By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Erthe Upon Erthe
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Erthe Upon Erthe" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber’s Note:

This e-text includes characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file

  Ȝ ȝ (yogh: very common)
  ⁊ (Tironian ampersand)
  ā ē ī ō ū (vowels with macron)

If any of these characters do not display properly--in particular, if
the diacritic does not appear directly above the letter--or if the
apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage,
make sure your text reader’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set
to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change the default font. As
a last resort, use the Latin-1 version of the file instead.

Mid-word italics representing expanded abbreviations are shown in
{braces}. Whole-word italics are shown conventionally with _lines_.
Braces are also used with ^ (caret) for mid-word superscripting (rare);
superscripts that continue to the end of the word use ^ alone. Boldface
is shown with #marks#.

Text in [[double brackets]] was added by the transcriber. Except for
footnotes, single brackets are in the original.

The pointing-finger symbol is shown as -->. The combinations m~, n~
and d~ represent letters with a decorative curl.

In the editorial material, some text formatting has been simplified or
omitted to reduce visual clutter:

  --Footnotes were italicized, with emphatic words in Roman (non-italic)
  type; this has been “toggled” to plain type with italic emphasis.
  --Glossary entries were shown in #boldface#, as were all references
  to “#A# version” and “#B# version”.
  --In the Glossary, page-and-line references in the form “15.33” gave
  the line number in smaller type.

The author’s father was James Murray of the Oxford English Dictionary.]

  Erthe upon Erthe


  Original Series, No. 141

  1911 (reprinted 1964)

  Price 30_s._

  BRITISH MUSEUM, MS. HARL. 2253. c. 1307. fol. 57 v.
  (_slightly reduced_)]

  Early English Text Society.
  Original Series.

  The Middle English Poem,


  Printed From Twenty-Four Manuscripts,

  Edited, with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary,



  _Published for_
  _by the_

  First Published 1911
  Reprinted 1964

  Original Series, No. 141

  Reprinted Lithographically in Great Britain
  at the University Press, Oxford
  by Vivian Ridler
  Printer to the University

  To my Father



      The two Versions of the Poem ‘Erthe upon Erthe’             ix
      Descriptive List of MSS. of the Poem                         x
      The A Version                                              xiv
      The B Version                                              xvi
      The Cambridge Text                                         xxv
      Origin and Growth of the Poem                             xxix
      Later Versions of the Poem                                xxxv
      Literary Interest                                      xxxviii
      Editor’s Note                                              xli

      1. MS. Harleian 2253                                         1
      2. MS. Harleian 913                                          1

      1. William Billyng’s MS                                      5
      2. MS. Thornton                                              6
      3. MS. Selden supra 53                                       7
      4. MS. Egerton 1995                                          8
      5. MS. Harleian 1671                                         9
      6. MS. Brighton                                             10
      7. The Stratford-on-Avon Inscription                        11
      8. MS. Rawlinson C. 307                                     12
      9. MS. Harleian 4486                                        13
      10. MS. Lambeth 853                                         14
      11. MS. Laud Miscellaneous 23                               16
      12. MS. Cotton Titus A. xxvi                                19
      13. MS. Rawlinson Poetical 32                               20
      14. MS. Porkington 10                                       24
      15. MS. Balliol 354                                         27
      16. MS. Harleian 984                                        29
      17. The Maitland MS.                                        30
      18. John Reidpeth’s MS.                                     31

  THE CAMBRIDGE TEXT                                              32

  NOTES AND ANALOGUES                                             35

    I. ‘Erthe’ Poem in Latin, French, and English (Record
            Office Roll, Ex^r. K. R. Proceedings, Bdle. 1, and
            MS. British Museum Additional 25478)                  41
    II. (B Version) additions:
      19. MS. Trinity College Cambridge R. 3. 21                  47
      20. MS. Trinity College Cambridge B. 15. 39                 48

  GLOSSARY                                                        50



The Middle English poem of _Erthe upon Erthe_ is one which occurs fairly
frequently in fifteenth-century MSS. and even later. It was a favourite
theme for Commonplace Books, and was frequently inserted on the spare
leaves at the beginning or end of a manuscript. From the many texts of
the poem which have survived, and from the fact that portions of it
continued to be inscribed on walls and tombstones up to the beginning of
the nineteenth century, a wide popularity may be deduced. The extant
versions, moreover, point to a knowledge of the poem throughout the
greater part of England, as well as in the south of Scotland. The
grimness of the motive, based on the words _Memento homo quod cinis es
et in cinerem reverteris_, allies the text both with the earlier group
of poems relating to _The Soul and the Body_, and with the more or less
contemporary _Dance of Death_, but whereas the two latter groups can
claim a popularity which extended over western Europe, _Erthe upon
Erthe_ exists only in Middle English texts, and in one parallel Latin
version.[1] It is, indeed, difficult to see how the play upon the word
_earth_ on which the poem depends could have been reproduced with equal
success in any language outside English, and the Latin version is
distinctly inferior in this respect. There would seem, therefore, to be
good reason for the assumption that _Erthe upon Erthe_ is of English
origin, belonging to the same class of literature as the English
versions of the _Soul and Body_ poems.

The earliest texts of the poem known to be extant are found in MSS.
Harleian 2253 and 913, both dated about the beginning of the fourteenth
century. The two texts vary greatly in length--MS. Harl. 2253 consists
of four lines as against seven six-lined stanzas in MS. Harl. 913--and
the latter text has the parallel Latin rendering mentioned above, but
they coincide so far as they go, and appear to represent a thirteenth or
fourteenth-century type of the poem, which may be called the A

Another poem of the same kind, which differs considerably from the A
version, but is, in all probability, closely connected with it in
origin, is common in fifteenth-century MSS. I have traced eighteen texts
of this version, dating from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century,
all of which represent or are based upon the same common type, though
individual transcribers appear to have expanded the theme according to
their own taste. Such additions may easily be distinguished, since they
seldom succeed in maintaining either the grim simplicity, or the
fundamental play upon the word _earth_, which characterize the genuine
portions of the poem. This common fifteenth-century type may be called
the B version.

Lastly, a single fifteenth-century MS. (Cambridge University Library,
Ii, 4. 9) has preserved a text of the poem in which some attempt seems
to have been made to combine the A with the B version. This text may be
called the C version, or Cambridge text.

In the following pages an attempt has been made to justify the premises
in part laid down already, and to show that the A and B versions may be
traced back to a common source, and that this source was not only
confined to England, but was itself English.


The following is a list of the manuscripts in which the poem occurs:--

MSS. of the A Version:

  1. MS. Harl. 2253, fol. 57, v^o, dated c. 1307. Four lines
    inserted between a French poem on the Death of Simon de Montfort,
    and an English poem on the Execution of Simon Fraser. Printed by
    J. Ritson, _Ancient Songs and Ballads from the Reign of K. Henry
    II to the Revolution_, p. 13 (1790), by E. Flügel, _Anglia_, xxvi.
    216 (1903), and by W. Heuser, _Die Kildare-Gedichte_ (_Bonner
    Beiträge zur Anglistik_, xiv. 179) (1904). (See the facsimile
    opposite the title-page.)

  2. MS. Harl. 913, fol. 62, r^o (c. 1308-1330). Seven six-lined
    English stanzas alternating with seven of the same purport in
    Latin. Printed by T. Wright, _Reliquiae Antiquae_, ii. 216 (1841),
    by F. J. Furnivall, _Early Eng. Poems and Lives of Saints_, p. 150
    (printed for the Philological Society, Berlin, 1862), and by
    W. Heuser, _ibid._, p. 180.

MSS. of the B Version:

  1. William Billyng’s MS. (dated 1400-1430). Five four-lined
    stanzas, preceded by the figure of a naked body, rudely drawn,
    having a mattock in its right hand, and a spade at its feet. At
    the end of the poem is a prone figure of a skeleton accompanied by
    two draped figures.[3] Printed by W. Bateman, _Billyng’s Five
    Wounds of Christ_, no. 3 (Manchester, 1814),[4] ‘from a finely
    written and illuminated parchment roll, about two and
    three-quarter yards in length: it is without date, but by
    comparing it with other poetry, it appears to have been written
    early in the fifteenth century; the illuminations and ornaments
    with which it is decorated correspond to those of missals written
    about the reign of Henry V; the style may therefore fix its date
    between the years 1400 and 1430. The author[5] gives his name and
    mark at the bottom of the roll.’ Reprinted from Bateman’s text by
    J. Montgomery, _The Christian Poet_, edit. 1 and 2, p. 45 (1827),
    edit. 3, p. 58 (1828).

  2. MS. Thornton (Lincoln Cath. Libr.), fol. 279 (c. 1440). Five
    stanzas[6] without mark of strophic division. Printed by G. G.
    Perry, _Religious Poems in Prose and Verse_, p. 95 (E.E.T.S., No.
    xxvi, 1867, reprinted 1889, p. 96), and by C. Horstmann,
    _Yorkshire Writers (Richard Rolle of Hampole)_, i. 373 (1895).

  3. MS. Selden supra 53, fol. 159, v^o (c. 1450). Six stanzas
    (strophic division indicated in the first two), written in a
    different hand on the back of a spare leaf at the end of the MS.;
    stanza 5 of the usual B version omitted. Quoted by H. G. Fiedler,
    _Modern Language Review_ (April 1908), III. iii. 221. Not printed

  4. MS. Egerton 1995, fol. 55, r^o (William Gregory’s Commonplace
    Book, dated c. 1430-1450, cf. J. Gairdner, _Collections of a
    London Citizen_. Camden. Soc. 1876 n.s. xvii). Seven stanzas
    without strophic division. Not printed before.

  5. MS. Harl. 1671, fol. 1*, r^o (fifteenth century). Seven stanzas
    written in the left-hand column on the fly-leaf at the beginning
    of the MS., which consists of a ‘large Theological Treatise,
    imperfect at both ends, which seemeth to have been entituled “The
    Weye to Paradys”’.[7] The upper portion of the leaf contains a
    poem in praise of St. Herasmius. Not printed before.

  6. MS. Brighton, fol. 90, v^o (fifteenth century). Seven stanzas.
    Printed by Fiedler, _M. L. R._ III. iii. 219, from the last leaf
    of a MS. formerly seen by him in possession of an antiquary at
    Brighton, and containing a Latin treatise on the seven Sacraments.

  7. Stratford-on-Avon Inscription (after 1450). Seven stanzas,
    formerly on the west wall of the nave in the Chapel of the Trinity
    at Stratford-on-Avon, cf. R. B. Wheler, _Hist. and Antiq. of
    Stratford-on-Avon_, p. 98: ‘against the west wall of the nave,
    upon the south side of the arch was painted the martyrdom of
    Thomas à Becket, whilst kneeling at the altar of St. Benedict in
    Canterbury Cathedral; below this was represented the figure of an
    angel (probably St. Michael) supporting a long scroll, upon which
    were written the following rude verses: Erth oute of erthe,’ &c.
    ‘Beneath were two men, holding another scroll over a body wrapt in
    a winding sheet, and covered with some emblems of mortality with
    these lines: Whosoo hym be thowghte,’ &c. (v. Note on p. 36).
    These paintings were probably added in the reign of Henry VII,
    when the Chapel was restored by Sir Hugh Clopton (died 1496), who
    built New Place opposite the Chapel in 1483. They were discovered
    in 1804 beneath a coating of whitewash, and were copied and
    engraved, but have since been more than once re-coated with
    whitewash, and all trace of the poem has now disappeared.
    Facsimiles, etched and coloured by hand, exist in Thomas Fisher’s
    _Series of Ancient Allegorical, Historical, and Legendary
    Paintings in fresco, discovered on the walls of the Chapel of the
    Trinity, belonging to the Gild of the Holy Cross, at
    Stratford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire, from drawings made at the time
    of their discovery_ (1807). Printed by R. B. Wheler, _ibid._
    (1806), by Longfellow, _Outre-Mer_ (_Père-La-Chaise_, note on
    p. 67), 1851, and by W. P. Reeves, _Mod. Lang. Notes_, IX. iv. 203
    (April 1894).

  8. MS. Rawlinson C. 307, fol. 2, r^o (after 1458). Eight stanzas,
    of which three are peculiar to this MS., and are of a more
    distinctly Northern dialect than the remainder. The poem is the
    only English text in a MS. containing Latin prose and verse. Two
    Latin poems in the same hand as _Erthe upon Erthe_ refer to the
    death of Gilbert Pynchbeck at York in 1458, which would fix the
    date c. 1460, or later. The three independent stanzas were printed
    by Fiedler, _ibid._ p. 221.

  9. [8]MS. Harl. 4486, fol. 146, r^o (fifteenth century). Eight
    stanzas added on the last leaf but one of a copy of _Le Livre de
    Sydrac_, immediately after the colophon. The last two leaves and
    the cover of the MS. contain various scribblings in
    fifteenth-century hands, chiefly of Latin aphorisms and rimes.
    Folio 147, v^o, contains the signature of Tho. Baker, who may
    possibly have transcribed the English poem. Not printed before.

  10. MS. Lambeth 853, fol. 35 (c. 1430-1450). Twelve stanzas.
    Printed by F. J. Furnivall, _Hymns to the Virgin and Christ_,
    p. 88 (E.E.T.S. 1867, No. xxiv, reprinted 1895).

  11. MS. Laud Misc. 23, fol. 111, v^o (before 1450). Twelve
    stanzas, varying very slightly from MS. Lambeth. Not printed

  12. MS. Cotton Titus A xxvi, fol. 153, r^o (fifteenth century).
    Six four-lined stanzas, apparently the beginning of a transcript
    of MS. Lambeth. Not printed before.

  13. MS. Rawlinson Poetic. 32, v^o (after 1450). Thirty-two
    stanzas, each of four short lines, corresponding to half the
    normal stanza; stanzas 17 to 30 are peculiar to this MS. The
    greater part printed by Fiedler, _ibid._ p. 222.

  14. MS. Porkington 10, fol. 79, v^o (fifteenth century). Twelve
    six-lined stanzas, of which stanzas 7 to 11 are peculiar to this
    MS. Printed by Halliwell, _Early Eng. Misc. in Prose and Verse,
    selected from an inedited MS. of the 15th cent._, p. 39 (Warton
    Club, 1855), and by Fiedler, ibid. p. 225.

  15. MS. Balliol 354, fol. 207, v^o (Richard Hill’s Commonplace
    Book, dated before 1504). Sixteen stanzas, of which stanzas 6 to
    14 introduce an independent digression on the Nine Worthies.
    Printed by Flügel, _Anglia_, xxvi. 94 (1903), and by Roman
    Dyboski, _Songs, Carols, and Other Misc. Poems_, p. 90 (E.E.T.S.
    1907, extra ser. ci).

  16. MS. Harl. 984, fol. 72, r^o (sixteenth century). The preceding
    leaf of the MS. has been torn out, leaving only two lines of what
    may be assumed to be verse 6, and the whole of verse 7, which
    occur with other fragments on the last leaf but one.

  17. The Maitland MS. Pepysian Library, Magd. Coll. Cambr., MS.
    2553, p. 338 (c. 1555-1585). Seven stanzas in the Lowland Scots
    dialect, with the ascription ‘quod Marsar’. Thomas Pinkerton
    published portions of the MS. in his _Ancient Scottish Poems never
    before in print . . . from the MS. Collections of Sir Richard
    Maitland_ (London, 1786), but omitted _Eird upon Eird_. Not
    printed before.

  18. The Reidpeth MS. Cambridge Univ. Libr. Ll. 5. 10, fol. 43,
    v^o, copied 1622-1623 ‘a me Joanne Reidpeth’. Seven stanzas,
    probably transcribed from the Maitland MS., but concluding ‘quod
    Dumbar’. Not printed before.

MS. of the C Version:

  The Cambridge Text. Cambr. Univ. Libr. Ii. 4. 9, fol. 67, r^o
    (fifteenth century). Eighty-two lines comprising twenty-two or
    twenty-three stanzas. The text is followed by a coloured picture
    of a young knight, standing on a hill with a skeleton below.
    A scroll proceeding from the knight has the words: _Festina tempus
    et memento finis_, while one proceeding from the skeleton runs:
    _In omni opere memorare nouissima et in eternum non peccabis_.
    Printed by Heuser, _Kildare-Gedichte_, p. 213.


The A version exists in two forms, one a short popular stanza of four
lines (MS. Harl. 2253), apparently of the nature of a riddle, the other
a longer poem of seven English and seven Latin stanzas (MS. Harl. 913),
each English verse being followed by its Latin equivalent. The metrical
form of the Latin verses is one often used in Latin poems of the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries, a six-lined stanza, rimed _aaaabb_, with the
rhythm of the well-known

  _méum ést propósitúm_  |  _ín tabérna móri._

The English verses are also in the form of a six-lined stanza _aaaabb_,
but the first four lines have the same loose four-stress rhythm as the
lines in MS. Harl. 2253, and the concluding couplet is on the principle
of the septenarius. Both the English and the Latin lines rime at the
caesura as well as at the end of the line, but this is less uniformly
the rule in the English verses. There is close verbal connexion between
the four lines in MS. Harl. 2253, and the opening lines of the longer
poem, as will appear from a comparison of the two:--

_MS. Harl._ 2253.

  Erþe toc of erþe   erþe wyþ woh
  erþe oþer erþe   to þe erþe droh
  erþe leyde erþe   in erþene þroh
  þo heuede erþe of erþe   erþe ynoh

_MS. Harl._ 913.

  whan erþ haþ erþ . iwonne wiþ wow
  þan erþ mai of erþ . nim hir inow
  erþ vp erþ . falliþ fol frow
  erþ toward erþ . delful him drow.
  of erþ þou were makid . _and_ mon þou art ilich
  in on erþ awaked . þe pore _and_ þe riche.

The connexion between these two versions might be explained in two ways.
The short version of MS. Harl. 2253 may be the beginning of a transcript
of the longer poem in which the scribe broke off because his memory
failed him, or because he was only acquainted with a popular version of
the opening lines. On the other hand, the short version may be the
older, and the more learned composer of the poem in MS. Harl. 913 may
have been elaborating this and other such riddling stanzas current at
the time. But any attempt to decide between these two possibilities must
necessarily depend upon the conclusion formed as to the relation of the
Latin stanzas in MS. Harl. 913 to their English equivalents, and this
question will be more conveniently discussed in connexion with the
general origin of the _Erthe upon Erthe_ poems. As regards the date of
the two MSS., MS. Harl. 2253 is generally ascribed to the beginning of
the fourteenth century, and the Kildare MS. (MS. Harl. 913) is dated c.
1308 by Crofton Croker, c. 1308 to 1330 by Heuser, while Paul Meyer is
of opinion that it may belong to an earlier period still. The dialect of
both poems is South Midland, probably of the western part of the
district. MS. Harl. 2253, which is commonly associated with Leominster,
has _heuede_ (4). MS. Harl. 913 has _lutil_, _schrud_, _muntid_, _heo_,
_mon_, _lond_, and S. Midl. forms of verbs. We have therefore two types
of the A version, standing in close verbal relation to each other, of
much the same date and dialect, and representing in all probability the
kind of _Erthe_ poem current at the end of the thirteenth century in the
South-west Midland district.


As will appear from the foregoing account of the MSS., the eighteen
texts of the B version vary considerably in length, many of them
introducing stanzas which do not recur elsewhere. A comparison of the
number and arrangement of the stanzas in each text is given on the next
page, the stanzas being numbered according to the order of their
arrangement in the text to which they belong, and the corresponding
stanzas in the various texts grouped under columns. MSS. Thornton,
Selden, and Egerton have no mark of strophic division, but fall
naturally into mono-rimed stanzas of four lines. All the remaining texts
are arranged in four-lined stanzas with mono-rime,[9] with the exception
of MS. Porkington, which represents an evident expansion of the original
metrical scheme, an additional long line being attached to each stanza
by means of a short bob-line, giving a six-lined stanza, _aaaabb_. In
MS. Rawl. Poet. each long line is written as two short lines, so that
the usual four-lined stanza appears in this text as two stanzas, each
consisting of four half-lines. This arrangement is facilitated by the
regular internal rime on the word _erthe_. The order of the
fifteenth-century MSS. of the B version observed in the table
corresponds to that in the foregoing list of MSS., and in the printed
text, and is not always strictly chronological, it being more convenient
for purposes of comparison to group the texts according to their length.
It will be seen that the three late texts (MSS. Harl. 984, Maitland, and
Reidpeth) revert to the normal seven-stanza type, and that this appears
to have been the form of the poem known to the compiler of the Cambridge
text, a comparison of which is added.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The printed table has been rotated 90% for this plain-text version.
  The numerical key (1-18, Cam) and the lettered notes (A, B...) were
  also added by the transcriber.]

   1. Wm. Billyng’s Text
   2. MS. Thornton
   3. MS. Selden, supra 53
   4. MS. Egerton 1995
   5. MS. Harl. 1671
   6. MS. Brighton
   7. Stratford Inscription
   8. MS. Rawl. C. 307
   9. MS. Harl. 4486
  10. MS. Lambeth 853
  11. MS. Laud Misc. 23
  12. MS. Cotton Titus A. xxvi
  13. MS. Rawl. Poet.
  14. MS. Porkington 10
  15. MS. Balliol 354
  16. MS. Harl. 984[10]
  17. MS. Maitland
  18. MS. Reidpeth
  Cam The Cambridge Text

  CS Common Stanzas
  IS Independent Stanzas

  Text| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9|10|11|12| 13   |14|15|16 |17|18| Cam
   CS | 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1.2.   1  1 (1)  1  1   1
      | 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  3.4.   2  2 (2)  2  2 3.8.
      | 3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  6.5.   3  3 (3)  3  3   2
      | 4  4  5  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  7.8.   4  4 (4)  4  4  10
      | 5  5 --  5  5  5  5  5  5  8  8 -- 11.12.  5  5 (5)  5  5   9
      |-- --  4  6  6  6  6 --  6  9  9 --   --    6 15  6   6  6  11
      |-- --  6  7  7  7  7 --  7 11 11 --   --   12 16  7   7  7  --
      |                         8 12 12 -- 31.32.
      |                            5  5  5 15.16.
      |                            6  6  6    --
      |                            7  7 --  9.10.
      |                           10 10 -- 13.14.
   IS |                     [A]              [B]  [C][D]          [E]

  [A] stanzas 6. 7. 8. (3)
  [B] 17 to 30. (14)
  [C] 7 to 11 (5)
  [D] 6 to 14 (9)
  [E] 6. 7. 13. 18 resemble A Version.
      4. 5. 12. 14 to 17. 19 to 22 independent (11)

It will be seen from the table that eleven of these texts have seven
stanzas in common, and that fifteen of them have five in common. Of the
three remaining texts, MS. Harl. 984 has a missing leaf, but would
clearly appear to belong to the seven-stanza type, raising the above
numbers to twelve texts of seven stanzas, and sixteen of five. MS.
Selden again obviously represents the usual seven-stanza type with the
accidental omission of verse 5. MS. Titus has four of the customary five
verses, breaks off to follow the arrangement of the Lambeth MS., and
comes to an end after copying two of the additional verses in the
Lambeth text before reaching the usual fifth verse. Assuming that it
represents a transcription of the Lambeth text, MS. Titus might be
classed with the five-stanza type, or possibly, like MS. Lambeth, with
the seven-stanza type. It may therefore be assumed that all eighteen of
the B texts have five stanzas in common, or are based upon such a common
type, and that thirteen, or possibly fourteen of them, represent a
common type with seven stanzas, six of which are further found in the
Cambridge text. These common stanzas vary very little in the different
MSS. as regards either the actual text or the order of lines and
stanzas, and it seems probable that the normal B version consisted of
seven stanzas, ending with a personal exhortation which has been
omitted, or possibly not yet added, in five of the texts. In four
MSS.--Lambeth, Laud, Rawl. P., and Harl. 4486--an interesting final
stanza, containing a prayer, has been added. Three of these texts, MSS.
Lamb., Laud, and Rawl. P., correspond in three other additional stanzas,
which seems to point to some closer relationship between them, and two,
or more strictly one and a half, of these additional stanzas are also
found in MS. Titus, which appears to be a transcript of the Lambeth
text. The scribe of MS. Titus followed the Lambeth text until he reached
the middle of verse 6, when he apparently wearied of the task, and broke
off with a new couplet of his own, entirely foreign in idea and metre to
the _Erthe upon Erthe_ poems:--

  Lewe thy syne & lyffe in right,
  And þan shalt thou lyffe in heuyn as a knyght.

The text, as a whole, is badly written with many erasures, and points to
a careless hand.

The additional stanzas cited in the table as independent contain mere
variations on the main theme, and it is highly probable that the more
expanded texts are the later, and represent individual additions to a
popular poem, since they generally fail to maintain the internal rime on
the word _erthe_ which is an evident characteristic of the genuine
verses. In the case of the five MSS. in question, MS. Harl. 4486 might
be taken to represent the original type, and MSS. Lamb., Laud[11], and
Titus an expansion of this, while the author of Rawl. P. was obviously
acquainted with the Lambeth text, or its original, and added to it
certain stanzas of his own, leaving out three of the verses in Lambeth
to make room for these. Whether the eighth stanza which MSS. Harl. 4486,
Lamb., Laud, and Rawl. P. have in common belongs to the original type of
the B version, or was itself a later addition, can scarcely be
determined, but as it seems to be confined to these four texts, the
latter view is perhaps the more probable. It must, however, have been
added early, as it occurs already in MSS. Lamb. and Laud before 1450,
and preserves the principle of the internal rime on _erthe_. The
relative dates of MSS. Lambeth and Rawl. P. as fixed by Furnivall and
Madden (MS. Lamb. 1430-1450, R. P. after 1450) would bear out this
theory of the relationship between these two texts, and it may further
be noted that both have the same prefatory _De terra plasmasti me_,
otherwise found only in MS. Harl. 1671, and that both exhibit the same
tendency to employ a direct personal mode of address, and to lengthen
out the original text by superfluous words.

Cf. for example, MS. Harl. 4486, verse 5 (so MS. Laud, verse 8)--

  Why erthe loueth erthe wonder me thynke,
  Or why that erthe for erthe swete wylle or swynke, &c.

with MS. Lamb. verse 8--

  Whi þat erþe _to myche_ loueþ erþe, wondir me þink,
  Or whi þat erþe for _superflue_ erþe _to sore_ sweete wole or swynk

and MS. Rawl. P. verse 11--

  Or whi that erthe for the erthe
  _Unresonably_ swete wol or swynke.

The exact date of the text in MS. Titus is indeterminate, but, as stated
above, it is evidently based on MS. Lambeth or its original, and might
be ascribed to c. 1450 or later. The text in MS. Harl. 4486 has been
added by some later owner of the MS. on the last leaves of a
fifteenth-century transcript of _Le Livre de Sydrac_. The handwriting of
_Erthe upon Erthe_ is also fifteenth century, but the exact date again
cannot be determined. The text, however, is far simpler and nearer to
the original than that of the other four MSS., and evidently represents
an earlier type than these, though the actual transcript may be later.

With the exception of these five MSS., it is not easy to group the
eighteen texts of the B version on any system based upon the additional
stanzas, since these fail to bear out any theory as to closer
relationship between individual MSS., though the connexion of ideas is
often close owing to the similarity of the theme. Thus the nine
additional stanzas in MS. Balliol contain a digression upon the nine
worthies with an interesting reference in verse 12 to the Dance of
Powlis, i.e. the Dance of Death formerly depicted outside St. Paul’s
Cathedral (v. Notes, p. 36). It is in the Cambridge text alone that the
additional stanzas supply an interesting connexion with the A version,
which places this text, unfortunately corrupt and difficult to decipher,
in an important position as a link between A and B.

With regard to possible relationships dependent upon variations in the
order or arrangement of the lines in the seven common stanzas, it may be
pointed out that the first verse in MS. Egerton consists of three lines
only, the usual second line being omitted, and that both MS. Harl. 1671
and MS. Porkington omit the same line, though each of these supplies a
new and independent fourth line to fill the gap:--

(_MS. Egerton_ 1995)

  Erthe owte of þe erthe ys wounderly wrought,
  Erthe vppon erthe hathe sette hys thought
  How erthe a-pon erthe may be hy brought.

(_MS. Harl._ 1671)

  Erthe apon erthe ys waxyne and wrought,
  And erthe apon erthe hathe ysette all hys thought
  How that erth apon erth hye myght be brought,
  _But how that erth scal to the erth thyngketh he noht_.

(_MS. Porkington 10_)

  Erthe vppon erthe is woundyrely wrouȝte;
  Erthe vppon erthe has set al his þouȝte
  How erthe vppon erth to erthe schall be brouȝte;
  _There is none vppon erth has hit in þouȝte._
                                Take hede!
  Whoso þinkyse on his ende, ful welle schal he spede.

It is obvious that these new lines are an afterthought, especially in
the case of MS. Porkington, where the rime-word _þouȝte_ has to be
repeated. Possibly these three texts depend upon a common original in
which the usual second line _Erth hath gotyn vppon erth a dygnyte of
noght_ was lacking, or MS. Egerton may have been the original of the
other two. But MS. Harl. 1671 varies from the other two in the first
line also, using a version which is otherwise confined to the Cambridge

  Erthe apon erthe ys _waxyne and_ wrought--

and both it and MS. Porkington begin _erthe upon erthe_ like the later
texts, as opposed to the more usual _erthe owte of erthe_, so that there
is no clear evidence of a closer relationship between these three texts.

In verse 4, again, an inversion of the customary order of the second or
third lines is common to MSS. Rawl. C., Porkington, Maitland, Reidpeth,
and the Stratford-on-Avon inscription, but the verse easily lends itself
to transposition of the kind, and in MS. Rawl. C. the usual first line
is also put third, so that the order of lines as compared with the
normal arrangement becomes 2. 3. 1. 4. Beyond the self-evident fact that
the Maitland and Reidpeth MSS. must be grouped together, no relationship
of the MSS. can be deduced from this transposition, though it may point
to a second popular version with inversion of lines 2 and 3.

One of the most important differences of reading in the common stanzas
occurs in the first line of the poem, where twelve of the eighteen MSS.
read _erthe out of erthe_, while the remaining six, as well as the
Cambridge text, have _erthe upon erthe_. Three of these six are
definitely later transcripts: MS. Porkington is obviously a later
modification of the original four-lined stanza, and MSS. Maitland and
Reidpeth belong to the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries
respectively; the beginning of MS. Harl. 984 is not preserved, and the
remaining two texts, MSS. Selden and Harl. 1671, belong to c. 1450,
while the Cambridge text, as will be shown later, cannot be regarded as
original. Evidently _erthe owt of erthe_ was the original reading, but
the version _erthe upon erthe_ was introduced early, and appears to have
survived the other. A similar change occurs in the last line of verse 2,
where MS. Harl. 1671 and the Stratford text substitute _erth upon erth_
for _out of_, _from_, _of_, of the other texts, and again in the third
line of verse 4 (l. 2 in the texts mentioned above as transposing these
lines) where the same two MSS. read _erth upon erth_ for the normal
_erth unto_ (_into_, _to_) _erthe_; also in the fourth line of verse 7,
where MSS. Harl. 4486, Lamb., Laud, Maitland, and Reidpeth read _upon_
for _owte of_. Now the last two lines of the first verse of the poem
invariably use the phrase _erth upon erthe_, and it occurs repeatedly
throughout the poem as a synonym for _man_: e.g. verse 2, line 1; 3, ll.
1, 3; 4, ll. 1, 2 (or 3); 5, l. 3; 6, ll. 1, 3; 7, l. 1. It was very
natural that the common phrase, and the one best adapted to serve as a
title to the poem, should tend to replace others, but it seems probable
that wherever the substitution occurs it may be taken as due to a later
tradition, and consequently as a proof of non-originality or comparative
lateness in the text in which it is found. A similar change, and one to
be explained in a similar way, is the introduction of _wonderly_ for
_wyckydly_ in the first line of verse 7 on the analogy of the first line
of the poem, which occurs in MSS. Harl. 1671 and Stratford, and also in
the late MSS. Maitland and Reidpeth.

Other variations of reading are less noteworthy. In the second line of
verse 1, ten MSS., ranging from the early Thornton and Lambeth to the
late Maitland and Reidpeth, read _dignite_, while the others vary
between _nobley_ (MS. Brighton, cf. the Cambridge text), _nobul þyng_
(Billyng), _worschyp_ (Selden), and _an abbey_, perhaps an error for
_nobley_ (Harl. 4486). The remaining three MSS. omit the line. In the
fourth line of verse 2, the alliterative _piteous parting_ of MSS.
Billyng, Egerton, Brighton, Harl. 4486, Lamb., Laud, Titus, and Rawl.
P., is replaced by _hard parting_ not only in the Stratford text and in
the later MSS. (Porkington, Balliol, Maitland, Reidpeth), but also in
MSS. Thornton and Rawl. C., while other readings are _dolful_
(MS. Selden, cf. the Cambridge text) and _heuy_ (MS. Harl. 1671). It is
difficult here to decide between _piteous_ and _hard_, but the
preference should probably rest with the alliterative phrase. In the
fourth line of verse 3, the alliterative _scharpe schowres_ is evidently
the original reading, and it occurs in all texts except Stratford, Rawl.
P., and Balliol.

In the first line of verse 4, _erthe goeth upon erthe as moulde upon
moulde_ occurs in thirteen texts, and two others (Stratford and Balliol,
cf. also the Cambridge text) keep the rime _mould_ while altering the
line. The other two readings found, _colde opon colde_ (Rawl. C.), and
_golde appone golde_ (Thornton), are obviously non-original,
particularly the latter, which repeats the rime-word _gold_ in two
successive lines.

Other variations and occasional transpositions of lines occur in
individual MSS., but are unimportant.

It will thus be seen that the popular traditional version of the poem
tended to become modified, and even corrupt, already in the fifteenth
century, and that such modifications are usually more apparent in the
later texts. It is also evident that individual transcribers felt
themselves at liberty to expand the traditional version, and that many
tried their hand at such variations on the original theme, but the
striking absence of proof of relationship outside the seven stanzas of
the normal version, as well as the frequent unimportant variations found
in the common stanzas, seems to point clearly to the conclusion that the
original was a popular poem of seven, or possibly only five, stanzas,
widely known over England, and that the more simple and naïve of the
seventeen texts extant are also more genuine, and nearer to the

Many of the texts are accompanied by a short prefatory or concluding
verse in English or Latin. The English verse--

  _When lyffe is most loued, and deth is moste hated,
  Then dethe draweth his drawght and makyth man full naked_

occurs as a preface in MSS. Harl. 4486 and 1671, Lambeth, Laud, Rawl.
P., and Egerton, and as a conclusion in Billyng’s text. The Latin
_Memento homo quod cinis es et in cinerem reverteris_ occurs, in full or
in part, in MSS. Harl. 4486, Egerton, Rawl. C., Lambeth, and Billyng,
and _De terra plasmasti me_ in MSS. Harl. 1671, Lambeth, and Rawl.
P. The two stanzas in rime royal on the _Procese of Dethe_ which
immediately precede _Erthe upon Erthe_ in the Porkington MS. are
transcribed as a separate poem, and if not separate, would rather belong
to the preceding text, a translation of the Latin _Visio Philiberti_ in
rime royal, than to _Erthe upon Erthe_. The latter poem often
accompanies either a _Dance of Death_ or one of the numerous _Soul and
Body_ dialogues, no doubt because of the similarity of the theme, but it
is not necessary to regard these kindred poems as forming an essential
part of each other. So in the Balliol MS., _Erthe upon Erthe_ is
preceded by an eight-lined Latin stanza on the theme _vado mori_, which
is probably part of a _Dance of Death_. Here again no basis for a
grouping of the MSS. can be found.

The two late texts--MSS. Maitland and Reidpeth--represent a Lowland
Scots version of the poem, and are obviously copies of the same
original. Probably the Reidpeth text is a transcription of the Maitland,
but it contains some obvious misreadings of it, as in verse 3, line 3,
_bowris_ (Maitl.), _towris_ (Reidpeth) repeating the rime-word; 5,
l. 20, _within_ (Maitl.), _with_ (Reidpeth). The Maitland MS., compiled
c. 1555-1585, adds the colophon _quod Marsar_. The later Reidpeth MS.,
1622-1623, concludes with the words _quod Dumbar_. Mersar, or Marsar, is
mentioned in Dunbar’s _Lament for the Makaris_, and is usually
identified with a William Mersar of the household of James IV, mentioned
1500 to 1503. In any case, if he were a contemporary of Dunbar, he could
scarcely be assigned to a sufficiently early date to account for the
widespread popularity of _Erthe upon Erthe_ all over England in 1450,
and the fact that the two MSS. assign the poem to different authors, of
whom Dunbar is manifestly impossible, and Mersar at least improbable,
may be explained as an instance of that readiness of posterity to attach
a known name to a work of unknown origin, of which other examples are
not wanting. It is, however, of interest to find that the poem had made
its way to Scotland by 1550 or thereabouts.

As regards dialect, the majority of the MSS. of the B version show
traces of Northern dialect, most of them preserving the Nth. plural in
_-is_ in the rimes _touris_, _schowrys_, &c. In verse 3 also the
majority of the texts have the Nth. _bigged_ or _biggid_, but six (MSS.
Billyng, Egerton, Rawl. P., Porkington, Balliol, and the Stratford text)
use the Midl. or Sth. _bilded_ or _billed_. In verse 4 the rime requires
the form _wold_ rather than the common Nth. _wald_, and even the
Maitland MS. retains _wold_ for the sake of the rime, whereas MS.
Reidpeth substitutes _wald_, sacrificing the rime. MSS. Thornton and
Rawl. C. show distinct Nth. features, such as the verb-endings _-is_
(pres. ind. 3 sg.), _-and_ (pres. part.), _-id_, _-it_, _-in_ (past
part.), and MS. Rawl. C. has the Nth. _whate gates at þu gase_ riming
with _fase_ (_foes_). But few of the MSS. represent pure dialect-forms,
and an investigation of the dialect of the texts is of little assistance
towards determining that of the original poem. Such evidence as exists
points, on the whole, to the North Midland district, and a widespread
popularity in the North, which led to the later knowledge of the poem
across the Border, but the popularity was evidently not confined to the
North, and Southern as well as Northern forms may be traced in both
early and late transcripts.


The Cambridge MS., as has been already stated, combines portions of both
the A and the B version with several independent stanzas. At first sight
it might appear to represent a transitional stage in the development of
the B from the A type, but closer examination shows that this is not the
case, and that the text is merely a later compilation from the two. The
writer must have had some knowledge both of the longer A version
represented by MS. Harl. 913, and of the common seven-stanza B type, and
seems to have tried to combine his recollections in one poem, halting
between the four-lined and six-lined stanza, repeating himself here and
there, and adding certain new verses of his own. There is no grouping
into stanzas in the MS., but a division is easily made by the rimes, and
these give mono-rimed stanzas of four lines chiefly, with one of six
lines, and some fragmentary ones of two or three. In one case a stanza
has been broken up and the two couplets inserted at different points
(ll. 9-10, 27-28). As has been shown in the table of MSS. of the B
version, six verses of the B type may be traced, while four verses show
distinct correspondence with A, and eleven are independent of either.
A comparison of the similar lines follows:--

  (_MS. Cambr._ Ii. 4. 9) ll. 1-4.

  Erthe vpon erthe is waxin & wrought,
  Erthe takys on erthe a nobylay of nought;
  Now erthe vpon erthe layes all his þought
  How erthe vpon erthe sattys all at noght.

      (_MS. Harl._ 4486.) B Version.

      1 Erthe owte of erthe is wonderly wrowghte,
        Erthe of the erthe hathe gete an abbey[12] of nawte,
        Erthe apon erthe hath sett{e} al his thowghte
        How erthe apon erthe may be hye browte.

  ll. 9-10, 27-28.

  Erthe vpon erth wolde be a kyng,
  But howe erth xal to erth thynkyth he no thyng.
  When erthe says to erth: ‘My rent þou me bryng,’
  Then has erth fro erthe a dolfull p{ar}tyng.

      2 Erthe apon erthe be he a kyng{e},
        Butt how erth schall{e} to erthe thynketh{e} he nothyng{e}.
        When erthe byddeth erthe his rent home bryng{e},
        Then schall{e} erth{e} owte of erthe haue a pyteous[13]

  ll. 5-8.

  Erthe vpon erth has hallys & towr{is};
  Erthe says to erth: ‘This is alle owr{is}.’
  But q{ua}n erth vpon erth has byg{g}yd his bowr{is}
  Than xal erth for the erth haue scharpe schowr{is}.

      3 Erthe apon erthe wynneth castell{es} & towres.
        Then seyth{e} erthe to erthe: ‘These byth{e} all{e} owres.’
        When erthe apon erthe hath bygged{e} vp his bowres
        Then schall{e} erthe for the erthe suffre scharpe schowres.

  Cf. l. 66.

  If erth haue mys don, he getyth scharpe sho{u}rs.

  ll. 33-35.

  Erthe wrotys in erth as molys don in molde,
  Erthe vpon erth glydys as golde,
  As erthe leve in erthe eu{e}r mor{e} schulde.

      4 Erthe gothe apon erthe as molde apon molde.
        So goeth erthe apon erthe all{e} gleteryng{e} in golde,
        Lyke as erthe into erthe neu{er} go scholde,
        And ȝet schall{e} erthe into erthe rather then be wolde.

  ll. 29-32.

  How erthe louys erth wondyr me thynke,
  How erthe for erth wyll swete and swynke.
  When erth is in {e}rthe broght w{i}t{h}-in the brynke
  What as herth than of erthe but a fowle sty{n}ke.

      5 Why erthe loueth{e} erthe wonder me thynke,
        Or why that erthe for erthe swete wyll{e} or swynke,
        Ffor whan erthe apon erthe is browte w{i}t{h}yn þe brynke,
        Then schall{e} erthe of the erthe haue a fowle stynke.

  ll. 36-37.

  Erthe vpon erth mynd eu{er} more þou make
  How erthe xal to erth when deth wyll hy{m} take.

      6 Loo erthe apon erthe consyder{e} thow may
        How erthe co{m}myth to erthe naked all way.

  ll. 19-22.

  Erth vpon erthe gos in the weye,
  Prykys and prankys on a palfreye;
  When erth has gotyn erth alle that he maye,
  He schal haue but seven fote at his last daye.

      (_MS. Harl._ 913) A Version.
      v. 5, ll. 1, 2, 5, 6.

      Erþ is a palfrei to king a{nd} to quene,
      Erþ is ar la{n}g wei, þouw we lutil wene.
      Whan erþ haþ erþ wiþ st{r}einþ þus geten,
      Alast he haþ is leinþ miseislich i-meten.

  ll. 41-46, 23-26.

  Ffor erth gos in erth walkand in vede,
  And erthe rydys on erth on a fayr stede,
  When he was goty{n} in erth erth to his mede,
  Than is erth layde in erthe wormys to fede.
  Whylke are the wormys the flesch brede?
  God wote the wormys for to ryght rede.
  Than xal not be lyky{n}g vnto hy{m}
  Bu[t] an olde sely cloth to wynde erthe in,
  When erthe is in erth for wormys wyn,
  The rof of his hows xal ly on his chyn.

      v. 2.

      Erþ geþ on erþ wrikkend in weden,
      Erþ toward erþ wormes to feden;
      Erþ b{er}riþ to erþ al is lif deden;
      When erþ is i{n} erþe, heo muntid þi meden.
      When erþ is i{n} erþe, þe rof is on þe chynne;
      Þan schullen an hu{n}dred wormes wroten on þe skin.

  ll. 63-64.

  Erthe bygyth hallys & erth bygith towres,
  When erth is layd in erth, blayke is his bo{ur}s;

      v. 6, ll. 5-6.

      Erþ bilt castles, a{nd} erþe bilt toures;
      Whan erþ is on erþe, blak beþ þe boures.

  l. 38.

  Be war{e}, erth, for erthe, for sake of thi sowle.

      v. 6, l. 3.

      Erþ uppon erþ be þi soule hold.

The additional verses in MS. Cambr. bear some slight resemblance to
other additional lines found in MSS. of the B type, and this is
interesting as showing that the writer worked on the same lines in
expanding his text, and was perhaps acquainted with some of the longer B
texts. On the other hand characteristic differences in the treatment of
the theme would seem to support the view that these verses are really
individual additions and not derived from any of the other texts. The
lines in question are given below:--

  _MS. Cambr._ ll. 71-82.

  God walkyd in erth as longe as he wolde,
  He had not in this erth but hong{er} & colde,
  And in this erth also his body was solde,
  Her{e} in this erth, whan þ{a}t he was xxx^ti ȝer{e} olde.

      _MS. Rawl. C._ v. 8.

      Now he þ{a}t erthe opon erthe ordande to go
      Graunt þ{a}t erthe vpon erthe may govern hym so,
      Þat when erthe vnto erthe shall{e} be taken to,
      Þat þe saule of þis erthe suffre no wo.

  God lytyd in erth, blyssed be that stou{n}de!
  He sauyd hijs herth w{i}t{h} many a scharpe wounde,
  Ffor to sawe erth owght of hell grou{n}de,
  He deyd in erth vpon þe rode w{i}t{h} many a blody vou{n}de.

  And God ros ovght of the est this erth for to spede,
  And went into hell as was gret nede,
  And toke erth from sorowe þ{i}s erth for to spede,
  The ryght wey to heuen blys I{esus} Cryst vs lede!

      _MS. Rawl. P._ vv. 31, 32.

      Lord God that erthe tokist in erthe,
      And suffredist paynes ful stille,
      Late neuer erthe for the erthe
      In dedly synne ne spille.

      But that erthe in this erthe
      Be doynge euer thi wille,
      So that erthe for the erthe
      Stye up to thi holi hille.

        (Cf. Harl. 4486, v. 8; Lamb. v. 12; Laud v. 12).

It is therefore evident that the Cambridge text shows knowledge of
both the A and the B versions, but the text in its existing form must
represent either a corrupt copy of the original with frequent
dislocation of lines, or, what is perhaps more likely from the instances
of repetition of the same words or ideas which occur, a clumsy
compilation from the two made by some one who perhaps had B before him
and remembered portions of A imperfectly. Such repetitions occur in
verses 2 and 18, the latter repeating three of the rime-words of the
former verse, as well as the phrase _scharpe schowris_; and again in
verses 4 and 19, and in verses 6, 7, and 13. In any case the text must
be regarded as later than the A and B versions, and not as forming a
link between them. The dialect is Northern, but not uniformly so.


The question as to the source of the poem _Erthe upon Erthe_, and the
relationship of the A and B versions to the original, and to each other,
is a difficult one. The existence of a parallel Latin version in one of
the oldest MSS. is clearly an important point to be taken into
consideration in any attempt at an investigation of the origin of the
poem, and it will be well before proceeding further to form some
conclusion as to the relation in which the English and Latin stanzas in
MS. Harl. 913 stand to each other. The correspondence of the two
versions is not strictly verbal, but it is evident that either the
English or the Latin stanzas represent a rather free rendering of the
verses which accompany them. In favour of a Latin origin it may be
pointed out that the metrical form of the Latin stanzas is one
frequently employed in Latin poems of the time, that the subject is a
favourite monastic theme, and that the manner of the poem is in keeping
with contemporary Anglo-Latin compositions, such as the well-known _Cur
mundus militat sub vana gloria_. The natural tendency would be to
attribute a poem of the kind to Latin origin, especially if, as in this
case, a Latin version were forthcoming.

On the other hand, it may be pointed out that the Latin text is not
known to exist in any other MS., and appears indeed to have no separate
existence from the English stanzas which accompany it, whereas English
texts of the poem without trace of a Latin rendering or original are
very common.[14] The text was one frequently used in epitaphs, but no
Latin epitaph of the kind is known to have existed, although Latin was
commonly used in epitaphs at the time when the poem was most widely

Further, word-plays of the kind found here upon the word _erthe_ are
certainly not common in Latin verse of the time, and the Latin text does
not render the play as effectively as the English does, employing
alternately the three terms _terra_, _vesta_, _humus_, in place of the
English _erthe_, and failing to maintain these consistently. The play on
the word _earth_, which is the most essential feature of the poem, could
not have been given with the same effect as in English either in Latin
or in any mediaeval language.[15]

Thirdly, in support of an English origin it may be urged that close
verbal connexion can be traced between the English text of both
versions, but more especially of the earlier (A), and other poems dating
from the twelfth to the fifteenth century, particularly the various
Dialogues of _The Soul and the Body_:--

  _MS. Harl._ 913, l. 17 (A).
    When erþ is in erþe, þe rof is on þe chynne.

  _MS. Cambr. Univ. Libr._ Ii. 4. 9, l. 25 (C)
    When erthe is in erth for wormys wyn,
    Þe rof of his hows xal ly on his chyn.

      Cf. _Dialogues of Soul and Body_, (_Worcester fragment_)
      12th cent.
        ‘nu þu havest neowe hus inne beþrungen, lowe beoþ helewes.
        Þin rof liþ on þine breoste, ful . . . colde is þe ibedded.

      (_Bodl. Fragm._) 12th cent.
        Þe rof bið ibyld þire broste ful neh.

      (_MS. Auchinleck_) 13th cent.
        Wiþ wormes is now ytaken þin in,
        Þi bour is bilt wel cold in clay,
        Þe rof _shal take to_[16] þi chin.

      (_MS. Harl._ 2253) 14th cent.
        When þe flor is at þy rug,
        Þe rof ys at þy neose.

      Cf. _Death_ 152 (13th cent.) in Morris, _O. E. Misc._, p. 168
      (_Jesus MS._).
        Þi bur is sone ibuld
          Þat þu schalt wunyen inne,
        Þe rof _& þe virste_[17]
          Schal ligge on þine chynne.
        Nu þe schulen wurmes
          Wunyen wiþinne.

  _MS. Harl._ 913, l. 66 (A).
    Erþ bilt castles, & erþe bilt toures;
    Whan erþ is on erþe, blak beþ þe boures.

  _MS. Harl._ 4486 (B); _so other_ B _texts_.
    Erthe apon erthe wynneth{e} castelles & towres.
    Then seythe erthe to erthe: ‘These byth{e} alle owres’.
    When erthe apon erthe hath byggede vp his bowres,
    Then schalle erthe for the erthe suffre scharpe schowres.

  _MS. Cambr._ 63 (C).
    Erthe bygyth hallys & erth bygith towres,
    When erþ is layd in erth, blayke is his bours;

  _ibid._ 5-8
    Erthe vpon erthe has hallys & towris _&c._

      Cf. _Soul & Body Dialogues_ (_MSS. Auchinleck, Digby, Vernon,
        Whare be þine castels & þine tours,
        Þine chaumbres & þine heiȝe halle,
           .     .     .     .     .
        Wrecche, ful derk it is þi bour
        To morn þou schalt þerin falle.

        Halles heiȝe & bours briȝt
        Y hadde y bilt & mirþes mo.

      (_MS. Harl._ 2253).
        thi castles & thy toures.

      Cf. _Death_ 29.
        Ah seoþþen mony mon
          By-yet bures & halle,
        Forþi þe wrecche soule
          Schal into pyne falle.

  _MS. Harl._ 913. 42 (A).
    Be þou þre niȝt in a þrouȝ, þi frendschip is ilor.[18]

      Cf. _Visio Philiberti_ (_MS. Porkington_).
        When þou art dede þi frenschype is aslepe.

      Cf. _Soul & Body_ (_MS. Auchinleck_).
        that alle þine frend beon fro þe fledde.

      Cf. _Death_ 97.
        Hwer beoð alle þine freond
          Þet fayre þe bi-hehte
        And fayre þe igretten
          Bi weyes and bi strete.
        Nu heo walleþ wrecche
          Alle þe forlete
        Nolde heo non herestonkes[19]
          Nu þe imete.

  _MS. Cambr._ l. 21 (C).
    When erth has gotyn erthe alle that he maye
    He schal haue but seven fote at his laste daye.

      Cf. _Soul & Body_ (_MSS. Auchinl._, _Digby_).
        Now schaltow haue at al þi siþe
        Bot seuen fet, vnneþe þat.

The play upon the word _earth_ recurs in other English poems. Cf.
_A Song on the Times_ (MS. Harl. 913), early fourteenth century--

  [20]Whan erthe hath erthe i-gette
    And of erthe so hath i-nouȝ,
  When he is therin i-stekke,
    Wo is him that was in wouȝ.

where the idea and the two rime-words are the same as in _MS. Harl._

  Erþe toe of erþe erþe wyþ woh,
  Erþe oþer erþe to þe erþe droh,
  Erþe leyde erþe in erþene þroh,
  Þo heuede erþe of erþe erþe ynoh.

It will be remembered that these two MSS. (Harl. 913 and 2253) are the
two which preserve texts of the A version, and the opening lines of the
_Song on the Times_ would appear to give further proof of a connexion
between the two A texts.

Further, in _MS. Lansdowne_ 762 (v. _Reliquiae Antiquae_ I. 260), under
the heading _Terram terra tegat_, occur these lines:--

  First to the erthe I bequethe his parte,
  My wretched careyn is but fowle claye,
  Like than to like, erthe in erthe to laye;
  Sith it is, according by it I wolle abide,
  As for the first parte of my wille, that erthe erthe hide.

In this case the English words are evidently based upon the Latin
phrase, but this does not disprove an English origin for the poem _Erthe
upon Erthe_, since any verses of the kind must ultimately have been
based on the idea that man is dust, and the idea itself must have been
first presented and have become widely known through such Latin elegiac
phrases as _Memento homo quod cinis es et in cinerem reverteris_, or _De
terra plasmasti me_, both of which so frequently accompany _Erthe upon
Erthe_, or as the above cited _Terram terra tegat_. The verse in _MS.
Lansdowne_ might rather be considered as supplying further proof of the
popular tendency to replace such phrases by English verses, expressing
the same idea, but themselves English, not Latin in origin, and making
the most of the possible word-play. Such word-plays were evidently
popular between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. Cf. the
well-known passage in _Piers Plowman_, c. xxi. 389.

  So lyf shal lyf lete ther lyf hath lyf anyented,
  So that lyf quyte lyf, the olde lawe hit asketh.
  _Ergo_, soule shal soule quyte and synne to synne wende.

In view of this evidence, I am inclined to think that the Latin version
in MS. Harl. 913 is the translation, and the English the original, and
that the oldest form of _Erthe upon Erthe_ which has been preserved is
that found in the four lines in MS. Harl. 2253:--

  Erþe toc of erþe erþe wyþ woh &c.

Short riddling stanzas of the kind, based upon the Latin phrases
mentioned above, may have been popular in the thirteenth century, and
this particular one was evidently known and used by the author of the
_Song on the Times_.[21] The writer of the version preserved in MS.
Harl. 913 seems to have been a more learned man, acquainted with poems
like the Dialogues between _the Soul and the Body_, who elaborated the
four lines of MS. Harl. 2253, and perhaps other verses of the same kind,
into a poem of seven six-lined stanzas, the additional couplet often
introducing a new idea precisely as in the case of the similarly
expanded verse-form in MS. Porkington. Either this man or a later
transcriber appears to have added the Latin rendering which accompanies
the poem, and to have further exercised himself in varying the
word-play. Heuser[22] points out that the mistakes in the MS. would
support the view that the English text is a copy of an original in
another dialect, and it is possible that the Latin version belongs to
this MS. alone, since a second poem in the same MS. is accompanied by an
unfinished translation into Latin.

This theory as to the origin of the two texts of the A version receives
further support from the fact that it also accounts most satisfactorily
for the development and popularity of the B version. Apart from the play
on the word _erthe_ and the similarity of the theme, there is only one
point of close verbal connexion between the two versions. In MS. Harl.
913 (A) the sixth stanza runs as follows:--

    Erþ gette on erþ gersom & gold,
    Erþ is þi moder, in erþ is þi mold.
    Erþ uppon erþ be þi soule hold;
    Er erþe go to erþe, bild þi long bold.
  Erþ bilt castles, and erþe bilt toures;
  Whan erþ is on erþe, blak beþ þe boures.

In the B version, the rimes _gold_ : _mold_, _toures_ : _boures_,
regularly recur in the third and fourth stanzas, and line 5 of the A
text is preserved in slightly modified form in the first line of verse
3:-- (MS. Harl. 4486, vv. 3 and 4)

  Erthe apon erthe wynnethe castelles and towres.
  Then seythe erthe to erthe: ‘These bythe alle owres.’
  When erthe apon erthe hath byggede vp his bowres,
  Then schalle erthe for the erthe suffre scharpe schowres.

  Erthe gothe apon erthe as molde apon molde.
  So goethe erthe apon erthe alle gleterynge in golde,
  Lyke as erthe unto erthe neuer go scholde,
  And ȝet schalle erthe into erthe rather then he wolde.

In the Cambridge text the rime-words _towres_ : _bours_ are introduced
twice over, representing both the versions given above:--

  (ll. 63, 64)  Erthe bygyth hallys & erthe bygith towres,
                When erth is layd in erth, blayke is his bours;

as in the _A_ version;

  (ll. 5, 7)    Erthe vpon erth has hallys & towris . . .
                But quan erth vpon erth has bygyd his bowres,

as in the B version.

The two stanzas of the B version which contain these rime-words are the
two which recur most frequently on tombstones and mural inscriptions,
and it seems possible that they represent a second early form of the
_Erthe_ poems. It is evident that the rime-words _gold_ : _mold_,
_bowres_ : _towres_, depend upon an early tradition. Probably verses
similar to the short stanza in MS. Harl. 2253, and containing these
words, were in existence before the learned writer of the longer A text
in MS. Harl. 913 introduced them in his poem, and, becoming widely
known, formed the nucleus of the B version. Both the A and the B
versions might therefore be held to depend upon popular stanzas of this
kind, which gave rise about the end of the thirteenth century to the
long poem of MS. Harl. 913, and during the fourteenth century to the
original of the B version, a poem in seven four-lined stanzas. The
earlier version is connected more particularly with the Southwest
Midland district; the later seems to have originated rather in the North
or North Midlands, but it soon became known all over England, and is
found in the South of Scotland shortly after 1500. Only one
fifteenth-century writer, the author of the Cambridge text, shows direct
knowledge of the A text, but the B version was evidently widely known,
and a favourite theme for additions and modifications. On tombstones and
mural inscriptions it survived up to the nineteenth century.


As has been already pointed out, the Middle English texts of _Erthe upon
Erthe_ occur for the most part in the Commonplace Books of the day,
often on the spare leaves at the beginning or end of the MS., as if the
collector or some later owner had been struck by the poem and anxious to
preserve it. That this interest was not confined to the fifteenth
century is shown by the occurrence of the text in the Maitland and
Reidpeth MSS. A still later instance of it occurs in the Pillerton
Hersey Registers, dating from 1559 onwards, where the following
verse has been scribbled on the last leaf, probably by some
seventeenth-century clerk (cf. C. C. Stopes, _Athenaeum_, Sept. 19,

  Earth upon earth bould house and bowrs,
  Earth upon earth sayes all is ours.
  Earth upon earth when all is wroght,
  Earth upon earth sayes all is for nought.

Here the first two lines represent a corrupt type of the same lines in
verse 3 of the B version, while the rimes _wroght_ : _nought_ recall
verse 1.

Another interesting trace of a late popular version is mentioned in the
_Gentleman’s Magazine_ for March, 1824, where a certain Mr. J. Lawrence
tells how he was invited, during a visit to Beaumont Hall, Essex, to see
the following inscription, written and decorated by a cow-boy on an
attic wall:--

  Earth goes upon the earth, glittering like gold;
  Earth goes to the earth sooner than ’twould;
  Earth built upon the earth castles and towres;
  Earth said to the earth, ‘All shall be ours.’

Here portions of verses 3 and 4 of the B version have been combined as
in the epitaphs at Melrose and Clerkenwell cited below, pointing either
to a corrupt popular version of the B text, or possibly to an earlier
type[23] in which the rimes _gold_ : _mold_, &c. were immediately
associated with the rimes _towres_ : _bowres_ as in A (MS. Harl. 913,
v. 6). The former assumption is the more probable, since the verse
appears to be directly based upon stanzas 3 and 4 of the usual B

The majority of the later instances of the text occur on tombstones or
memorial tablets. The poem was peculiarly adapted for this purpose,
based as it was on the very words of the Burial Service. Indeed, the
short verses from which it is here assumed to have originated might well
be supposed to have been written in the first place as epitaphs, if
evidence of the use of English epitaphs in the thirteenth century[24]
were forthcoming. As has been already stated, the seven verses of the
normal B version occurred in full among the mural paintings in the
Chapel of the Holy Trinity at Stratford-on-Avon, belonging to the Guild
of the Holy Cross, where they appear to have been used as a monumental
inscription already in the latter part of the fifteenth century.

A well-known late instance of the text is the inscription on a tombstone
in the parish churchyard which surrounds Melrose Abbey, mentioned by
Scott. The stone is headed as follows:--

                       Memento Mori.
  Here lyes James Ramsay, portioner of Melrose, who died
                     July 15th, 1761.

On the back is the following verse:--

  The Earth goeth on the Earth
    Glistring like gold,
  The Earth goeth to the Earth
    Sooner than it wold;
  The Earth builds on the Earth
    Castles & Towers,
  The Earth says to the Earth:
    ‘All shall be ours.’

This was translated into German by Theodor Fontane (_Poems_, 4th edit.,
Berlin, 1892, p. 447). Cf. Fiedler, _Mod. Lang. Review_, April 1908.

Other inscriptions are as follows:--

On an old brass, quoted by W. Williams, _Notes and Queries_, I. vii.
577, and thought by him to belong to the Church of St. Helen’s,

           ‘Here lyeth y^e bodyes of
        James Pomley, y^e sonne of ould
         Dominick Pomley and Jane his
     wyfe: y^e said James deceased y^e 7th
        day of Januarie Anno Domini 1592
       he beyng of y^e age of 88 years, &
       y^e sayd Jane deceased y^e -- day
                   of -- D --

  Earth goeth upõ Earth as moulde upõ moulde;
  Earth goeth upõ Earth all glittering as golde,
  As though earth to y^e earth never turne sholde;
  And yet shall earth to y^e earth sooner than he wolde.

On a tomb at Edmonton of unknown date (possibly sixteenth century),
mentioned by Weever (_Ancient Funerall Monuments_) in 1631, and by
Pettigrew (_Chronicles of the Tombs_, p. 67) in 1857:--

  Erth goyth upon erth as mold upon mold,
  Erth goyth upon erth al glisteryng in gold,
  As though erth to erth ner turne shold,
  And yet must erth to erth soner than he wolde.

Formerly on a headstone in St. James’s Churchyard, Clerkenwell,
deciphered about 1812, but already lost in 1851, probably owing to the
dismantling of the churchyard. (Cf. _Notes and Queries_, III. i. 389):--

  Earth walks on Earth like glittering gold;
  Earth says to Earth ‘We are but mold’.
  Earth builds on Earth castles & towers;
  Earth says to Earth, ‘All shall be ours!’

Formerly on a tombstone at St. Martin’s, Ludgate, to Florens Caldwell
esq. of London & Ann Mary Wilde, his wife (Pettigrew, p. 67)[26]:--

  Earth goes to Earth, as mold to mold;
  Earth treads on Earth, glittering in gold:
  Earth as to Earth returne ne’er shoulde;
  Earth shall to Earth goe e’er he wolde.
    Earth upon Earth consyder may;
    Earth goes to Earth naked away.
  Earth though on Earth be stowt & gay
  Earth shall from Earth passe poore away.
    Be mercifull & charitable,
    Relieve the poor as thou art able.
    A shrowd to the grave
    Is all thou shalt have.

This interesting monument has unfortunately disappeared. Doubtless there
are many other traces of the poem to be found, but it appears to have
been rarely used on tombstones after 1700,[27] and earlier monuments,
unless specially preserved, are rarely decipherable at the present day.


_Erthe upon Erthe_ cannot be said to possess great literary value in
itself. The interest of the poem lies chiefly in its evident popularity,
and in the insight it gives into the kind of literature which became
popular in the Middle Ages. It belongs essentially to the same class as
the _Soul and Body_ Poems, and the _Dance of Death_. In the early days
of its introduction into Western Europe, Christianity made great use in
its appeal to the mass of the people of the fear of death and dread of
the Judgement. The early monastic writers dwelt upon the idea of man’s
mortality and decay, and the transitoriness of human rank and pleasure.
Hence the frequency with which such themes as the _Dance of Death_ were
treated in literature and in art. Closely allied with this idea of the
fleeting nature of earthly things, and to some extent a result of it,
was the conception of the separation of man’s bodily from his spiritual
self which pervades all mediaeval post-Christian literature. In Old
English times already, this sense of a sharp division between the two is
embodied in No. xliv of the O.E. _Riddles_:--

  [28]Ic wat indryhtne æþelum deorne
  ȝiest in ȝeardum, þæm se grimma ne mæg
  hunger sceððan ne se hata þurst,
  yldo ne adle [ne se enga deað],
  ȝif him arlice esne þenað,
  se þe agan sceal [his ȝeongorscipe]
  on þam siðfæte: hy gesunde æt ham
  findaþ witode him wiste ⁊ blisse,
  cnosles unrim, care, ȝif se esne
  his blaforde hyreð yfle
  frean on fore, ne wile forht wesan
  broþer oþrum: him þæt bam sceðeð,
  þonne hy from bearme begen hweorfað
  anre magan ellorfuse
  moddor ⁊ sweostor.

This sets forth the same conception of the duality in man as is
represented in the O.E. _Speech of the Soul to the Body_, and in the
whole group of _Soul and Body_ poems, and the idea recurs constantly in
other monastic texts, cf. Morris, _O. E. Miscellany_, iii (_Sinners
Beware_), p. 83:--

      326.  þe feondes heom forþ ledeþ
              Boþe lychom and saule.

  331-336.  Þe saule seyþ to þe lychome,
            Accursed wurþe þi nome,
              Þin heaued and þin heorte.
            Þu vs hauest iwroht þes schome,
            And alle þene eche grome
                Vs schall euer smerte.

_MS. Harl._ 2253, fol. 106, v^o, l. 7: þe fleysh stont aȝeyn þe gost.

These two fundamental ideas of the transitoriness and hence
worthlessness of man’s earthly part, and the cleavage between it and his
spiritual part, lie at the root of much of the mediaeval literature, and
represent the two not incompatible extremes to which the monastic ideal
of life, from its very one-sidedness, was capable of leading: on the one
hand a certain morbid materialism, on the other an ascetic mysticism.
Nor can it be denied that the mediaeval mind took a certain grim
pleasure in dwelling upon the more grotesque aspect of these things. The
O.E. poet found the same enjoyment in describing his ‘Ȝifer’--

  [29]se wyrm, þe þa ȝeaȝlas beoð
  nædle scearpran: se genydeð to
  ærest eallra on þam eorðsciæfe,

as the painters of the _Dance of Death_ in the drawing of their
skeletons and emblems of mortality, or the Gothic carver in his
gargoyles. Perhaps, too, some satisfaction in dwelling upon the
hollowness of earthly joys, and the bitter fate of those who took their
fill of them, was not lacking to a few of those who had turned their
backs upon them.

_Erthe upon Erthe_ is perhaps more especially concerned with the first
of the two conceptions mentioned above, man’s mortality, but, as has
already been shown, a close connexion exists between it and the _Soul
and Body_ poems, and though the idea of the duality in man is not
mentioned, it is certainly present. The poem is more popular in form
than either the _Dance of Death_ or the various _Soul and Body_
Dialogues, perhaps because of its purely English origin, and seems to
represent a later and more popular product of the ideas which gave rise
to the other two groups. Its short mono-rimed stanza, its jingling
internal rime, and its half-riddling, half-punning character, appear to
have especially commended it to popular favour, and it is significant
that it became most widely-known in its simpler forms.


In preparing the text of this edition, all the available MSS. have been
consulted, the only two not examined being William Billyng’s MS. and the
Brighton MS., which were formerly in the possession of private owners,
and have eluded all search for them. As exhaustive a search as was
possible has been made for other texts of the poem, but it has often
escaped cataloguing, and it is probable that other copies of the B
version, at least, exist.

The punctuation, inverted commas, and regular use of initial capitals in
the text are the Editor’s. The MSS. vary in their use of capitals, the
same MS. being often inconsistent with itself, while the Cambridge text
frequently employs them for unimportant words in the middle of the line,
as p. 33, l. 45, Ar, &c. Capitals have been added in the case of all
proper names. Letters and words which are obscure or illegible in the
MS., or which appear to have been accidentally omitted, are enclosed in
square brackets, and a hyphen has been inserted where the MS. separates
a prefix or particle from the rest of the word. The MS. writings ff, þ,
ȝ, v for u and vice versa, have been retained in the text, and ɫɫ, ŧħ,
expanded to ll{e}, th{e}, but it was not thought advisable to expand m~,
n~, to m{e}, n{e}, nor other letters such as d, r, g, when written with
a final flourish. Fifteenth-century scribes appear to have used such
flourishes at the end of the word rather as a matter of habit than with
any particular meaning, and the forms to which expansion of them would
lead, such as _one_, _onne_ for _on_, are frequently most improbable. It
was therefore thought better to ignore such flourishes, or to indicate
the persistent use of them by a footnote.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The mid-paragraph characters are “ll” and “th”, each with a single
  stroke through both letters.]

As the conclusions arrived at in the Introduction with regard to the
relationship of the English and Latin versions in MS. Harl. 913, and the
verbal connexion with the _Soul and Body_ Dialogues, agree, to some
extent, with those indicated by Heuser, _Die Kildare-Gedichte_, pp.
176-80, it is only reasonable to state that the greater part of the work
upon the subject had been done, and a projected article upon it written
in reply to Professor Fiedler’s in the _Modern Language Review_, before
I had any knowledge of Heuser’s text, and that my conclusions had been
formed independently of his, though his have helped to strengthen and
confirm them. Moreover I owe his work a very real debt, since I first
learned from it of the existence of the Cambridge Text, which has been a
most important link in the building up of the general theory as to the
connexion between the different versions of the poem.

In conclusion, it is a pleasure to express thanks for kind and courteous
assistance to the authorities of the British Museum, the Public Record
Office, the Bodleian, Cambridge University Library and Lincoln Cathedral
Library; to the librarian of Lambeth Palace Library, to whom I am
indebted for the collation of the Lambeth text; to the authorities of
Magdalene College, Cambridge, for permission to copy and print the
Maitland text; to Lord Harlech for the loan of the Porkington MS.; to
Professor Fiedler for permission to use the Brighton text; to Professor
Priebsch, who pointed out the text in MS. Harl. 4486; to Miss Helen
Sandison, of Bryn Mawr College, U.S.A., for the discovery of the text in
the Appendix and for two of the Analogues, and to Professor Skeat for
valuable advice and suggestions. In particular this text owes much to my
Father, Sir James Murray of the _Oxford Dictionary_, who has read the
proofs, and in the midst of his own arduous work has always been ready
with help and advice, to my friend Miss K. S. Block, Lecturer in English
at the Royal Holloway College, and, above all, to Dr. Furnivall, in whom
all scholars and students of English mourn to-day the loss of a great
pioneer, and an ever-ready friend and adviser.

    _July_ 1910.

Since this was sent to press two other copies of the B version have come
to light at Cambridge, and have by kind permission been inserted on pp.
47, 48 as Appendix II:--

(B 19) MS. Trinity College R. 3. 21, fol. 33, v^o, a copy of the normal
B version in seven stanzas.

(B 20) MS. Trinity College B. 15. 39, fol. 170, which contains nine
stanzas of the expanded text preserved in MSS. Lambeth and Laud, and
appears to represent a distinct copy of the original of these two (see
Introd. p. xix).

    [Footnote 1: A second Latin version of an _Erthe_ poem, together
    with the same poem in Anglo-French, and in Middle English, occurs
    on the back of a Roll in the Public Record Office, dating from the
    time of Edward II (Ex^r. K. R. Proceedings, Bdle. 1; old No.
    845/21), and in a 19th cent. transcript of this in MS. Brit. Mus.
    Addit. 25478; it is given in the Appendix. Both the Latin and the
    French appear to be translations or paraphrases of the English,
    with an additional verse or two.]

    [Footnote 2: The English text in the Appendix consists of nine
    four-lined stanzas, and is distinct from either of the two current
    versions of the poem. It appears to have been suggested by the
    opening lines of A, and may be regarded as a single sub-type of A,
    not affecting the main line of argument of the Introduction. (See
    Appendix, p. 46.)]

    [Footnote 3: This is repeated on each page of Bateman’s text, and
    is, perhaps, his own design.]

    [Footnote 4: See Bateman’s Preface.]

    [Footnote 5: Probably not the author but the copier of the MS.:
    see Notes.]

    [Footnote 6: All the stanzas of the B version are four-lined
    except MS. Porkington.]

    [Footnote 7: v. Wanley’s Catalogue.]

    [Footnote 8: My attention was called to this MS. by the kindness
    of Prof. Priebech.]

    [Footnote 9: MS. Laud Misc. is not written throughout in metrical
    lines, but the divisions of the stanzas, and, in most cases, of
    the lines, are clearly indicated.]

    [Footnote 10: The first leaf of this text has been torn out and
    the verses in brackets are only conjectural.]

    [Footnote 11: MS. Laud represents, in the main, the same version
    as MS. Lamb., but the variant readings preclude the idea of its
    being a copy of Lamb., unless the scribe deliberately tried to
    modify his original on the lines of Harl. 4486 and Rawl. P. The
    changes in the text (ll. 26, 27, 47: see Notes) show that it
    cannot be the original of Lamb. It appears to be a transcript from
    the same original made about the same date, or a little earlier
    than the Lambeth text.]

    [Footnote 12: Cf. MS. Brighton _nobley_.]

    [Footnote 13: Cf. MS. Selden _delful_.]

    [Footnote 14: The Latin and Anglo-French texts in the Appendix are
    evidently renderings of the English poem which accompanies them.]

    [Footnote 15: This is clearly seen in the Latin and French
    versions in the Appendix where the Latin text uses _terra in
    terra_, and the French _terre en terre_.]

    [Footnote 16: Vernon MS. _to resten on_, Digby, _shal rest right

    [Footnote 17: Cotton MS. _þe rof þe firste_.]

    [Footnote 18: Cf. Frendles ys þe dede (_Proverbs of Hendyng_,
    l. 288).]

    [Footnote 19: = heres þonkes, _of their own free will_.]

    [Footnote 20: Compare with this the text in the Appendix which
        Whanne eorthe hath eorthe wiþ wrong igete--
    and in the French version:
        Quant terre auera en terre large terre gayne.]

    [Footnote 21: See the Appendix, p. 46.]

    [Footnote 22: _Die Kildare-Gedichte_ (Bonn, 1904).]

    [Footnote 23: See p. xxxiv above.]

    [Footnote 24: The earliest known epitaphs in English date from the
    fourteenth century.]

    [Footnote 25: There is no record of this brass at the church of
    St. Helen’s, Bishopsgate.]

    [Footnote 26: Dated 1590 by Ernest R. Suffling, _Epitaphia_
    (1909), p. 382.]

    [Footnote 27: A late instance of its use is given by Ch. Box
    (_Elegies and Epitaphs_, Glouc. 1892) as found by him on the tomb
    of a bricklayer, who died in 1837, aged 90:--
        Earth walks upon Earth like glittering gold,
        Earth says to Earth, ‘We are but mould’;
        Earth builds upon Earth castles and towers,
        Earth says to Earth, ‘All is ours’!]

    [Footnote 28: Printed from Grein-Wülcker, _Bibliothek der ags.
    Poesie_, iii. 212.--(I know of a most noble guest in the
    dwellings, hidden from men, whom fierce hunger cannot torment, nor
    burning thirst, nor age, nor sickness [nor close-pressing death],
    if the servant who shall [bear him company] in his course serves
    him honourably: they, prospering, shall find abundance and bliss,
    countless joys, allotted to them at home, but (they shall find)
    sorrow, if the servant obeys his lord and master ill upon their
    journey, and will not show him reverence, the one brother to the
    other: that shall afflict them both, when they two depart,
    hastening hence, from the bosom of their common kinswoman, mother
    and sister.)]

    [Footnote 29: Grein-Wülcker, iii. 105.--(The worm whose jaws are
    sharper than needles, who first of all the worms in the grave
    forces his way to him.)]






MS. HARLEIAN 2253. c. 1307.                              [fol. 57, v^o.]

  Erþe toc of erþe erþe wyþ woh,
  Erþe oþer erþe to þe erþe droh,
  Erþe leyde erþe in erþene þroh,
  Þo heuede erþe of erþe erþe ynoh.                                    4


MS. HARLEIAN 913. c. 1308-1330.                          [fol. 62, r^o.]

  1   [1]Whan erþ haþ erþ iwonne wiþ wow,
      Þan erþ mai of erþ nim hír inow.
      Erþ vp[2] erþ falliþ fol frow[3];
      Erþ toward erþ delful hi{m} drow.                                4
  Of erþ þou wer{e} makid, a{nd} mon þou art ilich;
  In on erþ awaked þe pore a{nd} þe riche.

      T{er}ra{m} p{er} i{n}iuriam cu{m} t{er}ra lucratur,
      Tu{n}c de t{er}ra cepiam[4] t{er}ra sorciatur.                   8
      T{er}ra sup{er} aream subito frustratur;           [fol. 62, v^o.]
      Se t{r}axit ad aridam t{er}raq{ue} tristatur.
  De t{er}ra plasmaris, es simil{is}[5] virroni,
  Vna t{er}ra paup{er}es ac dites s{un}t proni.                       12

  2   Erþ geþ on erþ wrikkend in weden,
      Erþ toward erþ wormes to feden;
      Erþ b{er}riþ[6] to erþ al is lif deden;
  When erþ is i{n} erþe, heo muntid[7] þi meden.                      16
  When erþ is i{n} erþe, þe rof is on þe chynne[8];
  Þan schullen an hu{n}dred wormes wroten on þe skin.

      Vesta p{er}git uestibus s{upe}r ueste{m} vare,
      Artat{ur} & uermibus vesta pastu{m} dare;                       20
      Ac cu{m} gestis o{mn}ibus ad uesta{m} migrare;
      Cu{m} uesta sit scrobibus, q{u}is wlt[9] suspirare?
  Cu{m} sit uesta po{n}ita[10], doma ta{n}git mentu{m};
  Tu{n}c i{n} cute ca{n}dida verru{n}t[11] u{er}mes centu{m}.         24

  3   Erþ askiþ erþ, a{nd} erþ hir answerid,
      Whi erþ hatid erþ, a{nd} erþ erþ verrid.
      Erþ haþ erþ, a{nd} erþ erþ teriþ,
      Erþ geeþ on erþ, a{nd} erþ erþ berriþ.                          28
  Of erþ þow wer{e} bigun, on erþ þou schalt end;
  Al þ{a}t þou i{n} erþ wonne[12], to erþ schal hit wend.

      Hum{us} humu{m} repetit, & re{spo}nsu{m} datur,
      Humu{m} q{u}are n{e}gligit, & humo fruatur.                     32
      Hum{u}s humu{m} porrigit, sic & operatur,
      S{upe}r humu{m} p{er}agit, humo q{uod}[13] portatur.
  Humo sic i{n}ciperis, ac humo meabis;
  Q{uo}d humo q{ue}sieris, humo totu{m} dabis.                        36

  4   Erþ get hit[14] on erp maist{r}i a{nd} miȝte;      [fol. 63, r^o.]
      Al we beþ erþ, to erþ we beþ idiȝte;
      Erþ askeþ carayne of ki{n}g a{nd} of kniȝt;
      Whan erþ is i{n} erþ, so lowȝ he be liȝt.                       40
  Whan þi riȝt a{nd} þi wowȝ wendiþ þe bi-for,
  Be þou þre niȝt i{n} a þrouȝ, þi f{r}endschip is i-lor.

      Terra ui{m}q{ue}[15] b{r}auivm t{er}ra collucratur;
      Tot{us} cet{us} hominvm de t{er}ra patratur[16];                44
      Ops cadau{er} militvm q{ue} regis sc{r}utatur;
      Cu{m} det{ur} i{n} tumulvm, mox t{er}ra voratur.
  Cu{m} ius & i{us}ticivm cora{m} te migrabu{n}t,
  Pauci p{er} t{r}inoctivm morte{m} deplorabu{n}t.                    48

  5   Erþ is a palfrei to king a{nd} to quene,
      Erþ is ar[17] la{ng} wei, þouw we lutil wene,
      Þ{a}t weriþ g{r}ouer a{nd} g{r}oy[18] a{nd} schrud so schene,
      Whan erþ makiþ is liuerei, he g{r}auiþ vs i{n} g{r}ene.         52
  Whan erþ haþ erp wiþ st{r}einþ þus geten,
  Alast he haþ is leinþ miseislich i-meten.

      Dic uesta{m}[19] dext{r}arium regiq{ue} regine,
      It{er} lo{n}gu{m} marium, q{uod} e{st} sine fine,               56
      I{n}dum{en}tu{m} uarium dans cedit se{n}tine[20],
      Q{ua}ndo[21] dat corrodium, noa t{r}adit ruine.
  Cu{m} p{er} fortitudinem tenet hanc luc{r}atam,
  Capit lo{n}gitudinem mis{er}e metatam.                              60

  6   Erþ gette on erþ gersom a{nd} gold,
      Erþ is þi moder, in erþ is þi mold.
      Erþ uppon erþ be þi soule hold;
      Er erþe go to erþe, bild þi long bold.                          64
  Erþ bilt[22] castles, a{nd} erþe bilt toures;          [fol. 63, v^o.]
  Whan erþ is on erþe, blak beþ þe boures.

      Hum{us} q{ue}rit pl{ur}ima sup{er} humu{m} bona,
      Hum{us} e{st} mat{er} tua, i{n} q{u}a sumas dona[23].           68
      A{n}i{m}e sis famula s{upe}r humu{m} prona;
      Domu{m} d{e}i p{er}petra m{un}do cu{m} corona.
  Ops t{ur}res edificat ac castra de petra;
  Q{ua}n{do}[24] fatu{m} capiat, penora {sun}t tetra.                 72

  7   Þenk man i{n} lond[25] on þi last ende,
      Whar of þou co{m} a{nd} whoder schaltou wend.
      Make þe wel at on wiþ hi{m} þ{a}t is so hend,
      A{nd} dred þe of þe dome lest sin þe schend.                    76
  For he is[26] king of blis, a{nd} mon of moch{e} mede,
  Þ{a}t deliþ þe dai f{r}am niȝt, a{nd} leniþ lif a{nd} dede.

      De fine nouissimo mauors mediteris,
      Huc q{u}o uen{er}is uico, dic q{u}o g{r}adieris.                80
      Miti p{r}ude{n}tissimo co{n}cordare deris,
      Hesides iudic[i]o[27], ne noxa da{m}pneris.
  Q{uia} rex e{st} gl{or}ie, dans m{en}sura restat;
  Mutat nocte{m} de die, vita{m} morte{m} prestat.                    84


    [Footnote 1: Cf. Reliquiae Antiquae, _II. 216_; Furnivall,
    Early Eng. Poems and Lives of Saints, _p. 150_; Heuser,
    Kildare-Gedichte, _p. 180_.]

    [Footnote 2: read _upon_.]

    [Footnote 3: in margin _festi{n}e_.]

    [Footnote 4: MS. _cepiam_, so Reliq. Ant.; Furn., Heuser,

    [Footnote 5: MS. _simil’_, Furn. _simile_.]

    [Footnote 6: MS. _b’riþ_, Furn., Reliq. Ant. _beriþ_, Heuser
    _berriþ_, cf. l. 28.]

    [Footnote 7: _muntiþ_, in margin _metit{ur}_.]

    [Footnote 8: MS. originally _schynne_, _s_ erased.]

    [Footnote 9: _vult_, cf. Furn.]

    [Footnote 10: MS. _põita_, Furn., Heuser _posita_.]

    [Footnote 11: in margin _t{r}ahu{nt}_.]

    [Footnote 12: in margin _luc{r}ataris_, Heuser _lucrabaris_.]

    [Footnote 13: MS. _humo ꝗ_, Reliq. Ant., Furn. _humoque_, Heuser
    _humo quod_.]  [[q with line through stem; exact form unclear]]

    [Footnote 14: ? _getith_, in margin _luc{ratur}_.]

    [Footnote 15: MS. _uĩqȝ_, Reliq. Ant., Furn. _vincit_, Heuser

    [Footnote 16: MS. _p^{a}rtratur_, Furn. _portratur_.]

    [Footnote 17: MS. _ar_, Heuser _a_.]

    [Footnote 18: Heuser _grey_ (lies _fou and grey_?).]

    [Footnote 19: Furn. _est tam_.]

    [Footnote 20: MS. _sẽtine_, Furn. _sentine_, Reliq. Ant.
    _sentinæ_, so _reginæ_, _ruinæ_.]

    [Footnote 21: MS. _Qñ_, Furn. _omne_.]

    [Footnote 22: in margin _bildiþ_.]

    [Footnote 23: Furn. H. _dorna_.]

    [Footnote 24: MS. _qñ_, Furn. _quin_ or _quando_.]

    [Footnote 25: Heuser ? _ilome_.]

    [Footnote 26: MS. _h^{e}is_.]  [[inserted “e” over line]]

    [Footnote 27: MS. _iudico_: Reliq. Ant. _judicio_, Furn., Heuser




WILLIAM BILLYNG’S MS. c. 1400-1430 ?.

  1   [1]Erth owte of erth is wondyrly wroght,
      Ffor erth hath geten of erth a nobul thyng of noght,
      Erthe uppon erthe hath set alle hys thoght
      How erthe uppon erthe may be hygh broght.                        4

  2   Erthe uppon erthe yet wolde be a kynge,
      But how erth shall to erth thynketh he nothyng;
      But when erth byddyth erth his dute hom bryng,
      Than shall erth fro erth have a peteus[2] partyng.               8

  3   Erth wynnyth uppon erth both castellys and towris;
      Than sayth erth unto erth: ‘This is alle owres’.
      But whan erth uppon erth hath byllyd all his bowrys,
      Thanne shalle erth for erth suffer sharpe showres.              12

  4   Erth byldyth uppon erth as molde uppo{n} molde,
      And erth goth uppo{n} erth glyttryng alle gold,
      Lyke as erth unto erth neuer goe sholde;
      Ann justly tha[n][3] shalle erth go to erth
              rather þa{n}[4] he wolde.                               16

  5   Why man erth loveth erth wondyr me thynke,
      Or why that erth for erth swet wylle or swynke,
      Ffor whan erth uppon erth is broght w{i}t{h}i{n} þe[5] brynke,
      Than shal þe[6] erth of erth have a ryght fowle sty[n]ke[6].    20

  6   Memento[7] ho{mo} quod cinis es {e}t in cinere{m} reverteris.
      Ffac bene du{m} vivis, post morte[m][8] viv{er}e si vis.
      Wha{n} lyffe is most louyd and deth most hated,
      Than deth drawyth hys drawght and maketh ma{n} ful naked.       24

    [Footnote 1: From Bateman’s print (William Billyng, Five Wounds of
    Christ, Manchester, 1814).]

    [Footnote 2: Bateman _petrus_.]

    [Footnote 3: B. _tha_.]

    [Footnote 4: B. _yã_.]

    [Footnote 5: B. _w^{t}i y^e_.]

    [Footnote 6: B. _y^e_; _styke_.]

    [Footnote 7: B. _momento_.]

    [Footnote 8: B. _morte_.]


MS. THORNTON. c. 1440.                                       [fol. 279.]

          Memento homo Quod Sinis Es
          Et in cenerem Reuerteris.

  1   [1]Erthe owte of erthe es wondirly wroghte,
      Erthe hase getyn one erthe a dignyte of noghte,
      Erthe appon{e} erthe hase sett alle his thoghte
      How þat erthe appon{e} erthe may be heghe broghte.               4

  2   Erthe appon{e} erthe wolde be a kynge,
      Bot howe þ{a}t erthe to erthe sail thynkis he no thynge.
      When erthe bredis erthe & his rentis[2] home brynge,
      Thane schalle[3] erthe of erthe hafe full harde partynge.        8

  3   Erthe appon{e} erthe wynnys castells and towrrys.
      Thane saise[4] erthe vnto erthe: ‘This es alle owrris’.
      When erthe appo{ne} erthe hase bigged vp his bourris,
      Than schalle erthe for erthe suffire scharpe scowrrys[5].       12

  4   Erthe gose appon{e} erthe as golde appone golde,
      He that gose appon{e} erthe gleterande as golde,
      Lyke als erthe neu{er} more[6] goo to erthe scholde,
      And ȝitt schal erthe vnto erthe ȝa rathere þan he wolde.        16

  5   Now why þ{a}t erthe luffis erthe wondire me thynke,
      Or why þ{a}t erthe for erthe scholde oþ{er} swete or swynke,
      For when þ{a}t erthe appon{e} erthe
              es broghte w{i}t{h}in brynke,
      Thane schalle erthe of erthe hafe a foulle stynke.              20

          Mors Soluit Omnia.

    [Footnote 1: Cf. G. G. Perry, Religious Poems in Prose and Verse
    (E.E.T.S. _No. xxvi. 1867, p. 95, 1889, p. 96_); C. Horstmann,
    Yorkshire Writers, _1. 373_.]

    [Footnote 2: repeated in MS. _rentys_.]

    [Footnote 3: Perry _sall_, MS., Horstmann _schalle_.]

    [Footnote 4: perh. _sase_, MS. indistinct, Perry _thus sase_.]

    [Footnote 5: perh. _stourrys_ as in Perry, but all other texts
    have _schowrys_.]

    [Footnote 6: MS. _more_, Perry _mare_.]


MS. SELDEN Supra 53. c. 1450.                           [fol. 159, v^o.]

  1   [1]Erthe apon erthe ys wonderly wroth[2],
      Erthe apon erthe hath worschyp of nogth,
      Erthe apon erthe hath set[3] al hys thowth
      How erthe apon erth myth be hy browth.                           4

  2   Erthe apon erth wolde be a kyng{e};
      How erth schal to þe erth thy[n]k[4] he no thyng{e}.
      Whan erth bydyth erth hys rent h[om]e[4] bryng{e},
      Þan schal erth fro þe erth [haue][5] a delful partyng{e}[6].     8

  3   Erth apon erth wyn[nyth ca[7]]stellys {and} towrys;
      Þan seyth erth to þe erth: ‘Þose beth al owrys’.
      Whan erth apon erth hath byggyt al hys bowrys[8],
      Þan schal erth for þe erth suffyr scharpe [s]chowrys[9].        12

  4   Lo erth apon erth consyder þ{o}u may
      Þ{a}t erth cometh owte of þ{e} erth nakyt alway.
      Þan how scholde erth apon erthe be prowt [or gay][10]
      Whan erth schal to þ{e} erth in so pore aray?                   16

  5   Erth goth on erth as molde doþe on molde,
      Erth goth on erth glydderande in golde,
      Lyk as erth to erth neuyre go scholde.
      Ȝyt schal erth to þ{e} erth rathyr þan þey wolde.               20

  6   I cowsayl erth apon erth þ{a}t wykytly hath wroht,
      Whyle erth ys apon erth to turne al hys tho[w]th[11].
      Now pray we to God þ{a}t al erth wrowth,
      Þat erth owt of erth to blys myth be browth.                    24

    [Footnote 1: The poem is in a different hand on the last leaf of
    the MS., and the writing is much worn and stained, and in many
    cases barely legible. A few letters have been re-written in black
    ink by a later hand.]

    [Footnote 2: _wroht_, cf. _nogth_, _thowth_, _browth_, and similar
    cases of _th_ for _ht_ in v. 6.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. perhaps _iset_.]

    [Footnote 4: MS. obscure.]

    [Footnote 5: omitted in MS.]

    [Footnote 6: _partyn_ re-written in black ink, _ge_ of the
    original hand still clear.]

    [Footnote 7: MS. stained and illegible; portions of _nyth a_ seem
    to be visible.]

    [Footnote 8: _bow_ in original hand, _rys_ re-written in black

    [Footnote 9: The second hand has re-written _chowrys_ ignoring the
    _s_ which is no longer visible.]

    [Footnote 10: _o_ and _y_ re-written, the rest illegible.]

    [Footnote 11: _w_ no longer legible.]


MS. EGERTON 1995. c. 1430-1450.                          [fol. 55, r^o.]

(William Gregory’s Commonplace-Book.)

      Memento homo q{uod} cinis es et in cinerem reuerteris.
      Whenne lyfe ys moste louyde, and dethe ys moste hatyde,
      Dethe drawythe hys draught{e}, and makythe man nakyde.

  1   Erthe owte of þe erthe ys wounderly wrought{e},                  4
      Erthe vppon erthe hathe sette hys thought{e}
      Howe erthe a-pon erthe may be hy brought{e}[1].

  2   Erthe vppon erthe wolde be a kynge;
      Howe erthe shalle vnto erthe thynkythe he noo thynge.            8
      Whenne erthe byddys erthe hys rentys home brynge,
      Thenne shalle erthe of the erthe haue a pytyus partynge.

  3   Erthe a-pon erthe wynnys castellis and towrys;
      Thenne erthe saythe vnto[2] erthe: ‘Thys ys alle owrys’.        12
      Whenne erthe a-pon erthe hathe bylde vppe hys bourys,
      Thenne shalle erthe for the erthe suffer sharpe schowrys.

  4   Erthe goythe a-pon erthe as molde a-pon molde;
      Erthe gothe a-pon erthe alle gleterynge in golde,               16
      Lyke as erthe vnto erthe neuyr [go][3] scholde,
      And yet shalle erthe vnto erthe rathyr thenne he wolde.

  5   Why erthe louythe erthe woundyr I thynke,
      Or why erthe for the erthe swete wylle or swynke,               20
      Ffor whenne erthe a-pon erthe ys brought{e} w{i}t{h}yn brynke,
      Thenne shalle erthe of erthe haue a foule stynke.

  6   Loo erthe a-pon erthe consyder þ{o}u may
      Howe erthe comythe to erthe nakyd alle day.                     24
      Why scholde erthe a-pon erthe goo stowte and gay,
      Syn erthe vnto erthe shalle pas in pore a-ray?

  7   I consylle erthe a-pon erthe þ{a}t wyckydly hathe wrought{e},
      Whyle erthe ys a-pon erthe to turne vppe hys thought{e},        28
      And pray to God a-pon erthe that alle the erthe
              hathe wrought{e},                          [fol. 55, v^o.]
      That erthe owte of the erthe to blys may be brought.

              Amen. Caue si vis.

    [Footnote 1: The second line in omitted here and in No. 5, where a
    new line has been added.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _vnt_.]

    [Footnote 3: Omitted in MS., but required by metre.]


MS. HARLEIAN 1671. 15th century.                         [fol. 1*, r^o.]

  1   Erthe apon erthe ys waxyne and wrought{e},
      And erthe apon erthe hathe ysette all{e} hys thought{e}
      Howe that erth{e} apon erth{e} hye myght be brought{e},
      But how that erth{e} scal to the erth{e}
              thyngketh{e} he noht{e}.                                 4

  2   Erthe apon erth{e} wolde be a kyng,
      Butte how that erth{e} schal to erth{e} thynketh he no thynge,
      Ffor when erth{e} byddyth{e} erth{e} hys rente home[1] brynge,
      Than hath{e} erth{e} apon erth{e} heuy partyng.                  8

  3   Eerthe apon erth{e} wynnyth castells and touris,
      And erth{e} sayth{e} to the erth{e}: ‘Thys ys all{e} ourys’.
      Wanne erth{e} apon erth{e} syttyth{e} wyth-in hys bovrys,
      Yeȝt schall{e} erth{e}[2] for the erthe
              suffre scharpe schourys.                                12

  4   Erth{e} goyth{e} on erth{e} as mowlde apon{ne} mowlde,
      And erth{e} goyth on erth{e} gletterant as golde,
      Like as erth{e} apon erth{e} neuer dye schoulde.
      Ȝyt schall erth{e} to the erth{e} rather than he wolde.         16

  5   Why that erth{e} louyth erth{e} wond{er} me thynke,
      Or why that erth{e} apon erth{e} swete or swynke,
      Ffor whan{ne} erth{e} apon erth{e} ys brought wyth-in the brynke,
      Than ys erth{e} apon erth{e} botte a fowle stynke.              20

  6   Erth{e} apon erth{e} knoweth{e} eche day
      Howe erth{e} cometh to the erth{e} naked all{e} waye.
      Why schulde erth{e} apon erth{e} go stowte or gay,
      Syth erth{e} apon erth{e} schal passe in pore aray?             24

  7   I cowncell{e} erth{e} apon erth{e} that wonderly hath wrought{e}
      Whyles that erth{e} ys apon erth{e} to turne all hys thought{e},
      And y pray to God apon erth{e}
              that all{e} erth{e} hath wrought{e},
      That erth{e} out of erth{e} to blysse may be brought{e}. Amen.  28

            [3]Whanne lyf ys moste louyd,
            And dethe ys most hatyd,
            Dethe drawyth hys drawghte
            And maketh a man ful naked.                               32
                De t{er}ra plasmasti me.

    [Footnote 1: MS. _hime_ crossed out, and _home_ written in same

    [Footnote 2: MS. _erht{e}_.]

    [Footnote 3: written parallel with the poem in the right-hand
    column. A signature apparently follows, but is indecipherable.]


MS. BRIGHTON. 15th century.                              [fol. 90, v^o.]

  1   [1]Erthe oute of erthe   is wondyrly wroghte,
      Erthe vpon erthe   gete nobley of noughte,
      Erthe vpon erthe   has sete all his thovghte
      How erthe vpon erthe   may be hye brovghte.                      4

  2   Erthe vpon erthe   wolde be a kynge,
      How erthe sall to erthe   thenkys he nothyng,
      For whan erthe byddes erthe   his rent home brynge,
      Þan sall erthe from erthe   haf petus p{ar}tynge.                8

  3   Erthe vpon erthe   wynnes castells and tours;
      Than says erthe vnto erthe:   ‘This is all ovres’.
      But whan erthe opon erthe   has bigged his borowes,
      Than sall erthe for the erthe   sofur sharpe shovres.           12

  4   Erthe gothe vpon erthe   os movlde opon movlde,
      Erthe gothe opon erthe   glyd{er}yng os golde,
      Lyke as erthe to erthe   neu{er} go shulde.
      Ȝyte shall erthe to erthe   rather þan he wolde.                16

  5   Why þ{a}t erthe loues erthe   wond{er} me thynkes,
      Vr why þ{a}t erthe vpon erthe   swetys or swynkes,
      Ffor whan erthe opon erthe   is brente w{i}t{h}in þe brynkes,
      Þan sall erthe of the erthe   hafe a foule stynke.              20

  6   Lo erthe vpon erthe   consider þou may
      How erthe comes into þe erthe   nakyd all way.
      Why sulde erthe vpon erthe   go stovte or gay,
      Sethen erthe oute of erthe   sall passe in por aray?            24

  7   I concell erthe opon erthe   þ{a}t wykkydly has wrouthe,
      The whyle þ{a}t erthe is vpon erthe   to turn vp his thouthe,
      And praye to God vpon erthe   þat all the erthe wrouhte,
      Þ{a}t erthe oute of erthe   to blys may be browthe.             28

    [Footnote 1: Printed, by kind permission, from H. G. Fiedler’s
    text (Mod. Lang. Review, _III. iii. 219_).]



(Formerly in the Chapel of the Trinity.)

  1   Erthe oute of erth ys wondurly wroght,
      Erth hath gotyn vppon erth a dygnyte of noght,
      Erth ypon erth hath sett[1] all hys thowht
      How erth apon erth may be hey browght.                           4

  2   Erth vpon erth wold be a kyng,
      But how that erth gott to erth he thyngkys[2] nothyng.
      When erth byddys erth hys rentys whom bryng,
      Then schall erth apon erth haue a hard p{ar}tyng[3].             8

  3   Erth apon erth wy{n}nys castellys and towrys;
      Then seth erth vnto erth: ‘Thys ys all owrys’.
      When erth apon erth hath bylde hye[4] bowrys,
      Then schall erth for erth suffur many hard schowrys.            12

  4   Erth goth apon erth as man apon mowld,
      Lyke as erth apon erth neu{er}[5] goo schold.
      Erth goth apon erth as glisteryng gold,
      And yet schall erth vnto erth rather then he wold.              16

  5   Why that erth loueth erth wondur me thynke,
      Or why that erth wold for erth other swett or swynke.
      When erth apon erth ys broght w{ith}yn the brynke,
      Then schall erth apon erth have a fowll stynke.                 20

  6   Lo erth on erth, consedur thow may
      How erth co{m}myth to erth nakyd all way.
      Why schall erth apon erth goo stowte or gay,
      Seth erth out of erth schall passe yn poor aray?                24

  7   I counsill erth apone erth that ys wondurly wrogt,
      The w{h}yll[6] þ{a}t erth ys apon erthe to torne hys thowht,
      And pray to God vpon erth þ{a}t all erth wroght,
      That all crystyn soullys to þe[7] blis may be broght.           28

    [Footnote 1: Fisher (Facsimile of inscription) _seth_; Reeves
    (Mod. Lang. Notes, ix. 4, 203) _sett_.]

    [Footnote 2: Reeves _thynkys_.]

    [Footnote 3: Fisher, Reeves _ptyng_.]

    [Footnote 4: Fisher _hye_, Reeves _hys_; cf. H. 4486 hath _bygged
    hy his bowres_.]

    [Footnote 5: Fisher _neuu_.]

    [Footnote 6: Fisher, Reeves _w^{h}yll_.]

    [Footnote 7: Fisher _y_ for _y^e_.]


MS. RAWLINSON C. 307. c. 1460.                            [fol. 2, r^o.]

Memento homo quod cinis es et in cinerem reuerteris.

  1   Erthe opon erthe hath set all{e} his thoght
      How that erthe opon erthe may be hy broght.
      Erthe oute of erthe is wonderly wroght,
      Erthe hase of erthe a dignytie of noght.                         4

  2   Erthe opon erthe wolde be a kyng,
      Bot how erthe shall{e} to erthe thynkis he nothyng.
      Ya bot when erthe byddis erthe his rentis hym bryng,
      Than shall{e} erthe hafe of erthe a full{e} harde p{ar}tyng.     8

  3   Erthe opon erthe byggis castels and towres,
      Than sais erthe vnto erthe: ‘All{e} þis is ours’.
      Ya bot when erthe opon erthe hath byggid vp his bowres,
      Than shall{e} erthe[1] for erthe suffre sharpe showres.         12

  4   Erth{e} gose on erthe[1] glitterand as golde,
      Like as erthe[1] vnto erthe[1] neu{er} go shulde.
      Ya bot when erthe goeth on erthe as colde opon colde,
      Yit shall{e} erthe vnto erthe rather þan{ne} he wolde.          16

  5   Whi that erthe luffis erthe wondre me thynke,
      Or whi þat erthe for erthe swete wyll{e} or swynke,
      Ffor when erthe[1] opon erthe is brought with-in brynke,
      Than shall{e} erthe hafe of erthe[1] a wonder foule stynke.     20

  6   What may erthe say to erthe at beste tyme of all{e}?
      Noght bot þ{a}t erthe opon erthe shall{e} hafe a fall{e}.
      Bot when erthe oute of erthe[1]
              shall{e} com to the laste call{e},
      Than sall{e} erthe be[2] full{e} ferde for þe sely sall{e}.     24

  7   Beholde þ{o}u erthe opon erthe what worship þ{o}u hase,
      And thynk þ{o}u erthe opon erthe what maistres þ{o}u mase,
      And how erthe opon erthe what gatis at þ{o}u gase,
      And þ{o}u sall{e} fynde it forsuthe
              that þ{o}u haste many fase.                             28

  8   Now he þ{a}t erthe opon erthe ordande[3] to go
      Graunte þ{a}t erthe vpon erthe may govern hym so,
      Þat when erthe vnto erthe shall{e} be taken to,
      That þe saule of þis erthe suffre no wo.                        32

    [Footnote: Final _n_ is often written _n~_; so _m~_.]

    [Footnote 1: possibly MS. _ertha_; final _e_ in this MS. is often
    written very like _a_.]

    [Footnote 2: looks like _ba_.]

    [Footnote 3: looks like _ordanda_.]


MS. HARLEIAN 4486. 15th century.                        [fol. 146, r^o.]

      Memento homo q{uo}d cinis es & [in] cinerem reu{er}teris,
      Ffac b{e}n{e} du{m} viuis, post morte{m} viuere si vis.
      When[1] lyffe is most loued[1], & deth is moste hated,
      Then dethe[2] draweth{e} his drawght{e}
              & makyth{e} man full{e} naked.                           4

  1   Erthe owte of erthe is wonderly wrowght{e},
      Erthe of the erthe hathe gete an abbey of nawte,
      Erthe apon erthe hath{e} sett all{e} his thowghte
      How erthe apon erthe may be hye browte.                          8

  2   Erthe apon erthe be he[3] a kyng{e},
      Butt how erth{e} schall{e} to erthe thynketh{e} he nothyng{e}.
      [4]When erthe byddeth{e} erthe his rent home bryng{e},
      Then schall{e} erthe owte of erthe
              haue a pyteous p{ar}tyng{e}.                            12

  3   Erthe apon erthe wynneth{e} castell{es} & towres.
      Then seyth{e} erthe to erthe: ‘These byth{e} all{e} owres’.
      When erthe apon erthe hath bygged{e} vp his bowres,
      Then schall{e} erthe for the erthe suffre scharpe schowres.     16

  4   Erthe gothe apon erthe as molde apon molde.
      So goeth{e} erthe apon erthe all{e} gleteryng{e} in golde,
      Lyke as erthe into erthe neu{er} go scholde,
      And ȝet schalle erthe into erth{e} rather then he wolde.        20

  5   Why erthe loueth{e} erthe wonder me thynke,
      Or why that erthe for erthe swete wyll{e} or swynke,
      Ffor whan erthe apon erthe is browte w{i}t{h}yn þe brynke,
      Then schall{e} erthe of the erthe haue a fowle stynke.          24

  6   Loo, erthe apon erthe, consyder{e} thow may
      How erthe com{m}yth{e} to erthe naked all{e} way.
      Why scholde erthe apon erthe go stowte or gay,
      Whan erthe schall{e} passe owte of erthe in a pore aray?        28

                                                        [fol. 146, v^o.]
  7   Therfor erthe apon erthe that wykedly hast wrought{e},
      Whyle erthe is apon erthe torne agayne thy thowght{e},
      And pray to God apon erthe that all{e} erthe hath wroughte
      That this erthe apon this erthe to blysse may be browte.        32

  8   Now Lorde that madyst for erthe & sufferdyst paynes ylle,
      Lett neu{er} this erthe for this erthe i{n} myschyffe spylle,
      But that this erthe in this erthe
              be eu{er} worchyng{e} thy wylle,
      So that this erthe fro þ{is} erthe
              may stye vp to thy hylle.                               36


    [Footnote 1: Final _n_ is uniformly written _n~_ in this text
    excepting in the word _in_. Final _d_ is frequently written

    [Footnote 2, 3: _added above the line._]

    [Footnote 4: The first words in ll. 11, 14, 15 seem to have been
    freshened up.]

10. MS. LAMBETH 853. c. 1430-1450.                            [fol. 35.]

      Whanne liif is moost loued, and deeþ is moost hatid:
      Þanne dooþ deeþ drawe his drawȝt, & makiþ ma{n} ful nakid.
                  De terra plasmasti me, _&c._

  1   Erþe out of erþe is wondirly wrouȝt,                             4
      Erþe of erþe haþ gete a dignyte of nouȝt,
      Erþe upo{n} erþe haþ sett al his þouȝt,
      How þat erþe upon erþe may be hiȝ brouȝt.

  2   Erþe upon erþe wold he be a king;                                8
      B{u}t how erþe schal to erþe þenkiþ he no [fol. 36] þing;
      Wha{n}ne þat erþe biddiþ erþe hise rentis hom bring,
      Þan schal erþe out of erþe haue a piteuous parting.

  3   Erþe vpon erþe wy{n}neþ castels & touris,                       12
      Þan seiþ erþe to erþe: ‘Now is þis al houris’.
      Wha{n}ne erþe upon erþe haþ biggid up hise boure[s],
      Þanne schal erþe upo{n} erþe suffir scharpe schouris.

  4   Erþe gooth vpon erþe as molde upon molde,                       16
      So gooth erþe upon erþe al gliteringe in golde,
      Like as erþe vnto erþe neu{er}e go schulde,
      And ȝit schal erþe vnto erthe raþ{er} þan he wolde.

  5   O þ{o}u wrecchid erþe þat on erþe traueilist nyȝt and day,      20
      To florische þe erþe, to peynte þe erþe wit{h} wantowne aray,
      Ȝit schal þou erþe for al þi erþe,
              make þou it neu{er}e so queynte & gay,
      Out of þis erþe in-to þe erþe,
              þ{er}e to clinge as a clot of clay. [fol. 37.]

  6   O wrecchid man whi art þ{o}u proud, þat art of þe erþe makid?   24
      Hid{er} brouȝttist þou no schroud, but poore come þou and nakid.
      Whanne þi soule is went out, & þi bodi in erþe rakid,
      Þan þi bodi þat was rank & undeuout, of alle men is bihatid.

  7   Out of þis erþe cam to þis erþe þis wrecchid garnement;         28
      To hide þis erþe, to happe þis erþe, to hi{m} was cloþinge lente;
      Now gooþ erþe upon erþe, ruli raggid and rent,
      Þ{er}fore schal erþe vndir þe erþe haue hidiose turment.

  8   Whi þat erþe to myche loueþ erþe wondir me þink,                32
      Or whi þat erþe for sup{er}flue erþe
              to sore sweete wole or swynk;
      Ffor wha{n}ne þat erþe upo{n} erþe is brouȝt
              w{i}t{h}i{n}ne þe brink,
      Þan schal erþe of þe erþe haue a rewful swynk.

  9   Lo erþe upon erþe considere þou may,                            36
      How erþe comeþ i{n}to erþe nakid al way, [fol. 38.]
      Whi schulde erþe upon erþe go now so stoute or gay,
      Wha{n}ne erþe schal passe out of erþe in so poore aray?

  10  Wolde God þ{er}fore þis erþe, while þat he is upon this erþe,
            Vpon þis wolde he{r}tili þinke,                           40
      & how þe erþe out of þe erþe schal haue his aȝen-risynge,
      And þis erþe for þis erþe schal ȝeelde streite rekenyng;
      Schulde neu{er}e þan þis erþe for þis erþe mysplese heuene king.

  11  Þerfore þou erþe upon erþe put so wickidli hast wrouȝt,         44
      While þat þou erþe art upon erþe turne aȝen þi þouȝt,
      And praie to þat God upo{n} erþe þat al þe erþe haþ wrouȝt,
      Þat þou erþe upon erþe to blis may be brouȝt.

  12  O þou Lord þat madist þis erþe for þis erþe & suffridist
              heere peynes ille,                                      48
      Lete neu{er}e þis erþe for þis erþe myscheue ne spille,
      But þat þis erþe on þis [fol. 39] erþe
              be eu{er}e worchinge þi wille,
      So þ{a}t þis erþe from þis erþe may stie up to þin hiȝ hille.


      Memento homo quod cinis es, et i{n} cinere{m} reu{er}teris,     52
      Ffac bene dum viuis. post mortem viu{er}e si uis.
      Tangere qui gaudet. meretricem qualiter audet.
      Palmis pollutis. regem tractare salutis.
      Credo in deum patrem omnipotentem.                              56

  (_Here follows the Creed in English verse._)


MS. LAUD MISC. 23. Before 1450.                         [fol. 111, v^o.]

      Whan lyf is moost louyd & deeþ is moost hatyd:
      Thanne deeth drawyth his draut and makith man ful nakid.

  1   Erthe out of erthe is wo{n}dirly wrouȝt,
      Erthe of the erthe hath gete a dignyte of nowth{e},              4
      Erthe vp-on e{r}the hath set al his thouȝt
      How that erthe vp-on erthe may be hyȝ browth.

  2   Erthe vp-on erthe wolde be a kyng;
      But how erthe shal to erthe thinkiþ he no thi{n}g;               8
      Wha{n} that erthe biddeth erthe his rentys hoom bring,
      Thanne shal erthe out of the erthe haue a pet{ous} partyng.

  3   Erthe vp-on erthe wynnyth castellis and towris[1],
      Tha{n}ne seith erthe to erthe: ‘This is al owris.’              12
      Whan erthe vp-on erthe hath biggid alle his bouris,
      Thanne shal erthe for erthe suffre sharp showris.

  4   Erthe gooth up-on erthe as moolde vp-on moolde,
      So gooth erthe vp-on erthe al gleteryng in goolde,              16
      Like as erthe vn-to erthe neu{er}e goo[2] shulde;
      Yit shal erthe vnto erþe[3] rather{e} than he wolde.

  5   O thou wrecchid erthe, that on the erthe
              [fol. 112, r^o] traueylist nyȝt and day,
      To florissh{e} the erthe, to peynte the erthe
              wyth wantone a-ray;                                     20
      Ȝit shal thow erthe, for all{e} thyn erthe,
              make thow it neu{er} so queynt & gay,
      Out of the erthe in-to the erthe, ther to clynge as clot of clay.

  6   O wrecchide man whi art thow p{r}ude, that art of erthe makid?
      Hidir broutyst thow no shroude, but por{e} cam thow & nakid.    24
      Whan thi soule is went out, & thi body in erthe rakid,
      Tha{n}ne thi body that was rank and louyd of alle men, is hatyd.

  7   Out of the erthe cam to this erthe his wantyng garneme{n}t;
      To hyde this erthe, to wrappe this erthe,
              to him was clothing lent;                               28
      Now gooth erthe up-on erthe, ruly raggid and rent,
      Therfor shal erthe vndir erthe haue hidous turme{n}t.

  8   Whi that erthe louyth erthe wondir me thinke,
      Or whi that erthe for erthe swete wole or swinke;               32
      Ffor whan that erthe up-on the erthe
              is brouȝt wyth-i{n}ne the brinke,
      Thanne shal erthe of the erthe haue a rewfull{e} stinke.


  9   Lo erthe up-on erthe consider thow may,
      How erthe in-to the erthe comyth nakid al-way,                  36
      Whi shuld erthe vp-on erthe go stout [fol. 112, v^o] or gay,
      Wha{n} erthe shal passe out of erthe in a por{e} aray?

  10  Wolde therfor{e} this erthe on this erthe, on this hertly thinke,
      How that erthe out of the erthe shal haue risynge,              40
      And thus erthe for erthe[4] yeelde shal streyt rikenynge,
      Shulde neuer{e} erthe for erthe mysplese heuene kyng.

  11  Thow erthe up-on erthe, that wickydly hast wrout,
      While that erthe is vp-on erthe, turne a-ȝen thi thout,         44
      And preye to God vp-on erthe, that alle the erthe hath wrouȝt,
      That erthe vp-on erthe to blisse may be brouȝt.

  12  Lord God that erthe madist & for the erthe suffredist peynys ille,
      Lete neu{er}e þis erþe[5] for this erthe myscheue ne spille,    48
      But that this erthe in this erthe be eu{er}e worching thi wille,
      So that erthe fro this erthe stye up on thyn hyȝe hille. Amen.
      p{ar} charite, God it graunte that it so be.


      [6]Tange{re} qui gaudes m{er}etricem qualit{er} audes[7].       52
      Palmis pollutis regem tractar{e} salutis.

  (_The poem _Whi is the wor[l]d belouyd that fals is and veyn_,
  follows immediately._)

    [Footnote 1: _towris_ added in margin by the same hand.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _goo ne_; _ne_ crossed out, and marked _ṇẹ_.]

    [Footnote 3: _vnto erþe_ inserted in red above the line.]

    [Footnote 4: _for erthe_ repeated and crossed out in red.]

    [Footnote 5: _þis erþe_ added above the line, _erþe_ in red.]

    [Footnote 6: In left margin _de sac{er}dotib{us}_.]

    [Footnote 7: in right margin _h{oc} in decretis_.]


MS. COTTON TITUS A. xxvi. 15th century.                 [fol. 153, r^o.]

  1   Erthe oute of erthe is wondirly wroght,
      Erthe of þe erthe hathe goten a dyngnyte of noght,
      Erthe vpon erthe hathe set all{e} hys thovght
      Houe erthe vpon erthe maye be hyghe broght.                      4

  2   Erthe vpon erthe wolde be a kyng;
      Bot how erthe shall{e} to erthe thynkethe he nothyng;
      Whan that erthe biddethe erthe hys rentis hom to bryng,
      Than shall{e} erthe oute of erthe haue a pytous p{ar}tyng.       8

  3   Whan erthe vpon erthe wynythe casteles & tourys,
      Than says erthe to erthe: ‘Þys is all{e} ourys’.
      And whan erthe vpon erthe hathe byggid hys bourys,
      Than shall{e} erthe vpon erthe suffer sharpe shoures.           12

  4   Erthe gothe vpon erthe as molde vpon molde[1],
      So gothe erthe vpon erthe all{e} glytryng in golde,
      Lyke as erthe into erthe never goo sholde;
      And y{e}t shal[2] erthe in to erthe rathar then he wolde.       16

                                                        [fol. 153, v^o.]
  5   O thou wreched erthe that on erthe trauayles nyght & daye
      To fflorysshe[3] and paynt þe erthe w{i}t{h} wanton araye;
      Y{e}t sshalle þou, erthe, for all{e} thy erthe,
              make þ{o}u it neu{er} so queynt or gaye,
      Oute of thys erthe in to erthe to klyng as clot in claye.       20

  6   O wrechyd man, why[4] art þ{o}u[5] prowde that of erth art maked,
      And hyder thou broght no shrowde, bot pore com and nakyd?
      Lewe thy syne and lyffe in ryght,
      And than shalt thou lyffe in heuyn as a knyght.                 24

    [Footnote: Final _n_ is written _n~_ as a rule in this text, so

    [Footnote 1: MS. _moldee_.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _shal do_ or _de_, the second word crossed out.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. _To fflorysshe þe erthe_, the last two words
    crossed out, cf. MS. Lambeth, _v. 5_, MS. Rawl. Poet., _v. 15_.]

    [Footnote 4: MS. _why at_, _at_ crossed out.]

    [Footnote 5: MS. _þ^t_.]


MS. RAWLINSON POETICAL 32. After 1450.                   [fol. 32, v^o.]

  A descripture alchimicall of erthe & the nature of man[1].

      Whanne life is most louyd,
      And deth is most hatid,
      Deth drawith his drauȝte
      And makith a man nakid.                                      4

  1   Erthe oute of erthe
      Is wonderly wrouȝte;
      Erthe hath of the erthe
      Ȝetyn a dignite of noughte.                                  8

  2   Erthe a-pon erthe
      Hath set alle his thoughte
      How erthe apon erthe
      May be hiere y-broughte.                                    12

  3   Erthe a-pon erthe
      Wolde be made a kyng,
      How erthe schal to erthe
      Thynkyng no thyng.                                          16

  4   Whanne erthe biddith erthe
      Than he his rente hom brynge,
      Thanne schal erthe for erthe
      Haue a petous partynge.                                     20

  5   Whanne erthe apon erthe
      Hath billid al his bowris,
      Thanne schalle erthe for erthe
      Suffre ful harde schowris.                                  24

  6   Erthe a-pon erthe                              [fol. 33, r^o.]
      Wynnyth castellis and towris.
      Thanne saithe erthe to erthe:
      ‘This is alle owris’.                                       28

  7   Erthe gothe apon erthe
      As molde a-pon molde,
      Erthe gothe apon erthe
      Gleteryng alle in golde,                                    32

  8   As thouh erthe to erthe
      Neu{er} a-yen go schulde,
      But yit schal erthe to þ{e} erthe
      Rather thanne he wolde.                                     36

  9   Oute of the erthe cam the erthe
      Wantynge his garnament,
      To hide the erthe, to lappe the erthe,
      To hym was clothing y-lent.                                 40

  10  Now goth the erthe apon erthe
      Disgesily ragged and to-rent,
      Therfore schal erthe vnder erthe
      Suffer ful grete turment.                                   44

  11  Whi that erþe loueþ erthe
      Wonder y may thinke,
      Or whi that erthe for the erthe
      Unresonably swete wol or swynke,                            48

  12  Ffor whanne erthe vnder erthe                  [fol. 33, v^o.]
      Is brouȝte withynne brynke,
      Thanne schal erthe of the erthe
      Haue an oribyll stynke.                                     52

  13  Yif erthe wold of erthe
      Thus hartily haue thynkynge,
      And how erthe out of erthe
      Shal at last haue risynge,                                  56

  14  Thanne schal erthe for erthe
      Yelde riht streite rekenynge,
      Thanne schuld [erthe] for erthe
      Neuer mys-plese heuene kynge.                               60

  15  Thow wrecchid erthe þ{a}t thus for erthe
      Trauelist nyht and day
      To florische the erthe, to paynte the erthe
      With thi wanton array,                                      64

  16  Yit schalt thou erthe for alle thi erthe,
      Make thou neuer so gay,
      Ffor thi erthe in to erthe
      Clynge as clotte in clay.                                   68

  17  Thinke now erthe how thou in erthe
      Goist euer in dethis[2] grace,
      And thanne thou erthe for the erthe
      Shalt neuer stryue ne race.                                 72

  18  Bute for thou erthe with thi erthe             [fol. 34, r^o.]
      Hauntist enuye and hate,
      Therefor schal erthe for erthe
      Be excludid from heuene gate.                               76

  19  Ffowle erthe whi louyst thou erthe
      That is thi dedly foo,
      And bildist on erthe
      As thou schuldist dwelle euer moo?                          80

  20  But thou erthe forsake the erthe,
      Or that thou hennys goo,
      Vnder erthe for lust of erthe
      Thou schalt haue sorow and woo.                             84

  21  Whiles erthe may in erthe
      To festis and to drynkis gon,
      Til the be made frome the erthe
      As bare as any bon.                                         88

  22  Thanne if erthe comyth to erthe
      Makyng sorow and mone,
      Thanne saith erthe to the erthe,
      ‘Thou were a felow, but now art thou none’.                 92

  23  Thus the erthe queytith the erthe
      That doith to him seruyse,
      Or tristyn on erthe, or plese the erthe
      In any maner wise.                                          96

  24  Therfor thou erthe be ware of erthe            [fol. 34, v^o.]
      And thou the wele auyse,
      Lest thou erthe p{er}ische for erthe
      By-fore the hihe iustyse.                                  100

  25  Ffor the erthe was made of erthe
      At the first begynnynge,
      That erthe schuld labour the erthe
      In trowthe and sore swynkynge;                             104

  26  But now erthe lyueth in erthe
      With falshode and begilynge,
      Therfor schal erthe for erthe
      Be punsched in payne euerlastynge.                         108

  27  But erthe forsake the erthe
      And alle his falshede,
      And of the erthe restore the erthe
      Goodis that ben mys-gete,                                  112

  28  Or that erthe be doluyn in erthe
      And vnder fote y-trede,
      Ffor synne of erthe, þ{a}t hath do in erthe,
      Fful sore he schalle be bete.                              116

  29  Drede thou erthe while thou in erthe
      Hast witte & resoune at thi wille,
      That, erthe, for loue of erthe,
      Thi soule thou nougth spille.                              120

  30  And thou erthe, repente the in erthe           [fol. 35, r^o.]
      Of alle that thou hast don ille,
      And thanne schalt thou, erthe apon erthe,
      Goddis biddyngis fulfille.                                 124

  31  Lord God that erthe tokist in erthe,
      And suffredist paynes ful stille,
      Late neuer erthe for the erthe
      In dedly synne ne spille,                                  128

  32  But that erthe in this erthe
      Be doynge euer thi wille,
      So that erthe for the erthe
      Stye vp to thi holy hille. Amen. S. J.                     132

    [Footnote 1: Added in a later hand, probably 16th century.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _deth is_.]


MS. PORKINGTON 10. 15th century.                         [fol. 79, v^o.]

  1   [1]Erthe vppo{n} erth{e} is wo{u}ndyr{e}ly wro{u}ȝte;
      Erthe vppo{n} erthe has set al his þouȝte[2]
                                                         [fol. 80, r^o.]
      How erthe vppo{n} erth to erthe schall{e} be[3] brouȝte;
      Ther is no{n}e vppo{n} erth has hit in þouȝte.[4]                4
                                            Take hede!
      Whoso þinkyse on[5] his end{e}, ful well{e} schal he sped{e}.

  2   Erth vppo{n} erth wold{e} be a kynge;
      How erth schal to erthe he þink{is} no þinge.                    8
      Whe{n} erth byddyþ erth his rent who{m}e brynge,
      The{n} schal erth fro þe erth have a hard{e} parttynge,
                                            W{i}t{h} care;
      Ffor erth vppo{n} erþe wott{is}
              neu{er} we{r} þ{er}for to far{e}.                       12

  3   Erth vppo{n} erth wy{n}nis castyll{is} & tovris.
      The{n} sayþe erth to erth: ‘Al þ{i}s is ourus’.
      Whe{n} erth vpp{on} erth has bylde al his bovres,
      The{n} schal erth fro þe erth soffyr{e} scharpe schorrys,       16
                                            And{e} smarte.
      Ma{n}, amend{e} þe betyme, þi lyfe ys but a starte.

  4   Erth gose on erth as mold{e} vpon{ne} molde,
      Lyke as erth to þe erth neu{er} a-gayne schold{e};              20
      Erth gose on erth glytteryng in gold{e}[6],
                                                         [fol. 80, v^o.]
      Ȝet shale erth to þe erth, raþ{er} þe{n} he wolde.
                                                Be owris!
      Ȝefe þi alm{is} w{i}t{h} þi hand{e}. Trust to no secatovrs.     24

  5   Why þ{a}t erth louis erþe merwel me þinke,
      [7]Or why erth vppo{n} erth wyl swet or swinke,
      [7]Ffor whe{n} erth vppo{n} erth is bro{u}þt to þe brynke,
      The{n} schal erth frov þe erth have a fovl stynke               28
                                            To smele,
      Wars þe{n} þe caryo{n} þ{a}t lyis in þe fele.

  6   Lo, erth vppo{n} erth, co{n}sayfe þ{i}s þ{o}u maye,
      That þ{o}u co{m}mys frome þe erth nakyd{e} alway[{e}];          32
      How schuld{e} erth vppo{n} erth soe[8] prod{e} or gaye,
      Sen[9] erth v{n}to erth schal pase i{n} symple araye,
      Cloth þe nakyd whyl þ{o}u may, for so Gode þe bade.             36

  7   Erth vppo{n} erth, me þinkyȝ þe ful blynd{e},
      That on erth ryches to set al[10] þi mynd{e};
      In þe gospel wrytty{n}e exampul I fynde,
      The pore went to heyuy{n}, þe rych to hel I fynd{e},            40
                                             W{i}tt skyle:
                                                         [fol. 81, r^o.]
      The co{m}mandment{is} of God{e} wold{e} he not fulfyle.

  8   Erth vppo{n} erth, deyle duly thy goode
      To þe por{e} pepul þ{a}t favtt pe þi fovde,                     44
      Ffor þe loue of þi Lord{e}, þ{a}t rent was on þe roode,
      And{e} for þi loue on þe crose sched his[11] hart blode,--
                                             Go rede!--
      W{i}ttovte a{n}ny place to reste on his hede.                   48

  9   Erth vppo{n} erth, take tent to my steyuyne;
      Whyl þ{o}u leuyst, fulfyle þe w{er}kys of mercy vij.
      Loke þ{o}u lete, for oode ne for ewyne,
      Ffor þo by{n}e þe werk{is} þat helpyne vs to heyuy{n}e,         52
                                             In haste.
      Tho ded{is} who so dose þar, hy{m}e neu{er} be agaste.

  10  Erth vppo{n} erth, be þ{o}u neu{er} so gaye,
      Thow moue[12] wend{e} of þ{i}s world{e} an vnreydy waye;        56
      Turne þe betyme, whyle þ{a}t þ{o}u maye,
      Leste it lede þe into hele, to logege þ{er} for[13] ay,
                                             In pyne;
      Ffor þ{er} is noþ{er} to gett bred{e}, ale, ne wyne.            60

  11  Erth vppo{n} erth, God{e} ȝeyf þe grace,           [fol. 81, v^o.]
      Whyle þ{o}u leuuyst vppo{n} erth, to purway þe a place
      In heywy{n} to dweyll{e}, whyl þ{a}t þ{o}u hast space;
      That myrthe for to myse it w{er} a karful case.                 64
                                            Ffor whye?
      That myrth is w{i}t{h}owtty{n} end{e}, I tel þe securlye.

  12  I co{n}cele erth vppo{n} erth þ{a}t wykyd{e}ly has wroȝte,
      Whyl erth is on erth, to torn all{e} his þovȝte,                68
      And{e} pray to Gode vppo{n} erth, þ{a}t al mad{e} of nov[ȝte][14],
      That erth owte of erth to blys may be bovȝte[15]
                                            W{i}tt myȝthe[16],
      Thorow helpe Jh{e}su Cryst þ{a}t was our{e} lad{is} byrthe.     72
                          Do for þiself.

    [Footnote 1: Cf. Halliwell, Early Eng. Misc. in Prose and Verse,
    printed for the Warton Club, _1855, p. 39_, Fiedler, Mod. Lang.
    Review, _III. iii. 225_.]

    [Footnote 2, 4: MS. _þoũȝte_.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. _bo_.]

    [Footnote 5: MS. _oñ_, _on~_, throughout.]

    [Footnote 6: MS. _in ĩ gold{e}_.]

    [Footnote 7: These two lines are transposed in the MS.]

    [Footnote 8: MS. _soe_, Halliwell _soe_, Fiedler _goe_.]

    [Footnote 9: MS. _señ_.]

    [Footnote 10: H. _setal_.]

    [Footnote 11: H. F. _schedhis_.]

    [Footnote 12: MS. _mõu_.]

    [Footnote 13: MS. _þ^{r}for_, H. F. _therefor_.]

    [Footnote 14: MS. only _nov_ now legible.]

    [Footnote 15: MS. _bovȝte_, Halliwell _bouȝt_, Fiedler _brouȝt_.]

    [Footnote 16: MS. Halliwell _myȝthe_, probably erroneous for


MS. BALLIOL 354. Before 1504.                           [fol. 207, v^o.]

(Richard Hill’s Commonplace-Book.)

  1   Erth owt of erth is worldly wrowght,
      Erth hath gote{n} oppo{n} erth a dygnite of nowght,
      Erth vpon erth hath[1] set all his thowght,
      How þ{a}t erth vpon erth myght be hye browght.                   4

  2   Erth vpon erth wold be a kyng,
      But how þ{a}t erth shall to erth, he thy{n}kith no thyng;
      Whe{n} erth biddith erth his rent{es}[2] home bryng,
      The{n} shall erth for erth haue a hard p{ar}tyng.                8

  3   Erth vpon erth wy{n}neth castl{les}[2] & towres,
      The{n} seyth erth vnto erth: ‘Þis is all owres’;
      But whe{n} erth vpo{n} erth hath bildyd his bowres,
      Tha{n} shall erth for erth suffre hard showres.                 12

  4   Erth vpon erth hath welth vpon molde,
      Erth goth vpon erth glydryng all i{n} golde,
      Like as he vnto erth neu{er} torn shuld;
      & yet shal erth vnto erth son{er} tha{n} he wold.               16

  5   Why þ{a}t erth loweth erth, wonder[3] I thynk;
      Or why þ{a}t erth will for erth swet or swynk;
      For wha{n} erth vpon erth is browght w{i}t{h}in þe brynk,
      Than shall erth for erth suffre a fowle stynk.                  20

  6   As erth vpon erth were þe worthyes ix,
      & as erth vpon erth i{n} honour dide shyne;
      But erthe liste not to know how þei shuld enclyn,
      & þ{er} crow{n}nys leyd i{n} erth,
              wha{n} deth hath made hys fyne.                         24

  7   As erth vpon erth, full{e} worthy was Josue,      [fol. 208, r^o.]
      Dauyd þe worthy kyng, Judas Machabe;
      They were but erth vpon erth, no{n} of the{m} thre,
      And so fro{m} erth vnto erth þei loste þ{er} dignite.           28

  8   Alisand{er} was but erth, þ{a}t all the world wan,
      & Ector vpon erth was hold a worthy ma{n},
      & Julius Cesar þ{a}t þe empire first be-gan;
      & now, as erth w{i}t{h}in erth, þei lye pale & wan.             32

  9   Arthur was but erth, for all his renown;
      No more was kyng Charlis, ne Godfrey of Bolown;
      But now erth hath t{o}rned þ{er} noblenes vpsodown;
      & thus erth goth to erth, by short co{n}clusion.                36

  10  Who so rekyn also of Will{iam} Conquerowr{e}[4],
      Kyng Harry þe first, þ{a}t was of knyghthode flowr{e}[4];
      Erth hath closed the{m} ful streytly i{n} his bowr{e}[4];
      Loo, the ende of worthynes! here is no more socowr{e}[4].       40

  11  Now thei þ{a}t leve vpon erth, both yong & old,
      Thynk how ye shall to erth, be ye neu{er} so bold;
      Ye be vnsiker, wheþ{er} it be i{n} hete or cold,
      Like as yo{u}r brether[5] did beffore, as I haue told.          44

  12  Now ye folk þ{a}t be here, ye may not long endure,
      But þ{a}t ye shall torn to erth, I do you ensure;
      & yf ye lyst of þe trewth to se a playn fugure,
      Go to seynt Powlis, & see þ{er} the portratowr{e}[4].           48

  13  All ys erth, & shall be erth, as it shew{i}t{h} ther,
      [6]Þ{er}-for, or dredfull deth w{i}t{h} his dart you dere,
      & for to torn i{n} to erth, no ma{n} shall it forbere,
      Wisely pu{r}vey you beffore, & þ{er}-of haue no fere.           52

  14  Now, sith by deth we shal al pas, it is to vs c{er}teyn,
      For of þe erth we co{m} all, & to þe erth shall torn agayn;
      Þ{er}-for to strive of grucche it were but i{n} vayn,
      For all is erth, & shall be erth, no thyng more c{er}tayn.      56

  15  Now erth vppon erth, co{n}sydre thow may,
      How erth co{m}meth to erth nakyd all way.
      Why shuld erth vpon erth go stowt or gay,
      Sith erth owt of erth shall passe in pore a-ray?                60

  16  I co{n}saill you vpon erth þ{a}t wikkidly haue wrowght,
      Whill þ{a}t erth is on erth, torn vp yo{u}r thowght,
      & pray to God vppon erth, þ{a}t all þe erth hath wrowght,
      Þ{a}t erth owt of erth to blis may be browght.                  64


    [Footnote: Cf. Roman Dyboski, E.E.T.S. extra ser. ci _(1907),
    p. 90_.]

    [Footnote 1: D. erron. _hat[h]_.]

    [Footnote 2: D. reads _rentes_, _castlles_.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. _worder_.]

    [Footnote 4: D. reads _-owr_ throughout.]

    [Footnote 5: D. erron. _brother_.]

    [Footnote 6: Line 50 would be better placed after l. 51.]


MS. HARLEIAN 984. 16th century.                          [fol. 72, r^o.]

  6   [1]How schuld{e} erthe vpon erthe be prud & gay
      Whe{n} erthe schal to erthe in so por{e} aray?

  7   I consell erthe vpon erthe þ{a}t wikyd hade wroȝt,
      Whyle erthe ys apon erthe to tu{r}ne al his þoȝt,                4
      And{e} p{r}ay to God þ{a}t al þe world wroȝt[2]
      Þ{a}t erthe out of erthe to blesse may be broȝt.

    [Footnote 1: The previous leaf of the MS., which evidently
    contained the beginning of the poem, has been torn out.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _woȝt_.]


THE MAITLAND MS. (PEPYSIAN MS. 2553, p. 338.) c. 1555-1585.

  1   [1]Eyrd vpone eird wondirfallie is wrocht,
      Eird hes gottin vpone eird ane dignite for nocht,
      Eird apone eird hes set all his thocht
      How þat[2] eird vpone eird till hicht may be brocht.             4

  2   Eird apone eird wald fayne be a king,
      And how þat eird gois to eird thinkis he no thing.
      Quhone eird bydd{is} eird his rentis hame to bring,
      Than sall eird haue to eird herd depairting.                     8

  3   Eird apon eird wy{n}nis castellis and towris,
      Than sayis eird vntill eird: ‘All þir ar owris’.
      Quhone eird apone eird hes biggit all his bowris,
      Than sall eird vpone eird suffir scharp schowris.               12

  4   Eyrd apone eird and mold vpone mold,
      Lyke as eird vnto eird never go sold.
      Eird gois apone eird glitterand as gold,
      Ȝit sall eird go to eird sonar nor he wold.                     16

  5   How þat eird luiffis eird grit wondir I think,
      Or quhy þat eird will for eird owþir swet or swynk.
      Quhone þat eird w{i}t{h}in eird is closit vndir bynk,
      Than sall eird w{i}t{h}in eird haue ane ewill stynk.            20

  6   Lo eird vpone eird considdir þow may,
      How eird vnto[3] eird gois nakit away,
      Quhy sould eird apone eird go ow{er} proud or gay,
      Sen eird vntill eird sall wend in pure array?                   24

  7   I counsall eird vpone eird þat wondirlie is wrocht,
      Q{uhi}ll[4] eird is apone eird to turne all his thocht,
      And pray to God apone eird þat maid all of nocht,
      That eird vpone eird to blys may be brocht.                     28
                            Q{uo}d marsar.

    [Footnote 1: Printed by kind permission of the authorities of
    Magdalene College, Cambridge.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _yat_; _þ_ regularly written as _y_.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. _apone_ crossed out, _vnto_ written above.]

    [Footnote 4: MS. _q^ll_.]


JOHN REIDPETH’S MS. CAMBR. UNIV. LIBR. Ll. 5. 10.        [fol. 43, v^o.]

  (Transcribed from the Maitland MS. 1622-3.)

  1   Eird vpoun eird wonderfull is wrocht,
      Eird hes gottin vpoun eird ane dignitie for nocht,
      Eird vpoun eird hes sett all his thocht
      How þat[1] eird vpoun eird till hicht may be brocht.             4

  2   Eird vpoun Eird wold fane be ane king,             [fol. 44, r^o.]
      And how þat eird gois to eird thinkis he nothing.
      Quhen eird bidd{is} eird his rentis hame to bring,
      Than sall eird haue to eird herd depairting.                     8

  3   Eird vpoun Eird wins castell{is} and towris;
      Than sayis eird vnto eird: ‘All now ar ouris’.
      Quhen eird vpoun eird hes biggit all his towris,
      Than sall eird vpoun eird suffer grit showris.                  12

  4   Eird vpoun eird and mold vpoun mold,
      Lyk as eird vnto eird neuer go sold,
      Eird gois vpoun eird glitterand as gold,
      Ȝitt sall eird go to eird sonear nor he wald.                   16

  5   How þat eird luiffis eird grit wonder I think,
      Or quhy þat eird will for eird owther sweit or swink,
      Quhen þat eird w{i}t{h}in eird is closit vnder bink,
      Than sall eird w{i}t{h} eird haue ane evill stink.              20

  6   Lo eird vpoun eird considder thow may
      How eird vnto eird gois nakit away,
      Quhy sould eird vpoun eird go o{u}r[2] proud or gay,
      Sen eird vntill eird sall wend in pure aray?                    24

  7   I counsall eird vpoun eird þat wondirlie is wrocht,
      Q{uhi}ll eird is vpoun eird to turne all his thocht,
      And pray to God vponn eird þat maid all of nocht,
      That eird vpoun eird to blis may be brocht.                     28
                                        Quod dumbar.

    [Footnote 1: MS. _yat_; _þ_ regularly written as _y_.]

    [Footnote 2: _over_, MS. _o^r_.]



CAMBRIDGE UNIV. LIBR. Ii. 4. 9. 15th century.            [fol. 67, r^o.]

  1   Erthe vpon erth is waxi{n} and wrought,
      Erthe takys on erth a nobylay of nought;
      Now erthe vpon erthe layes all his þought
      How erthe vpon erthe sattys all at noght.                        4

  2   Erthe vpon erth has hallys & towr{is}[1];
      Erthe says to erth: ‘This is alle owr{is}’.
      But q{ua}n erth vpon erth has byg{g}yd his bowr{is},
      Than xal erth for the erth haue scharpe schowr{is}.              8

  3   Erthe vpon erth wolde be a kyng,
      But hove[2] erth xal to erth thynkyth he no thyng.

  4   And of the same erthe mad God ma{n},
      And sethe he made that erth & callyd it Ad{a}m,                 12
      For loue of erthe, the wych was woman,
      That erth in this erthe fyrst be-gan.

  5   Erthe goos on erth & tyllys w{i}t{h} hys plowe,
      Erthe a-geyn erth holdys it full toght[3],                      16
      Erthe vpon [erth] stelis hym a slogh[4],
      Erthe on this erth thynkys he has neu{er} i-nowe[5].

  6   Erth vpon erthe gos in the weye,
      Prykys and prankys on a palfreye;                               20
      When erth has gotyn erth alle that he maye,
      He schal haue but seven fote at his last daye.

  7   Than xal not be lyky{n}g vn-to hy{m}
      Bu[t][6] an olde sely cloth to wynde erthe in,                  24
      When erthe is in erth for wormys wyn,
      The rof of his hows xal ly on his chyn.

                                                         [fol. 67, v^o.]
  8   [7]When erthe says to erth: ‘My rent þ{o}u me bryng’,
      Then has erth fro erthe a dolfull p{ar}tyng.                    28

  9   How erthe louys erth wondyr me thynke,
      How erth for erth wyll swete and swynke.
      When erth is in erthe broght w{i}t{h}-in the brynke,
      What as herth than of erthe but a fowle sty{n}ke?               32

  10  Erthe wrotys in erth as molys don in molde,
      Erthe vp-on erth glydys as golde,
      As erthe leve in erthe eu{er} mor{e} schulde.

  11  Erthe vp-on erth mynd eu{er} mor{e} þ{o}u make                  36
      How erthe xal to erth when deth wyll hy{m} take.

  12  Be war{e}, erth, for erthe, for sake of thi sowle,
      Erthe may of erth at þe last take a fowle,
      When erth is in erthe her{e} so long in his slogh.              40

  13  Ffor erth gos in erth walkand in vede,
      And erthe rydys on erth on a fayr stede,
      When he was[8] goty{n} in erth erth to his mede,
      Than is erth layde in erthe wormys to fede.                     44
      Whylke ar the wormys the flesch brede?
      God wote the wormys for to ryght rede.

  14  Erthe a-geyn erthe I holde it on-kynde,
      Erthe is as sone wroth as is the wynde,                         48
      Swyche fowle erth mekyl may we fynde,
      That wyl speke fayr{e} befor{e} vs & falsly be-hy{n}de.

  15  When erth vp-on erth be-gy{n}nys to be wroth,      [fol. 68, r^o.]
      Erth vpon erth swerys many a gret othe,                         52
      Erth berys p{r}ide in herte & i{n} cloth,
      When erth is layde i{n} erth þan xal it be loth.

  16  Erthly coveytous makyth erth to be schent,
      Erth for this erth yeld{is} a gret rent,                        56
      If erth in thys erth levyd in good entent
      Than dar{e} erthe nevyr recke wher{e} that he went.

  17  Erth vp-on erth is stronge as a mast,
      And erth wyth is erth fyghtys ful fast,                         60
      Ther{e} is non so stowte that in erth may hy{m} cast,
      And alle xal we be erth at the last.

  18  Erthe bygyth hallys & erth bygith towres,
      When erth is layd in erth, blayke is his bo{ur}s;               64
      If erth haue welth, he dwellyth in flowr{es}[9],
      And if erth haue mys don, he getyth scharpe sho{ur}s.

  19  If erth wyste in erth q{ua}t that erth is,
      Ther wolde neu{er} erth in erth do a-mys.                       68
      God mad erth of erth, & namyd it for his,
      Adam of erth in erthly paradys.

  20  God walkyd in erth as longe as he wolde,
      He had not in this erth but hong{er} & colde,                   72
      And in this erth also his body was solde,
      Her{e} in this erth, whan þ{a}t he was xxx^ti ȝer{e} olde.

  21  God lytyd in erth, blyssed be that stou{n}de!      [fol. 68, v^o.]
      He sauyd hijs herth w{i}t{h} many a scharpe wou{n}de,           76
      Ffor to sawe erth owght of hell grou{n}de,
      He deyd in erth vpon þe rode w{i}t{h} many a blody vou{n}de[10].

  22  And God ros ovght of the est[11] this erth for to spede,
      And went into hell as was gret nede,                            80
      And toke erth from sorowe þ{us}[12] erth for to spede,
      The ryght wey to heuen blys Iesus Cryst vs lede!

  (_The rest of the page is occupied by a coloured picture of a knight
  and a skeleton with Latin mottoes, v. Introduction, p. xiv._)

    [Footnote 1: or _towr{es}_, _owr{es}_, &c.]

    [Footnote 2: MS. _hove_ for _howe_.]

    [Footnote 3: ? error for _togh_.]

    [Footnote 4: Heuser _flogh_, but MS. appears to be _slogh_ as in
    l. 40.]

    [Footnote 5: MS. _was neuer non_ crossed out, _has neu{er} I nowe_
    written above.]

    [Footnote 6: MS. _bu_, the last letter of the word has been

    [Footnote 7: These two lines form the missing half of v. 3, and
    are perhaps inserted here with the idea of forming a six-lined

    [Footnote 8: better _has_.]

    [Footnote 9: or _flowr{is}_.]

    [Footnote 10: _wounde_.]

    [Footnote 11: MS. clearly _est_, perh. error for _erth_.]

    [Footnote 12: MS. _y^9_ = _þus_, perh. for _þis_.]


#Page 1.# #MS. Harl. 2253.# These four lines were apparently regarded by
Wanley, together with the preceding French strophe, as forming part of
the poem on the Death of Simon de Montfort, and are not noted by him in
the British Museum Catalogue. Böddeker also omitted them from his
_Altenglische Dichtungen des MS. Harl. 2253_ (Berlin 1878). They were,
however, already noted by Pinkerton in 1786, see _Ancient Scottish Poems
never before in print . . . from the MS. Collections of Sir Richard
Maitland_, ii, Note on p. 466: ‘In the same (i.e. Harleian) library, No.
2253, is another of the same kind, beginning,

  Erthe toc of erthe erthe wyth wote.

It is only one stanza; and another piece of one stanza preceding it,
both are put by Mr. Wanley, in the Catalogue, as part of a French song
on Sir Simon de Montfort, which they follow: but such mistakes
frequently arise from the crowded manner of old MSS.’ The facsimile
opposite the title-page shows the lines as they occur in the MS.

#Page 5.# #William Billyng’s MS.# The ‘finely written and illuminated
parchment roll’ described by William Bateman in his preface to Billyng’s
_Five Wounds of Christ_, of which forty copies were privately printed by
him at Manchester in 1814, contained the following poems:--

1. The Five Wounds of Christ (fifteen stanzas in rime royal).

2. At hygh none whan the belle dothe tylle (eighteen lines).

3. Erth owte of Erth (six stanzas).

4. Pes maketh plente (five lines).

The whole is signed #Willm̃ Billyng#. It has been frequently suggested
that Billyng was the author of these poems, but it is evident that he
was not the author of _Erthe upon Erthe_, though his may be one of the
earliest transcripts of the B version, and the lines _Pes maketh plente_
also occur elsewhere, cf. MS. Digby 230 (fifteenth century). He may have
been the author of _The Five Wounds of Christ_, but it is more probable,
considering the usual origin of other fifteenth-century collections of
the kind, that he was merely the collector and transcriber of the texts.
Cf. F. J. Furnivall, _Notes and Queries_, IV. iii. 103. It is possible
that this may be the William Billyng who, in 1474, became rector of Toft
Monks in Norfolk on the presentation of the Provost and Scholars of
King’s College, Cambridge, and who appears to have held the benefice
until 1506 (see _Notes and Queries_, III. iv. 173; Blomefield,
_Norfolk_, viii. 63).[1] The parchment roll was formerly preserved in
Bateman’s collection of antiquities at Lomberdale House, Derbyshire.
This collection was broken up and sold after Bateman’s death, the
archaeological remains being purchased by the Sheffield Museum, and the
books and MSS. sold at Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge’s rooms in
1893, but all attempts to trace Billyng’s MS. after the breaking up of
the collection have been unsuccessful. A copy of the printed text is in
the British Museum.

Montgomery’s reprint of the poem in 1827 was taken from Bateman’s
version, and differs from it only in some very slight corrections in
spelling. It has been suggested that this reprint was the source of the
_Earth upon Earth_ Epitaphs which occur, but these were current from the
sixteenth century on, and, as has been already pointed out (see
Introduction, pp. xxxvi ff.), the usual form of the Epitaph, even in the
latest versions, differed from that of the actual poem.

#Page 7.# #MS. Selden Supra 53.# This text omits verse 5, and inverts
the normal order of verses 4 and 6 (see Table on p. xvii of
Introduction). The text is written in a neat hand in the left-hand
column on the back of a spare leaf (fol. 159) at the end of the MS.,
after Lydgate’s _Dance of Macabre_. The right-hand column contains Latin
scribblings, perhaps by the scribe who re-wrote small portions of _Erthe
upon Erthe_ (see p. 7, footnotes). A few lines are scribbled in another
hand upon the front side of the leaf, which is otherwise blank. The back
of the leaf was evidently unprotected, and is much rubbed and worn. The
space below Lydgate’s last verse and colophon on fol. 158 v^o contains
two odd stanzas in English in the same metre as Lydgate’s poem,
beginning ‘Let se your hand my ladi, dam emperys’, in a hand of the late
fifteenth century, and a French stanza of four lines (‘Qui met son cuer
tout en Deu, Il a son cuer et si a Deu’, &c.) in a French hand, perhaps
as late as 1500. Both of these were quite possibly inserted in the MS.
later than _Erthe upon Erthe_, the exact date of which is indeterminate,
but it was probably copied in between 1450 and 1500.

#Page 8.# #MS. Egerton 1995.# This MS. was evidently a Commonplace book.
Its contents are described by Gairdner, _Collections of a London
Citizen_ (Camden Society, 1876). The MS. is written throughout in
fifteenth-century hand, and appears to be the work of one scribe.
Gairdner thinks the whole collection may be ascribed to William Gregory
of the Skinners’ Company, who was Mayor of London in 1451, and who seems
to have been the author of part, at least, of the Chronicle of London at
the end of the MS.

#Page 10.# #MS. Brighton.# Fiedler’s account of this MS. is as
follows:-- ‘Noch eine andre Fassung des Gedichtes habe ich mir vor
einigen Jahren aus einer Handschrift abgeschrieben, die damals im
Besitze eines Antiquars in Brighton war, über deren weiteren Verbleib
ich aber nichts ermitteln könnte. Es war eine Pergamenthandschrift,
folio, von 90 Blättern. Sie enthielt eine lateinische Abhandlung über
die sieben Sacramente “Oculi Sacerdotis”, und auf der ursprünglich frei
gebliebenen Rückseite des letzten Blattes war von einer Hand des
fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts das englische Gedicht eingetragen.’ (_Mod.
Lang. Review_, III. iii. 219.)

#Page 11.# #Stratford-on-Avon Inscription.# A full account of this
inscription has been given in the Introduction, p. xii. The lines
‘Whosoo hym be thowghte’, there mentioned as being inscribed beneath
_Erthe upon Erthe_, are given by Fisher as follows:--

  Whosoo hym be thowght   Inwardly and ofte
    How hard hyt ys to flett
  From bede to peyt   From peyt to peyne that neu{er}
    Schall seys Certen
  He wold not doo no syn   all þ{is} world to wynne.

The same lines are found on other monumental inscriptions. Weever
(_Ancient Funeral Monuments_, p. 425) mentions them as occurring in
sixteenth-century inscriptions in Churches at Saffron Walden and
Faversham respectively, and Rogers (_Monuments and Monumental
Inscriptions in Scotland_, ii. 210) quotes them from a tombstone in the
parish of Dun. The following version is from Bodl. MS. Tanner 407, fol.
36, v^o (sixteenth century):--

  He that hath thoughte
  ful in-wardly and ofte
  how hard it is to flyt
  fro bedde on to pyt
  fro pytte on to pyne
  whiche neuyr schal haue fyne
  for alle thys world to wynne
  wold not do a synne.

#Page 16.# #MS. Laud Misc. 23.# This is the only text which is not
written in metrical lines. The MS. being small, it was not as a rule
possible to fit one line of the poem into a single line of the page, and
the run-on lines involved waste of space. The scribe wrote verse 1 in
metrical lines, verses 2 and 3 as if in two long lines, and the
remainder of the poem in paragraphs, each paragraph coinciding with a
verse. Each new line or paragraph is indicated by a red capital, and the
metrical lines are distinguished by pause-marks (√̣, ·, √, |), and by
touching up the first letter of the line in red. In vv. 6, 7, and 8, the
scribe appears to have lost count of the lines, as the three verses are
written in two paragraphs, and letters in the middle of a line are often
marked in red. At the top of the first leaf a later hand has scribbled
the words _haue made me_. A few other such scribbles occur elsewhere in
the MS.

l. 26 (p. 17). _Thi body that was rank and louyd of alle men, is hatyd._
The reading is inferior to MS. Lambeth, l. 27:

  þan þi bodi þat was rank & undeuout of alle men is bihatid--

and the change led to the placing of the pause (indicated in the MS.)
after men.

l. 27. _Out of the erthe cam to this erthe his wantyng garnement._ This
line seems to be a compromise between the readings of MSS. Lamb. and
Rawl. P.

(_MS. Lamb. 28_)

  Out of þis erþe cam to þis erþe þis wrecchid garnement.

(_MS. Rawl. P. 37_)

  Oute of the erthe cam the erthe wantynge his garnament.

But the rest of the verse follows Lamb, rather than Rawl. P., cf. _ruly,
raggid and rent_, _hidous turment_, beside Rawl. P. _disgesily ragged
and to-rent_, _ful grete turment_.

l. 34 has the correct reading _stinke_, as in MSS. Harl. 4486 and Rawl.
P.; Lamb. repeats _swynk_.

l. 39 (p. 18). _Wolde therfore this erthe on this erthe on this hertly
thinke_, is superior to the exaggeratedly long line in Lamb. 40, but
both are inferior to MS. Rawl. P., ll. 53, 54, where the correct rime is

  thinkynge : risynge : rekenynge : kynge.

l. 47. _Lord God that erthe madist & for the erthe suffredist peynys
ille._ It is difficult to determine what was the original form of this
line. The readings of the other texts which have the verse are as

(_Harl. 4486, 33_)

  Now Lorde that madyst for erthe & sufferdyst paynes ille.

(_Lamb. 48_)

  O þou Lord that madist þis erþe for þis erþe
          & suffridist heere peynes ille.

(_Rawl. P. 125-6_).

  Lord God that erthe tokist in erthe And suffredist paynes ful stille.

Possibly MS. Laud has transposed the _and_, and the correct reading
should be _that erthe madist for the erthe & suffredist paynes ille_, in
which case Harl. 4486 has merely omitted the first _erthe_, while the
other two texts have modified the older version.

#Page 24.# #MS. Porkington 10.# _Erthe upon Erthe_ is preceded by the
two following stanzas:--

  Lo wordly folk{es} thouȝ þ{is} p{ro}cese of dethe
  Be not swete, ne synke not i{n} your mynde.
  Whe{n} age co{m}myþ & schorteth is her brethe,
  And dethe co{m}myþ, he is not far behynde;
  The{n} her dyscressio{n} schal wel knov & fynde
  That to have mynd of deþ it is ful nesseserry,
  Ffor deth wyl co{m}e; dovtl{es} he wyl not long tarry.

  Of what estate ȝe be, ȝovng or wold,
  That redyth vppon þ{is} dredful storrye,
  As in a myrrovr her ȝe may be-holde
  The ferful ende of al your joy & glorie;
  Therfor þ{is} mat{er} redvs vs to yovr memory:--
  Ȝe þ{at} syttyþ nowe hye vppon þe whele,
  Thynke vppo{n} yovr end, & alle schal be we[le].

The MS. is in Lord Harlech’s library at Brogyntyn (formerly Porkington)
near Oswestry, Salop.

#Page 28.# #MS. Balliol 354.# l. 48. _Go to seynt Poulis, & see þer the
portratowre._ Cf. Stow, _Survey of London_, 1598: ‘There was also one
great cloister on the north side of this church (St. Paul’s), environing
a plot of ground, of old time called Pardon churchyard . . . About this
cloister was artificially and richly painted the Dance of Machabray, or
Dance of Death, commonly called the Dance of Paul’s; the like whereof
was painted about St. Innocent’s cloister at Paris, in France. The
metres or poesy of this dance were translated out of French into English
by John Lidgate, monk of Bury, and with the picture of death leading all
estates, painted about the cloister, at the special request and in the
dispence of Jenken Carpenter, in the reign of Henry V.’

_Ibid._ ‘John Carpenter, townclerk of London, in the reign of Henry V,
caused with great expense to be curiously painted upon board, about the
north cloister of Paule’s, a monument of Death leading all estates, with
the speeches of Death, and answer of every state. This cloister was
pulled down 1549.’

Cf. Sir T. More, _Works_ (ed. 1557, folio), p. 77: ‘We wer never so
gretly moved by the beholding of the Daunce of Deth pictured in

#Page 30.# #Maitland MS.# Omitted by Pinkerton from his printed text of
the Maitland MS. as ‘a silly jingling piece, shewing the vanity of man,
who is but earth, building upon earth: priding himself in gold which is
but earth’, &c. Pinkerton also knew of ‘several pieces of the same kind
in MSS. of Old English poetry’, see Note on MS. Harl. 2253, p. 36. He
had strong views against the indiscriminate printing of old MSS., and
was unwilling to sacrifice ‘the character of a man of taste to that of
an antiquary; as of all characters he should the least chuse that of an
hoarder of ancient dirt’.

#Page 32.# #MS. Cambridge# (Univ. Libr. I. 1. iv. 9). l. 17. The reading
_slogh_ is supported by Professor Skeat. It is difficult to see what
meaning could be attached to _flogh_, as in Heuser’s text.

#Page 33.# l. 48. _As wroth as the wynde_ was a favourite mediaeval
proverb. Cf. _Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight_, l. 319: he wex as wroth
as wynde; _Piers Plowman_, C. iv. 486: As wroth as the wynd wex Mede
ther-after; _Richard the Redeles_, iii. 153: thei woll be wroth as the


It may be of interest to note here some other instances of the use of
the theme _Earth upon Earth_, not immediately connected with the poem
under discussion.

An early instance of the phrase occurs in a Poem on the Death of Edward
IV, written by Skelton probably soon after the event (9th April, 1483),
beginning _Miseremini mei ye that ben my ffryndys_. Verse 2 runs as

  I slepe now in molde, as it is naturall
    That erth vnto erth hath his reuerture:
  What ordeyned God to be terestyall,
    Without recours to the erth of nature?
    Who to lyue euer may himselfe assure?
  What is it to trust on mutabilyte,
    Sith that in this world nothing may indure?
  For now am I gone, that late was in prosperyte:
  To presume thervppon, it is but a vanyte,
    Not certayne, but as a chery fayre full of wo:
  Reygned not I of late in greate felycite?
    _Et, ecce, nunc in pulvere dormio!_

  (_Poetical Works of Skelton_, ed. Dyce, I. i; London, 1843).

The poem was inserted amongst the imprinted works of Lydgate, who could
not have been alive in 1483, cf. MS. Harl. 4011, fol. 169, v^o, where it
occurs among Lydgate’s works.

In John Taylor’s _Trauels of Twelve-Pence_, 1630 folio (Spenser Soc.
reprint, p. 82), this verse occurs:--

  Far[2] though from _Earth_ man hath originall,
  And to the _Earth_, from whence he came doth fall,
  Though he be Earth, & can claime nought but earth,
  (As the fraile portion due vnto his birth)
  Yet many thousands that the earth doth breed,
  Haue no place (certain) where to lodge or feed.

The following lines occur in a small volume called _The Compleat
Bell-Man, being a Pattern for all sorts of People to take notice of the
most remarkable Times and Dayes in the Year_, by H. Crouch (seventeenth
century). The book contains thirty-nine verses, for Saint-Days and
Anniversaries chiefly, a few being on more general subjects. The last
verse, No. 39, _Upon the day of Doom_, runs as follows:--

  When Earth of Earth shall turn to Earth
  That was but Earth even from its Birth,
  Then Earth from Earth shall rise again
  To endlesse joy, or endlesse pain,
  Let Earth then serve and please his Maker
  That Earth of Heaven may be pertaker.

The following is an Epitaph on Roger Earth of Dinton, Wilts, died 1634
(see E. R. Suffling, _Epitaphia_, p. 81):--

  From Earth wee came, to Earth wee must returne,
  Witness this EARTH that Lyes within this VRNE.
  Begott by EARTH: Borne also of Earth’s WOMBE,
  74 yeares lived EARTH, now Earth’s his TOMBE.
  In Earth EARTH’S Body Lyes Vnder this STONE,
  But from this Earth to Heauen EARTH’S soule is gone.

Another later epitaph is quoted by Suffling, p. 339, from Loughter,
Glamorganshire, without name or date:--

  O Earth! O Earth observe this well,
    That Earth to Earth must go to dwell,
  That Earth to Earth must close remain
    Till Earth for Earth shall come again.

    [Footnote 1: But this is not in agreement with Bateman’s opinion
    as to the age of the original parchment roll (1400-1430), see
    Introduction, p. xi.]

    [Footnote 2: ? for.]


The three following _Erthe_ poems, in Latin, French, and English
respectively, were discovered too late for inclusion in the text. They
represent renderings of the same poem in the three languages, and are
preserved on the back of a Roll[1] in the Public Record Office,
containing a copy of the Ordinances of the fifth year of Edward II
(of which other copies exist in the British Museum, the Record Office,
and the Treasury at Canterbury). The poems in question are written on
the back of the Roll, towards the end, the Latin and French in parallel
columns, and the English below, five verses under the Latin, and four
under the French. They are preceded by a number of Latin recipes in
another hand, and a few in French follow. The handwriting of the poems
is smaller and neater than that of the Ordinances, or the Latin recipes,
but was ascribed by Hunter[2] to the time of Edward II, and may perhaps
be assigned to the fourteenth century. The French is fourteenth-century
Anglo-French, and the texts probably belong to that century, though this
copy of them may not have been made until after 1400.

A nineteenth-century transcript of the poems exists in the British
Museum, Addit. MS. 25478 (fol. 1-3), described in the Catalogue as
containing ‘Transcripts of miscellaneous English poetry, with a few
Latin pieces, chiefly derived from MS. sources: xivth to xixth century’.
The binding is marked ‘Collectanea Hunteriana’, and the MS. was acquired
with various others of the Hunter collection in 1863. The handwriting
varies, and these three poems are not in Hunter’s own hand. The
transcript is headed ‘Copy of a Poem in Latin, French, and English,
which is written in a hand of the reign of Edward II, on the dorse of a
Roll which contains a copy of the ordinances of the fifth year of Edward
II, which are printed in the Statutes of the Realm I. 157-168’. The text
given below has been collated with this transcript, and variant readings
in the latter given in the footnotes under the name Hunter (H.).

The British Museum transcript was discovered by Miss Helen Sandison of
Bryn Mawr, U.S.A., who kindly acquainted me with her discovery, and was
of great assistance in the search for the original Roll, which was
eventually found in a bundle awaiting rearrangement at the Record
Office. A large stain on the original text has rendered a considerable
portion of the Latin and a few words in the French almost illegible, and
Hunter’s transcript has left blanks at these points. Mr. S. C. Ratcliff,
of the Record Office, has given me much kind and courteous assistance in
deciphering the missing words, thanks to which I have been able to fill
up all the gaps, except that in verse 8, l. 3 of the Latin. Hunter’s
text at this point runs as follows:--

  4. l. 4.  Sic t’ra put^{e}dinis . . . t’re venas.

  6. l. 4.  Terra t’rã faciat flere ieu . . . . .

  7.        De t’ra resurg’e t’ra deb . . . . . . . .
            Et quod t’ra meruit . . . . . . . .
            Hic dum terra vix’it . . . . . . .
            Ut in t’ra valeat . . . . . dere

  8.        Adu’sus t’rigenas . . . . terra stabit
            Et t’ra int’roga . . . . . . . . abit
            Terra finem cap . . . . . . . gabit
            Quod terra promiserat t’ra . . . urgabit.

and in the French:--

  9. l. 2.  Sayt cydaunt a la tere qe tere soit sauve
            . . . . . . . eyne de tere ou tere est benure.

RECORD OFFICE ROLL (Ex^r. K. R. Parl. Proc., Bdle. 1).

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The following text was printed on two pairs of facing pages:

  pg. 42  Latin Text  | French Text   pg. 43
          stz. 1-5    | stz. 1-5
          English Text| English Text
          stz. 1-3.2  | stz. 3.3-5

  pg. 44  Latin Text  | French Text   pg. 45
          stz. 6-11   | stz. 6-10
          English Text| English Text
          stz. 6-7    | stz. 8-9

  For this e-text, the three versions have been combined into complete
  Latin, French and English poems. Parenthetical notations such as
  (in left column) are in the original. Footnote numbering reflects
  the original layout.]

LATIN TEXT (in left column).

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 2, r^o]
  1   In terra cu{m} terra sit fraude p{er}quisita,
      Terra t{er}re v{er}mib{us} sic put{r}essit trita,
      Terra t{er}ra{m} deseret, erit et finita,
      Terra tu{n}c a terren[i]s[3] mox erit oblita.                    4

  2   Terra p{er} sup{er}bia{m} terram cum ascendit,
      Terra tu{n}c cupidine t{er}ram comp{re}hendit,
      Terra morti p{ro}ximans t{er}ra{m} dat et vendit,
      Ad t{er}ra{m} viuenciu{m} t{er}ra manus tendit.                  8

  3   Terra t{er}ra{m} speculans no{n} iustificari,
      Et ad t{er}re t{er}minu{m} t{er}ra{m} inclinari.
      Terra t{er}re s{er}uiens vult[4] refrigerari,
      Et t{er}ra t{er}ribilis in terra locari.                        12

  4   In t{er}ra q{u}id possidet t{er}ra nisi penas
      Q{u}ando t{er}ra respicit t{er}ra{m} lite plenas,
      Et t{er}ra{m} defic{er}e tanq{uam} t{er}re tenas,
      Sic t{er}ra put{r}edinis intrat[5] terre venas?                 16

  5   Terra no{n} co{n}siderat t{er}ra{m} firma mente,
      Atq{ue} t{er}ra labit{ur} in t{er}ra{m} repente,
      Terra{m} suo sang{u}ine t{er}ra redimente,
      Terra{m} potens eruit de t{er}ra dolente.                       20

  6   Terra q{u}ando respicit t{e}rra{m} t{er}minare,
      Terra t{er}ra{m} debuit sese castigare,
      Terra t{er}ra{m} valeat vt humiliare,
      Terra t{er}ra{m} faciat flere ieiunare[19].                     24

  7   De t{er}ra resurg{er}e t{er}ra debet vere[19],
      Et quod t{er}ra meruit t{er}ra[19] possidere[19],
      Hic du{m} t{er}ra vix{er}it t{er}ra[19] valet[19] flere[19],
      Ut in t{er}ra valeat t{er}ra[19] post[19] gaudere[19].          28

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 2, v^o]
  8   Adu{er}sus t{er}rigenas q{u}ando[19] terra stabit,
      Et t{er}ra{m} int{er}rogans t{er}ra[19] tu{n}c[19] culpabit[19],
      Terra fine{m} cap[ia]t t{er}ra{m}[19] . . . gabit[20],
      Quod t{er}ra p{ro}mis{er}at t{er}ra tu{n}c[19] negabit[21].     32

  9   In t{er}ra q{u}i mortuus & in t{er}ra natus
      Ffuit[22], t{er}ram p{ro}tegat sic & t{er}re[23] gratus,
      Vt in t{er}ra quilibet de t{er}ra formatus,
      Terre ponat t{er}minu{m} t{er}re comendatus.                    36

  10  In t{er}ra cu{m} Ang{e}li t{er}ra{m} suscitabunt,
      In t{er}ra terribiles tube resonabunt,
      De t{er}ra t{er}rigene corpora leuabunt,
      Et ad t{er}re judice{m} terre tunc clamabunt.                   40

  11  O tu terre do{mi}ne! t{er}re miserere,
      Et t{er}ra respiciens terenos tuere,
      In t{er}ra deficim{us}, terra sumus vere,
      Nos in t{er}ra gl{or}ie t{er}ram fac videre.                    44

FRENCH TEXT (in right column).

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 1, r^o]
  1   Q{u}ant t{er}re auera en[9] terre large terre gayne,
      & t{er}re s{er}ra en terre a la mort liuere,
      Puis ert tere en tere de v{er}myne mange,
      Dounc vendra tere en tere & toust ert oblie.                     4

  2   Q{u}ant tere sour t{er}re de orgoyl descline,
      & tere ils[10] [vers] tere par coueitise encline,
      Dounc tere ils[10] [vers] tere se treit a Ruyne,
      & tere a haute tere requeit medicine.                            8

  3   Q{u}ant tere ne peot de t{er}re la malueste sourueyndre,
      Par force deit tere de t{er}re te{m}ptaciouns esteyndre,
      Encontre la fiele tere sa tere deit refreyndre,
      Q{u}ant tere leue en tere face sa tere moyndre.                 12

  4   Quey ad tere de tere forq{u}e dolour & peygne
      Q{u}ant tere veyt en terre soun enemi demeygne,
      & tere coust en tere a la mort c{er}teyne[11],
      & tere pase en tere par frelete humeyne?                        16

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 1, v^o]
  5   O tu cheytiue tere de tere, remembrez
      Vo{us} estes pris de tere & tere deuendrez,
      Pensez[12] coment en tere & par tere pecchez,
      & tere fiust en tere tant fortment[13] rechatez.                20

  6   Quant tere veyt q{ue} tere se treit a la mort,
      & tere nad en tere forq{ue} poure confort,
      Q{u}ant tere moert[25] en tere ni ad nul resort,
      Merueille est q{ue} tere de tere nad retort.                    24

  7   Q{u}ant tere[26] deit de tere leuer sodeynement,
      Tere vendra en tere p{u}r oy{e}r jugement,
      Dounc auera tere en tere dolour & t{u}rment,
      Si tere neit fet en tere bon amendement.                        28

  8   Angel{e}s vendrount en tere la tere resusciter,
      & dirrount a la tere de tere couent leuer,
      Deuant le Roy de tere en tere deuez aller[27],
      Q{u}e[28] soffri en tere p{u}r tere dolour amer.                32

  9   Jesu, q{u}e p{u}r la tere en tere fiust ne,
      Soyt eydaunt[29] a la tere q{u}e tere soit sauue,
      & nos meyne[30] de tere ou tere est benure,
      Kar si sumes en tere par tere t{u}rmente[31].                   36

  10  Dolour est en tere par tere & par mer,
      Ffaus est tere en tere & tere desir auer,
      Pluis ne voil en tere ore[32] de tere chaunter.
      Dieu deynt tere en tere de viuauns habiter. Amen.               40

ENGLISH TEXT (in left column, below Latin)

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 3, r^o]
  1   Whanne eorthe hath eorthe wiþ wrong igete,
      And eorthe in eorthe biginneþ to alete,
      And eorthe i{n} eorthe wiþ wormes is afrete,
      Thanne eorthe is on eorthe sone forȝete.                         4

  2   Wanne eorthe ouer eorthe þorw p{r}ude styeþ,
      And eorthe toward eorthe þorw coueytise wryeþ,
      & eorthe into eorthe toward þe deþ hyeþ,
      Þanne eorthe aȝeyn eorthe toward heuene c{r}ieþ.[6]              8

  3   Whan eorthe juynt eorthe so luþ{er}[7] to awelden,
      & eorthe on þ{a}t eorthe allewey[8] bi helden,
      & eorthe on eorthe sone bigynneþ for to elden,
      Hou may þat[14] eorthe on eorthe wo[14] belden?                 12

  4   What haueþ eorthe on eorthe bote pouȝt[15] and[15] wo,
      Whan eorthe iseoþ[16] eorthe his dedliche fo,
      & eorthe into eorthe so sone gynneþ guo,
      & eorthe iworthe to eorthe alle we sullen so?                   16

  5   Alas why naþ eorthe[17] in eorthe is þouȝt,
      Hou eorthe is on eorthe wiþ synnes of-souȝt,
      & eorthe was in eorthe so mychfulliche ibouȝt,
      Þ{a}t eorthe þorw eorthe ne foelle[18] to nouȝt?                20

(in right column, below French)

  6   Whan eorthe iseoþ eorthe to endinge drawe,
      & eorthe on eorthe wiþ deþ is islawe,
      & eorthe on eorthe wiþ wormes in ignawe,
      Þanne eorthe may eorthe hi{m} seluen iknawe.                    24

                                         [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 3, v^o]
  7   Wan eorthe ssal of eorthe netfulliche aryse,
      & eorthe on eorthe ihere þilke assise
      Þer eorthe ne may eorthe noþer[24] lere ne wise,
      Þanne eorthe sal on eorthe g{r}imliche agrise.                  28

  8   Þa{n}ne eorthe sal to eorthe holden gret cheste,
      & eorthe asken eorthe were is hiere byheste
      Þ{a}t eorthe byhet eorthe allewey to leste,
      Wanne eorthe t{ur}neþ to eorthe toward Helle feste.             32

  9   Houre Lou{er}d þ{a}t on eorthe for eorthe was iboren,
      On eorthe of eorthe wiþ wounden to-toren,
      Wyte eorthe fro{m} eorthe þ{a}t ne be furloren,
      & b{r}inge eorthe to þ{a}t eorthe þer beþ his icoren.           36


It will be seen that the Latin and French versions do not correspond
exactly with the English text, the French in particular being a mere
paraphrase of it, but this was, no doubt, largely due to the exigencies
of the rime. The French text has ten stanzas as against nine in the
English poem, and the Latin has eleven, the additional stanzas being an
expansion of the theme after the manner of Anglo-Latin poems of the
kind. It is evident both from the variant attempts at expansion of the
text in the Latin and French, and from the greater freshness and more
skilful use of the play on the word _erthe_ of the English text, that
the latter is the original, and this supports the view already expressed
(Introd. p. xxxiii) as to the relation of the English and Latin versions
in MS. Harl. 913. It is improbable, at least, that the _Erthe upon
Erthe_ poems should all be derived from two Latin poems, the differences
between which are too great to admit of a common original, but which
were both translated into English verse, and became, in course of time,
modified and popularized. On the other hand, the fact that one
fourteenth-century poem of the kind had been supplied with a Latin
rendering might easily account for an attempt at Latin and French
translations in the case of a second, and there seems to be reason for
believing that the author of the latter text was acquainted with the
poem in MS. Harl. 913. As has been already noted in the Introduction
(p. xxxii), the first line of the English version corresponds in idea
with that of the text in MS. Harl. 913:

  Whan erþ haþ erþ iwanne wiþ wow.

and in actual wording with that of the _Song on the Times_:

  When erthe hath erthe i-gette.

Otherwise no verbal connexion can be traced with any of the texts of
_Erthe upon Erthe_, though the phrase _eorthe on eorthe_ recurs four
times, and there is, of necessity, some similarity of treatment and
idea. Thus the remainder of verse 1 contains a reference to the
destruction by worms, mentioned in MS. Harl. 913, v. 2, and in the
Cambridge text, vv. 7 and 13, as well as to the proverb that the dead
are soon forgotten, cf. MS. Harl. 913, v. 4 (Introd. p. xxxi); verse 5
exhorts man to think of death, as does v. 6 of the B Version; and the
poem ends with a prayer, as do MSS. Harl. 4486, Lambeth, Laud, Titus,
and Rawl. P., as well as Rawl. C., and the Cambridge text. But the
wording, and, in the two latter cases, the treatment, is different, and
the general similarity is less than might he expected from the triteness
of the theme. Both the A and the B Version lay stress on the contrast
between man’s present earthly glory and his future mingling with the
dust, whereas the text in the Appendix dwells on the inevitableness of
death, the pains of death, and the future judgement (only mentioned here
and in MS. Harl. 913). The poem appears to represent an individual
treatment of the subject, suggested perhaps by the text in MS. Harl.
913, with its Latin rendering, and possibly also influenced by the _Song
on the Times_ in the same MS. It may be regarded as being ultimately
based, like MS. Harl. 913, on the short stanzas current at the beginning
of the fourteenth century, and as furnishing additional evidence of the
early popularity of the theme, a popularity which gave rise at first to
individual poems like this and MS. Harl. 913, and later to the
repetition and expansion of one common type as in the B Version. But,
unlike MS. Harl. 913, this text stands apart from the more popular types
of the poem, and has no connexion with either the B Version or the
Cambridge text. It must therefore have been written before the short
normal type of the B Version became current, and probably before it took
shape as a poem of several stanzas, that is before 1400. The want of
close connexion between it and the more usual types of the poem given
above, makes the omission of it from the text the less to be regretted,
since it represents a side-issue rather than a link in the development
of the poem as here treated.

    [Footnote 1: Ex^r. K. R. Parl. Proceedings, Bdle. 1 (Old No.

    [Footnote 2: Joseph Hunter, the antiquary (1783-1861),
    Sub-Commissioner of the Public Records 1833, Assistant-Keeper of
    the Records 1838.]

    [Footnote 3: MS. _aterrens_ as one word.]

    [Footnote 4: MS. _wlt_.]

    [Footnote 5: this word is very obscure, and is omitted by Hunter;
    portions of _nt_ and the second _t_ can be seen.]

    [Footnote 6: H. _b^{i}reþ_.]

    [Footnote 7: H. _luþ_.]

    [Footnote 8: the MS. has a gap after _allewey_ with space for a
    word of five or six letters, but there is no erasure nor trace of
    any omission.]

    [Footnote 9: inserted above the line.]

    [Footnote 10: MS. has _ils_, surely a scribal error; the original
    had probably _u{er}s_ = _vers ‘towards’_, with the MS. compendium
    for _er_, written over and confused with the second stroke of the
    _u_ so as to look like _il_.]

    [Footnote 11: H. _e’teyne_.]

    [Footnote 12: H. _peisez_.]

    [Footnote 13: H. _foilment_.]

    [Footnotes 14, 15: _in fresher ink above the line._]

    [Footnote 16: MS. _isoeþ_.]

    [Footnote 17: above the line.]

    [Footnote 18: MS. _foelle_; ? _falle_.]

    [Footnote 19: All words marked [19] are omitted in H.’s transcript,
    the MS. at this point being stained and obscure.]

    [Footnote 20: Professor Robinson Ellis suggests _obiu{r}gabit_
    here, which would fit the space: there is room for 2-3 letters,
    and possibly a trace of an _r_ contraction.]

    [Footnote 21: H. _urgabit_.]

    [Footnote 22: obscure, H. _fuit_; MS. might be _ffinit_.]

    [Footnote 23: H. _t’roe_.]

    [Footnote 24: H. _neþer_.]

    [Footnote 25: H. _mo ert_.]

    [Footnote 26: inserted in margin; H. omits.]

    [Footnote 27: H. _aler_.]

    [Footnote 28: H. _le_.]

    [Footnote 29: H. _sayt cydaunt_.]

    [Footnote 30: H. _. . . . . . eyne_.]

    [Footnote 31: H. _t^{r}menti_.]

    [Footnote 32: H. _ou_.]



MS. TRINITY COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE R. 3. 21.                  [fol. 33, v^o.]

(This text represents the normal seven-stanza type of the B version, but
without precise verbal agreement with any text printed above.)

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The initial “E” is printed in the middle of a large blank space,
  E.E.T.S. notation for a decorative capital.]

  1   [E]rthe vppon erthe so wondyrly wrought,
      Erthe opon erthe hath gete a dignite of nought,
      Erthe opon erthe hath set all hys thought
      How erthe opon erthe may on hyght be brought.                    4

  2   Erthe opon erthe wold be a kyng;
      But how that erthe goth to erthe thynketh he nothyng.
      When erthe byddyth erthe hys rent home bryng,
      Than erthe from erthe hath full hard partyng.                    8

  3   Erthe opon erthe wynneth castelles and towres;
      Than seyth erthe to erthe: ‘Thys ys all owres’.
      When erthe opon erthe hath bylde halles and bowres,
      Then shall erthe fro erthe suffre sharpe showres.               12

  4   Erthe goth opon erthe as molde opon molde,
      Erthe goth opon erthe and glytereth as golde,
      Lyke as erthe to erthe neu{er} go sholde.
      And yet shall erthe to erthe rather then he wolde.              16

  5   Why erthe loueth erthe wondyr I may thynke,
      Or why erthe for erthe wyll other swete or s[w]ynke,
      Ffor when erthe in-to erthe ys brought w{i}t{h}yn the brynke,
      Than shall erthe of erthe haue a foule stynke.                  20

  6   Lo erthe opon erthe consider{e} well thow may
      How erthe co{m}meth to erthe nakyd alway.
      Why shuld erthe than opon erthe go stout and gay
      Seth erthe in-to erthe shall passe in a pore aray?              24

  7   I counsell erthe opon erthe that wykkyd hath wrought,
      Whyle erthe ys opon erthe to torne vp hys thought,
      And pray God opon erthe that all erthe hath wrought,
      That erthe out of erthe to blysse may be brought. Amen.         28
                            Memorare nouissima.


MS. TRINITY COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE B. 15. 39.                     [fol. 170.]

This text (in MS. not written in metrical lines) preserves 9 stanzas of
the 12-stanza version in MSS. Lambeth and Laud, and appears to represent
a distinct and perhaps older copy of the original of these two. The
mistake in v. 8 precludes its being the original.

    De terra plasmasti me, _etc._

  1   [1]Erþe out of erþe is wondirli wrouȝt,
      Erþe of erþe haþ gete a dignite of nouȝt,
      Erþe vpon erþe haþ sett al his þouȝt,
      Howe þat erþe vpon erþe may be hiȝ brouȝt.                       4

  2   Erþe vpon erþe wolde ben a king;
      But how erþe schal to erþe þenkiþ he no þing;
      Whanne þan erþe biddiþ erþe hise rentis hoom bring,
      Þanne schal erþe out of erþe haue a piteuous p{ar}tinge.         8

  3   Erþe vpon erþe wy{n}neþ castels and tours,
      Þanne seiþ erþe to erþe: ‘þis is all ouris.’
      Whanne erþe vpon[2] erþe [haþ biggid][3] up his bouris,
      Þan schal erþe for erþe for[4] suffre scharpe schouris.         12

  4   Erþe gooþ upon erþe as molde upon moolde,
      So gooþ erþe upon erþe al glitiringe in golde,
      Lijk as erþe vnto erþe neu{er}e go scholde,
      And ȝit schal erþe vnto erþe raþir þan he wolde.                16

  5   O þou [fol. 170, v^o] wrecchid erþe þat in þe erþe trauellist
              niȝt & day,
      To florische þe erþe, to peinte þe erþe wiþ wantowne aray,
      Ȝit schalt þou erþe for al þi erþe,
              make þou it neu{er}e so queinte or gay,
      Out of þis erþe in-to þe erþe,
              þere to klinge as a clot of clay.                       20

  6   O wrecchid man whi art þou proud þat art of erþe makid?
      Hidir brouȝtist þou no schroud, but pore come þou and nakid.
      Whanne þi soule is went out & þi bodi in[5] erþe rakid,
      Þan bi [bodi][6] þat was rank & bilouid of al men is bihatid.   24

  7   Out of þis erþe cam to þis erþe þis wantinge grarnement[7];
      To hide þis erþe, to happe þis erþe, to him was cloþing lent;
      But now[8] gooþ erþe upon erþe, ruli raggid & rent,
      Þerfore schal erþe vndir þe erþe haue hidous turment.           28

  8   Þ{er}fore þ{o}u erþe vpon erþe þat wikkidli hast wrouȝt,
      While þat erþe is upon erþe turne aȝen þi þouȝt,
      & pray to God vpon erthe þat [al þe erþe haþ][9] wrouȝt,
      Þat erþe vpon erþe to blis may be brouȝt.                       32

  9   Now Lord þat erþe madist for erþe & suffridist peines ille,
      Lete neu{er}e þis erþe for þis erþe mischeue ne spille,
      But þat þis erþe in þis erþe be euere worchinge þi wille,
      So that erþe fro þis erþe stie vp to þin hiȝ hille. AMEN.       36

      Memento homo quod cinis es. et in cinerem reuerteris.
      Ffac bene dum viuis. post mortem viu{er}e si vis.

  A man þat wilneþ for to p{ro}fite in þe wey of p{er}fecciou{n}
  & souvereinli to plese God. he muste studie bisili for to haue
  þese maters in his herte þat folewiþ here aftir.

  First biþenke þee [etc.]

    [Footnote 1: MS. erron. begins with a capital _D_.]

    [Footnote 2: Crossed out in MS.]

    [Footnote 3: Omitted in MS.]

    [Footnote 4: So in MS.]

    [Footnote 5: MS. _is_ erron. for _in_]

    [Footnote 6: Omitted in MS.]

    [Footnote 7: erron. for _garnement_]

    [Footnote 8: _erþe vpon erþe_ inserted after _now_ in MS. and
    crossed out.]

    [Footnote 9: MS. erroneously repeats, from l. 29, _þat vickidli
    hast wrouȝt_.]


  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Entries shown in [[double brackets]] are from the author’s Addenda,
  referring to the English text in Appendix I (pages 42-45). Yogh ȝ is
  alphabetized as g, thorn þ as th.]

  Abbey, _sb._ 13.6. _perh. erron. for_ nobley.
  [[Afrete, _pp._ devoured, eaten 42.3.]]
  Agaste, _a._ aghast 25.54.
  Agayn(e), ageyn, aȝen, ayen, _adv._ again 13.30, 15.45, 21.34,
      24.20, 28.54;
    _prep._ against 38.47.
  Aȝenrisynge, _sb._ resurrection 15.41.
  [[Agrise, _vb._ tremble, quake 44.28.]]
  Al, all, _a._ 28.49, 53.
  [[Alas, _int._ 43.17.]]
  Ale, _sb._ 25.60.
  [[Alete, _vb._ to let go, forsake 42.3.]]
  Almis, _sb._ alms 24.24.
  Also, _adv._ 28.37, 34.73.
  Alway(e), all(e) way(e), _adv._ always 7.14, 9.22, 10.22, 25.32,
      29.58, &c.
  Amende, _vb. imp._ 24.18.
  Amys, _adv._ amiss 34.68.
  Answerid, _vb. 3 p. pr._ answereth 2.25.
  Apone, ap(p)one, _prep._, _var. of_ upon 6.3, 5, 9, 7.1, 2, 3,
      9.1, 2, &c.
  Ar, 3.50. ? _erron. for_ a.
  Aray(e), array, _sb._ array 7.16, 8.26, 19.18, 21.64, 30.24, &c.,
  [[Aryse, _vb._ arise 44.25.]]
  Askeþ, askiþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ 2.25, 39.
  [[Assise, _sb._ the Judgement 44.26.]]
  Auyse, _vb. imp._ bethink thyself, consider 22.98.
  Awaked, _vb. pr. pl._ awaken 1.6.
  Away, _adv._ 30.22, 31.22.
  [[Awelden, _vb._ wield, rule 42.9.]]
  Ay, _adv._ aye 25.58.

  Bare, _a._ 22.88.
  Be, _vb._ 5.4, 5, 6.4, 5, &c., &c.;
    _imp._ 3.63, 22.97, 24.23;
    _subj._ 13.9, 14.35, &c;
    _2 p. pr._ art 1.5, 15.24, 45, 19.21;
    _3 p. pr._ is, ys 2.16, 17, 40, 42, 3.49, 50, 7.1, &c., es
      6.1, 10, 19;
    _pr. pl._ be, beth 2.38, 3.66, 7.10, 28.43, 45, bythe 13.14,
      byne 25.52, ar 30.10, 31.10, 33.45;
    _2 p. p._ were 1.5, 2.29, 22.92;
    _3 p. p._ was 15.29, 21.40, 23.101, &c.;
    _p. pl._ were 27.21, 28.27.
  Before, beffore, byfore, _adv._ before 28.44, 52.
    _prep._ 22.100, 33.50.
  Begilynge, _sb._ beguiling 23.106.
  Begynnynge, _sb._ beginning 23.102.
  Begynnys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ begins 3.51;
    _3 p. p._ began 28.31, 32.14;
    _pp._ bigun 2.29.
  Beholde, _vb. imp._ behold 12.25.
  Behynde, _prep._ behind 33.50.
  [[Belden, _vb._ build up 43.12.]]
  Beriþ, berriþ, berys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ bears 2.15, 28, 33.53.
  Beste, _a._ best 12.21.
  Bete, _pp._ beaten 23.116.
  Betyme, _adv._ betimes 24.18, 25.57.
  Be ware, _vb. imp._ beware 22.97, 33.38.
  Biddethe, biddis, biddith, bydd-es, -eth, -is, -ys, -yth(e), bydyth,
      _vb. 3 p. pr._ bids 5.7, 7.7, 8.9, 9.7, 10.7, &c.;
    _3 p. p._ bade 25.36.
  Biddyngis, _sb._ biddings 23.124.
  Bigged, biggid, -it, bygged(e), -id, -it, -yd, -yt, _pp._ built,
      6.11, 7.11, 10.11, 12.11, 13.15, 14.14, 17.13, 19.11, 30.11,
      31.11, 32.7; ON. byggja.
  Bihatid, _pp._ hated 15.27.
  [[Bi-holden, _vb._ keep, retain 42.10.]]
  Bild, _vb. imp._ build 3.64;
    _2 p. pr._ bildist 22.79;
    _3 p. pr._ bilt, 3.65, byldyth 5.13;
    _pp._ bildyd, billid, bylde, byllyd, 5.11, 8.13, 11.11, 20.22,
  Bink, bynk, _sb._ bank 30.19, 31.19. L. Scots.
  Blak, blayke, _a._ black 3.66, 34.64.
  Blesse, _sb._, _var. of_ blis, bliss 29.6.
  Blis, blys, blysse, _sb._ bliss 4.77, 7.24, 8.30, 9.28, 10.28, &c.
  Blode, _sb._ blood 25.46.
  Blynde, _a._ blind 25.37.
  Blyssed, _pp._ blessed 34.75.
  Bodi, body, _sb._ 15.26, 27, 17.25, 26, 34.73.
  Bold, _sb._ dwelling 3.64.
  Bold, _a._ 28.42.
  Bon, _sb._ bone 22.88.
  Borowes, _sb. erron. for_ bowres, bowers 10.11.
  Both, _pron._ 28.41.
  Bour(e)s, bour(r)is, bourys, bowres, -is, -ys, _sb. pl._ bowers
      3.66, 5.11, 6.11, 8.13, 9.11, 12.11, 14.14, 17.13, 27.11, &c.
  Bouȝte, _pp. erron. for_ broȝt 26.70.
  Brede, _sb._ bread 25.60.
  Bredis, _vb. 3 p. pr._ breeds 6.7; (perh. erron. for _biddis_);
    _3 p. p._ brede 33.45.
  Brente, _pp._ burnt 10.19.
  Brether, _sb. pl._ brothers 28.44.
  Bring, bryng(e), _vb._ 5.7, 6.7, 7.7, 14.10, &c.;
    _imp._ bryng 33.27;
    _2 p. p._ broght, brouȝttist, broutyst 15.25, 17.24, 19.22;
    _pp._ brocht, bro(u)ght(e), broht, brouȝt(e), brouþt, browt(h)e,
      5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.6, 9.3, 10.4, 28, 13.8, 14.7, 30.4, &c.
  Brink(e), brynk(e), _sb._ brink (of the grave) 5.19, 6.19, 15.34,
      17.33, 27.19, &c.;
    _pl._ brynkes 10.19.
  Byggis, bygith, -yth, _vb. 3 p. pr._ builds _v._ bigged 12.9, 34.63.
  [[Byheste, _sb._ promise 45.30.]]
  [[Byhet, _vb. 3 p. pr._ promises 45.31.]]
  Byrthe, _sb._ birth 26.72.

  Calle, _sb._ summons 12.23.
  Callyd, _vb. 3 p. p._ called, named 32.12.
  Carayne, caryon, _sb._ carrion 2.39, 24.30.
  Care, _sb._ care, anxiety 24.11.
  Case, _sb._ 26.64.
  Cast, _vb._ 34.61.
  Castles, castells, casteles, castels, castells, -es, -is, -ys,
      castylles, _sb. pl._ castles 3.65, 5.9, 6.9, 7.9, 8.11, 9.9,
      &c., &c.
  Certayn, certeyn, _a._ certain 28.53, 56.
  [[Cheste, _sb._ strife, dispute 45.29; OE. cēast, _older_ cēas,
      L. causa.]]
  Chyn, chynne, _sb._ chin 2.17, 32.26.
  Clay(e), _sb._ 15.23, 17.22, 19.20, 21.68.
  Clinge, clynge, klyng, _vb._ to shrink up, decay 15.23, 17.22,
      19.20, 21.68.
    Cf. _E. E. Allit. P._ A. 856, oure corses in clottez clynge,
      _Hymns to Virgin and Christ_, p. 85, in coold clay now schal y
  Closed, closit, _pp._ enclosed, shut up 28.39, 30.19, 31.19.
  Clot, clotte, _sb._ clot of clay, a hardened lump of earth, 15.23,
      17.22, 19.20, 21.68;
    _replaced by_ NE. clod.
  Cloth, _sb._ 32.24, 33.53.
  Cloth, _vb. imp._ clothe 25.36.
  Clothing(e), _sb._ 15.29, 17.28, 21.40.
  Cold(e), _sb._ 12.15, 28.43, 34.72.
  Com, _vb._ come 12.23;
    _2 p. pr._ commys 25.32;
    _3 p. pr._ comes, comeþ, commeth, comyth(e), commyth 7.14,
      8.24, 9.22, 10.22, &c.;
    _2 p. p._ cam 17.24, cem(e) 15.25, 19.22;
    _pl._ com 28.54.
  Commandmentis, _sb. pl._ commandments, 25.42.
  Concele, concell, consaill, consell, consylle, counsall, counsill,
      cowncelle, cowsayl, _vb. 1 p. pr._ counsel, advise 7.21, 8.27,
      9.25, 10.25, 11.25, 26.67, 29.3, 61, 30.25, 31.25.
  Conclusion, _sb._ close, termination, 28.36.
  Consayfe, _vb._ conceive, grasp, understand 25.31.
  Consider(e), consedur, considder, considdir, consyder(e), consydre,
      _vb._ consider 7.13, 10.21, 11.21, 13.25, 15.36, 29.57, 30.21,
  [[Coueytise, _sb._ covetousness 42.6.]]
  Coveytous, _sb._ covetousness 33.55, _Conf. of ending for_ covetise,
      OF. coveitise. Cf. _Paston Letters_, No. 582, II. 313, the
      unkyndnesse and covetuse that was shewed me.
  [[Crieþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ cries 42.8.]]
  Crose, _sb._ cross 25.46.
  Crownnys, _sb. pl._ crowns 27.24.
  Crystyn, _a._ Christian 11.28.

  Dai, day(e), _sb._ day 4.78, 8.24, 15.20, 21.62, 32.22.
  Dare, _vb. subj._ need 34.58; ME. thar for tharf, OE. þearf; _from
      confusion with_ dare, OE. dearr.
  Dart, _sb._ 28.50.
  Dede, _sb._ deed 4.78;
    _pl._ deden, dedis 2.15, 25.54.
  [[Dedliche, _a._ deadly 43.14.]]
  Dedly, _a._ deadly, mortal 22.78, 23.128.
  Delful, dolfull, _a._ sorrowful, doleful 1.4, 7.8, 33.28; OF. doel,
      duel, deol, mod. F. deuil.
  Deliþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ divides, separates 4.78.
  Depairting, _sb._ separation, parting 30.8, 31.8.
  Dere, _vb._ harm, injure 28.50; OE. derian.
  Deth(e), deeþ, _sb._ death 5.24, 8.3, 9.30, 31, 13.3, 4, 14.2,
    _gen._ dethis 22.70.
  Deyle, _vb. imp._ distribute 25.43.
  Dignite, dignitie, dignyte, dignytie, dygnite, dygnyte, dyngnyte,
      _sb._ high estate or position, honour 6.2, 11.2, 12.4, 14.5,
      16.4, 19.2, 20.8, 27.2, 30.2, 31.2.
  Disgesily, _adv._ strangely, extraordinarily 21.42; OF. desguisié,
  Do, _vb._ 34.68;
    _3 p. pr._ doþe, dooþ, doith, dose 7.17, 14.2, 22.94, 25.54;
    _pl._ don 33.33;
    _imp._ do 26.73;
    _pl. p._ did 28.44;
    _p. pr._ doynge 23.130;
    _pp._ do, don 23.115, 122, 34.66.
  Doluyn, _pp._ buried 23.113.
  Dome, _sb._ judgement 4.76.
  Draught, draut, drawght(e), drawȝt, _sb._ drawing of a bow, bowshot
      5.24, 8.3, 9.31, 13.4, 14.2.
    Cf. R. Brunne _Chron. Wace_ (c. 1330) 862, al vnwylland þat
      draught he drow.
  Drawe, _vb._ draw 14.1;
    _3 p. pr._ drawethe, drawith, drawyth(e) 5.24, 8.3, 9.31,
      13.4, 20.3;
    _3 p. p._ droh, drow 1.2, 4.
  Dred(e), _vb. imp._ dread 4.76, 23.117.
  Dredfull, _a._ dreadful, terrible 28.50.
  Drynkis, _sb. pl._ drinking feasts 22.86.
  Duly, _adv._ duly, rightly 25.43.
  Dute, _sb._ duty, dues 5.7.
  Dwelle, dweylle, _vb._ dwell 22.80, 26.63;
    _3 p. pr._ dwellyth 34.65.
  Dye, _vb._ die 9.15;
    _3 p. p._ deyd 34.78.

  Earth, eird, erth, erthe, herth, _sb._ earth 1.1, &c., &c.
  [[Elden, _vb._ to grow old 43.11.]]
  Empire, _sb._ 28.31.
  Enclyn, _vb._ incline, be disposed, desire 27.23.
  End, _vb._ 2.29.
  Ende, _sb._ end 4.73, 24.6, 26.66.
  [[Endinge, _sb._ 44.21.]]
  Endure, _vb._ 28.45.
  Ensure, _vb._ 28.46.
  Entent, _sb._ intent, purpose 34.57.
  Enuye, _sb._ envy 22.74.
  [[Eorthe, _sb._ earth 42.1, &c.]]
  Erþene, _a._ earthen 1.3.
  Erthly, _a._ earthly 33.55, 34.70.
  Est, _sb._ east, (_perh. erron. for_ erth) 34.79.
  Euer(e), _adv._ ever 14.35, 16.50, 18.49, 22.80, 23.130, 33.35, 36.
  Euerlastynge, _a._ everlasting 23.108.
  Evill, ewill, _a._ evil 30.20, 31.20.
  Ewyne, _sb._ even 25.51.
    For oode ne for ewyne, for odd nor even, on no account
    Cf. even and odd, all included, without exception.
  Exampul, _sb._ example 25.39.
  Excludid, _pp._ excluded 22.76.

  Falle, _sb._ 12.22.
  Falliþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ falls, 1.3.
  Falshede, falshode, _sb._ falsehood 23.106, 110.
  Falsly, _adv._ falsely 33.50.
  Fane, fayne, _a._ fain 30.5, 31.5.
  Fare, _vb._ go 24.12.
  Fase, _sb. pl._ foes 12.28.
  Fast, _adv._ 34.60.
  Favtt, _vb. p. pl._ fought 25.44.
  Fayr, _a._ fair 33.42;
    _adv._ fayre 33.50.
  Fede, feden, _vb._ feed 2.14, 33.44.
  Fele, _sb._, _prob._ fell, moor 24.30; ON. fjallr.
  Felow, _sb._ fellow 22.92.
  Ferde, _pp._ afraid, terrified 12.24; OE. (for) fǣred.
  Fere, _sb._ fear 28.52.
  Festis, _sb. pl._ feasts, 22.86.
  First, fyrst, _a. & adv._ 23.102, 28.31, 38, 32.14.
  Flesch, _sb._ flesh 33.45.
  Florische, florisshe, fflorysshe, _vb._ adorn, embellish 15.21,
      17.20, 19.18, 21.63; OF. florir, floriss-.
  Flowre, _sb._ flower 28.38;
    _pl._ flowres 34.65.
  [[Foelle, _vb. subj._ ? fall 43.20.]]
  Folk, _sb._ 28.45.
  Foo, _sb._ foe 22.78;
    _pl._ fase 12.28.
  Forbere, _vb._ forbear 28.51.
  [[Forȝete, _pp._ forgotten 42.4.]]
  Forsake, _sb. subj._ 22.81, 23.109.
  Forsuthe, _int._ forsooth 12.28.
  Fote, _sb._ foot 23.114;
    _pl._ 32.22.
  Fovde _sb._ food 25.44.
  Foul(e), foulle, fovl, fowll(e), _a._ foul 5.20, 6.20, 8.22, 11.20,
      22.77, 24.28, &c.
  Fowle, _sb._ evil, hurt 33.39.
    Cf. Sowdone of Babylone (c. 1400) 199, foule shall hem this
      day bifalle. _NE. sense of_ foul _as_ trip, collision, _not
      found in ME._
  Frendschip, _sb._ friendship, 2.42.
  Frow, _adv._ (_glossed_ festine) swiftly, hastily 1.3; ON. frãr,
  Fugure, _sb._ figure 28.47.
  Ful, full(e), _adv._ fully 5.24, 9.32, 13.4, &c.
  Fulfille, fulfyle, _vb._ fulfil 23.124, 25.42, 50.
  [[Furloren, _pp._ lost 46.35.]]
  Fyghtys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ fights, 34.60,
    _p. pl._ favtt 25.44.
  Fynd(e), _vb._ find 12.28, 33.49;
    _1 p. pr._ 25.39, 40.
  Fyne, _sb._ end 27.24.

  Ga, gase, _v._ go, goest 6.16, 12.27, &c.
  Garnament, garnement, _sb. early form of _ garment 15.28, 17.27,
  Gate, _sb._ gate 22.76.
  Gatis, _sb. pl._ way 12.27.
  Gay(e), _a._ 8.25, 9.23, 19.19, &c.
  Gersom, _sb._ treasure, 3.61; OE. gersume.
  Gett, _vb._ get 25.60;
    _3 p. pr._ get hit (? _erron. for_ getith, _glossed_ lucratur)
      2.37, getyth 34.66;
    _3 p. p._ gete, gette 3.61, 10.2;
    _pp._ gete(n), getyn, goten, gottin, gotyn 3.53, 5.2, 6.2,
      11.2, 13.6, 19.2, 30.2, &c.
  Gleterande, gleteryng(e), gletterant, _p. pr._ glittering 6.14,
      8.16, 9.14, 13.18, 17.16, 20.32;
    _v._ Gliteringe.
  Glisteryng, _p. pr._ sparkling, glittering 11.15; MLG. glistern.
  Gliteringe, glitterand, glyt(t)ryng, glytteryng, _p. pr._ glittering
      5.14, 12.13, 14.17, 19.14, 24.21, 30.15, 31.15; ON. glitra, to
  Glydderande, glyd(e)ryng, _p. pr._ _for_ glitterande, &c. 7.18,
      10.14, 27.14;
    _v._ Gliteringe.
  Glydys, _vb. 3 p. pr. for_ glytys, glitters 33.34; ON. glita, to
  Go(e), gon, goo, ȝa, _vb._ go 5.15, 16, 6.15, 16, 7.19, 22.82, &c.;
    _2 p. pr._ gase, goist 12.27, 22.70;
    _3 p. pr._ ge(e)th, goeth, gois, go(o)th(e), gos(e), goos,
      gott, goyth(e), 2.13, 28, 5.14, 6.13, 14, 8.16, 9.13, 14, 11.6,
      12.13, 15, 14.16, 17, 30.6, 15, 22, 32.15, 19, &c.;
    _3 p. subj._ go 3.64;
    _imp._ go 25.47.
  God, _sb. n. pr._ 7.23, 8.29, 9.27, &c.;
    _gen._ Goddis 23.124.
  Gold(e), _sb._ 3.61, 5.14, 6.13, 14, &c.
  Good, _a._ 34.57.
  Goode, _sb._ property, 25.43;
    _pl._ goodis 23.112.
  Gospel, _sb._ 25.39.
  Govern, _vb._ 12.30.
  Grace, _sb._ 22.70, 26.61.
  Grauiþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ buries, covers up, 8.52; OE. grafan.
  Grawnte, _vb. subj._ grant 12.30.
  Grene, _a._ green 3.52.
  Gret(e), grit, _a._ great 21.44, 30.17, 31.12, 17, 33.52, 56, 34.80.
  [[Grimliche, _adv._ terribly 44.28.]]
  Grouer, _sb._ a kind of fur, 3.51; OF. gros vair, _opposed to_ menu
      vair, minever.
  Grounde, _sb._ bottom, 34.77; cf. OE. helle grund.
  Groy, _sb._ grey fur, 3.51,
    _erron. for_ grey, _or perhaps contamination of_ ME. gra, gro
      (ON. grãr) _with_ grey (OE. grǣg).
    Cf. Berners _Froiss._ II. ccii. 622, furred with Myneuere and
  Grucche, _sb._ grudge 28.55.
    To strive of grucche, to strive against as a grievance.
  [[Guo, _vb._ go 43.15.]]
  [[Gynneþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ begins 43.15.]]

  Haf(e), _vb._ have 6.8, 20, 10.8, 20, 12.8, 20, 22.
  Hallys, _sb. pl._ halls 32.5, 34.63.
  Hame, _sb._ home 30.7, 31.7.
  Hande, _sb._ 24.24.
  Happe, _vb._ wrap 15.29.
  Hard(e), herd, _a._ hard 6.8, 11.8, 12, 30.8, 31.8, &c.
  Hart, herte, _sb._ heart 25.46, 33.53.
  Hartily, hertili, hertly, _adv._ heartily 15.40, 18.39, 21.54.
  Haste, _sb._ 25.53.
  Hate, _sb._ 22.74.
  Hate, _vb._ hate;
    _3 p. pr._ hatid 2.26;
    _pp._ hated, hatid, hatyd(e) 5.23, 8.2, 9.30, 13.3, 14.1,
      16.2, 17.26, 20.2.
  Hauntist, _vb. 2 p. pr._ practisest habitually 22.74.
  Haue, have, haf(e), _vb._ have 5.8, 20, 6.8, 20, 8.10, 22,
      10.8, 20, &c.;
    _1 p. pr._ haue 28.44;
    _2 p. pr._ hase, hast(e), 12.25, 28, 13.29, &c.;
    _3 p. pr._ has(e), hath(e) 1.1, 2.27, 5.2, 3, 12.1, 11, &c.;
      hes 30.2, 11, 31.2, 11;
    _pr. pl._ haue 29.61;
    _imp._ haue 28.52;
    _3 p. subj._ haue 34.65;
    _3 p. p._ had(e), heuede 1.4, 29.3, 34.72.
  [[Haueþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ has 43.13.]]
  Hede, _sb._ head 25.48.
  Hede, _sb._ heed 24.5.
  Heere, here, _adv._ 16.48, 28.40, 45.
  Heghe, hey, _v._ hiȝ 6.4, 11.4.
  Hel(e), hell, _vb._ hell 25.40, 58, 34.77.
  [[Helle-feste, _sb._ Hell-fortress 45.32.]]
  Helpe, _sb._ 26.72.
  Helpyne, _vb. 3 pl. pr._ help 25.52.
  Hend, _a._ gracious 4.75.
  Hennys, _adv._ hence 22.82.
  Herd, herte, hertili, _v._ Hard, Hart, Hartily.
  Hete, _sb._ heat 28.43.
  Heuen(e), heuyn, heyuyn(e), heywyn, _sb._ heaven 15.43, 19.24,
      25.40, 52, 26.63, 34.82, &c.
  Heuy, _a._ heavy 9.8.
  Hicht, _sb._ height 30.4, 31.4.
  Hide, hyde, _vb._ 15.29, 17.28, 21.39.
  Hider, hidir, hyder, _adv._ hither 15.25, 17.24, 19.22.
  Hidiose, hidous, _a._ hideous 15.31, 17.30.
  Hiȝ, hihe, heghe, hey, hy(e), hyȝ, hygh(e), _a. & adv._ high 5.4,
      6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.3, 10.4, 11.4, 11, 12.2, 13.8, 14.7, 16.6, 51,
      19.4, 22.100;
    hiere (higher) 20.12.
  Hille, hylle, _sb._ hill 14.36, 16.51, 18.50, 23.132.
  Hold, _vb. 3 p. pr._ holdys 32.16;
    _pp._ hold 28.30.
  Hold, _a._ faithful 3.63.
  Holy, _a._ holy 23.132.
  Hom(e), hoom, whom(e), _sb._ home 5.7, 6.7, 11.7, 16.9, 24.9, &c.;
    _v._ hame.
  Honger, _sb._ hunger 34.72.
  Honour, _sb._ 27.22.
  Houe, hove, how(e) _conj._ how 5.4, 6, 6.4, 6, 7.4, 6, &c., &c.
  Hows, _sb._ house 32.26.
  Hundred, _num._ 2.18.
  [[Hyeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ hastens 42.7.]]

  [[Iboren, _pp._ born 45.33.]]
  [[Ibouȝt, _pp._ redeemed 43.19.]]
  [[Icoren, _pp. a._ chosen ones 45.35.]]
  Idiȝte, _pp._ placed, set 2.38.
  [[Igete, _pp._ got 42.1.]]
  [[Ignawe, _pp._ devoured 44.23.]]
  [[Ihere, _vb._ hear 44.26.]]
  [[Iknawe, _vb._ know 44.24.]]
  Ilich, alike 1.5.
  Ille, ylle, _a. & adv._ ill 14.33, 16.48, 18.47, 23.122.
  Ilor, _pp._ lost 2.42;
    _v._ Loste.
  Imeten, _pp._ measured 3.54.
  Inow(e), ynoh, enough 1.2, 4, 32.18.
  [[Iseoþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ sees 43.14, 44.21.]]
  [[Islawe, _pp._ slain 44.22.]]
  Iustly, _adv._ justly 5.16.
  Iustyse, _sb._ justice, judge, 22.100.
  [[Iuynt, _vb. 3 p. pr._ joins 42.9.]]
  [[Iworthe, _vb._ become 43.16.]]

  Karful, _a._ grievous, sad, full of care, 26.64.
  King, kyng(e), _sb._ 2.39, 5.5, 7.5, 8.7, 9.5, &c.
  Klyng, _v._ clinge.
  Kniȝt, knyght, _sb._ knight 2.39, 19.24.
  Know, _vb._ 27.23;
    _3 p. pr._ knowethe 9.21.
  Knyȝthode, _sb._ 28.38.

  Labour, _vb._ 23.103.
  Ladis, _sb._ Lady’s 26.72.
  Lang, long, _a._ 3.50, 64;
    _adv._ 28.45, 33.40.
  Lappe, _vb._ wrap 21.39.
  Last(e), _a._ 4.73, 12.23, 32.22;
    at þe last 33.39, 34.62.
  Late, lete, lett, _vb. imp._ let 14.34, 16.49, 18.48, 23.127, 25.51.
  Lay, _vb. 3 p. pr._ layes 32.3;
    _3 p. p._ leyd(e) 1.3, 27.24;
    _pp._ layd(e) 33.44, 54, 34.64.
  Lede, _vb. subj._ lead 25.58, 34.82.
  Leinþ, _sb._ length 3.54.
  Leniþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ rewards 4.78. OE. lēanian.
  Lent(e), y-lent, _pp._ lent, granted 15.29, 17.28, 21.40; OE. lǣnan.
  [[Lere, _vb._ teach 44.27.]]
  [[Leste, _vb._ last 45.31.]]
  Lest(e), _conj._ 4.76, 25.58.
  Leve, lyffe, _vb._ live 19.24, 28.41, 33.35;
    _2 p. pr._ leuyst, leuuyst 25.50, 26.62;
    _3 p. pr._ lyueth 23.105;
    _imp._ lyffe 19.23;
    _3 p. p._ levyd 34.57.
  Lewe, _vb. imp._ leave 19.29.
  Lif(e), liif, lyf(e), lyffe, _sb._ life 2.15, 5.23, 8.2, 9.29, 13.3,
      14.1, 16.1, 20.1.
  Liȝt, lyt, _vb._ alight, descend;
    _3 p. p._ lytyd 34.75;
    _pp._ liȝt 2.40.
  Like, lyk(e), _conj._ like 5.15, 6.15, 7.19, 8.17, 9.15, &c.
  List, lyst, _vb._ desire 28.47;
    _3 p. p._ liste 27.23.
  Liuerei, _sb._ livery, 3.52.
  Logege, _vb._ lodge 25.58.
  Loke, _vb. imp._ look 25.51.
  Lond, _sb._ land 4.73.
  Lord(e), _nom. pr._ 14.33, 16.48, 18.47, 23.125, 25.45.
  Loste, _vb. p. pl._ lost 28.28.;
    _v._ Ilor.
  Loth, _a._ loth, unwilling 33.54.
  Loue, _sb._ love 23.119, 25.45, 32.13.
  Loue, love, _vb._ love;
    _2 p. pr._ louyst 22.77;
    _3 p. pr._ loues, -is, -ys, 9.17, 10.17, 24.25, 33.29;
    loueth, -yth, loveth, -yth(e), loweth 5.17, 8.19, 11.17,
      17.31, 27.17;
    lu(i)ffis, 6.17, 12.17, 30.17, 31.17;
    _pp._ loued, louyd(e) 5.23, 8.2, 9.29, 13.3, &c.
  [[Louerd, _sb._ Lord 45.33.]]
  Lowȝ, _adv._ low 2.40.
  Lust, _sb._ desire 22.83.
  [[Luþer, _a._ wicked 42.9.]]
  Lutil, _adv._ little 3.50.
  Ly, _vb._ lie 32.26;
    _3 p. pr._ lyis 24.30;
    _pl. pr._ lye 26.32.
  Lyffe, lyneth, _v._ Leve.
  Lykyng, _p. pr._ pleasing, desirable 32.23.

  Mai, may(e), _vb. pr. sg._ may 1.2, 5.4, 6.4, &c., &c.;
    _pl._ 28.45;
    _2 p. pr._ moue 25.56;
    _3 p. p._ myght, myth 7.4, 24, 9.3, 27.4.
  Maistri, _sb._ mastery, lordship 2.37;
    _pl._ maistres 12.26.
  Make, _vb. subj._ 15.22, 19.19, 21.66, 33.36;
    _2 p. pr._ mase 12.26;
    _3 p. pr._ maketh, -ith, -yth(e) 5.24, 8.3, 9.32, 14.2, 16.2;
    _2 p. p._ madist, -yst 14.33, 16.48, 18.47;
    _3 p. p._ mad(e) 26.69, 32.11, 34.69;
    maid 30.27, 31.27;
    _p. pr._ makyng 22.90;
    _pp._ made 20.14, 22.87, 23.101, 27.24;
    maked, -id, 1.5, 15.24, 17.23, 19.21.
  Man, mon, _sb._ man 4.71, 77, 5.17, 24, &c.
  Maner, _sb._ 22.96; any maner wise, any kind of way.
  Many, _a._ 11.12, 12.28, 34.76.
  Mast, _sb._ 34.59.
  Mede, _sb._ meed, reward 4.77, 33.43;
    _pl._ meden 2.16.
  Mekyl, _a._ much 33.49;
    _v._ Moche, myche.
  Mercy, _sb._ 25.50.
  Merwel, _sb._ marvel 24.25.
  Miȝte, _sb._ power, might 2.37.
  Miseislich, _adv._ uncomfortably 3.54.
  Moche, myche, _a._ much 4.77;
    _adv._ 15.32;
    _v._ Mekyl.
  Moder, _sb._ mother 3.62.
  Mold, _sb._ mould, pattern, 3.62; OFr. modle.
  Mold(e), moolde, moulde, mowld(e), _sb._ mould, earth 5.13, 7.17,
      9.13, 10.13, 11.13, 17.15, &c.
  Molys, _sb. pl._ moles 33.33.
  Mone, _sb._ moan 22.90.
  More, _adv._ 6.15, 28.34, 33.35, 36;
    moo 22.80;
    _a._ 28.40.
  Most(e), moost, _adv._ 5.23, 8.2, 14.1, &c.
  Moue, _vb. 2 p. pr._ may 25.56; see Mai.
  Muntid, _vb. 3 p. pr._ 2.16 (_glossed_ metitur) measures, appoints;
      OE. myntan, to intend, propose, hint.
  [[Mychfulliche, _adv._ greatly, at so great cost 43.19.]]
  Mynd(e), _sb._ 25.38, 33.36.
  Myrth(e), _sb._ mirth, joy 26.64, 66.
  Myscheue, _vb. subj._ come to grief, meet with misfortune 16.49,
      18.48; OF. meschever.
  Myschyffe, _sb._ misfortune, evil plight 14.34.
  Mysdon, misdone 34.66.
  Myse, _vb._ miss 26.64.
  Mysgete, _p._ misgotten 23.112.
  Mysplese, _vb._ displease 15.43, 17.42, 21.60.

  Naked, nakid, -it, -yd(e), -yt, _a._ naked 5.24, 7.14, 8.24, 15.37,
      25.32, &c.
  Namyd, _vb. 3 p. p._ named 34.69.
  Nawte, _pr._, _v._ Nocht, noght.
  Nede, _sb._ need 34.80.
  [[Netfulliche, _adv._ of necessity 44.25.]]
  Neuer(e), neuyr(e), never, nevyr, _adv._ never 5.15, 7.19, 8.17,
      15.22, 17.21, 19.15, 34.58, &c.
  Niȝt, nyȝt, nyght, nyht, _sb._ night 4.78, 15.20, 17.19, 19.17,
  Nim, _vb._ take 1.2, OE. niman.
  Noblenes, _sb._ high estate, nobility 28.35.
  Nobley, nobylay, _sb._ noble estate or condition 10.2, 32.2.
  Nobul, _a._ noble 5.2.
  Nocht, noght(e), nogth, noht, nouȝt, nought(e), nowght, nawte, _pr._
      nought 5.2, 6.2, 7.2, 9.4, &c.
  Non(e), _pr._ none 22.92, 28.27, 34.61.
  Nor, _conj._ than 30.16, 31.16.
  Nother, _conj._ neither 25.60.
  Nothing(e), nothyng(e), _pr._ nothing 5.6, 9.6, 24.8, 31.6.
  Now(e), _adv._ 28.41, 31.10, 32.3.

  [[Of-souȝt, _pp._ attacked 43.18.]]
  Old(e), _a._ old 28.41, 34.74.
  Onkynde, _a._ unkind, unnatural 33.47.
  Oode, _sb._ odd 25.51,
    for oode ne for ewyne, for odd nor even, on no account.
  Opon, _prep._ _var. of_ upon 12.1, 2, &c.
  Or, _adv._ before 23.113, 28.50; OE. ǣr.
  Ordande, _vb. 3 p. p._ ordained 12.29.
  Oribyll, _a._ horrible 21.52.
  Othe, _sb._ oath 33.52.
  Oþer, _a._ other 1.2.
  Other, owther, owþir, _conj._ either, or 6.18, 11.18, 30.18, 31.18.
  Our(e)s, ouris, -us, -ys, owres, -is, -ys, owrris, houris, _pron._
      ours 5.10, 6.10, 7.10, 8.12, 9.10, &c, &c.
  Owris, ? ours 24.23.

  Pale, _a._ 28.32.
  Palfrei, palfreye, _sb._ palfrey 3.49, 32.20.
  Paradys, _sb._ Paradise 34.70.
  Parting, partyng(e), parttynge, _sb._ parting, leave-taking, 5.8,
      6.8, 14.11, 24.10, &c.
  Pas(e), passe, _vb._ pass 8.26, 9.24, 10.24, 25.34, &c.
  Payne, _sb._ pain 23.108,
    _pl._ paynes, peynes, peynys 14.33, 16.48, 18.47, 23.126.
  Paynt(e), peynte, _vb._ paint 15.21, 17.20, 19.18, 21.63.
  Pepul, _sb._ people, 25.44.
  Perische, _vb. subj._ perish 22.99.
  Petous, petus, _a._ 10.8, 16.10, 20.20;
    _v._ Piteuous.
  Petrus, _a._ ? piteous 5.8.
  Piteuous, pyteous, pytous, pytyus, _a._ piteous 8.10, 13.12, 14.11,
  Place, _sb._ 25.48, 26.62.
  Playn, _a._ plain 28.47.
  Plese, _vb._, please 22.95.
  Plowe, _sb._ plough 32.15.
  Poor(e), por(e), pure, _a._ poor 7.16, 10.24, 11.24, 15.25, 39,
      30.24, &c.
  Pore, _sb._ the poor, 1.6.
  Portratowre, _sb._ portraiture 28.48.
  Praie, pray(e), preye, _vb._ 8.29, 10.27, &c.,
    _imp._ 13.31, 15.46, 18.45, 29.63;
    _1 p. pr._ 9.27;
    _pr. pl._ 7.23.
  Prankys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ to show oneself off, strut, parade 32.20;
      MDu. pronken.
  Pride, _sb._ 33.53.
  Prode, proud, prowde, prowt, prude, _a._ proud 7.15, 15.24, 17.23,
      19.21, 25.33.
  [[Prude, _sb._ pride 42.5.]]
  Prykys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ to spur one’s horse 32.20.
  Punsched, _pp._ punished 23.108.
  Purvey, purway, _vb._ make provision 28.52; provide, furnish 26.62.
  Pyne, _sb._ pain 25.59.

  Quene, _sb._ queen 3.49.
  Queynt(e), _a._ ingenious, elaborate, fine 15.22, 17.21, 19.19.
  Queytith, _vb. 3 p. pr._ requiteth 22.93.
  Quhen, quhone, _adv._ 30.7, 11, 19, 31.7, 11, 19;
    _v._ Whan(ne), when(ne).
  Quhill, quhy, 30.23, 26, 31.23, 26;
    _v._ While, Whi.

  Race, _vb._ to tear away, snatch 22.72; OF. racher, -ier, _from_
  Ragged, raggid, _a._ 15.30, 17.29, 21.42.
  Rakid, _pp._ raked, covered, buried 15.26, 17.25; ON. raka to
      scrape, rake, cf. Ch. Monkes T. 143 in hoote coles he hath hym
      seluen raked.
  Rank, _a._ proud, haughty 15.27, 17.26.
  Rather(e), rathar, rathyr, _adv._ 5.16, 6.16, 7.20, &c.
  Recke, _vb._ reck, care, heed 34.58.
  Rede, _vb._ read 25.47; guide, direct 33.46.
  Rekenyng(e), rikenynge, _sb._ account 15.42, 18.41, 21.58.
  Rekyn, _vb. subj._ reckon, take count of 28.37.
  Renown, _sb._ 28.33.
  Rent, to-rent, _pp._ rent, torn 15.30, 17.29, 21.42, 25.45.
  Rent(e), _sb._ revenue, income, tribute 7.7, 9.7, 10.7, &c.;
    _pl._ rentes, -is, -ys, 6.7, 8.9, 11.7, &c.
  Repente, _vb. imp._ 23.121.
  Resoune, _sb._ reason 23.118.
  Reste, _vb._ rest 25.48.
  Restore, _vb. imp._ 23.111.
  Rewful, rewfulle, _a._ rueful 15.35, 17.34.
  Riche, rych, _sb._ rich 1.6, 25.40.
  Right, _sb._ righteousness, good 2.41.
  Right, riht, ryght, _a._ 34.82;
    _adv._ 5.20, 21.58, 33.46.
  Risynge, _sb._ uprising, resurrection 18.40, 21.56.
  Rode, roode, _sb._ rood 25.45, 34.78.
  Rof, _sb._ roof 2.17, 32.26.
  Ros, _vb. 3 p. p._ rose 34.79.
  Ruli, ruly, _a. or adv._ rueful(ly) 15.30, 17.29; OE. hrēowlīe.
  Ryches, _sb. pl._ riches 25.38.
  Rydys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ rides 33.42.

  Sake, _sb._ 33.38.
  Salle, _sb._ hall, palace, court 12.24.
  Same, _a._ 32.11.
  Saule, _sb._ soul 12.32;
    _v._ Soule.
  Save, sawe, _vb._ save 34.77;
    _3 p. pr._ sauyd 34.76.
  Say, _vb._ 12.21;
    _3 p. pr._ sais(e), sase 6.10, 12.10;
    saith(e), sayth(e) 5.10, 8.12, 20.27, 22.91;
    sayis, says 10.10, 30.10, 31.10;
    seiþ, seyth, seth 7.10, 11.10, 14.13, &c.
  Schal, shall, _vb._ shall;
    _2 p. pr._ schalt, 2.29;
    _3 p. pr._ sal(e), sc(h)al, schall(e), shall(e) 5.8, 12, 6.8, 16,
      7.6, 20, &c.;
    _pl._ schullen 2.18;
    _2 p. p._ schuldist 22.80;
    _3 p. p._ scholde, schould(e), schuld(e), shuld, sold, sulde
      6.15, 9.15, 23, 10.23, &c.
  Scharp(e), sharp(e), _a._ sharp 5.12, 6.12, 8.14, 17.14, 30.12, &c.
  Sched, _vb. 3 p. p._ shed 25.46.
  Schend, _vb. subj._ shame, disgrace 4.76;
    _pp._ schent 33.55.
  Schene, _a._ bright, beautiful 3.51.
  Schouris, -ys, schowres, -is, -ys, shour(e)s, showres, -is, _sb.
      pl._ 5.12, 7.12, 8.14, &c., &c.;
    scowrrys 6.12, schorrys 24.16.
  Schroud, schrud, shroude, shrowde, _sb._ clothing 3.51, 15.25,
      17.24, 19.22.
  Scowrrys, _sb. pl._ 6.12, showers; (_or perh._ stourrys, battles,
      tumults, OF. estor, estour).
  Secatours, _sb. pl._ executors 24.24, ME. _also_ secetour, sectour.
  Securlye, _adv._ certainly, surely, 26.66.
  [[Seluen, _pron._ self 44.24.]]
  Sely, _a._ blessed 12.24;
    simple 32.24.
  Sen, syn, _conj._ since 8.26, 25.34, 30.24.
  Seruyse, _sb._ service 22.94.
  Set, _vb. 3 p. pr._ sattys 32.4;
    _pp._ set(e), sett(e), ysette 5.3, 6.3, 7.3, &c.
  Seth(e), sethen, sith, syth, _conj._ since 9.24, 10.24, 11.24,
      29.60, 32.12.
  Seven, _nu._ 32.22.
  Seynt Powlis, 28.48 St. Paul’s.
  Shewith, _vb. 3 p. pr._ shews 28.49.
  Short, _a._ 28.36.
  Shyne, _vb._ shine 27.22.
  Sin, synne, _sb._ sin, 4.76, 23.115.
  Skin, _sb._ 2.18.
  Skyle, _sb._ reason 25.41.
  Slogh, _sb._ slough, skin, covering, 32.17, 33.40.
  Smarte, _sb._ smart, pain 24.17.
  Smele, _vb._ smell 24.29.
  Socowre, _sb._ succour 28.40.
  Soffyre, sofur, _vb._ 10.12, 24.16;
    _v._ Suffer.
  Solde, _pp._ sold 34.73.
  Sone, _adv._ soon 33.48;
    sonar, sone(a)r 27.16, 30.16, 31.16.
  Sore, _a._ sore, grievous 23.104;
    _adv._ 15.33, 23.116.
  Sorow(e), _sb._ sorrow 22.84, 34.81.
  Soule, sowle, _sb._ soul 3.63, 33.38;
    _v._ Saule.
  Space, _sb._ space of time, respite 26.63.
  Sped(e), _vb._ speed 24.6, 34.81.
  Spille, spylle, _vb._ perish, be destroyed 14.34, 16.49, 18.48,
  Starte, _sb._ a sudden movement 24.18.
    Thi lyfe ys but a starte, but for a moment.
  Stede, _sb._ steed 33.42.
  Stelis, _vb. 3 p. pr._ steals 32.17.
  Steyuyne, _sb._ voice 25.49; OE. stefn.
  Stie, stye, _vb._ ascend, mount 14.36, 16.51, 18.50, 23.132; OE.
  Stille, _adv._ silently 23.126.
  Stink, stynk(e), _sb._ stink 6.20, 8.22, 30.20, 31.20, &c.
  Stounde, _sb._ hour 34.75; OE. stund.
  Stourrys, _sb. pl._ conflicts 6.12; OF. estor, (_probably_ Scourrys;
      _v._ Schouris).
  Stoute, stowte, _a._ bold, proud 8.25, 9.23, 15.38, &c.; cf. OF.
  Streinþ, _sb._ force, violence 3.53.
  Streite, streyt, _a._ close, exact 15.42, 17.41, 21.58.
  Streytly, _adv._ closely 28.39.
  Strive, stryue, _vb._ 22.72, 28.55.
  Stronge, _a._ strong 34.59.
  [[Styeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ ascends, mounts up 42.5.]]
  Styke, _sb._ 5.20, _erron. for_ stynke.
  Suffer, -ir(e), -yr(e), suffre, soffyre, sofur, _vb._ suffer 5.12,
      6.12, 7.12, 8.14, 9.12, 10.12, 11.12, 24.16, &c.;
    _2 p. p._ sufferdyst, suffredist, suffridist 14.32, 16.48,
      18.47, 23.126.
  [[Sullen, _vb. 1 pl. pr._ shall 43.16.]]
  Superflue, _a._ superfluous 15.33.
  Sweet(e), sweit, swet(e), swett, _vb._ sweat 5.18, 6.18, 11.18,
      15.33, 21.48, 31.18, &c.;
    _3 p. pr._ swetys 10.18.
  Swerys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ swears 33.52.
  Swink(e), swynk(e), _vb._ toil, labour, _ref. as for_ sweet(e)
    _3 p. pr._ swynkes 10.18.
  Swynkynge, labour, exertion 23.104.
  Symple, _a._ simple 25.34.
  Syttythe, _vb. 3 p. pr._ sits 9.11.

  Take, _vb._ 33.37, 39;
    _imp._ 24.5, 25.49;
    _3 p. pr._ takys 32.2;
    _2 p. p._ tokist 23.125;
    _3 p. p._ toc, toke 1.1, 34.81;
    _pp._ taken 12.31.
  Tent, _sb._ heed, attention 25.49.
  Teriþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ tears 2.27.
  Than(ne), then(ne), _adv._ then, 1.2, 2.18, 5.12, 11.8, &c., &c.
  That, _pron. and conj._ 2.30, 3.51, 6.17, &c.;
    _pl._ þose 7.10.
  Thenk, think(e), thynk, _vb._ think 15.40, 17.39, 21.46;
    _imp._ 4.72, 12.26, 28.42;
    _1 p. pr._ 8.19, 27.17, 30.17, 31.17;
    methink(e), thynke, thynkes 5.17, 6.17, 9.17, 10.17, &c.;
    _3 p. pr._ þenkiþ, thenkys 10.6, 14.9;
    thinkis, thynketh(e), -ith, -yth(e), -is, -ys(e), thyngkethe,
      thyngkys 5.6, 6.6, 8.8, 9.4, 11.6, 13.10, 16.8, 19.6, &c.;
    _p. pr._ thynkyng 20.16.
  [[Þilke, _pron._ that same 44.26.]]
  This, thys, _pron._ 5.10, 6.10, &c.;
    _pl._ these 13.14;
    þir 30.10.
  Thocht, thoght(e), thought(e), þouȝt(e), thouthe, thowght(e),
      thowht, thowth, _sb._ thought 5.3, 6.3, 7.3, 22, 8.5, 28, 9.2,
      26, 10.3, 26, 11.3, 26, 12.1, &c., &c.
  Thynkynge, _sb._ thought, consideration, 21.54.
  Thorow, _prep._ through, 26.72.
  Þre, _nu._ three 2.42.
  Þroh, þrouȝ, _sb._ coffin, 1.3, 2.42; OE. þrūh.
  Thouh, þouw, _conj._ though 3.50, 21.33.
  Till, _prep._ to, 30.4, 31.4.
  Toght, _adv._ 32.16, _prob. erron. for_ togh, tough;
    _rimes_ plowe, slogh, inowe.
  Torn(e), turn(e), _vb._ turn 7.22, 8.28, 9.26, 10.26, 11.26, &c.,
  [[Totoren, _pp._ torn, rent 45.34.]]
  Tour(e)s, -is, -ys, towres, -is, -ys, towrrys, _sb._ towers 3.65,
      5.9, 6.9, 7.9, 9.9, 10.9, &c., &c.
  Toward, _prep._ 2.14.
  Trauayles, traue(i)list, traueylist, _vb._
    _2 p. pr._ labourest 15.20, 17.19, 19.17, 21.62.
  Trede, _vb._ tread;
    _pp._ ytrede 23.114.
  Trewth, trowthe, _sb._ truth 23.104, 28.47.
  Tristyn, _vb._ trust 22.95;
    _imp._ trust 24.24.
  Turment, _sb._ torment 15.31, 17.30, 21.44.
  Tyllys, _vb. 3 p. pr._ tills the ground, 32.15.
  Tyme, _sb._ time, 12.21.

  Unclade, _a._ 25.35.
  Undeuout, _a._ undevout, 15.27.
  Unresonably, _adv._ unreasonably, 21.48.
  Unreydy, _a._ unready 25.56.
  Unsiker, _a._ uncertain, 28.43.
  Upon, uppon, vp(p)on, vpoun, _prep._ 5.3, 4, 5, &c., 8.5, 7, &c.;
    _v._ Apon, Opon, Ypon.
  Upsodown, _adv._ upside-down 28.35, _from_ up swa down.

  Vayn, in vayn, in vain 28.55.
  Vede, _sb._, _for_ weed--dress, apparel 33.41.
  Verrid, _vb. 3 p. pr._ warreth 2.26.

  Walk, _vb. 3 p. p._ walkyd 34.71;
    _p. pr._ walkand 33.41.
  Wan, _a._ 28.32.
  Wan, _vb._ 28.29; _v._ Win.
  [[Wan(ne), were, when, where 42.5, 44.25, 45.30, 32.]]
  Wanton, wantowne, _a._ 15.21, 17.20, 19.18, 21.64.
  Wantyng(e), _p. pr._ lacking 17.27, 21.38.
  Wars, _a._ worse 24.30.
  Waxin, -yne, _pp._ waxen, grown 9.1, 32.1.
  Waye, wei, wey(e), _sb._ way 3.50, 25.56, 32.19, 34.82.
  Weden, _sb. pl._ weeds, apparel 2.13.
  Wel(le), _adv._ well 4.75, 24.6.
  Welth, _sb._ wealth, 27.13, 34.65.
  Wend(e), _vb._ wend, go 2.30, 4.74, 25.56, 30.24, 31.24;
    _pr. pl._ wendiþ 2.41;
    _3 p. p._ went 34.58.
  Wene, _vb. 1 pl. pr._ think, expect, ween 3.50.
  Weriþ, _vb. pr. pl._ wear 3.51.
  Werkis, werkys, _sb. pl._ works 25.50, 52.
  Whan(ne), when(ne), quhen, quhene, _adv._ when 1.1, 2.17, 5.11, &c.,
  Whar-of, whereof 4.74.
  Whi, why, quhy, _conj._ 2.26, 5.17, 6.18, 8.19, &c.
  While, whill, quhill, whyl(e), whyles, _conj._ while 7.22, 8.28,
      9.26, 13.30, &c.;
    the whyle þat 10.26, 11.26.
  Whoder, _adv._ whither 4.74.
  Wickidli, wickydly, wikkidly, wikyd, wyckydly, wykedly, wy(k)kydly,
      wykydely, wykytly, _adv._ wickedly 7.21, 8.27, 10.25, 13.29,
      15.44, 18.43, 26.67, 29.3, 61.
  Will, wyl, wyll(e), wol(e), _vb. 3 p. pr._ 5.18, 12.18, 13.22,
      15.33, 17.32, 21.48, &c.;
    _3 p. p. & p. pl._ wold(e) 5.5, 16, 6.5, 16, 7.5, 20, &c., &c.;
    wald 30.5, 31.16.
  Wille, wylle, _sb._ will 14.35, 16.50, 18.49, 23.130.
  Win, _vb._ to win;
    _3 p. pr._ wins 31.9, wynneth(e), -yth(e), -es, -is, -ys, 5.9,
      6.9, 7.9, 8.9, &c., &c.;
    _2 p. p._ wonne 2.30;
    _3 p. p._ wan 28.29;
    _pp._ iwonne 1.1.
  Wise, _sb._ manner, fashion, guise, 22.96.
  [[Wise, _vb._ guide, direct 44.27.]]
  Wisely, _adv._ 28.52.
  Within, -inne, -yn, -ynne, _adv._ 5.19, &c., &c.
  Withowttyn, wittovte, _prep._ without 25.48, 26.66.
  Witte, _sb._ wit, intelligence 23.118.
  Wo, woo, _sb._ woe 12.32, 22.84.
  Woh, wow, _sb._ evil 1.1;
    _pl._ wowȝ 2.41. OE. wōh, wōȝ-, crooked, evil.
  Wol(e), 15.33, 17.32, 21.48;
    _v._ Will.
  Woman, _sb._ 32.13.
  Wonder, -ir(e), wondre, wondur, wondyr, woundyr, _sb._ wonder 5.17,
      6.17, 8.19, 9.17, 10.17, &c., &c.
  Wonderfull, wondirfullie, _adv._ wonderfully 30.1, 31.1.
  Wonderly, wondirlie, -ly, wondurly, wondyrly, wounderly, woundyrely,
      _adv._ wondrously 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 8.4, 10.1, 11.1, 12.3, 13.5,
      14.4, 16.3, 19.1, 20.6, 24.1, 30.25, 31.25.
  Worching(e), -ynge, _p. pr._ working 14.35, 16.50, 18.49.
  World, _sb._ 28.29.
  Worldly, _adv._ 27.1, _perh. erron. for_ wonderly.
  Wormes, -ys, _sb. pl._ 2.14, 32.25, 33.44, 45, 46.
  Wor-schyp, -ship, _sb._ 7.2, 12.25.
  Worthy, _a._ 28.25, 30;
    _sb. pl._ worthyes 27.21.
  Worthynes, _sb._ worthiness, honour, 28.40.
  Wote, wottis, _vb. 3 p. pr._ knows 24.12, 33.46;
    _3 p. p._ wyste 34.67.
  Wounde, _sb._ wound 34.76, 78.
  Wrecchid(e), wreched, -yd, _a._ wretched 15.20, 24, 28, 17.19, 23,
      19.17, 21.
  Wrikkend, _p. pr._ moving, walking 2.13; Dan. vrikke, Du. wrikken.
  Wrocht, wroght(e), wroht, wroth, wrought(e), wrouȝt(e), wrouhte,
      wrout(h)e, wrowght(e), _pp._ wrought, made 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 23,
      8.1, 27, 29, 9.1, 25, 27, &c., &c.
  [[Wrong, _sb._ 42.1.]]
  Wroten, _vb._ to root, turn up with the snout 2.18;
    _3 p. pr._ wrotys 33.33; OE. wrotian.
  Wroth, _a._ 33.48, 51;
    (7.1, spelling of wroht, _v._ Wrocht, wroght).
  [[Wryeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ turns, inclines 42.6.]]
  Wryttyne, written 25.39.
  Wyn, _sb._ joy, pleasure 32.25.
  Wynde, _sb._ wind 33.48.
  Wynde, _vb._ to wind 32.24.
  Wyne, _sb._ wine 25.60.
  Wyste, 34.67; _v._ Wote.
  [[Wyte, _vb. imp._ guard, keep 45.35.]]

  Ya, _int._ yea, verily 12.7, 11, 15.
  Yelde, yeelde, ȝeelde, _vb._ yield, render, pay 15.42, 18.41, 21.58;
    _3 p. pr._ yeldis 33.56.
  Yeȝt, yet, ȝet, yit, ȝit(t), ȝyt(e), _adv._ yet 6.16, 7.20, 8.18,
      9.12, 16, &c.
  Yong, _a._ young, 28.41.
  Ypon, _prep._ var. of upon 11.3.
  Ȝefe, ȝeyf, _vb. imp._ give 24.24, 26.61.
  Ȝere, _sb. pl._ years 34.74.


  (from the text in the Appendix).

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  This section has been retained for completeness. All entries have
  been added to the main Glossary.]

  Afrete, _pp._ devoured, eaten 42.3.
  Agrise, _vb._ tremble, quake 44.28.
  Alas, _int._ 43.17.
  Alete, _vb._ to let go, forsake 42.3.
  Aryse, _vb._ arise 44.25.
  Assise, _sb._ the Judgement 44.26.
  Awelden, _vb._ wield, rule 42.9.

  Belden, _vb._ build up 43.12.
  Bi-holden, _vb._ keep, retain 42.10.
  Byheste, _sb._ promise 45.30.
  Byhet, _vb. 3 p. pr._ promises 45.31.

  Cheste, _sb._ strife, dispute 45.29; OE. cēast, _older_ cēas,
    L. causa.
  Coueytise, _sb._ covetousness 42.6.
  Crieþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ cries 42.8.

  Dedliche, _a._ deadly 43.14.

  Elden, _vb._ to grow old 43.11.
  Endinge, _sb._ 44.21.
  Eorthe, _sb._ earth 42.1, &c.

  Foelle, _vb. subj._ ? fall 43.20.
  Forȝete, _pp._ forgotten 42.4.
  Furloren, _pp._ lost 46.35.

  Grimliche, _adv._ terribly 44.28.
  Guo, _vb._ go 43.15.
  Gynneþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ begins 43.15.

  Haueþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ has 43.13.
  Helle-feste, _sb._ Hell-fortress 45.32.
  Hyeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ hastens 42.7.

  Iboren, _pp._ born 45.33.
  Ibouȝt, _pp._ redeemed 43.19.
  Icoren, _pp. a._ chosen ones 45.35.
  Igete, _pp._ got 42.1.
  Ignawe, _pp._ devoured 44.23.
  Ihere, _vb._ hear 44.26.
  Iknawe, _vb._ know 44.24.
  Iseoþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ sees 43.14, 44.21.
  Islawe, _pp._ slain 44.22.
  Iuynt, _vb. 3 p. pr._ joins 42.9.
  Iworthe, _vb._ become 43.16.

  Lere, _vb._ teach 44.27.
  Leste, _vb._ last 45.31.
  Louerd, _sb._ Lord 45.33.
  Luþer, _a._ wicked 42.9.

  Mychfulliche, _adv._ greatly, at so great cost 43.19.

  Netfulliche, _adv._ of necessity 44.25.

  Of-souȝt, _pp._ attacked 43.18.

  Prude, _sb._ pride 42.5.

  Seluen, _pron._ self 44.24.
  Styeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ ascends, mounts up 42.5.
  Sullen, _vb. 1 pl. pr._ shall 43.16.

  Þilke, _pron._ that same 44.26.
  Totoren, _pp._ torn, rent 45.34.

  Wan(ne), were, when, where 42.5, 44.25, 45.30, 32.
  Wise, _vb._ guide, direct 44.27.
  Wrong, _sb._ 42.1.
  Wryeþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ turns, inclines 42.6.
  Wyte, _vb. imp._ guard, keep 45.35.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

_Errors and Inconsistencies_ (noted by transcriber)

_All errors in the Notes and Glossary involve missing or incorrect
punctuation. Inconsistent citations from the Reliquiae Antiquae (as
“ii”, large “II” or small “II”) are unchanged._

  [Illustration: ... fol. 57 ...]
    [_printed as shown: correct folio number is 59_]

_Body Text_

    [_. missing from header_]
  B.7. [Footnote 4: ... H. 4486 hath _bygged hy his bowres_]
    [_quoted text printed as italic (non-emphatic)_]
  B.11. / MS. LAUD MISC. 23. / [fol. 112, r^o]  [2^o]
    [Footnote 4: ... but MS. appears to be ...]  [MS appears]


  #MS. Laud Misc. 23.#
  l. 39 (p. 18). ... ll. 53, 54, where  [54. where]

  Pensez[12] coment en tere & par tere pecchez,
    [_footnote anchor invisible_]
  [MS. Addit. 25478, fol. 3, v^o]  [25478 fol.]


  Be / _2 p. pr._ art  [art.]
  Bild, _vb. imp._  [_v. imp._]
    _2 p. pr._ bildist 22.79;  [22 79]]
  Bring, bryng(e) ... 7.7, 14.10, &c.  [7.7 14.10]
  Castles ... castles 3.65, 5.9, 6.9, 7.9  [7 9]
  Com / ... 7.14, 8.24, 9.22, 10.22, &c.;  [9 22]
    _2 p. p._ cam 17.24  [17 24]
  Concele ... 8.27, 9.25  [9 25]
  Falliþ, _vb. 3 p. pr._ falls, 1.3.  [_vb 3 p. pr._]
  Fayr, _a._ fair 33.42;  [33 42]
  Ferde, _pp._ afraid, terrified 12.24; OE. (for) fǣred.  [12.24.]
  Grace, _sb._ 22.70, 26.61.  [22.70;]
  Hartily ... 15.40, 18.39, 21.54.  [18 39]
  Heuen(e) ... 15.43, 19.24, 25.40  [25 40]
  Hold, _vb. 3 p. pr._ holdys 32.16;  [_vb._; _3 p. pr._]
  Lay, _vb. 3 p. pr._ layes 32.3;  [_vb._; _3 p. pr._]
  Lent(e) ... 21.40; OE. lǣnan.  [21.40.]
  Mold(e), moolde, moulde, mowld (e)  [mowld e)]
  Ruli, ruly ... 15.30, 17.29; OE. hrēowlīe.  [17.29,]
  Say / ... 6.10, 12.10;  [12.10,]
    / sayis, says 10.10, 30.10, 31.10;  [31.10,]
  Superflue, _a._ superfluous 15.33.  [_a_]
  Þroh, þrouȝ, _sb._ coffin, 1.3, 2.42; OE. þrūh.  [O.E.]
  Walk, _vb. 3 p. p._ walkyd 34.71;  [_vb._; _3 p. p._]
  Wol(e), 15.33, 17.32, 21.48;  [Wol(e) 15]
  Wroten ... O.E. wrotian. [O.E.]

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Erthe Upon Erthe" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.