came to be popularly called "furrow draining." From the number and
arrangement of the drains, the terms "frequent" and "parallel" were also
applied to it. Smith himself more appropriately named it, from its
effects, "thorough draining." The sound principles thus promulgated by
him were speedily adopted and extensively carried into practice. The
great labour and cost incurred in procuring stones in adequate
quantities, and the difficulty of carting them in wet seasons, soon led
to the substitution of "tiles," and soles of burnt earthenware. The
limited supply and high price of these tiles for a time impeded the
progress of the new system of draining; but the invention of tile-making
machines removed this impediment, and gave a stimulus to this
fundamental agricultural improvement. The substitution of cylindrical
pipes for the original horse-shoe tiles has still further lowered the
cost and increased the efficiency and permanency of drainage works.

The system introduced by Smith of Deanston has now been virtually
adopted by all drainers. Variations in matters of detail (having respect
chiefly to the depth and distance apart of the parallel drains) have
indeed been introduced; but the distinctive features of his system are
recognized and acted upon.

  A great stimulus was given to the improvement of land by the passing
  in England of a series of acts of parliament, which removed certain
  obstacles that effectually hindered tenants with limited interests
  from investing capital in works of drainage and kindred amelioration.
  The Public Money Drainage Acts 1846-1856 authorized the advance of
  public money to landowners to enable them to make improvements in
  their lands, not only by draining, but by irrigation, the making of
  permanent roads, clearing, erecting buildings, planting for shelter,
  &c. The rapid absorption of the funds provided by these acts led to
  further legislative measures by which private capital was rendered
  available for the improvement of land. A series of special improvement
  acts were passed, authorizing companies to execute or advance money
  for executing improvements in land. Finally, the Land Improvement Act
  1864, amended and extended by the act of 1899, gave facilities for
  borrowing money by charging the cost of draining, &c., as a
  rent-charge upon the inheritance of the land. The instalments must be
  repaid with interest in equal amounts extending over a fixed term of
  years by the tenant for life during his lifetime, the tenant being
  bound to maintain the improvements.

  See C. G. Elliott, _Engineering for Land Drainage_ (New York, 1903);
  F. H. King, _Irrigation and Drainage_ (New York, 1899); G. S.
  Mitchell, _Handbook of Land Drainage_ (London, 1898), with a good
  bibliography.



DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS (c. 1545-1595), English admiral, was born near
Tavistock, Devonshire, about 1545 according to most early authorities,
but possibly as early as 1539 (see Corbett, vol. i., Appendix A). His
father, a yeoman and a zealous Protestant, was obliged to take refuge in
Kent during the persecutions in the reign of Queen Mary. He obtained a
naval chaplaincy from Queen Elizabeth, and is said to have been
afterwards vicar of Upnor Church (evidently a misprint or slip of the
pen for Upchurch) on the Medway. Young Drake was educated at the expense
and under the care of Sir John Hawkins, who was his kinsman; and, after
passing an apprenticeship on a coasting vessel, at the age of eighteen
he had risen to be purser of a ship trading to Biscay. At twenty he made
a voyage to Guinea; and at twenty-two he was made captain of the
"Judith." In that capacity he was in the harbour of San Juan de Ulloa,
in the Gulf of Mexico, where he behaved most gallantly in the actions
under Sir John Hawkins, and returned with him to England, having
acquired great reputation, though with the loss of all the money which
he had embarked in the expedition. In 1570 he obtained a regular
privateering commission from Queen Elizabeth, the powers of which he
immediately exercised in a cruise in the Spanish Main. Having next
projected an attack against the Spaniards in the West Indies to
indemnify himself for his former losses, he set sail in 1572, with two
small ships named the "Pasha" and the "Swan." He was afterwards joined
by another vessel; and with this small squadron he took and plundered
the Spanish town of Nombre de Dios. With his men he penetrated across
the isthmus of Panama, and committed great havoc among the Spanish
shipping. From the top of a tree which he climbed while on the isthmus
he obtained his first view of the Pacific, and resolved "to sail an
English ship in these seas." In these expeditions he was much assisted
by the Maroons, descendants of escaped negro slaves, who were then
engaged in a desultory warfare with the Spaniards. Having embarked his
men and filled his ships with plunder, he bore away for England, and
arrived at Plymouth on the 9th of August 1573.

His success and honourable demeanour in this expedition gained him high
reputation; and the use which he made of his riches served to raise him
still higher in popular esteem. Having fitted out three frigates at his
own expense, he sailed with them to Ireland, and rendered effective
service as a volunteer, under Walter, earl of Essex, the father of the
famous but unfortunate earl. After his patron's death he returned to
England, where he was introduced to Queen Elizabeth (whether by Sir
Christopher Hatton is doubtful), and obtained a favourable reception. In
this way he acquired the means of undertaking the expedition which has
immortalized his name. The first proposal he made was to undertake a
voyage into the South Seas through the Straits of Magellan, which no
Englishman had hitherto ever attempted. This project having been well
received at court, the queen furnished him with means; and his own fame
quickly drew together a sufficient force. The fleet with which he sailed
on this enterprise consisted of only five small vessels, and their
united crews mustered only 166 men. Starting on the 13th of December
1577, his course lay by the west coast of Morocco and the Cape Verde
Islands. He reached the coast of Brazil on the 6th of April, and entered
the Rio de la Plata, where he parted company with two of his ships; but
having met them again, and taken out their provisions, he turned them
adrift. On the 19th of June he entered the port of St Julian's, where he
remained two months, partly to lay in provisions, and partly delayed by
the trial and execution of Thomas Doughty, who had plotted against him.
On the 21st of August he entered the Straits of Magellan. The passage of
the straits took sixteen days, but then a storm carried the ships to the
west; on the 7th of October, having made back for the mouth of the
strait, Drake's ship and the two vessels under his vice-admiral Captain
Wynter were separated, and the latter, missing the rendezvous arranged,
returned to England. Drake went on, and came to Mocha Island, off the
coast of Chile, on the 25th of November. He thence continued his voyage
along the coast of Chile and Peru, taking all opportunities of seizing
Spanish ships, and attacking them on shore, till his men were satiated
with plunder; and then coasted along the shores of America, as far as
48° N. lat., in an unsuccessful endeavour to discover a passage into the
Atlantic. Having landed, however, he named the country New Albion, and
took possession of it in the name of Queen Elizabeth. Having careened
his ship, he sailed thence on the 26th of July 1579 for the Moluccas. On
the 4th of November he got sight of those islands, and, arriving at
Ternate, was extremely well received by the sultan. On the 10th of
December he made the Celebes, where his ship unfortunately struck upon a
rock, but was taken off without much damage. On the 11th of March he
arrived at Java, whence he intended to have directed his course to
Malacca; but he found himself obliged to alter his purpose, and to think
of returning home. On the 26th of March 1580 he again set sail; and on
the 15th of June he doubled the Cape of Good Hope, having then on board
only fifty-seven men and three casks of water. He passed the line on the
12th of July, and on the 16th reached the coast of Guinea, where he
watered. On the 11th of September he made the Island of Terceira, and on
the 26th of September(?) he entered the harbour of Plymouth. This voyage
round the world, the first accomplished by an Englishman, was thus
performed in two years and about ten months. The queen hesitated for
some time whether to recognize his achievements or not, on the ground
that such recognition might lead to complications with Spain, but she
finally decided in his favour. Accordingly, soon after his arrival she
paid a visit to Deptford, went on board his ship, and there, after
partaking of a banquet, conferred upon him the honour of knighthood, at
the same time declaring her entire approbation of all that he had done.
She likewise gave directions for the preservation of his ship, the
"Golden Hind," that it might remain a monument of his own and his
country's glory. After the lapse of a century it decayed and had to be
broken up. Of the sound timber a chair was made, which was presented by
Charles II. to the university of Oxford. In 1581 Drake became mayor of
Plymouth; and in 1585 he married a second time, his first wife having
died in 1583. In 1585, hostilities having commenced with Spain, he again
went to sea, sailing with a fleet to the West Indies, and taking the
cities of Santiago (in the Cape Verde Islands), San Domingo, Cartagena
and St Augustine. In 1587 he went to Lisbon with a fleet of thirty sail;
and having received intelligence of a great fleet being assembled in the
bay of Cadiz, and destined to form part of the Armada, he with great
courage entered the port on the 19th of April, and there burnt upwards
of 10,000 tons of shipping--a feat which he afterwards jocosely called
"singeing the king of Spain's beard." In 1588, when the Spanish Armada
was approaching England, Sir Francis Drake was appointed vice-admiral
under Lord Howard, and made prize of a very large galleon, commanded by
Don Pedro de Valdez, who was reputed the projector of the invasion, and
who struck at once on learning his adversary's name.

It deserves to be noticed that Drake's name is mentioned in the singular
diplomatic communication from the king of Spain which preceded the
Armada:--

  "Te veto ne pergas bello defendere Belgas;
   Quae Dracus eripuit nunc restituantur oportet;
   Quas pater evertit jubeo te condere cellas:
   Religio Papae fac restituatur ad unguem."

To these lines the queen made this extempore response:--

  "Ad Graecas, bone rex, fiant mandata kalendas."

In 1589 Drake commanded the fleet sent to restore Dom Antonio, king of
Portugal, the land forces being under the orders of Sir John Norreys;
but they had hardly put to sea when the commanders differed, and thus
the attempt proved abortive. But as the war with Spain continued, a more
formidable expedition was fitted out, under Sir John Hawkins and Sir
Francis Drake, against their settlements in the West Indies, than had
hitherto been undertaken during the whole course of it. Here, however,
the commanders again disagreed about the plan; and the result in like
manner disappointed public expectation. These disasters were keenly felt
by Drake, and were the principal cause of his death, which took place on
board his own ship, near the town of Nombre de Dios, in the West Indies,
on the 28th of January 1595.

  The older Lives by Samuel Clarke (1671) and John Barrow, junr. (1843),
  have been superseded by Julian Corbett's two admirable volumes on
  _Drake and the Tudor Navy_ (1898), the best source of information on
  the subject, which were preceded by the same author's _Sir Francis
  Drake_ in the "English Men of Action" series (1890). See also E. J.
  Payne's edition of _Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to America:
  Thirteen original narratives from the collection of Hakluyt_ (new ed.,
  1893).



DRAKE, NATHAN (1766-1836), English essayist and physician, son of Nathan
Drake, an artist, was born at York in 1766. He was apprenticed to a
doctor in York in 1779, and in 1786 proceeded to Edinburgh University,
where he took his degree as M.D. in 1789. In 1790 he set up as a general
practitioner at Sudbury, Suffolk, where he found an intimate friend in
Dr Mason Good (d. 1827). In 1792 he removed to Hadleigh, Suffolk, where
he died in 1836. His works include several volumes of literary essays,
and some papers contributed to medical periodicals; but his most
important production was _Shakespeare and his Times, including the
Biography of the Poet, Criticisms on his Genius and Writings; a new
Chronology of his Plays; a Disquisition on the Object of his Sonnets;
and a History of the Manners, Customs and Amusements, Superstitions,
Poetry and Elegant Literature of his Age_ (2 vols., 1817). The title
sufficiently indicates the scope of this ample work, which has the
merit, says G. G. Gervinus (_Shakespeare Commentaries_, Eng. trans.,
1877) "of having brought together for the first time into a whole the
tedious and scattered material of the editions and of the many other
valuable labours of Tyrwhitt, Heath, Ritson, &c."



DRAKENBORCH, ARNOLD (1684-1748), Dutch classical scholar, was born at
Utrecht on the 1st of January 1684. Having studied philology under
Graevius and Burmann the elder, and law under Cornelius Van Eck, in 1716
he succeeded Burmann in his professorship (conjointly with C. A. Duker),
which he continued to hold till his death on the 16th of January 1748.
Although he obtained the degree of doctor of laws, and was intended for
the legal profession, he determined to devote himself to philological
studies. His edition of Livy (1738-1746, and subsequent editions) is the
work on which his fame chiefly rests. The preface gives a particular
account of all the literary men who have at different periods commented
on the works of Livy. The edition itself is based on that of Gronovius;
but Drakenborch made many important alterations on the authority of
manuscripts which it is probable Gronovius had never seen. He also
published _Dissertatio de praefectis urbi_ (1704; reprinted at Frankfort
in 1752 with a life of Drakenborch); _Dissertatio de officio
praefectorum praetorio_ (1707); and an edition of Silius Italicus
(1717).



DRAKENSBERG (_Quathlamba_ or _Kahlamba_, i.e. "heaped up and jagged," of
the natives), a mountain chain of S.E. Africa, running parallel to the
coast from Basutoland to the Limpopo river--a distance of some 600 m.
The Drakensberg are the eastern part of the rampart which forms the edge
of the inner tableland of South Africa. The sides of the mountains
facing the sea are in general precipitous; on their inner face they
slope more or less gently to the plateau. The culminating points of the
range, and the highest lands in South Africa, are found in a sharp bend
from S.E. to N.W. in about 29° S. 29° E., where "the Berg" (as the range
is called locally) forms the frontier between Natal and Basutoland.
Within 60 m. of one another are three mountains, Giant's Castle,
Champagne Castle or Cathkin Peak, and Mont aux Sources, 10,000 to 11,000
or more ft. above the sea. From Mont aux Sources the normal N.E.
direction of the range is resumed. Conspicuous among the heights along
the Orange Free State, Transvaal and Natal frontiers are Tintwa, Malani,
Inkwelo and Amajuba or Majuba (q.v.), all between 7000 and 8000 ft. The
Draken's Berg--the particular hill from which the range is named--is
5682 ft. high and lies between Malani and Inkwelo heights. It was so
named by the _voortrekkers_ about 1840. North of Majuba the range enters
the Transvaal. Here the elevation is generally lower than in the south,
but the Mauch Berg is about 8500 ft. high. At its northernmost point the
range joins the Zoutpansberg. In their southern part the Drakensberg
form the parting between the rivers draining west to the Atlantic and
those flowing south and east to the Indian Ocean. At Mont aux Sources
rise the chief headwaters of the Orange, Tugela and other rivers. In the
north, however, several streams rising in the interior plateau, e.g. the
Komati, the Crocodile and the Olifants, pierce the Drakensberg and reach
the Indian Ocean. The range has numerous passes, many available for
wheeled traffic. Van Reenen's Pass, between Tintwa and Malani, is
crossed by a railway which connects the Orange Free State and Natal:
Laing's Nek, the main pass leading from Natal to the Transvaal, which
lies under the shadow of Majuba, is pierced by a railway tunnel. The
railway from Delagoa Bay to Pretoria crosses the Drakensberg by a very
steep gradient. Several subsidiary ranges branch off from the main chain
of the Berg. This is especially the case in Natal, where one range is
known as the Little Drakensberg. (See further BASUTOLAND; NATAL And
TRANSVAAL.)



DRAMA (literally "action," from Gr. [Greek: dran], act or do), the term
applied to those productions of Art which imitate or, to use a more
modern term, "represent" action by introducing the personages taking
part in them as real, and as employed in the action itself. There are
numerous varieties of the drama, differing more or less widely from one
another, both as to the objects imitated and as to the means used in the
process. But they all agree in the _method_ or _manner_ which is
essential to the drama and to dramatic art, namely, _imitation in the
way of action_. The function of all Art being to give pleasure by
representation (see FINE ARTS), it is clear that what is distinctive of
any one branch or form must be the manner in which this function is
performed by it. In the epos, for instance, the method or manner is
narrative, and even when Odysseus tells of his action, he is not acting.


1. THEORY OF THE DRAMA, AND DRAMATIC ART

  Origin of the drama.

The first step towards the drama is the assumption of character, whether
real or fictitious. It is caused by the desire, inseparable from human
nature, to give expression to feelings and ideas. These man expresses
not only by sound and gesture, like other animals, and by speech
significant by its delivery as well as by its purport, but also by
imitation superadded to these. To imitate, says Aristotle, is
instinctive in man from his infancy, and no pleasure is more universal
than that which is given by imitation. Inasmuch as the aid of some sort
of dress or decoration is usually at hand, while the accompaniment of
dance or song, or other music, naturally suggests itself, especially on
joyous or solemn occasions, we find that this preliminary step is taken
among all peoples, however primitive or remote. But it does not follow,
as is often assumed, that they possess a drama in germ. Boys playing at
soldiers, or men walking in a pageant--a shoemaker's holiday in ribbons
and flowers, or a Shetland sword-dance--none of these is in itself a
drama. This is not reached till the imitation or representation extends
to action.


  Dramatic action.

An action which is to present itself as such to human minds must enable
them to recognize in it a procedure from cause to effect. This of course
means, neither that the cause suggested must be the final cause, nor
that the result shown forth need pretend to be the ultimate result. We
look upon an action as ended when the purpose with which it began is
shown to have been gained or frustrated; and we trace the beginning of
an action back to the human will that set it on foot--though this will
may be in bondage to a higher or stronger will, or to fate, in any or
all of its purposes. Without an action in the sense stated--without a
plot, in a word--there can be no drama. But the very simplest action
will satisfy the dramatic test; a mystery representing the story of Cain
and Abel without a deviation from the simple biblical narrative, a farce
exhibiting the stalest trick played by designing sobriety upon oblivious
drunkenness, may each of them be a complete drama. But even to this
point, the imitation of action by action in however crude a form, not
all peoples have advanced.


  Dramatic literature.

But after this second step has been taken, it only remains for the drama
to assume a form regulated by certain literary laws, in order that it
may become a branch of dramatic literature. Such a literature, needless
to say, only a limited number of nations has come to possess; and, while
some are to be found that have, or have had, a drama without a dramatic
literature, it is quite conceivable that a nation should continue in
possession of the former after having ceased to cultivate the latter. It
is self-evident that no drama which forms part of a dramatic literature
can ignore the use of speech; and however closely music, dancing and
decoration may associate themselves with particular forms or phases of
the drama, their aid cannot be more than adventitious. As a matter of
fact, the beginnings of dramatic composition are, in the history of such
literatures as are well known to us, preceded by the earlier stages in
the growth of the lyric and epic forms of poetry, or by one of these at
all events; and it is in the continuation of both that the drama in its
literary form takes its origin in those instances which lie open to our
study.


  The dramatic and the histrionic arts.

While the aid of all other arts--even, strictly speaking, the aid of the
literary art--is merely an accident, the co-operation of the art of
acting is indispensable to that of the drama. The dramatic writer may
have reasons for preferring to leave the imagination of his reader to
supply the absence of this co-operation; but, though the term "literary
drama" is freely used of works kept away from the stage, it is in truth
either a misnomer or a self-condemnation. It is true that the actor only
temporarily interprets, and sometimes misinterprets, the dramatist,
while occasionally he reveals dramatic possibilities in a character or
situation which remained hidden from their literary inventor. But this
only shows that the courses of the dramatic and the histrionic arts do
not run parallel; it does not contradict the fact that their conjunction
is, on the one side as well as on the other, indispensable. No drama is
more than potentially such till it is acted.


  Laws and rules of the drama.

To essay, whether in a brief summary or in more or less elaborate
detail, a statement of the main laws of the drama, has often been
regarded as a superfluous, not to say, futile effort. But the laws of
which it is proposed to give some indication here are not so much those
which any particular literature or period has chosen to set up and
follow, as those abstracted by criticism, in pursuit of its own free
comparative method, from the process that repeats itself in every drama
adequately meeting the demands upon it. Aristotle, whom we still justly
revere as the originator of the theory of the drama, and thus its great
[Greek: nomothétês], was, no doubt, in his practical knowledge of it,
confined to its Greek examples, yet his object was not to produce
another generation of great Attic tragedians, but rather to show how it
was by following the necessary laws of their art that the great masters,
true to themselves and to their artistic ends, had achieved what they
had achieved. Still more distinctly was such the aim of the greatest
modern critical writer on the drama, Lessing, whose chief design was to
combat false dramatic theories and to overthrow laws demonstrated by him
to be artificial inventions, unreal figments. He proved, what before him
had only been suspected, that Shakespeare, though in hopeless conflict
with certain rules dating from the _siècle de Louis XIV_, was not in
conflict with those laws of the drama which are of its very essence, and
that, accordingly, if Shakespeare and the rules in question could not be
harmonized, it was only so much the worse for the rules. To illustrate
from great works, and expound with their aid, the organic processes of
the art to which they belong, is not only among the highest, it is also
one of the most useful functions of literary and artistic criticism. Nor
is there, in one sense at least, any finality about it. Neither the
great authorities on dramatic theory nor the resolute and acute
apologists of more or less transitory phases of the drama--Corneille,
Dryden and many later successors--have exhausted the statement of the
means which the drama has proved, or may prove, capable of employing.
The multitude of technical terms and formulae which has gathered round
the practice of the most living and the most Protean of arts has at no
time seriously interfered with the operation of creative power. On the
other hand, no dramaturgic theory has (though the attempt has been often
enough made) ever succeeded in giving rise to a single dramatic work of
enduring value, unless the creative force was there to animate the form.


  Choice of subject.

It is therefore the operation of this creative force which we are
chiefly interested in noting; and its task begins with the beginning of
the dramatist's labours. He must of course start with the choice of a
subject; yet it is obvious that the subject is merely the dead material
out of which is formed that living something, the action of a play; and
it is only in rare instances--far rarer than might at first sight
appear--that the subject is as it were self-moulded as a dramatic
action. The less experienced a playwright, the more readily will he, as
the phrase is, rush at his subject, more especially if it seems to him
to possess prima facie dramatic capabilities; and the consequence will
be that which usually attends upon a precipitate start. On the other
hand, while the quickness of a great dramatist's apprehension is apt to
suggest to him an infinite number of subjects, and insight and
experience may lead him half instinctively in the direction of suitable
themes, it will often be long before in his mind the subject converts
itself into the initial conception of the action of a play. To mould a
subject--be it a Greek legend, or a portion of a Tudor chronicle, or one
out of a hundred Italian tales, or a true story of modern life--into the
action or fable of a play, is the primary task of the dramatist, and
with this all-important process the creative part of his work really
begins. Although his conception may expand or modify itself as he
executes it, yet upon the conception the execution must largely depend.
The range of subjects open to a dramatist may be as wide as the world
itself, or it may be restricted by an endless variety of causes,
conventions and considerations; and it is quite true that even the
greatest dramatists have not always found time for contemplating each
subject that occurs to them till the ray is caught which proclaims it a
dramatic diamond. What they had time for, and what only the playwright
who entirely misunderstands his art ignores the necessity of finding
time for, is the transformation of the dead material of the subject into
the living action of a drama.


  Unity of action.

What is it, then, that makes an action _dramatic_, and without which no
action, whatever may be its nature--serious or ludicrous, stately or
trivial, impetuous as a flame of fire, or light as a western breeze--can
be so described? The answer to this question can only suggest itself
from an attempt to ascertain the laws which determine the nature of all
actions corresponding to this description. The first of the laws in
question is in so far the most noteworthy among them that it has been
the most amply discussed and the most pertinaciously misunderstood. This
is the law which requires that a dramatic action should be _one_--that
it should possess _unity_. What in the subject of a drama is merely an
approximate or supposititious, must in its action be an actual unity;
and it is indeed this requirement which constitutes the most arduous
part of the task of transforming subject into action. There is of course
no actual unity in any group of events in human life which we may choose
to call by a single collective name--a war, a revolution, a conspiracy,
an intrigue, an imbroglio. The events of real life, the facts of
history, even the imitative incidents of narrative fiction, are like the
waves of a ceaseless flood; that which binds a group or body of them
into a single action is the bond of the dramatic idea; and this it is
incumbent upon the dramatist to supply. Within the limits of a dramatic
action all its parts should (as in real life or in history they so
persistently refuse to do) flow into its current like tributaries to a
single stream; or, to vary the figure, everything in a drama should form
a link in a single chain of cause and effect. This law is incumbent upon
every kind of drama--alike upon the tragedy which sets itself to solve
one of the problems of a life, and upon the farce which sums up the
follies of an afternoon.

Such is not, however, the case with certain more or less arbitrary rules
which have at different times been set up for this or that kind of
drama. The supposed necessity that an action should consist of _one
event_ is an erroneous interpretation of the law that it should be, as
an action, _one_. For an event is but an element in an action, though it
may be an element of decisive moment. The assassination of Caesar is not
the action of a _Caesar_ tragedy; the loss of his treasure is not the
action of _The Miser_. Again, unity of action, while excluding those
unconnected episodes which Aristotle so severely condemns, does not
prohibit the introduction of one or even more subsidiary actions as
contributing to the progress of the main action. The sole indispensable
law is that these should always be treated as what they are--subsidiary
only; and herein lies the difficulty, which Shakespeare so successfully
overcame, of fusing a combination of subjects taken from various sources
into the idea of a single action; herein also lies the danger in the use
of that favourite device of the Spanish and other modern
dramas--"by-plots" or "under-plots." On the other hand, the modern
French drama has largely employed another device--quite legitimate in
itself--for increasing the interest of an action without destroying its
unity. This may be called the dramatic use of backgrounds, the
depiction of surroundings on which the action or its chief characters
seem sympathetically to reflect themselves, backbiting "good villagers"
or academicians who inspire one another--with tedium. But a really
double or multiple action, logically carried out as such, is
inconceivable in a single drama, though many a play is palpably only two
plays knotted into one. It was therefore not all pedantry which
protested against the multiplicity of action which had itself formed
part of the revolt against the too narrow interpretation of unity
adopted by the French classical drama. Thirdly, unity of action need not
imply unity of hero--for hero (or heroine) is merely a conventional term
signifying the principal personage of the action. It is only when the
change in the degree of interest excited by different characters in a
play results from a change in the conception of the action itself, that
the consequent _duality_ (or multiplicity) of heroes recalls a faulty
uncertainty in the conception of the action they carry on. Such an
objection, while it may hold in the case of Schiller's _Don Carlos_,
would therefore be erroneously urged against Shakespeare's _Julius
Caesar_. Lastly, as to the theory which made the so-called unities of
_time_ and _place_ constitute, together with that of _action_, the Three
Unities indispensable to the (tragic) drama, the following note must
suffice. Aristotle's supposed exaction of all the Three Unities, having
been expanded by Chapelain and approved by Richelieu, was stereotyped by
Corneille, though he had (as one might say) got on very well without
them, and was finally set forth in Horatian verse by Boileau. Thus it
came to be overlooked that there is nothing in Aristotle's statement to
show that in his judgment unity of time and place are, like unity of
action, absolute dramatic laws. Their object is by representing an
action as visibly continuous to render its unity more distinctly or
easily perceptible. But the imagination is capable of constructing for
itself the bridges required for preserving to an action, conceived of as
such, its character of continuousness. In another sense these rules were
convenient usages conducing to a concise and clear treatment of a
limited kind of themes; for they were a Greek invention, and the
repeated resort to the same group of myths made it expedient for a Greek
poet to seek the subject of a single tragedy in a part only of one of
the myths at his disposal. The observance of unity of place, moreover,
was suggested to the Greeks by certain outward conditions of their
stage--as assuredly as it was adopted by the French in accordance with
the construction and usages of theirs, and as the neglect of it by the
Elizabethans was in their case encouraged by the established form of the
English scene. The palpable artificiality of these laws needs no
demonstration, so long as the true meaning of the term "action" be kept
in view. Of the action of _Othello_ part takes place at Venice and part
at Cyprus, and yet the whole is one in itself; while the limits of time
over which an action--Hamlet's progress to resolve, for
instance--extends cannot be restricted by a revolution of the earth
round the sun or of the moon round the earth.


  Completeness of action.

In a drama which presents its action as _one_, this action must be
_complete in itself_. This Aristotelian law, like the other,
distinguishes the dramatic action from its subject. The former may be
said to have a real artistic, while the latter has only an imaginary
real, completeness. The historian, for instance, is aware that the
complete exposition of a body of events and transactions at which he
aims can never be more than partially accomplished, since he may present
only what he knows, and all human knowledge is imperfect. But Art is
limited by no such uncertainty. The dramatist, in treating an action as
_one_, comprehends the whole of it in the form of his work, since, to
him who has _conceived_ it, all its parts, from cause to effect, are
equally clear. It is his fault if in the action of his drama anything is
left unaccounted for--not _motivé_; though a dramatic _motif_ might not
always prove to be a sufficient explanation in real life. Accordingly,
every drama should represent in organic sequence the several stages of
which a complete action consists, and which are essential to it. This
law of completeness, therefore, lies at the foundation of all systems of
dramatic "construction."


  Systems of construction based on this law of completeness.

Every action, if conceived of as complete, has its causes, growth,
height, consequences and close. There is no binding law to prescribe the
relative length or proportion at which these several stages in the
action should be treated in a drama; or to regulate the treatment of
such subsidiary actions as may be introduced in aid of the main plot, or
of such more or less directly connected "episodes" as may at the same
time advance and relieve its progress. But experience has necessarily
from time to time established certain rules of practice, and from the
adoption of particular systems of division for particular species of the
drama--such as that into five acts for a regular tragedy or comedy,
which Roman example has caused to be so largely followed--has naturally
resulted a certain uniformity of relation between the conduct of an
action and the outward sections of a play. Essentially, however, there
is no difference between the laws regulating the construction of a
Sophoclean or Shakespearian tragedy, a comedy of Molière or Congreve,
and a well-built modern farce, because all exhibit an action complete in
itself.


  Prologues and epilogues outside the action.

  Parts of the action. Introduction or exposition.

The "introduction" or "exposition" forms an integral part of the action,
and is therefore to be distinguished from the "prologue" in the more
ordinary sense of the term, which like the "epilogue" (and the Greek
[Greek: parabasis]) stands outside the action, and is a mere address to
the public from author, presenter or actor occasioned by the play.
Prologue and epilogue are mere external, though at times effective,
adjuncts, and have, properly speaking, as little to do with the
construction of a play as the bill which announces it or the musical
prelude which disposes the mind for its reception. A special kind of
preface or argument is the "dumb-show," which in some old plays briefly
rehearses in pantomime the action that is to follow. The introduction or
exposition belongs to the action itself; it is, as the Hindu critics
called it, the seed or circumstance from which the business arises.
Clearness being its primary requisite, many expedients have been at
various times adopted to secure this feature. Thus the Euripidean
prologue, though spoken by one of the characters of the play, took a
narrative form, more acceptable to the audience than to the critics, and
placed itself half without, half within, the action. The same purpose is
served by the separate "inductions" in many of the old English plays,
and by the preludes or prologues, or whatever name they may assume, in
numberless modern dramas of all kinds--from _Faust_ down to the
favourites of the Ambigu and the Adelphi. More facile is the orientation
supplied in French tragedy by the opening scenes between hero and
_confidant_, and in French comedy and its derivatives by those between
observant valet and knowing lady's-maid. But all such expedients may be
rendered unnecessary by the art of the dramatist, who is able outwardly
also to present the introduction of his action as an organic part of
that action itself; who seems to take the spectators _in medias res_,
while he is really building the foundations of his plot; who touches in
the opening of his action the chord which is to vibrate throughout its
course--"Down with the Capulets! down with the Montagues!"--"With the
Moor, sayest thou?"


  Opening of movement.

  Growth.

  Height or climax.

The exposition, which may be short or long, but which should always
prepare and may even seem to necessitate the action, ends when the
movement of the action itself begins. This transition may occasionally
be marked with the utmost distinctness (as in the actual meeting between
the hero and the Ghost in _Hamlet_), while in other instances subsidiary
action or episode may judiciously intervene (as in _King Lear_, where
the subsidiary action of Gloster and his sons opportunely prevents too
abrupt a sequence of cause and effect). From this point the second stage
of the action--its "growth"--progresses to that third stage which is
called its "height" or "climax." All that has preceded the attainment of
this constitutes that half of the drama--usually its much larger
half--which Aristotle terms the [Greek: desis], or tying of the knot.
The varieties in the treatment of the growth or second stage of the
action are infinite; it is here that the greatest freedom is manifestly
permissible; that in the Indian drama the personages make long journeys
across the stage; and that, with the help of their under-plots, the
masters of the modern tragic and the comic drama--notably those
unequalled weavers of intrigues, the Spaniards--are able most fully to
exercise their inventive faculties. If the growth is too rapid, the
climax will fail of its effect; if it is too slow, the interest will be
exhausted before the greatest demand upon it has been made--a fault to
which comedy is specially liable; if it is involved or inverted, a vague
uncertainty will take the place of an eager or agreeable suspense, the
action will seem to halt, or a fall will begin prematurely. In the
contrivance of the "climax" itself lies one of the chief tests of the
dramatist's art; for while the transactions of real life often fail to
reach any climax at all, that of a dramatic action should present itself
as self-evident. In the middle of everything, says the Greek poet, lies
the strength; and this strongest or highest point it is the task of the
dramatist to make manifest. Much here depends upon the niceties of
constructive instinct; much (as in all parts of the action) upon a
thorough dramatic transformation of the subject. The historical drama at
this point presents peculiar difficulties, of which the example of
_Henry VIII._ may be cited as an illustration.


  Fall.

  Return.

  Close or catastrophe.

From the climax, or height, the action proceeds through its "fall" to
its "close," which in a drama with an unhappy ending we still call its
"catastrophe," while to terminations in general we apply the term
_dénouement_. This latter name would, however, more properly be applied
in the sense in which Aristotle employs its Greek equivalent [Greek:
lysis]--the untying of the knot--to the whole of the second part of the
action, from the climax downwards. In the management of the climax,
everything depends upon producing the effect; in the fall, everything
depends upon not marring it. This may be ensured by a rapid advance to
the close; but neither does every action admit of such treatment, nor is
it in accordance with the character of those which are of a more subtle
or complicated kind. With the latter, therefore, the "fall" is often a
revolution or "return," i.e. in Aristotle's phrase a change into the
reverse of what is expected from the circumstances of the action
([Greek: peripeteia])--as in _Coriolanus_, where the Roman story lends
itself so admirably to dramatic demands. In any case, the art of the
dramatist is in this part of his work called upon for the surest
exercise of its tact and skill. The effect of the climax was to
concentrate the interest; the fall must therefore, above all, avoid
dissipating it. The use of episodes is not even now excluded; but, even
where serving the purpose of relief, they must now be such as help to
keep alive the interest, previously raised to its highest pitch. This
may be effected by the raising of obstacles between the height of the
action and its expected consequences; in tragedy by the suggestion of a
seemingly possible recovery or escape from them (as in the wonderfully
powerful construction of the latter part of _Macbeth_); in comedy, or
wherever the interest of the action is less intense, by the gradual
removal of incidental difficulties. In all kinds of the drama
"discovery" will remain, as it was in the judgment of Aristotle, a most
effective expedient; but it should be a discovery prepared by that
method of treatment which in its consummate master, Sophocles, has been
termed his "irony." Nowhere should the close or catastrophe be other
than a consequence of the action itself. Sudden revulsions from the
conditions of the action--such as are supplied with the aid of the _deus
ex machina_, or the revising officer of the emperor of China, or the
nabob returned from India, or a virulent malaria--condemn themselves as
unsatisfactory makeshifts. However sudden, and even in manner of
accomplishment surprising, may be the catastrophe, it should, like every
other part of the action, be in organic connexion with the whole
preceding action. The sudden suicides which terminate so many tragedies,
and the unmerited paternal blessings which close an equal number of
comedies, should be something more than a "way out of it," or a signal
for the fall of the curtain. A catastrophe may conveniently, and even
(as in _Faust_) with powerful effect, be left to the imagination; but
to substitute for it a deliberate blank is to leave the action
incomplete, and the drama a fragment ending with a--possibly
interesting--confession of incompetence.


  Probability of action.

The action of a drama, besides being one and complete in itself, ought
likewise to be _probable_. The probability or necessity (in the
Aristotelian sense of the terms) required of a drama is not that of
actual or historical experience--it is a conditional probability, or in
other words an internal consistency between the course of the action and
the conditions under which the dramatist has chosen to carry it on. As
to the former, he is fettered by no restrictions save those which he
imposes upon himself, whether or not in deference to the usages of
certain accepted species of dramatic composition. Ghosts seldom appear
in real life or in dramas of real life; but the introduction of
supernatural agency is neither enjoined nor prohibited by any general
dramatic law. The use of such expedients is as open to the dramatic as
to any other poet; the judiciousness of his use of them depends upon the
effect which, consistently with the general conduct of his action, they
will exercise upon the spectator, whom other circumstances may or may
not predispose to their acceptance. The Ghost in _Hamlet_ belongs to the
action of the play; the Ghost in the _Persae_ is not intrinsically less
probable, but seems a less immediate product of the surrounding
atmosphere. Dramatic probability has, however, a far deeper meaning than
this. The _Eumenides_ is probable, with all its mysterious commingling
of cults, and so is _Macbeth_, with all its barbarous witchcraft. The
proceedings of the feathered builders of Cloudcuckootown in the _Birds_
of Aristophanes are as true to dramatic probability as are the pranks of
Oberon's fairies in _Midsummer Night's Dream_. In other words, it is in
the harmony between the action and the characters, and in the
consistency of the characters with themselves, in the appropriateness of
both to the atmosphere in which they have their being, that this
dramatic probability lies. The dramatist has to represent characters
affected by the progress of an action in a particular way, and
contributing to it in a particular way, because, if consistent with
themselves, they _must_ be so affected, and _must_ so act.


  Characterization.

  Advance of the drama in this respect.

Upon the invention and conduct of his characters the dramatist must
therefore expend a great proportion--even a preponderance--of his
labour. His treatment of them will, in at least as high a degree as his
choice of subject, conception of action, and method of construction,
determine the effect which his work produces. And while there are
aspects of the dramatic art under which its earlier phases already
exhibit an unsurpassed degree of perfection, there is none under which
its advance is more notable than this. Many causes have contributed to
this result; the chief is to be sought in the multiplication of the
opportunities for mankind's study of man. The theories of the Indian
critics on the subject of dramatic character are little more than an
elaborate scaffolding. Aristotle's remarks on the subject are scanty;
nor indeed is the strength of the dramatic literature from whose
examples he abstracted his maxims to be sought in the fulness or variety
of its characterization. This relative deficiency was beyond doubt
largely caused by the outward conditions of the Greek theatre--the
remoteness of actor from spectator, and the consequent necessity for the
use of masks, and for the raising, and consequent conventionalizing, of
the tones of the voice. Later Greek and Roman comedy, unable or
unwilling to resist the force of habit, limited their range of
characters to an accepted gallery of types. Nor is it easy to ignore the
fact that the influence of these classical examples, combined with that
of national tendencies of mind and temperament, have all along inclined
the dramatists of the Romance nations to attach less importance to
characterization of a closer and more varied kind than to interest of
action and effectiveness of construction. The Italian and the Spanish
drama more especially, and the French during a great part of its
history, have in general shown a disposition to present their
characters, as it were, ready made--whether in the case of tragic heroes
and heroines, or in that of comic types, often moulded, as in the
_commedia dell' arte_ "and beyond," according to a long-lived system of
local or national selection. These types, expanded, heightened and
modified, are recognizable in some of the triumphs of comic
characterization achieved by the Germanic drama, and by its master,
Shakespeare, above all; but this fact must not obscure one of more
importance than itself. In the matter of comic as well as of serious
characterization--in the individualizing of characters and in evolving
them as it were out of the progress of the action--the modern drama has
not only advanced, but in a sense revolutionized, the dramatic art, as
inherited from its ancient masters.


  Requisites of character.

Yet, however the method and scope of characterization may vary under the
influence of different historical epochs and different tendencies or
tastes of races or nations, the laws of this branch of the dramatic art
remain based on the same essential requirements. What interests us in a
man or woman in real life, or in the impressions we form of historical
personages, is that which seems to us to give them individuality. A
dramatic character must therefore, whatever its part in the action, be
sufficiently marked by features of its own to interest the imagination;
with these features its subsequent conduct must be consistent, and to
them its participation in the action must correspond. In order to
achieve such a result, the dramatist must have, in the first instance,
distinctly conceived the character, however it may have been suggested
to him. His task is, not to paint a copy of some contemporary or
"historical" personage, but to conceive a particular kind of man, acting
under the operation of particular circumstances. This conception,
growing and modifying itself with the progress of the action, also
invented by the dramatist, will determine the totality of the character
which he creates. The likeness which the result bears to an actual or
historical personage may very probably, from secondary points of view,
affect the immediate stage success of the creation; upon its dramatic
result this likeness can have no influence whatever. In a wider sense
than that in which Shakespeare denied the charge that Falstaff was
Oldcastle, it should be possible to say of every dramatic character
which it is sought to identify with an actual personage, "This is not
the man." The mirror of the drama is not a photographic apparatus; and
not even the most conscientious combination of science and art can bring
back even a "phase" of the real Napoleon.


  Distinctiveness.

  Self-consistency.

  Effectiveness.

Distinctiveness, as the primary requisite in dramatic characterization,
is to be demanded in the case of all personages introduced into a
dramatic action, but not in all cases in an equal degree. Schiller, in
adding to the _dramatis personae_ of his _Fiesco_ superscriptions of
their chief characteristics, labels Sacco as "an ordinary person," and
this, no doubt, suffices for Sacco. But with the great masters of
characterization a few touches, of which the true actor's art knows how
to avail itself, distinguish even their lesser characters from one
another; and every man is in his humour down to the "third citizen."
Elaboration is necessarily reserved for characters who are the more
important contributors to the action, and the fulness of elaboration for
its heroes. Many expedients may lend their aid to the higher degrees of
distinctiveness. Much is gained by a significant introduction of hero or
heroine--thus Antigone is dragged in by the watchman, Gloucester enters
alone upon the scene, Volpone is discovered in adoration of his golden
saint. Nothing marks character more clearly than the use of contrast--as
of Othello with Iago, of Ottavio with Max Piccolomini, of Joseph with
Charles Surface. Nor is direct antithesis the only effective kind of
contrast; Cassius is a foil to Brutus, and Leonora to her namesake the
Princess. But, besides impressing the imagination as a conception
distinct in itself, each character must maintain a consistency between
its conduct in the action and the features it has established as its
own. This consistency does not imply uniformity; for, as Aristotle
observes, there are characters which, to be represented with uniformity,
must be presented as uniformly un-uniform. Of such consistently complex
characters the great critic cites no instances, nor indeed are they of
frequent occurrence in Greek tragedy; in the modern drama Hamlet is
their unrivalled exemplar; and Weislingen in Goethe's _Götz_, and
Alceste in the _Misanthrope_, may be mentioned as other illustrations in
dramas differing widely from one another. The list might be enlarged
almost indefinitely from the gallery of female characters, in view of
the greater pliability and more habitual dependence of the nature of
women. It should be added that those dramatic literatures which freely
admit of a mixture of the serious with the comic element thereby
enormously increase the opportunities of varied characterization. The
difficulty of the task at the same time enhances the effect resulting
from its satisfactory accomplishment; and, if the conception of a
character is found to meet a variety of tests resembling that which life
has at hand for every man, its naturalness, as we term it, becomes more
obvious to the imagination. "Naturalness" is only another word for what
Aristotle terms "propriety"; the artificial rules by which usage has at
times sought to define particular species of character are in their
origin only a convenience of the theatre, though they have largely
helped to conventionalize dramatic characterization. Lastly, a character
should be directly effective with regard to the dramatic action in which
it takes part--that is to say, the influence it exerts upon the progress
of the action should correspond to its distinctive features; the conduct
of the play should seem to spring from the nature of its characters. In
other words, no characterization can be effective which is not what may
be called economical, i.e. which does not strictly limit itself to
suiting the purposes of the action. Even the minor characters should not
idly intervene; while the chief characters should predominate over, or
determine, the course of the action, its entire conception should
harmonize with their distinctive features. It is only a Prometheus whom
the gods bind fast to a rock, only a Juliet who will venture into a
living death for her Romeo. Thus, in a sense, chance is excluded from
dramatic action, or rather, like every other element in it, bends to the
dramatic idea.

In view of this predominance of character over action, we may
appropriately use such expressions as a tragedy of love or jealousy or
ambition, or a comedy of character. For such collocations merely
indicate that plays so described have proved (or were intended to prove)
specially impressive by the conception or execution of their chief
character or characters.


  Manners.

  Their relative significance.

The term "manners" (as employed in a narrower sense than the
Aristotelian [Greek: êthê]) applies to that which colours both action and
characters, but does not determine the essence of either. As exhibiting
human agents under certain conditions of time and place, and of the
various relations of life, the action of a drama, together with the
characters engaged in it, and the incidents and circumstances belonging
to it, must more or less adapt itself to the external conditions
assumed. From the assumption of some such conditions not even those
dramatic species which indulge in the most sovereign licence, such as
Old Attic comedy, or burlesque in general, can wholly emancipate
themselves; and even supernatural or fantastic characters and actions
must suit themselves to some sort of antecedents. But it depends
altogether on the measure in which the nature of an action and the
development of its characters are effected by considerations of time and
place, or of temporary social systems and the transitory distinctions
incidental to them, whether the imitation of a particular kind of
manners becomes a significant element in a particular play. The Hindu
caste-system is an antecedent of every Hindu drama, and the peculiar
organization of Chinese society of nearly every Chinese play with which
we are acquainted. Greek tragedy itself, though treating subjects
derived from no historic age, had established a standard of manners from
which in its decline it did not depart with impunity. Again, the
imitation of manners of a particular age or country may or may not be of
moment in a play. In some dramas, and in some species of drama, time and
place are so purely imaginary and so much a matter of indifference that
the adoption of a purely conventional standard of manners, or at least
the exclusion of any definitely fixed standard, is here desirable. The
ducal reign of Theseus at Athens (if its period be ascertainable) does
not date _A Midsummer_ _Night's Dream_; nor do the coasts of Bohemia in
_The Winter's Tale_ localize the manners of the customers of Autolycus.
Where, on the other hand, as more especially in the historic drama, or
in that kind of comedy which directs its shafts against the ridiculous
vices of a particular age or country, significance attaches to the
degree in which the manners represented resemble what is more or less
known, the dramatist will do well to be careful in his colouring. How
admirably is the French court specialized in _Henry V._; how completely
are we transplanted among the burghers of Brussels in the opening scenes
of _Egmont_; what a portraiture of a clique we have in the _Précieuses
ridicules_ of Molière; what a reproduction of a class in the pot-house
politicians of Holberg! And how minutely have modern dramatists found it
necessary to study the more fascinating aspects of _la vie parisienne_,
in order to convey to the curious at home and abroad a conviction of the
verisimilitude of their pictures! Yet, even in such instances, the
dramatist will only use what suits his dramatic purpose; he will select,
not transfer in mass, historic features, and discriminate in his use of
modern instances. The details of historic fidelity, and the lesser
shades distinguishing the varieties of social usage, will be introduced
by him at his choice, or left to be supplied by the actor. Where the
reproduction of manners becomes the primary purpose of a play, its
effect can only be of an inferior kind; and a drama purely of manners is
a contradiction in terms.


  Species of the drama.

  Tragic and comic.

No complete system of dramatic species can be abstracted from any one
dramatic literature. They are often the result of particular
antecedents, and their growth is often affected by peculiar conditions.
Different nations or ages use the same names and may preserve some of
the same rules for species which in other respects their usage may have
materially modified from that of their neighbours or predecessors. The
very question of the use of measured or pedestrian speech as fit for
different kinds of drama, and therefore distinctive of them, cannot be
profitably discussed except in reference to particular literatures. In
the Chinese drama the most solemn themes are treated in the same
form--an admixture of verse and prose--which not so very long since was
characteristic of that airiest of Western dramatic species, the French
_vaudeville_. Who would undertake to define, except in the applications
which have been given to the words in successive generations, such terms
as "tragi-comedy," or indeed as "drama" (_drame_) itself? Yet this
uncertainty does not imply that all is confusion in the terminology as
to the species of the drama. In so far as they are distinguishable
according to the effects which their actions, or those which the
preponderating parts of their actions, produce, these species may
primarily be ranged in accordance with the broad difference established
by Aristotle between tragedy and comedy. "Tragic" and "comic" effects
differ in regard to the emotions of the mind which they excite; and a
drama is tragic or comic according as such effects are produced by it.
The strong or serious emotions are alone capable of exercising upon us
that influence which, employing a bold but marvellously happy figure,
Aristotle termed _purification_, and which a Greek comedian, after a
more matter-of-fact fashion, thus expressed:

  "For whensoe'er a man observes his fellow
   Bear wrongs more grievous than himself has known,
   More easily he bears his own misfortunes."

That is to say, the petty troubles of self which disturb without
elevating the mind are driven out by the sympathetic participation in
greater griefs, which raises while it excites the mind employed upon
contemplating them. It is to these emotions--which are and can be no
others than pity and terror--that actions which we call tragic appeal.
_Naïf_ as we may think Aristotle in desiderating for such actions a
complicated rather than a simple plot, he obviously means that in form
as well as in design they should reveal their relative importance. Those
actions which we term comic address themselves to the sense of the
ridiculous, and their themes are those vices and moral infirmities the
representation of which is capable of touching the springs of laughter.
Where, accordingly, a drama confines itself to effects of the former
class, it may be called a pure "tragedy"; when to those of the latter, a
pure "comedy." In dramas where the effects are mixed the nature of the
main action and of the main characters (as determined by their
distinctive features) alone enables us to classify such plays as serious
or humorous dramas--or as "tragic" or "comic," if we choose to preserve
the terms. But the classification admits of a variety of transitions,
from "pure" tragedy to "mixed," from "mixed tragedy" to "mixed comedy,"
and thence to "pure comedy," with the more freely licensed "farce" and
"burlesque," the time-honoured inversion of the relations of dramatic
method and purpose. This system of distinction has no concern with the
mere question of the termination of the play, according to which
Philostratus and other authorities have sought to distinguish tragic
from comic dramas. The serious drama which ends happily (the German
_Schauspiel_) is not a species co-ordinate with tragedy and comedy, but
at the most a subordinate variety of the former. Other distinctions may
be almost infinitely multiplied, according to the point of view adopted
for the classification.

The historical sketch of the drama attempted in the following pages will
best serve to indicate the successive growth of national dramatic
species, many of which, by asserting their influence in other countries
and ages than those which gave birth to them, have acquired a more than
national vitality.


  The art of acting.

  Its means.

  Gesture.

  Speech.

The art of acting, whose history forms an organic though a distinct part
of that of the drama, necessarily possesses a theory and a technical
system of its own. But into these it is impossible here to enter. One
claim, however, should be vindicated for the art of acting, viz. that,
though it is a dependent art, and most signally so in its highest forms,
yet its true exercise implies (however much the term may have been
abused) a creative process. The conception of a character is determined
by antecedents not of the actor's own making; and the term originality
can be applied to it only in a relative sense. Study and reflection
enable him, with the aid of experience and of the intuition which genius
bestows, but which experience may in a high degree supply, to interpret,
to combine, and to supplement given materials. But in the transformation
of the conception into the represented character the actor's functions
are really creative; for here he _becomes_ the character by means which
belong to his art alone. The distinctiveness which he gives to the
character by making the principal features recognized by him in it its
groundwork--the consistency which he maintains in it between groundwork
and details--the appropriateness which he preserves in it to the course
of the action and the part borne in it by the character--all these are
of his own making, though suggested by the conception derived by him
from his materials. As to the means at his disposal, they are
essentially of two kinds only; but not all forms of the drama have
admitted of the use of both, or of both in the same completeness. All
acting includes the use of gesture, or, as it has been more
comprehensively termed, of bodily eloquence. From various points of view
its laws regulate the actor's bearing, walk and movements of face and
limbs. They teach what is aesthetically permitted and what is
aesthetically pleasing. They deduce from observation what is appropriate
to the expression of particular affections of the mind and of their
combinations, of emotions and passions, of physical and mental
conditions--joy and grief, health and sickness, waking, sleeping and
dreaming, madness, collapse and death--of particular ages of life and
temperaments, as well as of the distinctive characteristics of race,
nationality or class. While under certain conditions--as in the masked
drama--the use of bodily movement as one of the means of expression has
at times been partially restricted, there have been, or are, forms of
the drama which have altogether excluded the use of speech (such as
pantomime), or have restricted the manner of its employment (such as
opera). In the spoken drama the laws of rhetoric regulate the actor's
use of speech, but under conditions of a special nature. Like the
orator, he has to follow the laws of pronunciation, modulation, accent
and rhythm (the last in certain kinds of prose as well as in such forms
of verse as he may be called upon to reproduce). But he has also to
give his attention to the special laws of dramatic delivery, which vary
in soliloquy and dialogue, and in such narrative or lyrical passages as
may occur in his part.


  Costume.

The totality of the effect produced by the actor will in some degree
depend upon other aids, among which those of a purely external kind are
unlikely to be lost sight of. But the significance of costume (q.v.) in
the actor, like that of decoration and scenery (see THEATRE) in an
action, is a wholly relative one, and is to a large measure determined
by the claims which custom enables the theatre to make, or forbids its
making, upon the imagination of the spectators. The actor's real
achievement lies in the transformation which the artist himself effects;
nor is there any art more sovereign in the use it can make of its means,
or so happy in the directness of the results it can accomplish by them.


2. INDIAN DRAMA

The origin of the Indian drama may unhesitatingly be described as purely
native. The Mahommedans, when they overran India, brought no drama with
them; the Persians, the Arabs and the Egyptians were without a national
theatre. It would be absurd to suppose the Indian drama to have owed
anything to the Chinese or its offshoots. On the other hand, there is no
real evidence for assuming any influence of Greek examples upon the
Indian drama at any stage of its progress. Finally, it had passed into
its decline before the dramatic literature of modern Europe had sprung
into being.


  Origin.

The Hindu writers ascribe the invention of dramatic entertainments to an
inspired sage Bharata, or to the communications made to him by the god
Brahma himself concerning an art gathered from the Vedas. As the word
_Bharata_ signifies an actor, we have clearly here a mere
personification of the invention of the drama. Three kinds of
entertainments, of which the _n[=a]tya_ (defined as a dance combined
with gesticulation and speech) comes nearest to the drama, were said to
have been exhibited before the gods by the spirits and nymphs of Indra's
heaven, and to these the god Siva added two new styles of dancing.

The origin of the Indian drama was thus unmistakably religious. Dramatic
elements first showed themselves in certain of the hymns of the _Rig
Veda_, which took the form of dialogues between divine personages, and
in one of which is to be found the germ of K[=a]lid[=a]sa's famous
_Vikrama and Urv[=a]s[=i]_. These hymns were combined with the dances in
the festivals of the gods, which soon assumed a more or less
conventional form. Thus, from the union of dance and song, to which were
afterwards added narrative recitation, and first sung, then spoken,
dialogue, was gradually evolved the acted drama. Such scenes and stories
from the mythology of Vishnu are still occasionally enacted by pantomime
or spoken dialogue in India (_j[=a]tras_ of the Bengalis; _r[=a]sas_ of
the Western Provinces); and the most ancient Indian play was said to
have treated an episode from the history of that deity--the choice of
him as a consort by Laxmi--a favourite kind of subject in the Indian
drama. The tradition connecting its earliest themes with the native
mythology of Vishnu agrees with that ascribing the origin of a
particular kind of dramatic performance--the _sang[=i]ta_--to Krishna
and the shepherdesses. The author's later poem, the _G[=i]tagovinda_,
has been conjectured to be suggestive of the earliest species of Hindu
dramas. But, while the epic poetry of the Hindus gradually approached
the dramatic in the way of dialogue, their drama developed itself
independently out of the union of the lyric and the epic forms. Their
dramatic poetry arose later than their epos, whose great works, the
_Mah[=a]bh[=a]rata_ and the _Ramayana_, had themselves been long
preceded by the hymnody of the _Vedas_--just as the Greek drama followed
upon the Homeric poems and these had been preceded by the early hymns.

There seems, indeed, no reason for dating the beginnings of the regular
Indian drama farther back than the 5th century A.D., though it is
probable that the earliest extant Sanskrit play, the delightful, and in
some respects incomparable, _Mrichchhakat[=i]k[=a]_ (_The Toy Cart_),
was considerably earlier in date than the works of K[=a]lid[=a]sa.
Indeed, of his predecessors in dramatic composition very little is
known, and even the contemporaries who competed with him as dramatists
are mere names. Thus, by the time the Indian drama produced almost the
earliest specimens with which we are acquainted, it had already reached
its zenith; and it was therefore looked upon as having sprung into being
as a perfect art. We know it only in its glory, in its decline, and in
its decay.

The history of Indian dramatic literature may be roughly divided into
the following periods.


  First period (classical).

I. _To the 11th Century A.D._--This period virtually belongs to the
pre-Mahommedan age of Indian history; but already to that second
division of it in which Buddhism had become a powerful factor in the
social as well as in the moral and intellectual life of the land. It is
the classical period of the Hindu drama, and includes the works of its
two indisputably greatest masters. The earliest extant Sanskrit play is
the pathetic _Mrichchhakat[=i]k[=a]_ (_The Toy Cart_), which has been
dated back as far as the close of the 2nd century A.D. It is attributed
(as is not uncommon with Indian plays) to a royal author, named
S[=u]draka; but it was more probably written by his court poet, whose
name has been concluded to have been Dandin. It may be described as a
comedy of middle-class life, treating of the courtship and marriage of a
ruined Brahman and a wealthy and large-hearted courtesan.

K[=a]lid[=a]sa, the brightest of the "nine gems" of genius in whom the
Indian drama gloried, lived at the court of Ujjain, though whether in
the earlier half of the 6th century A.D., or in the 3rd century, or at a
yet earlier date, remains an unsettled question. He is the author of
_S[=a]kuntal[=a]_--the work which, in the translation by Sir William
Jones (1789), first revealed to the Western world of letters the
existence of an Indian drama, since reproduced in innumerable versions
in many tongues. This heroic comedy, in seven acts, takes its plot from
the first book of the _Mah[=a]bh[=a]rata_. It is a dramatic love-idyll
of surpassing beauty, and one of the masterpieces of the poetic
literature of the world. Another drama by K[=a]lid[=a]sa, _Vikrama and
Urv[=a]s[=i]_ (_The Hero and the Nymph_), though unequal as a whole to
_S[=a]kuntal[=a]_, contains one act of incomparable loveliness; and its
enduring effect upon Indian dramatic literature is shown by the
imitations of it in later plays. (It was translated into English in 1827
by H. H. Wilson.) To K[=a]lid[=a]sa has likewise been attributed a third
play, _M[=a]lavika and Agnimitra_; but it is possible that this
conventional comedy, though held to be of ancient date, was composed by
a different poet of the same name.

To Harsadeva, king of northern India, are ascribed three extant plays,
which were more probably composed by some poet in his pay. One of these,
_Nagananda_ (_Joy of the Serpents_), which begins as an erotic play, but
passes into a most impressive exemplification of the supreme virtue of
self-sacrifice, is notable as the only Buddhist drama which has been
preserved, though others are known to have existed and to have been
represented.

The palm of pre-eminence is disputed with K[=a]lid[=a]sa by the great
dramatic poet Babhav[=u]ti (called Crikantha, or he in whose throat is
fortune), who flourished in the earlier part of the 8th century. While
he is considered more artificial in language than his rival, and in
general more bound by rules, he can hardly be deemed his inferior in
dramatic genius. Of his three extant plays, _Mah[=a]v[=a]ra-Charitra_
and _Uttara-R[=a]ma-Charitra_ are heroic dramas concerned with the
adventures of R[=a]ma (the seventh incarnation of Vishnu); the third,
the powerful melodrama, in ten acts, of _M[=a]lat[=i] and M[=a]dhava_,
has love for its theme, and has been called (perhaps with more aptitude
than usually belongs to such comparisons) the _Romeo and Juliet_ of the
Hindus. It is considered by their critical authorities the best example
of the _prakarana_, or drama of domestic life. Babhav[=u]ti's plays, as
is indicated by the fact that no jester appears in them, are devoid of
the element of humour.

The plays of R[=a]jasekhara, who lived about the end of the 9th century,
deal, like those of Harsadeva, with harem and court life. One of them,
_Karpura Manjuri_ (_Camphor Cluster_), is stated to be the only example
of the _saltaka_ or minor heroic comedy, written entirely in Prakrit.

In this period may probably also be included Vis[=a]khadatta's
interesting drama of political intrigue, _Mudr[=a]-Rakshasa_ (_The
Signet of the Minister_), in which Chandragupta (Sandracottus) appears
as the founder of a dynasty. In subject, therefore, this production,
which is one of the few known Indian historical dramas, goes back to the
period following on the invasion of India by Alexander the Great; but
the date of composition is probably at least as late as A.D. 1000. The
plot of the play turns on the gaining-over of the prime minister of the
_ancien régime_.

Among the remaining chief works of this period is the _Veni-Samhara_
(_Binding of the Braid_) by N[=a]r[=a]yana Bhatta. Though described as a
play in which both pathos and horror are exaggerated--its subject is an
outrage resembling that which Dunstan is said to have inflicted on
Elgiva--it is stated to have been always a favourite, as written in
exact accordance with dramatic rules. Perhaps the _Candakansika_ by
Ksem[=i]svara should also be included, which deals with the working of a
curse pronounced by an aged priest upon a king who had innocently
offended him.


  Second period (decline).

II. _The Period of Decline._--This may be reckoned from about the 11th
to about the 14th century of the Christian era, the beginning roughly
coinciding with that of a continuous series of Mahommedan invasions of
India. _Han[=u]man-Nataka_, or "the great Nataka" (for this irregular
play, the work of several hands, surpasses all other Indian dramas in
length, extending over no fewer than fourteen acts), dates from the 10th
or 11th century. Its story is taken from the R[=a]ma-cycle, and a
prominent character in it is the mythical monkey-chief King Han[=u]man,
to whom, indeed, tradition ascribed the original authorship of the play.
Krishnamicra's "theosophic mystery," as it has been called,--though it
rather resembles some of the moralities,--_Prabodha-Chandrodaya_ (_The
Rise of the Moon of Insight_, i.e. the victory of true doctrine over
error), is ascribed by one authority to the middle of the 11th century,
by another to about the end of the 12th. The famous _Ratnavali_ (_The
Necklace_), a court-comedy of love and intrigue, with a half-Terentian
plot, seems also to date from the earlier half of the period.

The remaining plays of which it has been possible to conjecture the
dates range in the time of their composition from the end of the 11th to
the 14th century. Of this period, as compared with the first, the
general characteristics seem to be an undue preponderance of narrative
and description, and an affected and over-elaborated style. As a
striking instance of this class is mentioned a play on the adventures of
R[=a]ma, the _Anargha-R[=a]ghava_, which in spite, or by reason, of the
commonplace character of its sentiments, the extravagance of its
diction, and the obscurity of its mythology, is stated to enjoy a higher
reputation with the pundits of the present age than the masterpieces of
K[=a]lid[=a]sa and Babhav[=u]ti. To the close of this period, the 14th
century, has likewise (but without any pretension to certainty) been
ascribed the only Tamil drama of which we possess an English version.
_Arichandra_ (_The Martyr of Truth_) exemplifies--with a strange
likeness in the contrivance of its plot to the _Book of Job_ and
_Faust_--by the trials of a heroically enduring king the force of the
maxim "Better die than lie."


  Third period (decay).

III. _Period of Decay._--Isolated plays remain from centuries later than
the 14th; but these, which chiefly turn on the legends of Krishna (the
last incarnation of Vishnu), may be regarded as a mere aftergrowth, and
exhibit the Indian drama in its decay. Indeed, the latest of them,
_Chitra-Yajna_, which was composed about the beginning of the 19th
century, and still serves as a model for Bengali dramatic performances,
is imperfect in its dialogue, which (after the fashion of Italian
improvised comedy) it is left to the actors to supplement. Besides these
there are farces or farcical entertainments, more or less indelicate, of
uncertain dates.

The number of plays which have descended to us from so vast an expanse
of time is still comparatively small. But though, in 1827, Wilson
doubted whether all the plays to be found, and those mentioned by Hindu
writers on the drama, amounted to many more than sixty, M. Schuyler's
bibliography (1906) enumerates over five hundred Sanskrit plays. To
these have to be added the plays in Tamil, stated to be about a hundred
in number, and to have been composed by poets who enjoyed the patronage
of the Pandian kings of Madura, and some in other vernaculars.


  Critical literature.

There certainly is among the Hindus no dearth of dramatic theory. The
sage Bharata, the reputed inventor of dramatic entertainments, was
likewise revered as the father of dramatic criticism--a combination of
functions to which the latter days of the English theatre might perhaps
furnish an occasional parallel. The commentators (possibly under the
influence of inspiration rather than as a strict matter of memory)
constantly cite his _s[=u]tras_, or aphorisms. (From _s[=u]tra_, thread,
was named the _s[=u]tra-dh[=a]ra_, thread-holder, carpenter, a term
applied to the architect and general manager of sacrificial solemnities,
then to the director of theatrical performances.) By the 11th century,
when the drama was already approaching its decline, dramatic criticism
had reached an advanced point; and the _Dasa-Rupaka_ (of which the text
belongs to that age) distinctly defines the ten several kinds of
dramatic composition. Other critical works followed at later dates,
exhibiting a rage for subdivision unsurpassed by the efforts of Western
theorists, ancient or modern; the misfortune is that there should not be
examples remaining (if they ever existed) to illustrate all the branches
of so elaborate a dramatic system.


  Exclusiveness of the Indian drama.

"What," inquires the manager of an actor in the induction to one of the
most famous of Indian plays, "are those qualities which the virtuous,
the wise, the venerable, the learned and the Brahmans require in a
drama?" "Profound exposition of the various passions," is the reply,
"pleasing interchange of mutual affection, loftiness of character,
delicate expression of desire, a surprising story and elegant language."
"Then," says the manager (for the Indian dramatists, though not, like
Ben Jonson, wont to "rail" the public "into approbation," are unaffected
by _mauvaise honte_), "I recollect one." And he proceeds to state that
"Babhav[=u]ti has given us a drama composed by him, replete with all
qualities, to which indeed this sentence is applicable: 'How little do
they know who speak of us with censure! This entertainment is not for
them. Possibly some one exists, or will exist, of similar tastes with
myself; for time is boundless, and the world is wide!'" This disregard
of popularity, springing from a consciousness of lofty aims, accounts
for much that is characteristic of the higher class of Indian plays. It
explains both their relative paucity and their extraordinary length,
renders intelligible the chief peculiarity in their diction, and
furnishes the key to their most striking ethical as well as literary
qualities. Connected in their origin with religious worship, they were
only performed on solemn occasions, chiefly of a public nature, and more
especially at seasons sacred to some divinity. Thus, though they might
in some instances be reproduced, they were always written with a view to
one particular solemn representation. Again, the greater part of every
one of the plays of Northern India is written in Sanskrit, which ceased
to be a popular language by 300 B.C., but continued the classical and
learned, and at the same time the sacred and court form of speech of the
Brahmans. Sanskrit is spoken by the heroes and principal personages of
the plays, while the female and inferior characters use varieties, more
or less refined, of the Prakrit languages (as a rule not more than
three, that which is employed in the songs of the women being the poetic
dialect of the most common Prakrit language, the Sauras[=e]n[=i]).
Hence, part at least of each play cannot have been understood by the
large majority of the audience, except in so far as their general
acquaintance with the legends or stories treated enabled them to follow
the course of the action. Every audience thus contained an _inner_
audience, which could alone feel the full effect of the drama. It is,
then, easy to see why the Hindu critics should make demands upon the
art, into which only highly-trained and refined intellects were capable
of entering, or called upon to enter. The general public could not be
expected to appreciate the sentiments expressed in a drama, and thus
(according to the process prescribed by Hindu theory) to receive
instruction by means of amusement. These sentiments are termed
_r[=a]sas_ (tastes or flavours), and said to spring from the _bh[=a]vas_
(conditions of mind and body). A variety of subdivisions is added; but
the _santa r[=a]sa_ is logically enough excluded from dramatic
composition, inasmuch as it implies absolute quiescence.


  Species of dramas.

The Hindu critics know of no distinction directly corresponding to that
between tragedy and comedy, still less of any determined by the nature
of the close of a play. For, in accordance with the child-like element
of their character, the Hindus dislike an unhappy ending to any story,
and a positive rule accordingly prohibits a fatal conclusion in their
dramas. The general term for all dramatic compositions is _r[=u]paka_
(from _r[=u]pa_, form), those of an inferior class being distinguished
as _upar[=u]pakas_. Of the various subdivisions of the _r[=u]paka_, in a
more limited sense, the _n[=a]t[=a]ka_, or play proper, represents the
most perfect kind. Its subject should always be celebrated and
important--it is virtually either heroism or love, and most frequently
the latter--and the hero should be a demigod or divinity (such as
_R[=a]ma_ in Babhav[=u]ti's heroic plays) or a king (such as the hero of
_S[=a]kuntal[=a]_). But although the earlier dramatists took their plots
from the sacred writings or Pur[=a]n[=a]s, they held themselves at
liberty to vary the incidents--a licence from which the later poets
abstained. Thus, in accordance, perhaps, with the respective
developments in the religious life of the two peoples, the Hindu drama
in this respect reversed the progressive practice of the Greek. The
_prakaranas_ agree in all essentials with the _n[=a]t[=a]kas_ except
that they are less elevated; their stories are mere fictions, taken from
actual life in a respectable class of society.[1] Among the species of
the _upar[=u]paka_ may be mentioned the _trotaka_, in which the
personages are partly human, partly divine, and of which a famous
example remains.[2] Of the _bhana_, a monologue in one act, one literary
example is extant--a curious picture of manners in which the speaker
describes the different persons he meets at a spring festival in the
streets of Kolahalapur.[3] The satire of the farcical _prahasanas_ is
usually directed against the hypocrisy of ascetics and Brahmans, and the
sensuality of the wealthy and powerful. These trifles represent the
lower extreme of the dramatic scale, to which, of course, the principles
that follow only partially apply.


  The "unities."

Unity of action is strictly enjoined by Hindu theory, though not
invariably observed in practice. Episodical or prolix interruptions are
forbidden; but, in order to facilitate the connexion, the story of the
play is sometimes carried on by narratives spoken by actors or
"interpreters," something after the fashion of the Chorus in _Henry V._,
or of Gower in _Pericles_. "Unity of time" is liberally, if rather
arbitrarily, understood by the later critical authorities as limiting
the duration of the action to a single year; but even this is exceeded
in more than one classical play.[4] The single acts are to confine the
events occurring in them to "one course of the sun," and usually do so.
"Unity of place" is unknown to the Hindu drama, by reason of the absence
of scenery; for the plays were performed in the open courts of palaces,
perhaps at times in large halls set apart for public entertainments, or
in the open air. Hence change of scene is usually indicated in the
texts; and we find[5] the characters making long journeys on the stage,
under the eyes of spectators not trained to demand "real" mileage.


  Proprieties.

With the solemn character of the higher kind of dramatic performances
accord the rules and prohibitions defining what may be called the
_proprieties_ of the Indian drama. It has been already seen that all
plays must have a happy ending. Furthermore, not only should death never
be inflicted _coram populo_, but the various operations of biting,
scratching, kissing, eating, sleeping, the bath, and the marriage
ceremony should never take place on the stage. Yet such rules are made
to be occasionally broken. It is true that the mild humour of the
_vid[=u]shaka_ is restricted to his "gesticulating eating" instead of
perpetrating the obnoxious act.[6] The charming love-scene in the
_S[=a]kuntal[=a]_ (at least in the earlier recension of the play) breaks
off just as the hero is about to act the part of the bee to the honey of
the heroine's lips.[7] But later writers are less squeamish, or less
refined. In two dramas[8] the heroine is dragged on the stage by her
braid of hair; and this outrage is in both instances the motive of the
action. In a third,[9] sleeping and the marriage ceremony occur in the
course of the representation.


  Construction.

  Scenes and situations.

The dramatic construction of the Indian plays presents no very striking
peculiarities. They open with a benediction (_n[=a]nd[=i]_), spoken by
the manager (supposed to be a highly accomplished person), and followed
by "some account" of the author, and an introductory scene between the
manager and one of the actors, which is more or less skilfully connected
by the introduction of one of the characters with the opening of the
play itself. This is divided into acts (_ankas_) and scenes; of the
former a _n[=a]t[=a]ka_ should have not fewer than 5, or more than 10; 7
appears a common number; "the great _n[=a]t[=a]ka_" reaches 14. Thus the
length of the higher class of Indian plays is considerable--about that
of an Aeschylean trilogy; but not more than a single play was ever
performed on the same occasion. Comic plays are restricted to two acts
(here called _sandhis_). In theory the scheme of an Indian drama
corresponds very closely to the general outline of dramatic construction
given above; it is a characteristic merit that the business is rarely
concluded before the last act. The piece closes, as it began, with a
benediction or prayer. Within this framework room is found for
situations as ingeniously devised and highly wrought as those in any
modern Western play. What could be more pitiful than the scene in
_S[=a]kuntal[=a]_, where the true wife appears before her husband, whose
remembrance of her is fatally overclouded by a charm; what more terrific
than that in _M[=a]lat[=i] and M[=a]dhava_, where the lover rescues his
beloved from the horrors of the charnel field? Recognition--especially
between parents and children--frequently gives rise to scenes of a
pathos which Euripides has not surpassed.[10] The ingenious device of a
"play within the play" (so familiar to the English drama) is employed
with the utmost success by Babhav[=u]ti.[11] On the other hand,
miraculous metamorphosis[12] and, in a later play,[13] vulgar magic lend
their aid to the progress of the action. With scenes of strong
effectiveness contrast others of the most delicate poetic grace--such as
the indescribably lovely little episode of the two damsels of the god of
love helping one another to pluck the red and green bud from the mango
tree; or of gentle domestic pathos--such as that of the courtesan
listening to the prattle of her lover's child, one of the prettiest
scenes of a kind rarely kept free from affectation in the modern drama.
For the _dénouement_ in the narrower sense of the term the Indian
dramatists largely resort to the expedient of the _deus ex machina_,
often in a sufficiently literal sense.[14]


  Characters.

Every species of drama having its appropriate kind of hero or heroine,
theory here again amuses itself with an infinitude of subdivisions.
Among the heroines, of whom not less than three hundred and eighty-four
types are said to be distinguished, are to be noticed the courtesans,
whose social position to some extent resembles that of the Greek
_hetaerae_, and association with whom does not seem in practice, however
it may be in theory, to be regarded as a disgrace even to Brahmans.[15]
In general, the Indian drama indicates relations between the sexes
subject to peculiar restraints of usage, but freer than those which
Mahommedan example seems to have introduced into higher Indian society.
The male characters are frequently drawn with skill, and sometimes with
genuine force. Prince Samsthanaka[16] is a type of selfishness born in
the purple worthy to rank beside figures of the modern drama, of which
this has at times naturally been a favourite class of character;
elsewhere,[17] the intrigues of ministers are not more fully exposed
than their characters and principles of action are judiciously
discriminated. Among the lesser personages common in the Indian drama,
two are worth noticing, as corresponding, though by no means precisely,
to familiar types of other dramatic literatures. These are the
_vit[=a]_, the accomplished but dependent companion (both of men and
women), and the _vid[=u]shaka_, the humble associate (not servant) of
the prince, and the buffoon of the action.[18] Strangely enough, he is
always a Brahman, or the pupil of a Brahman--perhaps a survival from a
purely popular phase of the drama. His humour is to be ever intent on
the pleasures of a quiet life, and on that of eating in particular; his
jokes are generally devoid of both harm and point.


  Diction.

  Scenery and costume.

Thus, clothing itself in a diction always ornate and tropical, in which
(as Rückert has happily expressed it) the prose is the warp and the
verse the weft, where (as Goethe says) words become allusions, allusions
similes, and similes metaphors, the Indian drama essentially depended
upon its literary qualities, and upon the familiar sanctity of its
favourite themes for such effects as it was able to produce. Of scenic
apparatus it knew but little. The plays were usually performed in the
hall of a palace; the simple devices by which exits and entrances were
facilitated it is unnecessary to describe, and on the contrivances
employed for securing such "properties" as were required (above all, the
cars of the gods and of their emissaries),[19] it is useless to
speculate. Propriety of costume, on the other hand, seems always to have
been observed, agreeably both to the peculiarities of the Indian drama
and to the habits of the Indian people.


  Actors.

The ministers of an art practised under such conditions could not but be
regarded with respect, and spared the contempt or worse, which, except
among one other great civilized people, the Greeks, has everywhere, at
one period or another, been the actor's lot. Companies of actors seem to
have been common in India at an early date, and the inductions show the
players to have been regarded as respectable members of society. In
later, if not in earlier, times individual actors enjoyed a widespread
reputation--"all the world" is acquainted with the talents of
Kalaha-Kandala.[20] The managers or directors, as already stated, were
usually gifted and highly-cultured Brahmans. Female parts were in
general, though not invariably, represented by females. One would like
to know whether such was the case in a piece[21] where--after the
fashion of more than one Western play--a crafty minister passes off his
daughter as a boy, on which assumption she is all but married to a
person of her own sex.


  Summary.

The Indian drama would, if only for purposes of comparison, be
invaluable to the student of this branch of literature. But from the
point of view of purely literary excellence it holds its own against all
except the very foremost dramas of the world. It is, indeed, a mere
phrase to call K[=a]lid[=a]sa the Indian Shakespeare--a title which,
moreover, if intended as anything more than a synonym for poetic
pre-eminence, might fairly be disputed in favour of Babhav[=u]ti; while
it would be absolutely misleading to place a dramatic literature, which,
like the Indian, is the mere quintessence of the culture of a caste, by
the side of one which represents the fullest development of the artistic
consciousness of such a people as the Hellenes. The Indian drama cannot
be described as national in the broadest and highest sense of the word;
it is, in short, the drama of a literary class, though as such it
exhibits many of the noblest and most refined, as well as of the most
characteristic, features of Hindu religion and civilization. The ethics
of the Indian drama are of a lofty character, but they are those of a
scholastic system of religious philosophy, self-conscious of its
completeness. To the power of Fate is occasionally ascribed a supremacy,
to which gods as well as mortals must bow;[22] but, if man's present
life is merely a phase in the cycle of his destinies, the highest of
moral efforts at the same time points to the summit of possibilities,
and self-sacrifice is the supreme condition both of individual
perfection and of the progress of the world. Such conceptions as these
seem at once to enfold and to overshadow the moral life of the Indian
drama. The affections and passions forming part of self it delineates
with a fidelity to nature which no art can afford to neglect; on the
other hand, the freedom of the picture is restricted by conditions which
to us are unfamiliar and at times seem intolerable, but which it was
impossible for the Indian poet's imagination to ignore. The sheer
self-absorption of ambition or love appears inconceivable by the minds
of any of these poets; and their social philosophy is always based on
the system of caste. On the other hand, they are masters of many of the
truest forms of pathos, above all of that which blends with resignation.
In humour of a delicate kind they are by no means deficient; to its
lower forms they are generally strangers, even in productions of a
professedly comic intention. Of wit, Indian dramatic literature--though
a play on words is as the breath of its nostrils--furnishes hardly any
examples intelligible to Western minds.


  Poetry of the Indian drama.

The distinctive excellence of the Indian drama is to be sought in the
poetic robe which envelops it as flowers overspread the bosom of the
earth in the season of spring. In its nobler productions, at least, it
is never untrue to its half religious, half rural origin; it weaves the
wreaths of idyllic fancies in an unbroken chain, adding to its favourite
and familiar blossoms ever fresh beauties from an inexhaustible garden.
Nor is it unequal to depicting the grander aspects of nature in her
mighty forests and on the shores of the ocean. A close familiarity with
its native literature can here alone follow its diction through a
ceaseless flow of phrase and figure, listen with understanding to the
hum of the bee as it hangs over the lotus, and contemplate with
S[=a]kuntal[=a]'s pious sympathy the creeper as it winds round the mango
tree. But the poetic beauty of the Indian drama reveals itself in the
mysterious charm of its outline, if not in its full glow, even to the
untrained; nor should the study of it--for which the materials seem
continually on the increase--be left aside by any lover of literature.


3. CHINESE DRAMA

Like the Indian drama, the Chinese arose from the union of the arts of
dance and song. To the ballets and pantomimes out of which it developed
itself, and which have continued to flourish by the side of its more
advanced forms, the Chinese ascribe a primitive antiquity of origin;
many of them originally had a symbolical reference to such subjects as
the harvest, and war and peace. A very ancient pantomime is said to have
symbolized the conquest of China by Wu-Wang; others were of a humbler,
and often of a very obscure, character. To their music the Chinese
likewise attribute a great antiquity of origin.

There are traditions which carry back the characters of the Chinese
drama to the 18th century before the Christian era. Others declare the
Emperor Wan-Te (fl. about A.D. 580) to have invented the drama; but this
honour is more usually given to the emperor Yuen-Tsung (A.D. 720), who
is likewise remembered as a radical musical reformer. Pantomimes
henceforth fell into disrepute; and the history of the Chinese drama
from this date is divided, with an accuracy we cannot profess to
control, into four distinct periods. Each of these periods, we are told,
has a style, and each style a name of its own; but these names, such as
"Diversions of the Woods in Flower," have little or no meaning for us;
and it would therefore be useless to cite them.

The first period is that of the dramas composed under the T'ang dynasty,
from A.D. 720 to 907. These pieces, called _Tchhouen-Khi_, were limited
to the representation of extraordinary events, and were therefore, in
design at least, a species of heroic drama. The ensuing times of civil
war interrupted the "pleasures of peace and prosperity" (a Chinese
phrase for dramatic performances)--which, however, revived.


  Classical age.

The second period is that of the Tsung Dynasty, from 960 to 1119. The
plays of this period are called _Hi-Khio_, and presented what became a
standing peculiarity of the Chinese drama, viz. that in them figures a
principal personage _who sings_.

The third and best-known age of the Chinese drama was under the Kin and
Yuen dynasties, from 1125 to 1367. The plays of this period are called
_Yuen-Pen_ and _Tsa-Ki_; the latter seem to have resembled the
_Hi-Khio_, and to have treated very various subjects. The _Yuen-Pen_ are
the plays from which our literary knowledge of the Chinese drama is
mainly derived; the short pieces called _Yen-Kia_ were in the same
style, but briefer. The list of dramatic authors under the Yuen dynasty,
the most important period in Chinese literary annals, which covered the
years 1260 to 1368, is tolerably extensive, comprising 85, among whom
four are designated as courtesans; the number of plays composed by these
and by anonymous authors is reckoned at not less than 564. In 1735 the
Jesuit missionary Joseph Henry Prémare first revealed to Europe the
existence of the tragedy _Tchao-Chi-Cu-Eul_ (_The Little Orphan of the
House of Tchao_), which was founded upon an earlier piece treating of
the fortunes of an heir to the imperial throne, who was preserved in a
mysterious box like another Cypselus or Moses. Voltaire seized the theme
of the earlier play for a rhetorical tragedy, _L'Orphelin de la Chine_,
in which he coolly professes it was his intention "to paint the manners
of the Chinese and the Tartars." The later play, which is something less
elevated in the rank of its characters, and very decidedly less refined
in treatment, was afterwards retranslated by Stanislas Julien; and to
the labours of this scholar, of Sir J. F. Davis (1795-1890) and of
Antoine Bazin (1799-1863), we owe a series of translated Chinese dramas,
among which there can be no hesitation whatever in designating the
master-piece.


  Pi-Pa-Ki.

  Decline and decay.

The justly famous _Pi-Pa-Ki_ (_The Story of the Lute_) belongs to a
period rather later than that of the Yuen plays, having been composed
towards the close of the 14th century by Kao-Tong-Kia, and reproduced in
1404, under the Ming dynasty, with the alterations of Mao-Tseu, a
commentator of learning and taste. _Pi-Pa-Ki_, which as a domestic drama
of sentiment possesses very high merit, long enjoyed a quite exceptional
popularity in China; it was repeatedly republished with laudatory
prefaces, and so late as the 18th century was regarded as a monument of
morality, and as the master-piece of the Chinese theatre. It would seem
to have remained without any worthy competitors; for, although it had
been originally designed to produce a reaction against the immorality of
the drama then in fashion, especially of Wang-Chi-Fou's celebrated
_Si-Siang-Ki_ (_The Story of the Western Pavilion_), yet the fourth
period of the Chinese drama, under the Ming dynasty, from 1368 to 1644,
exhibited no improvement. "What" (says the preface to the 1704 edition
of _Pi-Pa-Ki_) "do you find there? Farcical dialogue, a mass of scenes
in which one fancies one hears the hubbub of the streets or the ignoble
language of the highways, the extravagances of demons and spirits, in
addition to love-intrigues repugnant to delicacy of manners." Nor would
it appear that the Chinese theatre has ever recovered from its decay.


  Theoretical aims.

In theory, no drama could be more consistently elevated in purpose and
in tone than the Chinese. Every play, we learn, should have both a moral
and a meaning. A virtuous aim is imposed upon Chinese dramatists by an
article of the penal code of the empire; and those who write immoral
plays are to expect after death a purgatory which will last so long as
these plays continue to be performed. In practice, however, the Chinese
drama falls far short of its ideal; indeed, according to the native
critic already cited, among ten thousand playwrights not one is to be
found intent upon perfecting the education of mankind by means of
precepts and examples.


  Religious drama.

  Historical.

  Domestic.

The Chinese are, like the Hindus, unacquainted with the distinction
between tragedy and comedy; they classify their plays according to
subjects in twelve categories. It may be doubted whether what seems the
highest of these is actually such; for the religious element in the
Chinese drama is often sheer buffoonery. Moreover, Chinese religious
life, as reflected in the drama, seems one in which creed elbows creed,
and superstitions are welcome whatever their origin. Of all religious
traditions and doctrines, however, those of Buddhism (which had reached
China long before the known beginnings of its drama) are the most
prominent; thus, the theme of absolute self-sacrifice is treated in one
play,[23] that of entire absorption in the religious life in
another.[24] The historical drama is not unknown to the Chinese; and
although a law prohibits the bringing on the stage of "emperors,
empresses, and the famous princes, ministers, and generals of former
ages," no such restriction is observed in practice. In _Han-Kong-Tseu_
(_The Sorrows of Han_), for instance, which treats a national historic
legend strangely recalling in parts the story of Esther and the myth of
the daughter of Erechtheus, the emperor Yuen-Ti (the representative, to
be sure, of a fallen dynasty) plays a part, and a sufficiently sorry
one. By far the greater number, however, of the Chinese plays accessible
in translations belong to the domestic species, and to that subspecies
which may be called the criminal drama. Their favourite virtue is piety,
of a formal[25] or a practical[26] kind to parents or parents-in-law;
their favourite interest lies in the discovery of long-hidden guilt, and
in the vindication of persecuted innocence.[27] In the choice and
elaboration of such subjects they leave little to be desired by the most
ardent devotees of the literature of agony. Besides this description of
plays, we have at least one love-comedy pure and simple--a piece of a
nature not "tolerably mild," but ineffably harmless.[28]


  Range of Characters.

Free in its choice of themes, the Chinese drama is likewise remarkably
unrestricted in its range of characters. Chinese society, it is well
known, is not based, like Indian, upon the principle of caste; rank is
in China determined by office, and this again depends on the results of
examination. These familiar facts are constantly brought home to the
reader of Chinese plays. The _Tchoang-Yuen_, or senior classman on the
list of licentiates, is the flower of Chinese society, and the hero of
many a drama;[29] and it is a proud boast that for years "one's
ancestors have held high posts, which they owed to their literary
successes."[30] On the other hand, a person who has failed in his
military examination, becomes, as if by a natural transition, a
man-eating monster.[31] But of mere class the Chinese drama is no
respecter, painting with noteworthy freedom the virtues and the vices of
nearly every phase of society. The same liberty is taken with regard to
the female sex; it is clear that in earlier times there were few
vexatious restrictions in Chinese life upon the social intercourse
between men and women. The variety of female characters in the Chinese
drama is great, ranging from the heroine who sacrifices herself for the
sake of an empire[32] to the well-brought-up young lady who avers that
"woman came into the world to be obedient, to unravel skeins of silk,
and to work with her needle"[33]--from the chambermaid who contrives the
most gently sentimental of _rendezvous_,[34] to the reckless courtesan
who, like another Millwood, upbraids the partner of her guilt on his
suing for mercy, and bids him die with her in hopes of a reunion after
death.[35] In marriage the first or legitimate wife is distinguished
from the second, who is at times a _ci-devant_ courtesan, and towards
whom the feelings of the former vary between bitter jealousy[36] and
sisterly kindness.[37]


  Construction and conduct of plots.

The conduct of the plays exhibits much ingenuity, and an aversion from
restrictions of time and place; in fact, the nature of the plot
constantly covers a long series of years, and spans wide intervals of
local distance. The plays are divided into acts and scenes--the former
being usually four in number, at times with an induction or narrative
prologue spoken by some of the characters (_Sie-Tsen_). Favourite plays
were, however, allowed to extend to great length; the _Pi-Pa-Ki_ is
divided into 24 sections, and in another recension apparently comprised
42. "I do not wish," says the manager in the prologue, "that this
performance should last too long; finish it to-day, but cut out
nothing"--whence it appears that the performance of some plays occupied
more than a single day. The rule was always observed that a separate act
should be given up to the _dénouement_; while, according to a theory of
which it is not always easy to trace the operation, the perfection of
construction was sought in the dualism or contrast of scene and scene,
just as the perfection of diction was placed in the parallelism or
antithesis of phrase and phrase. Being subject to no restrictions as to
what might, or might not, be represented on the stage, the conduct of
the plots allowed of the introduction of almost every variety of
incidents. Death takes place, in sight of the audience, by
starvation,[38] by drowning,[39] by poison,[40] by execution;[41]
flogging and torture are inflicted on the stage;[42] wonders are
wrought;[43] and magic is brought into play;[44] the ghost of an
innocently-executed daughter calls upon her father to revenge her foul
murder, and assists in person at the subsequent judicial enquiry.[45]
Certain peculiarities in the conduct of the business are due to the
usages of society rather than to dramaturgic laws. Marriages are
generally managed--at least in the higher spheres of society--by ladies
professionally employed as matrimonial agents.[46] The happy resolution
of the _nodus_ of the action is usually brought about by the direct
interposition of superior official authority[47]--a tribute to the
paternal system of government, which is the characteristic Chinese
variety of the _deus ex machina_. This naturally tends to the favourite
close of a glorification of the emperor,[48] resembling that of Louis
XIV. at the end of _Tartufe_, or in spirit, at all events, those of the
virgin queen in more than one Elizabethan play. It should be added that
the characters save the necessity for a bill of the play by persistently
announcing and re-announcing their names and genealogies, and the
necessity for a book by frequently recapitulating the previous course of
the plot.


  The principal personage who sings.

  Poetic diction.

One peculiarity of the Chinese drama remains to be noticed. The chief
character of a play represents the author as well as the personage; he
or she is hero or heroine and chorus in one. This is brought about by
the hero's (or heroine's) _singing_ the poetical passages, or those
containing maxims of wisdom and morality, or reminiscences and examples
drawn from legend or history. Arising out of the dialogue, these
passages at the same time diversify it, and give to it such elevation
and brilliancy as it can boast. The singing character must be the
principal personage in the action, but may be taken from any class of
society. If this personage dies in the course of the play, another sings
in his place. From the mention of this distinctive feature of the
Chinese drama it will be obvious how unfair it would be to judge of any
of its productions, without a due appreciation of the lyric passages,
which do not appear to be altogether restricted to the singing of the
principal personage, for other characters frequently "recite verses." In
these lyrical or didactic passages are to be sought those flowers of
diction which, as Julien has shown, consist partly in the use of a
metaphorical phraseology of infinite nicety in its variations--such as a
long series of phrases compounded with the word signifying _jet_ and
expressing severally the ideas of rarity, distinction, beauty, &c., or
as others derived from the names of colours, birds, beasts, precious
metals, elements, constellations, &c., or alluding to favourite legends
or anecdotes. These features constitute the literary element _par
excellence_ of Chinese dramatic composition. At the same time, though it
is impossible for the untrained reader to be alive to the charms of so
unfamiliar a phraseology, it may be questioned whether even in its
diction the Chinese drama can claim to be regarded as really poetic. It
may abound in poetic _ornament_; it is not, like the Indian, bathed in
poetry.


  Merits of the Chinese drama.

On the other hand, the merits of this dramatic literature are by no
means restricted to ingenuity of construction and variety of
character--merits, in themselves important, which no candid criticism
will deny to it. Its master-piece is not only truly pathetic in the
conception and the main situations of its action, but includes scenes of
singular grace and delicacy of treatment--such as that where the
remarried husband of the deserted heroine in vain essays in the presence
of his second wife to sing to his new lute, now that he has cast aside
the old.[49] In the last act of a tragedy appealing at once to
patriotism and to pity, there is true imaginative power in the picture
of the emperor, when aware of the departure, but not of the death, of
his beloved, sitting in solitude broken only by the ominous shriek of
the wild-fowl.[50] Nor is the Chinese drama devoid of humour. The lively
abigail who has to persuade her mistress into confessing herself in love
by arguing (almost like Beatrice) that "humanity bids us love men";[51]
the corrupt judge (a common type in the Chinese plays) who falls on his
knees before the prosecuting parties to a suit as before "the father and
mother who give him sustenance,"[52] may serve as examples; and in
_Pi-Pa-Ki_ there is a scene of admirable burlesque on the still more
characteristic theme of the humours of a competitive examination.[53] If
such illustrations could not easily be multiplied, they are at least
worth citing in order to deprecate a perfunctory criticism on the
qualities of a dramatic literature as to which our materials for
judgment are still scanty.


  Scenery and costume.

  Actors.

While in the north of China houses are temporarily set apart for
dramatic performances, in the south these are usually confined to
theatres erected in the streets (_Hi-Thaï_). Thus scenic decorations of
any importance must always have been out of question in the Chinese
theatre. The costumes, on the other hand, are described as magnificent;
they are traditionally those worn before the 17th century, in accordance
with the historical colouring of most of the plays. The actor's
profession is not a respectable one in China, the managers being in the
habit of buying children of slaves and bringing them up as slaves of
their own. Women may not appear on the stage, since the emperor
K'ien-Lung admitted an actress among his concubines; female parts are
therefore played by lads, occasionally by eunuchs.


4. JAPANESE DRAMA

The Japanese drama, as all evidence seems to agree in showing, still
remains what in substance it has always been--an amusement passionately
loved by the lower orders, but hardly dignified by literature deserving
the name. Apart from its native elements of music, dance and song, and
legendary or historical narrative and pantomime, it is clearly to be
regarded as a Chinese importation; nor has it in its more advanced forms
apparently even attempted to emancipate itself from the reproduction of
the conventional Chinese types. As early as the close of the 6th century
Hada Kawatsu, a man of Chinese extraction, but born in Japan, is said to
have been ordered to arrange entertainments for the benefit of the
country, and to have written as many as thirty-three plays. The
Japanese, however, ascribe the origin of their drama to the introduction
of the dance called _Samb[=a]so_ as a charm against a volcanic
depression of the earth which occurred in 805; and this dance appears
still to be used as a prelude to theatrical exhibitions. In 1108 lived a
woman called Iso no Zenji, who is looked upon as "the mother of the
Japanese drama." But her performances seem to have been confined to
dancing or posturing in male attire (_otokomai_); and the introduction
of the drama proper is universally attributed to Sarnwaka Kanzabur[=o],
who in 1624 opened the first theatre (_sibaïa_) at Yeddo. Not long
afterwards (1651) the playhouses were removed to their present site in
the capital; and both here and in the provincial towns, especially of
the north, the drama has since continued to flourish. Persons of rank
were formerly never seen at these theatres; but actors were occasionally
engaged to play in private at the houses of the nobles, who appear
themselves to have taken part in performances of a species of opera
affected by them, always treating patriotic legends and called _n[=o]_.
The mikado has a court theatre.


  Subjects of the plays.

The subjects of the serious popular plays are mainly mythological--the
acts of the great spirit Day-Sin, the incarnation of Brahma, and similar
themes--or historical, treating of the doings of the early dynasties. In
these the names of the personages are changed. An example of the latter
class is to be found in the _j[=o]ruri_, or musical romance, in which
the universally popular tale of _Chiushingura_ (_The Loyal League_) has
been amplified and adapted for theatrical representation. This famous
narrative of the feudal fidelity of the forty-seven _ronins_, who about
the year 1699 revenged their chief's judicial suicide upon the arrogant
official to whom it was due, is stirring rather than touching in its
incidents, and contains much bloodshed, together with a tea-house scene
which suffices as a specimen of the Japanese comedy of manners. One of
the books of this dramatic romance consists of a metrical description,
mainly in dialogue, of a journey which (after the fashion of Indian
plays) has to be carried out on the stage. The performance of one of
these quasi-historical dramas sometimes lasts over several days; they
are produced with much pomp of costume; but the acting is very
realistic, and _hari-kari_ is performed, almost "to the life." Besides
these tragic plays (in which, however, comic _intermezzos_ are often
inserted) the Japanese have middle-class domestic dramas of a very
realistic kind. The language of these, unlike that of Chinese comedy, is
often gross and scurrilous, but intrigues against married women are
rigidly excluded. Fairy and demon operas and ballets, and farces and
_intermezzos_, form an easy transition to the interludes of tumblers and
jugglers. As a specimen of nearly every class of play is required to
make up a Japanese theatrical entertainment, which lasts from sunrise to
sunset, and as the lower houses appropriate and mutilate the plays of
the higher, it is clear that the status of the Japanese theatre cannot
be regarded as at all high. In respect, however, of its movable scenery
and properties, it is in advance of its Chinese prototype. The
performers are, except in the ballet, males only; and the comic acting
is said to be excellent of its kind. Though the leading actors enjoy
great popularity and very respectable salaries, the class is held in
contempt, and the companies were formerly recruited from the lowest
sources. The disabilities under which they lay have, however, been
removed; a Dramatic Reform Association has been organized by a number of
noblemen and scholars, and a theatre on European lines built (see
JAPAN).


5. PERSIAN AND OTHER ASIATIC, POLYNESIAN AND PERUVIAN DRAMA

  Siam.

  Java, Sumatra, &c.

Such dramatic examples of the drama as may be discoverable in Siam will
probably have to be regarded as belonging to a branch of the Indian
drama. The drama of the Malay populations of Java and the neighbouring
island of Sumatra also resembles the Indian, to which it may have owed
what development it has reached. The Javanese, as we learn, distinguish
among the lyrics sung on occasions of popular significance the _panton_,
a short simile or fable, and the _tcharita_, a more advanced species,
taking the form of dialogue and sung or recited by actors proper. From
the _tcharita_ the Javanese drama, which in its higher forms treats the
stories of gods and kings, appears to have been derived. As in the
Indian drama, the functions of the director or manager are of great
importance; as in the Greek, the performers wear masks, here made of
wood. The comic drama is often represented in both Java and Sumatra by
parties of strollers consisting of two men and a woman--a troop
sufficient for a wide variety of plot.


  Persian.

Among other more highly civilized Asiatic peoples, the traces of the
dramatic art are either few or late. The originally Aryan Persians
exhibit no trace of the drama in their ample earlier literature. But in
its later national development the two species, widely different from
one another, of the religious drama or mystery and of the popular comedy
or farce have made their appearance--the former in a growth of singular
interest.


  The téaziés.

Of the Persian _téaziés_ (lamentations or complaints) the subjects are
invariably derived from religious history, and more or less directly
connected with the "martyrdoms" of the house of Ali. The performance of
these episodes or scenes takes place during the first ten days of the
month of Muharram, when the adherents of the great Shi'ite sect all over
Persia and Mahommedan India commemorate the deaths of the Prophet and
his daughter Fatima, the mother of Ali, the martyrdoms of Ali himself,
shamefully murdered in the sanctuary, and of his unoffending son Hasan,
done to death by his miserable guilty Deianira of a wife, and lastly the
never-to-be-forgotten sacrifice of Hasan's brother, the heroic Hosain,
on the bloody field of Kerbela (A.D. 680). With the establishment in
Persia, early in the 16th century, of the Safawid (Sufi) dynasty by the
Shi'ites, the cult of the martyrs Hasan and Hosain secured the official
sanction which it has since retained. Thus the performance of these
_téaziés_, and the defraying of the equipment of them, are regarded as
religious, and in a theological sense meritorious, acts; and the plays
are frequently provided by the court or by other wealthy persons, by way
of pleasing the people or securing divine favour. The plays are
performed, usually by natives of Isfahan, in courtyards of mosques,
palaces, inns, &c., and in the country in temporary structures erected
for the purpose.

It would seem that, no farther back than the beginning of the 19th
century, the _téaziés_ were still only songs or elegies in honour of the
martyrs, occasionally chanted by persons actually representing them.
Just, however, as Greek tragedy was formed by a gradual detachment of
the dialogue from the choric song of which it was originally only a
secondary outgrowth, and by its gradually becoming the substance of the
drama, so the _Miracle Play of Hasan and Hosain_, as we may call it, has
now come to be a continuous succession of dramatic scenes. Of these
fifty-two have, thanks to the labours of Alexander Chodzko and Sir Lewis
Pelly, been actually taken down in writing, and thirty-seven published
in translations; and it is clear that there is no limit to the extension
of the treatment, as is shown by such a _téazié_ as the _Marriage of
Kassem_, dealing with the unfortunate Hosain's unfortunate son.[54] The
performance is usually opened by a prologue delivered by the
_rouzékhán_, a personage of semi-priestly character claiming descent
from the Prophet, who edifies and excites the audience by a pathetic
recitation of legends and vehement admonitions in prose or verse
concerning the subject of the action. But the custom seems to have
arisen of specially prefacing the drama proper by a kind of induction
which illustrates the cause or effect of the sacred story--as for
instance that of Amir Timur (Tamerlane), who appears as lamenting and
avenging the death of Hosain; or the episode of Joseph's betrayal by his
brethren, as prefiguring the cruelty shown to Ali and his sons. At the
climax of the action proper Hosain prays to be granted at the day of
judgment the key of the treasure of intercession; and the final scene
shows the fulfilment of his prayer, which opens paradise to those who
have helped the holy martyr, or who have so much as shed a single tear
for him. It will thus be seen that not only is this complex and
elaborate production unapproached in its length and in its patient
development of a long sequence of momentous events by any chronicle
history or religious drama, but that it embodies together with the
passionately cherished traditions of a great religious community the
expression of a long-lived resentment of foreign invasion--and is thus a
kind of Oberammergau play and complaint of the Nibelungs in one.


  The témachas.

The other kind of Persian drama is the _témacha_ (= spectacle), a kind
of comedy or farce, sometimes called _teglid_ (disguising), performed by
wandering minstrels or _joculatores_ called _loutys_, who travel about
accompanied by their _bayadères_, and amuse such spectators as they find
by their improvised entertainments, which seem to be on much the same
level as English "interludes." A favourite and ancient variety of the
species is the _karaguez_ or puppet-play, of which the protagonist is
called _kétchel péhlévan_ (the bald hero).

The modern Persian drama seems to have admitted Western influences, as
in the case of such comedies as _The Pleaders of the Court_, and,
avowedly, _Monsieur Jourdan and Musla'li Shah_, of whom the former
steals away the wits of young Persia by his pictures of the delights of
Paris.


  Hebrew literature.

There is no necessity for any reference here to the civilization or to
the literature of the Hebrews, or to those of other Semitic peoples,
with whom the drama is either entirely wanting, or only appears as a
quite occasional and exotic growth. Dramatic elements are apparent in
two of the books of the Hebrew scripture--the _Book of Ruth_ and the
_Book of Job_, of which latter the author of _Everyman_, and Goethe in
his _Faust_, made so impressive a use.


  South Seas; Peru.

From Polynesia and aboriginal America we also have isolated traces of
drama. Among these are the performances, accompanied by dancing and
intermixed with recitation and singing, of the South Sea Islanders,
first described by Captain Cook, and reintroduced to the notice of
students of comparative mythology by W. Wyatt Gill. Of the so-called
Inca drama of the Peruvians, the unique relic, _Apu Ollantay_, said to
have been written down in the Quichua tongue from native dictation by
Spanish priests shortly after the conquest of Peru, has been partly
translated by Sir Clements Markham, and has been rendered into German
verse. It appears to be an historic play of the heroic type, combining
stirring incidents with a pathos finding expression in at least one
lyric of some sweetness--the lament of the lost Collyar. With it may be
contrasted the ferocious Aztek dramatic ballet, _Rabinal-Achi_
(translated by Brasseur de Bourbourg), of which the text seems rather a
succession of warlike harangues than an attempt at dramatic treatment of
character. But these are mere isolated curiosities.


6. DRAMATIC ELEMENTS IN EGYPTIAN CULTURE

The civilization and religious ideas of the Egyptians so vitally
influenced the people of whose drama we are about to speak that a
reference to them cannot be altogether omitted. The influence of
Egyptian upon Greek civilization has probably been overestimated by
Herodotus; but while it will never be clearly known how much the Greeks
owed to the Egyptians in divers branches of knowledge, it is certain
that the former confessed themselves the scholars of Egypt in the
cardinal doctrine of its natural theology. The doctrine of the
immortality of the soul there found its most solemn expression in
mysterious recitations connected with the rites of sepulture, and
treating of the migration of the soul from its earthly to its eternal
abode. These solemnities, whose transition into the Hellenic mysteries
has usually been attributed to the agency of the Thracian worship of
Dionysus, undoubtedly contained a dramatic element, upon the extent of
which it is, however, useless to speculate. The ideas to which they
sought to give utterance centred in that of Osiris, the vivifying power
or universal soul of nature, whom Herodotus simply identifies with the
Dionysus of the Greeks. The same deity was likewise honoured by
processions among the rural Egyptian population, which, according to the
same authority, in nearly all respects except the absence of choruses
resembled the Greek phallic processions in honour of the wine-god.

That the Egyptians looked upon music as an important science seems fully
established; it was diligently studied by their priests, though not, as
among the Greeks, forming a part of general education, and in the sacred
rites of their gods they as a rule permitted the use of flute and harp,
as well as of vocal music. Dancing was as an art confined to
professional persons; but though the higher orders abstained from its
practice, the lower indulged in it on festive occasions, when a
tendency to pantomime naturally asserted itself, and licence and wanton
buffoonery prevailed, as in the early rustic festivals of the Greek and
Italian peoples. Of a dance of armed men, on the other hand, there seems
no satisfactory trace in the representations of the Egyptian monuments.


7. GREEK DRAMA

  Religious origin.

Whatever elements the Greek drama may, in the sources from which it
sprang, have owed to Egyptian, or Phrygian, or other Asiatic influences,
its development was independent and self-sustained. Not only in its
beginnings, but so long as the stage existed in Greece, the drama was in
intimate connexion with the national religion. This is the most signal
feature of its history, and one which cannot in the same degree or to
the same extent be ascribed to the drama of any other people, ancient or
modern. Not only did both the great branches of the Greek drama alike
originate in the usages of religious worship, but they never lost their
formal union with it, though one of them (comedy) in its later growth
abandoned all direct reference to its origin. Hellenic polytheism was at
once so active and so fluid or flexible in its anthropomorphic
formations, that no other religious system has ever with the same
conquering force assimilated to itself foreign el