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Title: Journal of Entomology and Zoology - Volume Eleven, Number Two, June 1919
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of Entomology and Zoology - Volume Eleven, Number Two, June 1919" ***

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  VOLUME ELEVEN    NUMBER TWO

  JOURNAL
  OF
  ENTOMOLOGY
  AND
  ZOOLOGY

  JUNE, 1919

  PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY
  POMONA COLLEGE DEPARTMENT _of_ ZOOLOGY
  CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA, U. S. A.



CONTENTS


                                                                  Page

  ANNELIDS FROM LAGUNA BEACH                                        27

  STRUCTURE OF DOLICHGLOSSUS PUSILLUS--_Alma Evans_                 28

  OPISTHOBRANCHS FROM LAGUNA BEACH                                  34

  CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THE SAND DOLLAR DENDRASTER
      EXCENTRICUS  ESH.--_W. A. Hilton_                             35

  ANTS FROM THE CLAREMONT-LAGUNA REGION                             38


  Entered Claremont, Cal., Post-Office Oct. 1, 1910, as second-class
  matter, under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879



Journal of Entomology and Zoology

EDITED BY POMONA COLLEGE, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY


_Subscription_ $1.00 to domestic, $1.25 to foreign countries.

This journal is especially offered in exchange for zoological and
entomological journals, proceedings, transactions, reports of
societies, museums, laboratories and expeditions.

The pages of the journal are especially open to western entomologists
and zoologists. Notes and papers relating to western and Californian
forms and conditions are particularly desired, but short
morphological, systematic or economic studies from any locality will
be considered for publication.

Manuscripts submitted should be typewritten on one side of paper about
8 by 11 inches. Foot notes, tables, explanations of figures, etc.,
should be written on separate sheets. Foot notes and figures should be
numbered consecutively throughout. The desired position of foot notes
and figures should be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

Figures should be drawn so that they may be reproduced as line cuts so
far as possible. An unusually large number of half tones must be paid
for in part by the author. Other more expensive illustrations will be
furnished at cost. Figures for cuts should be made to conform to the
size of the page when reduced, that is, 5 by 7-1/2 inches or less. The
lettering should be by means of printed numbers and letters pasted on
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Authors of articles longer than a thousand words will receive fifty
reprints of their publications free of cost. If more than this are
desired, the order should be given with the return of the proof
sheets. Extra copies and special covers or special paper will be
furnished at cost. Authors of short contributions will receive a few
extra copies of the number containing their articles.

Manuscripts should be sent by express or registered mail.

Address all communications to

        THE JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY

                                         William A. Hilton, Editor

    Claremont, California, U. S. A.



Annelids from Laguna Beach


This list includes specimens recently determined by Dr. R. V.
Chamberlin, but does not include new species reported on at that time.

    _Glycera rugosa_ Johnson. _Euphrosyne aurantiaca_ John. _Eudistylia
         polymorpha_ Johnson. From holdfast. _Chrysopetalum
         occidentalis_ John.

    _Diopatra californica_ Moore. _Podarke pugettensis_ Johnson.

    _Syllis alterniata_ Moore. _Pionosyllis elongata_ Johnson.

    _Halosydna pulchra_ Johnson.

    _H. californica_ Johnson. Dredged. _Scoloplos sp._ San. Balboa.

    _Naineris longa_ Moore? Under stones. _Cirratulus luxuriosus_ Moore,
         all bright red from eel grass. _Polycirrus californicus_ Moore.

    _Nereis agassizi_ Ehlers. _Anaitides sp. Lumbrineries zonata_ John.?

    _Syllis alternata_ Moore. _Nepthys caeca_ Fabr.?

    _Sthenelais verruculosa_ Johnson.

                                                          W. A. H.

    (_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)



Structure of Dolichoglossus Pusillus

ALMA EVANS


The animals were studied from serial sections cut in several planes. The
stains used were carmine, hematoxylin and eosin. The hematoxylin seemed
to show the tissues more clearly. A graphic reconstruction was
attempted, but did not prove satisfactory because of the individual
artificial foldings and contractions. The drawings were obtained by the
use of a camera lucida. The general drawings, Figs. 1-9 inclusive, are
not filled in in great detail. The special drawings are shown at greater
magnification with more of an attempt to show the actual condition.

Dolichoglossus is a soft worm-like animal with ciliated surface. It is
divided into three distinct regions: the proboscis, a long club-shaped
organ; the collar, a fold in the surface just behind the proboscis,
and the trunk, a long cylindrical portion posterior to the collar.

Dolichoglossus is a marine form living in sandy bays or sheltered
places. Mucous glands in the surface epithelium secrete a sticky fluid
which covers the body and to which tiny sand grains stick. The sand
clinging to the mucous coated surface forms a fragile temporary tube
in which the animal is usually secluded. The animals in the living
condition are bright orange or red but lose their color very soon
after preservation in alcohol or formalin.

The proboscis cavity extending the entire length of the organ is
surrounded by a network of connective tissue supported by longitudinal
bands of plain muscle. This cavity is supposed to communicate with the
exterior by a very small opening, the proboscis pore, but this did not
show in the specimens examined. The heart, proboscis gland and
notochord are located in the posterior part of the proboscis.

The collar contains the central nervous system, part of the notochord,
the dorsal blood vessel, ventral and dorsal mesenteries, mouth opening
and anterior part of the alimentary canal.

The trunk contains the alimentary canal, dorsal and ventral blood
vessels, dorsal and ventral nerves, the gill-slits, the reproductive
bodies, dorsal and ventral mesenteries and muscle bands.

The nervous system consists of three parts: the central, located in
the collar region, Fig. 5; the sub-epidermic network extending over
the entire body just under the surface epithelium, Figs. 1-7; and the
dorsal and ventral strands which are thickenings of the sub-epidermic
network extending throughout the trunk, Figs. 1 and 7. There is also
quite a decided thickening of the sub-epidermic network at the base of
the proboscis, Figs. 5, 6.

The vascular system consists of two parts, the central and the
peripheral. The central is made up of the heart, a thin-walled vesicle
at the base of the proboscis just dorsal to the notochord, and
connected with it the proboscis gland, a plexus of capillaries just
anterior to the notochord. Fig. 5. The peripheral system is composed
of a ventral and a dorsal vessel. The dorsal starts at the heart and
continues just ventral of the dorsal nerve throughout the length of
the body. Figs. 1, 5, 7. The ventral vessel extends from the posterior
border of the collar to the anal end. It is connected with the dorsal
vessel by a circular vessel in the posterior edge of the collar.

The mouth is situated ventrally at the base of the proboscis, within
the collar, and opens directly into the straight alimentary canal.
The latter is a straight tube extending from the mouth opening to the
anus. Figs. 5, 1, 7, 9.

The alimentary canal in the anterior part of the collar gives off a
diverticulum, which grows forward and supports the proboscis. Because
this diverticulum has the vacuolated appearance of the notochordal
tissue of higher animals, it has been regarded as a notochord. It is
largest at the base of the proboscis immediately anterior to the
heart. Figs. 5, 6.

The paired gill-slits occupy the region just posterior to the collar.
They are arranged in two longitudinal grooves in the dorsal wall. The
number increases throughout life, new slits appearing just behind
those already in place. I found about twenty-five to be the average
number, while particular individuals had as low as eighteen and twenty
and as high as thirty and thirty-one. The gills are formed in the
shape of a U. A skeletal rod or gill bar separates the gills from each
other. The gills are supplied with blood from the dorsal vessel. Figs.
3, 7, 8.

The sexes are distinct. The ovaries and testes are saccular organs
arranged in a row along the gill and succeeding region. The sacs in
other genera, for example Balanoglossus as described by Shipley, open
directly on to the epidermis. I have been unable to see these openings
in my preparations. Fig. 8 shows the position of the ovaries in the
female; the testes in the male are in a similar location.

The surface epithelium is modified ciliated columnar, varying slightly
in thickness, size of nuclei and size and shape of cell according to
location. Figs. 13, 14, 15.

The epithelium forming the gills and intestine is also modified
ciliated columnar. That of the gills having short narrow cells and
small nuclei, and that of the intestine having longer thicker cells
and large nuclei. Figs. 11, 10.

The connective tissue surrounding the proboscis cavity is of a
peculiar arrangement. The connective tissue itself consists of fine
strands loosely interwoven, but arranged in a definite manner. The
strands form a fine network which gives a beautiful lacy appearance.
Small round nuclei are quite numerous in connection with the strands.
Longitudinal bands of plain muscle are very conspicuous in the
connective tissue. These muscle bands are probably used in altering
the size and shape of the proboscis. Figs. 4, 20, 21.

The nervous tissue consists of many fibers thickly interwoven. There
are a few small nuclei scattered about among the fibers. Figs. 12, 13.

The muscle is unstriated. The fibers are very long in some places,
shorter in others and always quite distinct.

    (_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)


REFERENCES

    _Assheton, Richard_                                           1918
         A new species of Dolichoglossus. Zool. Anz. Bd. 33, p.
         517-520.

    _Delage and Herouard_                                         1898
         Traité De Zoologie concrète Vol. 8. Les Procordés.
         Balanoglossus.

    Encyclopedia Britainica Balanoglossus.

    _Shipley, Arthur E._                                          1893
           Zoology of the Invertebrata. Balanoglossus.



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES


Fig. 1. Cross section through the gill region showing gill opening. D.
N., dorsal nerve. D. V., Dorsal vessel. G. O., gill openings. A,
alimentary corps. G., gill. V. N., ventral nerve. V. V. ventral
vessel. N., nervous tissue. ×40.

Fig. 2. Cross section through the base of the proboscis showing
diverticulum wall and proboscis gland. D., diverticulum. N., nervous
tissue. P. G., proboscis gland. ×40.

Fig. 3. Longitudinal section through a gill opening. N., nervous
tissue. G., gill. G. O., gill opening. ×40.

Fig. 4. Cross section through the center of the proboscis. N., nervous
tissue. M. C., muscle in the connective tissue. T., connective tissue.
×90.

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section through the base of the proboscis and
collar. M., mouth. C. N., central nervous system. H., heart. No.,
notochord. P. G., proboscis gland. N., nervous network. A., alimentary
canal. D. V., dorsal ventral. ×40.

Fig. 6. Cross section through the base of the proboscis showing
thickened nerve network. N., nerve network. D., diverticulum wall. H.,
heart. ×40.

Fig. 7. Cross section through gill region. D. N., dorsal nerve. D. B.
V., dorsal blood vessel. G. B., gill vessel. V. N., ventral nerve. V.
V., ventral vessel. ×40.

Fig. 8. Longitudinal section through the gill region. G., gills. B.,
blood. O., ovary. N., nervous network. ×40.

Fig. 9. Cross section of alimentary canal. A., wall of alimentary
canal. ×40.

Fig. 10. Intestinal epithelium, modified ciliated columnar. ×400.

Fig. 11. Epithelium of the gill, modified ciliated columnar. ×400.

Fig. 12. Nervous tissue. ×400.

Fig. 13. Surface epithelium of proboscis, modified ciliated columnar.
×400.

Fig. 14. Surface epithelium of collar, modified ciliated columnar.
×400.

Fig. 15. Surface epithelium of trunk, modified ciliated columnar.
×400.

Fig. 16. Cells of testis. ×400.

Fig. 17. Ovary. ×400.

Fig. 18. Plain muscle. ×400.

Fig. 19. Epithelium of diverticulum. ×400.

Fig. 20. Connective tissue of proboscis. ×400.

Fig. 21. Muscle bands in proboscis connective tissue. ×400.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



Opisthobranchs from Laguna Beach

The determinations are by Dr. F. M. MacFarland


TECTIBRANCHS

     _Pleurobranchæa californica_ MacF. Only one specimen has been
     obtained at Laguna Beach, from a depth of from 15 to 20 fathoms.
     The specimen was mottled dark above and about 5 inches long. Dr.
     MacFarland informs me that this species is quite common in Monterey
     Bay and ranges much larger, almost up to 10 inches in length.

     _Navanax inermis_ Cooper. Black, yellow lines, blue spots, yellow
     edges. About two inches in length. Another specimen possibly may be
     the same species, black with yellow spots. Apparently the same form
     occurs at Balboa.

     _Aglaja (Doridium) purpureum_ Berg.? Brown, dredged 10 to 15 f.


NUDIBRANCHS

     _Triopha sp._ Large, brown. Holdfast.

     _Flabellina iodinea_ Cooper. Narrow blue body, red appendages.
     Swims by lateral movements of the body. This beautiful nudibranch
     was first found near Laguna by Miss M. Cate, not far from Dana's
     point in 1916. In Jan. 15, '18, Mrs. May found a number near
     Laguna Beach.

     _Dirona picta_ MacF. Light brown, long thick appendages.
     Holdfasts and tidepools common in 1915.

     _Aegires_ sp. Knobs. Brick red, body clear.

     _Chromodoris universitatis_ Cock. Blue, yellow spots.

     _Polycera atra_ MacF. Red-brown, black stripes, brown spots. July
     10, 1915.

     _Facelina_ sp. Body clear, appendages dark.

     _Ancula pacifica_ MacF.? Clear white, two yellow lines in front,
     one behind. Front appendages and two lateral tipped with yellow.

     _Cadlina_ Sp.? Dark brown, flattened.

     _Aeolidia_ sp. White to pink, appendages brown.

                                                          W. A. H.



Central Nervous System of the Sand Dollar Dendraster Excentricus Esh

WILLIAM A. HILTON


There seems to be little or no literature on the central nervous
system of this form of echinoderm. As might be expected, the general
arrangement of radial and circumoral bands are much as in sea-urchins,
such as shown especially by Delage and Herouard 1903. There are
however some interesting features which make the study of this type of
special value.

In this paper only the chief mass of the central nervous system is
considered. The more evident parts of the central nervous system are
arranged in general as in other forms. The circumoral nerves issue
from under the lantern and run along the oral, cross over at the edge
of the shell and then run along the aboral side. The five radial
nerves converge at the five ocular areas near the center of the aboral
region. The circumoral nerve ring is looped over and under parts of
the lantern. Fig. 1 shows a part of the lantern and parts of three
loops of the circumoral nerve trunk. In the center of the figure one
fifth of the lantern is drawn in and from under it a radial nerve is
shown in the lower part of the figure. To the left and to the right of
the central bony part of the lantern the union of a radial with a
circumoral nerve is shown. At the junction of each radial nerve with
the circumoral, is a little thickening which seems to be a special
cellular mass such as I have not found in other forms. Fig. 7 is a
section through a part of a circumoral strand, much enlarged. There
are only a few nerve cells, from one to two layers.

As the radial nerves leave the lantern they are quite evident in
dissected specimens as they are close to the bony skeleton with very
little connective or other tissues to obscure them. The use of aqueous
methylene blue aids in following the smaller branches. Near the
lantern the branches are small as shown in fig. 2. When the region is
reached where the upper and lower surfaces of the shell begin to fuse,
the branches become larger and more irregularly arranged, as shown in
the lower part of fig. 1 and fig. 2. After the nerve turns to run on
the aboral side there is no change in arrangement until the region of
the tube feet is reached. In the region of the tube feet the nerves
become more numerous, smaller and more regular. The general
distribution of the nerves and the arrangement of the tube feet nerves
are shown in fig. 4 which is from part of the upper end of the aboral
nerve. The holes in the skeleton for the tube feet are shown as
circles on each side of the diagram.

The general structure of the chief central nerve trunks is quite
similar as shown in sections. Figs. 6, 7 and 8. The nerve trunks have
about one to two layers of cells, the main part of the nerves are
composed of longitudinal fibers. There are not so many evident
vertical fibers from cells as found in starfish and some other forms.
This change in position of the fibers may be in part due to the
general modification of structure. Whether this arrangement leads to
other types of nerve association is a question.

When the nerve trunks are removed, stained in methylene blue and
examined with the microscope something of the arrangement of the cells
may be seen. In the circumoral and oral radial nerves the nerve cells
are thickly massed from side to side, but in the upper part of the
aboral nerve there is an evident arrangement of nerve cells in zones.
There is usually a central more or less clear zone, next on each side
a rather dense cell area and next on each side a very dense cell area,
then a narrow nearly clear zone on each side again.

As a rule slightly larger cells are found near the nerve trunks and as
some of these seem to send long branches out into the lateral trunks,
they may be motor or sensory, the association neurones are probably
the smaller cells in farther. The cells seem multipolar in most cases
and in fact much more modified than the cells of starfish or
sea-urchin. Figs. 9 and 10.


REFERENCES

     _Delage and Herouard_ 1903 Traité de zoologie concrète. T. iii.
     Les Echinoderms.

     _Hamann, O._ 1887 Beitrage zur Histologie der Echinodermen. Jenna
     Zeit. Nat. W. xxi.

     _Hilton, W. A._ 1917 Some remarks on the nervous system of two
     sea-urchins. Jour. ent. and zoo. vol. ix, no. 4.

    (_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)


Explanation of Figures

Fig. 1. Diagram of one fifth of Aristotle's lantern of _Dendraster_
showing three loops of the circumoral nerve ring, and parts of three
radial nerves, the central one partly hidden at its origin by the
lantern. The nerves are in black. ×9.

Fig. 2. Drawing of part of the first part of an oral radial nerve. ×9.

Fig. 3. Drawing of the lower end of an oral radial nerve. ×9.

Fig. 4. Drawing of the upper part of an aboral radial nerve. The eye
spot region is up in the figure. ×9.

Fig. 5. Camera lucida drawing of a part of an aboral nerve showing
position of cell areas. ×70.

Fig. 6. Drawing of a section of an oral radial nerve. ×300.

Fig. 7. Drawing of a section of circumoral nerve. ×300.

Fig. 8. Drawing of a section of aboral nerve. ×300.

Fig. 9. Nerve cells from central regions of a radial nerve. The
arrangement is as shown in the drawing, cells of various levels shown
as one layer. Some of the processes possibly relate nearby cells, but
most fibers run into the general fibrous mass. All fibers or fibrils
are small. There is some indication of tigroid substance in some of
the cells. ×450.

Fig. 10. Nerve cells from near a lateral branch from the radial band.
×450.

[Illustration]



Ants from the Claremont Laguna Region


This list includes ants collected chiefly in 1917. All determinations
are by Dr. W. M. Wheeler.

     _Novomessor andrei_ Mayr. red var. Also some dark. Claremont.

     _N. pergandei_ Mayr. Medium, dark colored. Claremont.

     _Pogonomyrmex californicus_ Buckley Claremont.

     _Pheidole longipes_ Pergande Claremont.

     _Pediole_ sp. Claremont.

     _Crematogaster lineolata_ Say. Subsp. _californica_ Emery.
     Claremont.

     _C. l._ Say. subsp. _corctata_ Emery. Claremont.

     _Solenopsis molesta_ Say. var. _validiuscula_ Emery. Claremont.

     _S. geminata_ Fab. var. Claremont.

     _Liometopum occidentale_ Emery. Mts. and Claremont.

     _Iridomyrex pruinosus_ Roger var. _analis_ Ern. André.

     _I. humilis_ Mayr (Argentine ant) Claremont.

     _Dorymyrmex pyramicus_ Roger _var._ Claremont.

     _Prenolepis imparis_ Say. Below Aliso canon, Laguna Beach and
     Claremont.

     _Tapinoma sessile_ Say. Laguna Beach.

     _Myrmecocystus melliger_ Forel var. (Honey ant) Claremont.

     _M. mexicanus_ Wesm. sub sp. _mojave_ Wheeler (Honey ant)
     Claremont.

     _Formica rufibarbis_ Fb. var _occidua_ Wheeler. Claremont.

     _F. cinerea_ Mayr. subsp. _pilicornis_ Emery. Claremont.

     _Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus_ Fb. subsp. _vicinus_ Mayr.
     _var. luteangulus_ Wheeler. Claremont.

                                                                  W. A. H.

    (_Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of Pomona College_)



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    Tin Can Mfrs.       Axle Grease Mfrs.    Fish Hook Mfrs.
    Druggists           Railroad Employees   Feather Duster Mfrs.
    Auto Owners         Contractors          Hotels

Write for this valuable reference book.

Ross-Gould, 1027H Olive Street, St. Louis.

    Ross-Gould
    Mailing
    Lists   St. Louis



Pomona College


Located in one of the most healthful and beautiful parts of the west
coast. The mountains reach an elevation of ten thousand feet within a
few miles of the college and these with the nearby ocean afford many
special advantages for the study of things not in books. Special
advantages are afforded by the fact that the college limits its
attendance, the freshman class being restricted to two hundred
applicants. The success of the college is particularly indicated by
the large proportion of the graduates who proceed to advanced work in
the large universities. In addition, well-manned departments of music
and art afford exceptional advantages.

For further information, address

    SECRETARY OF POMONA COLLEGE
    Claremont, California



Transcriber's Note:


    * Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the
    original (=bold=).

    * Pg 29 Corrected spelling of "losely" to "loosely" in "... of fine
    strands losely ..."

    * Pg 34 Corrected spelling of "lilnes" to "lines" in "... two yellow
    lilnes in front ..."

    * Pg 36 Accent corrections on reference for "Traité de zoologie
    concrète"

    * Pg 38 Corrected spelling of "say." to "Say." in "... say. subsp. ..."





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of Entomology and Zoology - Volume Eleven, Number Two, June 1919" ***

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