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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 204, September 24, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


{285}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 204.]
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 24. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

    Extinct Volcanos and Mountains of Gold in Scotland         285
    Thomas Blount, Author of "Fragmenta Antiquitatis,"
    &c., by J. B. Whitborne                                    286
    "Give him a Roll."--A Plea for the Horse, by C.
    Forbes                                                     287
    Dream Testimony, by C. H. Cooper                           287
    Shakspeare Correspondence                                  288

    MINOR NOTES:--Epitaph from Stalbridge--Curious
    Extracts: Dean Nowell: Bottled Beer--A Collection
    of Sentences out of some of the Writings of the
    Lord Bacon--Law and Usage--Manichæan Games
    --Bohn's Hoveden--Milton at Eyford House                   289

  QUERIES:--

    Earl of Leicester's Portrait, 1585                         290
    Early Use of Tin                                           291
    St. Patrick--Maune and Man, by J. G. Cumming               291
    Passage in Bingham, by Richard Bingham                     291

    MINOR QUERIES:--"Terræ filius"--Daughter pronounced
    Dafter--Administration of the Holy Communion
    --Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead--A
    Scrape--"Plus occidit Gula," &c.--Anecdote of
    Napoleon--Canonisation in the Greek Church--Binometrical
    Verses--Dictionary of English Phrases
    --Lines on Woman--Collections for Poor Slaves--
    The Earl of Oxford and the Creation of Peers--
    "Like one who wakes," &c.                                  292

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Glossarial Queries
    --Military Knights of Windsor--"Elijah's Mantle"           294

  REPLIES:--

    Milton and Malatesti, by S. W. Singer                      295
    Attainment of Majority                                     296
    John Frewen                                                296
    "Voiding Knife," "Voider," and "Alms-Basket," by
    W. Chaffers                                                297
    The Letter "h" in Humble                                   298
    School Libraries, by Mackenzie Walcott, M.A., &c.          298
    Dr. John Taylor                                            299
    Portrait of Sir Anthony Wingfield, by John Wodderspoon,
    &c.                                                        299
    Barnacles                                                  300

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Precision in Photographic
    Processes--Tent for Collodion--Mr.
    Sisson's Developing Solution--Mr. Stewart's Pantograph     301

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--George Browne of
    Shefford--Wheale--Sir Arthur Aston--"A Mockery,"
    &c.--Norman of Winster--Arms of the See of
    York--Roger Wilbraham Esq.'s, Cheshire Collection
    --Pierrepont--Passage in Bacon--Monumental Inscription
    in Peterborough Cathedral--Lord North--
    Land of Green Ginger--Sheer, and Shear Hulk--
    Serpent with a Human Head--"When the maggot
    bites"--Definition of a Proverb--Gilbert White
    of Selborne, &c.                                           301

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

    Notes on Books, &c.                                        306
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               306
    Notices to Correspondents                                  306
    Advertisements                                             307

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

EXTINCT VOLCANOS AND MOUNTAINS OF GOLD IN SCOTLAND.

It is by some supposed that the Hill of Noth, in the parish of Rhynie,
Aberdeenshire, had at one time been a volcano in full operation: others,
again, maintain that the scoria found on and in the neighbourhood are
portions of a vitrified fort, which had at one time stood on its summit. I
am not aware that the matter has been investigated since our advancement in
the science of geology has enabled us to have a more intimate knowledge of
these things than formerly. The last statistical account of Scotland has
suffered severely in its Aberdeenshire volume, in consequence of the
temporary deposition of the "seven Strathbogie clergymen." The accounts of
their several parishes were written by parties only newly come to reside in
them, and who appear to have taken little interest in it; and Rhynie is one
of these. Those who argue for its having been a volcano, say that it is
very possible that there may at one time have been an electric or magnetic
chain connecting it with subterranean fire in some other quarter of the
world; and that by some convulsion of nature, the spinal cord of its
existence had been broken, and life became extinct. This hypothesis has
been acted on, in accounting for the earthquakes which occur at Comrie in
Perthshire. The great storm which devastated the princely estates of Earl
Goodwin in Kent (circa anno 1098), and now so well known to mariners as the
Goodwin Sands, is also said to have laid waste the parish of Forvie, in
Aberdeenshire. On the occasion of the great earthquake at Lisbon in 1755, a
flock of sheep were drowned in their cot in the neighbourhood of
Lossiemouth, near Elgin, by the overflowing of the tide, although far
removed from ordinary high-water-mark. Assuming this mountain to have been
a volcano, are there any others in Great Britain? While on the subject of
mountains in that quarter, there is another which also demands attention
for quite a different reason, the Hill of Dun-o-Deer, in the parish of
Insch: a conical hill of no great elevation, on the top of which stand the
remains of a vitrified fort {286} or castle, said to have been built by
King Gregory about the year 880, and was used by that monarch as a
hunting-seat and where, combining business with pleasure, he is said to
have meted out even-handed justice to his subjects in the Garioch. It has
long been the popular belief that this hill contains gold; and that the
teeth of sheep fed on it assume a yellower tinge, and also that their fat
is of the same colour. Notwithstanding this, no attempt at scientific
investigation has ever been made. The operations on the line of the Great
North of Scotland Railway, now in progress in the immediate neighbourhood,
may possibly bring something to light. This line passes for many miles
through a country particularly rich in recollections of the "olden
time"--cairns, camps, old chapels, druidical circles, sculptured stones,
&c. and where ancient coins, battle-axes of all the three periods, urns and
elf-arrow heads, Roman armour, &c., have been disinterred by the ordinary
labours of the field. Within a short distance of its route lies the Hill of
Barra, where the famous battle was fought, anno 1308, between the "Bruce"
and the "Comyn;" the Bass at Inverary, the Hill of Benachie, with the
remains of a fortification on its summit, said to have been erected by the
Picts; the field of Harlaw, famed in song, where the battle was fought in
1411, in which Donald of the Isles was defeated. There are many traditional
ballads and stories relating to Benachie and Noth. There is a ballad called
"John O'Benachie" and another, "John O'Rhynie, or Jock O'Noth" and they do
not appear in any collection of ancient ballads I have seen. It is said
that long "before King Robert rang," two giants inhabited these mountains,
and are supposed to be the respective heroes of the two ballads. These two
sons of Anak appear to have lived on pretty friendly terms, and to have
enjoyed a social crack together, each at his own residence, although
distant some ten or twelve miles. These worthies had another amusement,
that of throwing stones at each other; not small pebbles you may believe,
but large boulders. On one occasion, however, there appears to have been a
coolness between them; for one morning, as he of Noth was returning from a
foraging excursion in the district of Buchan, his friend of Benachie, not
relishing what he considered an intrusion on his legitimate beat, took up a
large stone and threw at him as he was passing. Noth, on hearing it
rebounding, coolly turned round, and putting himself in a posture of
defence, received the ponderous mass on the sole of his foot: and I believe
that the stone, with a deeply indented foot-mark on it, is, like the bricks
in Jack Cade's chimney, "alive at this day to testify." Legendary lore and
fabulous ballads aside, it would indeed be strange if something interesting
to the antiquary does not turn up in such a mine as this. It is curious,
however, that in all the operations antecedent to covering Great Britain
with, as it were, a network of iron, so very few discoveries should have
been made of any importance, either to the antiquary or geologist.

ABREDONENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

THOMAS BLOUNT, AUTHOR OF "FRAGMENTA ANTIQUITATIS," ETC.

Being on a visit to some friends on the confines of the county of Salop,
bordering on Herefordshire, I took the opportunity long cherished of
visiting the spot where lie the remains of the author of _Boscobel;
Fragmenta Antiquitatis, or Ancient Tenures of Land, and Jocular Customs of
Manors, &c._, and copied the following inscription from his monument, in
the chancel of the ancient church of Orleton in the latter county. I
believe it has never been published; and although neither Note nor Query is
connected with it, it may serve to fill up a corner in your valuable
miscellany, and thus preserve from the oblivion of a retired country
church, a memorial of one well known to the antiquarian world of
literature. It is on a brass plate inserted in a stone monument against the
wall of the chancel:

                   "D.O.M.
          Hic seminatur Corpus Animale
            Spiritale resurrecturum
                  THOMÆ BLOUNT.
    De Orleton in agro Herefordiensi Armigeri,
        Ex interiori Templo Londini J Cti.
        Viri priscis Moribus avitæ Fidei,
        Vitæ integerrimæ, Pietatis solidæ,
  Fidelitatem, Dilectionem, Amorem, Charitatem,
      In Principem, Suos, Amicos, Omnes,
              Illibate coluit.
                Uxorem duxit
                    Annam
      Filiam Eadmundi Church Armigeri
          E Maldoniâ East Saxonum.
            Unicâ Corporis prole.
                (Elizabetha)
              Mentis multiplici
            (Libris utilissimis)
      Familiam propagavit, perennavit Famam.
  Requiem, Lector, si fas ducis, huic apprecare
                Et melior abi.
      Obiit Decembris 26, 1679. Ætatis 61.
                   ----
            Pientissima Coniunx
                  moerens
                  Posuit."

The village of Orleton is celebrated for a very large annual fair, which
occurs on April 23; and a saying is connected therewith: "That the cuckoo
always comes on Orleton fair-day;" which has doubtless arisen from the
circumstance, that this "messenger of spring" generally arrives in this
country by that day.

J. B. WHITBORNE.

       *       *       *       *       *

{287}

"GIVE HIM A ROLL."--A PLEA FOR THE HORSE.

We learn, from the comedy of the _The Clouds_, that the Athenians were
accustomed to refresh their horses after a race by allowing then to roll on
the ground; for Pheidippides, the wild young man of the play, who spent
much of his own time and of his father's money on the "turf," and who is
shown in the opening scene fast asleep in bed, dreaming of his favourite
amusement, says very quietly,

    "[Greek: Apage ton hippon exalisas oikade] [32]--

an order which he had probably often given to his groom at the Hippodrome,
the Newmarket or Ascot of Athens.

I have often seen racing, I have often seen hunters brought home after a
hard day's work, and I have read of forced marches, &c. made by cavalry and
artillery; but never yet have I heard of an English Houyhnhnm, either at
home or abroad, who was invited to refresh himself after his labours, civil
or military, classically, with a _roll_.

Dobbin, that four-footed Ofellus,

    "Rusticus, abnormis sapiens, crassâque Minervâ,"

whenever he has the luck to spend his summer Sunday's _otium cum dignitate_
in a paddock, invariably indulges in a baker's dozen, without waiting for
an invitation to do so, and without saying "with your leave" or "by your
leave."

They ordered this matter better in Africa some fifty years ago, and I hope
they still continue so to order it.

By one of the stipulations of the hollow Peace of Amiens, the colony of the
Cape of Good Hope was restored by Great Britain to the Batavian Republic,
which immediately appointed Mr. J. A. de Mist its Commissary-General, and
despatched him to receive the ceded territory from the hands of the
English, to instal the new Governor, General J. W. Janssens, into his high
office, and to reorganise the constitution of the colony.

Having fulfilled these duties, Mr. De Mist determined to make a tour of
inspection, and he accordingly travelled _on horseback_ nearly 4500 English
miles through the interior. Among his suite was a Dr. Lichtenstein, the
physician and _savant_ of the party, who afterwards published an account of
the expedition.

The extract that I am about to make from his work may at first sight appear
unnecessarily long; but I wish the "courteous reader" to bear in mind that
I do not cite it for the sake of parading a long rambling comment on five
short words of Aristophanes, but for that of bringing forward additional
evidence, to prove that a dry roll may occasionally be of as much service
in recruiting the strength and spirits of that noble animal, the horse,
when jaded by violent exertion or long-protracted toil, as our English
nostrums, a warm mash or a bottle of water. Dr. Lichtenstein says,--

    "Our road led us soon again over the Vogel river and here we were
    obliged to supply ourselves with water for the whole day, since not a
    drop was to be met with again till the Melk river, a distance of ten
    hours [ = 50 English miles]. When we had filled our vessels, and our
    cattle had drunk plentifully, we proceeded on our way.

    "It is difficult for an European to form an idea of the hardships that
    are to be encountered in a journey over such a dry plain at the hottest
    season of the year. All vegetation seems utterly destroyed; not a blade
    of grass, not a green leaf, is anywhere to be seen; and the soil, a
    stiff loam, reflects back the heat of the sun with redoubled force; a
    man may congratulate himself that, being on horseback, he is raised
    some feet above it. Nor is any rest from these fatigues to be thought
    of, since to stop where there is neither shade, water, or grass, would
    be only to increase the evil, rather than to diminish it.

    "Yet the African horses are so well accustomed to hardships, although
    they have in fact much less innate strength than the European, that it
    is incredible what a length of way they will go, in the most intense
    heat, without either food or drink. It is, however, customary for the
    riders to dismount at intervals, when the saddles are taken off, and
    the animals are suffered to roll upon the ground and stretch out their
    limbs for a short time. This they do with evident delight, and after
    they have well rolled, stretched, and shaken themselves, they rise up
    and go on as much refreshed as if they had had food and drink given
    them. On arriving at a farm, the invitation of the host, who comes
    immediately to the door, is, 'Get off, Sir, and let him roll.' A slave
    then appears, takes the horse, and leads him backwards and forwards for
    a few minutes, to recover his breath, and he is then unsaddled and left
    to roll.

    "These rollings were then the only refreshment we could offer our
    horses, and both they and their riders were, when towards evening they
    arrived at the Melk river, exceedingly exhausted."--_Travels in
    Southern Africa in the Years 1803-1806_. By Henry Lichtenstein, Doctor
    in Medicine and Philosophy, &c. &c. Translated from the original German
    by Anne Plumptre: London, Henry Colburn, 1812; vol. i. chap. xxv.

C. FORBES.

Temple.

       *       *       *       *       *

DREAM TESTIMONY.

On Saturday the 30th of July, 1853, the dead body of a young woman was
discovered in a field at Littleport, in the Isle of Ely. The body has not
yet been identified, and there can be little doubt that the young woman was
murdered. At the adjourned inquest, held on the 29th of August, before Mr.
William Marshall, one of the coroners for the isle, the following
extraordinary evidence was given:

    "James Jessop, an elderly, respectable-looking labourer, with a face of
    the most perfect stolidity, and {288} who possessed a most
    curiously-shaped skull, broad and flat at the top, and projecting
    greatly on each side over the ears, deposed: 'I live about a furlong
    and a half from where the body was found. I have seen the body of the
    deceased. I had never seen her before her death. On the night of
    Friday, the 29th of July, I dreamt three successive times that I heard
    the cry of murder issuing from near the bottom of a close called Little
    Ditchment Close (the place where the body was found). The first time I
    dreamt I heard the cry it woke me. I fell asleep again, and dreamt the
    same again. I then woke again, and told my wife. I could not rest; but
    I dreamt it again after that. I got up between four and five o'clock,
    but I did not go down to the close, the wheat and barley in which have
    since been cut. I dreamt once, about twenty years ago, that I saw a
    woman hanging in a barn, and on passing the next morning the barn which
    appeared to me in my dream I entered, and did find a woman there
    hanging, and cut her down just in time to save her life. I never told
    my wife I heard any cries of murder, but I have mentioned it to several
    persons since. I saw the body on the Saturday it was found. I did not
    mention my dream to any one till a day or two after that. I saw the
    field distinctly in my dream and the trees thereon, but I saw no person
    in it. On the night of the murder the wind lay from that spot to my
    house.'

    "Rhoda Jessop, wife of the last witness, stated that her husband
    related his dreams to her on the evening of the day the body was
    found."

In Mr. John Hill Burton's _Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland_, is
a chapter entitled "Spectral and Dream Testimony," to which the above
evidence will be a curious addition.

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_"Priam's six-gated city," &c._--In the prologue to Troilus and Cressida
occurs--

 "    .    .    .    Priam's six-gated city,
  Dardan and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan,
  And Antenorides, with massy staples,
  And corresponsive and fulfilling bolts."

What struck me here was the omission of the only gate of Troy really known
to fame, _the Scæan_, which looked on the tomb of the founder Laomedon;
before which stood Hector, "full and fixed," awaiting the fatal onslaught
of Achilles; where Achilles, in turn, received his death-wound from the
shaft of Paris; and through which, finally, the wooden horse was
triumphantly conveyed into the doomed city.

The six names are shown to be taken by Shakspeare in part from Caxton, and
in part from Lydgate: and in Knight's edition we are told that they are
"pure inventions of the middle age of romance-writers."

Let us examine this assertion. The names are to be found pretty nearly as
above, but with one important difference, in Dares' _History of the Trojan
War_. My authority is Ruæus, the Delphine editor of Virgil (see his note at
_Æn._ II. 612.). Now Dares (perhaps the oldest of the profane writers whom
we know) was a Phrygian, who took part in the Trojan war, and wrote its
history in Greek: and the Greek original was still extant in the time of
Ælian, from A.D. 80 to 140. Of this, now lost, a Latin translation still
survives, by some attributed to Cornelius Nepos, and by some regarded as
spurious; but, either way, its date must be long antecedent to "the middle
age of romance-writers." It was doubtless from this Latin history that
Caxton or Lydgate, or both, derived directly or indirectly the names they
adopted; and yet it is to be noted that they give respectively the names of
_Chetas_ and _Cetheas_ to one of their gates, and omit the well-known
_Scæan_, which Dares expressly mentions; for I presume that no principle of
philology will sanction the identification of _Scæan_ with either of the
terms used by these two writers.

I have trespassed somewhat on your space, but let me hope the subject may
be farther elucidated. The points I wish to put forward are, Shakspeare's
omission of the Scæan gate, and the proposition by Knight (for a
proposition it is, though in a participular form), that these six names are
"pure inventions of the middle age of romance-writers."

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_On the Word "delighted" in "Measure for Measure," &c._ (Vol. viii., p.
241.).--Inasmuch as the controversy respecting this word seems to be over,
and no one of the critics and commentators on Shakspeare's text appears to
have the slightest clue to the real meaning and derivation, I will
enlighten them. But, first, I must say, I am surprised that DR. KENNEDY
should (though he has certainly hit on the right meaning) be unable to give
a better account of the word than that in Vol. ii., pp. 139. 250. And as to
the passage quoted (Vol. ii., p. 200) by MR. SINGER from Sidney's
_Arcadia_, I beg to inform him that the word _delight_, which occurs
therein, is a misprint for _daylight_!

We find, in the Latin, the substantive _deliciæ_, delight, pleasure,
enjoyment; and the adjective (derived from the same root, and _guiding us
to the original meaning of the substantive_) _delicatus_, which amongst
other meanings, has that of tender, soft, gentle, delicate, dainty.

As the early English scholars were not very particular about the _form_ of
the words they introduced from the Latin, or indeed of those which were
purely English, for they changed them at their pleasure,--and that this is
the case, I presume no one at all versed in the literature of the time of
Henry VIII. will dispute,--it requires no great exertion of fancy to
believe, that, finding {289} the substantive _deliciæ_ Englished _delight_,
they rendered the adjective _delicatus_ delighted. The _fact_ that they
_did_ use the words _delight_ and _delicate_ as synonymous, is proved by a
passage in "a boke named the _Gouernour_ deuised by Syr Thomas Elyot,
Knyght, Londini, 1557;" in which, at folio 203., p. 1., we find Titus, the
son of Vespasian, who was ordinarily termed "the delight of mankind,"
called "the delicate of the world."

We are therefore to conclude that the words _delicate_ and _delighted_ were
used indifferently by writers of the age of Shakspeare, as well as by those
previous to him, to express the same thing; and that by the phrase
"delighted spirit" in _Measure for Measure_, "delighted beauty" in
_Othello_, "delighted gifts" in _Cymbeline_, we are to understand,
exquisitely tender, delicate, or precious.

I cannot agree with DR. KENNEDY that _deliciæ_, _delicatus_ come from
_deligere_ rather than _delicere_; since, if my memory does not deceive me,
the former is as often, if not oftener, used by good writers to express to
drive away, to upset, to remove from, or detach--as to select or
choose--which is the only meaning the word has akin to _deliciæ_; whereas
_delicere_ is actually used by one of the earlier Latin poets for to
delight.

The word _dainty_, I may inform DR. KENNEDY, is from the obsolete French
_dein_ or _dain_, delicate; which probably came from the still older Teut.
_deinin_, _minuta_ (vid. Schilter).

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Epitaph from Stalbridge._--The following epitaph from the churchyard of
Stalbridge, Dorsetshire, may perhaps be thought worthy of preservation, if
it be not a hackneyed one:

 "So fond, so young, so gentle, so sincere,
  So loved, so early lost, may claim a tear:
  Yet mourn not, if the life, resumed by heaven,
  Was spent to ev'ry end for which 'twas given.
  Could he too soon escape this world of sin?
  Or could eternal life too soon begin?
  Then cease his death too fondly to deplore,
  What could the longest life have added more?"

C. W. B.

_Curious Extracts.--Dean Nowell--Bottled Beer._--I was somewhat hasty in
assuming (see Vol. vii., p. 135.) that bottled beer was an unknown
department in early times, as the following extract will show. It is from
Fuller's _Worthies of England_, under "LANCASHIRE," the subject of the
notice being no less a person than the grave divine Alexander Nowell, dean
of St. Paul's, author of the Catechism, whose fondness for angling is also
commemorated by Izaak Walton. Fuller, having noticed the narrow escape
which Nowell had from arrest by some of Bishop Bonner's emissaries in Queen
Mary's reign, having had a hint to fly whilst fishing in the Thames,
"whilst Nowell was catching of fishes, Bonner was catching of Nowell,"
proceeds to say,--

    "Without offence it may be remembered that, leaving a bottle of ale,
    when fishing, in the grass, he found it some days after no bottle, but
    a gun, such the sound at the opening thereof: and this is believed
    (casualty is the mother of more inventions than industry[1]) the
    original of bottled ale in England."--Nuttall's edit., vol. ii. p. 205.

BALLIOLENSIS.

[Footnote 1: Fuller might have quoted the Greek proverb, [Greek: Tuchê
technês esterxe kai technê tuchês.]]

_A Collection of Sentences out of some of the Writings of the Lord Bacon_
(i. 422. edit. Montagu), with the ensuing exceptions, is taken out of the
_Essays_, and in regular order:

No. 1. p. 33. of the same volume.

No. 2. p. 21.

No. 3. p. 5.

No. 4. p. 8.

No. 51. My reference is illegible: the words are,--"Men seem neither well
to understand their riches nor their strength: of the former they believe
greater things than they should; and of the latter, much less. And from
hence, certain fatal pillars have bounded the progress of learning."

No. 68. pp. 173. 272. 321.

No. 69. p. 185.

No. 70. p. 176.

No. 71. Vol. vi., p. 172. The Charge of Owen, &c.

Nos. 72, 73. Vol. vii., p. 261. The Speech before the Summer Circuits,
1617.

S. Z. Z. S.

_Law and Usage._--In _The Times_ of September 1, the Turkish correspondent
writes as follows:

    "Mahmoud Pasha declared in the Divan of the 17th that 'he would divorce
    his wife, but would not advise a dishonourable peace with Russia.' This
    is an expression of the strongest kind in use amongst the Turks."

It is worth a Note that, in spite of polygamy and divorce, a common proverb
is monogamic, and divorce is spoken of as the greatest of unlikelihoods.

M.

_Manichæan Games._--Take any game played by two persons, such as draughts,
and let the play be as follows: each plays his best for himself, and
follows it by playing the worst he can for the other. Thus, when it is the
turn of the white to play, he first plays the white as well as he can; and
then the black as badly (for the other player) as he can. The black then
does the best he can with the black, and follows it by the worst he can
{290} do for the white. Of course, by separating the good and evil
principles, four persons might play.

M.

_Bohn's Hoveden._--By way of expressing my sense of obligation to Mr. Bohn
and his editors for the _Antiquarian Library_, perhaps you will suffer me
to point out what appears to be an inaccuracy in the translation of Roger
de Hoveden's _Annals_? At p. 123. of vol. ii., the word _Suuelle_ (as it
appears to stand in the original text) is translated into _Swale_: but
surely no other place is here meant than the church of St. Mary's at
_Southwell_[2] (or _Suthwell_, _Sudwell_, _Suwell_, or _Suell_, as
variously spelt, but never _Swale_), in Nottinghamshire.

I would also notice a trifling error (perhaps only a misprint) at p. 125.;
where we are informed in a note, that the Galilee of Durham Cathedral is at
the _east_ end, whereas its real position is at the _west_.

J. SANSOM.

Oxford.

[Footnote 2: The seal of the vicars of Southwell, ann. 1262, had in its
circumference the words "Commune sigillum Vicariorum Suuell."--Vid.
Thoroton's _Nottinghamshire, North Muskham_, ed. 1796, vol. iii. p. 156.]

_Milton at Eyford House, Gloster._--In the British Museum (says Wilson in
his description of Christ's College, Cambridge) is the original
proclamation for Milton's appearance after the Restoration. Where was he
secreted? I find this note in my book:--At Eyford House, Gloucestershire,
within two miles of Stow-on-the-Wold, on the road to Cheltenham, a spring
of beautiful water is called "Milton's Well," running into a tributary of
the Thames. The old house, &c., at the time would be out of the way of
common information.

P. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

EARL OF LEICESTER'S PORTRAIT, 1585.

There is at Penshurst, among many other interesting memorials of the
Dudleys, an original portrait of Elizabeth's Earl of Leicester, with the
following painted upon it: "Robert, E. of Leicester, Stadtholder of
Holland, A.D. 1585." After this comes the ragged staff, but without its
usual accompaniment, the bear. Under the staff follow these enigmatical
lines, which I request any of your correspondents to translate and explain.
I send you a translation in rhyme; I should thank them the more if they
would do the same: as to explanation, the longer the better.


 "Principis hic Baculus, patriæ columenque, decusque,
  Hoc uno, ingratos quo beet, ipse miser."

  This ragged staff by Leicester's potent hand,
  Brought succour, safety, to this threaten'd land:
  One thing alone embitters every thought,
  He to ungrateful men these blessings brought.

Now for a word of commentary: and first as to "Stadtholder of Holland, A.D.
1585." The good woman who showed the picture informed us that it was
painted by order of the stadtholder, and presented to Leicester; if so,
there would have been a _jussu provinciarum foederatarum depictus_, or
something of that sort; but no such compliment was to be expected from the
Dutch, for they hated him, complained of his conduct, memorialised the
queen against him: see the pamphlets in the British Museum, 4to. 1587, C.
32. a. 2. But though it was most unlikely that the Dutch or their
stadtholder should have presented this picture to Leicester, it well
accorded with Leicester's vanity and presumption, and still more with that
vanity and presumption as displayed in his conduct as commander-in-chief of
the forces in Holland, to call himself _The Stadtholder_, and to order his
painter to put that title under his portrait.

The verses may now be referred to in support of this view of the subject.
Leicester therein represents himself as unhappy, because he had bestowed
blessings on the ungrateful Dutch.

In conclusion, take the following full-length portrait of Leicester's
indignation (_Leicester, a Belgis vituperatus, loquitur_):

 "This ragged staff my resolution shows,
  To save my Queen and Holland from their foes:
  Still deeply seated in my heart remains
  One cause, one fruitful cause, of all my pains;
 'Tis base ingratitude--'tis Holland's hate.
  My presence sav'd that country, chang'd its fate.
  But the base pedlars gain'd my sov'reign's ear,
  And at my counsels and my courage sneer;
  They call me tyrant, breaker of my word,
  Fond of a warrior's garb without his sword.
  A servile courtier, saucy cavalier,
  Bold as a lion when no danger's near,
  They say I seek their country for myself,
  To fill my bursting bags with plunder'd pelf;
  They say with goose's, not with eagle's wing,
  I wish to soar, and make myself a king.
  Dutchmen! to you I came, I saw, I sav'd:
  Where'er my staff, my bear, my banner wav'd,
  The daunted Spaniard fled without a blow,
  And bloodless chaplets crown'd my conquering brow.
  Dutchmen! with minds more stagnant than your pools,
  (But in reproachful words more knaves than fools),
  You will not see, nor own the debt you owe
  To him who conquers a retreating foe.
  Such base ingratitude as this alloys
  My triumph's glory, and my bosom's joys."

V. T.

Tunbridge Wells.

       *       *       *       *       *

{291}

EARLY USE OF TIN.

Mr. Layard, in his work upon Nineveh and Babylon, in reference to the
articles of bronze from Assyria now in the British Museum, states, that the
_tin_ used in the composition was probably obtained from Phoenicia; and,
consequently, that _that_ used in the Assyrian bronze may actually have
been _exported_ nearly _three thousand_ years ago from the British Isles.

The Assyrians appear to have made an extensive use of this metal; and the
degree of perfection which the making of bronze had then reached, clearly
shows that they must have been long experienced in the use of it. _They_
appear to have received what they used from the Phoenicians. _When_ and _by
whom_ was tin first discovered in our island? Were the _Celtic tribes_
acquainted with it _previously_ to the arrival of the Phoenicians upon our
shores?

It is said that the Phoenicians were indebted to the Tyrian Hercules for
their trade in tin; and that this island owed them its name of _Baratanac_,
or Britain, the land of tin. Was the _Tyrian Hercules_, or, as he was
afterwards known and worshipped, as the Melkart of Tyre, and the Moloch of
the Bible, was _he_ the _merchant-leader_ of the first band of Phoenicians
who visited this island? _When_ did _he_ live?

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST. PATRICK--MAUNE AND MAN.

Amongst the many strange derivations given of the name of Mona or Man (the
island), I find one in an old unpublished MS. by an unknown author, of the
date about 1658, noticed by Feltham (_Tour through the Isle of Man_, p.
8.), on which I venture to ground a Query. The name of the island is there
said to have been derived from Maune, the name of the great apostle of the
Mann, before he received that of Patricius from Pope Celestine.

Now if St. Patrick ever had the name Maune, he could not have given it to
the island, which was called Mona, Monabia, and Menavia, as far back as the
days of Cæsar, Tacitus, and Pliny. I have not access to any life of St.
Patrick in which the name Maune occurs; but in the _Penny Cyclopædia_,
under the head "Patrick," I find it said, "According to Nennius, St.
Patrick's original name was Maur," and I find the same stated in Rose's
_Biographical Dictionary_. But the article in the latter is evidently taken
from the former, and I suspect the Mau_r_ may in both be a misprint for
Mau_n_.[3] Can "N. & Q." set me right, or give me any information likely to
solve the difficulty?

I may as well notice here that amongst the many ways in which the name of
this island has been pronounced and spelt, that of _Maun_ seems to have
prevailed at the period of the Norwegian occupation. On a Runic monument at
Kirk Michael, we have it very distinctly so spelt.

With regard to the name Mona, applied both to Man and Anglesea, I have
little doubt we may find its root in the Sanscrit _man_, to know, worship,
&c., whence we have Manu the son of Brahma, Menu, Menes, Minos, Moonshee,
and Monk. The name Mona would seem to have been applied to both islands, as
being specially the habitation of the Druids, whose name probably came
either from the Celtic _Trow-wys_, wisemen, or the Saxon _dru_, a
soothsayer, very close in signification to the Sanscrit _mooni_, a holy
sage, learned person. As connected with this idea I may ground another
Query: Might not these two Monas, the abode of piety and wisdom, be the
true, [Greek: makarôn nêsoi], the _Fortunatæ Insulæ_ of the ancients?

J. G. CUMMING.

Castletown.

[Footnote 3: In _Monumenta Historica Britannica_ the passage reads "Quia
_Maun_ prius vocabatur." In a note from another MS. the word is spelt
_Mauun_.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PASSAGE IN BINGHAM.

MR. RICHARD BINGHAM, whose new and improved edition of his ancestor's works
is now printing at the Oxford University Press, would feel sincerely
obliged to any literary friend who should become instrumental in
discovering the following passage from one of the sermons of Augustine:

    "Non mirari debetis, fratres carissimi, quod inter ipsa mysteria de
    mysteriis nihil diximus, quod non statim ea, quæ tradidimus,
    interpretati sumus. Adhibuimus enim tam sanctis rebus atque divinis
    honorem silentii."

Joseph Bingham (b. x. ch. v. s. 11.) cites those words as from "Serm. I.,
inter 40. a Sirmondo editos," which corresponds with Serm. V. according to
the Benedictine edition, Paris, 1689--1700, tom. v. p. 28.; but no such
words occur in that sermon. The passage is daggered by Grishovius, who
first gave the citations at length; neither has MR. R. BINGHAM hitherto
been able to meet with it, though a great many similar desiderata in former
editions he has discovered and corrected.

An answer through "N. & Q." will oblige; still more so if sent direct to
his present address, 57. Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London.

MR. BINGHAM would also be glad to be informed where Athanasius uses the
term [Greek: diakonos], generally for any minister of the church, whether
deacon, presbyter, or bishop? Joseph Bingham (b. ii. ch. xx. s. 1.) cites
the tract _Contra Gentes_, but the expression is not there.

{292}

The earlier a reply comes the more acceptable will it be.

57. Gloucester Place, Portman Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_"Terræ filius."_--When was the last "Terræ filius" spoken at Oxford; and
what was the origin of the name?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Daughter pronounced Dafter._--In the Verney Papers lately printed by the
Camden Society is a letter from a Mistress Wiseman, in which she spells
_daughter_ "daftere." It is evident that she pronounced the _-augh_ as we
do in laughter. Is this pronunciation known to prevail anywhere at the
present day?

C. W. G.

_Administration of the Holy Communion._--Which side, _north_ or _south_, is
the more correct for the priest to commence administering the Holy
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper? Give the authority or reasons in support of
your opinion. I cannot find any allusion in Hook's _Church Dictionary_, or
in Wheatly's _Common Prayer_; and I have seen some clergymen begin one end,
some the other.

CLERICUS (A.).

_Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead._--I have searched some time, but in
vain, in order to find out what the _lump_ or _love charm_, taken out of a
foal's forehead, was called. Virgil mentions it in _Æneid_, lib. iv. 515.,
where Dido is preparing her funeral pile, &c.:

 "Quæritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus,
  Et matri præreptus, _amor_."

Tacitus also makes mention of it continually. I have no doubt but that
through your interesting and learned columns I shall obtain an answer. It
was not _philtrum_.

H. P.

_A Scrape._--What is the origin of the expression "Getting into a scrape?"

Y. B. N. J.

_"Plus occidit Gula," &c._--Can any of your correspondents direct me where
the following passage is to be found?--

 "Plus occidit gula, quam gladius."

T.

_Anecdote of Napoleon._--I remember to have heard of a young lady, one of
the _detenus_ in France after the Peace of Amiens, having obtained her
liberation through a very affecting copy of verses of her composition,
which, by some means, came under the notice of Napoleon. The Emperor was so
struck with the strain of this lament, that he forwarded passports, with an
order for the immediate liberation of the fair writer. Can any of your
correspondents verify this anecdote, and supply a copy of the verses?

BALLIOLENSIS.

_Canonisation in the Greek Church._--Does the Greek Church ever now
canonise, or add the names of the saints to the Calendar?

If so, by whom is the ceremony performed?

ANTONY CLOSE.

Woodhouse Eaves.

_Binometrical Verses._--Who made the following verse?--

 "Quando nigrescit nox, rem latro patrat atrox."

It is either hexameter or pentameter, according to the scansion?

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Dictionary of English Phrases._--Is there in English any good dictionary
of phrases similar to the excellent _Frasologia Italiana_ of P. Daniele?

G. K.

_Lines on Woman._--W. V. will be glad to know if any of the correspondents
of "N. & Q." can tell where the following lines are to be found?--

 "Not she with traitrous kiss her master stung,
  Not she denied him with unfaithful tongue;
  _She_, when apostles fled, could danger brave,
  Last at his cross, and earliest at his grave."

_Collections for Poor Slaves._--I have met with the following memorandum in
a parish register, and have seen notices of similar entries in others:

    "1680. Collected for the redemption of poor slaves in Turkey, the sum
    of 2s. 8d."

Can you refer me to the king's letter authorising such collections to be
made?

W. S.

Northiam.

    [Some information upon this point will be found in "N. & Q.," Vol. i.,
    p. 441.; Vol. ii., p 12.]

_The Earl of Oxford and the Creation of Peers._--Where will be found the
answer made by the Earl of Oxford when impeached in the reign of Queen Anne
for creating in one day twelve peers?

S. N.

_"Like one who wakes," &c._--Can any of your readers supply the authorship
and connexion of the following lines?--

 "Like one who wakes from pleasant sleep,
    Unto the cares of morning."

C. W. B.

_Bells at Berwick-upon-Tweed._--Can any one favour me with a parallel or
similar case, in respect to bells, to what I recently met with at
Berwick-upon-Tweed? The parish church, which is the only one in the town,
and a mean structure of Cromwell's time, is without either tower or {293}
bell; and the people are summoned to divine service from the belfry of the
town-hall, which has a very respectable steeple. Indeed, so much more
ecclesiastical in appearance is the town-hall than the Church, that (as I
was told) a regiment of soldiers, on the first Sunday after their arrival
at Berwick, marched to the former building for divine service, although the
church stood opposite the barrack gate. My kind informant also told me that
he found a strange clergyman one Sunday morning trying the town-hall door,
and rating the absent sexton; having undertaken to preach a missionary
sermon, and become involved in the same mistake as the soldiers.

But more curious still was the news that there is a meeting-house in
Berwick belonging to the anti-burghers, who are dissenters from the Church
of Scotland, which has a bell, for the ringing of which, as a summons to
worship, Barrington, Bishop of Durham, granted a licence, which still
exists. I was not aware that bishops either had, or exercised, the power of
licensing bells; but my informant will, I doubt not, on reading this,
either verify or correct the statement. At the time when the bell was
licensed, the congregation were in communion with the Church of Scotland.

ALFRED GATTY.

_The Keate Family, of the Hoo, Herts._--I shall be obliged to any of your
readers for information respecting the _Sir Jonathan Keate, Bart._, of the
Hoo, Hertfordshire, who was living in the year 1683; also for any
particulars respecting his family? I especially desire to know what were
his relations to the religious parties of the time, as I have in my
possession the journal of a nonconformist minister, who was his domestic
chaplain from 1683 to 1688.

G. B. B.

Cambridge.

_Divining-rod._--Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." supply
instances of the use of the divining-rod for finding water? I know several
circumstances which might incline one, in these table-turning days, to
inquire seriously whether there be any truth in the popular notion.

G. W. SKYRING.

_Medal and Relic of Mary Queen of Scots._--I have in my possession a medal,
the size of a crown piece, of base metal, with perhaps some admixture of
silver. On one side of this are the arms of Scotland with two thistles, and
the legend--

    MARIA ET HENRICUS DEI GRATIA R: ET R: SCOTORUM,

and the reverse, a yew-tree with a motto of three words, of which the last
seems to be VIRES, the date 1566, and the legend--

    EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPANTUR INIMICI.

Associated with this for a very considerable period has been a small wooden
cross, which is said to have been made from the yew-tree under which Mary
and Darnley had been accustomed to meet.

I have been told that there is some farther tradition or superstition
connected with these relics: if there be, I shall be glad to be informed of
it, or of any other particulars concerning them.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Bulstrode's Portrait._--Prefixed to a copy in my possession of _Essays
upon the following Subjects: 1. Generosity, &c._, by Whitelock Bulstrode,
Esq., 8vo. Lond. 1724, there is a portrait of the author, bearing this note
in MS.: "This scarce portrait has sold for 7l." It is engraved by Cole from
a picture by Kneller, in oval with armorial bearings below, and is
subscribed "Anno Salutis 1723, ætatis 72." I am at a loss to suppose it
ever could have fetched the price assigned to my impression by its previous
owner, and should feel obliged if any of your correspondents would state
whether, from any peculiar circumstances, it may have become rare, and so
acquired an adventitious value. It does not appear to have been known to
Granger.

While the two names are before me, I venture to inquire how the remarkable
interchange occurred between that of _Whitelock Bulstrode_ the Essayist,
and _Bulstrode Whitelock_ the Memorialist, of the parliamentary period. Was
there any family connexion?

BALLIOLENSIS.

_The Assembly House, Kentish Town._--Can any of your antiquarian
correspondents give me a clue as to the date, or probable date, of the
erection of this well-known roadside public-house (I beg pardon, tavern),
which is now being pulled down? I am desirous of obtaining some slight
account of the old building, having just completed an etching, from a
sketch taken as it appeared in its dismantled state. Possibly some
anecdotes may be current regarding it. I learn from a rare little tome,
entitled _Some Account of Kentish Town_, published at that place in 1821,
and written, I believe, by a Mr. Elliot, that the Assembly House was
formerly called the Black Bull. The writer of this Query asked "one of the
oldest inhabitants," who was seated on a door-step opposite the house,
_his_ opinion concerning its age: considering a little, the old gentleman
seriously said he thought it might be two or three _thousand_ years at
least! This opinion I am afraid to accept as correct, and I would therefore
seek, through the medium of "N. & Q.," some information which may be more
depended upon.

W. B. R.

Camden New Town.

_Letters respecting Hougomont._--Could any reader of "N. & Q." kindly
furnish the undersigned with certain Letters, which have recently {294}
appeared in _The Times_, on "The Defence of Hougomont?" Such letters,
extracted, would be of much service to him, as they are wanted for a
specific purpose. The letters from Saturday, Sept. 10, _inclusive_, are
_already_ obtained: but the letters on the subject previous to that date
are wanting, and would greatly favour, if it were possible to have them,

ARAN.

Swillington.

_Peter Lombard._--Mr. Hallam, in his _Literature of Europe_ (vol. i. p.
128.), says, on the authority of Meiners (vol. iii. p. 11.):

    "Peter Lombard, in his _Liber Sententiarum_, the systematic basis of
    scholastic theology, introduces _many_ Greek words, and explains them
    rightly."

Having, however, examined this work for the purpose of ascertaining Peter
Lombard's knowledge of Greek, I must, out of regard to strict truth, deny
the statement of Meiners; for only one Greek word in Greek letters is to be
found in the _Liber Sententiarum_, and that is [Greek: metanoia]: and so
far frown Peter explaining this word rightly, he says, 'Poenitentia dicitur
a puniendo" (lib. IV. dist. xiv.); an etymological notion which caused
Luther to think wrongly of the nature of repentance, till he learnt the
meaning of the Greek word, which he received with joy as the solution of
one of his greatest difficulties in Romanism. I do not consider the
introduction of such Latinized church words as _ecclesia_, _episcopus_,
_presbyter_, or even _homoöusius_, as evincing any knowledge of Greek on
the part of Peter Lombard, wherein he appears to have been lamentably
deficient, as the great teacher and authority for centuries in Christian
dogmatics. Your correspondents will greatly oblige me by showing anything
to the contrary of my charge against Peter Lombard of being ignorant of
Greek.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.

_Life of Savigny._--Is there in French or English any life or memoir of
Savigny?

C. H.

_Picture by Hogarth._--Some years since a gentleman purchased at Bath the
first sketch of a picture said to be by Hogarth, of "Fortune distributing
her favours." Shortly afterwards a gentleman called on the purchaser of it,
and mentioned to him that he knew the finished painting, and that it was in
the panelling of some house with which he was acquainted.

I am desirous of finding out for the family of the purchaser, who died
recently, 1st, whether there is any history that can be attached to this
picture and 2ndly, to discover, if possible, in whose possession, and
where, the finished painting is preserved.

J. K. R. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Glossarial Queries._--In a Subsidy Roll of 25 Edward I., in an enumeration
of property in the parish of Skirbeck, near Boston, Lincolnshire, upon
which a _ninth_ was granted to the king, I find the following articles and
their respective value. What were they?--

 "3 alece, 18s.
  1 bacell cum arment. 15s."

In the taxation of _Leake_ I find--

 "9 hocast[=r]. 6s."

In that of _Leverton_--

 "4 hocast[=r]. 4s."

In _Butterwick_--

 "1 pull. 12d."

In _Wrangle_--

 "1 stag[=g]. 2s."

PISHEY THOMPSON.

Stoke Newington.

    [It is very desirable that in all cases Querists desirous of
    explanations of words, phrases, or passages, should give the context.

    3 _Alece_, were it not for the price, one would render "herrings;" but
    the price, 18s., forbids such interpretation. Perhaps _alece_ is a
    misreading for _vacce_, cows; which might well occur in a carelessly
    written roll temp. Edward I.

    1 _bacell cum arme[=n]t_. is 1 _bacellus cum armamentis_, one ass (or
    pack-horse) with its furniture.

    9 _hocast[=r]_. is 9 _pigs_. "Hogaster, porcellus."--Du Cange.

    1 _pull_. (i.e. _pullulus_), 1 colt.

    1 _stag[=g]_., a yearling ox.]

_Military Knights of Windsor._--I shall feel obliged to any of your
correspondents who will furnish some account, or refer me to any work in
which notices may be found of this foundation, its statutes, mode of
appointment, endowments, &c.? Up to the reign of William IV. they were
known, I believe, as Poor Knights of Windsor.

Y. B. N. J.

    [Consult Ashmole's _History of the Order of the Garter_, pp. 99-104.,
    edit. 1715. Among the Birch and Sloane MSS. in the British Museum are
    the following articles: No. 4845. Statutes for the Poor Knights of
    Windsor, 1 Eliz. Orders and rules for the establishment and good
    government of the said thirteen poor knights. The Queen's Majestie's
    ordinances for the continual charges. No. 4847. Articles of complaint
    exhibited by the Poor Knights (to the Knights of the Garter) against
    the Dean and Canons. The Dean and Canons' answer to the Poor Knights'
    second replication. The complaint of the Poor Knights to King Richard
    II. A petition of the Poor Knights to the king and parliament for a
    repeal of the act of incorporation, A. 22 Edw. IV. The petition of the
    Poor Knights of Windsor to George II., Jan. 28, 1735. This petition was
    drawn up by Mr. Fortescue, {295} afterwards Master of the Rolls. The
    Poor Knights' rejoinder to their former petition. The memorial of the
    Poor Knights to John Willes, Esq., Attorney-General. Another petition
    to J. Willes, Esq. Copy of an indenture between Queen Elizabeth and the
    Dean and Chapter of Lands, to the value of 600l. a year and upwards,
    for the maintenance of the Poor Knights, 1 Eliz. Orders and rules for
    the establishment and good government of the said thirteen Poor
    Knights. The case of the Poor Knights (printed), with several other
    papers relating to them.]

_"Elijah's Mantle."_--Who was the author of _Elijah's Mantle_? And are
there any grounds for ascribing it to Canning?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

    [This poem was attributed to Canning, as noticed by Mr. Bell, in his
    _Life of George Canning_, p. 206. He says, "Mr. Canning's reputation
    was again put into requisition as sponsor for certain verses that
    appeared at this time in the public journals. The best of these is a
    piece called _Elijah's Mantle_."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

MILTON AND MALATESTI.

(Vol. ii., p. 146.; Vol. viii., p. 237.)

When I gave some account of _La Tina_ of Antonio Malatesti, and its
dedication to Milton, two years since, I was not aware that it had been
printed, as I had no other edition of Gamba's _Serie dell' Edizioni de'
Testi di Lingua_, than the first printed in 1812. That account was derived
from the original MS. which formerly passed through my hands. I fear that
my friend MR. BOLTON CORNEY will be disappointed if he should meet with a
copy of the printed book, for the MS. contained no other dedication than
the inscription on the title-page, of which I made a tracing. It represents
an inscribed stone tablet, in the following arrangement:

         "LA
  Tina Equiuoci Rusticali
  di Antonio Malatesti c[=o]-
    posti nella sua Villa di
  Taiano il Settembre dell'
      L'Anno, 1637.

  Sonetti Ciquanta
  Dedicati all' Ill^{mo} Signore
  Et Padrone Oss^{mo} Il Signor'
  Giouanni Milton Nobil'
        Inghilese."

I copied at the time eight of these equivocal sonnets, and in my former
notice gave one as a specimen. They are certainly very ingenious, and may
be "graziosissimi" to an Italian ear and imagination; but I cannot think
that the pure mind of Milton would take much delight in obscene allusions,
however neatly wrapped up.

Milton seems to have dwelt with pleasure on his intercourse with these
witty, ingenious, and learned men, during his two-months' sojourn at
Florence; and it is remarkable that Nicolas Heinsius has spoken of the same
men, in much the same terms, in his dedication to Carlo Dati of the second
book of his _Italici Componimenti_:

    "Sanctum mehercules habebo semper Jo. Bapt. Donij memoriam, non tam suo
    nomine (et si hoc quoque) aut quod Frescobaldos, Cavalcantes, Gaddios,
    Cultellinos, alios urbis vestræ viros precipuos mihi conciliarit,
    quorum amicitiam feci hactenus, et faciam porrò maximi, quam quod tibi
    me conjunxerit, mi Date; cujus opera in notitiam, ac familiaritatem
    plurimorum apud vos hominum eximiorum mox irreperem."

And, after mentioning others, he adds:

    "Quid de Valerio Chimentellio, homine omni literatura perpolita, dicam?
    Quid de Joanne Pricæo? qui ingens civitati vestræ ornamentum ex ultima
    nuper accessit Britannia."

One feels some decree of disappointment at not meeting here with the name
of Milton.

Of the distinguished men mentioned by Milton, some interesting notices
occur in that curious little volume, the _Bibliotheca Aprosiana_. Benedetto
Buommattei and Carlo Dati are well known from their important labours; and
of the others there are scattered notices in _Rilli Notizie degli Uomini
Illustre Fiorentine_, and in _Salvini Fasti Consolari dell' Accademia
Fiorentina_. I have an interesting little volume of Latin verses by Jacopo
Gaddi, with the following title _Poetica Jacobi Gaddii Corona e Selectis
Poematiis, Notis Allegoriis contexta_, Bononiæ, 1637, 4to.

There is a good deal of ingenious and pleasing burlesque poetry extant by
Antonio Malatesti. I have before mentioned his _Sphinx_: of this I have a
dateless edition, apparently printed about the middle of the last century
at Florence: the title is _La Sfinge Enimmi del Signor Antonio Malatesti_.
Commendatory verses are prefixed by Chimentelli, Coltellini, and Galileo
Galilei. The last, from the celebrity of the writer, may deserve the small
space it will occupy in your pages. It is itself an enigma:

     "DEL SIGNOR GALILEO GALILEI
              SONETTO.
  Mostro son' io più strano, e più difforme,
  Che l'Arpià, la Sirena, o la Chimera;
  Nè in terra, in aria, in acqua è alcuna fiera,
  Ch' abbia di membra così varie forme.
  Parte a parte non hô che sia conforme,
  Più che s' una sia bianca, e l' altra nera;
  Spesso di Cacciator dietro hô una schiera,
  Che de' miei piè van ritracciando l' orme.
  Nelle tenebre oscure è il mio soggiorno;
  Che se dall' ombre al chiaro lume passo,
  Tosto l' alma da me sen fugge, come
  Sen fugge il sogno all' apparir del giorno,
  E le mie membra disunito lasso,
  E l' esser perdo con la vita, è l nome."

{296}

Three more sonnets by this illustrious man are printed by Salvini in his
_Fasti_, of which he says:

    "I quali esendo parto di si gran mente, mi concederà la gloria il
    benigno lettore, che io, ad honore della Toscana Poesia, gli esponga il
    primo alla publica luce."

Dr. Fellowes was not singular in confounding Dati and Deodati; it has been
done by Fenton and others: but that Dr. Symmons, in his _Life of Milton_
(p. 133.), should transform _La Tina_ into a _wine-press_, is ludicrously
amusing. _La Tina_ is the rustic mistress to whom the sonnets are supposed
to be addressed; and every one knows that _rusticale_ and _contadinesca_ is
that naïve and pleasing rustic style in which the Florentine poets
delighted, from the expressive nature of the patois of the Tuscan
peasantry; and it might have been said of Malatesti's sonnets, as of
another rustic poet:

 "Ipsa Venus lætos jam nunc migravit in agros
    Verbaque Aratoris Rustica discit Amor."

I may just remark that the _Clementillo_ of Milton should not be rendered
_Clementini_, but _Chimentelli_. As Rolli tells us,--

    "Clementillus fu quel Dottore _Valerio Chimentelli_ di cui leggesi una
    vaghissima Cicalata nel sesto volume delle Prose Fiorentine."

S. W. SINGER.

Mickleham.

       *       *       *       *       *

ATTAINMENT OF MAJORITY.

(Vol. viii., pp. 198. 250.)

I greatly regret that there should be anything in the matter or manner of
my Query on this subject to induce MR. DE MORGAN to reply to it more as if
repelling an offence, than assisting in the investigation of an interesting
question on a subject with which he is supposed to be especially
conversant. I can assure him that I had no other object in writing _ninth_
numerically instead of literally, or in omitting the words he has restored
in brackets, or in italicising two words to which I wished my question more
particularly to refer, than that of economising space and avoiding needless
repetition; and in the use of the word "usage" rather than "law," of which
he also complains, I was perhaps unduly influenced by the title of his own
treatise, from which I was quoting. But however I may have erred from exact
quotation, it is manifest I did not misunderstand the sense of the passage,
since MR. DE MORGAN now repeats its substance in these words,--

    "I cannot make out that the law ever recognised a day of twenty-four
    hours, beginning at any hour except midnight."

This is clearly at direct issue with Ben Jonson, whose introduced phrases,
"pleaded nonage," "wardship," "pupillage," &c., seem to smack too much of
legal technology to countenance the supposition of poetic license.

But had I not accidentally met with an interesting confirmation of Ben
Jonson's law of usage, or usage of law, I should not have put forth my
Query at all, nor presumed to address it to PROFESSOR DE MORGAN; my
principal reason for so doing being that the interest attaching to
discovered evidence of a forgotten usage in legal reckoning, must of course
be increased tenfold if it should appear to have been unknown to a
gentleman of such deep and acknowledged research into that and kindred
subjects.

In a black-letter octavo entitled _A Concordancie of Yeares_, published in
and for the year 1615, and therefore about the very time when Ben Jonson
was writing, I find the following in chap. xiii.:

    "The day is of two sorts, natural and artificiall: the natural day is
    the space of 24 hours, in which time the sunne is carried by the first
    Mover, from the east into the west, and so round about the world into
    the east againe."

    "The artificiall day continues from sunne-rising to sunne-setting: and
    the artificiall night is from the sunne's setting to his rising. And
    you must note that this natural day, according to divers, hath divers
    beginnings: As the Romanes count it from mid-night to mid-night,
    because at that time our Lorde was borne, being Sunday; and so do we
    account it for fasting dayes. The Arabians begin their day at noone,
    and end at noone the next day; for because they say the sunne was made
    in the meridian; and so do all astronomers account the day, because it
    alwayes falleth at one certaine time. The Umbrians, the Tuscans, the
    Jewes, the Athenians, Italians, and Egyptians, do begin their day at
    sunne-set, and so do we celebrate festivall dayes. The Babylonians,
    Persians, and Bohemians begin their day at sunne-rising, holding till
    sunne-setting; _and so do our lawyers count it in England_."

Here, at least, there can be no supposition of dramatic fiction; the book
from which I have made this extract was written by Arthur Hopton, a
distinguished mathematician, a scholar of Oxford, a student in the Temple;
and the volume itself is dedicated to "The Right Honourable Sir Edward
Coke, Knight, Lord Chiefe Justice of England," &c.

A. E. B.

Leeds, Sept. 10.

       *       *       *       *       *

JOHN FREWEN.

(Vol. viii., p. 222.)

He is supposed to have been the son of Richard Frewen, of Earl's Court in
Worcestershire, and was born either at that place or in its immediate
vicinity in the early part of the year 1558. Richard Frewen purchased the
presentation to Northiam rectory, in Sussex, of Viscount Montague, and
presented John Frewen to it in Nov. 1583; and {297} he continued to hold
that living till his death, which took place at the end of April, 1628. He
was buried in the chancel of his own church, May 2nd; and a plain stone on
the floor, with an inscription, marks the place of his interment. He was a
learned and pious Puritan divine, and wrote:

    1. "Certaine Fruitfull Instructions and necessary Doctrine meete to
    edify in the feare of God." 1587, 18mo.

    2. "Certaine Fruitfull Instructions for the generall Cause of
    Reformation against the Slanders of the Pope and League, &c." 1589,
    small 4to.

3. He edited and wrote the preface to--

    "A Courteous Conference with the English Catholickes Romane, about the
    Six Articles administered unto the Seminarie Priestes, wherein it is
    apparently proved by theire own divinitie, and the principles of their
    owne religion, that the Pope cannot depose her Majestie, or release her
    subjects of their alleageance unto her, &c.; written by John Bishop, a
    recusant Papist." 1598. Small 4to.

    4. "Certaine Sermons on the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 verses of the
    Eleventh chapter of S. Paule his Epistle to the Romanes." 1612, 12mo.

    5. "Certaine choise Grounds and Principles of our Christian Religion."
    1621, 12mo.

6. A large unpublished work in MS. entitled "Grounds and Principles of
Christian Religion," left unfinished (probably age and infirmity prevented
him from completing it): it consisted of seven books, of which two only
(the fourth and fifth, of 95 and 98 folio pages respectively) have been
preserved.

John Frewen had three wives, and by each of the first two several children,
of whom the following lived to grow up, viz. by Eleanor his first wife,
(1.) Accepted Frewen, Archbp. of York; (2.) Thankful F., Purse Bearer and
Secretary of Petitions to Lord Keeper Coventry; (3.) John F., Rector of
Northiam; (4.) Stephen F., Alderman of the Vintry Ward, London; (5.) Mary,
wife of John Bigg of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; (6.) Joseph F. By his second
wife, Helen, daughter of ---- Hunt, J. F. had (7.) Benjamin, Citizen of
London; (8.) Thomas F.; (9.) Samuel, Joseph, Thomas, and Samuel joined
Cromwell's army for invading Ireland; and one of them (Captain Frewen) fell
at the storming of Kilkenny; another of them died at Limerick of the
plague, which carried off General Freton; the other (Thomas) founded a
family at Castle Connel, near Limerick.

John Frewen's _Sermons_ in 1612 are in some respects rare; but the
following copies are extant, viz. one in the Bodleian at Oxford; one in the
University Library at Cambridge; one in possession of Mr. Frewen at
Brickwall, Northiam; and one sold by Kerslake of Bristol, for 7s. 6d., to
the Rev. John Frewen Moor, of Bradfield, Berks.

If R. C. WARDE, of Kidderminster, has a copy which he would dispose of, he
may communicate with T. F., Post-office, Northiam, who would be glad to
purchase it.

J. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

"VOIDING KNIFE," "VOIDER," AND "ALMS-BASKET."

(Vol. vi., pp. 150. 280.; Vol. viii., p. 232.)

In later times (the sixteenth century) the good old custom of placing an
_alms-dish_ on the table was discontinued, and with less charitable
intentions came the less refined custom of removing the broken victuals
after a meal by means of a _voiding-knife_ and _voider_: the latter was a
basket into which were swept by a large wand, usually of wood, or
_voiding-knife_, as it was termed, all the bones and scraps left upon the
trenchers or scattered about the table. Thus, in the old plays, _Lingua_,
Act V. Sc. 13.: "Enter Gustus with a _voiding-knife_;" and in _A Woman
killed with Kindness_, "Enter three or four serving men, one with a
_voider_ and _wooden knife_ to take away."

The voider was still sometimes called the _alms-basket_, and had its
charitable uses in great and rich men's houses: one of which was to supply
those confined in gaols for debt, and such prisoners as had no means to
purchase any food.

In Green's _Tu Quoque_, a spendthrift is cast into prison; the jailer says
to him:

    "If you have no money, you had best remove into some cheaper ward; to
    the twopenny ward, it is likeliest to hold out with your means; or, if
    you will, you may go into the _hole_, and there you may feed for
    nothing."

To which he replies:

    "Ay, out of the _alms-basket_, where charity appears in likeness of a
    piece of stinking fish."

Even this poor allowance to the distressed prisoners passed through several
ordeals before it came to them; and the best and most wholesome portions
were filched from the _alms-basket_, and sold by the jailers at a low price
to people out of the prison. In the same play it is related of a miser,
that--

    "He never saw a joint of mutton in his own house these four-and-twenty
    years, but always cozened the poor prisoners, for he brought his
    victuals out of the _alms-basket_."

In the ordinances of Charles II. (_Ord. and Reg. Soc. Ant._ 367.), it is
commanded--

    "That no gentleman whatsoever shall send away my meat or wine from the
    table, or out of the chamber, upon any pretence whatsoever; and that
    the gentlemen-ushers take particular care herein, that all the meate
    that is taken off the table upon trencher-plates be put into a basket
    for the poore, and not undecently eaten by any servant in the roome;
    and if any person shall presume to do otherwise, he shall be prohibited
    {298} immediately to remaine in the chamber, or to come there again,
    until further order."

The _alms-basket_ was also called a _maund_, and those who partook of its
contents _maunders_.

W. CHAFFERS.

Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE LETTER "H" IN HUMBLE.

(Vol. viii., p. 229.)

The recent attempt to introduce a mispronunciation of the word _humble_
should be resisted by every one who has learned the plain and simple rule
of grammar, that "_a_ becomes _an_ before a vowel or a silent _h_." That
the rule obtained a considerable time ago, we have only to look into the
Book of Common Prayer to prove, where the congregation are exhorted to come
"with an humble, lowly, penitent, and obedient heart," and I believe it
will be admitted that the compilers of that work fully understood the right
pronunciation.

It may assist to settle the question by giving the etymology of the word
_humble_. It is derived from the Celtic _uim_, the ground, Latin _humus_.
_Umal_ in Celtic is humble, lowly, obedient; and the word signifies the
bending of the mind or disposition, just as a man would kneel or become
prostrate before a superior.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

In the course of a somewhat long life I have resided in the North of
England, in the West, and in London, upwards of twenty years each, and my
experience is directly the reverse of that of MR. DAWSON. I have very
rarely heard the _h_ omitted in _humble_, and when I have heard it, always
considered a vulgarity. The _u_ at the beginning of a word is always
aspirated. I believe the only words in which the initial _h_ is not
pronounced are derived from the Latin. If that were the general rule,
which, however, it is not, as in _habit_, _herb_, &c., still, where _h_
precedes _u_, it would be pronounced according to the universal rule for
the aspiration of _u_.

E. H.

_The letter "h" to be passed unsounded in those words which are of Latin
origin._--Try it:

 "Ha! 'tis a horrible hallucination
  To grudge our hymns their halcyon harmonies,
  When in just homage our rapt voices rise
  To celebrate our heroes in meet fashion;
  Whose hosts each heritage and habitation,
  Within these realms of hospitable joy,
  Protect securely 'gainst humiliation,
  When hostile foes, like harpies, would annoy.
  Habituated to the sound of _h_
  In history and histrionic art,
  We deem the man a homicide of speech,
  Maiming humanity in a vital part,
  Whose humorous hilarity would treat us,
  In lieu of _h_, with a supposed hiatus."

* *.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

(Vol. viii., p. 220.)

I have great pleasure in removing from the mind of your correspondent an
erroneous impression which must materially affect his good opinion of a
school to which I am sincerely attached. He asks if in any of the public
schools there are libraries of books giving general information accessible
to the scholars. Now my information only refers to one, that of Eton. There
is a library at Eton consisting of some thousand volumes, filled with books
of all kinds, ancient and modern, valuable and valueless. It is open to the
150 first in the school on payment of eighteen shillings per annum, and on
their refusal the option of becoming subscribers descends to the next in
gradation. The list, however, is never full. The money collected goes to
the support of a librarian, and to buy pens, ink, and paper, and the
surplus (necessarily small) to the purchase of books. The basis of the
library is the set of Delphin classics, presented by George I. The late
head master (now provost) has been a most munificent contributor; Prince
Albert has also presented several valuable volumes. Whenever the Prince has
come to Eton he has always visited the library, and taken great interest in
its welfare; and on his last visit said to the provost that he should be
quite ready and willing to obey the call whenever he was asked to lay the
first stone of a museum in connexion with the library.

ETONENSIS.

The free grammar school at Macclesfield, Cheshire, has always had a
library. It _did_ contain some rare volumes of the olden time; it was at
various times more or less supported by a small payment from the scholars.
Some years since Mr. Osborn, the then head master, solicited subscriptions
from former pupils, and with some success. Of the present state of the
school library I know nothing.

EDWARD HAWKINS.

At Winchester there are libraries for the commoners and scholars containing
books for general reading: they are under the several charge of the
commoner-prefects and the prefect of library, who lend them on application
to the juniors.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

Christ's Hospital has a library such as inquired after by MR. WELD TAYLOR.
The late Mr. Thackeray, of the Priory, Lewisham (who died about two years
ago), bequeathed to this school his valuable library of books on general
literature for the use of the boys. Previously to this bequest the
collection of books was small.

N.

       *       *       *       *       *

{299}

DR. JOHN TAYLOR.

(Vol. i., p. 466.)

My attention has been caught by some remarks in the early volumes of your
work upon my learned ancestor Dr. John Taylor, minister at Norwich, and
subsequently divinity tutor at Warrington. Whatever opinion may have been
attributed to Dr. Parr concerning Dr. Taylor, this I know, that on
revisiting Norwich he desired my father (the Dr.'s grandson) to show him
the house inhabited by him while he was the minister of the Octagon Chapel.

Dr. Parr looked serious and solemn, and in his usual energetic manner
pronounced, "He was a _great_ scholar."

Dr. John Taylor was buried at Kirkstead[4], Lancashire, where his tomb is
distinguished by the following simple inscription:

        "Near to this place lies interr'd
                 what was mortal of
                 IOHN TAYLOR, D.D.

                      Reader,
        Expect no eulogium from this Stone.
          Enquire amongst the friends of
          LEARNING, LIBERTY, AND TRUTH;
            These will do him justice.
      Whilst taking his natural rest, he fell
      asleep in JESUS, the 5th of March, 1761,
                   Aged 66."

The following inscription, in Latin, was composed by Dr. Parr for a
monumental stone erected by grandchildren and great-grandchildren in the
Octagon Chapel, Norwich:

             "Joanni Taylor, S.T.P.
                  Langovici nato
          Albi ostii in agro Cumbriensi
            bonis disciplinis instituto
                      Norvici
  Ad exequendum munus pastoris delecto A.D. 1733.
             Rigoduni quo in oppido
         Senex quotidie aliquid addiscens
    Theologiam et philosophiam moralem docuit
                     Mortuo
                 Tert. non. Mart.
               Anno Domini MDCCLXI.
                    Ætat. LXVI.
             Viro integro innocenti pio
      Scriptori Græcis et Hebraicis litteris
                   probe erudito
          Verbi divini gravissimo interpreti
         Religionis simplicis et incorruptæ
              Acerrimo propugnatori
            Nepotes ejus et pronepotes
                In hac Capella
        Cujus ille fundamenta olim jecerat
          Monumentum hocce honorarium
               Poni curaverunt."

S. R.

[Footnote 4: His first appointment, as minister of the Gospel, was at
Kirkstead Chapel.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PORTRAIT OF SIR ANTHONY WINGFIELD.

(Vol. viii., p. 245.)

It is most likely that Q., who inquired relative to a picture of Sir
Anthony Wingfield, may occasionally meet with an engraving of this worthy,
though the depository of the original portrait is unknown. The tale told
Horace Walpole by the housekeeper at the house of the Nauntons at
Letheringham, Suffolk, is not correct. Sir Anthony was a favourite of the
monarch, and was knighted by him for his brave conduct at Terouenne and
Tournay. A private plate of Sir Anthony exists, the original portrait from
which it was taken being at Letheringham at the time the engraving was
made. The position of the hand in the girdle only indicates the fashion of
portraiture at the time, and is akin to the frequent custom of placing one
arm a-kimbo in modern paintings.

The Query of your correspondent opens a tale of despoliation perhaps
unparalleled even in the days of iconoclastic fury, and but very
imperfectly known.

The estate of Letheringham devolved, about the middle of the last century,
upon William Leman, Esq., who, being obliged to maintain his right against
claimants stating they descended from a branch of the Naunton family who
had migrated into Normandy at the end of the preceding century, was placed
in a position of considerable difficulty to defend his occupation of the
house and lands. I will not say by whom, but in 1770 down came the
residence in which the author of the well-known _Fragmenta Regalia_ had
resided, and, what is far worse, the Priory Church, which, after the
Dissolution, was made parochial, and which was filled with tombs, effigies,
and brasses to members of the family--Bovilles, Wingfields, and
Nauntons--was also levelled with the ground. It was stated at the time that
the sacred edifice had only become dilapidated from age, and that the
parishioners were therefore obliged to do something. What _was done_,
however, was no re-edification of the fabric, but its entire destruction,
and the erection of a new church. Fortunately, Horace Walpole saw the
edifice before the contractor for the new building had cast his "desiring
eyes" upon it, and has recorded his impressions in one of his letters. More
fortunate still, the late Mr. Gough and Mr. Nichols visited it, and the
former employed the well-known topographical draughtsman, the late James
Johnson of Woodbridge, Suffolk, to copy some of the effigies, which were
afterwards engraved and inserted in the second volume of the _Sepulchral
Monuments_. The zeal of Johnson, however, led him to preserve, by his
minute delineation, not only _every_ monument (only two, I think, are given
by Gough), but also the interior and exterior of the church, with the {300}
position of the tombs. The interior view may be seen among Craven Ord's
drawings in the library of the British Museum; and I am happy to say I
possess Johnson's original sketches of all the monuments, and of the
exterior of the building. A fair idea of the extent of the destruction may
be gained by the mention of the fact, that six hundred-weight of alabaster
effigies were beaten into powder, and sold to line water-cisterns. Some of
the figures were rescued by the late Dr. W. Clubbe, and erected into a
pyramid in his garden at Brandeston Vicarage, with this inscription:

    "_Fuimus._ Indignant Reader, these monumental remains are not (as thou
    mayest suppose) the ruins of Time, but were destroyed in an irruption
    of the Goths so late in the Christian era as the year 1789. _Credite
    posteri._"

JOHN WODDERSPOON.

Norwich.

William Naunton, son and heir of Thomas Naunton (temp. Hen. VII.), and
Margery, daughter and heiress of Richard Busiarde, married Elizabeth,
daughter of Sir Anthony Wingfield. Their only child, Henry Naunton, was the
father of two sons, viz. Robert the _secretary_ (temp. James I.), whose son
died unmarried, and daughter, married to Paul Viscount Bayning, died
without issue; and William Naunton (fil. 2^s). His son and heir, who
married a Coke, had one daughter, Theophila, married to William Leman
(ancestor of the family whose great estates are in search of an owner):
their only issue, Theophila, married Thomas Rede, who thereby became
possessed of Letheringham in Suffolk, and the whole of the Naunton
property. His estates went to his son Robert, who, dying without issue in
1822, left them much diminished to his nephew, the Rev. Robert Rede Cooper,
second son of the Rev. Samuel Lovick Cooper and Sarah Leman, youngest
daughter, and eventually heiress, of the above Thomas Rede. The Rev. Robert
Rede Rede (for he assumed that name) died a few years ago possessed of
Ashmans Park, Suff., which was independent of the Naunton property, and of
certain heir-looms, the sole remains of the great estates of the "Nauntons
of Letheringham," which continue in the possession of the descendants of
that family. It is at _Ashmans_ that the portrait inquired for by your
correspondent Q. will probably be found. Whether that estate has already
been sold by the daughters of the late possessor (four co-heiresses) I am
unable to say.

H. C. K.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARNACLES.

(Vol. viii., p. 223.)

In reference to the article on the barnacle bird in "N. & Q." as above, I
send you a paper which I lately put in our local journal (_The Tralee
Chronicle_), containing a collection of notices of the curious errors and
_gradual_ correction of them, on the subject of the barnacle. I fear it may
be long for your columns, but don't know how to shorten it; nor can I well
omit another amusing notice of the subject, to which, since I published it,
an intelligent friend called my attention; it is from the _Memoirs of Lady
Fanshaw_:--

    "When we came to Calais, we met the Earl of Strafford and Sir Kenelm
    Digby, with some others of our countrymen; we were all feasted at the
    Governor's of the castle, and much excellent discourse passed; but, as
    was reason, most share was Sir Kenelm Digby's, who had enlarged
    somewhat more in extraordinary stories than might be averred, and all
    of them passed with great applause and wonder of the French then at
    table; but the concluding one was--that barnacles, a bird in Jersey,
    was first a shell-fish to appearance, and from that sticking upon old
    wood, became in time a bird. After some consideration, they unanimously
    burst out into laughter, believing it altogether false, and, to say the
    truth, it was the only thing true he had discoursed with them!--that
    was his infirmity, tho' otherwise a person of most excellent parts, and
    a very free bred gentleman."--Lady Fanshaw's _Memoirs_, pp. 72-3.

A. B. R.

Belmont.

As a tail-piece to the curious information communicated respecting these
strange creatures in Vol. i., pp. 117. 169. 254. 340., Vol. viii., pp. 124.
223., may be added an advertisement, extracted from the monthly compendium
annexed to _La Belle Assemblée_, or Bell's _Court and Fashionable
Magazine_, for June, 1807, in the following terms:

    "Wonderful natural curiosity, called the Goose Tree, Barnacle Tree, or
    Tree bearing Geese, taken up at sea, on the 12th of January, 1807, by
    Captain Bytheway, and was more than twenty men could raise out of the
    water, which may be seen at the Exhibition Rooms, Spring Gardens, from
    ten o'clock in the morning till ten at night, every day. Admission, one
    shilling; children half-price.

    "The Barnacles which form the present Exhibition, possess a neck
    upwards of two feet in length, resembling the windpipe of a chicken;
    each shell contains five pieces, and notwithstanding the many thousands
    which hang to eight inches of the tree, part of the fowl may be seen
    from each shell. Sir Robert Moxay, in the Wonders of Nature and Art,
    speaking of this singularly curious production, says, in every shell he
    opened he found a perfect sea-fowl, with a bill like that of a goose,
    feet like those of water-fowl, and the feathers all plainly formed.

    "The above wonderful and almost indescribable curiosity, is the only
    exhibition of the kind in the world."

[mu].

       *       *       *       *       *

{301}

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Precision in Photographic Processes._--I have for a long period observed,
and been much annoyed at the circumstance, that many of your photographic
correspondents are very remiss when they favour you with recipes for
certain processes, in not stating the specific gravity of the articles
used; also, in giving the quantities, in not stating if it is by weight or
measure.

To illustrate my meaning more fully, I will refer to Vol. viii., p. 252.,
where a correspondent, in his albumen process, adds "chloride of barium, 7¼
dr." Now, as this article is prepared and sold both in crystals and in a
liquid state, it would be desirable to know which of the two is meant
before his disciples run the risk of spoiling their paper and losing their
time.

How easy would it be to prefix the letter _f_ where fluid oz., dr., or
other quantity is meant.

Trusting that this hint may in future induce your correspondents to be as
explicit as possible on all points, believe me to be an

AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER.

_Tent for Collodion._--As I have frequently benefited from the hints of
your correspondents, I in my turn hasten to communicate a very simple plan
I have contrived for a portable tent for the collodion process, in the hope
it may be found to answer with others as well as it has done with me: it is
as follows.

Round the legs of my camera stand (a tripod one) I have made a covering for
two of the sides, of a double lining of glazed yellow calico, with a few
loops at the foot to stake to the ground; the third side is made of thick
dark cloth, much wider and larger than to cover the side, which is fastened
at one leg of the stand to the calico. The other side is provided with
loops to fasten to corresponding buttons on the other leg, and by bending
on my knees I can easily pull the dark cloth over my head and back, fasten
the loops to the buttons, and then I can perfectly perform any manipulation
required, without the risk of any ray of white light entering; and
certainly nothing can be more _portable_.

The simplicity of the thing makes any farther description of it
unnecessary, to say nothing of your valuable space.

JAN.

_Mr. Sisson's Developing Solution._--The REV. MR. SISSON, in a letter I
received from him a few days ago, stated that he had been trying, at the
recommendation of a gentleman who had written to him upon the subject, a
stronger developing solution than that the formula for which he published
some time back in your pages, and that it gave splendid positive pictures
with very short exposure in the camera.

Since I received his letter I have been able to corroborate his testimony
in favour of the stronger solution, and have much pleasure in sending you
the formula for the benefit of your readers. It is this: 1½ drachms of
protosulphate of iron in five ounces of water, 1 drachm of nitrate of lead,
letting it settle for some hours; pour off the clear liquid, and then add
to it 2 drachms of acetic acid.

J. LEACHMAN.

20. Compton Terrace, Islington.

_Mr. Stewart's Pantograph._--Will some of your photographic readers, who
may know the proper size of MR. STEWART'S pantograph, give a detailed
description of it? We should have focal length of lens, size of box, and
the length of the sliding, parts of it. Cannot the lens be made fast in the
middle of the box, provided the frames can be adjusted for different-sized
pictures?

R. ELLIOTT.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_George Browne of Shefford_ (Vol. viii., p. 243.).--I observe that in your
interesting publication you have inserted the Query which I sent you long
since. A somewhat similar Query of mine has already appeared, and been
answered by your correspondents H. C. C. and T. HUGHES; the latter stating
that my particulars are not strictly correct, inasmuch as the individual
styled by me as "Sir George Browne, _Bart._," was in reality simple "George
Browne, _Esq._" I admit this error; but if I was wrong, MR. HUGHES was so
too, for George Browne's wife was Eleanor, and _not_ Elizabeth, Blount, as
appears by his affidavit in the State Paper Office, wherein he deposes that
he "had by _Ellinor_, his late wife, deceased daughter of Sir Richard
Blount, eight sons, namely, George, Richard, Anthony, John, William, Henry,
Francis, and Robert, and seven daughters."

The sons are thus disposed of:

1. George, created K. B. at the coronation of Charles II.; married
Elizabeth Englefield; had issue two daughters; died 1678.

2. Richard, a captain in the king's army, 1649, and was dead in 1650.

3. Anthony, who was "preferred to the trade of a M_a_rchant," 1650.

4. John, a page to Prince Thomas, uncle to the Duke of Savoy; created Bart.
1665; married Mrs. Bradley; had issue.

5. William, had a "reversion of a copyhold in Shefford."

6. Henry, died unmarried, 1668; buried at Shefford.

7. Francis, nine years old in 1651; and

8. Robert, four years old in 1651.

In that year (1651) Henry, Francis, and Robert were living with their
guardian, Mr. {302} Libb, of Hardwick, Oxon; and soon afterwards we find
them placed under the care of a clergyman at Appleshaw. But here we seem to
lose sight of them altogether.

MR. HUGHES says that the only sons who married were George, the heir, and
John, the younger brother; but we have no evidence of this; and as it is
probable that some of the others, namely, Richard, Anthony, William,
Francis, and Robert, married, I wish to procure proof either that they did
or did not. If any of these married, I wish to know which of them, to whom,
and when and where.

Perhaps some of your correspondents can tell me where Richard, Anthony, and
William resided, and what became of Francis and Robert after they had left
their tutor, the minister of Appleshaw.

NEWBURIENSIS.

_Wheale_ (Vol. vi., p. 579.; Vol. vii., p. 96.).--Since this word is once
more brought forward in "N. & Q." (Vol. viii., p. 208.), I will answer the
Query respecting it. I was prepared to do so shortly after it first
appeared, but I had reason to expect a reply from one more conversant with
such archaisms. If the Querist, or either respondent, had examined the
context, he could not have failed to discover a clue to the meaning, as the
words "gall of dragons" instead of "wine," and "wheale" instead of "milk,"
are evidently translations of sound expressions in the preface of Pope
Sixtus (or Xystus) V., to his edition of the Vulgate. The words there are
"fel draconum pro vino, pro lacte sanies obtruderetur." Wheale more
commonly signified, in later times, a pustule or boil; but it is from the
Ang.-Sax. _hwele_, putrefaction. The bad taste of such language is too
manifest to require farther comment.

If I were disposed to conclude with a Query, I might ask where Q. found
that _wheale_ ever meant _whey_?

W. S. W.

Middle Temple.

_Sir Arthur Aston_ (Vol. viii., p. 126.).--He was appointed Governor of
Reading, November 29, 1642; that his relative, Geo. Tattershall, Esq., was
of Stapleford, Wilts, and only purchased the estate, West Court in
Finchampstead, which went, on the marriage of his daughter, to the Hon.
Chas. Howard, fourth son of the Earl of Arundel, and was sold by him.

A READER.

_"A Mockery," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 244).--Thomas Lord Denman is the author
of the phrase in question. That noble lord, in giving his judgment in the
case of O'Connell and others against the Queen, in the House of Lords,
September 4, 1844, thus alluded to the judgment of the Court of Queen's
Bench in Ireland, overruling the challenge by the traversers to the array,
on account of the fraudulent omission of fifty-nine names from the list of
jurors of the county of the city of Dublin:

    "If it is possible that such a practice as that which has taken place
    in the present instance should be allowed to pass without a remedy (and
    no other remedy has been suggested), trial by jury itself, instead of
    being a security to persons who are accused, will be _a delusion, a
    mockery, and a snare_."

See Clark and Finnelly's _Reports of Cases in the House of Lords_, vol. xi.
p. 351.

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

_Norman of Winster_ (Vol. viii., p. 126).--I do not know if W. is aware
that there was a family of Norman who was possessed of a share of the manor
of Beeley, in the parish of Ashford, Derbyshire, which came from the
Savilles, the said manor having been purchased by Wm. Saville, Esq., 1687.

A READER.

_Arms of the See of York_ (Vol. viii., pp. 34. 111. 233.).--Thoroton has a
curious note on this subject in his _History of Nottinghamshire_ (South
Muskham, in the east window of the chancel), from which it would appear
that neither Thoroton himself, nor his after-editor Thoresby, could be
aware of the change that had taken place. The note, however, may help to
complete the _catena_ of those incumbents of the see of York who (prior to
Cardinal Wolsey) bore the same arms as the see of Canterbury:

    "There are the arms of the see of _Canterbury_, impaling _Arg. three
    boars' heads erased and erected sable_, Booth, I doubt mistaken for the
    arms of _York_, as they are with Archbishop Lee's again in the same
    window; and in the hall window at _Newstede_ the see of _Canterbury_
    impales _Savage_, who was Archbishop of _York_ also, but not of
    _Canterbury_ that I know of."--Vol. iii. p. 152., ed. Notts, 1796.

Can any of your antiquarian contributors say why the sees of Canterbury and
York bore originally the same arms? Had it any relation to the struggle for
precedence carried on for so many years between the two sees?

J. SANSOM.

Mr. Waller, in his volume on _Monumental Brasses_, in describing that of
William de Grenfeld, Archbishop of York, says:

    "The arms of the two archiepiscopal sees were formerly the same, and
    continued to be so till the Reformation, when the pall surmounting a
    crozier was retained by Canterbury, and the cross keys and tiara
    (emblematic of St. Peter, to whom the minster is dedicated), which
    until then had been used only for the church of York, were adopted as
    the armorial bearings of the see."

To the word "tiara" he appends a note:

    "Or rather at this period a regal crown, the tiara having been
    superseded in the reign of Henry VIII."

{303}

He gives no authority for the statement, but the note appears
contradictory, and implies two changes in the first to the cross-keys and
tiara, which may corroborate the notion of its having been adopted by
Cardinal Wolsey; secondly, the substitution of the crown for the tiara. Can
this be proved?

F. H.

_Roger Wilbraham, Esq.'s, Cheshire Collection_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--It
is probable these MSS. are still at the family seat of the Wilbrahams,
Delamere Lodge, Northwitch. When Ormerod published his _History of
Cheshire_, in 1819, they were in the custody of the family. He says (vol.
iii. p. 232.):

    "In the possession of the family is a curious series of journals
    commenced by Richard Wilbraham of Nantwich, who died in 1612, and
    continued regularly to the time of his great-great-grandson, who died
    in 1732. As a genealogical document, such a memorial is invaluable; and
    it contains many curious incidental notices of passing events, and of
    minute particulars relating to the town of Nantwich, of whose rights
    the Wilbrahams of Townsend were the never-failing and active
    guardians."

J. YEOWELL.

_Pierrepont_ (Vol. vii., p. 606.).--A descendant thanks C. J. The
information wanted is parentage and descent of John Pierrepont of Wadworth,
who in a family mem. by his great-great-granddaughter is called "Uncle to
Evelyn, Earl of P." Any information respecting John Pierrepont or his
descendants through Margaret Stevens will much oblige.

A. F. B.

Diss.

_Passage in Bacon_ (Vol. viii., p. 141.).--In the Notes on Bacon's Essay
II. "On Death," there appears the following:

    "In the passage of Juvenal, the words are 'Qui spatium vitæ,' and not
    'Qui finem vitæ,' as quoted by Lord Bacon. Length of days is meant."

His lordship's memory and _ear_ too certainly misled him with respect to
the _wording_, but he has correctly given us the _sense_. Juvenal has been
arguing (l. iv. Sat. x.) on the vanity of earthly blessings, so called, in
quite a philosophic way; it is hardly possible to suppose him closing his
sermon with--

 "Fortem posce animum, mortis terrore carentem,
  Qui spatium vitæ extremum inter munera ponat
  Naturæ, qui ferre queat quoscumque labores,
  Nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil, et potiores
  Herculis ærumnas credat, sævosque labores,
  Et Venere, et coenis, et plume Sardanapali."

if by _spatium_ he meant "length;" but how apt and beautiful in Lord
Bacon's sense! A note on the passage in the Var. Ed. of 1684 has "Qui sciat
_mortem_ munus aliquod naturæ esse."

EMMANUEL CANTAB.

_Monumental Inscription in Peterborough Cathedral_ (Vol. viii., p.
215.).--In consequence of the very curious Notes communicated by H. THOS.
WAKE, I would beg to draw that gentleman's attention to the very important
MS. collections of Bp. White Kennet on the subject of this cathedral in the
Lansd. MSS., British Museum, to which I shall be happy to give him the
references in a private letter, if he will favour me with his address.

E. G. BALLARD.

_Lord North_ (Vol. vii., p. 207).--I feel much obliged to your
correspondent C. for his courtesy in replying to my inquiry concerning this
nobleman. His remembrance of the personal appearance of George III., and
his remarks on the subject, are in my opinion conclusive; but the
appearance of the statement in the _Life of Goldsmith_ was such as to
provoke inquiry. May I ask our correspondent C. (who appears to be
acquainted with the North genealogy) whether a sister of the premier North,
by the some mother, was not alive some years after the year 1734? Collins
records the birth of an infant daughter, but the fact is overlooked in
modern peerages.

OBSERVER.

_Land of Green Ginger_ (Vol. viii., pp. 34. 160. 227.).--Mr. Frost, in his
_History_, p. 71., &c., has shown many instances of alteration in the names
of streets in Hull from the names of persons, as from Aldegate to Scale
Lane, from Schayl, a Dutchman; and MR. RICHARDSON has made it most probable
that the designation "Land of Green Ginger" took place betwixt 1640 and
1735. It has occurred to me, that a family of the Dutch name of Lindegreen
(green lime-trees) resided at Hull within the last fifty years or more. Now
the "junior" of this name would be called in Dutch "Lindegroen jonger,"
which may have originated the corruption "Land o' green ginger." This
conjecture would amount to solution of the question, if the Lindegreens had
about 150 years ago any property or occupation in this lane. The Dutch had
necessarily much intercourse with Hull: one of their imports was the
lamprey, chiefly as bait for turbot, cod, &c. obtained in the Ouse near the
mouth of the Derwent; which fish was conveyed in boats in Ouse Water, and
was kept alive and lively by means of poles made to revolve in these
floating fish-ponds, as I was informed by an alderman prior to the reform
of that ancient borough. But lamprey has now either migrated, or been
exterminated by clearing the Ouse of stones[5], or by the excessive
cupidity of the fisherman or gastronomer.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.

[Footnote 5: The Petromyzon by attaching itself to a stone forms a drill,
by which it furrows the shoal for the deposit of its spawn.]

{304}

_Sheer, and Shear Hulk_ (Vol. vii., p. 126.)--A _sheer_ hulk is a mere
hulk, simply the hull of a vessel unfurnished with masts and rigging. A
_shear_ hulk, on the contrary, is the hull of a vessel fitted with _shears_
(so termed from their resemblance to the blades of a pair of shears when
opened), for the purpose of masting and dismasting other vessels.

The use of the word _buckle_, in the signification of bend, is exceedingly
common both among seamen and builders. For its use among the former I can
vouch; and among the latter, see the evidence at the coroner's inquest on
the late melancholy and mysterious accident at the Crystal Palace.

W. PINKERTON.

Ham.

_Serpent with a Human Head_ (Vol. iv., p. 191.).--The following passage
from Gervasius Tilberiensis (_Otia Imperialia_, lib. i sect. 15.) shows
that the idea of the serpent which tempted Eve, having a woman's head, was
current in the time of Bede. I having not had an opportunity of finding
whereabouts in Bede's writings the passage quoted by Gervasius occurs:

    "Nec erit omittendum, quod ait Beda, loquens de serpente qui Evam
    seduxit: 'Elegit enim diabolus quoddam genus serpentis foemineum vultum
    habentis, quia similes similibus applaudunt, et movit ad loquendum
    linguam ejus."

C. W. G.

_"When the maggot bites"_ (Vol. viii., p 244.).--An ANON correspondent asks
for a note to explain the origin of the saying that thing done on the spur
of the moment is done "when the maggot bites." Perhaps the best explanation
is that afforded in the following passage from Swift's _Discourse on the
Mechanical Operation of the Spirit_:

    "It is the opinion of choice _virtuosi_ that the brain is only a crowd
    of little animals with teeth and claws extremely sharp, and which cling
    together in the contexture we behold, like the picture of Hobbes's
    Leviathan; or like bees in perpendicular swarm on a tree; or like a
    carrion corrupted into vermin, still preserving the shape and figure of
    the mother animal: that all invention is formed by the morsure of two
    or more of these animals upon certain capillary nerves which proceed
    from thence, whereof three branches spring into the tongue and two into
    the right hand. They hold also that these animals are of a constitution
    extremely cold: that their food is the air we attract, their excrement
    phlegm. And that what we vulgarly call rheums, and colds, and
    distillations, is nothing else but an epidemical looseness to which
    that little commonwealth is very subject from the climate it lies
    under. Farther, that nothing less than a violent heat can disentangle
    these creatures from their hamated station in life; or give them vigour
    and humour, to imprint the marks of their little teeth. That if the
    morsure be hexagonal, it produces poetry; the circular gives eloquence.
    If the bite hath been conical, the person whose nerve is so affected
    shall be disposed to write upon politics; and so of the rest."

J. EMERSON TENNENT.

_Definition of a Proverb_ (Vol. viii., p. 242.).--The proverb, "Wit of one
man, the wisdom of many," has been attributed to Lord John Russell: I think
in a recent number of the _Quarterly Review_. The foundation was laid most
probably by Bacon:

    "The genius, wit, and spirit of a nation are discovered by their
    proverbs."

It may not be perhaps generally known to your readers, that in a small
volume, called _Origines de la Lengua Espanola, &c., por Don Gregorio
Mayans y Siscar, Bibliothecario del Rei nuestro Señor_, en Madrid, Año
1737, will be found a numerous collection of Spanish proverbs. A MS. note
in my copy has a note, stating that the MS. made for Mayans, from the
original, in the national library at Madrid, is now in the British Museum,
Additional MSS., No. 9939.

The work is divided into dialogues; and in the copy in question are some
remarks by a Spanish gentleman, I fear too long for your pages: but I send
you an English version by a friend, of one of the couplets in the
dialogues, "Diez marcos tengo de oro:"

 "Ten marks of gold for the telling,
  And of silver I have nine score,
  Good houses are mine to dwell in,
  And I have a rent-roll more:
  My line and lineage please me:
  Ten squires to come at my call,
  And no lord who flatters or fees me,
  Which pleases me most of them all."

JOHN MARTIN.

Woburn Abbey.

_Gilbert White of Selborne_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--Oriel College, of which
Gilbert White was for more than fifty years a Fellow, some years since
offered to have a portrait of him painted for their hall. An inquiry was
then made of all the members of his family; but no portrait of any
description could be found. I have heard my father say that Gilbert White
was much pressed by his brother Thomas (my grandfather) to have his
portrait painted, and that he talked of it; but it was never done.

A. HOLT WHITE.

_"A Tub to the Whale"_ (Vol. viii., p. 220.).--In the Appendix B. to Sir
James Macintosh's _Life of Sir Thomas More_ is the following passage:

    "The learned Mr. Douce has informed a friend of mine, that in Sebastian
    Munster's _Cosmography_ there is a cut of a ship, to which a whale was
    coming too close for her safety; and of the sailors throwing a tub
    {305} to the whale, evidently to play with. The practice of throwing a
    tub or barrel to a large fish, to divert the animal from gambols
    dangerous to a vessel, is also mentioned in an old prose translation of
    the _Ship of Fools_. These passages satisfactorily explain the common
    phrase of throwing a tub to a whale."

Sir James Macintosh conjectures that the phrase "the tale of a tub" (which
was familiarly known in Sir Thomas More's time) had reference to the tub
thrown to the whale.

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

_The Number Nine_ (Vol. viii., p. 149.).--The property of numbers
enunciated and illustrated by MR. LAMMENS resolves itself into two.

1. If from any number above nine be subtracted the number expressed by
writing the same digits backwards, the remainder is divisible by nine.

2. If the number nine measure a given number, it measures the sum of its
digits.

As the latter is proved in most elementary books on Algebra, I confine my
proof to the former.

Let the number in question be--

  _a__0 + _a__1 . 10 + _a__2 . 10^2 + ... + _a__{_n_-1} . 10^{_n_-1} +
      _a__{_n_} . 10^{_n_}

Then

  _a__{_n_} + _a__{_n_-1} . 10 + _a__{_n_-2} . 10^2 + ... + _a__1 .
      10^{_n_-1} + _a__0 . 10^{_n_}

is "the same number written backwards." The difference is--

  (_a__{_n_} - _a__0)(10^{_n_} - 1) + (_a__{_n_-1} - _a__1)(10^{_n_-2} - 1)
      . 10 + ...
      + (_a__{_n_/2+1} - _a__{_n_/2-1})(10^2-1) . 10^{_n_/2-1} if _n_ be
          even, but
      + (_a__{(_n_+1)/2} - _a__{(_n_-1)/2})(10-1) . 10^{(n-1)/2} if _n_ be
          odd.

And every term of this difference, as involving a factor of the form (1 -
10^{_n_}), is divisible by 9; and therefore the difference is divisible by
9.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_The Willingham Boy._--ABREDONENSIS will find full information on all the
points he appears from your Notices to Correspondents (Vol. viii., p. 66.)
to have inquired after in--

    "Prodigium Willinghamense, or Authentic Memoirs of the Life of a Boy
    born at Willingham, near Cambridge, with some Reflections on his
    Understanding, Strength, Temper, Memory, Genius, and Knowledge, by
    Thos. Dawkes, Surgeon."

W. P.

_Unlucky Days_ (Vol. vii., p. 232.).--The Latin verses contained in the old
Spanish breviary, adverted to by W. PINKERTON, bear a close resemblance to
those which are to be found in the Red Book of the Irish Exchequer. The
latter form part of a calendar which is supposed to have been written
either during the reign of John or Henry III. A similar calendar, with like
verses, has been printed by the Archæological Society, Dublin. As the lines
in the Red Book vary in some respects from those which have appeared in "N.
& Q.," I have taken the liberty of inclosing a transcript of them.

 "_January._ Prima dies mensis, et septima truncat ut ensis.
  _February._ Quarta subit mortem, prosternit tertia fortem.
  _March._ Primus mandantem, dirumpit quarta bibentem.
  _April._ Denus et undenus, est mortis vulnere plenus.
  _May._ Tertius occidit, et septimus hora relidit.
  _June._ Denus pallescit, quindenus federa nescit.
  _July._ Terdecimus mactat, Julii denus labefactat.
  _August._ Prima necat fortem, perditque secunda choortem.
  _September._ Tertia Septembris, et denus fert mala membris.
  _October._ Tertia cum dena, clamat sit integra vena.
  _November._ Scorpius est quintus, et tertius est nece cinctus.
  _December._ Septimus exanguis, virosus denus ut anguis."

JAMES F. FERGUSON.

Dublin.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. vii. _passim_.).--Midlothian:

 "Musselboro' was a boro',
    Whan Edinboro' was nane;
  An Musselboro' 'll be a boro',
    Whan Edinboro's gane."

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

Cambridgeshire folks say,--

 "Hungry Hardwick,
    Greedy Toft,
  Hang-up Kingston,
    Caldecott[6] naught."

P. J. F. GANTILLON, B.A.

[Footnote 6: Pronounced _Cawcote_.]

_Quotation Wanted_ (Vol. vi., p. 421.).--See Byron's _Dream_, stanza ii. v.
30.:

             "She was his life,
  The ocean to the river of his thoughts."

P. J. F. GANTILLON, B.A.

_Lamech_ (Vol. vii., p. 432.).--For "Lamech," see Mr. Browne's excellent
_Ordo Sæclorum_, ch. vii. § 302., 1844--a book deserving to be much more
widely known.

S. Z. Z. S.

_Muggers_ (Vol. viii., p. 34.).--The names _muggers_ and _potters_,
betokening dealers in mugs and pots, are, in the north of England, applied
indiscriminately to hawkers of earthenware, whether of gipsy blood or not.
Indeed, the majority are evidently not gipsies.

T. D. RIDLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


{306}

Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

We have received from Messrs. Williams and Norgate copies of the first
number of two new German periodicals, with which, when they know their
nature, some of our readers may desire better acquaintance. Our antiquarian
friends, for instance, may be glad to know, that the opening number of one
of these, the _Anzeige für Kunde des Deutschen Vorzeit, Organ des
Germanischen Museums_ (which is to appear monthly), contains, among other
articles of antiquarian interest, notes on the earliest known MS. of the
Nuremburg Chronicle, and on an early MS. of the Nibelungen; notice of an
original Letter of Pirkheimer, relative to the wars of Maximilian against
the Swiss; and also of a remarkable, and hitherto unknown, old copper-plate
engraving on six sheets by an unknown artist, apparently of the school of
Martin Schon, illustrative of that campaign; and an account of an early
miscellaneous MS., in which is a List of Masons' Marks. The second is one
which will interest all lovers of folk lore. It is edited by J. W. Wolf,
and entitled _Zeitschrift für Deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, and
numbers among its contributors, W. Grimm, Nordnagel, Kuhn, and many other
good men and true, who have devoted their talents to the study of popular
antiquities. We hope shortly to find room for a specimen or two of the "Old
World" stories and customs which they have here recorded.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_A Guide containing a Short Historical Sketch of Lynton
and Places adjacent in North Devon, including Ilfracombe_, by T. H. Cooper:
a well-timed guide to the most picturesque portion of one of the most
beautiful parts of North Devon, pleasantly interlarded with scraps of folk
lore and historical anecdote.--In Bohn's _Standard Library_, we have a
farther issue of Miss Bremer's works, comprising _A Diary_; _The H----
Family_; _Axel and Anna_, and other Tales: and the second volume of Mr.
Hickie's translation of _The Comedies of Aristophanes_ forms the issue for
the present month of the same publisher's _Classical Library_.--Mr. Darling
proceeds with great regularity in the publication of his _Cyclopoedia
Bibliographica_, of which we have received No. XII., which extends from
Bernard Lancy to Martin Madan.--_The Irish Quarterly Review_, No. XI. for
September, contains, among other articles of general interest, such as
those on _French Social Life and Fashion in Poetry, and the Poets of
Fashion_, a farther portion of the amusing anecdotical paper, entitled _The
Streets of Dublin_.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

THE BUILDER, No. 520.

OSWALLI CROLLII OPERA. 12mo. Geneva, 1635.

GAFFARELL'S UNHEARD-OF CURIOSITIES. Translate by Chelmead. London, 12mo.
1650.

BEAUMONT'S PSYCHE. 2nd Edit. folio. Camb. 1702.

THE MONTHLY ARMY LIST from 1797 to 1800 inclusive. Published by Hookham and
Carpenter, Bond Street. Square 12mo.

JER. COLLIER'S ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Folio Edition. Vol II.

LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE LONDON GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

PRESCOTT'S HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 3 Vols. London. Vol. III.

MRS. ELLIS'S SOCIAL DISTINCTIONS. Tallis's Edition. Vols. II. and III. 8vo.

PAMPHLETS.

JUNIUS DISCOVERED. By P. T. Published about 1789.

REASONS FOR REJECTING THE EVIDENCE OF MR. ALMON, &c. 1807.

ANOTHER GUESS AT JUNIUS. Hookham. 1809.

THE AUTHOR OF JUNIUS DISCOVERED. Longmans. 1821.

THE CLAIMS OF SIR P. FRANCIS REFUTED. Longmans. 1822.

WHO WAS JUNIUS? Glynn. 1837.

SOME NEW FACTS, &c., by Sir F. Dwarris. 1850.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

G. T. (Reading). _We are happy to be able to assure our Correspondent that
that venerable antiquary_ JOHN BRITTON _is still among us, and, when we
last saw him, as hale as his best friends could wish._

H. H. R. _will find in our earlier volumes several Notes on the subject of
his Query._

W. M. _The line_--

 "Incidis in Scyllam cupiens vitare Charybdim,"

_is from_ lib. v. 301. _of the_ Alexandreis _of Philip Gualtier: and not_
Tempora, _but_

 "Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis,"

_is from a poem by Matthew Borbonius in the_ Delitiæ Poetarum Germanorum,
vol. i. p. 683.

H. C. C. _Will this Correspondent favour us with his address in exchange
for that of_ NEWBURY, _which we have, and who wishes to correspond with
him?_

J. O. _May we insert the interesting Reply sent by this Correspondent, or
is it his wish that we should forward it?_

W. S. F. _will find an interesting article on the loss of Gray's original
MS. from La Grande Chartreuse, in our_ First Volume, p. 416.

J. M. G. _Is not the translation of_ The Ode, _spoken of in the article
alluded to as being by James Hay Beattie, the one respecting which our
Querist inquires?_

F. M. (A Maltese). 1. _We should recommend our Correspondent to make his
gun cotton with the nitrate of potash and sulphuric acid, as originally
recommended in_ "N. & Q.," _taking care that they are both thoroughly
incorporated before the addition of the cotton. Much vexation often occurs
in consequence of the various strengths of nitric acid. But the gun cotton
can now be procured at some of the photographic houses quite as reasonably
as it can be prepared._ 2. _Acetic acid is added to the pyrogallic acid to
prevent its too rapid decomposition, and to facilitate the more easy
flowing of the fluid over the plate. But the more acetic acid is used, the
more slow will be the development._ 3. _Is not the cracking of the albumen
the result of the climate of Malta?_

F. (Manchester). _We do not think that you can do better than adopt
strictly the mode of obtaining positives recommended by_ MR. POLLOCK, _and
which we printed some time since; or that pursued by_ DR. DIAMOND, _which
we have in type, but have been compelled to postpone until next week._

A. B. C. _Having ourselves practised the_ Paper Process, _according to the
directions given in our first Number for the present year (with the
correction of using the gallic acid, which, as stated in a subsequent
Number, was by accident omitted), we would advise our Correspondent to
adhere _strictly_ to those rules rather than any other with which we have
since become acquainted. We are of opinion that sufficient care is very
rarely used in the preparation of the iodized paper, and upon which all
future success must depend._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
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desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


{307}

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    "DR. RUD WURZER.
    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
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and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT.

7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON,
  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J.B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its extreme Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


{308} MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING.

Just ready, with Woodcuts, fcap. 8vo., 1s.

THE GUILLOTINE. An Historical Essay. By the RIGHT HON. JOHN WILSON CROKER.
Reprinted from "The Quarterly Review."

The former Volumes of this Series are--

LOCKHART'S ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS.

HOLLWAY'S MONTH IN NORWAY.

LORD CAMPBELL'S LIFE OF LORD BACON.

WELLINGTON. By JULES MAUREL.

DEAN MILMAN'S FALL OF JERUSALEM.

LIFE OF THEODORE HOOK.

LORD MAHON'S STORY OF JOAN OF ARC.

HALLAM'S LITERARY ESSAYS AND CHARACTERS.

THE EMIGRANT. By SIR F. B. HEAD.

WELLINGTON. By LORD ELLESMERE.

MUSIC AND DRESS. By a LADY.

LAYARD'S POPULAR ACCOUNT OF NINEVEH.

BEES AND FLOWERS. By a CLERGYMAN.

LORD MAHON'S HISTORY OF THE "FORTY-FIVE."

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES."

GIFFARD'S DEEDS OF NAVAL DARING.

THE ART OF DINING.

OLIPHANT'S JOURNEY TO NEPAUL.

THE CHACE, THE TURF, AND THE ROAD. By NIMROD.

JAMES' FABLES OF ÆSOP.

To be followed by

BEAUTIES OF BYRON: PROSE AND VERSE.

A SECOND SERIES OF ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES."

The ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. By SIR J. G. WILKINSON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


COMPLETION OF THE WORK.--On the 30th September, cloth 1s.; by Post, 1s.
6d., pp. 192.--WELSH SKETCHES, THIRD (and Last) SERIES. By the Author of
"Proposals for Christian Union." Contents:--1. Edward the Black Prince. 2.
Owen Glendower, Prince of Wales. 3. Mediæval Bardism. 4. The Welsh Church.

London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected by the
Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the
Services. Responses to the Commandments, and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING,
by J. B. SALE. Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat,
in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post-office Order for
that amount: and, by order, of the principal Booksellers and Music
Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
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    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears."--_Musical
    World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO NUMISMATISTS, &c.--For Sale, on Moderate Terms, a considerable portion
of the celebrated French Work entitled TRESOR DE NUMISMATIQUE ET DE
GLYPTIQUE published under the Superintendence of MM. PAUL DELAROCHE,
HENRIQUEL DUPONT, and CHARLES LENORMANT; 15 Parts. Paris, 1836. Royal
folio, eight bound and seven unbound, in good condition, price Fifteen
Guineas. For farther particulars, apply to

MR. GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, Where the Work may be seen.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most
celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA for SALE.--To be disposed of, A PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA,
with Combination Achromatic Lenses, and Apparatus for the Daguerreotype and
Collodion Processes. Price 5l. 10s.

Apply to E. FLOWER, 32. Gell Street, Sheffield.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OR GARDENS.

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE.

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, September 17, contains Articles on

  Agricultural College examinations
  Anacharis alsinastrum, by Mr. Marshall
  Antwerp, effect of the winter at
  Arachis, oil of
  Ash tree, leaves of
  Books noticed
  Bossiæas
  Burnturk farm, noticed
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Cider apple trees
  Cineraria, culture of
  Climate of Antwerp
  ---- of India (with engraving)
  College (Agr.) examinations
  Conifers, new applications of leaves of, by M. Seemann
  Coppice, how to prepare for fruit trees
  Dahlias at Surrey show
  Drainage discussion
  Evergreens at Antwerp, effect of the winter on
  Gomphrena amaranthus
  Grass land, to improve
  Ground nuts
  Gymnopsis uniserialis
  Henderson's (Messrs. E. G.) nursery
  Hop mould
  India, climate of (with engraving)
  Leaves of the ash tree
  Leschenaultia formosa
  Manure, saw-dust as, by Mr. Mackenzie
  Manuring, liquid
  Martin Doyle
  Milk preserving, by Mr. Symington
  Newcastle Farmers' Club
  Nuts, ground
  Onions, by Mr. Symons
  Orchard houses
  Pig breeding farm, by Mr. Hulme
  Pine wool, by M. Seemann
  Plants, variegated, by Mr. Mackenzie
  ---- vitality of
  ---- new
  Plums, Dowling's
  Potato sets, dried, by Mr. Goodiff
  Radish, Black Spanish
  Reaping machines
  Sawdust as manure, by Mr. Mackenzie
  Sobralia fragrans
  Steam culture
  Stock, does live, pay? by Mr. Mechi
  ---- value of, in the United States, by Mr. Shechan
  Village excursions

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to
the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
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ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BEST HISTORY OF FRANCE.

Price 5s. cloth, lettered.

BONNECHOSE'S HISTORY OF FRANCE, translated by W. ROBSON, Translator of
Michaud's "History of the Crusades."

"This work is in general use in all the French schools, and the French
Academy have recently decreed the Author the first Montyon prize."

London: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & CO., Farringdon Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day is published, price 10s. 6d., the Second Volume of MISS AGNES
STRICKLAND'S LIFE OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, forming the Fourth Volume of her
LIVES OF THE QUEENS OF SCOTLAND, and English Princesses connected with the
Regal Succession. With a Portrait of Mary at the Age of Twenty-five, from
the Original Painting presented by herself to Sir Henry Curwen of Workinton
Hall.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September
24. 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 290, "What were they?": 'What where they' in original.

page 305, in the two expressions after "Let the number in question be" the
final superscript (n) was printed as a subscript





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About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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