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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 208, October 22, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 208, October 22, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: on page 399, "Yule College" in the original is
corrected to "Yale College".

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 208.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                 Page

  A Prophet                                                 381

  FOLK LORE:--Folk Lore in Cambridgeshire--New
  Brunswick Folk Lore--North Lincolnshire Folk
  Lore--Portuguese Folk Lore                                382

  Pope and Cowper, By J. Yeowell                            383
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Patrick Muirson, &c.        383

  MINOR NOTES:--Judicial Families--Derivation of
  "Topsy Turvy"--Dictionaries and Encyclopædias--
  "Mary, weep no more for me"--Epitaph at Wood
  Ditton--Pictorial Pun                                     384


  Sir Thomas Button's Voyage, 1612, by John Petheram        385

  MINOR QUERIES:--The Words "Cash" and "Mob"
  --"History of Jesus Christ"--Quantity of the Latin
  Termination -anus--Webb and Walker Families--
  Cawdrey's "Treasure of Similes"--Point of Etiquette
  --Napoleon's Spelling--Trench on Proverbs--Rings
  formerly worn by Ecclesiastics--Butler's "Lives of
  the Saints"--Marriage of Cousins--Castle Thorpe,
  Bucks--Where was Edward II. killed?--Encore--
  Amcotts' Pedigree--Blue Bell: Blue Anchor--
  "We've parted for the longest time"--Matthew
  Lewis--Paradise Lost--Colonel Hyde Seymour--
  Vault at Richmond, Yorkshire--Poems published at
  Manchester--Handel's Dettingen Te Deum--
  Edmund Spenser and Sir Hans Sloane, Bart.                 386

  --Gresebrok in Yorkshire--Stillingfleet's Library--
  The whole System of Law--Saint Malachy on the
  Popes--Work on the Human Figure                           389


  "Namby Pamby," and other Words of the same Form           390
  Earl of Oxford                                            392
  Picts' Houses                                             392
  Pronunciation of "Humble"                                 393
  School Libraries                                          395

  --Cement for Glass Baths--New Process for Positive
  Proofs                                                    395

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--The Groaning Elmplank
  in Dublin--Passage in Whiston--"When
  Orpheus went down"--Foreign Medical Education
  --"Short red, good red"--Collar of SS.--Who first
  thought of Table-turning--Passage of Thucydides on
  the Greek Factions--Origin of "Clipper" as applied
  to Vessels--Passage in Tennyson--Huet's Navigations
  of Solomon--Sincere--The Saltpetre Man--
  Major André--Longevity--Passage in Virgil--Love
  Charm from a Foal's Forehead--Wardhouse, where
  was?--Divining Rod--Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle--
  Pagoda                                                    397


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              401
  Notices to Correspondents                                 401
  Advertisements                                            402

       *       *       *       *       *



What a curious book would be "Our Prophets and Enthusiasts!" The literary
and biographical records of the vaticinators, and the heated spirits who,
after working upon the fears of the timid, and exciting the imaginations of
the weak, have flitted into oblivion! As a specimen of the odd characters
such a work would embrace, allow me to introduce to your readers Thomas
Newans, a Shropshire farmer, who unhappily took it into his head that his
visit to the lower sphere was on a special mission.

Mr. Newans is the author of a book entitled _A Key to the Prophecies of the
Old and New Testament_; showing (among other impending events) "The
approaching Invasion of England;" "The Extirpation of Popery and
Mahometisme;" "The Restoration of the Jews," and "The Millennium." London:
printed for the Author (who attests the genuineness of my copy by his
signature), 1747.

In this misfitted key he relates how, in a vision, he was invested with the
prophetic mantle:

    "In the year 1723, in the night," says Mr. Newans, "I fell into a
    dream, and seemed to be riding on the road into the county of Cheshire.
    When I was got about eight miles from home, my horse made a stop on the
    road; and it seemed a dark night, and on a sudden there shone a light
    before me on the ground, which was as bright as when the sun shines at
    noon-day. In the middle of that bright circle stood a child in white.
    It spoke, and told me that I must go into Cheshire, and I should find a
    man with uncommon marks upon his feet, which should be a warning to me
    to believe; and that the year after I should have a cow that would
    calve a calf with his heart growing out of his body in a wonderful
    manner, as a token of what should come to pass; and that a terrible war
    would break out in Europe, and in fourteen years after the token it
    would extend to England."

In compliance with his supernatural communication, our farmer proceeded to
Cheshire, where he found the man indicated; and, a year after, his own farm
stock was increased by the birth of a calf with his heart growing out. And
after taking his family, of seven, to witness to the truth of {382} what he
describes, he adds with great simplicity: "So then I rode to London to
acquaint the ministers of state of the approaching danger!"

This story of the calf with the heart growing out, is not a bad type of the
worthy grazier himself, and his _hearty_ and burning zeal for the
Protestant faith. Mr. Newans distinctly and repeatedly predicts that these
"two beastly religions," _i. e._ the Popish and Mahomedan, will be totally
extirpated within seven years! And "I have," says he, "for almost twenty
years past, travelled to London and back again into the country, near fifty
journies, and every journey was two hundred and fifty miles, to acquaint
the ministers of state and several of the bishops, and other divines, with
the certainty, danger, and manner of the war" which was to bring this
about. Commenting on the story of Balaam, our prophet says: "And now the
world is grown so full of sin and wickedness, that if a dumb ass should
speak with a man's voice, they would scarce repent:" and I conclude that
the said statesmen and divines did not estimate these prophetic warnings
much higher than the brayings of that quadruped which they turned out to
be. Mr. Newan professes to gave penned these vaticinations in the year
1744, twenty-one years after the date of his vision; so that he had ample
time to mature them. What would the farmer say were he favoured with a peep
at our world in 1853, with its Mussulman system unbroken; and its cardinal,
archbishops, and Popish bishops firmly established in the very heart of
Protestant England?

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Folk Lore in Cambridgeshire._--About twenty years ago, at Hildersham,
there was a custom of ringing the church bell at five o'clock in the
leasing season. The cottagers then repaired to the fields to glean; but
none went out before the bell was rung. The bell tolled again in the
evening as a signal for all to return home. I would add a Query, Is this
custom continued; and is it to be met with in any other place?


_New Brunswick Folk Lore_:--_Common Notions respecting Teeth._--Among the
lower orders and negroes, and also among young children of respectable
parents (who have probably derived the notion from contact with the others
as nurses or servants), it is here very commonly held that when a tooth is
drawn, if you refrain from thrusting the tongue in the cavity, the second
tooth will be golden. Does this idea prevail in England?

_Superstition respecting Bridges._--Many years ago my grandfather had quite
a household of blacks, some of whom were slaves and some free. Being bred
in his family, a large portion of my early days was thus passed among them,
and I have often reverted to the weird superstitions with which they froze
themselves and alarmed me. Most of these had allusion to the devil:
scarcely one of them that I now recollect but referred to him. Among others
they firmly held that when the clock struck twelve at midnight, the devil
and a select company of his inferiors regularly came upon that part of the
bridge called "the draw," and danced a hornpipe there. So firmly did they
hold to this belief, that no threat nor persuasion could induce the
stoutest-hearted of them to cross the fatal draw after ten o'clock at
night. This belief is quite contrary to that which prevails in Scotland,
according to which, Robin Burns being my authority, "neither witches nor
any evil spirits have power to follow a poor wight any farther than the
middle of the next running stream."[1]

C. D. D.

New Brunswick, New Jersey.

[Footnote 1:

  "Now, do thy speedy utmost, Meg,
  And win the key-stane of the brig:
  There at them thou thy tail may toss,
  A running stream they dare na crass."--_Tam O'Shanter._


_North Lincolnshire Folk Lore._--Here follow some shreds of folk lore which
I have not seen as yet in "N. & Q." They all belong to North Lincolnshire.

1. Death sign. If a swarm of bees alight on a dead tree, or on the dead
bough of a living tree, there will be a death in the family of the owner
during the year.

2. If you do not throw salt into the fire before you begin to churn, the
butter will not come.

3. If eggs are brought over running water they will have no chicks in them.

4. It is unlucky to bring eggs into the house after sunset.

5. If you wear a snake's skin round your head you will never have the

6. Persons called Agnes always go mad.

7. A person who is born on Christmas Day will be able to see spirits.

8. Never burn egg-shells; if you do, the hens cease to lay.

9. If a pigeon is seen sitting in a tree, or comes into the house, or from
being wild suddenly becomes tame, it is a sign of death.

10. When you see a magpie you should cross yourself; if you do not you will
be unlucky.


Bottesford Moors.

_Portuguese Folk Lore._--

    "The borderer whispered in my ear that he was one of the dreadful
    Lobishomens, a devoted race, held in mingled horror and commiseration,
    and never mentioned {383} without by the Portuguese peasantry. They
    believe that if a woman be delivered of seven male infants
    successively, the seventh, by an inexplicable fatality, becomes subject
    to the powers of darkness; and is compelled, on every Saturday evening,
    to assume the likeness of an ass. So changed, and followed by a horrid
    train of dogs, he is forced to run an impious race over the moors and
    through the villages; nor is allowed an interval of rest until the
    dawning Sabbath terminates his sufferings, and restores him to his
    human shape."--From Lord Carnarvon's _Portugal and Gallicia_, vol. ii.
    p. 268.

E. H. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


In Cowper's letter to Lady Hesketh, dated January 18, 1787, occurs a notice
for the first time of Mr. Samuel Rose, with whom Cowper subsequently
corresponded. He informs Lady Hesketh that--

    "A young gentleman called here yesterday, who came six miles out of his
    way to see me. He was on a journey to London from Glasgow, having just
    left the University there. He came, I suppose, partly to satisfy his
    own curiosity, but chiefly, as it seemed, to bring me the thanks of
    some of the Scotch professors for my two volumes. His name is Rose, an

Prefixed to a copy of Hayley's _Life and Letters of William Cowper, Esq._,
in the British Museum, is an extract in MS. of a letter from the late
Samuel Rose, Esq., to his favourite sister, Miss Harriet Rose, written in
the year before his marriage, at the age of twenty-two, and which, I
believe, has never been printed. It may, perhaps, merit a corner of "N. &

    "Weston Lodge, Sept. 9, 1789.

    "Last week Mr. Cowper finished the _Odyssey_, and we drank an
    unreluctant bumper to its success. The labour of translation is now at
    an end, and the less arduous work of revision remains to be done, and
    then we shall see it published. I promise both you and myself much
    pleasure from its perusal. You will most probably find it at first less
    pleasing than Pope's versification, owing to the difference subsisting
    between blank verse and rhyme--a difference which is not sufficiently
    attended to, and whereby people are led into injudicious comparisons.
    You will find Mr. Pope more refined: Mr. Cowper more simple, grand, and
    majestic; and, indeed, insomuch as Mr. Pope is more refined than Mr.
    Cowper, he is more refined than his original, and in the same
    proportion departs from Homer himself. Pope's must universally be
    allowed to be a beautiful poem: Mr. Cowper's will be found a striking
    and a faithful portrait, and a pleasing picture to those who enjoy his
    style of colouring, which I am apprehensive is not so generally
    acceptable as the other master's. Pope possesses the gentle and amiable
    graces of a Guido: Cowper is endowed with the bold sublime genius of a
    Raphael. After having said so much upon their comparative merits,
    enough, I hope, to refute your second assertion which was, that women,
    in the opinion of men, have little to do with literature. I may inform
    you, that the _Iliad_ is to be dedicated to Earl Cowper, and the
    _Odyssey_ to the Dowager Lady Spencer but this information need not be
    extensively circulated."


50. Burton Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


_"As You Like It."_--Believing that whatever illustrates, even to a
trifling extent, the great dramatic poet of England will interest the
readers of "N. & Q.," I solicit their attention to the resemblance between
the two following passages:

                  "All the world's a stage,
  And all the men and women merely players."

  "Si rectè aspicias, _vita hæc est fabula quædam_.
  _Scena autem, mundus versatilis_: _histrio et actor_
  _Quilibet est hominum--mortales nam propriè cuncti_
  _Sunt personati_, et falsâ sub imagine, vulgi
  Præstringunt oculos: _ita Diis, risumque jocumque_,
  _Stultitiis, nugisque suis per sæcula præbent_.
      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  "Jam mala quæ humanum patitur genus, adnumerabo.
  _Principiò_ postquam è latebris malè olentibus alvi
  Eductus tandem est, materno sanguine foedus,
  _Vagit, et auspicio lacrymarum nascitur infans_.
      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  "Vix natus jam vincla subit, tenerosque coërcet
  Fascia longa artus: præsagia dire futuri
      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  "Post ubi jam valido se poplite sustinet, et jam
  Ritè loqui didicit, tunc servire incipit, atque
  Jussa pati, _sentitque minas ictusque magistri_,
  Sæpe patris matrisque manu fratrisque frequenter
  Pulsatur: facient quid vitricus atque noverca?
  _Fit juvenis, crescunt vires_: jam spernit habenas,
  Occluditque aures monitis, furere incipit, ardens
  Luxuriâ atque irâ: et temerarius omnia nullo
  Consilio aggreditur, dictis melioribus obstat,
  Deteriora fovens: _non ulla pericula curat_,
  Dummodo id efficiat, suadet quod coeca libido.
      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  "_Succedit gravior, melior, prudentior ætas_,
  Cumque ipsâ curæ adveniunt, durique labores;
  Tune homo mille modis, studioque enititur omni
  Rem facere, et nunquam sibi multa negotia desunt.
  Nunc peregrè it, nunc ille domi, nunc rure laborat,
  Ut sese, uxorem, natos, famulosque gubernet,
  Ac servet, solus pro cunctis sollicitus, nec
  Jucundis fruitur dapibus, nec nocte quietâ.
  Ambitio hunc etiam impellens, _ad publica mittit_
  _Munia_: dumque inhiat vano malè sanus honori,
  Invidiæ atque odii patitur mala plurima: deinceps
  _Obrepit canis rugosa senecta capillis_,
  Secum multa trahens incommoda corporis atque
  Mentis: nam _vires abeunt, speciesque colorque_,
  Nec non _deficiunt sensus_: _audire, videre_
  _Languescunt, gustusque minor fit_: denique semper
  Aut hoc, aut illo morbo vexantur--_inermi_
  _Manduntur vix ore cibi_, _vix crura bacillo_
  _Sustentata meant_: animus quoque vulnera sentit.
  _Desipit, et longo torpet confectus ab ævo_."

It would have only occupied your space needlessly, to have transcribed at
length the celebrated description of the seven ages of human life from
Shakspeare's _As You Like It_; but I would solicit the attention of your
readers to the Latin verses, and then to the question, Whether either poet
has borrowed from the other? and, should this be decided affirmatively, the
farther question would arise, Which is the original?



    [These lines look like a modern paraphrase of Shakspeare; and our
    Correspondent has not informed us from what book he has _transcribed_

_Passage in "King John" and "Romeo and Juliet."_--I am neither a
commentator nor a reader of commentators on Shakspeare. When I meet with a
difficulty, I get over it as well as I can, and think no more of the
matter. Having, however, accidentally seen two passages of Shakspeare much
ventilated in "N. & Q.," I venture to give my poor conjectures respecting

1. _King John._--

  "It lies as sightly on the back of him,
  As great Alcides' _shows_ upon an ass."

I consider _shows_ to be the true reading; the reference being to the
ancient _mysteries_, called also _shows_. The machinery required for the
celebration of the mysteries was carried by _asses_. Hence the proverb:
"Asinus portat mysteriæ." The connexion of Hercules--"great Alcides"--with
the mysteries, may be learned from Aristophanes and many other ancient
writers. And thus the meaning of the passage seems to be: The lion's skin,
which once belonged to Richard of the Lion Heart, is as sightly on the back
of _Austria_, as were the mysteries of Hercules upon an ass.

2. _Romeo and Juliet._--

  "That runaways eyes may wink."

Here I would retain the reading, and interpret _runaways_ as signifying
"persons going about on the watch." Perhaps _runagates_, according to
modern usage, would come nearer to the proposed signification, but not to
be quite up with it. Many words in Shakspeare have significations very
remote from those which they now bear.


_Shakspeare and the Bible._--Has it ever been noticed that the following
passage from the Second Part of _Henry IV._, Act I. Sc. 3., is taken from
the fourteenth chapter of St. Luke's Gospel?

  "What do we then, but draw anew the model
  In fewer offices; or, at least, desist
  To build at all? Much more, in this great work,
  (Which is almost to pluck a kingdom down,
  And set another up) should we survey
  The plot, the situation, and the model;
  Consult upon a sure foundation,
  Question surveyors, know our own estate,
  How able such a work to undergo.
  A careful leader sums what force he brings
  To weigh against his opposite; or else
  We fortify on paper, and in figures,
  Using the names of men, instead of men:
  Like one that draws the model of a house
  Beyond his power to build it."

The passage in St. Luke is as follows (xiv. 28-31.):

    "For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first,
    and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?

    "Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to
    finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him,

    "Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.

    "Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down
    first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him
    that cometh against him with twenty thousand?"

I give the passage as altered by Mr. Collier's Emendator, because I think
the line added by him,

    "A careful leader sums what force he brings,"

is strongly corroborated by the Scripture text.

Q. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Judicial Families._--In vol. v. p. 206. (new edition) of Lord Mahon's
_History of England_, we find the following passage:

    "Lord Chancellor Camden was the younger son of Chief Justice Pratt,--a
    case of rare succession in the annals of the law, and not easily
    matched, unless by their own cotemporaries, Lord Hardwicke and Charles

The following case, I think, is equally, if not more, remarkable:--

The Right Hon. Thomas Berry Cusack-Smith, brother of the present Sir
Michael Cusack-Smith, Bart., is Master of the Rolls in Ireland, having been
appointed to that high office in January, 1846. His father, Sir William
Cusack-Smith, second baronet, was for many years Baron of the Court of
Exchequer in Ireland. And his grandfather, the Right Hon. Sir Michael
Smith, first baronet, was, like his grandson at the present day, Master of
the Rolls in Ireland.

Is not this "a case of rare succession in the annals of the law, and not
easily matched?"



_Derivation of "Topsy Turvy."_--When things are in confusion they are
generally said to be turned "topsy turvy." The expression is derived from a
way in which turf for fuel is placed to dry on its being cut. The surface
of the ground is pared off with the heath growing on it, and the heath is
turned downward, and left some days in that state that the earth may get
dry before it is carried away. It means then top-side-turf-way.


_Dictionaries and Encyclopædias._--Allow me to offer a suggestion to the
publishers and compilers of dictionaries; first as to dictionaries of the
language. A large class refer to these only to learn the meaning of words
not familiar to them, but which may occur in reading. If the dictionaries
are framed on the principle of displaying only the classical language of
England, it is ten to one they will not supply the desired information. Let
there be, besides classical dictionaries, glossaries which will exclude no
word whatever on account of rarity, vulgarity, or technicality, but which
may very well exclude those which are most familiar. As to encyclopædias,
their value is chiefly as supplements to the library; but surely no one
studies anatomy, or the differential calculus, or architecture, in them,
however good the treatises may be. I want a dictionary of miscellaneous
subjects, such as find place more easily in an encyclopædia than anywhere
else; but why must I also purchase treatises on the higher mathematics, on
navigation, on practical engineering, and the like, some of which I already
may possess, others not want, and none of which are a bit the more
convenient because arranged in alphabetical order in great volumes.
Besides, they cannot be conveniently replaced by improved editions.


_"Mary, weep no more for me."_--There is a well-known ballad of this name,
said to have been written by a Scotchman named "Low." The first verse runs

  "The moon had climbed the highest hill,
  Which rises o'er the source of Dee,
  And from the eastern summit sped
  Its silver light on tower and tree."

I find, however, amongst my papers, a fragment of a version of this same
ballad, of, I assume, earlier antiquity, which so surpasses Low's ballad
that the author has little to thank him for his interference. The first
verse of what I take to be the original poem stands thus:

  "The moon had climbed the highest hill,
  Where eagles big[2] aboon the Dee,
  And like the looks of a lovely dame,
  Brought joy to every body's ee."

No poetical reader will require his attention to be directed to the
immeasurable superiority of this glorious verse: the high poetic animation,
the eagles' visits, the lovely looks of female beauty, the exhilarating
gladness and joy affecting the beholder, all manifest the genius of the
master bard. I shall receive it as a favour if any of your correspondents
will furnish a complete copy of the original poem, and contrast it with
what "Low" fancied his "improvements."


[Footnote 2: Build.]

_Epitaph at Wood Ditton._--You have recently appropriated a small space in
your "medium of intercommunication" to the subject of epitaphs. I can
furnish you with one which I have been accustomed to regard as a "grand
climacterical absurdity." About thirty years ago, when making a short
summer ramble, I entered the churchyard of Wood Ditton, near Newmarket, and
my attention was attracted by a headstone, having inlaid into its upper
part a piece of iron, measuring about ten inches by six, and hollowed out
into the shape of a _dish_. I inquired of a cottager residing on the spot
what the thing meant? I was informed that the party whose ashes the grave
covered was a man who, during a long life, had a strange taste for sopping
a slice of bread in a dripping-pan (a pan over which meat has been
roasted), and would relinquish for this all kinds of dishes, sweet or
savoury; that in his will he left a request that a dripping-pan should be
fixed in his gravestone; that he wrote his own epitaph, an exact copy of
which I herewith give you, and which he requested to be engraved on the

  "Here lies my corpse, who was the man
  That loved a sop in the dripping-pan;
  But now believe me I am dead,--
  See here the pan stands at my head.
  Still for sops till the last I cried,
  But could not eat, and so I died.
  My neighbours they perhaps will laugh,
  When they read my epitaph."

J. H.


_Pictorial Pun._--In the village of Warbleton, in Sussex, there is an old
public-house, which has for its sign a War Bill in a tun of beer, in
reference of course to the name of the place. It has, however, the double
meaning, of "Axe for Beer."

R. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *



I am about to print some information, hitherto I believe totally unknown,
relative to the voyage of Sir Thomas Button in 1612, for the discovery of
the north-west passage.

Of this voyage a journal was kept, which was in existence many years
afterwards, being offered by {386} its author to Secretary Dorchester in
1629, then engaged in forwarding the projected voyage of "North-West" Foxe;
it is remarkable, however, that no extended account of this voyage, so
important in its objects, has ever been published. I am desirous of knowing
if this journal is in existence, and where? Also, Lord Dorchester's letter
to Button in February, 1629; of any farther information on the subject of
the voyage, or of Sir Thomas Button.

What I possess already are, 1. "Motiues inducing a Proiect for the
Discouerie of the North Pole terrestriall; the streights of Anian, into the
South Sea, and Coasts thereof," anno 1610. 2. Prince Henry's Instructions
for the Voyage, together with King James's Letters of Credence, 1612. 3. A
Letter from Sir Thomas Button to Secretary Dorchester, dated Cardiff, 16th
Feb., 1629 (from the State Paper Office). 4. Sir Dudley Digges' little
tract on the N.-W. Passage, written to promote the voyage, and of which
there were two distinct impressions in 1611 and 1612. 5. Extracts from the
Carleton Correspondence, and from the Hakluyt Society's volume on Voyages
to the North-West.

I shall be glad also to learn the date, and any other facts connected with
the death of John Davis, the discoverer of the Straits bearing his name.


94. High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_The Words "Cash" and "Mob."_--In Moore's _Diary_ I find the following
remark. Can any of your numerous readers throw any light on the subject?

    "Lord Holland doubted whether the word 'Cash' was a legitimate English
    word, though, as Irving remarked, it is as old as Ben Jonson, there
    being a character called Cash in one of his comedies. Lord Holland said
    Mr. Fox was of opinion that the word 'Mob' was not genuine
    English."--Moore's _Diary_, vol. iii. p. 247.


_"History of Jesus Christ."_--G. L. S. will feel obliged by any
correspondent of "N. & Q." stating who is the author of the following

    "The History of the Incarnation, Life, Doctrine and Miracles, the
    Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Our Blessed Lord and Saviour,
    Jesus Christ. In Seven Books; illustrated with Notes, and interspersed
    with Dissertations, theological, historical, geographical and critical.

    "To which are added the Lives, Actions, and Sufferings of the Twelve
    Apostles; also of Saint Paul, Saint Mark, Saint Luke, and Saint
    Barnabas. Together with a Chronological Table from the beginning of the
    reign of Herod the Great to the end of the Apostolic Age. By a Divine
    of the Church of England.

    "London: printed for T. Cooper, at the Globe, in Paternoster Row,

This work is in one folio volume, and all I can ascertain of its authorship
is that it was _not_ written by Bishop Gibson, of "Preservative" fame.

_Quantity of the Latin Termination -anus._--Proper names having the
termination _-anus_ are always long in Latin and short in Greek; thus, the
Claudi[=a]nus, Luci[=a]nus, &c. of the Latins are [Greek: Klaudianos] and
[Greek: Loukianos] in Greek. What is to be said of the word [Greek:
Christianos]? Is it long or short, admitting it to be long in the Latin

While on the subject of quantities, let me ask, where is the authority for
that of the name of the queen of the Ethiopians, Candace, to be found? We
always pronounce it long, but all books of authority mark it as short.


_Webb and Walker Families._--Perhaps you or some of your numerous readers
could inform me if the Christian names of Daniel and Roger were used 160 or
180 years ago by any of the numerous families of _Webb_ or _Webbe_,
resident in Wilts or elsewhere; and if so, in what family of that name? And
is there any pedigree of them extant? and where is it to be found?

Was the Rev. Geo. Walker, the defender of Derry, connected with the Webbs?
and if so, how, and with what family?

Is there any Webb mentioned in history at the siege of Derry? and if so, to
what family of that name did he belong?


_Cawdrey's "Treasure of Similes."_--I stumbled lately at a book-stall on a
very curious old book entitled _A Treasurie or Store-house of Similes both
pleasant, delightfull, and profitable_. The title-page is gone; but in an
old hand on the cover it is stated to have been written by a certain
"Cawdrey," and to have been printed in 1609, where I cannot discover. Can
any of your correspondents oblige me with some information concerning him?
The book is marked "scarce."

J. H. S.

_Point of Etiquette._--Will some of your numerous correspondents kindly
inform me as to the rule in such a case as the following: when an elder
brother has lost both his daughters in his old age, does the eldest
daughter of the younger brother take the style of _Miss_ Smith, Jones,
Brown, or Robinson, as the case may be?

F. D., M.R.C.S.

_Napoleon's Spelling._--Macaulay, in his _History of England_, chap. vii.,
quotes, in a foot-note, a passage from a letter of William III., written in
French to his ambassador at Paris, and then makes this remark, "The
spelling is bad, but not worse than Napoleon's." {387}

Can you refer me to some authentic proof of the fact that Napoleon was
unable to spell correctly? It is well known that he affected to put his
thoughts upon paper with great rapidity; and the consequence of this
practice was, that in almost every word some letters were dropped, or their
places indicated by dashes. But this was only one of those numerous
contrivances, to which he was in the habit of resorting, in order to
impress those around him with an idea of his greatness.


St. Lucia.

_Trench on Proverbs._--Mr. Trench, in this excellent little work, states
that the usual translation of Psalm cxxvii. 2. is incorrect:

    "Let me remind you of such [proverbs] also as the following, often
    quoted or alluded to by Greek and Latin authors: _The net of the
    sleeping (fisherman) takes_[3]; a proverb the more interesting, that we
    have in the words of the Psalmist (Ps. cxxvii. 2.), were they
    accurately translated, a beautiful and perfect parallel; 'He giveth his
    beloved' (not 'sleep,' but) 'in their sleep;' his gifts gliding into
    their bosoms, they knowing not how, and as little expecting as leaving
    laboured for them."

The Hebrew is [Hebrew: YTN LYDYDW SHN'], the literal translation of which,
"He giveth (or, He will give) to his beloved sleep," seems to me to be

As Mr. Trench is a reader of "N. & Q.," perhaps he would have the kindness
to mention in its pages the ground he has for his proposed translation.

E. M. B.

[Footnote 3: "[Greek: Heudonti kurtos hairei]. Dormienti rete trahit."]

_Rings formerly worn by Ecclesiastics._--In describing the finger-ring
found in the grave of the Venerable Bede, the writer of _A brief Account of
Durham Cathedral_ adds,--

    "No priest, during the reign of Catholicity, was buried or enshrined
    without his ring."--P. 81.

I have seen a similar statement elsewhere, and wish to ask, 1st, Were
priests formerly buried with the ring? 2ndly, If so, was it a mere custom,
or was it ordered or authorised by any rubric or canon of our old English

I am very strongly of opinion that such never was the custom, and that the
statement above quoted has its origin in the confounding priests with
bishops. Martene says, when speaking of the manner of burying bishops,--

    "Episcopus debet habere annulum, quia sponsus est. Cæteri sacerdotes
    non, quia sponsi non sunt, sed amici sponsi vel vicarii."--_De Antiquis
    Ecclesiæ Ritibus_, lib. III. cap. xii. n. 11.


_Butler's "Lives of the Saints."_--Can any of your correspondents supply a
correct list of the various editions of this popular work? The notices in
Watt and Lowndes are very unsatisfactory.


_Marriage of Cousins._--It was asserted to me the other day that marriage
with a _second_ cousin is, by the laws of England, illegal, and that
succession to property has been lately barred to the issue of such
marriage, though the union of _first_ cousins entails no such consequences.
Is there any foundation for this statement?

J. P.

_Castle Thorpe_[4], _Bucks._--A traditional rhyme is current at this place
which says that--

  "If it hadn't been for Cobb-bush Hill,
  Thorpe Castle would have stood there still."

or the last line, according to another version,--

  "There would have been a castle at Thorpe still."

Now it appears from Lipscomb's _History_ of the county, that the castle was
demolished by Fulke de Brent about 1215; how then can this tradition be

Cobb-bush Hill, I am told, is more than half a mile from the village.


[Footnote 4: Pronounced _Thrup_.]

_Where was Edward II. killed?_--Hume and Lingard state that this monarch
was murdered at Berkeley Castle. Echard and Rapin are silent, both as to
the event and as to the locality. But an earlier authority, viz. Martyn, in
his _Historie and Lives of Twentie Kings_, 1615, says:

    "He was committed to the Castle of Killingworth, and Prince Edward was
    crowned king. And not long after, the king being removed to the Castle
    of Corff, was wickedly assayled by his keepers, who, through a horne
    which they put in his," &c.

What authority had Martyn for these statements?



_Encore._--Perhaps some correspondent of "N. & Q." can assign a reason why
we use this French word in our theatres and concert rooms, to express our
desire for the repetition of favourite songs, &c. I should also like to
know at what period it was introduced.

A. A.

_Amcotts' Pedigree._--Can any of your correspondents supply me with a full
pedigree of Amcotts of Astrop, co. Lincolnshire? I do not refer to the
Visitations, but to the later descents of the family. The last heir male
was, I believe, Vincent Amcotts, Esq., great-grandfather to the present Sir
William Amcotts Ingilby, Bart. Elizabeth Amcotts, who married, 19th July,
1684, John Toller, Esq., of Billingborough Hall in Lincolnshire, was one of
this family, and I suppose aunt to Vincent Amcotts. I may mention, the
calendars {388} of the Will Office at Lincoln have no entries of the name
of Amcotts between 1670 and 1753.


_Blue Bell--Blue Anchor._--A bell painted blue is a common tavern sign in
this country (United States); and the blue anchor is also to be met with in
many places. As these signs evidently had their origin in England, and one
of them is alluded to in the old Scotch ballad "The Blue Bell of Scotland,"
it seems to me that the best method to apply for information upon the
subject is to ask "N. & Q." Are these signs of inns heraldic survivors of
old time; are they corruptions of some other emblem, such as that which in
London transformed _La Belle Sauvage_ into the _Bell Savage_, pictorialised
by an Indian ringing a hand-bell; or is the choice of such improper colour
as blue for a bell and an anchor a species of symbolism the meaning of
which is not generally known?

[Old English W].


_"We've parted for the longest time."_--Would you insert these lines in
your paper, the author of which I seek to know, as well as the remaining

  "We've parted for the longest time, we ever yet did part,
  And I have felt the last wild throb of that enduring heart:
  Thy cold and tear-wet cheek has lain for the last time to mine,
  And I have pressed in agony those trembling lips of thine."


The Rectory, Chiltington Hunt, Sussex.

_Matthew Lewis._--Allow me to solicit information, through the medium of
"N. & Q.," where I can see a pedigree of Matthew Lewis, Esq., Deputy
Secretary of War for many years under the Right Hon. William Windham, then
M.P. for Norwich, and other Secretaries-at-War. I rather think Mr. Lewis
married a daughter of Sir Thomas Sewell, Kt., Master of the Rolls from 1764
to 1784; and had a son, Matthew Gregory Lewis, known as _Monk_ Lewis, who
was M.P. for Hindon at the close of the last century: a very clever but
eccentric young man. I also believe Lieut.-Gen. John Whitelocke, and Gen.
Sir Thos. Brownrigg, G.C.B., who died in 1838, were connected by marriage
with the Sewell or Lewis families.

C. H. F.

_Paradise Lost._--In _A Treatise on the Dramatic Literature of the Greeks_,
by the Rev. J. R. Darley, I read the following remark:

    "In our own literature also, the efforts of our early dramatists were
    directed to subjects derived from religion; even the _Paradise Lost_ is
    composed of a series of minor pieces, originally cast in dramatic form,
    of which the creation and fall of man, and the several episodes which
    were introduced subordinately to these grand events, were the

This statement being at variance with the received opinion, that Milton,
from his early youth, had meditated the composition of an epic poem, I
would inquire whether there is any evidence to support Mr. Darley's view?
Milton has been charged with having borrowed the design of _Paradise Lost_
from some Italian author; and this allegation, coupled with that made by
Mr. Darley, would, if founded, reduce our great national epic to what
Hazlitt has described as "patchwork and plagiarism, the beggarly
copiousness of borrowed wealth."


St. Lucia.

_Colonel Hyde Seymour._--Who was "Colonel Hyde Seymour?" I find his name
written in a book, _The Life of William the Third_, 1703.


_Vault at Richmond, Yorkshire._--In Speed's plan of Richmond, in Yorkshire,
is represented the mouth of a "vault that goeth under the river, and
ascendeth up into the Castell." Was there ever such a vault, and how came
it to be destroyed or lost sight of? One who knows Richmond well tells me
that he never heard of it.

O. L. R. G.

_Poems published at Manchester._--Can any contributor to "N. & Q." inform
me who was the author of a volume of _Poems on Several Occasions_,
published by subscription at Manchester; printed for the author by R.
Whitworth, in the year 1733? It is an 8vo. of 138 pages; has on the
title-page a line from Ovid:

  "Jure, tibi grates, candide lector, ago,"

and begins with an "Address to all my Subscribers;" after which follow
several pages of subscribers' names, which consist chiefly of Staffordshire
and Cheshire gentry. My copy (for the possession of which I am indebted to
the kindness of Dr. Bliss, the Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford) was
formerly in the library of Mr. Heber, who has thus noted its purchase on
the fly-leaf, "Feb. 1811, Ford, Manchester, 7s. 6d." Dr. Bliss has added,
on the same fly-leaf, "Heber's fourth sale, No. 1908, not in the Bodleian
Catalogue." The first poem in the book is "A Pastoral to the Memory of Sir
Thomas Delves, Baronet." It is probably a scarce book; but possibly some of
your book-learned correspondents may help me to the author's name.



_Handel's Dettingen Te Deum._--Any information as to the circumstances
under which Handel composed this celebrated _Te Deum_, and the place {389}
and occasion of its first public performance, will be welcome to


_Edmund Spenser and Sir Hans Sloane, Bart._--As I believe myself (morally
speaking) to be _lineally_ descended from the former of these celebrated
men, and _collaterally_ from the latter, may I request that information may
be forwarded me, either through your columns or by correspondence,
regarding the descendants of the great poet and his ancestry; and also
whether, among the many thousand volumes bequeathed by Sir Hans to the
nation, some record does not exist tending to prove his genealogical
descent? At present I know of no other pedigree than that Mr. Burke has
given of him in his _Extinct Baronetage_. I shall feel exceedingly
gratified if any assistance can be given me relating to these two families.


Cornworthy Vicarage, Totnes.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_The Ligurian Sage._--In Gifford's _Mæviad_, lines 313-316, I read,--

  "Together we explored the stoic page
  Of the Ligurian, stern tho' beardless sage!
  Or trac'd the Aquinian thro' the Latin road,
  And trembled at the lashes he bestow'd."

The Aquinian is of course Juvenal; but I must confess me at fault with
respect to the Ligurian.

W. T. M.

    [The Ligurian sage is no doubt Aulus Persius Flaccus, who, according to
    ancient authors, was born at Volaterræ in Etruria; but some modern
    writers conclude that he was born at Lunæ Portus in Liguria, from the
    following lines (Sat. VI. 6.), which seem to relate to the place of his

                          "Mihi nunc Ligus ora
      Intepet, hybernatque _meum_ mare, qua latus ingens
      Dant scopuli, et multa littus se valle receptat.
      _Lunai portum_ est operæ cognoscere, cives."

    When approaching the verge of manhood, Persius became the pupil of
    Cornutus the Stoic, and his death took place before he had completed
    his twenty-eighth year.]

_Gresebrok in Yorkshire._--Can you or any of your correspondents give me
any information as to what part of Yorkshire the manor of Gresebrok lies
in? In Shaw's _History of Staffordshire_ (2 vols. folio), there is a
"Bartholomew de Gresebrok" mentioned as witness to a deed of Henry III.'s
times made between Robert de Grendon, Lord of Shenston, and Jno. de
Baggenhall; which family of Gresebrok, it is said, "probably took their
name from a _manor so called in Yorkshire_, and had property and residence
in Shenstone, from this early period to the beginning of the century, many
of whom are recorded in the registers from 1590 to 1722."

The above is quoted by Shaw from Sanders's _History of Shenstone_, p. 98.,
and perhaps some of your correspondents may possess that work, and will
oblige me by transcribing the necessary information.

Any particulars of the above family will much oblige your constant reader

[Greek: Hêraldikos.]

    [According to Sanders, the family of Greisbrook was formerly of some
    note at Shenstone. He says that "Greisbrook, whence the family had
    their name, is a manor in Yorkshire, which, in the reign of Henry III.,
    was in the great House of Mowbray, of whom the Greisbrooks held their
    lands. Roger de Greisbrook (temp. Henry II.) is mentioned as holding of
    the fee of Alice, Countess of Augie, or Ewe, daughter of William de
    Albiney, Earl of Arundel, by Queen Alice, relict of Henry I." Then
    follow some particulars of various branches of the family, from the
    year 1580 to the death of Robert Greisbrook in 1718. Sanders's History
    is included in vol. ix. of _Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica_.]

_Stillingfleet's Library._--The extensive and valuable library of Edward
Stillingfleet, the learned Bishop of Worcester, who died in 1699, is said
to be contained in the library of Primate Marsh, St. Patrick's, Dublin. Can
any of your correspondents state how it came there? Was it bequeathed by
the bishop, or sold by his descendants? He died at Westminster, and was
buried in Worcester Cathedral.


    [Bishop Stillingfleet's library was purchased by Archbishop Marsh for
    his public library in Dublin. A few years since Robert Travers, Esq.,
    M.D., of Dundrum near Dublin, was engaged in preparing for publication
    a catalogue of Stillingfleet's printed books, amounting to near 10,000
    volumes. The bishop's MSS. were bought by the late Earl of Oxford, and
    are now in the Harleian Collection. See _The Life of Bishop
    Stillingfleet_, 8vo., 1735, p. 135., and _Biog. Brit._ s. v.]

_The whole System of Law._--On December 26, 1651, the Long Parliament,
stimulated by Cromwell to various important reforms in civil matters,

    "That it be referred to persons out of the House to take into
    consideration what inconveniences there are in the law, and how the
    mischiefs that grow from the delays, the chargeableness, and the
    irregularities in the proceedings of the law, may be prevented; and the
    speediest way to reform the same."

The commission thus appointed consisted twenty-one persons, among whom were
Sir Mathew Hale, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, and John Rushworth. They seem
to have set to work with great vigour, and submitted a variety of important
measures to Parliament, many of which were {390} adopted. They also
prepared a document "containing the whole system of the law," which was
read to the House on January 20 and 21, 1652; and it was resolved "That
three hundred copies of the said book be forthwith printed, to be delivered
to members of the Parliament only."

Is anything known of this work at the present day?


    [It appears doubtful whether this work was ever printed, for in a
    pamphlet published April 27, 1653, entitled _A Supply to a Draught of
    an Act or System proposed (as is reported) by the Committee for
    Regulations concerning the Law_, &c., the writer thus notices
    it:--"Having _lately heard_ of some propositions called 'The System of
    the Law,' which are said to be intended preparatives to several Acts of
    Parliament touching the regulation of the law, we cannot but with
    thankfulness acknowledge the care and industry of those worthy persons
    who contrived the same, it containing many good and wholesome
    provisions for the future perpetual good and quiet of the nation.... We
    know not, at present, wherein we could give a more visible testimony of
    our affections to the peaceable government of the free people here,
    than by offering to them and the supreme authority, what we humbly
    conceive prejudicial and inconvenient to well-government, in case that
    System (_as it is said to be now prepared_) should take effect." A week
    before the publication of this work, the Long Parliament had been
    turned out of doors by Cromwell.]

_Saint Malachy on the Popes._--Saint Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, who
flourished in the first half of the twelfth century, is said to be the
author of a curious prophecy respecting the Popes. Some years ago I met
with this prophecy in an old French almanack, and was particularly struck
with its applicability to the life and character of the present Pope; but I
omitted to make a Note.

Can you inform me where I may find a copy of this prophecy?


    [St. Malachy's hieroglyphical descriptions or prophecy on the
    succession of Roman Pontiffs will be found in _Flosculi Historici
    delibati nunc delibatiores redditi, sive Historia Universalis_; Auctore
    Joanne de Bussières, Societatis Jesu Sacerdote, Oxon. 1668. An
    explanation of each prophecy is given from the pontificate of Celestus
    II. A.D. 1143, to that of Innocent X. A.D. 1644. The present Pope being
    the nineteenth from Innocent X., the following prophecy relates to him,
    "Crux de Cruce." We subjoin the remainder: 20. Lumen in coelo. 21.
    Ignis ardens. 22. Religio depopulata. 23. Fides intrepida. 24. Pastor
    angelicus. 25. Pastor et nauta. 26. Flos Florum. 27. De medietate lunæ.
    28. De labore solis. 29 Gloria Olivæ. St. Malachy concludes his
    prophecy with the following prediction of the downfall of the Roman
    Church: "In persecutione extrema Sacræ Romanæ Ecclesiæ sedebit Petrus
    Romanus, qui pascet oves in multis tribulationibus; quibus transactis
    civitas septicollis diruetur, et Judex tremendus judicabit populum."]

_Work on the Human Figure._--A few years ago there was a little work
published on _Dress and the Art of improving the Human Figure_, by (I
believe) a nobleman's valet: I wish to consult this for a literary purpose,
and should be much obliged to any of your readers who can favour me with
the exact title and date.


    [The following two works on dress appear in the _London Catalogue:--The
    Whole Art of Dress_, by a Country Officer, 12mo. Lond. 1830; and _The
    Art of Dress, or a Guide to the Toilette_, fcp. 8vo., Lond. 1839.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 318.)

The origin of the word _namby-pamby_ is explained in the following passage
of Johnson's _Life of Ambrose Philips_:

    "The pieces that please best are those which from Pope and Pope's
    adherents procured him the name of _namby-pamby_, the poems of short
    lines, by which he paid his court to all ages and characters--from
    Walpole, 'the steerer of the realm,' to Miss Pulteney in the nursery.
    The numbers are smooth and sprightly, and the diction is seldom faulty.
    They are not loaded with much thought, yet, if they had been written by
    Addison, they would have had admirers. Little things are not valued but
    when they are done by those who can do greater."

In the _Treatise on the Bathos_, the _infantine_ style is exclusively
exemplified by passages from Ambrose Philips:

    "This [says Pope] is when a poet grows so very simple as to think and
    talk like a child. I shall take my examples from the greatest master in
    this way: hear how he fondles like a mere stammerer:

      'Little charm of placid mien,
      Miniature of Beauty's queen,
      Hither, British Muse of mine,
      Hither, all ye Grecian nine,
      With the lovely Graces three,
      And your pretty nursling see.
      When the meadows next are seen,
      Sweet enamel, white and green;
      When again the lambkins play,
      Pretty sportlings full of May,
      Then the neck so white and round,
      (Little neck with brilliants bound)
      And thy gentleness of mind,
      (Gentle from a gentle kind), &c.
      Happy thrice, and thrice again,
      Happiest he of happy men,' &c.

    And the rest of those excellent lullabies of his composition."--C. xi.

These verses are stated by Warburton, in his note on the passage, to be
taken from a poem to {391} Miss Cuzzona. They are however in fact selected
from two poems addressed to daughters of Lord Carteret, and are put
together arbitrarily, out of the order in which they stand in the original
poems. There is a short poem by Philips in the same metre, addressed to
Signora Cuzzoni, and dated May 25, 1724, beginning, "Little syren of the
stage;" but none of the verses quoted in the _Treatise on the Bathos_ are
extracted from it.

_Namby-pamby_ belongs to a tolerably numerous class of words in our
language, all formed on the same rhyming principle. They are all familiar,
and some of them childish; which last circumstance probably suggested to
Pope the invention of the word _namby-pamby_, in order to designate the
infantine style which Ambrose Philips had introduced. Many of them,
however, are used by old and approved writers; and the principle upon which
they are formed must be of great antiquity in our language. The following
is a collection of words which are all formed in this manner:

_Bow-wow._--A word coined in imitation of a dog's bark. Compare the French

_Chit-chat._--Formed by reduplication from _chat_. A word (says Johnson)
used in ludicrous conversation. It occurs in the _Spectator_ and _Tatler_.

_Fiddle-faddle._--Formed in a similar manner from _to fiddle_, in its sense
of _to trifle_. It occurs in the _Spectator_.

_Flim-flam._--An old word, of which examples are cited from Beaumont and
Fletcher, and Swift. It is formed from _flam_, which Johnson calls "a cant
word of no certain etymology." _Flam_, for a lie, a cheat, is however used
by South, Barrow, and Warburton, and therefore at one time obtained an
admission into dignified style. See Nares' _Glossary_ in v.

_Hab or nab._--That is, according to Nares, have or have not; subsequently
abridged into _hab, nab_. _Hob or nob_ is explained by him to mean "Will
you have a glass of wine or not?" _Hob, nob_ is applied by Shakspeare to
another alternative, viz. give or take (_Twelfth Night_, Act III. Sc. 4.).
See Nares in v. _Habbe or Nabbe_.

_Handy-dandy._--"A play in which children change hands and places"
(Johnson). Formed from hand. The word is used by Shakspeare.

_Harum-scarum._--"A low but frequent expression applied to flighty persons;
persons always in a hurry" (Todd). Various conjectures are offered
respecting its origin: the most probable seems to be, that it is derived
from _scare_. The Anglo-Saxon word _hearmsceare_ means punishment (see
Grimm, _Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer_, p. 681.); but although the similarity
of sound is remarkable, it is difficult to understand how _harum-scarum_
can be connected with it.

_Helter-skelter._--Used by Shakspeare. Several derivations for this word
are suggested, but none probable.

_Higgledy-piggledy._--"A cant word, corrupted from _higgle_, which denotes
any confused mass, as _higglers_ carry a huddle of provisions together"
(Johnson). It seems more probable that the word is formed from _pig_; and
that it alludes to the confused and indiscriminate manner in which pigs lie
together. In other instances (as _chit-chat_, _flim-flam_, _pit-a-pat_,
_shilly-shally_, _slip-slop_, and perhaps _harum-scarum_), the word which
forms the basis of the rhyming reduplication stands second, and not first.

_Hocus-pocus._--The words _ocus bochus_ appear, from a passage cited in
Todd, to have been used anciently by Italian conjurers. The fanciful idea
of Tillotson, that _hocus-pocus_ is a corruption of the words _hoc est
corpus_, is well known. Compare Richardson _in v._

_Hoddy-doddy._--This ancient word has various meanings (see Richardson _in
v._). As used by Ben Jonson and Swift, it is expressive of contempt. In
Holland's translation of Pliny it signifies a snail. There is likewise a
nursery rhyme or riddle:

  All legs and no body."

_Hodge-podge_ appears to be a corruption of _hotch-pot_. It occurs in old
writers. (See Richardson in _Hotch-pot_.)

_Hoity-toity._--Thoughtless, giddy. Formed from the old word _to hoit_, to
dance or leap, to indulge in riotous mirth. See Nares in _Hoit_ and _Hoyt_.

_Hubble-bubble._--A familiar word, formed from _bubble_. Not in the

_Hubbub._--Used by Spenser, and other good writers. Richardson derives it
from _hoop_ or _whoop_, shout or yell. It seems rather a word formed in
imitation of the confused inarticulate noise produced by the mixture of
numerous voices, like _mur-mur_ in Latin.

_Hugger-mugger._--Used by Spenser, Shakspeare, and other old writers. The
etymology is uncertain. Compare Jamieson in _Hudge-mudge_. The latter part
of the word seems to be allied with _smuggle_, and the former part to be
the reduplication. The original and proper sense of hugger-mugger is
secretly. See Nares _in v._, who derives it from _to hugger_, to lurk
about; but query whether such a word can be shown to have existed?

_Humpty-dumpty._--Formed from _hump_. This word occurs in the nursery

  "_Humpty-dumpty_ sat on a wall,
  _Humpty-dumpty_ had a great fall," &c.

_Hurdy-gurdy._--The origin of this word, which is quoted from no writer
earlier than Foote, has not been explained. See Todd _in v._

_Hurly-burly._--This old word occurs in the well-known verses in the
opening scene of _Macbeth_--

  "When the _hurly burly's_ done,
  When the battle's lost and won"--

{392} where see the notes of the commentators for other instances of it.
There are rival etymologies for this word, but all uncertain. The French
has _hurlu-burlu_. Nares in _Hurly_.

_Hurry-scurry._--This word, formed from _hurry_, is used by Gray in his
_Long Story_.

_Nick-nack._--A small ornament. Not in the dictionaries.

_Pic-nic._--For the derivation of this word, which seems to be of French
origin, see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 240. 387.

_Pit-pat, or Pit-a-pat._--A word formed from _pat_, and particularly
applied to the pulsations of the heart, when accelerated by emotion. Used
by Ben Jonson and Dryden. Congreve writes it _a-pit-pat_.

_Riff-raff._--The refuse of anything, "Il ne lui lairra rif ny raf."
Cotgrave in _Rif_, where _rif_ is said to mean nothing.

_Rolly-pooly._--"A sort of game" (Johnson). It is now used as the name of a
pudding rolled with sweetmeat.

_Rowdy-dowdy, and Rub-a-dub._--Words formed in imitation of the beat of a

_Shilly-shally._--Used by Congreve, and formerly written "shill I, shall

_Slip-slop._--"Bad liquor. A low word, formed by reduplication of _slop_"
(Johnson). Now generally applied to errors in pronunciation, arising from
ignorance and carelessness, like those of Mrs. Malaprop in _The Rivals_.

_Tip-top._--Formed from _top_, like _slip-slop_ from _slop_.

_Tirra-lirra._--Used by Shakspeare:

  "The lark that _tirra lirra_ chants."--_Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc. 2.

From the French, see Nares _in v._

The preceding collection is intended merely to illustrate the principle
upon which this class of words are formed, and does not aim at
completeness. Some of your correspondents will doubtless, if they are
disposed, be able to supply other examples of the same mode of formation.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 292.)

S. N. will find the Earl's answer in a volume, not very common now,
entitled _A Compleat and Impartial History of the Impeachments of the Last
Ministry_, London, 8vo., 1716. The charge respecting the creation of twelve
peers in one day formed the 16th article of the impeachment. I inclose a
copy of the answer, if not too long for your pages.


    "In answer to the 16th article, the said Earl doth insist, that by the
    laws and constitution of this realm, it is the undoubted right and
    prerogative of the Sovereign, who is the fountain of honor, to create
    peers of this realm, as well in time of Parliament as when there is no
    Parliament sitting or in being; and that the exercise of this branch of
    the prerogative is declared in the form or preamble of all patents of
    honor, to proceed _ex mero motu_, as an act of mere grace and favor,
    and that such acts are not done as many other acts of public nature
    are, by and with the advice of the Privy Council; or as acts of pardon
    usually run, upon a favorable representation of several circumstances,
    or upon reports from the Attorney-General or other officers, that such
    acts are lawful or expedient, or for the safety or advantage of the
    Crown; but flows entirely from the beneficent and gracious disposition
    of the Sovereign. He farther says, that neither the warrants for
    patents of honor, the bills or other engrossments of such patents, are
    at any time communicated to the council or the treasury, as several
    other patents are; and therefore the said Earl, either as High
    Treasurer or Privy Councillor, could not have any knowledge of the
    same: Nevertheless, if her late sacred Majesty had thought fit to
    acquaint him with her most gracious intentions of creating any number
    of peers of this realm, and had asked his opinion, whether the persons
    whom she then intended to create were persons proper to have been
    promoted to that dignity, he does believe he should have highly
    approved her Majesty's choice; and does not apprehend that in so doing
    he had been guilty of any breach of his duty, or violation of the trust
    in him reposed; since they were all persons of honor and distinguished
    merit, and the peerage thereby was not greatly increased, considering
    some of those created would have been peers by descent, and many noble
    families were then lately extinct: And the said Earl believes many
    instances may be given where this prerogative hath been exercised by
    former princes of this realm, in as extensive a manner; and
    particularly in the reigns of King Henry the Eighth, King James the
    First, and his late Majesty King William. The said Earl begs leave to
    add, that in the whole course of his life he hath always loved the
    established constitution, and in his private capacity as well as in all
    public stations, when he had the honor to be employed, has ever done
    his utmost to preserve it, and shall always continue so to do."

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 264.)

The mention there made of the recent discovery of one of these subterranean
vaults or passages in Aberdeenshire, induces me to ask a question in regard
to two subterranean passages which have lately been discovered in
Berwickshire, and which so far differ from all others that I have heard or
read of, that whereas all of them seem to have been built at the sides with
large flat stones, and roofed with similar ones, and then covered with
earth, those which I am about to mention are both hewn out of the solid
rock. They are both situated in the Lammermoor range of hills. Those
persons who have seen them are at a loss to know for what {393} purpose
they could have been excavated, unless for the purpose of sepulture in the
times of the aborigines, or of very early inhabitants of Britain, as they
in many respects resemble those stone graves which are mentioned in
Worsaae's _Description of the Primæval Antiquities of Denmark_, translated
and applied to the illustration of similar remains in England by Mr. Thoms.

One of these cavities is situated on a remote pasture farm, among the hills
belonging to the Earl of Lauderdale, called Braidshawrigg; and was
discovered by a shepherd very near his own house, within less than a
quarter of a mile up a small stream which runs past it, and on the opposite
side of the water, a few yards up the steep hill. The shepherd had observed
for some time that one of his dogs was in the habit of going into what he
supposed to be a rabbit hole at this place, and when he was missing and
called, he generally came out of this hole. At last, curiosity led his
master to take a spade and dig into it; and he soon found that, after
digging down into the soil to the rock, the cavity became larger, and had
evidently been the work of human hands. Information was given to Lord
Lauderdale, and the rubbish was cleared away. It (the rubbish) did not
extend far in, and after that the passage was clear. The excavation
consists of a passage cut nearly north and south (the entrance being to the
south) through various strata of solid rocks, partly grauwacke, (or what is
there called _whinstone_), and partly grey slate: the strata lying east and
west, and nearly vertical. The whole length of it is seventy-four feet.
From the entrance the passage, for four or five yards, slopes downwards
into the hill; it then runs horizontally the length of sixty-three feet
from the entrance, when it changes its direction at right angles to the
westward for a distance of eleven feet; when it ends with the solid rock.
It is regularly from three feet four inches to three feet six inches wide,
and about seven feet high, the ceiling being somewhat circular. The floor
is the rock cut square. The time and labour must have been great to cut
this passage, as not more than one man could conveniently quarry the rock
at the same time. It might have been supposed that this was a level to a
mine, as copper has been worked in this range farther eastward; but the
passage does not follow any vein, but cuts across all the strata, and keeps
a straight line, till it turns westward, and then in another straight line;
and the floors, sides, and roof are all made quite regular and even with a
pickaxe or a hammer. There does not appear to have been at any time any
other habitation than the shepherd's house, and another cottage a little
lower down the stream, in the neighbourhood. The discovery of this cavern
recalled to the recollection of myself, and some of my family, that a few
years ago, in cutting a road through the rock into a whinstone quarry,
about four miles south of Braidshawrigg, near a mill, we had cut across the
east end of a passage somewhat similar to the one before mentioned, but
running east and west; that we had cleared it out for a short way, but as
it then went under a corner of one of the houses belonging to the mill, we
stopped, for fear of bringing down the building, as this passage, though
cut out of the solid rock, was not a mine, but had been worked to the
surface; and, if it ever had been used for purposes of sepulture, must have
been roofed with flagstones, and then covered with earth like other Picts'
houses. But these roof-stones must have been carried away, and the whole
trench was filled with rubbish, and all trace of it on the surface was
obliterated. This passage we have lately opened, and cleared out. To the
westward it passes into the adjoining water-mill, which is itself in great
part formed by excavation of the rock; and the east wall of the upper part
of the mill is arched over the passage. Beyond the west wall of the mill
which adjoins the stream, there is a continuation of the trench through the
rock down to the water, which serves to take away that which passes over
the millwheel at right angles to where the rock has been cut away to make
room for the millwheel itself. That which has been cut away in making the
trench, is a seam of clay slate about three feet six inches in breadth,
between two solid whinstone rocks. The length of the passage, from the east
end, which terminated in rock, to the mill, is sixty-three feet. The mill
is thirty feet, and the cut beyond it twelve feet: in all, one hundred and
five feet. The average depth is about twelve feet; but as it slopes down to
the stream, some of it is sixteen feet deep. It has been suggested that it
might have been dug out in order to obtain the coarse slate; but the
difficulty of working a confined seam like this, in any other way than by
picking it out piecemeal with immense labour, seems impossible. It can
never have been meant to convey water to the mill, as the highest part
begins in the solid rock, and the object must always have been to keep the
water on the highest possible level, until it reached the top of the
millwheel. Nothing was found in either of these excavations.--After this
long discussion, Query, What can have been the purpose for which these
laborious works can have been executed?

J. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 229. 298.)

It is my misfortune entirely to differ from MR. DAWSON (p. 229.) and MR.
CROSSLEY (p. 298.) as to the pronunciation of _humble_; and permit me to
say (with all courtesy) that I was unfeignedly surprised at the latter's
assertion, that sounding {394} the _h_ is "a recent attempt to introduce a
mispronunciation," as I have known that mode of pronunciation all but
universally prevalent for nearly the last forty years; and I have had
pretty good opportunities for observing what the general usage in that
respect was, as I was for some years at a very large public school, then at
Oxford for more than the usual time, and have since resided in London more
than twenty-five years, practising as a barrister in Westminster Hall, and
on one of the largest circuits. If, therefore, I have not had ample means
of judging as to the pronunciation of _humble_, I know not where the means
are to be found; especially as I doubt whether _humble_ and _humbly_ are
anywhere so frequently used as in courts: a counsel rarely making a speech
without "_humbly_ submitting" or making a "_humble_ application." Now the
result of my experience is, that the _h_ is almost universally sounded; and
at this moment I cannot call to mind a single gentleman who omits it, who
does not also omit it in many other instances where no doubt can exist that
it ought to be sounded.

MR. DAWSON believes the sounding the _h_ to be "one of those, either
Oxford, or Cambridge, or both, peculiarities of which no reasonable
explanation can be given." Now I believe MR. DAWSON is right in supposing
that that usage is general both at Oxford and Cambridge, and I rather think
that not only an explanation of the fact may be given, but that the fact
itself, that in both the Universities the _h_ is sounded, is extremely
cogent evidence that it is correct. It cannot be doubted that the fact that
a word is spelled with certain letters is clear proof that, at the time
when that spelling was adopted, the word was so sounded as to give a
distinct sound to each of the letters used, and that clearly must have been
the case with words beginning with _h_ especially. When, therefore, the
present spelling of _humble_ was adopted, the _h_ was sounded. Now, whilst
I freely admit that the utterance of any word may be changed--"Si volet
usus, quem penes arbitrium est, et jus et norma loquendi"--still it cannot
be questioned that the usage must be so general, clear, and distinct among
the better educated classes (where-ever they may have received their
education) as to leave no reasonable doubt about the matter; and that it
lies on those who assert that such a change has taken place, to show such a
usage as I have mentioned. And when the number of the members of the
Universities is considered, and their position as men of education, it must
at least admit of doubt whether, if a general usage prevailed among them to
pronounce a particular word in the manner in which it originally was
pronounced, this would not alone prevent a different pronunciation among
others from having that general prevalence, which would be sufficient to
justify a change in the utterance of such word.

But let us consider whether the usage of the Universities is not very
cogent evidence that the _h_ is generally sounded throughout England, 1.
Each University contains a large number of the higher and better educated
classes. 2. The members come from all parts of England indiscriminately. 3.
Infinitely the majority come from schools; and some of the large schools
have generally many members at each University. By such persons the
pronunciation of the schools cannot fail to be represented. 4. Every one on
entering the University is expected at least to know his own language. 5.
There is no instruction, as far as I know (however much the fact may be to
be regretted), ever given in English at either University. 6. There is a
perpetual change of about a third of the members every year, few remaining
above three years. Now can any one, who candidly considers these facts,
doubt that a usage in pronouncing a particular word at _either_ University
if generally prevalent, is very strong evidence that the same usage is
generally prevalent throughout England; but if any one does entertain such
a doubt, surely it must be done away, when he finds that the same usage
prevails at _both_ Universities; though there exists such a degree of
rivalry between them as would prevent the one from adopting from the other
any usage which was liable to any the least doubt, and though there is no
communication between them that could account for the same usage prevailing
in both.

MR. CROSSLEY appeals to the Prayer Book as a decisive authority, and
instances "an _humble_," &c. If any one will examine the Prayer Book, he
will find that it is no authority at all; as "an" is at least as often used
erroneously before _h_ as not. In reading over the first sixty-eight
Psalms, I found the following instances--Ps. xxvii. 3. and Ps. xxxiii. 15.,
"An host of men;" Ps. xlvii. 4. and Ps. lxi. 5., "An heritage;" Ps. xlix.
18., "An happy man," Ps. lv. 5., "An horrible dread;" Ps. lxviii. 15., "An
high hill." And in the same Psalms I only found _one_ instance of _a_
before _h_, viz. in Ps. xxxiii. 16., "A horse;" and in this case the Bible
version has "An horse." In the first Lesson for the 19th Sunday after
Trinity, Dan. iii. 4., "An herald," and 27., "An hair of their head,"
occur; and in the next chapter (iv. 13.), "An holy one." It is plain from
these instances (and doubtless many others may be found), that the use of
"an" before _h_, in the Bible or Prayer Book, can afford no test whatever
whether the _h_ ought to be sounded or not.

S. G. C.

After the sensible Note of your correspondent E. H., it is perhaps hardly
necessary to say more on the subject of aspirated and mute _h_. If these
remarks, therefore, seem superfluous, they may easily be suppressed, and
that too without any offence to the writer. {395}

It is very dangerous to dogmatise on the English language. We really have
no authority to which we can confidently appeal, except the usage of good
society: "Quem penes arbitrium est, et jus et norma loquendi."
Unfortunately, however, every man is convinced, that in _his own_ society
that usage is to be found; and your correspondents, who have agreed in
approving the _Heapian_ pronunciation, will probably, on that ground, still
retain the same opinion.

The only words in the English language, in which _h_ is written, but not
pronounced, are words derived from Latin through the French; but of these,
many in English retain the aspirate, though in French nearly all lose it.
The exceptions collected by E. H. satisfactorily prove that we do not
follow the French rule implicitly. They indeed carry the non-aspiration
farther than to words of Latin derivation. They omit the aspirate to nearly
all words derived from Greek. This we never do. I think that E. H.'s rule,
of always aspirating _h_ before _u_, is not entirely without exceptions.
Except in Ireland, I never heard _humour_ or _humorous_ aspirated, though
in _humid_ and _humect_ the _h_ is always sounded. If this be right, it
depends solely on the usage of good society, and not on rules laid down by
Walker or Lindley Murray, whose authority we do _not_ acknowledge as
infallible. I may here remark, that no arguments can be drawn from our
Liturgy or translation of the Bible that would not prove too much. If,
because we find in our Liturgy "an _humble_, lowly, and obedient heart," we
are to read "an _'umble_," we must also read "an 'undred, an 'ouse, an
'eap, an 'eart;" for _an_ was prefixed in our Liturgy as well as in our
translated Bible to _every_ word beginning with _h_, and not (as one of
your correspondents supposes) only to words beginning with silent _h_.
Among young clergymen there is a growing habit (derived I suppose from
Walker, or other such sources) of indulging in the _Heapian_ dialect. I
think Mr. Dickens will have done us more good by his ridicule, than will
ever be effected by serious arguments; and I feel as much obliged to him as
to E. H. To show how dangerous it is to be bound by a mere grammarian
authority, a disciple of Vaugelas or Restaut (no insignificant names in
French philology) would be led to read _les héros_ as if it were "les

E. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 220.)

I can answer MR. WELD TAYLOR for at least one public school having no
library, nor any books for other purposes than tasks, _i.e._ Christ's
Hospital, London: whether any other metropolitan schools are provided with
books I do not know. When I was at the above school, at all events, we had
no books except for learning out of; whether reform has crept in since I
was there, twenty-five years ago, I cannot say. I speak of then, not now.

I remember very well a dusty cupboard with "Read, Mark, Learn," painted in
ostentatious letters on it. And these profound words were just like a park
gate with high iron railings, where you may peep in and get no farther--no
more could we: for we never saw the inside of it, and nobody could say
where the key was, therefore what flowery _pleasaunce_ of knowledge it
contained nobody perhaps knows to this day. I also remember how greedily
any entertaining book was borrowed, begged, and circulated; and thumbed and
dog's-eared to admiration. _Rasselas_ and _Gulliver's Travels_, _Robinson
Crusoe_, or _Sandford and Merton_, poor things! they became at last what
might be supposed a public arsenal of umbrellas would at the last.

When I reflect on that time, and the dreary winter's evenings, trundled to
bed almost by daylight, my very heart sinks. What a luxury if some
Christian had been allowed to read aloud for an hour, instead of lying
awake studying the ghastly lamp that swung from the ceiling in the
dormitory; or if some one with a modicum of information had given half an
hour's lecture on some entertaining branch of science. Perhaps these
antique schools are reformed in some measure, or perhaps they are waiting
till their betters are.

I observe, however, that certain parish work-house schools have, within
these few days, taken the hint. Perhaps our public schools, for some are
very wealthy, may be able to afford to follow their example.

E. H.

Wimborne Minster, Dorset.

Marlborough College possesses a library of about four thousand volumes,
entirely the munificent contribution of Mr. M^cGeachy, one of the council.
The boys of the fifth and sixth forms are allowed access daily at certain
fixed hours, the librarian being present. In addition to this, libraries
are now being formed in each house, which are maintained by small
half-yearly subscriptions, and which will contain books of a more amusing
character, and better suited for the younger boys.

B. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Albumenized Paper._--If this subject be not already exhausted, the
following account of my method of preparing the material in question, which
differs in some few important particulars from any I have seen published,
may be of interest to some of my brother operators. {396}

I have, after a very considerable number of experiments, succeeded in
producing the _very highly_ varnished appearance so conspicuous in some of
the foreign proofs; and although I cannot say I admire it in general, more
especially as regards landscapes, yet it is sometimes very effective for
portraits, giving a depth of tone to the shadows, and a roundness to the
flesh, which is very striking. Moreover, a photographer may just as well be
acquainted with every kind of manipulation connected with the art.

Having but a very moderate amount of spare time, and that at uncertain
intervals, to devote to this seductive pursuit, I am always a great
stickler for _economy of time_ in all the processes, as well as for economy
of material, the former with me having, perhaps, a shade more influence
than the latter.

As in all other processes, I find that the _kind of paper_ made use of has
a most important bearing upon the result. That which I find the best is of
French manufacture, known as Canson Frères' (both the thin and the thick
sorts), probably in consequence of their being sized with starch. The thin
sort (the same as is generally used for waxed-paper negatives) takes the
highest polish, but more readily embrowns after being rendered sensitive,
and the lights are not ever quite so white as when the positive paper is

In order to save both time and labour, I prepare my papers in the _largest_
sizes that circumstances will admit of, as it takes little or no more time
to prepare and render sensitive a large sheet than a small one; and as I
always apply the silver solution by means of the glass rod, I find that a
half-sheet of Canson's paper (being seventeen inches by eleven inches the
half-sheet) is the best size to operate on. If the whole sheet is used, it
requires _more_ than double the quantity of solution to ensure its being
properly covered, which additional quantity is simply so much waste.

A most convenient holder for the paper whilst being operated upon, is one
suggested by Mr. Horne of Newgate Street, and consists of a piece of
half-inch Quebec yellow pine plank (a soft kind of deal), eleven inches by
seventeen inches, screwed to a somewhat larger piece of the same kind, but
with the grain of the wood at right angles to the upper piece, in order to
preserve a perfectly flat surface. On to the upper piece is glued a
covering of japanned-flannel, such as is used for covering tables, taking
care to select for the purpose that which has no raised pattern, the
imitation of rosewood or mahogany being unexceptionable on that account.
The paper can be readily secured to the arrangement alluded to by means of
a couple of pins, one at each of two opposite angles, the wood being
sufficiently soft to admit of their ready penetration.

_To prepare the Albumen._--Take the white of _one_ egg; this dissolve in
one ounce of distilled water, two grains of chloride of sodium (common
salt), and two grains of _grape_ sugar; mix with the egg, whip the whole to
froth, and allow it to stand until it again liquefies. The object of this
operation is to thoroughly incorporate the ingredients, and render the
whole as homogeneous as possible.

A variety in the resulting tone is produced by using ten grains of sugar of
milk instead of the grape sugar.

The albumen mixture is then laid on to the paper by means of a flat
camel's-hair brush, about three inches broad, the mixture being first
poured into a cheese plate, or other flat vessel, and all froth and bubbles
carefully removed from the surface. Four longitudinal strokes with such a
brush, if properly done, will cover the whole half-sheet of paper with an
even thin film; but in case there are any lines formed, the brush may be
passed very lightly over it again in a direction at right angles to the
preceding. The papers should then be allowed to remain on a perfectly level
surface until nearly dry, when they may be suspended for a few minutes
before the fire, to complete the operation. In this condition the glass is
but moderate, and as is generally used; but if, after the first drying
before the fire, the papers are again subjected to precisely the same
process, the negative paper will shine like polished glass. That is coated
again with the albumenizing mixture, and dried as before.

One egg, with the ounce of water, &c., is enough to cover five half-sheets
with two layers, or five whole sheets with one.

I rarely iron my papers, as I do not find any advantage therein, because
the moment the silver solution is applied the albumen becomes coagulated,
and I cannot discover the slightest difference in the final result, except
that when the papers are ironed I sometimes find flaws and spots occur from
some carelessness in the ironing process.

If the albumenized paper is intended to be kept for any _long_ time before
use, the ironing may be useful as a protection against moisture, provided
the _iron be sufficiently hot_; but the temperature ought to be

To render the paper sensitive, I use a hundred-grain solution of nitrate of
silver, of which forty-five minims will exactly cover the sheet of
seventeen inches by eleven inches, if laid on with the glass rod. A weaker
solution will do, but with the above splendid tints may be produced. As to
the ammonio-nitrate of silver, I have totally abandoned its use, and, after
many careful experiments, I am satisfied that its extra sensitiveness is a
delusion, while the rapid tendency of paper prepared with it to spoil is
increased tenfold.

The fixing, of course, modifies considerably the tone of the proof, but
almost any desired shade {397} may be attained by following the plan of MR.
F. M. LYTE, published in "N. & Q.," provided the negative is sufficiently
intense to admit of a considerable degree of over-printing.

It is a fact which appears to be entirely overlooked by many operators,
that the _intensity_ of the negative is the chief agent in conducing to
black tones in the positive proof; and it is almost impossible to produce
them if the negative is poor and weak: and the same observation applies to
a negative that has been _over_-exposed.


_Cement for Glass Baths._--The best I have tried is Canada balsam. My baths
I have had in use five years, and have used them for exciting, developing
hypo. and cyanide, and are as good as when first used.


_New Process for Positive Proofs._--I have tried a method of preparing my
paper for positive proofs, which, as I have not seen it mentioned as
employed by others, and the results appear to me very satisfactory, I am
induced to communicate to you, and to accompany by some specimens, which
will enable you to judge of the amount of success.

I use a glass cylinder, with air-pump attached, such as that described by
MR. STEWART as employed by him for iodizing his paper. I put in this the
salt solution, and that I use is thus composed: 2 drachms of sugar of milk,
dissolved in 20 ounces of water, adding--

  Chloride of barium             15 grs.
  Chloride of sodium             15 grs.
  Chloride of ammonium           15 grs.

In this I plunge several sheets of paper rolled into a coil (taking care
that they are covered by the solution), and exhaust the air. I leave them
thus for a few minutes, then take them out and hang them up to dry; or as
the sheets are rather difficult to pin, from the paper giving way, spread
them on a frame, across which any common kind of coarse muslin or tarletan,
such as that I inclose, is stretched.

I excite with ammonio-nitrate of silver, 30 grains to 1 ounce of water,
applied with a flat brush.

I fix in a bath of plain hypo. of the strength of one-sixth. The bath in
which the inclosed specimens were fixed has been in use for some little
time, and therefore has acquired chloride of silver.

I previously prepared my paper by _brushing_ it with the same salt
solution, and the difference of effect produced may be seen by comparing a
proof so obtained, which I inclose, with the others. This latter is of
rather a reddish-brown, and not very agreeable tint. I have inclosed the
proofs as printed on paper of Whatman, Turner, and Canson Frères, so as to
show the effect in each case. The advantages which the mode I have detailed
possesses are, I think, these:

Greater sensitiveness in the paper,

A good black tint, and

Greater freedom from spots and blemishes, all very material merits.

C. E. F.

    [Our Correspondent has forwarded five specimens, four of which are
    certainly very satisfactory, the fifth is the one prepared by

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Groaning Elm-plank in Dublin_ (Vol. viii., p. 309.).--DR. RIMBAULT has
given an account of the groaning-board, one of the popular delusions of two
centuries ago: the following notice of it, extracted from my memoir of Sir
Thomas Molyneux, Bart., M.D., and published in the _Dublin University_ for
September, 1841, may interest your readers:

    "In one of William Molyneux's communications he mentions the exhibition
    of 'the groaning elm-plank' in Dublin, a curiosity that attracted much
    attention and many learned speculations about the years 1682 and 1683.
    He was, however, too much of a philosopher to be gulled with the rest
    of the people who witnessed this so-called 'sensible elm-plank,' which
    is said to have groaned and trembled on the application of a hot iron
    to one end of it. After explaining the probable cause of the noise and
    tremulousness by its form and condition, and by the sap being made to
    pass up through the pores or tubuli of the plank which was in some
    particular condition, he says: 'But, Tom, the generality of mankind is
    lazy and unthoughtful, and will not trouble themselves to think of the
    reason of a thing: when they have a brief way of explaining anything
    that is strange by saying, "The devil's in it," what need they trouble
    their heads about pores, and matters, and motion, figure, and
    disposition, when the devil and a witch shall solve the phenomena of


_Passage in Whiston_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--J. T. complains of not being
able to find a passage in Whiston, which he says is referred to in p. 94.
of _Taylor on Original Sin_, Lond. 1746. I do not know what Taylor he
refers to. Jeremy Taylor wrote a treatise on original sin; but he lived
before Whiston. I have looked into two editions of the _Scripture Doctrine
of Original Sin_, by John Taylor, one of Lond. 1741, and another of Lond.
1750; but in neither of these can I find any mention of Mr. Whiston.

[Greek: Halieus].


"_When Orpheus went down_" (Vol. viii., pp. 196. 281.).--In addition to the
information given upon this old song by MR. OLDENSHAW, I beg to add the
following. It was written for and sung {398} by Mr. Beard, in a pantomimic
entertainment entitled _Orpheus and Euridice_, acted at the theatre in
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1740. The author of the entertainment was Mr. Henry
Sommer, but the song in question was "translated from the Spanish" by the
Rev. Dr. Samuel Lisle, who died Rector of Burclere, Hants, 1767. It was
long very popular, and is found in almost all the song-books of the latter
half of the last century. Mr. Park, the editor of the last edition of
Ritson's _English Songs_ (vol. ii. p. 153.), has the following note upon
this song:

    "An answer to this has been written in the way of echo, and in defence
    of the fair sex, whom the Spanish author treated with such libellous

As this "echo song" is not given by Ritson or his editor, I have
transcribed it from a broadside in my collection. It is said to have been
written by a lady.

  "When Orpheus went down to the regions below,
    To bring back the wife that he lov'd,
  Old Pluto, confounded, as histories show,
    To find that his music so mov'd:
  That a woman so good, so virtuous, and fair,
    Should be by a man thus trepann'd,
  To give up her freedom for sorrow and care,
    He own'd she deserv'd to be damn'd.

  "For punishment he never study'd a whit,
    The torments of hell had not pain
  Sufficient to curse her; so Pluto thought fit
    Her husband should have her again.
  But soon he compassion'd the woman's hard fate,
    And, knowing of mankind so well,
  He recall'd her again, before 'twas too late,
    And said, she'd be happier in hell."


_Foreign Medical Education_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.).--Your correspondent
MEDICUS will find some information respecting _some_ of the foreign
universities in the _Lancet_ for 1849, and the _Medical Times and Gazette_
for 1852. For France he will find all he wants in Dr. Roubaud's _Annuaire
Médical et Pharmaceutique de la France_, published by Baillière, 219.
Regent Street.

M. D.

"_Short red, good red_" (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--Sir Walter has probably
borrowed this saying from the story of Bishop Walchere, when he related the
murder of Adam, Bishop of Caithness. This tragical event is told in the
_Chronicle of Mailros_, under the year 1222; also in _Forduni
Scotichronicon_, and in Wyntoun's _Chronicle_, book vii. c. ix.; but the
words "short red, good red," do not appear in these accounts of the

J. MN.

_Collar of SS._ (Vols. iv.-vii. _passim_).--At the risk of frightening you
and your correspondents, I venture to resume this subject, in consequence
of a circumstance to which my attention has just been directed.

In the parish church of Swarkestone in Derbyshire there is a monument to
Richard Harpur, one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the reign
of Elizabeth; on which he is represented in full judicial costume, with the
collar of SS., which I am told by the minister of the parish is "distinctly
delineated." It may be seen in Fairholt's _Costumes of England_, p. 278.

As far as I am aware, this is the only instance, either on monuments or in
portraits, of a _puisne_ judge being ornamented with this decoration. Can
any of your correspondents produce another example? or can they account,
from any other cause, for Richard Harpur receiving such a distinction? or
may I not rather attribute it to the blunder of the sculptor?


_Who first thought of Table-turning_ (Vol. viii., p. 57.).--It is
impossible to say who discovered the table-turning experiment, but it
undoubtedly had its origin in the United States. It was practised here
three years ago, and, although sometimes associated with spirit-rappings,
has more frequently served for amusement. On this connexion it may be
proper to say that Professor Faraday's theory of unconscious muscular force
meets with no concurrence among those who know anything about the subject
in this country. It is notorious that large tables have been moved
frequently by five or six persons, whose fingers merely touched them,
although upon each was seated a stout man, weighing a hundred and fifty or
sixty pounds: neither involuntary nor voluntary muscular force could have
effected _that_ physical movement, when there was no other _purchase_ on
the table than that which could be gained by a pressure of the tips of the

[Old English W].


_Passage of Thucydides on the Greek Factions_ (Vol. vii., p. 594.; Vol.
viii., pp. 44. 137.).--My attempt to find the passage attributed by Sir A.
Alison to Thucydides in the real Thucydides was unsuccessful for the best
of reasons, viz. that it does not exist there. He has probably borrowed it
from some modern author, who, as it appears to me, has given a loose
paraphrase of the words which I cited from _Thucyd._ III. 82., and has
expanded the thought in a manner not uncommon with some writers, by adding
the expression about the "sword and poniard." Some other misquotations of
Sir A. Alison from the classical writers may be seen in the _Edinburgh
Review_ for April last, No. CXCVIII. p. 275.


_Origin of "Clipper" as applied to Vessels_ (Vol. viii., p. 100.).--For
many years the fleetest sailing vessels built in the United States were
{399} constructed at Baltimore. They were very sharp, long, low; and their
masts were inclined at a much greater angle than usual with those in other
vessels. Fast sailing pilot boats and schooners were thus rigged; and in
the last war with England, privateers of the Baltimore build were
universally famed for their swiftness and superior sailing qualities. "A
Baltimore clipper" became the expression among shipbuilders for a vessel of
peculiar make; in the construction of which, fleetness was considered of
more importance than a carrying capacity. When the attention of naval
architects was directed to the construction of swift sailing ships, they
were compelled to adopt the clipper shape. Hence the title "Clipper Ship,"
which has now extended from America to England.

[Old English W].


_Passage in Tennyson_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--In the third edition of _In
Memoriam_, LXXXIX., 1850, the last line mentioned by W. T. M. is "Flits by
the sea-blue bird of March," instead of "blue sea-bird." This reading
appears to be a better one. I would suggest that the bird meant by Tennyson
was the Tom-tit, who, from his restlessness, may be said to flit among the


_Huet's Navigations of Solomon_ (Vol. vii., p. 381.).--This work of the
learned Bishop of Avranches was written in Latin, and translated into
French by J. B. Desrockes de Parthenay. It forms part of the second volume
of a collection of treatises edited by Bruzen de la Martinière, under the
title of _Traités Géographiques et Historiques pour faciliter
l'intelligence de l'Ecriture Sainte, par divers auteurs célèbres_, 1730, 2
vols. 12mo.

I am unable to reply to EDINA's second Query, as to the result of Huet's


St. Lucia.

_Sincere_ (Vol. viii., pp. 195. 328.).--The derivation of this word from
_sine cerâ_ appears very fanciful. If this were the correct derivation, we
should expect to find _sinecere_, for the _e_ would scarcely be dropped;
just as we have the English word _sinecure_, which is the only compound of
the preposition _sine_ I know; and is itself _not a Latin word_, but of a
later coinage. Some give as the derivation _semel_ and [Greek: keraô]--that
is, once mixed, without adulteration; the [Greek: e] being lengthened, as
the Greek [Greek: akêratos]. The proper spelling would then be _simcerus_,
and euphonically _sincerus_: thus we have _sim-plex_, which does not mean
without a fold, but (_semel plico_, [Greek: plekô]) once folded. So also
_singulus_, semel and termination. The proper meaning may be from tablets,
_ceratæ tabellæ_, which were "once smeared with wax" and then written upon;
they were then _sinceræ_, without forgery or deception. If they were in
certain places covered with wax again, for the purpose of adding something
secretly and deceptively, they cease to be _sinceræ_.


[Pi]. [Beta]. asks me for some authority for the alleged practice of Roman
potters (or crock-vendors) to rub wax into the flaws of their unsound
vessels. This was the very burden of my Query! I am no proficient in the
Latin classics: yet I think I know enough to predicate that [Pi]. [Beta].
is wrong in his version of the line--

  "Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis acescit."

I understand this line as referring to the notorious fact, that some
liquors turn sour if the air gets to them from without. "Sincerum vas" is a
sound or air-tight vessel. In another place (_Sat._, lib. i. 3.), Horace
employs the same figure, where he says that we "call evil good, and good
evil," figuring the sentiment thus:

  "At nos virtutes ipsas invertimus, atque
  Sincerum cupimus vas _incrustare_"--

meaning, of course, that we bring the vessel into suspicion, by treating it
as if it were flawed. Dryden, no doubt, knew the radical meaning of
_sincere_ when he wrote the lines cited by Johnson:

  "He try'd a tough well-chosen spear;
  Th' inviolable body stood sincere."



_The Saltpetre Man_ (Vol. viii., p. 225.).--In addition to the curious
particulars of this office, I send you an extract from Abp. Laud's _Diary_:

    "December 13, Monday. I received letters from Brecknock; that the
    _saltpeter man_ was dead and buried the Sunday before the messenger
    came. This _saltpeter man_ had digged in the Colledge Church for his
    work, bearing too bold upon his commission. The news of it came to me
    to London about November 26. I went to my Lord Keeper, and had a
    messenger sent to bring him up to answer that sacrilegious abuse. He
    prevented his punishment by death."


_Major André_ (Vol. viii., p. 174.).--There is in the picture gallery of
Yale College, New Haven, Conn., an original sketch of Major André, executed
by himself with pen and ink, and without the aid of a glass. It was drawn
in his guard-room on the morning of the day first fixed for his execution.

J. E.

_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--A DOUBTER is informed that the
_National Intelligencer_ (published at Washington, and edited by Messrs.
Gales and Seaton) is the authority for my statement respecting Mrs.
Singleton, and her advanced age. If A DOUBTER is desirous of satisfying
himself more fully respecting its correctness, he has but {400} to write to
the above-named gentlemen, or to the English Consul at Charleston, S. C.,
and his wish will doubtless be gratified. I cannot but hope that your
correspondent's "fifty cents worth of reasons" for doubting my statement is
now, or shortly will be, removed.

If A DOUBTER intends to be in New York while the present Exhibition is
open, he will have an opportunity of seeing a negro of the age of _one
hundred and twenty-four_, who once belonged to General Washington, and from
whom he could very possibly obtain some information respecting the aged
"nurse" of the first President of the United States mentioned in his note.

W. W.


_Passage in Virgil_ (Vol. viii., p. 370.).--The passage for which your
correspondent R. FITZSIMONS makes inquiry is to be found in the Eighth
Eclogue, at the 44th and following lines:

  "Nunc scio quid sit Amor," &c.

The application by Johnson seems to be so plain as to need no explanation.

F. B--W.

_Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--Your
correspondent H. P. will find the love charm, consisting of a fig-shaped
excrescence on a foal's forehead, and called _Hippomanes_, alluded to by
Juvenal, _Sat._ VI. 133.:

  "Hippomanes, carmenque loquar, coctumque venenum,
  Privignoque datum?"

And again, 615.:

              "ut avunculus ille Neronis,
  Cui totam tremuli frontem Cæsonia pulli

It was supposed that the dam swallowed this excrescence immediately on the
birth of her foal, and that, if prevented doing so, she lost all affection
for it.

However, the name Hippomanes was applied to two other things. Theocritus
(II. 48.) uses it to signify some herb which incites horses to madness if
they eat of it.

And again, Virgil (_Geor._ III. 280.), Propertius, Tibullus, Ovid, &c.,
represent it as a certain _virus_:

  "Hippomanes cupidæ stillat ab inguine equæ."

The subject is an unpleasant one, and H. P. is referred for farther
information to Pliny, VIII. 42. s. 66., and XXVIII. 11. s. 80.

H. C. K.

This lump was called _Hippomanes_; which also more truly designated,
according to Virgil, another thing. The following paragraphs from Mr.
Keightley's excellent _Notes on Virgil's Bucolics and Georgics_ will fully
explain both meanings:

    "_Hippomanes_, horse-rage: the pale yellow fluid which passes from a
    mare at that season [_i. e._ when she is horsing] (cf. _Tibul._ II. 4.
    58.), of which the smell (_aura_, v. 251.) incites the horse.

    "_Vero nomine._ Because the bit of flesh which was said to be on the
    forehead of the new-born foal, and which the mare was supposed to
    swallow, was called by the same name (see _Æn._ IV. 515.); and also a
    plant in Arcadia (_Theocr._ II. 48.). With respect to the former
    Hippomanes, Pliny, who detailed truth and falsehood with equal faith,
    says (VIII. 42.) that it grows on the foal's forehead; is of the size
    of a dried fig (_carica_), and of a black colour; and that if the mare
    does not swallow it immediately, she will not let the foal suck her.
    Aristotle (_H. A._, VIII. 24.) says this is merely an old wives' tale.
    He mentions, however, the [Greek: pôlion], or bit of livid flesh, which
    we call the foal's bit, and which he says the mare ejects before the
    foal."--_Notes, &c._, p. 273. on _Georgic._ III. 280. ff.

With regard to the plant called _Hippomanes_, commentators, as may be seen
from Kiessling's note on Theocritus, ii. 48., are by no means agreed.
Certainly Andrews, in his edition of Freund, is wrong in referring Virgil
_Georgic._ III. 283. to that meaning. The use of _legere_ probably misled.


_Wardhouse, where was?_ (Vol. viii., p. 78.).--It probably is the same as
Wardoehuus or Vardoehus, a district and town in Norwegian Finmark, on the
shores of the Arctic Ocean, inhabited principally by fishermen.



_Divining Rod_ (Vol. viii., p. 293.).--The inquirer should read the
statement made by Dr. Herbert Mayo, in his letters _On the Truths contained
in Popular Superstitions_, 1851, pp. 3-21. To the facts there recorded I
may add, that I have heard Mr. Dawson Turner relate that he himself saw the
experiment of the divining rod satisfactorily carried out in the hands of
Lady Noel Byron; and some account of it is to be found, I believe, in an
article by Sir F. Palgrave, in the _Quarterly Review_.


_Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--His arms are engraved
on a plate dedicated to him by Willis, in his _Survey of the Cathedrals of
England_, 1742, vol. i. p. 284., and appear thus, _Argent, on a chevron
gules, three besants_; but in a MS. collection by the late Canon Rowling of
Lichfield, relating to bishops' arms, I find his coat thus given,--_Argent,
on a chevron engrailed gules, three besants_. The variation may have arisen
from an error of the engraver. It appears from Willis that Dr. Waugh was a
fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; and the entry of his matriculation would
no doubt show in what part of England his family resided. He was
successively Rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill; Prebendary of Lincoln; Dean
of Gloucester; and Bishop of {401} Carlisle; to which latter dignity he was
promoted in August, 1723.


_Pagoda_ (Vol. v., p. 415.).--The European word pagoda is most probably
derived, by transposition of the syllables, from _da-go-ba_, which is the
Pali or Sanscrit name for a Budhist temple. It appears probable that the
Portuguese first adopted the word in Ceylon, the modern holy isle of



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On the 1st November, 16 pp. crown 4to., price Threehalfpence.

THE CHURCH OF THE PEOPLE. A Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, the
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Advertisements received until the 21st.

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Collection of Autograph Letters.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
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Westminster, continues, with great success, to Delineate the Character of
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Prolegomenis Versione Notulis Indicibus Instruxit GULIELMUS GILSON HUMPHRY,
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WILKINSON. With 500 Woodcuts.

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THE PRISON AND THE SCHOOL. The Chief ascertained Causes of Crime
considered, with Suggestions for the Care, Relief, and Reformation of the
Neglected, Destitute, and Criminal Children of the Metropolis. By EDMUND
EDWARD ANTROBUS, F.S.A., Justice of the Peace for the County of Middlesex,
and City and Liberty of Westminster; Visiting Justice of the House of
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London: STAUNTON & SONS, 9. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

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CURIOSITIES OF LONDON LIFE; or Phases, Physiological and Social, of the
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World." May be had at all the Libraries.

Just published, post 8vo., cloth, price 5s.


London: W.& F. G. CASH, 5. Bishopsgate Street Without.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMPLETION OF THE WORK, cloth 1s.; by post, 1s. 6d., pp. 192.--WELSH
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    "Will be read with great satisfaction, not only by all sons of the
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XENOPHON'S ANABASIS. With ENGLISH NOTES, translated (with Additions) from
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Lyndon, and the REV. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon of Chichester. (Forming a
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Books IV. to VII. of this Edition are contained in Mr. Arnold's "Fourth
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Lately published, by the same Editor, VIRGILII ÆNEIS. With English Notes
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       *       *       *       *       *


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SOME REMAINS (hitherto unpublished) of JOSEPH BUTLER, LL.D., sometime Lord
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RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 12mo., price 5s. 6d.

THE FIRST ITALIAN BOOK: on the Plan of the REV. T. K. ARNOLD'S First French
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RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place.

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1. THE FIRST FRENCH BOOK, on the Plan of Henry's First Latin Book. Third
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2. THE FIRST GERMAN BOOK, upon the same Plan. Third Edition. 5s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s.


Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by
C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same Author, price 1s.,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr. Thomas

    "Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M.
    Jobert."--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand. Cambridge: E. JOHNSON. Birmingham:

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October
22. 1853.

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