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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 210, November 5, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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{429}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 210.]
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 5. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

                                                               Page
  NOTES:--
    Lord Halifax and Mrs. Catherine Barton, by Professor
      De Morgan                                                 429
    Dr. Parr on Milton                                          433
    Parts of MSS., by John Macray                               434
    William Blake                                               435

    FOLK LORE:--Legends of the County Clare--The
      Seven Whisperers                                          436
    Italian-English, German-English, and the Refugee Style,
      by Philarète Chasles                                      436
    Shakspeare Correspondence, by Thos. Keightley, &c.          437

    MINOR NOTES:--Decomposed Cloth--First and Last
      --Cucumber Time--MS. Sermons of the Eighteenth
      Century--Boswell's "Johnson"--Stage Coaches--
      Antecedents--The Letter X--A Crow-bar                     438

  QUERIES:--
    MINOR QUERIES:--Bishop Grehan--Doxology--
      Arrow-mark--Gabriel Poyntz--Queen Elizabeth's
      and Queen Anne's Motto, "Semper eadem"--Bees
      --Nelly O'Brien and Kitty Fisher--"Homo unius
      libri"--"Now the fierce bear," &c.--Prejudice
      against Holy Confirmation--Epigram on MacAdam
      --Jane Scrimshaw--The Word "Quadrille"--The
      Hungarians in Paules--Ferns Wanted--Craton the
      Philosopher--The Solar Annual Eclipse in the Year
      1263--D'Israeli: how spelt?--Richard Oswald--
      Cromwell's Descendants--Letter of Archbishop
      Curwen to Archbishop Parker                               440

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Margaret Patten--
      Etymology of "Coin"--Inscription at Aylesbury--
      "Guardian Angels, now protect me," &c.--K. C. B.'s
      --Danish and Swedish Ballads--Etymology of
      "Conger"--"Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum
      tibi"                                                     442

  REPLIES:--
    Medal and Relic of Mary Queen of Scots, by John
      Evans, &c.                                                444
    Early Use of Tin.--Derivation of the Name of Britain        445
    Pictorial Editions of the Book of Common Prayer             446
    Yew-Trees in Churchyards, by Fras. Crossley, &c.            447
    Osborn Family                                               448
    Inscriptions on Bells, by W. Sparrow Simpson and
      J. L. Sisson                                              448
    Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge                             448
    The Myrtle Bee, by C. Brown                                 450
    Captain John Davis, by Bolton Corney                        450

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Clouds in Photographs
      --"The Stereoscope considered in relation to
      the Philosophy of Binocular Vision"--Muller's
      Processes--Positives on Glass                             451

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Peculiar Ornament in
      Crosthwaite Church--Nursery Rhymes--Milton's
      Widow--Watch-paper Inscriptions--Poetical Tavern
      Signs--Parish Clerks' Company--"Elijah's Mantle"
      --Histories of Literature--Birthplace of General
      Monk--Books chained to Desks in Churches, &c.             452

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
    Notes on Books, &c.                                         455
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                456
    Notices to Correspondents                                   456
    Advertisements                                              456

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

LORD HALIFAX AND MRS. CATHERINE BARTON.

Those who have written on the life of Newton have touched with the utmost
reserve upon the connexion which existed between his half-niece Catherine
Barton, and his friend Charles Montague, who died Earl of Halifax. They
seem as if they were afraid that, by going fairly into the matter, they
should find something they would rather not tell. The consequence is, that
when a writer at home or abroad, Voltaire or another, hints with a sneer
that a pretty niece had more to do with Newton's appointment to the Mint
than the theory of gravitation, those who would like to know as much as can
be known of the whole truth find nothing in any attainable biography except
either total silence or a very awkward and hesitating account of half
something.

On looking again into the matter, the juxtaposition of all the
circumstances induced in my mind a strong suspicion that Mrs. C. Barton was
_privately married_ to Lord Halifax, probably before his elevation to the
peerage, and that the marriage was no very great secret among their
friends. As yet I can but say that the hypothesis of a private marriage is,
to me, the most probable of those among which a choice must be made:
farther information may be obtained by publication of the case in "N. &
Q.," the most appropriate place of deposit for the provisional result of
unfinished inquiries.

Charles Montague (born April, 1661, died May 19, 1715) made acquaintance
with Newton when both were at Trinity College in 1680 and 1681. Newton was
nineteen years older than Montague, and had been twelve years Lucasian
professor. At the beginning of their friendship, the Lucasian professor
must be called the patron of the young undergraduate, who was looking for a
fellowship with the intention of taking orders, a design which he did not
find sufficient encouragement to abandon until after he had sat in the
Convention. By 1690, the rising politician had become the patron of the
author of the _Principia_, who in that {430} year or the next became an
aspirant for public employment. The friendship of Newton and Montague
lasted until the death of the latter, interrupted only by a coolness (on
Newton's side at least) in 1691, arising out of a suspicion in Newton's
mind that Montague was not sincere in his intentions towards his friend.

Catherine Barton (born 1680, died 1739) was the daughter of Robert Barton
and Newton's half-sister, Hannah Smith (Baily's _Flamsteed, Supplement_, p.
750.). Lieut.-Col. Barton, usually called her husband, was her brother. The
pedigrees published by Turnor recognise this fact: Swift distinctly states
it, and Rigaud proves it in various ways in letters to Baily, which lately
passed through my hands on their way to the Observatory at Greenwich. The
mistake ought never to have been made, for _Mrs. C. Barton_ (as she was
usually denominated) must, according to usage, have been reputed single so
long as her Christian name was introduced.

Mrs. C. Barton married Mr. Conduitt, then or afterwards Newton's assistant,
and his successor: this marriage probably took place in 1718, the year in
which Newton introduced Conduitt into the Royal Society. Among the Turnor
memorials of Newton, now in possession of the Royal Society, is a watch
leaving the inscription "Mrs. C. Conduitt to Sir Isaac Newton, January,
1708." This date cannot be correct, for Swift in 1710, Halifax in 1712,
Flamsteed in 1715, and Monmort in 1716, call her Barton: all but Flamsteed
were intimate acquaintances. Any one who looks at the inscription will see
that it is not as old as the watch: it is neither ornamented nor placed in
a shield or other envelope, while the case is beautifully chased, and has
an elaborate design, representing Fame and Britannia examining the portrait
of Newton. Moreover, "Mrs. Conduitt" would never have described herself as
"Mrs. C. Conduitt."

Montague was not, so far as usual accounts state, what even in our day
would be called a libertine. He married the Countess of Manchester (the
widow of a relative) before his entry into public life, and was deeply
occupied in party politics and fiscal administration. I am told that
Davenant impugns his morals: this may be the exception which proves the
rule; some of the lampoons directed against the Whig minister are
preserved, and these do not attack his private character in the matter
under allusion, so far as I can learn.

All the cotemporary evidence yet adduced as to the relation between Lord
Halifax and Catherine Barton, is contained in one sentence in the _Life_ of
the former, two codicils of his will, and one allusion of Flamsteed's. The
_Life_, with the will attached, was appended to two different publications
of the works of Halifax, in 1715 and 1716. The passage from the _Life_ is
as follows (p. 195.):

    "I am likewise to account for another Omission in the Course of this
    History, which is that of the Death of the Lord _Halifax's_ Lady; upon
    whose Decease his Lordship took a Resolution of living single thence
    forward, and cast his Eye upon the Widow of one Colonel _Barton_, and
    Neice to the famous Sir _Isaac Newton_, to be Super-intendent of his
    domestick Affairs. But as this Lady was young, beautiful, and gay, so
    those that were given to censure, pass'd a Judgment upon her which she
    no Ways merited, since she was a Woman of strict Honour and Virtue; and
    tho' she might be agreeable to his Lordship in every Particular, that
    noble Peer's Complaisance to her, proceeded wholly from the great
    Esteem he had for her Wit and most exquisite Understanding, as will
    appear from what relates to her in his Will at the Close of these
    Memoirs."

This sentence is an insertion (the _first_ omission is as far back as p.
64.). It speaks of Mrs. C. Barton as if she were dead: and it is worthy of
note that this lady, who lived to communicate to Fontenelle materials for
his _éloge_ of Newton, had excellent opportunity, had it pleased her, to
have contradicted or varied any part of the account given by Halifax's
biographer; and this without appearing. The actual communication made to
Fontenelle by her husband, Mr. Conduitt, is in existence, and was printed
by Mr. Turnor; it contains no allusion to the subject. Farther, it appears
by the biographer's account that she had passed as a widow, which is not to
be wondered at: the _Colonel_ Barton who was the son of circumstances, must
have been created before her brother (who died in 1711) attained such rank,
perhaps before he entered the army at all.

The will gives very different evidence from that for which it is
subpoenaed: it is dated April 10, 1706. In the first codicil (dated April
12, 1706) Lord Halifax leaves Mrs. Barton all his jewels and 3000l. "as a
small token," he says, "of the great love and affection I have long had for
her." In a second codicil (dated February 1, 1712) the first codicil is
revoked, and the bequest is augmented to 5000l., the rangership, lodge, and
household furniture of Bushey Park, and the manor of Apscourt, for her
life. These are given, says Lord Halifax, "as a token of the sincere love,
affection, and esteem, I have long had for her person, and as a small
recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation."
In this same codicil "Mrs. Catherine Barton" is described as Newton's
niece, and 100l. is left to Newton "as a mark of the great honour and
esteem I have for so great a man." The concluding sentence of the codicil
is as follows:

    "And I strictly charge and command my executor to give all aid, help,
    and assistance to her in possessing and enjoying what I have hereby
    given her; and also {431} in doing any act or acts necessary to
    transfer her an annuity of two hundred pounds _per annum_, purchased in
    Sir Isaac Newton's name, which I hold for her in trust, as appears by a
    declaration of trust in that behalf."

This codicil immediately became the subject of remark, and the terms of it
seem to have been understood as they would be now. Flamsteed, writing in
July, 1715 (Halifax died in May), says:

    "If common fame be true, he died worth 150,000l.; out of which he gave
    Mrs. Barton, Sir I. Newton's niece, for her _excellent conversation_
    [the Italics are Baily's, the original, I suppose, underlined], a
    curious house, 5000l. with lands, jewels, plate, money, and household
    furniture, to the value of 20,000l. or more."

I pay no attention to the statement that (_Biogr. Brit._, Montague, note
BB.) Lord Halifax was disappointed in a second marriage. It amounts only to
this, that Lord Shaftsbury, having a certain lady in his heart and in his
eye, was afraid he had a rival, and described the person talked of in terms
which make it pretty certain that Halifax was intended. But it by no means
follows that because a certain person is "talked of" for a lady, and a
lover put in fear by the rumour, the person is really a rival: and not even
a biographer would have shown himself so unfit for a novelist as to have
drawn such a conclusion, unless he had been biassed by the wish to show
that Halifax was attached to another than Mrs. Barton.

It must of course be supposed that the introduction of Montague to Newton's
niece was a consequence of his acquaintance with Newton, and took place in
or near 1696, when Newton came to London, where his niece soon began to
reside with him. And since, in 1706, the connexion, whatever it was, had
been of long standing, we may infer that it had probably commenced in 1700.
The case is then as follows. Montague received into his house, as
"superintendent of his domestic affairs" after the death of his wife, the
niece of his old and revered friend Newton, a conspicuous officer of the
crown, a member of Parliament, and otherwise one of the most famous men
living. This niece had been partly educated by Newton; she had lived in his
house; we know of no other protector that she could have had, in London;
and the supposition that she left any roof except Newton's to take shelter
under that of Montague, would be purely gratuitous. She was unmarried,
beautiful, and gay; and probably not so much as, certainly not much more
then, twenty years old. A handsome annuity was bought for her in Newton's
name, and held in trust by Halifax: if it had been bought _by Newton_,
Conduitt would have mentioned it in his list of the benefactions which
Newton's relatives received from him, especially after the publicity which
it had obtained from Halifax's will. That she did not tenant the
housekeeper's room while the friends of Halifax were round his table, may
be inferred from the epigrams, poor as they are, which were made in her
honour as a celebrated beauty and wit, in a collection of verses (reprinted
in Dryden's _Miscellanies_) on the best known toasts of the day. Halifax
bequeathed her a provision which might have suited his widow, in terms
which must have been intended to show that she had been either his wife or
his mistress; while in the same document he brought prominently forward his
respect for Newton, the fact of her being Newton's niece, and the annuity
which he had bought for her in Newton's name. An uncontradicted paragraph
in the life of Halifax, published immediately after the will, and evidently
not intended to bring forward any fact not perfectly well known, records
her residence in the house of that nobleman and the consequent rumours
concerning her character, affirms that she was a virtuous woman, and refers
to the will to prove it: though the will denies it in the plainest English,
on any supposition except that of a private marriage. Finally, the lady
married a respectable man after the death of Lord Halifax, and lived with
him in the house of her illustrious uncle.

That she was either the wife or the mistress of Halifax, I take to be
established; it is the natural conclusion from the facts above stated, all
made public during her life, all left uncontradicted by herself, by her
husband, by her daughter, by Lord Lymington her son-in-law, and by the
uncle who had stood to her in the place of a father. It is impossible that
Newton could have been ignorant that his niece was living in Montague's
house, enjoyed an annuity bought in his own name, and was regarded by the
world as the mistress of his friend and political patron. The language of
the codicil shows that, be the nature of the connexion what it might,
Halifax meant to tell the world that it might be proclaimed in all its
relation to the name of Newton. To those who cannot, under all the
circumstances, believe the connexion to have been what is called platonic,
the probability that there was a private marriage is precisely the
probability that Newton would not have sanctioned the dishonour of his own
niece: and even if the connexion were only that of friendship, Newton must
have sanctioned the appearance and the forms of a dishonourable intimacy:
the co-habitation, the settlement, and the defiance of opinion. Now there
is no reason to suppose of Newton that he would be a party to either
proceeding, which would not apply as well to any man then alive: to Locke,
for instance. Looking at the morals of the day, we are by no means
justified in throwing off at once, with disgust, the bare idea of the
possibility of a distinguished philosopher consenting to an illicit
intercourse between his friend and his niece: we are bound, {432} in
discussing probabilities, to distinguish 1850 from 1700. But, even putting
out of view the purity of Newton's private life, and of the lives of his
most intimate friends, there is that in the weaker part of his character
which is of itself almost conclusive. Right or wrong, Newton never faced
opinion. As soon as he found that publication involved opposition, from
that time forward he published only with the utmost reluctance, and under
the strongest persuasions; except when, as in the case of some of his
theological writings, he confided the manuscript to a friend, to be
anonymously published abroad. The _Principia_ was extorted from him by the
Royal Society; the first publication on fluxions was under the name of
Wallis; the _Optics_ were delayed until the death of Hooke; the first
appearance against Leibnitz was anonymous; the second originated in a hint
from the King. This morbid fear, which is often represented as modesty,
would have made him, had he acted a part with regard to his niece which he
could not avow, conduct it with the utmost reserve. The philosopher who
would have let the theory of gravitation die in silence rather than
encounter the opposition which a discovery almost always creates, would not
have allowed his _name_ to be connected with the annuity which was the
price of his niece's honour, or which carried all the appearance of it,
even supposing him base enough to have connived at the purchase. And in
such a case, Halifax would have taken care to respect the secrecy which he
would have known to have been essential to Newton's comfort: he would not
have published to the world that his mistress was Newton's niece, and that
Newton was a party to a settlement upon her. There seems to me, about the
codicil as it stands, a declaration that the connexion with Newton's niece
was such as, if people knew all, Newton might have sanctioned. And the
supposition of a private marriage, generally understood among the friends
of the parties, seems to me to make all the circumstances take an air of
likelihood which no other hypothesis will give them: and this is all my
conclusion.

If there were a marriage, the most probable reason for the concealment was,
that it was contracted at a time when the birth and station of Mrs. Barton
would have rendered her production at court as the wife of Montague an
impediment to his career. He was raised to the peerage in 1700, and as the
connexion was of long standing in 1706, it may well be supposed that it
commenced at the time when (in his own opinion at least) his prospects of
such elevation might have been compromised by a decided misalliance. The
lower the tone of morals, the greater the ridicule which attaches to
unequal _marriages_. Montague, though of noble family, was the younger son
of a younger son, and not rich: it was common among the Tories to sneer at
him as a _parvenu_. He had made his first appearance in the great world as
the husband of a countess-dowager, and it may be that the _parvenu_ was
weak enough to shrink from producing, as his second wife, a woman of very
much lower rank, the granddaughter of a country clergyman, and the daughter
of a man of no pretension to station. That Mr. Macaulay has not underrated
the position of the country clergy, is known to all who have dipped into
the writings of the seventeenth century. It is not, however, necessary to
explain why the supposed marriage should have been private. As the world is
constituted, no rules of inference can be laid down in reference to the
irregular relations of the sexes.

With reference to the insinuation that Newton owed his official position
rather to his niece than to his ability, it can be completely shown that,
on the worst possible supposition, the office in the Mint could have had
nothing to do with Mrs. C. Barton. Newton was appointed to the lower office
(the _Wardenship_) in March, 1695-96, when the young lady was not sixteen
years old, and before she could have been a resident under her uncle's
roof. The state of the coinage had caused much uneasiness; it was one of
the difficulties, and its restoration was one of the successes, of the day.
The best scientific advice was taken: Locke, Newton, and Halley were
consulted, and all were placed in office nearly at the same time; Newton in
the London Mint, Halley in the Chester Mint, Locke in the Council of Trade.
Neither Locke nor Halley had any nieces. Before Newton's appointment there
was some negociation of a public character: the Wardenship was not vacant,
and the government seems to have tried to induce Newton to take something
subordinate. March 14, Newton wrote to Halley, in reference to a current
rumour,--"I neither put in for any place in the Mint, nor would meddle with
Mr. Hoar's [the comptroller's] place, were it offered me." On the 19th,
Montague informs Newton that he is to have the _Wardenship_, vacant by the
removal of Mr. Overton to the Customs. Four years afterwards, when the
great operation on the coinage, by many declared impracticable, had
completely succeeded, Newton, a principal adviser and the principal
administrator, obtained the Mastership in the course of promotion. Montague
was raised to the peerage in the following year, and mainly, as the patent
states, for the same service. So that, though Montague was the patron as to
the Wardenship, yet scientific assistance was then so sorely needed, that
no hypothesis relative to any niece would be necessary to explain the
phenomenon of Newton's appointment: while, as to the Mastership it may
almost be said that Montague was more indebted to Newton for his peerage,
than Newton to Montague for that promotion which any minister must, under
the circumstances, have granted. {433}

In no account of Newton that I ever read is it stated that Mrs. Barton was
an intimate friend of Swift, probably through Halifax. Having been told
that there is frequent mention of her in Swift's _Journal to Stella_, I
examined that series and the rest of the correspondence, in which her name
occurs about twenty times. One letter from herself, under the name of
Conduitt (November 29, 1733), is indorsed by the Dean, "My old friend Mrs.
Barton, now Mrs. Conduitt," and establishes the identity of Swift's friend
with Newton's niece: otherwise, it proves nothing here. The other points to
be noticed are as follows.

1710, September 28, November 30, March 7; 1711, April 3, July 18, October
14 and 25, Swift visited or dined with Mrs. Barton at her _lodgings_. He
was also at this time on good terms with Halifax, and dined with him
November 28, 1710, and with Mrs. Barton on November 30. According to the
idiom of the day, _lodgings_ was a name for every kind of residence, and
even for the apartments of a guest in the house of his host. For anything
to the contrary in the mere word, the lodgings might have been in the house
of Lord Halifax, or of Newton himself. But, on the other hand, the future
Dean, much as he writes to Stella of every kind of small talk, never
mentions Halifax and Mrs. Barton together, never makes the slightest
allusion to either in connexion with the other, though in one and the same
letter he minutes his having dined with Halifax on the 28th, and with Mrs.
Barton on the 30th. There must have been intentional suppression in this.
All the world knew that there was some _liaison_ between the two; yet when
Swift (1711, Nov. 20) records his having been "teased with whiggish
discourse" by Mrs. Barton, he does not even drop a sarcasm about her
politics having been learnt from Halifax. This is the more remarkable as
the two seem to have been almost the only persons who are mentioned as
talking whiggery to him. To this list, however, may be added Lady Betty
Germain, well known to the readers of Swift's poetry, who joined Mrs.
Barton in inflicting the vexation, and at whose house the conversation took
place. It thus appears that Mrs. Barton was received in a manner which
shows that she was regarded as a respectable woman. The suppression on the
part of Swift may indicate respect for his two friends (that he highly
respected Mrs. Barton appears clear), and observance of a convention
established in their circle. But perhaps it is rather to be attributed to
his own position with respect to Stella, which was certainly peculiar,
though no one can say what their understanding was at the date of the
journal. This journal came again into Swift's hands before it was
published; so that we can only treat it as containing what he finally chose
to preserve. Allusions may have been struck out.

There is another point which our modern manners will not allow to be very
closely handled in print, but on which I am disposed to lay some stress. On
September 28, 1710, and April 3, 1711, Swift visited Mrs. Barton at her
lodgings. On each of these occasions she regaled him with a good story,
which there is no need to repeat: there is no harm in either, and they are
far from being the most singular communications which he made to Stella;
but they go beyond what, even in that day, will be considered as the
probable conversation of a maiden lady of thirty-one, with a bachelor man
of the world of forty-three. But they by no means exceed what we know to be
the license then taken by married women; and Swift's tone with respect to
the stories, combined with his obvious respect for Mrs. Barton, may make
any one lean to the supposition that he believed himself to be talking to a
married woman.

The reserve of Swift puts us quite at fault as to the locality of Mrs.
Barton's _lodgings_. They may have been in Lord Halifax's house; but if
not, it requires some supposition to explain why they were not in that of
Newton, with whom she had lived, and with whom she certainly lived after
the death of Halifax. Perhaps, when farther research is made in such
directions as may be indicated by the only unreserved statement of the
existing case which has ever been printed, the conclusion I arrive at, as
to me the _most probable_, may either be reinforced, or another substituted
for it. Be this as it may, such points as I have discussed, relating to
such men as Newton, will not remain in abeyance for ever, let biographers
be as timid as they will.

A. DE MORGAN.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. PARR ON MILTON.

Amongst my autographs I find the inclosed letter frown Dr. Parr. It is
written upon a half-sheet of paper, and in a very cramp and illegible hand.
To whom it is addressed, or when written, I am unable to say. As it relates
to the opinions held by Milton, perhaps you may think it worth insertion in
your work, particularly as Milton has been the subject of some papers in
"N. & Q." lately.

W. M. F.

_Copy of Letter from Dr. Parr, without date or address._

    Dear Sir,

    I send you Johnson's _Life of Milton_. My former feelings again return
    upon me, that Johnson did not mean to affirm that Milton prayed not
    upon any occasion or in any manner; but that he was engaged in no
    visible worship; that he prayed at no stated time; that he had not what
    we may call any regular return of family or private devotion. Pray read
    the sequel. That he lived without prayer can hardly be affirmed, this
    {434} surely is decided in my favour: it may wear the appearance of
    contradiction to the former passage, that omitting public prayer he
    omitted all; in truth, the expression just quoted is too peremptory and
    too general. But the sense of Johnson cannot be mistaken, if you attend
    to the different views he had in each sentence; and I repeat my former
    assertion, that Johnson did not think Milton destitute of a devout
    spirit, or totally negligent of prayer in some form or other.

    Yours, very truly and respectfully,
    J. PARR.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARTS OF MSS.

As an instance of the unfortunate dispersion of the parts of valuable MSS.
through different countries, occasioned probably, in the case now to be
mentioned, by public convulsions and the wild fury of revolutionary mobs in
France, will you afford me space to quote an interesting description of a
MS. from the catalogue of a library to be sold at Paris in December next?
The MSS. and printed books in this library belonged to the eminent
bookseller J. J. De Bure, whose ancestor was the distinguished and
well-known bibliographer Guillaume de Bure. The publicity given to
descriptions like the present through the medium of "N. & Q." may
ultimately lead, on some occasions, to the scattered volumes being brought
together again, either by way of purchase, or in exchange for other works.

JOHN MACRAY.

Oxford.

    _"Catalogue des Livres rares et précieux, manuscrits et imprimés, de la
    Bibliothèque de feu M. J. J. De Bure, ancien libraire du Roi et de la
    Bibliothèque Royale, etc._

    "No. 1395. Le Second Livre des Commentaires de la Guerre Gallèque, par
    Caius Julius Cæsar, traduict en françois. In-8, mar. noir, avec des
    fermoirs en argent.

    "Manuscrit sur vélin.

    "L'ouvrage ne porte pas de titre; on lit seulement sur le plat du
    volume, Tomus Secundus, et au verso du 21 feuillet; c'y commence le
    Second livre des Commentaires de la Guerre Gallèque.

    "Ce manuscrit a été fait pour François I^{er}; le chiffre de ce Prince
    se trouve au premier feuillet. Le Vol. se compose de 94 feuillets de
    texte, et de 4 feuillets de table. L'Ecriture est très-belle, et paraît
    être de l'un des meilleurs calligraphes de l'époque de Francois I^{er};
    beaucoup de mots sont en or et en azur.

    "On remarque 22 miniatures, 15 médaillons d'Empereurs et d'autres
    personnages Romains, 12 figures d'engins ou machines de guerre, et 2
    fleurons; en tout 58 peintures.

    "Ce n'est point, à proprement parler, une traduction des Commentaires.
    L'auteur suppose, dans le préambule de cette partie de l'ouvrage, que
    Francis I^{er} au _Commencement du Moys d'Auguste, l'an 1519, allant
    courir le cerf en la fourest de Byevre, y fait la rencontre de César_.

    "De là, il établit un dialogue entre les deux personnages. François
    I^{er} s'enquiert des circonstances de la guerre des Gaules, et César
    lui en donne les détails tels qu'ils out été écrits par lui-même.

    "On ne présente malheureusement ici qu'un Tome ii. Le Tome i. est au
    Musée Britannique: on le trouve indiqué sous le No. 6205. dans le
    _Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum_, London, 1808,
    Tome iii. in folio. Ce Tome i. est décrit dans l'ouvrage de M. Waagen,
    _Kunstwerke and Künstler in England und Paris_, Berlin, 1837, Tome i.
    p. 148.

    "Le Tome iii. était à vendre dans ces dernières années, au prix de 3000
    francs, chez M. Techener (_Bulletin du Bibliophile_, année 1850, No.
    1222. et p. 910.); nous ne savons où il est actuellement.

    "Notre volume est le plus précieux des trois. Il l'emporte sur les deux
    autres par le nombre des peintures (le Tome i. n'en a que 14, et le
    Tome iii. seulement 12) et par l'intérêt qu'offrent ces peintures
    elles-mêmes.

    "La première, charmante miniature en camaïeu gris et or, représente
    François I^{er} à cheval, courant le cerf; la dernière montre la prise
    du cerf.

    "Parmi les autres sujets, également traités en grisaille, on remarque
    plusieurs batailles entre les Romains et les Gaulois, rendues dans
    leurs divers détails avec une finesse admirable d'exécution. Mais ce
    qui, par-dessus tout, donne un prix infini à ce manuscrit, ce sont sept
    portraits, en médaillons, qui reproduisent les traits de quelques
    hommes de guerre du temps de François I^{er}. Ils sont peints avec une
    vérité et une délicatesse vraiment merveilleuses; des noms Romains, qui
    figurent dans les Commentaries de César, sont écrits à côté des
    portraits; les noms véritables ont été tracées au-dessous, mais un peu
    plus tard, et par une main différente. Voici ces noms:--

    "1^o. _Quintus Pedius_, le grand-maistre de Boisy, âgé de 41 ans; 2^o.
    _le Fiable Divitiacus d'Autun_, l'Amiral de Boisy, Seigneur de Bonivet,
    âgé de 34 ans; 3^o. _Quintus Titurius Sabinus_, Odet de Fones (Foix),
    Sieur de Lautrec, âgé de 41 ans; 4^o. _Iccius_, le Mareschal de
    Chabanes, Seigneur de la Palice, âgé de 57 ans; 5^o. _Lucius
    Arunculeius Cotta_, Anne de Montmorency, âgé de 22 ans, et depuis
    Connestable de France; 6^o. _Publ. Sextius Baculus_, le Mareschal de
    Fleuranges, Seigneur de la Marche (Mark), premier Seigneur de Sédan,
    âgé de 24 ans; 7^o. _Publius Crassus_, le Sieur de Tournon, qui fust
    tué à la bataille de Pavie, âgé de 36 ans.

    "La plupart des miniatures du volume sont signées G., 1519. La
    perfection qui les distingue les avait d'abord fait attribuer au
    célèbre miniaturiste _Guilo Clovio_; maintenant on croit pouvoir
    affirmer qu'elles appartiennent à un peintre nommé Godefroy. Il se
    trouve à la bibliothèque de l'Arsenal une traduction française des
    Triomphes de Pétrarque, avec des miniatures qui sont incontestablement
    de la même main et de la même époque. Or, l'une de ces miniatures est
    signée _Godefroy_.

    "On peut voir le rapprochement que fait entre les deux manuscrits M.
    Waagen, dans l'ouvrage cité ci-dessus, Tome iii. p. 395. Il ne saurait,
    du reste, y avoir aucun doute sur le nom de l'artiste, lorsqu'on lit
    dans le _Bulletin du Bibliophile_ (pages déjà citées) que {435}
    plusieurs des miniatures du Tome iii. sont signées _Godofredi
    pictoris_, 1520.

    "Ce précieux manuscrit ne sera pas vendu; il a été légué par M. de Bure
    au département des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Impériale."

       *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAM BLAKE.

(_Continued from_ p. 71.)

I venture to send you another Note regarding William Blake, claiming for
that humble individual the honour of being the pioneer in the establishment
of charity-schools in Britain, from which department of our social system
who can calculate the benefits accrued, and constantly accruing, to this
country!

We look in vain through the _Silver Drops_ of William Blake for any record
of an existing institution, such as he would have his "noble ladies" rear
at Highgate. Among the many incentives he uses to prompt the charitable, we
do not find him holding up for their example any model (unless it be "Old
Sutton's brave hospital"); in all his amusing "Charity-school Sticks," his
tone is that of a man trying to persuade people that the thing he proposes
is feasible. "Some of them," says the sanguine Blake, "have scarce faith
enough to believe in the success of this great and good design. Nay, your
brother Cornish himself," continues he, in addressing one of his ladies,
although full of good works, "would have persuaded me to lay it down" upon
the ground of its impracticability. The language of Blake is everywhere
advocating this "_new_ way of charity." "If it be _new_," says he to an
objector, "the more's the pity;" and, with reference to the possibility of
failure, he would thus shame them into liberality. Speaking of his "fine,
handsome, and well cloathed boys; not too fine, because they are the
ladies'!" our enthusiast adds to this _soft sawdur_:

    "But now, if a year or two hence they should be grown, which God
    forbid! poor ragged, half-starved, and no cloaths, country folks would
    say, who ride or go that way, Were there not good ladies enough in and
    about London to maintain _one_ little school?"

Here then is _primâ facie_ evidence, I think, that my subject, poor crazy
William Blake, was the originator of one of the greatest social
improvements of modern times.

The charity-school movement had obtained a strong hold upon the public mind
early in the past century; but although I have sought for the name of Blake
through many books professing to give an account of the early history of
such institutions, I have not yet met with the slightest allusion to him,
his school, or his _Silver Drops_.

The superficial inquirer into the history of English charity-schools will
be told that the honour of the first erecting such, and caring for
destitute children, is popularly considered due to the parishes of St.
Botulph, Aldgate, and St. Margaret's, Westminster: and if he would farther
satisfy himself upon that point, he will see it claimed by the first named;
a slab in front of their schools, adjoining the Royal Mint, bearing an
inscription to the purport that it was the first Protestant charity-school,
erected by voluntary contributions in 1693.

If it comes to the earliest London school for poor children, perhaps the
Catholics take the lead; for we find that it was part of the tactics of the
Jesuits, in the reign of James II., to promote their design of subverting
the Protestant religion by infusing their Romish tenets into the minds of
the children of the poor by providing schools for them in the Savoy and
Westminster.

Blake says, with reference to this movement:

    "That the scheme he was engaged upon was a good work, because it will
    in some measure stop the mouths of Papists, who are prone to say, Where
    are your works, and how few are your hospitals, and how small is your
    charity, notwithstanding your great preaching?"

A remarkable little book, and a very fit companion for the _Silver Drops_
of William Blake, to which it bears a striking similarity, is the _Pietas
Hallensis_ of Dr. Franck. In this, the German divine relates, in a style
which bears more than an accidental resemblance to the work of the Covent
Garden Philanthropist, how, little by little, by importunity and
perseverance, he nursed his own charitable plans, of a like kind, into full
life and vigour; and both Drs. Woodward and Kennett endorse and command the
"miraculous footsteps of Divine Providence" in the labours of Dr. Franck.
"Could we," says Dr. Kennett, "trace the obscurer footsteps of our own
charity-schools, the finger of God would be as evidently in them." Why the
Bishop of Peterborough should be ignorant of these earlier efforts to the
same end in his own country, is somewhat marvellous. Franck began his
charitable work at Glaucha in 1698; while Blake was labouring to establish
his Highgate School in 1685. That Franck should know nothing about our
pioneer in charitable education, is probable enough; but that the English
divines I have mentioned, with Wodrow, Gillies, and a host of others,
should be unaware that the proceedings at Halle were only the counterpart
of those done fourteen years before by Blake in their own land, is
certainly surprising, and affords another proof of the proneness of Britons
to extol everything foreign to the neglect of what is native and at their
own doors.

Perhaps some of your readers will think I over-estimate the importance of
the question, whether the charity-school movement is of British or foreign
growth; or whether the honour of its application to the poor (for all
_charity_-schools are not for such) belongs to my subject William Blake, or
{436} some other philanthropic individual; if such there be, let them
repair to our Metropolitan Cathedral on the day of the annual assemblage of
the London charity children: and if, on contemplating the spectacle which
will there meet their eye, they do not think it an object of interest to
discover who, as Dr. Kennett says, "first cast in the _salt_ at the
fountain-head to heal the _waters_, and broke the ground that was before
barren," I pity them.

In concocting this Note, I have had before me the following:

1. Lysons's _Environs of London_, 1795, where will be found a short notice
of Blake. The author, following Gough, makes my subject a madman, and says
his scheme "failed after laying out 5000l. upon it."

2. _Sermon preached for Charity-schools_, by Dr. Kennett, 1706.

3. _Sermons of Dr. Smalridge and T. Yulden_, 1710 and 1728. These divines
give the precedence to Westminster School, "erected 1688."

4. _Wodrow's Letters_, edited by Dr. McCrie, 3 vols., Edin. 1843.

5. _Pietas Hallensis_: or an Abstract of the Marvellous Footsteps of Divine
Providence, in the building of a very large Hospital, or rather a Spacious
College, for Charitable and Excellent Uses; and in the maintaining of many
Orphans, and other Poor People therein at Glaucha, near Halle in Prussia,
related by the Rev. A. H. Franck, 3 parts, 12mo., London, 1707-16. Let the
curious reader compare this with Blake's book.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Legends of the County Clare._--About nine miles westward from the town of
Ennis, in the midst of some of the wildest scenery in Ireland, lies the
small but very beautiful Lake of Inchiquin, famous throughout the
neighbouring country for its red trout, and for being in winter the haunt
of almost all the various kinds of waterfowl, including the wild swan, that
are to be found in Ireland, while the woods that border one of its sides
are amply stocked with woodcocks. At one extremity of the lake are the
ruins of the Castle of Inchiquin, part of which is built on a rock
projecting into the lake, there about one hundred feet deep, and this
legend is related of the old castle:--Once upon a time, the chieftain of
the Quins, whose stronghold it was, found in one of the caves (many of
which are in the limestone hills that surround the lake) a lady of great
beauty, fast asleep. While gazing on her in rapt admiration she awoke, and,
according to the customs of the Heroic Age, soon consented to become his
bride, merely stipulating that no one bearing the name of O'Brien should be
allowed to enter the castle gate: this being agreed to, the wedding was
celebrated with all due pomp, and in process of time one lovely boy blessed
their union. Among the other rejoicings at the birth of an heir to the
chief of the clan, a grand hunting-match took place, and the chase having
terminated near the castle, the chieftain, as in duty bound, requested the
assembled nobles to partake of his hospitality. To this a ready assent was
given, and the chiefs were ushered into the great hall with all becoming
state; and then for the first time did their host discover that one bearing
the forbidden name was among them The banquet was served, and now the
absence of the lady of the castle alone delayed the onslaught on the good
things spread before them. Surprised and half afraid at her absence, her
husband sought her chamber: on entering, he saw her sitting pensively with
her child at the window which overlooked the lake; raising her head as he
approached, he saw she was weeping, and as he advanced towards her with
words of apology for having broken his promise, she sprang through the
window with her child into the lake. The wretched man rushed forward with a
cry of horror: for one moment he saw her gliding over the waters, now
fearfully disturbed, chanting a wild dirge, and then, with a mingled look
of grief and reproach, she disappeared for ever! And the castle and the
lordship, with many a broad acre besides, passed from the Quins, and are
now the property of the O'Briens to this day; and while the rest of the
castle is little better than a heap of ruins, the fatal window still
remains nearly as perfect as when the lady sprang through it, an
irrefragable proof of the truth of the legend in the eyes of the peasantry.

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

_The Seven Whisperers._--I have been informed by an old and trustworthy
servant that about twenty years ago, as he was walking one clear starlight
night with two other persons, they heard, for the space of several minutes,
high up in the air, beautiful sounds like music, which gradually died away
towards the north. He spoke of it as an occurrence not very uncommon, and
said it was always called "The Seven Whisperers." On inquiry I found the
name well known amongst the poorer classes.

Is it not an electrical phenomenon?

METAOUO.

Essex.

       *       *       *       *       *

ITALIAN-ENGLISH, GERMAN-ENGLISH, AND THE REFUGEE STYLE.

(Vol. vii., p. 149.)

Every one has admired the odd bits of Italian-English which "N. & Q."
lately published, a true {437} philological curiosity. Such queer medleys
have been the result whenever two opposite idioms have been thrown together
and unskilfully stirred up. Very few foreigners indeed, Sclavonic nations
being excepted, and particularly the Russians, write French tolerably well.
The present Lord Mahon and Lady Montaigne, in an excellent _Essay on
Marriage_, are exceptions to the rule. Voltaire used to say,--

 "Faites tous vos vers à Paris;
  Et n'allez pas en Allemagne!"

And very right he was. His kingly disciple committed more than once such
Irish rhymes as these:

 "Je vais cueillir dans leurs sentiers (des Muses)
  De fraîches et charmantes roses;
  Et je dédaigne les lauriers,
  En exceptant les lauriers _sauces_."

Forgetting the difference of pronunciation between the soft _s_ of _rose
(roze)_ and the lisping sound of the _c_ in _sauce (sôss)_. As I have not
by me the ponderous and voluminous works of the poetical monarch, I may
have altered some of the words of the quotation; but the rhymes _sauce_ and
_rose_ I aver to be true to the primitive copy. Even Protestant refugees,
born of French parents, brought up amongst their co-religionists and
countrymen, wrote a strange gibberish, often ungrammatical, always
unidiomatic, of which traces may be found even in Basnage and Ancillon. A
recent French theologian, the clever author of a Life of Spinosa, written
in Germany and published in Paris with some success, has such expressions
as these:

    "Les villes protestantes preferent la liberté avec Calvin QUE la
    tyrannique concorde avec Luther."--_Hist. Crit. du Rationalisme_, p.
    49.

    "Et ailleuz: Stuttgard Dontil etait conservateur DE LA
    Bibliothèque."-_Ib_.

And M. Amand Saintes is a Frenchman, and a most erudite man. The Celebrated
Frau Bettina von Arnim, who dared to translate into English and to print in
Berlin (apud Trowitzsch and Son, 1838), under the new title of _Diary of a
Child_, her own untranslateable letters to Göthe, had at least the very
good excuse of her nationality for her peculiar English, the choicest,
funniest, maddest, and saddest English ever penned on this planet or in any
other, and of which I hope "N. & Q." will accept some small specimens,
taken at random among thousands such. To begin with the opening address:

    "_To the English Bards_.

    "Gentlemen!--The noble cup of your mellifluous tongue so often brimmed
    with immortality, here filled with odd but pure and fiery draught, do
    not refuse to taste if you relish its spirit to be homefelt, though not
    home-born."

    "BETTINA ARNIM."

We will next pass to the "Preamble":

    "The translating of Göthe's Correspondence with a Child into English
    was generally disapproved of. Previous to its publication in Germany,
    the well-renowned Mrs. Austin, by regard for the great German poet,
    proposed to translate it; but after having perused it with attention,
    the literate and the most famed bookseller of London thought
    unadvisable the publication of a book that in every way widely differed
    from the spirit and feelings of the English, and therefore it could not
    be depended upon for exciting their interest. Mrs. Austin, by her
    gracious mind to comply with my wishes, proposed to publish some
    fragments of it, but as no musician ever likes to have only those
    passages of his composition executed that blandish the ear, I likewise
    refused my assent to the maiming of a work, that not by my own merit,
    but by chance and nature became a work of art, that only in the
    untouched development of its genius might judiciously be enjoyed and
    appraised."

Our next and last is taken from p. 133.:

    "From those venturesome and spirit-night-wanderings I came home with
    garments wet with melted snow; they believed I had been in the garden.
    When night I forgot all; on the next evening at the same time it came
    back to my mind, and the fear too I had suffered; I could not conceive,
    how I had ventured to walk alone on that desolate road in the night,
    and to stay on such a waste dreadful spot; I stood leaning at the court
    gate; to-day it was not so mild and still as yesterday; the gales rose
    high and roared along; they sighed up at my feet and hastened on yonder
    side, the fluttering poplars in the garden bowed and flung off their
    snow-burden, the clouds drove away in a great hurry, what rooted fast
    wavered yonder, and what could ever be loosened, was swept away by the
    hastening breezes." (!!!).

P. S.--Excuse my French-English.

PHILARÈTE CHASLES, Mazarianæus

Paris, Palais de l'Institut.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_Meaning of "Delighted" in some Places of Shakspeare._--I am sorry to be
obliged to differ so often in opinion with H. C. K., but as we are both, I
trust, solely actuated by the love of truth, he no doubt will excuse me. My
difference now with him is about "_delighted_ spirit," by which he
understands the "tender _delicate_ spirit," while I take it to be the
"_delectable_" or "_delightful_ spirit." As I think this is founded on the
Latin, I beg permission to quote the following portion of my note on Jug.
ii. 3. in my edition of Sallust:

    "_Incorruptus_, [Greek: aphthartos] , _i. e._ incapable of dissolution,
    the _incorruptibilis_ of the Fathers of the Church. In imitation
    probably of the Greek verbal adjective in [Greek: tos], as [Greek:
    hairetos], [Greek: streptos], etc., the Latins, especially Sallust,
    sometimes used the past part. as equivalent to an adj. in _bilis_:
    comp. xliii, 5.; lxxvi. 1.; xci. 7.; Cat. I. 4.,

    {438}

     'Non _exorato_ stant adamante viæ;' Propert. IV. 11. 4.,
     'Mare scopulis _inaccessum_;' Plin. _Nat. Hist._, XII. 14.

    It is in this sense that _flexus_ is to be understood in Virg. _Æn._,
    v. 500."

The same employment of the past part. is frequent in our old English
writers, and I rather think that they adopted it from the Latin. The
earliest instance which I find in my notes is from Golding, who renders the
_tonitrus et inevitabile fulmen_ of Ovid (_Met._ III. 301.):

 "With dry and dreadful thunderclaps and lightning to the same,
  Of deadly and _unavoided_ dint."

In Milton I have noticed the following participles used in this sense:
_unmoved_, _abhorred_, _unnumbered_, _unapproached_, _dismayed_,
_unreproved_, _unremoved_, _unsucceeded_, _preferred_. But as Milton was
addicted to Latinising, I will give some examples from Shakspeare himself:

 "Now thou art come unto a feast of death
  A terrible and _unavoided_ danger."--_1 Hen. VI._, Act IV. Sc. 5.

 "We see the very wreck that we must suffer,
  And _unavoided_ the danger now,
  For suffering so the causes of our wreck."--_Rich. II._, Act II. Sc. 1.

 "All _unavoided_ is the doom of destiny."--_Rich. III._, Act IV. Sc. 4.

 "Inestimable stones, _unvalued_ jewels."--_Ib._, Act I. Sc. 4.

 "Tell them that when my mother went with child
  Of that _insatiate_ Edward."--_Ib._, Act III. Sc. 5.

 "I am not glad that such a sore of time
  Should seek a plaster by _contemned_ revolt."--_King John_, Act V. Sc 2.

                 "The murmuring surge
  That on the _unnumber'd_ idle pebbles chafes."--_Lear_, Act IV. Sc. 6.

 "O, _undistinguished_ space of woman's will."--_Ib._

I could give instances from Spenser and even from Pope, but shall only
observe that when we say "an _undoubted_ fact" we mean an _indubitable_
one.

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

P.S.--I am not disposed to quarrel with H. C. K.'s derivation of _awkward_
(Vol. viii., p. 310.), but I must observe that the more exact correlative
of _toward_ seems to be _wayward_. The Anglo-Saxons appear to have
pronounced their [gh] as _g_; but after the Conquest it was pronounced hard
in some cases, and so _wayward_ and _awkward_ may have the same origin.

_Shakspeare Portrait._--Can any of your correspondents state whether the
sign of Shakspeare, said to have been painted at a cost of 150l., and which
in 1764 graced a tavern then in Drury Lane, called "The Shakspeare," and in
that year was taken down and removed into the country, and used for a
similar purpose, still exists, add where? and is the artist who painted
such known?

CHARLECOTT.

_"Taming of the Shrew."_--I cannot help thinking that Christopher Sly
merely means that he is fourteenpence on the score for _sheer_
ale,--nothing but ale; neither bread nor meat, horse housing, or bed.

He has _drunk_ the entire amount, and glories in his iniquity, like a true
tippler.

G. H. K.

_Lord Bacon and Shakspeare._--Can any of those correspondents of "N. & Q."
who have devoted attention to the lives of two of England's greatest
worthies, Francis Bacon and William Shakspeare, account for the
extraordinary fact that, although these two highly gifted men were
cotemporaries, no mention of or allusion to the other is to be found in the
writings of either? Bacon was born in 1561, and died in 1626; Shakspeare,
who was born in 1563, and died ten years before the great chancellor, not
only loved

    "To suck the sweets of sweet philosophy,"

but breathes throughout every page of his wondrous writings a spirit of
philosophy as profound as his imagination is unlimited; yet nowhere, it is
believed, can he be traced as making the slight allusion to the great
father of modern philosophy. Bacon, on the other hand, whom one can
scarcely suppose to have been ignorant of the writings of the dramatist,
but who indeed may rather be believed to have known him personally, seems
altogether to ignore his existence, or the existence of any of his
matchless works. As the solution of this problem could not but throw much
light on that most interesting subject,--the history of the minds of
Shakespeare and Bacon,--I venture to throw it out as a fit subject for the
research of some of your contributors versed in the writings of these great
spirits of their own age, no less than of all time.

THETA.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Decomposed Cloth._--In Mr. Wright's valuable work on _The Celt, the Roman,
and the Saxon_, p. 308., is mentioned the discovery at York of a Roman
coffin, in which were distinctly visible "the colour, a rich purple," as
well as texture of the cloth with which the body it had contained had been
covered.

I should think that the colour observed was not that of the ancient dye,
but rather was caused by phosphate of iron, formed by the combination of
iron contained in the soil or water, with phosphoric acid, arising from the
decomposition of animal matter. It may often be observed in similar cases,
as about animal remains found in bogs, and about ancient leather articles
found in {439} excavations, especially when any iron is in contact with
them, or in the soles of shoes or sandals studded with nails.

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington.

_First and Last._--There cannot be two words more different in meaning than
these, and yet they are both used to express the same sense! Of two authors
equally eminent, one shall write that a thing is of the _first_ and the
other of the _last_ importance, though each means the _greatest_ or
_utmost_. How is this? To me _first_ appears preferable, though _last_ may
be justifiable. Being on the subject of words, I am reminded of
_obnoxious_, which is applied in the strangest ways by different authors.
It is true that the Roman writers used _obnoxius_ in various senses; but it
does not seem so pliable or smooth in English. Generally it is held to
indicate _disagreeable_ or _inimical_, though our dictionaries do not admit
it to have either of those meanings!

A. B. C.

_Cucumber Time._--This term, which the working-tailors of England use to
denote that which their masters call "the flat season," has been imported
from a country which periodically sends many hundreds of its tailors to
seek employment in our metropolis. The German phrase is "Die saure Gurken
Zeit," or pickled gherkin time. A misunderstanding of the meaning of the
phrase may have given rise to the vulgar witticism, that tailors are
vegetarians, who "live on cucumber" while at play, and on "cabbage" while
at work.

N. W. S.

_MS. Sermons of the Eighteenth Century._--Having lately become possessed,
at the sale of an an old library, of some MS. Sermons by the Rev. J.
Harris, Rector of Abbotsbury, Dorset, from the year 1741 to 1763, I shall
be happy to place them in the hands of any descendant of that gentleman.

W. EWART.

Pimperne, Dorset.

_Boswell's "Johnson."_--In vol. v. p. 272. of _my_ favourite edition, and
p. 784. of the edition in one volume, Johnson, writing to Brocklesby, under
date Sept. 2, 1784, calls Windham "inter stellas Luna minores." Boswell, in
a note, says, "It is remarkable that so good a Latin scholar as Johnson
should have been so inattentive to the metre, as by mistake to have written
_stellas_ instead of _ignes_." Now, with all due deference, a Captain of
Native Infantry ventures to suggest that both _stellas_ and _ignes_ are
wrong, and that Johnson was thinking of the noble opening of Horace's 15th
Epode:

 "Nox erat, et coelo fulgebat _Luna_ sereno,
    _Inter minora_ sidera."

F. C.

Bangalore.

_Stage Coaches._--It occurs to me as highly desirable that, before the
recollection of the old stage coach has faded from the memory of all but
the oldest inhabitant, an authentic statement should be placed on record of
the length of the stages, and the speed that was obtained, by this mode of
conveyance, in which England was for so many years without a rival.

The speed of mail coaches is, I believe chronicled in the British Almanac
of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; but their speed, if I
mistake not, was surpassed by that of the "Rival," which travelled (from
Monmouth, I think) to London after the opening of the Great Western
Railway.

Could any of your correspondents favour us with the time-bill of that
coach, detailing the length of the several stages, and the time of
performance? It would also be interesting to chronicle the period during
which this rivalry with the railway was maintained.

GEO. E. FRERE.

_Antecedents._--The word "antecedents," as a plural, and in the sense
attached to it by the French, is not to be found in any English dictionary
that I have the means of consulting. And yet it seems now to be commonly
used as an English expression, even by some of our best writers.

When was this word first imported, and by whom? I have just met with an
instance of it in Jerdan's _Autobiography_, vol. i. p. 131.:

    "I got him (Hammon), with a full knowledge of his antecedents, into the
    employment of a humane and worthy wine merchant of Bordeaux."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_The Letter X._--The letter X on brewers' casks is probably thus derived:

  _Simplex_ = single x, or X.
  _Duplex_ = double x, or XX.
  _Triplex_ = treble x, or XXX.

This was suggested by Owen's _Epigram_, lib. xii. 34.:

 "Laudatur vinum _simplex_, cervisia _duplex_,
  Est bona duplicitas, optima simplicitas."

B. H. C.

_A Crow-bar._--In Johnson's _Dictionary_ the explanation given of this word
is "piece of iron used as a lever to force open doors, as the Latins called
a hook _corvus_." In Walters' _English and Welsh Dictionary_, the first
part of which was published about the year 1770, this word is printed
"_Croe_-bar." Is it probable that the word _crow_ has been derived front
the Camb.-Brit. word _cro_, a curve? and that the name has been given from
the circumstance of one end of a crow-bar being curved for the purpose of
making it more efficient as lever?

N. W. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


{440}

Minor Queries.

_Bishop Grehan._--I want any information obtainable with reference to a
Roman Catholic bishop in Ireland named Grehan; his Christian name, family,
date of his bishopric, and name of it. Where can I find such particulars?

O. L. R. G.

_Doxology._--In his "Christmas Caroll" to the tune of "King Solomon," old
Tusser has the following:

 "To God the Son and Holy Ghost,
    Let man give thanks, rejoice, and sing,
  From world to world, from coast to coast,
    For all good gifts so many ways,
      That God doth send.
    Let us in Christ give God the praise,
      Till life shall end!"

Query, Is this the origin of our own doxologies?

L. A. M.

Great Yarmouth.

_Arrow-mark._--On an ancient pump of wood, extracted from the Poltimore
mine in North Devon, I perceive a deeply cut arrow-mark. What is the
inference as to the age of this relic from the mark referred to? The
fragment is that of a large oak tree hollowed out, and now decomposing from
exposure after its long burial.

J. R. P.

_Gabriel Poyntz._--There is a portrait here inscribed "Gabriel Poyntz, an.
Domini 1568, ætatis suæ 36:" and having a coat of arms painted on it, Barry
of eight, or and gules, with a crest very indistinct; but apparently a
lion's head, and the motto "Clainte refrainte."

Can any of your correspondents inform me of the meaning of this motto, and
the language in which it is expressed; and also what the crest is?

G. Poyntz was of South Okendon in Essex, and there is an account of his
family in Morant's _Essex_; from which it appears that he was descended
from the family of Poyntz of Tockington in _Gloucestershire_, of which
there is an account in Atkins' Gloucestershire. He was afterwards
knighted.--Any information as to him, in addition to that which is
contained in Morant, would be very acceptable.

S. G. C.

Bradley, Ashbourne.

_Queen Elizabeth's and Queen Anne's Motto, "Semper eadem."_--Upon what
occasion, and by what authority was the motto "Semper eadem" used as the
royal motto in the reign of Elizabeth?

The authority for Queen Anne's motto has been afforded by your
correspondent G. (Vol. viii., p. 255.); though he has not fully answered
the original Query (Vol. viii., p. 174.), as the motto in question was
signified to the public in the _London Gazette_, Dec. 21-24, 1702; was
ordered to be _continued_ in 1707, and to be _discontinued_ (by an order in
council) on the accession of the House of Hanover in 1714, when the old
motto "Dieu et mon droit" was resumed.

Z. Z. Z.

_Bees._--In these parts the increase of the apiary is known by the three
following names:--The first migration from the parent hive is (as all your
country readers are aware) a _swarm_; the next is called a _cast_; while
the third increase, in the same season, goes under the name of a _cote_.
Perhaps some one will kindly inform me if these names are common in other
parts of England; and if there are any other local designations for the
different departures of these insect colonists.

JOHN P. STILWELL.

Dorking.

_Nelly O'Brien and Kitty Fisher._--Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q."
can tell me where information is to be found respecting these two
celebrated women, who have been immortalised by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and
whose portraits are sometimes to be met with.

"Cleopatra dissolving the Pearl" is a portrait of Kitty, and he probably
introduced them both into some of his fancy pictures.

As I happen to possess a good portrait of one of them, I should like to
know something of their history.

CANTAB.

University Club.

_"Homo unius libri."_--To whom does this saying ing originally belong? The
_British Critic_ gives it to St. Thomas Aquinas:

    "When asked on one occasion who is in the way to become learned, he
    answered, 'Whoever will content himself with the reading of a single
    book."--_The British Critic_, No. LIX. p. 202.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_"Now the fierce bear," &c._--Can any of your readers inform me who is the
author of the following lines?

 "Now the fierce bear and leopard keen,
  All perished as they ne'er had been;
  Oblivion's their best home.
      .    .    .    .
  There is an oath on high,
  That ne'er on brow of mortal birth,
  Shall blend again the crowns of earth."

[theta].

_Prejudice against Holy Confirmation._--I have found among my rural
parishioners an idea very prevalent, that it is wrong, or at least highly
improper, for a married woman to become a candidate for, or to receive holy
confirmation; and this quite apart from any sectarian views on the matter.
I should like to know if any of my {441} clerical brethren have noticed the
same superstition as I must call it. Labourers' wives in some cases have at
once stated their being married as a valid objection; and in others their
husbands, although Churchmen, have at once entered their _veto_ on their
being confirmed. Can it arise from any vague reminiscence of the practical
rule of the Church of England on the subject, which has been so long
ignored?

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Epigram on MacAdam._--Who was the author of the following epigram?

 "My Essay on Roads, quoth MacAdam, lies there,
    The result of a life's lucubration;
  But does not the title page look rather bare?
    I long for a Latin quotation.

 "A Delphin edition of Virgil stood nigh,
    To second his classic desire;
  When the road-maker hit on the shepherd's reply,
   '_Miror Magis_,' I rather _add_-mire."

[Old English W. N.]

_Jane Scrimshaw._--Can any of your numerous correspondents inform me if
there is any other biographical notice of Jane Scrimshaw, who attained the
advanced age of 127, and resided for upwards of eighty years in the
Merchant Taylors' Almshouse, near Little Tower Hill, than that recorded in
Caulfield's _Memoirs of Remarkable Characters_?

J. T. M.

_The Word "Quadrille."_--May I trouble some kind reader to give me the
origin, derivation, full and literal meaning, and the several senses, in
their regular succession, of the above word _Quadrille_? There seems to be
much uncertainty attached to the word.

VERITATIS AMICUS.

Oxon.

_The Hungarians in Paules._--Perhaps some of the ingenious contributors to
"N. & Q." may be able to assist P. C. S. S. to explain the following
passage in the dedication of a rare little book _Dekker's Dreame_ (Lond.
4to. 1620). It is inscribed:--

    "To the truly accomplished gentleman, and worthy deserver of all men's
    loves, Master Endymion Porter. Sir, if you aske why, from the heapes of
    men, I picke you out only to be that _Murus ahæneus_ which must defend
    me, lett me tell you (what you knowe allready) that bookes are like the
    Hungarians in Paules, who have a priviledge to holde out their Turkish
    history for anie one to reade. They beg nothing: the texted past-bord
    talkes all--and if nothing be given, nothing is spoken, but God knowes
    what they thinke!"

An explanation of the above passage is very earnestly desired by

P. C. S. S.

_Ferns Wanted._--Specimens of the following rare ferns are much wanted to
complete a collection:--_Woodsia ilvensis_, _Woodsia alpina_, _Cystopteris
montana_, _Lastrea cristata_, _Lastrea recurva_, _Lastrea multiflora_,
_Asplenium alterniflorum_, _Trichomanes speciosum_.

The undersigned will feel very much obliged to any charitable person,
residing near the _habitat_ of any of the above-mentioned ferns, who would
take the trouble to forward to him, if not a root, at least a specimen for
drying, he need scarcely say that any expenses will be most cheerfully
defrayed.

HENRY COOPER KEY.

Stretton Rectory, near Hereford.

_Craton the Philosopher._--Two of the figures on the brass font in the
church of St. Bartholomew at Liège are superscribed Johannes Evangelista et
Craton Philosophus.--Can any reader of "N. & Q." say if anything is known
about the latter, who is represented as being baptized by the Evangelist?

R. H. C.

_The Solar Annual Eclipse in the Year 1263._--In the Norwegian account of
Haco's expedition against Scotland, A.D. 1263, published in the original
Islandic from the Flateyan and Frisian MSS., with a literal English version
by the Rev. James Johnstone, I read as follows:

    "While King Haco lay in Ronaldsvo, a great darkness drew over the sun;
    so that only a little ring was bright round the sun, and it continued
    so for some hours."--P. 45.

King Haco, according to the account, left Bergen on his expedition "three
nights before the 'Selian' vigils ... with all his fleet," and, "having got
a gentle breeze, was two nights at sea when he reached that harbour of
Shetland called Breydeyiar Sound (Bressay Sound, I presume) with a great
part of his navy." Here he remained "near half a month, and from thence
sailed to the Orkneys; and continued some time at Elidarwick, which is near
Kirkwall.... After St. Olave's wake (July 18, O. S.) King Haco, leaving
Elidarwick, sailed south before the Mull of Ronaldsha, with all the navy;"
and being joined by Ronald from the Orkneys, with the ships that had
followed him, he "led the whole armament into Ronaldsha, which he left upon
the vigil of St. Lawrence (July 30, O. S.)."

Now I wish to know, 1. On what day in August this eclipse took place, the
day of the week, commencement of the eclipse, &c.

2. Whether any cotemporary, or other writer besides the Icelandic
historian, has recorded this eclipse?

S.

Fitzroy Street.

_D'Israeli--how spelt?_--CAUCASUS is so fortunate as to possess all the
acknowledged works of D'Israeli the elder, as published by himself. In the
title-page of every one of them, the name {442} of the elegant and
accomplished author is spelt (as above) _with_ an apostrophe. In the late
edition of his collected works, by his no less accomplished son, the name
is printed _without_ the apostrophe. Indeed the name so appears in all the
works of Mr. D'Israeli the younger; a practice which he seems to have taken
up even in the lifetime of his father, who spelt it differently. Can any of
your readers inform CAUCASUS of the reason of this difference, and of the
authority for it, and which is the correct mode? He has vainly sought for
information in the Heralds' Visitation books for Buckinghamshire, preserved
in the British Museum.

CAUCASUS.

_Richard Oswald._--Could any of your correspondents give me any information
respecting Mr. Richard Oswald, the commissioner who negociated the Treaty
of 1782 at Paris, with Franklin, and his other colleagues, representing the
United States? Is there any obituary or biographical notice of him in
existence?

L.

_Cromwell's Descendants._--Oliver Cromwell's daughter Bridget was baptized
August 4, 1624; married to Ireton January 15, 1646-7; a widow Nov. 26,
1651; married to General Fleetwood, Lord President in Ireland, before 1652;
died at Stoke, near London, 1681.--Can any of your correspondents furnish
the date of this lady's marriage with Fleetwood; also, a list of her
children and grandchildren by Fleetwood? It is supposed that Captain
Fleetwood's daughter, _i. e._ the General's granddaughter, married a Berry.

ERIN.

_Letter of Archbishop Curwen to Archbishop Parker._--In _The Hunting of the
Romish Fox_, collected by Sir James Ware, and edited by Robert Ware (8vo.,
Dublin, 1683), there is a long account of an image of the Saviour which, to
the astonishment of the good people of Dublin, and by the contrivance of
one Father Leigh, sweated blood in the year 1559. It is added, at p. 90.:

    "The Archbishop of Dublin wrote _this relation and to this effect_, to
    his brother, Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker, who was very
    joyful at the receipt thereof, by reason," &c.

The whole chapter in which this occurs is stated to be "taken out of the
Lord Cecil's _Memorials_." Can any of your readers give me assistance in
finding these _Memorials_, or this letter to Archbishop Parker, or a copy
of it? I intended to have made it an object of inquiry and search in
Dublin, but I have been prevented accomplishing my design of visiting that
country. Perhaps some of your Irish readers may be able to help me.

JOHN BRUCE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Margaret Patten._--I have just seen a curious old picture, executed at
least a century ago, and which was lately found amongst some family papers.
It is a half-length of an old woman in homely looking garments; a dark blue
stuff gown, the sleeves partially rolled up, and white sleeving protruding
from under, not unlike the fashion of to-day; a white and blue checked
apron; around her neck a white tippet and a handkerchief, on her head a
"mutch," or close linen cap, and a lace or embroidered band across her
forehead to hide the absence of hair. She holds something undistinguishable
in one hand.

The picture is about 10 × 8 inches, and is done on glass, evidently
transferred from an engraving on steel. The colours have been laid on with
hand, and then, to preserve and make an opaque back, it has received a
coating of plaster of Paris; altogether in its treatment resembling a
coloured photograph.

By-the-bye, I am sorry I could not get a copy (photographic) of it, or that
would have rendered intelligible what I fear my lame descriptions cannot.
Beneath the figure is the following inscription:

    "MARGARET PATTEN,

    Born in the Parish of Lochnugh, near Pairsley in Scotland, now Liveing
    in the Work House of St. Marg^{ts}, Westminsster, aged 138."

There is no date appended.

The word "Lochnugh" in the inscription is evidently spelt from the Scotch
pronunciation of Lochwinnoch, near Paisley.

I should be very glad if any of your readers or correspondents in London
could ascertain if the name, &c. is to be found in the records of St.
Margaret's, Westminster, and also give me some facts as to the history of
this poor old Scotch woman, left destitute so far from home and kindred.

If it can be authenticated, it will make another item for your list of
longevals.

JAMES B. MURDOCH.

Glasgow.

    [In the Board-room of the workhouse of St. Margaret's, Westminster, is
    a portrait of Margaret Patten, which corresponds with the picture just
    described, and bears the following inscription:

    "MARGARET PATTEN, aged 136: the Gift of John Dowsell, William Goff,
    Matthew Burnett, Thomas Parker, Robert Wright, John Parquot, Overseers,
    anno 1737."

Margaret Patten was buried in the burial-ground of what was then called the
Broadway Church, now Christ Church, and there is a stone on the eastern
boundary wall inscribed, "Near this place lieth MARGARET PATTEN, who died
June 26, 1739, in the Parish Workhouse, aged 136." In Walcott's _Memorials
of {443} Westminster_, p. 288., we are told "she was a native of
Lochborough, near Paisley. She was brought to England to prepare Scotch
broth for King James II., but, owing to the abdication of that monarch,
fell into poverty and died in St. Margaret's workhouse, where her portrait
is still preserved. Her body was followed to the grave by the parochial
authorities and many of the principal inhabitants, while the children sang
a hymn before it reached its last resting-place."]

_Etymology of "Coin."_--What is the etymology of our noun and verb _coin_
and _to coin_? I do not know if I have been anticipated, but beg to suggest
the following:--_Coin_, a piece of cornered metal; _To coin_, the act of
cornering such block of metal.

In Cornwall, the blocks of tin, when first run into moulds from the
smelting furnace, are _square_; and when the metal is to be fined or
assayed, the miner's phrase is, that it is to be _coined_; for the
_corners_ of the moulded block are _cut off_, and subjected to the _assay_;
and the decree of fineness proved is stamped on the now cornerless
block--thereafter called a _coin of tin_. It is, I conceive, by no means a
violent supposition that such _coins of tin_ were current as money very
many ages before either silver, gold, copper, bronze, lead, tin, or any
other metal moulded, stamped, engraved, or fashioned into such coins as we
now know had come into use. We know to what far-back ages the finding of
tin carries us, its find being entirely confined to Cornwall; its presence
near the surface in an ore readily reduced and easily melted making its
reduction into the metallic state possible in the very rudest state of
society and of the arts.

C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.

    [See Dr. Richardson for the following derivation:--"Fr. _coigner_, It.
    _cuniare_, Sp. _cunar_, _acuñar_, to wedge, and also to coin. Menage
    and Spelman agree from the Latin _cuneus_. '_Cuneus_; sigillum ferreum,
    quo nummus _cuditur_; a forma dictum: atque inde _coin_ quasi _cune_
    pro monetâ.' An iron seal with which metal is stamped; so called from
    the shape. And hence money is called _coin_ (q. _cune_,
    wedge).--_Spelman._" The Rev. T. R. Brown, in an unpublished
    _Dictionary of Difficult Etymology_[1], suggests the following:--"Fr.
    _coign_, a coin, stamp, &c.; Gaelic, _cuin_, a coin. Probably from the
    Sanscrit _kan_, to shine, desire, covet; _kanaka_, gold, &c. The Hebrew
    _ceseph_, money, coin, is derived in like manner from the verb
    _casaph_, to desire, covet. The other meaning attached to the French
    word _coign_, viz. a wedge, appears to be derived from quite a
    different root."]

[Footnote 1: This useful work makes two volumes 8vo.: but how is it the
learned Vicar of Southwick printed only _nine_ copies? Was he thinking of
the sacred _Nine_?]

_Inscription at Aylesbury._--In the north transept of St. Mary's Church,
Aylesbury, occurs the following curious inscription on a tomb of the date
of 1584:

 "Yf, passing by this place, thou doe desire
    To knowe what corpse here shry'd in marble lie,
  The somme of that whiche now thou dost require
    This slender verse shall sone to thee descrie.

 "Entombed here doth rest a worthie Dame,
    Extract and born of noble house and bloud,
  Her sire, Lord Paget, hight of worthie fame
    Whose virtues cannot sink in Lethe floud.
  Two brethern had she, barons of this realme,
    A knight her freere, Sir Henry Lee, he hight,
  To whom she bare three _impes_, which had to name,
    John, Henry, Mary, slayn by fortune spight,
  First two being yong, which cavs'd their parents mone,
    The third in flower and prime of all her yeares:
  All three do rest within this marble stone,
    By which the fickleness of worldly joyes appears.
  Good Frend sticke not to strew with crimson flowers
    This marble stone, wherein her cindres rest,
  For sure her ghost lives with the heavenly powers,
    And guerdon hathe of virtuous life possest."

Can any of your readers give me any other instances of children being
called _imps_? and also tell me wherefore the name was given them? and how
long it continued in use?

T. W. D. BROOKS.

Cropredy, Banbury.

    [The inscription is given in Lipscomb's _Buckinghamshire_. Horne Tooke
    says _imp_ is the past participle of the A.-S. _impan_, to graft, to
    plant. Mr. Steevens (Note on _2 Henry IV._, Act V. Sc. 5.) tells us,
    "An _imp_ is a shoot in its primitive sense, but means a son in
    Shakspeare." In Hollinshed, p. 951., the last words of Lord Cromwell
    are preserved, who says, "And after him that his sonne Prince Edward,
    that goodlie _impe_, may long reign over you." The word _imp_ is
    perpetually used by Ulpian Fulwell, and other ancient writers, for
    progeny:

     "And were it not thy royal _impe_
      Did mitigate our pain."

    Again, in the _Battle of Alcazar_, 1594:

     "Amurath, mighty emperor of the East,
      That shall receive the _imp_ of royal race."

    See other examples in Todd's Johnson and Dr. Richardson's Dictionaries.
    Shakspeare uses the word only in jocular and burlesque passages, which,
    says Nares, is the natural course of a word growing obsolete.]

_"Guardian Angels now protect me," &c._--I remember John Wesley, and also
his saying the "Devil should not have the best tunes." There was a pretty
love-song, a great favourite when I was a boy:

 "Guardian angels, now protect me,
  Send to me the youth I love."

the music of which Wesley introduced to his congregation as a hymn tune.
The music I have, and I shall be glad if any of your correspondents {444}
can oblige me with the first verse of this love-song; I only recollect the
above lines.

WILLIAM GARDINER.

Leicester.

    [The following is the song referred to by our correspondent:

          _The Forsaken Nymph._

     "Guardian angels, now protect me,
        Send to me the swain I love;
      Cupid, with thy bow direct me;
        Help me, all ye pow'rs above.
      Bear him my sighs, ye gentle breezes,
        Tell him I love and I despair,
      Tell him for him I grieve, say 'tis for him I live;
        O may the shepherd be sincere!

     "Through the shady grove I'll wander,
        Silent as the bird of night,
      Near the brink of yonder fountain,
        First Leander bless'd my sight.
      Witness ye groves and falls of water,
        Echos repeat the vows he swore:
      Can he forget me? will he neglect me?
        Shall I never see him more?

     "Does he love, and yet forsake me,
        To admire a nymph more fair?
      If 'tis so, I'll wear the willow,
        And esteem the happy pair.
      Some lonely cave I'll make my dwelling,
        Ne'er more the cares of life pursue;
      The lark and Philomel only shall hear me tell,
        What bids me bid the world adieu."]

_K. C. B.'s._--I observe that in the _London Gazette_ of January 2, 1815,
which regulates the existing order of the Bath, it is commanded by the
sovereign that "there shall be affixed in the church of St. Peter at
Westminster escutcheons and banners of the arms of each K. C. B." Has this
command been regularly fulfilled on the creation of each K. C. B.? I
believe that on each creation fees are demanded by the Heralds' College,
for the professed purpose of exemplifying the knight's arms, and affixing
his escutcheon; but I never remember to have seen the escutcheons in
Westminster Abbey.

TEWARS.

    [The order _never_ was fulfilled. If the knights were entitled to
    armorial bearings, no fees whatever were demanded by or paid to the
    Heralds' College. The statutes of 1815 were, however, abrogated and
    annulled by the statutes of 1847, and the banners are not required to
    be suspended in the Abbey. The erection of the banners and plates,
    however, rested with the officers of the order, and the Heralds'
    College had nothing to do with the matter.]

_Danish and Swedish Ballads._--What are the best and most recent
collections of ancient Danish and Swedish ballad poetry?

J. M. B.

    [We believe the best and most recent collection of Danish ballads is
    the edition of _Udvalgte Danske Viser fra Middelalderen_, by
    Abrahamson, Nyerup, Rabbek, &c., in five small 8vo. volumes,
    Copenhagen, 1812. The best Swedish collection was _Svenska Folk-Visor
    fran Forteden_, collected and edited by Geijer and Afzelius, and
    published at Stockholm, 1814; but the more recent collection published
    by Arwidson in 1834 is certainly superior. It is in three octavo
    volumes, and is entitled _Svenska Fornsänger. En Samling of Kämp-visor,
    Folk-visor, Lekar och Dansar, samt Barn- och Vall-Sänger_.]

_Etymology of "Conger."_--What is the etymology of the word _Conger_, as
applied to the larger kind of deep sea eels by our fishermen (who, be it
remarked, never add eel. _Conger-eel_ is entirely used by shore-folk)?

I imagine that it may be traced from the Danish _Kongr_, a king, or kings;
for being the greatest of eels, the fishermen, whose nets he tore, and
whose take he seriously reduced, might well call him in size, in strength,
and voracity--_Kongr_, the king.

C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.

    [Todd and Webster derive it from the Latin _conger_ or _congrus_; Gr.
    [Greek: gongros], formed of [Greek: graô], to eat, the fish being very
    voracious; It. _gongro_; Fr. _congre_.]

_"Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum tibi."_--This is, I think, the
ordinary form of a saying cited somewhere by Goldsmith, who calls it "so
trite a quotation that it almost demands an apology to repeat it." Whence
comes it originally? I am unable to give the exact reference to the passage
in Goldsmith, but in his _Citizen of the World_, letter 53rd, he has a
cognate idea:

    "As in common conversation the best way to make the audience laugh is
    by first laughing yourself, so in writing," &c.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

    [Horace, _De Arte Poetica_, 102.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

MEDAL AND RELIC OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS.

(Vol. viii., p. 293.)

I possess a cast of this medal as described by your correspondent W.
FRASER, but which is a little indistinct in some of the letters of its
inscriptions. The yew-tree represented on it is generally supposed to be
that which stood at Cruikston Castle nearly Paisley; and its motto "Vires"
may perhaps have been intended to denote its natural strength and
durability. The date of the medal being 1566, and Mary's marriage with Lord
Darnly having taken place on July 29, 1565, the yew-tree may have been
introduced to commemorate some incident of their courtship, and gives
likelihood to the common tradition. I once had a small box composed partly
of its wood, and of {445} that of the "Torwood Oak" near Stirling, which
was presented to me about thirty-five years ago by an aged lady, whose
property it had been for a long time previously, and who placed much value
on it as a relic. Though visiting Cruikston Castle in early life, I never
heard of there being any feeling of "superstition" connected with such
little objects as the crosses, &c. which were long made from the wood of
the yew-tree. They are all, I think, to be viewed simply as curiosities
associated with the historical interest of the place, and similar examples
are to be found among our people in the numerous _quaichs_ (drinking-cups)
and other articles which have been formed from the "Torwood Oak" that
protected the illustrious Sir William Wallace from his enemies; from his
oak at Elderslie, said to have been planted by his hand, two miles to the
west of Paisley; and lately from such scraps of the old oaken rafters of
the Glasgow Cathedral as could be obtained in the course of its modern
repairs.

As respects the yew-tree immediately concerned, some notices of its remains
may be found in a work entitled _The Severn Delineated_, by Charles Taylor,
Glasgow, 1831, at page 82. The author, who was a very curious local
antiquary, died in 1837, aged forty-two. As his book is now scarce, I may
be excused from subjoining rather a long extract, but which also throws
some light on other particulars of this subject:

    "Retreating from Househill (a seat in the vicinity) to Cruikston
    Castle, the country is rich, and the scenery delightful. The castle
    itself might be the subject of volumes, as it has been the theme of
    many a poet, and the subject of many a painter's pencil. Its name is
    known all over the world, or may be so, from the circumstance of its
    once having been the residence of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Lord
    Darnly; and though the famed yew-tree decks not now the 'hallowed
    mould,' as the poet expresses himself,

     'Is there an eye that tearless could behold
      This lov'd retreat of beauty's fairest flower?'

    About three years ago a large fragment fell from the south wing of this
    ruin, despite of all the attention Sir John Maywell paid to keep it up.
    The founder of this castle was one De Croc; hence the name Crockston,
    Crocston, or Cruikston. This family (says Crawfurd), failing in ane
    heiress, she was married to Sir Alexander Stewart of Torbolton, second
    son to Walter, the second of that name, Great Stewart of Scotland, and
    of this marriage are descended the families of Darnly and Lorn."

Cruikston is now the property of Sir John Maywell of Nether Pollock. Of the
trunk of the once--

 "    .    .    .    .    .     green yew,
  The first that met the royal Mary's view;
  When bright in charms the youthful princess led
  The graceful Darnly to her throne and bed."--

Lady Maywell ordered to be made by an ingenious individual, at
Pollockshaws, an exact model of the castle, and some table and other
utensils, which are still in preservation at Pollock. Before its removal,
many are the snuff-boxes, toddy ladles, &c. that have been made of it, and
are still in preservation by the curious. The following couplet, composed
by the late Mr. W. Craig, surgeon, is inscribed on one of these ladles,
which has seen no little service:

 "Near Cruikston Castle's stately tower,
    For many a year I stood;
  My shade was of the hallow'd bower;
    Where Scotland's queen was woo'd."

Another medal of Queen Mary's, of considerable size, of which I have seen a
cast many years since, contained the following inscriptions:

 "O God graunt patience in that I suffer vrang."

The reverse has in the centre:

 "Quho can compare with me in grief,
  I die and dar nocht seek relief."

With this legend around:

 "Hourt not the [heart symbol] quhais [heart whose] joy thou art."

    "They all appear [says Mr. Pinkerton] to have been done in France by
    Mary's directions, who was fond of devices. Her cruel captivity could
    not debar her from intercourse with her friends in France; who must
    with pleasure have executed her orders as affording her a little
    consolation."

G. N.

MR. FRASER'S supposed medal is a ryal (or possibly a ¾ ryal) of Mary and
Henry, commonly known as a Cruickstown dollar; from the idea that the tree
upon them is a representation of the famous yew-tree at Cruickstown Castle.
It appears, however, from the ordinance for coining these pieces, that the
tree is a "palm-tree crowned with a shell paddock (lizard) creeping up the
stem of the same." The motto across the tree is "DAT GLORIA VIRES." (See
Lindsay's _Scotch Coinage_, p. 51.)

JOHN EVANS.

       *       *       *       *       *

EARLY USE OF TIN.--DERIVATION OF THE NAME OF BRITAIN.

(Vol. viii., p. 344.)

The reply of Dr. Hincks appears to require the following. While seeking
information upon the first of these matters, I took up one of my old
school-books, and at the foot of a page found the following note:
"Britannia is from _Barat-anac_, the land of tin." I do not recollect to
have seen it elsewhere; but it appeared to me so apt and correct that I
adopted it at once.

That the Shirutana of the Egyptian inscriptions, {446} or Shairetana, will
be found to be the same people as the Cirátas of the Hindu Puranas, I have
little doubt.

Cirátas is there applied as a name to the people who were afterwards known
to us as the Phoenicians; but that either the Shirutana or the Cirátas will
be found to have discovered Britain, though they may have given it a name,
I do not expect. The Cirátas were a people of a later age to that of the
first inhabitants of Britain. The first inhabitants of Britain I call the
Celtæ, as I know no other name for them; but there seems reason for
thinking that this island was visited by an earlier tribe, though probably
they were of the same race.

The origin of the Cirátas and first inhabitants of Britain is this:--A
powerful monarchy appears to have been established at the earliest dawn of
history in the country we now call Persia, long before there was any
Assyrian government, and under this monarchy that country was the true
centre of population, of knowledge, of languages, and of arts. Three
distinct races of men appear to have migrated in different directions from
this their common country. One of these divides into two parts, one
proceeding to the west, the other to the south-east of the place where the
division took place. The western party passed through Asia Minor, and also
by the north of the Black Sea, carrying with it all that was then known of
the different arts and sciences, until we find the descendants at this day
in the British Isles. The south-eastern party, also, continued its progress
to the part now known to us as India, where its descendants may be found at
this day. Long after the settlement in India, various tribes, all
proceeding from it, migrated from that country to the parts now known to us
as Egypt and Syria; and one of these tribes was the Cirátas.

That the Cirátas, Shirutana, or Phoenicians, call them as you may, were the
first who passed the Pillar of Hercules in ships on their way to obtain tin
here at first-hand, is almost certain; and that the western party, as
described above, had broken ground to supply it long before their customers
came for it, is scarcely less so. They all had a common origin, and used
nearly the same language, religion, and laws.

My Query has brought out a highly satisfactory elucidation of the origin of
the term _Britain_; and this, looking at the position in which that term
stood on the day the last Number of "N. & Q." was published is by no means
a slight acquisition. I now leave it.

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

       *       *       *       *       *

PICTORIAL EDITIONS OF THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER.

(Vol. vii., pp. 18. 91. 321.; Vol. viii., p. 318.)

The following list may prove an acceptable addition to those already
printed in your pages. Some of your correspondents perhaps will make it
more complete:

  1707. Oxford. 8vo. Plates by John Sturt.
  1710. London. 8vo. Forty-four plates, with no engraver's name.
  1712. Oxford. 8vo. Plates by Sturt.
  1717. London. 8vo. Ruled with double red lines. Plates by Sturt.

Lowndes speaks of a large paper impression in quarto of this same edition:
"The volume consists of one hundred and sixty-six plates, besides
twenty-two containing dedication, table, &c. Prefixed is a bust of King
George I.; and facing it, those of the Prince and Princess of Wales. Sturt
likewise published a set of fifty-five historical cuts for Common Prayer in
small 8vo."

    1738. London. 8vo. With Old Version of the Psalms; and forty-four
    curious plates, including Gunpowder Treason, the Martyrdom of Charles
    I., and Restoration of Charles II. (Booksellers' Catal.)

    1794. London. Published by J. Good and E. Harding, with plates after
    Stothard by Bartolozzi and others (Lowndes).

Lowndes also mentions "Illustrations to the Book of Common Prayer by
Richard Westall, London, 1813, 8 vo. (proofs) 4to.," and "Twelve
illustrations to ditto, engraved by John Scott, from designs by Burney and
Thurston, royal 8vo."

I have reserved for more particular description two editions in my own
possession:--One is a small 8vo., ruled with red lines: "In the Savoy,
printed by the assignees of John Bill and Christopher Barker, Printers to
the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1667." It contains fifty-nine plates:
these are identical with those in the _Antiquitates Christianæ_, or Bishop
Taylor's _Life of Christ_, and Cave's _Lives of the Apostles_ (folio
editions), which, if I mistake not, were engraved by William Faithorn. The
Act of Uniformity is given in black-letter. The Ordinal is wanting. The
three State Services are not enumerated in the Table of Contents, but are
added at the end of the book. The Old Version of the Psalms (with its usual
quaint title), a tract of 104 pp., is appended: "London: printed by Thos.
Newcomb for the Company of Stationers, 1671." The other edition is a 12mo.:
"London, printed by Charles Bill and the Executrix of Thomas Newcomb
deceased, Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, 1708" (ruled with
red lines). In the frontispiece is represented a female figure kneeling
with a prayer book open before her: an angel {447} in the air holds a
scroll, on which is inscribed, "The Liturgy of the Church of England,
adorned with fifty-five historical cuts, P. La Vergne del., M. Van der
Gucht sc." Beneath the picture, "Sold by Robt. Whitledge at the Bible in
Ave Maria Lane, near Stationers' Hall."

Some of the cuts are very curious, as No. 16., which represents the Devil
(adorned with a crown, sceptre, and tail) standing on the top of a high
conical rock, and our Blessed Lord at a little distance from him. The
appearance and attitude of the Apostles are somewhat grotesque. One of the
best is St. Philip (No. 39.), who is represented as a wrinkled, bearded old
man, contemplating a crucifix in his hand.

No. 51. is a picture of Guy Fawkes approaching the Parliament House, with a
lantern in his hand. A large eye is depicted in the clouds above, which
sheds a stream of light on the hand of the conspirator. No. 52. is "The
Martyrdom of King Charles I." No. 53. "The Restoration of Monarchy and King
Charles II." A number of cavaliers on horseback, with their conical hats
and long tresses, occupy the foreground of this picture; the army appears
in the background. This is the last, though the scroll advertises
fifty-five cuts.

The Prefaces and Calendar are printed in very small bad type. The four
State Services are enumerated in the Table of Contents. After the State
Services follow, "At the Healing;" the Thirty-nine Articles, and a Table of
Kindred and Affinity. This edition neither contains the Ordinal nor a
metrical version of the Psalms. Notwithstanding the date on the title-page,
_King George_ is prayed for throughout the book, except in the service "For
the Eighth Day of March," when Queen Anne's name occurs.

Of the modern pictorial editions of the Book of Common Prayer may be
mentioned that of Charles Knight "illustrated by nearly seven hundred
beautiful woodcuts by Jackson, from drawings by Harvey, and six illuminated
titles; with Explanatory Notes by the Rev. H. Stebbing," royal 8vo.,
London, 1838; reprinted in 1846. That of Murray, "illuminated by Owen
Jones, and illustrated with engravings from the works of the great
masters," royal 8vo., London, 1845; reprinted in 1850 in med. 8vo. That of
Whittaker in 12mo. and 8vo., "with notes and illuminations." The last, and
by far the best, pictorial edition is that of J. H. Parker of Oxford, "with
fifty illustrations; selected from the finest examples of the early Italian
and modern German schools, by the Rev. H. J. Rose and Rev. J. W. Burgon."

JARLTZBERG.

       *       *       *       *       *

YEW-TREES IN CHURCHYARDS.

(Vol. viii., p. 346.)

This has long been to me a vexed question, and I fear that none of your
correspondents have given a satisfactory answer.

I have seen in London sprigs of yew and palm willow offered for sale before
Palm Sunday. At this period they may, I think, be always found in Covent
Garden Market. I saw them last year also in the greengrocers' shops at
Brighton. To me these are evident traces of an old custom of using the yew
as well as the willow. The origin is to be found in the Jewish custom of
carrying "branches of palm-trees, and boughs of _thick trees_, and willows
from the brook" (Leviticus xxiii. 39, 40.).

Wordsworth alludes to this in his sonnet on seeing a procession at
Chamouny:

 "The Hebrews thus carrying in joyful state
  Thick boughs of palm and willows from the brook,
  March'd round the altar--to commemorate
  How, when their course they from the desert took,
  Guided by signs which ne'er the sky forsook,
  They lodged in leafy tents and cabins low,
  Green boughs were borne."

In _A Voyage from Leith to Lapland_, 1851, vol. i. p. 132., there is an
account of the funeral of the poet Oehlenschläger. The author states,--

    "The entire avenue was strewn, according to the old Scandinavian
    custom, with evergreen boughs of fir, and bunches of fir and box,
    mingled in some instances with artificial flowers. It is customary at
    all funerals to strew evergreens before the door of the house where the
    body lies, but it is only for some very distinguished person indeed
    they are strewn all the way to the burial place."

Forby, in his _East Anglican Vocabulary_, says it is a superstitious notion
that--

    "If you bring yew into the house at Christmas amongst the evergreens
    used to dress it, you will have a death in the family before the end of
    the year."

I believe the yew will be found generally on the south side of the church,
but always near the principal entrance, easy of access for the procession
on Palm Sunday, and perhaps for funerals, and that it was used as a
substitute for the palm, and coupled with "the willow from the brook,"
hence called the palm willow.

A HOLT WHITE.

P. S.--I cannot agree with your correspondent J. G. CUMMING, that the yew
is one of "our few evergreens." I doubt our having in England any native
evergreen but the holly.

The etymology of the name of the yew-tree clearly shows that it was not
planted in churchyards as an emblem of evil, but one of immortality. The
name of the tree in Celtic is _jubar_, pronounced _yewar_, _i. e._ "the
evergreen head." The town of {448} Newry in Ireland took its name from two
yew-trees which St. Patrick planted: _A-Niubaride_, pronounced _A-Newery_,
_i. e._ "the yew-trees," which stood until Cromwell's time, when some
soldiers ruthlessly cut them down.

In the Note by MR. J. G. CUMMING, a derivation is evidently required for
the English word _yeoman_, which he suggests is taken from "yokeman."
Yeoman is from _e[=o]_, pronounced _yo_, _i. e._ free, worthy, respectable,
as opposed to the terms _villein_, serf, &c.; so that yeoman means a
freeman, a respectable person.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

OSBORN FAMILY.

(Vol. viii., p. 270.)

Mr. H. T. Griffith asks where may any pedigree of the _Osborne_ family,
previous to Edward Osborne, the ancestor of the Dukes of Leeds, be seen. In
reply, I am in possession of large collections relating to the Norman
Osbornes, from whom I have reasons to believe him to have been descended.
Those Osbornes can be proved to have been settled in certain of the midland
counties of England from the time of the attainder and downfall of the son
of William Fitzosborne, Earl of Hereford and premier peer, down to a
comparatively late period. A branch of them was possessed of the manor of
Kelmarsh in Northamptonshire; and their pedigree, beginning in 1461, may be
seen in Whalley's _Northamptonshire_: but this is necessarily very
imperfect, on account of the author's want of access to documents which
have subsequently been opened to the public.

I may here notice that an inexcusable error has been committed and repeated
in several of the collections of records published by the Parliamentary
Commission, who have, in numerous instances, and without any warrant,
interpreted _Osb._ of the MSS. as "Osbert." Thus they have deprived
_Fitzosborne_, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1102), of some of his manors, and
within his own diocese, and conferred them on _Osbert the Bishop_, although
there never was a bishop of that name in England. I took the liberty of
pointing out this error to one of the chief editors concerned in these
works; but as he has taken no notice of my observations, I must infer that
he thinks it most prudent to excite no farther inquiry.

The _Osborns_, now so numerous in London, appear to have come from the
Danish stem from which the Norman branch was originally derived. Their
number, which has increased even beyond the ordinary ratio of the
population, may perhaps be dated from the wife of one of them who (temp.
Jac. I.) had twenty-four sons, and was interred in old St. Paul's.

I shall be very happy to afford any assistance in my power to the gentleman
who has occasioned these remarks.

OMICRON.

       *       *       *       *       *

INSCRIPTIONS ON BELLS.

(Vol. vi., p. 554.; Vol. vii., pp. 454. 603.; Vol. viii., pp. 108. 248.)

Many thanks are due to your correspondent CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A., for his
interesting series of inscriptions on bells. The following are, I think,
sufficiently curious to be added to your collection:--

Rouen Cathedral:

    "In the steeple of the great church, in the citie of Roane in Normandy,
    is one great bell with the like inscription." [Like, that is, to the
    inscription at St. Stephen's, Westminster: see "N. & Q." Vol. viii., p.
    108.]

 "Je suis George de Ambois,
  Qui trente-cinque mille pois;
  Mes luis qui me pesera,
  Trente-six mille me trouvera."

 "I am _George of Ambois_,
  Thirtie-five thousand in pois;
  But he that shall weigh me,
  Thirty-six thousand shall find me."--Weever, _Fun. Mon_., edit. fol.
      1631, p. 492.

St. Matthew, Great Milton, Oxfordshire:

  1. "I as treble begin.
  3. "I was third ring.
  8. (Great bell) "I to church the living call, and to the grave do
      summons."

Inscription suggested as being suitable for six bells, in the
_Ecclesiologist_ (New Series), vol. i. p. 209.:

  1. "Ave Pater, Rex, Creator:
  2. Ave Fili, Lux, Salvator:
      3. Ave Pax et Charitas.
  4. Ave Simplex, Ave Trine;
  5. Ave Regnans sine fine,
      6. Ave Sancta Trinitas."

Inscriptions are often to be found in Lombardic characters, and on bells of
great antiquity. Can any of your ecclesiological correspondents furnish me
with the date of the earliest known example?

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

On bells in Southrepps Church, Norfolk:

    "Tuba ad Juditium. Campana ad Ecclesiam, 1641."

    "Miserere mei Jhesus Nazarenus Rex Judæorum."

J. L. SISSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

LADIES' ARMS BORNE IN A LOZENGE.

(Vol. viii., pp. 37. 83. 277. 329.)

I broached a theory with a concluding remark that it would give me great
pleasure to see one more reasonable take its place. I fear that, if all
your readers anxious to clear up an obscure point in an interesting science
take no more trouble than P. P., we shall find ourselves no {449} nearer
our object in the middle of your eightieth volume than we are now in your
eighth.

What P. P. is pleased to term the "routine" reason is after all but one
among many, and is not better substantiated than some of the others quoted
by me; for though the lozenge has a "supposed" resemblance to the distaff
or fusil, heraldically it is but a supposed one, and by most writers the
difference is very distinctly indicated.

Boyer says:

    "A fusil is a bearing in heraldry made in the form of a spindle, with
    its yarn or thread wound about it. _Fusils are longer than lozenges_,
    and taper or pointed at both ends."

The same author thus describes a lozenge:

    "A Rhimbus, in geometry, is a figure of four equal and parallel sides,
    but not rectangular."

Robson says:

    "Fusil, a kind of spindle used in spinning. Its formation should be
    particularly attended to, _as few painters or engravers make a
    sufficient distinction between the fusil and lozenge_."

Nisbet describes a lozenge to be--

    "A figure that has equal sides and unequal angles, as the quarry of a
    glass window placed erect pointways."

He adds:

    "The Latins say, 'Lozengæ factæ sunt ad modum lozangiorum in vitreis.'
    Heralds tell us that their use in armories came from the pavement of
    marble stones of churches, fine palaces and houses, cut after the form
    of lozenges, which pavings the French and Italians call loze and the
    Spaniards _loza_."

Sylvester de Petra-Sancta of the lozenge says much the same:

    "Scutulas oxigonias scu acutangulus erectas, et quasi gradiles, referri
    debere ad latericias et antiquas domus olim, viz. Nobilium quia vulgus,
    et infamiæ sortis homines, intra humiles casus, vet antra
    inhabitantur."

Of the fusil Nisbet writes:

    "The fusil is another Rhombular figure like the lozenge, but more long
    than broad, and its upper and lower points are more acute than the two
    side points."

He adds that:

    "Chassanus and others make their sides round, as in his description of
    them: 'Fusæ sunt acutæ in superiore et inferiore partibus, et rotundæ
    ex utroque latere;' which description has occasioned some English
    heralds, when so painted or engraven, to call them millers' picks, as
    Sir John Boswell, in his _Concords of Armory_, and others, to call them
    weavers' shuttles."

Menestrier says of lozenges:

    "Lozange est une figure de quatre pointes, dont deux sont un peu plus
    étendues que les autres, et assise sur une de ces pointes. C'est le
    Rhomb des mathématiciens, et les quarreaux des vitres ordinaires en ont
    la figure."

Of fusils:

    "Fusées sont plus étendues en longue que les lozanges, et affilées en
    point comme les fuseaux. Elles sont pièces d'architecture où l'on se
    sert pour ornement de fusées et de pesons."

The celebrated _Boke of St. Albans_ (1486) thus describes the difference
between a lozenge and fusil:

    "Knaw ye y^e differans betwix ffusillis and losyng. Wherefore it is to
    be knaw that ffusillis ar euermore long, also fusyllis ar strattyr
    ouerwart in the baly then ar mascules. And mascules ar larger ou'wartt
    in the baly, and shorter in length than be fusyllis."

The mascle is afterwards explained to be the lozenge pierced. Again:

    "And ye most take thys for a general enformacion and instruccion that
    certanli losyng eu'more stand upright ... and so withowte dowte we have
    the differans of the foresayd signes, that is to wete of mascules and
    losynges."

Dallaway, an elegant writer on Heraldry, says:

    "Of the lozenge the following extraordinary description is given in a
    MS. of Glover, 'Lozenga est pars vitri in vitrea fenestra.' But it may
    be more satisfactory to observe that the lozenge, with its diminutive,
    are given to females instead of an escocheon for the insertion of their
    armorial bearings, one of which is supposed to have been a cushion of
    that shape, and the other is evidently the spindle used in spinning;
    both demonstrative of the sedentary employments of women. On a very
    splendid brass for Eleanor, relict of Thomas of Woodstocke, who died
    1384, she is delineated as resting her head upon two cushions, the
    upper of which is placed lozenge-wise."--P. 140.

The above is taken from his _Miscellaneous Observations on Heraldic
Ensigns_, the following from the body of his great work:

    "Females being heirs, or conveying feodal lordships to their husbands,
    had, as early as the thirteenth century, the privilege of armorial
    seals. The variations were progressive and frequent; at first the
    female effigy had the kirtle or inner garment emblazoned, or held the
    escocheon over her head, or in her right hand; then three escocheons
    met in the centre, or four were joined at their bases, if the alliance
    admitted of so many. Dimidiation, accollation, and impalement succeeded
    each other at short intervals. But the modern practice of placing the
    arms of females upon a lozenge appears to have originated about the
    middle of the fourteenth century, when we have an instance of five
    lozenges conjoined upon one seal; that of the heir female in the centre
    impaling the arms of her husband, and surrounded by those of her
    ancestors."--P. 400.

I think this quotation from so learned a writer goes far towards settling
the whole question. I confess myself willing to have my theory placed
second to this, while I must discard the "distaff" {450} notion, unless
better substantiated than by the French saying from their Salique law,
which I here give for P. P.'s information: "Nunquam corona a lance
transibit ad fusum." I am willing to admit the antiquity of this notion;
for while the shape of the man's shield is traced by Sylvanus Morgan to
Adam's spade, he takes the woman's from Eve's spindle!

 "When Adam delved, and Eve span,
  Who was then the gentleman?"

In Geoffry Chaucer's time the lozenge appears to have been an ornament worn
by heralds in their dress or crown. In describing the habit of one, he
says:

 "They crowned were as kinges
  With crowns wrought full of lozenges
  And many ribbons and many fringes."

As for the difference between the lozenge and fusil, I could multiply
opinions and examples, but hope those given will be sufficient.

I cannot conclude these few hasty remarks without expressing a wish that
one of your correspondents in particular would take up this subject, to
handle which in a masterly manner, his position is a guaranty of his
ability. I refer to the gentleman holding the office of York Herald.

BROCTUNA.

Bury, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE MYRTLE BEE.

(Vol. viii., p. 173.)

From a very early period, and throughout life, I have been accustomed to
shooting, and well remember the bird in question, but whether the term was
local or general, I am unable to state, never having met with it save in
one locality; and many years have elapsed since I saw one, although in the
habit of frequenting the neighbourhood where it was originally to be seen.
I attribute its disappearance to local causes. I met with it during a
series of years, ending about twenty-five years since, at which period I
lost sight of it. It was to be met with during the autumn and winter in
bogs scattered over with bog myrtle, on Chobham and the adjacent common; I
never met with it elsewhere. It is solitary. I am unacquainted with its
food, and only in a single instance had I ever one in my hand. Its tongue
is pointed, sharp, and appearing capable of penetration. Its colour
throughout dusky light blue, slightly tinged with yellow about the vent.
Tail about one inch, being rather long in proportion to the body, causing
the wings to appear forward, with a miniature pheasant-like appearance as
it flew, or rather darted, from bush to bush, with amazing quickness, its
wings moving with rapidity, straight in its flight, keeping near the
ground, appearing loth to wing, never passing an intervening bush if ever
so near; and I never saw one fly over eight or ten yards, and never wing a
second time, which induced our dogs (using a sporting phrase) to puzzle
them, causing a belief that they were in most instances trodden under the
water and grass in which the myrtle grew, and which nothing but a dog could
approach. I never saw one sitting or light on a branch of the myrtle, but
invariably flying from the _base_ of one plant to that of another. I am not
aware that any cabinet contains a preserved specimen, or that the bird has
ever been noticed by any naturalist as a British or foreign bird.

Should W. R. D. S. covet farther information as to the probable cause of
its disappearance, and my never having met with it elsewhere, perhaps he
will favour me with his address. I cannot think the bird extinct.

C. BROWN.

Egham, Surrey.

       *       *       *       *       *

CAPTAIN JOHN DAVIS.

(Vol. viii., p. 385.)

The earliest memoir of captain John Davis, the celebrated arctic navigator,
is that given by the reverend John Prince in his DANMONII ORIENTALES
ILLUSTRES, _or the worthies of Devon_, Exeter, 1701, folio. It is, however,
erroneous and defective in important particulars, and has misled some
eminent writers, as Campbell, Eyriès, Barrow, &c.

Despite the assertions of master Prince, I _question_ if captain Davis
married a daughter of sir John Fulford; I am _sure_ he was not the first
pilot who conducted the Hollanders to the East-Indies; I am sure the
journal of the voyage is not printed in Hakluyt; I am sure the narrative of
his voyage with sir Edward Michelborne is neither dedicated to the earl of
Essex nor printed in Hakluyt; I am sure he did not write the _Rutter, or
brief directions for sailing into the East-Indies_; I am sure he wrote two
works of which Prince says nothing; I am sure he did not make _five_
voyages to the East-Indies; and I am sure, to omit other oversights, that
he did not "return home safe again." To the latter point I shall now
confine myself.

In 1604 king James, regardless of the charter held by the East-India
company, granted a license to sir Edward Michelborne, one of his
gentlemen-pensioners, to discover and trade with the "countries and
domynions of Cathaia, China, Japan," &c. This license, preserved in the
Rolls-chapel, is dated the twenty-fifth of June. On the fifth of December
sir Edward set sail from Cowes with the Tiger, a ship of 240 tons, and a
pinnace--captain Davis being, as I conceive, the _second_ in command. In
December 1605, being near the island of Bintang, they fell in with a junk
of 70 tons, carrying ninety Japanese, most of them {451} "in too gallant a
habit for saylers:" in fact, they were pirates! The unfortunate result
shall now be stated in the words of the _pirate_ Michelborne:

    "Vpon mutuall courtesies with gifts and feastings betweene vs,
    sometimes fiue and twentie or sixe and twentie of their chiefest came
    aboord: whereof I vould not suffer aboue sixe to have weapons. Their
    was neuer the like number of our men aboord their iunke. I willed
    captaine John Dauis in the morning [the twenty-seventh of December] to
    possesse himselfe of their weapons, and to put the companie before
    mast, and to leave some guard on their weapons, while they searched in
    the rice, doubting that by searching and finding that which would
    dislike them, they might suddenly set vpon my men, and put them to the
    sword: as the sequell prooued. Captaine Dauis being beguiled with their
    humble semblance, would not possesse himselfe of their weapons, though
    I sent twice of purpose from my shippe to will him to doe it. They
    passed all the day, my men searching in the rice, and they looking on:
    at the sunne-setting, after long search and nothing found, saue a
    little storax and beniamin: they seeing oportunitie, and talking to the
    rest of their companie which were in my ship, being neere to their
    iunke, they resolued, at a watch-word betweene them, to set vpon vs
    resolutely in both ships. This being concluded, they suddenly killed
    and droue ouer-boord, all my men that were in their ship; and those
    which were aboord my ship sallied out of my cabbin, where they were
    put, with such weapons as they had, finding certaine targets in my
    cabbin, and other things that they vsed as weapons. My selfe being
    aloft on the decke, knowing what was likely to follow, leapt into the
    waste, where, with the boate swaines, carpenter and some few more, wee
    kept them vnder the halfe-decke. At their first comming forth of the
    cabbin, they met captain Dauis comming out of the gun-roome, whom they
    pulled into the cabbin, and giuing him sixe or seuen mortall wounds,
    they thrust him out of the cabbin before them. His wounds were so
    mortall, that he dyed assoone as he came into the waste."--Purchas, i.
    137.

BOLTON CORNEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Clouds in Photographs._--I wish one of your photographic correspondents
would inform me, how _clouds_ can be put into photographs taken on paper?
Mr. Buckle's photographs all contain _clouds_?

[Sigma].

"_The Stereoscope considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular
Vision_" is the title of a small pamphlet written by a frequent contributor
to this journal, Mr. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, in which he has "attempted to
sketch out such modifications of the theory of double vision as appear to
him to be entailed on the rationale of the stereoscope." The corroboration
thus indirectly afforded to the principles of Sir William Hamilton's
_Philosophy of Perception_ has induced MR. INGLEBY to dedicate his word to
that distinguished metaphysician. The essay will, we have no doubt, be
perused with great interest by many of our photographic friends, for whose
gratification we shall borrow its concluding paragraph.

    "In conclusion we must not forget to acknowledge our obligations to the
    photographic art, not merely as one of the most suggestive results of
    natural science, but as a means of the widest and soundest utility. To
    antiquaries the services of photography have a unique value, for, by
    perpetuating in the form of negatives those monuments of nature and art
    which, though exempt from common accident, are still subject to gradual
    decay from time, it places in the hands of us all microscopically exact
    antitypes of objects which, from change or distance, are otherwise
    inaccessible. To the artist they afford the means of facilitating the
    otherwise laborious, and often mechanical, task of drawing in detail
    from nature and from the human figure.

    "To the physician, to the naturalist, and to the man of science, the
    uses of photography are various and important, and already the
    discoveries which have been directly due to this modern art are of
    stupendous utility.

    "To the metaphysician, its uses may be sufficiently gleaned from the
    applications considered in the preceding pages. But to all these
    classes of men the photographic art derives its chief glory from its
    application to the stereoscope; and if, for elucidating the principles
    of vision by means of this application, we have in any degree given a
    stimulus to the practice and improvement of the photographic processes,
    our pains have been happily and fruitfully bestowed."

_Muller's Processes._--Would you inform me, through the medium of "N. &
Q.," what manufacture of paper is best adapted to the two processes of Mr.
Muller? I have tried several: with some I find that the combination of
their starch with the iodide of iron causes a dark precipitate upon the
face of the paper; and with those papers prepared with size, there appears
to me great difficulty (in his improved process after the paper is
moistened with aceto-nitrate of silver) to procure an equal distribution of
the iodide over its surface, as it invariably dries or runs off parts of
the paper, or is repelled by spots of size on the paper when dipped in the
iodide of iron bath.--A reply to the foregoing question would greatly
oblige

A CONSTANT READER.

Essex.

_Positives on Glass._--Sometimes, when your sitter is gone, and you hold
your portrait up to the light to examine its density, you find in the face
and other parts which are dark, so viewed, minute _transparent_ specks,
scarcely bigger than a pin's point. When the picture is backed with black
lacquer, you have consequently small _black_ spots, which deform the
positive, especially when viewed through a lens of short focus. A friend of
mine {452} cures this defect very easily. After having applied the amber
varnish, he stops out the spots with a little oil-paint that matches the
lights of the picture; of course the paint is put upon the varnished side
of the glass. When the paint is dry, the black lacquer is carried over the
whole as usual.

T. D. EATON.

Norwich.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church_ (Vol. viii., p. 200.).--I am
exceedingly obliged to CHEVERELLS for his reply to any Query. I am sorry to
say that I failed to make a note of the number of the circles; but, as far
as I can remember, there are six windows in each aisle, so in all there
would be twenty-four, each window having two carved upon it, one on the
right jamb without, and the other on the left within.

R. W. ELLIOT.

Clifton.

_Nursery Rhymes_ (Vol. viii., p. 455.).--I would suggest to L. that a
consideration of _rhymes_ may sometimes indicate, by the change in the
pronunciation, the antiquity of the verse e.g.,

 "Hush aby, baby, on the green _bough_,
  When the wind blows the cradle will _rock_,
  And when the bough breaks," &c.

Here, according to modern pronunciation, the rhymes of the first couplet
are imperfect, so that it was probably composed in the Saxon era, or while
the word _bough_ was still pronounced _bog_ or _bock_.

J. R.

_Milton's Widow_ (Vol. vii., p. 596.; Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134.
200.).--Reading up my arrears of "N. & Q.," which a long absence from
England has caused to accumulate, I find frequent inquiries made for some
information which I once promised, relative to Milton's widow. I fear that
your correspondents on this subject have formed an exaggerated idea of the
importance of the expected note, and that they will see but a "ridiculus
mus" after all. As I have no means at hand at the present moment wherewith
to attempt to elucidate the Minshull genealogy, I shall content myself by
simply sending my original notes, namely, brief abstracts of the wills of
Thomas and Nathan Paget preserved at Doctors' Commons.

Thomas Paget, minister of the gospel at Stockport, in Cheshire, makes his
will May 23, 1660; mentions his three daughters Dorothy, Elizabeth, and
Mary; and leaves estates at different places in Shropshire to his two sons,
Dr. Nathan and Thomas, whom he appoints his executors. He entreats _his
cousin Minshull, apothecarie in Manchester_, to be overseer of his will,
which was proved October 16, 1660.

[I have before (Vol. v., p. 327.) shown the connexion between the Pagets
and Manchester.]

Nathan Paget, Doctor in Medicine, will dated January 7, 1678, was then
living in the parish of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, London, leaves
certain estates, and his house in London where he resided, to his brother
Thomas Paget, clerk. Bequests to his cousin John Goldsmith of the Middle
Temple, gent., and _his cousin Elizabeth Milton_, to the Society of
Physicians, and the poor of the parish of St. Stephen's. Will proved
January 15, 1678.

I have omitted to note _what_ the bequests were. I will only add, that some
time ago I dropped my _alias_ of CRANMORE, and have occasionally appeared
in your sixth Volume as

ARTHUR PAGET.

_Watch-paper Inscriptions_ (Vol. viii., p. 316.).---I recollect, when at
school, having an old silver watch with the following printed lines inside
the case:

 "Time is--the present moment well employ;
  Time was--is past--thou canst not it enjoy;
  Time future--is not, and may never be;
  Time present--is the only time for thee."

JNO. D. ALLCROFT.

_Poetical Tavern Signs_ (Vol. viii., p. 242.).--May I add to those
mentioned by your correspondent MR. WARDE, one at Chatham. On the
sign-board is painted "an arm embowed, holding a malt-shovel," underneath
which is written,--

 "Good malt makes good beer,
  Walk in, and you'll find it here."

G. BRINDLEY ACWORTH.

Star Hill, Rochester.

At a small inn in Castleton, near Whitby, the sign represents Robin Hood
and Little John in their usual forest costume, and underneath appear the
following doggerel lines:

 "To gentlemen and yeomen good,
  Come in and drink with Robin Hood;
  If Robin Hood is not at home,
  Come in and drink with Little John."

F. M.

_Parish Clerks' Company_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.).--The hall is in Silver
Street, Wood Street; the beadle is Mr. Bullard, No. 9. Grocers' Hall Court,
Poultry.

If the circulars of the company were attended to, a great service would be
rendered to the public; but as there are about one hundred and sixty
churches in the metropolis, the chance of a parish clerk finding any
particular marriage, &c. is, at the best, but as one to one hundred and
sixty. Besides this, the parish registers are generally in the custody of
the clergyman, and it is therefore feared that the searches are but too
often {453} neglected, unless the reward is sufficiently tempting to induce
the loss of time and the probability of an unsuccessful examination.

JOHN S. BURN.

"_Elijah's Mantle_" (Vol. viii., p. 295.).--James Sayers, Esq., a solicitor
of Staple Inn, was the author of this beautiful poem, and he was also the
reputed author of some of Gilray's best caricatures.

SUUM CUIQUE.

_Histories of Literature_ (Vol. viii., p. 222.).--In addition to the works
of Hallam, Maitland, and Berrington mentioned by you, I would recommend
your correspondent ILMONASTERIENSIS to procure an _anonymous_ publication,
entitled _An Introduction to the Literary History of the Fourteenth and
Fifteenth Centuries_, London, 1798, 8vo. It is a much neglected work,
replete with interesting information relative to the state of literature
during the dark ages. I observe a copy in calf, marked 4s. 6d. in a
bookseller's catalogue published lately in this city.

T. G. S.

Edinburgh.

_Birthplace of General Monk_ (Vol. viii., p. 316.).--I regret to find I am
in error in saying that Lysons positively assigns Landcross as Monk's
birthplace in the _Magna Britannia_.

The mistake is of slight import as respects the Query, but accuracy in
citing authorities is at least desirable, and ought (in common justice) to
be ever most scrupulously regarded.

"General Monk _appears_ to have been a native of this village; he was
baptised at Lancras, December 11, 1608," is, I find, the actual passage,
the substance of which (writing in Germany, far from any means of
reference), at the time believed I was more correctly quoting.

F. KYFFIN LENTHALL.

Reform Club.

_Books chained to Desks in Churches_ (Vol. viii., pp. 93. 273.).--In the
library of St. Walburg's Church at Zutphen, consisting chiefly of Bibles
and other Latin works, the books are fastened to the desks by iron chains.
This was done, it is said, to prevent the Evil One from stealing them, a
crime of which he had been repeatedly guilty. The proof of this is found in
the stone-floor, where his foot-marks are impressed, and still show the
direction of his march: they also teach us the important fact, that the
feet of his tenebrious majesty are very like those of a large dog, and do
not, as is generally supposed, resemble those of a horse.--From the
_Navorscher_.

L. V. H.

In the chancel of Leyland Church, Lancashire, are four folio books chained
to a window seat which makes a sloping desk for them: they are Foxe's
_Martyrs_ and Jewell's _Apology_, both in black-letter, title-pages torn,
and much worn; and a _Preservative against Popery_, in 2 vols., dated 1738.

P. P.

A copy of the Bible was formerly affixed by a chain in Wimborne Minster,
Dorset, but has been removed to a certain library.

The covers of a book are chained to a desk in the church of Kettering; the
book itself is gone.

B. H. C.

In the parish church of Borden, near Sittingbourne, Kent, a copy of _Comber
on the Common Prayer_ is chained to a stand in the chancel.

ESTA.

_Pedigree Indices_ (Vol. viii., p. 317.).--If CAPTAIN wishes to make a
search for a pedigree in the libraries at Cambridge, he will learn from the
MSS. Catalogue of 1697 in which of the libraries MS. volumes of heraldry
and genealogy ought to be found; he should then apply, either through some
master of arts, or with a proper letter of introduction in his hand, to the
librarian for leave to search the volumes. He will find that generally
every facility is afforded him which the safe keeping of historical
evidences allows. He will do well to select term-time for the period of
making a search; and before seeking admission to a college librarian, it
will be found convenient to both parties for him to give a day's notice, by
letter or card, to the librarian, who has often occupations and engagements
that cannot always be got rid of at the call of a chance visitor.

CANTAB.

There are not any published genealogical tables showing the various kindred
of William of Wykeham or Sir Thomas White similar to those contained in the
_Stemmata Chicheliana_. A few descents of kindred of Sir Thomas White may
be seen in Ashmole's _History of Berkshire_, 3 vols. 8vo.

G.

_Portrait of Hobbes_ (Vol. viii. p 368.).--I have an etching (size about 6½
in. by 8½ in.) inscribed:

    "Vera et Viva Effigies THOMÆ HOBBES, Malmesburiensis."

and under this:

    "I. Bapt. Caspar pinxit; W. Hollar fecit aqua forti, 1665."

It is a half-length portrait, and represents Hobbes uncovered, with his
hands folded in his robe; and is without any arch or other ornament.

Did Caspar paint more than one portrait of Hobbes? Is this the one
mentioned by Hollar, in his letter dated 1661, quoted by MR. SINGER.

WM. MCCREE.

_Tenets or Tenents_ (Vol. vii., p.205.; Vol. viii., p. 330.).--Were there
two editions of the _Vulgar Errors_ published in the same year, 1646? For
my copy, "printed by T. H. for Edward Dod, and {454} are to be sold in Ivie
Lane, 1646," and which I have always supposed to be of the first edition,
has "Tenents," very distinctly, on the title-page. On the fly-leaf,
opposite to the title-page, is the approbation of John Downame, dated March
14, 1645, and commencing thus:

    "I have perused these learned animadversions upon the common tenets and
    opinions of men," &c.

H. T. G.

Hull.

_Door-head Inscriptions_ (Vol. vii., pp. 23. 190. 588.; Vol. viii., pp. 38.
162.).--Over a house in Hexham, in the street called Gilligate, is the
following inscription:

         "C. D.   1683.   J. D.

  Reason doth wonder, but Faith he tell can,
  That a maid was a mother, and God was a man.
  Let Reason look down, and Faith see the wonder;
  For Faith sees above, and Reason sees under.
  Reason doth wonder what by Scripture is meant,
  Which says that Christ's body is our Sacrament:
  That our bread is His body, and our drink is His blood,
  Which cannot by Reason be well understood;
  For Faith sees above, and Reason below,
  For Faith can see more than Reason doth know."

CEYREP.

The following is reported to have been inscribed by the Pope (1725) over
the gate of the Apostolical Chancery:

 "Fide Deo--dic sæpe preces--peccare caveto--
    Sit humilis--pacem delige--magna fuge--
  Multa audi--dic pauca--tace secreta--minori
    Parcito--majori cedito--ferto parem.
  Propria fac--non differ opus--sis æquas egeno--
    Parta tuere--pati disce--memento mori."

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

_Hour-glass Stand_ (Vol. vii., p. 489.; Vol. viii., pp. 82. 209.
328.).--There is an hour-glass stand attached to the right-hand side of the
pulpit of Edingthorpe Church, Norfolk. The date of the pulpit is 1632.

I. L. S.

_Bulstrode Whitlock and Whitelocke Bulstrode_ (Vol. viii., p.
293.).--Bulstrode Whitlock was the son of Sir James Whitlock, Kt., by
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Bulstrode, of Hedgley-Bulstrode, in the
county of Buckingham; and Whitelocke Bulstrode was the son of Sir Richard,
eldest son of the above-mentioned Edward Bulstrode. (See _Lives of the
Lords Chancellors, &c_., by an Impartial Hand, vol. ii p. 1.; and
Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_.)

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

_Movable Metal Types anno 1435_ (Vol. vii., p. 405.).--Although I am not
able to give any information concerning Sister Margarite, or the convent at
Mur, I yet may observe, 1st, that the last three letters of the legend - -
K can hardly refer to Laurens Janzroon Coster, for his name in 1435 was
never spelt with K, but always with C; and, besides, if a proper name be
here intended, it will certainly be that of the binder. 2ndly, that in the
catalogue of the Haarlem City Library, from p. 77. to 112., mention is made
of six works, which, though bearing no date, were, it is more than
probable, printed with movable metal types before 1435. One of these,
_Aelii Donati Grammaticæ Latinæ Fragmenta duo_, was printed before 1425,
and the writer of the catalogue adds in his notes:

    "Ipsos typos, quibus hæ lamellæ sunt excusæ, fuisse _mobiles_, cum
    nonnullæ literæ inversæ evidenter testantur, tum omnium expertissimorum
    typographorum reique typographicæ peritissimorum arbitrûm, qui has
    lacinias contemplati sunt, unanima et constans affirmavit sententia.
    Quin et _fusos_ eos esse perhibuerunt plurimi, et in his Koningius,
    magno quamvis studio negaverat typorum ligneorum mobilium acerrimus
    propugnator Meermannus."

From the _Navorscher_. CONSTANTEE.

_Oaken Tombs_ (Vol. vii., p. 528.; Vol. viii., p. 179.).--In the chancel of
Brancepeth Church, co. Durham, are oaken effigies of a Lord and Lady
Neville, of which the following is a description. The figure of the man is
in a coat of mail, the hands elevated with gauntlets, wearing his casque,
which rests on a bull's or buffalo's head, a collar round his neck studded
with gems, and on the breast a shield with the arms of Neville. The female
figure has a high crowned bonnet, and the mantle is drawn close over the
feet, which rest on two dogs couchant. The tomb is ornamented with small
figures of ecclesiastics at prayer, but is without inscription. Leland
(_Itin._, i. 80.) says:

    "In the paroche church of Saint Brandon, at Branspeth, be dyvers tumbes
    of the Nevilles. In the quire is a high tumbe, of one of them porturid
    with his wife. This Neville lakkid heires male, wherapoan great
    concertation rose betwixt the next heire male, and one the Gascoynes."

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Stafford Knot_ (Vol. viii., p. 220.).--It was the badge or cognisance of
the house of Stafford, Earls of Stafford.

HENRY GOUGH.

Emberton, Bucks.

_Hand in Bishop's Cannings Church_ (Vol. viii., p. 269.).--See an article
on this "Manus Meditationis," with a copy of the inscription, in the
_Ecclesiologist_, vol. v. p. 150.

HENRY GOUGH.

Emberton, Bucks.

_Arms of Richard, King of the Romans_ (Vol. viii, p.265.).--I think it
might be proved that the border refers not to Poitou (which is represented
{455} by the crowned lion), but to Cornwall, the ancient feudal arms of
which are _Sable, fifteen bezants_, referring, as it would seem, to its
metallic treasures. See an article on the numerous arms derived from those
of this Richard, in the appendix to Mr. Lower's _Curiosities of Heraldry_.

HENRY GOUGH.

Emberton, Bucks.

_Burial in an erect Position_ (Vol. viii., pp. 59. 233.).--So Ben Jonson
was buried at Westminster, probably on account of the large fee demanded
for a full-sized grave. It was long supposed by many that the story was
invented to account for the smallness of the gravestone; but the grave
being opened a few years ago, the dramatist's remains were discovered in
the attitude indicated by tradition.

HENRY GOUGH.

Emberton, Bucks.

In the _Ingoldsby Legends_, vol. i. p. 106., we have:

 "No!--Tray's humble tomb would look but shabby
 'Mid the sculptured shrines of that gorgeous Abbey.
      Besides, in the place
      They say there's not space
  To bury what wet-nurses call 'a Babby.'
  Even 'rare Ben Jonson,' that famous wight,
  I am told, is interr'd there bolt upright,
  In just such a posture, beneath his bust,
  As Tray used to sit in to beg for a crust."

Is there any authority for the statement?

ERICA.

_Wooden Effigies_ (Vol. viii., p. 255.).--These are by no means uncommon,
though it is to be feared that many have perished within comparatively
recent times. In the church of Clifton Reynes, Bucks, there are wooden
effigies of two knights of the Reynes family with their wives.

HENRY GOUGH.

Emberton, Bucks.

_Wedding Divination_ (Vol. vii., p. 545.).--The following mediæval
superstition may be quoted as a pretty exact parallel of the _wedding
divination_ alluded to by OXONIENSIS. It is from Wright's selection of
Latin stories of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Harl. MS. 463.:--

    "Vidi in quibusdam partibus, quando mulieres nubebant, et de ecclesiâ
    redibant, in ingressu domus in faciem corum frumentum projiciebant,
    clamantes: 'Abundantia! Abundantia!' quod Gallicè dicitur _plentè_,
    _plentè_; et tamen plerumque, antequam annus transiret, pauperes
    mendici remanebant et abundantià omni bonorum carebant."

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Old Fogie_ (Vol. viii., p. 154.).--If it will throw any additional light
on the controversy as to "fogie," I may add that for a long period of years
I have heard it applied only to the discharged invalided pensioners of the
army. On a late Queen's birthday review on the _Green_, the boys and girls
were in ecstasies at seeing the "old fogies" dressed out in new suits. It
is very often spoken derisively to a thick-headed stupid person, but which
cannot determine accurately its primary signification.

G. N.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

Notes on Books, Etc.

The noble President of the Society of Antiquaries is fast bringing to
completion the cheaper and revised edition of his _History of England from
the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles_, 1713-1783. The sixth
volume, which is now before us, embraces the eventful six years 1774-1780,
which saw the commencement of the great struggle with America, which ended
in the independence of the United States. In this, as in his preceding
volumes, the new materials which Lord Mahon has been so fortunate as to
collect from the family papers of the representatives of the political
leaders of the period, and which he has inserted in his appendix,
contribute very materially to the value and importance of his history.

_Cheshire; its Historical and Literary Associations, illustrated in a
series of Biographical Sketches;_ and _The Cheshire and Lancashire
Historical Collector_, a small 8vo. sheet originally issued every month,
but now every fortnight, in consequence of increase of materials, and the
great encouragement which the undertaking has received, are two
contributions towards Cheshire topography, local history, bibliography,
&c., for which the good men of the Palatinate are indebted to the zeal of
Mr. T. Worthington Barlow, of the Society of Gray's Inn.

It is always a subject of gratification to us when we see cheap yet
handsome reprints of our standard authors; for no better proof can be given
of the increase among us not only of a reading public, but of a public who
are disposed to read well. It is therefore with no small pleasure that we
have received from Mr. Routledge copies of his five shilling edition of
_The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, from the Text, and with the
Notes and Glossary of Thomas Tyrwhitt, condensed and arranged under the
Text_. It is obvious that considerable labour has been taken by the editor
in its preparation, for he has not contented himself with merely
transferring the contents of Tyrwhitt's Notes and Glossary to their proper
places beneath the text; but has availed himself of the labours of Messrs.
Craik, Saunders, Sir H. Nicolas, and our able correspondent A. E. B., to
give completeness to what is a very useful edition of old Dan Chaucer's
masterpiece. We have to thank the same publisher for a corresponding
edition of Spenser's _Faerie Queene_; so that no lover of those two
glorious old poets need any longer want a cheap and compact edition of
them.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_History of the Guillotine, revised from the Quarterly
Review_, by the Right Hon. J. W. Croker, which forms the new part of
Murray's _Railway {456} Reading_, is not only valuable as a _précis_ of all
that is known upon this very obscure subject, but for all its illustration
of the difficulty of arriving at historical truth.--_A Love Story; being
the History of the Courtship and Marriage of Dr. Dove of Doncaster_, that
delightful episode in Southey's most delightful book, _The Doctor_, forms
Part L. of Longman's _Traveller's Library_.--_The First Italian Book_
appears a very successful attempt on the part of Signor Pifferi and Mr.
Dawson W. Turner to furnish a companion to the _First French Book_ of that
accomplished scholar, the late Rev. T. K. Arnold.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

TORRIANO PIAZZA UNIVERSALE DI PROVERBI ITALIANI. London, 1668. Folio.

BIBLIOTHECA TOPOGRAPHICA BRITANNICA. Vol. IX.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. 7th Edition. Vol. XXII., Part 2.

EXAMINER (Newspaper), No. 2297, February 7, 1853.

WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE: A Biography, by Charles Knight (First Edition).

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

CHAPMAN'S ARCHITECTURIÆ NAVALES MERCATURIÆ. 1768. Folio. Published in
Sweden.

    Wanted by _Robert Stewart_, Bookseller, Paisley.

       *       *       *       *       *

TWO DIALOGUES IN THE ELYSIAN FIELDS, BETWEEN CARD. WOLSEY AND CARD.
XIMENES. To which are added Historical Accounts of Wolsey's two Colleges
and the Town of Ipswich. By Joseph Grove. London, 1761. 8vo.

    Wanted by _W. S. Fitch_, Ipswich.

       *       *       *       *       *

ADDISON'S WORKS. First Edition.

JONES' (OF HOYLAND) WORKS. 13 Vols. 8vo.

WILKINSON'S ANCIENT EGYPT. Vols. IV. and V.

BYRON'S LIFE AND LETTERS. 3 Vols. 8vo.

    Wanted by _Simms & Son_, Booksellers, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *

KANT'S LOGIC, translated by John Richardson.

HISTORIC CERTAINTIES by Aristarchus Newlight.

SONGS--"The Boatmen shout." Attwood. "Ah! godan lor felicita" (Faust).
Spohr.

    Wanted by _C. Mansfield Ingleby_, Birmingham.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SPECTATOR, printed by Alex. Lawrie & Co., London, 1804. Vols. I., II.,
III., VI., VII., and VIII.

    Wanted by _J. T. Cheetham_, Firwood, Chadderton, near Oldham.

       *       *       *       *       *

OXFORD ALMANACK for 1719.

AMOENITATES ACADEMICÆ. Vol. I. Holmiæ, 1749.

BROURÆ HIST. NAT. JAMAICÆ. London, 1756. Folio.

AMMANUS I. STIRPES RARIORES. Petrop. 1739.

PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS for 1683.

ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY for January, 1824.

A POEM UPON THE MOST HOPEFUL AND EVER-FLOURISHING SPROUTS OF VALOUR, THE
INDEFATIGABLE CENTRYS OF THE PHYSIC GARDEN.

POEM UPON MR. JACOB BOBART'S YEWMEN OF THE GUARDS TO THE PHYSIC GARDEN, TO
THE TUNE OF "THE COUNTER-SCUFFLE." Oxon. 1662.

    The above two Ballads are by Edmund Gayton.

    Wanted by _H. T. Bobart_, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

       *       *       *       *       *

PEYRAN'S COPTIC LEXICON.

MURE ON THE CALENDAR AND ZODIACS OF ANCIENT EGYPT.

GLADWIN'S PERSIAN MOONSHEE. 4to.

JONES'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY (the 8vo. Edition). The Volume containing
Herodotus, Vol. I.

THE CHRONICLES OF LONDON. 1827.

    Wanted by _Mr. Hayward_, Bookseller, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

_Owing to the length of_ PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S _very interesting article
and the number of our Advertisements, we have enlarged our present Number
to Thirty-two pages._

BOOKS WANTED. _So many of our Correspondents seem disposed to avail
themselves of our plan of placing the booksellers in direct communication
with them, that we find ourselves compelled to limit each list of books to
two insertions. We would also express a hope that those gentlemen who may
at once succeed in obtaining any desired volumes will be good enough to
notify the same to us, in order that such books may not unnecessarily
appear in such list even a second time._

_The letters for_ A. Z., MR. DEMAYNE, MR. F. CROSSLEY, &c., _have been duly
forwarded._

X. Y. Z. _We have no doubt the early numbers of_ The Press _may be procured
on application to the publisher of that paper._

F. M. _The passage in_ King John,

                     "My face so thin
  That in my ear I dare not stick a rose,
  Lest men should say, See where threefarthings goes!"

_contains an allusion to the_ very thin _silver threefarthing pieces,
coined by Elizabeth, which bore a rose. In Boswell's Shakspeare_ (ed.
1821), vol. XV. p. 209., _will be found nearly two pages of illustrative
notes._

A CONSTANT READER _is informed that the line_

 "Men are but children of a larger growth"

_is from Dryden's_ All for Love.

J. L. (Islington). DR. DIAMOND _informs us that he procured his naphtha
from Messrs. Simpson and Maule, of Kennington, but he would not advise the
use of varnish so made. It is apt to dry up in round spots, and which
sometimes print from the negative. He also adds, that one ounce of the
collodio-amber varnish as recommended by him will, with care, from its
great fluidity and ready-flowing qualities, effectually varnish upwards of
thirty glass negatives of the quarter plate size: thus the real expense is
very inconsiderable._

F. S. A. _Photography is perfectly applicable to the copying of MSS. or
printed leaves, either smaller, of the same size, or larger than the
original, the only requisite beyond a good lens being a camera of
sufficient length for a long focus. A plain surface exposed in front of a
lens requires a range behind it of the same distance to produce an equal
size copy; a magnified image being produced by a nearer approach to the
lens, and a smaller the farther the object is distant. Prints are often
copied by mere contact, without the use of any lens whatever. As a brother
F. S. A.,_ DR. DIAMOND _will be happy to give you some personal
instructions as to your requirements._

"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price Three Guineas and a
Half.--Copies are being made up and may be had by order._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, sent free by post. It
contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.-- Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chanbers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the 1st November, 16 pp. crown 4to., price Threehalfpence.

THE CHURCH OF THE PEOPLE.

A Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, the Fine Arts, &c., &c., devoted
to the Religious, Moral, Physical, and Social Elevation of the Working
Classes. Under the Superintendence of a Committee.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


{457}

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE FOR NOVEMBER contains the following articles:--1.
Sir Walter Raleigh at Sherborne. 2. The Parish Girl, a Poem: by the Rev.
John Mitford. 3. Cotele, and the Edgcumbes of the Olden Time, by Mrs. Bray,
Part II. 4. The Annals of Appetite: Soyer's Pantropheon. 5. Notes on
Mediæval Art in France and Germany, by J. G. Waller: Mayence, Heidelberg,
Basle, and Strasburg. 6. Remarks on the White Horse of Saxony and
Brunswick, by Stephen Martin Leake, Esq., Garter. 7. The Campaigns of
1793-95 in Flanders and Holland. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban:
Counsels' Fees and Lawyers' Bills: Shops in Westminster Hall: The Family of
Phipps: Mr. John Knill of St. Ive's: Antiquity of the Mysterious Word
"Wheedle." With Notes of the Month: Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews;
Reports of the Archæological Societies of Wales, Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Suffolk, and Essex; Historical Chronicle; and
OBITUARY, including Memoirs of Earl Brownlow, Lord Anderson, Right Hon. Sir
Frederick Adam, Adm. Sir Charles Adam, James Dodsley Cuff, Esq., Mr.
Adolphus Asher, Leon Jablonski, &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


VOLUME I. IS NOW READY,

Price only 6s., of the

CHEAP RE-ISSUE OF EVELYN'S DIARY AND CORRESPONDENCE.

New, Revised, and Enlarged Edition, comprising all the Important Additional
Notes, Letters, and other Illustrations.

To be completed in FOUR MONTHLY VOLUMES, price only 6s. each bound. Printed
uniformly with the last Edition of Pepys's "Diary."

    "We rejoice to welcome this beautiful and compact edition of Evelyn:
    one of the most valuable and interesting works in the language, now
    deservedly regarded as an English classic."--_Examiner._

Published for HENRY COLBURN, by his successors HURST & BLACKETT, 15. Great
Marlborough Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, price 1s.

THE STEREOSCOPE,

Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by
C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same Author, price 1s.,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr. Thomas
Reid.

    "Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M.
    Jobert."--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER. West Strand. Cambridge: E. JOHNSON. Birmingham: H.
C. LANGBRIDGE.

       *       *       *       *       *


LEEDS LIBRARY.

LIBRARIAN.--Wanted a Gentleman of Literary Attainments, competent to
undertake the duties of Librarian in the Leeds Library. The Institution
consists of about 500 Proprietary Members, and an Assistant Librarian is
employed. The hours of attendance required will be from 10 A.M. to 8 P.M.
daily, with an interval of two hours. Salary 120l. a year. Applications,
with Certificates of Qualifications, must be sent by letter, post paid, not
later than 1st December next, to ABRAHAM HORSFALL, ESQ., Hon. Sec., 9. Park
Row, Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *


XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments.--The superiority of this preparation is now universally
acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal
scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no
preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect
pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where
a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in
separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to
any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware
purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent.
The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label
bearing this Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL
MALL, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals; and may be procured of
all respectable Chemists, in Pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through
MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., 95.
Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most
celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *


HAMILTON'S MODERN INSTRUCTIONS FOR SINGING. 5s.

HAMILTON'S MODERN INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PIANOFORTE. Forty-sixth Edition. 4s.

HAMILTON'S DICTIONARY OF 3500 MUSICAL TERMS. Forty-second Edition. 1s.

CLARKE'S CATECHISM OF THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. Thirtieth Edition. 1s.

    "These works are all favorites with professors, because they are
    favourites with the pupils. Few know how to write a book of
    instruction; but Hamilton did, because he knew thoroughly well how to
    teach. The extreme popularity of these works (as may be noticed from
    the number of editions they have passed through) has called forth many
    imitations; but everybody will like the original, or prototype, rather
    than the copy. The Dictionary is famous as the most copious and correct
    extant; and the little catechism is as clever as it is
    unpretentious."--Vide _Reading Mercury_, Oct. 22.

ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Library of an eminent Scholar.--Six Days' Sale.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Monday, November 14th,
and Five following Days, a Large Collection of valuable Books, the Library
of an eminent Scholar deceased, consisting of Historical and Critical Works
in various Languages, Classics, Scientific Works, Books of Prints, &c. The
whole in choice condition. Catalogues will be sent on application (if in
the country on receipt of Six Stamps).

       *       *       *       *       *


TO COLLECTORS OF AUTOGRAPHS AND MSS.--The following Documents are Missing,
viz. Some Family Papers relative to the Second Marriage of the Duke of
Somerset in 1725; other Letters on the Death of the Duke's Grandson;
Autograph Notes of George III. to Charles, Earl of Egremont, in 1762 and
1763; a Letter of Charles II.; a Particular of the Duchess of Somerset's
Debts, 1692; Commencement of a Letter of Lord Nelson; a Letter of Lord
Lyttleton, with Complimentary Verses, dated Jan. 1, 1761, &c. Any
information relating to the preceding will be thankfully received, and a
liberal reward paid on restoration of the papers.

Apply to MESSRS. PUTTICK & SIMPSON. Auctioneers of Literary Property, 191.
Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes, Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


{458}

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,

52. CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

_Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION._

THIS SOCIETY PRESENTS THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:

The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from All Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum
assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on
Capital, for Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
nearly TWO PER CENT. per annum on the amount assured, or at the rate of
from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the _Premiums paid_.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.

Next DIVISION OF PROFITS in 1856.

The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. Assurances may be effected by
applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of
the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be
obtained.

CHARLES JOHN GILL, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


ACHILLES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,--25. CANNON STREET, CITY.--The Advantages
offered by this Society are Security, Economy, and lower Rates of Premium
than most other Offices.

No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low as
20l., at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT.

7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON,
  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES,
WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other traveling requisites. Gratis on
application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
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Patent Levers. 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases. 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
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Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every watch skilfully
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65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


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