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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 8 - "Dubner" to "Dyeing"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 8 - "Dubner" to "Dyeing"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE DUFOUR, WILHELM HEINRICH: "During the Hundred Days he
      attained the rank of captain, and was employed in raising
      fortifications at Grenoble." 'captain' amended from 'captian'.

    ARTICLE DUFOUR, WILHELM HEINRICH: "... were acknowledged by a gift
      of 60,000 francs from the diet and various honours from different
      cities and cantons of the confederation." 'confederation' amended
      from 'confederaton'.

    ARTICLE DÜHRING, EUGEN KARL: "In economics he is best known by his
      vindication of the American writer H.C. Carey, who attracts him
      both by his theory of value, which suggests an ultimate harmony of
      the interests of capitalist and labourer ..." 'In' amended from
      'It'.

    ARTICLE DUNBLANE: "The first church is alleged to have been erected
      by Blane, a saint of the 7th century, but the cathedral was founded
      by David I. in 1141 ..." 'was' amended from 'as'.

    ARTICLE DUPONT, PIERRE: "... and in 1851 he paid the penalty of
      having become the poet laureate of the socialistic aspirations of
      the time by being condemned to seven years of exile from France."
      'condemned' amended from 'comdemned'.

    ARTICLE DURAN: "... and filled by men who derived their income from
      a profession, especially medicine." 'especially' amended from
      'epecially'.

    ARTICLE DURANCE: "After passing through some narrow gorges near
      Sisteron the bed of the river becomes wide, and spreads desolation
      around, the frequent overflows being kept within bounds by numerous
      dykes and embankments." 'embankments' amended from 'enbankments'.

    ARTICLE DÜRER, ALBRECHT: "This altarpiece was afterwards replaced
      at Frankfort (all except the portraits of the donors, which
      remained behind) by a copy, while the original was transported to
      Munich, where it perished by fire in 1674." 'portraits' amended
      from 'protraits'.

    ARTICLE DÜRER, ALBRECHT: "... but by means of an infinity of single
      lines swept, with a miraculous certainty and fineness of touch, in
      the richest and most intricate of decorative curves." 'and' amended
      from 'amd'.

    ARTICLE DURHAM: "DURHAM, a city and municipal and parliamentary
      borough, and the county town of Durham, England, 256 m. N. by W.
      from London, on the North Eastern railway." 'municipal' amended
      from 'muncipal'.

    ARTICLE DURHAM: "... and in 1889 a hostel was opened for the
      accommodation of women, who may take any course of instruction
      except the theological." 'accommodation' amended from
      'accomodation'.

    ARTICLE DURHAM: "Among other subjects may be mentioned the granting
      of degrees in hygiene, and of diplomas in public health and
      education ..." 'degrees' amended from 'degress'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


           VOLUME VIII, SLICE VIII

              Dubner to Dyeing



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  DÜBNER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH         DUNFERMLINE, JAMES ABERCROMBY
  DUBOIS, FRANÇOIS THÉODORE        DUNFERMLINE (burgh of Scotland)
  DUBOIS, GUILLAUME                DUNGANNON
  DUBOIS, JEAN ANTOINE             DUNGARPUR
  DUBOIS, PAUL                     DUNGARVAN
  DUBOIS, PIERRE                   DUNGENESS
  DUBOIS (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)    DUNGEON
  DUBOIS-CRANCÉ, EDMOND ALEXIS     DUNKELD
  DU BOIS-REYMOND, EMIL            DUNKIRK (France)
  DUBOS, JEAN-BAPTISTE             DUNKIRK (New York, U.S.A.)
  DUBUQUE                          DUNLOP, JOHN COLIN
  DU CAMP, MAXIME                  DUNMORE
  DU CANGE, CHARLES DU FRESNE      DUNMOW
  DUCANGE, VICTOR HENRI BRAHAIN    DUNNE, FINLEY PETER
  DUCAS (Byzantine family)         DUNNOTTAR CASTLE
  DUCAS (Byzantine historian)      DUNOIS, JEAN
  DUCASSE, PIERRE EMMANUEL ALBERT  DUNOON
  DUCAT                            DUNROBIN CASTLE
  DU CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI         DUNS
  DUCHENNE, GUILLAUME AMAND        DUNSINANE
  DU CHESNE, ANDRÉ                 DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN
  DUCHESNE, LOUIS MARIE OLIVIER    DUNSTABLE
  DUCIS, JEAN FRANÇOIS             DUNSTAFFNAGE
  DUCK                             DUNSTAN, SAINT
  DUCKING and CUCKING STOOLS       DUNSTER
  DUCKWEED                         DUNTOCHER
  DUCKWORTH, SIR JOHN THOMAS       DUNTON, JOHN
  DUCLAUX, AGNES MARY F.           DÜNTZER, JOHANN HEINRICH JOSEPH
  DUCLOS, CHARLES PINOT            DUNWICH
  DUCOS, PIERRE ROGER              DUOVIRI
  DUCTLESS GLANDS                  DUPANLOUP, FÉLIX ANTOINE PHILIBERT
  DUDERSTADT                       DUPERRON, JACQUES DAVY
  DUDLEY, BARONS AND EARLS OF      DUPIN, ANDRÉ MARIE JEAN JACQUES
  DUDLEY, EDMUND                   DU PIN, LOUIS ELLIES
  DUDLEY, SIR ROBERT               DUPLEIX, JOSEPH FRANÇOIS
  DUDLEY, THOMAS                   DUPONT, PIERRE
  DUDLEY (English county & town)   DUPONT DE L'ÉTANG, PIERRE ANTOINE
  DUDO                             DUPONT DE L'EURE, JACQUES CHARLES
  DUDWEILER                        DU PONT DE NEMOURS, PIERRE SAMUEL
  DUEL                             DUPORT, ADRIEN
  DUENNA                           DUPORT, JAMES
  DUET                             DÜPPEL
  DUFAURE, JULES ARMAND STANISLAS  DU PRAT, ANTOINE
  DUFF, ALEXANDER                  DUPRÉ, JULES
  DUFFERIN AND AVA, FREDERICK      DUPUIS, CHARLES FRANÇOIS
  DUFF-GORDON, LUCIE               DUPUY, CHARLES ALEXANDRE
  DUFFTOWN                         DUPUY, PIERRE
  DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN         DUPUY DE LÔME, STANISLAS LAURENT
  DUFOUR, WILHELM HEINRICH         DUPUYTREN, GUILLAUME
  DUFRÉNOY, OURS PIERRE ARMAND     DUQUE DE ESTRADA, DIEGO
  DUFRESNY, CHARLES                DUQUESNE, ARRAHAM
  DUGAZON                          DUQUESNE (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
  DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM             DURAMEN
  DUGONG                           DURAN
  DUGUAY-TROUIN, RENÉ              DURÁN, AGUSTÍN
  DU GUESCLIN, BERTRAND            DURANCE
  DUHAMEL, JEAN BAPTISTE           DURAND, ASHER BROWN
  DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, HENRI LOUIS  DURAND, GUILLAUME
  DÜHRING, EUGEN KARL              DURAND, GUILLAUME
  DUIGENAN, PATRICK                DURANDO, GIACOMO
  DUIKER                           DURANGO (state of Mexico)
  DUILIUS, GAIUS                   DURANGO (city of Mexico)
  DUISBURG                         DURANI
  DUK-DUK                          DURANTE, FRANCESCO
  DUKE                             DURÃO, JOSÉ DE SANTA RITA
  DUKE OF EXETER'S DAUGHTER        DURAZZO
  DUKER, CARL ANDREAS              D'URBAN, SIR BENJAMIN
  DUKERIES, THE                    DURBAN
  DUKES, LEOPOLD                   DURBAR
  DUKINFIELD                       DÜREN
  DULCIGNO                         DURENE
  DULCIMER                         DÜRER, ALBRECHT
  DÜLKEN                           DURESS
  DULONG, PIERRE LOUIS             D'URFEY, THOMAS
  DULSE                            DURFORT
  DULUTH                           DURGA
  DULWICH                          DURHAM, JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON
  DUMAGUETE                        DURHAM (county of England)
  DUMANJUG                         DURHAM (city of England)
  DU MARSAIS, CÉSAR CHESNEAU       DURHAM (North Carolina, U.S.A.)
  DUMAS, ALEXANDRE                 DURIAN
  DUMAS, ALEXANDRE (Fils)          DURIS
  DUMAS, GUILLAUME MATHIEU         DÜRKHEIM
  DUMAS, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRÉ       DURLACH
  DU MAURIER, GEORGE BUSSON        DUROC, GÉRAUD CHRISTOPHE MICHEL
  DUMBARTON                        DUROCHER, JOSEPH MARIE ELISABETH
  DUMBARTONSHIRE                   DURRA
  DUMB WAITER                      DURUY, JEAN VICTOR
  DUM-DUM                          DU RYER, PIERRE
  DUMESNIL, MARIE FRANÇOISE        DUSE, ELEANORA
  DUMFRIES                         DUSSEK, JOHANN LUDWIG
  DUMFRIESSHIRE                    DÜSSELDORF
  DÜMICHEN, JOHANNES               DUSSERAH
  DÜMMLER, ERNST LUDWIG            DUST
  DUMONT                           DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, THE
  DUMONT, ANDRÉ HUBERT             DUTCH LANGUAGE
  DUMONT, FRANÇOIS                 DUTCH LITERATURE
  DUMONT, JEAN                     DUTCH WARS
  DUMONT, PIERRE ÉTIENNE LOUIS     DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY, THE
  DUMONT D'URVILLE, JULES          DUTENS, LOUIS
  DUMORTIERITE                     DUTROCHET, RENÉ JOACHIM HENRI
  DUMOULIN, CHARLES                DUTT, MICHAEL MADHU SUDAN
  DUMOURIEZ, CHARLES FRANÇOIS      DUTY
  DUMP                             DU VAIR, GUILLAUME
  DUNASH                           DUVAL, ALEXANDRE VINCENT PINEUX
  DUNBAR, GEORGE                   DUVAL, CLAUDE
  DUNBAR, PAUL LAURENCE            DUVENECK, FRANK
  DUNBAR, WILLIAM                  DU VERGIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN
  DUNBAR (seaport of Scotland)     DUVEYRIER, HENRI
  DUNBLANE                         DUX
  DUNCAN (Scottish kings)          DUXBURY
  DUNCAN, ADAM DUNCAN              DVINA
  DUNCAN, PETER MARTIN             DVINSK
  DUNCAN, THOMAS                   DVORÁK, ANTON
  DUNCE                            DWARAKA
  DUNCKER, MAXIMILIAN WOLFGANG     DWARF
  DUNCKLEY, HENRY                  DWARS
  DUNCOMBE, SIR CHARLES            DWIGHT, JOHN
  DUNDALK                          DWIGHT, JOHN SULLIVAN
  DUNDEE, JOHN OF CLAVERHOUSE      DWIGHT, THEODORE WILLIAM
  DUNDEE (city of Scotland)        DWIGHT, TIMOTHY
  DUNDERLANDSDAL                   DYAKS
  DUNDONALD, THOMAS COCHRANE       DYCE, ALEXANDER
  DUNEDIN                          DYCE, WILLIAM
  DUNES                            DYEING
  DUNFERMLINE, ALEXANDER SETON



DÜBNER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1802-1867), German classical scholar
(naturalized a Frenchman), was born in Hör selgau, near Gotha, on the
20th of December 1802. After studying at the university of Göttingen he
returned to Gotha, where from 1827-1832 he held a post (_inspector
coenobii_) in connexion with the gymnasium. During this period he made
his name known by editions of Justin and Persius (after Casaubon). In
1832 he was invited by the brothers Didot to Paris, to co-operate in a
new edition of H. Etienne's Greek _Thesaurus_. He also contributed
largely to the _Bibliotheca Graeca_ published by the same firm, a series
of Greek classics with Latin translation, critical notes and valuable
indexes. One of Dübner's most important works was an edition of Caesar
undertaken by command of Napoleon III., which obtained him the cross of
the Legion of Honour. His editions are considered to be models of
literary and philological criticism, and did much to raise the standard
of classical scholarship in France. He violently attacked Burnouf's
method of teaching Greek, but without result. Dübner may have gone too
far in his zeal for reform, and his opinions may have been too harshly
expressed, but time has shown him to be right. The old text-books have
been discarded, and a great improvement in classical teaching has taken
place in recent years. Dübner died at Montreuil-sous-Bois, near Paris,
on the 13th of December 1867.

  See F. Godefroy, _Notice sur J.F. Dübner_ (1867); Sainte-Beuve,
  _Discours à la mémoire de Dübner_ (1868); article in _Allgemeine
  deutsche Biographic_.



DUBOIS, FRANÇOIS CLÉMENT THÉODORE (1837-   ), French musical composer,
was born at Rosney (Marne) on the 24th of August 1837. He studied at the
Conservatoire under Ambroise Thomas, and won the Grand Prix de Rome in
1861 with his cantata _Atala_. After the customary sojourn in Rome,
Dubois returned to Paris and devoted himself to teaching. He was
appointed "maitre de Chapelle" at the church of Ste Clotilde, where
César Franck was organist, in 1863, and remained at this post for five
years, during which time he composed a quantity of sacred music, notably
_Les Sept Paroles du Christ_ (1867), a work which has become well known
in France. In 1868 he became "maitre de Chapelle" at the church of the
Madeleine, and nine years later succeeded Camille Saint-Saëns there as
organist. He became professor of harmony at the Conservatoire in 1871,
and was appointed professor of composition in succession to Léo Delibes
in 1891. At the death of Ambroise Thomas in 1896 he became director of
the Conservatoire. Dubois is an extremely prolific composer and has
written in a variety of forms. His sacred works include four masses, a
requiem, _Les Sept Paroles du Christ_, a large number of motets and
pieces for organ. For the theatre he has composed _La Guzla de l'Émir_,
an opéra comique in one act, played at the Théâtre Lyrique de l'Athénée
in 1873; _Le Pain bis_, an opéra comique in one act, given at the Opéra
Comique in 1879; _La Farandole_, a ballet in three acts, produced at the
Grand Opéra in 1883; _Aben-Hamet_, a four-act opera, heard at the
Théâtre Italien in 1884; _Xavière_, a dramatic idyll in three acts,
played at the Opéra Comique in 1895. His orchestral works include two
concert overtures, the overture to _Frithioff_ (1880), several suites,
_Marche héroïque de Jeanne d'Arc_ (1888), &c. He is also the author of
_Le Paradis perdu_, an oratorio which gained for him the prize offered
by the city of Paris in 1878; _L'Enlèvement de Proserpine_ (1879), a
_scène lyrique_; _Délivrance_ (1887), a cantata; _Hylas_ (1890), a
_scène lyrique_ for soli, chorus and orchestra; _Notre Dame de la mer_,
a symphonic poem (1897); and a musical setting of a Latin ode on the
baptism of Clovis (1899). In addition, he composed much for the piano
and voice.



DUBOIS, GUILLAUME (1656-1723), French cardinal and statesman, was born
at Brive, in Limousin, on the 6th of September 1656. He was, according
to his enemies, the son of an apothecary, his father being in fact a
doctor of medicine of respectable family, who kept a small drug store as
part of the necessary outfit of a country practitioner. He was educated
at the school of the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine at Brive, where
he received the tonsure at the age of thirteen. In 1672, having finished
his philosophy course, he was given a scholarship at the college of St
Michel at Paris by Jean, marquis de Pompadour, lieutenant-general of the
Limousin. The head of the college, the abbé Antoine Faure, who was from
the same part of the country as himself, befriended the lad, and
continued to do so for many years after he had finished his course,
finding him pupils and ultimately obtaining for him the post of tutor to
the young duke of Chartres, afterwards the regent duke of Orleans.
Astute, ambitious and unrestrained by conscience, Dubois ingratiated
himself with his pupil, and, while he gave him formal school lessons, at
the same time pandered to his evil passions and encouraged him in their
indulgence. He gained the favour of Louis XIV. by bringing about the
marriage of his pupil with Mademoiselle de Blois, a natural but
legitimated daughter of the king; and for this service he was rewarded
with the gift of the abbey of St Just in Picardy. He was present with
his pupil at the battle of Steinkirk, and "faced fire," says Marshal
Luxembourg, "like a grenadier." Sent to join the French embassy in
London, he made himself so active that he was recalled by the request of
the ambassador, who feared his intrigues. This, however, tended to raise
his credit with the king. When the duke of Orleans became regent (1715)
Dubois, who had for some years acted as his secretary, was made
councillor of state, and the chief power passed gradually into his
hands.

His policy was steadily directed towards maintaining the peace of
Utrecht, and this made him the main opponent of the schemes of Cardinal
Alberoni for the aggrandizement of Spain. To counteract Alberoni's
intrigues, he suggested an alliance with England, and in the face of
great difficulties succeeded in negotiating the Triple Alliance (1717).
In 1719 he sent an army into Spain, and forced Philip V. to dismiss
Alberoni. Otherwise his policy remained that of peace. Dubois's success
strengthened him against the bitter opposition of a large section of the
court. Political honours did not satisfy him, however. The church
offered the richest field for exploitation, and in spite of his
dissolute life he impudently prayed the regent to give him the
archbishopric of Cambray, the richest in France. His demand was
supported by George I., and the regent yielded. In one day all the
usual orders were conferred on him, and even the great preacher
Massillon consented to take part in the ceremonies. His next aim was the
cardinalate, and, after long and most profitable negotiations on the
part of Pope Clement XI., the red hat was given to him by Innocent XIII.
(1721), whose election was largely due to the bribes of Dubois. It is
estimated that this cardinalate cost France about eight million francs.
In the following year he was named first minister of France (August). He
was soon after received at the French Academy; and, to the disgrace of
the French clergy, he was named president of their assembly.

When Louis XV. attained his majority in 1723 Dubois remained chief
minister. He had accumulated an immense private fortune, possessing in
addition to his see the revenues of seven abbeys. He was, however, a
prey to the most terrible pains of body and agony of mind. His health
was ruined by his debaucheries, and a surgical operation became
necessary. This was almost immediately followed by his death, at
Versailles, on the 10th of August 1723. His portrait was thus drawn by
the duc de St Simon:--"He was a little, pitiful, wizened, herring-gutted
man, in a flaxen wig, with a weasel's face, brightened by some
intellect. All the vices--perfidy, avarice, debauchery, ambition,
flattery--fought within him for the mastery. He was so consummate a liar
that, when taken in the fact, he could brazenly deny it. Even his wit
and knowledge of the world were spoiled, and his affected gaiety was
touched with sadness, by the odour of falsehood which escaped through
every pore of his body." This famous picture is certainly biassed.
Dubois was unscrupulous, but so were his contemporaries, and whatever
vices he had, he gave France peace after the disastrous wars of Louis
XIV.

  In 1789 appeared _Vie privée du Cardinal Dubois_, attributed to one of
  his secretaries, Mongez; and in 1815 his _Mémoires secrets et
  correspondance inédite_, edited by L. de Sevelinges. See also A.
  Cheruel, _Saint-Simon et l'abbé Dubois_; L. Wiesener, _Le Régent,
  l'abbé Dubois et les Anglais_ (1891); and memoirs of the time.



DUBOIS, JEAN ANTOINE (1765-1848), French Catholic missionary in India,
was ordained in the diocese of Viviers in 1792, and sailed for India in
the same year under the direction of the Missions Étrangères. He was at
first attached to the Pondicherry mission, and worked in the southern
districts of the present Madras Presidency. On the fall of Seringapatam
in 1799 he went to Mysore to reorganize the Christian community that had
been shattered by Tipu Sultan. Among the benefits which he conferred
upon his impoverished flock were the founding of agricultural colonies
and the introduction of vaccination as a preventive of smallpox. But his
great work was his record of _Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies_.
Immediately on his arrival in India he saw that the work of a Christian
missionary should be based on a thorough acquaintance with the innermost
life and character of the native population. Accordingly he abjured
European society, adopted the native style of clothing, and made himself
in habit and costume as much like a Hindu as he could. He gained an
extraordinary welcome amongst people of all castes and conditions, and
is still spoken of in many parts of South India with affection and
esteem as "the prince's son, the noblest of Europeans." Although Dubois
modestly disclaimed the rank of an author, his collections were not so
much drawn from the Hindu sacred books as from his own careful and vivid
observations, and it is this, united to a remarkable prescience, that
makes his work so valuable. It is divided into three parts: (1) a
general view of society in India, and especially of the caste system;
(2) the four states of Brahminical life; (3) religion--feasts, temples,
objects of worship. Not only does the abbé give a shrewd, clear-sighted,
candid account of the manners and customs of the Hindus, but he provides
a very sound estimate of the British position in India, and makes some
eminently just observations on the difficulties of administering the
Empire according to Western notions of civilization and progress with
the limited resources that are available. Dubois's French MS. was
purchased for eight thousand rupees by Lord William Bentinck for the
East India Company in 1807; in 1816 an English translation was
published, and of this edition about 1864 a curtailed reprint was
issued. The abbé, however, largely recast his work, and of this revised
text (now in the India Office) an edition with notes was published in
1897 by H.K. Beauchamp. Dubois left India in January 1823, with a
special pension conferred on him by the East India Company, and on
reaching Paris was appointed director of the Missions Étrangères, of
which he afterwards became superior (1836-1839). He translated into
French the famous book of Hindu fables called _Panchatantra_, and also a
work called _The Exploits of the Guru Paramarta_. Of more interest were
his _Letters on the State of Christianity in India_, in which he
asserted his opinion that under existing circumstances there was no
human possibility of so overcoming the invincible barrier of Brahminical
prejudice as to convert the Hindus as a nation to any sect of
Christianity. He acknowledged that low castes and outcastes might be
converted in large numbers, but of the higher castes he wrote: "Should
the intercourse between individuals of both nations, by becoming more
intimate and more friendly, produce a change in the religion and usages
of the country, it will not be to turn Christians that they will forsake
their own religion, but rather ... to become mere atheists." He died in
1848.



DUBOIS, PAUL (1829-1905), French sculptor and painter, was born at
Nogent-sur-Seine on the 18th of July 1829. He studied law to please his
family, and art to please himself, and finally adopted the latter, and
placed himself under Toussaint. After studying at the École des
Beaux-Arts, Dubois went to Rome. His first contributions to the Paris
Salon (1860) were busts of "The Countess de B." and "A Child." For his
first statues, "St John the Baptist" and "Narcissus at the Bath" (1863),
he was awarded a medal of the second class. The statue of "The Infant St
John," which had been modelled in Florence in 1860, was exhibited in
Paris in bronze, and was acquired by the Luxemburg. "A Florentine Singer
of the Fifteenth Century," one of the most popular statuettes in Europe,
was shown in 1865; "The Virgin and Child" appeared in the Paris
Universal Exhibition in 1867; "The Birth of Eve" was produced in 1873,
and was followed by striking busts of Henner, Dr Parrot, Paul Baudry,
Pasteur, Gounod and Bonnat, remarkable alike for life, vivacity,
likeness, refinement and subtle handling. The chief work of Paul Dubois
was "The Tomb of General Lamoricière" in the cathedral of Nantes, a
brilliant masterpiece conceived in the Renaissance spirit, with
allegorical figures and groups representing Warlike Courage, Charity,
Faith and Meditation, as well as bas-reliefs and enrichments; the two
first-named works were separately exhibited in the Salon of 1877. The
medallions represent Wisdom, Hope, Justice, Force, Rhetoric, Prudence
and Religion. The statue of the "Constable Anne de Montmorency" was
executed for Chantilly, and that of "Joan of Arc" (1889) for the town of
Reims. The Italian influence which characterized the earlier work of
Dubois disappeared as his own individuality became clearly asserted. As
a painter he restricted himself mainly to portraiture. "My Children"
(1876) being probably his most noteworthy achievement. His drawings and
copies after the Old Masters are of peculiar excellence: they include
"The Dead Christ" (after Sebastian del Piombo) and "Adam and Eve" (after
Raphael). In 1873 Dubois was appointed keeper of the Luxemburg Museum.
He succeeded Guillaume as director of the École des Beaux-Arts, 1878,
and Perraud as member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Twice at the Salon
he obtained the medal of honour (1865 and 1876), and once at the
Universal Exhibition (1878). He also won numerous other distinctions,
and was appointed grand cross of the Legion of Honour. He was made a
member of several European orders, and in 1895 was elected an honorary
foreign academician of the Royal Academy of London. He died at Paris in
1905.



DUBOIS, PIERRE (c. 1250-c. 1312), French publicist in the reign of
Philip the Fair, was the author of a series of political pamphlets
embodying original and daring views. He was known to Jean du Tillet in
the 16th, and to Pierre Dupuy in the 17th century, but remained
practically forgotten until the middle of the 19th century, when his
history was reconstructed from his works. He was a Norman by birth,
probably a native of Coutances, where he exercised the functions of
royal advocate of the bailliage and procurator of the university. He was
educated at the university of Paris, where he heard St Thomas Aquinas
and Siger of Brabant. He was, nevertheless, no adherent of the
scholastic philosophy, and appears to have been conversant with the
works of Roger Bacon. Although he never held any important political
office, he must have been in the confidence of the court when, in 1300,
he wrote his anonymous _Summaria, brevis et compendiosa doctrina felicis
expedicionis et abbreviationis guerrarum et litium regni Francorum_,
which is extant in a unique MS., but is analysed by N. de Wailly in the
_Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes_ (2nd series, vol. iii.). In the
contest between Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII. Dubois identified
himself completely with the secularizing policy of Philip, and poured
forth a series of anti-clerical pamphlets, which did not cease even with
the death of Boniface. His _Supplication du pueble de France au roy
contre le pape Boniface le VIII^e_, printed in 1614 in _Acta inter
Bonifacium VIII. et Philippum Pulchrum_, dates from 1304, and is a
heated indictment of the temporal power. He represented Coutances in the
states-general of 1302, but in 1306 he was serving Edward I. as an
advocate in Guienne, without apparently abandoning his Norman practice
by which he had become a rich man. The most important of his works, his
treatise _De recuperatione terrae sanctae_,[1] was written in 1306, and
dedicated in its extant form to Edward I., though it is certainly
addressed to Philip. Dubois outlines the conditions necessary to a
successful crusade--the establishment and enforcement of a state of
peace among the Christian nations of the West by a council of the
church; the reform of the monastic, and especially of the military,
orders; the reduction of their revenues; the instruction of a number of
young men and women in oriental languages and the natural sciences with
a view to the government of Eastern peoples; and the establishment of
Philip of Valois as emperor of the East. The king of France was in fact,
when once the pope was deprived of the temporal power, to become the
suzerain of the Western nations, and in a later and separate memoir
Dubois proposed that he should cause himself to be made emperor by
Clement V. His zeal for the crusade was probably subordinate to the
desire to secure the wealth of the monastic orders for the royal
treasury, and to transfer the ecclesiastical jurisdiction to the crown.
His ideas on education, on the celibacy of the clergy, and his schemes
for the codification of French law, were far in advance of his time. He
was an early and violent "Gallican," and the first of the great French
lawyers who occupied themselves with high politics. In 1308 he attended
the states-general at Tours. He is generally credited with _Quaedam
proposita papae a rege super facto Templariorum_, a draft epistle
supposed to be addressed to Clement by Philip. This was followed by
other pamphlets in the same tone, in one of which he proposed that a
kingdom founded on the property of the Templars in the East should be
established on behalf of Philip the Tall.

  See an article by E. Renan in _Hist. litt. de la France_, vol. xxvi.
  pp. 471-536; P. Dupuy _Hist. de la condamnation ... des Templiers_
  (Brussels, 1713), and _Hist. du différend entre le pape Boniface VIII
  et Philippe le Bel_ (Paris 1655); and _Notices et extraits de
  manuscrits_, vol. xx.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Printed in _Collections à servir à l'étude de l'histoire_ (1891).



DUBOIS, a borough of Clearfield county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 129 m. by
rail N.E. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1890) 6149, (1900) 9375, of whom 1655 were
foreign-born; (1910 census) 12,623. It is served by the Pennsylvania,
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg, and the Buffalo & Susquehanna
railways. The borough is built on a small plateau surrounded by hills,
on the west slope of the Alleghany Mountains, nearly 1400 ft. above
sea-level. Its chief importance is as a coal and lumber centre; among
its manufacturing establishments are blast furnaces, iron works, machine
shops, railway repair shops, tanneries, planing mills, flour mills,
locomotive works and a glass factory. Dubois was first settled in 1872,
was named in honour of its founder, John Dubois, and was incorporated in
1881.



DUBOIS-CRANCÉ, EDMOND LOUIS ALEXIS (1747-1814), French Revolutionist,
born at Charleville, was at first a musketeer, then a lieutenant of the
_maréchaux_, or guardsmen of the old régime. He embraced liberal ideas,
and in 1789 was elected deputy to the states-general by the third estate
of Vitry-le-François. At the Constituent Assembly, of which he was named
secretary in November 1789, he busied himself mainly with military
reforms. He wished to see the old military system, with its caste
distinctions and its mercenaries, replaced by an organization of
national guards in which all citizens should be admitted. In his report,
on the 12th of December 1789, he gave utterance for the first time to
the idea of _conscription_, which he opposed to the recruiting system of
the old régime. His report was not, however, adopted. He succeeded in
securing the Assembly's vote that any slave who touched French soil
should become free. After the Constituent, Dubois-Crancé was named
_maréchal de camp_, but he refused to be placed under the orders of
Lafayette and preferred to serve as a simple grenadier. Elected to the
Convention by the department of the Ardennes, he sat among the
_Montagnards_, but without following any one leader, either Danton or
Robespierre. In the trial of Louis XVI. he voted for death without delay
or appeal. On the 21st of February 1793 he was named president of the
Convention. Although he was a member of the two committees of general
defence which preceded that of public safety, he did not belong to the
latter at its creation. But he composed a remarkable report on the army,
recommending two measures which contributed largely to its success, the
rapid advancement of the lower officers, which opened the way for the
most famous generals of the Revolution, and the fusion of the volunteers
with the veteran troops. In August 1793 Dubois-Crancé was designated
"representative on mission" to the army of the Alps, to direct the siege
of Lyons, which had revolted against the republic. Accused of lack of
energy, he was replaced by G. Couthon. On his return he easily justified
himself, but was excluded from the Jacobin club at the instance of
Robespierre, before whom he refused to bend. Consequently he was
naturally drawn to participate in the revolution of the 9th of Thermidor
of the year II., directed against Robespierre. But he would not join the
Royalist reaction which followed, and was one of the committee of five
which had to oppose the Royalist insurrection of Vendémiaire (see FRENCH
REVOLUTION). It was also during this period that Dubois-Crancé was named
a member of the committee of public safety, then much reduced in
importance. After the Convention, under the Directory, Dubois-Crancé was
a member of the Council of the Five Hundred, and was appointed
inspector-general of infantry; then, in 1799, minister of war. Opposed
to the _coup d'état_ of the 18th of Brumaire, he lived in retirement
during the Consulate and the Empire. He died at Rethel on the 29th of
June 1814. His portrait stands in the foreground in J.L. David's
celebrated sketch of the "Oath of the Tennis Court."

  Among the numerous writings of Dubois-Crancé may be noticed his
  _Observations sur la constitution militaire, ou bases du travail
  proposé au comité militaire_. See H.F.T. Jung, _Dubois de Crancé.
  L'armée et la Révolution, 1789-1794_ (2 vols., Paris, 1884).



DU BOIS-REYMOND, EMIL (1818-1896), German physiologist, was born in
Berlin on the 7th of November 1818. The Prussian capital was the place
both of his birth and of his life's work, and he will always be counted
among Germany's great scientific men; yet he was not of German blood.
His father belonged to Neuchâtel, his mother was of Huguenot descent,
and he spoke of himself as "being of pure Celtic blood." Educated first
at the French college in Berlin, then at Neuchâtel, whither his father
had returned, he entered in 1836 the university of Berlin. He seems to
have been uncertain at first as to the bent of his studies, for he sat
at the feet of the great ecclesiastical historian August Neander, and
dallied with geology; but eventually he threw himself into the study of
medicine, with such zeal and success as to attract the notice of the
great teacher of anatomy and physiology, who was then making Berlin
famous as a school for the sciences ancillary to medicine. Johannes
Müller may be regarded as the central figure in the history of modern
physiology. the physiology of the 19th century. Müller's earlier
studies had been distinctly physiological; but his inclination, no less
than his position as professor of anatomy as well as of physiology in
the university of Berlin, led him later on into wide studies of
comparative anatomy, and these, aided by the natural bent of his mind
towards problems of general philosophy, gave his views of physiology a
breadth and a depth which profoundly influenced the progress of that
science in his day. He had, about the time when the young Du
Bois-Reymond came to his lectures, published his great _Elements of
Physiology_, the dominant note of which may be said to be this:--"Though
there appears to be something in the phenomena of living beings which
cannot be explained by ordinary mechanical, physical or chemical laws,
much may be so explained, and we may without fear push these
explanations as far as we can, so long as we keep to the solid ground of
observation and experiment." Müller recognized in the Neuchâtel lad a
mind fitted to carry on physical researches into the phenomena of living
things in a legitimate way. He made him in 1840 his assistant in
physiology, and as a starting-point for an inquiry put into his hands
the essay which the Italian, Carlo Matteucci, had just published on the
electric phenomena of animals. This determined the work of Du
Bois-Reymond's life. He chose as the subject of his graduation thesis
"Electric Fishes," and so commenced a long series of investigations on
animal electricity, by which he enriched science and made for himself a
name. The results of these inquiries were made known partly in papers
communicated to scientific journals, but also and chiefly in his work
_Researches on Animal Electricity_, the first part of which appeared in
1848, the last in 1884.

This great work may be regarded under two aspects. On the one hand, it
is a record of the exact determination and approximative analysis of the
electric phenomena presented by living beings. Viewed from this
standpoint, it represents a remarkable advance of our knowledge. Du
Bois-Reymond, beginning with the imperfect observations of Matteucci,
built up, it may be said, this branch of science. He did so by inventing
or improving methods, by devising new instruments of observation or by
adapting old ones. The debt which science owes to him on this score is a
large one indeed. On the other hand, the volumes in question contain an
exposition of a theory. In them Du Bois-Reymond put forward a general
conception by the help of which he strove to explain the phenomena which
he had observed. He developed the view that a living tissue, such as
muscle, might be regarded as composed of a number of electric molecules,
of molecules having certain electric properties, and that the electric
behaviour of the muscle as a whole in varying circumstances was the
outcome of the behaviour of these native electric molecules. It may
perhaps be said that this theory has not stood the test of time so well
as have Du Bois-Reymond's other more simple deductions from observed
facts. It was early attacked by Ludimar Hermann, who maintained that a
living untouched tissue, such as a muscle, is not the subject of
electric currents so long as it is at rest, is isoelectric in substance,
and therefore need not be supposed to be made up of electric molecules,
all the electric phenomena which it manifests being due to internal
molecular changes associated with activity or injury. Although most
subsequent observers have ranged themselves on Hermann's side, it must
nevertheless be admitted that Du Bois-Reymond's theory was of great
value if only as a working hypothesis, and that as such it greatly
helped in the advance of science.

Du Bois-Reymond's work lay chiefly in the direction of animal
electricity, yet he carried his inquiries--such as could be studied by
physical methods--into other parts of physiology, more especially into
the phenomena of diffusion, though he published little or nothing
concerning the results at which he arrived. For many years, too, he
exerted a great influence as a teacher. In 1858, upon the death of
Johannes Müller, the chair of anatomy and physiology, which that great
man had held, was divided into a chair of human and comparative anatomy,
which was given to K.B. Reichert (1811-1883), and a chair of
physiology, which naturally fell to Du Bois-Reymond. This he held to his
death, carrying out his researches for many years under unfavourable
conditions of inadequate accommodation. In 1877, through his influence,
the government provided the university with a proper physiological
laboratory. In 1851 he was admitted into the Academy of Sciences of
Berlin, and in 1867 became its perpetual secretary. For many years he
and his friend H. von Helmholtz, who like him had been a pupil of
Johannes Müller, were prominent men in the German capital. Acceptable at
court, they both used their position and their influence for the
advancement of science. Both, from time to time as opportunity offered,
stepped out of the narrow limits of the professorial chair and gave the
world their thoughts concerning things on which they could not well
dwell in the lecture room. Du Bois-Reymond, as has been said, had in his
earlier years wandered into fields other than those of physiology and
medicine, and in his later years he went back to some of these. His
occasional discourses, dealing with general topics and various problems
of philosophy, show that to the end he possessed the historic spirit
which had led him as a lad to listen to Neander; they are marked not
only by a charm of style, but by a breadth of view such as might be
expected from Johannes Müller's pupil and friend. He died in the city of
his birth and adoption on the 26th of November 1896.     (M. F.)



DUBOS, JEAN-BAPTISTE (1670-1742), French author, was born at Beauvais in
December 1670. After studying for the church, he renounced theology for
the study of public law and politics. He was employed by M. de Torcy,
minister of foreign affairs, and by the regent and Cardinal Dubois in
several secret missions, in which he acquitted himself with great
success. He was rewarded with a pension and several benefices. Having
obtained these, he retired from political life, and devoted himself to
history and literature. He gained such distinction as an author that in
1720 he was elected a member of the French Academy, of which, in 1723,
he was appointed perpetual secretary in the room of M. Dacier. He died
at Paris on the 23rd of March 1742, repeating as he expired the
well-known remark of an ancient, "Death is a law, not a punishment." His
first work was _L'Histoire des quatre Gordiens prouvée et illustrée par
des médailles_ (Paris, 1695, 12mo), which, in spite of its ingenuity,
did not succeed in altering the common opinion, which only admits three
emperors of this name. About the commencement of the war of 1701, being
charged with different negotiations both in Holland and in England, with
the design to engage these powers if possible to adopt a pacific line of
policy, he, in order to promote the objects of his mission, published a
work entitled _Les Intérêts de l'Angleterre mal entendus dans la guerre
présente_ (Amsterdam, 1703, 12mo). But as this work contained indiscreet
disclosures, of which the enemy took advantage, and predictions which
were not fulfilled, a wag took occasion to remark that the title ought
to be read thus: _Les Intérêts de l'Angleterre mal entendus par l'abbé
Dubos_. It is remarkable as containing a distinct prophecy of the revolt
of the American colonies from Great Britain. His next work was
_L'Histoire de la Ligue de Cambray_ (Paris, 1709, 1728 and 1785, 2 vols.
12mo), a full, clear and interesting history, which obtained the
commendation of Voltaire. In 1734 he published his _Histoire critique de
l'établissement de la monarchie française dans les Gaules_ (3 vols.
4to)--a work the object of which was to prove that the Franks had
entered Gaul, not as conquerors, but at the request of the nation,
which, according to him, had called them in to govern it. But this
system, though unfolded with a degree of skill and ability which at
first procured it many zealous partisans, was victoriously refuted by
Montesquieu at the end of the thirtieth book of the _Esprit des lois_.
His _Réflexions critiques sur la poésie et sur la peinture_, published
for the first time in 1719 (2 vols. 12mo), but often reprinted in three
volumes, constitute one of the works in which the theory of the arts is
explained with the utmost sagacity and discrimination. Like his history
of the League of Cambray, it was highly praised by Voltaire. The work
was rendered more remarkable by the fact that its author had no
practical acquaintance with any one of the arts whose principles he
discussed. Besides the works above enumerated, a manifesto of
Maximilian, elector of Bavaria, against the emperor Leopold, relative to
the succession in Spain, has been attributed to Dubos, chiefly, it
appears, from the excellence of the style.



DUBUQUE, a city and the county-seat of Dubuque county, Iowa, U.S.A., on
the Mississippi river, opposite the boundary line between Wisconsin and
Illinois. Pop. (1890) 30,311; (1900) 36,297; (1905, state census) 41,941
(including 6835 foreign-born, the majority of whom were German and
Irish); (1910 U.S. census) 38,494. Dubuque is served by the Illinois
Central, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul (which has repair shops
here), the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago Great Western
railways; it also has a considerable river traffic. The river is spanned
here by a railway bridge and two wagon bridges. The business portion of
the city lies on the low lands bordering the river; many of the
residences are built on the slopes and summits of bluffs commanding
extensive and picturesque views. Among the principal buildings are the
Carnegie-Stout free public library (which in 1908 had 23,600 volumes,
exclusive of the valuable Senator Allison collection of public
documents), the public high school, and the house of the Dubuque Club.
Dubuque is a Roman Catholic archiepiscopal see, and is the seat of St
Joseph's College (1873), a small Roman Catholic institution; of Wartburg
Seminary (1854), a small Evangelical Lutheran theological school; of the
German Presbyterian Theological School of the North-west (1852); of St
Joseph's Ladies' Academy; and of Bayless Business College. Fifteen miles
from Dubuque is a monastery of Trappist monks. Among the city's
charitable institutions are the Finley and the Mercy hospitals, a home
for the friendless, a rescue home, a House of the Good Shepherd, and an
insane asylum. In 1900 Dubuque ranked fourth and in 1905 fifth among the
cities of the state as a manufacturing centre, the chief products being
those of the planing mills and machine shops, and furniture, sashes and
doors, liquors, carriages, wagons, coffins, clothing, boots and shoes,
river steam boats, barges, torpedo boats, &c., and the value of the
factory product being $9,279,414 in 1905 and $9,651,247 in 1900. The
city lies in a region of lead and zinc mines, quantities of zinc ore in
the form of black-jack being taken from the latter. Dubuque is important
as a distributing centre for lumber, hardware, groceries and dry-goods.

As early as 1788 Julien Dubuque (1765-1810), attracted by the lead
deposits in the vicinity, which were then being crudely worked by the
Sauk and Fox Indians, settled here and carried on the mining industry
until his death. In June 1829 miners from Galena, Illinois, attempted to
make a settlement here in direct violation of Indian treaties, but were
driven away by United States troops under orders from Colonel Zachary
Taylor. Immediately after the Black Hawk War, white settlers began
coming to the mines. Dubuque was laid out under an act of Congress
approved on the 2nd of July 1836, and was incorporated in 1841.



DU CAMP, MAXIME (1822-1894), French writer, the son of a successful
surgeon, was born in Paris on the 8th of February 1822. He had a strong
taste for travel, which his father's means enabled him to indulge as
soon as his college days were over. Between 1844 and 1845, and again, in
company with Gustave Flaubert, between 1849 and 1851, he travelled in
Europe and the East, and made excellent use of his experiences in books
published after his return. In 1851 he was one of the founders of the
_Revue de Paris_ (suppressed in 1858), and was a frequent contributor to
the _Revue des deux mondes_. In 1853 he was made an officer of the
Legion of Honour. He served as a volunteer with Garibaldi in 1860, and
gave an account of his experiences in his _Expédition des deux Siciles_
(1861). In 1870 he was nominated for the senate, but his election was
frustrated by the downfall of the Empire. He was elected a member of the
French Academy in 1880, mainly, it is said, on account of his history of
the Commune, published under the title of _Les Convulsions de Paris_
(1878-1880). His writings include among others the _Chants modernes_
(1855), _Convictions_ (1858); numerous works on travel, _Souvenirs et
paysages d'orient_ (1848), _Égypte, Nubie, Palestine, Syrie_ (1852);
works of art criticism, _Les Salons de 1857, 1859, 1861_; novels,
_L'Homme au bracelet d'or_ (1862), _Une Histoire d'amour_ (1889);
literary studies, _Théophile Gautier_ (1890). Du Camp was the author of
a valuable book on the daily life of Paris, _Paris, ses organes, ses
fonctions, sa vie dans la seconde moitié du XIX^e siècle_ (1869-1875).
He published several works on social questions, one of which, the
_Moeurs de mon temps_, was to be kept sealed in the Bibliothèque
Nationale until 1910. His _Souvenirs littéraires_ (2 vols., 1882-1883)
contain much information about contemporary writers, especially Gustave
Flaubert, of whom Du Camp was an early and intimate friend. He died on
the 9th of February 1894. Du Camp was one of the earliest amateur
photographers, and his books of travel were among the first to be
illustrated by means of what was then a new art.



DU CANGE, CHARLES DU FRESNE, SIEUR (1610-1688), one of the lay members
of the great 17th century group of French critics and scholars who laid
the foundations of modern historical criticism, was born at Amiens on
the 18th of December 1610. At an early age his father sent him to the
Jesuits' college at Amiens, where he greatly distinguished himself.
Having completed the usual course at this seminary, he applied himself
to the study of law at Orleans, and afterwards went to Paris, where in
1631 he was received as an advocate before the parliament. Meeting with
very slight success in his profession, he returned to his native city,
and in July 1638 married Catherine Dubois, daughter of a royal official,
the treasurer in Amiens; and in 1647 he purchased the office of
treasurer from his father-in-law, but its duties did not interfere with
the literary and historical work to which he had devoted himself since
returning to Amiens. Forced to leave his native city in 1668 in
consequence of a plague, he settled in Paris, where he resided until his
death on the 23rd of October 1688. In the archives of Paris Du Cange was
able to consult charters, diplomas, manuscripts and a multitude of
printed documents, which were not to be met with elsewhere. His industry
was exemplary and unremitting, and the number of his literary works
would be incredible, if the originals, all in his own handwriting, were
not still extant. He was distinguished above nearly all the writers of
his time by his linguistic acquirements, his accurate and varied
knowledge, and his critical sagacity. Of his numerous works the most
important are the _Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae
latinitatis_ (Paris, 1678), and the _Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et
infimae graecitatis_ (Lyons, 1688), which are indispensable aids to the
student of the history and literature of the middle ages. To the three
original volumes of the Latin _Glossarium_, three supplementary volumes
were added by the Benedictines of St Maur (Paris, 1733-1736), and a
further addition of four volumes (Paris, 1766), by a Benedictine, Pierre
Carpentier (1697-1767). There were other editions, and an abridgment
with some corrections was brought out by J.C. Adelung (Halle,
1772-1784). The edition in seven volumes edited by G.A.L. Henschel
(Paris, 1840-1850) includes these supplements and also further additions
by the editor, and this has been improved and published in ten volumes
by Léopold Favre (Niort, 1883-1887). An edition of the Greek
_Glossarium_ was published at Breslau in 1889.

Du Cange took considerable interest in the history of the later empire,
and wrote _Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrato_ (Paris,
1680), and an introduction to his edition and translation into modern
French of Geoffrey de Villehardouin's _Histoire de l'empire de
Constantinople sous les empereurs français_ (Paris, 1657). He also
brought out editions of the Byzantine historians, John Cinnamus and John
Zonaras, as _Joannis Cinnami historiarum de rebus gestis a Joanne et
Manuele Comnenis_ (Paris, 1670) and _Joannis Zonarae Annales ab exordio
mundi ad mortem Alexii Comneni_ (Paris, 1686). He edited Jean de
Joinville's _Histoire de St Louis, roi de France_ (Paris, 1668), and his
other works which may be mentioned are _Traité historique du chef de St
Jean Baptiste_ (Paris, 1666); _Lettre du Sieur N., conseiller du roi_
(Paris, 1682); _Cyrilli, Philoxeni, aliorumque veterum glossaria_, and
_Mémoire sur le projet d'un nouveau recueil des historiens de France,
avec le plan général de ce recueil_, which has been inserted by Jacques
Lelong in his _Bibliothèque historique de la France_ (Paris,
1768-1778). His last work, _Chronicon Paschale a mundo condito ad
Heraclii imperatoris annum vigesimum_ (Paris, 1689), was passing through
the press when Du Cange died, and consequently it was edited by Étienne
Baluze, and published with an _éloge_ of the author prefixed.

His autograph manuscripts and his large and valuable library passed to
his eldest son, Philippe du Fresne, who died unmarried in 1692. They
then came to his second son, François du Fresne, who sold the
collection, the greater part of the manuscripts being purchased by the
abbé du Champs. The abbé handed them over to a bookseller named
Mariette, who resold part of them to Baron Hohendorf. The remaining part
was acquired by a member of the family of Hozier, the French
genealogists. The French government, however, aware of the importance of
all the writings of Du Cange, succeeded, after much trouble, in
collecting the greater portion of the manuscripts, which were preserved
in the imperial library at Paris. Some of these were subsequently
published, and the manuscripts are now found in various libraries. The
works of Du Cange published after his death are: an edition of the
Byzantine historian, Nicephorus Gregoras (Paris, 1702); _De imperatorum
Constantinopolitanorum seu inferioris aevi vel imperii uti vocant
numismatibus dissertatio_ (Rome, 1755); _Histoire de l'état de la ville
d'Amiens et de ses comtes_ (Amiens, 1840); and a valuable work _Des
principautés d'outre-mer_, published by E.G. Rey as _Les Familles
d'outre-mer_ (Paris, 1869).

  See H. Hardouin, _Essai sur la vie et sur les ouvrages de Ducange_
  (Amiens, 1849); and L.J. Feugère, in the _Journal de l'instruction
  publique_ (Paris, 1852).



DUCANGE, VICTOR HENRI JOSEPH BRAHAIN (1783-1833), French novelist and
dramatist, was born on the 24th of November 1783 at the Hague, where his
father was secretary to the French embassy. Dismissed from the civil
service at the Restoration, Victor Ducange became one of the favourite
authors of the liberal party, and owed some part of his popularity to
the fact that he was fined and imprisoned more than once for his
outspokenness. He was six months in prison for an article in his journal
_Le Diable rose, ou le petit courrier de Lucifer_ (1822); for
_Valentine_ (1821), in which the royalist excesses in the south of
France were pilloried, he was again imprisoned; and after the
publication of _Hélène ou l'amour et la guerre_ (1823), he took refuge
for some time in Belgium. Ducange wrote numerous plays and melodramas,
among which the most successful were _Marco Loricot, ou le petit Chouan
de 1830_ (1836), and _Trente ans, ou la vie d'un joueur_ (1827), in
which Fréderick Lemaître found one of his best parts. Many of his books
were prohibited, ostensibly for their coarseness, but perhaps rather for
their political tendencies. He died in Paris on the 15th of October
1833.



DUCAS, DUKAS or DOUKAS, the name of a Byzantine family which supplied
several rulers to the Eastern Empire. The family first came into
prominence during the 9th century, but was ruined when Constantine
Ducas, a son of the general Andronicus Ducas, lost his life in his
effort to obtain the imperial crown in 913. Towards the end of the 10th
century there appeared another family of Ducas, which was perhaps
connected with the earlier family through the female line and was
destined to attain to greater fortune. A member of this family became
emperor as Constantine X. in 1059, and Constantine's son Michael VII.
ruled, nominally in conjunction with his younger brothers, Andronicus
and Constantine, from 1071 to 1078. Michael left a son, Constantine,
and, says Gibbon, "a daughter of the house of Ducas illustrated the
blood, and confirmed the succession, of the Comnenian dynasty." The
family was also allied by marriage with other great Byzantine houses,
and after losing the imperial dignity its members continued to take an
active part in public affairs. In 1204 Alexius Ducas, called Mourzoufle,
deposed the emperor Isaac Angelus and his son Alexius, and vainly tried
to defend Constantinople against the attacks of the Latin crusaders.
Nearly a century and a half later one Michael Ducas took a leading part
in the civil war between the emperors John V. Palaeologus and John VI.
Cantacuzenus, and Michael's grandson was the historian Ducas (see
below). Many of the petty sovereigns who arose after the destruction of
the Eastern Empire sought to gain prestige by adding the famous name of
Ducas to their own.



DUCAS (15th cent.), Byzantine historian, flourished under Constantine
XIII. (XI.) Dragases, the last emperor of the East, about 1450. The
dates of his birth and death are unknown. He was the grandson of Michael
Ducas (see above). After the fall of Constantinople, he was employed in
various diplomatic missions by Dorino and Domenico Gateluzzi, princes of
Lesbos, where he had taken refuge. He was successful in securing a
semi-independence for Lesbos until 1462, when it was taken and annexed
to Turkey by Sultan Mahommed II. It is known that Ducas survived this
event, but there is no record of his subsequent life. He was the author
of a history of the period 1341-1462; his work thus continues that of
Gregoras and Cantacuzene, and supplements Phrantzes and Chalcondyles.
There is a preliminary chapter of chronology from Adam to John
Palaeologus I. Although barbarous in style, the history of Ducas is both
judicious and trustworthy, and it is the most valuable source for the
closing years of the Greek empire. The account of the capture of
Constantinople is of special importance. Ducas was a strong supporter of
the union of the Greek and Latin churches, and is very bitter against
those who rejected even the idea of appealing to the West for assistance
against the Turks.

  The history, preserved (without a title) in a single Paris MS., was
  first edited by I. Bullialdus (Bulliaud) (Paris, 1649); later editions
  are in the Bonn _Corpus scriptorum Hist. Byz._, by I. Bekker (1834)
  and Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_, clvii. The Bonn edition contains a
  15th century Italian translation by an unknown author, found by
  Leopold Ranke in one of the libraries of Venice, and sent by him to
  Bekker.



DUCASSE, PIERRE EMMANUEL ALBERT, BARON (1813-1893), French historian,
was born at Bourges on the 16th of November 1813. In 1849 he became
aide-de-camp to Prince Jerome Bonaparte, ex-king of Westphalia, then
governor of the Invalides, on whose commission he wrote _Mémoires pour
servir à l'histoire de la campagne de 1812 en Russie_ (1852).
Subsequently he published _Mémoires du roi Joseph_ (1853-1855), and, as
a sequel, _Histoire des négociations diplomatiques relatives aux traités
de Morfontaine, de Lunéville et d'Amiens_, together with the unpublished
correspondence of the emperor Napoleon I. with Cardinal Fesch
(1855-1856). From papers in the possession of the imperial family he
compiled _Mémoires du prince Eugène_ (1858-1860) and _Réfutation des
mémoires du duc de Raguse_ (1857), part of which was inserted by
authority at the end of volume ix. of the _Mémoires_. He was attaché to
Jerome's son, Prince Napoleon, during the Crimean War, and wrote a
_Précis historique des opérations militaires en Orient, de mars 1854 à
octobre 1855_ (1857), which was completed many years later by a volume
entitled _La Crimée et Sébastopol de 1853 à 1856, documents intimes et
inédits_, followed by the complete list of the French officers killed or
wounded in that war (1892). He was also employed by Prince Napoleon on
the _Correspondance_ of Napoleon I., and afterwards published certain
letters, purposely omitted there, in the _Revue historique_. These
documents, subsequently collected in _Les Rois frères de Napoléon_
(1883), as well as the _Journal de la reine Catherine de Westphalie_
(1893), were edited with little care and are not entirely trustworthy,
but their publication threw much light on Napoleon I. and his entourage.
His _Souvenirs d'un officier du 2^e Zouaves_, and _Les Dessous du coup
d'état_ (1891), contain many piquant anecdotes, but at times degenerate
into mere tittle-tattle. Ducasse was the author of some slight novels,
and from the practice of this form of literature he acquired that levity
which appears even in his most serious historical publications.



DUCAT, the name of a coin, generally of gold, and of varying value,
formerly in use in many European countries. It was first struck by Roger
II. of Sicily as duke of Apulia, and bore an inscription "_Sit tibi,
Christe, datus, quem tu regis, iste ducatus_" (Lord, thou rulest this
duchy, to thee be it dedicated); hence, it is said, the name. Between
1280 and 1284 Venice also struck a gold coin, known first as the ducat,
afterwards as the zecchino or sequin, the ducat becoming merely a money
of account. The ducat was also current in Holland, Austria, the
Netherlands, Spain and Denmark (see NUMISMATICS). A gold coin termed a
ducat was current in Hanover during the reigns of George I. and George
III. A pattern gold coin was also struck by the English mint in 1887 for
a proposed decimal coinage. On the reverse was the inscription "one
ducat" within an oak wreath; above "one hundred pence," and below the
date between two small roses. There is a gold coin termed a ducat in the
Austria-Hungary currency, of the value of nine shillings and fourpence.



DU CHAILLU, PAUL BELLONI (1835-1903), traveller and anthropologist, was
born either at Paris or at New Orleans (accounts conflict) on the 31st
of July 1835. In his youth he accompanied his father, an African trader
in the employment of a Parisian firm, to the west coast of Africa. Here,
at a station on the Gabun, the boy received some education from
missionaries, and acquired an interest in and knowledge of the country,
its natural history, and its natives, which guided him to his subsequent
career. In 1852 he exhibited this knowledge in the New York press, and
was sent in 1855 by the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia on
an African expedition. From 1855 to 1859 he regularly explored the
regions of West Africa in the neighbourhood of the equator, gaining
considerable knowledge of the delta of the Ogowé river and the estuary
of the Gabun. During his travels he saw numbers of the great anthropoid
apes called the gorilla (possibly the great ape described by
Carthaginian navigators), then known to scientists only by a few
skeletons. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to
confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting
the African forests. Narratives of both expeditions were published, in
1861 and 1867 respectively, under the titles _Explorations and
Adventures in Equatorial Africa, with Accounts of the Manners and
Customs of the People, and of the Chace of the Gorilla, Crocodile, and
other Animals_; and _A Journey to Ashango-land, and further penetration
into Equatorial Africa_. The first work excited much controversy on the
score of its veracity, but subsequent investigation proved the
correctness of du Chaillu's statements as to the facts of natural
history; though possibly some of the adventures he described as
happening to himself were reproductions of the hunting stories of
natives (see _Proc. Zool. Soc._ vol. i., 1905, p. 66). The map
accompanying _Ashango-land_ was of unique value, but the explorer's
photographs and collections were lost when he was forced to flee from
the hostility of the natives. After some years' residence in America,
during which he wrote several books for the young founded upon his
African adventures, du Chaillu turned his attention to northern Europe,
and published in 1881 _The Land of the Midnight Sun_, in 1889 _The
Viking Age_, and in 1900 _The Land of the Long Night_. He died at St
Petersburg on the 29th of April 1903.



DUCHENNE, GUILLAUME BENJAMIN AMAND (1806-1875), French physician, was
born on the 17th of September 1806 at Boulogne, the son of a
sea-captain. He was educated at Douai, and then studied medicine in
Paris until the year 1831, when he returned to his native town to
practise his profession. Two years later he first tried the effect of
electro-puncture of the muscles on a patient under his care, and from
this time on devoted himself more and more to the medical applications
of electricity, thereby laying the foundation of the modern science of
electro-therapeutics. In 1842 he removed to Paris for the sake of its
wider clinical opportunities, and there he worked until his death over
thirty years later. His greatest work, _L'Électrisation localisée_
(1855), passed through three editions during his lifetime, though by
many his _Physiologie des mouvements_ (1867) is considered his
masterpiece. He published over fifty volumes containing his researches
on muscular and nervous diseases, and on the applications of electricity
both for diagnostic purposes and for treatment. His name is especially
connected with the first description of locomotor ataxy, progressive
muscular atrophy, pseudo-hypertrophic paralysis, glosso-labio laryngeal
paralysis and other nervous troubles. He died in Paris on the 17th of
September 1875.

  For a detailed life see _Archives générales de médicine_ (December
  1875), and for a complete list of his works the 3rd edition of
  _L'Électrisation localisée_ (1872).



DU CHESNE [Latinized DUCHENIUS, QUERNEUS, or QUERCETANUS], ANDRÉ
(1584-1640), French geographer and historian, generally styled the
father of French history, was born at Ile-Bouchard, in the province of
Touraine, in May 1584. He was educated at Loudun and afterwards at
Paris. From his earliest years he devoted himself to historical and
geographical research, and his first work, _Egregiarum seu selectarum
lectionum et antiquitatum liber_, published in his eighteenth year,
displayed great erudition. He enjoyed the patronage of Cardinal
Richelieu, a native of the same district with himself, through whose
influence he was appointed historiographer and geographer to the king.
He died in 1640, in consequence of having been run over by a carriage
when on his way from Paris to his country house at Verrière. Du Chesne's
works were very numerous and varied, and in addition to what he
published, he left behind him more than 100 folio volumes of manuscript
extracts now preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale (L. Delisle, _Le
Cabinet des manuscrits de la bibliothèque impériale_, t. L, 333-334).
Several of his larger works were continued by his only son François du
Chesne (1616-1693), who succeeded him in the office of historiographer
to the king. The principal works of André du Chesne are--_Les Antiquités
et recherches de la grandeur et majesté des rois de France_ (Paris,
1609), _Les Antiquités et recherches des villes, châteaux, &c., de toute
la France_ (Paris, 1609), _Histoire d'Angleterre, d'Écosse, et
d'Irelande_ (Paris, 1614), _Histoire des Papes jusqu'à Paul V_ (Paris,
1619), _Histoire des rois, ducs, et comtes de Bourgogne_ (1619-1628, 2
vols. fol.), _Historiae Normanorum scriptores antiqui_ (1619, fol., now
the only source for some of the texts), and his _Historiae Francorum
scriptores_ (5 vols. fol., 1636-1649). This last was intended to
comprise 24 volumes, and to contain all the narrative sources for French
history in the middle ages; only two volumes were published by the
author, his son François published three more, and the work remained
unfinished. Besides these du Chesne published a great number of
genealogical histories of illustrious families, of which the best is
that of the house of Montmorency. His _Histoire des cardinaux français_
(2 vols. fol. 1660-1666) and _Histoire des chanceliers et gardes des
sceaux de France_ (1630) were published by his son François. André also
published a translation of the _Satires_ of Juvenal, and editions of the
works of Alcuin, Abelard, Alain Chartier and Étienne Pasquier.



DUCHESNE, LOUIS MARIE OLIVIER (1843-   ), French scholar and
ecclesiastic, was born at Saint Servan in Brittany on the 13th of
September 1843. Two scientific missions--to Mount Athos in 1874 and to
Asia Minor in 1876--appeared at first to incline him towards the study
of the ancient history of the Christian churches of the East.
Afterwards, however, it was the Western church which absorbed almost his
whole attention. In 1877 he received the degree of _docteur ès lettres_
with two remarkable theses, a dissertation _De Macario magnete_, and an
_Étude sur le Liber pontificalis_, in which he explained with unerring
critical acumen the origin of that celebrated chronicle, determined the
different editions and their interrelation, and stated precisely the
value of his evidence. Immediately afterwards he was appointed professor
at the Catholic Institute in Paris, and for eight years presented the
example and model, then rare in France, of a priest teaching church
history according to the rules of scientific criticism. His course, bold
even to the point of rashness in the eyes of the traditionalist
exegetists, was at length suspended. In November 1885 he was appointed
lecturer at the École Pratique des Hautes Études. In 1886 he published
volume i. of his learned edition of the _Liber pontificalis_ (completed
in 1892 by volume ii.), in which he resumed and completed the results he
had attained in his French thesis. In 1888 he was elected member of the
Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and was afterwards
appointed director of the French school of archaeology at Rome. Much
light is thrown upon the Christian origins, especially those of France,
by his _Origines du culte chrétien, étude sur la liturgie latine avant
Charlemagne_ (1889; Eng. trans. by M.L. McClure, _Christian Worship:
its Origin and Evolution_, London, 1902, 2nd ed. 1904); _Mémoire sur
l'origine des diocèses épiscopaux dans l'ancienne Gaule_ (1890), the
preliminary sketch of a more detailed work, _Fastes épiscopaux dans
l'ancienne Gaule_ (vol. i. _Les provinces du sud-est_, 1894, and vol.
ii. _L'Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises_, 1899); and _Catalogues épiscopaux
de la province de Tours_ (1898). When a proposal was set on foot to
bring about a reconciliation between the Roman Church and the Christian
Churches of the East, the Abbé Duchesne endeavoured to show that the
union of those churches was possible under the Roman supremacy, because
unity did not necessarily entail uniformity. His _Autonomies
ecclésiastiques; églises séparées_ (1897), in which he speaks of the
origin of the Anglican Church, but treats especially of the origin of
the Greek Churches of the East, was received with scant favour in
certain narrow circles of the pontifical court. In 1906 he began to
publish, under the title of _Histoire ancienne de l'église_, a course of
lectures which he had already delivered upon the early ages of the
Church, and of which a few manuscript copies were circulated. The second
volume appeared in 1908. In these lectures Duchesne touches cleverly
upon the most delicate problems, and, without any elaborate display of
erudition, presents conclusions of which account must be taken. His
incisive style, his fearless and often ruthless criticism, and his wide
and penetrating erudition, make him a redoubtable adversary in the field
of polemic. The _Bulletin critique_, founded by him, for which he wrote
numerous articles, has contributed powerfully to spread the principles
of the historical method among the French clergy.



DUCIS, JEAN FRANÇOIS (1733-1816), French dramatist and adapter of
Shakespeare, was born at Versailles on the 22nd of August 1733. His
father, originally from Savoy, was a linen-draper at Versailles; and all
through life he retained the simple tastes and straightforward
independence fostered by his bourgeois education. In 1768 he produced
his first tragedy, _Amélise_. The failure of this first attempt was
fully compensated by the success of his _Hamlet_ (1769), and _Roméo et
Juliette_ (1772). _Oedipe chez Admète_, imitated partly from Euripides
and partly from Sophocles, appeared in 1778, and secured him in the
following year the chair in the Academy left vacant by the death of
Voltaire. Equally successful was _Le Roi Lear_ in 1783. _Macbeth_ in
1783 did not take so well, and _Jean sans peur_ in 1791 was almost a
failure; but _Othello_ in 1792, supported by the acting of Talma,
obtained immense applause. Its vivid picturing of desert life secured
for _Abufas, ou la famille arabe_ (1795), an original drama, a
flattering reception. On the failure of a similar piece, _Phédor et
Vladimir ou la famille de Sibérie_ (1801), Ducis ceased to write for the
stage; and the rest of his life was spent in quiet retirement at
Versailles. He had been named a member of the Council of the Ancients in
1798, but he never discharged the functions of the office; and when
Napoleon offered him a post of honour under the empire, he refused.
Amiable, religious and bucolic, he had little sympathy with the fierce,
sceptical and tragic times in which his lot was cast. "Alas!" he said in
the midst of the Revolution, "tragedy is abroad in the streets; if I
step outside of my door, I have blood to my very ankles. I have too
often seen Atreus in clogs, to venture to bring an Atreus on the stage."
Though actuated by honest admiration of the great English dramatist,
Ducis is not Shakespearian. His ignorance of the English language left
him at the mercy of the translations of Pierre Letourneur (1736-1788)
and of Pierre de la Place (1707-1793); and even this modified
Shakespeare had still to undergo a process of purification and
correction before he could be presented to the fastidious criticism of
French taste. That such was the case was not, however, the fault of
Ducis; and he did good service in modifying the judgment of his fellow
countrymen. He did not pretend to reproduce, but to excerpt and
refashion; and consequently the French play sometimes differs from its
English namesake in everything almost but the name. The plot is
different, the characters are different, the _motif_ different, and the
scenic arrangement different. To _Othello_, for instance, he wrote two
endings. In one of them Othello was enlightened in time and Desdemona
escaped her tragic fate. _Le Banquet de l'amitié_, a poem in four cantos
(1771), _Au roi de Sardaigne_ (1775), _Discours de réception à
l'académie française_ (1779), _Épître à l'amitié_ (1786), and a _Recueil
de poésies_ (1809), complete the list of Ducis's publications.

  An edition of his works in three volumes appeared in 1813; _Oeuvres
  posthumes_ were edited by Campenon in 1826; and _Hamlet_, _Oedipe chez
  Admète_, _Macbeth_ and _Abufar_ are reprinted in vol. ii. of Didot's
  _Chefs-d'oeuvre tragiques_. See Onésime Leroy, _Étude sur la personne
  et les écrits de Ducis_ (1832), based on Ducis's own memoirs preserved
  in the library at Versailles; Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, t.
  vi., and _Nouveaux lundis_, t. iv.; Villemain, _Tableau de la litt. au
  XVIII^e siècle_.



DUCK. (1) (From the verb "to duck," to dive, put the head under water,
in reference to the bird's action, cf. Dutch _duiker_, Ger. _Taucher_,
diving-bird, _duiken_, _tauchen_, to dip, dive, Dan. _dukand_, duck, and
Ger. _Ente_, duck; various familiar and slang usages are based on
analogy with the bird's action), the general English name for a large
number of birds forming the greater part of the family _Anatidae_ of
modern ornithologists. Technically the term duck is restricted to the
female, the male being called drake (cognate with the termination of
Ger. _Enterich_), and in one species mallard (Fr. _Malart_).

The _Anatidae_ may be at once divided into six more or less well marked
subfamilies--(1) the _Cygninae_ or swans, (2) the _Anserinae_ or
geese--which are each very distinct, (3) the _Anatinae_ or
freshwater-ducks, (4) those commonly called _Fuligulinae_ or sea-ducks,
(5) the _Erismaturinae_ or spiny-tailed ducks, and (6) the _Merginae_ or
mergansers.

The _Anatinae_ are the typical group, and it is these only that are
considered here. We start with the _Anas boschas_ of Linnaeus, the
common wild duck, which from every point of view is by far the most
important species, as it is the most plentiful, the most widely
distributed, and the best known--being indeed the origin of all the
British domestic breeds. It inhabits the greater part of the northern
hemisphere, reaching in winter so far as the Isthmus of Panama in the
New World, and in the Old being abundant at the same season in Egypt and
north-western India, while in summer it ranges throughout the
Fur-Countries, Greenland, Iceland, Lapland and Siberia. Most of those
which fill British markets are no doubt bred in more northern climes,
but a considerable proportion of them are yet produced in the British
Islands, though not in anything like the numbers that used to be
supplied before the draining of the great fen-country and other marshy
places. The wild duck pairs very early in the year--the period being
somewhat delayed by hard weather, and the ceremonies of courtship, which
require some little time. Soon after these are performed, the respective
couples separate in search of suitable nesting-places, which are
generally found, by those that remain with us, about the middle of
March. The spot chosen is sometimes near a river or pond, but often very
far removed from water, and it may be under a furze-bush, on a dry
heath, at the bottom of a thick hedge-row, or even in any convenient
hole in a tree. A little dry grass is generally collected, and on it the
eggs, from 9 to 11 in number, are laid. So soon as incubation commences
the mother begins to divest herself of the down which grows thickly
beneath her breast-feathers, and adds it to the nest-furniture, so that
the eggs are deeply imbedded in this heat-retaining substance--a portion
of which she is always careful to pull, as a coverlet, over her
treasures when she quits them for food. She is seldom absent from the
nest, however, but once, or at most twice, a day, and then she dares not
leave it until her mate, after several circling flights of observation,
has assured her she may do so unobserved. Joining him the pair betake
themselves to some quiet spot where she may bathe and otherwise refresh
herself. Then they return to the nest, and after cautiously
reconnoitring the neighbourhood, she loses no time in reseating herself
on her eggs, while he, when she is settled, repairs again to the waters,
and passes his day listlessly in the company of his brethren, who have
the same duties, hopes and cares. Short and infrequent as are the
absences of the duck when incubation begins, they become shorter and
more infrequent towards its close, and for the last day or two of the
28 necessary to develop the young it is probable that she will not stir
from the nest at all. When all the fertile eggs are hatched her next
care is to get the brood safely to the water. This, when the distance is
great, necessarily demands great caution, and so cunningly is it done
that but few persons have encountered the mother and offspring as they
make the dangerous journey.[1] If disturbed the young instantly hide as
they best can, while the mother quacks loudly, feigns lameness, and
flutters off to divert the attention of the intruder from her brood, who
lie motionless at her warning notes. Once arrived at the water they are
comparatively free from harm, though other perils present themselves
from its inmates in the form of pike and other voracious fishes, which
seize the ducklings as they disport in quest of insects on the surface
or dive beneath it. Throughout the summer the duck continues her care
unremittingly, until the young are full grown and feathered; but it is
no part of the mallard's duty to look after his offspring, and indeed he
speedily becomes incapable of helping them, for towards the end of May
he begins to undergo his extraordinary additional moult, loses the power
of flight, and does not regain his full plumage till autumn. About
harvest-time the young are well able to shift for themselves, and then
resort to the corn-fields at evening, where they fatten on the scattered
grain. Towards the end of September or beginning of October both old and
young unite in large flocks and betake themselves to the larger waters.
If long-continued frost prevail, most of the ducks resort to the
estuaries and tidal rivers, or even leave these islands almost entirely.
Soon after Christmas the return-flight commences, and then begins anew
the course of life already described.

For the farmyard varieties, descending from _Anas boschas_, see POULTRY.
The domestication of the duck is very ancient. Several distinct breeds
have been established, of which the most esteemed from an economical
point of view are those known as the Rouen and Aylesbury; but perhaps
the most remarkable deviation from the normal form is the so-called
penguin-duck, in which the bird assumes an upright attitude and its
wings are much diminished in size. A remarkable breed also is that often
named (though quite fancifully) the "Buenos-Ayres" duck, wherein the
whole plumage is of a deep black, beautifully glossed or bronzed. But
this saturation, so to speak, of colour only lasts in the individual for
a few years, and as the birds grow older they become mottled with white,
though as long as their reproductive power lasts they "breed true." The
amount of variation in domestic ducks, however, is not comparable to
that found among pigeons, no doubt from the absence of the competition
which pigeon-fanciers have so long exercised. One of the most curious
effects of domestication in the duck, however, is, that whereas the wild
mallard is not only strictly monogamous, but, as Waterton believed, a
most faithful husband, remaining paired for life, the civilized drake is
notoriously polygamous.

Very nearly allied to the common wild duck are a considerable number of
species found in various parts of the world in which there is little
difference of plumage between the sexes--both being of a dusky hue--such
as _Anas obscura_, the commonest river-duck of America, _A.
superciliosa_ of Australia, _A. poecilorhyncha_ of India, _A. melleri_
of Madagascar, _A. xanthorhyncha_ of South Africa, and some others.

Among the other genera of _Anatinae_, we must content ourselves by
saying that both in Europe and in North America there are the groups
represented by the shoveller, garganey, gadwall, teal, pintail and
widgeon--each of which, according to some systematists, is the type of a
distinct genus. Then there is the group _Aix_, with its beautiful
representatives the wood-duck (_A. sponsa_) in America and the
mandarin-duck (_A. galericulata_) in Eastern Asia. Besides there are the
sheldrakes (_Tadorna_), confined to the Old World and remarkably
developed in the Australian Region; the musk-duck (_Cairina_) of South
America, which is often domesticated and in that condition will produce
hybrids with the common duck; and finally the tree-ducks
(_Dendrocygna_), which are almost limited to the tropics. (For
duck-shooting, see SHOOTING.)     (A. N.)

2 (Probably derived from the Dutch _doeck_, a coarse linen material, cf.
Ger. _Tuch_, cloth), a plain fabric made originally from tow yarns. The
cloth is lighter than canvas or sailcloth, and differs from these in
that it is almost invariably single in both warp and weft. The term is
also used to indicate the colour obtained at a certain stage in the
bleaching of flax yarns; it is a colour between half-white and cream,
and this fact may have something to do with the name. Most of the flax
ducks (tow yarns) appear in this colour, although quantities are
bleached or dyed. Some of the ducks are made from long flax, dyed black,
and used for kit-bags, while the dyed tow ducks may be used for inferior
purposes. The fabric, in its various qualities and colours, is used for
an enormous variety of purposes, including tents, wagon and motor hoods,
light sails, clothing, workmen's overalls, bicycle tubes, mail and other
bags and pocketings. _Russian duck_ is a fine white linen canvas.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] When ducks breed in trees, the precise way in which the young get
    to the ground is still a matter of uncertainty. The mother is
    supposed to convey them in her bill, and most likely does so, but
    they are often simply allowed to fall.



DUCKING and CUCKING STOOLS, chairs used for the punishment of scolds,
witches and prostitutes in bygone days. The two have been generally
confused, but are quite distinct. The earlier, the Cucking-stool[1] or
Stool of Repentance, is of very ancient date, and was used by the
Saxons, who called it the _Scealding_ or _Scolding Stool_. It is
mentioned in Domesday Book as in use at Chester, being called _cathedra
stercoris_, a name which seems to confirm the first of the derivations
suggested in the footnote below. Seated on this stool the woman, her
head and feet bare, was publicly exposed at her door or paraded through
the streets amidst the jeers of the crowd. The Cucking-stool was used
for both sexes, and was specially the punishment for dishonest brewers
and bakers. Its use in the case of scolding women declined on the
introduction in the middle of the 16th century of the Scold's Bridle
(see BRANKS), and it disappears on the introduction a little later of
the Ducking-stool. The earliest record of the use of this latter is
towards the beginning of the 17th century. It was a strongly made wooden
armchair (the surviving specimens are of oak) in which the culprit was
seated, an iron band being placed around her so that she should not fall
out during her immersion. Usually the chair was fastened to a long
wooden beam fixed as a seesaw on the edge of a pond or river. Sometimes,
however, the Ducking-stool was not a fixture but was mounted on a pair
of wooden wheels so that it could be wheeled through the streets, and at
the river-edge was hung by a chain from the end of a beam. In sentencing
a woman the magistrates ordered the number of duckings she should have.
Yet another type of Ducking-stool was called a tumbrel. It was a chair
on two wheels with two long shafts fixed to the axles. This was pushed
into the pond and then the shafts released, thus tipping the chair up
backwards. Sometimes the punishment proved fatal, the unfortunate woman
dying of shock. Ducking-stools were used in England as late as the
beginning of the 19th century. The last recorded cases are those of a
Mrs Ganble at Plymouth (1808); of Jenny Pipes, "a notorious scold"
(1809), and Sarah Leeke (1817), both of Leominster. In the last case the
water in the pond was so low that the victim was merely wheeled round
the town in the chair.

  See W. Andrews, _Old Time Punishments_ (Hull, 1890); A.M. Earle,
  _Curious Punishments of Bygone Days_ (Chicago, 1896); W.C. Hazlitt,
  _Faiths and Folklore_ (London, 1905); Llewellynn Jewitt in _The
  Reliquary_, vols. i. and ii. (1860-1862); _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
  1732.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Probably from "cuck," to void excrement; but variously connected
    with Fr. _coquin_, rascal.



DUCKWEED, the common botanical name for species of _Lemna_ which form a
green coating on fresh-water ponds and ditches. The plants are of
extremely simple structure and are the smallest and least differentiated
of flowering plants. They consist of a so-called "frond"--a flattened
green more or less oval structure which emits branches similar to itself
from lateral pockets at or near the base. From the under surface a root
with a well-developed sheath grows downwards into the water. The
flowers, which are rarely found in Britain, are developed in one of the
lateral pockets. The inflorescence is a very simple one, consisting of
one or two male flowers each comprising a single stamen, and a female
flower comprising a flask-shaped pistil. The order Lemnaceae to which
they belong is regarded as representing a very reduced type nearly
allied to the Aroids. It is represented in Britain by four species of
_Lemna_, and a still smaller and simpler plant, _Wolffia_, in which the
fronds are only one-twentieth of an inch long and have no roots.

[Illustration:

  1, _Lemna minor_ (Lesser Duckweed) nat. size.
  2, Plant in flower.
  3, Inflorescence containing two male flowers each of one stamen, and a
       female flower, the whole enclosed in a sheath.
  4, _Wolffia arrhiza._

  (2, 3, 4 enlarged.)]



DUCKWORTH, SIR JOHN THOMAS (1748-1817), British admiral, was born at
Leatherhead, in Surrey, on the 28th of February 1748. He entered the
navy in 1759, and obtained his commission as lieutenant in June 1770,
when he was appointed to the "Princess Royal," the flagship of Admiral
Byron, in which he sailed to the West Indies. While serving on board
this vessel he took part in the engagement with the French fleet under
Count D'Estaing. In July 1779 he became commander, and was appointed to
the "Rover" sloop; in June of the following year he attained the rank of
post-captain. Soon afterwards he returned to England in charge of a
convoy. The outbreak of the war with France gave him his first
opportunity of obtaining marked distinction. Appointed first to the
"Orion" and then to the "Queen" in the Channel Fleet, under the command
of Lord Howe, he took part in the three days' naval engagement with the
Brest fleet, which terminated in a glorious victory on the 1st of June
1794. For his conduct on this occasion he received a gold medal and the
thanks of parliament. He next proceeded to the West Indies, where he was
stationed for some time at St Domingo. In 1798 he commanded the
"Leviathan" in the Mediterranean, and had charge of the naval detachment
which, in conjunction with a military force, captured Minorca. Early in
1799 he was raised to the rank of rear-admiral, and sent to the West
Indies to succeed Lord Hugh Seymour. During the voyage out he captured a
valuable Spanish convoy of eleven merchantmen. In March 1801 he was the
naval commander of the combined force which reduced the islands of St
Bartholomew and St Martin, a service for which he was rewarded with the
order of the Bath and a pension of £1000 a year. Promoted to be
vice-admiral of the blue, he was appointed in 1804 to the Jamaica
station. Two years later, while cruising off Cadiz with Lord
Collingwood, he was detached with his squadron to pursue a French fleet
that had been sent to the relief of St Domingo. He came up with the
enemy on the 6th February 1806, and, after two hours' fighting,
inflicted a signal defeat upon them, capturing three of their five
vessels and stranding the other two. For this, the most distinguished
service of his life, he received the thanks of the Jamaica assembly,
with a sword of the value of a thousand guineas, the thanks of the
English parliament, and the freedom of the city of London. In 1807 he
was again sent to the Mediterranean to watch the movements of the Turks.
In command of the "Royal George" he forced the passage of the
Dardanelles, but sustained considerable loss in effecting his return,
the Turks having strengthened their position while he was being kept in
play by their diplomatists and Napoleon's ambassador General
Sebastiani. He held the command of the Newfoundland fleet for four years
from 1810, and at the close of that period he was made a baronet. In
1815 he was appointed to the chief command at Plymouth, which he held
until his death on the 14th of April 1817. Sir John Duckworth sat in
parliament for some time as member for New Romney.

  See _Naval Chronicle_, xviii.; Ralfe's _Naval Biography_, ii.



DUCLAUX, AGNES MARY F. (1856-   ), English poet and critic, who first
became known in England under her maiden name of Mary F. Robinson, was
born at Leamington on the 27th of February 1856. She was educated at
University College, London, devoting herself chiefly to the study of
Greek literature. Her first volume of poetry, _A Handful of
Honeysuckle_, was published in 1879. Her next work was a translation
from Euripides, _The Crowned Hippolytus_ (1881). Monographs on Emily
Brontë (1883) and on Marguerite of Angoulême (1886) followed; and _The
New Arcadia and other Poems_ (1884) and _An Italian Garden_ (1886)
contain some of her best verses. Her poems attracted the attention of
the orientalist, James Darmesteter (q.v.), then in Peshawur, and he made
an admirable translation of them in French. The acquaintance led to
their marriage in 1888, and from that time a large part of her work was
done in French. Madame Darmesteter translated her husband's _Études
anglaises_ into English (1896). Her most considerable prose work is the
_Life of Ernest Renan_ (1897). She also wrote the _End of the Middle
Ages_ (1888); the volume on _Froissart_ (1894) in the _Grands écrivains
français_; essays on the Brontës, the Brownings and others, entitled
_Grands écrivains d'Outre-Manche_ (1901). After Darmesteter's death, she
married in 1901 Émile Duclaux, the associate of Pasteur, and director of
the Pasteur institute. He died in 1904. She published _Retrospect and
other Poems_ in 1893, and in 1904 appeared The _Return to Nature, Songs
and Symbols_. The qualities of Mary Robinson's work, its conciseness and
purity of expression, were only gradually recognized. Her _Collected
Poems, Lyrical and Narrative_ were published in 1902.



DUCLOS, CHARLES PINOT (1704-1772), French author, was born at Dinan, in
Brittany, in 1704. At an early age he was sent to study at Paris. After
some time spent in dissipation he began to cultivate the society of the
wits of the time, and became a member of the club or association of
young men who published their joint efforts in light literature under
the titles of _Recueil de ces messieurs_, _Étrennes de la St-Jean_,
_Oeufs de Pâques_, &c. His romance of _Acajou and Zirphile_, composed to
suit a series of plates which had been engraved for another work, was
one of the fruits of this association, and was produced in consequence
of a sort of wager amongst its members. Duclos had previously written
two other romances, which were more favourably received--_The Baroness
de Luz_ (1741), and the _Confessions of the Count de***_ (1747). His
first serious publication was the _History of Louis XI._, which is dry
and epigrammatical in style, but displays considerable powers of
research and impartiality. The reputation of Duclos as an author was
confirmed by the publication of his _Considérations sur les moeurs de ce
siècle_ (1751), a work justly praised by Laharpe, as containing a great
deal of sound and ingenious reflection. It was translated into English
and German. The _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du dix-huitième
siècle_, intended by the author as a sort of sequel to the preceding
work, are much inferior in style and matter, and are, in reality, little
better than a kind of romance. In consequence of his _History of Louis
XI._, he was appointed historiographer of France, when that place became
vacant on Voltaire's retirement to Prussia. His _Secret Memoirs of the
Reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis XV._ (for which he was able to utilize
the _Mémoires_ of Saint Simon, suppressed in 1755), were not published
until after the Revolution.

Duclos became a member of the Academy of Inscriptions in 1739, and of
the French Academy in 1747, being appointed perpetual secretary in 1747.
Both academies were indebted to him not only for many valuable
contributions, but also for several useful regulations and improvements.
As a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, he composed several memoirs
on trial by combat, on the origin and revolutions of the Celtic and
French languages, and on scenic representations and the ancient drama.
As a member of the French Academy, he assisted in compiling the new
edition of the _Dictionary_, which was published in 1762; and he made
some just and philosophical remarks on the _Port Royal Grammar_. On
several occasions he distinguished himself by vindicating the honour and
prerogatives of the societies to which he belonged, and the dignity of
the literary character in general. He used to say of himself, "I shall
leave behind me a name dear to literary men." The citizens of Dinan,
whose interests he always supported with zeal, appointed him mayor of
their town in 1744, though he was resident at Paris, and in this
capacity he took part in the assembly of the estates of Brittany. Upon
the requisition of this body the king granted him letters of nobility.
In 1763 he was advised to retire from France for some time, having
rendered himself obnoxious to the government by the opinions he had
expressed on the dispute between the duc d'Aiguillon and M. de la
Chalotais, the friend and countryman of Duclos. Accordingly he set out
first for England (1763), then for Italy (1766); and on his return he
wrote his _Considerations on Italy_. He died at Paris on the 26th of
March 1772. The character of Duclos was singular in its union of
impulsiveness and prudence. Rousseau described him very laconically as a
man _droit et adroit_. In his manners he displayed a sort of bluntness
in society, which frequently rendered him disagreeable; and his caustic
wit on many occasions created enemies. To those who knew him, however,
he was a pleasant companion. A considerable number of his _bons mots_
have been preserved by his biographers.

  A complete edition of the works of Duclos, including an unfinished
  autobiography, was published by Auger (1821). See also Saint-Beuve,
  _Causeries du lundi_, t. ix.; René Kerviler, _La Bretagne et
  l'Académie française du XVIII^e siècle_ (1889); L. Mandon, _De la
  valeur historique des mèmoires secrets de Duclos_ (1872).



DUCOS, PIERRE ROGER (1754-1816), French politician and director, was
born at Dax. He was an advocate when elected deputy to the Convention by
the department of the Landes. He sat in the "Plain," i.e. in the party
which had no opinion of its own, which always leaned to the stronger
side. He voted for the death of Louis XVI., without appeal or delay, but
played no noticeable part in the Convention. He was a member of the
Council of the Five Hundred, over which he presided on the 18th of
Fructidor in the year V. (see FRENCH REVOLUTION). At the end of his term
he became a judge of the peace, but after the parliamentary _coup
d'état_ of the 30th of Prairial of the year VIII. he was named a member
of the executive Directory, thanks to the influence of Barras, who
counted on using him as a passive instrument. Ducos accepted the _coup
d'état_ of Bonaparte on the 18th of Brumaire, and was one of the three
provisional consuls. He became vice-president of the senate. The Empire
heaped favours upon him, but in 1814 he abandoned Napoleon, and voted
for his deposition. He sought to gain the favour of the government of
the Restoration, but in 1816 was exiled in virtue of the law against the
regicides. He died in March 1816 at Ulm, from a carriage accident. In
spite of his absolute lack of talent, he attained the highest of
positions--an exceptional fact in the history of the French Revolution.



DUCTLESS GLANDS, in anatomy. A certain number of glands in the body,
often of great physiological importance, have no _ducts_ (Lat. _ductus_,
from _ducere_, to lead, i.e. vessels, tubes or canals for conveying away
fluid or other substance); and their products, known as internal
secretions, are at once carried away by the veins or lymphatics which
drain them. Among these structures are the _spleen_, the _adrenals_, the
_thyroid gland_, the _parathyroids_, the _thymus_ and the _carotid_ and
_coccygeal_ bodies. In addition to these the lymphatic glands are
described in the article on the lymphatic system (q.v.), and the pineal
and pituitary bodies in the article on the brain (q.v.).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The Spleen--Visceral Aspect.

From D.J. Cunningham, Cunningham's _Text-book of Anatomy_.]


THE SPLEEN

The human _spleen_ (Gr. [Greek: splen]) is an oval, flattened gland, of
a dull purple colour, and about 5 in. long by 3 broad, situated in the
upper and back part of the left side of the abdominal cavity. If the
right hand is passed round the left side of its owner's body, as far as
it will reach, it approximately covers the spleen. The long axis of the
organ is obliquely placed so that the upper pole is much nearer the
vertebral column than the lower pole. For practical purposes the long
axis of the left tenth rib corresponds with that of the spleen. There is
an external or parietal surface and an internal or visceral, the latter
of which is again subdivided; these surfaces are limited by ventral and
dorsal borders. The external, parietal, or phrenic surface is convex to
adapt it to the concavity of the diaphragm, against the posterior part
of which it lies; external to the diaphragm is the pleural cavity, and
more externally still, the ninth, tenth and eleventh ribs. The internal
or visceral surface is divided by a prominent ridge into a gastric or
anterior and a renal or posterior surface. Sometimes a triangular
impression called the basal surface is formed at the lower part of the
visceral surface by the left end of the transverse colon, though at
other times no such impression is seen. It is probable that the exact
shape of the spleen depends a good deal on the amount of distension of
the surrounding hollow viscera at the time of death. (For details of the
basal surface see D.J. Cunningham, _Journ. Anat. and Phys._ vol. xxix.
p. 501.) The gastric surface is concave and adapts itself to the fundus
of the stomach, while just in front of the ridge separating the gastric
and renal surfaces is the hilum, where the vessels enter and leave the
organ; in front of this the tail of the pancreas usually touches the
spleen. The renal surface is as a rule smaller than the gastric and,
like it, is concave; it is moulded on to the upper part of the outer
border of the left kidney and just reaches the left adrenal body. The
anterior or ventral border of the spleen has usually two or more notches
in it, though these are often also seen on the dorsal border. The whole
spleen is surrounded by peritoneum, which is reflected off on to the
stomach as the gastro-splenic omentum, and on to the kidney as the
lieno-renal ligament; occasionally the lesser sac reaches it near its
connexion with the pancreas. Small accessory spleens are fairly often
found in the neighbourhood of the spleen, though it is possible that
some of these may be haemo-lymph glands (see LYMPHATIC SYSTEM).

  Microscopically the spleen has a fibro-elastic coat in which
  involuntary muscle is found (fig. 2). This coat sends multitudes of
  fine trabeculae into the interior of the organ, which subdivide it
  into numbers of minute compartments, in which the red, highly
  vascular, spleen pulp is contained. This pulp contains small spherical
  masses of adenoid tissue, forming the Malpighian corpuscles, situated
  on the terminal branches of the splenic blood-vessels, together with
  numerous cells, some of which are red blood corpuscles, others lymph
  corpuscles, others contain pigment granules or fat, while others have
  in their interior numerous blood corpuscles. The arteries of the
  spleen in part end in capillaries from which the veins arise, but more
  frequently they open into lacunae or blood spaces, which give origin
  to the veins.

  _Embryology._--The spleen is developed in the dorsal mesogastrium (see
  COELOM AND SEROUS MEMBRANES) from the mesenchyme, or that portion of
  the mesoderm, the cells of which lie scattered in a matrix. Large
  lymphoid cells are early seen among those of the mesenchyme, but
  whether these migrate from the coelomic epithelium, or are originally
  mesenchymal is doubtful, though the former seems more probable. The
  network of the spleen seems certainly to be derived from cells of the
  mesenchyme which lose their nuclei.

  _Comparative Anatomy._--The spleen is regarded as the remains of a
  mass of lymphoid tissue which, in a generalized type of vertebrate,
  stretched all along the alimentary canal. It is absent as a distinct
  gland in the Acrania and Cyclostomata. In the fishes it is closely
  applied to the U-shaped stomach, and in some of the Elasmobranchs,
  e.g. the basking and porbeagle sharks (Selache and Lamna), it is
  divided into small lobules. In Protopterus among the Dipnoi it is
  enclosed within the walls of the stomach. In the Anura (frogs and
  toads) among the Amphibia it is a spherical mass close to the rectum,
  and this may be explained by regarding it as derived from a different
  part of the original mass, already mentioned, to that which persists
  in other vertebrates. In the Iguana among the reptiles the organ has
  many notches, and each one corresponds to the point of entrance of a
  vessel. In Mammals the notches, when they are present, so frequently
  correspond to the points of entrance of arteries at the hilum that the
  present writer believes that the former are determined by the latter
  in many cases (see F.G. Parsons on the Notches of the Spleen, _J.
  Anat. and Phys._ vol. 35, p. 416; also Charnock Bradley, _Proceedings
  of R. Soc. Edin._, vol. 24, pt. 6, p. 521). The Monotremata and
  Marsupialia have curious Y-shaped spleens. As a rule flesh-eating
  animals have larger and more notched spleens than vegetable feeders,
  though among the Cetacea the spleen is relatively very small.

[Illustrtion: FIG. 2.--Section of the Spleen seen under a low power.

  A, Fibrous capsule.           d, Blood-vessels.
  b, Trabeculae.                e, Spleen pulp.
  c, Malpighian corpuscles.]


ADRENAL GLANDS

The adrenal glands or suprarenal capsules are two conical bodies,
flattened from before backward, resting on the upper poles of the
kidneys close to the sides of the vertebral column; each has an anterior
and posterior surface and a concave base which is in contact with the
kidney. When viewed from in front the right gland is triangular and the
left crescentic. On the anterior surface there is a transverse sulcus or
hilum from which a large vein emerges. The arteries are less constant in
their points of entry, and are derived from three sources, the phrenic,
the abdominal aorta and the renal arteries. The glands are entirely
retro-peritoneal, though the right one, even on its anterior surface, is
very little covered by peritoneum. In a vertical transverse section each
gland is seen to consist of two parts, cortical and medullary. The
cortical substance is composed of bundles of cells, separated by a
stroma, which have a different appearance in different parts. Most
superficially is the zona glomerulosa, then the zona fascicularis, and
most deeply the zona reticularis. These names convey a fair idea of the
appearance of the bundles. To the naked eye the cortical part is yellow
while the medullary is red. The medullary part consists of small islets
of cells, which resemble columnar epithelium lying among venous sinuses;
these cells are said to be in close connexion with the sympathetic nerve
filaments from the great solar plexus.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--A, Anterior surface of right suprarenal capsule.
B, Anterior surface of left suprarenal capsule. The upper and inner
parts of each kidney are indicated in outline. On the right capsule the
dotted line indicates the upper limit of the peritoneal covering.

From D.J. Cunningham, Cunningham's _Text-book of Anatomy_.]

  _Embryology._--The generally accepted opinion at present is that the
  cortical substance is derived from the coelomic epithelium covering
  the mesoderm of the upper (cephalic) portion of the Wolffian body, and
  corresponds to the nephrostomes of mesonephridial tubules (see URINARY
  SYSTEM), while the medullary part grows out from the sympathetic
  ganglia and so is probably ectodermal in origin. J. Janosik, however
  (_Archiv. f. mikrosk. Anat._ bd. xxii. 1883 and _Sitzungsber. d.
  Wiener Akad._, 1885), thinks that the cortical part is derived from
  the germ epithelium covering the upper part of the genital ridge. C.
  S. Minot (_Human Embryology_, 1897) believes that the original cells
  which grow in from the sympathetic disappear later, and that the adult
  medullary cells are derived from the cortical.

  In the early human embryo the adrenals are larger than the kidneys,
  and at birth they are proportionately much larger than in the adult.
  (For literature see. _Development of the Human Body_, J.P. McMurrich,
  London, 1906; and _Handbuch der Entwickelungslehre_, by O. Hertwig,
  Jena.)

  _Comparative Anatomy._--Adrenals are unknown in Amphioxus and the
  Dipnoi (mud fish). In the Cyclostomata (hags and lampreys) they are
  said by some to arise in connexion with the cephalic part of the
  pronephros, though other writers deny their presence at all (see W.E.
  Collinge and Swale Vincent, _Anat. Anz._ bd. xii., 1896). In the
  Elasmobranchs and Holocephali the medullary and cortical parts are
  apparently distinct, the former being represented by a series of
  organs situated close to the intercostal arteries, while the latter
  may be either median or paired, and, as they are placed between the
  kidneys, are often spoken of as interrenals. In the Amphibia the
  glands are sunk into the surface of the kidney. In reptiles and birds
  they are long lobulated bodies lying close to the testis or ovary and
  receiving an adrenal portal vein. In the lower mammals they are not as
  closely connected with the kidneys as they are in man, and their shape
  is usually oval or spherical.


THE THYROID GLAND

The thyroid body or gland is a deep red glandular mass consisting of two
lobes which lie one on each side of the upper part of the trachea and
lower part of the larynx; these are joined across the middle line by the
isthmus which lies in front of the second and third rings of the
trachea. Occasionally, from the top of the isthmus, a nearly but not
quite median pyramidal lobe runs up toward the hyoid bone, while in
other cases the isthmus may be absent. The gland is relatively larger in
women and children than in the adult male. It is enclosed in a capsule
of cervical fascia and is supplied by the superior and inferior thyroid
arteries on each side, though occasionally a median thyroidea ima artery
is present. On microscopical examination the gland shows a large number
of closed tubular alveoli, lined by columnar epithelial cells,
unsupported by a basement membrane, and filled with colloid or
jelly-like material. These are supported by fibrous septa growing in
from the true capsule, which is distinct from the capsule of cervical
fascia. The lymphatic vessels are large and numerous, and have been
shown by E.C. Baber (_Phil. Trans._, 1881) to contain the same colloid
material as the alveoli. Accessory thyroids, close to the main gland,
are often found.

  _Embryology._--The median part of the gland is developed from a tube
  which grows down in the middle line from the junction of the buccal
  and pharyngeal parts of the tongue (q.v.), between the first and
  second branchial arches. This tube is called the thyro-glossal duct
  and is entodermal in origin. The development of the hyoid bone
  obliterates the middle part of the duct, leaving its upper part as the
  foramen caecum of the tongue, while its lower part bifurcates, and so
  the asymmetrical arrangement of the pyramidal lobe is accounted for.
  A. Kanthack (_J. Anat. and Phys._ vol. xxv., 1891) has denied the
  existence of this duct, but on slender grounds. The lateral parts of
  the gland are developed from the entoderm of the fourth visceral
  clefts, and, joining the median part, lose their pharyngeal connexion.
  Nearly, but not quite, the whole of the lateral lobes probably belong
  to this part. (For literature and further details see Quain's
  _Anatomy_, London, 1892, and J.P. McMurrich's _Development of the
  Human Body_, London, 1906.)

  _Comparative Anatomy._--The endostyle or hypobranchial groove of
  Tunicata (sea squirts) and Acrania (Amphioxus) is regarded as the
  first appearance of the median thyroid; this is a median entodermal
  groove in the floor of the pharynx, secreting a glairy fluid in which
  food particles become entangled and so pass into the intestine. In the
  larval lamprey (Ammocoetes) among the Cyclostomata the connexion with
  the pharynx is present, but in the adult lamprey (Petromyzon), as in
  all adult vertebrates, this connexion is lost. In the Elasmobranchs
  the single median thyroid lies close to the mandibular symphysis, but
  in the bony fish (Teleostei) it is paired. In the mud fish (Dipnoi)
  there is also an indication of a division into two lobes. In the
  Amphibia the thyroid forms numerous vesicles close to the anterior end
  of the pericardium. In Reptilia it lies close to the trachea, and in
  the Chelonia and Crocodilia is paired. In birds it is also paired and
  lies near the origin of the carotid arteries. In Mammalia the lateral
  lobes make their first appearance. In the lower orders of this class
  the isthmus is often absent. (For further details and literature see
  R. Wiedersheim's _Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere_, Jena, 1902,
  and also for literature, Quain's _Anatomy_, London, 1896.)


PARATHYROID GLANDS

These little oval bodies, of considerable physiological importance, are
two in number on each side. From their position they are spoken of as
postero-superior and antero-inferior; the postero-superior are embedded
in the thyroid at the level of the lower border of the cricoid
cartilage, while the antero-inferior may be embedded in the lower edge
of the lateral lobes of the thyroid or may be found a little distance
below in relation to the inferior thyroid veins. They are often very
difficult to find, but it is easiest to do so in a perfectly fresh,
full-term foetus or young child. Microscopically they consist of solid
masses of epithelioid cells with numerous blood-vessels between, while,
embedded in their periphery, are often found masses of thymic tissue
including the concentric corpuscles of Hassall. They have been regarded
as undeveloped portions of thyroid tissue in an embryonic state, but the
experiments of Gley (_Comptes rendus de la Soc. de Biol._ No. 11, 1895)
and of W. Edmunds (_Proc. Physiol. Soc.--Journ. Phys._ vol. xviii.,
1895) do not confirm this. They are developed from the entoderm of the
third and fourth branchial grooves.

  Parathyroids have been found in the orders of Primates, Cheiroptera,
  Carnivora, Ungulata and Rodentia among the Mammalia, and also in
  Birds. In the other classes of vertebrates little is known of them.
  The fullest and most recent account of these bodies is that of D.A.
  Welsh in Journ. _Anat. and Phys._ vol. 32, 1898, pp. 292 and 380.


THE THYMUS GLAND

The thymus gland (Gr. [Greek: thymos], from a fancied resemblance to the
corymbs of the Thyme) is a light pink gland, consisting of two unequal
lobes, which lies in the superior and anterior mediastina of the thorax
in front of the pericardium and great vessels; it also extends up into
the root of the neck to within a short distance of the thyroid gland. It
continues to grow until the second year of life, after which it remains
stationary until puberty, when it usually degenerates rapidly. The
writer has seen it perfectly well developed in a man between 40 and 50,
though such cases are rare; probably, however, some patches of its
tissue remain all through life. Each lobe is divided into a large number
of lobules divided by areolar tissue, and each of these, under the
microscope, is seen to consist of a cortical and medullary part. The
cortex is composed of lymphoid tissue and resembles the structure of a
lymphatic gland (see LYMPHATIC SYSTEM); it is imperfectly divided into a
number of follicles. In the medulla the lymphoid cells are fewer, and
nests of epithelial cells are found, called the concentric corpuscles of
Hassall. The vascular supply is derived from all the vessels in the
neighbourhood, the lymphatics are very large and numerous, but the
nerves, which come from the sympathetic and vagus, are few and small. H.
Watney (_Phil. Trans._, 1882) has discovered haemoglobin, and apparently
developing red blood corpuscles, in the thymus. (For further details see
Gray's or Quain's _Anatomy_.)

  _Embryology._--The thymus is formed from a diverticulum, on each side,
  from the entoderm lining the third branchial groove, but the connexion
  with the pharynx is soon lost. The lymphoid cells and concentric
  corpuscles are probably the derivatives of the original cells lining
  the diverticulum.

  _Comparative Anatomy._--The thymus is always a paired gland. In most
  fishes it rises from the dorsal part of all five branchial clefts; in
  Lepidosiren (Dipnoi), from all except the first; in Urodela from 3rd,
  4th and 5th, and in Anura from the 2nd only (see T.H. Bryce,
  "Development of Thymus in Lepidosiren," _Journ. Anat. and Phys._ vol.
  40, p. 91). In all fishes, including the Dipnoi (mud fish) it is
  placed dorsally to the gill arches on each side. In the Amphibia it is
  found close to the articulation of the mandible. In the Reptilia it is
  situated by the side of the carotid artery; but in young crocodiles it
  is lobulated and extends all along the neck, as it does in birds,
  lying close to the side of the oesophagus. In Mammals the Marsupials
  are remarkable for having a well-developed cervical as well as
  thoracic thymus (J. Symington, _J. Anat. and Phys._ vol. 32, p. 278).
  In some of the lower mammals the gland does not disappear as early as
  it does in man. The thymus of the calf is popularly known as "the
  chest sweetbread."


CAROTID BODIES

These are two small bodies situated, one on each side, between the
origins of the external and internal carotid arteries. Microscopically
they are divided into nodules or cell balls by connective tissue, and
these closely resemble the structure of the parathyroids, but are
without any thymic tissue. The blood-vessels in their interior are
extremely large and numerous. The modern view of their development is
that they are part of the sympathetic system, and the reaction of their
cells to chromium salts bears this out. (See Kohn, _Archiv f. mikr.
Anat._ lxx., 1907.)

In the Anura there is a rete or network into which the carotid artery
breaks up in the position of the carotid body, and this has an important
effect on the course of the circulation. It is probable, however, that
this structure has nothing to do with the carotid body of Mammalia.


COCCYGEAL BODY

This is a small median body, about the size of a pea, situated in front
of the apex of the coccyx and between the insertions of the levatores
ani muscles. It resembles the carotid body in its microscopical
structure, but is not so vascular. Concentric corpuscles, like those of
the thymus, have been recorded in it. It derives its arteries from the
middle sacral and its nerves from the sympathetic. Of its embryology and
comparative anatomy little is known, though J.W. Thomson Walker has
recently shown that numerous, outlying, minute masses of the same
structure lie along the course of the middle sacral artery (_Archiv f.
mikroscop. Anat._ Bd. lxiv.). The probability is that, like the carotid
body, it is sympathetic in origin. (Quain's _Anatomy_ gives excellent
illustrations of the histology of this as well as of all the other
ductless glands.)

  For the literature on and further details concerning the foregoing
  structures the following works should be consulted: Quain's
  _Anatomy_, vol. 1 (1908, London, Longman & Co.); McMurrich's
  _Development of the Human Body_ (London, Rebman, 1906); Wiedersheim's
  _Vergleich. Anat. der Wirbeltiere_ (Jena, 1898).     (F. G. P.)



DUDERSTADT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover,
situated in a beautiful and fertile valley (formerly called _Goldene
Mark_) watered by the Hahle, and on the railway Wulften-Leinefelde. Pop.
(1905) 5327. It is an interesting medieval town with many ancient
buildings. Notable are the two Roman Catholic churches, beautiful Gothic
edifices of the 14th century, the Protestant church, and the handsome
town-hall. Its chief industries are woollen and cotton manufactures,
sugar-refining and cigar-making; it has also a trade in singing-birds.
Duderstadt was founded by Henry I. (the Fowler) in 929, passed later to
the monastery of Quedlinburg, and then to Brunswick. It was a member of
the Hanseatic League, and during the Thirty Years' War became a
stronghold of the Imperialists. It was taken by Duke William of Weimar
in 1632; in 1761 its walls were dismantled, and, after being alternately
Prussian and Hanoverian, it passed finally in 1866 with Hanover to
Prussia.



DUDLEY, BARONS AND EARLS OF. The holders of these English titles are
descended from John de Sutton (c. 1310-1359) of Dudley castle,
Staffordshire, who was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1342. Sutton
was the son of another John de Sutton, who had inherited Dudley Castle
through his marriage with Margaret, sister and heiress of John de Somery
(d. 1321); he was called Lord Dudley, or Lord Sutton of Dudley, the
latter being doubtless the correct form. However, his descendants, the
Suttons, were often called by the name of Dudley; and from John Dudley
of Atherington, Sussex, a younger son of John Sutton, the 5th baron, the
earls of Warwick and the earl of Leicester of the Dudley family are
descended.

John Sutton or Dudley (c. 1400-1487), the 5th baron, was first summoned
to parliament in 1440, having been viceroy of Ireland from 1428 to 1430.
He served Henry VI. as a diplomatist and also as a soldier, being taken
prisoner at the first battle of St Albans in 1455, but this did not
prevent him from enjoying the favour of Edward IV. He died on the 30th
of September 1487. He was succeeded as 6th baron by his grandson Edward
(c. 1459-1532), and one of his sons, William Dudley, was bishop of
Durham from 1476 until his death in 1483. His descendant Edward Sutton
or Dudley, the 9th baron (1567-1643), had several illegitimate sons.
Among them was Dud Dudley (1599-1684), who in 1665 published _Metallum
Martis_, describing a process of making iron with "pit-coale, sea-coale,
&c." which was put in operation at his father's ironworks at Pensnet,
Worcestershire, of which he was manager. His success aroused much
opposition on the part of other ironmasters, and his commercial ventures
at Himley, at Askew Bridge and at Bristol ended in loss and disaster.
During the Civil War he was a colonel in the army of Charles I.

Dying without lawful male issue in June 1643, the 9th baron was
succeeded in the barony by his grand-daughter, Frances (1611-1697); she
married Humble Ward (c. 1614-1670), the son of a London goldsmith, who
was created Baron Ward of Birmingham in 1644. Their son Edward
(1631-1701) succeeded both to the barony of Dudley and to that of Ward,
but these were separated when his grandson William died unmarried in May
1740. The barony of Dudley passed to a nephew, Ferdinando Dudley Lea,
falling into abeyance on his death in October 1757; that of Ward passed
to the heir male, John Ward (d. 1774), a descendant of Humble Ward. In
1763 Ward was created Viscount Dudley, and in April 1823 his grandson,
John William Ward (1781-1833), became the 4th viscount.

Educated at Oxford, John William Ward entered parliament in 1802, and
except for a few months he remained in the House of Commons until he
succeeded his father in the peerage. In 1827 he was minister for foreign
affairs under Canning and then under Goderich and under Wellington,
resigning office in May 1828. As foreign minister he was only a cipher,
but he was a man of considerable learning and had some reputation as a
writer and a talker. Dudley took an interest in the foundation of the
university of London, and his _Letters_ to the bishop of Llandaff were
published by the bishop (Edward Copleston) in 1840 (new ed. 1841). He
was created Viscount Ednam and earl of Dudley in 1827, and when he died
unmarried on the 6th of March 1833 these titles became extinct. His
barony of Ward, however, passed to a kinsman, William Humble Ward
(1781-1835), whose son, William (1817-1885), inheriting much of the dead
earl's great wealth, was created Viscount Ednam and earl of Dudley in
1860. The 2nd earl of Dudley in this creation was the latter's son
William Humble (b. 1866), who was lord-lieutenant of Ireland from 1902
to 1906, and in 1908 was appointed governor-general of Australia.

  See H.S. Grazebrook in the _Herald and Genealogist_, vols. ii., v.
  and vi.; in _Notes and Queries_, 2nd series, vol. xi.; and in vol. ix.
  of the publications of the William Salt Society (1888).



DUDLEY, EDMUND (c. 1462-1510), minister of Henry VII. of England, was a
son of John Dudley of Atherington, Sussex, and a member of the great
baronial family of Sutton or Dudley. After studying at Oxford and at
Gray's Inn, Dudley came under the notice of Henry VII., and is said to
have been made a privy councillor at the early age of twenty-three. In
1492 he helped to negotiate the treaty of Etaples with France and soon
became prominent in assisting the king to check the lawlessness of the
barons, and at the same time to replenish his own exchequer. He and his
colleague Sir Richard Empson (q.v.) are called _fiscales judices_ by
Polydore Vergil, and owing to their extortions they became very
unpopular. Dudley, who was speaker of the House of Commons in 1504, in
addition to aiding Henry, amassed a great amount of wealth for himself,
and possessed large estates in Sussex, Dorset and Lincolnshire. When
Henry VII. died in April 1509, he was thrown into prison by order of
Henry VIII. and charged with the crime of constructive treason, being
found guilty and attainted. After having made a futile attempt to escape
from prison, he was executed on the 17th or 18th of August 1510.
Dudley's nominal crime was that during the last illness of Henry VII. he
had ordered his friends to assemble in arms in case the king died, but
the real reason for his death was doubtless the unpopularity caused by
his avarice. During his imprisonment he sought to gain the favour of
Henry VIII. by writing a treatise in support of absolute monarchy called
_The Tree of Commonwealth_. This never reached the king's hands, and was
not published until 1859, when it was printed privately in Manchester.
Dudley's first wife was Anne, widow of Roger Corbet of Morton,
Shropshire, by whom he had a daughter, Elizabeth, who married William,
6th Lord Stourton. By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Edward
Grey, Viscount Lisle, he had three sons: John, afterwards duke of
Northumberland (q.v.); Andrew (d. 1559), who was made a knight and held
various important posts during the reign of Edward VI.; and Jasper.

  See Francis Bacon, _History of Henry VII._, edited by J.R. Lumby
  (Cambridge, 1881); and J.S. Brewer, _The Reign of Henry VIII._,
  edited by J. Gairdner (London, 1884).



DUDLEY, SIR ROBERT (1573-1649), titular duke of Northumberland and earl
of Warwick, English explorer, engineer and author, was the son of Robert
Dudley, earl of Leicester (q.v.), the favourite of Queen Elizabeth. His
mother was Lady Douglas Sheffield, daughter of Thomas, first Baron
Howard of Effingham. Leicester, who deserted Lady Douglas Sheffield for
Lettice Knollys, widow of the first earl of Essex, denied that they were
married. She asserted that they were, at Esher in Surrey, but her
marriage with Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton, after her desertion by
Leicester, would seem to be a tacit confession that her claim had no
foundation. Her son Robert was born in May 1573, was recognized by
Leicester, and sent to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1587. He inherited all
Leicester's property under the earl's will at his death in 1588, and in
the following year the property of Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick. In
1594 he made a voyage to the West Indies, and in 1596 he took part in
the expedition to Cadiz and was knighted. In 1592 he had married a
sister of Thomas Cavendish the circumnavigator. On her death he married
Alicia Leigh in 1596, by whom he had four daughters. After the death of
Elizabeth he endeavoured to secure recognition of his legitimacy, and
of his right to inherit the titles of his father and uncle. The
proceedings were quashed by the Star Chamber. In 1605 he obtained leave
to travel abroad, and went to Italy accompanied by the beautiful Miss
Elizabeth Southwell, daughter of Sir Robert Southwell of Woodrising, in
the dress of a page. When ordered to return home and to provide for his
deserted wife and family, he refused, was outlawed, and his property was
confiscated. On the continent he avowed himself a Roman Catholic,
married Elizabeth Southwell at Lyons, and entered the service of Cosimo
II., grand-duke of Tuscany. In the service of the grand-duke he is said
to have done some fighting against the Barbary pirates, and he was
undoubtedly employed in draining the marshes behind Leghorn, and in the
construction of the port. In 1620 the emperor Ferdinand II. gave him a
patent recognizing his claim not only to the earldom of Warwick but to
the duchy of Northumberland, which had been held by his grandfather, who
was executed by Queen Mary Tudor. In Italy Dudley was known as Duca di
Nortombria and Conte di Warwick. He died near Florence on the 6th of
September 1649, leaving a large family of sons and daughters. His
deserted wife, Alicia, was created duchess of Dudley by Charles I. in
1644, and died in 1670, when the title became extinct. Through a
daughter who married the Marquis Paleotti, Dudley was the ancestor of
the wife of the first duke of Shrewsbury (of the revolution of 1688),
and of her brother who was executed at Tyburn for murder on the 17th of
March 1718. Dudley was the author of a pamphlet addressed to King James
I., showing how the "impertinences of parliament" could be bridled by
military force. But his chief claim to memory is the magnificent _Arcano
dell mare_, published in Italian at Florence in 1645-1646 in three
volumes folio. It is a collection of all the naval knowledge of the age,
and is particularly remarkable for a scheme for the construction of a
navy in five rates which Dudley designed and described. It was reprinted
in Florence in two volumes folio in 1661 without the charts of the first
edition.

  AUTHORITIES.--G.L. Craik, _Romance of the Peerage_ (London,
  1848-1850), vol. iii.; Sir N.H. Nicolas, _Report of Proceedings on
  the Claim to the Barony of L'Isle_ (London, 1829); and _The Italian
  Biography of Sir R. Dudley_, published anonymously, privately and
  without date or name of place, but known to have been written by
  Doctor Vaughan Thomas, vicar of Stoneleigh, who died in 1858.
       (D. H.)



DUDLEY, THOMAS (1576-1653), British colonial governor of Massachusetts,
was born in Northampton, England, in 1576, a member of the elder branch
of the family to the younger branch of which Robert Dudley, earl of
Leicester, belonged. He was the son of a country gentleman of some means
and high standing, was captain of an English company in the French
expedition of 1597, serving under Henry of Navarre, and eventually
became the steward of the earl of Lincoln's estates, which he managed
with great success for many years. Having been converted to Puritanism,
he became a strict advocate of its strictest tenets. About 1627 he
associated himself with other Lincolnshire gentlemen who in 1629 entered
into an agreement to settle in New England provided they were allowed to
take the charter with them. This proposal the general court of the
Plymouth Company agreed to, and in April 1630 Dudley sailed to America
in the same ship with John Winthrop, the newly appointed governor,
Dudley himself at the last moment being chosen deputy-governor in place
of John Humphrey (or Humfrey), the earl of Lincoln's son-in-law, whose
departure was delayed. Dudley was for many years the most influential
man in the Massachusetts Bay colony, save Winthrop, with whose policy he
was more often opposed than in agreement. He was deputy-governor in
1629-1634, in 1637-1640, in 1646-1650 and in 1651-1653, and was governor
four times, in 1634, 1640, 1645 and 1650. Soon after his arrival in the
colony he settled at Newton (Cambridge), of which he was one of the
founders; he was also one of the earliest promoters of the plan for the
establishment of Harvard College. Winthrop's decision to make Boston the
capital instead of Newton precipitated the first of the many quarrels
between the two, Dudley's sterner and harsher Puritanism, being in
strong contrast to Winthrop's more tolerant and liberal views. He was an
earnest and persistent heresy-hunter--not only the Antinomians, but
even such a good Puritan as John Cotton, against whom he brought
charges, feeling the weight of his stern and remorseless hand. His
position he himself best expressed in the following brief verse found
among his papers:

  "Let men of God in courts and churches watch
   O'er such as do a Toleration hatch,
   Lest that ill egg bring forth a Cockatrice
   To poison all with heresy and vice."

He died at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 31st of July 1653.

  See Augustine Jones, _Life and Work of Thomas Dudley, the Second
  Governor of Massachusetts_ (Boston, 1899); and the _Life of Mr Thomas
  Dudley, several times Governor of the Colony of Massachusetts, written
  as is supposed by Cotton Mather_, edited by Charles Deane (Cambridge,
  1870). Dudley's interesting and valuable "Letter to the Countess of
  Lincoln," is reprinted in Alexander Young's _Chronicles of the
  Planters of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay_ (Boston, 1846), and in
  the New Hampshire Historical Society _Collections_, vol. iv. (1834).

His son JOSEPH DUDLEY (1647-1720), colonial governor of Massachusetts,
was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 23rd of September 1647. He
graduated at Harvard College in 1665, became a member of the general
court, and in 1682 was sent by Massachusetts to London to prevent the
threatened revocation of her charter by Charles II. There, with an eye
to his personal advancement, he secretly advised the king to annul the
charter; this was done, and Dudley, by royal appointment, became
president of the provisional council. With the advent of the new
governor, Sir Edmund Andros, Dudley became a judge of the superior court
and censor of the press. Upon the deposition of Andros, Dudley was
imprisoned and sent with him to England, but was soon set free. In
1691-1692 he was chief-justice of New York, presiding over the court
that condemned Leisler and Milburn. Returning to England in 1693, he was
lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Wight and a member of parliament, and
in 1702, after a long intrigue, secured from Queen Anne a commission as
governor of Massachusetts, serving until 1715. His administration was
marked, particularly in the earlier years, by ceaseless conflict with
the general court, from which he demanded a regular fixed salary instead
of an annual grant. He was active in raising volunteers for the
so-called Queen Anne's War, and in 1707 sent a fruitless expedition
against Port Royal. He was accused by the Boston merchants, who
petitioned for his removal, of being in league with smugglers and
illicit traders, and in 1708 a bitter attack on his administration was
published in London, entitled _The Deplorable State of New England by
reason of a Covetous and Treacherous Governor and Pusillanimous
Counsellors_. His character may be best summed up in the words of one of
his successors, Thomas Hutchinson, that "he had as many virtues as can
consist with so great a thirst for honour and power." He died at Roxbury
on the 2nd of April 1720.

Joseph Dudley's son, PAUL DUDLEY (1675-1751), graduated at Harvard in
1690, studied law at the Temple in London, and became attorney-general
of Massachusetts (1702 to 1718). He was associate justice of the
superior court of that province from 1718 to 1745, and chief justice
from 1745 until his death. He was a member of the Royal Society
(London), to whose _Transactions_ he contributed several valuable papers
on the natural history of New England, and was the founder of the
Dudleian lectures on religion at Harvard.

  The best extended account of Joseph Dudley's administration is in J.
  G. Palfrey's _History of New England_, vol. iv. (Boston, 1875).



DUDLEY, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and market-town of
Worcestershire, England, in a portion of that county enclaved in
Staffordshire, 8 m. W.N.W. of Birmingham, and 121 N.W. of London by the
London & North Western railway. The Great Western railway also serves
the town. Pop. (1891) 45,724; (1901) 48,733. Dudley lies on an elevated
ridge, in the midst of the district of the midlands known as the Black
Country, which is given up to ironworks and coal mines. The "ten-yard"
coal, in the neighbourhood, is the thickest seam worked in England.
Limestone is extensively quarried, fire-clay is abundant; and
iron-founding, brass-founding, engineering works, glass works and brick
works are comprised in the industries. Among the principal buildings are
the churches of the five parishes into which the town is divided, the
town hall, county court, free libraries, and school of art, grammar
school with university and foundation scholarships, technical school,
mechanics' institute, Guest hospital (founded by Joseph Guest, a
citizen, in 1868), and a dispensary. In the market-place stands a large
domed fountain, erected by the earl of Dudley (1867). There is a
geological society with a museum, for the neighbourhood of Dudley is
full of geological interest, the Silurian limestone abounding in
fossils. To the north of the town are extensive remains of an ancient
castle, surrounded by beautiful grounds. The hill on which it stands is
of limestone, which by quarrying has been hollowed out in extensive
chambers and galleries. The view from the castle is remarkable. The
whole district is seen to be set with chimneys, pit-buildings and
factories; and at night the glare of furnaces reveals the tireless
activity of the Black Country. Dudley and its environs are connected by
a tramway system, and water communication is afforded by the Dudley
canal with Birmingham and with the river Severn.

Included in the parliamentary borough, but in Staffordshire, and 2½ m.
by rail S.W. of Dudley, is Brierley Hill, a market-town on the river
Stour and the Stourbridge and Birmingham Canals. Its chief buildings are
the modern church of St Michael, standing on a hill, the Roman Catholic
church of St Mary, by A.W. Pugin, the town hall and free library.
Between this and Dudley lie the great ironworks of Roundoak, and the
extensive suburb of Netherton in the enclaved portion of Worcestershire.
The industries are similar to those of Dudley. Three miles W. of Dudley
is Kingswinford, a mining township, with large brick works, giving name
to a parliamentary division of Staffordshire. The parliamentary borough
of Dudley returns one member. The town itself is governed by a mayor, 10
aldermen and 30 councillors. Area 3546 acres.

In medieval times the importance of Dudley (_Dudelei_) depended on the
castle, which is mentioned in the Domesday Survey. Before the Conquest
Earl Eadwine held the manor, which in 1086 belonged to William
FitzAnsculf, from whom it passed, probably by marriage, to Fulk Paynel,
afterwards to the Somerys, Suttons and Wards, whose descendants (earls
of Dudley) now hold it. The first mention of Dudley as a borough occurs
in an inquisition taken after the death of Roger de Somery in 1272. This
does not give a clear account of the privileges held by the burgesses,
but shows that they had probably been freed from some or all of the
services required from them as manorial tenants, in return for a fixed
rent. In 1865 Dudley was incorporated. Before that time it was governed
by a high and low bailiff appointed every year at the court leet of the
manor. Roger de Somery evidently held a market by prescription in Dudley
before 1261, in which year he came to terms with the dean of
Wolverhampton, who had set up a market in Wolverhampton to the
disadvantage of Roger's market at Dudley. According to the terms of the
agreement the dean might continue his market on condition that Roger and
his tenants should be free from toll there. Two fairs, on the 21st of
September and the 21st of April, were granted in 1684 to Edward Lord
Ward, lord of the manor. Dudley was represented in the parliament of
1295, but not again until the privilege was revived by the Reform Act of
1832. Mines of sea-coal in Dudley are mentioned as early as the reign of
Edward I., and by the beginning of the 17th century mining had become an
important industry.



DUDO, or DUDON (fl. c. 1000), Norman historian was dean of St Quentin,
where he was born about 965. Sent in 986 by Albert I. count of
Vermandois, on an errand to Richard I., duke of Normandy, he succeeded
in his mission, and, having made a very favourable impression at the
Norman court, spent some years in that country. During a second stay in
Normandy Dudo wrote his history of the Normans, a task which Duke
Richard I. had urged him to undertake. Very little else is known about
his life, except that he died before 1043. Written between 1015 and
1030, his _Historia Normannorum_, or _Libri III. de moribus et actis
primorum Normanniae ducum_, was dedicated to Adalberon, bishop of Laon.
Dudo does not appear to have consulted any existing documents for his
history, but to have obtained his information from oral tradition, much
of it being supplied by Raoul, count of Ivry, a half-brother of Duke
Richard I. Consequently the _Historia_ partakes of the nature of a
romance, and on this ground has been regarded as untrustworthy by such
competent critics as E. Dummler and G. Waitz. Other authorities,
however, e.g. J. Lair and J. Steenstrup, while admitting the existence
of a legendary element, regard the book as of considerable value for the
history of the Normans. Although Dudo was acquainted with Virgil and
other Latin writers, his Latin is affected and obscure. The _Historia_,
which is written alternately in prose and in verse of several metres, is
divided into four parts, and deals with the history of the Normans from
852 to the death of Duke Richard I. in 996. It glorifies the Normans,
and was largely used by William of Jumièges, Wace, Robert of Torigni,
William of Poitiers and Hugh of Fleury in compiling their chronicles,
and was first published by A. Duchesne in his _Historiae Normannorum
scriptores antiqui_, at Paris in 1619. Another edition is in the
_Patrologia Latina_, tome cxli. of J.P. Migne (Paris, 1844), but the
best is perhaps the one edited by J. Lair (Caen, 1865).

  See E. Dümmler, "Zur Kritik Dudos von St Quentin" in the _Forschungen
  zur deutschen Geschichte_, Bande vi. and ix. (Göttingen, 1866); G.
  Waitz, "Über die Quellen zur Geschichte der Begrundung der
  normannischen Herrschaft in Frankreich," in the _Gottinger gel.
  Anzeigen_ (Göttingen, 1866); J.C.H.R. Steenstrup, _Normannerne_,
  Band i. (Copenhagen, 1876); J. Lair, _Étude critique et historique sur
  Dudon_ (Caen, 1865); G. Kortung, _Über die Quellen des Roman de Rou_
  (Leipzig, 1867); W. Wattenbach, _Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen_, Band
  i. (Berlin, 1904); and A. Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de
  France_, tome ii. (Paris, 1902).



DUDWEILER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the
Sulzbach, 4 m. by rail N.E. from Saarbrücken. It has extensive coal
mines and ironworks and produces fire-proof bricks. Pop. (1905) 16,320.



DUEL (Ital. _duello_, Lat. _duellum_--old form of _bellum_--from _duo_,
two), a prearranged encounter between two persons, with deadly weapons,
in accordance with conventional rules, with the object of voiding a
personal quarrel or of deciding a point of honour. The first recorded
instance of the word occurs in Coryate's _Crudities_ (1611), but
Shakespeare has _duello_ in this sense, and uses "duellist" of Tybalt in
_Romeo and Juliet_. In its earlier meaning of a judicial combat we find
the word latinized in the Statute of Wales (Edw. I., Act 12), "_Placita
de terris in partibus istis non habent terminari per duellum_."

Duels in the modern sense were unknown to the ancient world, and their
origin must be sought in the feudal age of Europe. The single combats
recorded in Greek and Roman history and legend, of Hector and Achilles,
Aeneas and Turnus, the Horatii and Curiatii, were incidents in national
wars and have nothing in common with the modern duel. It is, however,
noteworthy that in Tacitus (_Germania_, cap. x.) we find the rudiments
of the judicial duel (see WAGER, for the wager of battle). Domestic
differences, he tells us, were settled by a legalized form of combat
between the disputants, and when a war was impending a captive from the
hostile tribe was armed and pitted against a national champion, and the
issue of the duel was accepted as an omen. The judicial combat was a
Teutonic institution, and it was in fact an appeal from human justice to
the God of battles, partly a sanction of the current creed that might is
right, that the brave not only will win but deserve to win. It was on
these grounds that Gundobald justified, against the complaints of a
bishop, the famous edict passed at Lyons (A.D. 501) which established
the wager of battle as a recognized form of trial. It is God, he argued,
who directs the issue of national wars, and in private quarrels we may
trust His providence to favour the juster cause. Thus, as Gibbon
comments, the absurd and cruel practice of judicial duels, which had
been peculiar to some tribes of Germany, was propagated and established
in all the monarchies of Europe from Sicily to the Baltic. Yet in its
defence it may be urged that it abolished a worse evil, the compurgation
by oath which put a premium on perjury, and the ordeal, or judgment of
God, when the cause was decided by blind chance, or more often by
priestcraft.


  The judicial combat.

Those who are curious to observe the formalities and legal rules of a
judicial combat will find them described at length in the 28th book of
Montesquieu's _Esprit des lois_. On these regulations he well remarks
that, as there are an infinity of wise things conducted in a very
foolish manner, so there are some foolish things conducted in a very
wise manner. For our present purpose it is sufficient to observe the
development of the idea of personal honour from which the modern duel
directly sprang. In the ancient laws of the Swedes we find that if any
man shall say to another, "You are not a man equal to other men," or
"You have not the heart of a man," and the other shall reply, "I am a
man as good as you," they shall meet on the highway, and then follow the
regulations for the combat. What is this but the modern challenge? By
the law of the Lombards if one man call another arga, the insulted party
might defy the other to mortal combat. What is _arga_ but the _dummer
Junger_ of the German student? Beaumanoir thus describes a legal process
under Louis le Débonnaire:--The appellant begins by a declaration before
the judge that the appellee is guilty of a certain crime; if the
appellee answers that his accuser lies, the judge then ordains the duel.
Is not this the modern point of honour, by which to be given the lie is
an insult which can only be wiped out by blood?

From Germany the judicial combat rapidly spread to France, where it
flourished greatly from the 10th to the 12th century, the period of
customary law. By French kings it was welcomed as a limitation of the
judicial powers of their half independent vassals. It was a form of
trial open to all freemen and in certain cases, as under Louis VI., the
privilege was extended to serfs. Even the church resorted to it not
unfrequently to settle disputes concerning church property. Abbots and
priors as territorial lords and high justiciaries had their share in the
confiscated goods of the defeated combatant, and Pope Nicholas when
applied to in 858 pronounced it "a just and legitimate combat." Yet only
three years before the council of Valence had condemned the practice,
imposing the severest penance on the victor and refusing the last rites
of the church to the vanquished as to a suicide. In 1385 a duel was
fought, the result of which was so preposterous that even the most
superstitious began to lose faith in the efficacy of such a judgment of
God. A certain Jacques Legris was accused by the wife of Jean Carrouge
of having introduced himself by night in the guise of her husband whom
she was expecting on his return from the Crusades. A duel was ordained
by the parlement of Paris, which was fought in the presence of Charles
VI. Legris was defeated and hanged on the spot. Not long after, a
criminal arrested for some other offence confessed himself to be the
author of the outrage. No institution could long survive so open a
confutation, and it was annulled by the parlement. Henceforward the duel
in France ceases to be an appeal to Heaven, and becomes merely a
satisfaction of wounded honour. Under Louis XII. and Francis I. we find
the first vestiges of tribunals of honour. The last instance of a duel
authorized by the magistrates, and conducted according to the forms of
law, was the famous one between François de Vivonne de la Châtaignerie
and Guy Chabot de Jarnac. The duel was fought on the 10th of July 1547
in the courtyard of the château of St Germain-en-Laye, in the presence
of the king and a large assembly of courtiers. It was memorable in two
ways. It enriched the French language with a new phrase; a sly and
unforeseen blow, such as that by which de Jarnac worsted La
Châtaignerie, has since been called a _coup de Jarnac_. And Henry,
grieved at the death of his favourite, swore a solemn oath that he would
never again permit a duel to be fought. This led to the first of the
many royal edicts against duelling. By a decree of the council of Trent
(cap. xix.) a ban was laid on "the detestable use of duels, an invention
of the devil to compass the destruction of souls together with a bloody
death of the body."

In England, it is now generally agreed, the wager of battle did not
exist before the time of the Norman Conquest. Some previous examples
have been adduced, but on examination they will be seen to belong rather
to the class of single combats between the champions of two opposing
armies. One such instance is worth quoting as a curious illustration of
the superstition of the time. It occurs in a rare tract printed in
London, 1610, _The Duello_, or _Single Combat_. "Danish irruptions and
the bad aspects of Mars having drencht the common mother earth with her
sonnes' blood streames, under the reigne of Edmund, a Saxon monarch,
_misso in compendium_ (so worthy Camden expresseth it) _bello utriusque
gentis fata Edmundo Anglorum et Canuto Danorum regibus commissa fuerunt,
qui singulari certamine de summa imperij in hac insula_ (that is, the
Eight in Glostershire) _depugnarunt."_ By the laws of William the
Conqueror the trial by battle was only compulsory when the opposite
parties were both Normans, in other cases it was optional. As the two
nations were gradually merged into one, this form of trial spread, and
until the reign of Henry II. it was the only mode for determining a suit
for the recovery of land. The method of procedure is admirably described
by Shakespeare in the opening scene in _Richard II._, where Henry of
Bolingbroke, duke of Hereford, challenges Thomas, duke of Norfolk; in
the mock-heroic battle between Horner the Armourer and his man Peter in
_Henry VI._; and by Sir W. Scott in the _Fair Maid of Perth_, where
Henry Gow appears before the king as the champion of Magdalen Proudfute.
The judicial duel never took root in England as it did in France. In
civil suits it was superseded by the grand assize of Henry II., and in
cases of felony by indictment at the prosecution of the crown. One of
the latest instances occurred in the reign of Elizabeth, 1571, when the
lists were actually prepared and the justices of the common pleas
appeared at Tothill Fields as umpires of the combat. Fortunately the
petitioner failed to put in an appearance, and was consequently
nonsuited (see Spelman, _Glossary_, s.v. "Campus"). As late as 1817 Lord
Ellenborough, in the case of _Thornton_ v. _Ashford_, pronounced that
"the general law of the land is that there shall be a trial by battle in
cases of appeal unless the party brings himself within some of the
exceptions." Thornton was accused of murdering Mary Ashford, and claimed
his right to challenge the appellant, the brother of the murdered girl,
to wager of battle. His suit was allowed, and, the challenge being
refused, the accused escaped. Next year the law was abolished (59 Geo.
III., c. 46).


  The duel of honour.

  In France.

In sketching the history of the judicial combat we have traced the
parentage of the modern duel. Strip the former of its legality, and
divest it of its religious sanction, and the latter remains. We are
justified, then, in dating the commencement of duelling from the
abolition of the wager of battle. To pursue its history we must return
to France, the country where it first arose, and the soil on which it
has most flourished. The causes which made it indigenous to France are
sufficiently explained by the condition of society and the national
character. As Buckle has pointed out, duelling is a special development
of chivalry, and chivalry is one of the phases of the protective spirit
which was predominant in France up to the time of the Revolution. Add to
this the keen sense of personal honour, the susceptibility and the
pugnacity which distinguish the French race. Montaigne, when touching on
this subject in his essays, says, "Put three Frenchmen together on the
plains of Libya, and they will not be a month in company without
scratching one another's eyes out." The third chapter of d'Audiguier's
_Ancien usage des duels_ is headed, "Pourquoi les seuls Français se
battent en duel." English literature abounds with allusions to this
characteristic of the French nation. Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who was
ambassador at the court of Louis XIII., says, "There is scarce a
Frenchman worth looking on who has not killed his man in a duel." Ben
Jonson, in his _Magnetic Lady_, makes Compass, the scholar and soldier,
thus describe France, "that garden of humanity":--

  "There every gentleman professing arms
   Thinks he is bound in honour to embrace
   The bearing of a challenge for another,
   Without or questioning the cause or asking
   Least colour of a reason."

Duels were not common before the 16th century. Hallam attributes their
prevalence to the barbarous custom of wearing swords as a part of
domestic dress, a fashion which was not introduced till the later part
of the 15th century. In 1560 the states-general at Orleans supplicated
Charles IX. to put a stop to duelling. Hence the famous ordinance of
1566, drawn up by the chancellor de l'Hôpital, which served as the basis
of the successive ordinances of the following kings. Under the frivolous
and sanguinary reign of Henry III., "who was as eager for excitement as
a woman," the rage for duels spread till it became almost an epidemic.
In 1602 the combined remonstrances of the church and the magistrates
extorted from the king an edict condemning to death whoever should give
or accept a challenge or act as second. But public opinion was revolted
by such rigour, and the statue remained a dead letter. A duel forms a
fit conclusion to the reign. A hair-brained youth named L'Isle Marivaux
swore that he would not survive his beloved king, and threw his cartel
into the air. It was at once picked up, and Marivaux soon obtained the
death he had courted. Henry IV. began his reign by an edict against
duels, but he was known in private to favour them; and, when de Créqui
asked leave to fight Don Philip of Savoy, he is reported to have said,
"Go, and if I were not a king I would be your second." Fontenay-Mareuil
says, in his _Mémoires_, that in the eight years between 1601 and 1609,
2000 men of noble birth fell in duels. In 1609 a more effective measure
was taken at the instance of Sully by the establishment of a court of
honour. The edict decrees that all aggrieved persons shall address
themselves to the king, either directly or through the medium of the
constables, marshals, &c.; that the king shall decide, whether, if an
accommodation could not be effected, permission to fight should be
given; that the aggressor, if pronounced in the wrong, shall in any case
be suspended from any public office or employment, and be mulcted of
one-third of his revenue till he has satisfied the aggrieved party; that
any one giving or receiving a challenge shall forfeit all right of
reparation and all his offices; that any one who kills his adversary in
an unauthorized duel shall suffer death without burial, and his children
shall be reduced to villanage; that seconds, if they take part in a
duel, shall suffer death, if not, shall be degraded from the profession
of arms. This edict has been pronounced by Henri Martin "the wisest
decree of the ancient monarchy on a matter which involves so many
delicate and profound questions of morals, politics, and religion
touching civil rights" (_Histoire de France_, x. 466).

In the succeeding reign the mania for duels revived. Rostand's _Cyrano_
is a life-like modern portraiture of French bloods in the first half of
the 17th century. De Houssaye tells us that in Paris when friends met
the first question was, "Who fought yesterday? who is to fight to-day?"
They fought by night and day, by moonlight and by torch-light, in the
public streets and squares. A hasty word, a misconceived gesture, a
question about the colour of a riband or an embroidered letter, such
were the commonest pretexts for a duel. The slighter and more frivolous
the dispute, the less were they inclined to submit them to the king for
adjudication. Often, like gladiators or prize-fighters, they fought for
the pure love of fighting. A misunderstanding is cleared up on the
ground. "N'importe," cry the principals, "puisque nous sommes ici,
battons-nous." Seconds, as Montaigne tells us, are no longer witnesses,
but must take part themselves unless they would be thought wanting in
affection or courage; and he goes on to complain that men are no longer
contented with a single second, "c'était anciennement des duels, ce sont
à cette heure rencontres et batailles." There is no more striking
instance of Richelieu's firmness and power as a statesman than his
conduct in the matter of duelling. In his _Testament politique_ he has
assigned his reasons for disapproving it as a statesman and
ecclesiastic. But this disapproval was turned to active detestation by a
private cause. His elder brother, the head of the house, had fallen in a
duel stabbed to the heart by an enemy of the cardinal. Already four
edicts had been published under Louis XIII. with little or no effect,
when in 1626 there was published a new edict condemning to death any one
who had killed his adversary in a duel, or had been found guilty of
sending a challenge a second time. Banishment and partial confiscation
of goods were awarded for lesser offences. But this edict differed from
preceding ones not so much in its severity as in the fact that it was
the first which was actually enforced. The cardinal began by imposing
the penalties of banishment and fines, but, these proving ineffectual to
stay the evil, he determined to make a terrible example. To quote his
own words to the king, "Il s'agit de couper la gorge aux duels ou aux
édits de votre Majesté." The count de Boutteville, a renommist who had
already been engaged in twenty-one affairs of honour, determined out of
pure bravado to fight a twenty-second time. The duel took place at
midday on the Place Royale. Boutteville was arrested with his second,
the count de Chapelles; they were tried by the parlement of Paris,
condemned and, in spite of all the influence of the powerful house of
Montmorenci, of which de Boutteville was a branch, they were both
beheaded on the 21st of June 1627. For a short time the ardour of
duellists was cooled. But the lesson soon lost its effect. Only five
years later we read in the _Mercure de France_ that two gentlemen who
had killed one another in a duel were, by the cardinal's orders, hanged
on a gallows, stripped and with their heads downwards, in the sight of
all the people. This was a move in the right direction, since, for
fashionable vices, ridicule and ignominy is a more drastic remedy than
death. It was on this principle that Caraccioli, prince of Melfi, when
viceroy of Piedmont, finding that his officers were being decimated by
duelling, proclaimed that all duels should be fought on the parapet of
the Ponte Vecchio, and if one of the combatants chanced to fall into the
river he should on no account be pulled out.

Under the long reign of Louis XIV. many celebrated duels took place, of
which the most remarkable were that between the duke of Guise and Count
Coligny, the last fought on the Place Royale, and that between the dukes
of Beaufort and Nemours, each attended by four friends. Of the ten
combatants, Nemours and two others were killed on the spot, and none
escaped without some wound. No less than eleven edicts against duelling
were issued under le Grand Monarque. That of 1643 established a supreme
court of honour composed of the marshals of France; but the most famous
was that of 1679, which confirmed the enactments of his predecessors,
Henry IV. and Louis XII. At the same time a solemn agreement was entered
into by the principal nobility that they would never engage in a duel on
any pretence whatever. A medal was struck to commemorate the occasion,
and the firmness of the king, in refusing pardon to all offenders,
contributed more to restrain this scourge of society than all the
efforts of his predecessors.

The subsequent history of duelling in France may be more shortly
treated. In the preamble to the edict of 1704 Louis XIV. records his
satisfaction at seeing under his reign an almost entire cessation of
those fatal combats which by the inveterate force of custom had so long
prevailed. Addison (_Spectator_, 99) notes it as one of the most
glorious exploits of his reign to have banished the false point of
honour. Under the regency of Louis XV. there was a brief revival. The
last legislative act for the suppression of duels was passed on the 12th
of April 1723. Then came the Revolution, which in abolishing the _ancien
régime_ fondly trusted that with it would go the duel, one of the
privileges and abuses of an aristocratic society. Dupleix, in his
_Military Law concerning the Duel_ (1611), premises that these have no
application to lawyers, merchants, financiers or justices. This explains
why in the legislation of the National Assembly there is no mention of
duels. Camille Desmoulins when challenged shrugged his shoulders and
replied to the charge of cowardice that he would prove his courage on
other fields than the Bois de Boulogne. The two great Frenchmen whose
writings preluded the French Revolution both set their faces against it.
Voltaire had indeed, as a young man, in obedience to the dictates of
society, once sought satisfaction from a nobleman for a brutal insult,
and had reflected on his temerity in the solitude of the Bastille.[1]
Henceforward he inveighed against the practice, not only for its
absurdity, but also for its aristocratic exclusiveness. Rousseau had
said of duelling, "It is not an institution of honour, but a horrible
and barbarous custom, which a courageous man despises and a good man
abhors." Napoleon was a sworn foe to it. "Bon duelliste mauvais soldat"
is one of his best known sayings; and, when the king of Sweden sent him
a challenge, he replied that he would order a fencing-master to attend
him as plenipotentiary. After the battle of Waterloo duels such as Lever
loves to depict were frequent between disbanded French officers and
those of the allies in occupation. The restoration of the Bourbons
brought with it a fresh crop of duels. Since then duels have been
frequent in France--more frequent, however, in novels than in real
life--fought mainly between politicians and journalists, and with rare
exceptions bloodless affairs. If fought with pistols, the distance and
the weapons chosen render a hit improbable; and, if fought with rapiers,
honour is generally satisfied with the first blood drawn. Among
Frenchmen famous in politics or letters who have "gone out" may be
mentioned Armand Carrel, who fell in an encounter with Émile Girardin;
Thiers, who thus atoned for a youthful indiscretion; the elder Dumas;
Lamartine; Ste Beuve, who to show at once his sangfroid and his sense of
humour, fought under an umbrella; Ledru Rollin; Edmond About; Clément
Thomas; Veuillot, the representative of the church militant; Rochefort;
and Boulanger, the Bonapartist _fanfaron_, whose discomfiture in a duel
with Floquet resulted in a notable loss of popular respect.


  In England.

Duelling did not begin in England till some hundred years after it had
arisen in France. There is no instance of a private duel fought in
England before the 16th century, and they are rare before the reign of
James I. A very fair notion of the comparative popularity of duelling,
and of the feeling with which it was regarded at various periods, might
be gathered by examining the part it plays in the novels and lighter
literature of the times. The earliest duels we remember in fiction are
that in the _Monastery_ between Sir Piercie Shafton and Halbert
Glendinning, and that in _Kenilworth_ between Tressilian and Varney.
(That in _Anne of Geierstein_ either is an anachronism or must reckon as
a wager by battle.) Under James I. we have the encounter between Nigel
and Lord Dalgarno. The greater evil of war, as we observed in French
history, expels the lesser, and the literature of the Commonwealth is in
this respect a blank. With the Restoration there came a reaction against
Puritan morality, and a return to the gallantry and loose manners of
French society, which is best represented by the theatre of the day. The
drama of the Restoration abounds in duels. Passing on to the reign of
Queen Anne, we find the subject frequently discussed in the _Tatler_ and
the _Spectator_, and Addison points in his happiest way the moral to a
contemporary duel between Mr Thornhill and Sir Cholmeley Dering. "I come
not," says Spinomont to King Pharamond, "I come not to implore your
pardon, I come to relate my sorrow, a sorrow too great for human life to
support. Know that this morning I have killed in a duel the man whom of
all men living I love best." No reader of _Esmond_ can forget
Thackeray's description of the doubly fatal duel between the duke of
Hamilton and Lord Mohun, which is historical, or the no less life-like
though fictitious duel between Lord Mohun and Lord Castlewood. The duel
between the two brothers in Stevenson's _Master of Ballantrae_ is one of
the best conceived in fiction. Throughout the reigns of the Georges they
are frequent. Richardson expresses his opinion on the subject in six
voluminous letters to the _Literary Repositor_. Sheridan, like Farquhar
in a previous generation, not only dramatized a duel, but fought two
himself. Byron thus commemorates the bloodless duel between Tom Moore
and Lord Jeffrey:--

  "Can none remember that eventful day,
   That ever glorious almost fatal fray,
   When Little's leadless pistols met the eye,
   And Bow Street myrmidons stood laughing by?"

There are no duels in Miss Austen's novels, but in those of Miss
Edgeworth, her contemporary, there are three or four. As we approach the
19th century they become rarer in fiction. Thackeray's novels, indeed,
abound in duels. "His royal highness the late lamented commander-in-chief"
had the greatest respect for Major Macmurdo, as a man who had conducted
scores of affairs for his acquaintance with the greatest prudence and
skill; and Rawdon Crawley's duelling pistols, "the same which I shot
Captain Marker," have become a household word. Dickens, on the other hand,
who depicts contemporary English life, and mostly in the middle classes,
in all his numerous works has only three; and George Eliot never once
refers to a duel. Tennyson, using a poet's privilege, laid the scene of a
duel in the year of the Crimean War, but he echoes the spirit of the times
when he stigmatizes "the Christless code that must have life for a blow."
Browning, who delights in cases of conscience, has given admirably the
double moral aspect of the duel in his two lyrics entitled "Before" and
"After."

To pass from fiction to fact we will select the most memorable English
duels of the last century and a half. Lord Byron killed Mr Chaworth in
1765; Charles James Fox and Mr Adams fought in 1779; duke of York and
Colonel Lennox, 1789; William Pitt and George Tierney, 1796; George
Canning and Lord Castlereagh, 1809; Mr Christie killed John Scott,
editor of the _London Magazine_, 1821; duke of Wellington and earl of
Winchelsea, 1829; Mr Roebuck and Mr Black, editor of _Morning
Chronicle_, 1835; Lord Alvanley and a son of Daniel O'Connell in the
same year; Earl Cardigan wounded Captain Tuckett, was tried by his
peers, and acquitted on a legal quibble, 1840.

The year 1808 is memorable in the annals of duelling in England. Major
Campbell was sentenced to death and executed for killing Captain Boyd in
a duel. In this case it is true that there was a suspicion of foul play;
but in the case of Lieutenant Blundell, who was killed in a duel in
1813, though all had been conducted with perfect fairness, the surviving
principal and the seconds were all convicted of murder and sentenced to
death, and, although the royal pardon was obtained, they were all
cashiered. The next important date is the year 1843, when public
attention was painfully called to the subject by a duel in which Colonel
Fawcett was shot by his brother-in-law, Lieutenant Monro. The survivor,
whose career was thereby blasted, had, it was well known, gone out most
reluctantly, in obedience to the then prevailing military code. A full
account of the steps taken by the prince consort, and of the
correspondence which passed between him and the duke of Wellington, will
be found in the _Life of the Prince_ by Sir Theodore Martin. The duke,
unfortunately, was not an unprejudiced counsellor. Not only had he been
out himself, but, in writing to Lord Londonderry on the occasion of the
duel between the marquess and Ensign Battier in 1824, he had gone so far
as to state that he considered the probability of the Hussars having to
fight a duel or two a matter of no consequence. In the previous year
there had been formed in London the association for the suppression of
duelling. It included leading members of both houses of parliament and
distinguished officers of both services. The first report, issued in
1844, gives a memorial of the association presented to Queen Victoria
through Sir James Graham, and in a debate in the House of Commons (15th
of March 1844) Sir H. Hardinge, the secretary of war, announced to the
House that Her Majesty had expressed herself desirous of devising some
expedient by which the barbarous practice of duelling should be as much
as possible discouraged. In the same debate Mr Turner reckoned the
number of duels fought during the reign of George III. at 172, of which
91 had been attended with fatal results; yet in only two of these cases
had the punishment of death been inflicted. But though the proposal of
the prince consort to establish courts of honour met with no favour, yet
it led to an important amendment of the articles of war (April 1844).
The 98th article ordains that "every person who shall fight or promote a
duel, or take any steps thereto, or who shall not do his best to prevent
duel, shall, if an officer, be cashiered, or suffer such other penalty
as a general court-martial may award." These articles, with a few verbal
changes, were incorporated in the consolidated Army Act of 1879 (section
38), which is still in force.


  In Germany.

In the German army duels are still authorized by the military code as a
last resort in grave cases. A German officer who is involved in a
difficulty with another is bound to notify the circumstance to a council
of honour at the latest as soon as he has either given or received a
challenge. A council of honour consists of three officers of different
ranks and is instructed, if possible, to bring about a reconciliation.
If unsuccessful it must see that the conditions of the duel are not out
of proportion to the gravity of the quarrel. Public opinion was greatly
roused by a tragic duel fought by two officers of the reserve in 1896;
and the German emperor in a cabinet order of 1897, confirmed in 1901,
enforced the regulation of the military court of honour, and gave
warning that any infringement would be visited with the full penalties
of the law. It is, notwithstanding, still the fact that a German officer
who is not prepared to accept a challenge and fight, if the opinion of
his regiment demands it, must leave the service. The German penal code
(_Reichsstrafgesetzbuch_, pars. 101-110) only punishes a duel when it is
fought with lethal weapons; and much controversy has raged round the
question of the _Mensuren_ or students' duels, which, as being conducted
with sharpened rapiers, have, despite the precautions taken, in the way
of bandaging the vital parts of the body which a cut would reach, to
reduce the risk of a fatal issue to a minimum, been declared by the
Supreme Court of the Empire to fall under the head of duels, and as such
to be punishable.

The _Mensuren_ (German students' duels) above referred to are frequently
misunderstood. They bear little resemblance, save in form, to the duel
_à outrance_, and should rather be considered in the light of athletic
games, in which the overflow of high animal spirits in young Germany
finds its outlet. These combats are indulged in principally by picked
representatives of the "corps" (recognized clubs), and according to the
position and value of the _Schmisse_ (cuts which have landed) points are
awarded to either side. Formerly these so-called duels could be openly
indulged in at most universities without let or hindrance. Gradually,
however, the academic authorities took cognizance of the illegality of
the practice, and in many cases inflicted punishment for the offence.
Nowadays, owing to the decision of the supreme court reserving to the
common law tribunals the power to deal with such cases, the governing
bodies at the universities have only a disciplinary control, which is
exercised at the various seats of learning in various degrees: in some
the practice is silently tolerated, or at most visited by reprimand; in
others, again, by relegation or _carcer_--with the result that the
students of one university frequently visit another, in order to be able
to fight out their battles under less rigorous surveillance.


  Modern views.

Any formal discussion of the morality of duelling is, in England at
least, happily superfluous. No fashionable vice has been so unanimously
condemned both by moralists and divines, and in tracing its history we
are reminded of the words of Tacitus, "in civitate nostra et vetabitur
semper et retinebitur." Some, however, of the problems, moral and
social, which it suggests may be shortly noticed. That duelling
flourished so long in England the law is, perhaps, as much to blame as
society. It was doubtless from the fact that duels were at first a form
of legal procedure that English law has refused to take cognizance of
private duels. A duel in the eye of the law differs nothing from an
ordinary murder. The greatest English legal authorities, from the time
of Elizabeth downwards, such as Coke, Bacon and Hale, have all
distinctly affirmed this interpretation of the law. But here as
elsewhere the severity of the penalty defeated its own object. The
public conscience revolted against a Draconian code which made no
distinction between wilful murder and a deadly combat wherein each party
consented to his own death or submitted to the risk of it. No jury could
be found to convict when conviction involved in the same penalty a Fox
or a Pitt and a Turpin or a Brownrigg. Such, however, was the
conservatism of English publicists that Bentham was the first to point
out clearly this defect of the law, and propose a remedy. In his
_Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation_, published in
1789, Bentham discusses the subject with his usual boldness and logical
precision. In his exposition of the absurdity of duelling considered as
a branch of penal justice, and its inefficiency as a punishment, he only
restates in a clearer form the arguments of Paley. So far there is
nothing novel in his treatment of the subject. But he soon parts company
with the Christian moralist, and proceeds to show that duelling does,
however rudely and imperfectly, correct and repress a real social evil.
"It entirely effaces a blot which an insult imprints upon the honour.
Vulgar moralists, by condemning public opinion upon this point, only
confirm the fact." He then points out the true remedy for the evil. It
is to extend the same legal protection to offences against honour as to
offences against the person. The legal satisfactions which he suggests
are some of them extremely grotesque. Thus for an insult to a woman, the
man is to be dressed in a woman's clothes, and the retort to be
inflicted by the hand of a woman. But the principle indicated is a sound
one, that in offences against honour the punishment must be analogous to
the injury. Doubtless, if Bentham were now alive, he would allow that
the necessity for such a scheme of legislation had in a great measure
passed away. That duels have since become extinct is no doubt
principally owing to social changes, but it may be in part ascribed to
improvements in legal remedies in the sense which Bentham indicated. A
notable instance is Lord Campbell's Act of 1843, by which, in the case
of a newspaper libel, a public apology coupled with a pecuniary payment
is allowed to bar a plea. In the Indian Code there are special
enactments concerning duelling, which is punishable not as murder but as
homicide.

Suggestions have from time to time been made for the establishment of
courts of honour, but the need of such tribunals is doubtful, while the
objections to them are obvious. The present tendency of political
philosophy is to contract rather than extend the province of law, and
any interference with social life is justly resented. Real offences
against reputation are sufficiently punished, and the rule of the
lawyers, that mere scurrility or opprobrious words, which neither of
themselves import nor are attended with any hurtful effects, are not
punishable, seems on the whole a wise one. What in a higher rank is
looked upon as a gross insult may in a lower rank be regarded as a mere
pleasantry or a harmless joke. Among the lower orders offences against
honour can hardly be said to exist; the learned professions have each
its own tribunal to which its members are amenable; and the highest
ranks of society, however imperfect their standard of morality may be,
are perfectly competent to enforce that standard by means of social
penalties without resorting either to trial by law or trial by battle.

The duel, which in a barbarous age may be excused as "a sort of wild
justice," was condemned by Bacon as "a direct affront of law and tending
to the dissolution of magistracy." It survived in more civilized times
as a class distinction and as an ultimate court of appeal to punish
violations of the social code. In a democratic age and under a settled
government it is doomed to extinction. The military duels of the
European continent, and the so-called American duel, where the lot
decides which of the two parties shall end his life, are singular
survivals. For real offences against reputation law will provide a
sufficient remedy The learned professions will have each its own
tribunal to which its members are amenable. Social stigma is at once a
surer and a juster defence against conduct unworthy of a gentleman. Yet
the duel dies hard, and even to-day it is approved or palliated by some
notable publicists and professors in France and Germany. M.H. Marion
(_La Grande Encyclopédie_), in an article strongly condemnatory of
duels, still holds that the wrongdoer is bound to accept a challenge,
though he may not take the offensive, and further allows that obligatory
duels may be the only way of evoking a sense of honour and of
maintaining discipline in the army. Dr Paulsen goes much further, and
not only defends the duels of university students (_Mensuren_) as an
encouragement of physical exercise, a proof of courage and a protest of
worth against wealth, but maintains generally that the duel should be
retained as an expedient in those exceptional cases when a man cannot
bring himself to drag before a law court the outrage done to his
personal honour. But in such cases Dr Paulsen would have the courts hold
the injured person scathless, whether he be challenger or challenged,
and visit the aggressor with condign punishment.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Castillo, _Tractatus de duello_ (Turin, 1525); J.P.
  Pigna, _Il Duello_ (1554); Muzio Girolamo, _Traité du duel_ (Venice,
  1553): Boyssat, _Recherches sur les duels_ (Lyons, 1610); J. Savaron,
  _Traité contre les duels_ (Paris, 1610); Brantôme, _Mémoire sur les
  duels rodomontades_; F. Bacon, _Charge concerning Duels_, &c. (1614);
  d'Audiguier, _Le Vray et ancien usage des duels_ (Paris, 1617); _His
  Majesties Edict and severe Censure against private combats_ (London,
  1618); Cockburn, _History of Duels_ (London, 1720); Brillat Savarin,
  _Essai sur le duel_ (1819); Châteauvillard, _Essai sur le duel_
  (1836); Colombey, _Histoire anecdotique du duel_ (Paris); Fourgeroux
  de Champigneules, _Histoire des duels anciens et modernes_ (2 vols.,
  Paris, 1835-1837); Millingen, _History of Duelling_ (London, 1841); L.
  Sabine, _Notes on Duels_ (Boston, 1855); Steinmetz, _Romance of
  Duelling_ (London, 1868). See also Eugène Cauchy, _Du duel_, &c.
  (1846), a learned and philosophic treatise by a French lawyer; G.
  Letainturier-Fradin, _Le Duel à travers les âges_ (Paris, 1892);
  Mackay, _History of Popular Delusions, Duels and Ordeals_; and for a
  valuable list of authorities, Buckle, _History of Civilization in
  England_, ii. 137, note 71. For judicial combats see Gibbon, _Decline
  and Fall_, ch. xxxviii. For courts of honour see _Armed Strength of
  the German Empire_ (1876). For _Mensur_, see Paulsen, _The German
  Universities_ (1906), ch. vi.     (F. S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Voltaire met the chevalier Rohan-Chabot at the house of the
    Marquis of Sully. The chevalier, offended by Voltaire's free speech,
    insolently asked the marquis, "Who is that young man?" "One," replied
    Voltaire, "who if he does not parade a great name, honours that he
    bears." The chevalier said nothing at the time, but, seizing his
    opportunity, inveigled Voltaire into his coach, and had him beaten by
    six of his footmen. Voltaire set to work to learn fencing, and then
    sought the chevalier in the theatre, and publicly challenged him. A
    _bon-mot_ at the chevalier's expense was the only satisfaction that
    the philosopher could obtain. "Monsieur, si quelque affaire d'intérêt
    ne vous a point fait oublier l'outrage dont j'ai à me plaindre,
    j'espère que vous m'en rendrez raison." The chevalier was said to
    employ his capital in petty usury.



DUENNA (Span. _dueña_, a married lady or mistress, Lat. _domina_),
specifically the chief lady-in-waiting upon the queen of Spain. The word
is more widely applied, however, to an elderly lady in Spanish and
Portuguese households (holding a position midway between a governess and
companion) appointed to take charge of the young girls of the family;
and "duenna" is thus used in English as a synonym for chaperon (q.v.).



DUET (an adaptation of the Ital. _duetto_, from Lat. _duo_, two), a term
in music for a composition for two performers, both either vocal or
instrumental. The term is not properly applied to a composition for one
voice and one instrument, the latter being regarded as an accompaniment,
though in the modern evolution of this latter form of composition it
often has the same character. Both parts must be of equal importance; if
one is subordinated to the other it becomes an accompaniment and the
work ceases to be a duet. Instrumental duets are written either for two
different instruments, such as Mozart's duets for violin and piano, or
for two similar instruments. Duets written for the pianoforte are either
for two performers on two separate instruments or for two performers on
the same instrument, when they are termed "_duets à quatre mains_."



DUFAURE, JULES ARMAND STANISLAS (1798-1881), French statesman, was born
at Saujon (Charente-Inférieure) on the 4th of December 1798. He became
an advocate at Bordeaux, where he won a great reputation by his
oratorical gifts, but soon abandoned law for politics, and in 1834 was
elected deputy. In 1839 he became minister of public works in the Soult
ministry, and succeeded in freeing railway construction in France from
the obstacles which till then had hampered it. Losing office in 1840,
Dufaure became one of the leaders of the Opposition, and on the outbreak
of the revolution of 1848 he frankly accepted the Republic, and joined
the party of moderate republicans. On October 13th he became minister of
the interior under G. Cavaignac, but retired on the latter's defeat in
the presidential election. During the Second Empire Dufaure abstained
from public life, and practised at the Paris bar with such success that
he was elected _bâtonnier_ in 1862. In 1863 he succeeded to Pasquier's
seat in the French Academy. In 1871 he became a member of the Assembly,
and it was on his motion that Thiers was elected President of the
Republic. Dufaure became the minister of justice as chief of the party
of the "left-centre," and his tenure of office was distinguished by the
passage of the jury-law. In 1873 he fell with Thiers, but in 1875
resumed his former post under L.J. Buffet, whom he succeeded on the 9th
of March 1876 as president of the council. In the same year he was
elected a life senator. On December the 12th he withdrew from the
ministry owing to the attacks of the republicans of the left in the
chamber and of the conservatives in the senate. After the check which
the conservatives received on the 16th of May he returned to power on
the 24th of December 1877. Early in 1879 Dufaure took part in compelling
the resignation of Marshal MacMahon, but immediately afterwards (1st
February), worn out by opposition, he himself retired. He died in Paris
on the 28th of June 1881.

  See G. Picot, _M. Dufaure, sa vie et ses discours_ (Paris, 1883).



DUFF, ALEXANDER (1806-1878), Scottish missionary in India, was born on
the 26th of April 1806, at Auchnahyle in the parish of Moulin,
Perthshire. At St Andrews University he came under the influence of Dr
Chalmers. He then accepted an offer made by the foreign mission
committee of the general assembly to become their first missionary to
India. He was ordained in August 1829, and started at once for India,
but was twice shipwrecked before he reached Calcutta in May 1830, and
lost all his books and other property. Making Calcutta the base of his
operations, he at once identified himself with a policy which had
far-reaching results. Up to this time Protestant missions in India had
been successful only in reaching low-caste and outcaste peoples,
particularly in Tinevelly and south Travancore. The Hindu and Mahommedan
communities had been practically untouched. Duff saw that, to reach
these communities, educational must take the place of evangelizing
methods, and he devised the policy of an educational mission. The
success of his work had the effect (1) of altering the policy of the
government of India in matters of education, (2) of securing the
recognition of education as a missionary agency by Christian churches at
home, and (3) of securing entrance for Christian ideas into the minds of
high-caste Hindus. He first opened an English school in which the Bible
was the centre of the school work, and along with it all kinds of
secular knowledge were taught from the rudiments upwards to a university
standard. The English language was used on the ground that it was
destined to be the great instrument of higher education in India, and
also as giving the Hindu the key of Western knowledge. The school soon
began to expand into a missionary college, and a government minute was
adopted on the 7th of March 1835, to the effect that in higher education
the object of the British government should be the promotion of European
science and literature among the natives of India, and that all funds
appropriated for purposes of education would be best employed on English
education alone. Duff wrote a pamphlet on the question, entitled "A New
Era of the English Language and Literature in India." He returned home
in 1834 broken in health, but succeeded in securing the approval of his
church for his educational plans, and also in arousing much interest in
the work of foreign missions.

In 1840 he returned to India. In the previous year the earl of Auckland,
governor-general, had yielded to the "Orientalists" who opposed Duff,
and adopted a policy which was a compromise between the two. At the
Disruption of 1843 Duff sided with the Free Church, gave up the college
buildings, with all their effects, and with unabated courage set to work
to provide a new institution. He had the support of Sir James Outram and
Sir Henry Lawrence, and the encouragement of seeing a new band of
converts, including several young men of high caste. In 1844 Viscount
Hardinge opened government appointments to all who had studied in
institutions similar to Duff's foundation. In the same year Duff took
part in founding the _Calcutta Review_, of which from 1845 to 1849 he
was editor. In 1849 he returned home. He was moderator of the Free
Church assembly in 1851. He gave evidence before various Indian
committees of parliament on matters of education. This led to an
important despatch by Viscount Halifax, president of the board of
control, to the marquess of Dalhousie, the governor-general, authorizing
an educational advance in primary and secondary schools, the provision
of technical and scientific teaching, and the establishment of schools
for girls.

In 1854 Duff visited the United States, where what is now New York
University gave him the degree of LL.D.; he was already D.D. of
Aberdeen. In 1856 he returned to India, where the mutiny soon broke out;
his descriptive letters were collected in a volume entitled _The Indian
Mutiny, its Causes and Results_ (1858). Duff gave much thought and time
to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the
prominence given to physical sciences to his influence. In 1863 Sir
Charles Trevelyan offered him the post of vice-chancellor of the
University, but his health compelled him to leave India. As a memorial
of his work the Duff Hall was erected in the centre of the educational
buildings of Calcutta; and a fund of £11,000 was raised for his
disposal, the capital of which was afterwards to be used for invalided
missionaries of his own church. In 1864 Duff visited South Africa, and
on his return became convener of the foreign missions committee of the
Free Church. He raised £10,000 to endow a missionary chair at New
College, Edinburgh, and himself became first professor. Among other
missionary labours of his later years, he helped the Free Church mission
on Lake Nyassa, travelled to Syria to inspect a mission at Lebanon, and
assisted Lady Aberdeen and Lord Polwarth to establish the Gordon
Memorial Mission in Natal. In 1873 the Free Church was threatened with a
schism owing to negotiations for union with the United Presbyterian
Church. Duff was called to the chair, and guided the church happily
through this crisis. He also took part in forming the alliance of
Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian system. He died on the 12th
of February 1878. By his will he devoted his personal property to found
a lectureship on foreign missions on the model of the Bampton Lectures.

  See his _Life_, by George Smith (2 vols.).     (D. Mn.)



DUFFERIN AND AVA, FREDERICK TEMPLE HAMILTON-TEMPLE-BLACKWOOD, 1ST
MARQUESS OF (1826-1902), British diplomatist, son of Price Blackwood,
4th Baron Dufferin, was born at Florence, Italy, on the 21st of June
1826. The Irish Blackwoods were of old Scottish stock,[1] tracing their
descent back to the 14th century. John Blackwood of Bangor (1591-1663),
the ancestor of the Irish line, made a fortune and acquired landed
property in county Down, and his great-grandson Robert was created a
baronet in 1763. Sir Robert's son, Sir John, married the heiress of the
Hamiltons, earls of Clanbrassil and viscounts of Clandeboye ("clan of
yellow Hugh"), and thus brought into the family a large property in the
borough of Killyleagh and barony of Dufferin, county Down. Sir John
Blackwood (d. 1799) declined a peerage, and so did his heir James at the
time of the Union, but the Irish title of Baroness Dufferin was
conferred (1800) on Sir John's widow, and James (d. 1836) succeeded as
second baron in 1808. His brother Hans (d. 1839) became third baron, and
by his marriage with Miss Temple (a descendant of the Temples of Stowe)
was the father of Price Blackwood, 4th baron. Among other distinguished
members of the family was Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, Bart.
(1770-1832)--a brother of James and Hans--one of Nelson's captains, who
commanded the "Euryalus" at Trafalgar. Price Blackwood, too, was in the
Navy; his marriage in 1825 with Helen Selina Sheridan, a daughter of
Thomas Sheridan, and granddaughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the
dramatist and politician, was against his parents' wishes, but his young
wife's talents and beauty soon won them over.

Frederick went to Eton (1839-1843) and Christ Church, Oxford
(1845-1847), where he took a pass school and was President of the Union.
His father died in 1841, and the influence of his mother--one of three
unusually accomplished sisters, the other two being the duchess of
Somerset and Mrs Norton (q.v.)--was very marked on his mental
development; she lived till 1867 and is commemorated by the "Helen's
Tower" erected by her son in her honour at Clandeboye (the Irish seat of
the Blackwoods) in 1861, and adorned with epigraphical verses written by
Tennyson, Browning and others. On leaving Oxford Lord Dufferin busied
himself for some little while with the management of his Irish estates.
In 1846-1848 he was active in relieving the distress in Ireland due to
the famine, and he was always generous and liberal in his relations with
his tenants. In 1855 he already advocated compensation for disturbance
and for improvements; but while supporting reasonable reform, he
demanded justice for the landowners. In later years (1868-1881) he wrote
much, in opposition to J.S. Mill, on behalf of Irish landlordism, and,
when Gladstone adopted Home Rule, Lord Dufferin, who had been attached
throughout his career to the Liberal party, regarded the new policy as
fatal both to Ireland and to the United Kingdom, though, being then an
ambassador, he took no public part in opposing it.

Starting with every personal and social advantage, Lord Dufferin quickly
became a favourite both at Court and in London society; and in 1849 he
was made a lord-in-waiting. In political life he followed Lord John
Russell, and in 1850 was further attached to the party by being created
a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Clandeboye. In 1855 Lord John
Russell took him as attaché on his special mission to the Vienna
Conference. Meanwhile Lord Dufferin was enlarging his experience by
foreign travel, and in 1856 he went on a yachting-tour to Iceland, which
he described with much humour and graphic power in his successful book,
_Letters from High Latitudes_; this volume made his reputation as a
writer, though his only other purely literary publication was his
memorial edition (1894) of his mother's _Poems and Verses_. In 1860 Lord
John Russell sent him as British representative on a joint commission of
the powers appointed to inquire into the affairs of the Lebanon (Syria),
where the massacres of Christian Maronites by the Mussulman Druses had
resulted in the landing of a French force and the possibility of a
French occupation. Lord Dufferin was associated with French, Russian,
Prussian and Turkish colleagues, and his difficult diplomatic position
was made none the less delicate by his conscientious endeavour to be
just to all parties. Even if he had not satisfied himself that the
Mahommedans were by no means wholly to blame, the question of punishment
was in any case complicated by the problem of future administration. His
own proposal to put the whole Syrian province under a responsible
governor, appointed by the sultan for a term of years, with unfettered
jurisdiction, was rejected; but at last it was agreed to place a
Christian governor, subordinate to the Porte, over the Lebanon district,
and to set up local administrative councils. In May 1861 the French
forces departed, and Lord Dufferin was thanked for his services by the
government.

In 1862 he married Hariot, daughter of Captain A. Rowan Hamilton, of
Killyleagh Castle, Down. He held successively the posts of
under-secretary for India (1864-1866) and under-secretary for war (1866)
in Lord Palmerston's and Earl Russell's ministries; and he was
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, outside the cabinet, under Mr
Gladstone (1868-1872). In 1871 he was created earl of Dufferin.

In 1872 he was appointed governor-general of Canada. There his tact and
personal charm and genial hospitality were invaluable. He had already
become known as a powerful and graceful orator, and a man of culture and
political distinction; and his abilities were brilliantly displayed in
dealing with the problems of the newly united provinces of the Canadian
Dominion. At a time when a weak or unattractive governor-general might
easily have damaged the imperial connexion, he admittedly strengthened
and consolidated it. Lord Dufferin left Canada in 1878, and in 1879,
rather to the annoyance of his old party leader, he accepted from the
conservative prime minister, Lord Beaconsfield, the appointment of
ambassador to Russia. At St Petersburg he did useful diplomatic work for
a couple of years, and then, in 1881, was transferred to Constantinople
as ambassador to Turkey. He was soon involved in the negotiations
connected with the situation in Egypt caused by Arabi's revolt and the
intervention of Great Britain. It was Lord Dufferin's task to arrange
matters at Constantinople, so that no international friction should be
created by any inconvenient assertion by the sultan of his position as
suzerain, while it was also necessary to avoid offending either the
sultan or the other powers by any appearance of ignoring their rights.
He was considerably helped by Turkish ineptitude, and by the
accomplished fact of British military successes in Egypt, but his own
diplomacy was responsible for securing the necessary freedom of action
for the British government.

From October 1882 to May 1883 he was himself in Egypt as British
commissioner to report on a scheme of reorganization; and his
recommendations--drawn up in a somewhat elaborate State paper--formed
the basis of the subsequent reforms. In 1884 he was appointed viceroy of
India, succeeding Lord Ripon, whose zeal on behalf of the natives had
created a good deal of antagonism among the officials and the
Anglo-Indian community. Lord Dufferin, though agreeing in the main with
Lord Ripon's policy, was excellently fitted for the task of restoring
confidence without producing any undesirable reaction, and in domestic
affairs his viceroyalty was a period of substantial progress, in the
reform of the evils of land tenure and in other directions. He was
responsible also for initiating stable relations with Afghanistan, and
settling the crisis with Russia arising out of the Panjdeh incident
(1885), which led to the delimitation of the north-west frontier (1887).
The most striking event of his administration was, however, the
annexation of Burma, resulting from the Burmese War of 1885; and this
procured him, on his resignation, the title of marquess of Dufferin and
Ava (1888). His viceroyalty was also memorable for Lady Dufferin's work,
and the starting of a fund called by her name, for providing better
medical treatment for native women. In 1888 he was made ambassador at
Rome, and in 1892 he was promoted to be ambassador in Paris, a post
which he retained till 1896, when he retired from the public service.

Lord Dufferin was one of the most admired public servants of his time. A
man of great natural gifts, he had a special talent for diplomacy,
though he has no claim to a place in the first rank of statesmen. He was
remarkable for tact and amiability, and had a florid and rather
elaborately literary style of oratory, which also characterized his
despatches and reports. For purposes of ceremony his courtliness,
dignity and charm of manner were invaluable, and both in public and in
private life he was a conspicuous "great gentleman." His last years,
spent mainly at his Irish home, were clouded by the death of his eldest
son, the earl of Ava, at Ladysmith in the Boer War (1900), and by
business troubles. He was so ill-advised as to become chairman in 1897
of the "London and Globe Finance Corporation," a financial company which
most good judges in the city of London thought to be too much in the
hands of its managing director, Mr Whitaker Wright, whose methods had
been a good deal criticized. At last there came a complete crash, and an
exposure before the liquidator, which ultimately led to Mr Whitaker
Wright's trial for fraud in 1904, and his suicide within the precincts
of the court on being found guilty. Lord Dufferin did not live to see
this final catastrophe. The affairs of the company were still under
investigation in bankruptcy when, on the 12th of February 1902, he died.
He had been in failing health for two or three years, but, having once
become chairman of the "London and Globe," he had insisted upon standing
by his colleagues when difficulties arose. Incautious as he had been in
accepting the position, no reflections were felt to be possible on Lord
Dufferin's personal honour; he was a serious loser by the failure, and
he had followed his predecessor in the chairmanship, Lord Loch, in
confiding too wholly in the masterful personality of Mr Wright. He was
succeeded in the title by his second son Terence (b. 1866).

  The official _Life_ of Lord Dufferin, by Sir Alfred Lyall, appeared in
  1905. There are two Canadian histories of his Canadian administration,
  one by George Stewart (1878), the other by W. Leggo (1878). Lady
  Dufferin brought out _Our Viceregal Life in India_ in 1889, and _My
  Canadian Journal_ in 1891. See also the articles on INDIA; _History_;
  CANADA: _History_; and EGYPT: _History_.     (H. Ch.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] One branch of the Blackwood family emigrated to France; the head
    of this line being Adam Blackwood (d. 1613), jurist, poet and divine,
    and senator of the presidial court of Poitiers.



DUFF-GORDON, LUCIE (1821-1869), English woman of letters, daughter of
John and Sarah Austin (q.v.), was born on the 24th of June 1821. Her
chief playfellows as a child were her cousin, Henry Reeve, and John
Stuart Mill, who lived next door in Queen Square, London. In 1834 the
Austins went to Boulogne, and at table d'hôte Lucie found herself next
to Heinrich Heine. The poet and the little girl became fast friends, and
years afterwards she contributed to Lord Houghton's _Monographs Personal
and Social_ a touching account of a renewal of their friendship when
Heine lay dying in Paris. Her parents went to Malta in 1836, and Lucie
Austin was left in England at school, but her unconventional education
made the restrictions of a girls' school exceedingly irksome. She showed
her independence of character by joining the English Church, though this
step was certain to cause pain to her parents, who were Unitarians, and
to many of her friends. She married in 1840 Sir Alexander Duff-Gordon
(1811-1872). With her mother's beauty she had inherited her social
gifts, and she gathered round her a brilliant circle of friends. George
Meredith has analysed and described her extraordinary success as a
hostess, and the process by which she reduced too ardent admirers to
"happy crust-munching devotees." "In England, in her day," he says,
"while health was with her, there was one house where men and women
conversed. When that house perforce was closed, a light had gone out in
our country." After her father's death, she fell into weak health and
was obliged to seek sunnier climes. She went in 1860 to the Cape of Good
Hope, and later to Egypt, where she died on the 14th of July 1869. She
had translated among other works _Ancient Grecian Mythology_ (1839) from
the German of Niebuhr; _Mary Schweidler_; _The Amber Witch_ (1844) from
the German of Wilhelm Meinhold; and _Stella and Vanessa_ (1850) from the
French of A.F.L. de Wailly. Her _Letters from the Cape_ (1862-1863)
appeared in 1865; and in 1865 her _Letters from Egypt_, edited by her
mother, attracted much attention. _Last Letters from Egypt_ (1875)
contained a memoir by her daughter, Mrs Janet Ross. Lady Duff-Gordon won
the hearts of her Arab dependents and neighbours. She doctored their
sick, taught their children, and sympathized with their sorrows.

  The _Letters front Egypt_ were not originally published in a complete
  form. A fuller edition than had before been possible, with an
  introduction by George Meredith, was edited in 1902 by Mrs Janet Ross.
  See also Mrs Ross's _Three Generations of Englishwomen_ (1886).



DUFFTOWN, a municipal and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland, on the
Fiddich, 64 m. W.N.W. of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland
railway. Pop. (1901) 1823. It dates from 1817 and bears the name of its
founder, James Duff, 4th earl of Fife. Although planned in the shape of
a cross, with a square and tower in the middle, the arms of the cross
are not straight, the constructor holding the ingenious opinion that, in
order to prevent little towns from being taken in at a glance, their
streets should be crooked. The leading industries are lime-works and
distilleries, the water being specially fitted for the making of whisky.
The town has considerable repute as a health resort, owing partly to its
elevation (737 ft.) and partly to the natural charms of the district.
The parish of Mortlach, in which Dufftown is situated, is rich in
archaeological and historical associations. What is called the Stone of
Mortlach is traditionally believed to have been erected to commemorate
the success of Malcolm II. over the Danes in 1010. The three large
stones known as "The King's Grave," a hill-fort, and cairns are of
interest to the antiquary. The old church of Mortlach, though restored
and almost renewed, still contains some lancet windows and a
round-headed doorway, besides monuments dating from 1417. A portion of
old Balvenie Castle, a ruin, is considered to be of Pictish origin, but
most of it is in the Scots Baronial. It has associations with Alexander
Stewart, earl of Buchan and lord of Badenoch (1343-1405), son of Robert
II., whose ruffianly conduct in Elginshire earned him the designation of
the Wolf of Badenoch, the Comyns, the Douglases (to whom it gave the
title of baron in the 15th century), the Stuarts and the Duffs. The new
castle, an uninteresting building, was erected in 1724 by the earl of
Fife, and though untenanted is maintained in repair. Two miles to the
S.E. of Dufftown is the ruined castle of Auchindown, finely situated on
a limestone crag, 200 ft. high, of which three sides are washed by the
Fiddich and the fourth was protected by a moat. It dates from the 11th
century, and once belonged to the Ogilvies, from whom it passed in 1535
to the Gordons. The Gothic hall with rows of fluted pillars is in fair
preservation. Ben Rinnes (2755 ft.) and several other hills of lesser
altitude all lie within a few miles of Dufftown. About 4 m. to the N.W.
is Craigellachie--Gaelic for "the rock of alarm"--(pop. 454), on the
confines of Elginshire. It is situated on the Spey amidst scenery of
surpassing loveliness. The slogan of the Grants is "Stand fast
Craigellachie!" The place has become an important junction of the Great
North of Scotland railway system.



DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN (1816-1903), Irish and colonial politician, was
born in Monaghan, Ireland, on the 12th of April 1816. At an early age he
became connected with the press, and was one of the founders (1842) of
the _Nation_, a Dublin weekly which was remarkable for its talent, for
its seditious tendencies, and for the fire and spirit of its political
poetry. In 1844 Duffy was included in the same indictment with
O'Connell, and shared his conviction in Dublin and his acquittal by the
House of Lords upon a point of law. His ideas, nevertheless, were too
revolutionary for O'Connell; a schism took place in 1846, and Duffy
united himself to the "Young Ireland" party. He was tried for
treason-felony in 1848, but the jury were unable to agree. Duffy
continued to agitate in the press and in parliament, to which he was
elected in 1852, but his failure to bring about an alliance between
Catholics and Protestants upon the land question determined him in 1856
to emigrate to Victoria. There he became in 1857 minister of public
works, and after an active political career, in the course of which he
was prime minister from 1871 to 1873, when he was knighted, he was
elected speaker of the House of Assembly in 1877, being made K.C.M.G. in
the same year. In 1880 he resigned and returned to Europe, residing
mostly in the south of France. He published _The Ballad Poetry of
Ireland_ (1845), several works on Irish history, _Conversations with
Carlyle_ (1892), _Memoirs_ (1898), &c. In 1891 he became first president
of the Irish Literary Society. He was married three times, his third
wife dying in 1889. He died on the 9th of February 1903.



DUFOUR, WILHELM HEINRICH [GUILLAUME HENRI] (1787-1875), Swiss general,
was born at Constance of Genevese parents temporarily in exile, on the
15th of September 1787. In 1807 he went to the École Polytechnique at
Paris, Switzerland being then under French rule, taking the 140th place
only in his entrance examination. By two years' close study he so
greatly improved his position that he was ranked fifth in the exit
examination. Immediately on leaving the school he received a commission
in the engineers, and was sent to serve in Corfu, which was blockaded by
the English. During the Hundred Days he attained the rank of captain,
and was employed in raising fortifications at Grenoble. After the peace
that followed Waterloo he resumed his status as a Swiss citizen, and
devoted himself to the military service of his native land. From 1819 to
1830 he was chief instructor in the military school of Thun, which had
been founded mainly through his instrumentality. Among other
distinguished foreign pupils he instructed Louis Napoleon, afterwards
emperor of the French. In 1827 he was raised to the rank of colonel, and
commanded the Federal army in a series of field manoeuvres. In 1831 he
became chief of the staff, and soon afterwards he was appointed
quartermaster-general. Two years later the diet commissioned him to
superintend the execution of a complete trigonometrical survey of
Switzerland. He had already made a cadastral survey of the canton of
Geneva, and published a map of the canton on the scale of 1/25000. The
larger work occupied thirty-two years, and was accomplished with
complete success. The map in 25 sheets on the scale of 1/100000 was
published at intervals between 1842 and 1865, and is an admirable
specimen of cartography. In recognition of the ability with which Dufour
had carried out his task, the Federal Council in 1868 ordered the
highest peak of Monte Rosa to be named Dufour Spitze. In 1847 Dufour was
made general of the Federal Army, which was employed in reducing the
revolted Catholic cantons. The quickness and thoroughness with which he
performed the painful task, and the wise moderation with which he
treated his vanquished fellow-countrymen, were acknowledged by a gift of
60,000 francs from the diet and various honours from different cities
and cantons of the confederation. In politics he belonged to the
moderate conservative party, and he consequently lost a good deal of his
popularity in 1848. In 1864 he presided over the international
conference which framed the Geneva Convention as to the treatment of the
wounded in time of war, &c. He died on the 14th of July 1875. His _De la
fortification permanente_ (1850) is an important and original
contribution to the science of fortification, and he was also the author
of a _Mémoire sur l'artillerie des anciens et sur celle du moyen âge_
(1840), _Manuel de tactique pour les officiers de toutes armes_ (1842),
and various other works in military science. His memoir, _La Campagne du
Sonderbund_ (Paris, 1876), is prefaced by a biographical notice. An
equestrian statue of General Dufour was erected after his death at
Geneva by national subscription.



DUFRÉNOY, OURS PIERRE ARMAND PETIT (1792-1857), French geologist and
mineralogist, was born at Sevran, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, in
France, on the 5th of September 1792. After leaving the Imperial Lyceum,
in 1811, he studied till 1813 at the École Polytechnique, and then
entered the Corps des Mines. He subsequently assisted in the management
of the École des Mines, of which he was professor of mineralogy and
afterwards director. He was also professor of geology at the École des
Ponts et Chaussés. In conjunction with Élie de Beaumont he in 1841
published a great geological map of France, the result of investigations
carried on during thirteen years (1823-1836). Five years (1836-1841)
were spent in writing the text to accompany the map, the publication of
the work with two quarto vols. of text extending from 1841-1848; a third
volume was issued in 1873. The two authors had already together
published _Voyage métallurgique en Angleterre_ (1827, 2nd ed.
1837-1839), _Mémoires pour servir à une description géologique de la
France_, in four vols. (1830-1838), and a _Mémoire_ on Cantal and
Mont-Dore (1833). Other literary productions of Dufrénoy are an account
of the iron mines of the eastern Pyrenees (1834), and a treatise on
mineralogy (3 vols. and atlas, 1844-1845; 2nd ed., 4 vols. and atlas,
1856-1859), in which the geological relations as well as the physical
and chemical properties of minerals were dealt with; he likewise
contributed numerous papers to the Annales des mines and other
scientific publications, one of the most interesting of which is
entitled _Des terrains volcaniques des environs de Naples_. Dufrénoy was
a member of the Academy of Sciences, a commander of the Legion of
Honour, and an inspector-general of mines. He died in Paris on the 20th
of March 1857.



DUFRESNY, CHARLES, SIEUR DE LA RIVIÈRE (1648-1724), French dramatist,
was born in Paris in 1648. The allegation that his grandfather was an
illegitimate son of Henry IV. procured him the liberal patronage of
Louis XIV., who gave him the post of _valet de chambre_, and affixed his
name to many lucrative privileges. Dufresny's expensive habits
neutralized all efforts to enrich him, and as if to furnish a piquant
commentary on the proverb that poverty makes us acquainted with strange
bedfellows, he married, as his second wife, a washerwoman, in discharge
of her bill--a whimsicality which supplied Le Sage with an episode in
the _Diable boiteux_, and was made the subject of a comedy by J.M.
Deschamps (_Charles Rivière Dufresny, ou le mariage impromptu_). He died
in Paris on the 6th of October 1724. His plays, destitute for the most
part of all higher qualities, abound in sprightly wit and pithy sayings.
In the six volumes of his _Théâtre_ (Paris, 1731), some of the best are
_L'Esprit de contradiction_ (1700), _Le Double Veuvage_ (1701), _La
Joueuse_ (1709), _La Coquette de village_ (1715), _La Réconciliation
normande_ (1719) and _Le Mariage fait et rompu_ (1721). A volume of
_Poésies diverses_, two volumes of _Nouvelles historiques_ (1692), and
_Les Amusements sérieux et comiques d'un Siamois_ (1705), a work to
which Montesquieu was indebted for the idea of his _Lettres persanes_,
complete the list of Dufresny's writings. The best edition of his works
is that of 1747 (4 vols.). His _Théâtre_ was edited (1882) by Georges
d'Heylli.



DUGAZON [JEAN HENRI GOURGAUD] (1746-1809), French actor, was born in
Marseilles on the 15th of November 1746, the son of the director of
military hospitals there. He began his career in the provinces, making
his début in 1770 at the Comédie Française, where he aspired to leading
comedy roles. He pleased the public at once and was made _sociétaire_ in
1772. Dugazon was an ardent revolutionist, helped the schism which
divided the company, and went with Talma and the others to what became
the Théâtre de la République. After the closing of this theatre, and the
dissolution of the Comédie Française, he took refuge at the Théâtre
Feydeau until (1799) he returned to the restored Comédie. He retired in
1807, and died insane at Sandillon in 1809. Dugazon wrote three mediocre
comedies of a political character, performed at the Théâtre de la
République. He married, in 1776, Louis Rose Lefèvre, but was soon
divorced and then married again. The first Madame Dugazon (1755-1821),
the daughter of a Berlin dancing master, was a charming actress. Her
first appearance on the stage was made at the age of twelve as a dancer.
It was as an actress "with songs" that she made her début at the Comédie
Italienne in 1774 in Grétry's _Sylvain_. She was at once admitted
_pensionnaire_ and in 1776 _sociétaire_. Madame Dugazon delighted all
Paris, and nightly crowded the Comédie Italienne for more than twenty
years. The two kinds of parts with which she was especially
identified--young mothers and women past their first youth--are still
called "_dugazons_" and "_mères dugazons_." Examples of the first are
Jenny in _La Dame blanche_ and Berthe de Simiane in _Les Mousquetaires
de la reine_; of the second, Marguerite in _Le Pré aux clercs_ and the
queen in _La Part du diable_.

Dugazon's sister, MARIE ROSE GOURGAUD (1743-1804), was an actress who
first played at Stuttgart, where she married Angelo, brother of Gaétano
Vestris, the dancer. Under the protection of the dukes of Choiseul and
Duras, she was commanded to make her début at the Comédie Française in
1768, where she created important parts in a number of tragedies.



DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM (1605-1686), English antiquary, was born at
Shustoke, near Coleshill, in Warwickshire, on the 12th of September
1605, the son of a country gentleman of an old Lancashire stock; he was
educated at Coventry. To please his father, who was old and infirm, he
married at seventeen. He lived with his wife's family until his father's
death in 1624, when he went to live at Fillongley, near Shustoke, an
estate formerly purchased for him by his father. In 1625 he purchased
the manor of Blythe, Shustoke, and removed thither in 1626. He had early
shown an inclination for antiquarian studies, and in 1635, meeting Sir
Symon Archer (1581-1662), himself a learned antiquary, who was then
employed in collecting materials for a history of Warwickshire, he
accompanied him to London. There he made the acquaintance of Sir
Christopher (afterwards Lord) Hatton, comptroller of the household, and
Thomas, earl of Arundel, then earl marshal of England. In 1638 Dugdale
was created a pursuivant of arms extraordinary by the name of Blanch
Lyon, and in 1639 rouge croix pursuivant in ordinary. He now had a
lodging in the Heralds' Office, and spent much of his time in London
examining the records in the Tower and the Cottonian and other
collections of MSS. In 1641 Sir Christopher Hatton, foreseeing the war
and dreading the ruin and spoliation of the Church, commissioned him to
make exact drafts of all the monuments in Westminster Abbey and the
principal churches in England, including Peterborough, Ely, Norwich,
Lincoln. Newark, Beverley, Southwell, Kingston-upon-Hull, York, Selby,
Chester, Lichfield, Tamworth and Warwick. In June 1642 he was summoned
to attend the king at York. When war broke out Charles deputed him to
summon to surrender the castles of Banbury and Warwick, and other
strongholds which were being rapidly filled with ammunition and rebels.
He went with Charles to Oxford, remaining there till its surrender in
1646. He witnessed the battle of Edgehill, where he made afterwards an
exact survey of the field, noting how the armies were drawn up, and
where and in what direction the various movements took place, and
marking the graves of the slain. In November 1642 he was admitted M.A.
of the university, and in 1644 the king created him Chester herald.
During his leisure at Oxford he collected material at the Bodleian and
college libraries for his books. In 1646 Dugdale returned to London and
compounded for his estates, which had been sequestrated, by a payment of
£168. After a visit to France in 1648 he continued his antiquarian
researches in London, collaborating with Richard Dodsworth in his
_Monasticon Anglicanum_, which was published successively in single
volumes in 1655, 1664 and 1673. At the Restoration he obtained the
office of Norroy king-at-arms, and in 1677 was created garter principal
king-at-arms, and was knighted. He died "in his chair" at Blythe Hall on
the 10th of February 1686.

  Dugdale's most important works are _Antiquities of Warwickshire_
  (1656); _Monasticon Anglicanum_ (1655-1673); _History of St Paul's
  Cathedral_ (1658); and _Baronage of England_ (1675-1676). His _Life_,
  written by himself up to 1678, with his diary and correspondence, and
  an index to his manuscript collections, was edited by William Hamper,
  and published in 1827.



DUGONG, one of the two existing generic representatives of the Sirenia,
or herbivorous aquatic mammals. Dugongs are distinguished from their
cousins the manatis by the presence in the upper jaw of the male of a
pair of large tusks, which in the female are arrested in their growth,
and remain concealed. There are never more than five molar teeth on each
side of either jaw, or twenty in all, and these are flat on the grinding
surface. The flippers are unprovided with nails, and the tail is broad,
and differs from that of the manati in being crescent-shaped instead of
rounded. The bones are hard and firm, and take a polish equal to that of
ivory. Dugongs frequent the shallow waters of the tropical seas,
extending from the east coast of Africa north of the mouth of the
Zambezi, along the shores of the Indian, Malayan and Australian seas,
where they may be seen basking on the surface of the water, or browsing
on submarine pastures of seaweed, for which the thick obtuse lips and
truncated snout pre-eminently fit them. They are gregarious, feeding in
large numbers in localities where they are not often disturbed. The
female produces a single young one at a birth, and is remarkable for the
great affection it shows for its offspring, so that when the young
dugong is caught there is no difficulty in capturing the mother. Three
species--the Indian dugong (_Halicore dugong_), the Red Sea dugong (_H.
tabernaculi_) and the Australian dugong (_H. australis_)--are commonly
recognized. The first is abundant along the shores of the Indian Ocean,
and is captured in large numbers by the Malays, who esteem its flesh a
great delicacy; the lean portions, especially of young specimens, are
regarded by Europeans as excellent eating. It is generally taken by
spearing, the main object of the hunter being to raise the tail out of
the water, when the animal becomes perfectly powerless. It seldom
attains a length of more than 8 or 10 ft. The Australian dugong is a
larger species, attaining sometimes a length of 15 ft.; it occurs along
the Australian coast from Moreton Bay to Cape York, and is highly valued
by the natives, who hunt it with spears, and gorge themselves with its
flesh, when they are fortunate enough to secure a carcase. Of late years
the oil obtained from the blubber of this species has been largely used
in Australia as a substitute for cod-liver oil. It does not contain
iodine, but is said to possess all the therapeutic qualities of
cod-liver oil without its nauseous taste. A full-grown dugong yields
from 10 to 12 gallons of oil, and this forms in cold weather a thick
mass, and requires to be melted before a fire previous to being used.
The flesh of the Australian dugong is easy of digestion, the muscular
fibre when fresh resembling beef, and when salted having the flavour of
bacon. In the earliest Australian dugong-fishery natives were employed
to harpoon these animals, which soon, however, became too wary to allow
themselves to be approached near enough for this purpose, and the
harpoon was abandoned for the net. The latter is spread at night, and in
its meshes dugongs are caught in considerable numbers.     (R. L.*)

[Illustration: The Dugong.]



DUGUAY-TROUIN, RENÉ (1673-1736), French sea captain, belonged to a
well-known family of merchants and sea captains of St Malo. He was born
at St Malo on the 10th of June 1673. He was originally intended for the
church, and studied with that view at Rennes and Caen; but on the
breaking out of the war with England and Holland in 1689 he went to sea
in a privateer owned by his family. During the first three months his
courage was tried by a violent tempest, an imminent shipwreck, the
boarding of an English ship, and the threatened destruction of his own
vessel by fire. The following year, as a volunteer in a vessel of 28
guns, he was present in a bloody combat with an English fleet of five
merchant vessels. The courage he then showed was so remarkable that in
1691, at the age of eighteen, his family gave him a corsair of 14 guns;
and having been thrown by a tempest on the coast of Ireland, he burned
two English ships in the river Limerick. In 1694 his vessel of 40 guns
was captured by the English, and, being taken prisoner, he was confined
in the castle of Plymouth. He escaped, according to his own account, by
the help of a pretty shopwoman and her lover, a French refugee in the
English service. He then obtained command of a vessel of 48 guns, and
made a capture of English vessels on the Irish coast. In 1696 he made a
brilliant capture of Dutch vessels, and the king hearing an account of
the affair gave him a commission as _capitaine de frégate_ (commander)
in the royal navy. In 1704-1705 he desolated the coasts of England. In
1706 he was raised to the rank of captain of a vessel of the line. In
1707 he was made chevalier of the order of St Louis, and captured off
the Lizard the greater part of an English convoy of troops and munitions
bound for Portugal. His most glorious action was the capture in 1711 of
Rio Janeiro, on which he imposed a heavy contribution. In 1715 he was
made _chef d'escadre_, the rank which in the French navy answered to the
English commodore, and in 1728 commander of the order of St Louis and
_lieutenant général des armées navales_. In 1731 he commanded a squadron
for the protection of French commerce in the Levant. He died on the 27th
of September 1736.

  See his own _Mémoires_ (1740); and J. Poulain, _Duguay-Trouin_ (1882).



DU GUESCLIN, BERTRAND (c. 1320-1380), constable of France, the most
famous French warrior of his age, was born of an ancient but
undistinguished family at the castle of La Motte-Broons (Dinan). The
date of his birth is doubtful, the authorities varying between 1311 and
1324. The name is spelt in various ways in contemporary records, e.g.
Claquin, Klesquin, Guescquin, Glayaquin, &c. The familiar form is found
on his monument at St Denis, and in some legal documents of the time. In
his boyhood Bertrand was a dull learner, spending his time in open-air
sports and exercises, and could never read or write. He was remarkable
for ugliness, and was an object of aversion to his parents. He first
made himself a name as a soldier at the tournament held at Rennes in
1338 to celebrate the marriage of Charles of Blois with Jeanne de
Penthièvre, at which he unseated the most famous competitors. In the war
which followed between Charles of Blois and John de Montfort, for the
possession of the duchy of Brittany, he served his apprenticeship as a
soldier (1341). As he was not a great baron with a body of vassals at
his command, he put himself at the head of a band of adventurers, and
fought on the side of Charles and of France. He distinguished himself by
a brilliant action at the siege of Vannes in 1342; and after that he
disappears from history for some years.

In 1354, having shortly before been made a knight, he was sent into
England with the lords of Brittany to treat for the ransom of Charles of
Blois, who had been defeated and captured by the English in 1347. When
Rennes and Dinan were attacked by the duke of Lancaster in 1356, Du
Guesclin fought continuously against the English, and at this time he
engaged in a celebrated duel with Sir Thomas Canterbury. He finally
forced his way with provisions and reinforcements into Rennes, which he
successfully defended till June 1357, when the siege was raised in
pursuance of the truce of Bordeaux. For this service he was rewarded
with the lordship of Pontorson. Shortly afterwards he passed into the
service of France, and greatly distinguished himself at the siege of
Melun (1359), being, however, taken prisoner a little later by Sir
Robert Knollys. In 1360, 1361 and 1362 he was continually in the field,
being again made prisoner in 1360. In 1364 he married, but was soon
again in the field, this time against the king of Navarre. In May 1364
he won an important victory over the Navarrese at Cocherel, and took the
famous Captal de Buch prisoner. He had previously been made lord of La
Roche-Tesson (1361) and chamberlain (1364); he was now made count of
Longueville and lieutenant of Normandy. Shortly afterwards, in aiding
Charles of Blois, Du Guesclin was taken prisoner by Sir John Chandos at
the battle of Auray, in which Charles was killed. The close of the
general war, however, had released great numbers of mercenaries (the
great companies) from control, and, as they began to play the part of
brigands in France, it was necessary to get rid of them. Du Guesclin was
ransomed for 100,000 crowns, and was charged to lead them out of France.
He marched with them into Spain, supported Henry of Trastamara against
Pedro the Cruel, set the former upon the throne of Castile (1366), and
was made constable of Castile and count of Trastamara. In the following
year he was defeated and captured by the Black Prince, ally of Pedro, at
Navarette, but was soon released for a heavy ransom. Once more he fought
for Henry, won the battle of Montiel (1369), reinstated him on the
throne, and was created duke of Molinas.

In May 1370, at the command of Charles V., who named him constable of
France, he returned to France. War had just been declared against
England, and Du Guesclin was called to take part in it. For nearly ten
years he was engaged in fighting against the English in the south and
the west of France, recovering from them the provinces of Poitou,
Guienne and Auvergne, and thus powerfully contributing to the
establishment of a united France. In 1373, when the duke of Brittany
sought English aid against a threatened invasion by Charles V., Du
Guesclin was sent at the head of a powerful army to seize the duchy,
which he did; and two years later he frustrated the attempt of the duke
with an English army to recover it. Finding in 1379 that the king
entertained suspicions of his fidelity to him, he resolved to give up
his constable's sword and retire to Spain. His resolution was at first
proof against remonstrance; but ultimately he received back the sword,
and continued in the service of France. In 1380 he was sent into
Languedoc to suppress disturbances and brigandage, provoked by the harsh
government of the duke of Anjou. His first act was to lay siege to the
fortress of Châteauneuf-Randon, but on the eve of its surrender the
constable died on the 13th of July 1380. His remains were interred, by
order of the king, in the church of St Denis. Du Guesclin lost his first
wife in 1371, and married a second in 1373, but he left no legitimate
children.

  See biography by D.F. Jamison (Charleston, 1863), which was
  translated into French (1866) by order of Marshal Count Randon,
  minister of war; also S. Luce, _Histoire de B. du Guesclin_ (Paris,
  1876).



DUHAMEL, JEAN BAPTISTE (1624-1706), French physicist, was born in 1624
at Vire in Normandy. He studied at Caen and Paris; wrote at eighteen a
tract on the _Spherics_ of Theodosius of Tripolis; then became an
Oratorian priest, and fulfilled with great devotion for ten years
(1653-1663) the duties of _curé_ at Neuilly-sur-Marne. He was appointed
in 1656 almoner to the king, and in 1666 perpetual secretary to the
newly founded Academy of Sciences. He died on the 6th of August 1706. He
published among other works: _Astronomia physica_ (1660) and _De
meteoris et fossilibus_ (1660), both in dialogue form; _De consensu
veteris et novae philosophiae_ (1663); _De corporum affectionibus_
(1672); _De mente humana_ (1673); _Regiae scientiarum Academiae
historia_, 1666-1696 (1698), new edition brought down to 1700 (1701);
_Institutiones biblicae_ (1698); followed by annotated editions of the
Psalms (1701), of the Book of Wisdom, &c. (1703), and of the entire
Bible in 1705.



DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, HENRI LOUIS (1700-1782), French botanist and
engineer, son of Alexandre Duhamel, lord of Denainvilliers, was born at
Paris in 1700. Having been requested by the Academy of Sciences to
investigate a disease which was destroying the saffron plant in
Gâtinais, he discovered the cause in a parasitical fungus which attached
itself to the roots, and this achievement gained him admission to the
Academy in 1728. From then until his death he busied himself chiefly
with making experiments in vegetable physiology. Having learned from Sir
Hans Sloane that madder possesses the property of giving colour to the
bones, he fed animals successively on food mixed and unmixed with
madder; and he found that their bones in general exhibited concentric
strata of red and white, whilst the softer parts showed in the meantime
signs of having been progressively extended. From a number of
experiments he was led to believe himself able to explain the growth of
bones, and to demonstrate a parallel between the manner of their growth
and that of trees. Along with the naturalist Buffon, he made numerous
experiments on the growth and strength of wood, and experimented also on
the growth of the mistletoe, on layer planting, on smut in corn, &c. He
was probably the first, in 1736, to distinguish clearly between the
alkalis, potash and soda. From the year 1740 he made meteorological
observations, and kept records of the influence of the weather on
agricultural production. For many years he was inspector-general of
marine, and applied his scientific acquirements to the improvement of
naval construction. He died at Paris on the 13th of August 1782.

  His works are nearly ninety in number, and include many technical
  handbooks. The principal are:--_Traité des arbres et arbustes qui se
  cultivent en France en pleine terre_; _Éléments de l'architecture
  navale_; _Traité général des pêches maritimes et fluviatiles_;
  _Éléments d'agriculture_; _La Physique des arbres_; _Des Semis et
  plantations des arbres et de leur culture_; _De l'exploitation des
  bois_; _Traité des arbres fruitiers_.



DÜHRING, EUGEN KARL (1833-1901), German philosopher and political
economist, was born on the 12th of January 1833 at Berlin. After a legal
education he practised at Berlin as a lawyer till 1859. A weakness of
the eyes, ending in total blindness, occasioned his taking up the
studies with which his name is now connected. In 1864 he became _docent_
of the university of Berlin, but, in consequence of a quarrel with the
professoriate, was deprived of his licence to teach in 1874. Among his
works are _Kapital und Arbeit_ (1865); _Der Wert des Lebens_ (1865);
_Natürliche Dialektik_ (1865); _Kritische Geschichte der Philosophie_
(1869); _Kritische Geschichte der allgemeinen Principien der Mechanik_
(1872)--one of his most successful works; _Kursus der National- und
Sozialökonomie_ (1873); _Kursus der Philosophie_ (1875), entitled in a
later edition _Wirklichkeitsphilosophie; Logik und Wissenschaftstheorie_
(1878); _Der Ersatz der Religion durch Vollkommeneres_ (1883). He
published his autobiography in 1882 under the title _Sache, Leben und
Feinde_; the mention of "Feinde" (enemies) is characteristic. Dühring's
philosophy claims to be emphatically the philosophy of reality. He is
passionate in his denunciation of everything which, like mysticism,
tries to veil reality. He is almost Lucretian in his anger against
religion which would withdraw the secret of the universe from our direct
gaze. His "substitute for religion" is a doctrine in many points akin
to Comte and Feuerbach, the former of whom he resembles in his
sentimentalism. Dühring's opinions changed considerably after his first
appearance as a writer. His earlier work, _Natürliche Dialektik_, in
form and matter not the worst of his writings, is entirely in the spirit
of the Critical Philosophy. Later, in his movement towards Positivism,
he strongly repudiates Kant's separation of phenomenon from noumenon,
and affirms that our intellect is capable of grasping the whole reality.
This adequacy of thought to things is due to the fact that the universe
contains but one reality, i.e. matter. It is to matter that we must look
for the explanation both of conscious and of physical states. But matter
is not, in his system, to be understood with the common meaning, but
with a deeper sense as the substratum of all conscious and physical
existence; and thus the laws of being are identified with the laws of
thought. In this materialistic or quasi-materialistic system Dühring
finds room for teleology; the end of Nature, he holds, is the production
of a race of conscious beings. From his belief in teleology he is not
deterred by the enigma of pain; he is a determined optimist. Pain exists
to throw pleasure into conscious relief. In ethics Dühring follows Comte
in making sympathy the foundation of morality. In political philosophy
he teaches an ethical communism, and attacks the Darwinian principle of
struggle for existence. In economics he is best known by his vindication
of the American writer H.C. Carey, who attracts him both by his theory
of value, which suggests an ultimate harmony of the interests of
capitalist and labourer, and also by his doctrine of "national"
political economy, which advocates protection on the ground that the
morals and culture of a people are promoted by having its whole system
of industry complete within its own borders. His patriotism is fervent,
but narrow and exclusive. He idolized Frederick the Great, and denounced
Jews, Greeks, and the cosmopolitan Goethe. Dühring's clear, incisive
writing is disfigured by arrogance and ill-temper, failings which may be
extenuated on the ground of his physical affliction. He died in 1901.

  See H. Druskowitz, _Eugen Dühring_ (Heidelberg, 1888); E. Döll, _Eugen
  Dühring_ (Leipzig, 1892); F. Engels, _Eugen D.'s Umwalzung der
  Wissenschaft_ (3rd ed., Stuttgart, 1894); H. Vaihinger, _Hartmann,
  Dühring und Lange_ (1876).     (H. St.)



DUIGENAN, PATRICK (1735-1816), Irish lawyer and politician, was the son
of a Leitrim Roman Catholic farmer named O'Duibhgeannain. Through the
tuition of the local Protestant clergyman, who was interested in the
boy, he got a scholarship in 1756 at Trinity College, Dublin, and
subsequently became a fellow. He was called to the Irish bar in 1767 and
obtained a rich practice. He is remembered, however, mainly as a
politician, on account of his opposition to Grattan, his support of the
Union, and his violent antagonism to Catholic emancipation. He was
elected member for Armagh in the first united parliament, and was a
well-known character at Westminster till he died on the 11th of April
1816.



DUIKER (diver), or DUIKERBOK, the Dutch name of a small S. African
antelope, scientifically known as _Cephalophus grimmi_; the popular name
alluding to its habit of diving into and threading its way through thick
bush. Scientifically the name is extended to include all the members of
the African genus _Cephalophus_, which, together with the Indian
chousingha, or four-horned antelope (_Tetraceros_), constitutes the
subfamily _Cephalophinae_. Duikers are animals of small or medium size,
usually frequenting thick forest. The horns, usually present in both
sexes, are small and straight, situated far back on the forehead; and
between them rises the crest-like tuft of hair from which the genus
takes its scientific name. The common or true duiker (_C. grimmi_) is
found in bush-country from the Cape to the Zambezi and Nyasaland, and
ranges northward on the west coast to Angola. The banded duiker (_C.
doriae_) from West Africa is golden brown with black transverse bands on
the back and loins. _C. sylvicultor_, of West Africa, is the largest
species, and approaches a donkey in size. (See ANTELOPE.)     (R. L.*)



DUILIUS (or DUELLIUS), GAIUS, Roman general during the first
Carthaginian War and commander in the first Roman naval victory. In 260
B.C., when consul in command of the land forces in Sicily, he was
appointed to supersede his colleague Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina,
commander of the fleet, who had been captured in the harbour of Lipara.
Recognizing that the only chance of victory lay in fighting under
conditions as similar as possible to those of a land engagement, he
invented a system of grappling irons (_corvi_) and boarding bridges, and
gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginian fleet off Mylae on the
north coast of Sicily. He was accorded a triumph and the distinction of
being accompanied, when walking in the streets during the evening, by a
torchbearer and a flute-player. A memorial column (_columna rostrata_),
adorned with the beaks of the captured ships, was set up in honour of
his victory. The inscription upon it (see LATIN LANGUAGE, section 3,
"The Language as Recorded") has been preserved in a restored form in
pseudo-archaic language, ascribed to the reign of Claudius.

  See _Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum_, i. No. 195; Polybius i. 22;
  Diod. Sic. xvii. 44; Frontinus, _Strat._ ii. 3; Florus ii. 2; Cicero,
  _De senectute_, 13; Silius Italicus vi. 667; and PUNIC WARS.



DUISBURG, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, 15 m. by rail N.
from Düsseldorf, between the Rhine and the Ruhr, with which rivers it
communicates by a canal. It is an important railway centre. Pop. (1885)
47,519; (1900) 92,729; (1905), including many outlying townships then
recently incorporated, 191,551. It has six Roman Catholic and six
Protestant churches, among the latter the fine Gothic Salvatorkirche, of
the 15th century. It is well furnished with schools, which include a
school of machinery. Of modern erections, the concert hall, the law
courts and a memorial fountain to the cartographer Gerhard Kremer
(Mercator) are worthy of mention. There are important foundries, rolling
mills for copper, steel and brass plates, chemical works, saw-milling,
shipbuilding, tobacco, cotton, sugar, soap and other manufactures.

Duisburg was known to the Romans as _Castrum Deutonis_, and mentioned
under the Frankish kings as _Dispargum_. In the 12th century it attained
the rank of an imperial free town, but on being mortgaged in 1290 to
Cleves it lost its privileges. At the beginning of the 17th century it
was transferred to Brandenburg, and during the Thirty Years' War was
alternately occupied by the Spaniards and the Dutch. In 1655 the elector
Frederick William of Brandenburg founded here a Protestant university,
which flourished until 1802.



DUK-DUK, a secret society of New Britain or New Pomerania, Bismarck
Archipelago, in the South Pacific. The society has religious and
political as well as social objects. It represents a rough sort of law
and order through its presiding spirit Duk-Duk, a mysterious figure
dressed in leaves to its waist, with a helmet like a gigantic
candle-extinguisher made of network. Upon this figure women and children
are forbidden to look. Women, who are entitled in New Britain to their
own earnings and work harder than men, are the special victims of
Duk-Duk, who levies blackmail upon them if they are about during its
visits. These are generally timed to coincide with the hours at which
the women are out in the fields and therefore cannot help seeing the
figure. Justice is executed, fines extorted, taboos, feasts, taxes and
all tribal matters are arranged by the Duk-Duk members, who wear hideous
masks or chalk their faces. In carrying out punishments they are allowed
to burn houses and even kill people. Only males can belong to Duk-Duk,
the entrance fees of which vary from 50 to 100 fathoms of _dewarra_
(small cowrie shells strung on strips of cane). The society has its
secret signs and ritual, and festivals at which the presence of a
stranger would mean his death. Duk-Duk only appears with the full moon.
The society is now much discredited and is fast dying out.

  See "Duk-Duk and other Customs or Forms of Expression of the
  Melanesian's Intellectual Life," by Graf von Pfeil (_Journ. of
  Anthrop. Instit._ vol. 27, p. 181).



DUKE (corresponding to Fr. _duc_, Ital. _duca_, Ger. _Herzog_), the
title of one of the highest orders of the European nobility, and of some
minor sovereign princes. The word "duke," which is derived from the Lat.
_dux_, a leader, or general, through the Fr. _duc_ (O. Fr. _dusc_,
_ducs_, _dus_), originally signified a leader, and more especially a
military chief, and in this latter sense was the equivalent of the A.S.
_heretoga_ (_here_, an army, and _teon_, from _togen_, to draw; Ger.
_ziehen_, _zog_; Goth, _tiuhan_; Lat. _ducere_) and the old Ger.
_herizog_. In this general sense the word survived in English literature
until the 17th century, but is now obsolete.

The origin of modern dukes is twofold. The _dux_ first appears in the
Roman empire under the emperor Hadrian, and by the time of the Gordians
has already a recognized place in the official hierarchy. He was the
general appointed to the command of a particular expedition and his
functions were purely military. In the 4th century, after the separation
of the civil and military administrations, there was a duke in command
of the troops quartered in each of the frontier provinces of the empire,
e.g. the _dux Britanniarum_. The number of dukes continually increased,
and in the 6th and 7th centuries there were _duces_ at Rome, Naples,
Rimini, Venice and Perugia. Gradually, too, they became charged with
civil as well as military functions, and even exercised considerable
authority in ecclesiastical administration. Under the Byzantine emperors
they were the representatives in all causes of the central power. The
Roman title of duke was less dignified than that of count (_comes_,
companion) which implied an honourable personal relation to the emperor
(see COUNT). Both titles were borrowed by the Merovingian kings for the
administrative machinery of the Frank empire, and under them the
functions of the duke remained substantially unaltered. He was a great
civil and military official, charged to watch, in the interests of the
crown, over groups of several _comitatus_, or countships, especially in
the border provinces. The sphere of the dukes was never rigidly fixed,
and their commission was sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary. Under
the Carolingians the functions of the dukes remained substantially the
same; but with the decay of the royal power in the 10th century, both
dukes and counts gained in local authority; the number of dukes became
for the time fixed, and finally title and office were made hereditary,
the relation to the crown being reduced to that of more or less shadowy
vassalage. (See FEUDALISM.)

Side by side with these purely official dukedoms, however, there had
continued to exist, or had sprung up, either independently or in more or
less of subjection to the Frank rulers, national dukedoms, such as those
of the Alemanni, the Aquitanians, and, later, of the Bavarians and
Thuringians. These were developed from the early Teutonic custom by
which the _herizog_ was elected by the nation as leader for a particular
campaign, as in the case of the _heretogas_ who had led the first Saxon
invaders into Britain. Tacitus says of the ancient Germans _reges ex
nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt_; i.e. they elected their dukes for
their warlike prowess only, and as purely military chiefs, whereas their
kings were chosen from a royal family of divine descent. Sometimes the
dukes so chosen succeeded in making their power permanent without taking
the style of king. To this national category belong, besides the great
German dukedoms, the dukes of Normandy, and the Lombard dukes of Spoleto
and Benevento, who traced their origin, not to an administrative office,
but to the leadership of Teutonic war bands. With the development of the
feudal system the distinction between the official and the national
dukedoms was more and more obliterated. By the 13th and 14th centuries
the title had become purely territorial, and implied no necessary
overlordship over counts and other nobles, who existed side by side with
the dukes as tenants-in-chief of the crown. From this time the
significance of the ducal title varies widely in different countries.
Whenever the crown got the better of the feudal spirit of independence,
as in France or Naples, it sank from being a sovereign title to a mere
social distinction, implying no political power, and not necessarily any
territorial influence. In northern Italy and in Germany, on the other
hand, where the crown had proved too weak to combat the forces of
disruption, it came ultimately to imply independent sovereignty.

The abolition of the Holy Empire in 1806 removed even the shadow of
vassalage from the German reigning dukes, who retain their sovereign
status under the new empire. Only one, however, the grand duke of
Luxemburg, is now both sovereign and independent. Besides the sovereign
dukes in Germany there are certain "mediatized" ducal houses, e.g. that
of Ratibor, which share with the dispossessed families of the Italian
sovereign duchies certain royal privileges, notably that of equality of
blood (_Ebenbürtigkeit_). In Italy, where titles of nobility give no
precedence at court, that of duke (_duca_) has lost nearly all even of
its social significance owing to lavish creations by the popes and minor
sovereigns, and to the fact that the title often passes by purchase with
a particular estate. Political significance it has none. Some great
Italian nobles are dukes, notably the heads of the great Roman ducal
families, but not all Italian dukes are great nobles.

In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as
with the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Aquitaine and Brittany, who
asserted a practical independence against the crown, though it was not
till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as
superior to others. At first (in the 10th and 11th centuries) it had no
defined significance, and even a baron of the higher nobility called
himself in charters duke, count or even marquis, indifferently. In any
case the strengthening of the royal power gradually sapped the
significance of the title, until on the eve of the Revolution it implied
no more than high rank and probably territorial wealth.

There were, under the _ancien régime_, three classes of dukes in France:
(1) dukes who were peers (see PEERAGE) and had a seat in the parlement
of Paris; (2) hereditary dukes who were not peers; (3) "brevet" dukes,
created for life only. The French duke ranks in Spain with the "grandee"
(q.v.), and vice versa. In republican France the already existing titles
are officially recognized, but they are now no more than the badges of
distinguished ancestry. Besides the descendants of the feudal
aristocracy there are in France certain ducal families dating from
Napoleon I.'s creation of 1806 (e.g. ducs d'Albufera, de Montebello, de
Feltre), from Louis Philippe (duc d'Isly, and duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier),
and from Napoleon III. (Malakoff, Magenta, Morny).

In England the title of duke was unknown till the 14th century, though
in Saxon times the title ealdorman, afterwards exchanged for "earl," was
sometimes rendered in Latin as _dux_,[1] and the English kings till
John's time styled themselves dukes of Normandy, and dukes of Aquitaine
even later. In 1337 King Edward III. erected the county of Cornwall into
a duchy for his son Edward the Black Prince, who was thus the first
English duke. The second was Henry, earl of Lancaster, Derby, Lincoln
and Leicester, who was created duke of Lancaster in 1351. In Scotland
the title of duke was first bestowed in 1398 by Robert III. on his
eldest son David, who was made duke of Rothesay, and on his brother, who
became duke of Albany.

British dukes rank next to princes and princesses of the blood royal,
the two archbishops of Canterbury and York, the lord Chancellor, &c.,
but beyond this precedence they have no special privileges which are not
shared by peers of lower rank (see PEERAGE). Though their full style as
proclaimed by the herald is "most high, potent and noble prince," and
they are included in the _Almanach de Gotha_, they are not recognized as
the equals in blood of the crowned or mediatized dukes of the continent,
and the daughter of an English duke marrying a foreign royal prince can
only take his title by courtesy, or where, under the "house-laws" of
certain families, a family council sanctions the match. The eldest son
of an English duke takes as a rule by courtesy the second title of his
father, and ranks, with or without the title, as a marquess. The other
sons and daughters bear the titles "Lord" and "Lady" before their
Christian names, also by courtesy. A duke in the British peerage, if not
royal, is addressed as "Your Grace" and is styled "the Most Noble." (See
ARCHDUKE, GRAND DUKE, and, for the ducal coronet, CROWN AND CORONET.)
     (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] So _Ego Haroldus dux, Ego Tostinus dux_, in a charter of Edward
    the Confessor (1060), Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th rep. app. pt. ix. p. 581.



DUKE OF EXETER'S DAUGHTER, a nickname applied to a 15th-century
instrument of torture resembling the rack (q.v.). Blackstone says
(_Commentaries_, ii. sec. 326): "The trial by rack is utterly unknown to
the law of England, though once when the dukes of Exeter and Suffolk,
and other ministers of Henry VI., had laid a design to introduce the
civil (i.e. Roman) law into the kingdom as the rule of government, for a
beginning thereof they erected a rack for torture, which was called in
derision the duke of Exeter's daughter, and still remains in the Tower
of London, where it was used as an engine of state, not of law, more
than once in Queen Elizabeth's reign. But when, upon the assassination
of Villiers, duke of Buckingham, by Felton, it was proposed in the privy
council to put the assassin to the rack, in order to discover his
accomplices, the judges being consulted, declared unanimously that no
such proceeding was allowable by the laws of England."



DUKER, CARL ANDREAS (1670-1752), German classical scholar and jurist,
was born at Unna in Westphalia. He studied at the university of Franeker
under Jacob Perizonius. In 1700 he was appointed teacher of history and
eloquence at the Herborn gymnasium, in 1704 vice-principal of the school
at the Hague, and in 1716 he succeeded (with Drakenborch as colleague)
to the professorship formerly held by Peter Burmann at Utrecht. After
eighteen years' tenure he resigned his post, and lived in retirement at
Ysselstein and Vianen. His health finally broke down under excessive
study, and he died, almost blind, at the house of a relative in
Meiderich near Duisburg, on the 5th of November 1752. His chief
classical works were editions of Florus (1722) and Thucydides (1731,
considered his best). He brought out the 2nd edition of Perizonius's
_Origines Babylonicae et Aegyptiacae_ (1736) and his commentary on
Pomponius Mela (1736-1737). Duker was also an authority on ancient law,
and published _Opuscula varia de latinitate veterum jurisconsultorum_
(1711), and a revision of the _Leges Atticae_ of S. Petit (1741).

  See C. Saxe, _Onomasticon litterarium_, vi. 267; articles in
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ and in Ersch and Gruber's _Allgemeine
  Encyklopadie_.



DUKERIES, THE, a name given to a district in the N.W. of
Nottinghamshire, England; included within the ancient Sherwood Forest
(q.v.). The name is taken from the existence of several adjacent
demesnes of noblemen, and the character of the Forest is to some extent
preserved here. On the north is the Sheffield-Retford branch of the
Great Central railway, serving the town of Worksop, connecting at
Retford with the Great Northern railway, while on the south the Great
Central railway serves the small market town of Ollerton, and connects
with the Great Northern at Dukeries Junction. The following demesnes are
comprised in the district. Worksop Manor formerly belonged to the dukes
of Norfolk. Welbeck Abbey is the seat of the dukes of Portland, to whom
it came from the Cavendish family (dukes of Newcastle); the mansion is
mainly classic in style, dating from the early 17th century, but with
many subsequent additions; the fifth duke of Portland (d. 1879) built
the curious series of subterranean corridors and chambers beneath the
grounds. Clumber House, the seat of the dukes of Newcastle, is
beautifully placed above a lake in a fine park. Thoresby House is the
seat of the earls Manvers, to whom it came on the extinction of the
dukedom of Kingston; part of this demesne is a splendid tract of wild
woodland.



DUKES, LEOPOLD (1810-1891), Hungarian critic of Jewish literature. He
spent about twenty years in England, and from his researches in the
Bodleian library and the British Museum (which contain two of the most
valuable Hebrew libraries in the world) Dukes was able to complete the
work of Zunz (q.v.). The most popular work of Dukes was his _Rabbinische
Blumenlese_ (1844), in which he collected the rabbinic proverbs and
illustrated them from the gnomic literatures of other peoples. Dukes
made many contributions to philology, but his best work was connected
with the medieval Hebrew poetry, especially Ibn Gabirol. (I. A.)



DUKINFIELD, a municipal borough of Cheshire, England, within the
parliamentary borough of Stalybridge, 6 m. E. of Manchester. Pop.
(1901) 18,929. It lies in the densely populated district in the
north-east of the county, between Stalybridge and Ashton-under-Lyne, and
is served by the London & North Western and Great Central railways.
There are extensive collieries, and the other industries include cotton
manufactures, calico-printing, hat-making, iron-founding, engineering
and the manufacture of firebricks and tiles. A portion remains of the
old timbered Dukinfield Hall, in the chapel of which Samuel Eaton (d.
1665) taught the first congregational church in the north of England.
The chapel, much enlarged, is still used by this denomination. The
borough, incorporated in 1899, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18
councillors. Area, 1405 acres.



DULCIGNO (Servian, _Ultsin_, Turk. _Olgun_), a seaport of Montenegro, on
the Adriatic Sea, 8 m. W. of the Albanian frontier. Pop. (1900) about
5000. Shut in by hills and forests, and built partly on a promontory
overlooking its bay, partly along the shore, Dulcigno is the prettiest
of Montenegrin towns. Its narrow crooked lanes, however, with its
bazaars, mosques, minarets and veiled women, give to its picturesqueness
a decidedly Turkish air. The old quarter, on the promontory, is walled,
and has a medieval castle, once of great strength. Turks form the bulk
of the inhabitants, although their numbers decreased steadily after
1880, when the population numbered about 8000. Albanians and Italians
are fairly numerous. Dulcigno has a Roman Catholic cathedral and an
ancient Latin church. The Austrian Lloyd steamers call at intervals, and
some shipbuilding and fishing are carried on; but the harbour lacks
shelter and is liable to deposits of silt.

To the Romans, who captured it in 167 B.C., Dulcigno was known as
_Ulcinium_ or _Olcinium_; in the middle ages it was a noted haunt of
pirates; in the 17th century it was the residence of Sabbatai Zebi (d.
1676), a Jew who declared himself to be the Messiah but afterwards
embraced Islam. In 1718 Dulcigno was the scene of a great Venetian
defeat. It belonged to the Turks until 1880, when its cession, according
to the terms of the treaty of Berlin (1878), was enforced by the
"Dulcigno demonstration," in which the fleets of Great Britain, France,
Germany, Austria and Russia took part.



DULCIMER (Fr. _tympanon_; Ger. _Hackbrett_, _Cymbal_; Ital. _cembalo_,
_timpanon_ or _salterio tedesco_), the prototype of the pianoforte, an
instrument consisting of a horizontal sound-chest over which are
stretched a varying number of wire strings set in vibration by strokes
of little sticks or hammers. The dulcimer differed from the psalterium
or psaltery chiefly in the manner of playing, the latter having the
strings plucked by means of fingers or plectrum. The shape of the
dulcimer is a trapeze or truncated triangle, having the bass strings
stretched parallel with the base, which measures from 3 to 4 ft.; the
strings decrease gradually in length, the shortest measuring from about
18 to 24 in. at the truncated apex. The sound-board has one or two rose
sound-holes; the strings are attached on one side to hitch pins and at
the other to the larger tuning pins firmly fixed in the wrest plank. The
strings of fine brass or iron wire are in groups of two to five unisons
to each note; the vibrating lengths of the strings are determined by
means of two bridges. The dulcimer is placed upon a table in front of
the performer, who strikes the strings with a little hammer mounted on a
metal rod and covered on one side with hard and on the other with soft
leather for forte and piano effects. The compass, now chromatic
throughout, varies according to the size of the instrument; the large
cymbalom of the Hungarian gipsies has a range of four chromatic octaves,
[Illustration: musical notes].

The origin of the dulcimer is remote, and must be sought in the East. In
the bas-reliefs from Kuyunjik, now in the British Museum, are to be seen
musicians playing on dulcimers of ten strings with long sticks curved at
the ends, and damping the strings with their hands. This is the pisantir
of the days of Nebuchadrezzar, translated "psaltery" in Dan. iii. 5,
&c., and rendered "psalterion" in the Septuagint, a confusion which has
given rise to many misconceptions.[1] In the Septuagint no less than
four different instruments are rendered _psalterion_ (from Gr. [Greek:
psallô], pluck, pull), i.e. _ugab_, _nebel_, _pisantir_ and _toph_, two
stringed, one wind and one percussion. The use of the word in Greek for
a musical instrument is not recorded before the 4th century B.C. The
modern santir of the Persians, almost identical with the German
hackbrett, has a compass from [Illustration: musical notes] according to
Fétis.[2] The Persians place its origin in the highest antiquity. Carl
Engel[3] gives an illustration said to be taken from a very old
painting.[4]

The dulcimer was extensively used during the middle ages in England,
France, Italy, Germany, Holland and Spain, and although it had a
distinctive name in each country, it was everywhere regarded as a kind
of psalterium. The importance of the method of setting the strings in
vibration by means of hammers, and its bearing on the acoustics of the
instrument, were recognized only when the invention of the pianoforte
had become a matter of history. It was then perceived that the
psalterium in which the strings were plucked, and the dulcimer in which
they were struck, when provided with keyboards, gave rise to two
distinct families of instruments, differing essentially in tone quality,
in technique and in capabilities: the evolution of the psalterium
stopped at the harpsichord, that of the dulcimer gave us the pianoforte.
The dulcimer is described and illustrated by Mersenne,[5] who calls it
_psaltérion_; it has thirteen courses of pairs of unisons or octaves;
the first strings were of brass wire, the others of steel. The curved
stick was allowed to fall gently on to the strings and to rebound many
times, which, Mersenne remarks, produces an effect similar to the
trembling or tremolo of other instruments. Praetorius[6] figures a
hackbrett having a body in the shape of a truncated triangle, with a
bridge placed between two rose sound-holes, and played by means of two
sticks. Another kind of hackbrett[7] (a psaltery), which was played with
the fingers, was known to Praetorius. The pantaleon, a double dulcimer,
named after the inventor, Pantaleon Hebenstreit of Eisleben, a
violinist, had two sound-boards, 185 strings, one scale of overspun
catgut, the other of wire. Hebenstreit travelled to Paris with his
monster dulcimer in 1705 and played before Louis XIV., who baptized it
_Pantaléon_. Quantz[8] and Quirin of Blankenburg[9] both gave
descriptions of the instrument.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The names of the musical instruments in those verses of the Book
    of Daniel have formed the basis of a controversy as to the
    authenticity of the book.

  [2] _Histoire de la musique_ (Paris, 1869), vol. ii. p. 131.

  [3] _Music of the most Ancient Nations_ (London, 1864), pp. 42-3.

  [4] Hommaire de Hell, _Voyage en Perse_, p. lxii.

  [5] _L'Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636), livre iii. p. 174.

  [6] _Syntagma musicum_ (Wolfenbüttel, 1618), pl. 18 (3).

  [7] Pl. 36 (1).

  [8] "Herrn Joh. Joachim Quantzens Lebenslauf von ihm selbst
    entworfen," in Fr. W. Marpurg's _Histor. kritische Beytrage_, Bd. i
    p. 207 (1754-1755).

  [9] _Elementa musica_, chap. xxvi.



DÜLKEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, 11 m. by rail
S.W. from Crefeld. Pop. 10,000. It has a (Roman Catholic) Gothic parish
church. There are manufactures of linen, cotton, silk and velvet, &c.,
ironworks and foundries.



DULONG, PIERRE LOUIS (1785-1838), French chemist and physicist, was born
at Rouen on the 12th (or 13th) of February 1785. He began as a doctor in
one of the poorest districts of Paris, but soon abandoned medicine for
scientific research. After acting as assistant to Berthollet, he became
successively professor of chemistry at the faculty of sciences and the
normal and veterinary schools at Alfort, and then (1820) professor of
physics at the École Polytechnique, of which he was appointed director
in 1830. He died in Paris on the 18th (or 19th) of July 1838. His
earliest work was chemical in character. In 1811 he discovered chloride
of nitrogen; during his experiments serious explosions occurred twice,
and he lost one eye, besides sustaining severe injuries to his hand. He
also investigated the oxygen compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen, and
was one of the first to hold the hydrogen theory of acids. In 1815, in
conjunction with Alexis Thérèse Petit (1791-1820), the professor of
physics at the École Polytechnique, he made careful comparisons between
the mercury and the air thermometer. The first published research (1816)
dealt with the dilatation of solids, liquids and gases and with the
exact measurement of temperature, and it was followed by another in 1818
on the measurement of temperature and the communication of heat, which
was crowned by the French Academy. In a third, "On some important points
in the theory of heat" (1819), they stated that the specific heats of
thirteen solid elements which they had investigated were nearly
proportional to their atomic weights--a fact otherwise expressed in the
"law of Dulong and Petit" that the atoms of simple substances have equal
capacities for heat. Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with
"New determinations of the proportions of water and the density of
certain elastic fluids" (1820, with Berzelius); the property possessed
by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with
Thénard); the refracting powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats
of gases (1829). In 1830 he published a research, undertaken with Arago
for the academy of sciences, on the elastic force of steam at high
temperatures. For the purposes of this determination he set up a
continuous column of mercury, constructed with 13 sections of glass tube
each 2 metres long and 5 mm. in diameter, in the tower of the old church
of St Geneviève in the Collège Henri IV. The apparatus was first used to
investigate the variation in the volume of air with pressure, and the
conclusion was that up to twenty-seven atmospheres, the highest pressure
attained in the experiments, Boyle's law holds good. In regard to steam,
the old tower was so shaky that it was considered unwise to risk the
effects of an explosion, and therefore the mercury column was removed
bodily to a court in the observatory. The original intention was to push
the experiments to a pressure equivalent to thirty atmospheres, but
owing to the signs of failure exhibited by the boiler the limit actually
reached was twenty-four atmospheres, at which pressure the thermometers
indicated a temperature of about 224°C. In his last paper, published
posthumously in 1838, Dulong gave an account of experiments made to
determine the heat disengaged in the combination of various simple and
compound bodies, together with a description of the calorimeter he
employed.



DULSE (Ir. and Gael. _duileasg_), in botany, _Rhodymenia palmata_, one
of the red seaweeds, consisting of flat solitary or tufted purplish-red
fronds, fan-shaped in general outline and divided into numerous
segments, which are often again and again divided in a forked manner. It
varies very much in size and degree of branching, ranging from 5 or 6 to
12 or more inches long. It grows on rocks, shell-fish or larger
seaweeds, and is used by the poor in Scotland and Ireland as a relish
with their food. It is commonly dried and eaten raw, the flavour being
brought out by long chewing. In the Mediterranean it is used cooked in
ragouts and made dishes.

  See W.H. Harvey, _Phycologica Britannica_, vol. ii. plates 217, 218.



DULUTH, a city and the county-seat of St Louis county, Minnesota,
U.S.A., at the W. end of Lake Superior, at the mouth of the St Louis
river, about 150 m. N.E. of Minneapolis and St Paul. Pop. (1880) 3483;
(1890) 33,115; (1900) 52,969, of whom 20,983 were foreign-born and 357
were negroes; (1910 census) 78,466. Of the 20,983 foreign-born in 1900,
5099 were English-Canadians, 5047 Swedes, 2655 Norwegians, 1685 Germans,
and 1285 French-Canadians. Duluth is served by the Duluth and Iron
Range, the Duluth, Missabe & Northern, the Duluth, South Shore &
Atlantic, the Chicago & North-Western (the North-Western line), the
Great Northern, and the Northern Pacific railways. Situated attractively
on the side and along the base of a high bluff rising 600 ft. above the
lake level, Duluth lies at the W. end of Superior Bay (here called
Duluth Harbour), directly opposite the city of Superior, Wisconsin. A
narrow strip of land known as Minnesota Point, 7 m. in length and
extending toward Wisconsin Point, which projects from the Wisconsin
shore, separates the bay from the lake and forms with St Louis Bay one
of the finest natural harbours in the world. The natural entrance to the
harbour is the narrow channel between the two points, but there is also
a ship-canal across Minnesota Point, spanned by a curious aerial bridge
400 ft. long and 186 ft. above the water.

The unusually favourable position for lake transportation, and the
extensive tributary region in the N.W., with ample rail connexions, make
Duluth-Superior one of the greatest commercial ports in the country. The
two cities constitute the largest coal-distributing centre in the N.W.,
and have some of the largest coal-docks in the world. Upwards of twenty
grain elevators, with a net capacity of nearly 35,000,000 bushels, which
receive enormous quantities of grain from the Red River Valley,
Manitoba, and the Dakotas, either for home manufacture or for
transhipment to the East, are among the noteworthy sights of the place;
and extensive ore-docks are required for handling the enormous and
steadily increasing shipments of iron ore from the rich Vermilion and
Mesabi iron ranges first opened about 1890. In 1907 more than 29,000,000
tons of iron ore were shipped from this port. Duluth is also an
important hay market. There are flour and lumber mills, foundries and
machine shops, wooden ware, cooperage, sash, door and blind, lath and
shingle factories, and shipyards. In 1909 great mills of the Minnesota
Steel Co. were begun here. In 1905 the factory product of Duluth was
valued at $10,139,009, an increase of 29.8% over that of 1900. The St
Louis river furnishes one of the finest water-powers in the United
States.

The commanding heights upon which the principal residential section of
the city is built render it at once attractive in appearance and
healthful; there is a fine system of parks and boulevards, the chief of
the former being Lester, Fairmount, Portland, Cascade, Lincoln and
Chester. The popular Boulevard drive at the back of Duluth commands
excellent views of city and lake. Among the principal buildings are the
court house, the Masonic temple, chamber of commerce, board of trade,
Lyceum theatre, Federal, Providence, Lonsdale, Torrey, Alworth, Sellwood
and Wolvin buildings, St. Mary's hospital, St. Luke's hospital and
Spalding Hotel. There is a public (Carnegie) library with 50,000 volumes
in 1908. The building of the central high school (classical), one of the
finest in the United States, erected at a cost of about $500,000, has a
square clock tower 230 ft. high, and an auditorium seating 2000. The
city also has a technical high school, and in addition to the regular
high school courses there are departments of business, manual training
and domestic science. At Duluth also is a state normal school, erected
in 1902. The federal government maintains here a life-saving station on
Minnesota Point, and an extensive fish hatchery.

The first Europeans to visit the site of Duluth were probably French
_coureurs-des-bois_, possibly the adventurous Radisson and Groseilliers.
The first visitor certainly known to have been here was Daniel
Greysolon, Sieur Du Lhut (d. 1709), a French trader and explorer, who
about 1678 skirted Lake Superior and built a stockaded trading-post at
the mouth of Pigeon river on the N. shore. From him the place received
its name. A trading-post was established near the present city, at Fond
du Lac, about 1752, and this eventually became a depôt of Astor's
American Fur Company. There was no permanent settlement at Duluth
proper, however, until 1853, and in 1860 there were only 80 inhabitants.
Incorporated in 1870, in which year railway connexion with the South was
established, its growth was slow for some years, the increase for the
decade 1870-1880 being very slight (from 3131 to 3483); but the
extension of railways into the north-western wheat region, the opening
up of Lake Superior to commerce, and finally the development of the
Vermilion and Mesabi iron ranges, brought on a period of almost
unparalleled growth, marked by the remarkable increase in population of
more than 850% between 1880 and 1890; between 1890 and 1900 the increase
was 60%.

  See J.R. Carey, _History of Duluth and Northern Minnesota_ (Duluth,
  1898); Leggett and Chipman, _Duluth and its Environs_ (Duluth, 1895);
  and J.D. Ensign, _History of St Louis County_ (Duluth, 1900).



DULWICH, a district in the metropolitan borough of Camberwell, London,
England. The manor, which had belonged to the Cluniac monks of
Bermondsey, passed through various hands to Edward Alleyn (q.v.) in
1606. His foundation of the College of God's Gift, commonly called
Dulwich College, was opened with great state on the 13th of September
1619, in the presence of Lord Chancellor Bacon, Lord Arundell, Inigo
Jones and other distinguished men. According to the letters patent the
almspeople and scholars were to be chosen in equal proportions from the
parishes of St Giles (Camberwell), St Botolph without Bishopsgate, and
St Saviour's (Southwark), and "that part of the parish of St Giles
without Cripplegate which is in the county of Middlesex." By a series of
statutes signed in 1626, a few days before his death, Alleyn ordained
that his school should be for the instruction of 80 boys consisting of
three distinct classes:--(1) the twelve poor scholars; (2) children of
inhabitants of Dulwich, who were to be taught freely; and (3) "towne or
foreign schollers," who were "to pay such allowance as the master and
wardens shall appoint." The almspeople consisted of six "poor brethren"
and six "poor sisters," and the teaching and governing staff of a master
and a warden, who were always to be of the founder's surname, and four
fellows, all "graduates and divines," among whom were apportioned the
ministerial work of the chapel, the instruction of the boys, and the
supervision of the almspeople. That it was the founder's intention to
establish a great public school upon the model of Westminster and St
Paul's, with provision for university training, is shown by the
statutes; but for more than two centuries the educational benefits of
God's Gift College were restricted to the twelve poor scholars.
Successive actions at law resulted in the ruling that it was not within
the competence of the founder to divert any portion of the revenues of
his foundation to the use of others than the members thereof, as
specified in the letters patent. In 1842, however, some effort was made
towards the realization of Alleyn's schemes, and in 1858 the foundation
was entirely reconstituted by act of parliament. It comprises two
schools, the "Upper" and the "Lower," now called respectively Dulwich
College and Alleyn's school. In the Upper school, now one of the
important English "public schools," there are classical, modern, science
and engineering sides. The Lower school is devoted to middle-class
education. The buildings of the Upper school, by Charles Barry, contain
a fine hall. The college possesses a splendid picture gallery,
bequeathed by Sir P.F. Bourgeois, R.A., in 1811, with a separate
endowment. The pictures include some exquisite Murillos and choice
specimens of the Dutch school. The surplus income of the gallery fund is
devoted to instruction in drawing and design in the two schools.

  See W.H. Blanch, _Dulwich College and Edward Alleyn_ (London, 1877);
  R. Hovenden, _The History of Dulwich College, with a short biography
  of its founder_ (London, 1873).



DUMAGUETE, the capital town of the province of Negros Oriental, island
of Negros, Philippine Islands, on Tañón Strait. Pop. (1903) 14,894. The
town of Sibulan (pop. in 1903, 8413) was annexed to Dumaguete in 1903,
after the census had been taken. Dumaguete lies in the midst of a
fertile agricultural district. The inhabitants are chiefly natives, but
the shops are kept by Chinese merchants. The public buildings, which
include an interesting watch-tower and belfry, are large, substantial
and well cared for.



DUMANJUG, a town of the province of Cebú, island of Cebú, Philippine
Islands, on the W. coast, at the mouth of the Dumanjug river, about 40
m. S.W. of the town of Cebú. Pop. (1903) 22,203. In 1903, after the
census had been taken, the adjacent town of Ronda (pop. 9662) was
annexed to Dumanjug. Dumanjug is in communication with the town of
Sibonga, on the opposite shore of one of the few passes through the
mountains of the interior. Indian corn and sugar-cane are grown
successfully in the neighbouring country, and the town has an important
coast trade.



DU MARSAIS, CÉSAR CHESNEAU, SIEUR (1676-1756), French philologist, was
born at Marseilles on the 17th of July 1676. He was educated in his
native town by the Fathers of the Oratory, into whose congregation he
entered; but he left it at the age of twenty-five and went to Paris,
where he married and was admitted an advocate (1704). He was tutor to
the sons successively of the président de Maisons, of John Law, the
projector, and of the marquis de Bauffremont. He then opened a boarding
school in the faubourg St Victor, which scarcely afforded him the means
of subsistence. He made contributions of great value on philological and
philosophical subjects to the _Encyclopédie_, and after vain attempts to
secure a competence from the court he was insured against want by the
generosity of a private patron. He died in Paris on the 11th of June
1756. The researches of Du Marsais are distinguished by considerable
individuality. He held sensible views on education and elaborated a
system of teaching Latin, which, although open to grave criticism, was a
useful protest against current methods of teaching. His best works are
his _Principes de grammaire_ and his _Des tropes, ou des différents sens
dans lesquels on peut prendre un mot_ (1730).

  An edition of his works (7 vols.) was collected by Duchosal and
  Millon, and was published with an éloge on Du Marsais by D'Alembert at
  Paris in 1797.



DUMAS, ALEXANDRE [ALEXANDRE DAVY DE LA PAILLETERIE] (1802-1870), French
novelist and dramatist, was born at Villers-Cotterets (Aisne) on the
24th of July 1802. His father, the French general, Thomas Alexandre
Dumas (1762-1806)--also known as Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie--was
born in Saint Domingo, the natural son of Antoine Alexandre Davy,
marquis de la Pailleterie, by a negress, Marie Cessette Dumas, who died
in 1772. In 1780 he accompanied the marquis to France, and there the
father made a mésalliance which drove the son into enlisting in a
dragoon regiment. Thomas Alexandre Dumas was still a private at the
outbreak of the revolution, but he rose rapidly and became general of
division in 1793. He was general-in-chief of the army of the western
Pyrenees, and was transferred later to commands in the Alps and in La
Vendée. Among his many exploits was the defeat of the Austrians at the
bridge of Clausen on the 22nd of April 1797, where he commanded
Joubert's cavalry. He lost Napoleon's favour by plain speaking in the
Egyptian campaign, and presently returned to France to spend the rest of
his days in retirement at Villers Cotterets, where he had married in
1792 Marie Élisabeth Labouret.

The novelist, who was the offspring of this union, was not four years
old when General Dumas died, leaving his family with no further resource
than 30 acres of land. Mme Dumas tried to obtain help from Napoleon, but
in vain, and lived with her parents in narrow circumstances. Alexandre
received the rudiments of education from a priest, and entered the
office of a local solicitor. His chief friend was Adolphe de Leuven, the
son of an exiled Swedish nobleman implicated in the assassination of
Gustavus III. of Sweden, and the two collaborated in various vaudevilles
and other pieces which never saw the footlights. Leuven returned to
Paris, and Dumas was sent to the office of a solicitor at Crépy. When in
1823 Dumas contrived to visit his friend in Paris, he was received to
his great delight by Talma. He returned home only to break with his
employer, and to arrange to seek his fortune in Paris, where he sought
help without success from his father's old friends. An introduction to
the deputy of his department, General Foy, procured for him, however, a
place as clerk in the service of the duke of Orleans at a salary of 1200
francs. He set to work to rectify his lack of education and to
collaborate with Leuven in the production of vaudevilles and melodramas.
Madame Dumas presently joined her son in Paris, where she died in 1838.

Soon after his arrival in Paris Dumas had entered on a liaison with a
dressmaker, Marie Catherine Labay, and their son, the famous Alexandre
Dumas _fils_ (see below), was born in 1824. Dumas acknowledged his son
in 1831, and obtained the custody of him after a lawsuit with the
mother.

The first piece by Dumas and Leuven to see the footlights was _La Chasse
et l'amour_ (Ambigu-Comique, 22nd of Sept. 1825), and in this they had
help from other writers. Dumas had a share in another vaudeville, _La
Noce et l'enterrement_ (Porte Saint-Martin, 21st of Nov. 1826). It was
under the influence of the Shakespeare plays produced in Paris by
Charles Kemble, Harriet Smithson (afterwards Mme Berlioz) and an
English company that the romantic drama of _Christine_ was written. The
subject was suggested by a bas relief of the murder of Monaldeschi
exhibited at the Salon of 1827. The piece was accepted by Baron Taylor
and the members of the Comédie Française with the stipulation that it
should be subject to revision by another dramatist because of its
innovating tendencies. But the production of the piece was deferred.
Meanwhile Dumas had met with the story of the ill-fated Saint-Mégrin and
the duchess of Guise in Anquetil's history, and had written, in prose,
_Henri III. et sa cour_, which was immediately accepted by the Comédie
Française and produced on the 11th of February 1829. It was the first
great triumph of the romantic drama. The brilliant stagecraft of the
piece and its admirable historical setting delighted an audience
accustomed to the decadent classical tragedy, and brought him the
friendship of Hugo[1] and Vigny. His literary efforts had met with
marked disapproval from his official superiors, and he had been
compelled to resign his clerkship before the production of _Henri III._
The duke of Orleans had, however, been present at the performance, and
appointed him assistant-librarian at the Palais Royal. _Christine_ was
now recast as a romantic trilogy in verse in five acts with a prologue
and epilogue, with the sub-title of _Stockholm_, _Fontainebleau_,
_Rome_, and was successfully produced by Harel at the Odéon in March
1830.

The revolution of 1830 temporarily diverted Dumas from letters. The
account of his exploits should be read in his _Mémoires_, where, though
the incidents are true in the main, they lose nothing in the telling.
During the fighting in Paris he attracted the attention of La Fayette,
who sent him to Soissons to secure powder. With the help of some
inhabitants he compelled the governor to hand over the magazine, and on
his return to Paris was sent by La Fayette on a mission to raise a
national guard in La Vendée. The advice he gave to Louis Philippe on
this subject was ill-received, and after giving offence by further
indiscretions he finally alienated himself from the Orleans government
by being implicated in the disturbances which attended the funeral of
General Lamarque in June 1832, and he received a hint that his absence
from France was desirable. A tour in Switzerland undertaken on this
account furnished material for the first of a long series of amusing
books of travel. Dumas remained, however, on friendly and even
affectionate terms with the young duke of Orleans until his death in
1842.

Meanwhile he had produced _Napoléon Bonaparte_ (Odéon, 10th of Jan
1831), his unwillingness to make a hero of the man who had slighted his
father having been overcome by Harel, who put him under lock and key
until the piece was finished. His next play, _Antony_, had a real
importance in the history of the romantic theatre. It was put in
rehearsal by Mlle Mars, but so unsatisfactorily that Dumas transferred
it to Bocage and Mme Dorval, who played it magnificently at the Porte
Saint-Martin theatre on the 3rd of May 1831. The Byronic hero Antony was
a portrait of himself in his relations with Mme Mélanie Waldor, the wife
of an officer, and daughter of the journalist M.G. T. de Villenave,
except of course in the extravagantly melodramatic _dénouement_, when
Antony, to save his mistress's honour, kills her and exclaims, "Elle me
résistait, je l'ai assassinée." He produced more than twenty more plays
alone or in collaboration before 1845, exclusive of dramatizations from
his novels. _Richard Darlington_ (Porte Saint Martin, 10th of Dec 1831),
the first idea of which was drawn from Sir Walter Scott's _Chronicles of
the Canongate_, owed part of its great success to the admirable acting
of Frédérick Lemaître. _La Tour de Nesle_ (Porte Saint-Martin, 29th of
May 1832), announced as by MM. X X X and Gaillardet, was the occasion of
a duel and a law-suit with the original author, Frédéric Gaillardet,
whose MS. had been revised, first by Jules Janin and then by Dumas. In
rapidity of movement, and in the terror it inspired, the piece surpassed
_Henri III._ and _Antony_. A lighter drama, _Mademoiselle de
Belle-Isle_ (Théâtre Français, 2nd of April 1839), still remains in the
repertory.

In 1840 Dumas married Ida Ferrier, an actress whom he had imposed on the
theatres that took his pieces. The amiable relations which had subsisted
between them for eight years were disturbed by the marriage, which is
said to have been undertaken in consequence of a strong hint from the
duke of Orleans, and Mme Dumas lived in Italy separated from her
husband.

As a novelist Dumas began by writing short stories, but his happy
collaboration with Auguste Maquet,[2] which began in 1839, led to the
admirable series of historical novels in which he proposed to
reconstruct the whole course of French history. In 1844 he produced,
with Maquet's help, that most famous of "cloak and sword" romances, _Les
Trois Mousquetaires_ (8 vols.), the material for which was discovered in
the _Mémoires de M. d'Artagnan_ (Cologne, 1701-1702) of Courtils de
Sandras. The adventures of d'Artagnan and the three musketeers, the
gigantic Porthos, the clever Aramis, and the melancholy Athos, who unite
to defend the honour of Anne of Austria against Richelieu and the
machinations of "Milady," are brought down to the murder of Buckingham
in 1629. Their admirers were gratified by two sequels, _Vingt ans après_
(10 vols., 1845) and _Dix ans plus tard, ou le vicomte de Bragelonne_
(26 pts., 1848-1850), which opens in 1660, showing us a mature
d'Artagnan, a respectable captain of musketeers, and contains the
magnificent account of the heroic death of Porthos. The three musketeers
are as famous in England as in France. Thackeray could read about Athos
from sunrise to sunset with the utmost contentment of mind, and R.L.
Stevenson and Andrew Lang have paid tribute to the band in _Memories and
Portraits_ and _Letters to Dead Authors_. Before 1844 was out Dumas had
completed a second great romance in 12 volumes, _Le Comte de
Monte-Cristo_, in which he had help from Fiorentino as well as from
Maquet. The idea of the intrigue was suggested by Peuchet's _Police
dévoilée_, and the stress laid on the earlier incidents, Dantès,
Danglars and the Château d'If, is said to have been an afterthought.
Almost as famous as these two romances is the set of Valois novels of
which Henri IV. is the central figure, beginning with _La Reine Margot_
(6 vols., 1845), which contains the history of the struggle between
Catherine of Medicis and Henry of Navarre; the history of the reign of
Henry III. is told in _La Dame de Monsoreau_ (8 vols., 1846), generally
known in English as _Chicot the Jester_, from its principal character;
and in _Les Quarante-cinq_ (10 vols., 1847-1848), in which Diane de
Monsoreau avenges herself on the duke of Anjou for the death of her
former lover, Bussy d'Amboise.

Much has been written about the exact share which Dumas had in the
novels which bear his name. The Dumas-Maquet series is undoubtedly the
best, but Maquet alone never accomplished anything to approach them in
value. The MSS. of the novels still exist in Dumas's handwriting, and
the best of them bear the unmistakable stamp of his unrivalled skill as
a narrator. The chief key to his enormous output is to be found in his
untiring industry and amazing fertility of invention, not in the system
of wholesale collaboration which was exposed with much exaggeration by
Quérard in his _Superchéries littéraires_ and by "Eugène de Mirecourt"
(C.B.J. Jacquot) in his misleading _Fabrique de romans, maison
Alexandre Dumas et c^ie_ (1845). His assistants, in fact, supplied him
with outlines of romances on plans drawn up by himself, and he then
rewrote the whole thing. That this method was never abused it would be
impossible to say; _Les Deux Diane_, for instance, a prelude to the
Valois novels, is said to have been written entirely by Paul Meurice,
although Dumas's name appears on the title-page.

The latter part of Dumas's life is a record of excessive toil to meet
prodigal expenditure and accumulated debts. His disasters began with the
building of a house in the Renaissance style, with a Gothic pavilion and
an "English" park, at Saint Germain-en-Laye. This place, called
Monte-Cristo, was governed by a crowd of hangers-on of both sexes, who
absorbed Dumas's large earnings and left him penniless. Dumas also
founded the Théâtre Historique chiefly for the performance of his own
works. The enterprise was under the patronage of the duc de Montpensier,
and was under the management of Hippolyte Hostein, who had been the
secretary of the Comédie Française. The theatre was opened in February
1847 with a dramatic version of _La Reine Margot_. Meanwhile Dumas had
been the guest of the duc de Montpensier at Madrid, and made a
quasi-official tour to Algeria and Tunis in a government vessel, which
caused much comment in the press. Dumas had never changed his republican
opinions. He greeted the revolution of 1848 with delight, and was even a
candidate for electoral honours in the department of the Yonne. But the
change was fatal to his theatrical enterprise, for the failure of which
in 1850 he was made financially responsible. His son, Alexandre Dumas,
was at that time living with his mother Mlle Labay, who was eventually
reconciled with the elder Dumas. Father and son, though always on
affectionate terms when they met, were too different in their ideas to
see much of one another. After the _coup d'état_ of 1851 Dumas crossed
the frontier to Brussels, and two years of rapid production, and the
economy of his secretary, Noël Parfait, restored something like order to
his affairs. On his return to Paris in the end of 1853 he established a
daily paper, _Le Mousquetaire_, for the criticism of art and letters. It
was chiefly written by Dumas, whose _Mémoires_ first appeared in it, and
survived until 1857, when it was succeeded by a weekly paper, the
_Monte-Cristo_ (1857-1860). In 1858 Dumas travelled through Russia to
the Caucasus, and in 1860 he joined Garibaldi in Sicily. After an
expedition to Marseilles in search of arms for the insurgents, he
returned to Naples, where Garibaldi nominated him keeper of the museums.
After four years' residence in Naples he returned to Paris, and after
the war of '66 he visited the battlefields and produced his story of _La
Terreur prussienne_. But his powers were beginning to fail, and in spite
of the 1200 volumes which he told Napoleon he had written, he was at the
mercy of his creditors, and of the succession of theatrical ladies who
tyrannized over him and feared nothing except the occasional visits of
Dumas _fils_. He was finally rescued from these by his daughter, Mme
Petel, who came to live with him in 1868; and two years later, on the
5th of December 1870, he died in his son's house at Puys, near Dieppe.

Dumas was never an actual candidate for academic honours, but he had
more than once taken steps to investigate his chances of success. A
statue of him was erected on the Place Malesherbes, Paris, in 1883, and
the figure of d'Artagnan finds a place on the pedestal.

Auguste Maquet was Dumas's chief collaborator. Others were Paul Lacroix
(the bibliophile "P.L. Jacob"), Paul Bocage, J.P. Mallefille and P.A.
Fiorentino. The novels of Dumas may be conveniently arranged in a
historical sequence. The Valois novels and the musqueteers series
brought French history down to 1672. Contributions to later history
are:--_La Dame de volupté_ (2 vols., 1864), being the memoirs of Mme de
Luynes, and its sequel _Les Deux Reines_ (2 vols., 1864); _La Tulipe
noire_ (3 vols., 1850), giving the history of the brothers de Witt; _Le
Chevalier d'Harmental_ (4 vols., 1853), and _Une Fille du régent_ (4
vols., 1845), the story of two plots against the regent, the duke of
Orleans; two books on Mme du Deffand, _Mémoires d'une aveugle_ (8 vols.,
1856-1857) and _Les Confessions de la marquise_ (8 vols., 1857), both of
doubtful authorship; _Olympe de Clèves_ (9 vols., 1852), the story of an
actress and a young Jesuit novice in the reign of Louis XV., one of his
most popular novels; five books on the beginning of the Revolution down
to the execution of Marie Antoinette: the _Mémoires d'un médecin_,
including _Joseph Balsamo_ (19 pts., 1846-1848), in which J.J.
Rousseau, Mme du Barry and the dauphiness Marie Antoinette figure, with
its sequels; _Le Collier de la reine_ (9 vols., 1849-1850), in which
Balsamo appears under the alias of Cagliostro; _Ange Pitou_ (8 vols.,
1852), known in English as "The Taking of the Bastille"; _La Comtesse de
Charny_ (19 vols., 1853-1855), describing the attempts to save the
monarchy and the flight to Varennes; and _Le Chevalier de maison rouge_
(6 vols., 1846), which opens in 1793 with the hero's attempt to save the
queen. Among the numerous novels dealing with the later revolutionary
period are:--_Les Blancs et les bleus_ (3 vols., 1868) and _Les
Compagnons de Jéhu_ (7 vols., 1857). _Les Louves de Machecoul_ (10
vols., 1859) deals with the rising in 1832 in La Vendée. Other famous
stories are:--_Les Frères corses_ (2 vols., 1845); _La Femme au collier
de velours_ (2 vols., 1851); _Les Mohicans de Paris_ (19 vols.,
1854-1855), detective stories with which may be classed the series of
_Crimes célèbres_ (8 vols., 1839-1841), which are, however, of doubtful
authorship; _La San Félice_ (9 vols., 1864-1865), in which Lady Hamilton
played a prominent part, with its sequels _Emma Lyonna_ and _Souvenirs
d'une favorite_. Of his numerous historical works other than fiction the
most important is his _Louis XIV et son siècle_ (4 vols., 1845). _Mes
Mémoires_ (20 vols., 1852-1854; Eng. trans. of selections by A.F.
Davidson, 2 vols., 1891) is an account of his father and of his own life
down to 1832. There are collective editions of his plays (6 vols.,
1834-1836, and 15 vols., 1863-1874), but of the 91 pieces for which he
was wholly or partially responsible, 24 do not appear in these
collections.

  The complete works of Dumas were issued by Michel Lévy _frères_ in 277
  volumes (1860-1884). The more important novels have been frequently
  translated into English. There is a long list of writings on his life
  and his works both in English and French. The more important French
  authorities are: his own memoirs, already cited; C. Glinel, _Alexandre
  Dumas et son oeuvre_ (Reims, 1884); H. Parigot, _Dumas père_ (Grands
  écrivains français series, 1902), and _Le Drame d'Alexandre Dumas_
  (1899); H. Blaze de Bury, _Alexandre Dumas_ (1885); Philibert
  Andebrand, _Alexandre Dumas à la maison d'or_ (1888); G. Ferry,
  _Dernières Années d'Alexandre Dumas_ (1883); and L.H. Lecomte,
  _Alexandre Dumas_ (1904). Of the English lives of Dumas perhaps the
  best is that by Arthur F. Davidson, _Alexandre Dumas Père, his Life
  and Works_ (1902), which contains an extensive bibliography. See also
  lives by P. Fitzgerald (2 vols., 1873) and H.A. Spurr (1902), and
  essays by Andrew Lang (_Letters to Dead Authors_), Brander Matthews
  (_French Dramatists_), R.L. Stevenson (_Memories and Portraits_).
       (M. Br.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] His friendship with Victor Hugo was interrupted in 1833-1834 by
    the articles contributed to the _Journal des débats_ by a friend and
    protégé of the poet, Granier de Cassagnac, who brought against Dumas
    charges of wholesale plagiarism from other dramatists.

  [2] The details of this collaboration were brought to light in a suit
    brought against Dumas by Maquet with regard to his share in the
    profits. See the _Gazette des tribunaux_ (January 21, 22, 28, and
    February 4, 1858).



DUMAS, ALEXANDRE ["DUMAS _FILS_"] (1824-1895), French dramatist and
novelist, was born in Paris on the 27th of July 1824, the natural son of
Alexandre Dumas (see above) and the dressmaker Marie Labay. His father
at that date was still a humble clerk and not much more than a boy.
"Happily," writes the son, "my mother was a good woman, and worked hard
to bring me up"; while of his father he says, "by a most lucky chance he
happened to be well-natured," and "as soon as his first successes as a
dramatist" enabled him to do so, "recognized me and gave me his name."
Nevertheless, the lad's earlier school-life was made bitter by his
illegitimacy. The cruel taunts and malevolence of his companions rankled
through life (see preface to _La Femme de Claude_ and _L'Affaire
Clémenceau_), and left indelible marks on his character and thoughts.
Nor was his paternity, however distinguished, without peril. Alexandre
the younger and elder saw life together very thoroughly, and Paris can
have had few mysteries for them. Suddenly the son, who had been led to
regard his prodigal father's resources as inexhaustible, was rudely
undeceived. Coffers were empty, and he had accumulated debts to the
amount of two thousand pounds.

Thereupon he pulled himself together. To a son of Dumas the use of the
pen came naturally. Like most clever young writers--and report speaks of
him as specially brilliant at that time--he opened with a book of verse,
_Péchés de jeunesse_ (1847). It was succeeded in 1848 by a novel, _La
Dame aux camélias_, a sort of reflection of the world in which he had
been living. The book had considerable success, and was followed, in
fairly quick succession, by _Le Roman d'une femme_ (1848) and _Diane de
Lys_ (1851). All this, however, did not deliver him from the load of
debt, which, as he tells us, remained odious. In 1849 he dramatized _La
Dame aux camélias_, but for various reasons, the rigour of the
censorship being the most important, it was not till the 2nd of February
1852, and then only by the intervention of Napoleon's all-powerful
minister, Morny, that the play could be produced at the Vaudeville. It
succeeded then, and has held the stage ever since, less perhaps from
inherent superiority to other plays which have foundered than to the
great opportunities it affords to any actress of genius.

Thenceforward Dumas's career was that of a brilliant and prosperous
dramatist. _Diane de Lys_ (1853), _Le Demi-Monde_ (1855), _La Question
d'argent_ (1857), _Le Fils naturel_ (1858), _Le Père prodigue_ (1859)
followed rapidly. Debts became a thing of the past, and Dumas a wealthy
man. The didactic habit was always strong upon him. "Alexandre loves
preaching overmuch," wrote his father; and in most of his plays he
assumes the attitude of a rigid and uncompromising moralist commissioned
to impart to a heedless world lessons of deep import. The lessons
themselves are mostly concerned with the "eternal feminine," by which
Dumas was haunted, and differ in ethical value. Thus in _Les Idées de
Madame Aubray_ (1867) he inculcates the duty of the seducer to marry the
woman he has seduced; but in _La Femme de Claude_ (1873) he argues the
right of the husband to take the law into his own hand and kill the wife
who is unfaithful and worthless--a thesis again defended in his novel,
_L'Affaire Clémenceau_, and in his pamphlet, _L'Homme-femme_; while in
_Diane de Lys_ he had taught that the betrayed husband was entitled to
kill--not in a duel, but summarily--the man who had taken his honour;
and in _L'Étrangère_ (1876) the bad husband is the victim. Nor did he
preach only in his plays. He preached in voluminous introductions, and
pamphlets not a few. And when, in 1870 and 1872, France was going
through bitter hours of humiliation, he called her to repentance and
amendment in a _Nouvelle Lettre de Junius_ and two _Lettres sur les
choses du jour_.

As a moralist Dumas _fils_ took himself very seriously indeed. As a
dramatist, didacticism apart, he had great gifts. He knew his business
thoroughly, possessed the art of situation, interest, crisis--could
create characters that were real and alive. His dialogue also is
admirable, the repartee rapier-like, the wit most keen. He was
singularly happy, too, in his dramatic interpreters. The cast of
_L'Étrangère_, for instance, comprised Sarah Bernhardt, Sophie
Croizette, Madeleine Brohan, in the female characters; and Coquelin,
Got, Mounet-Sully and Fébvre in the male characters; and Aimée Desclée,
whom he discovered, gave her genius to the creation of the parts of the
heroine in _Une Visite de noces_, the _Princesse Georges_ and _La Femme
de Claude_. His wit has been mentioned. He possessed it in abundance, of
a singularly trenchant kind. It shows itself less in his novels, which,
however, do not contain his best work; but in his introductions, whether
to his own books or those of his friends, and what may be called his
"occasional" writings, there is an admirable brightness. At work of this
kind he showed the highest literary skill. His style is that of the best
French traditions. Towards his father Dumas acted a kind of brother's
part, and while keeping strangely free from his literary influence, both
loved and admired him. The father never belonged to the French Academy.
The son was elected into that august assembly on the 30th of January
1874. He died on the 27th of November 1895.

  See also Jules Claretie, _A. Dumas fils_ (1883); Paul Bourget,
  _Nouveaux Essais de psychologie contemporaine_ (1885); "La Comédie de
  moeurs," by René Doumic, in L. Petit de Julleville's _Histoire de la
  langue et de la littérature française_, viii. pp. 82 et seq.; R.
  Doumic, _Portraits d'écrivains_ (1892), Émile Zola, _Documents
  littéraires, études et portraits_ (1881).     (F. T. M.)



DUMAS, GUILLAUME MATHIEU, COUNT (1753-1837), French general, was born at
Montpellier, of a noble family, on the 23rd of November 1753. He joined
the army in 1773, and entered upon active service in 1780, as
aide-de-camp to Rochambeau in the American War. He had a share in all
the principal engagements that occurred during a period of nearly two
years. On the conclusion of peace in 1783 he returned to France as a
major. He was engaged from 1784 to 1786 in exploring the archipelago and
the coasts of Turkey. He was present at the siege of Amsterdam in 1787,
where he co-operated with the Dutch against the Prussians. At the
Revolution he acted with Lafayette and the constitutional liberal party.
He was entrusted by the Assembly with the command of the escort which
conducted Louis XVI. to Paris from Varennes. In 1791 as a _maréchal de
camp_ he was appointed to a command at Metz, where he rendered important
service in improving the discipline of the troops. Chosen a member of
the Legislative Assembly in the same year by the department of
Seine-et-Oise, he was in the following year elected president of the
Assembly. When the extreme republicans gained the ascendancy, however,
he judged it prudent to make his escape to England. Returning after a
brief interval, under the apprehension that his father-in-law would be
held responsible for his absence, he arrived in Paris in the midst of
the Reign of Terror, and had to flee to Switzerland. Soon after his
return to France he was elected a member of the Council of Ancients.
After the 18th Fructidor (1797) Dumas, being proscribed as a monarchist,
made his escape to Holstein, where he wrote the first part of his
_Précis des événements militaires_ (published anonymously at Hamburg,
1800).

Recalled to his native country when Bonaparte became First Consul, he
was entrusted with the organization of the "Army of Reserve" at Dijon.
In 1801 he was nominated a councillor of state. He did good service at
Austerlitz, and went in 1806 to Naples, where he became minister of war
to Joseph Bonaparte. On the transfer of Joseph to the throne of Spain,
Dumas rejoined the French army, with which he served in Spain during the
campaign of 1808, and in Germany during that of 1809. After the battle
of Wagram, Dumas was employed in negotiating the armistice. In 1810 he
became grand officer of the Legion of Honour and a count of the empire.
In the Russian campaign of 1812 he held the post of intendant-general of
the army, which involved the charge of the administrative department.
The privations he suffered in the retreat from Moscow brought on a
dangerous illness. Resuming, on his recovery, his duties as
intendant-general, he took part in the battles of 1813, and was made
prisoner after the capitulation of Dresden. On the accession of Louis
XVIII., Dumas rendered his new sovereign important services in connexion
with the administration of the army. When Napoleon returned from Elba,
Dumas at first kept himself in retirement, but he was persuaded by
Joseph Bonaparte to present himself to the emperor, who employed him in
organizing the National Guard. Obliged to retire when Louis XVIII. was
restored, he devoted his leisure to the continuation of his _Précis des
événements militaires_, of which nineteen volumes, embracing the history
of the war from 1798 to the peace of 1807, appeared between 1817 and
1826. A growing weakness of sight, ending in blindness, prevented him
from carrying the work further, but he translated Napier's _Peninsular
War_ as a sort of continuation to it. In 1818 Dumas was restored to
favour and admitted a member of the council of state, from which,
however, he was excluded in 1822. After the revolution of 1830, in which
he took an active part, Dumas was created a peer of France, and
re-entered the council of state. He died at Paris on the 16th of October
1837.

  Besides the _Précis des événements militaires_, which forms a valuable
  source for the history of the period, Dumas wrote _Souvenirs du
  lieut.-général Comte Mathieu Dumas_ (published posthumously by his
  son, Paris, 1839).



DUMAS, JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRÉ (1800-1884), French chemist, was born at
Alais (Gard) on the 15th of July 1800. Disappointed in his early hope of
entering the navy, he became apprentice to an apothecary in his native
town; but seeing little prospect of advancement in that calling, he soon
moved to Geneva (in 1816). There he attended the lectures of such men as
M.A. Pictet in physics, C.G. de la Rive in chemistry, and A.P. de
Candolle in botany, and before he had reached his majority he was
engaged with Pierre Prévost in original work on problems of
physiological chemistry, and even of embryology. In 1823, acting on the
advice of A. von Humboldt, he left Geneva for Paris, which he made his
home for the rest of his life. There he gained the acquaintance of many
of the foremost scientific men of the day, and quickly made a name for
himself both as a teacher and an investigator, attaining within ten
years the honour of membership of the Academy of Sciences. When
approaching his fiftieth year he entered political life, and became a
member of the National Legislative Assembly. He acted as minister of
agriculture and commerce for a few months in 1850-1851, and subsequently
became a senator, president of the municipal council of Paris, and
master of the French mint; but his official career came to a sudden end
with the fall of the Second Empire. He died at Cannes on the 11th of
April 1884. Dumas is one of the most prominent figures in the chemical
history of the middle part of the 19th century. He was one of the first
to criticize the electro-chemical doctrines of J.J. Berzelius, which at
the time his work began were widely accepted as the true theory of the
constitution of compound bodies, and opposed a unitary view to the
dualistic conception of the Swedish chemist. In a paper on the atomic
theory, published so early as 1826, he anticipated to a remarkable
extent some ideas which are frequently supposed to belong to a later
period; and the continuation of these studies led him to the ideas about
substitution ("metalepsis") which were developed about 1839 into the
theory ("Older Type Theory") that in organic chemistry there are certain
types which remain unchanged even when their hydrogen is replaced by an
equivalent quantity of a haloid element. Many of his well-known
researches were carried out in support of these views, one of the most
important being that on the action of chlorine on acetic acid to form
trichloracetic acid--a derivative of essentially the same character as
the acetic acid itself. In the 1826 paper he described his famous method
for ascertaining vapour densities, and the redeterminations which he
undertook by its aid of the atomic weights of carbon and oxygen proved
the forerunners of a long series which included some thirty of the
elements, the results being mostly published in 1858-1860. He also
devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic
substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification of
organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence
of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the
alcohols. Dumas was a prolific writer, and his numerous books, essays,
memorial addresses, &c., show him to have been gifted with a clear and
graceful style. His earliest large work was a treatise on applied
chemistry in eight volumes, the first of which was published in 1828 and
the last twenty years afterwards. In the _Essai de statique chimique des
êtres organisés_ (1841), written jointly with J.B.J.D. Boussingault
(1802-1887), he treated the chemistry of life, both plant and animal;
this book brought him into conflict with Liebig, who conceived that some
of his prior work had been appropriated without due acknowledgment. In
1824, in conjunction with J.V. Audouin and A.T. Brongniart, he founded
the _Annales des sciences naturelles_, and from 1840 he was one of the
editors of the _Annales de chimie et de physique_. As a teacher Dumas
was much sought after for his lectures at the Sorbonne and other
institutions both on pure and applied science; and he was one of the
first men in France to realize the importance of experimental laboratory
teaching.



DU MAURIER, GEORGE LOUIS PALMELLA BUSSON (1834-1896), British artist and
writer, was born in Paris. His father, a naturalized British subject,
was the son of _émigrés_ who had left France during the Reign of Terror
and settled in London. In _Peter Ibbetson_, the first of the three books
which won George Du Maurier late in life a reputation as novelist almost
as great as he had enjoyed as artist and humorist for more than a
generation, the author tells in the form of fiction the story of his
singularly happy childhood. He was brought to London, indeed, when three
or four years old, and spent in Devonshire Terrace and elsewhere two
colourless years; but vague memories of this period were suddenly
exchanged one beautiful day in June--"the first day of his conscious
existence"--for the charming realities of a French garden and "an old
yellow house with green shutters and mansard roofs of slate." Here, at
Passy, with his "gay and jovial father" and his young English mother,
the boy spent "seven years of sweet priceless home-life--seven times
four changing seasons of simple genial prae-Imperial Frenchness." The
second chapter of Du Maurier's life had for scene a Paris school, very
much in the style of that "Institution F. Brossard" which he describes,
at once so vividly and so sympathetically, in _The Martian_; and like
"Barty Josselin's" schoolfellow and biographer, he left it (in 1851) to
study chemistry at University College, London, actually setting up as an
analytical chemist afterwards in Bucklersbury. But this was clearly not
to be his _métier_, and the year 1856 found him once more in Paris, in
the Quartier Latin this time, in the core of that art-world of which in
_Trilby_, forty years later, he was to produce with pen and pencil so
idealistic and fascinating a picture. Then, like "Barty Josselin"
himself, he spent some years in Belgium and the Netherlands,
experiencing at Antwerp in 1857, when he was working in the studio of
van Lerius, the one great misfortune of his life--the gradual loss of
sight in his left eye, accompanied by alarming symptoms in his right. It
was a period of tragic anxiety, for it seemed possible that the right
eye might also become affected; but this did not happen, and the dismal
cloud was soon to show its silver lining, for, about Christmastime 1858,
there came to the forlorn invalid a copy of _Punch's Almanac_, and with
it the dawn of a new era in his career.

There can be little doubt that the study of this _Almanac_, and
especially of Leech's drawings in it, fired him with the ambition of
making his name as a graphic humorist; and it was not long after his
return to London in 1860 that he sent in his first contribution (very
much in Leech's manner) to _Punch_. Mark Lemon, then editor, appreciated
his talent, and on Leech's death in 1865 appointed him his successor,
counselling him with wise discrimination not to try to be "too funny,"
but "to undertake the light and graceful business" and be the "romantic
tenor" in Mr Punch's little company, while Keene, as Du Maurier puts it,
"with his magnificent highly-trained basso, sang the comic songs." These
respective rôles the two artists continued to play until the end, seldom
trespassing on each other's province; the "comic songs" finding their
inspiration principally in the life of the homely middle and lower
middle classes, while the "light and graceful business" enacted itself
almost exclusively in "good Society." To a great extent, also, Du
Maurier had to leave outdoor life to Keene, his weak sight making it
difficult for him to study and sketch in the open air and sunshine, thus
cutting him off, as he records regretfully, from "so much that is so
popular, delightful and exhilarating in English country life"--hunting
and shooting and fishing and the like. He contrived, however, to give
due attention to milder forms of outdoor recreation, and turned to good
account his familiarity with Hampstead Heath and Rotten Row, and his
holidays with his family at Whitby and Scarborough, Boulogne and Dieppe.

Of Du Maurier's life during the thirty-six years of his connexion with
_Punch_ there is not, apart from his work as an artist, much to record.
In the early 'sixties he lived at 85 Newman Street in lodgings, which he
shared with his friend Lionel Henley, afterwards R.B.A., working hard at
his _Punch_ sketches and his more serious contributions to _Once a Week_
and the _Cornhill Magazine_. After his marriage with Miss Emma Wightwick
in 1862 he took a spacious and pleasant house near Hampstead Heath, in
surroundings made familiar in his drawings. Shortly before he died he
moved to a house in Oxford Square. About 1866 he struck out a new line
in his admirable illustrations to Jerrold's _Story of a Feather_. In
1869 he realized a long-cherished aspiration, the illustrating of
Thackeray's _Esmond_, and in 1879 he drew twelve additional vignettes
for it, in the same year providing several illustrations for the
_Ballads_. From time to time he sent pretty and graceful pictures to the
exhibitions of the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colour, to which
he was elected in 1881. In 1885 the first exhibition of his works at the
Fine Art Society took place. Thus occupied in the practice of his art,
spending his leisure in social intercourse with his many friends and at
home with his growing family, hearing all the new singers and musicians,
seeing all the new plays, he lived the happiest of lives. He died
somewhat suddenly on the 8th of October 1896, and was buried in the
Hampstead parish churchyard. He left a family of two sons--the elder,
Major Guy Du Maurier (b. 1865), a soldier who became more widely known
in 1909 as author of the military play _An Englishman's Home_, and the
younger, Gerald, a well-known actor--and three daughters.

It is impossible, in considering Du Maurier's work, to avoid comparing
it with that of Leech and Keene, the more so that in his little book on
_Social Pictorial Satire_ he himself has set forth or suggested the
points both of resemblance and of difference. Like Keene, though Keene's
marvellous technique was his despair, Du Maurier was a much more
finished draughtsman than John Leech, but in other respects he had less
in common with the younger than with the older humorist. He shows
himself, in the best sense, a man of feeling in all his work. He is
clearly himself in love with "his pretty woman," as he calls her--every
pen-stroke in his presentment of her is a caress. How affectionate, too,
are his renderings of his fond young mothers and their big, handsome,
simple-minded husbands; his comely children and neat nurserymaids; even
his dogs--his elongated dachshunds and magnificent St Bernards! And how
he scorns the snobs and philistines--Sir Gorgius Midas and Sir Pompey
Bedell, Grigsby and Cadby, Soapley and Toadson! How merciless is his
ridicule of the aesthetes of the 'eighties--Maudle and Postlethwaite and
Mrs Cimabue Brown! Even to Mrs Ponsonby de Tomkyns, his most conspicuous
creation, his satire is scarcely tempered, despite her prettiness. He
shows up unsparingly all her unscrupulous little ways, all her cynical,
cunning little wiles. Like Leech, he revelled in the lighter aspects of
life--the humours of the nursery, the drawing-room, the club, the
gaieties of the country house and the seaside--without being blind to
the tragic and dramatic. Just as Leech could rise to the height of the
famous cartoon "General Février turned Traitor," so it was Du Maurier
who inspired Tenniel in that impressive drawing on the eve of the
Franco-German War, in which the shade of the great Napoleon is seen
warning back the infatuated emperor from his ill-omened enterprise. In
his tender drawings in _Once a Week_, also, and in his occasional
excursions into the grotesque in _Punch_, such as his picture of "Old
Nickotin stealing away the brains of his devotees," he has given ample
proof of his faculty for moving and impressive art. The technique of Du
Maurier's work in the 'eighties and the 'nineties, though to the average
man it seems a marvel of finish and dexterity, is considered by artists
a falling off from what was displayed in some of his earlier _Punch_
drawings, and especially in his contributions to the _Cornhill Magazine_
and _Once a Week_. His later work is undoubtedly more mannered, more
"finicking," less simple, less broadly effective. But it is to his
fellow-craftsmen only and to experts that this is noticeable.

A quaint tribute has been paid to the literary talent shown in Du
Maurier's inscriptions to his drawings by Mr F. Anstey (Guthrie), author
of _Vice Versa_, and Du Maurier's colleague on the staff of _Punch_. "In
these lines of letterpress," says Mr Anstey, "he has brought the art of
précis-writing to perfection." They are indeed singularly concise and to
the point. It is the more curious, therefore, to note that in his novels,
and even in his critical essays, Du Maurier reveals very different
qualities: the précis-writer has become an _improvisatore_, pouring out
his stories and ideas in full flood, his style changing with every
mood--by turn humorous, eloquent, tender, gay, sometimes merely
"skittish," sometimes quite solemn, but never for long; sometimes, again,
breaking into graceful and haunting verse. He writes with apparent
artlessness; but, in his novels at least, on closer examination, it is
found that he has in fact exerted all his ingenuity to give them--what
such flagrantly untrue tales most require--verisimilitude. It is hard to
say which of the three stories is the more impossible: that of Trilby,
the tone-deaf artist's model who becomes a _prima donna_, that of Barty
Josselin and his guardian angel from Mars, or that of the dream-existence
of Peter Ibbetson and the duchess of Towers. They are all equally
preposterous, and yet plausible. The drawings are cunningly made to serve
the purpose of evidence, circumstantial and direct. These books cannot be
criticized by the ordinary canons of the art of fiction. They are a
_genre_ by themselves, a blend of unfettered day-dream and rose-coloured
reminiscence. For the dramatic version of _Trilby_ by Mr Paul Potter Du
Maurier would accept no credit. The play was produced in 1895 by Herbert
Beerbohm Tree, at the Haymarket, with immense popular success.

  Some striking examples of Du Maurier's work for _Once a Week_ and the
  _Cornhill Magazine_ are included in Gleeson White's _English
  Illustrators of the Sixties_. The following is a list of the chief
  works which he illustrated: Foxe's _Book of Martyrs_ (1865), Mrs
  Gaskell's _Wives and Daughters_ (1866), Jerrold's _Story of a Feather_
  (1867), Owen Meredith's _Lucile_ (1868), _The Book of Drawing room
  Plays_, by H. Dalton (1868), _Sooner or Later_, by C.A.G. Brooke
  (1868), Thackeray's _Esmond_ (1869 and 1879), and _Ballads_ (1879),
  _Misunderstood_, by Florence Montgomery (1874), _Round about the
  Islands_, by C.W. Scott (1874), _Hurlock Chase_, by G.E. Sargent
  (1876), _Songs of many Seasons_, by J. Browne (in collaboration)
  (1876), _Pegasus Re-saddled_, by H.C. Pennell (1877), _Ingoldsby
  Legends_ (in collaboration), by R. Barham (1877), _Prudence_, by L.C.
  Lillie (1882), _As in a Looking-glass_ by F.C. Phillips (1889), _Luke
  Ashleigh_, by A. Elwes (1891), and his own three novels, which
  appeared serially in _Harper's Magazine_: _Peter Ibbetson_ (1892),
  _Trilby_ (1894), _The Martian_ (1897), and published after his death.
  In 1897 also there was published, under the title _English Society_,
  with an introduction by W.D. Howells, a collection of full page
  drawings which he had contributed regularly to _Harper's Magazine_.

  Some of his _Punch_ drawings have been reproduced also in _The
  Collections of Mr Punch_ (1880), _Society Pictures from Punch_ (1890),
  _A Legend of Camelot_ (1890). To his _Social Pictorial Satire_ (1890)
  reference has been made. He contributed two essays upon book
  illustration to the _Magazine of Art_ (1890). See also the _Magazine
  of Art_ for 1892, for an article upon his work by W. Delaplaine Scull,
  with illustrations. Other volumes containing information about his
  life and work are: _The History of Punch_ by M.H. Spielmann, _In
  Bohemia with Du Maurier_, by Felix Moscheles, Henry James's "Du
  Maurier and London Society," _Century Magazine_ (1883), and "Du
  Maurier," _Harper's Magazine_ (September 1897, June 1899). See also
  Ruskin's _Art of England_ Lecture 5, Pennell's _Pen-Drawing and
  Pen-Draughtsmen_, and Muther's _Modern Painting_ vol. ii.
       (F. W. W.)



DUMBARTON, a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport, and county town
of Dumbartonshire, Scotland, situated on the river Leven, near its
confluence with the Clyde, 15½ m. W. by N. of Glasgow by the North
British and Caledonian railways. Pop. (1891) 17,625, (1901) 19,985. The
Alcluith ("hill of the Clyde") of the Britons, and Dunbreatan ("fort of
the Britons") of the Celts, it was the capital of the district of
Strathclyde. Here, too, the Romans had a naval station which they called
Theodosia. Although thus a place of great antiquity, the history of the
town practically centres in that of the successive fortresses on the
Rock of Dumbarton, a twin peaked mount, 240 ft. high and a mile in
circumference at the base. The fortress was often besieged and sometimes
taken, the Picts seizing it in 736 and the Northmen in 870, but the most
effectual surprise of all was that accomplished, in the interests of the
young King James VI., by Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill on March 31,
1571. The castle was held by Queen Mary's adherents, and as it gave them
free communication with France, its capture was deemed essential.
Crawford decided to climb the highest point, concluding that, owing to
its imagined security, it would be carelessly guarded. Favoured with a
dark and foggy night the party of 150 men and a guide reached the first
ledge of rock undiscovered. In scaling the second precipice one of the
men was seized with an epileptic fit on the ladder. Crawford bound him
to the ladder and then turned it over and was thus enabled to ascend to
the summit. At this moment the alarm was given, but the sentinel and the
sleepy soldiers were slain and the cannon turned on the garrison.
Further resistance being useless, the castle was surrendered. During the
governorship of Sir John Menteith, William Wallace was in 1305
imprisoned within its walls before he was removed to London. The higher
of the two peaks is known as Wallace's seat, a tower, perhaps the one in
which he was incarcerated, being named after him. On the portcullis
gateway may still be seen rudely carved heads of Wallace and his
betrayer, the latter with his finger in his mouth. Queen Mary, when a
child, resided in the castle for a short time. It is an ugly
barrack-like structure, defended by a few obsolete guns, although by the
Union Treaty it is one of the four fortresses that must be maintained.
The rock itself is basalt, with a tendency to columnar formation, and
some parts of it have a magnetic quality.

The town arms are the elephant and castle, with the motto _Fortitudo et
fidelitas_. Dumbarton was of old the capital of the earldom of Lennox,
but was given up by Earl Maldwyn to Alexander II., by whom it was made a
royal burgh in 1221 and declared to be free from all imposts and burgh
taxes. Later sovereigns gave it other privileges, and the whole were
finally confirmed by a charter of James VI. It had the right to levy
customs and dues on all vessels on the Clyde between Loch Long and the
Kelvin. "Offers dues" on foreign ships entering the Clyde were also
exacted. In 1700 these rights were transferred to Glasgow by contract,
but were afterwards vested in a special trust created by successive acts
of parliament.

Most of the town lies on the left bank of the Leven, which almost
converts the land here into a peninsula, but there is communication with
the suburb of Bridgend on the right bank by a five-arched stone bridge,
300 ft. long. The public buildings include the Burgh Hall, the academy
(with a graceful steeple), the county buildings, the Denny Memorial, a
Literary and a Mechanics' institute, Masonic hall, two cottage
hospitals, a fever hospital, a public library and the combination
poorhouse. There are two public parks--Broad Meadow (20 acres), part of
ground reclaimed in 1859, and Levengrove (32 acres), presented to the
corporation in 1885 by Peter Denny and John McMillan, two ship-builders
who helped lay the foundation of the town's present prosperity. The old
parish kirkyard was closed in 1856, but a fine cemetery was constructed
in its place outside the town. Dumbarton is controlled by a provost and
a council. With Port-Glasgow, Renfrew, Rutherglen and Kilmarnock it
unites in returning one member to parliament. The principal industry is
shipbuilding. The old staple trade of the making of crown glass, begun
in 1777, lapsed some 70 years afterwards when the glass duty was
abolished. There are several great engineering works, besides iron and
brass foundries, saw-mills, rope-yards and sail-making works. There are
quays, docks and a harbour at the mouth of the Leven, and a pier for
river steamers runs out from the Castle rock. The first steam navigation
company was established in Dumbarton in 1815, when the "Duke of
Wellington" (built in the town) plied between Dumbarton and Glasgow. But
it was not till 1844, consequent on the use of iron for vessels, that
shipbuilding became the leading industry.



DUMBARTONSHIRE, a western county of Scotland, bounded N. by Perthshire,
E. by Stirlingshire, S.E. by Lanarkshire, S. by the Clyde and its
estuary, and W. by Loch Long and Argyllshire. There is also a detached
portion, comprising the parish of Kirkintilloch and part of that of
Cumbernauld enclosed between the shires of Stirling and Lanark. This
formerly formed part of Stirlingshire, but was annexed in the 14th
century when the earl of Wigtown, to whom it belonged, became heritable
sheriff of Dumbartonshire. Dumbartonshire has an area of 170,762 acres
or 267 sq. m. The north-west and west are mountainous, the chief summits
being Ben Vorlich (3092 ft.), Ben Vane (3004), Doune Hill (2409), Beinn
Chaorach (2338), Beinn a Mhanaich (2328), Beinn Eich (2302), Cruach ant
Suthein (2244), Ben Reoch (2168), Beinn Tharsuinn (2149), Beinn Dubh
(2018), Balcnock (2092) and Tullich Hill (2075). In the south are the
Kilpatrick Hills, their highest points being Duncomb and Fynloch (each
1313 ft.). The Clyde, the Kelvin and the Leven are the only rivers of
importance. The Leven flows out of Loch Lomond at Balloch and joins the
Clyde at Dumbarton after a serpentine course of about 7 m. Most of the
other streams are among the mountains, whence they find their way to
Loch Lomond, the principal being the Inveruglas, Douglas, Luss, Finlas
and Fruin. Nearly all afford good sport to the angler. Of the inland
lakes by far the largest and most magnificent is Loch Lomond (q.v.). The
boundary between the shires of Dumbarton and Stirling follows an
imaginary line through the lake from the mouth of Endrick Water to a
point opposite the isle of Vow, giving about two-thirds of the loch to
the former county. Loch Sloy on the side of Ben Vorlich is a long,
narrow lake, 812 ft. above the sea amid wild scenery. From its name the
Macfarlanes took their slogan or war-cry. The shores of the Gareloch, a
salt-water inlet 6½ m. long and 1 m. wide, are studded with houses of
those whose business lies in Glasgow. Garelochhead has grown into a
favourite summer resort; Clynder is famed for its honey. The more
important salt-water inlet, Loch Long, is 17 m. in length and varies in
width from 2 m. at its mouth to about ½ a mile in its upper reach. It is
the dumping-place for the dredgers which are constantly at work
preserving the tide-way of the Clyde from Dumbarton to the
Broomielaw--its use for this purpose being a standing grievance to
anglers. The scenery on both shores is very beautiful. Only a mile
separates Garelochhead from Loch Long, and at Arrochar the distance from
Tarbet on Loch Lomond is barely 1¾ m. Nearly all the glens are situated
in the Highland part of the shire, the principal being Glen Sloy, Glen
Douglas, Glen Luss and Glen Fruin. The last is memorable as the scene of
the bloody conflict in 1603 between the Macgregors and the Colquhouns,
in which the latter were almost exterminated. It was this savage
encounter that led to the proscription of the Macgregors, including the
famous Rob Roy.

  _Geology._--Like the other counties along the eastern border of the
  Highlands, Dumbartonshire is divided geologically into two areas, the
  boundary between the two being defined by a line extending from
  Rossdhu on Loch Lomond south-west by Row and Roseneath to Kilcreggan.
  The mountainous region lying to the north of this line is composed of
  rocks belonging to the metamorphic series of the Eastern Highlands and
  representing several of the groups met with in the adjoining counties
  of Perth and Argyll. Immediately to the north of the Highland border
  the Aberfoyle slates and grits appear, repeated by isoclinal folds
  trending north-east and south-west and dipping towards the north-west.
  These are followed by a great development of the Ben Ledi grits and
  schists--the representatives of the Beinn Bheula grits and ablite
  schists of Argyllshire, which, by means of rapid plication, spread
  over the high grounds northwards to beyond the head of Loch Lomond.
  Along the line of section between Luss and Ardlui important evidence
  is obtained of the gradual increase of metamorphism as we proceed
  northwards from the Highland border. The original clastic characters
  of the strata are obscured and the rocks between Arrochar and
  Inverarnan in Glen Falloch merge into quartz-biotite gneisses and
  albite schists. In the extreme north between Ardlui and the head of
  Glen Fyne in Argyllshire there is a large development of plutonic
  rocks piercing the Highland schists and producing marked contact
  metamorphism. These range from acid to ultrabasic types and include
  granite, augite-diorite, picrite and serpentine. On the hill-slopes to
  the west of Ardlui and Inverarnan the diorite appears, while farther
  west, between the watershed and Glen Fyne, there is a large mass of
  granite. Boulders of plutonic rocks from this area have been widely
  distributed by the ice during the glacial period. Immediately to the
  south of the Highland border line there is a belt of Upper Old Red
  Sandstone strata which stretches from the shores of Loch Lomond
  westwards by Helensburgh and Roseneath Castle to Kilcreggan. These
  sandstones and conglomerates are succeeded by the sandstones, shales,
  clays and cementstones at the base of the Carboniferous formation
  which occupy a narrow strip between Loch Lomond and Gareloch and are
  cut off by a fault along their south-east margin. East of this
  dislocation there is a belt of Lower Old Red Sandstone strata
  extending from the mouth of the Endrick Water south-westwards by
  Balloch to the shore of the Clyde west of Cardross, which is bounded
  on either side by the upper division of that system. Still farther
  east beyond Dumbarton the Upper Old Red Sandstone is again surmounted
  by the representatives of the Cementstone group, which are followed by
  the lavas, tuffs and agglomerates of the Kirkpatrick Hills,
  intercalated in the Calciferous Sandstone series. Here the terraced
  features of the volcanic plateau, produced by the denudation of the
  successive flows is well displayed. Eastwards by Kilpatrick and
  Bearsden to the margin of the county near Maryhill the rocks of
  Calciferous Sandstone age are followed in normal order by the
  Carboniferous Limestone series; the Hurlet Limestone and Hurlet Coal
  of the lower limestone group being prominently developed. In the
  detached portion of the county between Kirkintilloch and Cumbernauld
  there is an important coalfield embracing the seams in the middle or
  coal-bearing group of the Carboniferous Limestone series. In this
  county there are several striking examples of the east and west
  dolerite dykes which are probably of late Carboniferous age. These
  traverse the Highland schists between Loch Long and Loch Lomond, the
  Old Red Sandstone area between Alexandria and the Blane Valley, and
  the Carboniferous tract near Cumbernauld. The ice which radiated from
  the Dumbartonshire Highlands moved south-east and east towards the
  central plain of Carboniferous rocks. Hence the boulder clay of the
  lowland districts is abundantly charged with boulders of schistose
  grit, slate, gneiss and granite derived from areas lying far to the
  north-west. Along the shores of the Clyde the broad terraced features
  indicate the limits of successive raised beaches.

_Climate and Agriculture._--There is excessive rainfall in the
Highlands, averaging 53 in. at Helensburgh up to nearly 70 in. in the
north. The temperature, with an average for the year of 47½° F., varies
from 38° in January to 58° in July, but in the valleys the heat in
midsummer is often oppressive. The prevailing winds are from the west
and south-west, but easterly winds are frequent in the spring. Frosts
are seldom severe, and, except on the mountains, snow never lies long.
The arable lands extend chiefly along the Clyde and the Leven, and are
composed of rich black loam, gravelly soil and clay. From the proximity
to Glasgow and other large towns the farmers have the double advantage
of good manure and a ready market for all kinds of stock and produce,
and under this stimulus high farming and dairying on a considerable
scale prosper. Black-faced sheep and Highland cattle are pastured on the
hilly lands and Cheviots and Ayrshires on the low grounds. Oats and
wheat are the principal cereals, but barley and potatoes in abundance,
and turnips and beans are also grown.

_Other Industries_.--Turkey-red dyeing has long been the distinctive
industry of the county. The water of the Leven being not only constant
but also singularly soft and pure, dyers and bleachers have constructed
works at many places in the Vale of Leven. Bleaching has been carried on
since the early part of the 18th century, and cotton-printing at
Levenfield dates from 1768. The establishments at Alexandria, Bonhill,
Jamestown, Renton and other towns for all the processes connected with
the bleaching, dyeing and printing of cottons, calicoes and other
cloths, besides yarns, are conducted on the largest scale. At Milton the
first power-loom mill was erected. The engineering works and
shipbuilding yards at Clydebank are famous, and at Dumbarton there are
others almost equally busy. The extensive Singer sewing-machine works
are at Kilbowie, and the Clyde Trust barge-building shops are at
Dalmuir. There are distilleries and breweries at Duntocher, Bowling,
Dumbarton, Milngavie (pronounced _Milguy_) and other towns. In fact the
Vale of Leven and the riverside towns east of Dumbarton form a veritable
hive of industry. In the detached portion, Kirkintilloch and Cumbernauld
are seats of great activity in the mining of coal and ironstone, and
there are besides chemical works and saw-mills in the former town. There
is some fishing at Helensburgh and along the Gareloch.

The populous districts of the county are served almost wholly by the
North British railway. From Helensburgh to Inverarnan the Highland
railway runs through scenery of the most diversified and romantic
character. The Caledonian railway has access to Balloch from Glasgow,
and its system also traverses the detached portion. Portions of the
Forth and Clyde Canal, which connects with the Clyde at Bowling, and was
opened for traffic in 1775, pass through the shire. There is regular
steamer communication between Glasgow and the towns and villages on the
coast, and on Loch Lomond steamers call at several points between
Balloch and Ardlui.

_Population and Government._--The population of Dumbartonshire in 1891
was 98,014 and in 1901 113,865, of whom 3101 spoke both Gaelic and
English and 14 Gaelic only. The principal towns, with populations in
1901, are--Alexandria (8007), Bonhill (3333), Clydebank (21,591),
Dumbarton (19,985), Duntocher (2122), Helensburgh (8554), Jamestown
(2080), Kirkintilloch (11,681), Milngavie (3481), New Kilpatrick or
Bearsden (2705) and Renton (5067). The county returns one member to
parliament. Dumbarton, the county town, is the only royal burgh, and
belongs to the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs. The municipal
and police burghs are Clydebank, Cove and Kilcreggan, Dumbarton,
Helensburgh, Kirkintilloch and Milngavie. Dumbartonshire forms a
sheriffdom with the counties of Stirling and Clackmannan, and there is a
resident sheriff-substitute at Dumbarton, who sits also at
Kirkintilloch. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, but there
are several voluntary schools, besides St Peter's Roman Catholic College
in New Kilpatrick. Science, art and technical classes are subsidized out
of the whole of the county "residue" and, if necessary, out of part of
the burgh "residue" also. Agricultural lectures and the travelling
expenses and fees of county students at Glasgow Technical College are
also paid for from the same source.

_History._--The country is rich in antiquities connected with the
aborigines and also with the Romans. The Caledonians and Picts have left
their traces in rude forts and tumuli, but of greater interest are
remains in several places of the wall of Antoninus, built from the Forth
to the Clyde, and running along the north of the detached portion of the
shire and through the south-eastern corner of the county to Kilpatrick.
Other Roman relics have been found at Duntocher, Cumbernauld and
elsewhere. The shire forms part of the old Scottish territory of Lennox
(_Levenachs_, "fields of the Leven"), which embraced the Vale of the
Leven and the basin of Loch Lomond, or all modern Dumbartonshire, most
of Stirling and parts of the shires of Renfrew and Perth. It gave the
title of the earldom created in 1174 by William the Lion and of the
dukedom conferred by Charles II. on his natural son, Charles, duke of
Richmond and Lennox. In 1702 the Lennox estates were sold to the marquis
of Montrose. The captive Wallace was conveyed in chains to Dumbarton
Castle, whence he was taken to his death in London. Robert Bruce is said
to have mustered his forces at Dullatur prior to the battle of
Bannockburn, and died at Cardross Castle in 1329. The Covenanters in
their flight from the bloody field of Kilsyth, where in 1645 Montrose
had defeated them with great slaughter, made their way through the
southern districts. When the Forth and Clyde Canal was being excavated
swords, pistols, and other weapons dropped by the fugitives were found
at Dullatur, together with skeletons of men and horses. In the Highland
country the clans of Macgregor and Macfarlane made their home in the
fastnesses, whence they descended in raids upon the cattle, the goods
and sometimes the persons of their Lowland neighbours.

  See J. Irving, _History of Dumbartonshire_ (Dumbarton, 1860); _Book of
  Dumbartonshire_ (Edinburgh, 1879); Sir W. Fraser, _Chiefs of
  Colquhoun_ (Edinburgh, 1869); _The Lennox_ (Edinburgh, 1874); D.
  Macleod, _Castle and Town of Dumbarton_ (Dumbarton, 1877); _Dumbarton_
  (Dumbarton, 1884); _Dumbarton: Ancient and Modern_ (Glasgow, 1893);
  _Ancient Records of Dumbarton_ (Dumbarton, 1896); J. Glen, _History of
  Dumbarton_ (Dumbarton, 1876).



DUMB WAITER,[1] a small oblong or circular table to hold reserve plates,
knives and forks, and other necessaries for a meal. This piece of
furniture originated in England towards the end of the 18th century, and
some exceedingly elegant examples were designed by Sheraton and his
school. They were usually circular, with three diminishing tiers,
sometimes surrounded by a continuous or interrupted pierced gallery in
wood or brass. The smaller varieties are now much used in England for
the display of small silver objects in drawing-rooms.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The term "dumb," strictly meaning mute or destitute of speech
    (see DEAF AND DUMB), is applied in this and other analogous cases
    (e.g. dumb-bell, dumb-barge) as connoting the absence of some normal
    capacity in the term with which it is associated.



DUM-DUM, a town and cantonment in British India at the head of an
administrative subdivision in the district of the Twenty-four Parganas,
in the presidency division of Bengal, with a station on the Eastern
Bengal railway, 4½ m. N.E. of Calcutta. It was the headquarters of the
Bengal artillery from 1783 to 1853, when they were transferred to Meerut
as a more central station; and its possession of a cannon foundry and a
percussion-cap factory procured for it the name of the Woolwich of
India. The barracks--still occupied by small detachments--are
brick-built and commodious; and among the other buildings are St
Stephen's Protestant church, a Roman Catholic chapel, a European and
native hospital, a large bazaar and an English school. The population in
1901 of North Dum-Dum was 9916, and of South Dum-Dum 10,904. It was at
Dum-Dum that the treaty of 1757 was signed by which the nawab of Bengal
ratified the privileges of the English, allowed Calcutta to be
fortified, and bestowed freedom of trade. On the 7th of December 1908 a
serious explosion occurred by accident at the Dum-Dum arsenal, resulting
in death or serious injury to about 50 native workmen.

At the Dum-Dum foundry the hollow-nosed "Dum-Dum" (Mark IV.) bullets
were manufactured, the supposed use of which by the British during the
Boer War caused considerable comment in 1899. Their peculiarity
consisted in their expanding on impact and thus creating an ugly wound,
and they had been adopted in Indian frontier fighting owing to the
failure of the usual type of bullets to stop the rushes of fanatical
tribesmen. They were not, in fact, used during the Boer War. Other and
improvised forms of expanding bullet were used in India and the Sudan,
the commonest methods of securing expansion being to file down the point
until the lead core was exposed and to make longitudinal slits in the
nickel envelope. All these forms of bullet have come to be described
colloquially, and even in diplomatic correspondence, as "dum-dum
bullets," and their alleged use by Russian troops in the Russo-Japanese
War of 1904-1905 formed the subject of a protest on the part of the
Japanese government. The proposals made at the second Hague Conference
to forbid the use of these bullets by international agreement were
agreed to by all the powers except Great Britain and the United States.



DUMESNIL, MARIE FRANÇOISE (1713-1803), French actress, whose real name
was Marchand, was born in Paris on the 2nd of January 1713. She began
her stage career in the provinces, whence she was summoned in 1737 to
make her _début_ at the Comédie Française as Clytemnestre in _Iphigénie
en Tauride_. She at once came into the front rank, playing Cléopâtre,
Phèdre, Athalie and Hermione with great effect, and when she created
Mérope (1743) Voltaire says that she kept the audience in tears for
three successive acts. She retired from the stage in 1776, but lived
until the 20th of February 1803. Her rival, Clairon, having spoken ill
of her, she authorized the publication of a _Mémoire de Marie Françoise
Dumesnil, en réponse aux mémoires d'Hippolyte Clairon_ (1800).



DUMFRIES (Gaelic, "the fort in the copse"), a royal and parliamentary
burgh and capital of the county, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. It lies on the
left bank of the Nith, about 8 m. from the Solway Firth and 81 m. S.E.
of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1891) 16,675;
(1901) 17,079. Dumfries is beautifully situated and is one of the
handsomest county towns in Scotland. The churches and chapels of the
Presbyterian and other communions are, many of them, fine buildings. St
Michael's (1746), a stately pile, was the church which Robert Burns
attended, and in its churchyard he was buried, his remains being
transferred in 1815 to the magnificent mausoleum erected in the
south-east corner, where also lie his wife, Jean Armour, and several
members of his family. The Gothic church of Greyfriars (1866-1867)
occupies the site partly of a Franciscan monastery and partly of the old
castle of the town. On the site of St Mary's (1837-1839), also Gothic,
stood the small chapel raised by Christiana, sister of Robert Bruce, to
the memory of her husband, Sir Christopher Seton, who had been executed
on the spot by Edward I. St Andrew's (1811-1813), in the Romanesque
style, is a Roman Catholic church, which also serves as the
pro-cathedral of the diocese of Galloway.

Besides numerous schools, there is an admirably equipped Academy. The
old infirmary building is now occupied by St Joseph's College, a
commercial academy of the Marist Brotherhood, in connexion with which
there is a novitiate for the training of members of the order for
missionary service at home or abroad. In the middle of the market-place
stands the old town hall, with red tower and cupola, known from its
situation as the Mid Steeple, built by Tobias Bachup of Alloa (1708).
The new town hall and post-office are near the uppermost bridge. The
county buildings, in Buccleuch Street, are an imposing example of the
Scots Baronial style. To Mr Andrew Carnegie and Mr and Mrs M'Kie of Moat
House was due the free library. The charitable institutions include
Moorhead's hospital (1753) for reduced householders; the Dumfriesshire
and Galloway royal infirmary, dating from 1778, but now housed in a fine
edifice in the northern Italian style; the Crichton royal institution
for the insane, founded by Dr James Crichton of Friars Carse, and
supplemented in 1848 by the Southern Counties asylum; the new infirmary,
a handsome building; the contagious diseases hospital, the industrial
home for orphan and destitute girls and a nurses' home. The Theatre
Royal, reconstructed in 1876, dates from 1787. Burns composed several
prologues and epilogues for some of its actors and actresses. Among
other public buildings are the assembly rooms, St George's hall, the
volunteer drill hall, and the Crichton Institution chapel, completed at
a cost of £30,000. The corporation owns the water supply, public baths
and wash-houses and the gasworks. In front of Greyfriars church stands a
marble statue of Burns, unveiled in 1882, and there is also a monument
to Charles, third duke of Queensberry. The Nith is crossed by three
bridges and the railway viaduct. The bridge, which is used for vehicular
traffic, dates from 1790-1794. Devorgilla's bridge, below it, built of
stone in 1280, originally consisted of nine arches (now reduced to
three), and is reserved in spite of its massive appearance for foot
passengers only, as is also the suspension bridge opened in 1875.

Dumfries, Annan, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and Sanquhar--the "Five
Carlins" of Burns's Election Ballads--combine to return one member to
Parliament. As a parliamentary burgh Dumfries includes Maxwelltown, on
the opposite side of the river, which otherwise belongs to
Kirkcudbrightshire.

The leading industries comprise manufactures of tweeds, hosiery, clogs,
baskets and leather, besides the timber trade, nursery gardening and the
making of machinery and iron implements. Dumfries markets for cattle and
sheep, held weekly, and for horses, held five times annually, have
always ranked with the best, and there is also a weekly market for pork
during the five months beginning with November. The sea-borne trade is
small compared with what it was before the railway came.

Although Dumfries was the site of a camp of the Selgovian Britons,
nothing is known of its history until long after the withdrawal of the
Romans. William the Lion (d. 1214) made it a royal burgh, but the oldest
existing charter was granted by Robert II. in 1395. The town became
embroiled in the struggles that ended in the independence of Scotland.
It favoured the claims to the throne, first of John Baliol--whose mother
Devorgilla, daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, had done much to promote
its prosperity by building the stone bridge over the Nith--and then of
the Red Comyn, as against those of Robert Bruce, who drew his support
from Annandale. When Edward I. besieged Carlaverock Castle in 1300 he
lodged in the Franciscan monastery, which, six years later (10th of
February 1306), was the scene of the murder of Comyn (see ROBERT THE
BRUCE). From this time to nearly the close of the 16th century the burgh
was exposed to frequent raids, both from freebooters on the English side
and from partisans of the turbulent chiefs--Douglases, Maxwells,
Johnstones. The Scottish sovereigns, however, did not wholly neglect
Dumfries. James IV., James V., Mary and her son each visited it. James
VI. was royally entertained on the 3rd of August 1617, and afterwards
presented the seven incorporated trades with a silver gun to encourage
the craftsmen in the practice of musketry. The competition for this
cannon-shaped tube, now preserved in the old town hall, took place
annually--with a great festival every seven years--until 1831. John
Mayne (1759-1836), a native of Dumfries, commemorated the gathering in
an excellent humorous poem called "The Siller Gun." Though in sympathy
with the Covenanters, the town was the scene of few incidents comparable
to those which took place in the northern parts of the shire. The Union
with England was so unpopular that not only did the provost vote against
the measure in the Scottish parliament, but the articles were burned
(20th of November 1706) at the Market Cross by a body of Cameronians,
amidst the approving cheers of the inhabitants. In both 1715 and 1745
Dumfries remained apathetic. Prince Charles Edward indeed occupied the
town, holding his court in a building afterwards known as the Commercial
Hotel, levying £2000 tribute money and requisitioning 1000 pairs of
shoes for his Highlanders, by way of punishing its contumacy. But, in a
false alarm, the Jacobites suddenly retreated, and a few years later the
town was reimbursed by the State for the Pretender's extortions. The
most interesting event in the history of Dumfries is its connexion with
Burns, for the poet resided here from December 1791 till his death on
the 21st of July 1796. The house in which he died is still standing.

The picturesque ruins of Carlaverock Castle--the "Ellangowan" of _Guy
Mannering_--are 8 m. to the south. Above the entrance are the arms of
the Maxwells, earls of Nithsdale, to whose descendant, the duchess of
Norfolk, it belongs. The castle, which is in an excellent state of
preservation, is built of red sandstone, on the site of a fortress
supposed to have been erected in the 6th century, of which nothing now
remains. In plan it is a triangle, protected by a double moat, and has
round towers at the angles. Part of the present structure is believed to
date from 1220 and once sheltered William Wallace. It withstood Edward
I.'s siege in 1300 for two days, although garrisoned by only sixty men.
In the troublous times that followed it often changed hands. In 1570 it
fell into disrepair, but was restored, and in 1641 was besieged for the
last time by the Covenanters.

A mile and a half to the north-west of Dumfries lies Lincluden Abbey,
"an old ruin," says Burns, "in a sweet situation at the confluence of
the Cluden and the Nith." Originally the abbey was a convent, founded in
the 12th century, but converted two centuries later into a collegiate
church by Archibald, earl of Douglas. The remains of the choir and south
transept disclose rich work of the Decorated style.



DUMFRIESSHIRE, a border county of Scotland, bounded S. by the Solway
Firth, S.E. by Cumberland, E. by Roxburghshire, N. by the shires of
Lanark, Peebles and Selkirk, and W. by Ayrshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
Its area is 686,302 acres or 1072 sq. m. The coast line measures 21 m.
The county slopes very gradually from the mountainous districts in the
north down to the sea, lofty hills alternating in parts with stretches
of tableland or rich fertile holms. At various points within a few miles
of the Solway are tracts of moss land, like Craigs Moss, Lochar Moss and
Longbridge Moor in the west, and Nutberry Moss in the east, all once
under water, but now largely reclaimed. The principal mountains occur
near the northern boundaries, the highest being White Coomb (2695 ft.),
Hart Fell (2651), Saddle Yoke (2412), Swatte Fell (2389), Lowther Hills
(2377), Queensberry (2285), which gives his secondary title to the duke
of Buccleuch and the title of marquess to a branch of the house of
Douglas, and Ettrick Pen (2269). The three longest rivers are the Nith,
the Annan and the Esk, the basins of which form the great dales by which
the county is cleft from north to south--Nithsdale, Annandale and
Eskdale. From the point where it enters Dumfriesshire, 16 m. from its
source near Enoch Hill in Ayrshire, the course of the Nith is mainly
south-easterly till it enters the Solway, a few miles below Dumfries.
Its total length is 65 m., and its chief affluents are, on the right,
the Kello, Euchan, Scar, Cluden and Cargen, and, on the left, the
Crawick, Carron and Campie. The Annan rises near the Devil's Beef Tub, a
remarkable chasm in the far north, and after flowing about 40 m., mainly
in a southerly course, it enters the Solway at Barnkirk headland. It
receives, on the right, the Kinnel (reinforced by the Ae), and, on the
left, the Moffat, the Dryfe and the Milk. From the confluence of the
White Esk (rising near Ettrick Pen) and the Black Esk (rising near
Jock's Shoulder, 1754 ft.) the Esk flows in a gradually south-easterly
direction till it crosses the Border, whence it sweeps to the S.W.
through the extreme north-western territory of Cumberland and falls into
the Solway. Of its total course of 42 m., 12 belong to the White Esk, 20
are of the Esk proper on Scottish soil and 10 are of the stream in its
English course. On the right the Wauchope is the chief affluent, and on
the left it receives the Megget, Ewes, Tarras and Line--the last being
an English tributary. Other rivers are the Lochar (18 m.), the Kirtle
(17) and the Sark (12), all flowing into the Solway. For one mile of its
course the Esk, and for 7 m. of its course the Sark, form the boundaries
between Dumfriesshire and Cumberland. Loch Skene in the north (1750 ft.
above the sea), the group of lochs around Lochmaben, and Loch Urr in the
west, only part of which belongs to Dumfriesshire, are the principal
lakes. There are few glens so named in the shire, but the passes of
Dalveen, Enterkin and Menock, leading up from Nithsdale to the Lowther
and other hills, yield to few glens in Scotland in the wild grandeur of
their scenery. For part of the way Enterkin Pass runs between mountains
rising sheer from the burn to a height of nearly 2000 ft. Loch Skene
finds an outlet in Tail Burn, the water of which at a short distance
from the lake leaps from a height of 200 ft. in a fine waterfall, known
as the Grey Mare's Tail. A much smaller but picturesque fall of the same
name, also known as Crichope Linn, occurs on the Crichope near
Thornhill. Mineral waters are found at Moffat, Hartfell Spa, some three
miles farther north, Closeburn and Brow on the Solway.

  _Geology._--The greater portion of the county of Dumfries belongs to
  the Silurian tableland of the south of Scotland which contains
  representatives of all the divisions of that system from the Arenig to
  the Ludlow rocks. By far the largest area is occupied by strata of
  Tarannon and Llandovery age which cover a belt of country from 20 to
  25 m. across from Drumlanrig Castle in the north to Torthorwald in the
  south. Consisting of massive grits, sometimes conglomeratic,
  greywackes, flags and shales, these beds are repeated by innumerable
  folds frequently inverted, striking N.E. and S.W. and usually dipping
  towards the N.W. In the midst of this belt there are lenticular bands
  of older strata of Arenig, Llandeilo, Caradoc and Llandovery age
  composed of fine sediments such as cherts, black and grey shales,
  white clays and flags, which come to the surface along anticlinal
  folds and yield abundant graptolites characteristic of these
  divisions. These black shale bands are typically developed in
  Moffatdale, indeed the three typical sections chosen by Professor
  Lapworth to illustrate his three great groups--(1) the Glenkill shales
  (Upper Llandeilo), (2) the Hartfell shales (Caradoc), (3) Birkhill
  shales (Lower Llandovery)--occur respectively in the Glenkill Burn
  north of Kirkmichael, on Hartfell and in Dobbs Linn near St Mary's
  Loch in the basin of the river Annan. In the extreme N.W. of the
  county between Drumlanrig Castle and Dalveen Pass in the S. and the
  Spango and Kello Waters on the N., there is a broad development of
  Arenig, Llandeilo and Caradoc strata, represented by Radiolarian
  cherts, black shales, grits, conglomerates, greywackes and shales
  which rise from underneath the central Tarannon belt and are repeated
  by innumerable folds. In the cores of the arches of Arenig cherts
  there are diabase lavas, tuffs and agglomerates which are typically
  represented on Bail Hill E. of Kirkconnel. Along the southern margin
  of the Tarannon belt, the Wenlock and Ludlow rocks follow in normal
  order, the boundary between the two being defined by a line extending
  from the head of the Ewes Water in Eskdale, S.W. by Lockerbie to
  Mouswald. These consist of greywackes, flags and shales with bands of
  dark graptolite shales, the finer sediments being often well cleaved.
  They are likewise repeated by inverted folds, the axial planes being
  usually inclined to the S.E. The Silurian tableland in the N.W. of the
  county is pierced by intrusive igneous rocks in the form of dikes and
  bosses, which are regarded as of Lower Old Red Sandstone age. Of
  these, the granite mass of Spango Water, N.E. of Kirkconnel, is an
  excellent example. Along the N.W. margin of the county, on the N. side
  of the fault bounding the Silurian tableland, the Lower Old Red
  Sandstone occurs, where it consists of sandstones and conglomerates
  associated with contemporaneous volcanic rocks. The Upper Old Red
  Sandstone forms a narrow strip on the south side of the Silurian
  tableland, resting unconformably on the Silurian rocks and passing
  upwards into the Carboniferous formation. It stretches from the county
  boundary E. of the Ewes Water, S.W. by Langholm to Birrenswark. Along
  this line these Upper Red sandstones and shales are overlaid by a thin
  zone of volcanic rocks which point to contemporaneous volcanic action
  in this region at the beginning of the Carboniferous period. Some of
  the vents from which these igneous materials may have been discharged
  are found along the watershed between Liddesdale and Teviotdale in
  Roxburghshire. The strata of Carboniferous age are found in three
  areas: (1) between Sanquhar and Kirkconnel, (2) at Closeburn near
  Thornhill, (3) in the district between Liddesdale and Ruthwell. In the
  first two instances (Sanquhar and Thornhill) the Carboniferous
  sediments lie in hollows worn out of the old Silurian tableland. In
  the Sanquhar basin the strata belong to the Coal Measures, and include
  several valuable coal-seams which are probably the southern
  prolongations of the members of this division in Ayrshire. At the S.E.
  limit of the Sanquhar Coalfield there are patches of the Carboniferous
  Limestone series, but towards the N. these are overlapped by the Coal
  Measures which thus rest directly on the Silurian platform. At
  Closeburn and Barjarg there are beds of marine limestone, associated
  with sandstones and shales which probably represent marine bands in
  the Carboniferous Limestone series. The most important development of
  Carboniferous strata occurs between Liddesdale and Ruthwell. In the
  valleys of the Liddel and the Esk the following zones are represented
  which are given in ascending order: (1) The Whita Sandstone, (2) the
  Cementstone group, (3) the Fell Sandstones, (4) the Glencartholm
  volcanic group, (5) Marine limestone group with Coal seams, (6)
  Millstone Grit, (7) Rowanburn coal group, (8) Byreburn coal group, (9)
  Red Sandstones of Canonbie yielding plants characteristic of the Upper
  Coal Measures. The coal-seams of the Rowanburn field have been chiefly
  wrought, and in view of their exhaustion bores have been sunk to prove
  the coals beneath the red sandstone of upper Carboniferous age. From
  a palaeontological point of view the Glencartholm volcanic zone is of
  special interest, as the calcareous shale associated with the tuffs
  has yielded a large number of new species of fishes, decapod
  crustaceans, phyllopods and scorpions. The Triassic rocks rest
  unconformably on all older formations within the county. In the tract
  along the Solway Firth they repose on the folded and eroded edges of
  the Carboniferous strata, and when traced westwards to the Dumfries
  basin they rest directly on the Silurian platform. They occur in five
  areas, (1) between Annan and the mouth of the Esk, (2) the Dumfries
  basin, (3) the Thornhill basin, (4) at Lochmaben and Corncockle Moor,
  (5) at Moffat. The strata consist of breccias, false-bedded sandstones
  and marls, the sandstones being extensively quarried for building
  purposes. In the sandstones of Corncockle Moor reptilian footprints
  have been obtained. In the Thornhill basin there is a thin zone of
  volcanic rocks at the base of this series which are evidently on the
  horizon of the lavas beneath the Mauchline sandstones in Ayrshire. In
  the Sanquhar basin there are small outliers of lavas probably of this
  age and several vents filled with agglomerate from which these igneous
  materials in the Thornhill basin may have been derived. There are
  several striking examples of basalt dikes of Tertiary age, one having
  been traced from the Lead Hills south-east by Moffat, across
  Eskdalemuir to the English border.

_Climate and Industries._--The climate is mild, with a mean yearly
temperature of 48° F. (January, 38.5°; July, 59.5°), and the average
annual rainfall is 53 ins. Towards the middle of the 18th century
farmers began to raise stock for the south, and a hundred years later
20,000 head of heavy cattle were sent annually to the English markets.
The Galloways, which were the breed in vogue at first, have been to a
large extent replaced by shorthorns and Ayrshire dairy cattle. Sheep
breeding, of later origin, has attained to remarkable dimensions, the
walks in the higher hilly country being given over to Cheviots, and the
richer pasture of the low-lying farms being reserved for half-bred
lambs, a cross of Cheviots and Leicesters or other long-woolled rams.
Pig-feeding, once important, has declined before the imports of bacon
from foreign countries. Horse-breeding is pursued on a considerable
scale. Grain crops, of which oats are the principal, show a downward
tendency. Arable farms range from 100 acres to 300 acres, and pastoral
from 300 to 3000 acres.

In general the manufactures are only of local importance and mostly
confined to Dumfries and a few of the larger towns. Langholm is famous
for its tweeds; breweries and distilleries are found at Annan, Sanquhar
and elsewhere; some shipping is carried on at Annan and Dumfries; and
the salmon fisheries of the Nith and Annan and the Solway Firth are of
value.

_Communications._--The Glasgow & South-Western railway from Glasgow to
Carlisle runs through Nithsdale, practically following the course of the
river, and lower Annandale to the Border. The Caledonian railway runs
through Annandale, throwing off at Beattock a small branch to Moffat, at
Lockerbie a cross-country line to Dumfries, and at Kirtlebridge a line
that ultimately crosses the Solway to Bowness. From Dumfries westwards
there is communication with Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbright, Newton
Stewart, Stranraer and Portpatrick. The North British railway sends a
short line to Langholm from Riddings Junction in Cumberland, giving
access to Carlisle and, by the Waverley route, to Edinburgh. There is
also coach service between various points, as from Dumfries to New Abbey
and Dalbeattie, and from Langholm to Eskdalemuir.

_Population and Government._--The population in 1891 was 74,245, and in
1901, 72,571, when there were 176 persons who spoke Gaelic and English.
The chief towns are Annan (pop. in 1901, 4309), Dumfries (14,444),
Langholm (3142), Lockerbie (2358) and Moffat (2153). The county returns
one member to parliament. Dumfries, the county town, Annan, Lochmaben
and Sanquhar are royal burghs; Dumfries forms a sheriffdom with the
shires of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown, and there is a resident
sheriff-substitute at Dumfries, who sits also at Annan, Langholm and
Lockerbie. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, and some of the
public schools earn grants for higher education. The county council and
most of the borough councils give the bulk of the "residue" grant to the
county committee on secondary education, which is thus enabled, besides
assisting building schemes, to subsidize high schools, to provide
bursaries and apparatus, and to carry on science and technical classes,
embracing agriculture, dairying (at Kilmarnock Dairy school) and
practical chemistry. There are academies at Dumfries, Annan, Moffat and
other centres.

_History._--The British tribe which inhabited this part of Scotland was
called by the Romans Selgovae. They have left many signs of their
presence, such as hill forts in the north, stone circles (as in Dunscore
and Eskdalemuir), camps (Dryfesdale), tumuli and cairns (Closeburn), and
sculptured stones (Dornock). The country around Moffat especially is
rich in remains. At Holywood, near Dumfries, there stand the relic of
the grove of sacred oaks from which the place derived its name, and a
stone circle known locally as the Twelve Apostles. In the parish church
of Ruthwell (pron. Rivvel: the "rood, or cross, well") is preserved an
ancient cross which tells in Runic characters the story of the
Crucifixion. There are traces of the Roman roads which ran by Dalveen
Pass into Clydesdale and up the Annan to Tweeddale, and at Birrens is
one of the best-preserved examples of a Roman camp. Roman altars, urns
and coins are found in many places. Upon the withdrawal of the Romans,
the Selgovae were conquered by Scots from Ireland, who, however, fused
with the natives. The Saxon conquest of Dumfriesshire does not seem to
have been thorough, the people of Nithsdale and elsewhere maintaining
their Celtic institutions up to the time of David I.

As a Border county Dumfriesshire was the scene of stirring deeds at
various epochs, especially in the days of Robert Bruce. Edward I.
besieged Carlaverock Castle, and the factions of Bruce (who was lord of
Annandale), John Comyn and John Baliol were at constant feud. The Border
clans, as haughty and hot-headed as the Gaels farther north, were always
at strife. There is record of a bloody fight in Dryfesdale in 1593, when
the Johnstones slew 700 Maxwells, and, overtaking the fugitives at
Lockerbie, there massacred most of the remnant. These factions embroiled
the dalesmen until the 18th century. The highlands of the shire afforded
retreat to the persecuted Covenanters, who, at Sanquhar, published in
1680 their declaration against the king, anticipating the principles of
the "glorious Revolution" by several years. Prince Charles Edward's
ambition left the shire comparatively untouched, for the Jacobite
sentiment made little appeal to the people.

Dumfriesshire is inseparably connected with the name of Robert Burns,
who farmed at Ellisland on the Nith for three years, and spent the last
five years of his life at Dumfries. Thomas Carlyle was born at
Ecclefechan, in a house still standing, and was buried beside his
parents in the kirkyard of the old Secession church (now the United
Free). His farm of Craigenputtock was left to Edinburgh University in
order to found the John Welsh bursaries in classics and mathematics.

  See W. M'Dowall, _History of the Burgh of Dumfries_ (Edinburgh, 1887);
  Sir Herbert Maxwell, _Dumfries and Galloway_ (Edinburgh and London,
  1897); J. Macdonald and J. Barbour, _Birrens and its Antiquities_
  (Dumfries, 1897); Sir William Fraser, _The Book of Carlaverock_
  (Edinburgh, 1873); _The Douglas Book_ (Edinburgh, 1885); _The
  Annandale Book_ (Edinburgh, 1894); G. Neilson, _Annandale under the
  Bruces_ (Annan, 1887); C.T. Ramage, _Drumlanrig Castle and the
  Douglases_ (Dumfries, 1876).



DÜMICHEN, JOHANNES (1833-1894), German Egyptologist, was born near
Grossglogau. He studied philology and theology in Berlin and Breslau.
Subsequently he became a pupil of Lepsius and Brugsch, and devoted
himself to the study of Egyptian inscriptions. He travelled widely in
Egypt, and published his results in a number of important books. In 1872
he was chosen professor of Egyptology at Strassburg. The value of his
work consists not only in the stores of material which he collected, but
also in the success with which he dealt with many of the problems raised
by the inscriptions.

  Among his works are _Bauurkunde des Tempels von Dendera_ (1865);
  _Geographische Inschriften altagyptischer Denkmaler_ (4 vols.,
  1865-1885); _Altagyptische Kalenderinschriften_ (1866); _Altagypt.
  Tempelinschriften_ (2 vols., 1867); _Historische Inschriften altagypt.
  Denkmaler_ (2 vols., 1867-1869); _Baugeschichte und Beschreibung des
  Denderatempels_ (Strassburg, 1877); _Die Oasen der libyschen Wüste_
  (1878); _Die kalendarischen Opferfestlisten von Medinet-Habu_(1881);
  _Gesch. des alten Äegypten_ (1878-1883); _Der Grabpalast des
  Patuamenap in der thebanischen Nekropolis_ (1884-1894).



DÜMMLER, ERNST LUDWIG (1830-1902), German historian, the son of
Ferdinand Dümmler (1777-1846), a Berlin bookseller, was born in Berlin,
on the 2nd of January 1830. He studied at Bonn under J.W. Löbell
(1786-1863), under L. von Ranke and W. Wattenbach, and his doctor's
dissertation, _De Arnulfo Francorum rege_ (Berlin, 1852), was a notable
essay. He entered the faculty at Halle in 1855, and started an
historical _Seminar_. In 1858 he became professor extraordinary, in 1866
full professor. In 1875 he became a member of the revised committee
directing the _Monumenta Germaniae historica_, himself undertaking the
direction of the section _Antiquitates_, and in 1888 became president of
the central board in Berlin. This was an official recognition of
Dümmler's leading position among German historians. In addition to
numerous critical works and editions of texts, he published _Piligrim
von Passau und das Erzbistum Lorch_ (1854), _Über die älteren Slawen in
Dalmatien_ (1856), _Das Formelbuch des Bischofs Salomo III. von
Konstanz_ (1857) and _Anselm der Peripatetiker_ (1872). But his great
work was the _Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reiches_ (Berlin, 1862-1865,
in 2 vols.; 2nd ed. 1887-1888, in 3 vols.). In conjunction with
Wattenbach he completed the _Monumenta Alcuiniana_ (Berlin, 1873), which
had been begun by Philipp Jaffé, and with R. Köpke he wrote _Kaiser Otto
der Grosse_ (Leipzig, 1876). He edited the first and second volumes of
the _Poëtae latini aevi Carolini_ for the _Monumenta Germaniae
historica_ (Berlin, 1881-1884). Dümmler died in Berlin on the 11th of
September 1902.

His son, Ferdinand (1859-1896), who won some reputation as an
archaeologist and philologist, was professor at the university of Basel
from 1890 until his death on the 15th of November 1896.



DUMONT, the name of a family of prominent French artists. François
Dumont (1688-1726), a sculptor, best known for his figures in the church
of Saint Sulpice, Paris, was the brother of the painter Jacques
Dumont,[1] known as "le Romain" (1701-1781), whose chief success was
gained with a great allegorical composition for the Paris
_hôtel-de-ville_ in 1761. François's son Edme (1720-1775), the latter's
son Jacques Edme (1761-1844), and the last-named's son Augustin
Alexander (1801-1884) were also famous sculptors.

  See G. Vattier, _Une Famille d'artistes_ (1890).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Not to be confounded with his contemporary Jean Joseph Dumons
    (1687-1779), sometimes called Dumont, best known for his designs for
    the Aubusson tapestries.



DUMONT, ANDRÉ HUBERT (1809-1857), Belgian geologist, was born at Liége
on the 15th of February 1809. His first work was a masterly _Mémoire_ on
the geology of the province of Liége published in 1832. A few years
later he became professor of mineralogy and geology and afterwards
rector in the university of Liége. His attention was now given to the
mineralogical and stratigraphical characters of the geological
formations in Belgium--and the names given by him to many subdivisions
of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages have been adopted. His _Mémoire sur les
terrains ardennais et rhénan de l'Ardenne, du Brabant et du Condroz_
(1847-1848) is notable for the care with which the mineral characters of
the strata were described, but the palaeontological characters were
insufficiently considered, and neither the terms "Silurian" nor
"Devonian" were adopted. During twenty years he laboured at the
preparation of a geological map of Belgium (1849). He spared no pains to
make his work as complete as possible, examining on foot almost every
area of importance in the country. Journeying to the more southern parts
of Europe, he investigated the shores of the Bosphorus, the mountains of
Spain and other tracts, and gradually gathered materials for a
geological map of Europe: a work of high merit which was "one of the
first serious attempts to establish on a larger scale the geological
correlation of the various countries of Europe." The Geological Society
of London awarded him in 1840 the Wollaston medal. He died at Liége on
the 28th of February 1857.

  See Memoir by Major-General J.E. Portlock in _Address to Geol. Soc._
  (London, 1858).



DUMONT, FRANÇOIS (1751-1831), French miniature painter, was born at
Lunéville (Meurthe), and was left an orphan when quite young, with five
brothers and sisters to support. He was for a while a student under Jean
Girardet, and then, on the advice of a Lunéville Academician, Madame
Coster, set up a studio for himself. In 1784 he journeyed to Rome,
returning after four years' careful study, and in 1788 was accepted as
an Academician and granted an apartment in the Louvre. He married the
daughter of Antoine Vestier, the miniature painter, and had two sons,
Aristide and Bias, both of whom became painters. He was one of the three
greatest miniature painters of France, painting portraits of Louis XVI.
and Marie Antoinette, Louis XVIII. and Charles X., and of almost all the
important persons of his day. His own portrait was engraved both by
Audouin and by Tardieu. He resided the greater part of his life in
Paris, and there he died. A younger brother, known as Tony Dumont, was
also a miniature painter, a pupil of his brother, a frequent exhibitor
and the recipient of a medal from the Academy in 1810. Each artist
signed with the surname only, and there is some controversy concerning
the attribution to each artist of his own work. Tony was an expert
violinist and delighted in painting portraits of persons who were
playing upon the violin. Many of Dumont's finest paintings came into the
collection of Mr J. Pierpont Morgan, but others are in the Louvre,
presented by the heir of Bias Dumont. The work of both painters is
distinguished by breadth, precision and a charming scheme of colouring,
and the unfinished works of the elder brother are amongst some of the
most beautiful miniatures ever produced.

  See _The History of Portrait Miniatures_, by G.C. Williamson (London,
  1904); also the privately printed _Catalogue of the Collection of
  Miniatures of Mr J. Pierpont Morgan_, vol. iv.     (G. C. W.)



DUMONT, JEAN (d. 1726), French publicist, was born in France in the 17th
century, the precise date being unknown. He followed the profession of
arms; but, not obtaining promotion so rapidly as he expected, he quitted
the service and travelled through different parts of Europe. He stopped
in Holland with the intention of publishing an account of his travels.
But in the interval, at the request of his bookseller, he wrote and
published several pamphlets, which were eagerly sought after, owing to
the unceremonious manner in which he treated the ministry of France.
This freedom having deprived him of all hope of employment in his own
country, he thought of forming a permanent establishment in that where
he resided, and accordingly commenced a course of lectures on public
law. The project succeeded far beyond his expectations; and some useful
compilations which he published about the same period made him
favourably known in other countries. The emperor appointed him his
historiographer, and some time afterwards conferred on him the title of
baron de Carlscroon. He died at Vienna in 1726, at an advanced age.

  The following is a list of his publications:--(1) _Voyages en France,
  en Italie, en Allemagne, à Malte, et en Turquie_ (Hague, 1699, 4 vols.
  12mo); (2) _Mémoires politiques pour servir à la parfaite intelligence
  de l'histoire de la Paix de Ryswick_ (Hague, 1699, 4 vols. 12mo); (3)
  _Recherches modestes des causes de la présente guerre, en ce qui
  concerne les Provinces Unies_ (1713, 12mo); (4) _Recueil de traités
  d'alliance, de pai, et de commerce entre les rois, princes, et états,
  depuis la Paix de Münster_ (Amsterdam, 1710, 2 vols. 12mo); (5)
  _Soupirs de l'Europe à la vue du projet de paix contenu dans la
  harangue de la reine de la Grande-Bretagne_ (1712, 12mo); (6) _Corps
  universel diplomatique du droit des gens, contenant un recueil des
  traités de paix, d'alliance, &c., faits en Europe, depuis Charlemagne
  jusqu'à présent_ (Amsterdam, 1626, and following years, 8 vols. fol.,
  continued after Dumont's death by J. Rousset); and (7) _Batailles
  gagnées par le Prince Eugène de Savoie_ (Hague, 1723). Dumont was also
  the author of _Lettres historiques contenant ce qui se passe de plus
  important en Europe_ (12mo). This periodical, which was commenced in
  1692, two volumes appearing annually, Dumont conducted till 1710, from
  which time it was continued by Basnage and others until 1728. The
  earlier volumes are much prized.



DUMONT, PIERRE ÉTIENNE LOUIS (1759-1829), French political writer, was
born on the 18th of July 1759 at Geneva, of which his family had been
citizens of good repute from the days of Calvin. He was educated for the
ministry at the college of Geneva, and in 1781 was chosen one of the
pastors of the city. The political troubles which disturbed Geneva in
1782, however, suddenly turned the course of his life. He belonged to
the liberals or democrats, and the triumph of the aristocratic party,
through the interference of the courts of France and Sardinia, made
residence in his native town impossible, though he was not among the
number of the proscribed. He therefore went to join his mother and
sisters at St Petersburg. In this he was probably influenced in part by
the example of his townsman Pierre Lefort, the first tutor, minister,
and general of the tsar. At St Petersburg he was for eighteen months
pastor of the French church. In 1785 he removed to London, Lord
Shelburne, then a minister of state, having invited him to undertake the
education of his sons. It was at the house of Lord Shelburne, now 1st
marquess of Lansdowne, where he was treated as a friend or rather member
of the family, that he became acquainted with many illustrious men,
amongst others Fox, Sheridan, Lord Holland and Sir Samuel Romilly. With
the last of these he formed a close and enduring friendship, which had
an important influence on his life and pursuits.

In 1788 Dumont visited Paris with Romilly. During a stay of two months
in that city he had almost daily intercourse with Mirabeau, and a
certain affinity of talents and pursuits led to an intimacy between two
persons diametrically opposed to each other in habits and in character.
On his return from Paris Dumont made the acquaintance of Jeremy Bentham.
Filled with admiration for the genius of Bentham, Dumont made it one of
the chief objects of his life to recast and edit the writings of the
great English jurist in a form suitable for the ordinary reading public.
This literary relationship was, according to Dumont's own account, one
of a somewhat peculiar character. All the fundamental ideas and most of
the illustrative material were supplied in the manuscripts of Bentham;
Dumont's task was chiefly to abridge by striking out repeated matter, to
supply lacunae, to secure uniformity of style, and to improve the
French. The following works of Bentham were published under his
editorship: _Traité de législation civile et pénale_ (1802), _Théorie
des peines et des récompenses_ (1811), _Tactique des assemblées
législatives_ (1815), _Traité des preuves judiciaires_ (1823) and _De
l'organization judiciaire et de la codification_ (1828).

In the summer of 1789 Dumont went to Paris. The object of the journey
was to obtain through Necker, who had just returned to office, an
unrestricted restoration of Genevese liberty, by cancelling the treaty
of guarantee between France and Switzerland, which prevented the
republic from enacting new laws without the consent of the parties to
this treaty. The proceedings and negotiations to which this mission gave
rise necessarily brought Dumont into connexion with most of the leading
men in the Constituent Assembly, and made him an interested spectator,
sometimes even a participator, indirectly, in the events of the French
Revolution. The same cause also led him to renew his acquaintance with
Mirabeau, whom he found occupied with his duties as a deputy, and with
the composition of his journal, the _Courier de Provence_. For a time
Dumont took an active and very efficient part in the conduct of this
journal, supplying it with reports as well as original articles, and
also furnishing Mirabeau with speeches to be delivered or rather read in
the assembly, as related in his highly instructive and interesting
posthumous work entitled _Souvenirs sur Mirabeau_ (1832). In fact his
friend George Wilson used to relate that one day, when they were dining
together at a _table d'hôte_ at Versailles, he saw Dumont engaged in
writing the most celebrated paragraph of Mirabeau's address to the king
for the removal of the troops. He also reported such of Mirabeau's
speeches as he did not write, embellishing them from his own stores,
which were inexhaustible. But this co-operation soon came to an end;
for, being attacked in pamphlets as one of Mirabeau's writers, he felt
hurt at the notoriety thus given to his name in connexion with a man
occupying Mirabeau's peculiar position, and returned to England in 1791.

In 1801 he travelled over various parts of Europe with Lord Henry Petty,
afterwards 3rd marquess of Lansdowne, and on his return settled down to
the editorship of the works of Bentham already mentioned. In 1814 the
restoration of Geneva to independence induced Dumont to return to his
native place, and he soon became the leader of the supreme council. He
devoted particular attention to the judicial and penal systems of his
native state, and many improvements on both are due to him. He died at
Milan when on an autumn tour on the 29th of September 1829.



DUMONT D'URVILLE, JULES SÉBASTIEN CÉSAR (1790-1842), French navigator,
was born at Condé-sur-Noireau, in Normandy, on the 23rd of May 1790. The
death of his father, who before the revolution had held a judicial post
in Condé, devolved the care of his education on his mother and his
maternal uncle, the Abbé de Croizilles. Failing to pass the entrance
examination for the École Polytechnique, he went to sea in 1807 as a
novice on board the "Aquilon." During the next twelve years he gradually
rose in the service, and added a knowledge of botany, entomology,
English, German, Spanish, Italian and even Hebrew and Greek to the
professional branches of his studies. In 1820, while engaged in a
hydrographic survey of the Mediterranean, he was fortunate enough to
recognize the Venus of Milo (Melos) in a Greek statue recently
unearthed, and to secure its preservation by the report he presented to
the French ambassador at Constantinople. A wider field for his energies
was furnished in 1822 by the circumnavigating expedition of the
"Coquille" under the command of his friend Duperrey; and on its return
in 1825 his services were rewarded by promotion to the rank of
_capitaine de frégate_, and he was entrusted with the control of a
similar enterprise, with the especial purpose of discovering traces of
the lost explorer La Pérouse, in which he was successful. The
"Astrolabe," as he renamed the "Coquille," left Toulon on the 25th of
April 1826, and returned to Marseilles on the 25th of March 1829, having
traversed the South Atlantic, coasted the Australian continent from King
George's Sound to Port Jackson, charted various parts of New Zealand,
and visited the Fiji Islands, the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, New
Guinea, Amboyna, Van Diemen's Land, the Caroline Islands, Celebes and
Mauritius. Promotion to the rank of _capitaine de vaisseau_ was bestowed
on the commander in August 1829; and in August of the following year he
was charged with the delicate task of conveying the exiled king Charles
X. to England. His proposal to undertake a voyage of discovery to the
south polar regions was discouraged by Arago and others, who criticized
the work of the previous expedition in no measured terms; but at last,
in 1837, all difficulties were surmounted, and on the 7th of September
he set sail from Toulon with the "Astrolabe" and its convoy "La Zélée."
On the 15th of January 1838 they sighted the Antarctic ice, and soon
after their progress southward was blocked by a continuous bank, which
they vainly coasted for 300 m. to the east. Returning westward they
visited the South Orkney Islands and part of the New Shetlands, and
discovered Joinville Island and Louis Philippe Land, but were compelled
by scurvy to seek succour at Talcahuano in Chile. Thence they proceeded
across the Pacific and through the Asiatic archipelago, visiting among
others the Fiji and the Pelew Islands, coasting New Guinea, and
circumnavigating Borneo. In 1840, leaving their sick at Hobart Town,
Tasmania, they returned to the Antarctic region, and on the 21st of the
month were rewarded by the discovery of Adélie Land, which D'Urville
named after his wife, in 140° E. The 6th of November found them at
Toulon. D'Urville was at once appointed _contre-amiral_, and in 1841 he
received the gold medal of the Société de Géographie. On the 8th of May
1842 he was killed, with his wife and son, in a railway accident near
Meudon.

His principal works are--_Enumeratio plantarum quas in insulis
Archipelagi aut littoribus Ponti Euxini_, &c. (1822); _Voyage de la
corvette "l'Astrolabe," 1826-1829_ (Paris, 1830-1835), and _Voyage au
pôle sud et dans l'Océanie, 1837-1840_ (Paris, 1842-1854), in each of
which his scientific colleagues had a share; _Voyages autour du monde;
résumé général des voyages de Magellan_, &c. (Paris, 1833 and 1844). An
island (also called Kairu) off the north coast of New Guinea, and a cape
on the same coast, bear the name of D'Urville.



DUMORTIERITE, a mineral described in 1881 by M.F. Gonnard, who named it
after Eugène Dumortier, a palaeontologist of Lyons, France. It is
essentially a basic aluminium borosilicate, belonging to the
orthorhombic system; it occurs usually in fibrous forms, of smalt-blue,
greenish-blue, lavender or almost black colour, and exhibits strong
pleochroism. According to W.T. Schaller (_Amer. Journ. Sci._, 1905
(iv.), 19, p. 211) a purple colour may be due to the presence of
titanium. Analyses of some specimens point to the formula
(SiO4)3Al(AlO)7(BO)H, which, written in this form, explains the analogy
with andalusite and the alteration into muscovite. Dumortierite occurs
in gneiss at Chaponost, near Lyons, and at a few other European
localities; it is found also in the United States, being known from near
New York City, from Riverside and San Diego counties, California, and
from Yuma county, Arizona. The last-named locality yields the mineral in
some quantity in the form of dense fibres embedded in quartz, to which
it imparts a blue colour. The mineral aggregate is polished as an
ornamental stone, rather resembling lapis-lazuli.



DUMOULIN, CHARLES [MOLINAEUS] (1500-1566), French jurist, was born in
Paris in 1500. He began practice as an advocate before the parlement of
Paris. Dumoulin turned Calvinist, and when the persecution of the
Protestants began he went to Germany, where for a long time he taught
law at Strassburg, Besançon and elsewhere. He returned to France in
1557. Dumoulin had, in 1552, written _Commentaire sur l'édit du roi
Henri II sur les petites dates_, which was condemned by the Sorbonne,
but his _Conseil sur le fait du concile de Trente_ created a still
greater stir, and aroused against him both the Catholics and the
Calvinists. He was imprisoned by order of the parlement until 1564. It
was as a jurist that Dumoulin gained his great reputation, being
regarded by his contemporaries as the "prince of jurisconsults." His
remarkable erudition and breadth of view had a considerable effect on
the subsequent development of French law. He was a bitter enemy of
feudalism, which he attacked in his _De feudis_ (Paris, 1539). Other
important works were his commentaries on the customs of Paris (Paris,
1539, 1554; Frankfort, 1575; Lausanne, 1576), valuable as the only
commentary on those in force in 1510, and the _Extricatio labyrinthi
dividui et individui_, a treatise on the law of surety.

  A collected edition of Dumoulin's works was published in Paris in 1681
  (5 vols.).



DUMOURIEZ, CHARLES FRANÇOIS (1739-1823), French general, was born at
Cambray in 1739. His father was a commissary of the royal army, and
educated his son most carefully in various branches of learning. The boy
continued his studies at the college of Louis-le-Grand, and in 1757
began his military career as a volunteer in the campaign of Rossbach. He
received a commission for good conduct in action, and served in the
later German campaigns of the Seven Years' War with distinction; but at
the peace he was retired as a captain, with a small pension and the
cross of St Louis. Dumouriez then visited Italy and Corsica, Spain and
Portugal, and his memorials to the duc de Choiseul on Corsican affairs
led to his re-employment on the staff of the French expeditionary corps
sent to the island, for which he gained the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
After this he became a member of the _Secret du roi_, the secret service
under Louis XV., where his fertility of diplomatic resource had full
scope. In 1770 he was sent on a mission into Poland, where in addition
to his political business he organized a Polish militia. The fall of
Choiseul brought about his recall, and somewhat later he was imprisoned
in the Bastille, where he spent six months, occupying himself with
literary pursuits. He was then removed to Caen, where he was detained
until the accession of Louis XVI.

Upon his release in 1774 he married his cousin Mlle de Broissy, but he
was neglectful and unfaithful, and in 1789 the pair separated, the wife
taking refuge in a convent. Meanwhile Dumouriez had devoted his
attention to the internal state of his own country, and amongst the very
numerous memorials which he sent in to the government was one on the
defence of Normandy and its ports, which procured him in 1778 the post
of commandant of Cherbourg, which he administered with much success for
ten years. He became _maréchal de camp_ in 1788; but his ambition was
not satisfied, and at the outbreak of the Revolution, seeing the
opportunity for carving out a career, he went to Paris, where he joined
the Jacobin Club. The death of Mirabeau, to whose fortunes he had
attached himself, was a great blow to him; but, promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-general and commandant of Nantes, his opportunity came after
the flight to Varennes, when he attracted attention by offering to march
to the assistance of the Assembly. He now attached himself to the
Girondist party, and on the 15th of March 1792 was appointed minister of
foreign affairs. He was mainly responsible for the declaration of war
against Austria (April 20), and the invasion of the Low Countries was
planned by him. On the dismissal of Roland, Clavière and Servan (June
13), he took the latter's post of minister of war, but resigned it two
days later on account of the king's refusal to come to terms with the
Assembly, and went to join the army of Marshal Lückner. After the
_émeute_ of August 10 and Lafayette's flight he was appointed to the
command of the "Army of the Centre," and at the same moment the
Coalition assumed the offensive. Dumouriez acted promptly. His
subordinate Kellermann repulsed the Prussians at Valmy (September 20,
1792), and he himself severely defeated the Austrians at Jemappes
(November 6). Returning to Paris, he was received with a popular
ovation; but he was out of sympathy with the extremists in power, his
old-fashioned methodical method of conducting war exposed him to the
criticism of the ardent Jacobins, and a defeat would mean the end of his
career. Defeat coming to him at Neerwinden in January 1793, he ventured
all on a desperate stroke. Arresting the commissaries of the Convention
sent to inquire into his conduct, he handed them over to the enemy, and
then attempted to persuade his troops to march on Paris and overthrow
the revolutionary government. The attempt failed, and Dumouriez, with
the duc de Chartres (afterwards King Louis Philippe) and his brother the
duc de Montpensier, fled into the Austrian camp.

He now wandered from country to country, occupied in ceaseless intrigues
with Louis XVIII., or for setting up an Orleanist monarchy, until in
1804 he settled in England, where the government conferred on him a
pension of £1200 a year. He became a valuable adviser to the War Office
in connexion with the struggle with Napoleon, though the extent to which
this went was only known in public many years later. In 1814 and 1815 he
endeavoured to procure from Louis XVIII. the bâton of a marshal of
France, but was refused. He died at Turville Park, near
Henley-on-Thames, on the 14th of March 1823. His memoirs were published
at Hamburg in 1794. An enlarged edition, _La Vie et les mémoires du
Général Dumouriez_, appeared at Paris in 1823. Dumouriez was also the
author of a large number of political pamphlets.

  See A. von Boguslawski, _Das Leben des Generals Dumouriez_ (Berlin,
  1878-1879); _Revue des deux mondes_ (15th July, 1st and 15th August
  1884); H. Welschinger, _Le Roman de Dumouriez_ (1890); A. Chuquet, _La
  Première Invasion, Valmy, La Retraite de Brunswick, Jemappes, La
  Trahison de Dumouriez_ (Paris, 1886-1891); A. Sorel, _L'Europe et la
  Révolution française_ (1885-1892); J. Holland Rose and A.M. Broadley,
  _Dumouriez and the Defence of England_ (1908); E. Daudet, _La
  Conjuration de Pichegru et les complots royalistes du midi et du
  l'est, 1795-1797_ (Paris, 1901).



DUMP. (1) (Of obscure origin; corresponding in form and possibly
connected with the word, are the Mid. Dutch _domp_, mist or haze, and
the Ger. _dumpf_, dull or dazed), a state of wonder, perplexity or
melancholy. The word thus occurs particularly in the plural, in such
phrases as "doleful dumps." It was also formerly used for a tune,
especially one of a mournful kind, a dirge. (2) (Connected with "dumpy,"
but appearing later than that word, and also of obscure origin),
something short and thick, and hence used of many objects such as a lead
counter or medal, of a coin formerly used in Australia, formed by
punching a circular piece out of a Spanish dollar, and of a short thick
bolt used in shipbuilding. (3) (Probably of Norse origin, cf. Nor.
_dumpa_, and Dan. _dumpe_, meaning "to fall" suddenly, with a bump), to
throw down in a heap, and hence particularly applied to the depositing
of any large quantity of material, to the shooting of rubbish, or
tilting a load from a cart. It is thus used of the method of disposal of
the masses of gravel, &c., disintegrated by water in the hydraulic
method of gold mining. A "dump" or "dumping-ground" is thus the place
where such waste material is deposited. The use of the term "dumping" in
the economics of international trade has come into prominence in the
tariff reform controversy in the United Kingdom. It is sometimes used
loosely of the importing of foreign goods at prices below those ruling
in the importing country; but strictly the term is applied to the
importing, at a price below the cost of production, of the surplus of
manufactures of a foreign country over and above what has been disposed
of in its home market. The ability to sell such a surplus in a foreign
market below the cost of production depends on the prices of the home
market being artificially sustained at a sufficiently high level by a
monopoly or by a tariff or by bounties. An essential factor in the
operation of "dumping" is the lessening of the whole cost of production
by manufacture on a large scale.



DUNASH, the name of two Jewish scholars of the 10th century.

1. DUNASH BEN LABRAT, grammarian and poet, belonged to the brilliant
circle attracted to Cordova by Hasdai, and took a large share in
promoting the Jewish "Golden Age" under the Moors in Andalusia. Dunash
not only helped in the foundation of a school of scientific philology,
but adapted Arabian metres to Hebrew verse, and thereby gave an impulse
to the neo-Hebraic poetry, which reached its highest level in Spain.

2. DUNASH IBN TAMIM was, like the preceding, a leader in the critical
study of language among Arabic-speaking Jews. Professor Bacher says of
him: "In the history of Hebrew philology, Ibn Tamim ranks as one of the
first representatives of the systematic comparison of Hebrew and
Arabic." The philological researches of the 10th century were closely
associated with the Spanish-Moorish culture of the period. (I. A.)



DUNBAR, GEORGE (1774-1851), English classical scholar and lexicographer,
was born at Coldingham in Berwickshire. In early life he followed the
humble profession of gardening, but, having been permanently injured by
an accident, devoted himself to the study of the classics. When about
thirty years of age, he settled in Edinburgh, where he obtained a
tutorship in the family of Lord Provost Fettes. In 1807 he succeeded
Andrew Dalzel as professor of Greek in the university. Dunbar held his
appointment till his death on the 6th of December 1851. Although a man
of great energy and industry, Dunbar did not produce anything of
permanent value. He deserves mention, however, for his Greek-English and
English-Greek lexicon (1840), on the compilation of which he spent eight
years. Although now superseded, it was the best work of its kind that
had appeared in England.

  The little that is known of Dunbar's life will be found in the
  _Caledonian Mercury_ (8th of December 1851).



DUNBAR, PAUL LAURENCE (1872-1906), American author, of negro descent,
was born in Dayton, Ohio, on the 27th of June 1872. He graduated (1891)
from the Dayton high school, had a varied experience as elevator boy,
mechanic and journalist, and in 1897-1898 held a position on the staff
of the Library of Congress, resigning in December 1898 to devote himself
to literary work. He died of consumption at his home in Dayton on the
8th of February 1906. His poetry was brought to the attention of
American readers by William Dean Howells, who wrote an appreciative
introduction to his _Lyrics of Lowly Life_ (1896). Subsequently Dunbar
published eleven other volumes of verse, three novels and five
collections of short stories. Some of his short stories and sketches,
especially those dealing with the American negro, are charming; they are
far superior to his novels, which deal with scenes in which the author
is not so much at home. His most enduring work, however, is his poetry.
Some of this is in literary English, but the best is in the dialect of
his people. In it he has preserved much of their very temperament and
outlook on life, usually with truth and freshness of feeling, united
with a happy choice of language and much lyrical grace and sweetness,
and often with rare humour and pathos. These poems of the soil are a
distinct contribution to American literature, and entitle the author to
be called pre-eminently the poet of his race in America.

  See _Life and Works of Paul Laurence Dunbar_ (Naperville, Ill., 1907),
  with a biography by L.K. Wiggins.



DUNBAR, WILLIAM (c. 1460-c. 1520), Scottish poet, was probably a native
of East Lothian. This is assumed from a satirical reference in the
_Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie_, where, too, it is hinted that he was a
member of the noble house of Dunbar. His name appears in 1477 in the
Register of the Faculty of Arts at St Andrews, among the Determinants or
Bachelors of Arts, and in 1479 among the masters of the university.
Thereafter he joined the order of Observantine Franciscans, at St
Andrews or Edinburgh, and proceeded to France as a wandering friar. He
spent a few years in Picardy, and was still abroad when, in 1491,
Bothwell's mission to secure a bride for the young James IV. reached the
French court. There is no direct evidence that he accompanied
Blackadder, archbishop of Glasgow, on a similar embassy to Spain in
1495. On the other hand, we know that he proceeded with that prelate to
England on his more successful mission in 1501. Dunbar had meanwhile
(about 1500) returned to Scotland, and had become a priest at court, and
a royal pensioner. His literary life begins with his attachment to
James's household. All that is known of him from this date to his death
about 1520 is derived from the poems or from entries in the royal
registers of payments of pension and grants of livery. He is spoken of
as the Rhymer of Scotland in the accounts of the English privy council
dealing with the visit of the mission for the hand of Margaret Tudor,
rather because he wrote a poem in praise of London, than because, as has
been stated, he held the post of laureate at the Scottish court. In 1511
he accompanied the queen to Aberdeen and commemorated her visit in
verse. Other pieces such as the _Orisoun_ ("Quhen the Gouernour past in
France"), apropos of the setting out of the regent Albany, are of
historical interest, but they tell us little more than that Dunbar was
alive. The date of his death is uncertain. He is named in Lyndsay's
_Testament and Complaynt of the Papyngo_ (1530) with poets then dead,
and the reference precedes that to Douglas who had died in 1522. He
certainly survived his royal patron. We may not be far out in saying
that he died about 1520.

Dunbar's reputation among his immediate successors was considerable. By
later criticism, stimulated in some measure by Scott's eulogy that he is
"unrivalled by any which Scotland has produced," he has held the highest
place among the northern makars. The praise, though it has been at times
exaggerated, is on the whole just, certainly in respect of variety of
work and mastery of form. He belongs, with James I., Henryson and
Douglas, to the Scots Chaucerian school. In his allegorical poems
reminiscences of the master's style and literary habit are most
frequent. Yet, even there, his discipleship shows certain limitations.
His wilder humour and greater heat of blood give him opportunities in
which the Chaucerian tradition is not helpful, or even possible. His
restlessness leads us at times to a comparison with Skelton, not in
respect of any parallelism of idea or literary craftsmanship, but in his
experimental zeal in turning the diction and tuning the rhythms of the
chaotic English which only Chaucer's genius had reduced to order. The
comparison must not, however, be pushed too far. Skelton's work carries
with it the interest of attempt and failure. Dunbar's command of the
medium was more certain. So that while we admire the variety of his
work, we also admire the competence of his effort.

One hundred and one poems have been ascribed to Dunbar. Of these at
least ninety are generally accepted as his: of the eleven attributed to
him it would be hard to say that they should not be considered
authentic. Most doubt has clung to his verse tale _The Freiris of
Berwik_.

Dunbar's chief allegorical poems are _The Goldyn Targe_ and _The
Thrissil and the Rois_. The motif of the former is the poet's futile
endeavour, in a dream, to ward off the arrows of Dame Beautee by
Reason's "scheld of gold." When wounded and made prisoner, he discovers
the true beauty of the lady: when she leaves him, he is handed over to
Heaviness. The noise of the ship's guns, as the company sails off, wakes
the poet to the real pleasures of a May morning. Dunbar works on the
same theme in a shorter poem, known as _Beauty and the Prisoner_. _The
Thrissil and the Rois_ is a prothalamium in honour of James IV. and
Margaret Tudor, in which the heraldic allegory is based on the familiar
beast-parliament.

The greater part of Dunbar's work is occasional--personal and social
satire, complaints (in the style familiar in the minor verse of
Chaucer's English successors), orisons and pieces of a humorous
character. The last type shows Dunbar at his best, and points the
difference between him and Chaucer. The best specimen of this work, of
which the outstanding characteristics are sheer whimsicality and
topsy-turvy humour, is _The Ballad of Kynd Kittok_. This strain runs
throughout many of the occasional poems, and is not wanting in odd
passages in Dunbar's contemporaries; and it has the additional interest
of showing a direct historical relationship with the work of later
Scottish poets, and chiefly with that of Robert Burns. Dunbar's satire
is never the gentle funning of Chaucer: more often it becomes invective.
Examples of this type are _The Satire on Edinburgh_, _The General
Satire_, the _Epitaph on Donald Owre_, and the powerful vision of _The
Dance of the Sevin Deidlie Synnis_. In the _Flyting of Dunbar and
Kennedie_, an outstanding specimen of a favourite northern form,
analogous to the continental _estrif_, or _tenzone_, he and his rival
reach a height of scurrility which is certainly without parallel in
English literature. This poem has the additional interest of showing the
racial antipathy between the "Inglis"-speaking inhabitants of the
Lothians and the "Scots" or Gaelic-speaking folk of the west country.

There is little in Dunbar which may be called lyrical, and little of the
dramatic. His _Interlud of the Droichis [Dwarf's] part of the Play_, one
of the pieces attributed to him, is supposed to be a fragment of a
dramatic composition. It is more interesting as evidence of his turn for
whimsicality, already referred to, and may for that reason be safely
ascribed to his pen. If further selection be made from the large body of
miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may
stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic
literature; _The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo_, as one of the richest
and most effective _pastiches_ in the older alliterative style, then
used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; _Done is a
battell on the Dragon Blak_, for religious feeling expressed in
melodious verse; and the well-known _Lament for the Makaris_. The main
value of the last is historical, but it too shows Dunbar's mastery of
form, even when dealing with lists of poetic predecessors.

  The chief authorities for the text of Dunbar's poems are:--(a) the
  Asloan MS. (c. 1515); (b) the Chepman and Myllar Prints (1508)
  preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh; (c) Bannatyne MS.
  (1568) in the same; (d) the Maitland Folio MS. (c. 1570-1590) in the
  Pepysian library, Magdalene College, Cambridge. Some of the poems
  appear in the Makculloch MS. (before 1500) in the library of the
  university of Edinburgh; in MS. Cotton Vitellius A. xvi., appendix to
  Royal MSS. No. 58, and Arundel 285, in the British Museum; in the
  Reidpath MS. in the university library of Cambridge; and in the
  Aberdeen Register of Sasines. The first complete edition was published
  by David Laing (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1834) with a supplement
  (Edinburgh, 1865). This has been superseded by the Scottish Text
  Society's edition (ed. John Small, Aeneas J.G. Mackay and Walter
  Gregor, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1893), and by Dr Schipper's 1 vol. edition
  (Vienna; Kais. Akad. der Wissenschaften, 1894). The editions by James
  Paterson (Edinburgh, 1860) and H.B. Baildon (Cambridge, 1907) are of
  minor value. Selections have been frequently reprinted since Ramsay's
  _Ever-Green_ (1724) and Hailes's _Ancient Scottish Poems_ (1817). For
  critical accounts see Irving's _History of Scottish Poetry_,
  Henderson's _Vernacular Poetry of Scotland_, Gregory Smith's
  _Transition Period_, J.H. Millar's _Literary History of Scotland_,
  and the _Cambridge History of English Literature_, vol. ii. (1908).
  Professor Schipper's _William Dunbar, sein Leben und seine Gedichte_
  (with German translations of several of the poems), appeared at Berlin
  in 1884.     (G. G. S.)



DUNBAR (Gaelic, "the fort on the point"), a royal, municipal and police
burgh, and seaport of Haddingtonshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 3581. It is
situated on the southern shore of the entrance to the Firth of Forth,
29¼ m. E. by N. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. Dunbar is
said to have the smallest rainfall in Scotland and is a favourite summer
resort. The ruins of the castle, and the remains of the Grey Friars'
monastery, founded in 1218, at the west end of the town, and Dunbar
House in High Street, formerly a mansion of the Lauderdales, but now
used as barracks, are of historic interest. The parish church, a fine
structure in red sandstone, the massive tower of which, 107 ft. high, is
a landmark for sailors, dates only from 1819, but occupies the site of
what was probably the first collegiate church in Scotland, and contains
the large marble monument to Sir George Home, created earl of Dunbar and
March by James VI. in 1605. Among other public buildings are the town
hall, assembly rooms, St Catherine's hall, the Mechanics' institute and
library.

There are two harbours, difficult of access owing to the number of reefs
and sunken rocks. Towards the cost of building the eastern or older
harbour Cromwell contributed £300. The western or Victoria harbour is a
refuge for vessels between Leith Roads and the Tyne. On the advent of
steam the shipping declined, and even the herring fishery, which
fostered a large curing trade, has lost much of its prosperity. The
industries are chiefly those of agricultural-implement making,
rope-making, brewing and distilling, but a considerable business is done
in the export of potatoes. Dunbar used to form one of the Haddington
district group of parliamentary burghs, but its constituency was merged
in that of the county in 1885.

About 4 m. S.W. is the village of Biel, where, according to some
authorities, William Dunbar the poet was born. One mile to the S.E. of
the town is Broxmouth Park (or Brocksmouth House), the first position of
the English left wing in the battle of 1650, now belonging to the duke
of Roxburghe.

The site of Dunbar is so commanding that a castle was built on the
cliffs at least as early as 856. In 1070 Malcolm Canmore gave it to
Cospatric, earl of Northumberland, ancestor of the earls of Dunbar and
March. The fortress was an important bulwark against English invasion,
and the town--which was created a royal burgh by David II.--grew up
under its protection. The castle was taken by Edward I., who defeated
Baliol in the neighbourhood in 1296, and it afforded shelter to Edward
II. after Bannockburn. In 1336 it was besieged by the English under
William, Lord Montacute, afterwards 1st earl of Salisbury, but was
successfully defended by Black Agnes of Dunbar, countess of March, a
member of the Murray family. Joanna Beaufort, widow of James I., chose
it for her residence, and in 1479, after his daring escape from
Edinburgh Castle, the duke of Albany concealed himself within its walls,
until he contrived to sail for France. In 1567 Mary made Bothwell keeper
of the castle, and sought its shelter herself after the murder of Rizzio
and again after her flight from Borthwick Castle. When she surrendered
at Carberry Hill the stronghold fell into the hands of the regent Moray,
by whom it was dismantled in 1568, but its ruins are still a picturesque
object on the hill above the harbour.

The BATTLE OF DUNBAR was fought on the 3rd (13th) of September 1650
between the English army under Oliver Cromwell and the Scots under David
Leslie, afterwards Lord Newark. It took place about 3 m. S.E. of the
centre of the town, where between the hills and the sea coast there is a
plain about 1 m. wide, through the middle of which the main road from
Dunbar to Berwick runs. The plain and the road are crossed at right
angles by the course of the Brocksburn, or Spott Burn, which at first
separated the hostile armies. Rising from the right bank of the Brock is
Doon Hill (650 ft.), which overlooks the lower course of the stream and
indeed the whole field. For the events preceding the battle, see GREAT
REBELLION.

Cromwell, after a war of manoeuvre near Edinburgh, had been compelled by
want of supplies to withdraw to Dunbar; Leslie pursued and took up a
position on Doon Hill, commanding the English line of retreat on
Berwick. The situation was more than difficult for Cromwell. Some
officers were for withdrawing by sea, but the general chose to hold his
ground, though his army was enfeebled by sickness and would have to
fight on unfavourable terrain against odds of two to one. Leslie,
however, who was himself in difficulties on his post among the bare
hills, and was perhaps subjected to pressure from civil authorities,
descended from the heights on the 2nd of September and began to edge
towards his right, in order first to confront, and afterwards to
surround, his opponent. The cavalry of his left wing stood fast, west of
Doon Hill, as a pivot of manoeuvre, the northern face of Doon (where the
ground rises from the burn at an average slope of fifteen degrees and is
even steeper near the summit) he left unoccupied. The centre of infantry
stood on the forward slope of the long spur which runs east from Doon,
and beyond them, practically on the plain, was the bulk of the Scottish
cavalry. In the evening Cromwell drew up his army, under 11,000
effective men, along the ravine, and issued orders to attack the Scots
at dawn of the 3rd (13th). The left of the Scots was ineffective, as was
a part of their centre of foot on the upper part of the hillside, and
the English commander proposed to deal with the remainder. Before dawn
the English advanced troops crossed the ravine, attacked Doon, and
pinned Leslie's left; under cover of this the whole army began its
manoeuvre. The artillery was posted on the Dunbar side of the burn,
directly opposite and north of Doon, the infantry and cavalry crossed
where they could, and formed up gradually in a line south of and roughly
parallel to the Berwick road, the extreme left of horse and foot, acting
as a reserve, crossed at Brocksmouth House on the outer flank. The Scots
were surprised in their bivouacs, but quickly formed up, and at first
repulsed both the horse and the foot. But ere long Cromwell himself
arrived with his reserve, and the whole English line advanced again. The
fresh impulse enabled it to break the Scottish cavalry and repulse the
foot, and Leslie's line of battle was gradually rolled up from right to
left. In the words of an English officer, "The sun appearing upon the
sea, I heard Nol say, 'Now let God arise, and let His enemies be
scattered,' and following us as we slowly marched I heard him say, 'I
profess they run.'" Driven into the broken ground, and penned between
Doon Hill and the ravine, the Scots were indeed helpless. "They routed
one another after we had done their work on their right wing," says the
same officer. Ten thousand men, including almost the whole of the
Scottish foot, surrendered, and their killed numbered three thousand.
Few of the English were killed. "I do not believe," wrote Cromwell,
"that we have lost twenty men."

[Illustration: Map of Dunbar.]

  The account of the battle of Dunbar here followed is that of C.H.
  Firth, for which see his _Cromwell_, pp. 281 ff. and references there
  given. For other accounts see Carlyle, _Cromwell's Letters and
  Speeches_, letter cxl.; Hoenig, _Cromwell_; Baldock, _Cromwell as a
  Soldier_; and Gardiner, _Hist. of the Commonwealth and Protectorate_,
  vol. i.



DUNBLANE, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, on the left bank of
Allan Water, a tributary of the Forth, 5 m. N. by W. of Stirling by the
Caledonian railway. Pop. (1901) 2516. It is a place of great antiquity,
with narrow streets and old-fashioned houses. The leading industry is
the manufacture of woollens. The cathedral is situated by the side of
the river, and was one of the few ecclesiastical edifices that escaped
injury at the hands of the Reformers. The first church is alleged to
have been erected by Blane, a saint of the 7th century, but the
cathedral was founded by David I. in 1141, and almost entirely rebuilt
about 1240 by Bishop Clemens. Excepting the tower, which is Early Norman
and was probably incorporated from the earlier structure, the building
is of the Early Pointed style. It consists of a nave (130 ft. long, 58
ft. wide, 50 ft. high), aisles, choir (80 ft. long by 30 ft. wide),
chapter-house and tower. Ruskin considered that there was "nothing so
perfect in its simplicity" as the west window, the design of which
resembles a leaf. After the decline of episcopacy the building was
neglected for a long period, but the choir, which contains some carved
oak stalls of the 16th century, was restored in 1873, and the nave
roofed and restored in 1892-1895, under the direction of Sir Rowand
Anderson, the architect. From the time of the Reformation the choir had
been used as the parish church, but since its restoration the whole
cathedral has been devoted to this purpose. The new oak roof is
emblazoned with the arms of the Scottish and later British monarchs, and
of the old earls of Strathearn. Several members of the families of
Strathearn and Strathallan were buried in the cathedral, and three
stones of blue marble in the floor of the choir are supposed to mark the
graves of Lady Margaret Drummond (b. 1472), mistress of James IV., and
her two sisters, daughters of Lord Drummond, who were mysteriously
poisoned in 1501. An ancient Celtic cross, 6½ ft. high, stands in the
north-western corner of the nave. Robert Leighton was the greatest of
the bishops of Dunblane, and held the see from 1661 to 1670. The library
of 1500 volumes which he bequeathed to the clergy of the diocese is
housed in a building with an outside stair, standing near the cathedral,
and the Bishop's Walk by the river also perpetuates his memory. Of the
bishop's palace only a few ruins remain. The battlefield of Sheriffmuir
is about 2½ m. E. of the town. A mile and a half S. of Dunblane is the
estate of Keir which belonged to Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, the
historian and art critic. The duke of Leeds derives the title of one of
his viscounties from Dunblane.



DUNCAN, the name of two Scottish kings.

DUNCAN I. (d. 1040) was a son of Crinan or Cronan, lay abbot of Dunkeld,
and became king of the Scots in succession to his maternal grandfather,
Malcolm II., in 1034, having previously as _rex Cumbrorum_ ruled in
Strathclyde. His accession was "the first example of inheritance of the
Scottish throne in the direct line." Duncan is chiefly known through his
connexion with Macbeth, which has been immortalized by Shakespeare. The
feud between these two princes originated probably in a dispute over the
succession to the throne; its details, however, are obscure, and the
only fact which can be ascertained with any certainty is that Duncan was
slain by Macbeth in 1040. Two of Duncan's sons, Malcolm III. Canmore and
Donald V. Bane, were afterwards kings of the Scots.

DUNCAN II. (d. 1094) was a son of Malcolm III. and therefore a grandson
of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king
of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald Bane, in 1093, an
enterprise in which he was helped by some English and Normans. He was
killed in the following year.

  See W.F. Skene, _Celtic Scotland_ (1876-1880), and A. Lang, _History
  of Scotland_, vol. i. (1900).



DUNCAN, ADAM DUNCAN, 1ST VISCOUNT (1731-1804), British naval commander,
was born on the 1st of July 1731, at Lundie, in Forfarshire, Scotland.
After receiving the rudiments of his education at Dundee, he was in 1746
placed under Captain Haldane, of the "Shoreham" frigate, and in 1749 he
became a midshipman in the "Centurion." In 1755 he was appointed second
lieutenant of the "Norwich," but on the arrival of that ship in America,
whither, with the rest of Keppel's squadron, it had convoyed General
Braddock's forces, he was transferred to the "Centurion." Once again in
England, he was promoted to be second lieutenant of the "Torbay," and
after three years on the home station he assisted in the attack on the
French settlement of Goree, on the African coast, in which he was
slightly wounded. He returned to England as first lieutenant of the
"Torbay"; and in 1759 was made a commander, and in 1761 a post-captain.
His vessel, the "Valiant" (74), was Commodore Keppel's flag-ship in the
expedition against Belle-Ile en Mer in that year, and also in 1762, when
it took an important part in the capture of Havana. In 1778, on the
recommencement of war with France, Captain Duncan was appointed to the
"Suffolk" (74), whence before the close of the year he removed to the
"Monarch" (74), one of the Channel Fleet. On the 16th of January 1780,
in an action off Cape St Vincent, between a Spanish squadron under Don
Juan de Langara and the British fleet under Sir George Rodney, Captain
Duncan in the "Monarch" was the first to engage the enemy; and in 1782,
as captain of the "Blenheim" (90), he took part in Lord Howe's relief of
Gibraltar. From the rank of rear-admiral of the blue, received in 1789,
he was gradually promoted until, in 1799, he became admiral of the
white. In February 1795 he hoisted his flag as commander-in-chief of the
North Sea fleet, appointed to harass the Batavian navy. Towards the end
of May 1797, though, in consequence of the widespread mutiny in the
British fleet, he had been left with only the "Adamant" (50), besides
his own ship the "Venerable" (74), Admiral Duncan proceeded to his usual
station off the Texel, where lay at anchor the Dutch squadron of fifteen
sail of the line, under the command of Vice-Admiral de Winter. From time
to time he caused signals to be made, as if to the main body of a fleet
in the offing, a stratagem which probably was the cause of his freedom
from molestation until, in the middle of June, reinforcements arrived
from England. On the 3rd of October the admiral put into Yarmouth Roads
to refit and victual his ships, but, receiving information early on the
9th that the enemy was at sea, he immediately hoisted the signal for
giving him chase. On the morning of the 11th de Winter's fleet,
consisting of 4 seventy-fours, 7 sixty-fours, 4 fifty-gun ships, 2
forty-four-gun frigates, and 2 of thirty-two guns, besides smaller
vessels, was sighted lying about 9 m. from shore, between the villages
of Egmont and Camperdown. The British fleet numbered 7 seventy-fours, 7
sixty-fours, 2 fifties, 2 frigates, with a sloop and several cutters,
and was slightly superior in force to that of the Dutch. Shortly after
mid-day the British ships, without waiting to form in order, broke
through the Dutch line, and an engagement commenced which, after heavy
loss on both sides, resulted in the taking by the British of eleven of
the enemy's vessels. When the action ceased the ships were in nine
fathoms water, within 5 m. of a lee shore, and there was every sign of
an approaching gale. So battered were the prizes that it was found
impossible to fit them for future service, and one of them, the "Delft,"
sank on her way to England. In recognition of this victory, Admiral
Duncan was, on the 21st of October, created Viscount Duncan of
Camperdown and baron of Lundie, with an annual pension of £3000 to
himself and the two next heirs to his title. The earldom of Camperdown
was created for his son Robert (1785-1859) in 1831, and is still in the
possession of his descendants. In 1800 Lord Duncan withdrew from naval
service. He died on the 4th of August 1804.

  See Charnock, _Biog. Nav._ (1794-1796); Collins, _Peerage of England_,
  p. 378 (1812); W. James, _Naval History of Great Britain_ (1822);
  Yonge, _History of the British Navy_, vol. i. (1863); Earl of
  Camperdown, _Admiral Duncan_ (1898), vol. xvi. of the Navy Record Soc.
  Publications, contains the logs of the ships engaged in the battle of
  Camperdown.



DUNCAN, PETER MARTIN (1824-1891), English palaeontologist, was born on
the 20th of April 1824 at Twickenham, and was educated partly at the
local grammar school and partly in Switzerland. Having entered the
medical department of King's College, London, in 1842, he obtained the
degree of M.B. (Lond.) in 1846, and then acted for a short time as
assistant to a doctor at Rochester. Subsequently he practised at
Colchester (1848-1860), and during this period he served for a year as
mayor of the city. Returning to London in 1860 he practised for a few
years at Blackheath, and then gave his time entirely to scientific
research, first in botany, and later in geology and palaeontology. His
attention was directed especially to fossil corals, and in 1863 he
contributed to the Geological Society of London the first of a series of
papers on the fossil corals of the West Indian Islands in which he not
only described the species, but discussed their bearings on the physical
geography of the Tertiary period. Corals from various parts of the world
and from different geological formations were subsequently dealt with by
Duncan, and he came to be regarded as a leading authority on these
fossils. He prepared also for the Palaeontographical Society (1866-1872)
an important work on British fossil corals, as a supplement to the
monograph by Henri Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. He was elected F.R.S.
in 1868. In 1870 he was chosen professor of geology at King's College.
He was president of the Geological Society (1876-1877), and in 1881 was
awarded the Wollaston medal. In addition to papers on fossil corals, he
dealt with some of the living forms, also with the Echinoidea and other
groups, recent and fossil. He edited the six volumes of Cassell's
_Natural History_ (1877, &c.). He died at Gunnersbury on the 28th of May
1891.



DUNCAN, THOMAS (1807-1845), Scottish portrait and historical painter,
was born at Kinclaven, in Perthshire. He was educated at the Perth
Academy, and began the study of the law, but abandoned it for art.
Beginning under the instruction of Sir William Allan, he early attained
distinction as a delineator of the human figure; and his first pictures
established his fame so completely, that at a very early age he was
appointed professor of colouring, and afterwards of drawing, in the
Trustees' Academy of Edinburgh. In 1840 he painted one of his finest
pictures, "Prince Charles Edward and the Highlanders entering Edinburgh
after the Battle of Prestonpans," which secured his election as an
associate of the Royal Academy in 1843. In the same year he produced his
picture of "Charles Edward asleep after Culloden, protected by Flora
MacDonald," which, like many other of his works, has been often
engraved. In 1844 appeared his "Cupid" and his "Martyrdom of John Brown
of Priesthill." His last work was a portrait of himself, now in the
National Gallery in Edinburgh. He particularly excelled in his portraits
of ladies and children. He died in Edinburgh on the 25th of May 1845.



DUNCE, a slow or stupid person, one incapable of learning. The word is
derived from the name of the great schoolman, John Duns Scotus, whose
works on logic, theology and philosophy were accepted text-books in the
universities from the 14th century. "Duns" or "Dunsman" was a name early
applied by their opponents to the followers of Duns Scotus, the
Scotists, and hence was equivalent to one devoted to sophistical
distinctions and subtleties. When, in the 16th century, the Scotists
obstinately opposed the "new learning," the term "duns" or "dunce"
became, in the mouths of the humanists and reformers, a term of abuse, a
synonym for one incapable of scholarship, a dull blockhead.



DUNCKER, MAXIMILIAN WOLFGANG (1811-1886), German historian and
politician, eldest son of the publisher Karl Duncker, was born at Berlin
on the 15th of October 1811. He studied at the universities of Bonn and
Berlin till 1834, was then accused of participation in the students'
societies, which the government was endeavouring to suppress, and was
condemned to six years' imprisonment, afterwards reduced to six months.
He had already begun his labours as a historian, but after serving his
sentence in 1837, found himself debarred till 1839 from completing his
course at Halle, where in 1842 he obtained a professorship. Elected to
the National Assembly at Frankfort in 1848, he joined the Right Centre
party, and was chosen reporter of the projected constitution. He sat in
the Erfurt assembly in 1850, and in the second Prussian chamber from
1849 to 1852. During the crisis in Schleswig and Holstein in 1850 he
endeavoured in person to aid the duchies in their struggles. An
outspoken opponent of the policy of Manteuffel, he was refused
promotion by the Prussian government, and in 1857 accepted the
professorship of history at Tubingen. In 1859, however, he was recalled
to Berlin as assistant in the ministry of state in the Auerswald
cabinet, and in 1861 was appointed councillor to the crown prince. In
1867 he became director of the Prussian archives, with which it was his
task to incorporate those of Hanover, Hesse and Nassau. He retired on
the 1st of January 1875, and died at Ansbach on the 21st of July 1886.
Duncker's eminent position among German historians rests mainly on his
_Geschichte des Alterthums_ (1st ed., 1852-1857); 5th ed. in 9 vols.,
1878-1886; (English translation by Evelyn Abbott, 1877-1882). He edited,
with J.G. Droysen, _Preussische Staatsschriften_, _Politische
Correspondenz Friedrichs des Grossen_, and _Urkunden und Actenstucke zur
Geschichte des Kurfursten Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg_. To the
period of his political activity belong _Zur Geschichte der deutschen
Reichsversammlung in Frankfurt_ (1849); _Heinrich von Gagern_ (1850), in
the series of _Manner der Gegenwart_; and the anonymous _Vier Monate
auswartiger Politik_ (1851). His other works include _Origines
Germanicae_ (1840); the lectures _Die Krisis der Reformation_ (1845) and
_Feudalitat und Aristokratie_ (1858); _Aus der Zeit Friedrichs des
Grossen und Friedrich Wilhelms III. Abhandlungen zur preussischen
Geschichte_ (1876); followed after his death by _Abhandlungen aus der
griechischen Geschichte_ and _Abhandlungen aus der neueren Geschichte_
(1887).



DUNCKLEY, HENRY (1823-1896), English journalist, was born at Warwick on
the 24th of December 1823. Educated at the Baptist college at
Accrington, Lancashire, and at Glasgow University, he became in 1848
minister of the Baptist church at Salford, Lancashire. Here he closely
investigated the educational needs of the working-classes, embodying the
results of his inquiries in an essay, _The Glory and the Shame of
Britain_ (1851), which gained a prize offered by the Religious Tract
Society. In 1852 he won the Anti-Corn-law League's prize with an essay
on the results of the free-trade policy, published in 1854 under the
title _The Charter of the Nations_. In 1855 he abandoned the ministry to
edit the _Manchester Examiner and Times_, a prominent Liberal newspaper,
in charge of which he remained till 1889. For twenty years he wrote,
over the signature "Verax," weekly letters to the Manchester papers;
those on _The Crown and the Cabinet_ (1877) and _The Crown and the
Constitution_ (1878) evoked so much enthusiasm that a public
subscription was set on foot to present the writer with a handsome
testimonial for his public services. In 1878 Dunckley, who had often
declined to stand for parliament, was elected a member of the Reform
Club in recognition of his services to the Liberal party, and in 1883 he
was made an LL.D. by Glasgow University. He died at Manchester on the
29th of June 1896.



DUNCOMBE, SIR CHARLES (c. 1648-1711), English politician, was a London
apprentice, who became a goldsmith and a banker; he amassed great wealth
in his calling and was chosen an alderman of the city of London in 1683.
Duncombe's parliamentary career began in 1685, when he was elected
member of parliament for Hedon, and he was afterwards one of the
representatives of Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight and of Downton in
Wiltshire. He was made receiver of the customs, and upon the flight of
James II. from England in 1688 refused to forward to him the sum of
£1500 as requested; accordingly his name alone was excepted from the
pardon issued by the exiled king in 1692. A strong Tory, Duncombe held
for a short time the office of receiver of the excise, and in this
capacity he profited slightly by a transaction over some exchequer bills
which had been falsely endorsed. Consequently he was imprisoned by the
House of Commons, and expelled from parliament; and having been released
by order of the House of Lords, where his friends were more powerful, he
was again imprisoned by the Commons. Tried before the court of king's
bench he was found "not guilty" on two occasions and the matter was
allowed to drop. Duncombe made three unsuccessful attempts to enter
parliament as member for the city of London, and then represented
Downton a second time from 1702 until his death. In 1699 he was
knighted, and in 1709 he served as lord mayor of London. Upon retiring
from business in 1695 Duncombe caused some stir by giving the
representatives of the duke of Buckingham a high price for an estate at
Helmsley in Yorkshire, where he built a magnificent house.

He died at his residence at Teddington on the 9th of April 1711, and
much of his great wealth passed to his sister, Ursula, wife of Thomas
Browne, who took the name of Duncombe. Ursula's great-grandson, Charles
Duncombe (1764-1841), was created Baron Feversham in 1826, and in 1868
his grandson, William Ernest, the 3rd baron (b. 1829), was made earl of
Feversham. Sir Charles Duncombe's nephew, Anthony Duncombe (c.
1695-1763), who was made a baron in 1747, left an only daughter, Anne
(1757-1829), who married Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, 2nd earl of Radnor, by
whom she was the ancestress of the succeeding earls of Radnor.

A celebrated member of the Duncombe family was THOMAS SLINGSBY DUNCOMBE
(1796-1861), a Radical politician, who was member of parliament for
Hertford from 1826 to 1832 and for Finsbury from 1834 until his death.
Duncombe defended Lord Durham's administration of Canada; he sought to
obtain the release of John Frost and other Chartists, whose immense
petition he presented to parliament in 1842; and he interested himself
in the affairs of Charles II., the deposed duke of Brunswick. He showed
a practical sympathy with Mazzini, whose letters had been opened by
order of the English government, by urging for an inquiry into this
occurrence; and also with Kossuth. He died at Lancing on the 13th of
November 1861.

  See _Life and Correspondence of T.S. Duncombe_, edited by T.H.
  Duncombe (1868).



DUNDALK, a seaport of Co. Louth, Ireland, in the north parliamentary
division, on the Castletown river near its mouth in Dundalk Bay. Pop. of
urban district (1901), 13,076. It is an important junction on the Great
Northern railway, by the main line of which it is 54 m. N. from Dublin.
The company has its works here, and a line diverges to the north-west of
Ireland. Dundalk is connected with the port of Greenore (for Holyhead)
by a line owned by the London & North-Western railway company of
England. The parish church is an old and spacious edifice with a curious
wooden steeple covered with copper; and the Roman Catholic chapel is a
handsome building in the style of King's College chapel, Cambridge.
There are ruins of a Franciscan priory, with a lofty tower. Adjacent to
the town are several fine parks and demesnes. Until 1885 a member was
returned to parliament. A brisk trade, chiefly in agricultural and dairy
produce, is carried on, and the town contains some manufactories.
Distilling and brewing are the principal industrial works, and there are
besides a flax and jute-spinning mill, salt works, &c. The port is the
seat of a considerable trade, mainly in agricultural produce and live
stock. It is also the centre of a sea-fishery district and of salmon
fisheries. Dundalk was a borough by prescription, and received charters
from Edward III. and successive monarchs. Edward Bruce, having invaded
Ireland from Scotland in 1315, proceeded south from his landing-place in
Antrim, ravaging as he came, to Dundalk, which he stormed, and
proclaimed himself king here. In this neighbourhood, too, he was
defeated and killed by the English under Sir John de Bermingham in 1318,
and at Faughart near Dundalk, near the ruined church of St Bridget, he
is buried.



DUNDEE, JOHN GRAHAM OF CLAVERHOUSE, VISCOUNT (c. 1649-1689), Scottish
soldier, was the elder son of Sir William Graham and Lady Madeline
Carnegie. Of his youth little record has been kept; but in the year 1665
he became a student at the university of St Andrews. His education was
upon the whole good, as appears from the varied and valuable
correspondence of his later years. Young Graham was destined for a
military career; and after about four years he proceeded abroad as a
volunteer in the service of France. In 1673 or 1674 he went to Holland,
and obtained a cornetcy, and he was soon raised to the rank of captain,
as a reward for having saved the life of the prince of Orange at the
battle of Seneff. A few years later, being disappointed in his hopes of
obtaining a regiment, Graham resigned his commission. In the beginning
of 1677 he returned to England, bearing, it is said, letters of strong
recommendation from the prince to Charles II. and the duke of York. In
1678 he became a lieutenant, and soon afterwards captain of a troop, in
the regiment commanded by his relative the marquis of Montrose. The task
before him was the suppression of the Covenanters' rebellion. To this he
brought, over and above the feelings of romantic loyalty and the
cavalier spirit, which in his case was free from its usual defects, a
hatred of the Covenanters which was based largely on his hero-worship of
the great Montrose. Further, his uncompromising disposition and
unmistakable capacity at once marked him out as a leader upon whom the
government could rely. But the difficulties of his task, the open or
secret hostility of the whole people, and the nature and extent of the
country he was required to watch, were too great for the leader of a
small body of cavalry, and in spite of his vigorous and energetic
action, Graham accomplished but little. He entered, however, upon his
occupation with zest, and interpreted consistently the orders he
received. There is evidence, also, that his efforts were appreciated at
headquarters in his appointment, jointly with the laird of Earlshall,
his subaltern, to the office of sheriff-depute of Dumfries and Annandale
in March 1679, with powers--specially narrated in his commission--anent
"separation," conventicles, "disorderly baptisms and marriages," and the
like.

For some years thereafter the position of Graham was in the highest
degree difficult and delicate. In the midst of enemies, and in virtue of
the most erroneous but direct orders of his government, he combined the
functions of soldier, spy, prosecutor and judge. Shortly after the
murder of Archbishop Sharp (1679), he was summoned to increased
activity. There were reports of rebels gathering near Glasgow, and
Graham went in pursuit. On the 1st of June, the Covenanters being in a
well-protected position upon the marshy ground of Drumclog, Graham
advanced to the attack. Hindered by the ground, he had to wait till the
impatience of his adversaries induced them to commence an impetuous
attack. The charge of the Covenanters routed the royal cavalry, who
turned and fled, Graham himself having a narrow escape. This was the
only regular engagement he had with the Covenanters. The enthusiasm
raised by this victory was the beginning of a serious and open
rebellion.

On the 22nd of June Graham was present at the battle of Bothwell Bridge,
at the head of his own troop. Immediately thereafter he was commissioned
to search the south-western shires for those who had taken part in the
insurrection. In this duty he seems to have been engaged till the early
part of 1680, when he disappears for a time from the record of these
stringent measures. The wide powers given to him by his commission were
most sparingly used, and the gravest accusation made against him in
reference to this period is that he was a robber.

He was, in any case, an advocate of rigorous measures, and his own
systematic and calculated terrorism, directed principally against the
ringleaders, proved far more efficacious than the irregular and
haphazard brutalities of other commanders. During these months he was
despatched to London, along with Lord Linlithgow, to influence the mind
of Charles II. against the indulgent method adopted by Monmouth with the
extreme Covenanting party. The king seems to have been fascinated by his
loyal supporter, and from that moment Graham was destined to rise in
rank and honours. Early in 1680 he obtained a royal grant of the barony
of the outlawed Macdougal of Freuch, and the grant was after some delay
confirmed by subsequent orders upon the exchequer in Scotland. In April
1680 it appears that his roving commission had been withdrawn by the
privy council. He is thus free from all concern with the severe measures
which followed the Sanquhar Declaration of the 22nd of June 1680.

The turbulence occasioned by the passing of the Test Act of 1681
required to be quelled by a strong hand; and in the beginning of the
following year Graham was again commissioned to act in the disaffected
districts. In the end of January he was appointed to the sheriffships of
Wigtown, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Annandale. He retained his
commission in the army--the pernicious combination of his offices being
thus repeated. He appears further to have had powers of life and death
in virtue of a commission of justiciary granted to him about the same
time. These powers he exercised strictly and in conformity with the
tenor of his orders, which were not more severe than he himself desired.
He quartered on the rebels, rifled their houses, and, to use his own
words, "endeavoured to destroy them by eating up their provisions." The
effect of his policy, if we believe his own writ, is not overstated as

  "Death, desolation, ruin and decay."

The result of a bitter quarrel between Graham and Sir John Dalrymple,
who, with many others of the gentry, was far from active in the
execution of the government's orders, confirmed his prestige. Graham was
acquitted by the privy council of the charges of exaction and oppression
preferred against him, and Sir John condemned to fine and imprisonment
for interference with his proceedings. In December 1682 Graham was
appointed colonel of a new regiment raised in Scotland. He had still
greater honours in view. In January 1683 the case of the earl of
Lauderdale, late Maitland of Hatton, was debated in the House of Lords.
Maitland was proprietor of the lands and lordship of Dundee and Dudhope,
and the decree of the Lords against him was in March 1683 issued for the
sum of £72,000. Graham succeeded in having part of the property of the
defaulter transferred to him by royal grant, and in May he was nominated
to the privy council of Scotland.

Shortly afterwards Claverhouse was appointed to be present at the
sittings of the Circuit Court of Justiciary in Stirling, Glasgow,
Dumfries and Jedburgh, recently instituted for the imposition of the
test and the punishment of rebels. Several were sentenced to death.
During the rest of the year he attended the meetings of council, in
which he displayed the spirit of an obedient soldier rather than that of
a statesman capable of independent views. There is, however, one record
of his direct and efficacious interference. He declared decisively
against the proposal to let loose the Highland marauders upon the south
of Scotland.

In June 1684 he was again at his old employment--the inspection of the
southern shires; and in August he was commissioned as second in command
of the forces in Ayr and Clydesdale to search out the rebels. By this
time he was in possession of Dudhope, and on the 10th of June he married
Lady Jean, daughter of William, Lord Cochrane. As constable of Dundee he
recommended the remission of extreme punishment in the case of many
petty offences. He issued from his retirement to take part in a
commission of lieutenancy which perambulated the southern districts as a
criminal court; and in the end of the year he was again in the same
region on the occasion of disturbances in the town of Kirkcudbright.

Shortly after the death of Charles II. (February 1685) Graham incurred a
temporary disgrace by his deposition from the office of privy
councillor; but in May he was reinstated, although his commission of
justiciary, which had expired, was not renewed.

In May 1685 he was ordered with his cavalry to guard the borders, and to
scour the south-west in search of rebels. By act of privy council, a
certificate was required by all persons over sixteen years of age to
free them from the hazard of attack from government officials. Without
that they were at once liable to be called upon oath to abjure the
declaration of Renwick, which was alleged to be treasonable. While on
this mission he pursued and overtook two men, one of whom, John Brown,
called the "Christian carrier," having refused the abjuration oath, was
shot dead. The order was within the authorized powers of Graham.

In 1686 he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and had added to
his position of constable the dignity of provost of Dundee. In 1688 he
was second in command to General Douglas in the army which had been
ordered to England to aid the falling dynasty of the Stuarts.

His influence with James II. was great and of long standing, and amid
the hurry of events in this critical time he was created Viscount Dundee
on the 12th of November 1688. Throughout the vexed journeyings of the
king, Dundee is found accompanying or following him, endeavouring in
vain to prompt him to make his stand in England, and fight rather than
flee from the invader. At last James announced his resolve to go to
France, promising that he would send Dundee a commission to command the
troops in Scotland.

Dundee returned to Scotland in anticipation of the meeting of the
convention, and at once exerted himself to confirm the waning resolution
of the duke of Gordon with regard to holding Edinburgh Castle for the
king. The convention proving hostile (March 16th, 1688), he conceived
the idea of forming another convention at Stirling to sit in the name of
James II., but the hesitancy of his associates rendered the design
futile, and it was given up. Previous to this, on the 18th of March, he
had left Edinburgh at the head of a company of fifty dragoons, who were
strongly attached to his person. He was not long gone ere the news was
brought to the alarmed convention that he had been seen clambering up
the castle rock and holding conference with the duke of Gordon. In
excitement and confusion order after order was despatched in reference
to the fugitive. Dundee retired to Dudhope. On the 30th of March he was
publicly denounced as a traitor, and in the latter half of April
attempts were made to secure him at Dudhope, and at his residence in
Glen Ogilvy. But the secrecy and speed of his movements outwitted his
pursuers, and he retreated to the north.

In the few years which had elapsed since 1678 he had risen, despite the
opposition of his superiors in rank, from the post of captain and the
social status of a small Scottish laird to positions as a soldier and
statesman and the favourite of his sovereigns, of the greatest dignity,
influence and wealth. In this period he had, justly or unjustly, earned
the reputation of being a cruel and ruthless oppressor. When the ruling
dynasty changed, and he had himself become an outlaw and a rebel, he
supported the cause of his exiled monarch with such skill and valour
that his name and death are recorded as heroic.

In the Highlands his diplomatic skill was used with effect amongst the
chieftains. General Hugh Mackay was now in the field against him, and a
Highland chase began. The campaign resembled those of Montrose forty
years earlier. The regular troops were at a great disadvantage in the
wild Highland country, and Dundee, like Montrose, invariably anticipated
his enemy. But, as usual, the army of the clans required the most
careful management. After the first few weeks of operations, Dundee's
army melted away, and Mackay, unable to follow his opponent, retired
also.

Throughout the whole of the campaign Dundee was indefatigable in his
exertions with the Highland chiefs and his communications with his
exiled king. To the day of his death he believed that formidable succour
for his cause was about to arrive from Ireland and France. He justly
considered himself at the head of the Stewart interest in Scotland, and
his despatches form a record of the little incidents of the campaign,
strangely combined with a revelation of the designs of the statesman. It
mattered little to him that on the 24th of July a price of £20,000 had
been placed upon his head. The clans had begun to reassemble; he was now
in command of a considerable force, and in July both sides took the
field again. A contest for the castle of Blair forced on the decision.
Mackay, in his march towards that place, entered the pass of
Killiecrankie, the battleground selected by Dundee and his officers.
Here, on the 17th-27th of July 1689, was fought the battle of
Killiecrankie (q.v.). The Highlanders were completely victorious, but
their leader, in the act of encouraging his men, was pierced beneath the
breastplate by a bullet of the enemy, and fell dying from his horse.
Dundee asked "How goes the day?" of a soldier, who replied, "Well for
King James, but I am sorry for your lordship." The dying general
replied, "If it goes well for him, it matters the less for me." Dundee
was conveyed to the castle of Blair, where he died on the night of the
battle. Within an hour or two of his death he wrote a short account of
the engagement to King James. The battle, disastrous as it was to the
government forces, was in reality the end of the insurrection, for the
controlling and commanding genius of the rebellion was no more. The
death of Dundee, in the mist and the confusion of a cavalry charge,
formed the subject of numerous legends, the best known of which is the
long prevalent tradition that he was invulnerable to all bullets and was
killed by a silver button from his own coat.

  See Mark Napier, _Memorials and Letters of Graham of Claverhouse_
  (1859-1862); Bannatyne Club, _Letters of the Viscount Dundee_ (1826);
  C.S. Terry, _John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee_; and
  authorities quoted in _Dict. Nat. Biogr._, s.v. "Graham of
  Claverhouse."



DUNDEE, a royal, municipal and police burgh, county of a city, and
seaport of Forfarshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891) 153,587; (1901) 161,173.
It lies on the north shore of the Firth of Tay, 59¼ m. N. by E. of
Edinburgh by the North British railway via the Forth and Tay bridges.
The Caledonian railway finds access to the city by way of Perth, which
is distant about 22 m. W. by S. The general disposition of the town is
from east to west, with a frontage on the water of 4 m. The area
northwards that has already been built over varies in depth from half a
mile to nearly 2½ m. (from Esplanade Station to King's Cross). The city
rises gradually from the river to Dundee Law and Balgay Hill. Since the
estuary to the E. of Tay bridge is 1½ m. wide, and the commodious
docks--in immediate contact with the river at all stages of the
tide--are within 12 m. of the sea, the position of the city eminently
adapts it to be the emporium of a vast trade by land and sea. But its
prosperity is due in a far greater measure to its manufactures of jute
and linen--of which it is the chief seat in the United Kingdom--than to
its shipping.

_Public Buildings._--The town-hall, built in 1734 from the designs of
Robert Adam, stands in High Street. It is surmounted by a steeple 140
ft. high, carrying a good peal of bells, and beneath it is a piazza. The
old Town Cross, a shaft 15 ft. high, bearing a unicorn with the date of
1586, once stood in High Street also, but was re-erected within the
enclosure on the S.W. of Town Churches (see below). Albert Square, with
statues of Robert Burns, George Kinloch, the first member for Dundee in
the Reform Parliament (both by Sir John Steell), and James Carmichael
(1776-1853), inventor of the fan-blast (by John Hutchison, R.S.A.),
contains several good buildings, among them the Royal Exchange in
Flemish Pointed (erected in 1853-1856), the Eastern Club-house, and the
Albert Institute, founded in memory of the prince consort. The last,
built mainly from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, is one of the most
important edifices in the city, since it embraces the art gallery, free
library, reference library, museum and several halls. On the north side
of the building is the seated figure, in bronze, of Queen Victoria, on a
polished red granite pedestal containing bas-reliefs of episodes in Her
Majesty's life, the work of Harry Bates, A.R.A. The custom house, near
the docks, is in Classical style and dates from 1843. The Sheriff Court
buildings and Police Chambers, a structure of Grecian design, with a
bold portico, was erected in 1864-1865. The halls used for great public
meetings are the Volunteer Drill Hall in Parker Square, and Kinnaird
Hall in Bank Street. Of the newer streets, Commercial, Reform,
Whitehall, Bank and Lindsay contain many buildings of good design and
the principal shops. In Bank Street are the offices of the _Dundee
Advertiser_, the leading newspaper in the north-east of Scotland; and in
Lindsay Street the headquarters of the _Dundee Courier_. In Dock Street
stands the Royal Arch, an effective structure, erected to commemorate
the visit of Queen Victoria in 1844. Among places of amusement are the
Theatre Royal, the People's Palace theatre, the Music Hall, the Circus
and the Gymnasium. The cattle market and slaughter-houses, both on an
extensive scale, are in the east end of the city, not far from
Camperdown Dock. Dudhope Castle, once the seat of the Scrymgeours,
hereditary constables of the burgh--one of whom (Sir Alexander) was a
companion-in-arms of Wallace,--was granted by James II. to John Graham
of Claverhouse. On his death it reverted to the crown, and at a later
date was converted into barracks. When the new barracks at Dudhope Park
were occupied, the Castle was transformed into an industrial museum.
Though Dundee was once a walled town, the only relic of its walls is the
East Port, the preservation of which was due to the tradition that
George Wishart preached from the top of it during the plague of 1544.

_Churches._--Of the many churches and chapels the most interesting is
Town Churches--St Mary's, St Paul's and St Clement's, the three under
one roof--surmounted by the noble square tower, 156 ft. high, called the
Old Steeple, once the belfry of the church which was erected on this
spot by David, earl of Huntingdon, as a thank-offering for his escape
from shipwreck on the shoals at the mouth of the Tay (1193). The church
perished, but the bell-tower remained and was restored in 1871-1873 by
Sir Gilbert Scott. The fine Roman Catholic pro-cathedral of St Andrew's
is in Early English style, and St Paul's Episcopal church, in Decorated
Gothic style, with a spire 211 ft. high, from designs by Sir Gilbert
Scott, was due to the zeal of Bishop Forbes (1817-1875), who transferred
the headquarters of the see of Brechin to Dundee. It occupies the site
of the old castle. Memorial churches commemorate the work of Robert
Murray McCheyne (1813-1843) and of George Gilfillan (1813-1878), long
ministers in Dundee. John Glas (1695-1773), founder of the Glasites
(q.v.), ministered here from 1730 to 1733.

_Cemeteries._--The ancient burying-ground in the centre of the city is
called the Howff. It has long been closed, but contains several
interesting monuments and epitaphs. Not far from it the New Cemetery was
laid out in West Bell Street; to the east of Baxter Park lies the
Eastern Cemetery; and the Western Cemetery was constructed in Perth
Road. The most beautifully situated of all the burying-grounds, however,
is the Western Necropolis, which occupies the western portion of the
hill of Balgay. A bridge over the ravine connects it with Balgay Park.

_Public Parks and Open Spaces._--On the N. of the city rises Dundee Law
(571 ft.), the property of the Corporation, a prominent landmark, on the
summit of which are traces of an old vitrified fort. The surrounding
park covers 18 acres. Near the eastern boundary of the city lies Baxter
Park, of 37 acres, presented to the town by Sir David Baxter
(1793-1872), a leading manufacturer, and his sisters. It was laid out by
Sir Joseph Paxton, and contains a statue of Sir David by Sir John
Steell, erected by public subscription. In the west the finely wooded
hill of Balgay was acquired in 1869 and 36 acres of the area were
converted into a park. Immediately adjoining it on the north is Lochee
Park, of 25 acres, given to the city in 1891 by Messrs Cox Brothers of
Camperdown Works. In the extreme north lies the park of Fair Muir, of 12
acres, which was secured in 1890, and nearer to the heart of the town is
Dudhope or Barrack Park, purchased in 1893. Near the north end of the
Tay bridge is Magdalen Green, an old common of 17 acres, and along the
shore of the estuary there runs for a distance of 2½ m. from Magdalen
Point to beyond Craig Pier a promenade called the Esplanade.

_Education._--University College in Nethergate, founded in 1880 by Miss
Baxter of Balgavies (d. 1884) and Dr John Boyd Baxter, was opened in
1883, and united to the university of St Andrews in 1890. The
affiliation was cancelled in 1895 owing to divergence of view in the
governing body, but this was overcome and the college finally
incorporated in 1897. The staff consists of a principal, professors and
lecturers, and the curriculum, which may be taken by students of both
sexes, is especially concerned with medicine and natural and applied
science. The endowments exceed £250,000. Adjoining the buildings is the
Technical Institute, built and endowed by Sir David Baxter and opened in
1888. In connexion with the high school, a building in the Doric style,
dating from 1833, there is a museum which was endowed in 1880 by Mr
William Harris. Morgan hospital, a structure in the Scots Baronial
style, situated immediately to the north of Baxter Park, was founded in
1868 by John Morgan, a native of Dundee, for the board and education of
a hundred boys, sons of indigent tradesmen, but was acquired by the
school board and transformed into a secondary school. Besides a high
school for girls and Roman Catholic and Episcopalian schools, there are
numerous efficient and thoroughly equipped board schools.

_Charitable Institutions._--One of the most conspicuous buildings in the
city, occupying a prominent position in the centre, is the Royal
Infirmary, a fine structure in the Tudor style. On the southern face of
Balgay Hill stands the Royal Victoria hospital for incurables, opened in
1889. In addition to the maternity hospital and nurses' home, there are
several institutions devoted to special afflictions and diseases--among
them the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb institutions, the Royal asylum, the
fever hospital at King's Cross, and, in the parish of Mains--beyond the
municipal boundary--the Baldovan asylum for imbeciles, founded in 1854
by Sir John Ogilvy and said to be the earliest of its kind in Scotland,
besides the smallpox and cholera hospital. The large Dundee hospital
adjoins the poorhouse, and an epidemic hospital has been built in the
Fair Muir district. One of the convalescent homes is situated at
Broughty Ferry. Among other institutions are the Royal Orphan and the
Wellburn Charitable institutions, the rescue home for females, the
sailors' home and Lady Jane Ogilvy's orphanage in Mains.

_Trade._--Hector Boece, in his _History and Croniklis of Scotland_, thus
quaintly writes of the manufactures of Dundee in the opening of the 16th
century--"Dunde, the toun quhair we wer born; quhair mony virtewus and
lauborius pepill ar in, making of claith." Jute is, _par excellence_,
the industry of the city. Enormous quantities of the raw
material--estimated at 300,000 tons a year--are imported directly from
India in a fleet solely devoted to this trade, and many of the factories
in Bengal are owned by Dundee merchants. Fabrics in jute range from the
roughest sacking to carpets of almost Oriental beauty. Another staple
industry is the linen manufacture, which is also one of the oldest,
although it was not till the introduction of steam power that headway
was made. Bell Mill, erected in 1806, was the first work of any
importance, and the first power-loom factory dates from 1836. Now
factories and mills are to be counted by the score, and the jute, hemp
and flax manufactures alone employ about 50,000 hands, while the value
of the combined annual output exceeds £6,000,000. Some of the works are
planned on a colossal scale, and many of the buildings in respect of
design and equipment are among the finest and most complete in the
world. In the thriving quarter of Lochee are situated the Camperdown
Linen Works, covering an immense area and employing more than 5000
hands. The chimney-stalk (282 ft. high), in the style of an Italian
campanile, built of parti-coloured bricks with stone cornices, is a
conspicuous feature. The chief textile products are drills, ducks,
canvas (for which the British navy is the largest customer), ropes,
sheetings, sackings and carpets. Dundee is also celebrated for its
confectionery and preserves, especially marmalade. Among other prominent
industries are bleaching and dyeing, engineering, shipbuilding, tanning,
the making of boots and shoes and other goods in leather, foundries,
breweries, corn and flour mills, and the construction of motor-cars.

_Shipping._--By reason of its excellent docking facilities Dundee can
cope with a shipping trade of the largest proportions. On the front
wharves and harbour works extend for 2 m., and the docks cover an area
of 35½ acres, made up thus--Earl Grey Dock, 5¼ acres; King William IV.
Dock, 6¼ acres; Tidal Harbour, 4¾ acres; Victoria Dock, 10¾ acres;
Camperdown Dock, 8½ acres. There are, besides, graving docks, the Ferry
harbour and timber ponds. The warehouses are capacious and the ample
quays equipped with steam cranes and other modern appliances. In 1898
there entered and cleared 2914 vessels of 1,390,331 tons; in 1904 the
numbers were 2428 vessels of 1,227,429 tons. At the close of 1904 the
registered shipping of the port was 131 vessels of 109,885 tons. Dundee
is the seat of the Arctic fishery, once an important and lucrative
business, but now shrunk to the most meagre dimensions in consequence of
the increasing scarcity of whales and seals. There is regular
communication by steamer with London, Hull, Newcastle, Liverpool and
Leith, besides Rotterdam, Hamburg and other continental ports. Of the
local excursions the two hours' run to Perth is the favourite summer
trip.

_Local Government._--Dundee returns two members to parliament. The city
council consists of the lord provost, bailies and councillors. The
corporation owns the gas and water supplies (the latter drawn from the
loch of Lintrathen, 18 m. to the N.W.) and the electric tramcars.

_History._--There appears to be some doubt as to the origin of the name
of Dundee. It is extravagant to trace it to the Latin _Donum Dei_, "the
gift of God," as some have done, or the Celtic _Dun Dhia_, "the hill of
God." More probably it is the Gaelic _Dun Taw_, "the fort of the Tay,"
of which the Latin _Taodunum_ is a transliteration--the derivation
pointing to the fact of a Pictish settlement on the site. The earliest
authentic mention of the city is in a deed of gift by David, earl of
Huntingdon, younger brother of William the Lion, dated about 1200, in
which it is designated as "Dunde." Shortly afterwards it was erected
into a royal burgh by William the Lion. When Edward I. visited it,
however, as he did twice (in 1296 and 1303) with hostile intent, he is
said to have removed its charter. Consequently Robert Bruce and
successive kings confirmed its privileges and rights, and Charles I.
finally granted it its great charter. Dundee played a prominent part in
the War of Scottish Independence. Here Wallace finished his education,
and here he slew young Selby, son of the English constable, in 1291, for
which deed he was outlawed. In that year the town fell into the hands of
the English, and it was whilst engaged in besieging the castle in 1297
that Wallace withdrew to fight the battle of Stirling Bridge. In their
incursion into Scotland under John of Gaunt the English captured and
partially destroyed the town in 1385, but retreated to meet a
counter-invasion of their own country. The English seized it again for a
brief space during one of the 1st earl of Hertford's devastating raids
in the reign of Edward VI. Dundee bore such a prominent part in
propagating the Reformed doctrines that it was styled "the Scottish
Geneva." It saw more trouble at the time of the Civil War, for the
marquess of Montrose sacked it in 1645, and then gave a considerable
portion of it to the flames. Charles II. spent a few days in the castle
after his crowning at Scone (January 1st, 1651). In the same year
General Monk demanded the submission of the town to Cromwell, and on its
refusal captured it after an obstinate resistance and visited it with
condign punishment. More than one-sixth of the inhabitants and garrison,
including its governor Lumsden, were put to the sword, and no fewer than
60 vessels were seized and filled with plunder; but the ships, says
Gumble in his _Life of Monk_, "were cast away within sight of the town
and that great wealth perished." In 1684 John Graham of
Claverhouse--whose family derived its name from the lands of Claverhouse
in the parish of Mains immediately to the north of the town--became
constable, and in 1688 provost. In the same year James II. created him
Viscount Dundee. Thenceforward the annals of the town cease to touch
national history, save at very rare intervals. The greatest local
disaster of modern times was the destruction of the first Tay bridge
(see TAY).

Many interesting old documents have been preserved in the Town House,
such as certain characteristic despatches from Edward I. and Edward II.,
the original charter of Robert Bruce, dated 1327, a papal order from Leo
X., and a letter from Queen Mary, dated 1564, providing for extra-mural
interments. It may be mentioned that to describe Claverhouse himself as
"bonnie Dundee" is a modern invention, the old song from which Sir
Walter Scott borrowed a hint for his refrain referring solely to the
town.

Since the middle and particularly during the last quarter of the 19th
century many of the more unsightly districts have been demolished. In
the process several picturesque but insanitary buildings, narrow winding
streets and unsavoury closes disappeared, along with a few structures of
more or less historic interest, like the castle, the mint and numerous
convents. The wholesale clearances, however, improved both the public
health and the appearance of the city, some of the new thoroughfares
vieing with the finest business streets of the largest commercial
centres in the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria granted a charter to
Dundee, dated the 25th of January 1889, erecting it to the status of a
city, and since 1892 its chief magistrate has been styled lord provost.

Among men more or less eminent who were born in Dundee may be named
Hector Boece (1465-1536), the historian; George Dempster of Dunnichen
(1732-1818), the agriculturist, a former owner of Skibo; Thomas Dick
(1774-1857), the author of _The Christian Philosopher_; Admiral Lord
Duncan (1731-1804); Viscount Dundee (1643-1689); James Halyburton
(1518-1589), the Scottish Reformer, who was provost of the town for
thirty-three years; Sir James Ivory (1765-1842), the mathematician, who
bequeathed his science library to the town, and his nephew Lord Ivory
(1792-1866), the judge; Sir George Mackenzie (1636-1691), the celebrated
lawyer; Sir Alexander Scrymgeour (d. 1310), Wallace's standard-bearer,
and many of the Scrymgeours, his successors, who were constables of the
town; James (1495-1553), John (1500-1556) and Robert Wedderburn
(1510-1557), the poets, who were all concerned in the authorship or
collection of the book of _Gude and Godlie Ballatis_ published in 1578;
Sir John Wedderburn (1599-1679), the physician; and Sir Peter Wedderburn
(1616-1679), the judge. Many well-known persons lived for longer or
shorter periods in the town. James Chalmers (1782-1853), the inventor of
the adhesive postage stamp (1834), was a bookseller in Castle Street.
George Constable of Wallace Craigie, the prototype of Jonathan Oldbuck
in Sir Walter Scott's _Antiquary_, had a residence in the east end of
Seagate, the house standing until about 1820. Thomas Hood's father was a
native and the poet spent part of his youth in the town, his first
literary effort appearing in the _Dundee Advertiser_ about 1816. James
Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862), electrician and philologist, carried on his
experiments for many years in Dundee, where he died. Robert Nicoll
(1814-1837), the poet, kept a circulating library in Castle Street; and
William Thom (1798-1848), the writer of _The Rhymes of a Handloom
Weaver_, was buried in the Western Cemetery.

_Suburbs._--Close to the municipal boundaries on the N.W. lies Benvie,
where John Playfair (1748-1819), the mathematician, was born, and which
has a mineral well that once enjoyed considerable repute. Camperdown
House, the seat of the earl of Camperdown, a fine building of Greek
design, standing in beautiful grounds, is situated in the parish.
Fowlis, 5 m. N.W., is remarkable for its church, which dates from the
15th century, but has even been assigned to the 12th. It contains a
carved ambry and rood-screen (with a curious representation of the
Crucifixion), decorated font, crocketed door canopy and several
pictures. The ruined castle adjoining the church ultimately became a
dwelling for labourers. The Dell of Balruddery is rich in geological and
botanical specimens. Lundie, 3 m. farther out in the same direction,
contains several lakelets, and its kirkyard is the burial-place of the
earls of Camperdown. Tealing, 4 m. N. of Dundee, was the scene of the
ministry of John Glas before he was deposed for heresy.

  AUTHORITIES.--David Barrie, _The City of Dundee Illustrated_ (Dundee,
  1890); Alexander Maxwell, _Old Dundee_ (Dundee, 1891); A.C. Lamb,
  _Dundee: its Quaint and Historic Buildings_ (Dundee, 1895); A.H.
  Millar, _Roll of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee_ (Dundee, 1887).



DUNDERLANDSDAL, a valley of northern Norway, in Nordland _amt_ (county),
draining south-westward from the neighbouring glaciers to the Ranenfjord
(lat. 66° 20´ N.). There are deposits of iron ore, the working of which
was undertaken in 1902 by the Dunderland Iron Ore Company, water-power
being provided by the strong Dunderland river. There are also pyrites
mines. At the mouth of the river is Mo, a considerable trading village.
The valley is remarkable for several stalactite caverns in the
limestone, some of the tributary streams flowing for considerable
distances underground. From Mo a fine road crosses the mountains to the
head-lake of the great Ume river, draining to the Baltic, and from the
head of Dunderlandsdal a sequestered bridle-path runs to Saltdal on the
Skjerstadfjord, with a branch through the magnificent Junkersdal.



DUNDONALD, THOMAS COCHRANE, 10TH EARL OF (1775-1860), British admiral,
was born at Annsfield in Lanarkshire on the 14th of December 1775. He
came of an old Scottish family, the first earl having been Sir William
Cochrane (d. 1686), a soldier who was created Baron Cochrane in 1647 and
earl of Dundonald in 1669. He was the son of Archibald Cochrane, 9th
Earl (1749-1831), who is remembered as a most ingenious, but also most
unfortunate, scientific speculator and inventor, who was before his time
in suggesting and attempting new processes of alkali manufacture, and
various other uses of applied science. The family was greatly
impoverished owing to his losses over these schemes, but still possessed
a good deal of interest. By the help of friends Thomas was provided with
a commission in an infantry regiment, and at the same time put on the
books of a man-of-war by his uncle, Captain A.F.I. Cochrane
(1758-1832), while still a boy. He finally chose the navy, and went to
sea in his uncle's ship, the "Hind," in 1793. He could already count
nearly five years' nominal service, an example of those naval abuses
which he was to denounce (and to profit by) during a large part of his
career. His promotion was rapid. He became a lieutenant in 1796. While
in that rank he was led by his self-assertive temper into a quarrel with
his superior, Lieutenant Philip Beaver (1766-1813), for which he was
sent before a court-martial. A warning to avoid flippancy in future was,
however, the worst that happened to him.

In 1800 he was appointed to the command of the "Speedy" brig, a small
vessel in which he gained a great and deserved reputation as a daring
and skilful officer. His capture of the Spanish frigate "El Gamo" (32)
on the 6th of May 1801 was indeed a feat of unparalleled audacity. His
promotion to post rank followed on the 8th of August. Though he was apt
to represent himself as disliked and neglected by the admiralty, and was
frequently insolent towards his superiors, he was, as a matter of fact,
pretty constantly employed, and he more than justified his appointments
by his activity and success as captain of the "Pallas" (32) and
"Impérieuse" (38) on the ocean and in the Mediterranean. Unfortunately
for himself he secured his return to parliament as member for Honiton in
1806 and for Westminster in 1807. In the House of Commons he soon made
his mark as a radical, and as a denouncer of naval abuses. But his views
did not prevent him from profiting to the utmost by one very bad abuse,
for he did his utmost to secure the retention of his frigate in port, in
order that he might be able to attend parliament. In spite of his
radical opinions he made a furious attack on the admiralty for the new
prize money regulations which diminished the shares of the captains to
the advantage of the men. In April 1809 he was engaged in the attack on
the French squadron in the Basque Roads, which was very ill conducted by
Lord Gambier. The conduct of Lord Cochrane, as he was called till the
death of his father, was brilliant and was rewarded by the order of the
Bath, but his aggressive temper led him into making attacks on the
admiral which necessitated a court-martial on Gambier. The admiral was
acquitted, and Cochrane naturally fell into disfavour with the
admiralty. He was not employed again till 1813, when he was named to the
command of the "Tonnant," which was ordered for service as flagship on
the coast of America. In the interval he was restlessly active in
parliament in denouncing naval abuses, and was also, most disastrously
for himself, led into speculations on the Stock Exchange, by which he
was brought at the beginning of 1814 into pressing danger of total ruin.

At this moment a notorious fraud was perpetrated on the Stock Exchange
by an uncle of his and by other persons with whom he habitually acted in
his speculations. Lord Cochrane was brought to trial with the others
before Lord Ellenborough on the 8th of June 1814 and all were condemned.
He was sentenced to an hour in the pillory, which was remitted, and to
fine and imprisonment, which were enforced. He continued to assert his
innocence, and to protest that he had been unjustly condemned, but he
was expelled from parliament and the order of the Bath. He was, however,
almost immediately re-elected member for Westminster, but he had to
serve his term (one year) of imprisonment, and, after escaping and being
recaptured, he regained his liberty in 1815 on payment of the fine of
£1000 to which he had been sentenced.

In 1817 he accepted the invitation of the Chileans, who were then in
revolt against Spain, to take command of their naval forces, and
remaining in their service until 1822 contributed largely to their
success. His capture of the Spanish frigate "Esmeralda" (40) in the
harbour of Callao, on the 5th of November 1820, was an achievement of
signal daring. In 1823 he transferred his services to Brazil, where he
helped the emperor Dom Pedro I. to shake off the yoke of Portugal; but
by the end of 1825 he had fallen out with the Brazilians, and he
returned to Europe. His activity was next devoted to the aid of the
Greeks, then at the end of their struggle with the Turks, but he found
no opportunity for distinguishing himself, and in 1828 he returned home.
His efforts were now steadily directed to securing his restoration to
the navy, and in this he succeeded in 1832; but though he was granted a
"free pardon" he failed to obtain the new trial for which he was
anxious, or to secure the arrears of pay he claimed.[1] He was restored
to his place in the order of the Bath in 1847. In 1848 he was appointed
to the command of the North American and West India station, which he
retained till 1851. At various periods of his life he occupied himself
with scientific invention. He took out patents for lamps to burn oil of
tar, for the propulsion of ships at sea, for facilitating excavation,
mining and sinking, for rotary steam-engines and for other purposes; and
so early as 1843 he was an advocate of the employment of steam and the
screw propeller in war-ships. During the Crimean War he revived his
"secret war plan" for the total destruction of an enemy's fleet, and
offered to conduct in person an attack on Sevastopol and destroy it in a
few hours without loss to the attacking force. This plan, the details of
which have never been divulged, he had proposed so far back as 1811, and
the committee which was then appointed to consider it reported on it as
effective but inhuman. Lord Dundonald died in London on the 30th of
October 1860, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. No one ever excelled
him in daring and resource as a naval officer, but he suffered from
serious defects of character, and even those who think him guiltless of
the charge on which he was convicted in 1814 must feel that he had his
own imprudence and want of self-command to thank for many of his
misfortunes.

He was succeeded in the title by his son Thomas as 11th earl (d. 1885),
and the latter by his son Douglas (b. 1852) as 12th earl, a
distinguished cavalry officer who became a lieutenant-general in 1907.

  The 10th earl's _Autobiography of a Seaman_ (2 vols., 1860-1861), the
  main source for his _Life_ (1869, by his son and heir), is written
  with spirit, but it was composed at the end of his career when his
  memory was failing, and was chiefly executed by others. He also wrote
  _Notes on the Mineralogy, Government and Condition of the British West
  India Islands_ (1851), and a _Narrative of Services in the Liberation
  of Chili, Peru and Brazil_ (1858). The whole story of his trial and of
  the Stock Exchange fraud for which he was condemned has been examined
  by Mr J.B. Atlay in _The Trial of Lord Cochrane before Lord
  Ellenborough_ (1897).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1878, as the result of the report of a select committee of the
    House of Commons appointed in 1877, a grant of £5000 was made to the
    then Lord Cochrane "in respect of the distinguished services of his
    grandfather, the late earl of Dundonald."



DUNEDIN, a city of New Zealand, capital of the provincial district of
Otago, and the seat of a bishop, in Taieri county. Pop (1906) 36,070,
including suburbs, 56,020. It lies 15 m. from the open sea, at the head
of Otago harbour, a narrow inlet (averaging 2 m. in width) on the
south-eastern coast of South Island. The situation was chosen on the
consideration of this harbour alone, for the actual site offered many
difficulties, steep forest-clad hills rising close to the sea, and
rendering reclamation necessary. The hills give the town a beautiful
appearance, as the forest was allowed to remain closely embracing it,
being preserved in the public ground named the Town Belt. The principal
thoroughfare is comprised in Prince's Street and George Street, running
straight from S.W. to N.E., and passing through the Octagon, which is
surrounded by several of the principal buildings. From these streets
others strike at right angles down to the harbour, while others again
lead obliquely up towards the Belt, beyond which are extensive suburbs.
There are several handsome commercial and banking houses. The town
hall, Athenaeum and museum are noteworthy buildings, the last having a
fine biological collection. The university, founded in 1869, built
mainly of basalt, has schools of arts, medicine, chemistry and
mineralogy. It is in reality a university college, for though it was
originally intended to have the power of conferring degrees, it was
subsequently affiliated to the New Zealand University. The churches are
numerous and some are particularly handsome; such as the First church,
which overlooks the harbour, and is so named from its standing on the
site of the church of the original settlers; St Paul's, Knox church and
the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Joseph. Finally, one of the most
striking buildings in the city is the high school (1885) with its
commanding tower. The white Oamaru stone is commonly used in these
buildings. The primary and secondary schools of the town are excellent,
and there is a small training college for state teachers. Besides the
Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and
acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two
race-courses.

Dunedin is connected by rail with Christchurch northward and
Invercargill southward, with numerous branches. Electric tramways serve
the principal thoroughfares and suburbs. The most important internal
industries are in wool and frozen meat. The harbour is accessible, owing
to extensive dredging, to vessels drawing 19 ft., at high tide; and
Dunedin is the headquarters of the coasting services of the Union
Steamship Co. Port Chalmers, however (9 m. N.E. by rail) though
incapacitated by its site from growing into a large town, is more
readily accessible for shipping, and has extensive piers and a graving
dock. Dunedin is governed by a mayor and corporation, and most of its
numerous suburbs are separate municipalities.

The colony of Otago (from a native word meaning ochre, which was found
here and highly prized by the Maoris as a pigment for the body when
preparing for battle) was founded as the chief town of the Otago
settlement by settlers sent out under the auspices of the lay
association of the Free Church of Scotland in 1848. The discovery of
large quantities of gold in Otago in 1861 and the following years
brought prosperity, a great "rush" of diggers setting in from Australia.
Gold-dredging, in the hands of rich companies, remains a primary source
of wealth in the district.



DUNES,[1] or DUNKIRK DUNES, BATTLE OF, was fought near Dunkirk on the
24th of May (3rd of June) 1658, between the French and English army
under the command of Marshal Turenne and the Spanish army under Don Juan
of Austria and the prince of Condé. The severest part of the fighting
was borne by the English contingents on either side. Six thousand
English infantry under General Lockhart were sent by Cromwell to join
the army of Turenne, and several Royalist corps under the command of the
duke of York (afterwards James II.) served in the Spanish forces. The
object of the Spaniards was to relieve Dunkirk, which Turenne was
besieging, and the complete victory of the French and English caused the
speedy surrender of the fortress.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For the word "dune" see DOWN.



DUNFERMLINE, ALEXANDER SETON, 1ST EARL OF (c. 1555-1622), was the fourth
son of George, 5th Lord Seton, and younger brother of Robert, 1st earl
of Winton. He was sent as a boy to Rome, where he studied at the
Jesuits' College with a view to becoming a priest. He turned, however,
to the study of law, and after some years' residence in France was
called to the bar about 1577. He was suspected of Romanist leanings by
the officials of the Scottish kirk, and was temporarily deprived of the
priory of Pluscardine, which had been granted to him by his god-mother,
Queen Mary. In 1583 he accompanied his father, Lord Seton, on an embassy
to Henry III. of France. His promotion was now rapid: he was made
extraordinary lord of session in 1586 as prior of Pluscardine, ordinary
lord of session in 1588 as lord Urquhart, judge in 1593, lord president
of the court session in 1598, Baron Fyvie in 1597 and chancellor in
1604. In 1595 he was one of the commission formed by James VI. to
control the royal finance. The eight commissioners were known from their
number as the Octavians, and were relieved of their functions about two
years later. Urquhart's continued influence was, however, assured, in
spite of the animosity of the kirk, by his appointment as lord provost
of Edinburgh of nine successive years. He showed considerable
independence in his relations with James VI., and dissuaded him from his
intention of forming a standing army in readiness to enforce his claims
to the English crown. He was entrusted with the care of Prince Charles,
afterwards Charles I., after the king's departure for England, and
arranged the details of the union between Scotland and England. He
became chancellor of Scotland in 1604, and on the 4th of March 1605 he
was created earl of Dunfermline. He died at Pinkie House, near
Musselburgh, on the 16th of June 1622.

His son CHARLES, 2nd earl of Dunfermline (c. 1608-1672), was the
offspring of his third marriage with Margaret Hay, sister of John, 1st
earl of Tweeddale. He signed the National Covenant and was one of the
leaders of the Presbyterian party, but as one of the "Engagers" of 1648
he was prevented from holding any public office, and after the execution
of Charles I. he joined Charles II. on the continent. He was made privy
councillor at the Restoration, extraordinary lord of session and lord of
the articles in 1667, and in 1671 lord privy seal. He died in May 1672.
The earldom was then held successively by his sons Alexander (d. 1675)
and James; but at the latter's death, at St Germains on the 26th of
December 1694, the title became extinct.

  See G. Seton, _Memoir of Alex. Seton, first Earl of Dunfermline_
  (1882); and Sir Robert Douglas, _Scots Peerage_, vol. ii. (1906,
  edited by Sir J.B. Paul).



DUNFERMLINE, JAMES ABERCROMBY, 1ST BARON (1776-1858), third son of
General Sir Ralph Abercromby, was born on the 7th of November 1776. He
was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1801, and became a
commissioner in bankruptcy, and subsequently steward for the estates of
the 5th duke of Devonshire. In 1807 he was chosen member of parliament
for the borough of Midhurst, and in 1812 was returned for Calne by the
influence of the 3rd marquess of Lansdowne. He attached himself to the
Whigs, but his chief interest was reserved for Scottish questions, and
on two occasions he sought to change the method of electing
representatives to parliament for the city of Edinburgh. When the Whigs
under George Canning came into power in 1827, Abercromby was made
judge-advocate-general, and became chief baron of the exchequer of
Scotland in 1830, when he resigned his seat in parliament. This office
was abolished in 1832, and Abercromby received a pension of £2000 a
year, and was sent as member for Edinburgh to the reformed parliament.
After being an unsuccessful candidate for the office of speaker he
joined the cabinet of Earl Grey in 1834 as master of the mint. Again a
candidate for the speakership in the new parliament of 1835, Abercromby
was elected to this office after an exceptionally keen contest by a
majority of ten votes. As speaker he was not very successful in quelling
disorder, but he introduced several important reforms in the management
of private bills. Resigning his office in May 1839 he was created Baron
Dunfermline of Dunfermline, and granted a pension of £4000 a year. He
continued his interest in the affairs of Edinburgh, and was one of the
founders of the United Industrial school. He died at Colinton House,
Midlothian, on the 17th of April 1858, and was succeeded in the title by
his only son, Ralph. His wife was Marianne, daughter of Egerton Leigh of
West Hall, High Leigh, Cheshire. He wrote a life of his father, Sir
Ralph Abercromby, which was published after his death (Edinburgh, 1861).

  See Spencer Walpole, _History of England_ (London, 1890); _Greville
  Memoirs_, edited by H. Reeve (London, 1896); Lord Cockburn's _Journal_
  (Edinburgh, 1874).



DUNFERMLINE (Gaelic, "the fort on the crooked linn"), a royal, municipal
and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891) 22,157; (1901)
25,250. It is situated on high ground 3 m. from the shore of the Firth
of Forth, with two stations on the North British railway--Lower
Dunfermline 16¾ m., and Upper Dunfermline 19¼ m. N.W. of Edinburgh, via
the Forth Bridge. The town is intersected from north to south by
Pittencrieff Glen, a deep, picturesque and tortuous ravine, from which
the town derives its name and at the bottom of which flows Lyne Burn.

The history of Dunfermline goes back to a remote period, for the early
Celtic monks known as Culdees had an establishment here; but its fame
and prosperity date from the marriage of Malcolm Canmore and his queen
Margaret, which was solemnized in the town in 1070. The king then lived
in a tower on a mound surrounded on three sides by the glen. A fragment
of this castle still exists in Pittencrieff Park, a little west of the
later palace. Under the influence of Queen Margaret in 1075 the
foundations were laid of the Benedictine priory, which was raised to the
rank of an abbey by David I. Robert Bruce gave the town its charter in
1322, though in his _Fife: Pictorial and Historical_ (ii. 223), A.H.
Millar contends that till the confirming charter of James VI. (1588) all
burghal privileges were granted by the abbots.

In the 18th century Dunfermline impressed Daniel Defoe as showing the
"full perfection of decay," but it is now one of the most prosperous
towns in Scotland. Its staple industry is the manufacture of table
linen. The weaving of damask was introduced in 1718 by James Blake, who
had learned the secret of the process in the workshops at Drumsheugh
near Edinburgh, to which he gained admittance by feigning idiocy; and
since that date the linen trade has advanced by leaps and bounds, much
of the success being due to the beautiful designs produced by the
manufacturers. Among other industries that have largely contributed to
the welfare of the town are dyeing and bleaching, brass and iron
founding, tanning, machine-making, brewing and distilling, milling,
rope-making and the making of soap and candles, while the collieries in
the immediate vicinity are numerous and flourishing.

The town is well supplied with public buildings. Besides the New Abbey
church, the United Free church in Queen Anne Street founded by Ralph
Erskine, and the Gillespie church, named after Thomas Gillespie
(1708-1774), another leader of the Secession movement, possess some
historical importance. Erskine is commemorated by a statue in front of
his church and a sarcophagus over his grave in the abbey churchyard;
Gillespie by a marble tablet on the wall above his resting-place within
the abbey. The Corporation buildings, a blend of the Scots Baronial and
French Gothic styles, contain busts of several Scottish sovereigns a
statue of Robert Burns, and Sir Noel Paton's painting of the "Spirit of
Religion." Other structures are the County buildings, the Public, St
Margaret's, Music and Carnegie halls, the last in the Tudor style,
Carnegie public baths, high school (founded in 1560), school of science
and art, and two hospitals. Several distinguished men have been
associated with Dunfermline. Robert Henryson (1430-1506), the poet, was
long one of its schoolmasters. John Row (1568-1646), the Church
historian, held the living of Carnock, 3 m. to the E., and David
Ferguson (d. 1598) who made the first collection of Scottish proverbs
(not published till 1641), was parish minister; Robert Gilfillan
(1798-1850), the poet, and Sir Joseph Noel Paton (1821-1901), painter
and poet--whose father was a designer of patterns for the damask
trade--were all born here. Andrew Carnegie (b. 1837), however, is in a
sense the most celebrated of all her sons, as he is certainly her
greatest benefactor. He gave to his birthplace the free library and
public baths, and, in 1903, the estate of Pittencrieff Park and Glen,
rich in historical associations as well as natural charm, together with
bonds yielding £25,000 a year, in trust for the maintenance of the park,
the support of a theatre for the production of plays of the highest
merit, the periodical exhibitions of works of art and science, the
promotion of horticulture among the working classes and the
encouragement of technical education in the district. The town is
governed by a provost, bailies and council, and, with Stirling, Culross,
Inverkeithing and Queensferry (the Stirling group), combines in
returning a member to parliament.

Dunfermline Abbey is one of the most important remains in Scotland.
Excepting Iona it has received more of Caledonia's royal dead than any
other place in the kingdom. Within its precincts were buried Queen
Margaret and Malcolm Canmore; their sons Edgar and Alexander I., with
his queen; David I. and his two queens; Malcolm IV.; Alexander III.,
with his first wife and their sons David and Alexander; Robert Bruce,
with his queen Elizabeth and their daughter Matilda; and Annabella
Drummond, wife of Robert III. and mother of James I. Bruce's heart rests
in Melrose, but his bones lie in Dunfermline Abbey, where (after the
discovery of the skeleton in 1818) they were reinterred with fitting
pomp below the pulpit of the New church. In 1891 the pulpit was moved
back and a monumental brass inserted in the floor to indicate the royal
vault. The tomb of St Margaret and Malcolm, within the ruined walls of
the Lady chapel, was restored and enclosed by command of Queen Victoria.
During the winter of 1303 the court of Edward I. was held in the abbey,
and on his departure next year most of the buildings were burned. When
the Reformers attacked the abbey church in March 1560, they spared the
nave, which served as the parish church till the 19th century, and now
forms the vestibule of the New church. This edifice, in the
Perpendicular style, opened for public worship in 1821, occupies the
site of the ancient chancel and transepts, though differing in style and
proportions from the original structure. The old building was a fine
example of simple and massive Norman, as the nave testifies, and has a
beautiful doorway in its west front. Another rich Norman doorway was
exposed in the south wall in 1903, when masons were cutting a site for
the memorial to the soldiers who had fallen in the South African War. A
new site was found for this monument in order that the ancient and
beautiful entrance might be preserved. The venerable structure is
maintained by the commissioners of woods and forests, and private
munificence has provided several stained-glass windows. Of the monastery
there still remains the south wall of the refectory, with a fine window.
The palace, a favourite residence of many of the kings, occupying a
picturesque position near the ravine, was of considerable size, judging
from the south-west wall, which is all that is left of it. Here James
IV., James V. and James VI. spent much of their time, and within its
walls were born three of James VI.'s children--Charles I., Robert and
Elizabeth. After Charles I. was crowned he paid a short visit to his
birthplace, but the last royal tenant of the palace was Charles II., who
occupied it just before the battle of Pitreavie (20th of July 1650),
which took place 3 m. to the south-west, and here also he signed the
National League and Covenant.

  See A.H. Millar's _Fife: Pictorial and Historical_ (2 vols., 1895);
  and Sheriff Æneas Mackay's _History of Fife and Kinross_ (1896).



DUNGANNON, a market town of Co. Tyrone, Ireland, in the east
parliamentary division, on an acclivity 8 m. W. of the south-western
shore of Lough Neagh. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3694. It is 103 m.
N.N.W. from Dublin by the Great Northern railway, and a branch line runs
thence to Cookstown. The only public buildings of note are the parish
church, with an octagonal spire, and a royal school founded in 1614 and
settled in new buildings at the end of the 18th century; it is now
managed by the county Protestant Board of Education. Linens, muslin and
coarse earthenware are manufactured, tanning is prosecuted, and there is
trade in corn and timber. The early history of the place is identified
with the once powerful family of the O'Neills, whose chief residence was
here, and a large rath or earthwork north of the town was the scene of
the inauguration of their chiefs, but of the castle and abbey founded by
this family there are no remains. In Dungannon the independence of the
Irish parliament (to which the town returned two members) was proclaimed
in 1782. The town was formerly corporate, and was a parliamentary
borough returning one member to the Imperial parliament until 1885.



DUNGARPUR, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency, in the
extreme south of Rajputana. A large portion is hilly, and inhabited by
Bhils. Its area is 1447 sq. m. In 1901 the total population was 100,103,
showing an increase of 2% in the decade. The revenue is £15,100, and the
tribute £2276. An annual fair is held at Baneswar. Kherwara is the
headquarters of the Mewar Bhil corps.

The chiefs of Dungarpur, who bear the title of maharawal, are descended
from Mahup, eldest son of Karan Singh, chief of Mewar in the 12th
century, and claim the honours of the elder line of Mewar. Mahup,
disinherited by his father, took refuge with his mother's family, the
Chauhans of Bagar, and made himself master of that country at the
expense of the Bhil chiefs. The town of Dungarpur (pop. 6094 in 1901),
the capital of the state, was founded towards the end of the 14th
century by his descendant Rawal Bir Singh, who named it after Dungaria,
an independent Bhil chieftain whom he had caused to be assassinated.
After the death of Rawal Udai Singh of Bagar at the battle of Khanua in
1527, his territories were divided into the states of Dungarpur and
Banswara, the name of Bagar being still often applied to the tract
covered by these states. Dungarpur fell under the sway of the Moguls and
Mahrattas in turn, and was taken under British protection by treaty in
1818.



DUNGARVAN, a market town and seaport of Co. Waterford, Ireland, in the
west parliamentary division, 28½ m. W.S.W. from Waterford by the
Waterford and Mallow branch of the Great Southern & Western railway.
Pop. of urban district (1901) 4850. It is situated on the south coast,
on the Bay of Dungarvan, at the mouth of the Colligan, which divides the
town into two parts, connected by a bridge of a single arch. The eastern
suburb is called Abbeyside, where the remains of an ancient keep,
erected by the M'Graths, still exist, together with portions of an
Augustinian friary, founded by the same family in the 14th century and
incorporated with a Roman Catholic chapel. In the main portion of the
town a part of the keep of a castle of King John remains. Brewing is
carried on, and there are woollen mills. The exports consist chiefly of
agricultural produce. Dungarvan was incorporated in the 15th century,
was represented by two members in the Irish parliament until the Union,
and returned a member to the Imperial parliament until 1885. It was
fortified with walls by John when the castle was built. A story is told
that Cromwell spared the town from bombardment owing to the wit of a
woman who drank his health at the town-gate.



DUNGENESS, a promontory of the south coast of England, in the south of
Kent, near the town of Lydd. It is a low-lying broad bank of shingle,
forming the seaward apex of the great level of the Romney Marshes. Its
seaward accretion is estimated at 6 ft. annually. Its formation is
characteristic, consisting of a series of ridges forming a succession of
curves from a common centre. It is unique, however, among the great
promontories of the south coast of England, the accretion of gravel
banks falling into deep water contrasting with the cliff-bound headlands
of the North Foreland, Beachy Head and the Lizard, and with the low
eroded Selsey Bill, off which the sea is shallow. A lighthouse (50° 55´
N., 0° 58´ E.) stands on the ness, which has been the scene of many
shipwrecks, and has been lighted since the time of James I. There are
also here Lloyds' signalling station, coast-guard stations, and the
terminus of a branch of the South-Eastern & Chatham railway.

The name Dungeness has also been applied elsewhere; thus the point on
the north side of the eastern entrance to Magellan Strait is so called,
and there is a town of Dungeness near a promontory on the coast of
Washington, U.S.A. (Strait of Juan de Fuca).



DUNGEON, the prison in a castle keep, so called because the Norman name
for the latter is donjon (q.v.), and the dungeons or prisons (q.v.) are
generally in its lowest storey. (See KEEP.)



DUNKELD, a town of Perthshire, Scotland, on the left bank of the Tay,
15½ m. N.W. of Perth by the Highland railway. Pop. (1901) 586. The river
is crossed by a bridge of seven arches which was designed by Thomas
Telford in 1805 and opened in 1808. The town lies in the midst of
luxuriant trees, and the noble sweep of the Tay, the effectively
situated bridge, the magnificent grounds of Dunkeld House, and the
protecting mountains combine to give it a very romantic appearance. The
town hall is the principal modern building, and the fountain erected in
Market Square to the memory of the 6th duke of Atholl (d. 1864) occupies
the site of the old cross.

As early as 729--some authorities fix the date a hundred and fifty years
before--the Culdees possessed a monastery at Dunkeld, which was
converted into a cathedral by David I. in 1127. This structure stood
until the Reformation, when it was unroofed and suffered to fall into
ruin. The building consists of the nave (120 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, 40
ft. high), aisles (12 ft. wide), choir, chapter-house and tower. The
nave is the most beautiful portion. The Pointed arches rest upon
pillars, possibly Norman, and above them, below the Decorated clerestory
windows, is a series of semicircular arches with flamboyant tracery, a
remarkable feature. The choir, founded by Bishop William Sinclair (d.
1337), has been repaired, and serves as the parish church, a blue marble
slab in the floor marking the bishop's grave. The chapter-house,
adjoining the choir, was built by Bishop Thomas Lauder (1395-1481) in
1469, and the vault beneath is the burial-place of the Atholl Murrays.
Lauder also began the tower, completed in 1501. In the porch of the
church is the most interesting of the extant old tombs, namely, the
recumbent effigy of Alexander Stewart, the Wolf of Badenoch (1343-1405;
the inscription refers his death to 1394, but this is said to be an
error). The most famous of the Bishops was Gavin Douglas (1474-1522),
translator of the _Aeneid_. One of the most heroic exploits in the
annals of warfare is associated with the cathedral. Shortly after the
battle of Killiecrankie (1689), the Cameronian regiment, enrolled in the
same year (afterwards the 26th Foot), was despatched to hold Dunkeld
prior to another invasion of the Highlands. It was under the command of
Colonel William Cleland (b. 1661), a poet of some merit. On the 26th of
August a force of 5000 Highlanders suddenly appearing, Cleland posted
his men in the church and behind the wall of the earl of Atholl's
mansion. Still flushed with their victory under Dundee, and animated by
bitterest hatred of their Whiggamore foes, the Highlanders assaulted the
position of the Covenanters, who were 1200 strong, with the most
desperate valour. Sustained by their enthusiasm, however, the recruits
displayed equal courage, and, at the end of four hours' stubborn
fighting, their defence was still intact. Fearing lest victory, even if
won, might be purchased too dearly, the Highlanders gradually withdrew.
While leading a sortie Cleland was shot dead, and was buried in the
churchyard.

Adjoining the cathedral is Dunkeld House, a seat of the duke of Atholl,
the grounds of which are estimated to contain 50 m. of walks and 30 m.
of drives. On the lawn near the cathedral stand two of the earliest
larches grown in Great Britain, having been introduced from Tirol by the
2nd duke in 1738. The 4th duke planted several square miles of the
estate with this tree, of which he had made a special study.

A mile south of Dunkeld, on the left bank of the Tay, is the village of
Birnam (pop. 389), where Sir John Everett Millais, the painter, made his
summer residence. It lies at the foot of Birnam Hill (1324 ft.), once
covered with a royal forest that has been partly replaced by
plantations. The oak and sycamore in front of Birnam House, the famed
twin trees of Birnam, are believed to be more than 1000 years old, and
to be the remnant of the wood of Birnam which Shakespeare immortalized
in _Macbeth_. The Pass of Birnam, where the river narrows, was the path
usually taken by the Highlanders in their forays. In the vicinity are
the castles of Murthly, one a modern mansion in the Elizabethan style,
erected about 1838 from designs by James Gillespie Graham (1777-1855),
and the other the old castle, still occupied, which was occasionally
used as a hunting-lodge by the Scottish kings.

At Little Dunkeld, almost opposite to Dunkeld, the Bran joins the Tay,
after a run of 11 m. from its source in Loch Freuchie. It is celebrated
for its falls about 2 m. from the mouth. The upper fall is known as the
Rumbling Bridge from the fact that the stream pours with a rumbling
noise through a deep narrow gorge in which a huge fallen rock has become
wedged, forming a rude bridge or arch. Inver, near the mouth of the
Bran, was the birthplace of the two famous fiddlers, Niel Gow
(1727-1807) and his son Nathaniel (1766-1831).



DUNKIRK (Fr. _Dunkerque_), a seaport of northern France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Nord, on the Straits of Dover, 53 m.
N.W. of Lille on the Northern railway. Pop. (1906) 35,767. Dunkirk is
situated in the low but fertile district of the Wateringues. It lies,
amidst a network of canals, immediately to the west and south of its
port, which disputes with Bordeaux the rank of third in importance in
France. The populous suburbs of Rosendaël and St Pol-sur-Mer lie
respectively to the east and west of the town; to the north-east is the
bathing resort of Malo-les-Bains. The streets of Dunkirk are wide and
well paved, the chief of them converging to the square named after Jean
Bart (born at Dunkirk in 1651), whose statue by David d'Angers stands at
its centre. Close to the Place Jean Bart rises the belfry (290 ft. high)
which contains a fine peal of bells and also serves as a signalling
tower. It was once the western tower of the church of St Eloi, from
which it is now separated by a street. St Eloi, erected about 1560 in
the Gothic style, was deprived of its first two bays in the 18th
century; the present façade dates from 1889. The chapel of Notre-Dame
des Dunes possesses a small image, which is the object of a well-known
pilgrimage. The chief civil buildings are a large Chamber of Commerce,
including the customs and port services, and a fine modern town hall.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include
tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of
trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a
communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and
music, a library and a rich museum of paintings. Dunkirk forms with
Bergues, Bourbourg and Gravelines a group of fortresses enclosed by
inundations and canals. A chain of forts to the eastward is designed to
facilitate the deployment of an army, concentrated within the fortified
region, towards the Belgian frontier.

The harbour of Dunkirk (see DOCK) is approached by a fine natural
roadstead entered on the east and west, and protected on the north by
sand-banks. From the roadstead, entrance is by a channel into the outer
harbour, which communicates with seven floating basins about 115 acres
in area and is accessible to the largest vessels. The port is provided
with four dry docks and a gridiron, and its quays exceed 5 m. in length.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it
into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and
Pas-de-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and
the industrial towns of Lille, Armentières, Roubaix, Tourcoing,
Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the
entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of
193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.

Dunkirk annually despatches a fleet to the Icelandic cod-fisheries, and
takes part in the herring and other fisheries. It imports great
quantities of wool from the Argentine and Australia, and is in regular
communication with New York, London and the chief ports of the United
Kingdom, Brazil and the far East. Besides wool, leading imports are
jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals,
oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and
metals. The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage,
cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread
and vegetables. The average annual value of the imports for the years
1901-1905 was £23,926,000 (£22,287,000 for 1896-1900), of exports
£6,369,000 (£4,481,000 for 1896-1900). The industries include the
spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the
manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and
soap. There are also saw- and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and
oil-works. Ship-building is carried on, and the preparation of fish and
cod-liver oil occupies many hands.

Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the
7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th
century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together
with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and
Spain. In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries its possession was disputed
by French and Spaniards. In 1658 Turenne's victory of the Dunes (q.v.)
gave it into the hands of the French and it was ceded to England. After
the Restoration, Charles II., being in money difficulties, sold it to
the French king Louis XIV., who fortified it. By the terms of the peace
of Utrecht (1713) the fortifications were demolished and its harbour
filled up, a sacrifice demanded by England owing to the damage inflicted
on her shipping by Jean Bart and other corsairs of the port. In 1793 it
was besieged by the English under Frederick Augustus, duke of York, who
was compelled to retire after the defeat of Hondschoote.

  See A. de St Leger, _La Flandre maritime et Dunkerque_ (Paris, 1900).



DUNKIRK, a city and a port of entry of Chautauqua county, New York,
U.S.A., on the S. shore of Lake Erie, 40 m. S.W. of Buffalo. Pop. (1890)
9416; (1900) 11,616, of whom 3338 were foreign-born; (1910 census)
17,221. The city is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, the Lake Shore
& Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, and the Dunkirk,
Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg railways, by the electric line of the
Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., and by several lines of freight and
passenger steamships. Dunkirk is attractively situated high above the
lake, and has several parks, including Point Gratiot and Washington; in
the city are the Dunkirk free library, the Brooks Memorial hospital
(1891), and St Mary's academy. The city lies in an agricultural and
grape-growing region, and has a fine harbour and an extensive lake
trade; the manufactures include locomotives, radiators, lumber, springs,
shirts, axes, wagons, steel, silk gloves and concrete blocks. The value
of factory products increased from $5,225,996 in 1900 to $9,909,260 in
1905, or 89.6%. Large numbers of food-fish are caught in the lake. The
municipality owns and operates the water works and the electric lighting
plant. Dunkirk was first settled about 1805. It was incorporated as a
village in 1837, and was chartered as a city in 1880.



DUNLOP, JOHN COLIN (1785-1842), Scottish man of letters, was born on the
30th of December 1785. In 1816 he became sheriff of Renfrewshire, and
retained this office until his death at Edinburgh, on the 26th of
January (according to others, in February) 1842. The work by which he is
best known, and which will always hold an honourable place in English
literature, is his _History of Fiction_ (1814; new edition, 1888, with
notes by H. Wilson, in Bohn's "Standard Library"). In spite of the
somewhat contemptuous notices in _Blackwood's Magazine_ (September 1824)
and the _Quarterly Review_ (July 1815), it may be pronounced the best
book on the subject in English. F. Liebrecht, by whom it was translated
into German (1851) with valuable notes, describes it as the only work of
its kind. Dunlop was also the author of _A History of Roman Literature_
(1823-1828), and of _Memoirs of Spain during the Reigns of Philip IV.
and Charles II._ (1834).



DUNMORE, a borough of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., adjoining
Scranton on the N.E. and about 20 m. N.E. of Wilkesbarre. Pop. (1890)
8315; (1900) 12,583, of whom 3103 were foreign-born; (1910 census)
17,615. It is served by the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western,
and the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley (electric) railways. Its chief
industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments
are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all
wage-earners engaged in manufacturing. Among the borough's manufactures
are stoves and furnaces, malt liquors and silk. Dunmore is the seat of
the state oral school for the deaf. The town was first settled in 1783
and was incorporated in 1862. Its growth was accelerated by the
establishment here, in 1863, of the shops of the railway from Pittston
to Hawley built in 1849-1850 by the Pennsylvania Coal Company. Dunmore
became a station of the Scranton post office in 1902.



DUNMOW (properly GREAT DUNMOW), a market town in the Epping (W.)
parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the river Chelmer, 40 m.
N.E. by N. from London on a branch of the Great Eastern railway. Pop.
(1901) 2704. The church of St Mary is Decorated and Perpendicular. The
town was corporate from the 16th century until 1886. Roman remains have
been discovered. Two miles E. is the village of LITTLE DUNMOW, formerly
the seat of a priory, remarkable for the custom of presenting a flitch
of bacon to any couple who could give proof that they had spent the
first year of married life in perfect harmony, and had never at any
moment wished they had tarried. In place of the monastic judicature a
jury of six bachelors and six maidens appear in the 16th century. A
rhyming oath, quoted by Fuller, was taken. The institution of this
strange matrimonial prize--which had its parallel at Whichanoure (or
Wichnor) in Staffordshire, at St Moleine in Brittany, and apparently
also at Vienna--appears to date from the reign of John. The first
instance of its award recorded is in 1445, and there are a few others.
But there are references which suggest its previous award in _Piers
Plowman_ and Chaucer. The Chaucerian couplet conveys the idea of an
award to a patient husband, without reference to the wife. A revival of
the custom was effected in 1855 by Harrison Ainsworth, author of the
novel _The Flitch of Bacon_, but the scene of the ceremony was
transferred to the town hall of Great Dunmow. It has since been
maintained in altered form. (For details see Chambers's _Book of Days_,
ii. 748-751; and W. Andrews, _History of the Dunmow Flitch of Bacon
Customs_, 1877.) Close to Little Dunmow is Felsted (q.v.) or Felstead;
and Easton Lodge (with a railway station), a seat of the earl of
Warwick, is in the vicinity.



DUNNE, FINLEY PETER (1867-   ), American journalist and humorist, was
born, of Irish descent, in Chicago, Illinois, on the 10th of July 1867.
After a public school education he became a newspaper reporter (1885);
he was city editor of the Chicago _Times_ (1891-1892), a member of the
editorial staff of the Chicago _Evening Post_ and of the Chicago
_Times-Herald_ (1892-1897), and editor of the Chicago _Journal_
(1897-1900). In 1900 he removed to New York city. Although for several
years he had been contributing humorous sketches in Irish brogue to the
daily papers, he did not come into prominence until he wrote for the
Chicago _Journal_ a series of satirical observations and reflections
attributed to an honest Irish-American, Martin Dooley, the shrewd
philosopher of Archey Road, on social and political topics of the day.
These were widely copied by the press of America and England. The first
published collection, _Mr Dooley in Peace and in War_ (1898), was
followed by several others, similar in subject-matter and method,
including _Mr Dooley in the Hearts of his Countrymen_ (1899), _Mr
Dooley's Philosophy_ (1900), _Mr Dooley's Opinions_ (1901),
_Observations by Mr Dooley_ (1902), and _Dissertations by Mr Dooley_
(1906). These books made their author widely known as the creator of a
delightfully original character, and as a humorist of shrewd insight. In
1906 he became associate editor of the _American Magazine_.



DUNNOTTAR CASTLE, a ruined stronghold, on the east coast of
Kincardineshire, Scotland, about 2 m. S. of Stonehaven. It stands on a
rock 160 ft. high, with a summit area of 4 acres, and surrounded on
three sides by the sea. It is accessible from the land by a winding path
leading across a deep chasm, to the outer gate in a wall of enormous
thickness. It is supposed that a fortress stood here since perhaps the
7th century, but the existing castle dates from 1392, when it was begun
by Sir William Keith (d. 1407), great marischal of Scotland. The keep
and chapel are believed to be the oldest structures, most of the other
buildings being two centuries later. It was the residence of the earls
marischal and was regarded as impregnable. Here the seventh earl
entertained Charles II. before the battle of Worcester. When Cromwell
became Protector, the Scottish regalia were lodged in the castle for
greater security, and, in 1651, when the Commonwealth soldiers laid
successful siege to it, they were saved by a woman's wit. Mrs Granger,
wife of the minister of Kinneff, a parish about 6 m. to the S., was
allowed to visit the wife of the governor, Ogilvy of Barras, and when
she rode out she was spinning lint on a distaff. The crown was concealed
in her lap, and the distaff consisted of the sword and sceptre. The
regalia were hidden beneath the flagstones in the parish church, whence
they were recovered at the Restoration. In 1685 the castle was converted
into a Covenanters' prison, no fewer than 167 being confined in a
dungeon, called therefrom the Whigs' Vault. On the attainder of George,
tenth and last marischal, for his share in the earl of Mar's rising in
1715 the castle was dismantled (1720).



DUNOIS, JEAN, COUNT OF (1403-1468), commonly called the "Bastard of
Orleans," a celebrated French commander, was the natural son of the duke
of Orleans (brother of Charles VI.) and Mariette d'Enghien, Madame de
Canny. He was brought up in the house of the duke, and in the company
of his legitimate sons, and it appears that he was present at the battle
of Beaugé in 1421 and Verneuil in 1424. His earliest feat of arms was
the surprise and rout in 1427 of the English, who were besieging
Montargis--the first successful blow against the English power in France
following a long series of French defeats. In 1428 he defended Orleans
with the greatest spirit, and enabled the place to hold out until the
arrival of Joan of Arc, when he shared with her the honour of defeating
the enemy there in 1429. He then accompanied Joan to Reims and shared in
the victory of Patay. After her death he raised the siege of Chartres
and of Lagny (1432) and engaged in a series of successful campaigns
which ended in his triumphal entry into Paris on the 13th of April 1436.
He continued to carry on the war against the English, and gradually
drove them to the northward, though his work was to some extent
interrupted by the civil disorders of the time, in which he played a
conspicuous part. Finally in 1450 he completed the reconquest of
northern France, and in 1451 he attacked them in Guienne, taking among
other towns Bordeaux, which the English had held for three hundred
years, and Bayonne. After the expulsion of the English he was constantly
engaged in the highest diplomatic and military missions. In 1465 he
joined the league of revolted princes, but, assuming the function of
negotiator, he was after a time reinstated in his offices. Dunois was
thenceforward in the greatest favour with the court. He died on the 24th
of November 1468.



DUNOON, a police and municipal burgh of Argyllshire, Scotland, on the
western shore of the Firth of Clyde, opposite to Gourock. Pop. (1901)
6779. Including Kirn and Hunter's Quay, it presents a practically
continuous front of seaside villas. The mildness of its climate and the
beauty of its situation have made it one of the most prosperous
watering-places on the west coast. The principal buildings are the
parish church, well-placed on a hill overlooking the pier, convalescent
homes, Cottage and Victoria fever hospitals, and the town house. On a
conical hill above the pier stand the remains of Dunoon Castle, the
hereditary keepership of which was conferred by Robert Bruce on the
family of Sir Colin Campbell of Loch Awe, an ancestor of the duke of
Argyll. It was visited by Queen Mary in 1563, and in 1643 was the scene
of the massacre of the Lamonts by the Campbells. The grounds have been
laid out as a recreation garden. Near the hill stands the modern castle.
Facing the pier a statue was erected in 1898 of Mary Campbell, Burns's
"Highland Mary," who was a native of Dunoon. The town itself is of
modern growth, having been a mere fishing village at the beginning of
the 19th century. There is frequent communication daily by steamer with
the railway piers at Craigendoran and Gourock, and Glasgow merchants are
thus enabled to reside here all the year round. Hunter's Quay is the
yachting headquarters, the Royal Clyde Yacht Club's house adjoining the
pier. Kilmun, on the northern shore of Holy Loch, a portion of the
parish of Dunoon and Kilmun, contains the ruins of a Collegiate chapel
founded in 1442 by Sir Duncan Campbell of Loch Awe and used as the
burial-ground of the Argyll family.



DUNROBIN CASTLE, a seat of the duke of Sutherland, picturesquely
situated on the north-eastern shore of Dornoch Firth, Sutherlandshire,
Scotland, about 2 m. N.E. of Golspie, with a private station on the
Highland railway. The name is said to have originally meant the fort of
Raffu, the "law-man," or crown agent for the district in 1222, but it
was renamed out of compliment to Robert (or Robin), 6th earl of
Sutherland, who died in 1389. The ancient portion, dating from the end
of the 13th century, was a square structure with towers at the corners,
but in 1856 there was added a wing, a main north-eastern tower, and
front, with numerous bartizan turrets, and dormer windows in the roof.
The stately entrance porch recalls that of Windsor Castle, and the
interior is designed and decorated on a sumptuous scale. In April 1746
George Mackenzie, the 3rd earl of Cromarty, thinking that Prince Charles
Edward had prevailed at Culloden, seized the castle in his interests,
but the Sutherland militia surrounded the building and captured the earl
in an apartment which was afterwards called the Cromartie room. The
beautiful gardens contain a wealth of trees, which grow with remarkable
luxuriance for the latitude of 58° N. The 3rd duke of Sutherland erected
a museum in the grounds in which are many specimens of the antiquities
of the shire, such as querns, stone tools and weapons, silver brooches
and the like, found in brochs and elsewhere. There is a graceful
waterfall in Dunrobin glen, through which flows Golspie Burn, near the
left bank of which are remains of Pictish towers. About 1 m. N.W. of
Golspie rises Ben Bhragie (1256 ft.), crowned by a colossal statue of
the 1st duke of Sutherland, by Chantrey.



DUNS, a police burgh and county town of Berwickshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1901) 2206. It is situated 44 m. E.S.E. of Edinburgh by road, with a
station on the branch line of the North British railway from Reston to
St Boswells. The principal buildings are the town-hall, county
buildings, corn exchange, mechanics' institute and the public library.
There is a woollen mill, and stock sales are held at frequent intervals.
The alternative spelling of Dunse seems to have been in vogue from 1740
till 1882. It was on Duns Law (700 ft.) that the Covenanters, under
Alexander Leslie, were encamped in 1639, and the Covenanters' Stone on
the top of the hill has been enclosed to preserve it from relic-hunters.
Duns castle, adjoining the town on the W., includes the Tower erected by
Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray (d. 1332), and about 3 m. S.W. is the
village of Polwarth.



DUNSINANE, a peak of the Sidlaw Hills, in the parish of Collace,
Perthshire, Scotland, 8 m. N.E. of Perth. It is 1012 ft. high, and
commands a fine view of the Carse of Gowrie and the valley of the Tay.
Its chief claim to mention, however, is due to its association with
Birnam Wood (about 12 m. N.W.) in two well-known passages in
Shakespeare's _Macbeth_. An old fort on the summit, of which faint
traces are still discernible, is traditionally called Macbeth's Castle.



DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN (1265 or 1275-1308), one of the foremost of the
schoolmen. His birthplace has been variously given as Duns in
Berwickshire, Dunum (Down) in Ulster, and Dunstane in Northumberland,
but there is not sufficient evidence to settle the question. He joined
the Franciscan order in early life, and studied at Merton College,
Oxford, of which he is said to have been a fellow. He became remarkably
proficient in all branches of learning, but especially in mathematics.
When his master, William Varron, removed to Paris in 1301, Duns Scotus
was appointed to succeed him as professor of philosophy, and his
lectures attracted an immense number of students. Probably in 1304 he
went to Paris, in 1307 he received his doctor's degree from the
university, and in the same year was appointed regent of the theological
school. His connexion with the university was made memorable by his
defence of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, in which he
displayed such dialectical ingenuity as to win for himself the title
_Doctor Subtilis_. The doctrine long continued to be one of the main
subjects in dispute between the Scotists and the Thomists, or, what is
almost the same thing, between the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The
university of Paris was so impressed by his arguments, that in 1387 it
formally condemned the Thomist doctrine, and a century afterwards
required all who received the doctor's degree to bind themselves by an
oath to defend the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 1308 Duns
Scotus was sent by the general of his order to Cologne, with the twofold
object of engaging in a controversy with the Beghards and of assisting
in the foundation of a university; according to some, his removal was
due to jealousy. He was received with enthusiasm by the inhabitants but
died suddenly (it was said, of apoplexy) on the 8th of November in the
same year. There was also a tradition that he had been buried alive.

His philosophical position was determined, or at least very greatly
influenced, by the antagonism between the Dominicans and the
Franciscans. Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that
of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a
critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation
of Kant to Leibnitz. In the matter of Universals, Duns was more of a
realist and less of an eclectic than Aquinas. Theologically, the
Thomistic system approximates to pantheism, while that of Scotus
inclines distinctly to Pelagianism. The doctrine of the Immaculate
Conception was the great subject in dispute between the two parties; it
was strenuously opposed by Aquinas, and supported by Duns Scotus,
although not without reserve. There were, however, differences of a
wider and deeper kind. In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that
reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns
Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart
from theology as based upon revelation. In conformity with this
principle he denied that the existence of God was capable of being
proved, or that the nature of God was capable of being comprehended. He
therefore rejected as worthless the ontological proof offered by
Aquinas. Another chief point of difference with Aquinas was in regard to
the freedom of the will, which Duns Scotus maintained absolutely. He
reconciled free-will and necessity by representing the divine decree not
as temporarily antecedent, but as immediately related to the action of
the created will. He maintained, in opposition to Aquinas, that the will
was independent of the understanding, that only will could affect will.
From this difference as to the nature of free-will followed by necessary
consequence a difference with the Thomists as to the operation of divine
grace. In ethics the distinction he drew between natural and theological
virtues is common to him with the rest of the schoolmen. (Cf. AQUINAS.)
Duns Scotus strongly upheld the authority of the church, making it the
ultimate authority on which that of Scripture depends. (See also
SCHOLASTICISM.)

  The most important of his works consisted of questions and
  commentaries on the writings of Aristotle, and on the _Sentences_ of
  Lombard, the so-called _Opus Oxoniense_ or _Anglicanum_. Complete
  works, edited by Luke Wadding (13 vols., Lyons, 1639) and at Paris (26
  vols., 1891-1895). There is an edition of his _De modis significandi_
  or _Grammatica speculativa_, the first attempt to investigate the
  general laws of language, by F.M. Fernández García (Quaracchi,
  Florence, 1902).

  On Duns Scotus generally, see life by Wadding in vol. i. of the works
  (full, however, of legendary absurdities); J. Müller, _Biographisches
  über Duns Scotus_ (progr., Cologne, 1881); W.J. Townsend, _The Great
  Schoolmen_ (1881); K. Werner, _Die Scholastik des späteren
  Mittelalters_, i. (1881); J.M. Rigg, in _Dictionary of National
  Biography_. On his theology: C. Frassen, _Scotus Academicus_ (1744,
  new edition, 1900); Hieronymus de Montefortino (Jerome de Fortius),
  _Scoti summa theologica_ (1728-1738, new edition, 1900); L.F.O.
  Baumgarten-Crusius, _De theologia Scoti_ (1826); R. Seeberg, _Die
  Theologie des J. Duns Scotus_ (1900), and in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie_ (1898), with bibliog.
  refs; F. Morin, _Dictionnaire de philosophie et de théologie
  scolastiques_ [= J.P. Migne, _Troisième encyclopédie théologique_,
  xxi., xxii., 1857]; C.R. Hagenbach, _History of Doctrines_ (Eng. tr.,
  ii., 1880). On his philosophy: E. Pluzanski, _Essai sur la philosophie
  de Duns Scot_ (1887); A. Schmid, _Die Thomistische und Scotistische
  Gewissheitlehre_ (1859); M. Schneid, _Die Körperlehre des J. Duns
  Scotus_--its relation to Thomism and Atomism (1879); P. Minges, "Ist
  Duns Scotus Indeterminist?" in _Beiträge zur Geschichte der
  Philosophie des Mittelalters_, Bd. v. Heft 4 (1905); W. Kahl, _Die
  Lehre vom Primat des Willens bei Augustinus, Duns Scotus, und
  Descartes_ (1886).



DUNSTABLE, a municipal borough and market town in the southern
parliamentary division of Bedfordshire, England, 37 m. N.W. of London,
on branches of the Great Northern and London & North-Western railways.
Pop. (1901) 5157. It lies at an elevation of about 500 ft. on the bleak
northward slope of the Chiltern Hills. The church of St Peter and St
Paul is a fine fragment of the church of the Augustinian priory founded
by Henry I. in 1131. The building was cruciform, but only the west front
and part of the nave remain. The front has a large late Norman portal of
four orders, with rich Early English arcading above; the nave arcade is
ornate Norman. The original triforium is transformed into a clerestory,
the original clerestory being lost. The north-west tower has a
Perpendicular upper portion, but the south-west tower is destroyed. The
church contains various monuments of the 18th century. Foundations of a
palace of Henry I. are traceable near the church. The main part of the
town extends for a mile along the broad straight Roman road, Watling
Street; the high road from Luton to Tring, which crosses it in the
centre of the town, representing the ancient Icknield Way. The chief
industry is straw hat manufacture; there are also printing, stationery
and engineering works. The borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen, and 12
councillors. Area, 453 acres.

There may have been a Romano-British village on this site on the Watling
Street. Dunstable (_Dunestaple_, _Donestaple_) first appears as a royal
borough in the reign of Henry I., who, according to tradition, on
account of the depredations of robbers, cleared the forest where Watling
Street and the Icknield Way met, and encouraged his subjects to settle
there by various grants of privileges. He endowed the priory by charter
with the lordship of the manor and borough, which it retained till its
dissolution in 1536-1537. The Dunstable Annals deal exhaustively with
the history of the monastery and town in the 13th century. In 1219 the
prior secured the right of holding a court there for all crown pleas and
of sitting beside the justices itinerant, and this led to serious
collision between the monks and burgesses. The body of Queen Eleanor
rested here for a night on its journey to Westminster, and a cross, of
which there is now no trace, was subsequently erected in the
market-place. At Dunstable Cranmer held the court which, in 1533,
declared Catherine of Aragon's marriage invalid. At the dissolution a
plan was set on foot for the creation of a new bishopric from the spoils
of the religious houses, which was to include Bedfordshire and
Buckinghamshire with Dunstable as cathedral city. The scheme was never
realized, though plans for the cathedral were actually drawn up.

From the earliest time Dunstable has been an agricultural town. The
Annals abound with references to the prices and comparative abundance or
scarcity of the two staple products, wool and corn. The straw hat
manufacture has flourished since the 18th century. Henry I. granted a
market held twice a week, and a three days' fair on the feast of St
Peter ad Vincula. John made a further grant of a three days' fair from
the 10th of May. A market is still held weekly, also fairs in May and
August correspond to these grants. Dunstable had also a gild merchant
and was affiliated to London. In 1864 the town was made a municipal
borough by royal charter.



DUNSTAFFNAGE, a ruined castle of Argyllshire, Scotland, 3 m. N.N.E. of
Oban. It is situated on a platform of conglomerate rock forming a
promontory at the south-west of the entrance to Loch Etive and is
surrounded on three sides by the sea. It dates from the 13th century,
occupying the site of the earlier stronghold in which was kept the Stone
of Destiny prior to its removal to Scone (q.v.) in 843. The castle is a
quadrangular structure of great strength, with rounded towers at three
of the angles, and has a circumference of about 400 ft. The walls are 60
ft. high and 10 ft. thick, affording a safe promenade, which commands a
splendid view. Brass cannon recovered from wrecked vessels of the
Spanish Armada are mounted on the walls. In 1308 Robert Bruce captured
the fortress from the original owners, the MacDougalls, and gave it to
the Campbells. It was garrisoned at the period of the Jacobite
rebellions of 1715 and 1745, fell into decay early in the 19th century,
and is now the property of the crown, the duke of Argyll being
hereditary keeper. The adjoining chapel, in a very ruinous state, was
the burial-place of the Campbells of Dunstaffnage.

There are other interesting places on Loch Etive, an arm of the sea,
measuring 19¼ m. in length and from 1/8 m. to fully 1 m. in width. Near
the mouth, where the lake narrows to a strait, are the rapids which
Ossian called the Falls of Lora, the ebbing and flowing tides, as they
rush over the rocky bar, creating a roaring noise audible at a
considerable distance. In the parish of Ardchattan, on the north shore,
stands the beautiful ruin of St Modan's Priory, founded in the 13th
century for Cistercian monks of the order of Vallis Caulium. It is said
that Robert Bruce held within its walls the last parliament in which the
Gaelic language was used. On the coast of Loch Nell, or Ardmucknish Bay,
is the vitrified fort of Beregonium, not to be confounded with
Rerigonium (sometimes miscalled Berigonium) on Loch Ryan in
Wigtownshire--a town of the Novantae Picts, identified with Innermessan.
The confusion has arisen through a textual error in an early edition of
Ptolemy's _Geography_.



DUNSTAN, SAINT (924 or 925-988),[1] English archbishop, entered the
household of King Æthelstan when still quite a boy. Here he soon excited
the dislike of his young companions, who procured his banishment from
the court. He now took refuge with his kinsman Alphege, bishop of
Winchester, whose persuasion, seconded by a serious illness, induced him
to become a monk. Æthelstan's successor, Edmund, recalled him to the
court and made him one of his counsellors. Through the machinations of
enemies he was again expelled from the royal presence; but shortly
afterwards Edmund revoked the sentence and made him abbot of
Glastonbury. His successor Edred showed him greater favour still. On the
accession of Edwig, however, in 955, Dunstan's fortunes underwent a
temporary eclipse. Having offended the influential Ælfgifu, he was
outlawed and compelled to flee to Flanders. But in 957 the Mercians and
Northumbrians revolted and chose Edgar as their king. The new king at
once recalled Dunstan, who was made a bishop. At first apparently he was
without a see; but that of Worcester falling vacant, he was appointed to
fill it. In 959 he received the bishopric of London as well. In the same
year Edwig died and Edgar became sole king, Dunstan shared his triumph,
and was appointed archbishop of Canterbury. On Edgar's death in 975 the
archbishop's influence secured the crown for his elder son Edward. But
with the accession of Æthelred in 979 Dunstan's public career came to an
end. He retired to Canterbury, and died on the 19th of May 988.

Dunstan is of more importance as a lay than as an ecclesiastical
statesman. The great church movement of his time--the reformation of
English monasticism on Benedictine lines--found in him a sympathizer,
but in no sense an active participant. But as a secular statesman he
occupies a high place. He guided the state successfully during the nine
years' reign of the invalid Edred. Through that of Edgar, he was the
king's chief minister and most trusted adviser; and to him a great share
in its glories must be assigned.

  See _Memorials of St Dunstan_, edited by W. Stubbs (London, 1874);
  _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, edited by C. Plummer (Oxford, 1892-1899).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The date of Dunstan's birth here given is that given in the
    Anglo-Saxon chronicle and hitherto accepted. In an appendix to the
    _Bosworth Psalter_, edited by Mr Edmund Bishop and Abbot Gasquet
    (1908), Mr Leslie A. St L. Toke gives reason to believe that the date
    must be set back at least as early as 910.



DUNSTER, a market town in the Western parliamentary division of
Somersetshire, England, 1½ m. from the shore of the Bristol Channel, on
the Minehead branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 1182. Its
streets, sloping sharply, contain many old houses. On an eminence stands
the ancient castle, entered by a gateway of the 13th century. There are
portions of later date, but still ancient, in the main building, but it
has been considerably modernized as a residence. The church of St George
has Norman portions, but the building is in the main Perpendicular. The
fine tower in this style is characteristic of this part of England.
There are traces of monastic buildings near the church, for it belonged
to a Benedictine house of early Norman foundation. The church is
cruciform and the altar stands beneath the eastern lantern arch, a fine
rood screen separating off the choir, which was devoted to monastic use,
while the nave was kept for the parishioners, in consequence of a
dispute between the vicar and the monastery in 1499. The Yarn Market, a
picturesque octagonal building with deep sloping roof, in the main
street, dates from c. 1600, and is a memorial of Dunster's former
important manufacture of cloth.

There were British, Roman and Saxon settlements at Dunster (_Torre
Dunestorre_, _Dunester_), fortified against the piracies of the Irish
Northmen. The Saxon fort of Alaric was replaced by a Norman castle built
by William de Mohun, first lord of Dunster, who founded the priory of St
George. Before 1183, Dunster had become a mesne borough, owned by the de
Mohuns until the 14th century when it passed to the Luttrells, the
present owners. Reginald de Mohun granted the first charter between 1245
and 1247, which diminished fines and tolls, limited the lord's "mercy,"
and provided that the burgesses should not against their will be made
bailiffs or farmers of the seaport. John de Mohun granted other charters
in 1301 and 1307. Dunster was only represented in parliament in
conjunction with Minehead, one of its tithings being part of that
borough. Representation began in 1562, and was lost in 1832. Feudal in
origin, Dunster's later importance was commercial, and the port had a
considerable wool, corn and cattle trade with Ireland. During the middle
ages the Friday market and fair in Whit week, granted by the first
charter, were centres for the sale of yarn and cloth called "Dunsters,"
made in the town. The market day is still Friday. The manufacture of
cloth had disappeared, the harbour is silted up, and there is no special
local industry.

  See Sir H.C. Maxwell Lyte, _Dunster and its Lords_ (1882); _Victoria
  County History, Somerset_, vol. ii.



DUNTOCHER (Gaelic, "The Fort of ill hap"), a town on Dalmuir Burn,
Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 9 m. from Glasgow. Pop. (1901) 2122. The
district contains coal, limestone and ironstone, but there is not much
mining. Many of the inhabitants are employed at the Singer factory in
Kilbowie and at the Clyde Trust yards in Dalmuir. There are considerable
Roman remains in the neighbourhood. Antoninus' Wall passed immediately
to the south; the burn is crossed by a bridge alleged to be of Roman
origin (which at least is doubtful); subterranean remains indicate a
Roman structure; a Roman camp has been traced, and the vicinity has
yielded a number of altars, urns, vases, coins and tablets, which are
now in the custody of Glasgow University.



DUNTON, JOHN (1659-1733), English bookseller and author, was born at
Graffham, in Huntingdonshire, on the 4th of May 1659. His father,
grandfather and great-grandfather had all been clergymen. At the age of
fifteen he was apprenticed to Thomas Parkhurst, bookseller, at the sign
of the Bible and Three Crowns, Cheapside, London. Dunton ran away at
once, but was soon brought back, and began to "love books." During the
struggle which led to the Revolution, Dunton was the treasurer of the
Whig apprentices. He became a bookseller at the sign of the Raven, near
the Royal Exchange, and married Elizabeth Annesley, whose sister married
Samuel Wesley. His wife managed his business, so that he was left free
in a great measure to follow his own eccentric devices. In 1686,
probably because he was concerned in the Monmouth rising, he visited New
England, where he stayed eight months selling books and observing with
interest the new country and its inhabitants. Dunton had become security
for his brother's debts, and to escape the creditors he made a short
excursion to Holland. On his return to England, he opened a new shop in
the Poultry in the hope of better times. Here he published weekly the
_Athenian Mercury_ which professed to answer all questions on history,
philosophy, love, marriage and things in general. His wife died in 1697,
and he married a second time; but a quarrel about property led to a
separation; and being incapable of managing his own affairs, he spent
the last years of his life in great poverty. He died in 1733. He wrote a
great many books and a number of political squibs on the Whig side, but
only his _Life and Errors of John Dunton_ (1705), on account of its
naïveté, its pictures of bygone times, and of the literary history of
the period, is remembered. His letters from New England were published
in America in 1867.



DÜNTZER, JOHANN HEINRICH JOSEPH (1813-1901), German philologist and
historian of literature, was born at Cologne on the 12th of July 1813.
After studying philology and especially ancient classics and Sanskrit at
Bonn and Berlin (1830-1835), he took the degree of doctor of philosophy
and established himself in 1837 at Bonn as _Privat docent_ for classical
literature. He had already, in his Goethes _Faust in seiner Einheit und
Ganzheit_ (1836) and _Goethe als Dramatiker_ (1837), advocated a new
critical method in interpreting the German classics, which he wished to
see treated like the ancient classics. He subsequently turned his
attention almost exclusively to the poets of the German classical
period, notably Goethe and Schiller. Düntzer's method met with much
opposition and he consequently failed to obtain the professorship he
coveted. In 1846 he accepted the post of librarian at the Roman Catholic
gymnasium in Cologne, where he died on the 16th of December 1901.
Düntzer was a painstaking and accurate critic, but lacking in
inspiration and finer literary taste; consequently his work as a
biographer and commentator has, to a great extent, been superseded and
discredited.

  Among his philological writings may be mentioned _Die Lehre von der
  lateinischen Wortbildung_ (1836); _Die Deklination der
  indogermanischen Sprachen_ (1839); _Homer und der epische Kyklos_
  (1839); _Die homerischen Beiworter des Gotter- und
  Menschengeschlechts_ (1859). Of his works on the German classical
  poets, especially Goethe, Schiller and Herder, the following are
  particularly worthy of note, _Erlauterungen zu den deutschen
  Klassikern_ (1853-1892); _Goethes Prometheus und Pandora_ (1850);
  _Goethes Faust_ (2 vols., 1850-1851; 2nd ed. 1857); _Goethes Gotz und
  Egmont_ (1854); _Aus Goethes Freundeskreise_ (1868); _Abhandlungen zu
  Goethes Leben und Werken_ (2 vols., 1885); _Goethes Tagebucher der
  sechs ersten weimarischen Jahre_ (1889); _Goethes Leben_ (1880; 2nd
  ed. 1883; Engl. transl. by T. Lyster, London, 1884); _Schillers Leben_
  (1881); _Schiller und Goethe; Übersicht und Erlauterung zum
  Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe_ (1859); _Herders Reise nach
  Italien_ (1859); _Aus Herders Nachlass_ (3 vols., 1856-1857), and
  further, _Charlotte von Stein_ (1874).



DUNWICH, a village in the Eye parliamentary division of Suffolk,
England, on the coast between Southwold and Aldeburgh, 5 m. S.S.W. of
Southwold. Pop. (1901) 157. This was in Anglo-Saxon days the most
important commercial centre and port of East Anglia. It was probably a
Romano-British site. The period of its highest dignity was the Saxon
era, when it was called Dommocceaster and Dunwyk. Early in the 7th
century, when Sigebert became king of East Anglia, Dunwich was chosen
his capital and became the nursery of Christianity in Eastern Britain. A
bishopric was founded (according to Bede in 630, while the Anglo-Saxon
chronicle gives 635), the name of the first bishop being Felix.
Sigebert's reign was notable for his foundation of a school modelled on
those he had seen in France; it was probably at Dunwich, but formed the
nucleus of what afterwards became the university of Cambridge. By the
middle of the 11th century (_temp._ Edward the Confessor) Dunwich was
declining, as it had already suffered from an evil which later caused
its total ruin, namely the inroads of the sea on the unstable coast. At
the Norman Conquest the manor was granted to Robert Malet; but the
history of the place remains blank until the reign of Henry II., when it
re-emerged into prosperity. In 1173 the sight of its strength caused
Robert earl of Leicester to despair of besieging it. The town received a
charter from King John. In the reign of Edward I. it is recorded to have
possessed 36 ships and "barks," trading to the North Seas, Iceland and
elsewhere, with 24 fishing boats, besides maintaining 11 ships of war.
But early in the reign of Edward III. the attacks of the sea began to
make headway again. In 1347 over 400 houses were destroyed. In 1570,
after a terrible storm, appeal was made to Elizabeth, who parsimoniously
granted money obtained by the sale of lead and other materials from
certain neighbouring churches. But the doomed town was gradually
engulfed, and now the only outward evidence of the old wealthy port is
the ruined fragment of the church of All Saints, overhanging a low
cliff, which, as it crumbles, exposes the coffins and bones in the
former churchyard, the greater part of which has disappeared. A small
white flower growing wild among the ruins is called the Dunwich Rose,
and is traditionally said to have been planted and cultivated by monks.
Many relics have been discovered by excavation, and even from beneath
the waves. Until 1832 Dunwich returned 2 members to parliament.



DUOVIRI, less correctly DUUMVIRI (from Lat. _duo_ two, and _vir_, man),
in ancient Rome, the official style of two joint magistrates. Such pairs
of magistrates were appointed at various periods of Roman history both
in Rome itself and in the colonies and municipia. (1) _Duumviri iuri
(iure) dicundo_, municipal magistrates, whose chief duties were
concerned with the administration of justice. Sometimes there were four
of these magistrates (_Quattuorviri_). (2) _Duumviri quinquennales_,
also municipal officers, not to be confused with the above, who were
elected every fifth year for one year to exercise the function of the
censorship which was in abeyance for the intervening four years. (3)
_Duumviri sacrorum_, officers who originally had charge of the
Sibylline books; they were afterwards increased to ten (_decemviri
sacris faciundis_), and in Sulla's time to fifteen (_quindecimviri_).
(4) _Duumviri aedi locandae_, originally officers specially appointed to
supervise the erection of a temple. There were also _duumviri aedi
dedicandae_. (5) _Duumviri navales_, extraordinary officers appointed
_ad hoc_ for the equipping of a fleet. Originally chosen by consuls or
dictator, they were elected by the people after 311 B.C. (Livy ix. 30;
xl. 18; xli. 1). (6) _Duumviri perduellionis_, the earliest criminal
court for trying offences against the state (see TREASON: _Roman Law_).
(7) _Duumviri viis extra urbem purgandis_, subordinate officers under
the aediles, whose duty it was to look after those streets of Rome which
were outside the city walls. Apparently in 20 B.C., certainly by 12
B.C., their duties were transferred to the _Curatores viarum_. From at
least as early as 45 B.C. (cf. the Lex Iulia Municipalis) the streets of
the city were superintended by _Quattuorviri viis in urbe purgandis_,
later called _Quattuorviri viarum purgandarum_.

  See Fiebiger and Liebenam in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyc._ v. pt. 2.



DUPANLOUP, FÉLIX ANTOINE PHILIBERT (1802-1878), French ecclesiastic, was
born at St Félix in Savoy on the 3rd of January 1802. In his earliest
years he was confided to the care of his brother, a priest in the
diocese of Chambéry. In 1810 he was sent to a _pensionnat
ecclésiastique_ at Paris. Thence he went to the seminary of St Nicolas
de Chardonnel in 1813, and was transferred to the seminary of St Sulpice
at Paris in 1820. In 1825 he was ordained priest, and was appointed
vicar of the Madeleine at Paris. For a time he was tutor to the Orleans
princes. He became the founder of the celebrated academy at St
Hyacinthe, and received a letter from Gregory XVI. eulogizing his work
there, and calling him _Apostolus juventutis_. His imposing height, his
noble features, his brilliant eloquence, as well as his renown for zeal
and charity, made him a prominent feature in French life for many years.
Crowds of persons attended his addresses, on whom his energy, command of
language, powerful voice and impassioned gestures made a profound
impression. When made bishop of Orleans in 1849, he pronounced a fervid
panegyric on Joan of Arc, which attracted attention in England as well
as France. Before this he had been sent by Archbishop Affre to Rome, and
had been appointed Roman prelate and protonotary apostolic. For thirty
years he remained a notable figure in France, doing his utmost to arouse
his countrymen from religious indifference. In ecclesiastical policy his
views were moderate; thus he opposed the definition of the dogma of
papal infallibility both before and during the Vatican council, but was
among the first to accept the dogma when decreed. He was a distinguished
educationist who fought for the retention of the Latin classics in the
schools and instituted the celebrated catechetical method of St Sulpice.
Among his publications are _De l'éducation_ (1850), _De la haute
éducation intellectuelle_ (3 vols., 1866), _Oeuvres choisies_ (1861, 4
vols.); _Histoire de Jésus_ (1872), a counterblast to Renan's _Vie de
Jésus_. He died on the 11th of October 1878.

  See _Life_ by F. Lagrange (Eng. tr. by Lady Herbert, London, 1885).



DUPERRON, JACQUES DAVY (1556-1618), French cardinal, was born at St Lô,
in Normandy, on the 15th of November 1556. His father was a physician,
who on embracing the doctrines of the Reformation became a Protestant
minister, and to escape persecution settled at Bern, in Switzerland.
Here Jacques Davy received his education, being taught Latin and
mathematics by his father, and learning Greek and Hebrew and the
philosophy then in vogue. Returning to Normandy he was presented to the
king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being
again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man
without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the
king. He was commanded to preach before the king at the convent of
Vincennes, when the success of his sermon on the love of God, and of a
funeral oration on the poet Ronsard, induced him to take orders. On the
death of Mary queen of Scots he was chosen to pronounce her eulogy. On
the death of Henry III., after having supported for some time the
cardinal de Bourbon, the head of the league against the king, Duperron
became a faithful servant of Henry IV., and in 1591 was created by him
bishop of Evreux. He instructed Henry in the Catholic religion; and in
1594 was sent to Rome, where with Cardinal d'Ossat (1536-1604) he
obtained Henry's absolution. On his return to his diocese, his zeal and
eloquence were largely instrumental in withstanding the progress of
Calvinism, and among others he converted Henry Sponde, who became bishop
of Pamiers, and the Swiss general Sancy. At the conference at
Fontainebleau in 1600 he argued with much eloquence and ingenuity
against Du Plessis Mornay (1549-1623). In 1604 he was sent to Rome as
_chargé d'affaires de France_; when Clement VIII. died, he largely
contributed by his eloquence to the election of Leo XI. to the papal
throne, and, on the death of Leo twenty-four days after, to the election
of Paul V. While still at Rome he was made a cardinal, and in 1606
became archbishop of Sens. After the death of Henry IV. he took an
active part in the states-general of 1614, when he vigorously upheld the
ultramontane doctrines against the Third Estate. He died in Paris on the
6th of September 1618.

  See _Les Diverses Oeuvres de l'illustrissime cardinal Duperron_
  (Paris, 1622); Pierre Féret, _Le Cardinal Duperron_ (Paris, 1877).



DUPIN, ANDRÉ MARIE JEAN JACQUES (1783-1865), commonly called Dupin the
Elder, French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the
Legislative Assembly, was born at Varzy, in Nièvre, on the 1st of
February 1783. He was educated by his father, who was a lawyer of
eminence, and at an early age he became principal clerk of an attorney at
Paris. On the establishment of the _Académie de Législation_ he entered
it as pupil from Nièvre. In 1800 he was made advocate, and in 1802, when
the schools of law were opened, he received successively the degrees of
licentiate and doctor from the new faculty. He was in 1810 an
unsuccessful candidate for the chair of law at Paris, and in 1811 he also
failed to obtain the office of advocate-general at the court of
cassation. About this time he was added to the commission charged with
the classification of the laws of the empire, and, after the interruption
caused by the events of 1814 and 1815, was charged with the sole care of
that great work. When he entered the chamber of deputies in 1815 he at
once took an active part in the debates as a member of the Liberal
Opposition, and strenuously opposed the election of the son of Napoleon
as emperor after his father's abdication. At the election after the
second restoration Dupin was not re-elected. He defended with great
intrepidity the principal political victims of the reaction, among
others, in conjunction with Nicolas Berryer, Marshal Ney; and in October
1815 boldly published a tractate entitled _Libre Défense des accusés_. In
1827 he was again elected a member of the chamber of deputies and in 1830
he voted the address of the 221, and on the 28th of February he was in
the streets exhorting the citizens to resistance. At the end of 1832 he
became president of the chamber, which office he held successively for
eight years. On Louis Philippe's abdication in 1848 Dupin introduced the
young count of Paris into the chamber, and proposed him as king with the
duchess of Orleans as regent. This attempt failed, but Dupin submitted to
circumstances, and, retaining the office of _procureur-général_, his
first act was to decide that justice should henceforth be rendered to the
"name of the French people." In 1849 he was elected a member of the
Assembly, and became president of the principal committee--that on
legislation. After the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd of December 1851 he still
retained his office of _procureur-général_, and did not resign it until
effect was given to the decrees confiscating the property of the house of
Orleans. In 1857 he was offered his old office by the emperor, and
accepted it, explaining his acceptance in a discourse, a sentence of
which may be employed to describe his whole political career. "I have
always," he said, "belonged to France and never to parties." He died on
the 8th of November 1865. Among Dupin's works, which are numerous, may be
mentioned _Principia Juris Civilis_, 5 vols. (1806); _Mémoires et
plaidoyers de 1806 au 1^er Janvier 1830_, in 20 vols.; and _Mémoires ou
souvenirs du barreau_, in 4 vols. (1855-1857).

His brother, FRANÇOIS PIERRE CHARLES DUPIN (1784-1873), wrote several
geometrical works, treating of descriptive geometry after the manner of
Monge, and of the theory of curves.



DU PIN, LOUIS ELLIES (1657-1719), French ecclesiastical historian, came
of a noble family of Normandy, and was born at Paris on the 17th of June
1657. When ten years old he entered the college of Harcourt, where he
graduated M.A. in 1672. He afterwards became a pupil of the Sorbonne,
and received the degree of B.D. in 1680 and that of D.D. in 1684. About
this time he conceived the idea of his _Bibliothèque universelle de tous
les auteurs ecclésiastiques_, the first volume of which appeared in
1686. The liberty with which he there treated the doctrines of the
Fathers aroused ecclesiastical prejudice, and the archbishop of Paris
condemned the work. Although Du Pin consented to a retractation, the
book was suppressed in 1693; he was, however, allowed again to continue
it on changing its title by substituting _nouvelle_ for _universelle_.
He was subsequently exiled to Châtellerault as a Jansenist, but the
sentence of banishment was repealed on a new retractation. In 1718 he
entered into a correspondence with William Wake, archbishop of
Canterbury, with a view to a union of the English and Gallican churches;
being suspected of projecting a change in the dogmas of the church, his
papers were seized in February 1719, but nothing incriminating was
found. The same zeal for union induced him, during the residence of
Peter the Great in France, and at that monarch's request, to draw up a
plan for uniting the Greek and Roman churches. He died at Paris on the
6th of June 1719.

Du Pin was a voluminous author. Besides his great work (Paris,
1686-1704, 58 vols. 8vo; Amsterdam, 19 vols. 4to; in the last of which
he gives much autobiographical information), mention may be made of
_Bibliothèque universelle des historiens_ (2 vols., 1707); _L'Histoire
de l'église en abrégé_ (1712); and _L'Histoire profane depuis le
commencement du monde jusqu'à présent_ (4 vols., 1712).



DUPLEIX, JOSEPH FRANÇOIS (1697-1763), governor-general of the French
establishment in India, the great rival of Clive (q.v.), was born at
Landrecies, France, on the 1st of January 1697. His father, François
Dupleix, a wealthy farmer-general, wished to bring him up as a merchant,
and, in order to distract him from his taste for science, sent him on a
voyage to India in 1715 on one of the French East India Company's
vessels. He made several voyages to America and India, and in 1720 was
named a member of the superior council at Pondicherry. He displayed
great business aptitude, and, in addition to his official duties, made
large ventures on his own account, and acquired a fortune. In 1730 he
was made superintendent of French affairs in Chandernagore, the town
prospering under his energetic administration and growing into great
importance. His reputation procured him in 1742 the appointment of
governor-general of all French establishments in India. His ambition now
was to acquire for France vast territories in India; and for this
purpose he entered into relations with the native princes, and adopted a
style of oriental splendour in his dress and surroundings. The British
took the alarm. But the danger to their settlements and power was partly
averted by the bitter mutual jealousy which existed between Dupleix and
La Bourdonnais, French governor of the isle of Bourbon. When Madras
capitulated to the French in 1764, Dupleix opposed the restoration of
the town to the British, thus violating the treaty signed by La
Bourdonnais. He then sent an expedition against Fort St David (1747),
which was defeated on its march by the nawab of Arcot, the ally of the
British. Dupleix succeeded in gaining over the nawab, and again
attempted the capture of Fort St David, but unsuccessfully. A midnight
attack on Cuddalore was repulsed with great loss. In 1748 Pondicherry
was besieged by the British; but in the course of the operations news
arrived of the peace concluded between the French and the British at
Aix-la-Chapelle. Dupleix next entered into negotiations which had for
their object the subjugation of southern India, and he sent a large body
of troops to the aid of two claimants of the sovereignty of the Carnatic
and the Deccan. The British were engaged on the side of their rivals.
After temporary successes the scheme failed. Dupleix was a great
organizer, but did not possess the genius for command in the field that
was shown by Clive. The conflicts between the French and the British in
India continued till 1754, when the French government, anxious to make
peace, sent out to India a special commissioner with orders to supersede
Dupleix and, if necessary, to arrest him. These orders were carried out
with needless harshness, what survived of Dupleix's work was ruined at a
blow, and he himself was compelled to embark for France on the 12th of
October 1754. He had spent his private fortune in the prosecution of his
public policy; the company refused to acknowledge the obligation; and
the government would do nothing for a man whom they persisted in
regarding as an ambitious and greedy adventurer. The greatest of French
colonial governors died in obscurity and want on the 10th of November
1763. In 1741 he had married Jeanne Albert, widow of one of the
councillors of the company, a woman of strong character and intellect,
known to the Hindus as Joanna Begum, who proved of great use to her
husband in his negotiations with the native princes. She died in 1756,
and two years later he married again.

  See Tibulle Hamont, _Dupleix, d'après sa correspondance inédite_
  (Paris, 1881); H. Castonnet, _Dupleix, ses expéditions et ses projets_
  (Paris, 1888) and _La Chute de Dupleix_ (Angers, 1888); G.B.
  Malleson, _Dupleix_ (Rulers of India series, 1890); and E. Guérin,
  _Dupleix_ (1908).



DUPONT, PIERRE (1821-1870), French song-writer, the son of a blacksmith,
was born at Lyons on the 23rd of April 1821. His parents both died
before he was five years old, and he was brought up in the country by
his godfather, a village priest. He was educated at the seminary of
L'Argentière, and was afterwards apprenticed to a notary at Lyons. In
1839 he found his way to Paris, and some of his poems were inserted in
the _Gazette de France_ and the _Quotidienne_. Two years later he was
saved from the conscription and enabled to publish his first
volume--_Les Deux Anges_--through the exertions of a kinsman and of
Pierre Lebrun. In 1842 he received a prize from the Academy, and worked
for some time on the official dictionary. Gounod's appreciation of his
peasant song, _J'ai deux grands boeufs dans mon étable_ (1846), settled
his vocation as a song-writer. He had no theoretical knowledge of music,
but he composed both the words and the melodies of his songs, the two
processes being generally simultaneous. He himself remained so innocent
of musical knowledge that he had to engage Ernest Reyer to write down
his airs. He sang his own songs, as they were composed, at the workmen's
concerts in the Salle de la Fraternité du Faubourg Saint-Denis; the
public performance of his famous _Le Pain_ was forbidden; _Le Chant des
ouvriers_ was even more popular; and in 1851 he paid the penalty of
having become the poet laureate of the socialistic aspirations of the
time by being condemned to seven years of exile from France. The
sentence was cancelled, and the poet withdrew for a time from
participation in politics. He died at Lyons, where his later years were
spent, on the 24th of July 1870. His songs have appeared in various
forms--_Chants et chansons_ (3 vols., with music, 1852-1854), _Chants et
poésies_ (7th edition, 1862), &c. Among the best-known are _Le
Braconnier_, _Le Tisserand_, _La Vache blanche_, _La Chanson du blé_,
but many others might be mentioned of equal spontaneity and charm. His
later works have not the same merit.

  See also Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, iv.; Ch. Baudelaire,
  _Notice sur P. Dupont_ (1849); Déchaut, _Biographie de Pierre Dupont_
  (1871); and Ch. Lenient, _Poésie patriotique en France_ (1889), ii.
  352 et seq.



DUPONT DE L'ÉTANG, PIERRE ANTOINE, COUNT (1765-1840), French general,
first saw active service as a member of Maillebois' legion in Holland,
and in 1791 was on the staff of the Army of the North under Dillon. He
distinguished himself at Valmy, and in the fighting around Menin in 1793
he forced an Austrian regiment to surrender. Promoted general of brigade
for this feat, he soon received further advancement from Carnot, who
recognized his abilities. In 1797 he became general of division. The
rise of Napoleon, whom he warmly supported in the _coup d'état_ of 18th
Brumaire, brought him further opportunities. In the campaign of 1800 he
was chief of the staff to Berthier, the nominal commander of the "Army
of Reserve of the Alps", which won the battle of Marengo. After the
battle he sustained a brilliant combat, against greatly superior forces,
at Pozzolo. In the campaign on the Danube in 1805, as the leader of one
of Ney's divisions, he earned further distinction, especially at the
action of Albeck-Haslach, in which he prevented the escape of the
Austrians from Ulm, and so contributed most effectively to the isolation
and subsequent capture of Mack and his whole army (see NAPOLEONIC
CAMPAIGNS). At Friedland he won further fame. With a record such as but
few of Napoleon's divisional commanders possessed, he entered Spain in
1808 at the head of a corps. After the occupation of Madrid, Dupont,
newly created count by Napoleon, was sent to subdue Andalusia. After a
few initial successes he had to retire on the passes of the Sierra
Morena. Pursued and cut off by the Spanish army under Castaños, his
corps was defeated and he felt himself constrained to capitulate
(Baylen, 19th-23rd July; see PENINSULAR WAR). The disgrace which fell
upon the general was not entirely merited. His troops were for the most
part raw levies, and ill-luck contributed materially to the catastrophe,
but, after his return to France, Dupont was sent before a court-martial,
deprived of his rank and title, and imprisoned from 1812 to 1814.
Released only by the fall of Napoleon, he was employed by Louis XVIII.
in a military command, which he lost on the return of Napoleon. But the
Second Restoration saw him restored to the army, and appointed a member
of the _conseil privé_ of Louis XVIII. From 1815 to 1830 he was deputy
for the Charente. He lived in retirement from 1832 till his death in
1840. Amongst the writings Dupont left are some poems, including _L'Art
de la guerre_ (1838), and verse translations from Horace (1836), and the
following military works: _Opinion sur le nouveau mode de recrutement_
(1818), _Lettres sur l'Espagne en 1808_ (1823), _Lettre sur la campagne
d'Autriche_ (1826). At the time of his death he was on the point of
publishing his memoirs.

  See Lieut.-Col. Titeux, _Le Général Dupont: une erreur historique_
  (Paris, 1903).



DUPONT DE L'EURE, JACQUES CHARLES (1767-1855), French lawyer and
statesman, was born at Neubourg (Eure), in Normandy, on the 27th of
February 1767. In 1789 he was an advocate at the parlement of Normandy.
During the republic and the empire he filled successively judicial
offices at Louviers, Rouen and Evreux. He had adopted the principles of
the Revolution, and in 1798 he commenced his political life as a member
of the Council of Five Hundred. In 1813 he became a member of the Corps
Legislatif. During the Hundred Days he was vice-president of the chamber
of deputies, and when the allied armies entered Paris he drew up the
declaration in which the chamber asserted the necessity of maintaining
the principles of government that had been established at the
Revolution. He was chosen one of the commissioners to negotiate with the
allied sovereigns. From 1817 till 1849 he was uninterruptedly a member
of the chamber of deputies, and he acted consistently with the liberal
opposition, of which at more than one crisis he was the virtual leader.
For a few months in 1830 he held office as minister of justice, but,
finding himself out of harmony with his colleagues, he resigned before
the close of the year and resumed his place in the opposition. At the
revolution of 1848 Dupont de l'Eure was made president of the
provisional assembly as being its oldest member. In the following year,
having failed to secure his re-election to the chamber, he retired into
private life. He died in 1855. The consistent firmness with which he
adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many
changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen,
by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.



DU PONT DE NEMOURS, PIERRE SAMUEL (1739-1817), French political
economist and statesman, was born at Paris on the 14th of September
1739. He studied for the medical profession, but did not enter upon
practice, his attention having been early directed to economic questions
through his friendship with François Quesnay, Turgot and other leaders
of the school known as the Economists. To this school he rendered
valuable service by several pamphlets on financial questions, and
numerous articles representing and advocating its views in a popular
style in the _Journal de l'agriculture, du commerce, et des finances_,
and the _Éphémérides du citoyen_, of which he was successively editor.
In 1772 he accepted the office of secretary of the council of public
instruction from Stanislas Poniatowski, king of Poland. Two years later
he was recalled to France by the advent of his friend Turgot to power.
After assisting the minister in his wisely-conceived but unavailing
schemes of reform during the brief period of his tenure of office, Du
Pont shared his dismissal and retired to Gâtinais, in the neighbourhood
of Nemours, where he employed himself in agricultural improvements.
During his leisure he wrote a translation of Ariosto (1781), and
_Mémoires sur la vie de Turgot_ (1782). He was drawn from his retirement
by C.G. de Vergennes, minister of foreign affairs, who employed him in
1782 in negotiating, with the English commissioner Dr James Hutton, for
recognition of the independence of the United States (1782), and in
preparing a treaty of commerce with Great Britain (1786). Under Calonne
he became councillor of state, and was appointed commissary-general of
commerce.

During the Revolution period he advocated constitutional monarchy, and
was returned as deputy by the Third Estate of the _bailliage_ of Nemours
to the states-general, and then to the Constituent Assembly, of which he
was elected president on the 16th of October 1790. But his conservative
opinions rendered him more and more unpopular, and after the 10th of
August 1792, when he took the side of the king, he was forced to lie
concealed for some weeks in the observatory of the Mazarin College, from
which he contrived to escape to the country. During the time that
elapsed before he was discovered and arrested he wrote his _Philosophie
de l'univers_. Imprisoned in La Force (1794), he was one of those who
had the good fortune to escape the guillotine till the death of
Robespierre set them free. As a member of the Council of Five Hundred,
Du Pont carried out his policy of resistance to the Jacobins, and made
himself prominent as a member of the reactionary party. After the
republican triumph on the 18th Fructidor (4th of September) 1797 his
house was sacked by the mob, and he himself only escaped transportation
to Cayenne through the influence of M.J. Chénier. In 1799 he found it
advisable for his comfort, if not for his safety, to emigrate with his
family to the United States. Jefferson's high opinion of Du Pont was
shown in using him in 1802 to convey to Bonaparte unofficially a threat
against the French occupation of Louisiana; and also, earlier, in
requesting him to prepare a scheme of national education, which was
published in 1800 under the title _Sur l'éducation nationale dans les
États-Unis d'Amérique_. Though the scheme was not carried out in the
United States, several of its features have been adopted in the existing
French code. On his return to France in 1802 he declined to accept any
office under Napoleon, devoted himself almost exclusively to literary
pursuits, and was elected to the _Institut_. On the downfall of Napoleon
in 1814 Du Pont became secretary to the provisional government, and on
the restoration he was made a councillor of state. The return of the
emperor in 1815 determined him to quit France, and he spent the close of
his life with his younger son, Eleuthère Irénée (1771-1834), who had
established a powder manufactory in Delaware. He died at Eleutherian
Mills near Wilmington, Delaware, on the 6th of August 1817.

His family continued to conduct the powder-mills, which brought them
considerable wealth. The business was subsequently converted into the E.
I. Du Pont de Nemours Powder Company. His grandson, Admiral Samuel
Francis Du Pont (1803-1865), played a conspicuous part as a U.S. naval
officer in the American Civil War. His great-grandson, Henry Algernon Du
Pont (b. 1838), president of the Wilmington & Northern railway, was a
soldier in the Civil War, and afterwards a United States senator.

  Du Pont's most important works, besides those mentioned above, were
  his _De l'origine et des progrès d'une science nouvelle_ (London and
  Paris, 1767); _Physiocratie, ou constitution naturelle du gouvernement
  le plus avantageux au genre humain_ (Paris, 1768); and his
  _Observations sur les effets de la liberté du commerce des grains_
  (1760). They are gathered together in vol. ii. of the _Collection des
  économistes_ (1846). See notices of his life (1818) by Silvestre and
  Baron de Gerando; also Schelle, _Du Pont de Nemours et l'école
  physiocratique_ (1888).



DUPORT, ADRIEN (1759-1798), French politician, was born in Paris. He
became an influential advocate in the parlement, becoming prominent in
opposition to the ministers Calonne and Loménie de Brienne. Elected in
1789 to the states-general by the _noblesse_ of Paris, he soon revealed
a remarkable eloquence. A learned jurist, he contributed during the
Constituent Assembly to the organization of the judiciary of France. His
report of the 29th of March 1790 is especially notable. In it he
advocated trial by jury; but he was unable to obtain the jury system in
civil cases. Duport had formed with Barnave and Alexandre de Lameth a
group known as the "triumvirate," which was popular at first. But after
the flight of the king to Varennes, Duport sought to defend him; as
member of the commission charged to question the king, he tried to
excuse him, and on the 14th of July 1791 he opposed the formal
accusation. He was thus led to separate himself from the Jacobins and to
join the Feuillant party. After the Constituent Assembly he became
president of the criminal tribunal of Paris, but was arrested during the
insurrection of the 10th of August 1792. He escaped, thanks probably to
the complicity of Danton, returned to France after the 9th of Thermidor
of the year II., left it in exile again after the republican _coup
d'état_ of the 18th of Fructidor of the year V., and died at Appenzell
in Switzerland in 1798.

  See F.A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Constituante_ (2nd ed., Paris,
  1905, 8vo).



DUPORT, JAMES (1606-1679), English classical scholar, was born at
Cambridge. His father, John Duport, who was descended from an old Norman
family (the Du Ports of Caen, who settled in Leicestershire during the
reign of Henry IV.), was master of Jesus College. The son was educated
at Westminster and at Trinity College, where he became fellow and
subsequently vicemaster. In 1639 he was appointed regius professor of
Greek, in 1664 dean of Peterborough, and in 1668 master of Magdalene
College. He died at Peterborough on the 17th of July 1679. Throughout
the troublous times of the Civil War, in spite of the loss of his
clerical offices and eventually of his professorship, Duport quietly
continued his lectures. He is best known by his _Homeri gnomologia_
(1660), a collection of all the aphorisms, maxims and remarkable
opinions in the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_, illustrated by quotations from
the Bible and classical literature. His other published works chiefly
consist of translations (from the Bible and Prayer Book into Greek) and
short original poems, collected under the title of _Horae subsecivae_ or
_Stromata_. They include congratulatory odes (inscribed to the king);
funeral odes; _carmina comitialia_ (tripos verses on different theses
maintained in the schools, remarkable for their philosophical and
metaphysical knowledge); sacred epigrams; and three books of
miscellaneous poems (_Sylvae_). The character of Duport's work is not
such as to appeal to modern scholars, but he deserves the credit of
having done much to keep alive the study of classical literature in his
day.

  The chief authority for the life of Duport is J.H. Monk's "Memoir"
  (1825); see also Sandys, _Hist. Class. Schol._ (1908), ii. 349.



DÜPPEL, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Schleswig-Holstein, opposite the town of Sonderburg (on the island of
Alsen). (Pop. 600.) The position of Düppel, forming as it does a
bridge-head for the defenders of the island of Alsen, played a
conspicuous part in the wars between Denmark and the Germans. On the
28th of May 1848 the German federal troops were there defeated by the
Danes under General Hedemann, and a second battle was fought on the 6th
of June 1848. On the 13th of April 1849 an indecisive battle was fought
between the federal troops under von Prittwitz and the Danes under von
Bulow. The most important event in the military history of Düppel was,
however, the siege by the Prussians of the Danish position in 1864. The
flanks of the defenders' line rested upon the Alsen Sund and the sea,
and it was strengthened by ten redoubts. A second line of trenches with
lunettes at intervals was constructed behind the front attacked, and a
small réduit opposite Sonderburg to cover the bridges between Alsen and
the mainland. The Prussian siege corps was commanded by Prince
Frederick Charles (headquarters, Düppel village), and after three weeks'
skirmishing a regular siege was begun, the batteries being opened on the
15th of March. The first parallel was completed fifteen days later, the
front of attack being redoubts II. to VI., forming the centre of the
Danish entrenchments on the road Düppel-Sonderburg. The siege was pushed
rapidly from the first parallel and the assault delivered on the 18th of
April, against the redoubts I. to VI., each redoubt being attacked by a
separate column. The whole line was carried after a brief but severe
conflict, and the Prussians had penetrated to and captured the réduit
opposite Sonderburg by 2 P.M. The loss of the Danes, half of whose
forces were not engaged, included 1800 killed and wounded and 3400
prisoners. This operation was followed by the daring passage of the
Alsen Sund, effected by the Prussians in boats almost under the guns of
the Danish war-ships, and resulting in the capture of the whole island
of Alsen (June 29th, 1864). After being still further strengthened and
linked with similar defences at Sonderburg, the Düppel entrenchments
were abandoned in 1881 in favour of landward fortifications around Kiel.

  See R. Neumann, _Über den Angriff der Düppeler Schanzen in der Zeit
  vom 15. März bis 18. April 1864_ (Berlin, 1865); and _Der
  deutschdänische Krieg 1864_, published by the Prussian General Staff
  (Berlin, 1887).



DU PRAT, ANTOINE (1463-1535), chancellor of France and cardinal, was
born at Issoire on the 17th of January 1463. He began life as a lawyer,
and rose rapidly in the legal hierarchy owing to the influence of his
cousin Antoine Bohier, cardinal archbishop of Bourges. The first office
which he held was that of lieutenant-general in the _bailliage_ of
Montferrand; in 1507 he became first president of the parlement of
Paris. Louise of Savoy had employed him as her adviser in her affairs,
and had made him tutor to her son. When Francis I. ascended the throne
he made Du Prat chancellor of France, in which capacity he played an
important part in the government. It was he who negotiated with Leo X.
concerning the abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and the establishment
of a concordat. After the meeting of the Field of the Cloth of Gold
(1520) he was engaged in unsuccessful negotiations with Wolsey. During
the regency of Louise of Savoy he, together with Florimond Robertet, was
at the head of affairs. He took an active part in the suit brought by
Louise of Savoy against the Constable de Bourbon, and in 1532 completed
the work of uniting Brittany to France. After the death of his wife in
1507 Du Prat had taken orders; he received the bishoprics of Valence,
Die, Meaux and Albi, and the archbishopric of Sens (1525); in 1527 he
became cardinal, and in 1530 papal legate. He was a determined adversary
of the Reformation. He died on the 9th of July 1535.

  See the marquis Du Prat, _Vie d'Antoine Du Prat_ (Paris, 1857).



DUPRÉ, JULES (1812-1889), French painter, was one of the chief members
of the Barbizon group of romantic landscape painters. If Corot stands
for the lyric and Rousseau for the epic aspect of the poetry of nature,
Dupré is the exponent of her tragic and dramatic aspects. He was the son
of a porcelain manufacturer, and started his career in his father's
works, whence he went to his uncle's china factory at Sèvres. After
studying for some time under Diébold, a painter of clock faces, he had
to pass through a short period of privation, until he attracted the
attention of a wealthy patron, who came to his studio and bought all the
studies on the walls at the price demanded by the artist--20 francs
apiece. Dupré exhibited first at the Salon in 1831, and three years
later was awarded a second-class medal. In the same year he came to
England, where he was deeply impressed by the genius of Constable. From
him he learnt how to express movement in nature; and the district of
Southampton and Plymouth, with its wide, unbroken expanses of water, sky
and ground, gave him good opportunities for studying the tempestuous
motion of storm-clouds and the movement of foliage driven by the wind.
He received the cross of the Legion of Honour in 1848. Dupré's colour is
sonorous and resonant; the subjects for which he showed marked
preference are dramatic sunset effects and stormy skies and seas. Late
in life he changed his style and gained appreciably in largeness of
handling and arrived at greater simplicity in his colour harmonies.
Among his chief works are the "Morning" and "Evening" at the Louvre, and
the early "Crossing the Bridge" in the Wallace Collection.



DUPUIS, CHARLES FRANÇOIS (1742-1809), French scientific writer and
politician, was born of poor parents at Trye-Château, between Gisors and
Chaumont, on the 26th of October 1742. His father, who was a teacher,
instructed him in mathematics and land-surveying. While he was engaged
in measuring a tower by a geometrical method, the duc de la
Rochefoucauld met him and was so taken by the lad's intelligence that he
gave him a bursary in the college of Harcourt. Dupuis made such rapid
progress that, at the age of twenty-four, he was appointed professor of
rhetoric at the college of Lisieux, where he had previously passed as a
licentiate of theology. In his hours of leisure he studied law, and in
1770 he abandoned the clerical career and became an advocate. Two
university discourses which he delivered in Latin were printed, and laid
the foundation of his literary fame. His chief attention, however, was
devoted to mathematics, the object of his early studies; and for some
years he attended the astronomical lectures of Lalande, with whom he
formed an intimate friendship. In 1778 he constructed a telegraph on the
principle suggested by Guillaume Amontons (q.v.), and employed it in
keeping up a correspondence with his friend Jean Fortin in the
neighbouring village of Bagneux, until the Revolution made it necessary
to destroy his machine to avoid suspicion. About the same time Dupuis
formed his theory as to the origin of the Greek months. He endeavoured
to account for the want of any resemblance between the groups of stars
and the names by which they are known, by supposing that the zodiac was,
for the people who invented it, a sort of calendar at once astronomical
and rural, and that the figures chosen for the constellations were such
as would naturally suggest the agricultural operations of the season. It
seemed only necessary, therefore, to discover the clime and the period
in which the constellation of Capricorn must have arisen with the sun on
the day of the summer solstice, and the vernal equinox must have
occurred under Libra. It appeared to Dupuis that this clime was Upper
Egypt, and that the perfect correspondence between the signs and their
significations had existed in that country at a period of between
fifteen and sixteen thousand years before the present time; that it had
existed only there; and that this harmony had been disturbed by the
effect of the precession of the equinoxes. He therefore ascribed the
invention of the signs of the zodiac to the people who then inhabited
Upper Egypt or Ethiopia. This was the basis on which Dupuis established
his mythological system, and endeavoured to explain fabulous history and
the whole system of the theogony and theology of the ancients. Dupuis
published several detached parts of his system in the _Journal des
savants_ for 1777 and 1781. These he afterwards collected and published,
first in Lalande's _Astronomy_, and then in a separate volume in 4to,
1781, under the title of _Mémoire sur l'origine des constellations et
sur l'explication de la fable par l'astronomie_. The theory propounded
in this memoir was refuted by J.S. Bailly in his _Histoire de
l'astronomie_, but, at the same time, with a just acknowledgment of the
erudition and ingenuity exhibited by the author.

Condorcet proposed Dupuis to Frederick the Great of Prussia as a fit
person to succeed Thiébault in the professorship of literature at
Berlin; and Dupuis had accepted the invitation, when the death of the
king cancelled the engagement. The chair of humanity in the College of
France having at the same time become vacant, it was conferred on
Dupuis; and in 1788 he became a member of the Academy of Inscriptions.
He now resigned his professorship at Lisieux, and was appointed by the
administrators of the department of Paris one of the four commissioners
of public instruction. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary troubles
Dupuis sought safety at Évreux; and, having been chosen a member of the
National Convention by the department of Seine-et-Oise, he distinguished
himself by his moderation. In the third year of the republic he was
elected secretary to the Assembly, and in the fourth he was chosen a
member of the Council of Five Hundred. After Bonaparte's _coup d'état_
of the 18th Brumaire he was elected by the department of Seine-et-Oise a
member of the Legislative Body, of which he became the president. He was
proposed as a candidate for the senate, but resolved to abandon
politics, devoting himself during the rest of his life to his favourite
studies.

In 1795 he published the work by which he is best known, entitled
_Origine de tous les cultes, ou la religion universelle_ (3 vols. 4to,
with an atlas, or 12 vols. 12mo). This work, of which an edition revised
by P.R. Auguis was published in 1822 (10th ed., 1835-1836), became the
subject of much bitter controversy, and the theory it propounded as to
the origin of mythology in Upper Egypt led to the expedition organized
by Napoleon for the exploration of that country. In 1798 Dupuis
published an abridgment of his work in one volume 8vo, which met with no
better success than the original. Another abridgment of the same work,
executed upon a much more methodical plan, was published by M. de Tracy.
The other works of Dupuis consist of two memoirs on the Pelasgi,
inserted in the _Memoirs of the Institute_; a memoir "On the Zodiac of
Tentyra," published in the _Revue philosophique_ for May 1806; and a
_Mémoire explicatif du zodiaque chronologique et mythologique_,
published the same year, in one volume 4to. He died on the 29th of
September 1809.



DUPUY, CHARLES ALEXANDRE (1851-   ), French statesman, was born at Le
Puy on the 5th of November 1851, his father being a local official.
After being a professor of philosophy in the provinces, he was appointed
a school inspector, and thus obtained a practical acquaintance with the
needs of French education. In 1885 he was elected to the chamber as an
Opportunist Republican. After acting as "reporter" of the budget for
public instruction, he became minister for the department, in M. Ribot's
cabinet, in 1892. In April 1893 he formed a ministry himself, taking as
his office that of minister of the interior, but resigned at the end of
November, and on 5th December was elected president of the chamber.
During his first week of office an anarchist, Vaillant, who had managed
to gain admission to the chamber, threw a bomb at the president, and M.
Dupuy's collected bearing, and his historic words: "Messieurs, la séance
continue," gained him much credit. In May 1894 he again became premier
and minister of the interior; and he was by President Carnot's side when
the latter was stabbed to death at Lyons in June. He then became a
candidate for the presidency, but was defeated, and his cabinet remained
in office till January 1895; it was under it that Captain Dreyfus was
arrested and condemned (23rd of December 1894). The progress of
_l'affaire_ then cast its shadow upon M. Dupuy, along with other French
"ministrables," but in November 1898, after M. Brisson had at last
remitted the case to the judgment of the court of cassation, he formed a
cabinet of Republican concentration. In view of the apparent likelihood
that the judges of the criminal division of the court of cassation--who
formed the ordinary tribunal for such an appeal--would decide in favour
of Dreyfus, it was thought that M. Dupuy's new cabinet would be strong
enough to reconcile public opinion to such a result; but, to the
surprise of outside observers, it was no sooner discovered how the
judges were likely to decide than M. Dupuy proposed a law in the chamber
transferring the decision to a full court of all the divisions of the
court of cassation. This arbitrary act, though adopted by the chamber,
was at once construed as a fresh attempt to maintain the judgment of the
first court-martial; but in the interval President Faure (an
anti-Dreyfusard) died, and the accession of M. Loubet doubtless had some
effect in quieting public feeling. At all events, the whole court of
cassation decided that there must be a new court-martial, and M. Dupuy
at once resigned (June 1899). In June 1900 he was elected senator for
the Haute Saône.



DUPUY, PIERRE (1582-1651), French scholar, otherwise known as PUTEANUS,
was born at Agen (Lot-et-Garonne) on the 27th of November 1582. In 1615
he was commissioned by Mathieu Molé, first president of the parlement of
Paris, to draw up an inventory of the documents which constituted what
at that time was known as the _Trésor des chartes_. This work occupied
eleven years. His MS. inventory is preserved in the original and in copy
in the Bibliothèque Nationale, and transcriptions are in the national
archives in Paris, at the record office in London, and elsewhere.
Dupuy's classification is still regarded with respect, but the inventory
has been partially replaced by the publication of the _Layettes du
trésor_ (four volumes, coming down to 1270; 1863-1902). Dupuy also
published, with his brother Jacques, and their friend Nicolas Rigault,
the _History_ of Aug. de Thou (1620, 1626). The two brothers then bought
from Rigault the post of keeper of the king's library, and drew up a
catalogue of the library (Nos. 9352-9354 and 10366-10367 of the Latin
collection in the Bibliothèque Nationale). In the course of this work,
Dupuy became acquainted with and copied an enormous mass of unpublished
documents, which furnished him with the material for some excellent
works: _Traité des droits et des libertés de l'église gallicane, avec
les preuves_ (1639), _Histoire de l'ordre militaire des Templiers_
(1654), _Histoire générale du schisme qui a été dans l'église depuis
1378 jusqu'à 1428_ (1654), and _Histoire du différend entre le pape
Boniface VIII et le roi Philippe le Bel_ (1655). These works, especially
the last, are important contributions to the history of the relations of
church and state in the middle ages. They were written from the Gallican
standpoint, i.e. in favour of the rights of the crown in temporal and
political matters, and this explains the delay in their publication
until after Dupuy's death. He wrote also _Traité des régences et des
majorités des rois de France_ (1655) and _Recueil des droits du roi_
(1658). Dupuy's papers, preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale, were
inventoried by Léon Dorez (_Catalogue de la collection Dupuy_, 1899).
See also L. Delisle's _Le Cabinet des manuscrits de la bibliothèque
impériale_. Dupuy died in Paris on the 14th of December 1651.



DUPUY DE LÔME, STANISLAS CHARLES HENRI LAURENT (1816-1885), French naval
architect, the son of a retired naval officer, was born at Ploemeur,
near Lorient, on the 15th of October 1816. He entered the École
Polytechnique in 1835, and in 1842 was sent to England to study and
report on iron shipbuilding. Acting on his report, which was published
in 1844, the government built their first iron vessels under his
supervision. He planned and built the steam line-of-battle ship
"Napoleon" (1848-1852), and devised the method of altering sailing ships
of the line into steamers, which was afterwards extensively practised in
both France and England. He also showed the practicability of armouring
the sides of a ship, and the frigate "Gloire" gave a very clear
demonstration of his views. It was the beginning of the great change in
the construction of ships of war which has been going on ever since. In
1857 Dupuy de Lôme was appointed "chef de la direction du matériel," at
Paris; and in 1861, "inspecteur général du matériel de la marine." In
1866 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. At the
beginning of the Franco-German War he was appointed a member of the
committee of defence, and during the siege of Paris occupied himself
with planning a steerable balloon, for carrying out which he was given a
credit of 40,000 fr.; but the balloon was not ready till a few days
before the capitulation. The experiments that were afterwards made with
it did not prove entirely satisfactory. In 1875 he was busy over a
scheme for embarking a railway train at Calais, and exhibited plans of
the improved harbour and models of the "bateaux porte-trains" to the
Academy of Sciences in July. In 1877 he was elected a senator for life.
He received the cross of the Legion of Honour in 1845, was made a
commander in 1858, and grand officer in December 1863. He died at Paris
on the 1st of February 1885.



DUPUYTREN, GUILLAUME, BARON (1777-1835), French anatomist and surgeon,
was born on the 6th of October 1777 at Pierre Buffière (Haute Vienne).
He studied medicine in Paris at the newly established École de Médecine,
and was appointed by competition prosector when only eighteen years of
age. His early studies were directed chiefly to morbid anatomy. In 1803
he was appointed assistant-surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu, and in 1811
professor of operative surgery in succession to R.B. Sabatier
(1732-1811). In 1815 he was appointed to the chair of clinical surgery,
and became head surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu. Dupuytren's energy and
industry were alike remarkable. He visited the Hôtel-Dieu morning and
evening, performing at each time several operations, lectured to vast
throngs of students, gave advice to his outdoor patients, and fulfilled
the duties consequent upon one of the largest practices of modern times.
By his indefatigable activity he amassed a fortune of £300,000, the bulk
of which he bequeathed to his daughter, with the deduction of
considerable sums for the endowment of the anatomical chair in the École
de Médecine, and the establishment of a benevolent institution for
distressed medical men. The most important of Dupuytren's writings is
his _Treatise on Artificial Anus_, in which he applied the principles
laid down by John Hunter. In his operations he was remarkable for his
skill and dexterity, and for his great readiness of resource. He died in
Paris on the 8th of February 1835.



DUQUE DE ESTRADA, DIEGO (1589-?), Spanish memoir writer, soldier and
adventurer, son of Juan Duque de Estrada, also a soldier of rank, was
born at Toledo on the 15th of August 1589. Having been left an orphan
when very young, he was educated by a cousin. While still young he was
betrothed to his cousin's daughter. One night he found an intruder in
the house, a gentleman with whom he was acquainted, and in a fit of
jealousy killed both him and the young lady. The prevailing code of
honour was considered a sufficient justification for Duque de Estrada's
violence, but the law looked upon the act as a vulgar assassination, and
he had to flee. After leading a vagabond life in the south of Spain, he
was arrested at Ecija, was brought to Toledo, and was there put to the
torture with extreme ferocity, in order to extort a general confession
as to his life during the past months. He had the strength not to yield
to pain, and was finally able to escape from prison, partly by the help
of a nun in a religious house which faced the prison, and partly by the
intervention of friends. He made his way to Naples, where he entered the
service of the duke of Osuna (q.v.), at that time viceroy. Duque de
Estrada saw a good deal of fighting both with the Turks and the
Venetians; but he is mainly interesting because he was employed by the
viceroy in the conspiracy against Venice. He was one of the disguised
Spanish soldiers who were sent into the town to destroy the arsenal, and
who were warned in time that the conspiracy had been betrayed, and
therefore escaped. After the fall of his patron, Duque de Estrada
resumed his vagabond life, served under Bethlen Gabor in Transylvania,
and in the Thirty Years' War. In 1633 he entered the order of San Juan
de Dios, and died at some time after 1637 in Sardinia, where he is known
to have taken part in the defence of the island against an attack by the
French. He left a book of memoirs, entitled _Comentarios de el
desengeñado de si Mismo prueba de todos estados, y eleccion del Mejor de
ellos_--"The Commentaries of one who knew his own little worth, the
touchtstone of all the state of man, and the choice of the best." They
were written at different times, and part has been lost. The style is
incorrect, and it would be unsafe to trust them in every detail, but
they are amazingly vivid, and contain a wonderful picture of the moral
and intellectual state of a large part of Spanish society at the time.

  The memoirs have been reprinted by Don Pascual de Gayangos in the
  _Memorial histórico español_, vol. xii. (Madrid, 1860).



DUQUESNE, ARRAHAM, MARQUIS (1610-1688), French naval officer, was born
at Dieppe in 1610. Born in a stirring seaport, the son of a
distinguished naval officer, he naturally adopted the profession of a
sailor. He spent his youth in the merchant service, and obtained his
first distinction in naval warfare by the capture of the island of
Lerins from the Spaniards in May 1637. About the same time his father
was killed in an engagement with the Spaniards, and the news raised his
hatred of the national enemy to the pitch of a personal and bitter
animosity. For the next five years he sought every opportunity of
inflicting defeat and humiliation on the Spanish navy, and he
distinguished himself by his bravery in the engagement at Guetaria
(1638), the expedition to Corunna (1639), and in battles at Tarragona
(1641), Barcelona (1643), and the Cabo de Gata. The French navy being
left unemployed during the minority of Louis XIV., Duquesne obtained
leave to offer his services to the king of Sweden, who gave him a
commission as vice-admiral in 1643. In this capacity he defeated the
Danish fleet near Gothenburg and thus raised the siege of the city. The
Danes returned to the struggle with increased forces under the command
of King Christian in person, but they were again defeated--their admiral
being killed and his ship taken. Peace having been concluded between
Sweden and Denmark in 1645, Duquesne returned to France. The revolt at
Bordeaux, supported as it was by material aid from Spain, gave him the
opportunity of at once serving his country and gratifying his
long-cherished hatred of the Spaniards. In 1650 he fitted out at his own
expense a squadron with which he blockaded the mouth of the Gironde, and
compelled the city to surrender. For this service he was promoted in
rank, and received a gift of the castle and isle of Indre, near Nantes.
Peace with Spain was concluded in 1659, and for some years afterwards
Duquesne was occupied in endeavours to suppress piracy in the
Mediterranean. On the revolt of Messina from Spain, he was sent to
support the insurgents, and had to encounter the united fleets of Spain
and Holland under the command of the celebrated Admiral de Ruyter. After
several battles, in which the advantage was generally on the side of the
French, a decisive engagement took place near Catania, on the 20th of
April 1676, when the Dutch fleet was totally routed and de Ruyter
mortally wounded. The greater part of the defeated fleet was afterwards
burned in the harbour of Palermo, where it had taken refuge, and the
French thus secured the undisputed command of the Mediterranean. For
this important service Duquesne received a letter of thanks from Louis
XIV., together with the title of marquis and the estate of Bouchet. His
last achievements were the bombardment of Algiers (1682-1683), in order
to effect the deliverance of the Christian captives, and the bombardment
of Genoa in 1684. He retired from service in 1684, on the ground of age
and ill-health. It is probable also that he foresaw the revocation of
the edict of Nantes, which took place in the following year. He died in
Paris on the 2nd of February 1688.

  See Jal, _Abraham Duquesne, et la marine de son temps_ (1873).



DUQUESNE, a borough of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the
Monongahela river, about 12 m. S.E. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1900) 9036, of
whom 3451 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 15,727. It is served by the
Pennsylvania railway. Its most prominent buildings are the Carnegie free
library and club (opened in 1904 and containing 17,500 volumes in 1908),
and the city hall. A short distance N. of the borough limits Kennywood
Park, with a large auditorium and pavilion, is an attractive resort. By
far the most important industry of the borough is the manufacture of
steel. The value of the borough's factory products increased from
$20,333,476 in 1900 to $28,494,303 in 1905, or 40.1%. The municipality
owns and operates its water-works. Duquesne was settled in 1885 and was
incorporated in 1891.



DURAMEN (a rare Latin word, meaning hardness, from _durus_, hard), a
botanical term for the inner, harder wood of a tree, the heart-wood.



DURAN, a Jewish Provençal family of rabbis and scholars, of whom the
following are the most important.

1. PROFIAT DURAN, called also EPHODI. He was in 1391 compelled to
profess Christianity, but remained devoted to Judaism. His chief works
were grammatical and philosophical. In the former realm his most
important contribution was the _Ma'aseh 'Ephod_ (completed in 1403); in
the latter, his commentary to the _Guide of the Perplexed_ by Maimonides
(q.v.).

2. SIMON BEN ZEMAH DURAN (1361-1441), rabbi of Algiers. He was one of
the first of the medieval rabbis to be a salaried official of the
synagogue. Before the 14th century the rabbinical post had been almost
invariably honorary, and filled by men who derived their income from a
profession, especially medicine. Duran wrote a systematic work on
theology, _Magen 'Aboth_, but is chiefly famous for his numerous
_Responsa_ (known as _Tashbaz_) published in three vols. in 1738-1739.
These _Responsa_, "Answers to questions sent from many lands," give
valuable information as to social and religious conditions in the
earlier part of the 15th century.     (I. A.)



DURÁN, AGUSTÍN (1789-1862), Spanish scholar, was born in 1789 at Madrid,
where his father was court physician. He was sent to the seminary at
Vergara, whence he returned learned in the traditions of Spanish
romance. In 1817 he began the study of philosophy and law at the
university of Seville, and in due course was admitted to the bar at
Valladolid. From 1821 to 1823 he held a post in the education department
at Madrid, but in the latter year he was suspended on account of his
political opinions. In 1834 he became secretary of the board for the
censorship of the press, and shortly afterwards obtained a post in the
national library at Madrid. The revolution of 1840 led to his dismissal;
but he was reinstated in 1843, and in 1854 was appointed chief
librarian. Next year, however, he retired to devote himself to his
literary work. In 1828, shortly after his first discharge from office,
he published anonymously his _Discurso sobre el influjo que ha tenido la
crítica moderna en la decadencia del teatro antiguo_; this treatise
greatly influenced the younger dramatists of the day. He next
endeavoured to interest his fellow-countrymen in their ancient,
neglected ballads, and in the forgotten dramas of the 17th century. Five
volumes of a _Romancero general_ appeared from 1828 to 1832
(republished, with considerable additions, in 2 vols. 1849-1851), and
_Talia española_ (1834), a reprint of old Spanish comedies. Durán's
_Romancero general_ is the fullest collection of the kind and is
therefore unlikely to be superseded, though the texts are inferior to
those edited by Menendez y Pelayo.



DURANCE (anc. _Druentia_), one of the principal rivers descending from
the French slope of the Alps towards the Mediterranean. Its total length
from its source to its junction with the Rhone (of which it is one of
the principal affluents), a little below Avignon, is 217½ m. For the
greater part of its course it flows in a south-westerly direction, but
near Pertuis gradually bends N.W. and thenceforth preserves this
direction. It passes through the departments of Hautes-Alpes, of
Basses-Alpes, and between those of Vaucluse and Bouches-du-Rhône. It is
commonly said to take its origin in some small lakes a little south of
the summit plateau of the Mont Genèvre Pass. But really this stream is
surpassed both in volume and length of course by two others which it
joins beneath Briançon:--the Clairée, flowing in from the north, through
the smiling Névache glen, at the head of which, not far from the foot of
the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.), it rises in some small lakes, on the east
side of the Col des Rochilles; and the Guisane (flowing in from the
north-west and rising near the Col du Lautaret, 6808 ft.). The united
stream soon receives its first affluent, the Cerveyrette (left), and,
after having passed through some fine deep-cut gorges, the Gyronde
(right). It then runs through a stony plain, where it frequently
overflows and causes great damage, this being indeed the main
characteristic of the Durance throughout its course. At the foot of the
fortress of Mont Dauphin it receives (left) the Guil, which flows
through the Queyras valley from near the foot of Monte Viso. Some way
beyond it passes beneath Embrun, the first important town on its banks.
It soon becomes the boundary for a while between the departments of the
Hautes-Alpes and of the Basses-Alpes, and receives successively the
considerable Ubaye river, flowing from near the foot of Monte Viso past
Barcelonnette (left), and then the small stream of the Luye (right), on
which, a few miles above, is Gap. It enters the Basses-Alpes shortly
before reaching Sisteron, where it is joined (right) by the wild torrent
of the Buëch, flowing from the desolate region of the Dévoluy, and
receives the Bléone (left) (on which Digne, the capital of the
department, is situated) and the Asse (left), before quitting the
department of the Basses-Alpes just as it is reinforced (left) by the
Verdon, flowing from the lower summits of the Maritime Alps past
Castellane. After passing through some narrow gorges near Sisteron the
bed of the river becomes wide, and spreads desolation around, the
frequent overflows being kept within bounds by numerous dykes and
embankments. These features are especially marked when the river, after
leaving the Basses-Alpes, soon bends N.W. and, always serving as the
boundary between the departments of Vaucluse (N.) and of the
Bouches-du-Rhône (S.), passes Cavaillon before it effects its junction
with the Rhône. The drainage area of the Durance is about 5166 sq. m.,
while the height it descends is 6550 ft., if reckoned from the lakes on
the Mont Genèvre, or 7850 ft. if we take those at the head of the
Névache valley as the true source of the river.     (W. A. B. C.)



DURAND, ASHER BROWN (1796-1886), American painter and engraver, was born
at South Orange, New Jersey, on the 21st of August 1796. He worked with
his father, a watchmaker; was apprenticed in 1812 to an engraver named
Peter Maverick; and his first work, the head of an old beggar after
Waldo, attracted the attention of the artist Trumbull. Durand
established his reputation by his engraving of Trumbull's "Declaration
of Independence." After 1835, however, he devoted himself chiefly to
portrait painting. He painted several of the presidents of the United
States and many other men of political and social prominence. In 1840 he
visited Europe, where he studied the work of the old masters; after his
return he devoted himself almost entirely to landscape. He died at South
Orange on the 17th of September 1886. He had been one of the founders of
the National Academy of Design in 1826, and was its president in
1845-1861. Durand may be called the father of the Hudson River School.
Although there was something hard and unsympathetic about his
landscapes, and unnecessary details and trivialities were
over-prominent, he was a well-trained craftsman, and his work is marked
by sincerity.



DURAND, GUILLAUME (GUILLELMUS DURANDUS), also known as DURANTI or
DURANTIS, from the Italian form of _Durandi filius_, as he sometimes
signed himself (c. 1230-1296), French canonist and liturgical writer,
and bishop of Mende, was born at Puimisson, near Beziers, of a noble
family of Languedoc. He studied law at Bologna, especially with
Bernardus of Parma, and about 1264 was teaching canon law with success
at Modena. Clement IV., his fellow-countryman, called him to the
pontifical court as a chaplain and auditor of the palace, and in 1274 he
accompanied Clement's successor Gregory X. to the council of Lyons, the
constitutions of which he drew up, along with some other prelates. As
spiritual and temporal legate of the patrimony of St Peter, he received
in 1278, in the name of the pope, the homage of Bologna and of the other
cities of Romagna. Martin IV. made him vicar spiritual in 1281, then
governor of Romagna and of the March of Ancona (1283). In the midst of
the struggles between Guelfs and Ghibellines, Durandus successfully
defended the papal territories, both by diplomacy and by arms. Honorius
IV. retained him in his offices, and although elected bishop of Mende in
1286, he remained in Italy until 1291. In 1295 he refused the
archbishopric of Ravenna, offered him by Boniface VIII., but accepted
the task of pacifying again his former provinces of Romagna and the
March of Ancona. In 1296 he withdrew to Rome, where he died on the 1st
of November.

Durandus' principal work is the _Speculum judiciale_, which was drawn up
in 1271, and revised in 1286 and 1291. It is a general explanation of
civil, criminal and canonical procedure, and also includes a survey of
the subject of contracts. It is a remarkable synthesis of Roman and
ecclesiastical law, distinguished by its clarity, its method, and
especially its practical sense, in a field in which it was pioneer, and
its repute was as great and lasting in the courts as in the schools. It
won for Durandus the name of "The Speculator." It was commented upon by
Giovanni Andrea (in 1346), and by Baldus, and in 1306 Cardinal Béranger
drew up an alphabetical table of its contents (_Inventorium_). There are
many manuscripts of the _Speculum_, and several editions, of which the
most usual is that of Turin in 1578 in 2 volumes, containing all
additions and tables. This edition was reproduced at Frankfort in 1612
and 1668. The next important work of Durandus is the _Rationale divinorum
officiorum_, a liturgical treatise written in Italy before 1286, on the
origin and symbolic sense of the Christian ritual. It presents a picture
of the liturgy of the 13th century in the West, studied in its various
forms, its traditional sources, and its relation to the church buildings
and furniture. With Martène's _De antiquis Ecclesiae ritibus_ it is the
main authority on Western liturgies. It has run through various editions,
from its first publication in 1459 to the last edition at Naples, 1866.
The other important works of Durandus comprise a _Repertorium juris
canonici_ (_Breviarium aureum_), a collection of citations from canonists
on questions of controversy--often published along with the _Speculum_; a
_Commentarius in sacrosanctum Lugdunense concilium_ (ed. Fano, 1569), of
especial value owing to the share of Durandus in the elaboration of the
constitutions of this council (1274), and inserted by Boniface VIII. in
the _Sextus_.

A nephew of "The Speculator," also named GUILLAUME DURAND (d. 1330), and
also a canonist, was rector of the university of Toulouse and succeeded
his uncle as bishop of Mende. He wrote in 1311, in connexion with the
council of Vienne, _De modo celebrandi concilii et corruptelis in
Ecclesia reformandis_. It attacks the abuses of the Church with extreme
sincerity and vigour.

  On the elder Durand see V. Leclerc in _Histoire littéraire de la
  France_, vol. xx. pp. 411-497 (1842); Schulte, _Geschichte der Quellen
  des canonischen Rechts_ (1877); E. Male, _L'Art religieux au XIII^e
  siècle en France_ (1898). On the nephew see B. Hauréau, in _Journal
  des savants_ (1892), 64.



DURAND, GUILLAUME (d. 1334), French scholastic theologian, known also by
the Latin form of his name as DURANDUS of St Pourçain (_de Sancto
Porciano_), and as _Doctor Resolutissimus_, was born at St
Pourçain-sur-Sioule in the Bourbonnois. He entered the Dominican order
at Clermont, and in 1313 was made a doctor in Paris, where he taught
till Pope John XXII. called him to Avignon as master of the sacred
palace, i.e. theological adviser and preacher to the pope. He
subsequently became bishop of Limoux (1317), of Le Puy (1318) and of
Meaux (1326). He composed a commentary on the Sentences of Peter
Lombard, in which, breaking with the realism of St Thomas Aquinas, he
anticipated the _terminism_ of William of Occam, and gave up the attempt
to show that dogmas can be demonstrated by reason. In the question of
the beatific vision, arising out of opinions promulgated by John XXII.
(q.v.), he sided with Thomas Walleis, Armand de Bellovisu and the
doctors of the faculty of theology in Paris against the pope, and
composed his _De statu animarum post separationem a corpore_. Mention
should also be made of his _De origine jurisdictionum quibus populus
regitur, sive de jurisdictione ecclesiastica et de legibus_.

  See B. Hauréau, _Histoire de la philosophie scolastique_ (2nd ed.,
  Paris, 1872); C. Werner, _Die Scholastik des spateren Mittelalters_,
  vol. ii. (Vienna, 1883); H.S. Denifle, in _Archiv f. Litteratur und
  Kirchengeschichte_, ii. (1886); U. Chevalier, _Rép. des sources hist.
  du moyen âge_, s.v. Durand de St Pourçain.



DURANDO, GIACOMO (1807-1894), Italian general and statesman, was born at
Mondovì in Piedmont. He was implicated in the revolutionary movements of
1831 and 1832, after which he was obliged to take refuge abroad. He
served in the Belgian army, taking part in the war of 1832, and fought
in Portugal in 1833. The following year he entered the service of Spain,
when he fought in various campaigns, and was promoted colonel in 1838.
After a short stay in France he returned to Italy and identified himself
with the Liberal movement; he became an active journalist, and founded a
newspaper called _L'Opinione_ in 1847. In 1848 he was one of those who
asked King Charles Albert for the constitution. On the outbreak of the
war with Austria he took command of the Lombard volunteers as
major-general, and in the campaign of 1849 he was aide-de-camp to the
king. He was elected member of the first Piedmontese parliament and was
a strenuous supporter of Cavour; during the Crimean campaign he took
General La Marmora's place as war minister. In 1855 he was nominated
senator, lieutenant-general in 1856, ambassador at Constantinople in
1859, and minister for foreign affairs in the Rattazzi cabinet two years
later. He was president of the senate from 1884 to 1887, after which
year he retired from the army. He died in 1894.

His brother, GIOVANNI DURANDO (1804-1869), was in early life driven into
exile on account of his Liberal opinions. He served in the armies of
Belgium, Portugal and Spain, distinguishing himself in many
engagements. Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the revolution of
1848, he was appointed commander of a division of the pontifical forces,
and fought against the Austrians in Venetia until the fall of Vicenza,
when he returned to Piedmont as major-general. In the campaign of 1849
he commanded the first Piedmontese division; he subsequently served in
the Crimea, in the war of 1859, and in that of 1866 as commander of the
I. Army Corps. In 1867 he was appointed president of the supreme
military and naval tribunal.



DURANGO, a state of northern Mexico, bounded N. by Chihuahua, E. and
S.E. by Coahuila, S. by Zacatecas and the territory of Tepic, and W. by
Sinaloa. Pop. (1895) 292,549; (1900) 370,294. Area 38,009 sq. m. Durango
is a continuation southward of the high, semi-arid plateau of Chihuahua,
with the Sierra Madre extending along its western side. The Bolsón de
Mapimí covers its N.E. angle, and in the S. there are peculiar volcanic
hills, covering about 1000 sq. m. and known as La Breña. The Bolsón de
Mapimí, previous to the building of the Mexican Central railway across
it, had been considered an uninhabitable desert, but irrigation
experiments have demonstrated that its soil is highly fertile and well
adapted to the production of cotton and fruit. The rainfall is very
light in the eastern part of the state, a succession of years sometimes
passing without any precipitation whatever, but in the W. it is
sufficient to produce good pasturage and considerable areas of forest.
There are no rivers of any magnitude in the state. The largest is the
Rio Nazas, which flows eastward into the lakes of the Mapimí depression,
and the Mezquital, which flows S.W. through the sierras to the Pacific
coast. The climate is generally dry and healthful. Cotton is produced to
a limited extent, especially where irrigation is employed, and wheat,
Indian corn, tobacco, sugar-cane and grapes are also grown. In the
elevated valleys of the sierras stock-raising is successful. The
principal industry of Durango, however, is mining, and some of the
richest and best known mines of Mexico are found in the state. Besides
silver, which has been extensively mined since the first arrival of the
Spanish under Francisco de Ibarra (1554-1562), gold, copper, iron,
cinnabar, tin, coal and rubies are found. The famous Cerro del Mercado,
2 m. from the city of Durango, is a hill composed in great part of
remarkably pure iron ore, and is estimated to contain 300,000,000 tons
of that metal. Near it are iron and steel works. The principal mining
districts of Durango include San Dimas (on the western slope of the main
sierra), Guarisamey, Buenavista, Gavilanes, Guanaceví, Mapimí, El Oro
and Indé. In the first-named is the celebrated Candelaria mine, where
the ores (largely argentite) assay between $70 and $140 a ton, the
aggregate output being estimated as over $100,000,000 before the close
of the 19th century. With the exception of silver, the mineral resources
of the state have been but slightly developed because of difficult and
expensive transportation. The Mexican Central railway crosses the
eastern side of the state, and the Mexican International crosses N.E. to
S.W. through the state capital on its way to the port of Mazatlán. The
history of Durango is similar to that of Chihuahua, the state originally
forming part of the province of Nueva Viscaya. The capital is Durango,
and among the principal towns are Guanaceví (pop. 6859), El Oro, Nombre
de Dios (the first Spanish settlement in the state), San Juan de
Guadalupe, San Dimas and Villa Lerdo. These are comparatively small
mining towns. Mapimí lies 130 m. N.N.E. of Durango and gives its name to
the great arid depression situated still farther north.



DURANGO, sometimes called CIUDAD DE VICTORIA, a city of Mexico, capital
of the state of Durango, 574 m. N.W. of the federal capital, in lat. 24°
25´ N., long. 105° 55´ W. Pop. (1900) 31,092. Durango is served by the
Mexican International railway. The city stands in the picturesque
Guadiana valley formed by easterly spurs of the Sierra Madre, about 6850
ft. above the sea. It has a mild, healthy climate, and is surrounded by
a district of considerable fertility. Durango is an important mining and
commercial centre, and was for a time one of the most influential towns
of northern Mexico. It is the seat of a bishop, and has a handsome
cathedral, ten parish churches, a national institute or college, an
episcopal seminary, government buildings, a public library, hospital,
penitentiary and bull-ring. The city is provided with urban and suburban
tramways, electric light, telephone service and an abundant
water-supply, and there are thermal springs in its vicinity. Its
manufacturing establishments include reduction works, cotton and woollen
mills, glass works, iron foundries, tanneries, flour mills, sugar
refineries and tobacco factories. Durango was founded in 1563 by Alonso
Pacheco under the direction of Governor Francisco de Ibarra, who named
it after a city of his native province in Spain. It was known, however,
as Guadiana for a century thereafter, and its first bishops were given
that title. It was the capital of Ibarra's new province of Nueva
Viscaya, which included Durango and Chihuahua, and continued as such
down to their separation in 1823.



DURANI, or DURRANI, the dominant race of Afghans, to which the ruling
family at Kabul belongs. The Duranis number 100,000 fighting men, and
have two branches, the Zirak and the Panjpai. To the former section
belong the Popalzai, Alikozai, Barakzai and Achakzai; and to the latter
the Nurzai, Alizai, Isakzai, Khokani and Maku tribes. The Saddozai clan
of the Popalzai Duranis furnished the first independent shahs of the
Durani dynasty (A.D. 1747), the Barakzais furnishing the amirs. The line
of the shahs was overthrown in the third generation (A.D. 1834), after a
protracted period of anarchy and dissension, which broke out on the
death in A.D. 1773 of Ahmad Shah Durani, the founder of Afghan national
independence.

Bar Durani is a name sometimes applied to the independent Pathan tribes
who inhabit the hill districts south of the Hindu Kush, parts of the
Indus valley, the Salt Range, and the range of Suliman, which were first
conceded to them by Ahmad Shah. Bar Durani includes the Yusafzai, Utman
Khel, Tarkanis, Mohmands, Afridis, Orakzais and Shinwaris, as well as
the Pathan tribes of the plains of Peshawar and those of Bangash and
Khattak, although the derivation of some of these tribes from the true
Durani stock is doubtful.



DURANTE, FRANCESCO (1684-1755), Italian composer, was born at
Frattamaggiore, in the kingdom of Naples, on the 15th of March 1684. At
an early age he entered the Conservatorio dei poveri di Gesù Cristo, at
Naples, where he received lessons from Gaetano Greco, later he became a
pupil of Alessandro Scarlatti at the Conservatorio di Sant' Onofrio. He
is also supposed to have studied under Pasquini and Pitoni in Rome, but
no documentary proof of this statement can be given. He is said to have
succeeded Scarlatti in 1725 at Sant' Onofrio, and to have remained there
until 1742, when he succeeded Porpora as head of the Conservatorio di
Santa Maria di Loreto, also at Naples. This post he held for thirteen
years, till his death on the 13th of August 1755 at Naples. He was
married three times. His fame as a teacher was all but unrivalled, and
Jommelli, Paesiello, Pergolesi, Piccini and Vinci were amongst his
pupils. A complete collection of Durante's works, consisting all but
exclusively of sacred compositions, was presented by Selvaggi, a
Neapolitan lover of art, to the Paris library. A catalogue of it may be
found in Fétis's _Biographie universelle_. The imperial library of
Vienna also preserves a valuable collection of Durante's manuscripts.
Two requiems, several masses (one of which, a most original work, is the
_Pastoral Mass_ for four voices) and the _Lamentations_ of the prophet
Jeremiah are amongst his most important settings. The fact that Durante
never composed for the stage brought him a somewhat exaggerated
reputation as a composer of sacred music. Although certainly one of the
best church composers of his style and period, he is far inferior to
Leo, and seems to have been the founder of the sentimental school of
Italian church music. Leo and Scarlatti at their best have a solidity
and dignity entirely wanting in Durante, and Alessandro Scarlatti at his
worst is frivolous rather than sentimental. This type of music is
characteristic of Durante as a man; intellectually uncultured, but
sincerely devout. As a teacher he insisted on the strict observance of
rules for which he either would not or could not give a reason,
differing thus from Alessandro Scarlatti, whose first care was to
develop his pupils' talents according to their own individualities,
regarding all rules as subservient to his exquisite sense of musical
beauty. Hasse rightly protested against Durante's being described as the
greatest harmonist of Italy, a title which could be claimed only by
Alessandro Scarlatti.     (E. J. D.)



DURÃO, JOSÉ DE SANTA RITA (1720-1784), Brazilian poet, was born near
Marianna, in the province of Minas Geraes, in 1720, and died in Lisbon
in 1754. He studied at Coimbra, in Portugal, graduated as a doctor of
divinity, became a member of the Augustinian order of friars, and
obtained a great reputation as a preacher. Having irritated the minister
Pombal by his defence of the Jesuits, he retired from Portugal in 1759;
and, after being imprisoned in Spain as a spy, found his way to Italy in
1763, where he became acquainted with Alfieri, Pindemonte, Casti and
other literary men of the time. On his return to Portugal he delivered
the opening address at the university of Coimbra for the year 1777; but
soon after retired to the cloisters of a Gratian convent. At the time of
his death he taught in the little college belonging to that order in
Lisbon. His epic in ten cantos, entitled _Caramúru, poema epico do
descubrimento da Bahia_, appeared in Lisbon in 1781, but proved at first
a total failure. Its value has gradually been recognized, and it now
ranks as one of the best poems in Brazilian literature--remarkable
especially for its fine descriptions of scenery and native life in South
America. The historic institute of Rio de Janeiro offered a prize to the
author of the best essay on the legend of Caramúru; and the successful
competitor published a new edition of Durão's poem. There is a French
translation which appeared in Paris in 1829.

  See Adolfo de Varnhagen, _Epicos Brazileiros_ (1845); Pereira da
  Silva, _Os Varões illustres do Brasil_ (1858); Wolf, _Le Brésil
  littéraire_ (Berlin, 1863); Sotero dos Reis, _Curso de litteratura
  Portugueza e Brazileira_, vol. iv. (Maranhão, 1868); José Verissimo,
  _Estudos de literatura Brazileira, segunda serie_ (Rio, 1901).



DURAZZO (anc. _Epidamnus_ and _Dyrrachium_; Albanian, _Durresi_; Turkish
and Slavonic, _Drach_), a seaport and capital of the sanjak of Durazzo,
in the vilayet of Iannina, Albania, Turkey. Pop. (1900) about 5000.
Durazzo is about 50 m. S. of Scutari, on the Bay of Durazzo, an inlet of
the Adriatic Sea. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop and a
Greek metropolitan, but in every respect has greatly declined from its
former prosperity. The walls are dilapidated; plane-trees grow on the
gigantic ruins of its old Byzantine citadel; and its harbour, once
equally commodious and safe, is gradually becoming silted up. The only
features worthy of notice are the quay, with its rows of cannon, and the
bridge, 750 ft. long, which leads across the marshes stretching along
the coast. The chief exports are olive oil--largely manufactured in the
district--wheat, oats, barley, pottery and skins.

_Epidamnus_ was founded by a joint colony of Corcyreans and Corinthians
towards the close of the 7th century B.C., and from its admirable
position and the fertility of the surrounding country soon rose into
very considerable importance. The dissolution of its original
oligarchical government by the democratic opposition, the consequent
quarrel between Corcyra and the oligarchical city of Corinth, and the
intervention of Athens on behalf of Corcyra, are usually included among
the contributory causes of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.). In 312
B.C., Epidamnus was seized by the Illyrian king Glaucias, and shortly
afterwards it passed into the power of the Romans. As the name Epidamnus
sounded to Roman ears like an evil omen, as though it were derived from
the Latin _damnum_, "loss" or "harm," the alternative name of
_Dyrrachium_, which the city possibly received from the rugged nature of
the adjoining sea-coast, came into general use. Thenceforward Epidamnus
rose rapidly in importance. It was a favourite point of debarcation for
the Roman armies; the great military road known as the _Via Egnatia_ led
from Dyrrachium to Thessalonica (Salonica); and another highway passed
southwards to Buthrotum and Ambracia. Broad swamps rendered the city
almost impregnable, and in 48 B.C. it became famous as the place where
Pompey made his last successful resistance to Caesar. After the battle
of Actium in 31 B.C., Augustus made over Dyrrachium to a colony of his
veterans; it became a _civitas libera_ and a great commercial emporium
(for coins see Maier, _Numis. Zeitschr._, 1908). The summit of its
prosperity was reached about the end of the 4th century, when it was
made the capital of Epirus Nova. Its bishopric, created about A.D. 58,
was raised to an archbishopric in 449. In 481 the city was besieged by
Theodoric, the king of the East Goths; and in the 10th and 11th
centuries it frequently had to defend itself against the Bulgarians. In
1082 it was stormed by the Norman Robert Guiscard, who in the previous
year had defeated the Greeks under their emperor Alexius; and in 1185 it
fell into the hands of King William of Sicily. Surrendered to Venice in
1202, it afterwards broke loose from the republic and in 1268 passed
into the possession of Charles of Anjou. In 1273 it was laid in ruins by
an earthquake, but it soon recovered from the disaster, and became an
independent duchy under John, the grandson of Charles (1294-1304), and
afterwards under Philip of Otranto. In 1333 it was annexed to Achaea, in
1336 to Servia, and in 1394 to Venice. The Turks obtained possession in
1501.



D'URBAN, SIR BENJAMIN (1777-1849), British general and colonial
administrator, was born in 1777, and entered the British army in 1793.
Promoted lieutenant and captain in 1794 he took part in that year in
operations in Holland and Westphalia. In 1795 he served under Sir Ralph
Abercromby in San Domingo. He went on half-pay in 1800, joining the
Royal Military College, where he remained until 1805, when he went to
Hanover with the force under Lord Cathcart. Returning to England he
filled various staff offices, and in November 1807 went to Dublin as
assistant-quartermaster-general, being transferred successively to
Limerick and the Curragh. He joined the army in the Peninsula in 1808,
and his marked abilities as a staff officer led to his selection by
General (afterwards Viscount) Beresford as quartermaster-general in the
reorganization of the Portuguese army. He served throughout the
Peninsular War without once going on leave and took part in nine pitched
battles and sieges, Busaco, Albuera, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, the
Pyrenees, the Nivelle, the Nive and Toulouse. He was promoted
major-general in the Portuguese army and colonel in the British army in
1813, and made a K.C.B. in 1815. He remained in Portugal until 1816,
when he was summoned home to take up the posts of colonel of the royal
staff corps and deputy quartermaster-general at the Horse Guards. In
1819 he became major-general and in 1837 lieutenant-general. From 1829
he was colonel of the 51st Foot.

Sir Benjamin began his career as colonial administrator in 1820 when he
was made governor of Antigua. In 1824 he was transferred to Demerara and
Essequibo, then in a disturbed condition owing to a rising among the
slaves consequent on the emancipation movement in Great Britain.
D'Urban's rule proved successful, and in 1831 he carried out the
amalgamation of Berbice with the other counties, the whole forming the
colony of British Guiana, of which D'Urban was first governor. The
ability with which he had for nine years governed a community of which
the white element was largely of Dutch origin led to his appointment as
governor of Cape Colony. He assumed office in January 1834, and the four
years during which he held that post were of great importance in the
history of South Africa. They witnessed the abolition of slavery, the
establishment of a legislative council and municipal councils in Cape
Colony, the first great Kaffir war and the beginning of the Great Trek.
The firmness and justice of his administration won the cordial support
of the British and Dutch colonists. The greater part of 1835 was
occupied in repelling an unprovoked invasion of the eastern borders of
the colony by Xosa Kaffirs. To protect the inhabitants of the eastern
province Sir Benjamin extended the boundary of the colony to the Kei
river and erected military posts in the district, allowing the Xosa to
remain under British supervision. Since his appointment to the Cape
there had been a change of ministry in England, and Lord Glenelg had
become secretary for the Colonies in the second Melbourne
administration. Prejudiced against any extension of British authority
and lending a ready ear to a small but influential party in South
Africa, Glenelg adopted the view that the Kaffirs had been the victims
of systematic injustice. In a momentous despatch dated the 26th of
December 1835 he set forth his views and instructed Sir Benjamin D'Urban
to give up the newly annexed territory. At the same time Sir Andries
Stockenstrom, Bart. (1792-1864), was appointed lieutenant-governor for
the eastern provinces of the colony to carry out the policy of the home
government, in which the Kaffir chiefs were treated as being on terms of
full equality with Europeans. D'Urban in vain warned Glenelg of the
disastrous consequences of his decision, the beginning of the long
course of vacillation which wrought great harm to South Africa. One
result of the new policy was to recreate a state of insecurity,
bordering on anarchy, in the eastern province, and this condition was
one of the causes of the Great Trek of the Dutch farmers which began in
1836. In various despatches D'Urban justified his position,
characterizing the Trek as due to "insecurity of life and property
occasioned by the recent measures, inadequate compensation for the loss
of the slaves, and despair of obtaining recompense for the ruinous
losses by the Kaffir invasion." (See further SOUTH AFRICA: _History_,
and CAPE COLONY: _History_.) But Glenelg was not to be convinced by any
argument, however cogent, and in a despatch dated the 1st of May 1837 he
informed Sir Benjamin that he had been relieved of office. D'Urban,
however, remained governor until the arrival of his successor, Sir
George Napier, in January 1838.

During his governorship Sir Benjamin endeavoured to help the British
settlers at Port Natal, who in 1835 named their town D'Urban (now
written Durban) in his honour, but his suggestion that the district
should be occupied as a British possession was vetoed by Lord Glenelg.
Though no longer in office D'Urban remained in South Africa until April
1846. In 1840 he was made a G.C.B., and in 1842 declined a high military
appointment in India offered him by Sir Robert Peel. In January 1847 he
took up the command of the troops in Canada, and was still in command at
the time of his death at Montreal on the 25th of May 1849.



DURBAN, the principal seaport and largest city of Natal, South Africa,
the harbour being known as Port Natal, in 29° 52´ 48" S. 31° 42´ 49" E.
It is 6810 m. from London via Madeira and 7785 via Suez, 823 m. by water
E.N.E. from Cape Town and 483 m. by rail S.S.E. of Johannesburg. Pop.
(1904) 67,842, of whom 31,302 were whites, 15,631 Asiatics (chiefly
British Indians), 18,929 natives and 1980 of mixed race. From its
situation and the character of its buildings Durban is one of the finest
cities in South Africa. The climate is generally hot and humid, but not
unhealthy. Although nearly half the citizens are British, the large
number of Indians engaged in every kind of work gives to Durban an
oriental aspect possessed by no other town in South Africa. The town is
built on the E. side of a bay (Durban Bay or Bay of Natal), the entrance
to which is marked on the west by a bold cliff, the Bluff, whose summit
is 195 ft. above the sea, and on the east by a low sandy spit called the
Point. The city extends from the Point along the side of the bay and
also for some distance along the coast of the Indian Ocean, and
stretches inland to a range of low hills called the Berea.

The chief streets, Smith, West and Pine, are in the lower town, parallel
to one another and to the bay. They contain the principal public
buildings, warehouses and shops, the Berea being a residential quarter.
Of the three streets mentioned, West Street, the central thoroughfare,
is the busiest. In its centre are the public gardens, in which is a
handsome block of buildings in the Renaissance style, built in 1906-1908
at a cost of over £300,000, containing the town hall, municipal offices,
public library, museum and art gallery. The art gallery holds many
pictures of the modern British school. Opposite the municipal buildings
are the post and telegraph offices, a fine edifice (built 1881-1885)
with a clock tower 164 ft. high. The post office formerly served as town
hall. In Pine Street is the Central railway station and the spacious
Market House. Among the churches St Cyprian's (Anglican), in Smith
Street, has a handsome chancel. The Roman Catholic cathedral is a fine
building in the Gothic style. The town possesses several parks, one, the
Victoria Park, facing the Indian Ocean. This part of the town is laid
out with pleasure grounds and esplanades. The botanic gardens, in the
upper town, contain a very fine collection of flowering shrubs and
semi-tropical trees. Above the gardens is the observatory. There is a
fine statue of Queen Victoria by Hamo Thornycroft, R.A., in the public
gardens, and a memorial to Vasco da Gama at the Point. There is an
extensive system of electric trams. Another favourite means of
conveyance is by rickshaw, the runners being Zulus. The town is governed
by a municipality which owns the water and electric lighting supplies
and the tramway system. The sanitary services are excellent. The main
water-supply is the Umlaas river, which enters the ocean 10 m. S. of the
port. The municipal valuation, which is based on capital value, was
£9,494,400 in 1909, the rate, including water, being 2½d. in the £.

The entrance to the harbour was obstructed by a formidable sand bar, but
as the result of dredging operations there is now a minimum depth of
water at the opening of the channel into the bay of over 30 ft., with a
maximum depth of over 33 ft. The width of the passage between the Bluff
and the Point is 450 ft. From the foot of the Bluff a breakwater extends
over 2000 ft. into the sea, and parallel to it, starting from the Point,
is a pier. The harbour is landlocked, and covers 7½ sq. m. Much of this
area is shoal water, but the accommodation available was largely
increased by the removal during 1904-1908 of 24,000,000 tons of sand.
The port has over 3 m. of wharfage. It possesses a floating dock capable
of lifting a vessel of 8500 tons, a floating workshop, a patent slip for
small craft, hydraulic cranes, &c. The minimum depth alongside the quays
at low water is 23 ft., increased at places to over 30 ft. The principal
wharves, where passengers, mails and general merchandise are landed, are
along the Point. On the opposite side at the foot of the Bluff land has
been reclaimed and extensive accommodation provided for ships coaling.
At Congella at the N.E. end of the harbour some 65 acres of land were
reclaimed during 1905-1906, and wharves built for the handling of heavy
and bulky goods such as timber and corrugated iron. Here also are
situated warehouses and railway works. The port is defended by batteries
armed with modern heavy guns. The trade of the port is almost
coextensive with the foreign trade of Natal.

_History._--The early history of Durban is closely identified with that
of the colony of Natal. The first permanent settlement by white men in
the bay was made by Englishmen in 1824, when Lieutenant F.G. Farewell,
R.N., and about ten companions went thither from Cape Town in the brig
"Salisbury," from which circumstance the island in the bay gets its
name. In 1835 a township was laid out and the colonists gave it the name
of D'Urban, in honour of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape
Colony. At this time a mission church was built on the heights
overlooking the bay by Captain Allen Gardner, R.N., who named the hill
Berea in gratitude for support received from the settlers, whom he found
"more noble than those of" Zululand--Dingaan having refused to allow the
captain to start a mission among his people. From December 1838 to
December 1839 a small British military force was stationed at the port.
On its recall the little settlement was taken possession of by Dutch
emigrants from the Cape, who had defeated the Zulu king Dingaan, and who
the year before at the upper end of the bay had formed an encampment,
_Kangela_ (look-out), the present Congella. The Dutch claimed
independence, and on the block-house at Durban hoisted the flag of the
"Republic of Natalia." In 1842, however, a British military force
reoccupied Durban, and on the 15th of July of that year a treaty was
signed in which the Dutch recognized British sovereignty (see further
NATAL: _History_). From that date Durban, though not the seat of
government, became the principal town in Natal. In 1850 there were 500
white inhabitants, and in 1853 the town was granted municipal
government. The first mayor was Mr George Cato (c. 1810-1893), one of
the earliest settlers in Natal. In 1860 a railway from the Point to the
town, the first railway in South Africa, was opened. The discovery of
the gold-mines on the Rand greatly increased the importance of the port,
and renewed efforts were made to remove the bar which obstructed the
entrance to the bay. The Harbour Board, which was formed in 1881 and
ceased to exist in 1893, effected, under the guidance of Mr Harry
Escombe, enormous improvements in the port--on which the prosperity of
Durban is dependent. But it was not until 1904 that the fairway was
deepened sufficiently to allow mail steamers of the largest class to
enter the harbour. The growth of the port as illustrated by customs
receipts is shown in the increase from £250,000 in 1880 to £981,000 in
1904. In 1846 the customs revenue was returned at £3510.

  See _Durban: Fifty Years' Municipal History_, compiled for the
  corporation by W.P.M. Henderson, Asst. Town Clerk (Durban, 1904); G.
  Russell, _History of Old Durban_ [to 1860] (Durban, 1899).



DURBAR, a term in India for a court or levee, from the Persian _darbar_.
A durbar may be either a council for administering affairs of state, or
a purely ceremonial gathering. In the former sense the native rulers of
India in the past, like the amir of Afghanistan to-day, received
visitors and conducted business in durbar. A durbar is the executive
council of a native state. In the latter sense the word has come to be
applied to great ceremonial gatherings like Lord Lytton's durbar for the
proclamation of the queen empress in India in 1877, or the Delhi durbar
of 1903.



DÜREN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right
bank of the Roer, 19 m. E. from Aix-la-Chapelle on the main line of
railway to Cologne. Pop. (1905) 29,270. It has two Protestant and six
Roman Catholic churches, among the latter the Gothic St Annakirche, said
to contain a portion of the head of the saint, to the shrine of which
frequent pilgrimages are made. There are several high grade schools,
monuments to the emperor William I., Bismarck and Moltke, and, in the
town-hall, a collection of antiquities. It is the seat of considerable
manufactures, notably cloth, paper, flax-spinning, carpet, artificial
wool, sugar, iron wares and needles.

Düren derives its name, not, as was at one time believed, from the
_Marcodurum_ of the Ubii, mentioned in Tacitus, but from the _Dura_ or
_Duria_, assemblies held by the Carolingians in the 8th century. It
received civic rights early in the 13th century. Hypothecated by the
emperor Frederick II. to Count William of Jülich, it became incorporated
with the duchy of that name, and with it passed to Prussia in 1816.



DURENE (1·2·4·5 tetramethyl benzene) C6H2(CH3)4, a hydro-carbon which
has been recognized as a constituent of coal-tar. It may be prepared by
the action of methyl iodide on brom-pseudocumene or 4.6 dibrom
metaxylene, in the presence of sodium; or by the action of methyl
chloride on toluene, in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride. It
crystallizes in plates, having a camphor-like smell, melting at 79-80°
C. and boiling at 189-191° C. It is easily soluble in alcohol, ether and
benzene, and sublimes slowly at ordinary temperature. On oxidation with
chromic acid mixture, it is completely decomposed into carbon dioxide
and acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to durylic and cumidic acids
[C6H2·(CH3)2·(COOH)2].



DÜRER, ALBRECHT (1471-1528), German painter, draughtsman and engraver,
was born at Nuremberg on the 21st of May 1471. His family was not of
Nuremberg descent, but came from the village of Eytas in Hungary. The
name, however, is German, and the family device--an open door--points to
an original form Thürer, meaning a maker of doors or carpenter. Albrecht
Dürer the elder was a goldsmith by trade, and settled soon after the
middle of the 15th century in Nuremberg. He served as assistant under a
master-goldsmith of the city, Hieronymus Holper, and in 1468 married his
master's daughter Barbara, the bridegroom being forty and the bride
fifteen years of age. They had eighteen children, of whom Albrecht was
the second. The elder Dürer was an esteemed craftsman and pious citizen,
sometimes, as was natural, straitened in means by the pressure of his
numerous progeny. His famous son writes with reverence and affection of
both parents, and has left a touching narrative of their death-bed
hours. He painted the portrait of his father twice, first in 1490, next
in 1497. The former of these is in the Uffizi at Florence; of the
latter, four versions exist, that in the National Gallery (formerly in
the Ashburton-Northampton collections) having the best claim to
originality.

The young Albrecht was his father's favourite son. "My father," he
writes, "took special delight in me. Seeing that I was industrious in
working and learning, he put me to school; and when I had learned to
read and write, he took me home from school and taught me the
goldsmith's trade." By and by the boy found himself drawn by preference
from goldsmith's work to painting; his father, after some hesitation on
the score of the time already spent in learning the former trade, gave
way and apprenticed him for three years, at the age of fifteen and a
half, to the principal painter of the town, Michael Wolgemut. Wolgemut
furnishes a complete type of the German painter of that age. At the head
of a large shop with many assistants, his business was to turn out,
generally for a small price, devotional pieces commissioned by
mercantile corporations or private persons to decorate their chapels in
the churches--the preference being usually for scenes of the Passion, or
for tortures and martyrdoms of the saints. In such work the painters of
Upper Germany at this time, working in the spirit of the late Gothic
style just before the dawn of the Renaissance, show considerable
technical attainments, with a love of quaint costumes and rich draperies
crumpled in complicated angular folds, some feeling for romance in
landscape backgrounds, none at all for clearness or balance in
composition, and in the attitudes and expressions of their overcrowded
figures a degree of grotesqueness and exaggeration amounting often to
undesigned caricature. There were also produced in the workshop of
Wolgemut, as in that of other artist-craftsmen of his town, a great
number of woodcuts for book illustration. We cannot with certainty
identify any of these as being by the 'prentice hand of the young Dürer.
Authentic drawings done by him in boyhood, however, exist, including one
in silver-point of his own likeness at the age of thirteen in the
Albertina at Vienna, and others of two or three years later in the print
room at Berlin, at the British Museum and at Bremen.

In the school of Wolgemut Dürer learned much, by his own account, but
suffered not a little from the roughness of his companions. At the end
of his apprenticeship in 1490 he entered upon the usual course of
travels--the _Wanderjahre_--of a German youth. Their direction we cannot
retrace with certainty. There had been no one at Nuremberg skilled
enough in the art of metal-engraving to teach it him to much purpose,
and it had at one time been his father's intention to apprentice him to
Martin Schongauer of Colmar, the most refined and accomplished German
painter-engraver of his time. But after travelling two years in various
parts of Germany, where we are unable to follow him, the young Dürer
arrived at Colmar in 1492, only to find that Schongauer had died the
previous year. He was received kindly by three brothers of the deceased
master established there, and afterwards, still in 1492, by a fourth
brother at Basel. Under them he evidently had some practice both in
metal-engraving and in furnishing designs for the woodcutter. There is
in the museum at Basel a wood-block of St Jerome executed by him and
elaborately signed on the back with his name. This was used in an
edition of Jerome's letters printed in the same city in the same year,
1492. Some critics also maintain that his hand is to be recognized in
several series of small blocks done about the same date or somewhat
later for Bergmann and other printers of Basel, some of them being
illustrations to Terence (which were never printed), some to the romance
of the _Ritter vom Turm_, and some to the _Narrenschiff_ of Sebastian
Brandt. But the prevailing opinion is against this conjecture, and sees
in these designs the work not of a strenuous student and searcher such
as Dürer was, but of a riper and more facile hand working in a spirit of
settled routine. Whether the young Dürer's stay at Basel was long or
short, or whether, as has been supposed, he travelled from there into
the Low Countries, it is certain that in the early part of 1494 he was
working at Strassburg, and returned to his home at Nuremberg immediately
after Whitsuntide in that year. Of works certainly executed by him
during his years of travel there are extant, besides the Basel
wood-block, only a much-injured portrait of himself, very finely
dressed and in the first bloom of his admirable manly beauty, dated 1493
and originally painted on vellum but since transferred to canvas (this
is the portrait of the Felix Goldschmid collection); a miniature
painting on vellum at Vienna (a small figure of the Child-Christ); and
some half a dozen drawings, of which the most important are the
characteristic pen portrait of himself at Erlangen, with a Holy Family
on the reverse much in the manner of Schongauer; another Holy Family in
nearly the same style at Berlin; a study from the female nude in the
Bonnat collection; a man and woman on horseback in Berlin; a man on
horseback, and an executioner about to behead a young man, at the
British Museum, &c. These drawings all show Dürer intent above all
things on the sternly accurate delineation of ungeneralized individual
forms by means of strongly accented outline and shadings curved,
somewhat like the shadings of Martin Schongauer's engravings, so as to
follow their modellings and roundness.

Within a few weeks of his return (July 7th, 1494) Dürer was married,
according to an arrangement apparently made between the parents during
his absence, to Agnes Frey, the daughter of a well-to-do merchant of the
city. By the autumn of the same year, probably feeling the
incompleteness of the artistic training that could be obtained north of
the Alps, he must have taken advantage of some opportunity, we know not
what, to make an excursion of some months to Italy, leaving his lately
married wife at Nuremberg. The evidences of this travel (which are
really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline
to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated
1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Dürer
has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German
style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi"
prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's
name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school;
with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original
by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in
1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Dürer took a motive for the
composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape
drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically
will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear
record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three
drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have
made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his
great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498; (4) a general preoccupation
which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the
female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him
the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written
from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before;
when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing
please him no more. Some time in 1495 Dürer must have returned from this
first Italian journey to his home in Nuremberg, where he seems to have
lived, without further change or removal, in the active practice of his
art for the next ten years.

The hour when Dürer, the typical artist of the German nation, attained
maturity was one of the most pregnant in the history of his race. It was
the crisis, in northern Europe, of the transition between the middle ages
and our own. The awakening of Germany at the Renaissance was not, like
the awakening of Italy a generation or two earlier, a movement almost
exclusively intellectual. It was indeed from Italy that the races of the
north caught the impulse of intellectual freedom, the spirit of science
and curiosity, the eager retrospect towards the classic past; but joined
with these in Germany was a moral impulse which was her own, a craving
after truth and right, a rebellion against spiritual tyranny and
corruption--the Renaissance was big in the north, as it was not in the
south, with a Reformation to come. The art of printing had been invented
in good time to help and hasten the new movement of men's minds. Nor was
it by the diffusion of written ideas only that the new art supplied the
means of popular enlightenment. Along with word-printing, or indeed in
advance of it, there had sprung into use another kind of printing,
picture-printing, or what is commonly called engraving. Just as books
were the means of multiplying, cheapening and disseminating ideas, so
engravings on copper or wood were the means of multiplying, cheapening
and disseminating images which gave vividness to the ideas, or served,
for those ignorant of letters, in their stead. Technically one of these
arts, that of line-engraving on copper, sprang from the craft of the
goldsmith and metal-chaser; while that of wood-engraving sprang from the
craft of the printers of pattern-blocks and playing cards. The engraver
on metal habitually cut his own designs, and between the arts of the
goldsmith and the painter there had always been a close alliance, both
being habitually exercised by persons of the same family and sometimes by
one and the same person; so that there was no lack of hands ready-trained
for the new craft which required of the man who practised it that he
should design like a painter and cut metal like a goldsmith. Designs
intended to be cut on wood, on the other hand, were usually drawn by the
artist on the block and handed over for cutting to a class of
workmen--_Formschneider_ or _Briefmaler_--especially devoted to that
industry. Both kinds of engraving soon came to be in great demand.
Independently of the illustration of written or printed books, for which
purpose woodcuts were almost exclusively used, separate engravings or
sets of engravings in both kinds were produced, the more finely wrought
and more expensive, appealing especially to the more educated classes, on
copper, the bolder, simpler and cheaper on wood; and both kinds found a
ready sale at all the markets, fairs and church festivals of the land.
Subjects of popular devotion predominated. Figures of the Virgin and
Child, of the apostles and evangelists, the fathers of the Church, the
saints and martyrs, with illustrations of sacred history and the
Apocalypse, were supplied in endless repetition to satisfy the cravings
of a pious and simple-minded people. But to these were quickly added
subjects of allegory, of classical learning, of witchcraft and
superstition and of daily life; scenes of the parlour and the cloister,
of the shop, the field, the market and the camp; and lastly portraits of
famous men, with scenes of court life and princely pageant and ceremony.
Thus the new art became a mirror of almost all the life and thoughts of
the age. The genius of Albrecht Dürer cannot be rightly estimated without
taking into account the position which the arts of engraving on metal and
on wood thus held in the culture of this time. He was indeed
professionally and in the first place a painter; but throughout his
career a great, and on the whole the most successful, part of his
industry was devoted to drawing on the block for the woodcutter or
engraving with his own hand on copper. The town of Nuremberg in
Franconia, in the age of Dürer's early manhood, was a favourable home for
the growth and exercise of his powers. Of the free imperial cities of
central Germany, none had a greater historic fame or a more settled and
patriotic government. None was more the favourite of the emperors, nor
the seat of a more active and flourishing commerce. Nuremberg was the
chief mart for the merchandise that came to central Europe from the east
through Venice and over the passes of Tirol. She held not only a close
commercial intercourse, but also a close intellectual intercourse, with
Italy. Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace
the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance--continuing,
indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher
spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired
even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect--she had imported
before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of
Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like
Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad
Celtes. From associates like these Dürer could imbibe the spirit of
Renaissance culture and research; but the external aspects and artistic
traditions which surrounded him were purely Gothic, and he had to work
out for himself the style and form-language fit to express what was in
him. During the first seven or eight years of his settled life in his
native city from 1495, he betrays a conflict of artistic tendencies as
well as no small sense of spiritual strain and strife. His finest work in
this period was that which he provided for the woodcutter. After some
half--dozen miscellaneous single prints--"Samson and the Lion," the
"Annunciation," the "Ten Thousand Martyrs," the "Knight and Men-at-arms,"
the "Men's Bath," &c.--he undertook and by 1498 completed his famous
series of sixteen great designs for the Apocalypse. The northern mind had
long dwelt with eagerness on these phantasmagoric mysteries of things to
come, and among the earliest block-books printed in Germany is an edition
of the Apocalypse with rude figures. Founding himself to some extent on
the traditional motives, Dürer conceived and carried out a set of designs
in which the qualities of the German late Gothic style, its rugged
strength and restless vehemence, its love of gnarled forms, writhing
actions and agitated lines, are fused by the fire of the young master's
spirit into vital combination with something of the majestic power and
classic severity which he had seen and admired in the works of Mantegna.
Of a little later date, and of almost as fine a quality, are the first
seven of a large series of woodcuts known as the Great Passion; and a
little later again (probably after 1500), a series of eleven subjects of
the Holy Family and of saints singly or in groups: then, towards
1504-1505, come the first seventeen of a set illustrating the life of the
Virgin: neither these nor the Great Passion were published till several
years later.

In copper-engraving Dürer was at the same time diligently training
himself to develop the methods practised by Martin Schongauer and
earlier masters into one suitable for his own self-expression. He
attempted no subjects at all commensurate with those of his great
woodcuts, but contented himself for the most part with Madonnas, single
figures of scripture or of the saints, some nude mythologies of a kind
wholly new in northern art and founded upon the impressions received in
Italy, and groups, sometimes bordering on the satirical, of humble folk
and peasants. In the earliest of the Madonnas, the "Virgin with the
Dragon-fly" (1495-1496), Dürer has thrown something of his own rugged
energy into a design of the traditional Schongauer type. In examples of
a few years later, like the "Virgin with the Monkey," the design of
Mother and Child clearly betrays the influence of Italy and specifically
of Lorenzo di Credi. The subjects of the "Prodigal Son" and "St Jerome
in the Wilderness" he on the other hand treats in an almost purely
northern spirit. In the nudes of the next four or five years, which
included a "St Sebastian," the so-called "Four Witches" (1497), the
"Dream" or "Temptation," the "Rape of Amymome," and the "Jealousy" or
"Great Hercules," Venetian, Paduan and Florentine memories are found, in
the treatment of the human form, competing somewhat uncomfortably with
his own inherited Gothic and northern instincts. In these early
engravings the highly-wrought landscape backgrounds, whenever they
occur, are generally the most satisfying feature. This feature reaches a
climax of beauty and elaboration in the large print of "St Eustace and
the Stag," while the figures and animals remain still somewhat cramped
and immature. In the first three or four years of the 16th century, we
find Dürer in his graver-work still contending with the problems of the
nude, but now with added power, though by methods which in different
subjects contrast curiously with one another. Thus the "Nemesis,"
belonging probably to 1503, is a marvellously wrought piece of quite
unflinching realism in the rendering of a common type of mature,
muscular, unshapely German womanhood. The conception and attributes of
the figure are taken, as has lately been recognized, from a description
in the "Manto" of Politian: the goddess, to whose shoulders are appended
a pair of huge wings, stands like Fortune on a revolving ball, holding
the emblems of the cup and bridle, and below her feet is spread a rich
landscape of hill and valley. In the "Adam and Eve" of the next year, we
find Dürer treating the human form in an entirely opposite manner;
constructing it, that is, on principles of abstract geometrical
proportion. The Venetian painter-etcher, Jacopo de Barbari, whom Dürer
had already, it would seem, met in Venice in 1494-1495, and by the
example of whose engravings he had already been much influenced, came to
settle for a while in Nuremberg in 1500. He was conversant to some
extent with the new sciences of perspective, anatomy and proportion,
which had been making their way for years past in Italy, and from him it
is likely that Dürer received the impulse to similar studies and
speculations. At any rate a whole series of extant drawings enables us
to trace the German gradually working out his own ideas of a canon of
human proportion in the composition of his famous engraving of "Adam and
Eve" (1504); which at first, as a drawing in the British Museum proves,
had been intended to be an Apollo and Diana conceived on lines somewhat
similar to one of Barbari's. The drama of the subject has in this
instance not interested him at all, but only the forms and designs of
the figures, the realization of the quality of flesh surfaces by the
subtlest use of the graving-tool known to him, and the rendering, by
methods of which he had become the greatest of all masters, of the
richness and intricacy of the forest background. Two or three other
technical masterpieces of the engraver's art, the "Coat-of-Arms with the
Skull," the "Nativity," with its exquisite background of ruined
buildings, the "Little Horse" and the "Great Horse," both of 1505,
complete the list of the master's chief productions in this kind before
he started in the last-named year for a second visit to Italy.

The pictures of this earlier Nuremberg period are not many in number and
not very admirable. Dürer's powers of hand and eye are already
extraordinary and in their way almost unparalleled, but they are often
applied to the too insistent, too glittering, too emphatic rendering of
particular details and individual forms, without due regard to
subordination or the harmony of the whole. Among the earliest seem to be
two examples of a method practised in Italy especially by the school of
Mantegna, but almost without precedent in Germany, that of
tempera-painting on linen. One of these is the portrait of Frederick the
Wise of Saxony, formerly in the Hamilton collection and now at Berlin;
the second, much disfigured by restoration, is the Dresden altarpiece
with a Madonna and Child in the middle and St Anthony and Sebastian in
the wings. A mythology reminiscent of Italy is the "Hercules and the
Stymphalian Birds" in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, founded directly
upon the "Hercules and Centaur Nessus" of Pollaiuolo, now at New Haven,
Connecticut, U.S.A. Of portraits, besides that of his father already
mentioned as done in 1497, there is his own of 1498 at Madrid. Two
totally dissimilar portraits of young women, both existing in duplicate
examples (one pair at Augsburg and Frankfort, the other pair in the
collections of M. Hengel in Paris and Baron Speck von Sternburg at
Lützschema, for each of which has been claimed the name Fürlegerin, that
is, a member of the Fürleger family at Nuremberg), belong to nearly the
same time. Other panel portraits of the period are three small ones of
members of the Tucher family at Weimar and Cassel, and the striking,
restlessly elaborated half-length of Oswald Krell at Munich. In some
devotional pictures of the time Dürer seems to have been much helped by
pupils, as in the two different compositions of the Maries weeping over
the body of Christ preserved respectively at Munich and Nuremberg. In an
altarpiece at Ober St Veit and in the scattered wings of the Jabach
altarpiece severally preserved at Munich, Frankfort and Cologne, the
workmanship seems to be exclusively that of journeymen working from his
drawings. The period is closed, so far as paintings are concerned, by
two examples of far higher value than those above named, that is to say
the Paumgartner altarpiece at Munich, with its romantically attractive
composition of the Nativity with angels and donors in the central panel,
and the fine armed figures of St George and St Eustace (lately freed
from the over-paintings which disfigured them) on the wings; and the
happily conceived and harmoniously finished "Adoration of the Magi" in
the Uffizi at Florence.

In the autumn of 1505 Dürer journeyed for a second time to Venice, and
stayed there until the spring of 1507. The occasion of this journey has
been erroneously stated by Vasari. Dürer's engravings, both on copper
and wood, had by this time attained great popularity both north and
south of the Alps, and had begun to be copied by various hands, among
others by the celebrated Marcantonio of Bologna, then in his youth.
According to Vasari, Marcantonio, in copying Dürer's series of the
Little Passion on wood, had imitated the original monogram, and Dürer,
indignant at this fraud, set out for Italy in order to protect his
rights, and having lodged a complaint against Marcantonio before the
signory of Venice, carried his point so far that Marcantonio was
forbidden in future to add the monogram of Dürer to copies taken after
his works. This account will not bear examination. Chronological and
other proofs show that if such a suit was fought at all, it must have
been in connexion with another set of Dürer's woodcuts, the first
seventeen of the Life of the Virgin. Dürer himself, a number of whose
familiar letters written from Venice to his friend Pirkheimer at
Nuremberg are preserved, makes no mention of anything of the kind.
Nevertheless some such grievance may possibly have been among the causes
which determined his journey. Other causes, of which we have explicit
record, were an outbreak of sickness at Nuremberg; Dürer's desire, which
in fact was realized, of finding a good market for the proceeds of his
art; and the prospect, also realized, of a commission for an important
picture from the German community settled at Venice, who had lately
caused an exchange and warehouse--the _Fondaco de' Tedeschi_--to be
built on the Grand Canal, and who were now desirous to dedicate a
picture in the church of St Bartholomew. The picture painted by Dürer on
this commission was the "Adoration of the Virgin," better known as the
"Feast of Rose Garlands"; it was subsequently acquired by the emperor
Rudolf II., and carried as a thing beyond price upon men's shoulders to
Vienna; it now exists in a greatly injured state in the monastery of
Strahow at Prague. It shows the pope and emperor, with a lute-playing
angel between them, kneeling to right and left of the enthroned Virgin
and Child, who crown them with rose garlands, with a multitude of other
kneeling saints disposed with free symmetry in the background, and
farther in the background portraits of the donor and the painter, and a
flutter of wreath-carrying cherubs in the air. Of all Dürer's works, it
is the one in which he most deliberately rivalled the combined splendour
and playfulness of certain phases of Italian art. The Venetian painters
assured him, he says, that they had never seen finer colours. They were
doubtless too courteous to add that fine colours do not make fine
colouring. Even in its present ruined state, it is apparent that in
spite of the masterly treatment of particular passages, such as the robe
of the pope, Dürer still lacked a true sense of harmony and
tone-relations, and that the effect of his work must have been restless
and garish beside that of a master like the aged Bellini. That veteran
showed the German visitor the most generous courtesy, and Dürer still
speaks of him as the best in painting ("_der pest im gemell_") in spite
of his advanced years. A similar festal intention in design and
colouring, with similar mastery in passages and even less sense of
harmonious relations in the whole, is apparent in a second important
picture painted by Dürer at Venice, "The Virgin and Child with the
Goldfinch," formerly in the collection of Lord Lothian and now at
Berlin. A "Christ disputing with the Doctors" of the same period, in the
Barberini Gallery at Rome, is recorded to have cost the painter only
five days' labour, and is an unsatisfying and ill-composed congeries of
heads and hands, both of such strenuous character and individuality as
here and there to pass into caricature. The most satisfying of Dürer's
paintings done in Venice are the admirable portrait of a young man at
Hampton Court (the same sitter reappears in the "Feast of Rose
Garlands"), and two small pieces, one the head of a brown Italian girl
modelled and painted with real breadth and simplicity, formerly in the
collection of Mr Reginald Cholmondeley and now at Berlin, and the small
and very striking little "Christ Crucified" with the figure relieved
against the night sky, which is preserved in the Dresden Gallery and has
served as model and inspiration to numberless later treatments of the
theme. An interesting, rather fantastic, portrait of a blonde girl
wearing a wide cap, now in the Berlin museum, is dated 1507 and may
have been done in the early months of that year at Venice. It is
possible, though not certain, that to this date also belongs the famous
portrait of himself at Munich bearing a false signature and date, 1500;
in this it has been lately shown that the artist modified his own
lineaments according to a preconceived scheme of facial proportion, so
that it must be taken as an ideal rather than a literal presentment of
himself to posterity as he appeared in the flower of his early middle
age. From Venice Dürer kept up a continuous correspondence, which has
been published, with his bosom friend Pirkheimer at Nuremberg. He tells
of the high position he holds among the Venetians; of the jealousy shown
him by some of the meaner sort of native artist; of the honour and
wealth in which he might live if he would consent to abandon home for
Italy; of the northern winter, and how he knows that after his return it
will set him shivering for the south. Yet he resisted all seductions and
was in Nuremberg again before the summer of 1507. First, it seems, he
had made an excursion to Bologna, having intended to take Mantua on the
way, in order to do homage to the old age of that Italian master, Andrea
Mantegna, from whose work he had himself in youth learned the most. But
the death of Mantegna prevented his purpose.

From the spring of 1507 until the summer of 1520, Dürer was again a
settled resident in his native town. Except the brilliant existences of
Raphael at Rome and of Rubens at Antwerp and Madrid, the annals of art
present the spectacle of few more honoured or more fortunate careers.
His reputation had spread all over Europe. From Flanders to Rome his
distinction was acknowledged, and artists of less invention, among them
some of the foremost on both sides of the Alps, were not ashamed to
borrow from his work this or that striking combination or expressive
type. He was on terms of friendship or friendly communication with all
the first masters of the age, and Raphael held himself honoured in
exchanging drawings with Dürer. In his own country, all orders of men,
from the emperor Maximilian down, delighted to honour him; and he was
the familiar companion of chosen spirits among the statesmen, humanists
and reformers of the new age. The burgher life of even Nuremberg, the
noblest German city, seems narrow, quaint and harsh beside the grace and
opulence and poetical surroundings of Italian life in the same and the
preceding generation. The great cities of Flanders also, with their
world-wide commerce and long-established eminence in the arts, presented
aspects of more splendid civic pomp and luxury. But among its native
surroundings the career of Dürer stands out with an aspect of ideal
elevation and decorum which is its own. His temper and life seem to have
been remarkably free from all that was jarring, jealous and fretful;
unless, indeed, we are to accept as true the account of his wife's
character which represents her as having been no fit mate for him, but
an incorrigible shrew and skinflint. The name of Agnes Dürer was for
centuries used to point a moral, and among the unworthy wives of great
men the wife of Dürer became almost as notorious as the wife of
Socrates. The source of the traditions to her discredit is to be found
in a letter written a few years after Dürer's death by his life-long
intimate, Willibald Pirkheimer, who accuses her of having plagued her
husband to death by her meanness, made him overwork himself for money's
sake, and given his latter days no peace. No doubt there must have been
some kind of foundation for Pirkheimer's charges; and it is to be noted
that neither in Dürer's early correspondence with this intimate friend,
nor anywhere in his journals, does he use any expressions of tenderness
or affection for his wife, only speaking of her as his housemate and of
her helping in the sale of his prints, &c. That he took her with him on
his journey to the Netherlands shows at any rate that there can have
been no acute estrangement. And it is fair to remember in her defence
that Pirkheimer when he denounced her was old, gouty and peevish, and
that the immediate occasion of his outbreak against his friend's widow
was a fit of anger because she had not let him have a pair of antlers--a
household ornament much prized in those days--to which he fancied
himself entitled out of the property left by Dürer. We have evidence
that after her husband's death Agnes Dürer behaved with generosity to
his brothers.

The thirteen or fourteen years of Dürer's life between his return from
Venice and his journey to the Netherlands (spring 1507-midsummer 1520)
can best be divided according to the classes of work with which, during
successive divisions of the period, he was principally occupied. The
first five years, 1507-1511, are pre-eminently the painting years of his
life. In them, working with infinite preliminary pains, as a vast number
of extant drawings and studies testify, he produced what have been
accounted his four capital works in painting, besides several others of
minor importance. The first is the "Adam and Eve" dated 1507, in which
both attitudes and proportions are as carefully calculated, though on a
somewhat different scheme, as in the engraving of 1504. Two versions of
the picture exist, one in Florence at the Pitti palace, the other, which
is generally allowed to be the original, at Madrid. To 1508 belongs the
life-sized "Virgin with the Iris," a piece remarkable for the fine
romantic invention of its background, but plainly showing the hand of an
assistant, perhaps Hans Baldung, in its execution: the best version is
in the Cook collection at Richmond, an inferior one in the Rudolphinum
at Prague. In 1508 Dürer returned to a subject which he had already
treated in an early woodcut, the "Massacre of the Ten Thousand Martyrs
of Nicomedia." The picture, painted for the elector Frederick of Saxony,
is now in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna; the overcrowded canvas (into
which Dürer has again introduced his own portrait as a spectator
alongside of the elector) is full of striking and animated detail, but
fails to make any great impression on the whole, and does not do justice
to the improved sense of breadth and balance in design, of clearness and
dignity in composition, which the master had undoubtedly brought back
with him from his second visit to Italy. In 1509 followed the
"Assumption of the Virgin" with the Apostles gathered about her tomb, a
rich altarpiece with figures of saints and portraits of the donor and
his wife in the folding wings, executed for Jacob Heller, a merchant of
Frankfort, in 1509. This altarpiece was afterwards replaced at Frankfort
(all except the portraits of the donors, which remained behind) by a
copy, while the original was transported to Munich, where it perished by
fire in 1674. The copy, together with the many careful and highly
finished preparatory studies for the heads, limbs and draperies which
have been preserved, shows that this must have been the one of Dürer's
pictures in which he best combined the broader vision and simpler habits
of design which had impressed him in the works of Italian art with his
own inherited and ingrained love of unflinchingly grasped fact and
rugged, accentuated character. In 1511 was completed another famous
painting, multitudinous in the number of its figures though of very
moderate dimensions, the "Adoration of the Trinity by all the Saints," a
subject commissioned for a chapel dedicated to All Saints in an
almshouse for decayed tradesmen at Nuremberg, and now at the Imperial
Gallery at Vienna. Nothing can exceed the fulness and variety of
invention, or the searching force and precision of detail in this
picture; nor does it leave so much to desire as several of the master's
other paintings in point of colour-harmony and pleasurable general
effect.

In the meantime Dürer had added a few to the number of his
line-engravings and had completed the two woodcut series of the Great
Passion, begun about 1498-1499, and the Life of the Virgin. The new
subjects compared with the old show some falling off in dramatic stress
and intensity of expression, but on the other hand a marked gain in
largeness of design and clearness of composition. In 1511 these two
works were brought out for the first time, and the Apocalypse series in
a second edition; and for the next three years, 1511-1514, engraving
both on wood and copper, but especially the latter, took the first place
among Dürer's activities. Besides such fine single woodcuts as the "Mass
of St Gregory," the "St Christopher," the "St Jerome," and two Holy
Families of 1511, Dürer published in the same year the most numerous and
popularly conceived of all his woodcut series, that known from the
dimensions of its thirty-seven subjects as the "Little Passion" on wood;
and in the next year, 1512, a set of fifteen small copper-engravings on
the same theme, the "Little Passion" on copper. Both of these must
represent the labour of several preceding years: one or two of the
"Little Passion" plates, dating back as far as 1507, prove that this
series at least had been as long as five years in his mind. In thus
repeating over and over on wood and copper nearly the same incidents of
the Passion, or again in rehandling them in yet another medium, as in
the highly finished series of drawings known as the "Green Passion" in
the Albertina at Vienna, Dürer shows an inexhaustible variety of
dramatic and graphic invention, and is never betrayed into repeating an
identical action or motive.

In 1513 and 1514 appeared the three most famous of Dürer's works in
copper-engraving, "The Knight and Death" (or simply "The Knight," as he
himself calls it, 1513), the "Melancolia" and the "St Jerome in his
Study" (both 1514). These are the masterpieces of the greatest mind
which ever expressed itself in this form of art. Like other
masterpieces, they suggest much more than they clearly express, and
endless meanings have been, rightly or wrongly, read into them by
posterity. Taken together as a group, they have been supposed to be
three out of an uncompleted series designed to illustrate the four
"temperaments" and complexions of men. Again, more reasonably, they have
been taken as types severally of the moral, the intellectual and the
theological virtues. The idea at the bottom of the "Knight and Death"
seems to be a combination of the Christian knight of Erasmus's
_Enchiridion militis Christiani_ with the type, traditional in medieval
imagery, of the pilgrim on his way through the world. The imaginative
force of the presentation, coming from a man of Dürer's powers, is
intense; but what consciously occupied him most may well have been the
problem how to draw accurately the proportions and action of a horse in
motion. This problem he here solves for the first time, with the help of
an Italian example: at least his design so closely repeats that of
Leonardo da Vinci's famous and early destroyed equestrian statue of
Francesco Sforza that we must certainly suppose him to have seen either
the model itself or such a drawing of it as is still preserved by
Leonardo's own hand. The face of the rider seems to recall that of the
statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni at Venice; for the armour Dürer had
recourse to an old drawing of his own, signed and dated in 1498. The
"Melancolia," numbered "1" as though intended to be the first of a
series, with its brooding winged genius sitting dejectedly amidst a
litter of scientific instruments and symbols, is hard to interpret in
detail, but impossible not to recognize in general terms as an
embodiment of the spirit of intellectual research (the student's
"temperament" was supposed to be one with the melancholic), resting
sadly from its labours in a mood of lassitude and defeat. Comparatively
cheerful beside these two is the remaining subject of the student saint
reading in his chamber, with his dog and domestic lion resting near him,
and a marvellous play of varied surface and chequered light on the floor
and ceiling of his apartment and on all the objects which it contains.
Besides these three masterpieces of line-engraving, the same years,
1512-1515, found Dürer occupied with his most important experiments in
etching, both in dry-point ("The Holy Family and Saints" and the "St
Jerome in the Wilderness") and with the acid bath. At the same time he
was more taken up than ever, as is proved by the contents of a
sketch-book at Dresden, with mathematical and anatomical studies on the
proportions and structure of the human frame. A quite different kind of
study, that of the postures of wrestlers in action, is illustrated by a
little-known series of drawings, still of the same period, at Vienna.
Almost the only well-authenticated painting of the time is a "Virgin and
Child" in the Imperial Museum at Vienna. The portraits of the emperors
Charles the Great and Sigismund (1512), in their present state at any
rate, can hardly be recognized as being by the master's hand. An
interval of five years separates the Vienna "Madonna" from the two fine
heads of the apostles Philip and James in the Uffizi at Florence, the
pair of boys' heads painted in tempera on linen in the Bibliothèque
Nationale at Paris, the "Madonna with the Pink" at Augsburg, and the
portrait of Wolgemut at Munich, all of 1516. Among engravings of the
same time are three Madonnas, the apostles Thomas and Paul, a bagpiper
and two peasants dancing, and three or four experiments in etching on
plates of iron and zinc. In wood-engraving his energies were almost
entirely given to bearing a part--which modern research has proved to
have been not nearly so large as was traditionally supposed--in the
great decorative schemes commanded by the Emperor Max in his own honour,
and devised and carried out by a whole corps of men of letters and
artists: namely, the Triumphal Gate and the Triumphal March or
Procession. A third and smaller commemorative design, the Triumphal Car,
originally designed to form part of the second but in the end issued
separately, was entirely Dürer's own work. A far more successful and
attractive effort of his genius in the same service is to be found in
the marginal decorations done by him in pen for the emperor's
prayer-book. This unequalled treasure of German art and invention has in
later times been broken up, the part executed by Dürer being preserved
at Munich, the later sheets, which were decorated by other hands, having
been transported to Besançon. Dürer's designs, drawn with the pen in
pale lilac, pink and green, show an inexhaustible richness of invention
and an airy freedom and playfulness of hand beyond what could be
surmised from the sternness of those studies which he made direct from
life and nature. They range from subjects of the homeliest and most
mirthful realism to others serious and devout, and from literal or
almost literal transcripts of natural form to the most whimsically
abstract combinations of linear pattern and tendril and flourish.

All these undertakings for his imperial friend and patron were stopped
by the emperor's death in 1519. A portrait-drawing by the master done at
Augsburg a few months previously, one of his finest works, served him as
the basis both of a commemorative picture and a woodcut. Other paintings
of this and the succeeding year we may seek for in vain; but in line
engravings we have four more Madonnas, two St Christophers, one or two
more peasant subjects, the well-known St Anthony with the view of
Nuremberg in the background, and the smaller of the two portraits of the
Cardinal-Elector of Mainz; and in wood-engraving several fine heraldic
pieces, including the arms of Nuremberg.

In the summer of 1520 the desire of Dürer to secure from Maximilian's
successors a continuance of the patronage and privileges granted during
his lifetime, together with an outbreak of sickness in Nuremberg, gave
occasion to the master's fourth and last journey from home. Together
with his wife and her maid he set out in July for the Netherlands in
order to be present at the coronation of the young emperor Charles V.,
and if possible to conciliate the good graces of the all-powerful regent
Margaret. In the latter part of his aim Dürer was but partially
successful. His diary of his travels enables us to follow his movements
almost day by day. He journeyed by the Rhine, Cologne, and thence by
road to Antwerp, where he was handsomely received, and lived in whatever
society was most distinguished, including that of Erasmus of Rotterdam.
Besides his written notes, interesting traces of his travels exist in
the shape of the scattered leaves of a sketch-book filled with delicate
drawings in silver-point, chiefly views of places and studies of
portrait and costume. Several of his finest portrait-drawings in chalk
or charcoal, including those of his brother artists Lucas Van Leyden and
Bernard Van Orley, as well as one of two fine portrait paintings of men,
belong to the period of this journey. So does a magnificent drawing of a
head of a nonagenarian with a flowing beard who sat to him at Antwerp,
together with a picture from the same head in the character of St
Jerome; the drawing is now at Vienna, the picture at Lisbon. Dürer's
interest and curiosity, both artistic and personal, were evidently
stimulated by his travels in the highest degree. Besides going to Aachen
for the coronation, he made excursions down the Rhine from Cologne to
Nijmwegen, and back overland by 's Hertogenbosch; to Brussels; to Bruges
and Ghent; and to Zealand with the object of seeing a natural curiosity,
a whale reported ashore. The vivid account of this last expedition given
in his diary contrasts with the usual dry entries of interviews and
disbursements. A still more striking contrast is the passionate outburst
of sympathy and indignation with which, in the same diary, he comments
on the supposed kidnapping of Luther by foul play on his return from the
diet of Worms. Without being one of those who in his city took an avowed
part against the old ecclesiastical system, and probably without seeing
clearly whither the religious ferment of the time was tending--without,
that is, being properly speaking a Reformer--Dürer in his art and his
thoughts was the incarnation of those qualities of the German character
and conscience which resulted in the Reformation; and, personally, with
the fathers of the Reformation he lived in the warmest sympathy.

On the 12th of July 1521 Dürer reached home again. Drawings of this and
the immediately following years prove that on his return his mind was
full of schemes for religious pictures. For a great group of the Madonna
surrounded with saints there are extant two varying sketches of the
whole composition and a number of finished studies for individual heads
and figures. Less abundant, but still sufficient to prove the artist's
intention, are the preliminary studies to a picture of the Crucifixion.
There exist also fine drawings for a "Lamentation over the body of
Christ," an "Adoration of the Kings," and a "March to Calvary"; of the
last-named composition, besides the beautiful and elaborate pen-and-ink
drawing at Florence, three still more highly-wrought versions in green
monochrome exist; whether any of them are certainly by the artist's own
hand is matter of debate. But no religious paintings on the grand scale,
corresponding to these drawings of 1521-1524, were ever carried out;
perhaps partly because of the declining state of the artist's health,
but more because of the degree to which he allowed his time and thoughts
to be absorbed in the preparation of his theoretical works on geometry
and perspective, proportion and fortification. Like Leonardo, but with
much less than Leonardo's genius for scientific speculation and
divination, Dürer was a confirmed reasoner and theorist on the laws of
nature and natural appearances. He himself attached great importance to
his studies in this kind; his learned friends expected him to give their
results to the world; which accordingly, though having little natural
gift or felicity in verbal expression, he laboured strenuously to do.
The consequence was that in the last and ripest years of his life he
produced as an artist comparatively little. In painting there is the
famous portrait of Hieronymus Holtzschuher at Berlin, in which the
personality and general aspect of the sitter assert themselves with
surprising power. This and the Antwerp head of Jerome are perhaps the
most striking examples of Dürer's power of forcing into subordination to
a general impression such a multiplicity of insistent detail as would
have smothered any weaker conception than his. No other hand could have
ventured to render the hair and beard of a sitter, as it was the habit
of this inveterate linearist to do, not by indication of masses, but by
means of an infinity of single lines swept, with a miraculous certainty
and fineness of touch, in the richest and most intricate of decorative
curves. To the same period belong a pleasing but somewhat weak "Madonna
and Child" at Florence; and finally, still in the same year 1526, the
two famous panels at Munich embodying the only one of the great
religious conceptions of the master's later years which he lived to
finish. These are the two pairs of saints, St John with St Peter in
front and St Paul with St Mark in the background. The John and Paul are
conceived and executed really in the great style, with a commanding
nobility and force alike in the character of the heads, the attitudes,
and the sweep of draperies; they represent the highest achievement of
early German art in painting. In copper-engraving Dürer's work during
the same years was confined entirely to portraits, those of the
cardinal-elector of Mainz ("The Great Cardinal"), Frederick the Wise,
elector of Saxony, Willibald Pirkheimer, Melanchthon and Erasmus. To the
tale of his woodcuts, besides a few illustrations to his book on
measurements (that is, geometry and perspective), and on fortification,
he only added one Holy Family and one portrait, that of his friend Eoban
Hesse. Of his theoretical books, he only succeeded in getting two
finished and produced during his lifetime, that on geometry and
perspective or measurement, to use his own title--which was published at
Nuremberg in 1525, and that on fortification, published in 1527; the
work on human proportions was brought out shortly after his death in
1528. His labours, whether artistic or theoretic, had for some time been
carried on in the face of failing health. In the canals of the Low
Countries he had caught a fever, of which he never shook off the
effects. We have the evidence of this in his own written words, as well
as in a sketch which he drew to indicate the seat of his suffering to
some physician with whom he was in correspondence, and again in the
record of his physical aspect which is preserved by a portrait engraved
on wood just after his death, from a drawing made no doubt not long
before in this portrait we see his shoulders already bent, the features
somewhat gaunt, the old pride of the abundant locks shorn away. The end
came on the night of the 6th of April 1528, so suddenly that there was
no time to call his dearest friends to his bedside. He was buried in a
vault which belonged to his wife's family, but was afterwards disturbed,
in the cemetery of St John at Nuremberg. An appropriate _Requiescat_ is
contained in the words of Luther, in a letter written to their common
friend Eoban Hesse:--"As for Dürer, assuredly affection bids us mourn
for one who was the best of men, yet you may well hold him happy that he
has made so good an end, and that Christ has taken him from the midst of
this time of trouble and from greater troubles in store, lest he, that
deserved to behold nothing but the best, should be compelled to behold
the worst. Therefore may he rest in peace with his fathers: Amen."

The principal extant paintings of Dürer, with the places where they are
to be found, have been mentioned above. Of his drawings, which for
students are the most vitally interesting part of his works, the richest
collections are in the Albertina at Vienna, the Berlin Museum and the
British Museum. The Louvre also possesses some good examples, and many
others are dispersed in various public collections, as in the Musée
Bonnat at Bayonne, at Munich, Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfort, Dresden,
Basel, Milan, Florence and Oxford, as well as in private hands all over
Europe.

The principal editions of Dürer's theoretical writings are these:--

  _Geometry and Perspective._--_Underweysung der Messung mit dem Zirckel
  und Richtscheyt, in Linien, Ebnen und ganzen Corporen_ (Nuremberg,
  1525, 1533, 1538). A Latin translation of the same, with a long title
  (Paris, Weichel, 1532) and another ed. in 1535. Again in Latin, with
  the title _Institutionum geometricarum libri quatuor_ (Arnheim, 1605).

  _Fortification._--_Etliche Underricht zu Befestigung der Stett,
  Schloss und Flecken_ (Nuremberg, 1527), and other editions in 1530,
  1538 and 1603 (Arnheim). A Latin translation, with the title _De
  urbibus, arcibus, castellisque muniendis ac condendis_ (Paris,
  Weichel, 1535). See the article FORTIFICATION.

  _Human Proportion._--_Hierinnen sind begriffen vier Bücher von
  menschlicher Proportion_ (Nuremberg, 1582, and Arnheim, 1603). Latin
  translation: _De symetria partium in rectis formis humanorum corporum
  libri in latinum conversi, de varietate figurarum, &c. libri ii._
  (Nuremberg, 1528, 1532 and 1534); (Paris, 1535, 1537, 1557). French
  translation (Paris, 1557, Arnheim, 1613, 1614). Italian translation
  (Venice, 1591, 1594); Portuguese translation (1599); Dutch translation
  (Arnheim, 1622, 1662).

  The private literary remains of Dürer, his diary, letters, &c., were
  first published, partially in Von Murr's _Journal zur Kunstgeschichte_
  (Nuremberg, 1785-1787); afterwards in Campe's _Reliquien von A. Dürer_
  (Nuremberg, 1827); again edited by Thausing, in the _Quellenschriften
  für Kunstgeschichte und Kunsttechnik_ (Vienna, 1872), but most
  completely in Lange and Fuhse's _Dürers schriftlicher Nachlass_
  (Halle, 1893); W.M. Conway's _Literary Remains of A. Dürer_ (London,
  1889) contains extensive transcripts from the MSS. in the British
  Museum.

  The principal remaining literature of the subject will be found in the
  following books and treatises--Johann Neudörfer, Schreib- und
  Rechenmeister zu Nürnberg, _Nachrichten über Künstlern und Werkleuten
  daselbst_ (Nuremberg, 1547); republished in the Vienna
  _Quellenschrift_ (1875); C. Scheurl, _Vita Antonii Kressen_ (1515,
  reprinted in the collection of Pirkheimer's works, Frankfort 1610);
  Wimpheling, _Epitome rerum Germanicarum_, ch. 68 (Strassburg, 1565);
  Joachim von Sandrart, _Deutsche Academie_ (Nuremberg, 1675);
  Doppelmayr, _Historische Nachricht von den nürnbergischen Mathematicis
  und Künstlern_ (Nuremberg, 1730); C.G. von Murr, _Journal zur
  Kunstgeschichte_, as above; Adam Bartsch, _Le Peintre-Graveur_, vol.
  vii. (Vienna, 1808); J.P. Passavant, _Le Peintre-Graveur_, vol. iii.
  (Leipzig, 1842); J.F. Roth, _Leben Albrecht Dürers_ (Leipzig, 1791);
  Heller, _Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht Dürers_, vol. ii. (Bamberg,
  1827-1831); B. Hausmann, _Dürers Kupferstiche, Radirungen,
  Holzschnitte und Zeichnungen_ (Hanover, 1861); R. von Rettberg,
  _Dürers Kupferstiche und Holzschnitte_ (Munich, 1876); M. Thausing,
  _Dürer, Geschichte seines Lebens und seiner Kunst_ (Leipzig, 1876, 2nd
  ed., 1884), English translation (from the 1st ed. by F.A. Eaton,
  London, 1882); W. Schmidt in Dohme's _Kunst und Künstler des
  Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_ (Leipzig, 1877); _Oeuvre de Albert Dürer
  reproduit et publié par Amand-Durand, texte par Georges Duplessis_
  (Paris, 1877); C. Ephrussi, _A. Dürer et ses dessins_ (Paris, 1882);
  F. Lippmann, _Zeichnungen von A. Dürer in Nachbildungen_ (5 vols.
  Berlin, 1883-1905); A. Springer, _Albrecht Dürer_ (Berlin, 1892); D.
  Burckhardt, _Dürers Aufenthalt in Basel_, 1492-1494 (Munich, 1892); G.
  von Terey, _A Dürers venezianischer Aufenthalt_, 1494-1495
  (Strassburg, 1892); S.R. Koehler, _A Chronological Catalogue of the
  Engravings, Dry Points and Etchings of A. Dürer_ (New York, 1894); L.
  Cust, _A. Dürer, a Study of his Life and Works_ (London, 1897); Dürer
  Society's Publications (10 vols., 1898-1907), edited by C. Dodgson and
  S.M. Peartree; H. Knackfuss, _Dürer_ (Bielefeld and Leipzig, 6th ed.,
  1899), English translation, 1900; B. Haendcke, _Die Chronologie der
  Landschaften A. Dürers_ (Strassburg, 1899); M. Zucker, _Albrecht
  Dürer_ (Halle, 1899-1900); L. Justi, _Konstruierte Figuren und Köpfe
  unter den Werken Albrecht Dürers_ (Leipzig, 1902); A. Pelzer, _A.
  Dürer und Friedrich II. von der Pfalz_ (Strassburg, 1905); H.
  Wölfflin, _Die Kunst A. Dürers_ (Munich, 1905); W. Weisbach, _Der
  junge Dürer_ (Leipzig, 1906); V. Scherer, _A. Dürer_ (_Klassiker der
  Kunst_, iv.), (2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1906).

  Apart from books, a large and important amount of the literature on
  Dürer is contained in articles scattered through the leading art
  periodicals of Germany, such as the _Jahrbücher_ of the Berlin and
  Vienna museums, _Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft_, _Zeitschrift für
  bildende Kunst_, &c. A comprehensive survey of this literature is
  afforded by Prof. H.W. Singer's _Versuch einer Dürer-Bibliographie_
  (Strassburg, 1903); articles published more recently will be found
  completely enumerated in A. Jellinek's _Internationale Bibliographie
  der Kunstwissenschaft_ (Berlin).     (S. C.)



DURESS (through Fr. from Lat. _duritia_, harshness, severity, _durus_,
hard), in law, constraint or compulsion. Duress may be of two kinds. It
may consist in personal restraint or actual violence or imprisonment; or
it may be by threats (_per minas_), as where a person is compelled to an
act by threats of immediate death or grievous bodily harm. Duress, in
certain cases, may be pleaded as a defence of an act which would
otherwise be a crime, but the extent to which the plea of duress can be
urged is unascertained. At common law a contract entered into under
duress is voidable at the option of one of the parties. See COERCION,
CONTRACT.



D'URFEY, THOMAS (1653-1723), better known as Tom d'Urfey, English
song-writer and dramatist, belonged to a Huguenot family settled at
Exeter, where he was born in 1653. Honoré d'Urfé, the author of
_Astrée_, was his uncle. His first play, _The Siege of Memphis, or the
Ambitious Queen_, a bombastic rhymed tragedy, was produced at the
Theatre Royal in 1676. He was much more successful with his comedies,
which had brisk, complicated plots carried out in lively dialogue. He
had a light touch for fitting words on current topics to popular airs;
moreover, many of his songs were set to music by his friends Dr John
Blow, Henry Purcell and Thomas Farmer. Many of these songs were
introduced into his plays. Addison in the _Guardian_ (No. 67) relates
that he remembered to have seen Charles II. leaning on Tom d'Urfey's
shoulder and humming a song with him. Even William III. liked to hear
him sing his songs, and as a strong Tory he was sure of the favour of
Princess Anne, who is said to have given Tom fifty guineas for a song on
the Electress Sophia, the next heir in succession to the crown. "The
crown's far too weighty, for shoulders of eighty," said d'Urfey, with an
indirect compliment to the princess, "So Providence kept her away,--poor
old Dowager Sophy." Pope, in an amusing letter to Henry Cromwell
(_Works_, ed. Elwin and Courthope, vi. 91) describes him as "the only
poet of tolerable reputation in this country." In spite of the success
of his numerous comedies he was poor in his old age. But his gaiety and
invincible good humour had made him friends in the craft, and by the
influence of Addison his _Fond Husband, or The Plotting Sisters_ was
revived for d'Urfey's benefit at Drury Lane on the 15th of June 1713.
This performance, for which Pope wrote a prologue full of rather faint
praise, seems to have eased the poet's difficulties. He died on the
26th of February 1723, and was buried in St James's Church, Piccadilly.

  Collections of his songs with the music appeared during his lifetime,
  the most complete being the 1719-1720 edition (6 vols.) of _Wit and
  Mirth; or Pills to Purge Melancholy_. The best known of the
  twenty-nine pieces of his which actually found their way to the stage
  were _Love for Money; or The Boarding School_ (Theatre Royal, 1691),
  _The Marriage-Hater Match'd_ (1692), and _The Comical History of Don
  Quixote_, in three parts (1694, 1694 and 1696), which earned the
  especial censure of Jeremy Collier. In his burlesque opera, _Wonders
  in the Sun; or the Kingdom of the Birds_ (1706, music by G.B.
  Draghi), the actors were dressed as parrots, crows, &c.



DURFORT, a village of south-western France, formerly in the province of
Guienne, now in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, 18 m. N.W. of
Montauban by road. It was at one time the seat of a feudal lordship
which gave its name to a family distinguished in French and English
history. Though earlier lords are known, the pedigree of the family is
only clearly traceable to Arnaud de Durfort (fl. 1305), who acquired the
fief of Duras by his marriage with a niece of Pope Clement V. His
descendant, Gaillard de Durfort, having embraced the side of the king of
England, went to London in 1453, and was made governor of Calais and a
knight of the Garter.

The greatness of the family dates, however, from the 17th century. Guy
Aldonce (1605-1665), marquis de Duras and comte de Rozan, had, by his
wife Elizabeth de la Tour d'Auvergne, sister of Marshal Turenne, six
sons, three of whom played a distinguished part. The eldest, Jacques
Henri (1625-1704), was governor of Franche Comté in 1674 and was created
a marshal of France for his share in the conquest of that province
(1675). The second, Guy Aldonce (1630-1702), comte de Lorges and duc de
Quintin (known as the duc de Lorges), became a marshal of France in
1676, commanded the army in Germany from 1690 to 1695, and captured
Heidelberg in 1693. The sixth son, Louis (1640?-1709), marquis de
Blanquefort, came to England in the suite of James, duke of York, in
1663, and was naturalized in the same year. On the 19th of January
1672-1673 he was raised to the English peerage as Baron Duras of
Holdenby, his title being derived from an estate in Northamptonshire
bought from the duke of York, and in 1676 he married Mary, daughter and
elder co-heiress of Sir George Sondes, created in that year Baron
Throwley, Viscount Sondes and earl of Feversham. On the death of his
father-in-law (16th of April 1677), Duras succeeded to his titles under
a special remainder. He was appointed by Charles II. successively to the
command of the third and second troops of Horse Guards, was sent abroad
on several important diplomatic missions, and became master of the horse
(1679) and lord chamberlain to the queen (1680). In 1682 he was
appointed a lord of the bed-chamber, and was present at the king's
deathbed reconciliation with the Roman Church. Under James II. Feversham
became a member of the privy council, and in 1685 was given the chief
command against the rebels under Monmouth (q.v.), in which he mainly
distinguished himself by his cruelty to the vanquished. He was rewarded
with a knighthood of the Garter and the colonelcy of the first troop of
Life Guards, and in 1686 he was appointed to the command of the army
assembled by King James on Blackheath to overawe the people. On James's
flight, Feversham succeeded in making his peace with William, on the
intercession of the queen dowager, at whose instance he received the
mastership of the Royal Hospital of St Catherine near the Tower (1698).
He died without issue on the 8th of April 1709. [See G.E. C(ockayne),
_Complete Peerage_, and art. in _Dict. Nat. Biog._]

Jean Baptiste (1684-1770), due de Duras, son of Jacques Henri, was also
a marshal of France. In 1733 he resigned the dukedom of Duras to his
son, Emmanuel Félicité, himself receiving the brevet title of duc de
Durfort. Emmanuel Félicité (1715-1789), duc de Duras, took part in all
the wars of Louis XV. and was made a marshal of France in 1775. His
grandson, Amédée Bretagne Malo (1771-1838), duc de Duras, is mainly
known as the husband of Claire Louise Rose Bonne de Coëtnempren de
Kersaint (1778-1828), daughter of Armand Guy Simon de Coëtnempren
Kersaint (q.v.), who, as duchesse de Duras, presided over a once
celebrated salon and wrote several novels once widely read.

The family of Durfort is represented in France now by the branch of
Durfort-Civrac, dating from the 16th century. Jean Laurent (1740-1826),
marquis de Civrac, married his cousin, the daughter of the duc de
Lorges; his son, Guy Emeric Anne (1767-1837), duc de Civrac, became
afterwards duc de Lorges. Henri, marquis de Durfort-Civrac (1812-1884),
was a well-known politician, and was several times elected
vice-president of the chamber of deputies.



DURGA, or DEVI (Sanskrit for inaccessible), in Hindu mythology, the wife
of Siva (q.v.) and daughter of Himavat (the Himalayas). She has many
names and many characters. As Durga (so named from having slain the
demon Durga) she is warlike and ferocious, and to her in this form are
offered bloody sacrifices, and such ceremonies as the Durgapuja and
Churrukpuga are held in her honour (see KALI). The chief festival in
Bengal--sometimes termed the Christmas of Bengal--celebrates the
goddess's birth in the sixth Hindu month (parts of September and
October). Durga is pictured, in spite of her fierce nature, with a
gentle face. She has ten arms, holding each a weapon, while her
attendant lions and giants are grouped on each side.



DURHAM, JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, 1ST EARL OF (1792-1840), English statesman,
son of William Henry Lambton of Lambton Castle, Durham, was born in
London on the 12th of April 1792. His mother was Anne Barbara Villiers,
daughter of the 4th earl of Jersey. Lambton was only five years old when
by his father's death at Pisa (1797) he succeeded to large estates in
the north of England which had been in the uninterrupted possession of
his family since the 12th century. In 1805 he went to Eton, and in 1809
obtained a commission in the 10th Hussars. In 1812, while still a minor,
he made a runaway match with Henrietta, natural daughter of Lord
Cholmondeley, whom he married at Gretna Green, and who died in 1815. In
1813 he was elected to the House of Commons as member for the county of
Durham. Whig principles of a pronounced type were traditional in
Lambton's family. His grandfather, General John Lambton, had refused a
peerage in 1793 out of loyalty to Fox, and his father was not only one
of Pitt's keenest opponents, but was chairman of "The Friends of the
People" and author of that society's address to the nation in 1792.
Lambton adhered to this tradition, and soon developed opinions of an
extremely Radical type, which he fearlessly put forward in parliament
and in the country with marked ability. His maiden speech in the House
of Commons was directed against the foreign policy of Lord Liverpool's
government, who had sanctioned, and helped to enforce, the annexation of
Norway by Sweden. In 1815 he vehemently opposed the corn tax, and in
general began to take a prominent part in opposition to the Tories. In
1816 he made the acquaintance of Lafayette in Paris, and narrowly
escaped arrest for alleged complicity in his escape. In 1817 he began to
speak on every opportunity in favour of parliamentary reform.

His political position was strengthened by his marriage in December 1816
to Louisa Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Lord Grey, and as early as 1818
he was taken into the political confidence of his father-in-law and
other leaders of the Whigs in matters touching the leadership and policy
of the party. But from the first Lambton belonged to the avowedly
Radical wing of the party, with whose aims Grey had little sympathy; and
when he gave notice of a resolution in 1819 in favour of shortening the
duration of parliaments, and of a wide extension of the franchise, he
found himself discountenanced by old Whigs like Grey, Holland and
Fitzwilliam. Having warmly espoused the cause of Queen Caroline, Lambton
ably seconded Lord Tavistock's resolution in February 1821 censuring the
government for their conduct towards the queen; and in April he made his
first great speech in the House of Commons on parliamentary reform, when
he proposed a scheme for the extension of the suffrage to all holders of
property, the division of the country into electoral districts and the
disfranchisement of rotten boroughs. He was now one of the recognized
leaders of the advanced Liberals, forming a connecting link between the
aristocratic Whig leaders and the irresponsible and often violent
politicians of the great towns. His opposition to those members of his
party who in 1825 were prepared for compromise on the question of
Catholic emancipation led to his first conflict with Brougham, with whom
he had been on terms of close friendship. While supporting the
candidature of his brother-in-law, Lord Howick, for Northumberland in
the elections of 1826, Lambton fought a duel with T.W. Beaumont, the
Tory candidate, but without bloodshed on either side. Unlike his
father-in-law, Lambton supported the ministry of Canning, though he had
some grounds for personal grievance against the new prime minister, and
after Canning's death that of Lord Goderich. On the advice of the latter
Lambton was raised to the peerage in 1828 with the title of Baron
Durham. Owing to his Liberal principles Lord Durham was on terms of
friendship with the duke of Sussex, and also with Prince Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg, who sought his advice in the difficult crisis in 1829 when
he was offered the throne of Greece, and who, after he became king of
the Belgians as Leopold I., continued to correspond with Durham as a
trusted confidant; the same confidential relations also existed between
Durham and Leopold's sister, the duchess of Kent, and her daughter,
afterwards Queen Victoria.

In November 1830 when Grey became prime minister in succession to the
duke of Wellington, Lord Durham entered the cabinet as lord privy seal.
Parliamentary reform was in the forefront of the new government's
policy, and with this question no statesman except Lord Grey himself was
more closely indentified than Durham. To ardent reformers in the country
the presence in the cabinet of "Radical Jack," the name by which Lambton
had been popularly known in the north of England, was a pledge that
thorough-going reform would not be shirked by the Whigs, now in office
for the first time for twenty years. And it was to his son-in-law that
Lord Grey confided the task of preparing a scheme to serve as the basis
of the proposed legislation. Full justice has not generally been done to
the leading part played by Lord Durham in preparing the great Reform
Act. He was the chief author of the proposals which, after being
defeated in 1831, became law with little alteration in 1832. He was
chairman of the famous committee of four, which met at his house in
Cleveland Row and drew up the scheme submitted by the government to
parliament. His colleagues, who were appointed rather as his assistants
than as his equals, were Lord John Russell, Sir James Graham and Lord
Duncannon; and it was Durham who selected Lord John Russell, not then in
the cabinet, to introduce the bill in the House of Commons; a selection
that was hotly opposed by Brougham, whose later vindictive animosity
against Durham is to be traced to his having been passed over in the
selection of the committee of four. Durham was present with Grey at an
audience of the king which led to the sudden dissolution of parliament
in March 1831; and when the deadlock between the two Houses occurred
over the second Reform Bill, he was the most eager in pressing on the
prime minister the necessity for a creation of peers to overcome the
resistance of the house of Lords.

After the passing of the Reform Act, Durham, whose health was bad and
who had suffered the loss of two of his children, accepted a special and
difficult diplomatic mission to Russia, which he carried out with much
tact and ability, though without accomplishing its main purpose. On his
return he resigned office in March 1833, ostensibly for reasons of
health, but in reality owing to his disagreement with the government's
Irish policy as conducted by Lord Stanley; in the same month he was
created earl of Durham and Viscount Lambton. His advanced opinions, in
the assertion of which he was too little disposed to consider the
convictions of others, gradually alienated the more moderate of his late
colleagues, such as Melbourne and Palmerston, and even Lord Grey often
found his son-in-law intractable and self-assertive; but the growing
hostility of the treacherous Brougham was mainly due to Durham's
undoubted popularity in the country, where he was regarded by many,
including J.S. Mill, as Grey's probable successor in the leadership of
the Liberal party. Durham was at this time courted by the youthful
Disraeli, who, when Melbourne became prime minister in succession to
Grey in 1834, declared that the Whigs could not exist as a party without
Lord Durham. Brougham's animosity became undisguised at the great
banquet given to Lord Grey at Edinburgh in September 1834, where he made
a venomous attack on Durham, repeated shortly afterwards at Salisbury,
and anonymously in the _Edinburgh Review_. On the other hand the
strength of Durham's position in the country was shown on the occasion
of his visit to Glasgow in October to receive the freedom of the city,
when a concourse of more than a hundred thousand persons assembled to
hear him speak at Glasgow Green, and where he replied to Brougham's
attacks at a great banquet held in his honour. Brougham had over-reached
himself; and although Durham was no favourite with William IV., the
king's disgust with the lord chancellor was one of the principal reasons
for his summary dismissal of the Whig ministry in 1834. When Melbourne
returned to power after Peel's short administration, Durham's radicalism
and impatient temper excluded him from the cabinet; and again in 1837,
on his return from an appointment as ambassador extraordinary in St
Petersburg (1835-1837), when there was some idea of his joining the
ministry, Lord John Russell wrote: "Everybody, after the experience we
have had, must doubt whether there can be peace or harmony in a cabinet
of which Lord Durham is a member."

In July 1837 he resisted the entreaty of Lord Melbourne that he should
undertake the government of Canada, where the condition of affairs had
become alarming; but a few months later, giving way to the urgent
insistence of the prime minister who promised him "the firmest and most
unflinching support" of the government, he accepted the post of
governor-general and lord high commissioner, with the almost dictatorial
powers conferred on him by an act passed in February 1838, by which the
constitution of Lower Canada was suspended for two years. Having secured
the services of Charles Buller (q.v.) as first secretary, and having
with more doubtful wisdom appointed Thomas Turton and Edward Gibbon
Wakefield (q.v.) to be his unofficial assistants, Durham arrived at
Quebec on the 28th of May 1838. Papineau's rebellion had been quelled,
but the French Canadians were sullen, the attitude of the United States
equivocal, and the general situation dangerous, especially in the Lower
Province where government was practically in abeyance. Durham at once
issued a conciliatory proclamation. His next step was to dismiss the
executive council of his predecessor and to appoint a new one consisting
of men uncommitted to any existing faction, a step much criticized at
home but generally commended on the spot. On the 28th of June, the day
of Queen Victoria's coronation, he issued a proclamation of amnesty,
from the benefit of which eight persons only of those who had taken part
in the rebellion were excepted; while an accompanying ordinance provided
for the transference of these eight excepted persons from Montreal to
Bermuda, where they were to be imprisoned without trial. Papineau and
fifteen other fugitives were forbidden on pain of death to return to
Canada. In a letter of congratulation to the queen, Durham took credit
for the clemency of his policy towards the rebels, and it was defended
on the same ground by Charles Buller and by public opinion in the
colony.

In England, however, as soon as these proceedings became known, Brougham
seized the opportunity for venting his malice against both Durham and
the ministry. He had already raised objections to the appointment of
Turton and Wakefield; he now attacked the ordinance in the House of
Lords, challenging the legality of the clause transporting prisoners to
Bermuda, where Durham had no jurisdiction. Melbourne and his colleagues,
with the honourable exception of Lord John Russell, made little effort
to defend the public servant to whom they had promised "the most
unflinching support"; and, although both the prime minister and the
colonial secretary when first fully informed of the governor-general's
proceedings had hastened to assure him of their "entire approval," three
weeks later, cowed by Brougham's malignant invective, they disallowed
the ordinance, and carried an Act of Indemnity the terms of which were
insulting to Durham. The latter immediately resigned; but before
returning to England he put himself in the wrong by issuing a
proclamation in which he not only justified his own conduct in detail,
but made public complaint of his grievances against the ministers of the
Crown, a step that alienated much sympathy which his unjust treatment by
the government would otherwise have called forth, though it was defended
by men like Charles Buller and J.S. Mill. The usual official honours
given to a returning plenipotentiary were not accorded to Durham on his
arrival at Plymouth on the 30th of November 1838, but the populace
received him with acclamation. He immediately set about preparing his
memorable "Report on the Affairs of British North America," which was
laid before parliament on the 31st of January 1839. This report, one of
the greatest state papers in the English language, laid down the
principles, then unrecognized, which have guided British colonial policy
ever since. It was not written or composed by Charles Buller, as
Brougham was the first to suggest, and the credit for the statesmanship
it exhibits is Lord Durham's alone, though he warmly acknowledged the
assistance he had derived from Buller, Wakefield and others in preparing
the materials on which it was based. With regard to the future
government of British North America, Durham had at first inclined
towards a federation of all the colonies on that continent, and this
aim, afterwards achieved, remained in his eyes an ideal to be striven
for; but as a more immediately practical policy he advised the
legislative union of Upper and Lower Canada, his avowed aim being to
organize a single state in which the British inhabitants would be in a
majority. He further urged the creation of an executive council
responsible to the colonial legislature; he advised state-aided
emigration on the broadest possible scale, and the formation of an
intercolonial railway for the development of the whole country. Meantime
Durham, who almost alone among the statesmen of his time saw the
importance of imperial expansion, interested himself in the emigration
schemes of Gibbon Wakefield (q.v.); he became chairman of the New
Zealand Company, and was thus concerned in the enterprise which
forestalled France in asserting sovereignty over the islands of New
Zealand in September 1839. His health, however, had long been failing,
and he died at Cowes on the 28th of July 1840, just five days after the
royal assent had been given to the bill giving effect to his project for
uniting Upper and Lower Canada.

Lord Durham filled a larger place in the eyes of his contemporaries than
many statesmen who have been better remembered. He was in his lifetime
regarded as a great popular leader; and his accession to supreme
political power was for some years considered probable by many; his
opinions were, however, too extreme to command the confidence of any
considerable party in parliament before 1840. That Brougham hated him
and Melbourne feared him, is a tribute to his abilities; and in the
first Reform Act, of which he was the chief author, and in the famous
_Report_ on the principles of colonial policy, he left an indelible mark
on English history. His personal defects of character did much to mar
the success of a career, which, it must be remembered, terminated at the
age of forty-eight. He was impatient, hot-tempered, hypersensitive to
criticism, vain and prone to take offence at fancied slights; but he was
also generous and unvindictive, and while personally ambitious his care
for the public interest was genuine and untiring.

By his first wife Durham had three daughters; by his second, who was a
lady of the bedchamber to Queen Victoria but resigned on her husband's
return from Canada, he had two sons and three daughters. The eldest son,
Charles William, the "Master Lambton" of Sir Thomas Lawrence's
celebrated picture, died in 1831; the second, George Frederick d'Arcy
(1828-1879), succeeded his father as 2nd earl of Durham. The latter's
son, John George Lambton (b. 1855), became 3rd earl in 1879.

  See Stuart J. Reid, _Life and Letters of the First Earl of Durham_ (2
  vols., London, 1906); _The Greville Memoirs_, parts i. and ii.
  (London, 1874-1887); Richard, duke of Buckingham and Chandos, _Memoirs
  of the Courts and Cabinets of William IV. and Victoria_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1861); William Harris, _History of the Radical Party in
  Parliament_ (London, 1885); Harriet Martineau, _History of the Thirty
  Years' Peace_ (4 vols., London, 1877); William Kingsford, _History of
  Canada_, vol. x. (10 vols., Toronto, 1887-1898), H.E. Egerton, _Short
  History of British Colonial Policy_ (London, 1897).     (R. J. M.)



DURHAM, a northern county of England, bounded N. by Northumberland, E.
by the North Sea, S. by Yorkshire, and W. by Westmorland and Cumberland.
Its area is 1014.6 sq. m. It is wholly on the eastern slope, the western
angle being occupied by spurs of the Pennine chain, exceeding 2300 ft.
in height at some points on the Cumberland border. West of a line from
Barnard Castle by Wolsingham to the neighbourhood of Consett the whole
of the land, excepting narrow valleys, lies at elevations exceeding 1000
ft. This area represents roughly one quarter of the total. The principal
rivers rising in these hills are the Derwent, tributary to the Tyne,
forming part of the county boundary with Northumberland, the Wear and
the Tees, which forms almost the whole of the boundary with Westmorland
and Yorkshire. The dales traversed by these rivers in their upper parts,
though sufficiently strongly contrasted with the dark, barren moors
surrounding them, yet partake of somewhat the same wild character. Lower
down, however, are beautiful and fertile valleys, the main rivers
flowing between steep, well-wooded banks; while the lesser streams of
the coastal district have carved out denes or ravines on the steep
flanks of which vegetation is luxuriant. Castle Eden Dene, 7 m. N.W. of
Hartlepool, is famous for its beautiful trees and wild flowers. The
coastward slope is fairly steep in the northern half of the county, but
it is steady, and the coast itself has no striking scenic features, save
where the action of the waves upon the magnesian limestone has separated
great masses, leaving towering fragments standing, and fretting the face
of the rock with caverns and arches. The cluster of rocks named the
Black Halls, 6 m. N.W. of Hartlepool, best exhibits these features.
Other natural phenomena include the Linnkirk caves near Stanhope in
Weardale in which numerous fossils and bones, with evidence of
habitation by man, have been discovered; and the Hell Kettles, S. of
Darlington, near the junction of the Tees and the Skerne, four cavities
filled with water, reputed to be unfathomable, and measuring from 80 to
120 ft. in diameter. The water is sulphurous.

Except in the moorlands of the west only a few scraps of the county have
been left in their natural state; but these portions are of great
interest to the student of natural history. The ballast-hills at
Shields, Jarrow and Hartlepool, formed by the discharge of material from
ships arriving in ballast from foreign countries, are overgrown with
aliens, many of which are elsewhere unknown in this country. Nearly
fifty different species have been found. Stockton was almost the last
retreat in England of the native black rat. Of the former abundance of
deer, wild ox and boar every peat bog testifies by its remains; the boar
appears to have existed in the reign of Henry VIII., and records of red
deer in the county may be traced down to the middle of the 18th century.

  _Geology._--The uplift of the Pennine hills causes nearly all the
  stratified rocks of Durham to dip towards the east or south-east. Thus
  the oldest rocks are to be found in the west, while in passing
  eastward younger rocks are continually met. In the hilly district of
  Weardale and Teesdale the Carboniferous Limestone series prevails;
  this is a succession of thick beds of limestone with intervening
  sandstones and shales. Some of the calcareous beds are highly
  fossiliferous; those at Frosterley near Stanhope are full of the
  remains of corals and the stone is polished as a marble. Much of the
  higher ground in the west is capped by Millstone Grit, as at
  Muggleswick and Walsingham commons. The outcrop of this formation
  broadens eastward until it is covered by the Durham coalfield which
  occupies the centre of the county from Newcastle and South Shields to
  Barnard Castle. The Coal Measures are about 2000 ft. thick and contain
  upwards of 100 seams of coal, including many of great importance--the
  Brockwell coal, Low Main coal and High Main coal are some of the
  well-known seams. Fireclays of great value are obtained from beneath
  many of the coal seams. Apart from the coals, the Coal Measures are
  made up of beds of sandstone and shale, the former called "post" and
  the latter "plate" by the local miners. Permian magnesian limestone
  succeeds the Coal Measures on the east, it reaches from the Tees to
  South Shields in a broad tract and occupies the coast between that
  town and Hartlepool. Remarkable concretionary forms are found in the
  Fulwell Quarries simulating honeycomb and coral structures. The stone
  is quarried at Marsden for the manufacture of Epsom salts; it is also
  used for lime-making and building. Fish remains are not uncommon in
  it. The sandstones and marls seen between the magnesian limestone and
  the Coal Measures at South Shields, Newbottle and several miles
  farther south are usually classed as Permian, but they may possibly
  prove to belong to the lower series. In the south-east corner of the
  county, by Darlington, Stockton and Seaton Carew, the low ground is
  made of Triassic rocks, red marls and sandstones with beds of gypsum
  and rock salt. Coal Measures undoubtedly underlie the Permian and
  Triassic strata. Normal faults traverse the district, mostly from east
  to west. Great dykes and sills of basalt lie in the Tees valley above
  Middleton and one, the Great Whin Sill, may be followed in an easterly
  direction for over 120 m. The Cockfield dyke and Little Whin Sill are
  similar intrusions of basalt. Lead mines have been extensively worked
  in the limestone districts of Weardale and Teesdale; the limestone
  itself is quarried on a large scale for fluxing in the ironworks.
  Glacial deposits obscure the older rocks over much of the county, they
  contain travelled stones from the Pennines and Cheviots. Submerged
  forests appear off the coast at West Hartlepool and other points. A
  small patch of Silurian occurs near Cronkley on the Tees; here slate
  pencils were formerly made.

_Agriculture._--Near the river Tees, and in some places bordering on the
other rivers, the soil is loam or a rich clay. At a farther distance
from these rivers it is of inferior quality, with patches of gravel
interspersed. The hills east of the line from Barnard Castle to Consett
are covered with a dry loam, the fertility of which varies with its
depth. West of the line the summits and flanks of the hills are in great
part waste moorland. Only some two-thirds of the total area of the
county are under cultivation, and nearly two-thirds of this are in
permanent pasture. There are also nearly 60,000 acres of hill-pasture.
Of the diminished area under corn crops oats occupy more than one-half,
and barley much exceeds wheat. Nearly two-thirds of the average under
green crops are occupied by turnips, as many cattle are raised and have
a long-standing reputation. The cows are especially good yielders of
milk. The sheep are also highly esteemed, particularly the Teesdale
breed. Those of Weardale are small, but their mutton is finely
flavoured.

_Mining._--The mountain limestone contains veins of lead ore and zinc
ore. The beds of coal in the Coal Measures have long been a source of
enormous wealth. The mines are among the most extensive and productive
in the kingdom. At Sunderland the coal trade furnishes employment for
hundreds of vessels, independently of the "keels" or lighters which
convey the coal from the termini of the railways and tramways to the
ships. The seams worked extend horizontally for many miles, and are from
20 to 100 fathoms beneath the surface. The Frosterley marble has been
quarried for many centuries near Stanhope for decorative purposes, in
Durham cathedral and elsewhere taking the place of Purbeck marble, while
in modern houses it is used chiefly for chimney-pieces. Ironstone is
worked in the neighbourhood of Whickham and elsewhere. Excellent slate
is quarried at several places. The neighbourhood of Wolsingham abounds
in fine millstones. The Newcastle grindstones are procured at Gateshead
Fell; and firestone for building ovens, furnaces and the like is
obtained in various parts of Durham, and exported in considerable
quantity.

_Other Industries._--The manufacturing industries are extensive, and all
are founded upon the presence of coal, of which, moreover, large
quantities are exported. The industrial and mining districts may be
taken to lie almost wholly east of a line from Darlington through Bishop
Auckland to Consett. Textile industries are not carried on to any great
extent, but a large number of hands are employed in the manufacture of
machines, appliances, conveyances, tools, &c. Of this manufacture the
branch of shipbuilding stands first; the yards on the Tyne are second
only to those on the Clyde, and the industry is prosecuted also at
Sunderland, the Hartlepools and Stockton-on-Tees. The founding and
conversion of metal stands next in importance; and other industries
include the manufacture of paper, chemicals (chiefly on the Tyne), glass
and bottles and earthenware (at Gateshead and Sunderland). The output of
limestone is greater than that of any other county in the United
Kingdom. As regards iron, the presence of the coal and the proximity of
the Cleveland iron district of North Yorkshire enable the county to
produce over one million tons of pig-iron annually, though the output
of iron from within the county itself is inconsiderable. There is a
large production of salt from brine. The sea fisheries of Sunderland and
Hartlepool are valuable.

_Communications._--Railway communication is provided entirely by the
North Eastern company. The main line runs northward through Darlington,
Durham and Gateshead, and there are a large number of branches through
the mining and industrial districts, while the company also owns some of
the docks. From Stockton to Darlington ran the railway engineered by
George Stephenson and opened in 1825. The chief ports of Durham are
Jarrow and South Shields on the Tyne, Sunderland at the mouth of the
Wear, Seaham Harbour, Hartlepool East and West and Stockton-on-Tees.

_Administration and Population._--Durham is one of the Counties
Palatine, the others being Lancashire and Cheshire. The area of the
ancient county is 649,352 acres, and that of the administrative county
649,244 acres. There were formerly three outlying portions of the
county, known as North Durham (including Norhamshire and Islandshire),
Bedlingtonshire and Crayke. These were attached to the county as having
formed parcels of the ancient "patrimony of St Cuthbert," of which the
land between Tyne and Tees was the chief portion. The population in 1891
was 1,016,454 and in 1901 1,187,361. The birth-rate is much above, the
death-rate also above, but the percentage of illegitimacy considerably
below, the average. The county is divided into 4 wards. The following
are municipal boroughs: Darlington (pop. 44,511), Durham, city (14,679),
Gateshead, county borough (109,888), Hartlepool (22,723), Jarrow
(34,295), South Shields, county borough (97,263), Stockton-on-Tees
(51,478), Sunderland, county borough (146,077), West Hartlepool
(62,627). The other urban districts may be distributed so as to indicate
roughly the most populous and industrial districts:

1. In the Tyne district (where Gateshead, Jarrow and South Shields are
the chief centres)--Blaydon (19,623), Felling (22,467), Hebburn
(20,901), Ryton (8452), Whickham (12,852).

2. North-western district--Annfield Plain (12,481), Benfieldside (7457),
Consett (9694), Leadgate (4657), Tanfield (8276), Stanley (13,554).

3. Durham and Bishop Auckland district (continuation south of the
preceding)--Bishop Auckland (11,969), Brandon and Byshottles (15,573),
Crook (11,471), Shildon and East Thickley (11,759), Spennymoor (16,665),
Tow Law (4371), Willington (7887).

4. Durham and Sunderland district (N.E. of preceding)--Hetton (13,673),
Houghton-le-Spring (7858), Seaham Harbour (10,163), Southwick-on-Wear
(12,643). The township of Chester-le-Street (11,753) is also in this
district.

The only other urban districts are Barnard Castle (4421) in Teesdale and
Stanhope (1964) in Weardale. Durham is in the north-eastern circuit, and
assizes are held at Durham. It has one court of quarter sessions and is
divided into 16 petty sessional divisions. All the boroughs have
separate commissions of the peace. The ancient county, which is in the
diocese of Durham, excepting part of one parish in that of York,
contains 243 ecclesiastical parishes wholly or in part. There are 288
civil parishes. The county is divided into eight parliamentary
divisions, each returning one member--Jarrow, Chester-le-Street,
Houghton-le-Spring, Mid, North-west, Barnard Castle, Bishop Auckland,
South-east. It also includes the parliamentary borough of Sunderland,
returning two members, and the boroughs of Darlington, Durham,
Gateshead, Hartlepool, South Shields and Stockton-on-Tees, returning one
member each. Among educational establishments there may be mentioned the
university and the grammar school in the city of Durham, and the Roman
Catholic college of Ushaw near Durham.

_History._--After the death of Ida in the 6th century the kingdom of
Northumbria was divided into the two states of Bernicia and Deira,
separated from each other by the Tees, the latter including the district
afterwards known as Durham. The post-conquest palatinate arose by a
process of slow growth from the grant of land made by Egfrith to St
Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684. On the
transference of the see to Chester-le-Street in the 9th century, Guthred
the Dane endowed it with the whole district between the Tyne and the
Wear, stretching west as far as Watling Street, a grant confirmed by
Alfred; and when in 995 the see was finally established at Durham, the
endowment was again largely enriched by various donations. Durham
continued, however, to form part of the earldom of Northumbria, and not
until after the purchase of the earldom by Bishop Walcher in 1075 did
the bishops begin to exercise regal rights in their territory. The term
_palatinus_ is applied to the bishop in 1293, and from the 13th century
onwards the bishops frequently claim such rights in their lands as the
king enjoys in his kingdom. At the time of the Conquest the bishop's
possessions included nearly all the district between the Tees and the
Tyne, except Sadberge, and also the outlying districts of
Bedlingtonshire, Norhamshire, Islandshire and Crayke, together with
Hexhamshire, the city of Carlisle, and part of Teviotdale. Henry I.
deprived the bishopric of the last three, but in compensation made over
to it the vills of Burdon, Aycliffe and Carlton, hitherto included in
the earldom of Northumberland. The wapentake of Sadberge also formed
part of the earldom of Northumberland; it was purchased for the see by
Bishop Pudsey in 1189, but continued an independent franchise, with a
separate sheriff, coroner and court of pleas. In the 14th century
Sadberge was included in Stockton ward and was itself divided into two
wards. The division into the four wards of Chester-le-Street,
Darlington, Easington and Stockton existed in the 13th century, each
ward having its own coroner and a three-weekly court corresponding to
the hundred court. The diocese was divided into the archdeaconries of
Durham and Northumberland. The former is mentioned in 1072, and in 1291
included the deaneries of Chester-le-Street, Auckland, Lanchester and
Darlington.

Until the 15th century the most important administrative officer in the
palatinate was the steward. Other officers were the sheriff, the
coroners, the chamberlain and the chancellor. The palatine exchequer was
organized in the 12th century. The palatine assembly represented the
whole county, and dealt chiefly with fiscal questions. The bishop's
council, consisting of the clergy, the sheriff and the barons, regulated
the judicial affairs, and later produced the Chancery and the courts of
Admiralty and Marshalsea. The prior of Durham ranked first among the
bishop's barons. He had his own court, and almost exclusive jurisdiction
over his men. The _quo warranto_ proceedings of 1293 exhibit twelve
lords enjoying more or less extensive franchises under the bishop. The
repeated efforts of the crown to check the powers of the palatinate
bishops culminated in 1536 in the Act of Resumption, which deprived the
bishop of the power to pardon offences against the law or to appoint
judicial officers; indictments and legal processes were in future to run
in the name of the king, and offences to be described as against the
peace of the king, not against that of the bishop. In 1596 restrictions
were imposed on the powers of the chancery, and in 1646 the palatinate
was formally abolished. It was revived, however, after the Restoration,
and continued with much the same power until the act of 1836, which
provided that the palatine jurisdiction should in future be vested in
the crown. There were ten palatinate barons in the 12th century, the
most important being the Hiltons of Hilton Castle, the Bulmers of
Brancepeth, the Conyers of Sockburne, the Hansards of Evenwood, and the
Lumleys of Lumley Castle. The Nevilles owned large estates in the
county; Raby Castle, their principal seat, was built by John de Neville
in 1377. Owing to its isolated position the palatinate took little part
or interest in any of the great rebellions of the Norman and Plantagenet
period. During the Wars of the Roses Henry VI. passed through Durham,
and the novelty of a royal visit procured him an enthusiastic reception.
On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion Durham inclined to support the
cause of the parliament, and in 1640 the high sheriff of the palatinate
guaranteed to supply the Scottish army with provisions during their stay
in the county. In 1642 the earl of Newcastle formed the western counties
into an association for the king's service, but in 1644 the palatinate
was again overrun by the Scottish army, and after the battle of Marston
Moor fell entirely into the hands of the parliament.

Durham has never possessed any manufactures of importance, and the
economic history of the county centres round the growth of the mining
industry, which employed almost the whole of the non-agricultural
population. Stephen possessed a mine in Durham which he granted to
Bishop Pudsey, and in the same century colliers are mentioned at
Coundon, Bishopwearmouth and Sedgefield. Cockfield Fell was one of the
earliest Landsale collieries in Durham. Edward III. issued an order
allowing coal dug at Newcastle to be taken across the Tyne, and Richard
II. granted to the inhabitants of Durham licence to export the produce
of the mines, without paying dues to the corporation of Newcastle. Among
other early industries lead-mining was carried on in the western part of
the county, and mustard was extensively cultivated. Gateshead had a
considerable tanning trade and shipbuilding was carried on at Jarrow.

In 1614 a bill was introduced in parliament for securing representation
to the county and city of Durham and the borough of Barnard Castle. The
movement was strongly opposed by the bishop, as an infringement of his
palatinate rights, and the county was first summoned to return members
to parliament in 1654. After the Restoration the county and city
returned two members each. By the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned
two members for two divisions, and the boroughs of Gateshead, South
Shields and Sunderland acquired representation. The boroughs of
Darlington, Stockton and Hartlepool returned one member each from 1868
until the Redistribution Act of 1885.

_Antiquities._--To the Anglo-Saxon period are to be referred portions of
the churches of Monk Wearmouth (Sunderland), Jarrow, Escomb near Bishop
Auckland, and numerous sculptured crosses, two of which are _in situ_ at
Aycliffe. The best remains of the Norman period are to be found in
Durham cathedral and in the castle, also in some few parish churches, as
at Pittington and Norton near Stockton. Of the Early English period are
the eastern portion of the cathedral, the fine churches of Darlington,
Hartlepool, and St Andrew, Auckland, Sedgefield, and portions of a few
other churches. The Decorated and Perpendicular periods are very
scantily represented, on account, as is supposed, of the incessant wars
between England and Scotland in the 14th and 15th centuries. The
principal monastic remains, besides those surrounding Durham cathedral,
are those of its subordinate house or "cell," Finchale Priory,
beautifully situated by the Wear. The most interesting castles are those
of Durham, Raby, Brancepeth and Barnard. There are ruins of castelets or
peel-towers at Dalden, Ludworth and Langley Dale. The hospitals of
Sherburn, Greatham and Kepyer, founded by early bishops of Durham,
retain but few ancient features.

  See W. Hutchinson, _History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of
  Durham_ (3 vols., Newcastle, 1785-1794); R. Surtees, _History and
  Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham_ (4 vols., London,
  1816-1840); B. Bartlet, _The Bishoprick Garland, Collection of
  Legends, Songs, Ballads ... of Durham_ (London, 1834); J. Raine,
  _History and Antiquities of North Durham_ (London, 1852); Perry and
  Herman, _Illustrations of the Medieval Antiquities of the County of
  Durham_ (Oxford, 1867); G.T. Lapsley, _The County Palatine of Durham_
  (New York, &c., 1900); _Victoria County History, Durham_. See also the
  Surtees Society's Publications, and _Transactions of the Architectural
  Society of Durham and Northumberland_.



DURHAM, a city and municipal and parliamentary borough, and the county
town of Durham, England, 256 m. N. by W. from London, on the North
Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 14,679. The nucleus of the site is a
narrow, bold peninsula formed by a bend of the river Wear, on which
stand the cathedral and the castle. The city, however, extends both E.
and W. of this.


  Cathedral.

The position of the cathedral of St Cuthbert, its west end rising
immediately from the steep wooded bank of the river, is surpassed in
beauty by no other English cathedral. Its foundation arose from the fact
that here, after wandering far over the north of England, the monks of
Lindisfarne rested with the body of St Cuthbert, which they had removed
from its tomb in fear of Danish invaders. This was in 995. Soon
afterwards a church was built by Bishop Ealdhune, and the see was
removed hither from Lindisfarne. The peninsula was called Dunholme (Hill
Island), which in Norman times was softened to Duresme, whence Durham.
It is said that the monks of Lindisfarne, knowing the name of the place
where they should find retreat, but ignorant of its situation, were
guided hither by a woman searching for her cow, and the bas-relief of a
cow on the north wall of the church commemorates this incident. In 1093
Ealdhune's church was rebuilt by Bishop Carilef, who changed the early
establishment of married priests into a Benedictine abbey. The grand
Norman building in which his designs were carried out remains with
numerous additions. The stone-vaulting is particularly noteworthy. The
choir contains the earliest work, but Carilef's eastern apses made way
for the exquisite chapel of the Nine Altars, with its rose windows and
beautiful carving, of late Early English workmanship. The nave is
massive Norman, with round pillars ornamented with surface-carving of
various patterns. The western towers are Norman with an Early English
superstructure. The famous Galilee chapel, of the finest late Norman
work, projects from the west end. The central tower is a lofty and
graceful Perpendicular structure. Other details especially worthy of
notice are the altar screen of c. 1380, and the curious semi-classical
font-cover of the 17th century. There is a fine sanctuary-knocker on the
north door. The cloisters are of the early part of the 15th century. The
chapter-house is a modern restoration of the original Norman structure,
a very fine example, which was destroyed by James Wyatt c. 1796, in the
course of restoration of which much was ill-judged. The cathedral
library, formerly the dormitory and refectories of the abbey, contains a
number of curious and interesting printed books and MSS., and the
portable altar, vestments and other relics found in St Cuthbert's grave.
The Galilee contains the supposed remains of the Venerable Bede. The
total length of the cathedral within is 496½ ft., the greatest height
within (except the lantern) 74½ ft., and the height of the central tower
218 ft. The diocese of Durham covers the whole county excepting a small
fragment, and also very small parts of Northumberland and Yorkshire.


  Castle.

The naturally strong position selected for the resting-place of St
Cuthbert's remains was possibly artificially fortified also, but it was
not until 1072 that William the Conqueror caused the erection of a
castle to the north of the cathedral across the neck of the peninsula.
Of this there remain a beautiful crypt-chapel, and a few details
incorporated in later work. Other interesting portions are the Norman
gallery, with its fine arcade, Bishop Hatfield's hall of c. 1350, a
reconstruction of the previous Norman one by Bishop Pudsey, and the
Black Staircase of fine woodwork of the 17th century. The keep is a
modern reconstruction. The castle, with the exception of some apartments
used by the judges of assize, is appropriated to the uses of Durham
University. On the peninsula are also the churches of St Mary le Bow in
the North Bailey and St Mary the Less, the one a 17th-century building
on a very ancient site, possibly that on which the first church rose
over St Cuthbert's remains; the other possessing slight traces of Norman
work, but almost completely modernized. Of other churches in Durham, the
site of St Oswald is apparently pre-Norman, and the building contains
Norman work of Bishop Pudsey, also some fine early 15th-century
woodwork. St Margaret's and St Giles' churches show work of the same
period, and the second of these has earlier portions.

Several of the streets of Durham preserve an appearance of antiquity.
Three of the bridges crossing the Wear are old, that of Framwellgate
having been built in the 13th century and rebuilt in the 15th. In the
neighbourhood of the city certain sites are of interest as adding detail
to its history. To the south on Maiden Hill there is an encampment,
occupied, if not constructed, by the Romans. Immediately W. of Durham is
Neville's Cross, of which little remains. The battle of Neville's Cross
was fought in 1346, resulting in the defeat of the invading Scots by the
English under Lord Neville and Henry Percy. The Scots had encamped at
Beaurepaire or Bearpark, where a few ruins mark the site of the county
residence of the priors of Durham, which had suffered from previous
invaders. On the Wear below Durham is the priory of Finchale (1196), of
which there are considerable remains of Early English date and later,
but in the main Decorated. The valley of the Wear in the neighbourhood
of Durham is well wooded and picturesque, but there are numerous
collieries on the uplands above it, and the beauty of the county is
marred.


  University.

Among educational establishments in Durham the university stands first.
The earliest connexion of the ecclesiastical foundation at Durham with
an actual educational foundation was made by Prior Richard de Hoton
(1290-1308), who erected a hall in Oxford for students from Durham, who
had previously enjoyed no such provision. In 1380 Bishop Hatfield
refounded this hall as Durham College, which became Trinity College (see
OXFORD) on a new foundation (1555) when the possessions of the abbey of
Durham had been surrendered in 1540, after which Durham College survived
as a secular foundation only for a few years. Henry VIII. had the
unfulfilled intention of founding a college in Durham, and a similar
attempt failed in the time of the Commonwealth. In 1831 the scheme for a
college was projected by the chapter; an act of 1832 specified the
foundation as a university, and in Michaelmas 1833 its doors were
opened. The first warden, and a prime mover in the scheme of foundation,
was Archdeacon Charles Thorp (d. 1862). In 1837 the university received
its charter from William IV. The dean and chapter of the cathedral are
governors, and the bishop of Durham is visitor, but the active
management is in the hands of the warden, senate and convocation. The
system and life of the university are broadly similar to those of the
greater universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Proctorial administration
is carried on by two proctors annually nominated by the warden. Among
the various residential divisions of the university may be mentioned
Bishop Hatfield's Hall (1846), which, through its endowment, by means of
such methods of economy as provision for all meals in common, permits
men of limited means to become students. The degree for bachelor of arts
is awarded after two public examinations, and may be taken in two years,
with a total of six months' residence in each year. Special examinations
are provided for candidates who seek honours, and those who obtain
honours are admissible, after a certain period, to the mastership of
arts without further examination, but in other cases further examination
must have been taken, or an essay presented as a qualification for this
degree. A theological course is provided for bachelors of the
university, those who have passed a similar course elsewhere, or
non-graduates aged nineteen who have passed a certain standard of
examination. Instruction in civil engineering and mining was established
as early as 1837, but was subsequently given up; and in 1871 the
university and the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical
Engineers co-operated to found the college of physical science at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which provides such instruction and was
incorporated with the university in 1874. The college of medicine at
Newcastle has been in connexion with Durham University since 1852, and
the professors there are professors of the university. In 1895 degrees
for women were established, and in 1889 a hostel was opened for the
accomodation of women, who may take any course of instruction except the
theological. In 1889 musical degrees were instituted, and a
professorship was founded in 1897. Among other subjects may be mentioned
the granting of degrees in hygiene, and of diplomas in public health and
education (see J.T. Fowler, _Durham University_, uniform with series of
College Histories; London, 1904).

The grammar school was refounded by Henry VIII. out of the monastic
school. It is a flourishing institution on the lines of the public
schools, and has "king's scholarships" tenable in the school, and
scholarships and exhibitions tenable at the universities. There are also
a diocesan training college for schoolmasters and mistresses, and a high
school for girls; and 4 m. W. of the city is the great Roman Catholic
College of St Cuthbert, Ushaw, the representative of the old college at
Douai. Here are preserved the magnificent natural history collections of
Charles Waterton. Other buildings worthy of notice in Durham are the
town-hall, a 16th-century building reconstructed in 1851, the police
station, and the guildhall, the shire hall and county buildings, and the
county hospital. There are ironworks and manufactures of hosiery,
carpets and mustard in the city. The parliamentary borough returns one
member. The corporation consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18
councillors. Area, 1070 acres.

_History of the City._--The foundation of the city followed on that of
the church by the monks of Lindisfarne at the close of the 10th century.
The history of the city is closely associated with that of the
palatinate of Durham. The bishop of Durham among other privileges
claimed a mint in the city, which, according to Boldon Book, rendered
ten marks yearly until its value was reduced by that established by
Henry II. at Newcastle, and it was temporarily abolished by the same
king. The earliest charter, dated 1179 or 1180, is a grant of exemption
from toll merchet and heriot made by Bishop Hugh Pudsey and confirmed by
Pope Alexander. Before that time, however, the monks had a little
borough at Elvet, which is divided from Durham by the Wear and
afterwards became part of the city. In 1183 the city was at farm and
rendered sixty marks. It was at first governed by a bailiff appointed by
the bishop, but in 1565 Bishop Pilkington ordained that the government
should consist, in addition to the bailiff, of one alderman and twelve
assistants, the latter to continue in office for life, and the former to
be chosen every year from among their number. This form of government
was replaced in 1602, under the charter of Bishop Matthew, by that of a
mayor, 12 aldermen and 24 burgesses, the aldermen and burgesses forming
a common council and electing a mayor every year from among the
aldermen. This was confirmed by James I., but in 1684 the corporation
were obliged to resign their charters to Bishop Crew, who granted them a
new one, probably reserving to himself a right of veto on the election
of the mayor and aldermen. At the time of the Revolution, however,
Bishop Matthew's charter was revived, and continued to be the governing
charter of the city until 1770, when, owing to dissensions as to the
election of the common council, the number of aldermen was reduced to
four and the charter became void. No mayor or aldermen were elected for
ten years, but in 1780 Bishop Egerton, on the petition of the burgesses,
granted them a new charter, which was practically a confirmation of that
of 1602, and remained in force until the Municipal Reform Act of 1835.
Being within the county palatine, the city of Durham sent no members to
parliament, until, after several attempts beginning in 1614, it was
enabled by an act of 1673 to return two members, which it continued to
do until 1885, when by the Redistribution of Seats Act the number was
reduced to one.

The corporation of Durham claim their fair and market rights under
Bishop Pudsey's charter of 1179, confirmed in 1565, as a weekly market
on Saturday and three yearly fairs on the feasts of St Cuthbert in
September and March and on Whit Monday, each continuing for two days. In
1610 the bishop of Durham brought a suit in chancery against the
burgesses and recovered from them the markets and fairs, which he
afterwards leased to the corporation for a rent of £20 yearly until they
were purchased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1860. Durham has
never been noted for any particular trade; and the attempts to introduce
the manufacture of cloth and wool in the 17th and 18th centuries were
failures. The manufacture of carpets was begun in 1814.



DURHAM, a city and the county-seat of Durham county, North Carolina,
U.S.A., in a township of the same name, 25 m. N.W. of Raleigh. Pop.
(1900) 6679, of whom 2241 were negroes; (1910) 18,241; of the township
(1900) 19,055; (1910) 27,606. Adjacent to the city and also in the
township are East Durham and West Durham (both unincorporated), which
industrially are virtually part of the city. Durham is served by the
Southern, the Seaboard Air Line, the Norfolk & Western, and the Durham &
Southern railways, the last a short line connecting at Apex and Dunn,
N.C., respectively with the main line of the Seaboard and the Atlantic
Coast Line railways. Durham is nearly surrounded by hills. Its streets
are shaded by elms. The city is the seat of Trinity College (Methodist
Episcopal, South), opened in 1851 as a normal college, growing out of an
academy called Union Institute, which was established in the
north-western part of Randolph county in 1838 and was incorporated in
1841. In 1852 the college was empowered to grant degrees; in 1856 it
became the property of the North Carolina Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, South; in 1859 it received its present name; and in
1892 it was removed to a park near Durham, included in 1901 in the
corporate limits of the city. A new charter was adopted in 1903, and a
law school was organized in 1904. The college has received many gifts
from the Duke family of Durham. In 1908 its endowment and property were
valued at about $1,198,400, and the number of its students was 288.
Although not officially connected with the college, the _South Atlantic
Quarterly_, founded by a patriotic society of the college and published
at Durham since 1902, is controlled and edited by members of the college
faculty. The _North Carolina Journal of Education_ and the _Papers of
the Trinity College Historical Society_ also are edited by members of
the college faculty. The Trinity Park school is preparatory for the
college. Near the city are Watts hospital (for whites) and Lincoln
hospital (for negroes). Durham's chief economic interest is in the
manufacture of granulated smoking tobacco, for which it became noted
after the Civil War. In the city are two large factories and store
houses of the American Tobacco Company. The tobacco industry was founded
by W.T. Blackwell (1839-1904) and Washington Duke (1820-1905). The city
also manufactures cigars, cigarettes, snuff, a fertilizer having tobacco
dust as the base, cotton goods, lumber, window sashes, blinds, drugs and
hosiery. Durham has a large trade with the surrounding region. The town
of Durham was incorporated in 1869, and became the county-seat of the
newly-erected county in 1881, and in 1899 was chartered as a city. Its
growth is due to the tobacco and cotton industries. In the Bennett
house, at Durham Station, near the city, General J.E. Johnston
surrendered on the 26th of April 1865 the Confederate army under his
command to General W.T. Sherman.



DURIAN (Malay, _duri_, a thorn), the fruit of _Durio zibethinus_, a tree
of the natural order Bombaceae, which attains a height of 70 or 80 ft.,
has oblong, tapering leaves, rounded at the base, and yellowish-green
flowers, and bears a general resemblance to the elm. The durio is
cultivated in Sumatra, Java, Celebes and the Moluccas, and northwards as
far as Mindanao in the Philippines; also in the Malay Peninsula, in
Tenasserim, on the Bay of Bengal, to 14° N. lat., and in Siam to the
13th and 14th parallels. The fruit is spherical, and 6 to 8 in. in
diameter, approaching the size of a large coco-nut; it has a hard
external husk or shell, and is completely armed with strong pyramidal
tubercles, meeting one another at the base, and terminating in sharp
thorny points; these sometimes inflict severe injuries on persons upon
whom the fruit may chance to fall when ripe. On dividing the fruit at
the joins of the carpels, where the spines arch a little, it is found to
contain five oval cells, each filled with a cream-coloured, glutinous,
smooth pulp, in which are embedded from one to five seeds about the size
of chestnuts. The pulp and the seeds, which latter are eaten roasted,
are the edible parts of the fruit. With regard to the taste of the pulp,
A.R. Wallace remarks, "A rich butter-like custard, highly flavoured
with almonds, gives the best idea of it, but intermingled with it come
wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, brown
sherry and other incongruities;... it is neither acid, nor sweet, nor
juicy, yet one feels the want of none of these qualities, for it is
perfect as it is." The fruit, especially when not fresh from the tree,
has, notwithstanding, a most offensive smell, which has been compared to
that of rotten onions or of putrid animal matter. The Dyaks of the
Sarawak river in Borneo esteem the durian above all other fruit, eat it
unripe both cooked and raw, and salt the pulp for use as a relish with
rice.

  See Linschoten, _Discours of Voyages_, bk. i. chap. 57, p. 102, fol.
  (London, 1598); Bickmore, _Travels in the East Indian Archipelago_, p.
  91 (1868); Wallace, _The Malay Archipelago_ (3rd ed., 1872).



DURIS, of Samos, Greek historian, according to his own account a
descendant of Alcibiades, was born about 340 B.C. He must have been born
and passed his early years in exile, since from 352 to 324 Samos was
occupied by Athenian cleruchs, who had expelled the original
inhabitants. He was a pupil of Theophrastus of Eresus, whom he met at
Athens. When quite young, he obtained a prize for boxing at the Olympic
games; a statue by Hippias was set up in commemoration of his victory
(Pausanias vi. 13. 5). He was for some time despot of his native island.
Duris was the author of a comprehensive historical work ([Greek:
Historiai]) on Hellenico-Macedonian history, from the battle of Leuctra
(371) down to the death of Lysimachus (281), which was largely used by
Diodorus Siculus. Other works by him included a life of Agathocles of
Syracuse, the annals ([Greek: ôroi]) of Samos chronologically arranged
according to the lists of the priests of Hera, and a number of treatises
on literary and artistic subjects. Ancient authorities do not appear to
have held a very high opinion of his merits as a historian. Plutarch
(_Pericles_, 28) expresses doubt as to his trustworthiness, Dionysius of
Halicarnassus (_De compos. verborum_, 4) speaks disparagingly of his
style, and Photius (_cod._ 176) regards the arrangement of his work as
altogether faulty. Cicero (_ad Att._ vi. 1) accords him qualified praise
as an industrious writer.

  Fragments in C.W. Müller, _Frag. Hist. Graec._ ii. 446, where the
  passage of Pausanias referred to above and the date of Duris's victory
  at Olympia are discussed.



DÜRKHEIM, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, near the foot
of the Hardt Mountains, and at the entrance of the valley of the
Isenach, 15 m. N.W. of Spires on the railway Monsheim-Neustadt. Pop.
6300. It possesses two Evangelical churches and one Roman Catholic, a
town hall occupying the site of the castle of the princes of
Leiningen-Hartenburg, an antiquarian and a scientific society, a public
library and a high school. It is well known as a health resort, for the
grape cure and for the baths of the brine springs of Philippshalle, in
the neighbourhood, which not only supply the bathing establishment, but
produce considerable quantities of marketable salt. There is a brisk
trade in wine and oil; tobacco, glass and paper are manufactured.

As a dependency of the Benedictine abbey of Limburg, which was built and
endowed by Conrad II., Dürkheim or Thurnigheim came into the possession
of the counts of Leiningen, who in the 14th century made it the seat of
a fortress, and enclosed it with wall and ditch. In the three following
centuries it had its full share of the military vicissitudes of the
Palatinate; but it was rebuilt after the French invasion of 1689, and
greatly fostered by its counts in the beginning of next century. In 1794
its new castle was sacked by the French, and in 1849 it was the scene of
a contest between the Prussians and the insurrectionists. The ruins of
the Benedictine abbey of Limburg lie about 1 m. S.W. of the town; and in
the neighbourhood rises the Kastanienberg, with the ancient rude stone
fortification of the Heidenmauer or Heathen's Wall.



DURLACH, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 2½ m. by rail
from Carlsruhe, with which it is connected by a canal and an avenue of
poplars, on the left bank of the Pfinz, at the foot of the
vineyard-covered Thurmberg, which is crowned by a watch-tower and to the
summit of which a funicular railway ascends. Pop. (1905) 6207. It
possesses a castle erected in 1565 and now used as barracks, an ancient
town hall, a church with an excellent organ, a high-grade school, an
orphan asylum, and in the market-place a statue of the margrave Charles
II. It has manufactures of sewing-machines, brushes, chemicals, tobacco,
beer, vinegar and chicory; and considerable trade in market produce.

Durlach was bestowed by the emperor Frederick II. on the margrave
Hermann V. of Zähringen as an allodial possession, but afterwards came
into the hands of Rudolph of Habsburg. It was chosen as his residence by
the margrave Charles II. in 1565, and retained this distinction till the
foundation of Carlsruhe in 1715, though it was almost totally destroyed
by the French in 1688. In 1846 it was the seat of a congress of the
Liberal party of the Baden parliament; and in 1849 it was the scene of
an encounter between the Prussians and the insurgents. Reichenbach the
mechanician, and E.L. Posselt (1763-1804) the historian, were natives
of the town.

  See Fecht, _Geschichte der Stadt Durlach_ (Heidelberg, 1869).



DUROC, GÉRAUD CHRISTOPHE MICHEL, duc de Frioul (1772-1813), French
general, was born at Pont à Mousson (Meurthe et Moselle) on the 25th of
October 1772. The son of an officer, he was educated at the military
schools of his native town and of Châlons. He was gazetted second
lieutenant (artillery) in the 4th regiment in 1793, and advanced
steadily in the service. Captain Duroc became aide-de-camp to Napoleon
in 1796, and distinguished himself at Isonzo, Brenta and Gradisca in the
Italian campaigns of 1796-97. He served in Egypt, and was seriously
wounded at Aboukir. His devotion to Napoleon was rewarded by complete
confidence. He became first aide-de-camp (1798), general of brigade
(1800), and governor of the Tuileries. After the battle of Marengo he
was sent on missions to Vienna, St Petersburg, Stockholm and Copenhagen.
As grand marshal of the Tuileries he was responsible for the measures
taken to secure Napoleon's personal safety whether in France or on his
campaigns, and he directed the minutest details of the imperial
household. After Austerlitz, where he commanded the grenadiers in the
absence of General Oudinot, he was employed in a series of important
negotiations with Frederick William of Prussia, with the elector of
Saxony (December 1806), in the incorporation of certain states in the
Confederation of the Rhine, and in the conclusion of the armistice of
Znaim (July 1808). In 1808 he was created duke of Friuli, and after the
Russian campaign he became senator (1813). He was in attendance on
Napoleon at the battle of Bautzen (20th-21st May 1813) in Saxony, when
he was mortally wounded, and died in a farmhouse near the battlefield on
the 23rd of May. Napoleon bought the farm and erected a monument to his
memory. Duroc was buried in the Invalides.

  The chief source for Duroc's biography is the _Moniteur_ (31st of May
  1797, 24th of October 1798, 30th of May 1813, &c.).



DUROCHER, JOSEPH MARIE ELISABETH (1817-1858), French geologist, was born
at Rennes on the 31st of May 1817. Educated at the École Polytechnique
and École des Mines in Paris, he qualified as a mining engineer. Early
in his career he travelled in the northern parts of Europe to study the
metalliferous deposits, and he contributed the articles on geology,
mineralogy, metallurgy and chemistry to Paul Gaimard's _Voyages de la
Commission scientifique du nord, en Scandinavie, en Laponie, au
Spitzberg et aux Feröe, pendant les années 1838-1840_. In 1844 he became
professor of geology and mineralogy at Rennes. His attention was now
largely directed to the study of the artificial production of minerals,
to the metamorphism of rocks, and to the genesis of igneous rocks. In
1857 he published his famous _Essai de pétrologie comparée_, in which he
expressed the view that the igneous rocks have been derived from two
magmas which coexist beneath the solid crust, and are respectively acid
and basic. He died at Rennes on the 3rd of December 1858.



DURRA (also written _dourah_, _dhura_, &c.; Arabic for a pearl, hence a
grain of corn), a cereal grass, _Sorghum vulgare_, extensively
cultivated in tropical and semi-tropical countries, where the grain,
made into bread, forms an important article of diet. In
non-Arabic-speaking countries it is known by other names, such as Indian
or African millet, pearl millet, Guinea corn and Kaffir corn. In India
it is called jowari, jowaree, jawari, &c. (Hindi, _jawari_).



DURUY, JEAN VICTOR (1811-1894), French historian and statesman, was born
in Paris on the 11th of September 1811. The son of a workman at the
factory of the Gobelins, he was at first intended for his father's
trade, but succeeded in passing brilliantly through the École Normale
Supérieure, where he studied under Michelet, whom he accompanied as
secretary in his travels through France, supplying for him at the École
Normale in 1836, when only twenty-four. Ill-health forced him to resign,
and poverty drove him to undertake that extensive series of school
textbooks which first brought him into public notice. He devoted
himself with ardour to secondary school education, holding his chair in
the Collège Henri IV. at Paris for over a quarter of a century. Already
known as a historian by his _Histoire des Romains et des peuples soumis
à leur domination_ (2 vols., 1843-1844), he was chosen by Napoleon III.
to assist him in his life of Julius Caesar, and his abilities being thus
brought under the emperor's notice, he was in 1863 appointed minister of
education. In this position he displayed incessant activity, and a
desire for broad and liberal reform which aroused the bitter hostility
of the clerical party. Among his measures may be cited his organization
of higher education ("enseignement spécial"), his foundation of the
"conférences publiques," which have now become universal throughout
France, and of a course of secondary education for girls by lay
teachers, and his introduction of modern history and modern languages
into the curriculum both of the _lycées_ and of the colleges. He greatly
improved the state of primary education in France, and proposed to make
it compulsory and gratuitous, but was not supported in this project by
the emperor. In the new cabinet that followed the elections of 1869,
Duruy was replaced by Louis Olivier Bourbeau, and was made a senator.
After the fall of the Empire he took no part in politics, except for an
unsuccessful candidature for the senate in 1876. From 1881 to 1886 he
served as a member of the Conseil Supérieur de l'Instruction Publique.
In 1884 he was elected to the Academy in succession to Mignet. He died
in Paris on the 25th of November 1894.

As a historian Duruy aimed in his earlier works at a graphic and
picturesque narrative which should make his subject popular. His fame,
however, rests mainly on the revised edition of his Roman history, which
appeared in a greatly enlarged form in 7 vols. under the title of
_Histoire des Romains depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à la mort
de Théodose_ (1879-1885), a really great work; a magnificent illustrated
edition was published from 1879 to 1885 (English translation by W.J.
Clarke, in 6 vols., 1883-1886). His _Histoire des Grecs_, similarly
illustrated, appeared in 3 vols. from 1886 to 1891 (English translation
in 4 vols., 1892). He was the editor, from its commencement in 1846, of
the _Histoire universelle, publiée par une société de professeurs et de
savants_, for which he himself wrote a "Histoire sainte d'après la
Bible," "Histoire grecque," "Histoire romaine," "Histoire du moyen âge,"
"Histoire des temps modernes," and "Abrégé de l'histoire de France." His
other works include _Atlas historique de la France accompagné d'un
volume de texte_ (1849); _Histoire de France de 1453 à 1815_ (1856), of
which an expanded and illustrated edition appeared as _Histoire de
France depuis l'invasion des barbares dans la Gaule romaine jusqu'à nos
jours_ (1892); _Histoire populaire de la France_ (1862-1863); _Histoire
populaire contemporaine de la France_ (1864-1866); _Causeries de voyage_
(1864); and _Introduction générale à l'histoire de France_ (1865).

  A memoir by Ernest Lavisse appeared in 1895 under the title of Un
  Ministre: _Victor Duruy_. See also the notice by Jules Simon (1895),
  and _Portraits et souvenirs_ by S. Monod (1897).



DU RYER, PIERRE (1606-1658), French dramatist, was born in Paris in
1606. His earlier comedies are in the loose style of Alexandre Hardy,
but after the production of the _Cid_ (1636) he copied the manner of
Corneille, and produced his masterpiece _Scévole_, probably in 1644 (the
date generally given is 1646). _Alcionée_ (1638) was so popular that the
abbé d'Aubignac knew it by heart, and Queen Christina is said to have
had it read to her three times in one day. Du Ryer was a prolific
dramatist. Among his other works may be mentioned _Saül_ (printed 1642),
and a comedy, _Les Vendanges de Suresnes_ (1635 or 1636). He died in
Paris on the 6th of November 1658.



DUSE, ELEANORA (1859-   ), Italian actress, was born at Vigevano of a
family of actors, and made her first stage appearance at a very early
age. The hardships incident to touring with travelling companies
unfavourably affected her health, but by 1885 she was recognized at home
as Italy's greatest actress, and this verdict was confirmed by that of
all the leading cities of Europe and America. In 1893 she made her first
appearances in New York and in London. For some years she was closely
associated with the romanticist Gabriele d'Annunzio, and several of his
plays, notably _La Città morta_ (1898) and _Francesca da Rimini_ (1901),
provided her with important parts. But some of her great successes
during the 'eighties and early 'nineties--the days of her chief
triumphs--were in Italian versions of such plays as _La Dame aux
camélias_, in which Sarah Bernhardt was already famous; and Madame
Duse's reputation as an actress was founded less on her "creations" than
on her magnificent individuality. In contrast to the great French
actress she avoided all "make-up"; her art depended on intense
naturalness rather than stage effect, sympathetic force and poignant
intellectuality rather than the theatrical emotionalism of the French
tradition. Her dramatic genius gave a new reading to the parts, and
during these years the admirers of the two leading actresses of Europe
practically constituted two rival schools of appreciation. Ill-health
kept Madame Duse off the stage for some time; but though, after 1900, it
was no longer possible for her to avoid "make-up," her rank among the
great actresses of history remained indisputable.

  See also a biography by L. Rasi (1901); A. Symons, _Studies in Seven
  Arts_ (1906).



DUSSEK, JOHANN LUDWIG (1761-1812), Bohemian pianist and composer, was
born at Czaslau, in Bohemia, on the 9th of February 1761. His father,
Johann Joseph Dussek, a musician of high reputation, was organist and
choir-master in the collegiate church of Czaslau, and several other
members of the family were distinguished as organists. Under the careful
instruction of his father he made such rapid progress that he appeared
in public as a pianist at the age of six. A year or two later he was
placed as a choir boy at the convent of Iglau, and he obtained his first
instruction in counterpoint from Spenar, the choir-master. When his
voice broke he entered on a course of general study, first at the
Jesuits' college, and then at the university of Prague, where he took
his bachelor's degree in philosophy. During his curriculum of two and a
half years he had paid unremitting attention to the practice and study
of his art, and had received further instruction in composition from a
Benedictine monk. In 1779 he was for a short time organist in the church
of St Rombaut at Mechlin. At the close of his engagement he proceeded to
Holland, where he attained great distinction as a pianist, and was
employed by the stadtholder as musical instructor to his family. While
at the Hague he published his first works, several sonatas and concertos
for the piano. He had already composed at the age of thirteen a solemn
mass and several small oratorios. In 1783 he visited Hamburg, and placed
himself under the instruction of Philip Emmanuel Bach. After spending
two years in Lithuania in the service of Prince Radziwill, he went in
1786 to Paris, where he remained, with the exception of a short period
spent at Milan, until the outbreak of the Revolution, enjoying the
special patronage of Marie Antoinette and great popularity with the
public. In Milan he appeared not only as a pianist but also as a player
of the harmonica, an instrument which was much sought after on account
of its novelty in those days. Towards the close of 1789 he removed to
London, where on the 2nd of March 1790 he appeared at Salomon's
concerts, and he married a daughter of Dominico Corri, herself a clever
harpist and pianist. Unfortunately he was tempted by the large sale of
his numerous compositions to open a music-publishing warehouse in
partnership with Montague Corri, a relative of his wife. The result was
injurious to his fame and disastrous to his fortune. Writing solely for
the sake of sale, he composed many pieces that were quite unworthy of
his genius; and, as he was entirely destitute of business capacity,
bankruptcy was inevitable. In 1800 he was obliged to flee to Hamburg to
escape the claims of his creditors. Some years later he was attached in
the capacity of musician to the household of Prince Louis Ferdinand of
Prussia, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. On the death of his
patron in 1806 he passed into the service of the prince of Isenburg as
court musician. In 1809 he went to Paris to fill a similar situation in
the household of Prince Talleyrand, which he held until his death on the
20th of March 1812.

Dussek had an important influence on the development of pianoforte
music. As a performer he was distinguished by the purity of his tone,
the combined power and delicacy of his touch, and the facility of his
execution. His sonatas, known as _The Invocation_, _The Farewell_ and
_The Harmonic Elegy_, though not equally sustained throughout, contain
movements that have scarcely been surpassed for solemnity and beauty of
idea.

  See also Alexander W. Thayer's articles in Dwight's _Journal of Music_
  (Boston, 1861).



DÜSSELDORF, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the
right bank of the Rhine, 24 m. by rail N. by W. from Cologne. Pop.
(1885) 115,190; (1895) 175,985; (1905) 252,630. Düsseldorf is one of the
handsomest cities of western Germany. Its situation on the great
mid-European waterway and as the junction of several main lines of
railway has largely favoured its rapid growth and industrial
development. It is the principal banking centre of the Westphalian coal
and iron trade, and the favourite residence of the leading merchants of
the lower Rhine.

The city consists of five main portions--the Altstadt, the original town
with narrow, irregular streets; the Karlstadt, dating from 1787 and so
called after the electoral prince Charles Theodore; the Neustadt, laid
out between 1690 and 1716; and the Friedrichstadt and the Königstadt, of
recent formation. In addition, the former villages of Pempelfort,
Oberbilk, Unterbilk, Flingern and Derendorf have been incorporated and
form the outer suburbs of the town proper. On the south side the town
has been completely metamorphosed by the removal of the Köln-Mindner and
Bergisch-Maerkisch stations to a central station lying to the east. The
site thus gained was converted into new boulevards, while the railway to
Neuss and Aix-la-Chapelle was diverted through the suburb of Bilk and
thence across the Rhine by an iron bridge. A road bridge (completed
1898, 2087 ft. long), replacing the old bridge of boats, carries the
electric tram-line to Crefeld. The town, with the exception of the
Altstadt, is regularly built, but within its area are numerous open
grounds and public squares, which prevent the regularity of its plan
degenerating into monotony: the market-place, with the colossal bronze
statue of the elector John William, the parade, the Allee Strasse, the
Königs Allee, and the Königs Platz may be specially mentioned. Of the
thirty-seven churches, of which twenty-six are Roman Catholic, the most
noticeable are:--St Andrew's, formerly the Jesuit and court church, with
frescoes by J. Hübner (1806-1882), E. Deger (1809-1885), and H. Mücke
(1806-1891), and the embalmed bodies of several Rhenish electors; St
Lambert's, with a tower 180 ft. high and containing a monument to Duke
William (d. 1592); Maximilians, with frescoes by J.A.N. Settegast
(1813-1890); the Romanesque St Martin's, and the new Gothic church of St
Mary. Besides the old ducal palace, laid in ruins by the French in 1794,
but restored in 1846, the secular buildings comprise the government
offices, the post-office in Italian style, the town hall on the market
square, the law courts, the municipal music hall, the municipal theatre,
the assembly hall of the Rhenish provincial diet, an Italian Renaissance
edifice erected in 1879, the academy of art (1881; in pure Renaissance),
the industrial art museum (1896), the historical museum, and the
industrial art school. The town also possesses a library of 50,000
volumes, several high-grade schools, and is the seat of a great number
of commercial and intellectual associations; but to nothing is it more
indebted for its celebrity than to the Academy of Painting. This famous
institution, originally founded by the elector Charles Theodore in 1767,
was reorganized by King Frederick William III. in 1822, and has since
attained a high degree of prosperity as a centre of artistic culture.
From 1822 till 1826 it was under the direction of Cornelius, a native of
the town, from 1826 to 1859 under Schadow, and from 1859 to 1864 under
E. Bendemann (1811-1889). From Bendemann's resignation it continued in
the hands of a body of curators till 1873, when Hermann Wislicenus
(1825-1899) of Weimar was chosen director. The noble collection of
paintings which formerly adorned the Düsseldorf gallery was removed to
Munich in 1805, and has not since been restored; but there is no lack
of artistic treasures in the town. The academy possesses 14,000 original
drawings and sketches by the great masters, 24,000 engravings, and 248
water-colour copies of Italian originals; the municipal gallery contains
valuable specimens of the local school; and the same is the case with
the Schulte collection. The principal names are Cornelius, Lessing, the
brothers Andreas and Oswald Achenbach, A. Baur (b. 1835), A. Tidemand
(1814-1876), and L. Knaus (b. 1829). An annual exhibition is held under
the auspices of the Art Union; and the members of the Artists' Society,
or _Malkasten_, as they are called, have annual festivals and
masquerades.

The town is embellished with many handsome monuments--notably a bronze
statue of Cornelius, by A. Donndorf (b. 1835), an equestrian statue of
the emperor William I. (1896), and a large bronze group in front of the
assembly hall of the diet, representing the river Rhine and its chief
tributaries. In the suburb of Bilk there are the Floragarten and
Volksgarten, the astronomical observatory and the harbour. Extensive
quays afford accommodation for vessels of deep draught, and the trade
with the Dutch cities and with London has been thereby greatly enhanced.
Within recent years Düsseldorf has made remarkable progress as an
industrial centre. The first place is occupied by the iron industries,
embracing foundries, furnaces, engineering and machine shops, &c. Next
come cotton spinning and weaving, calico printing, yarn-spinning, dyeing
and similar textile branches, besides a variety of other industries.

A little to the north of the town lies the village of Düsselthal, with
Count von der Recke-Volmerstein's establishment for homeless children in
the former Trappist monastery, and in the suburb of Pempelfort is the
_Jägerhof_, the residence at one time of Prince Frederick of Prussia,
and afterwards of the prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Düsseldorf, as the form of the name--the village on the Düssel--clearly
indicates, was long a place of small consideration. In 1288 it was
raised to the rank of a town by Count Adolf of Berg; from his successors
it obtained various privileges, and in 1385 was chosen as their
residence. After it had suffered greatly in the Thirty Years' War and
the War of the Spanish Succession, it recovered its prosperity under the
patronage of the electoral prince John William of the Palatinate, who
dwelt in the castle for many years before his death in 1716. In 1795 the
town, after a violent bombardment, was surrendered to the French; and
after the peace of Lunéville it was deprived of its fortifications. In
1805 it became the capital of the Napoleonic duchy of Berg; and in 1815
it passed with the duchy into Prussian possession. Among its celebrities
are Johann Georg and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Heinrich Heine,
Varnhagen von Ense, Peter von Cornelius, Wilhelm Camphausen and Heinrich
von Sybel.

  See H. Ferber, _Historische Wanderung durch die alte Stadt Düsseldorf_
  (Düsseldorf, 1889-1890); Brandt, _Studien zur Wirtschafts- und
  Ver-waltungsgeschichte der Stadt Düsseldorf_ (Düsseldorf, 1902); and
  local _Guide_ by Bone.



DUSSERAH, or DASARA, a Hindu new-moon festival (sometimes called
Maha-navami), held in October, and specially connected with ancestral
worship. In the native states, such as Mysore, the rajas give public
entertainments lasting for ten days, and especially invite European
officials to the festivities, which include horse-racing, athletic
contests, and banquets.

  See J.A. Dubois, _Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies_, p. 577.



DUST, earth or other matter reduced to fine dry and powdery particles;
the word is Teutonic and appears in such various forms as the Dutch
_duist_, Danish _dyst_, for the dust of flour or meal, and in the older
forms _donst_; the modern German _Dunst_, vapour, probably preserves the
original form and meaning, that of something which can be blown about by
the wind.

_Atmospheric Dust._--The presence of dust in the atmosphere has probably
been known from the earliest ages, as prehistoric man must have had
plenty of opportunities of noticing it lighting up the paths of sunbeams
that penetrated his dark caves, yet it is only of recent years that it
has become the subject of scientific observation. Formerly it was
considered as simply matter in the wrong place, the presence of which
had to be tolerated, but was supposed to serve no useful purpose in
nature. It was not till the year 1880 that atmospheric dust came under
scientific investigation, when it soon became evident that it played a
most important part in nature, and that instead of being a nuisance to
be got rid of, it added much to the comforts and pleasures of life.

The atmosphere is composed of a number of gases which have a nearly
constant proportion to each other, and of varying proportions of water
vapour. This vapour, constantly rising from land and sea, mixes with the
gases in the atmosphere and so long as it remains vapour is invisible,
but when it becomes cooled by the actual processes in nature the vapour
tends to condense to the liquid condition and form cloud particles.
Before 1880 it had always been assumed that when this condensation took
place, the vapour molecules simply combined with each other to form the
little globules of water, but J. Aitken showed that vapour molecules in
the atmosphere do not combine with each other, that before condensation
can take place there must be some solid or liquid nucleus on which the
vapour molecules can combine, and that the dust in the atmosphere forms
the nuclei on which the water-vapour molecules condense. Every cloud
particle being grown round a dust nucleus thus has a dust particle in
it. The presence of dust in the atmosphere allows the condensation of
the vapour to take place whenever the air is cooled to the saturation
point, and if there were no dust present the condensation would not take
place till the air was cooled far below that point, and become highly
supersaturated; and when it did take place the condensation would be
violent and result in heavy rain-drops without the formation of what we
know as cloud. This might be in some ways an advantage, but living in
such supersaturated air would have many disadvantages. The
supersaturated air having no dust to condense on would condense on our
clothes, the inside and outside walls of our dwellings, and on every
solid and liquid surface with which it came in contact.

Many of the dust particles in the atmosphere which form the nuclei of
condensation are extremely minute, so small as to be beyond the powers
of the microscope, and at first sight it might appear to be impossible
to get any reliable information as to their numbers. But Aitken, having
shown that water vapour must have a nucleus to condense on, saw that
this placed in our hands the means of counting the dust particles in our
atmosphere, and in 1888 showed how it could be done. As water vapour in
the air condenses on the dust particles present and forms cloud
particles, he showed that all that would be necessary would be to cause
the dust particles to become centres of condensation, when they would be
so increased in size as to come within the range of an ordinary
magnifying lens, and that by counting the cloud particles it would be
possible to determine the number of dust particles. To carry out this
idea the air under examination was placed in an air-tight receiver and
saturated with water vapour. It was then expanded by an air-pump, and in
this way cooled and condensation produced. The cloud particles so formed
were allowed to fall on a micrometer and their number counted by the aid
of an ordinary short-focussed lens. Certain precautions are necessary in
carrying out this process. There must not be more than 500 particles per
cubic centimetre of air, or all the particles will not form nuclei, and
will not therefore be thrown down as cloud particles. When the number in
the air tested exceeds that figure, the dusty air must be mixed with
such a quantity of dustless air as will reduce the number below 500 per
c.c., and the correct number in the air tested is obtained by allowing
for the proportion of dustless air to dusty air, and for the expansion
necessary for cooling.

Thousands of tests of the atmospheric dust have been made with this
instrument at many places over the world, and in no part of it has
dustless air been found; indeed it is very rare to find air with less
than 100 particles per c.c., whilst in most country places the numbers
rise to thousands, and in cities such as London and Paris the number may
be as high as 100,000 to 150,000 per c.c.

The sources of dust particles in the atmosphere are numerous. In nature
volcanoes supply a large quantity, and the meteoric matter constantly
falling towards the earth and becoming dissipated by the intense heat
produced by the friction of the atmosphere keep up a constant supply.
Large quantities of dust are also raised from the surface of the earth
by strong winds, from dusty roads and dry soil, and there is good reason
for supposing that large quantities of sand are carried from the deserts
by the wind and transported great distances, the sand, for instance,
from the desert of Africa being carried to Europe. It is, however, to
artificial causes that most of the dust is due. The burning of coal is
the principal source of these, not only when the coal is burned with the
production of smoke, but also when smokeless, and even when the coal is
first converted into gas and burned in the most perfect forms of
combustion. It results from this that while in the air over the
uninhabited parts of the earth and over the ocean the number of
particles is small, being principally produced by natural causes or
carried from distant lands, they are much more numerous in inhabited
areas, especially in those where much coal is burned. It is evident that
if there were not some purifying process in nature there would be a
tendency for the dust particles to increase in numbers, because though
some dust particles may fall out of the air, many of them are so small
they have but little tendency to settle, but by becoming centres of
cloud particles they are carried downwards to the earth, and, further,
these when showering down as rain tend to wash the others out of the
atmosphere. We may therefore look on all uninhabited areas of the earth
as purifying areas, and their purifying power seems to depend partly on
their extent, but principally on their rainfall. The following table
illustrates the purifying effect of some of these areas obtained from
the results of hundreds of observations. The areas referred to are: (1)
Mediterranean Sea, the observations being made on the south coast of
France on the air blowing inshore; (2) the Alps, the observations being
made on the Rigi Kulm; (3) the Highlands of Scotland, the observations
being made at various places; and (4) the Atlantic Ocean, the
observations being made on the west coast of Scotland, when the wind
blew from the ocean.

  +----------------+----------------+-------+------------+-----------+
  |                | Mediterranean. | Alps. | Highlands. | Atlantic. |
  +----------------+----------------+-------+------------+-----------+
  | Mean of lowest |       891      |  381  |    141     |     72    |
  | Mean of number |      1611      |  892  |    552     |    338    |
  +----------------+----------------+-------+------------+-----------+

These numbers are all low for atmospheric dust, much lower than in air
from inhabited areas. On the Rigi Kulm, for instance, the number was
sometimes over 10,000 per c.c. when the wind was from inhabited areas
and the sun causing ascending currents; and at the same place as the
Atlantic air was tested the numbers went up to over 5000 per c.c. when
the wind blew from the inhabited areas of Scotland, though the distance
to the nearest was over 60 m.

E.D. Fridlander[1] made many observations on the dust of the atmosphere
with the same instrument as employed by Aitken. In crossing the Atlantic
he got no low numbers, always over 2000 per c.c., but in the Gulf of St
Lawrence he got a reading as low as 280 per c.c. In crossing the Pacific
the lowest obtained was 245, in the Indian Ocean 243, in the Arabian Sea
280, in the Red Sea 383, and in the Mediterranean 875 per c.c. He has
also made observations in Switzerland. The lowest number obtained by him
was in the air at the top of the Bieshorn, 13,600 ft. above sea-level,
where the number was as low as 157 per c.c. Professor G. Melander[2] of
Helsingfors studied the dust in the atmosphere. His observations were
made in Switzerland, Biskra in the Sahara, Finland, the borders of
Russia, and in Norway; but in none of these places were low numbers
observed. The minimum numbers were over 300 per c.c., while maximum
numbers in some cases went high.

Aitken when observing on the Rigi Kulm noticed during some conditions
of weather that there was a daily variation in the number of particles,
a maximum near the hottest part of the day and a minimum in the morning,
and attributed the rise in the numbers to the impure air of the valleys
rising on the sun-heated slopes of the mountain or driven up by the
wind. A. Rankin, at the Ben Nevis observatory, also observed this daily
variation, and his observations also indicate a yearly variation at that
station, the numbers being highest in March, April and May. This may
possibly be due to small rainfall in these months, but more probably to
the fact that south-easterly winds blow more frequently during these
months on Ben Nevis than at any other season, and these winds bring the
impure air from the more densely inhabited parts of the country.

Without atmospheric dust not only would we not have the glorious cloud
scenery we at present enjoy, but we should have no haze in the
atmosphere, none of the atmospheric effects that delight the artist. The
white haze, the blue haze, the tender sunset glows of red, orange and
yellow, would all be absent, and the moment the sun dipped below the
horizon the earth would be in darkness; no twilight, no after-glows,
such as those given some years ago by the volcanic dust from Krakatoa;
none of the poetry of eventide. Why, it may be asked, is this so? Simply
because all these are due to matter suspended in the air, to dust. Water
has no such effects as long as it is a vapour, and if it condensed
without the presence of dust, the particles would be far too few to give
any appreciable effect and too heavy to remain in suspension.

Turning now to the investigations on this point, Aitken has shown that
there is no evidence to indicate that water vapour has any hazing
effect, and shows that the haze is entirely due to dust, the density of
the haze increasing with the increase in the number of dust particles in
the air, and also with the _relative_ humidity; but the humidity does
not act as vapour, but by condensing on the dust and increasing the size
of the particles, as it is not the amount of vapour present but the
degree of saturation that affects the result; the more saturated the
air, the more vapour is condensed on the particles, they so become
larger and their hazing effect increased.

The relation of haze or transparency of the air to the number of dust
particles was observed on five visits to the Rigi Kulm. The visibility
of Hochgerrach, a mountain 70 m. distant from the Rigi, was used for
estimating the amount of haze when the air was clear. During the visits
this mountain was visible thirteen times, and it was never seen except
when the number of particles was low. On eight occasions the mountain
was only one-half to one-fifth hazed, and on these days the number of
particles was as low as from 326 to 850 per c.c. It was seen five times
when the number was from 950 to 2000 per c.c., but the mountain on these
occasions was only just visible, and it was never seen when the number
was a little over 2000 per c.c.

It has been pointed out that the relative humidity has an effect on the
dust by increasing the size of the particles and so increasing the haze.
It was therefore necessary in working out the dust and haze observations
made at the different places to arrange all the observations in tables
according to the wet-bulb depressions at the time. All the observations
taken when the wet-bulb depression was between 2° and 4° were put in one
table, all those when it was between 4° and 7° in another, and all those
when it was over 7° in a third. It should be here noted that when the
dust particles were counted and the wet and dry bulb observations taken,
an estimate of the amount of haze was also made. This was done by
estimating the amount of haze on a mountain at a known distance. Suppose
the mountain to be 25 m. distant, and at the time to be one-half hazed,
then the limit of visibility of the mountain under the conditions would
be 50 m., and that was taken as the number representing the transparency
of the atmosphere at the time. In the tables above referred to along
with the number of particles was entered the limit of visibility at the
time; when this was done it was at once seen that as the number of
particles increased the limit of visibility decreased, as will be seen
from the following short table of the Rigi Kulm observations when the
wet-bulb depression was between 2° and 4°.

  +---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------------+------------------+
  |               | Lowest  | Highest |  Mean   |   Limit of    |                  |
  |     Date.     | Number. | Number. | Number. | Visibility in |        C.        |
  |               |         |         |         |    Miles.     |                  |
  +---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------------+------------------+
  | 19th May 1891 |   428   |   690   |   559   |      150      | 83,850 \   Mean  |
  | 22nd May 1889 |   434   |   850   |   642   |      100      | 64,200  > 75,176.|
  | 16th May 1893 |  1225   |  2600   |  1912   |       40      | 77,480 /         |
  +---------------+---------+---------+---------+---------------+------------------+

When the number of particles is multiplied by the limit of visibility in
the tables a fairly constant number C. is obtained; see preceding table.
All the observations taken at the different places were treated in a
similar manner and the means of all the observations at the different
humidities were obtained, and the following table gives the mean values
of C. at the different wet-bulb depressions of all the observations made
at the different places.

  +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
  | Wet-bulb depression | 2° to 4° | 4° to 7° | 7° and over |
  | Mean values of C.   |  76,058  | 105,545  |   141,148   |
  +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+

From the above table it will be seen that as the dryness of the air
increased it required a larger number of particles to produce a complete
haze, nearly double the number being required when the wet-bulb
depression was over 7° than when it was only from 2° to 4°. To find the
number of particles required to produce a complete haze, that is, to
render a mountain just invisible, all that is necessary is to multiply
the above constant C. by 160,930, the number of centimetres in a mile,
when this is done with the observations made in the West Highlands we
get the numbers given in the following table:--

  +----------------------+--------------------------+
  | Wet-bulb depression. |  Number of Particles to  |
  |                      | produce a complete haze. |
  +----------------------+--------------------------+
  |       2° to 4°       |      12,500,000,000      |
  |       4° to 7°       |      17,100,000,000      |
  |       7° to 10°      |      22,600,000,000      |
  +----------------------+--------------------------+

The above table gives the number of particles of atmospheric dust in a
column of air having a section of one centimetre square, at the
different humidities, required to produce a complete haze, that is, to
make a distant object invisible, and is of course quite independent of
the length of the column.

In making these dust and transparency observations three things were
noted: 1st, the number of particles; 2nd, the humidity; and 3rd, the
limit of visibility. From the results above given, it is evident that if
we now know any two of these we can calculate the third. Suppose we know
the limit of visibility and the humidity, then the number of particles
can be calculated by the aid of the above tables.

To show the hazing effects of dust it is not, however, necessary to use
a dust counter. Aitken for some years made observations on the haze in
the air at Falkirk by simply noting the direction of the wind, the
wet-bulb depression at the time, and the transparency of the air.
Falkirk is favourably situated for such observations owing to the
peculiar distribution of the population surrounding it. The whole area
from west, north-west to north, is very thinly populated, while in all
other directions it is densely populated. It was found that the air from
the thinly inhabited parts, that is, the north-west quadrant, was nine
times clearer than the air from other directions with the same wet-bulb
depression, and that the density of the haze was directly proportional
to the density of the population of the area from which the wind blew.
These observations also showed that the transparency of the air
increases with the dryness, being 3.7 times clearer when the wet-bulb
depression is 8° than when it is only 2°, and that the air coming from
the densely inhabited parts is about 10 times more hazed than if there
were no inhabitants in the country.     (J. A.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "Atmospheric Dust Observations from various parts of the World,"
    _Quart. Journ. Roy. Met. Soc._ (July 1896).

  [2] _La Condensation de la vapeur d'eau dans l'atmosphère_
    (Helsingfors, 1897).



DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, THE (_Oostindische Vereenigde Maatschappij_),
a body founded by a charter from the Netherlands states-general on the
20th of March 1602. It had a double purpose: first to regulate and
protect the already considerable trade carried on by the Dutch in the
Indian Ocean, and then to help in prosecuting the long war of
independence against Spain and Portugal. Before the union between
Portugal and Spain in 1580-81, the Dutch had been the chief carriers of
eastern produce from Lisbon to northern Europe. When they were shut out
from the Portuguese trade by the Spanish king they were driven to sail
to the East in order to make good their loss. Unsuccessful attempts were
made to find a route to the East by the north of Europe and Asia, which
would have been free from interference from the Spaniards and
Portuguese. It was only when these failed that the Dutch decided to
intrude on the already well-known route by the Cape of Good Hope, and to
fight their way to the Spice Islands of the Malay Archipelago. A first
expedition, commanded by Cornelius Houtman, a merchant long resident at
Lisbon, sailed on the 2nd of April 1595. It was provided with an
itinerary or book of sailing instructions drawn up by Jan Huyghen van
Linschoten,[1] a Dutchman who had visited Goa. The voyage was marked by
many disasters and losses, but the survivors who reached the Texel on
their return on the 20th of August 1597 brought back some valuable
cargo, and a treaty made with the sultan of Bantam in Java.

These results were sufficient to encourage a great outburst of
commercial adventure. Companies described as "Van Ferne"--that is, of
the distant seas--were formed, and by 1602 from sixty to seventy Dutch
vessels had sailed to Hindustan and the Indian Archipelago. On those
distant seas the traders could neither be controlled nor protected by
their native government. They fought among themselves as well as with
the natives and the Portuguese, and their competition sent up prices in
the eastern markets and brought them down at home. Largely at the
suggestion of Jan van Oldenbarneveldt, and in full accordance with the
economic principles of the time, the states-general decided to combine
the existing separate companies into one united Dutch East India
Company, which could discharge the functions of a government in those
remote seas, prosecute the war with Spain and Portugal, and regulate the
trade. A capital estimated variously at a little above and a little
under 6,500,000 florins, was raised by national subscription in shares
of 3000 florins. The independence of the states which constituted the
United Netherlands was recognized by the creation of local boards at
Amsterdam, in Zealand, at Delft and Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enkhuizen. The
boards directed the trade of their own districts, and were responsible
to one another, but not for one another as towards the public. A general
directorate of 60 members was chosen by the local boards. Amsterdam was
represented by 20 directors, Zealand by 12, Delft and Rotterdam by 14,
and Hoorn and Enkhuizen also by 14. The real governing authority was the
"Collegium," or board of control of 17 members, of whom 16 were chosen
from the general directorate in proportion to the share which each local
branch had contributed to the capital or joint stock. Amsterdam, which
subscribed a half, had eight representatives; Zealand, which found a
quarter, had four; Delft and Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enkhuizen had two
respectively, since each of the pairs had subscribed an eighth. The
seventeenth member was nominated in succession by the other members of
the United Netherlands. A committee of ten was established at the Hague
to transact the business of the company with the states-general. The
"collegium" of seventeen nominated the governors-general who were
appointed after 1608. The charter, which was granted for twenty-one
years, conferred great powers on the company. It was endowed with a
monopoly of the trade with the East Indies, was allowed to import free
from all custom dues, though required to pay 3% on exports, and charged
with a rent to the states. It was authorized to maintain armed forces by
sea and land, to erect forts and plant colonies, to make war or peace,
to arrange treaties in the name of the stadtholder, since eastern
potentates could not be expected to understand what was meant by the
states-general, and to coin money. It had full administrative, judicial
and legislative authority over the whole of the sphere of operations,
which extended from the west of the Straits of Magellan westward to the
Cape of Good Hope.

The history of the Dutch East India Company from its formation in 1602
until its dissolution in 1798 is filled, until the close of the 17th
century, with wars and diplomatic relations. Its headquarters were early
fixed at Batavia in Java. But it extended its operations far and wide.
It had to deal diplomatically with China and Japan; to conquer its
footing in the Malay Archipelago and in Ceylon; to engage in rivalry
with Portuguese and English; to establish posts and factories at the
Cape, in the Persian Gulf, on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel and
in Bengal. Only the main dates of its progress can be mentioned here. By
1619 it had founded its capital in Batavia in Java on the ruins of the
native town of Jacatra. It expelled the Portuguese from Ceylon between
1638 and 1658, and from Malacca in 1641. Its establishment at the Cape
of Good Hope, which was its only colony in the strict sense, began in
1652. A treaty with the native princes established its power in Sumatra
in 1667. The flourishing age of the company dates from 1605 and lasted
till the closing years of the century. When at the summit of its
prosperity in 1669 it possessed 150 trading ships, 40 ships of war,
10,000 soldiers, and paid a dividend of 40%. In the last years of the
17th century its fortunes began to decline. Its decadence was due to a
variety of causes. The rigid monopoly it enforced wherever it had the
power provoked the anger of rivals. When Pieter Both, the first
governor-general, was sent out in 1608, his instructions from the Board
of Control were to see that Holland had the entire monopoly of the trade
with the East Indies, and that no other nation had any share whatever.
The pursuit of this policy led the company into violent hostility with
the English, who were also opening a trade with the East. Between 1613
and 1632 the Dutch drove the English from the Spice Islands and the
Malay Archipelago almost entirely. The English were reduced to a
precarious footing at Bantam in Java. One incident of this conflict, the
torture and judicial murder of the English factors at Amboyna in 1623,
caused bitter hostility in England. The success of the company in the
Malay Archipelago was counterbalanced by losses elsewhere. It had in all
eight governments: Amboyna, Banda, Ternate, Macassar, Malacca, Ceylon,
Cape of Good Hope and Java. Commissioners were placed in charge of its
factories or trading posts in Bengal, on the Coromandel coast, at Surat,
and at Gambroon (or Bunder Abbas) in the Persian Gulf, and in Siam. Its
trade was divided into the "grand trade" between Europe and the East,
which was conducted in convoys sailing from and returning to Amsterdam;
and the "Indies to Indies" or coasting trade between its possessions and
native ports.

The rivalry and the hostilities of French and English gradually drove
the Dutch from the mainland of Asia and from Ceylon. The company
suffered severely in the War of American Independence. But it extended
and strengthened its hold on the great islands of the Malay Archipelago.
The increase of its political and military burdens destroyed its
profits. In the early 18th century it was already embarrassed, and was
bankrupt when it was dissolved in 1798, though its credit remained
unshaken, largely, if its enemies are to be believed, because it
concealed the truth and published false accounts. In the later stages of
its history its revenue was no longer derived from trade, but from
forced contributions levied on its subjects. At home, the directors, who
were accused of nepotism and corruption, became unpopular at an early
date. The company was subject to increasing demands and ever more severe
regulation on the successive renewals of its charters at intervals of
twenty-one years. The immediate causes of its destruction were the
conquest of Holland by the French revolutionary armies, the fall of the
government of the stadtholder, and the establishment of the Batavian
Republic in 1798.

  AUTHORITIES.--The great original work on the history of the Dutch East
  India Company is the monumental _Beschryving van oud en niew oost
  Indien_ (Dordrecht and Amsterdam, 1724), by François Valentyn, in 8
  vols., folio, profusely illustrated. Two modern works of the highest
  value are: J.K.J. de Jonge, _De Opkomst van het Nederlandsch Gezag
  in oost Indien_ (The Hague and Amsterdam, 1862-1888), in 13 vols.; J.
  J. Meinsma, _Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche oost-Indische
  Bezittingen_ (3 vols., Delft and the Hague, 1872-1875). See also John
  Crawford, _History of the Indian Archipelago_ (Edinburgh, 1820); Clive
  Day, _The Dutch in Java_ (New York, 1904); Sir W.W. Hunter, _A
  History of British India_ (London, 1899); and Pierre Bonnassieux, _Les
  Grandes Compagnies de commerce_ (Paris, 1892).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Linschoten was born at Haarlem in or about 1563. He started his
    travels at the age of sixteen and, after some years in Spain, went
    with the Portuguese East India fleet to Goa, where he arrived in
    September 1583, returning in 1589. In 1594 and 1595 he took part in
    the Dutch Arctic voyages, and in 1598 settled at Enkhuizen, where he
    died on the 8th of February 1611. His _Navigatio ac itinerarium_
    (1595-1596) is a compilation based partly on his own experiences,
    partly on those of other travellers with whom he came in contact. It
    was translated into English and German in 1598; two Latin versions
    appeared in 1599 and a French translation in 1610. The famous English
    version was reprinted for the Hakluyt Society in 1885. Large
    selections, with an Introduction, are published in C. Raymond
    Beazley's _Voyages and Travels_, vol. ii. (_English Garner_, London,
    1903).



DUTCH LANGUAGE. When the Romans reached the territory now forming the
kingdom of Holland, they found a number of tribes south of the Rhine,
who--though here and there mixed with Germans--belonged to a
non-Germanic race, and who, closely related to the Belgian tribes, spoke
a language belonging to the Celtic group. Possibly they were also
situated on the more elevated grounds north of the Rhine, at least
vestiges of them may still be traced. We do not know anything about
their being mixed with or subdued by the intruding German tribes. We can
only guess it.

At that time the fertile delta of the Rhine was already occupied by
German tribes who in language and national customs must have stood in
some relation to the tribes living along the Rhine in Germany, later
called Franks. The consonantal system of their language was in
accordance with the other Low-German dialects, which is proved by the
remains we have in the glosses of the Lex Salica, for the greater part
handed down in a bad condition. These tribes, whom we shall take
together under the name of Low-Franks--the Romans called them Batavi,
Caninefates, Chamavi, &c.--were spread over Gelderland, Overysel, part
of Utrecht and South Holland, and the south-western part of North
Holland. When in the sixth century allied tribes from the present north
Germany, who named themselves Saxons after one of those tribes living
alongside the Elbe, conquered the territory occupied by the Franks a
great many retreated from the eastern parts, and then the Franks, who
already in the time of the Romans had begun to invade into the territory
of the Belgian tribes, continued their wars of conquest in a southward
direction and subdued all the land south of the branch of the Rhine that
is called the "Waal." Since that time the Frankish dialect came there,
and the Celtic-speaking population of the south suffered its language to
be entirely supplanted by that of the conquerors. Hence in the formerly
Celtic-speaking parts of Brabant and Limburg we find but Frankish
dialects, somewhat corresponding with those of part of Gelderland,
Utrecht and Holland. The deviation that is perceptible concerns less the
use of words than the way of laying the stress.

In part of Gelderland, east of the Ysel, and in Overysel, the older
Frankish dialect (of the Salian Franks) was given up and the language of
the victorious Saxons was assumed, perhaps here and there strongly mixed
with the older language. The language which is spoken there, and farther
to the north through Drente as far as in some parts of Groningen, is
called Saxon. Indeed, these dialects correspond in a great many respects
with the language of the Old-Saxon poem Heliand (q.v.) and with the
North-German dialects--from the latter they deviate considerably in some
respects. The chief point of conformity is the formation of the plural
of the verb: _wi loopt, wi gåt_, _Heliand_: _wi hlopad, wi gangad_,
which are _wèi loopen, wèi gaan_ in the Frankish dialects. In the vocal
system, too, there are peculiar differences.

In the north of Holland there lived, and still lives alongside the
coast, a tribe with which Caesar did not come in contact. The Frisians
were spread over a large distance along the shore as far as the mouth of
the Elbe, and in the west at least as far as the country north of
Haarlem. In the time of the Romans they cannot have extended their power
farther southward. Later, however, this seems to have been the case.
Maerlant and Melis Stoke (13th century) tell us that time was when their
power extended even over part of Flanders. About the year 339 they were
repelled as far as the mouth of the Meuse, and ever afterwards the
Franks, led by their counts, pushed their dominion back farther and
farther to the north, as far as the country north of Alkmaar. After all,
a great many Frisian peculiarities may be perceived in the language of
the country people of the parts which were once in their power.

To begin with the south: in Zeeland the population has quite given up
the former probably non-Germanic language. Frisian influence is still
perceptible in many words and expressions, but for all that the language
has lost the Frisian character and assumed the nature of the
neighbouring Frankish dialects in the present Belgium and Brabant. If it
was then influenced by the south, later it was influenced rather by the
language of Holland. Farther to the north Frisian elements may be
perceived in Holland at the seashore and also in many respects still in
North Holland. The real Frisian tongue has only been preserved in the
province of Friesland, where intrusion of the dialect spoken in Holland
is already perceptible since the 13th century. With the Frisian tongue
this formed a new dialect in the towns, the "Stadfriesch," whereas the
country people in the villages and the peasants have preserved the old
Frisian tongue as "Boerenfriesch."

The more eastward dialects of Frisian in Groningen, the eastern part of
Friesland (_Stellingawerf_) and West-Drente were first strongly mixed
with Saxon; at the same time we find a strong mixture of Frisian and
Saxo-Frankish east of the Zuider Zee. Later the Saxon dialect of the
town of Groningen, once the capital of East-Drente, became prominent
over the whole province.

In all parts, however, the language of Holland, mixed with and changed
by the living speech, is getting more and more influence, issuing from
the towns and large villages.

This influence over the whole country began at the opening of the 17th
century, and, in connexion with the prevalent written language,
gradually produced a colloquial language, deviating from the written
language as well as from the native idioms of the country, though
assuming elements from both. In this colloquial speech the idiom of
Holland forms the basis, whereas the written language formed itself on
quite different principles.

If we compare the colloquial speech and the native idiom with the
written language, we find remarkable differences, which are caused by
the origin of the Dutch written language.

The first to write in any of the idioms of the Dutch language, if we
leave apart the old version of the psalms in East Low Frankish, was an
inhabitant of the neighbourhood of Maastricht, Henrik van Veldeke, who
wrote a Servatius legend and an _Aeneid_; the latter we only know by a
Mid High German copy. This dialect deviates from the western dialects
and has likeness to the Middle-Frankish. His work had no influence
whatever on the written language.

In the west of Belgium, in the districts of Antwerp, East and West
Flanders and Brabant, great prosperity and strong development of
commerce caused a vivid intellectual life. No wonder we find there the
first writings in the West-Low-Frankish native idiom. This language
spread over the neighbouring districts. At least in 1254 we find the
same language used in the statute (i.e. privilege) of Middelburg.

In those parts a great deal was written in poetry and prose, and the
writings in this language are known under the name of Middle-Dutch
literature.

If originally the south took the lead in all departments, later the
north gradually surpasses the south, and elements from the northern
native idiom begin to intrude into the written language.

North of the Meuse and the Rhine little was written as yet in the 13th
century. Not until about 1300 does literary life begin to develop here
(Melis Stoke's _Rijmcronijk_), and these writings were written in the
language of the south with slight deviations here and there. Chancery
and clergy had taken a written language to the north, deviating
considerably from the native idiom in vogue there, which belonged to the
Frisio-Frankish idioms. So this written language gradually spread over
the west of the Netherlands and Belgium. The east of the Netherlands
agreed in its chancery style more with the districts of Low Germany.

There was a great difference between the written language and the
dialect spoken on the banks of the Y. This becomes quite conspicuous if
we compare what Roemer Visscher, Coster, Bredero borrow from their
native idiom with the language of Huygens or Cats, in the latter of
which the southern elements predominate, mixed with the dialects of
Zeeland and Holland. Vondel, too, in his first period was influenced by
the idiom of Brabant. Only after 1625 does he get on more familiar terms
with the Amsterdam dialect. In the various editions of his poems it may
be seen how not only loan-words, but also words belonging to the
southern idiom, are gradually replaced by other words, belonging to the
vocabulary of North Holland, and still to be heard.

The written language passed from the south to the north, and,
considerably changed at Amsterdam, was also assumed in the other
provinces in the 17th century, after the Union of Utrecht. In the north,
in Groningen and Friesland, the official writings and laws were still
noted down in a Frisian or Saxo-Frisian idiom as late as the 15th and
16th centuries. When the contact with Holland grew stronger, and the
government officials ever and again came in contact with Holland,
chancery, too, gradually assumed the Holland idiom. The same took place
in the eastern provinces.

This, however, did not yet make the written language popular, which did
not happen before the population of the Dutch provinces got its
_Statenbÿbel_, the well-known authorized version of the Bible, made at
Dordrecht between 1626 and 1637.

By the frequent use of this so-called _Statenvertaling_ the language of
Holland obtained its vogue in all provinces on the point of religion,
and many expressions, borrowed from that Bible, were preserved in the
native idiom.

By the remarkable vicissitudes of these parts from the earliest time up
to the moment when Holland became an independent kingdom, during which
alternately German elements under the Bavarian counts and French
influences under the Burgundian princes were predominant, and also later
in the 16th and 17th centuries elements from these languages were mixed
with the language in common use. Moreover, various words passed from the
eastern languages into Dutch by the colonial and commercial connexions,
while at the same time many words were borrowed from Latin, the language
of the learned people, especially in the 16th century, and from French,
under the influence of the poetic clubs of the 17th and 18th centuries.
In the time of the rhetoricians, in the 16th century, and of Coornhert,
as well as in the days of Bredero, Hooft and Vondel, we repeatedly find
opposition against these foreign words, often successful, so that in
1650 Vondel could say: "_Onze spraak is sedert weinige jaren herwaart
van bastaard-woorden en onduitsch allengs geschuimt._"[1] Some people,
e.g. Hooft, went even so far as to make very clumsy versions of Latin
and French bastard words, handed down of old.

Under the influence of the club "_Nil Volentibus Arduum_" and the
predominant literary clubs of the 18th century, people became inclined
towards expressing their thoughts as much as possible in pure Dutch.
Therefore a large number of rules were given, with respect to prose as
well as to poetry, in consequence of which the written language grew
very stiff in choice of words and forms, and remains so till the latter
half of the 19th century. The obtrusion of the French language during
the reign of Napoleon had no effect. But the subsequent union of Holland
and Belgium strengthened the French element, especially in the higher
ranks of society. King William I. had tried to make Dutch more popular
in Belgium by a general teaching of the Dutch language. When north and
south were separated, the French became predominant in the south. Only
in the Flemish provinces of Belgium the people tried to preserve the
native idiom and to do away with French words. These endeavours, called
"De Vlaamsche beweging", begun by F. v. Willems, Heremans and others in
the south, were supported in the north by Professor de Vries at Leiden.
In order to get a pure Dutch language, the idea of composing a general
Dutch dictionary was introduced. M. de Vries and his partner L. te
Winkel, however, did not begin this task before having given a new
formulation of the rules for spelling. These rules, deviating in many
respects from the spelling then in vogue, introduced by Siegenbeek in
1806, have been predominant up to the present moment. Since 1891 Dr R.
A. Kollewyn and Dr F. Buitenrust Hettema have been engaged in trying to
bring about a simplification in the spelling. As this simplification is
not generally considered efficient, their principles are not yet
generally adopted; see for instance C.H. den Hertog, _Waarom
onaannemelyk?_ (Groningen, 1893).

Excepting Belgium (Flanders, Antwerp, Brabant) the Dutch language is
heard outside Holland in Dutch East India and in the West Indies. In
East India pure Dutch has been preserved, though some Javanese and Malay
bastard words may have slipped in by the habit of speaking to the
population in the Malay tongue or in the native idiom. Hence no
Indo-Dutch was formed there. This is different in the West Indies, where
a great number of negro words and English words as well as English
syntactical constructions have slipped in.

In the 17th century a number of Dutchmen, for the greater part from
Holland and Zeeland, under Jan van Riebeek, had settled in South Africa,
in Cape Town, where the Dutch navigation called into being a Dutch port.
In course of time they were joined there by French emigrants (most of
them Huguenots who left their country about 1688 and joined with other
Huguenots from Holland in assuming the Dutch language), perhaps also by
Portuguese and by Malay people, who, together with the English who
settled there and after 1820 became numerous in Cape Colony, mixed some
peculiarities of their language with the Dutch idioms. Thus in the first
half of the 18th century the language arose which is now called the
South African Dutch. Since 1880 the present Dutch language has became
more frequently used in official writings, though with certain
adaptations agreeably to the native idiom.

  In order to offer an example of the Middle-Dutch language beside the
  present language, we give here a single strophe from Maerlant's
  _Wapene Martyn_, with a metrical translation in modern Dutch from the
  pen of Nikolaas Beets (1880).

  God, diet al bi redene doet,     | God, die het al met wijsheid doet,
  Gaf dat wandel ertsche goet      | Gaf dit verganklijk aardsche goed
    Der menschelt gemene,          |   Den menschen in't gemeen,
  Dattere mede ware gevoet,        | Op dat zij zouden zijn gevoed,
  Ende gecleet, ende gescoet,      | Het lijf gekleed, geschoeid de voet
    Ende leven soude rene.         |   En leven rein van zeen.
  Nu es giericheit so verwoet,     | Maar zie nu hoe de hebzucht woedt
  Dat elc settet sinen moet        | Dat iedereen in arren moed
    Om al te hebbene allene.       |   't Al hebben wil alleen'
  Hieromme stortmen menschenbloet, | Hierom vergiet men menschenbloed
  Hieromme stichtmen metter spoet  | En bouwt met roekeloozen spoed
    Borge ende hoge stene          |   Burchtsloten, zwaar van steen,
    Menegen te wene.               |   Tot smart van menigeen.

  _A Survey of the Sounds used in Dutch._--_The Consonants._ As regards
  the consonants, Dutch in the main does not differ from the other Low
  German languages. The explosive _g_ and the _th_ are wanting. Instead
  of the former there is a _g_ with "fricative" pronunciation, and as in
  High German the _th_ has passed over into _d_.

  The final consonants in Middle Dutch are sharpened, and the sharp
  sounds are graphically represented; in Modern Dutch, on the other
  hand, the historical development of the language being more distinctly
  kept in view, and the agreement observed with the inflexional forms,
  the soft consonant is written more frequently than it is sounded; thus
  we have Middle Dutch _dach_, Modern Dutch _dag_, in analogy with the
  plural _dagen_.

  The gutturals are _g_, _k_, _ch_ and _h_.

  _G_ is the soft spirant, not used in English. In Middle Dutch this
  letter was also indicated by _gh_. _K_ was pronounced like English
  _k_. In Middle Dutch _c_ was sometimes used instead of _k_; now this
  is no longer done.

  _Ch_ (pronounced as German _ch_ without the _i_-sound, not as English
  _ch_) loses its sound when combined with _s_ to _sch_ at the end of a
  syllable, for instance, _vleesch_, but the _s_-sound is not purely
  dental as in _dans_. As an initial consonant _sch_ is nearly
  pronounced as _sg_ (_schip_, English ship); only in Frisian and Saxon
  dialects the old consonant _sk_ in _skip_, _skool_ is retained.

  _H_ has the same pronunciation as in English.

  The dentals are _d_ and _t_. The _d_ is formed by placing the point of
  the tongue against the upper teeth. At the end of a word _d_ is
  sharpened into _t_, but written _d_, for instance, _goed_, pronounced
  _gut_. In the idiom of the east of the Netherlands final _d_ is
  preserved. When between two vowels after _oe_ (Engl. _ô_ in do), _o_,
  or _ui_, _d_ is not pronounced, though it is written. After it has
  been left out, a _j_-sound has developed between the two vowels, so,
  for instance, _goede_ became first _goe:e_ and then _goeje_. Thus it
  is pronounced, though it is still spelled _goede_. After _ou d_
  disappeared and _ou_ became _ouw_, for instance _koude > kouw_.

  _T_ has the same pronunciation as in English. In some dialects final
  _t_ is dropped, for instance, _heef_ for _heeft_, _nie_ for _niet_.

  _S_ has the pronunciation of English _s_ in sound, _z_ that of English
  _z_ in hazel; only in _zestig_ and _zeventig z_ has the pronunciation
  of _s_.

  The labials are _b_, _f_, _v_, _p_.

  At the beginning and in the body of a word _b_ has the same sound as
  in English. At the end of a word, when shortened from _bb_, followed
  by a vowel, it became _p_ in the pronunciation, so older _krabbe_
  became _krabb_, _krab_ (the present spelling), which is now pronounced
  _krap_.

  _F_ has the same pronunciation as English _f_. In many cases older
  initial _f_ passed into _v_, hence most words which have _f_ in
  English have initial _v_ in Dutch, for instance _vader_, _vol_,
  _vechten_.

  This _v_, initial and between vowels, has the pronunciation of English
  _v_ in lover. Dutch _p_ is the same as English _p_, also the liquids
  and nasals.

  The _w_ in Dutch is mostly labiodental; in the eastern parts before
  vowels bilabial pronunciation is heard.

  _Vowels._--_A_ has in open syllables the sound of English _a_ in
  father, in closed syllables that of English _a_ in ass, but more open;
  when there is a clear sound in closed syllables the spelling is _aa_
  (_jaar_), in open syllables _a_ (_maken_), pronounced as _a_ in ask;
  in _bad_, _nat_, _a=a_. An original short _a_ and a long _a_ in open
  syllables are even in Middle Dutch pronounced alike, and may be rhymed
  with each other (_dagen_, _lagen_, a rhyme which was not permitted in
  Middle High German). In the Saxon dialects _â_ was expressed by _ao_,
  _a_ or _â_ in the Frisio-Saxon districts passes into _è_ before _r_,
  as _jèr_ (_jaar_). Middle Dutch preserved _a_ in several words where
  in Modern Dutch it passes into _e_ before _r_ (_arg_, _erg_; _sarc_,
  _zerk_; _warf_, _werf_); in others, as _aarde_, _staart_, _zwaard_,
  the Middle Dutch had _e_ and _a_ (_erde_, _stert_, _swert_, _swart_,
  _start_; Modern Dutch _zwaard_, _staart_). In foreign words, likewise,
  _e_ before _r_ has become _a_; _paars_, _perse_; _lantaarn_,
  _lanterne_ (in the dialects _e_ is still frequently retained).

  _E._ The sound of the _e_ derived from _a_ does not differ from that
  of an original _e_, or of an _e_ derived from _i_, as they appear in
  open syllables (_steden_, _vele_, pronounced as _a_ in English name).
  If the _e_ derived from _a_ or _i_ or the original _e_ occurs in
  closed syllables, it has a short sound, as in English men, end, Modern
  Dutch _stem_. The _e_ in closed syllables with a full sound (as
  English _a_; Sweet, _ei_) is spelled _ee_: _veel_, _week_ (_e_ from
  _i_), _beek_. The sharp, clear _ee_ is indicated by the same letters
  in both open and closed syllables: _eer_, _sneeuw_, _zee_.

  In some dialects this _ee_ is pronounced like English _ee_, not only
  in the present dialects, but also in the 17th century.

  The pronunciation of _ei_ (from _ai_, or _eg_: _ag_, French _ai_,
  _ei_, _ée_) is that of English _i_, for instance, Dutch _ei_, English
  egg, is pronounced like English _I_.

  _I_ is pronounced short (somewhat like _i_ of English pit), for
  instance in _pit_, _binden_, _sikkel_; it has a clear sound in
  _fabrikant_, though it has no stress.

  _Ie_ is pronounced like English _ee_ in see, but somewhat shorter; so,
  _fabriek_, _fabrieken_, _Pieter_; also in _bieden_, _stierf_, &c. For
  original long _î_, Middle Dutch _ii_ and _ij_, afterwards _ÿ_, was
  used. This vowel, though still written _y_, is pronounced like English
  _i_ in I, like; so in _sysje_ (English siskin), _lÿken_, &c.

  The letter _o_ represents three sounds:--(1) the short sharp _o_ and
  (2) the short soft _o_, the former like the _o_ in English not and
  French _soldat_ (Dutch _bod_, _belofte_, _tocht_, _kolf_), the latter
  like the English _o_ in don, the French _o_ in _ballon_ (Dutch _dof_,
  _ploffen_, _ochtend_, _vol_), and (3) the full, clear _o_ as in
  English note, French _noter_ (Dutch _kolen_, _sloten_, _verloren_).
  The sharp clear _oo_, in _stroom_, _dood_, has almost the same sound
  as the full _o_, in some dialects (among others the Saxon) it is
  pronounced as _o_ with a glide _o_, in others (Flemish and Hollandsch)
  somewhat like _au_. In Middle Dutch, the lengthening of the vowels was
  frequently indicated by _e_ (before _r_ sometimes by _i_, as in
  _oir_); hence _ae_ for _â_, _oe_ for _ô_. Where _oe_ occurs in the
  modern language, it has the sound of _u_ (pronounced like the _u_ in
  High German, and answering to the Gothic _ô_), which in Middle Dutch
  was frequently represented by _ou_. _oe_ is pronounced _ou_ (_au_;
  Sweet, p. 6) in West Flemish and the Groningen dialects. Before
  labials and gutturals _oe_ in Middle Dutch was expressed by _ue_ and
  _oe_ (_bouc_, _souken_, and also _guet_, but usually _goet_, _soeken_,
  _boec_). The Saxon dialects still preserve an _ô_ sound which agrees
  with the Dutch _oe_ (_bôk_, _môder_); in two words--_romer_ (_roemer_,
  however, is also used) and _spook_--_o_ has passed from these dialects
  into Dutch. As the _u_ (Old German _û_), which in the Dutch tongue has
  passed into _ui_ except before _r_ and _w_, retains the _û_-sound in
  the Saxon districts, some words have come into Dutch from these
  dialects, being written with _oe_ from the similar sound of _oe_
  (from _ô_) in Dutch and _û_ in Saxon (_snoet_, _boer_, _soezen_), by
  the side of which are Frankish words (_snuit_, _suizen_, &c.).

  In the language of the people _oe_ before _m_ is often pronounced as
  _o_, for instance _bloem_ and _blom_.

  _Eu_ is not a diphthong, but the modification (_Umlaut_) of the clear
  _o_; it has the same sound as German _ö_ in _schön_; so in _vleugel_,
  _leugen_, _keuken_.

  _U_ before a double consonant or before a consonant in monosyllables
  has about the same pronunciation as in English stuff, rug; so in
  _kunnen_, _snurken_, _put_. When used in open syllables it has the
  same sound as in French _nature_.

  In the 16th and 17th centuries, Middle Dutch _û_ passed over through
  _oi_ into _ui_ by the influence of the Holland dialect. In the Saxon
  districts _û_ kept the old pronunciation, but only in the language of
  the peasants. The common language has everywhere _ui_, pronounced
  nearly as German _eu_, English _oy_; so in _duizend_, _vuil_,
  _buigen_, &c.

  _Ou_ and _au_ in _vrouw_ and _blauw_ are nearly pronounced in the same
  way, very much like English _ow_ in crowd.

  AUTHORITIES.--For a full survey of a history of the Dutch language the
  reader is referred to Jan te Winkel, "Geschichte der niederländischen
  Sprache," _Grundriss der germ. Philologie_, 2, p. 704 (Strassburg, K.
  Grübner). Here an elaborate account may be found on p. 704 of the
  different works on the grammar and phonology of the various periods of
  the Dutch language. For explanation and history of words of the
  current language see the _Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal_, by De
  Vries and Te Winkel, continued by A. Kluyver, A. Beets, for a time by
  J.W. Müller and De Vreese, who left at their nomination as professors
  at Utrecht and Ghent. The Middle Dutch language may be known from the
  _Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek_, first by E. Verwys and J. Verdam,
  after the death of Verwys by Verdam alone. For the dialects the
  different grammars and glossaries issued at Martinus Nÿhoff (The
  Hague) and Kemink & Son (Utrecht) are of great importance. The Flemish
  dialect may be found in De Bo, _Westvlaamsch Idioticon_; other Belgian
  dialects are recorded in the publications of the _Vlaamsche Academie_
  (Ghent). Phonetic explanations are given in Roorda's or in ten
  Bruggencate's _Phonetic Works_, and a survey of the pronunciation in
  Branco van Dantzig's _Dutch Pronunciation_ and Dykstra's _Dutch
  Grammar_.     (J. H. G.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] i.e. "Within a few years our language has been gradually skimmed
    of bastard words and non-Dutch elements."



DUTCH LITERATURE. The languages now known as Dutch and Flemish did not
begin to take distinct shape till about the end of the 11th century.
From a few existing fragments--two incantations from the 8th century, a
version of the Psalms from the 9th century, and several charters--a
supposed Old Dutch language has been recognized; but Dutch literature
actually commences in the 13th century, as Middle Dutch, the creation of
the first national movement in Brabant, Flanders, Holland and Zealand.


  Willem the Minstrel.

From the wreck of Frankish anarchy no genuine folk-tales of Dutch
antiquity have come down to us, and scarcely any echoes of German myth.
On the other hand, the sagas of Charlemagne and Arthur appear
immediately in Middle Dutch forms. These were evidently introduced by
wandering minstrels and jongleurs, and translated to gratify the
curiosity of the noble women. It is rarely that the name of such a
translator has reached us, but we happen to know that the fragments we
possess of the French romance of _William of Orange_ were written in
Dutch by a certain Klaas van Haarlem, between 1191 and 1217. The
_Chanson de Roland_ was translated about the same time, and considerably
later _Parthenopeus de Blois_. The Flemish minstrel Diederic van
Assenede completed his version of _Floris et Blanchefleur_ about 1250.
The Arthurian legends appear to have been brought to Flanders by some
Flemish colonists in Wales, on their return to their mother-country.
About 1250 a Brabantine minstrel translated Walter Map's _Lancelot du
lac_ at the command of his liege, Lodewijk van Velthem. The _Gauvain_
was translated by Penninc and Vostaert before 1260, while the first
original Dutch writer, the famous Jakob van Maerlant, occupied himself
about 1260 with several romances dealing with Merlin and the Holy Grail.
The earliest existing fragments of the epic of _Reynard the Fox_ were
written in Latin by Flemish priests, and about 1250 the first part of a
very important version in Dutch was made by Willem the Minstrel, of whom
it is unfortunate that we know no more save that he was the translator
of a lost romance, _Madoc_. In his existing work the author follows
Pierre de Saint-Cloud, but not slavishly; and he is the first really
admirable writer that we meet with in Dutch literature. The second part
was added by another hand at the end of the 14th century.


  John I., duke of Brabant.

It is not necessary to dwell at any length on the monkish legends and
the hymns to the Virgin Mary which were abundantly produced during the
13th century, and which, though destitute of all literary merit, were of
use as exercises in the infancy of the language. The first lyrical
writer of Holland was John I., duke of Brabant, who practised the
_minnelied_ with success, but whose songs are only known to us through a
Swabian version of a few of them. In 1544 the earliest collection of
Dutch folk-songs saw the light, and in this volume one or two romances
of the 14th century are preserved, of which _Het Daghet in den Oosten_
is the best known. Almost the earliest fragment of Dutch popular poetry,
but of later time, is an historical ballad describing the murder of
Count Floris V. in 1296. A very curious collection of mystical medieval
hymns by Sister Hadewych, a nun of Brabant, was first printed in 1875 by
Heremans and Ledeganck.


  Maerlant.

  Boendale.

  Weert.

  Stoke.

Hitherto, as we have seen, the Middle Dutch language had placed itself
at the service of the aristocratic and monastic orders, flattering the
traditions of chivalry and of religion, but scarcely finding anything to
say to the bulk of the population. With the close of the 13th century a
change came over the face of Dutch literature. The Flemish towns began
to prosper and to assert their commercial supremacy over the North Sea.
Under such mild rulers as William II. and Floris V., Dort, Amsterdam,
and other cities contrived to win such privileges as amounted almost to
political independence, and with this liberty there arose a new sort of
literary expression. The founder and creator of this original Dutch
literature was Jacob van Maerlant (q.v.). His _Naturen Bloeme_, written
about 1263, forms an epoch in Dutch literature; it is a collection of
moral and satirical addresses to all classes of society. With his
_Rijmbijbel_ (Rhyming Bible) he foreshadowed the courage and
free-thought of the Reformation. It was not until 1284 that he began his
masterpiece, _De Spieghel Historiael_ (The Mirror of History), at the
command of Count Floris V. Of his disciples, the most considerable in
South Holland was Jan van Boendale (1280-1365), known as Jan de Klerk.
He was born in Brabant, and became clerk to the justices at Antwerp in
1310. He was entrusted with various important missions. His works are
historical and moral in character. In him the last trace of the old
chivalric and romantic element has disappeared. He completed his famous
rhyme chronicle, the _Brabantsche Yeesten_, in 1350; it contains the
history of Brabant down to that date, and was brought down to 1440 by an
anonymous later writer. For English readers it is disappointing that
Boendale's other great historical work (_Van den derden Edewaert, coninc
van Ingelant ..._, ed. J.F. Willems, Ghent, 1840), an account of Edward
III. and his expedition to Flanders in 1338, has survived only in some
fragments. The remainder of Boendale's works are didactic poems,
pursuing still further the moral thread first taken up by Maerlant, and
founded on medieval scholastic literature. In Ypres the school of
Maerlant was represented by Jan de Weert, a surgeon, who died in 1362,
and who was the author of two remarkable works of moral satire and
exhortation, the _Nieuwe Doctrinael of Spieghel der Sonden_, and a
_Disputacie van Rogier end van Janne_. In the beginning of the 13th
century Gielijs van Molhem wrote a Dutch version of part of the
_Miserere_ of the Picard poet who concealed his identity under the name
of the recluse of Moiliens. The poem consisted of meditations on the
origin and destiny of man, and on the sins of pride, envy, &c. The
translation, completed later by an author calling himself Heinrec, was
critically edited (Groningen, 1893) by P. Leendertz. In North Holland a
greater talent than that of Weert or of Boendale was exhibited by Melis
Stoke, a monk of Egmond, who wrote the history of the state of Holland
to the year 1305; this work, the _Rijmkronik_, was printed in 1591, and
edited in 1885 for the Utrecht Historical Society; and for its
exactitude and minute detail it has proved of inestimable service to
later historians.


  Heelu.

  Aken.

  Dirk Potter.

With the middle of the 14th century the chivalric spirit came once more
into fashion. A certain revival of the forms of feudal life made its
appearance under William III. and his successors. Knightly romances came
once more into vogue, but the newborn didactic poetry contended
vigorously against the supremacy of what was lyrical and epical. It will
be seen that from the very first the literary spirit in Holland began to
assert itself in a homely and utilitarian spirit. Jan van Heelu, a
Brabanter, was the author of an epic poem[1] on the battle of Woeronc
(1288), dedicated to Princess Margaret of England, and to him has been
attributed the still finer romance of the _War of Grimbergen_.[2] Still
more thoroughly aristocratic in feeling was Hein van Aken, a priest of
Louvain, who lived about 1255-1330, and who combined to a very curious
extent the romantic and didactic elements. As early as 1280 he had
completed his translation[3] of the _Roman de la rose_, which he must
have commenced in the lifetime of Jean de Meung. More remarkable than
any of his translated works, however, is his original romance, completed
in 1318, _Heinric en Margriete van Limborch_,[4] upon which he was at
work for twenty-seven years. During the Bavarian period (1349-1433) very
little original writing of much value was produced in Holland. Buodewijn
van der Loren wrote one excellent piece on the Maid of Ghent, in 1389.
Augustijnken van Dordt was a peripatetic minstrel of North Holland, who
composed for the sheriff Aelbrecht and for the count of Blois from 1350
to 1370. Such of his verses as have been handed down to us are
allegorical and moral. Willem van Hildegaersberch (1350-1408) was
another northern poet, of a more strictly political cast. Many of his
writings exist still unpublished, and are very rough in style and
wanting in form. Towards the end of the 14th century an erotic poet of
considerable power arose in the person of the lord of Waddinxsveen and
Hubrechtsambacht, Dirk Potter van der Loo (c. 1365-1428), who was
secretary at the court of the counts of Holland. During an embassy in
Rome (1411-1412) this eminent diplomatist made himself acquainted with
the writings of Boccaccio, and commenced a vast poem on the course of
love, _Der Minnen Loep_,[5] which is a wonderful mixture of classical
and Biblical instances of amorous adventures set in a framework of
didactic philosophy. In Dirk Potter the last traces of the chivalric
element died out of Dutch literature, and left poetry entirely in the
hands of the school of Maerlant. Many early songs, with some of later
date, are preserved in a _Liedekens-Boeck_ printed by Jan Roulans
(Antwerp, 1544). The unique copy in the Wolfenbüttel library was edited
by Hoffmann von Fallersleben in _Horae Belgicae_ (vol. xi., 1855).


  Religious drama.

It is now time to consider the growth of prose literature in the Low
Countries. The oldest pieces of Dutch prose now in existence are
charters of the towns of Flanders and Zealand, dated 1249, 1251 and
1254. A prose translation of the Old Testament was made about 1300, and
there exists a _Life of Jesus_ about the same date. Of the mystical
preachers whose religious writings have reached us, the Brussels friar,
Jan van Ruysbroec (1294-1381), is the most important. But the most
interesting relics of medieval Dutch prose, as far as the formation of
the language is concerned, are the popular romances in which the
romantic stories of the _trouvères_ and minstrels were translated for
the benefit of the unlettered public into simple language. As in most
European nations, the religious drama takes a prominent place in every
survey of medieval literature in Holland. Unfortunately the text of all
the earliest mysteries, the language of which would have an
extraordinary interest for us, has been lost. We possess records of
dramas having been played at various places--_Our Lord's Resurrection_,
at the Hague, in 1400; _Our Lady the Virgin_, at Arnheim, in 1452; and
_The Three Kings_, at Delft, in 1498. The earliest existing fragment,
however, is part of a _Limburg-Maastricht Passover Play_[6] of about
1360. The latest Dutch miracle play was the _Mystery of the Holy
Sacrament_, composed by a certain Smeken, at Breda, and performed on St
John's day, 1500. This play was printed in 1867. With these purely
theological dramas there were acted mundane farces, performed outside
the churches by semi-religious companies; these curious moralities were
known as "Abelespelen" and "Sotternieën." In these pieces we discover
the first traces of that genius for low comedy which was afterwards to
take perfect form in the dramas of Brederôo and the paintings of
Teniers.


  Chambers of Rhetoric.

The theatrical companies just alluded to, "Gesellen van den Spele,"
formed the germ out of which developed the famous "Chambers of
Rhetoric"[7] which united within themselves all the literary movements
that occupied the Low Countries during the 15th and 16th centuries. The
poets of Holland had already discovered in late medieval times the value
of gilds in promoting the arts and industrial handicrafts. The term
"collèges de rhétorique" is supposed to have been introduced about 1440
to the courtiers of the Burgundian dynasty, but the institutions
themselves existed long before. These literary gilds lasted till the end
of the 16th century, and during the greater part of that time preserved
a completely medieval character, even when the influences of the
Renaissance and the Reformation obliged them to modify in some degree
their outward forms. They were in almost all cases absolutely
middle-class in tone, and opposed to aristocratic ideas and tendencies
in thought. Of these remarkable bodies the earliest were almost entirely
engaged in preparing mysteries and miracle-plays for the populace. Each
chamber, and in process of time every town in the Low Countries,
possessed one, and took as its title some fanciful or heraldic sign. At
Diest "The Eyes of Christ," dated from 1302, and an earlier one, the
"Lily," is mentioned. "The Alpha and Omega," at Ypres, was founded about
1398; that of the "Violet," at Antwerp, followed in 1400; the "Book," at
Brussels, in 1401; the "Berberry," at Courtrai, in 1427; the "Holy
Ghost," at Bruges, in 1428; the "Floweret Jesse," at Middelburg, in
1430; the "Oak Tree," at Vlaardingen, in 1433; and the "Marigold," at
Gouda, in 1437. The most celebrated of all the chambers, that of the
"Eglantine" at Amsterdam, with its motto _In Liefde Bloeyende_
(Blossoming in Love), was not instituted until 1496. Among the most
influential chambers not above mentioned should be included the
"Fountain" at Dort, the "Corn Flower" at the Hague, the "White
Columbine" at Leiden, the "Blue Columbine" at Rotterdam, the "Red Rose"
at Schiedam, the "Thistle" at Zierikzee, "Jesus with the Balsam" at
Ghent, and the "Garland of Mary" at Brussels. And not in these important
places only, but in almost every little town, the rhetoricians exerted
their influence, mainly in what we may call a social direction. Their
wealth was in most cases considerable, and it very soon became evident
that no festival or procession could take place in a town unless the
"Kamer" patronized it. Towards the end of the 15th century the Ghent
chamber of "Jesus with the Balsam" began to exercise a sovereign power
over the other Flemish chambers, which was emulated later on in Holland
by the "Eglantine" at Amsterdam. But this official recognition proved of
no consequence in literature, and it was not in Ghent, but in Antwerp,
that intellectual life first began to stir. In Holland the burghers only
formed the chambers, while in Flanders the representatives of the noble
families were honorary members, and assisted with their money at the
arrangement of ecclesiastical or political pageants. Their pompous
_landjuweelen_, or tournaments of rhetoric, at which rich prizes were
contended for, were the great occasions upon which the members of the
chambers distinguished themselves. Between 1426 and 1620 at least 66 of
these festivals were held. There was a specially splendid _landjuweel_
at Antwerp in 1496, in which 28 chambers took part, but the gayest of
all was that celebrated at Antwerp on the 3rd of August 1561. To this
the "Book" at Brussels sent 340 members, all on horseback, and clad in
crimson mantles. The town of Antwerp gave a ton of gold to be given in
prizes, which were shared among 1893 rhetoricians. This was the zenith
of the splendour of the "Kamers van Rhetorica," and after this time they
soon fell into disfavour. We can trace the progress of literary
composition under the chambers, although none of their official
productions has descended to us. Their dramatic pieces were certainly of
a didactic cast, with a strong farcical flavour, and continued the
tradition of Maerlant and his school. They very rarely dealt with
historical or even Biblical personages, but entirely with allegorical
and moral abstractions, until the age of humanism introduced upon the
stage the names without much of the spirit of mythology. Of the pure
farces of the rhetorical chambers we can speak with still more
confidence, for some of them have come down to us, and among the authors
famed for their skill in this sort of writing are named Cornelis
Everaert of Bruges and Laurens Janssen of Haarlem. The material of these
farces is extremely raw, consisting of rough jests at the expense of
priests and foolish husbands, silly old men and their light wives.
Laurens Janssen is also deserving of remembrance for a satire against
the clergy, written in 1583. The chambers also encouraged the
composition of songs, but with very little success; they produced no
lyrical genius more considerable than Matthijs de Casteleyn (1488-1550),
the founder of the Flemish chamber of "Pax Vobiscum" at Oudenarde, and
author of _De Conste van Rhetorijcken_ (Ghent, 1573), a personage whose
influence as a fashioner of language would have been more healthy if his
astounding metrical feats and harlequin _tours de force_ had not been
performed in a dialect debased with all the worst bastard phrases of the
Burgundian period.


  Houwaert.

In the middle of the 16th century a group of rhetoricians in Brabant and
Flanders attempted to put a little new life into the stereotyped forms
of the preceding age by introducing in original composition the
new-found branches of Latin and Greek poetry. The leader of these men
was Jean Baptista Houwaert[8] (1533-1599), a personage of considerable
political influence in his generation. Houwaert held the title of
"Counsellor and Master in Ordinary of the Exchequer to the Dukedom of
Brabant"; he played a prominent part in the revolution of the Low
Countries against Spain; and when the prince of Orange entered Brussels
victoriously (Sept. 23rd, 1577), Houwaert met him in pomp at the head of
the two chambers of rhetoric--the "Book" and the "Garland of Mary." He
did not remain faithful to his convictions, for he composed in 1593 a
poem in honour of the cardinal-archduke Ernest of Austria, the governor
of the Spanish Netherlands. He considered himself a devout disciple of
Matthijs de Casteleyn, but his great characteristic was his unbounded
love of classical and mythological fancy. His didactic poems are
composed in a wonderfully rococo style, and swarm with misplaced
Latinities. In his bastard Burgundian tongue he boasted of having
"poëtelijck geïnventeert ende rhetorijckelijck ghecomponeert" for the
Brussels chamber such dramas as _Aeneas and Dido_, _Mars and Venus_,
_Narcissus and Echo_, or _Leander and Hero_--named together the
_Commerce of Amorosity_ (1583). But of all his writings, _Pegasides
Pleyn_ (Antwerp, 1582-1583), or the Palace of Maidens, is the most
remarkable; this is a didactic poem in sixteen books, dedicated to a
discussion of the variety of earthly love. Houwaert's contemporaries
nicknamed him "the Homer of Brabant"; later criticism has preferred to
see in him an important link in that chain of homely didactic Dutch
which ends in Cats. His writings are composed in a Burgundian so base
that they hardly belong to Flemish literature at all. Into the same
miserable dialect Cornelis van Ghistele of Antwerp translated, between
1555 and 1583, parts of Terence, Virgil, Horace, and Ovid, while the
painter Karel van Mander (1547-1609) put a French version of the _Iliad_
and of the _Eclogues_ of Virgil into an equally ill-fitting Flemish
dress. In no country of Europe did the humanism of the 16th century at
first affect the national literature so slightly or to so little
purpose.


  Psalms and hymns.

  Battle-songs.

The stir and revival of intellectual life that arrived with the
Reformation found its first expression in the composition of Psalms.
The earliest printed collection appeared at Antwerp in 1540, under the
title of _Souter-Liedekens_, and was dedicated to a Dutch nobleman,
Willem van Zuylen van Nieuvelt, by whose name it is usually known. This
collection, however, was made before the Reformation in Holland really
set in. For the Protestant congregations Jan Utenhove printed a volume
of Psalms in London in 1566; Lucas de Heere (1534-1585), and immediately
after him, with much greater success, Petrus Datheen (1531-1590),
translated the hymns of Clément Marot. For printing this last volume, in
1567, Herman Schinkel of Delft was burned to death in 1568. Datheen was
not a rhetorician, but a person of humble origin, who wrote in the
vulgar tongue, and his hymns spread far and wide among the people. Until
1773 they were in constant use in the state church of Holland. But the
great events of the period of reformation are not marked by psalms only
in Dutch literature. Two collections of hymns and lyrical pieces,
printed in 1562 and 1569, perpetuate the fervour and despair of the
martyrs of the Mennonite Church. Similar utterances of the persecuted
Protestants were published at Haarlem and Leeuwarden, at Ghent and at
Bruges. Very different in tone were the battle-songs of liberty and
triumph sung a generation later by the victorious Reformers, the
"Geuzen" or "Gueux" (q.v.). The famous song-book of 1588, the _Geusen
Lieden Boecxken_, was full of ardent and heroic sentiment, expressed
often in marvellously brilliant phrases. In this collection appeared for
the first time such classical snatches of Dutch song as the Ballad of
Heiligerlee, the Ballad of Egmond and Horn, and the song of the Storm of
Leiden. The political ballads, with their ridicule of the Spanish
leaders, form a section of the _Boecxken_ which has proved of
inestimable value to historians. All these lyrics, however, whether of
victory or of martyrdom, are still very rough in form and language.


  Anna Bijns.

The first writer who used the Dutch tongue with grace and precision of
style was a woman and a professed opponent of Lutheranism and reformed
thought. Modern Dutch literature practically begins with Anna Bijns (c.
1494-1575). Against the crowd of rhetoricians and psalm-makers of the
early part of the 16th century she stands out in relief as the one poet
of real genius. The language, oscillating before her time between French
and German, formless, corrupt and invertebrate, took shape and
comeliness, which none of the male pedants could give it, from the
impassioned hands of a woman. Anna Bijns, who is believed to have been
born at Antwerp in 1494, was a schoolmistress at that city in her middle
life, and in old age she still "instructed youth in the Catholic
religion." She died on the 10th of April 1575. Hendrik Peppinck, a
Franciscan, who edited her third volume of poems when she was an old
woman in 1567, speaks of her as "a maiden small of descent, but great of
understanding, and godly of life." Her first known volume bears the date
1528, and displays her as already deeply versed in the mysteries of
religion. We gather from all this that she was a lay nun, and she
certainly occupied a position of great honour and influence at Antwerp.
She was named "the Sappho of Brabant" and the "Princess of all
Rhetoricians." She bent the powerful weapon of her verse against the
faith and character of Luther. In her volume of 1528 the Lutherans are
scarcely mentioned; in that of 1538 every page is occupied with
invectives against them; while the third volume of 1567 is the voice of
one from whom her age has passed. All the poems of Anna Bijns which we
possess are called _refereinen_ or refrains.[9] Her mastery over
verse-form was extremely remarkable, and these refrains are really
modified chants-royal. The writings of Anna Bijns offer many points of
interest to the philologist. In her the period of Middle Dutch closes,
and the modern Dutch begins. In a few grammatical peculiarities--such as
the formation of the genitive by some verbs which now govern the
accusative, and the use of _ghe_ before the infinitive--her language
still belongs to Middle Dutch; but these exceptions are rare, and she
really initiated that modern speech which Filips van Marnix adopted and
made classical in the next generation.


  Marnix.

In Filips van Marnix, lord of St Aldegonde (1538-1598), a much greater
personage came forward in the ranks of liberty and reform. He was born
at Brussels in 1538, and began life as a disciple of Calvin and Beza in
the schools of Geneva. It was as a defender of the Dutch iconoclasts
that he first appeared in print, with his tract on _The Images thrown
down in Holland in August 1566_. He soon became one of the leading
spirits in the war of Dutch independence, the intimate friend of the
prince of Orange, and the author of the glorious _Wilhelmuslied_. It was
in the autumn of 1568 that Marnix composed this, the national hymn of
Dutch liberty and Protestantism. In 1569 he completed a no less
important and celebrated prose work, the _Biencorf_ or Beehive of the
Romish Church. In this satire he was inspired in a great measure by
Rabelais, of whom he was an intelligent disciple. It is written in prose
that may be said to mark an epoch in the language and literature of
Holland. Overwhelmed with the press of public business, Marnix wrote
little more until in 1580 he published his _Psalms of David newly
translated out of the Hebrew Tongue_. He occupied the last years of his
life in preparing a Dutch version of the Bible, translated direct from
the original. At his death only Genesis was found completely revised;
but in 1619 the synod of Dort placed the unfinished work in the hands of
four divines, who completed it.


  Coornhert.

In Dirck Volckertsen Coornhert[10] (1522-1590) Holland for the first
time produced a writer at once eager to compose in his native tongue and
to employ the weapons of humanism. Coornhert was a typical burgher of
North Holland, equally interested in the progress of national
emancipation and in the development of national literature. He was a
native of Amsterdam, but he did not take part in the labours of the old
chamber of the Eglantine, but quite early in life proceeded to Haarlem,
and was notary, secretary and finally pensionary of the town. In 1566 he
was imprisoned for his support of the Reformers, and in 1572 he became
secretary to the states of Holland. He practised the art of etching, and
spent all his spare time in the pursuit of classical learning. He was
nearly forty years of age before he made any practical use of his
attainments. In 1561 he printed his translation of the _De officiis_ of
Cicero, and in 1562 of the _De beneficiis_ of Seneca. In these volumes
he opposed with no less zeal than Marnix had done the bastard forms
still employed in prose by the rhetoricians of Flanders and Brabant.
During the next decade he occupied himself chiefly with plays and poems,
conceived and expressed with far less freedom than his prose, and more
in the approved conventional fashion of the rhetoricians; he collected
his poems in 1575. The next ten years he occupied in polemical writing,
from the evangelical point of view, against the Calvinists. In 1585 he
translated Boethius, and then gave his full attention to his original
masterpiece, the _Zedekunst_ (1586), or Art of Ethics, a philosophical
treatise in prose, in which he studied to adapt the Dutch tongue to the
grace and simplicity of Montaigne's French. His humanism unites the
Bible, Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius in one grand system of ethics, and
is expressed in a style remarkable for brightness and purity. He died at
Gouda on the 29th of October 1590; his works, in three enormous folio
volumes, were first collected in 1630.


  Amsterdam the centre of letters.

Towards the end of the period of transition, Amsterdam became the centre
of all literary enterprise in Holland. In 1585 two of the most important
chambers of rhetoric in Flanders, the "White Lavender" and the "Fig
Tree," took flight from the south, and settled themselves in Amsterdam
by the side of the "Eglantine." The last-named institution had already
observed the new tendency of the age, and was prepared to encourage
intellectual reform of every kind, and its influence spread through
Holland and Zealand. In Flanders, meanwhile, crushed under the yoke of
Parma, literature and native thought absolutely expired. From this time
forward, and until the emancipation of the southern provinces, the
domain of our inquiry is confined to the district north of the Scheldt.


  Spieghel.

  Roemer Visscher.

In the chamber of the Eglantine at Amsterdam two men took a very
prominent place, more by their intelligence and modern spirit than by
their original genius. Hendrick Laurenssen Spieghel (1549-1612) was a
humanist of a type more advanced and less polemical than Coornhert. He
wrote a charming poem in praise of dancing; but his chief contributions
to literature were his _Tweespraeck van de nederduytsche letterkunst_, a
philological exhortation, in the manner of Joachim du Bellay's famous
tract, urging the Dutch nation to purify and enrich its tongue at the
fountains of antiquity, and a didactic epic, entitled _Hertspieghel_
(1614),[11] which has been greatly praised, but which is now much more
antiquated in style and more difficult to enjoy than Coornhert's prose
of a similar tendency. That Spieghel was a Catholic prevented him
perhaps from exercising as much public influence as he exercised
privately among his younger friends. The same may be said of the man
who, in 1614, first collected Spieghel's writings, and published them in
a volume with his own verses. Roemer Pieterssen Visscher[12] (1547-1620)
proceeded a step further than Spieghel in the cultivation of polite
letters. He was deeply tinged with a spirit of classical learning that
was much more genuine and nearer to the true antique than any that had
previously been known in Holland. His own disciples called him the Dutch
Martial, but he was at best little more than an amateur in poetry,
although an amateur whose function it was to perceive and encourage the
genius of professional writers. Roemer Visscher stands at the threshold
of the new Renaissance literature, himself practising the faded arts of
the rhetoricians, but pointing by his counsel and his conversation to
the naturalism of the great period.


  The Renaissance.

It was in the salon at Amsterdam which the beautiful daughters of Roemer
Visscher formed around their father and themselves that the new school
began to take form. The republic of the United Provinces, with Amsterdam
at its head, had suddenly risen to the first rank among the nations of
Europe, and it was under the influence of so much new emotion and
brilliant ambition that the country no less suddenly asserted itself in
a great school of painting and poetry. The intellect of the whole Low
Countries was concentrated in Holland and Zealand, while the six great
universities, Leiden, Groningen, Utrecht, Amsterdam, Harderwijk and
Franeker, were enriched by a flock of learned exiles from Flanders and
Brabant. It had occurred, however, to Roemer Visscher only that the path
of literary honour lay, not along the utilitarian road cut out by
Maerlant and Boendale, but in the study of beauty and antiquity. In this
he was curiously aided by the school of ripe and enthusiastic scholars
who began to flourish at Leiden, such as Drusius, Vossius and Hugo
Grotius, who themselves wrote little in Dutch, but who chastened the
style of the rising generation by insisting on a pure and liberal
Latinity. Out of that generation arose the greatest names in the
literature of Holland--Vondel, Hooft, Cats, Huygens--in whose hands the
language, so long left barbarous and neglected, took at once its highest
finish and melody. By the side of this serious and aesthetic growth
there is to be noticed a quickening of the broad and farcical humour
which had been characteristic of the Dutch nation from its commencement.
For fifty years, and these the most glorious in the annals of Holland,
these two streams of influence, one towards beauty and melody, the other
towards lively comedy, ran side by side, often in the same channel, and
producing a rich harvest of great works. It was in the house of the
daughters of Roemer Visscher that the tragedies of Vondel and the
comedies of Bredero, the farces of Coster and the odes of Huygens, alike
found their first admirers and their best critics.


  Roemer Visscher's daughters.

Of the famous daughters of Roemer, two cultivated literature with marked
success. Anna (1584-1651) was the author of a descriptive and didactic
poem, _De Roemster van den Aemstel_ (The Glory of the Aemstel), and of
various miscellaneous writings; Tesselschade (1594-1649) wrote some
lyrics which still place her at the head of the female poets of Holland,
and she translated the great poem of Tasso. They were women of universal
accomplishment, graceful manners and singular beauty; and their company
attracted to the house of Roemer Visscher all the most gifted youths of
the time, several of whom were suitors, but in vain, for the hand of
Anna or of Tesselschade.


  Hooft.

Of this Amsterdam school, the first to emerge into public notice was
Pieter Cornelissen Hooft (1581-1647). His _Achilles and Polyxena_ (1598)
displayed a precocious ease in the use of rhetorical artifices of style.
In his pastoral drama of _Granida_ (1605) he proved himself a pupil of
Guarini. In tragedy he produced _Baeto_ and _Geraad van Velsen_; in
history he published in 1626 his _Life of Henry the Great_, while from
1628 to 1642 he was engaged upon his master-work, the _History of
Holland_. Hooft desired to be a severe purist in style, and to a great
extent he succeeded, but, like most of the writers of his age, he
permitted himself too many Latinisms. In his poetry, especially in the
lyrical and pastoral verse of his youth, he is full of Italian
reminiscences both of style and matter; in his noble prose work he has
set himself to be a disciple of Tacitus. Motley has spoken of Hooft as
one of the greatest historians, not merely of Holland, but of Europe.
His influence in purifying the language of his country, and in enlarging
its sphere of experience, can hardly be overrated.


  Bredero.

Very different from the long and prosperous career of Hooft was the
brief, painful life of the greatest comic dramatist that Holland has
produced. Gerbrand Adriaanssen Bredero[13] (1585-1618), the son of an
Amsterdam shoemaker, was born on the 16th of March 1585. He knew no
Latin; he had no taste for humanism; he was a simple growth of the rich
humour of the people. He entered the workshop of the painter Francisco
Badens, but accomplished little in art. His life was embittered by a
hopeless love for Tesselschade, to whom he dedicated his dramas, and
whose beauty he celebrated in a whole cycle of love songs. His ideas on
the subject of drama were at first a mere development of the medieval
"Abelespelen." The "Oude Kammer," one of the chambers of rhetoric,
furnished an opening for his dramatic powers. He commenced by
dramatizing the romance of _Roderick and Alphonsus_, in 1611, and
_Griane_ in 1612, but in the latter year he struck out a new and more
characteristic path in his _Farce of the Cow_. From this time until his
death he continued to pour out comedies, farces and romantic dramas, in
all of which he displayed a coarse, rough genius not unlike that of Ben
Jonson, whose immediate contemporary he was. His last and best piece was
_Jerolimo, the Spanish Brabanter_, a satire upon the exiles from the
south who filled the halls of the Amsterdam chambers of rhetoric with
their pompous speeches and preposterous Burgundian phraseology. The
piece was based on a Dutch version (Delft, 1609) of an early Spanish
picaresque romance, _La Vida de Lazarillo de Tormes_ (Burgos, 1554).
Bredero was closely allied in genius to the dramatists of the
Shakespearian age, but he founded no school, and stands almost as a
solitary figure in the literature of Holland. He died on the 23rd of
August 1618. Theodore Rodenburg (d. 1644), ridiculed by Bredero for his
pretentiousness, had a wider knowledge of contemporary foreign
literature than the other dramatists. He adapted some of the dramas of
Lope de Vega, which he had witnessed at Madrid, into Dutch, and in 1618
he adapted Cyril Tourneur's _Revenger's Tragedy_.


  Coster.

The only individual at all clearly connected with Bredero in talent was
Dr Samuel Coster,[14] who was born at Amsterdam on the 16th of September
1579. He studied medicine at Leiden, and practised at Amsterdam. He is
chiefly remembered for having been the first to take advantage of the
growing dissension in the body of the old chamber of the Eglantine to
form a new institution. In 1617 Coster founded what he called the "First
Dutch Academy." This was in fact a theatre, where, for the first time,
dramas could be publicly acted under the patronage of no chamber of
rhetoric. Coster himself had come before the world in 1612 with his
farce of _Teuwis the Boor_, based on a folk-song in Jan Roulans's
_Liedekens Boeckh_, and he continued this order of composition in direct
emulation of Bredero, but with less talent. In 1615 he began a series of
"blood-and-thunder" tragedies with his horrible _Itys_, and he continued
this coarse style of tragic writing for several years. He survived at
least until after 1648 as a supreme authority in Amsterdam upon all
dramatic matters.


  Vondel.

The first work of the greatest of all Dutch writers, Joost van den
Vondel (1587-1679), was _Het Pascha_ (1612), a tragedy or tragi-comedy
on the exodus of the children of Israel, written, like all his
succeeding dramas, on the recognized Dutch plan, in alexandrines, in
five acts, and with choral interludes between the acts. There is
comparatively little promise in _Het Pascha_. It was much inferior
dramatically to the plays just being produced by Bredero, and metrically
to the clear and eloquent tragedies and pastorals of Hooft; but it
secured the young poet a position inferior only to theirs. Yet for a
number of years he made no attempt to emphasize the impression he had
produced on the public, but contented himself during the years that are
the most fertile in a poet's life with translating and imitating
portions of du Bartas's popular epic. The short and brilliant life of
Bredero, his immediate contemporary and greatest rival, burned itself
out in a succession of dramatic victories, and it was not until two
years after the death of that great poet that Vondel appeared before the
public with a second tragedy, the _Jerusalem laid Desolate_. Five years
later, in 1625, he published what seemed an innocent study from the
antique, his tragedy of _Palamedes, or Murdered Innocence_. All
Amsterdam discovered, with smothered delight, that under the name of the
hero was thinly concealed the figure of Barneveldt, whose execution in
1618 had been a triumph of the hated Calvinists. Thus, at the age of
forty-one, the obscure Vondel became in a week the most famous writer in
Holland. For the next twelve years, and till the accession of Prince
Frederick Henry, Vondel had to maintain a hand-to-hand combat with the
"Saints of Dort." This was the period of his most resolute and stinging
satires; Cats took up the cudgels on behalf of the counter-Remonstrants,
and there raged a war of pamphlets in verse. A purely fortuitous
circumstance led to the next great triumph in Vondel's slowly developing
career. The Dutch Academy, founded in 1617 almost wholly as a dramatic
gild, had become so inadequately provided with stage accommodation that
in 1638, having coalesced with the two chambers of the "Eglantine" and
the "White Lavender," it ventured on the erection of a large public
theatre, the first in Amsterdam. Vondel, as the greatest poet of the
day, was invited to write a piece for the first night; on the 3rd of
January 1638 the theatre was opened with the performance of a new
tragedy out of early Dutch history, the famous _Gysbreght van Aemstel_.
The next ten years were rich in dramatic work from Vondel's hand; he
supplied the theatre with heroic Scriptural pieces, of which the general
reader will obtain the best idea if we point to the _Athalie_ of Racine.
In 1654, having already attained an age at which poetical production is
usually discontinued by the most energetic of poets, he brought out the
most exalted and sublime of all his works, the tragedy of _Lucifer_.
Very late in life, through no fault of his own, financial ruin fell on
the aged poet, and from 1658 to 1668--that is, from his seventieth to
his eightieth year--this venerable and illustrious person, the main
literary glory of Holland through her whole history, was forced to earn
his bread as a common clerk in a bank, miserably paid, and accused of
wasting his masters' time by the writing of verses. The city released
him at last from this wretched bondage by a pension, and the wonderful
old man went on writing odes and tragedies almost to his ninetieth year.
He died at last in 1679, of no disease, having outlived all his
contemporaries and almost all his friends, but calm, sane and
good-humoured to the last, serenely conscious of the legacy he left to a
not too grateful country. Vondel is the typical example of Dutch
intelligence and imagination at their highest development. Not merely is
he to Holland all that Camoens is to Portugal and Mickiewicz to Poland,
but he stands on a level with these men in the positive value of his
writings.


  Starter.

Lyrical art was represented on its more spontaneous side by the songs
and ballads of Jan Janssen Starter (b. 1594), an Englishman by birth,
who was brought to Amsterdam in his thirteenth year. Very early in life
he was made a member of the "Eglantine," and he worked beside Bredero
for two years; but in 1614 he wandered away to Leeuwarden, in Friesland,
where he founded a literary gild, and brought out, in 1618, his plays
_Timbre de Cardone_, _Fenicie van Messine_, the subject of which is
identical with that of Shakespeare's _Much Ado about Nothing_, and
_Daraïda_. But his great contribution to literature was his exquisite
collection of lyrics, entitled the _Friesche Lusthof_, or Frisian
Pleasance (1621). He returned to Amsterdam, but after 1625 we hear no
more of him, and he is believed to have died as a soldier in Germany.
The songs of Starter are in close relation to the lyrics of the English
Elizabethans, and have the same exquisite simplicity and audacity of
style.


  Cats.

While the genius of Holland clustered around the circle of Amsterdam, a
school of scarcely less brilliance arose in Middelburg, the capital of
Zealand. The ruling spirit of this school was the famous Jakob Cats
(1577-1660). In this voluminous writer, to whom modern criticism almost
denies the name of poet, the genuine Dutch habit of thought, the
utilitarian and didactic spirit which we have already observed in
Houwaert and in Boendale, reached its zenith of fluency and popularity.
During early middle life he produced the most important of his writings,
his pastoral of _Galathea_, and his didactic poems, the _Maechdenplicht_
and the _Sinne- en Minne-Beelden._ In 1624 he removed from Middelburg to
Dort, where he soon after published his tedious ethical work called
_Houwelick_, or Marriage; and this was followed from time to time by one
after another of his monotonous moral pieces. Cats is an exceedingly
dull and prosaic writer, whose alexandrines roll smoothly on without any
power of riveting the attention or delighting the fancy. Yet his
popularity with the middle classes in Holland has always been immense,
and his influence extremely hurtful to the growth of all branches of
literary art. Among the disciples of Cats, Jakob Westerbaen (1599-1670)
was the most successful. His works included translations from Virgil,
Ovid, Seneca, Terence and Juvenal, besides original poems. The Jesuit
Adriaen Poirters (1606-1675) closely followed Cats in his remarkable
_Masquer of the World_. A poet of Amsterdam, Jan Hermansz Krul
(1602-1644), preferred to follow the southern fashion, and wrote
didactic pieces in the Catsian manner.


  Huygens.

A poet of dignified imagination and versatile form was Sir Constantijn
Huygens (1596-1687), the diplomatist. He threw in his lot with the great
school of Amsterdam, and became the intimate friend and companion of
Vondel, Hooft and the daughters of Roemer Visscher. His famous poem in
praise of the Hague, _Batava Tempe_, appeared in 1622, and was, from a
technical point of view, the most accomplished and elegant poem till
that time produced in Holland. His collected poems, _Otiorum libri sex_,
were printed in 1625. _Oogentroost_, or Eye Consolation, was the
fantastic title of a remarkable poem dedicated in 1647 to his blind
friend, Lucretia van Trello. He printed in 1654 a topographical piece
describing his own mansion, _Hofwijck_. Huygens represents the direction
in which it would have been desirable that Dutch literature, now
completely founded by Hooft and Vondel, should forthwith proceed, while
Cats represents the tame and mundane spirit which was actually adopted
by the nation. Huygens had little of the sweetness of Hooft or of the
sublimity of Vondel, but his genius was eminently bright and vivacious,
and he was a consummate artist in metrical form. The Dutch language has
never proved so light and supple in any hands as in his, and he
attempted no class of writing, whether in prose or verse, that he did
not adorn by his delicate taste and sound judgment. A blind admiration
for John Donne, whose poems he translated, was the greatest fault of
Huygens, who, in spite of his conceits, remains one of the most pleasing
of Dutch writers. In addition to all this he comes down to us with the
personal recommendation of having been "one of the most lovable men that
ever lived."


  Bekker.

Three Dutchmen of the 17th century distinguished themselves very
prominently in the movement of learning and philosophic thought, but the
illustrious names of Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) and of Baruch Spinoza
(1632-1677) can scarcely be said to belong to Dutch literature.
Balthasar Bekker (1634-1698), on the contrary, a Reformed preacher of
Amsterdam, was a disciple of Descartes, who deserves to be remembered as
the greatest philosophical writer who has used the Dutch language. His
masterpiece, _Betoverde Wereld_, or the World Bewitched, appeared in
1691-1693. Bekker is popularly remembered most honourably by his
determined attacks upon the system of a penal code for witchcraft.


  Vos.

  Brandt.

  Goes.

  Anslo.

  Oudaen.

  Luiken.

From 1600 to 1650 was the blossoming time in Dutch literature. During
this period the names of greatest genius were first made known to the
public, and the vigour and grace of literary expression reached their
highest development. It happened, however, that three men of
particularly commanding talent survived to an extreme old age, and under
the shadow of Vondel, Cats and Huygens there sprang up a new generation
which sustained the great tradition until about 1680, when the final
decline set in. Jan Vos (d. 1667) gained one illustrious success with
his tragedy of _Aaron and Titus_ in 1641, and lost still more in 1642 by
his obscene farce of _Oene_. His second tragedy of _Medea_, in 1665, and
his collected poems in 1662, supported his position as the foremost
pupil of Vondel. Geeraerdt Brandt (1626-1685), the author of a _History
of the Reformation_ (4 vols., 1671-1704), deserves remembrance less as a
tragic dramatist than as a consummate biographer, whose lives of Vondel
and of De Ruyter are among the masterpieces of Dutch prose. Johan
Antonides van der Goes (1647-1684) followed Vos as a skilful imitator of
Vondel's tragical manner. His Chinese tragedies, _Trazil_ (1665) and
_Zungchin_ (1666), scarcely gave promise of the brilliant force and
fancy of his _Yslroom_, a poem in praise of Amsterdam, 1671. He died
suddenly, in early life, leaving unfinished an epic poem on the life of
St. Paul. Reyer Anslo (1626-1669) marks the decline of taste and vigour;
his once famous descriptive epic, _The Plague at Naples_, is singularly
tame and rococo in style. Joachim Oudaen (1628-1692) wrote in his youth
two promising tragedies, _Johanna Gray_ (1648) and _Konradyn_ (1649).
The Amsterdam section of the school of Cats produced Jeremias de Decker
(1609-1666), author of _The Praise of Avarice_, a satirical poem in
imitation of Erasmus, and Joannes Vollenhove (1631-1708), voluminous
writers of didactic verse. The engraver Jan Luiken (1649-1708) published
in 1671 a very remarkable volume of poems. In lyrical poetry Starter had
a single disciple, Daniel Jonctijs (1600-1652), who published a volume
of love songs in 1639 under the affected and untranslatable title of
_Rooselijns oochjens ontleed_. None of these poets, except in some
slight degree Luiken, set before himself any more ambitious task than to
repeat with skill the effects of his predecessors.


  Heemskerk.

  Heinsius.

Meanwhile the romantic and voluminous romances of the French school of
Scudéry and Honoré d'Urfé had invaded Holland and become fashionable.
Johan van Heemskerk (1597-1656), a councillor of the Hague, set himself
to reproduce this product in native form, and published in 1637 his
_Batavian Arcadia_, the first original Dutch romance, in which a party
of romantic youths journey from the Hague to Katwijk, and undergo all
sorts of romantic adventures. This book was extremely popular, and was
imitated by Hendrik Zoeteboom in his _Zaanlandsche Arcadia_ (1658), and
by Lambertus Bos in his _Dordtsche Arcadia_ (1662). A far more spirited
and original romance is the _Mirandor_ (1675) of Nikolaes Heinsius the
younger (b. 1655), a book which resembles _Gil Blas_, and precedes it.


  Gallican dramatists.

The drama fell into Gallicized hands at the death of Vondel and his
immediate disciples. Lodewijck Meijer translated Corneille, and brought
out his plays on the stage at Amsterdam, where he was manager of the
national theatre or Schouwburg after Jan Vos. In connexion with Andries
Pels (d. 1681), author of the tragedy of _Dido's Death_, Meijer
constructed a dramatic club, entitled "Nil Volentibus Arduum," the great
object of which was to inflict the French taste upon the public. Pels
furthermore came forward as the censor of letters and satirist of
barbarism in _Horace's Art of Poetry expounded_, in 1677, and in his
_Use and Misuse of the Stage_, in 1681. Willem van Focquenbroch
(1640-1679) was the most voluminous comic writer of this period. The
close of the century saw the rise of two thoroughly Gallican dramatists,
Jan van Paffenrode (d. 1673) and Pieter Bernagie (1656-1699), who may
not unfairly be compared respectively to the Englishmen Farquhar and
Shadwell. Thomas Asselijn (1630-1695) was a writer of more considerable
talent and more homely instincts. He attempted to resist the
dictatorship of Pels, and to follow the national tradition of Bredero.
He is the creator of the characteristic Dutch type, the comic lover, Jan
Klaaszen, whom he presented on the stage in a series of ridiculous
situations. Abraham Alewijn (b. 1664), author of _Jan Los_ (1721),
possessed a coarse vein of dramatic humour; he lived in Java, and his
plays were produced in Batavia. Finally Pieter Langendijk, the author of
a farce borrowed from _Don Quixote_, claims notice among the dramatists
of this period, although he lived from 1683 to 1756, and properly
belongs to the next century. With him the tradition of native comedy
expired.


  Decline of poetry.

The Augustan period of poetry in Holland was even more blank and dull
than in the other countries of northern Europe. Of the name preserved in
the history of literature there are but very few that call for
repetition here. Arnold Hoogvliet (1687-1763) wrote a passable poem in
honour of the town of Vlaardingen, and a terrible Biblical epic, in the
manner of Blackmore, on the history of Abraham. Hubert Cornelissen Poot
(1680-1733) showed an unusual love of nature and freshness of
observation in his descriptive pieces. Sybrand Feitama (1694-1758), who
translated Voltaire's _Henriade_ (1743), and wrote much dreary verse of
the same class himself, is less worthy of notice than Dirk Smits
(1702-1752), the mild and elegiac singer of Rotterdam. Tragic drama was
more or less capably represented by Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken
(1722-1789), wife of the very dreary dramatist Nicholaas Simon van
Winter (1718-1795).


  Van Effen.

In the midst of this complete dissolution of poetical style, a writer
arose who revived an interest in literature, and gave to Dutch prose the
classical grace of the 18th century. Justus van Effen[15] (1684-1735)
was born at Utrecht, fell into poverty early in life, and was thrown
very much among the company of French émigrés, in connexion with whom he
began literary life in 1713 by editing a French journal. Coming to
London just when the _Tatler_ and _Spectator_ were in their first vogue,
Van Effen studied Addison deeply, translated Swift and Defoe into
French, and finally determined to transfer the beauties of English prose
into his native language. It was not, however, until 1731, after having
wasted the greater part of his life in writing French, that he began to
publish his _Hollandsche Spectator_, which his death in 1735 soon
brought to a close. Still, what he composed during the last four years
of his life, in all its freshness, manliness and versatility,
constitutes the most valuable legacy to Dutch literature that the middle
of the 18th century left behind it.


  The brothers Van Haren.

  Baroness de Lannoy.

  Bellamy.

The supremacy of the poetical clubs in every town produced a very
weakening and Della-Cruscan effect upon literature, from which the first
revolt was made by the famous brothers Van Haren,[16] so honourably
known as diplomatists in the history of the Netherlands. Willem van
Haren (1710-1768) wrote verses from his earliest youth, while Onno Zwier
van Haren (1713-1779), strangely enough, did not begin to do so until he
had passed middle life. They were friends of Voltaire, and they were
both ambitious of success in epic writing, as understood in France at
that period. Willem published in 1741 his _Gevallen van Friso_, a
historical epos, and a long series of odes and solemn lyrical pieces.
Onno, in a somewhat lighter strain, wrote _Piet and Agnietje, or
Pandora's Box_, and a long series of tragedies in the manner of
Voltaire. The baroness Juliana Cornelia de Lannoy (1738-1782) was a
writer of considerable talent, also of the school of Voltaire; her poems
were highly esteemed by Bilderdijk, and she has a neatness of touch and
clearness of penetration that give vivacity to her studies of social
life. Jakobus Bellamy (1757-1786) was the son of a Swiss baker at
Flushing; his pompous odes (_Gezangen myner Jeugd_, 1782; _Vaderlandsche
Gezangen_, 1782) struck the final note of the false taste and Gallic
pedantry that had deformed Dutch literature now for a century, and were
for a short time excessively admired.


  The ladies Wolff and Deken.

The year 1777 has been mentioned as the turning-point in the history of
letters in the Netherlands. It was in that year that Elizabeth (Betjen)
Wolff[17] (1738-1804), a widow lady in Amsterdam, persuaded her friend
Agatha (Aagjen) Deken (1741-1804), a poor but extremely intelligent
governess, to throw up her situation and live with her. For nearly
thirty years these women continued together, writing in combination, and
when the elder friend died on the 5th of November 1804, her companion
survived her only nine days. Madam Wolff had appeared as a poetess so
early as 1762, and again in 1769 and 1772, but her talent in verse was
by no means very remarkable. But when the friends, in the third year of
their association, published their _Letters on Divers Subjects_, it was
plainly seen that in prose their talent was very remarkable indeed.
Since the appearance of Heinsius's _Mirandor_ more than a century had
passed without any fresh start in novel-writing being made in Holland.
In 1782 the ladies Wolff and Deken, inspired partly by contemporary
English writers, and partly by Goethe, published their first novel,
_Sara Burgerhar_. In spite of the close and obvious following of
Richardson, this was a masterly production, and it was enthusiastically
received. Another novel, _Willem Leevend_, followed in 1785, and
_Cornelia Wildschut_ in 1792. The ladies were residing in France at the
breaking out of the Revolution, and they escaped the guillotine with
difficulty. After this they wrote no more, having secured for themselves
by their three unrivalled romances a place among the foremost writers of
their country.


  Nieuwland.

The last years of the 18th century were marked in Holland by a general
revival of intellectual force. The romantic movement in Germany made
itself deeply felt in all branches of Dutch literature, and German
lyricism took the place hitherto held by French classicism. Pieter
Nieuwland (1764-1794) was a feeble forerunner of the revival, but his
short life and indifferent powers gave him no chance of directing the
transition that he saw to be inevitable. One volume of poems appeared in
1788, and a second, posthumously, in 1797.


  Bilderdijk.

The real precursor and creator of a new epoch in letters was the famous
Willem Bilderdijk (1756-1831) (q.v.). This remarkable man, whose force
of character was even greater than his genius, impressed his personality
on his generation so indelibly that to think of a Dutchman of the
beginning of the 19th century is to think of Bilderdijk. In poetry his
taste was strictly national and didactic; he began as a disciple of
Cats, nor could he to the end of his life tolerate what he called "the
puerilities of Shakespeare." His early love-songs, collected in 1781 and
1785, gave little promise of talent, but in his epic of _Elias_ in 1786,
he showed himself superior to all the Dutch poets since Huygens in
mastery of form. For twenty years he lived a busy, eventful life,
writing great quantities of verse, and then commenced his most
productive period with his didactic poem of _The Disease of the
Learned_, in 1807; in 1808 he imitated Pope's _Essay on Man_, and
published the tragedy of _Floris V._, and in 1809 commenced the work
which he designed to be his masterpiece, the epic of _De Ondergang der
eerste Wereld_ (The Destruction of the First World), which he never
finished, and which appeared as a fragment in 1820. To the foreign
student Bilderdijk is a singularly uninviting and unpleasing figure. He
unites in himself all the unlovely and provincial features which deform
the worst of his countrymen. He was violent, ignorant and dull; his view
of art was confined to its declamatory and least beautiful side, and
perhaps no writer of equal talent has shown so complete an absence of
taste and tact. Ten Brink has summed up the character of Bilderdijk's
writings in an excellent passage:--"As an artist," he says, "he can
perhaps be best described in short as the cleverest versemaker of the
18th century. His admirable erudition, his power over language, more
extended and more colossal than that of any of his predecessors, enabled
him to write pithy and thoroughly original verses, although the general
tone of his thought and expression never rose above the ceremonious,
stagy and theatrical character of the 18th century." But in spite of his
outrageous faults, and partly because these faults were the exaggeration
of a marked national failing, Bilderdijk long enjoyed an unbroken and
unbounded popularity in Holland. Fortunately, however, a sounder spirit
has arisen in criticism, and the prestige of Bilderdijk is no longer
preserved so religiously.

Bilderdijk's scorn for the dramas of Shakespeare was almost rivalled by
that he felt for the new German poetry. Notwithstanding his opposition,
however, the romantic fervour found its way into Holland, and first of
all in the persons of Hieronymus van Alphen (1746-1803) and Pieter
Leonard van de Kastiele (1748-1810), who amused themselves by composing
funeral poems of the school of Gessner and Blair. Van Alphen at one time
was extolled as a writer of verses for children, but neither in this nor
in the elegiac line did he possess nearly so much talent as Rhijnvis
Feith (1753-1824), burgomaster of Zwolle, the very type of a prosperous
and sentimental Dutchman. In his _Julia_ (1783), a prose romance, Feith
proved himself as completely the disciple of Goethe in _Werther_ as
Wolff and Deken had been of Richardson in _Sara Burgerhart_. In Johannes
Kinker (1764-1845) a comic poet arose who, at the instigation of
Bilderdijk, dedicated himself to the ridicule of Feith's
sentimentalities. The same office was performed with more dignity and
less vivacity by Baron W.E. van Perponcher (1741-1819), but Feith
continued to hold the popular ear, and achieved an immense success with
his poem _The Grave_ in 1792. He then produced tragedies for a while,
and in 1803 published _Antiquity_, a didactic epic. But his popularity
waned before his death, and he was troubled by the mirth of such witty
scoffers as Arend Fokke Simons (1755-1812), the disciple of Klopstock,
and as P. de Wacker van Zon (1758-1818), who, in a series of very
readable novels issued under the pseudonym of Bruno Daalberg, sharply
ridiculed the sentimental and funereal school.


  Van der Palm.

  Loots.

  Helmers.

Under the Batavian republic a historian of great genius arose in the
person of Johannes Henricus van der Palm (1763-1840), whose brilliant
and patriotic _Gedenkschrift van Nederlands Herstelling_ (1816) has
somewhat obscured his great fame as a politician and an Orientalist. The
work commenced by Van der Palm in prose was continued in verse by
Cornelis Loots (1765-1834) and Jan Frederik Helmers (1767-1813). Loots,
in his _Batavians of the Time of Caesar_ (1805), read his countrymen a
lesson in patriotism, which Helmers far exceeded in originality and
force by his _Dutch Nation_ in 1812. Neither of these poets, however,
had sufficient art to render their pieces classical, or, indeed, enough
to protect them during their lifetime from the sneers of Bilderdijk.
Other political writers, whose lyrical energies were stimulated by the
struggle with France, were Maurits Cornelis van Hall (1768-1858), Samuel
Iperuszoon Wiselius (1769-1845) and Jan ten Brink (1771-1839), the
second of whom immortalized himself and won the favour of Bilderdijk by
ridiculing the pretensions of such frivolous tragedians as Shakespeare
and Schiller.


  Loosjes.

The healthy and national spirit in which the ladies Wolff and Deken had
written was adopted with great spirit by a novelist in the next
generation, Adriaan Loosjes (1761-1818), a bookseller at Haarlem. His
romantic stories of medieval life, especially his _Charlotte van
Bourbon_, are curiously like shadows cast forward by the Waverley
Novels, but he has little of Sir Walter Scott's historical truth of
vision. His production was incessant and his popularity great for many
years, but he was conscious all through that he was at best but a
disciple of the authoresses of _Sara Burgerhart_. Another disciple whose
name should not be passed over is Maria Jacoba de Neufville (1775-1856),
author of _Little Duties_, an excellent story somewhat in the manner of
Mrs Opie.


  Tollens.

  Messchert.

  Bogaers.

  Staring.

A remarkable poet whose romantic genius strove to combine the power of
Bilderdijk with the sweetness of Feith was Hendrik Tollens (1780-1856),
whose verses have shown more vitality than those of most of his
contemporaries. He struck out the admirable notion of celebrating the
great deeds of Dutch history in a series of lyrical romances, many of
which possess a lasting charm. Besides his folk-songs and popular
ballads, he succeeded in a long descriptive poem, _A Winter in Nova
Zembla_, 1819. He lacks the full accomplishment of a literary artist,
but his inspiration was natural and abundant, and he thoroughly deserved
the popularity with which his patriotic ballads were rewarded. Willem
Messchert (1790-1844), a friend and follower of Tollens, pushed the
domestic and familiar tone of the latter to a still further point,
especially in his genre poem of the _Golden Wedding_, 1825. Both these
writers were natives and residents of Rotterdam, which also claims the
honour of being the birthplace of Adrianus Bogaers (1795-1870), the most
considerable poetical figure of the time. Without the force and
profusion of Bilderdijk, Bogaers has more truth to nature, more
sweetness of imagination, and a more genuine gift of poetry than that
clamorous writer, and is slowly taking a higher position in Dutch
literature as Bilderdijk comes to take a lower one. Bogaers printed his
famous poem _Jochebed_ in 1835, but it had then been in existence more
than thirteen years, so that it belongs to the second period of
imaginative revival in Europe, and connects the name of its author with
those of Byron and Heine. Still more beautiful was his _Voyage of
Heemskerk to Gibraltar_ (1836), in which he rose to the highest level of
his genius. In 1846 he privately printed his _Romances and Ballads_.
Bogaers had a great objection to publicity, and his reputation was long
delayed by the secrecy with which he circulated his writings among a few
intimate friends. A poet of considerable talent, whose powers were
awakened by personal intercourse with Bogaers and Tollens, was Antoni
Christiaan Winand Staring (1767-1840), who first at the age of
fifty-three came before the world with a volume of _Poems_, but who
continued to write till past his seventieth year. His amorous and
humorous lyrics recall the best period of Dutch song, and are worthy to
be named beside those of Starter and Vondel.


  19th century influences.

After 1830 Holland took a more prominent position in European thought
than she could claim since the end of the 17th century. In scientific
and religious literature her men of letters showed themselves cognizant
of the newest shades of opinion, and freely ventilated their ideas. The
language resisted the pressure of German from the outside, and from
within broke through its long stagnation and enriched itself, as a
medium for literary expression, with a multitude of fresh and colloquial
forms. At the same time, no very great genius arose in Holland in any
branch of literature. The vast labours of Jakobus van Lennep (1802-1868)
consist of innumerable translations, historical novels and national
romances, which have gained for him the title of the leader of the Dutch
romantic school.

The novels of Sir Walter Scott had a great influence on Dutch
literature, and the period was rich in historical novels. J. van der
Hage (1806-1854), who wrote under the pseudonym of Jan Frederick
Oltmans, was the author of the famous novels, _Castle Loevenstein in
1570_ (1834), and _The Shepherd_ (1838), both dealing with the national
history. Other popular works were the antique romance _Charikles and
Euphorion_ (1831) of Petrus van Limburg-Brouwer (1795-1847), author of a
history of Greek mythology; the _Mejuffrouw Lèclerc_ (1849), and the
_Portretten van Joost van den Vondel_ (1876) of the literary historian
and critic J.A.A. Alberdingk Thijm (1820-1899); the _Jan Faessen_
(1856) of Lodewijk Mulder (b. 1822); and the _Lucretia d'Este_ of W.P.
Walters (1827-1891). Johannes Kneppelhout (1814-1885) sketched
university life at Leiden in two amusing volumes of _Studententypen_
(1841) and _Studentenleven_ (1844). Reinier Cornelis Bakhuizen van den
Brink (1810-1865) was the chief critic of the romantic movement, and
Everhard Johannes Potgieter (1808-1875) its mystical philosopher and
esoteric lyrical poet. The genius and influence of Potgieter were very
considerable, but they were exceeded by the gifts of Nicolaes Beets
(q.v.), author of the famous _Camera Obscura_ (1836), a masterpiece of
humour and character. Johannes Pieter Hasebroek (1812-1896), who has
been called the Dutch Charles Lamb, wrote in 1840 an admirable
collection of essays entitled _Truth and Dreams_. Willem Hofdijk
(1816-1888) wrote a collection of ballads, _Kennemerland_ (1849-1852),
and a series of epic and dramatic poems in the romantic style. Bernard
ter Haar (1806-1881), an Amsterdam pastor and, in the last year of his
life, a professor at Utrecht, made a reputation as a poet by his
_Johannes and Theagenes, a legend of apostolic times_ (1838). His poems
were collected in 1866 and 1879. A poet of unusual power and promise was
lost in the early death of Pieter Augustus de Genestet (1803-1861). His
_Eve of Saint Nicholas_ appeared in 1849, and was followed by two
volumes of verse in 1851 and 1861, the second of which contains some
poems that have attained great popularity. Among the poets should not be
forgotten two writers of verse for children, Jan Pieter Heije
(1809-1876) and J.J.A. Gouverneur (1809-1889). Criticism was
represented by W.J.A. Jonckbloet (1817-1885), author of an excellent
_History of Dutch Literature_ (1868-1870), C. Busken Huet, and Jan ten
Brink (1834-1901), author of a great number of valuable works on
literary history, notably of a history of Dutch literature (1897), and a
series of biographies of 19th century Dutch writers (new edition, 1902).
His novels were collected in 13 volumes in 1885. With Isaak da Costa
(q.v.), W.J. van Zeggelen (1811-1879), and J.J.L. Ten Kate (q.v.),
the domestic tendency of Cats and Bilderdijk overpowered the influence
of romanticism. The romantic drama found its best exponent in H.J.
Schiminel (q.v.), who found a disciple in D.F. van Heyst (b. 1831),
whose _George van Lalaing_ was produced in 1873. Hugo Beijerman (ps.
Glanor) produced a good play in his _Uitgaan_ (1873), which was followed
by other successes. Rosier Faessen (b. 1833) published his dramatic
works in 1883.


  Recent developments.

The recent literature of Holland presents the interesting phenomenon of
an aesthetic revolution, carefully and cleverly planned, crowned with
unanticipated success, and dying away in a languor encouraged by the
complete absence of organized resistance. It would perhaps be difficult
to point to another European example so well defined of the vicissitudes
which keep the history of literature varied and fresh. For the thirty or
forty years preceding 1880 the course of _belles-lettres_ in Holland was
smooth and even sluggish. The Dutch writers had slipped into a
conventionality of treatment and a strict limitation of form from which
even the most striking talents among them could scarcely escape. In 1880
the most eminent authors of this early period were ready to pass away,
and they appeared to be preparing no successors to take their place. The
greatest humorist of Holland, Nicolaas Beets, had drawn his works
together. The most interesting novelist, Mrs Gertrude Bosboom-Toussaint,
had in her last psychological stories shown an unexpected sympathy with
new ideas. M.G.L. van Loghem (b. 1849), known under the pseudonym of
"Fiore delle Neve," made a great success by his _Een liefde in het
Zuiden_ (1881), followed in 1882 by _Liana_, and in 1884 by _Van eene
Sultane_. Among the novelists were Gerard Keller (b. 1829), author of
_From Home_ (1867); Johan Gram (b. 1833), of whose novels _De Familie
Schaffels_ (1870) is the best known; Hendrik de Veer (1829-1890), author
of _Frans Holster_ (1871); Justus van Maurik (b. 1846), who wrote plays
and short sketches of Amsterdam life (_Uit het Volk_, 1879), and Arnold
Buning (b. 1846), whose _Marine Sketches_ (1880) won great popularity.
The colonial novels of N. Marie C. Sloot, born in Java in 1853, are
widely read in Holland and Belgium, and many of them have been
translated into German. A number of them were collected (Schiedam,
1900-1902) as _Romantische Werken_. Adèle Opzoomer (b. 1856; pseud. A.
C.S. Wallis) made her first success in 1877 with _In Days of Strife_.
The two leading Dutch men of letters, however, besides Beets and Douwes
Dekker, were critics, Conrad Busken-Huet (q.v.) and Carel Vosmaer
(q.v.). In Huet the principles of the 1840-1880 period were summed up;
he had been during all those years the fearless and trusty watch-dog of
Dutch letters, as he understood them. He lived just long enough to
become aware that a revolution was approaching, not to comprehend its
character; but his accomplished fidelity to literary principle and his
wide knowledge have been honoured even by the most bitter of the younger
school. Vosmaer, although in certain directions more sympathetic than
Huet, and himself an innovator, has not escaped so easily, because he
has been charged with want of courage in accepting what he knew to be
inevitable.

In November 1881 there died a youth named Jacques Perk (1860-1881), who
had done no more than publish a few sonnets in the _Spectator_, a
journal published by Vosmaer. He was no sooner dead, however, than his
posthumous poems, and in particular a cycle of sonnets called
_Mathilde_, were published (1882), and awakened extraordinary emotion.
Perk had rejected all the formulas of rhetorical poetry, and had broken
up the conventional rhythms. There had been heard no music like his in
Holland for two hundred years. A group of young men, united in a sort of
esoteric adoration of the memory of Perk, collected around his name.
They joined to their band a man somewhat older than themselves,
Marcellus Emants (born 1848), poet, novelist and dramatist, who had come
forward in 1879 with a symbolical poem called _Lilith_, which had been
stigmatized as audacious and meaningless; encouraged by the admiration
of his juniors, Emants published in 1881 a treatise on _Young Holland_,
in the form of a novel in which the first open attack was made on the
old school. The next appearance was that of Willem Kloos (born 1857),
who had been the editor and intimate friend of Perk, and who now
undertook to lead the army of rebellion. His violent attacks on
recognized authority in aesthetics began in 1882, and created a
considerable scandal. For some time, however, the new poets and critics
found a great difficulty in being heard, since all the channels of
periodical literature were closed to them. But in 1883 Emants expressed
his intellectual aspirations in his poem _The Twilight of the Gods_, and
in 1884 the young school founded a review, _De Nieuwe Gids_, which was
able to offer a direct challenge to _De Gids_, the ultra-respectable
Dutch quarterly. In this year a new element was introduced: hitherto the
influences of the young Dutch poetry had chiefly come from England; they
were those of Shelley, Mrs Browning, the Rossettis. In 1884 Frans
Netscher began to imitate with avidity the French naturalists. For some
time, then, the new Dutch literature became a sort of mixture of Shelley
and Zola, very violent, heady and bewildering. In 1885 the _Persephone
and other Poems_ of Albert Verwey (b. 1865) introduced a lyrical poet of
real merit to Holland; Emants published his novel _Goudakker's
Illusions_. This was the great flowering moment of the new school. It
was at this juncture that the principal recent writer of Holland, Louis
Couperus (b. 1863), made his first definite appearance. Born in the
Hague, the opening years of his boyhood were spent in Java, and he had
preserved in all his nature a certain tropical magnificence. In 1884 a
little volume of lyrics, and in 1886 the more important _Orchids_,
showed in Couperus a poet whose sympathies were at first entirely with
the new school. But he was destined to be a novelist, and his earliest
story, _Eline Vere_ (1889), already took him out of the ranks of his
contemporaries. In 1890 he published _Destiny_ (known as _Footsteps of
Fate_ in the English version), and in 1892 _Ecstasy_. This was followed
in 1894 by _Majesty_, in 1896 by _World-wide Peace_, in 1898 by
_Metamorphosis_, a delicate study of character, in 1899 by Fidessa, in
1901 by _Quiet Force_, and in 1902 by the first volume of a tetralogy
called _The Books of Small Souls_. Of all these later books, some of
which have been translated into English, by Couperus, it is perhaps
_Ecstasy_ in which the peculiar quality of his work is seen at present
to the greatest advantage. This is an extreme sensitiveness to
psychological phenomena, expressed in terms of singular delicacy and
beauty. The talent of Couperus is like a rich but simple tropical flower
laden with colour and odour. He separated himself, as he developed, from
the more fanatical members of the group, and addressed himself to the
wider public. Another writer, of a totally different class, resembling
Couperus only in his defiance of the ruling system of aesthetics, is the
prominent Ultramontane politician and bishop, E.J.A.M. Schaepmann (born
1844), whose poem of _Aja Sofia_ originally appeared in 1886. Recent
novelists of some polemical vigour are H. Borel and van Hulzen. A very
delightful talent was revealed by Frederick van Eeden in _Little Johnny_
(1887), a prose fairy-tale; in _Ellen_ (1891), a cycle of mysterious and
musical elegies; and in _From the Cold Pools of Death_ (1901), a very
melancholy novel. Another poet of less refinement of spirit, but even
greater sumptuousness of form, appeared in Helène Swarth-Lapidoth (born
1859), whose _Pictures and Voices_ belongs to 1887. In that year also,
in which Dutch literature reached its height of fecundity, was published
the powerful and scandalous naturalistic novel, _A Love_, by L. van
Deyssel (K.J.L. Alberdingk Thijm) who had hitherto been known chiefly
as a most uncompromising critic. After 1887 the condition of modern
Dutch literature remained comparatively stationary, and within the last
decade of the 19th century was definitely declining. In 1889, it is
true, a new poet Herman Gorter, made his appearance with a volume of
strange verses called _May_, eccentric both in prosody and in treatment.
He held his own without any marked advance towards lucidity or variety.
Since the recognition of Gorter, however, no really remarkable talent
has made itself prominent in Dutch poetry, unless we except P.C.
Boutens, whose _Verses_ in 1898 were received with great respect. Willem
Kloos, still the acute and somewhat turbulent leader of the school,
collected his poems in 1894 and his critical essays in 1896. L. van
Deyssel, though an effective reviewer, continued to lack the erudition
which years should have brought to him. Gorter remained tenebrous,
Helène Swarth-Lapidoth still gorgeous; the others, with the exception of
Couperus, showed symptoms of sinking into silence. The entire school,
now that the struggle for recognition is over, and its members are
accepted as little classics and the tyrants of taste, rests on its
triumphs and seems to limit itself to a repetition of its old
experiments. The leading dramatist of the close of the century was
Hermann Heijermans (b. 1864), a Jew of strong realistic and socialistic
tendencies, and the author of innumerable gloomy plays. His _Ghetto_
(1898) and _Ora et Labora_ (1901) particularly display his peculiar
talent. Other notable products of drama are those of de Koo, whose
_Tobias Bolderman_ (1900) and _Vier Ton_ (1901) are effective comedies.
Dutch literature presented features of remarkable interest between 1882
and 1888, but since that time the general heightening of the average of
merit, the abandonment of the old dry conventions, and a recognition of
the artistic value of words and forms, are more evident to a foreign
observer than any very important single expression of the national
genius in literary art. An exception should be made in favour of the
powerful peasant-stories of Steijn Streuvels (Frank Lateur), a young
baker by trade, whose _Summer Land_ (1901) was a most promising
production.

  AUTHORITIES.--Dr W.J.A. Jonckbloet, _Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche
  Letterkunde_ (4th ed., 1889-1892); Dr J. ten Brink, _Kleine
  Geschiedenis der Nederlandschen Letteren_ (Haarlem, 1877); and the
  same author's _Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde_ (1897),
  with elaborate illustrations, facsimiles of MSS. and title pages, &c.;
  Dr J. van Vloten, _Schets van de Geschiedenis der Nederlandschen
  Letteren_ (1879); L. Schneider, _Geschichte der niederländischen
  Literatur_ (Leipzig, 1887); G. Kalff, _Literatuur en tooneel te
  Amsterdam in de zeventiende Eeuw_ (Haarlem, 1895).

  Interesting observations on the development of the new school in Dutch
  literature will be found in Willem Kloos, _Veertien Jaar
  Literatuur-Geschiedenis_ (2 vols., 1880-1896), and in L. van Deyssel,
  _Verzamelde Opstelen_ (4 vols., 1890-1897), and in the series of
  monographs and bibliographies by Prof. J. ten Brink, _Geschiedenis der
  Noord-Nederlandsche Letteren in de XIX^e Eeuw_ (Rotterdam, new ed.
  1902, &c.).     (E. G.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Edited by J.F. Willems (Brussels, 1836).

  [2] Edited by C.P. Serrure and Ph. Blommaert (Ghent, 1852-1854).

  [3] Edited by Dr E. Verwijs (Leiden, 1868).

  [4] Edited by L.P.C. v. den Bergh (Leiden, 1846-1847).

  [5] Edited by P. Leendertz (Leiden, 1845-1847).

  [6] Edited by Dr Jul. Zacher in Haupt's _Zeitschrift für deutsches
    Altertum_, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1842).

  [7] See Schotel, _Geschiedenis der Rederijkers in Nederland_
    (1862-1864), Amsterdam.

  [8] For Houwaert, see a study by K.F. Stallaert in the _Nederlandsch
    Museum_ (1885).

  [9] Ed. Dr W.L. van Helten (1875).

  [10] For Coornhert see also J. ten Brink, _D.V. Coornhert en zijne
    wellevenkunst_ (Amsterdam, 1860).

  [11] The best edition is by P. Vlaming (Amsterdam, 1723).

  [12] On Visscher and his daughters see N. Beets, _Al de gedichten van
    Anna Roemers Visscher_ (1881), and E. Gosse, _Studies in the
    Literature of Northern Europe_ (1879).

  [13] See J. ten Brink, _G.A. Brederoo_ (Utrecht, 1859; 3rd ed.
    1887-1888); also J.H.W. Unger, _Brederoo, eine Bibliographie_
    (1884). His works were edited (3 vols., 1885-1890) by J. ten Brink
    and others.

  [14] See R.A. Kollewijn's edition of _Samuel Coster's Werken_
    (1883).

  [15] See Dr W. Bisschop, _Justus van Effen ..._ (Utrecht, 1859).

  [16] See Dr J. van Vloten, _Leven enwerken van Willem en Onno van
    Haren_ (1874), and Busken-Huet, _De van Harens_ (1875).

  [17] See Dr J. van Vloten, _Elisabeth Wolff ..._ (1880).



DUTCH WARS, a convenient general title for a series of European wars
between 1652 and 1678, which centred chiefly upon the political and
commercial relations of the Netherlands with England and France. By
Englishmen the term "Dutch Wars" is usually applied to the two purely
naval wars of 1652-53 and 1663-67 and to the Anglo-Dutch or naval part
of the war that began in 1672. But the last of these was part of a much
wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War
of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their
struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by
the genius of Turenne and Condé.


I. NAVAL OPERATIONS

_First Dutch War (1652-53)._--Though political causes were at work, the
main incentive to hostility between the peoples was commercial rivalry.
It was therefore natural that their first encounters should have taken
place between fleets engaged in convoying trade, or in endeavouring to
intercept the trade of their enemy. Blows were exchanged before war was
formally declared. On the 12th of May 1652 an English officer, Captain
Young, stopped a Dutch convoy near the Start in order to enforce the
salute to the English flag, which England then demanded from all who
used the seas round her coast. The demand was resisted, and was only
yielded to after a sharp conflict. Though the Dutch were still
endeavouring to negotiate a peace with the Council of State which
governed in the British Isles after the execution Of King Charles I.,
they made ready for war. In May forty sail of their war-ships appeared
off Dover under command of Martin Harpertzoon Tromp--then the best known
of their admirals. There were then 8 British ships in Dover under
Rear-Admiral Nicholas Bourne, and 15 near Rye under Robert Blake, a
member of parliament, and soldier who had gained a great reputation in
the Civil War. Blake came into the Straits of Dover with his ships, and
on the 19th of May a sharp collision took place between him and Tromp.
Bourne joined his countryman after the action began. The encounter,
which the Dutch attributed to the English, and the English to the Dutch,
made war inevitable, even if the relations of the two powers had allowed
of the maintenance of peace. The first operations on both sides took the
form of attacks on trade. Sir George Ayscue, who had lately returned
from the West Indies, whither he had been sent to subdue the Royalist
party in Barbados, had a sharp encounter with a Dutch convoy while on
his way up Channel to the Downs, and had captured several prizes. The
Council of State, being mainly anxious to destroy the Dutch trade and
fisheries, began by reinforcing Blake, and sending him north to scatter
the Dutch herring fleet. He had with him 60 vessels. Ayscue remained in
the Downs with 16. Soon after Blake had gone, Tromp appeared in the
Downs with a stronger force and threatened an attack on Ayscue. Want of
wind prevented the operation. Tromp was also most intent on collecting
the home-coming Dutch convoys, and seeing them safe into port. He
therefore also sailed north to meet the Baltic trade. No meeting,
however, took place between him and Blake, while bad weather scattered
the Dutch. Their herring fishery was ruined for the year, and the outcry
against Tromp was loud. He was notoriously no friend to the Loevenstein
party then prevalent in Holland, and was displaced, his place being
taken by Cornelius de Witt and Michiel Adriaanzoon de Ruyter. De Ruyter
was sent into the Channel to convoy the outward-bound convoys, and meet
the home-coming trade. On the 16th of August he had an encounter off
Plymouth with Ayscue, whom he worsted, and then cruised at the Land's
End. The failure of Ayscue, who was not employed again in this war,
induced the Council of State to send Blake, who had now returned from
the north, into the Channel. He was not, however, more successful. His
fleet was allowed to become scattered, and the Dutchman brought his
convoy back safe after a partial action with Penn, Blake's subordinate,
on the 16th of August.

So far the operations had been confined to commerce destroying, or to
the protection of trade by convoy. The next moves were more purely
warlike. In the 27th of September the Dutch appeared in force off the
mouth of the Thames, and Blake, whose fleet was collected in the Downs,
stood to sea. On the 28th of September the first real battle of the war
was fought off the Kentish Knock, a shoal opposite the coast of Essex.
The English fleet standing to the north passed to west of the Dutch, and
then turned. In the close engagement which followed, the Dutch were
defeated. They did not fight well, and their failure was attributed in
part to the discontent of their seamen with the removal of Tromp, and
the unpopularity of de Witt. The states-general found it necessary to
replace Tromp, who was at once sent to sea, again with the charge of
seeing the outward-bound trade down Channel, and waiting for the
homeward-bound. Blake had not remained on the coast of Holland, for the
Council of State was still almost as intent as the Dutch on convoying
trade or molesting the enemy's. It brought its fleet back, and then
divided the ships, sending some to the north with Penn, and keeping the
others, 40 in all, with Blake in the Downs. Thus when Tromp appeared "at
the back of the Goodwins" with a fleet of 80 war-ships and a crowd of
merchant vessels on the 29th of November, Blake was not in a position to
engage him with any assured prospect of success. But he made the
attempt, and a hot engagement took place off Dungeness on the 30th. Two
English vessels were taken, and the loss would have been greater if some
of the English captains had not shown themselves backward. Many of the
ships were merchant vessels pressed or hired, and commanded by their own
skippers, who displayed little military spirit. Blake, who offered to
resign, complained of the conduct of many of them, and some were
punished. The Council of State saw the necessity for making a strong
effort against Tromp, who ranged the Channel unopposed. Penn was
recalled from the north, Richard Deane and George Monk were united with
Blake as "admirals and generals at sea," and a competent force was
collected by the middle of February. The legend (for it is nothing more)
that Tromp hoisted a broom at his mainmast-head to announce his
intention to sweep the English off the sea, refers to this period.

On the 18th of February 1653 the Dutch admiral, who had now collected
the homeward-bound convoys, was off Plymouth on his way back to Holland,
and was attacked by the English fleet. The encounter, which lasted from
the 18th to the 20th of February and ranged from Plymouth to Calais, is
commonly named the "Three Days' Battle" and was described by Clarendon
as "stupendous." The Dutch admiral brought his charge of merchant ships
up Channel between him and the French shore. His war-ships were arranged
in what was called a half-moon, and was in fact an obtuse angle with his
flagship, the "Brederode," at the apex. During the 18th and 19th, the
attacks of the English though fierce were partial, and met with no great
success. Tromp had to complain of the conduct of several of his
captains. On the 20th his line was broken and some 60 of his merchant
ships were captured. He anchored in some confusion in Calais roads. Yet
by taking advantage of the dark, and the turn of the tide, he succeeded
in carrying the great majority of his merchant ships home. The English
fleet had suffered severely, Blake himself was seriously wounded, and
his colleague Deane was also hurt. Blake's wound disabled him greatly
through the remainder of the war.

The Three Days' Battle was followed by a pause in the war. On the
English side much damage had to be repaired. The administration of the
navy, called upon as it was to deal with a war of unprecedented
magnitude, was overtaxed by the obligation to refit ships, raise crews,
and provide for the numerous sick or wounded. The close approach of the
great political crisis in which Cromwell expelled the Long Parliament
and established the Protectorate (17th of April 1653), may have had some
influence. The fleet adhered to the new government on the 22nd of April.
On the Dutch side much damage had to be repaired, and their complicated
administration, by five independent admiralty boards, rendered rapid
work impossible. They had also begun to realize that the quality of
their ships was inferior. Reflection had further shown them that to
hamper their fleets by imposing the direct protection of a great flock
of merchant ships on them was not even an effectual way to protect
commerce. When, therefore, Tromp was next sent to sea, it was with an
unhampered fleet of war-ships, and for the purpose of bringing the
English fleet to battle.

In spite of their heavy losses and their awkward administration, the
Dutch were at sea before the end of May, and were close to the mouth of
the Thames. The English fleet was not all ready. Part was in the river
fitting out under Blake, who had not fully recovered from his wound. The
bulk of it was, however, ready for service, and Blake's colleagues, Monk
and Deane, attacked Tromp on the 2nd of June. Changes of wind made the
battle somewhat confused. At first the English were to windward and they
bore down with Rear-Admiral John Lawson in command of the van. Tromp,
conscious that his ships were weaker in build, at first drew away,
firing at the spars of the English ships in order to cripple them. A
shift of the wind having given him the weather-gage, he concentrated a
vigorous attack on Lawson. But the wind changed again and transferred
the weather-gage to the English. Monk and Deane brought on a general
action, in which the Dutch were outmatched, and forced to retreat to
their own coast. Deane was slain by a cannon-shot by the side of his
colleague Monk, who threw his cloak over the mangled body. Blake,
informed by the sound of the cannon, which was audible on the Thames,
that an action was in progress, hurried to sea and joined Monk in the
pursuit of the Dutch on the 3rd of June. Tromp was driven into port and
told the states-general that they must build better ships if they wished
to beat the English at sea. Blake was forced by his still unhealed wound
to go ashore, and the sole command was left to Monk, who remained
cruising on the coast of Holland. The states-general now sought for
peace, but Cromwell's demands were excessive, and could not be accepted
without a surrender of the independence of Holland. A last effort was
therefore made to regain the command of the sea. A great fleet was
fitted out, partly at Flushing, partly in the Texel. Between the 26th
and the 30th of July Tromp, by a series of skilful manoeuvres, united
the divided Dutch squadrons in the face of Monk's fleet, and on the 30th
he stood out to sea with the wind in his favour, and gave battle. More
than a hundred vessels were engaged on either side. The Dutch admiral
manoeuvred to keep, and Monk to gain, the weather-gage. The fleets
passed on opposite tacks, and the Dutch tried to destroy their enemy
with fire-ships without success. At last the weatherly qualities of the
ships enabled Monk to break through the Dutch line, cutting some of
their ships off from the others. The vessels thus cut off fled to the
Maas, and Tromp with the others retired to the Texel. He was shot dead
by a musket bullet in the retreat. The loss of life had been heavy on
both sides. Six captains of Monk's fleet were slain. The Dutch now
sought peace, and Cromwell offered better terms. During the fighting in
the North Sea the Mediterranean trade of England had suffered severely.
A squadron of trading ships and a few war vessels were blocked in
Italian ports till some of them were taken and others forced to flee in
March 1653 off Leghorn. The battle of the 31st of July was the last
serious operation of the war, though peace was not formally made till
some months later.

_Second Dutch War (1663-67)._--Although the formal declaration of war
was not made by the government of King Charles II. till March 1665, the
operations of the second Dutch War began in October 1663. The king and
his brother the duke of York (James II.), who were largely interested in
the slave-trading Guinea Company, were eager to remove the Dutch ports
from the slave coast. They knew that war with the Republic, which had
recovered very rapidly from the disasters of the war of 1652-53, would
be popular with the trading classes in England. They relied also on the
known reluctance of the Dutch government to go to war. In October 1663,
therefore, a squadron was sent out under command of Sir Robert Holmes to
attack the Dutch in Gambia and America. Their posts on the African coast
were captured and New Amsterdam (now New York) taken. The states-general
under the skilful management of the Grand Pensionary, John de Witt,
retaliated by sending de Ruyter from the Mediterranean, where he was
cruising against the Barbary pirates, to follow Holmes. De Ruyter
re-established the Dutch posts in Gambia, and, though he failed to
retake New Amsterdam, did much injury to English trade before he
returned to Holland. It may be pointed out that all colonial settlements
belonged at that time exclusively to England, and the war was made
entirely by her, and in her interest, Scotland and Ireland having no
share. Numbers of Scotch sailors and of English deserters served in the
Dutch fleet in this war--the bad administration of the navy and the
constant ill-treatment of the crews having caused bitter discontent.
Other attacks were made on Dutch trade during 1664, but the great
operations of war did not begin till May 1665. In that month the duke of
York was on the east coast of England with a fleet of 80 to 90 sail,
composed, according to the custom of the time, of vessels of all sizes.
A Dutch fleet of corresponding strength was sent to sea, under command
of Baron Opdam van Wassenaer. In this war we do not find that the
movements of fleets were subordinated to the work of providing convoy.
They were sent to sea for the much more intelligent purpose of seeking
out the enemy and driving him off. It was understood that the trade of
the victor would be secure.

The first battle took place from 30 to 40 m. S.E. of Lowestoft, on the
3rd of June 1665. By the bad conduct of some of the captains in the
centre of the Dutch line, the English, who fought with much spirit, were
able to win a considerable victory. Opdam's flagship was blown up and he
perished. But the pursuit of the English fleet was feeble, and the
retreat of the Dutch was ably covered by Cornelius van Tromp, son of
Martin Tromp. Much scandal was caused by the mysterious circumstances in
which an order to shorten sail was given in the English flagship, and
doubts were expressed of the courage of the duke of York. He withdrew,
or was withdrawn, from the active command at sea, and was replaced by
the earl of Sandwich. On the Dutch side vigorous measures were taken to
enforce good discipline. Four of the captains who had misbehaved on the
3rd of June were shot for cowardice, and others were dismissed. De
Ruyter was named commander-in-chief, and John de Witt, or later his
brother Cornelius, accompanied the admiral as delegate of the
states-general to support his authority. The earl of Sandwich did
nothing becoming a capable commander. Under his command the fleet made
no attempt to blockade the Dutch coast, but was turned from its proper
work to engage in a prize-hunting plot with the king of Denmark. The
object was to plunder a Dutch convoy which had taken refuge at Bergen in
Norway, then united to Denmark. The mutual interest of the associates
led to the failure of the plot. Sir Thomas Teddeman, who was sent by
Sandwich to attack the Dutch at Bergen, was suspected by the Danish
governor of intending to play false, was fired on by the batteries, and
was beaten off. De Ruyter covered the return of the trade to Holland.
Sandwich, who had taken some prizes, unlawfully seized part of their
cargoes for the benefit of himself and the other flag officers. A loud
outcry was raised in the fleet and the country. Sandwich was displaced,
and his command was transferred to Monk, with whom was associated the
king's cousin, Prince Rupert. The war had so far been unsuccessful for
England. The victory of the 3rd of June was barren. Great injury was
inflicted on English trade by Dutch cruisers, while the wasteful
administration of his officers reduced the king's treasury to much
embarrassment. Winter suspended the movements of the fleets.

The year 1666 (called the _annus mirabilis_, for it included the plague
and the fire of London) was marked by fierce fighting and changes of
fortune. The French, who had signed a treaty with Holland in 1662, were
reluctantly induced to intervene in the war as the enemies of England.
By May a Dutch fleet of some eighty sail was at sea, preparing to watch
the English, and unite with the French. Monk and Rupert were fitting out
a fleet of nearly the same strength in the Thames. Under the influence
of their fear of a French naval force King Charles's ministers committed
a great blunder. They detached Prince Rupert into the Channel with 20
ships, leaving Monk with only 57 to face the Dutch. The English
commander put to sea, and found the enemy anchored on the coast of
Flanders, in three divisions. He boldly attacked the van, hoping to
cripple it before it could be helped by the centre and rear. This daring
and well-judged move brought on the Four Days' Battle of the 1st, 2nd,
3rd and 4th of June (O.S.). On the 1st the Dutch van, under Cornelius
van Tromp, bore the brunt of the English attack. The fighting was very
fierce. One English admiral, Sir William Berkeley, was slain, and
another, Sir John Harman, was in great danger. Monk drew off at night
without doing all the harm he had wished to the Dutch. During the 2nd of
June the fleets engaged again, and on this day the self-will of Van
Tromp, who commanded the rear in the battle, and the misconduct of some
of the ships in the van, prevented De Ruyter from making full use of his
numbers. Yet Monk was clearly overtaxed, and on the 3rd he prepared to
retreat to the Thames. During this movement the "Prince" (100) carrying
the flag of Admiral Sir Robert Ayscue, ran on the Galloper Sand, and was
lost. In the evening Prince Rupert returned, and by hugging the coast of
Kent to the south of the fleets, was able to rejoin his colleague. Monk
and Rupert renewed the battle on the 4th. It was fought with extreme
fury, and terminated in the retreat of the English to the Thames with a
loss of 20 ships and 6000 men.

The Dutch remained masters of the approach to the Thames till the 21st
of July. They menaced the coast of Essex, and could easily have covered
an invasion of England by a French army if Louis XIV. had been disposed
to send one. Danger stimulated the English government to active
exertions, and by the 21st of July Monk and Rupert were enabled by a
happy combination of wind and tide to set to sea through the passage
called the Swin. A storm which scattered both fleets delayed their
meeting till the 25th of July. On that and the two succeeding days the
Dutch were again defeated and driven into port. The English fleet then
burnt the Dutch East India Company's dockyard at Terschelting,
inflicting great loss. But the fruits of the victory were less than they
would have been if it had been properly followed up. The British fleet
withdrew to its own coast and within a month De Ruyter was at sea again,
hoping to effect a junction with a French squadron. The French failed to
keep tryst, and De Ruyter was watched by Rupert, who was now in sole
command, Monk having been recalled to London to take command amid the
confusion caused by the fire and the plague. Nor did the failure of King
Charles's government to press the war with vigour end here. Embarrassed
by want of money, on bad terms with his parliament, and secretly intent
on schemes incompatible with a policy which could earn the approval of
his subjects, the king preferred to spend what money he could command on
raising troops, and neglected his fleet. Peace negotiations were begun
with the Dutch, and the line-of-battle ships were put out of commission.
A light squadron was, however, kept at sea to injure the Dutch trade,
and as no armistice was arranged the Republic was free to continue
warlike operations. The Dutch, being well aware of the disarmed
condition of the English coast, sent out a powerful fleet again under
the command of De Ruyter in June. It entered the Thames, forced the
entrance of the Medway, and burnt both the dockyard at Chatham and a
number of the finest ships in the navy which were lying in the river. A
terrible panic prevailed in London, where an attack was expected. The
Dutch were content with the injury they had done at Chatham, and dropped
down the river. De Ruyter remained cruising in the Channel till the
peace of Breda was signed in July. During the last months of the war Sir
John Harman had fought a successful campaign in the West Indies against
the French on whom he inflicted a severe defeat at Martinique ~~ on the
24th of June. By the terms of the peace England retained possession of
New York, but the war, though it contained some passages glorious to her
arms, was very disastrous to her commerce.

_Third Dutch War (1672-74)._--This war differed very materially in its
inception and conduct from the first and second. They had been popular
in England, and even the second gave Englishmen not a little to be proud
of. The third was undertaken by the king in pursuit of a policy arranged
between him and his cousin Louis XIV. Their avowed object was a
partition of Holland, but there was a secret understanding that King
Charles II. was to establish Roman Catholicism, and to make himself
despotic in England, with the help of the French king. This hidden
purpose was suspected, and the war became intensely unpopular with the
English parliament and nation. Parliament would grant the king no
supplies, and he could find the means of fitting out a fleet only by
defrauding his creditors. The English fleets were, therefore,
comparatively small, were ill-provided and had to co-operate with French
squadrons which in the then raw state of King Louis' young navy, proved
inefficient allies.

In this as in former wars, attacks on Dutch commerce preceded a formal
declaration of hostilities. On the 13th of March 1672 Sir Robert Holmes
fell upon a Dutch convoy under the command of Van Ness in the Channel.
In the penury of the dockyards Holmes could not be provided with the
force he was promised, and the enterprise was but partially successful.
It was characteristic of the morality of his time and the spirit of the
English navy as it had been shaped by the corrupt government of Charles
II., that the officers concerned quarrelled violently and accused one
another of fraud. A fleet of 60 sail was with difficulty got together
under the duke of York, who now went to sea for the second time. The
duke was joined in May, and at Portsmouth, by 40 French ships under the
comte d'Estrées, a soldier and noble who had been made an admiral late
in life. The allies entered the North Sea but did not take the offensive
against the Dutch. The English were ill supplied, and were compelled to
anchor at Southwold Bay on the coast of Suffolk in order to obtain water
and provisions. The Dutch, who had to contend with an overwhelming
French invasion on shore, nevertheless fitted out a fleet of 70 to 80
sail of the line and the command was given to De Ruyter. On the 28th of
May 1672 he fell upon the allies in a N.W. wind. D'Estrées, who was
stationed with his squadron at the south end of the line, went to sea on
the port tack, heading to the S.E. The English, who constituted the
centre and rear, stood out on the starboard tack. Thus the allies were
at once divided into two widely separated bodies, and the Dutch admiral
was able to concentrate nearly his whole force on the centre division,
which suffered severely. The flagship of the duke of York, the "Prince"
(100), was so shattered that he was compelled to leave her, and go to
the "St Michael." The "Royal James" (100), the flagship of his second in
command, the earl of Sandwich, after being much shattered by the Dutch
artillery, was set alight by a fire-ship, and destroyed with enormous
loss of life. The earl himself perished. His body was picked up three
days afterwards, so disfigured that it was only recognized by the star
on his coat. The ships at the head of the English line at last tacked to
the support of the centre, and at evening De Ruyter drew off. A foolish
attempt was made to claim his retreat as a victory, but the allies were
too severely damaged to attempt an attack on the Dutch during the rest
of the year. The Republic was so hard pressed by the French invasion
that it had to land the gunpowder from its ships for the service of its
army.

In 1673 the allies made an effort to invade Holland from the sea coast.
Prince Rupert replaced the duke of York, who as a Roman Catholic was
driven from office by the newly passed Test Act. He was supplied with 54
ships and was joined early in the year by d'Estrées with 27. Soldiers
were embarked, and in May the allied fleet stood over to the Dutch
coast. The distress of the Republic prevented it from equipping more
than 55 ships, but the patriotism of the race was roused to white heat,
and in De Ruyter they possessed an admiral of consummate skill and
heroic character. He took up an anchorage at Schooneveld and stood on
his guard. On the 28th of May Rupert and d'Estrées, believing that De
Ruyter was too much afraid of their superior numbers to venture to sea,
sent in a squadron of light vessels and fire-ships to attack him, but he
took the offensive at once, scattering the light squadron, and falling
with energy on the rest of the fleet, which, not being in expectation of
a vigorous assault, was taken at a disadvantage. On this occasion the
English placed the French in the centre, in order to avoid such a
separation as had taken place in the battle at Southwold Bay. But the
disposition made no difference in the result. De Ruyter concentrated on
the van and centre of the allies, and in spite of his great inferiority
of numbers was able to be superior at the point of attack. The allies
were compelled to retreat, and De Ruyter, satisfied with having averted
the invasion of his country, anchored at West-Kappel.

Seven days later, on the 4th of June, a second encounter took place. The
French were now placed in the rear of the line as it engaged. The Dutch
admiral, who had the advantage of the wind, fell on the English in the
van and centre. His inferiority in numbers did not allow him to push his
attack quite home, but he inflicted so much injury that the allies were
forced to return to the Thames to refit. At the end of July the allies
again appeared off the coast of Holland, bringing four thousand soldiers
in the war-ships and two thousand in transports. De Ruyter's fleet had
been raised to 70 vessels, but the allies had also been reinforced and
were 90 strong. On the 11th of August the Dutch admiral kept in the
shallow waters of the coast looking for a favourable opportunity to
attack. On the 11th of August the wind, which had been westerly, turned
to the S.E., giving him the weather gage. The French division was
leading, and De Ruyter fell furiously upon the English in the centre and
rear. The French were kept in play by a small squadron under Bankert,
while De Ruyter drove Prince Rupert in the centre out of the line, and
in the rear Cornelius van Tromp fought a desperate duel with the English
rear division commanded by Sir E. Spragge. The two admirals engaged in a
species of personal conflict, and each was compelled to shift his flag
to another vessel. While Sir E. Spragge, whose second flagship was
shattered by the Dutch fire, was on his way to a third, his boat was
sunk by a cannon shot and he was drowned.

The defeat of the allies was undeniable, and a violent quarrel broke out
between them. Want of money, and the increasing violence of popular
opposition to the French alliance, compelled the king to withdraw from
the war. Peace was made in the following spring.

In this war, which presented no features of a creditable kind, the loss
to English commerce from Dutch cruisers was so great that it was found
necessary to suspend the clause of the navigation act which forbade the
purchase of foreign-built vessels.

As England withdrew from her alliance with Louis XIV., the other powers
of Europe, frightened by the growth of the aggressive French power,
began to come forward to the support of Holland. The coalition then
formed continued the struggle till 1678. But the war was conducted
mainly on the land. The French king, who knew that his fleet was not as
yet capable of meeting the Dutch single-handed, was content to withdraw
his ships from the North Sea and the ocean. The Dutch, who had to pay
subventions to their German allies, and to support a large army, could
spare little for their fleet. For some time they willingly confined
themselves to efforts to protect their commerce from French privateers.
In 1674 a revolt of the people of Sicily against their Spanish rulers
gave the French king an opportunity of seizing the island. Spain, unable
to defend its possessions single-handed, appealed to the Dutch for naval
help. In September 1675 De Ruyter was sent into the Mediterranean with
18 sail of the line and four fire-ships. The force was inadequate, but
it was all that Holland could spare. The Dutch admiral, who was hampered
rather than helped by his Spanish allies, did his best to make good his
weakness by skilful management. He cruised off Messina to intercept the
supplies which were being brought to the French garrison by a fleet of
20 sail under the command of Abraham Duquesne. Conscious that he must
spare his small force as much as possible, he abstained from such
vigorous attacks as he had made in 1672 and 1673. When Duquesne appeared
on the 7th of January 1676 near the Lipari Islands, De Ruyter allowed
them to get the weather-gage, and on the 8th of January waited passively
for their attack. The French, with more recklessness than was usual with
them in later times, bore down on their enemy courageously but in some
disorder. Their leading ships were severely mauled, and their whole
force so crippled that they could make no pursuit of the Dutch when they
drew off, their injured ships being towed by the Spanish galleys, in the
late afternoon. Duquesne was able to reach Messina and join the French
ships at anchor there. De Ruyter made his way to Palermo, which was in
the hands of the Spaniards. One of his vessels sank on the way and he
was reduced to 17. It is true that his allies provided him with 10 ships
of their own, but the Spanish navy had sunk to abject inefficiency.
Their commander, the marquis of Bayona, arrogantly insisted on occupying
the centre of the line with his worthless squadron instead of allowing
his ships to be scattered among the Dutch for support. When on the 22nd
of April the allies, 27 strong, met the fleet of Duquesne, 29 ships, off
Agosta, they attacked from windward. De Ruyter, who led the van, was
mortally wounded. The Spaniards in the centre behaved very ill, and no
victory was gained. The serious fighting was, in fact, confined to the
vans of the two fleets. After the battle the allies retired to Syracuse,
where De Ruyter died, and where their ships were mostly destroyed by the
French a month later. Reinforcements sent out from Holland were stopped
in the Straits of Gibraltar and blockaded in Cadiz. The French remained
masters of the Mediterranean. In the meantime, however, angry disputes
had arisen between France and England. King Louis XIV. enforced his
belligerent rights at sea with as much disregard of neutral interests as
was shown by England in later times. His naval officers insisted on
making prize of all Dutch-built vessels found under the English flag. In
1678 war seemed imminent between France and England. King Louis then
withdrew his soldiers from Sicily, and made the peace of Nijmwegen.

  AUTHORITIES.--For the English side, see _Naval History of England_, by
  Thomas Lediard (London, 1735); _Memorials of Sir W. Penn_, by
  Grenville Penn (London, 1833); _The First Dutch War, 1652-1654_,
  edited by S.R. Gardiner for the Navy Record Society (1899). For the
  Dutch side: _Het Leven un Bedryf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter_, by
  Gerard Brandt (Amsterdam, 1687); _Geschiedenis van den Nederlandsche
  Zeewegen_, by J.C. de Jongke (Haarlem, 1858); _Annales des
  Provinces-Unies_, by J. Basnages de Beauval (The Hague, 1726). For the
  French side; _Abraham du Quesne et la marine de son temps_, by A. Jal
  (Paris, 1873). For the small Spanish share; _Armada Española_, by
  Captain Cesareo Fernandez Duro (Madrid, 1895-1901). For critical
  studies of these wars the reader may be referred to _Naval Warfare_,
  by Rear-admiral P.H. Colomb (London, 1899), and _The Influence of Sea
  Power upon History_, by Captain A.T. Mahan.     (D. H.)


II. OPERATIONS ON LAND

The contemporary military history of Europe included, first, the war
between France and Spain, 1654-59, usually called the Spanish Fronde, of
which the most notable incident was the great battle of the Dunes fought
on the 14th of June 1658 between the French and English under Turenne
and the Spaniards under Condé, in which a contingent of Cromwell's
soldiers bore a conspicuous part. About the same time a war was fought
in northern Europe (1655-60), celebrated chiefly for the three days'
battle of Warsaw (28th, 29th, 30th July 1656), and the successful
invasion of Denmark by the Swedes, carried out from island to island
over the frozen sea (February 1658), and culminating in a long siege of
Copenhagen (1658-59). Between the second and third wars of England and
the United Provinces came the short War of Devolution (1667-68)--a war
of sieges in the Low Countries in which the French were commanded
chiefly by Turenne. In 1668 the French under Condé made a rapid conquest
of Franche-Comté. This was, however, given up at the peace. The war of
1672-78, the first of the three great wars of Louis XIV., was fought on
a grander scale.

_Invasion of Holland, 1672._--The diplomacy of Louis had, before the
outbreak of war, deprived Holland of her allies--England (treaty of
Dover, 1670), Sweden (treaty of Stockholm, 1672) and the emperor, and
when he declared war on the United Provinces in March 1672, it seemed
that the Dutch could offer little resistance. The French army under
Louis in person started from Charleroi and marched down the Meuse
unopposed. The powerful Dutch fortress of Maastricht was masked, and the
French then moved towards Düsseldorf. In the electorate of Cologne they
were in friendly country, and the main army soon moved down the Rhine
from Düsseldorf, the corps of Turenne on the left bank, that of Condé on
the right. At the same time a corps under Marshal Luxemburg, composed of
Louis' German allies (Cologne and Münster) moved from Westphalia towards
Over-Yssel and Groningen. The Rhine fortresses offered but little
resistance to the advance of Turenne and Condé. William of Orange with a
weak field army tried to defend the Yssel-Rhine line, but the French
rapidly forced the passage of the Rhine at Tollhuis (June 12th) and
passed into the Betuwe (between the Leck and the Waal). Condé now
advised a cavalry raid on Amsterdam, but Louis, acting on the suggestion
of the war minister Louvois, preferred to reduce Nijmwegen, Gorinchem
and other places, before entering Utrecht province. Condé's plan was,
however, partially carried out by Count Rochefort, who with 1800
troopers captured successively Amersfoort and Naarden. His further
progress was checked at Muyden, which the Dutch garrisoned in the nick
of time, and he returned to the main army, taking Utrecht _en route_.
Louis now moved on Amsterdam, brushing aside the feeble opposition which
was offered, and it seemed that the French must achieve their object in
one short campaign. But the Dutch people were roused. The month before,
the citizens of Utrecht had refused to raze their suburban villas, and
defence of the fortifications had consequently been impossible. Now, the
dykes were cut and the sluices opened, and Amsterdam was covered by a
wide inundation, against which the invader was powerless. At the same
time the men of Zealand repulsed a French raid from Ath on Ardenburg,
and this infraction of the neutrality of the Spanish Netherlands served
but to raise up another enemy for Louis. Luxemburg too, at first
successful, was repulsed before Groningen. A revolution placed William
of Orange at the head of the government. The alliance of Brandenburg and
the Mainz electorate had already been secured, and Spain, justly fearing
for the safety of her Flemish possessions, soon joined them. The emperor
followed, and Louis was now opposed, not by one state, but by a
formidable coalition.

_War against the Coalition._--In the autumn the war spread to the Rhine.
No attempt could be made on Amsterdam until the ice should cover the
floods. Turenne was therefore despatched to Westphalia and Condé to
Alsace, while a corps of observation was formed on the Meuse to watch
the Spanish Netherlands. But the coalition had not yet developed its
full strength, and Turenne's skill checked the advance of the
Imperialists under Montecucculi and of the Brandenburgers under the
Great Elector. A war of manoeuvre on the middle Rhine ended in favour of
the French, and the allies then turned against the territories of
Cologne and Münster, while William, disappointed in his hopes of joining
forces with his friends, made a bold, but in the end unsuccessful, raid
on Charleroi (September-December 1672). The allies in Germany were now
not merely checked but driven from point to point by Turenne, who on
this occasion displayed a degree of energy rare in the military history
of the period. The troops of Cologne and Münster formed part of his
army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after
a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre,
was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the
Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June
6th, 1673). Turenne then turned his attention to the Imperialists who
were assembling in Bohemia, and made ready to meet them at Wetzlar.
Meanwhile the other French armies were fully employed. Corps of
observation were formed in Roussillon and Lorraine. Condé in Holland was
to renew his efforts against the Amsterdam defences; during the winter
the demands of the war on the Rhine had reduced the French forces in the
provinces to the size of a mere army of occupation.[1] Louis' own army,
originally collected for the relief of Charleroi in December, advanced
on Maastricht, and after a brief siege, in which Vauban directed the
besiegers, captured this most important fortress (June 29th, 1673). But
this was the last success of the French armies in the campaign. Condé
made no headway against Amsterdam, and William retook Naarden (September
14th). Louis, after the capture of Maastricht led his army southwards
into Lorraine and overran the electorate of Trier. But nothing of
importance was gained, and Turenne's summer campaign was wholly
unsuccessful.

_Capture of Bonn._--From Wetzlar he moved to Aschaffenburg, Louis at the
same time keeping back, for the intended conquest of Franche-Comté, many
soldiers who would have been more usefully employed in Germany. Soon the
Imperialists advanced in earnest, greatly superior in numbers. Marching
via Eger and Nuremberg (September 3rd) on the Main, Montecucculi drew
Turenne to the valley of the Tauber; then, having persuaded the bishop
of Würzburg to surrender the bridge of that place, he passed to the
right bank of the Main before Turenne could intervene. The Imperialists
soon arrived at Frankfort, and the French position was turned.
Montecucculi thus achieved one of the greatest objects of the 17th
century strategist, the wearing down of the enemy in repeated and
useless marches. The French retreat to the Rhine was painful and costly,
and Montecucculi then passed that river at Mainz and made for Trier.
Turenne followed, unable to do more than conform to his opponent's
movements, and took post to defend Trier and Alsace. Thereupon
Montecucculi turned northward to meet William of Orange, who evaded
Condé's weak army and marched rapidly via Venló (22nd October) on
Coblenz. The elector of Trier, who had not forgotten the depredations of
Louis' army in the spring, followed the example of the bishop of
Würzburg and gave a free passage at Coblenz. William and Montecucculi
joined forces in the electorate and promptly besieged Bonn. This
fortress fell on the 12th of November, and the troops of the coalition
gained possession of an unbroken line from Amsterdam to the Breisgau,
while Louis' German allies (Cologne and Münster), now isolated, had to
make peace at once. William wintered in Holland, Montecucculi in Cologne
and Jülich, and the Spaniards, who had served with William, in their own
provinces of the Meuse. A century after the outbreak of the War of
Independence the Dutch and the Spaniards are thus found making war as
allies, a striking proof of the fact that all questions but those of
dynastic interests had been effectually settled by the peace of
Westphalia. Louis' allies were leaving him one by one. The German
princes and the empire itself rallied to the emperor, Denmark joined the
coalition (January 1674), the Great Elector re-entered the war, and soon
afterwards England made peace.

_1674._--In 1674 therefore Louis reluctantly evacuated those of the
United Provinces occupied by his army. He had derived a considerable
revenue from the enemy's country, and he had moreover quartered his
troops without expense. The resources of the French government were
almost intact for the coming campaign; the corps of observation in
Roussillon was continued, and its commander, Marshal Schomberg, made a
successful campaign against the Spaniards, and the war was carried even
into Sicily. Condé, in the Spanish Low Countries, opposed with inferior
forces the united army of Spaniards, Dutch and Austrians under William,
and held the Meuse from Grave to Charleroi on the Sambre. The war in
this quarter was memorable for Condé's last, and William's first,
battle, the desperate and indecisive engagement of Seneffe (August
11th), in which the two armies lost one-seventh of their strength in
killed alone. The French, however, in the course of the year lost a few
fortresses on the Meuse, including Grave and Huy. The king's part in the
campaign was, as usual, a war of sieges; an army under his personal
command overran Franche-Comté in six weeks, and Louis, aided by the
genius of Vauban, reduced Besançon in nine days. Turenne's Rhine
campaign began with an invasion of Germany, undertaken to prevent
interference with Louis in Franche-Comté. Bournonville, the imperial
commander who now replaced Montecucculi, lay in the Cologne and Trier
electorates. An army of South Germans in the Breisgau, after an
unsuccessful attempt to invade Alsace, moved northward to the Neckar
valley with the intention of uniting with Bournonville, who was moving
up the Rhine to meet them. Turenne determined to attack the southern
army under the duke of Lorraine and Count Caprara before the junction
could be effected. He crossed the Rhine at Philipsburg early in June,
and on the 16th fell upon the inferior forces of Caprara in their
entrenched position of Sinsheim. The result of the battle was a complete
victory for the French, who followed up their success by driving a
portion of Bournonville's army (on which the duke of Lorraine had
rallied his forces) from the Neckar (action of Ladenburg near
Heidelberg, July 7th). Turenne then laid waste the Palatinate, in order
that it should no longer support an army, and fell back over the Rhine,
ignoring the reproaches of the elector palatine, who vainly challenged
him to a duel. This devastation has usually been considered as a grave
stain on the character of the commander who ordered it, but Turenne's
conception of duty did not differ in this respect from that of Cromwell,
Marlborough, Wellington and the generals of the American Civil War. It
was held to be necessary and expedient, and it was accordingly carried
out. Bournonville's army near Frankfort was still to be dealt with, and
the Great Elector and his Brandenburgers were rapidly approaching the
Main valley. After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne
easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and
marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.

_Turenne's Winter Campaign in Alsace._--The magistrates of this city
were not less amenable than had been the bishop of Würzburg in 1673.
Bournonville obtained a free passage, and Turenne was too late to oppose
him. The French general, however, determined to fight, as he had done at
Sinsheim, to prevent the junction of the two hostile armies. The Great
Elector was still in the Neckar valley when the battle of Enzheim (8 m.
from Strassburg) was fought on the 4th of October. This time it was
indecisive, and Bournonville's superior forces, soon augmented by the
arrival of the elector, spread into Alsace. Turenne steadily retired to
his camp of Dettweiler, unable for the moment to do more, and the
Germans took up winter quarters in all the towns from Belfort to
Strassburg (October-November 1674). But Turenne was preparing for
another winter campaign, the most brilliant in the great commander's
career.

First he placed the fortresses of middle Alsace in a state of defence,
to deceive the enemy. Then he withdrew the whole of the field army
quietly into Lorraine. Picking up on his way such reinforcements as were
available, he marched southward with all speed behind the Vosges, and in
the last stages of the movement he even split up his forces into many
small bodies, that the enemy's spies might be misled. After a severe
march through hilly country and in the midst of snowstorms, the French
reunited near Belfort, and without a moment's delay poured into Alsace
from the south. The scattered Imperialists were driven towards
Strassburg, every corps which tried to resist being cut off.
Bournonville stood to fight at Mülhausen with such forces as he could
collect (29th December 1674) but Turenne's men carried all before them.
The advance continued to Colmar, where the elector, who was now in
command of the Germans, stood on the defensive with forces equal to
Turenne's own. The battle of Türkheim (5th of January 1675) nevertheless
resulted in another and this time a decisive victory for the French; a
few days after the battle Turenne could report that there was not a
soldier of the enemy left in Alsace. His army now went into winter
quarters about Strassburg, and drew supplies from the German bank of the
Rhine and even from the Neckar valley (January 1675).

_1675._--This opening of the campaign promised well, and Louis as usual
took the field as early as possible. In the course of the spring
(May-June) the king's army recaptured some of the lost fortresses of the
Meuse and took in addition Liège and Limburg. The expeditionary corps in
Sicily also gained some successes in this campaign, and Schomberg
invaded Catalonia. On the Rhine was fought the last campaign of Turenne
and Montecucculi. The elector having withdrawn his forces to Brandenburg
(see SWEDEN: _History_), Montecucculi resumed command, and between
Philipsburg and Strassburg the two great commanders manoeuvred for an
advantage, each seeking to cover his own country and to live upon that
of the enemy. At last Turenne prevailed and had the Imperialists at a
disadvantage on the Sasbach, where, in opening the action, he was killed
by a cannon-shot (July 27th). The sequel showed how dependent was even
the best organized army of the time upon the personality of its
commander.

All the advantages won were hastily surrendered, and Montecucculi,
sharply following up the retreat of the French, drove them over the
Rhine and almost to the Vosges. At the same time the duke of Lorraine
defeated Marshal Créqui (August 11th) at Conzer Brücke on the Moselle,
and recaptured Trier (September 6th), which, as a set-off against Bonn,
Turenne had taken in the autumn of 1673. The situation was more than
alarming for the French, but Condé was destined to achieve a last
success--for once a success of careful strategy and prudent manoeuvre.
Luxemburg was left in charge in Flanders, and the prince took command of
the remnant of Turenne's old army and of the fugitives of Créqui's.
Montecucculi's skill failed completely to shake his position, and in the
end the prince compelled him to retire over the Rhine. Condé and
Montecucculi retired from their commands at the close of the year,
Turenne was dead, and a younger generation of commanders henceforward
carried on the war.

_1676._--In 1676 the naval successes of France in the Mediterranean
enabled the corps under Marshal Vivonne in Sicily to make considerable
progress, and he won an important victory at Messina on the 25th of
March. Vivonne was made viceroy of Sicily. Louis himself, with his
marshals and Vauban, conducted the campaign in the north. The town of
Condé fell on the 26th of April, and the king then manoeuvred against
the prince of Orange in the neighbourhood of Valenciennes. An attempt
made by the latter in the summer to besiege Maastricht was frustrated by
Marshal Schomberg with a detachment of the king's army (August).
Rochefort meanwhile covered the Meuse country and Luxemburg. Créqui, who
had now returned from captivity (he had been taken after the battle of
Conzer Brücke) opposed the Imperialists in Lorraine, but he was unable
to prevent the fall of Philipsburg, which occurred on the 17th of
September. The French now laid waste the land between the Meuse and
Moselle for the same reason which brought about the devastation of the
Palatinate in 1674, and the year closed with a war of manoeuvre on the
upper Rhine between the Imperialists under the duke of Lorraine and the
French under Luxemburg.

_1677._--The chief event of the campaign of 1677 in the Netherlands was
the siege of Valenciennes, which fortress was invested by Louis in the
first weeks of the campaigning season. Five marshals of France served
under the king in this enterprise, but their advice was of less value
than that of Vauban, whose plans the king followed implicitly, even so
far as to order an assault _de vive force_ against the unanimous opinion
of the marshals. This succeeded beyond Vauban's own expectation; the
picked troops entrusted with the attack of an outwork forced their way
into the town itself (March 17th). The success was followed by the siege
of St Omer and the defeat of William's relieving army by the duke of
Orleans (battle of Mont Cassel, April 11th, 1677). The summer campaign
was a contest of skill between Luxemburg and William, which resulted in
favour of the French. The prince of Orange failed in an attempt to take
Charleroi, and Marshal D'Humières captured St Ghislain.

In Germany the credit of the French successes was due to Créqui, who was
no longer the defeated general of Conzer Brücke, but the most successful
of Turenne's pupils. He began by driving back the duke of Lorraine to
the Rhine. Another attempt by the Lorraine family to reconquer their
duchy was thus foiled, and at the same time a second imperial army under
the duke of Saxe-Eisenach, which had crossed the Rhine by Philipsburg,
was shut up in an island of the Rhine and forced to make terms with the
French. A large reinforcement sent by the duke of Lorraine to the
assistance of Saxe-Eisenach was completely defeated by Créqui in the
battle of Kochersberg near Strassburg (October 7th) and the marshal
followed up his successes by the capture of Freiburg on the 14th of
November. During the year there was a brisk war in the West Indies, and
also in Catalonia, where the French maintained the ground won by
Schomberg in the previous campaign.

_1678._--In 1678 Louis took the field in February. The skilful
manoeuvres of the French, whether due to Louis' own generalship or that
of his advisers, resulted in the speedy capture of Ghent and Ypres
(March), and the retention of the prizes in the usual war of posts which
followed. The last battle of the war was fought at St Denis (outside
Mons) between William and Luxemburg on the 14th of August, three days
after the peace of Nijmwegen had been concluded. William sustained
another defeat, but the battle was one of the most fiercely contested of
the whole war. On the Rhine, Créqui began by winning the battle of
Rheinfelden (July 6th), after which he inflicted upon the Imperialists
another defeat at Gengenbach (July 23rd) and took Kehl. In the short
campaign of 1679, before France and the empire had concluded peace, he
was equally successful.

In Spain the French army under Marshal de Navailles had also made steady
progress, and thus the last campaign was wholly in favour of the French.
The peace of Nijmwegen gave Louis many of the Netherlands frontier
fortresses, and little else. He was threatened by the intervention of
England on the side of the coalition, and would have made peace earlier
but for his reluctance to abandon his ally Sweden. The French army had,
however, well established its reputation. Vauban was unique amongst the
officers of his time, and Créqui and Luxemburg were not unworthy
successors of Turenne and Condé. The two marshals added to their
reputation in the "Reunion War" of 1680-84. Créqui died in 1684 at the
age of sixty-one, Luxemburg's greatest triumph was won ten years later
(see GRAND ALLIANCE, WAR OF THE). Vauban retired from active service as
a marshal twenty-five years after the peace of Nijmwegen. But the
interest of the war does not reside wholly in the personalities of the
leaders. There were great commanders before Turenne and Condé. It is as
the début of a new method of military organization and training--the
first real test of the standing army as created by Louvois--that the
Dutch War of 1672-79 is above all instructive.     (C. F. A.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Marshal Luxemburg, who was left in command of the army in Holland
    during the winter of 1672-73, had indeed made a bold attempt to
    capture Leiden and the Hague by marching a corps from Utrecht across
    the frozen inundations. But a sudden thaw imperilled his force and he
    had to make a painful retreat along the dykes to Utrecht. Holland was
    again inundated in 1673.



DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY, THE (_De Westindische Compagnie_), a company
founded by letters-patent from the Netherlands states-general dated the
3rd of June 1621. The purpose for which the company was formed was to
regulate and protect the contraband trade already carried on by the
Dutch in the American and African possessions of Spain and Portugal, and
to establish colonies on both continents and their islands. By the terms
of the charter the company was to be composed of five boards or
branches, established in Amsterdam, Zealand, the Meuse (Rotterdam), the
North Department (Friesland and Hoorn), and Groningen. Each was to be
represented on the general governing board according to the importance
of the capital contributed by it. Thus Amsterdam, which contributed
four-ninths of the capital, had eight directors on the board. Zealand,
which subscribed two-ninths, had four. Rotterdam was represented by two
directors, though it only contributed one-ninth. The northern district
and Groningen, which each contributed one-ninth, appointed one director
each. Another director was appointed by the states-general. In 1629 a
ninth representative was given to Amsterdam, and the strength of the
whole board was fixed at nineteen.

The company was granted the monopoly of the trade with America and
Africa and between them, from the Arctic regions to the Straits of
Magellan, and from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope. The
policy the company proposed to follow was to use its monopoly on the
coast of Africa in order to secure the cheap and regular supply of negro
slaves for the possessions it hoped to acquire in America. The trade was
thrown open by the voluntary action of the company in 1638. The general
board was endowed with ample power to negotiate treaties, and make war
and peace with native princes; to appoint its officials, generals and
governors; and to legislate in its possessions subject to the laws of
the Netherlands. The states-general undertook to secure the trading
rights of the company, and to support it by a subvention of one million
guilders (about £100,000). In case of war the states-general undertook
to contribute sixteen vessels of 300 tons and upwards for the defence of
the company, which, however, was to bear the expense of maintaining
them. In return for these aids the states-general claimed a share in the
profits, stipulated that the company must maintain sixteen large vessels
(300 tons and upwards) and fourteen "yachts" (small craft of 50 to 100
tons or so); required that all the company's officials should take an
oath of allegiance to themselves as well as to the board of directors;
and that all despatches should be sent in duplicate to themselves and to
the board.

The history of the Dutch West India Company is one of less prosperity
than that of the Dutch East India Company. In early days the trade was
not sufficient to meet the heavy expense of the armaments raised against
Spain and Portugal. A compensation was found in the plunder of Spanish
and Portuguese galleons and carracks. In 1628 the company's admiral Piet
Heijn captured a vast booty in the Spanish treasure-ships. But this
source of profit was dried up by the success of the company's cruisers,
which destroyed their enemy's trade. Profit had to be sought in the
development of the colonies established on the continent of America. In
this field the successes of the company were counterbalanced by not a
few failures. The company was never able to secure the control of the
supply of slaves from Africa. Its settlement of New Netherland was lost
to England. In the West Indies it gained a valuable footing among the
islands. It occupied St Eustatius in 1634, Curaçao with Bonaire and
Aruba in 1634 and 1635, Saba in 1640 and St Martin in 1648. But its
greatest conquests and its greatest losses were alike met on the
continent of South America. After a first unsuccessful occupation in
1623 of Bahia, which was immediately retaken by a combined Spanish and
Portuguese armament, the company obtained a firm footing in Pernambuco.
The story of the wars which arose out of this invasion belongs to the
history of Brazil. The company had been largely guided in its policy of
assailing the Portuguese possessions by the advice of the Jews, who were
numerous in Brazil, and who found means to communicate with their
fellows in religion, the refugees in Amsterdam. The most prosperous
period of the company was during the tolerant and liberal administration
of Count John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen (1636-1644).

The monopolist tendency of all Dutch colonization, the religious
hostility of the Roman Catholic Portuguese, and the support given by
France and England to Portugal after her revolt from Spain, combined at
last to make the position of the company in Brazil untenable. It
resigned all claim on the country by the treaty of 1661. But though
deprived of its establishment in Brazil, the company found a
compensation in Surinam and Essequibo (Dutch Guiana), where there was no
Spanish or Portuguese population to resist it, and where the resources
of the country offered great profits. The advantages of the settlement
in Guiana were not, however, reaped by the company founded in 1621. In
1674 it had become so embarrassed that it was dissolved, and
reconstructed in 1675. The newly formed company continued to exploit the
Dutch possessions in America till 1794, when they were all swept into
the general reorganization consequent on the French invasion of Holland.
The West India Company founded after the Napoleonic epoch in 1828 was
only meant to develop trade, and was not successful.

  AUTHORITIES.--P.M. Nitscher, _Les Hollandais au Brésil_ (the Hague,
  1853), the work of a Dutch author writing in French. See also Southey,
  _History of Brazil_ (London, 1810), and E.B. O'Callaghan, _History of
  New Netherland_ (New York, 1846-1848).



DUTENS, LOUIS (1730-1812), French writer, was born at Tours, of
Protestant parents, on the 15th of January 1730. He went to London,
where his uncle was a jeweller, and there obtained a situation as tutor
in a private family. In this position he learnt Greek and mathematics,
and studied oriental languages, also Italian and Spanish. He took
orders, and was appointed chaplain and secretary to the English minister
at the court of Turin in October 1758. In 1760-1762 he was chargé
d'affaires at Turin. Lord Bute, before retiring from office in 1763,
procured him a pension. He again went to Turin as chargé d'affaires; and
during this second mission he collected and published a complete edition
of the works of Leibnitz (Geneva, 6 vols., 1768) and wrote his
_Recherches sur l'origine des découvertes attribuées aux modernes_
(1766). On his return to England the duke of Northumberland procured him
the living of Elsdon, in Northumberland, and made him tutor to his son.
In 1775 he became a member of the French Academy of Inscriptions and a
fellow of the Royal Society. Dutens was for a third time chargé
d'affaires at Turin. He was in Paris in 1783, and returned to London the
following year. He died in London on the 23rd of May 1812.

  The principal works of Dutens were his _Recherches sur l'origine des
  découvertes attribuées aux modernes_ (1766, 2 vols.); _Appel au bon
  sens_ (London, 1777, 8vo), directed in defence of Christianity against
  the French philosophers, and published anonymously; _Explication de
  quelques médailles de peuples, de rois et de villes grecques et
  phéniciennes_ (London, 1773); _Explication de quelques médailles du
  cabinet de Duane_ (1774); _Troisième dissertation sur quelques
  médailles grecques et phéniciennes_ (1776); _Logique, ou l'art de
  raisonner_ (1773); _Des pierres précieuses et des pierres fines, avec
  les moyens de les connaître et de les évaluer_ (Paris, 1776);
  _Itinéraire des routes les plus fréquentées, ou journal d'un voyage
  aux principales villes d'Europe_ (Paris, 1775), frequently
  republished; _Considérations théologiques sur les moyens de réunir
  toutes les églises chrétiennes_ (1798); _Oeuvres mêlées_, containing
  his most important works published up to the date (London, 1797, 4
  vols.); _L'Ami des étrangers qui voyagent en Angleterre_ (1789, 8vo);
  _Histoire de ce qui s'est passé pour le rétablissement d'une régence
  en Angleterre_ (1789); _Recherches sur le tems le plus reculé de
  l'usage des voûtes chez les anciens_ (1795); _Mémoires d'un voyageur
  qui se repose_ (Paris, 1786, 3 vols.). The first two volumes of the
  last-named work contain the life of the author, written in a romantic
  style; the third bears the title of _Dutensiana_, and is filled with
  remarks, anecdotes and bons mots. (See memoir of Dutens in the
  _Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1812.)



DUTROCHET, RENÉ JOACHIM HENRI (1776-1847), French physiologist, was born
at Château de Néon (Indre) on the 14th of November 1776, and died at
Paris on the 4th of February 1847. In 1799 he entered the military
marine at Rochefort, but soon left it to join the Vendean army. In 1802
he began the study of medicine at Paris; and he was subsequently
appointed chief physician to the hospital at Burgos. After an attack of
typhus he returned in 1809 to France, where he devoted himself to the
study of the natural sciences. His scientific publications were
numerous, and covered a wide field, but his most noteworthy work was
embryological. His "Recherches sur l'accroissement et la reproduction
des végétaux," published in the _Mémoires du muséum d'histoire
naturelle_ for 1821, procured him in that year the French Academy's
prize for experimental physiology. In 1837 appeared his _Mémoires pour
servir à l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des
animaux_, a collection of all his more important biological papers.



DUTT, MICHAEL MADHU SUDAN (1824-1873), the greatest native poet of India
in the 19th century, was born at Sagandari, in the district of Jessore
in Bengal, on the 25th of January 1824. His father was a pleader in
Calcutta, and young Madhu Sudan received his education in the Hindu
college of Calcutta, and was the foremost among the distinguished young
students of his day, many of whom lived to make their mark in the
literature and social progress of their country. Madhu Sudan left the
college in 1842, and in the following year ran away to avoid a marriage
into which his father wished to force him, and embraced the Christian
religion. Continuing his studies now in the Bishop's college, Madhu
Sudan learnt Greek and Latin and some modern European languages, and in
1848 went to Madras. There he wrote English verses, and married the
daughter of a European indigo-planter, but was soon separated from her.
He then united himself with an English lady, the daughter of an
educational officer; and she remained true to him through life amidst
all his misfortunes, and was the mother of the children he left. With
her Madhu Sudan returned to Calcutta in 1856, and soon discovered that
the true way for winning literary distinction was by writing in his own
language, not by composing verses in English. His three classical
dramas--_Sarmishtha_, _Padmavati_, and _Krishna Kumari_--appeared
between 1858 and 1861, and were recognized as works of merit. But his
great ambition was to introduce blank verse into Bengali. His knowledge
of Sanskrit poetry, his appreciation of the Greek and Latin epics, and
his admiration of Dante and of Milton, impelled him to break through the
fetters of the Bengali rhyme, and to attempt a spirited and elevated
style in blank verse. His first poem in blank verse, the _Tilottama_,
was only a partial success; but his great epic which followed in 1861,
the _Meghanad-Badha_, took the Indian world by surprise, and at once
established his reputation as the greatest poet of his age and country.
He took his story from the old Sanskrit epic, the _Ramayana_, but the
beauty of the poem is all his own, and he imparted to it the pathos and
sweetness of Eastern ideas combined with the vigour and loftiness of
Western thought. In 1862 Madhu Sudan left for Europe. He lived in
England for some years, and was called to the bar; and in 1867 returned
to his country to practise as a barrister in Calcutta. But the poet was
unfitted for a lawyer's vocation; his liabilities increased, his health
failed, his powers declined. He still wrote much, but nothing of
enduring merit. His brilliant but erratic life ended in a Calcutta
hospital on the 29th of June 1873.



DUTY (from "due," that which is owing, O. Fr. _deu_, _dû_, past
participle of _devoir_; Lat. _debere_, _debitum_; cf. "debt"), a term
loosely applied to any action or course of action which is regarded as
morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any
external compulsion. Such action must be viewed in relation to a
principle, which may be abstract in the highest sense (e.g. obedience to
the dictates of conscience) or based on local and personal relations.
That a father and his children have mutual duties implies that there are
moral laws regulating their relationship; that it is the duty of a
servant to obey his master within certain limits is part of a definite
contract, whereby he becomes a servant engaging to do certain things for
a specified wage. Thus it is held that it is not the duty of a servant
to infringe a moral law even though his master should command it. For
the nature of duty in the abstract, and the various criteria on which it
has been based, see ETHICS.

From the root idea of obligation to serve or give something in return,
involved in the conception of duty, have sprung various derivative uses
of the word; thus it is used of the services performed by a minister of
a church, by a soldier, or by any employee or servant. A special
application is to a tax, a payment due to the revenue of a state, levied
by force of law. Properly a "duty" differs from a "tax" in being levied
on specific commodities, transactions, estates, &c., and not on
individuals; thus it is right to talk of import-duties, excise-duties,
death-or succession-duties, &c., but of income-tax as being levied on a
person in proportion to his income.



DU VAIR, GUILLAUME (1556-1621), French author and lawyer, was born in
Paris on the 7th of March 1556. Du Vair was in orders, and, though
during the greater part of his life he exercised only legal functions,
he was from 1617 till his death bishop of Lisieux. His reputation,
however, is that of a lawyer, a statesman and a man of letters. He
became in 1584 counsellor of the parlement of Paris, and as deputy for
Paris to the Estates of the League he pronounced his most famous
politico-legal discourse, an argument nominally for the Salic law, but
in reality directed against the alienation of the crown of France to the
Spanish infanta, which was advocated by the extreme Leaguers. Henry IV.
acknowledged his services by entrusting him with a special commission
as magistrate at Marseilles, and made him master of requests. In 1595
appeared his treatise _De l'éloquence française et des raisons pour quoi
elle est demeurée si basse_, in which he criticizes the orators of his
day, adding by way of example some translations of the speeches of
ancient orators, which reproduce the spirit rather than the actual words
of the originals. He was sent to England in 1596 with the marshal de
Bouillon to negotiate a league against Spain; in 1599 he became first
president of the parlement of Province (Aix); and in 1603 was appointed
to the see of Marseilles, which he soon resigned in order to resume the
presidency. In 1616 he received the highest promotion open to a French
lawyer and became keeper of the seals. He died at Tonneins
(Lot-et-Garonne) on the 3rd of August 1621. Both as speaker and writer
he holds a very high rank, and his character was equal to his abilities.
Like other political lawyers of the time, Du Vair busied himself not a
little in the study of philosophy. The most celebrated of his treatises
are _La Philosophie morale des Stoïques_, translated into English (1664)
by Charles Cotton; _De la constance et consolation ès calamités
publiques_,[1] which was composed during the siege of Paris in 1589, and
applied the Stoic doctrine to present misfortunes; and _La Sainte
Philosophie_, in which religion and philosophy are intimately connected.
Pierre Charron drew freely on these and other works of Du Vair. F. de
Brunetière points out the analogy of Du Vair's position with that
afterwards developed by Pascal, and sees in him the ancestor of the
Jansenists. Du Vair had a great indirect influence on the development of
style in French, for in the south of France he made the acquaintance of
Malherbe, who conceived a great admiration for Du Vair's writings. The
reformer of French poetry learned much from the treatise _De l'éloquence
française_, to which the counsels of his friend were no doubt added.

  Du Vair's works were published in folio at Paris in 1641. See Nicéron,
  _Mémoires_, vol. 43; and monographs by C.A. Sapey (1847 and 1858).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Translated into English by Andrew Comt in 1622 as _A Buckler
    against Adversitie_.



DUVAL, ALEXANDRE VINCENT PINEUX (1767-1842), French dramatist, was born
at Rennes on the 6th of April 1767. He was in turn sailor, architect,
actor, theatrical manager and dramatist. He is the characteristic
dramatist of the Empire, but the least ambitious of his dramas have best
stood the test of time. _Les Projets de ménage_ (1790), _Les Tuteurs
vengés_ (1794) and _Les Héritiers_ (1796) have been revived on the
modern French stage. Others among his plays, which number more than
sixty, are _Le Menuisier de Livonie_ (1805), _La Manie des grandeurs_
(1817) and _Le Faux Bonhomme_ (1821). In 1812 he was elected to the
Academy. He died on the 1st of September 1842.



DUVAL, CLAUDE (1643-1670), a famous highwayman, was born at Domfront,
Normandy, in 1643. Having entered domestic service in Paris, he came to
England at the time of the Restoration in attendance on the duke of
Richmond, and soon became a highwayman notorious for the daring of his
robberies no less than for his gallantry to ladies. Large rewards were
offered for his capture, and he was at one time compelled to seek refuge
in France. In the end he was captured in London, and hanged at Tyburn on
the 21st of January 1670. His body was buried in the centre aisle of
Covent Garden church, under a stone with the following epitaph:--

  "Here lies Du Vall: Reader if male thou art,
   Look to thy purse: if female to thy heart."

A full account of his adventures, ascribed to William Pope, was
reprinted in the _Harleian Miscellany_, and Samuel Butler published a
satirical ode _To the Happy Memory of the Most Renowned Du Val_.



DUVENECK, FRANK (1848-   ), American figure and portrait painter, was
born at Covington, Kentucky, on the 9th of October 1848. He was a pupil
of Diez in the Royal Academy of Munich, and a prominent member of the
group of Americans who in the 'seventies overturned the traditions of
the Hudson River School and started a new art movement. His work shown
in Boston and elsewhere about 1875 attracted great attention, and many
pupils flocked to him in Germany and Italy, where he made long visits.
After returning from Italy to America, he gave some attention to
sculpture, and modelled a fine monument to his wife, now in the English
cemetery in Florence.



DU VERGIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN (1581-1643), abbot of St Cyran, father of
the Jansenist revival in France, was born of wealthy parents at Bayonne
in 1581, and studied theology at the Flemish university of Louvain.
After taking holy orders he settled in Paris, where he became known as a
mine of miscellaneous erudition. In 1609 he distinguished hi