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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 211, November 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 211, November 12, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 211.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page

    Notes on Grammont, by G. Steinman Steinman                461
    Change of Meaning in Proverbial Expressions, by Thos.
      Keightley                                               464
    Extracts from Colchester Corporation Records, by Jas.
      Whishaw                                                 464
    Convocation in the Reign of George II., by W. Fraser      465
    Parallel Passages, by Harry Leroy Temple                  465
    Shakspeare Correspondence, by J. O. Halliwell             466

    MINOR NOTES:--Local Rhymes, Kent--Samuel
      Pepys's Grammar--Roman Remains--To grab--
      Curfew at Sandwich--Ecclesiastical Censure--The
      Natural History of Balmoral--Shirt Collars              466


    "Days of my Youth"                                        467

    MINOR QUERIES:--Randall Minshull and his Cheshire
      Collections--Mackey's "Theory of the Earth"--
      Birthplace of King Edward V.--Name of Infants--
      Geometrical Curiosity--Denison Family--"Came"
      --Montmartre--Law of Copyright: British Museum
      --Veneration for the Oak--Father Matthew's
      Chickens--Pronunciation of Bible and Prayer Book
      proper Names--MSS. of Anthony Bave--Return of
      Gentry, temp. Hen. VI.--Taylor's "Holy Living"--
      Captain Jan Dimmeson--Greek and Roman Fortification
      --The Queen at Chess--Vida on Chess                     467

      Bishop Wilson's "Sacra Privata"--Derivation of
      "Chemistry"--Burning for Witchcraft--The small
      City Companies--Rousseau and Boileau--Bishop
      Kennett's MS. Diary                                     469


    Milton's Widow, by S. W. Singer                           471
    Oaths, by Honoré de Mareville, &c.                        471
    Comminatory Inscriptions in Books, by Philarète
      Chasles                                                 472
    Liveries Worn, and Menial Services performed, by
      Gentlemen, by J. Lewelyn Curtis                         473
    Female Parish Clerks                                      474
    Poetical Epithets of the Nightingale, by W. Pinkerton     475

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Photographic Exhibition
      --How much Light is obstructed by a Lens?
      --Stereoscopic Angles--To introduce Clouds              476

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Death of Edward II.--
      Luther no Iconoclast--Rev. Urban Vigors--Portrait
      of Baretti--Passage in Sophocles--Brothers of the
      same Name--High Dutch and Low Dutch--Translations
      of the Prayer Book into French--Divining-rod
      --Slow-worm Superstition--Ravailliac--Lines
      on the Institution of the Garter--Passage in Bacon
      --What Day is it at our Antipodes?--Calves' Head
      Club--Heraldic Query--The Temple Lands in
      Scotland--Sir John Vanbrugh--Sir Arthur Aston--
      Nugget                                                  477


    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              481
    Notices to Correspondents                                 481
    Advertisements                                            481

       *       *       *       *       *



Agreeing with Mr. Peter Cunningham (vide _History of Nell Gwyn_), that a
new edition of Grammont is much wanted, I beg to avail myself of your
pages, and to offer a few remarks and notes which I have made in reference
to that very entertaining work for the consideration of a future annotator.

Of the several maids of honour mentioned therein I will begin with those of
the queen. They are Miss Stewart, Miss "Warminster," Miss Bellenden, Miss
Bardon, Miss de la Garde, Miss Wells, Miss Livingston, Miss Fielding, and
Miss Boynton.

The names of Miss Stewart (Frances Theresa), Miss Boynton (Catherine), Miss
Wells (Winefred), and Miss Warmistre are found among the original six,
appointed on the queen's marriage, May 21, 1662. The affiliation and
marriages of the first two have been well ascertained, but Miss Warmistre's
birth is yet open to some conjecture, whilst her marriage, like Miss
Wells's parentage, is wholly unknown.

Horace Walpole, on the authority of the last Earl of Arran, of the Butler
family, has confounded her with Mary, one of the daughters of George Kirke,
Esq., a groom of the bedchamber to Charles I., by Mary his wife, daughter
of Aurelian Townsend, Esq., "the admired beauty of the tymes," on whose
marriage at Christ Church, Oxford, February 26, 1645-6, "the king gave
her." She herself was maid of honour to the Duchess of York in 1674, and
the year following left the court, we may believe, under the same
circumstances as Miss Warmistre, more than ten years before, had quitted
it: after being the mistress of Sir Thomas Vernon, the second Baronet of
Hodnet in Shropshire, she became his wife, and ended her life in miserable
circumstances at Greenwich in 1711.

    "1711, 17 August, Dame Mary, relict of Sir Thomas Vernon, carried
    away."--Burial register of Greenwich Church.

She was sister to Diana, the last De Vere, Earl of Oxford's, countess, a
lady of as free a morality {462} as herself and as her mother, and second
wife of Sir Thomas, whose first lady, Elizabeth Cholmondley, died in June,
1676. Sir Thomas died February 5, 1682-3, leaving by her three children,
Sir Richard, the last baronet, Henrietta, and Diana, who all died

A portrait of Lady Vernon, by Sir Peter Lely, has been engraved in
mezzotinto by Browne, and lettered "Mary Kirk, Lady Vernon, maid of honour
to Queen Catherine." Another portrait (?) has been engraved by Scheneker
for Harding's _Grammont_, 1793. A third portrait was purchased at the
Strawberry Hill sale, by Mr. Rodd of Little Newport Street, for 1l. 5s.

A portrait of the Countess of Oxford is or was at Mr. Drummond's of Great
Stanmore. It was bequeathed to his family by Charles, first Duke of St.
Alban's, who was her ladyship's son-in-law.

Of Mrs. Anne Kirke, who was "woman to the queen" Henrietta Maria, there are
several portraits. Granger records:

    "Madam Kirk. Vandyck p. Gaywood f. h. sh.

    "Madam Anne Kirk. Vandyck p. Browne, large h. sh. mezz."

These engravings are most probably from the same painting--the fine
whole-length exhibited last year among the collection of pictures by
ancient masters in Pall Mall:

    "Madam Kirk, sitting in a chair, Hollar, f. h. sh."

He also mentions her miniature at Burghley.

There is at Wilton a splendid painting by Vandyck of Mrs. Kirk, seated with
the Countess of Morton, Lady Anne Keith, eldest daughter of George, fifth
Earl Mareschal, and wife of William Douglass, seventh Earl of Morton, K.G.
She was governess to the Princess Henrietta.

This painting has been engraved by Grousvelt. There is another engraving
from the first-named Vandyck by Beckett.

Of Lady Vernon and her mother there is to be found mention, in the secret
service expenses of Charles II. and James II., lately printed. The elder
lady on her husband's death (he was buried in the cloisters of Westminster
Abbey, April 5, 1679) seems to have had a pension of 250l. per annum. The
younger was the recipient, on two occasions, of 100l. "bounty" only.

Mrs. Kirke and her daughter Diana are unfavourably alluded to by Mrs. Grace
Worthley, a lady of the same class, who will not "be any longer a
laughing-stock for any of Mr. Kirk's bastards" (vide letter to her cousin
Lord Brandon, September 7, 1682, _Diary of Henry Sidney, Earl of Romney_,
i. pp. xxxiii. xxxiv.). And again, the same lady, in another letter, speaks
of "the common Countess of Oxford and her adulterous bastards" (_Ibid._).
Mr. Jesse's quotation from "Queries and Answers from Garraway's Coffee
House" (vide _The Court of the Stewarts_, vol. ii. p. 366.) may be here
reproduced in support of the epitaph which this angry lady has been pleased
to assign the countess, who, it would seem, had robbed her, well born and
well married, of her noble keeper "the handsome Sidney:"

    "_Q._ How often has Mrs. Kirk sold her daughter Di. before the Lord of
    Oxford married her?

    _A._ Ask the Prince and Harry Jermyn."

The following curious extract from one of the Heber MSS. at Hodnet has been
kindly furnished me by Charles Cholmondeley, Esq., of the Ivy House,
Wisbeach, co. Cambridge, to whom the MS. belongs:


    "Sir Thomas the second baronet's death is mentioned in Lady Rachael
    Russell's letters. His second wife was one of King Charles's Beauties,
    but the account in Granger of her is not correct, as it appears that
    she lived some time with Sir Thomas, as mistress, before their
    marriage. He left her in great distress, as the profits of the estate
    were embezzled by attorneys and stewards. The following is a copy from
    a letter from her to one Squibb, an attorney who had the management of
    the estate:


        'When you were last here you were pleased to say that in some
        little time I should be payd some money. I have had with me my
        woman's husband y^t did serve mee about two yeares since; and hee
        is soe impatient for what I owe her y^t hee will staye noe longer.
        It is given me to understand I must goe to prison or paye part of
        w^t I owe him. Things fly to a great violence, and if you thinke it
        will bee for the credit or advantage of my childerne y^t such an
        afront should come to mee, is the question. I have nothing to
        depend on but w^t must come from the estate of Sir Richard Vernon.
        How I have been used by the trustees you are noe stranger to. I am
        now forced to live on charity, and I grow every day more and more
        weary of it. For my childern's sake I remain in England, or else I
        would seeke my fortune elsewhere. Pray to take this into
        consideration, and see w^t can be done.

        'I am, SIR, y^r most humble serv^t,

        'P.S.--If you can, pray doe mee y^e favour to send mee by to-morrow
        at one of y^e cloke, twenty shillings, to pay for wood, or I must
        sit w^{th}oute fyer; y^t will be ill for a person confined to the

It is not certain whether it is to "Mistris Kirke," Lady Vernon's mother,
that Charles I. refers in his letter addressed to Colonel Whaley on the day
of his escape from Hampton Court, November 11, 1647, but it is very likely
to have been so. There was a Mistress (Anne) Kirke, sworn in a dresser to
Queen Henrietta Maria in Easter week, 1637 (vide _Strafford Papers_, vol.
ii. p. 73.), whose full-length portrait by Vandyke has been frequently
engraved, by Browne, Garwood, Hollar, Beckett, &c.; and this lady may be
the "Mrs. Anne Kirke, unfortunately drowned near London Bridge," who was
buried in Westminster Abbey, July 9, 1641. {463}

In Westminster Abbey was buried, May 23, 1640, "Mr. Kirk's daughter."
Captain George Kirke married there, February 10, 1699-1700, Mary Cooke.
George Kirke, Esq., died Jan. 10, 1703-4, and was buried in the abbey
cloisters (Mon. Inscr.); and Mrs. Mary Kirke died December 17, 1751, and
was also buried there (M. I.). We may presume that all these Kirkes were of
the same family.

Having now clearly released the annotator from all farther interference
with Mary Kirke's private history, and having excluded her handsome face
from any future illustrated edition of Grammont, I must leave him to deal
with Miss Warmistre. It seems most probable that Dr. Thomas Warmistre, dean
of Worcester, who died October 30, 1665, was her father, as he is known to
have been a Royalist. His will, as it is not to be found at Doctors'
Commons, must be sought for at Worcester. His brother Gervais was a married
man, but his effects, unfortunately for our inquiries, were administered to
at Doctors' Commons, August 31, 1641. That Warmistre was her right name is
proved by Lord Cornbury's letter to the Duchess of Bedford, June 10, 1662
(Warburton's _Rupert_, vol. iii. pp. 461-464.). Her portrait is at Hengrave
Hall, Suffolk, and has been engraved by Scriven for Carpenter's _Grammont_,

Lord Cornbury's letter contradicts Grammont's statement, that Miss Boynton
and Miss Wells came in on a removal, for they were of the original six
maids of honour. Among these is named a Miss Price (Henrietta Maria), who
we may suppose a sister to the Duchess of York's Miss Price, one of
Grammont's most conspicuous heroines; and if so, when I come to speak of
the Duchess's maids of honour, her parentage will be proved. Of Miss Carey,
rejoicing in the prefix of Simona, the sixth of the queen's original maids
of honour, we have no farther occasion to speak.

In 1669 the queen appears to have had four maids of honour only, the places
vacated by Miss Stewart's and Miss Warmistre's marriages being unoccupied.
This state of affairs leads me to doubt whether Miss Bellenden ever held
the appointment. Mademoiselle Bardon, Grammont admits, was not actually a
maid of honour, and Mademoiselle de la Garde certainly never was. LORD
BRAYBROOKE has suggested to me, with some show of reason, that the first
may be the "Mrs. Baladine" who held a place of less emolument (that of
dresser, probably) in the Duchess of York's household, and who left in the
middle of the quarter, between Michaelmas and Christmas, 1662 (vide
_Household Book of James Duke of York at Audley End_), as if she had the
prudence "de quitter la cour avant que d'en être chassée."

"La désagréable Bardon" may have been a daughter, or some other near
relation, to Claudius Bardon, mentioned in the secret service expenses of
Charles II.

Mademoiselle de la Garde was appointed a dresser to the queen on her
marriage (vide Lord Cornbury's letter), and continued in this office till
1673, when she died. Her father, Charles Peliott Baron de la Garde, or her
brother, if she had one, was a groom of the privy chamber to Queen
Catherine in 1687, and her mother dresser to the Duchess of York in 1662
(_Duke of York's Household Book_). Mary her sister, who became the wife of
Sir Thomas Bond of Peckham, co. Surrey, Baronet, comptroller of the
household to Queen Henrietta Maria, was a Lady of the privy chamber to the
same queen.

Of mademoiselle I may add, that she married Mr. Gabriel Silvius, carver to
the queen, in 1669 (compare first and second editions of _Angliæ Notitia_,
1669); and of her husband, in addition to the particulars already stated by
the annotators, that he received the honour of knighthood January 28,
1669-70, married a second wife (a fact overlooked by the annotators,
including Mr. Cunningham), viz. Anne, daughter of the Hon. William Howard,
a younger son of Thomas first Earl of Berkshire, at Westminster Abbey,
November 12, 1677, went the same year to the Hague as master of the
household to the Prince of Orange (Evelyn), became privy purse to James II.
(_The British Compendium, or Rudiments of Honour_), died at his house in
Leicester Fields, January, 1696-7, and was buried in the church of St.
Martin. It was his second wife, and widow, who died October 13, 1730.

If, as it is possible, Miss Bellenden did hold the appointment of maid of
honour to the queen, she must have replaced Miss Stewart or Miss Warmistre;
and if Miss Livingston and Miss Fielding held like appointments, one of the
two must have replaced her, and they, again, must have removed from the
court before 1669. I am not at present able to say who those three ladies

Before bringing this paper to a conclusion, I must be permitted to refer
Mr. Cunningham to five letters, written by Count de Comminges, the French
ambassador in London, and printed LORD BRAYBROOKE in his Appendix to Pepys,
which Mr. C. has very unaccountably overlooked when settling the chronology
of Grammont.

The first, to M. de Lionne, dated "Londres, Janvier 5-15, 1662-3,"
announces the arrival of the Chevalier the day before "fort content de son
voyage. Il a été ici reçu le plus agréablement au monde. Il est de toutes
les parties du Roi." The second, to Louis XIV., dated "Décembre 10-20,
1663," informs the king of the chevalier's joy at being allowed to return
to France, and of his intention to leave England in four days. He also
informs Louis that he believes the chevalier will see the court of France
in company of "une belle {464} Angloise." A postscript, dated "Décembre
20-24," says that the king of England, for certain stated reasons, has
persuaded the chevalier to remain a day longer; and, farther, "Il laisse
ici quelques autres dettes, qu'il prétend venir recueillir quand il se
déclarera sur le sujet de Mille Hamilton, qui est si embrouillé que les
plus clairvoyans n'y voyent goutte." The third, dated "Mai 19-24, 1664," is
also to the King of France, and speaks of the Chevalier's wife, "madame sa
femme." The next letter is addressed to M. de Lionne, and dated "Aout 29,
Septembre 8, 1664." It contains this important intelligence: "Madam la
Comtesse de Grammont accoucha hier au soir d'un fils beau comme la mère, et
galant comme le père." The last letter, dated "Octobre 24, Novembre 3,
1664," and addressed to the same M. de Lionne, commences as follows: "Le
Comte de Grammont est parti aujourd'hui avec sa femme."

These several letters, all important to the annotators of Grammont, give
the precise dates of the chevalier's first visit to the Court of Charles
II., and of his departure, and settle the date of his marriage within a few
days. This event must have taken place in December, 1663. Mrs. Jameson and
Mr. Cunningham place it in 1668.

On another occasion I will return to this subject.


       *       *       *       *       *


I entirely agree with G. K. (Vol. viii., p. 269.) respecting the original
sense of "Putting a spoke in one's wheel." It surely meant to aid him in
constructing the wheel, say of his fortune. As the true sense of this
expression seems to have been retained in America when lost in its
birthplace, so Ireland has retained that of another which has changed its
sense here. By "finding a mare's nest" is, I believe, meant, fancying you
have made a great discovery when in fact you have found nothing. I
certainly remember the late Earl Grey using it in that sense in his place
in parliament. But how does this accord with the following place in
Beaumont and Fletcher?

         "Why dost thou laugh?
  What mare's nest hast thou found?"--_Bonduca_, Act V. Sc. 2.

on which, rather to my surprise, Mr. Dyce has no note. Now in Ireland, when
a person is seen laughing immoderately without any apparent cause, it is
usual to say, "O, he has found a mare's nest, and he's laughing at the
eggs." This perfectly agrees with the above passage from _Bonduca_, and is
doubtless the original sense and original form of the adage.

There is another of these proverbial expressions which, I think, has also
lost its pristine sense. By "Tread on a worm and it will turn" is usually
meant that the very meekest and most helpless persons will, when harshly
used, turn on their persecutors. But the poor worm does, and can do, no
such thing. I therefore think that the adage arose at the time when _worm_
was inclusive of snake and viper, and that what was meant was, that as
those that had the power to avenge themselves when injured would use it, so
people should be cautious how they provoked them. I am confirmed in this
view by the following passage in the _Wallenstein's Tod_ of Schiller, Act
II. Sc. 6.:

 "Doch einen Stachel gab Natur dem Wurm,
  Dem Willkür übermüthig spielend tritt."


       *       *       *       *       *


I inclose you some rather curious extracts from the corporation books of
Colchester, which I made a few years since, during an investigation of some
of the charities of that ancient borough.


    "The informac[=o]n of Richard Glascock of Horden-of-the-Hill, in the
    County of Essex, Cordwayner, aged twenty-four yeeres or thereabouts,
    taken upon oath the 5^{th} of June, 1651, before Jno. Furlie, Gent.,
    Mayor of the Towne of Colchester.

    "The Informant saieth, that upon the Lord's daie, the fower and
    twentieth daie of May last, that W^m Beard of Horden abovesaid, did cut
    off the taile of the catt of Thomas Burgis of Fanies Pishe, and
    Margaret, the wife of the s^d Tho^s Burgis, after the catt's taile was
    cutt off, came home, and seeing that her catt's taile had bin cutt off
    she enquired who had done it, and being told that the s^d W^m Beard had
    done it, she s^d she would be even w^{th} him before he went out of


    "The informac[=o]n of H^y Potter, aged twenty yeeres or thereabouts, of
    Horden abovesaid, Lynnen Weaver, taken upon oath the day and yeere

    "This informant saieth, that y^e s^d fower and twentieth daie of May
    the taile of the catt of the s^d Thomas Burgis being cutt off by the
    s^d W^m Beard, and y^e s^d Margaret the wife of the s^d Tho^s Burgis
    haveing bin told that the s^d W^m Beard had done it, she p^rsentlie
    told the s^d Beard she would be even with him before he went out of
    towne, and flewe in his face, and said she would give him something
    before he went out of her howse. And this informant saieing, Good
    woman, I hope you will give him noe poyson, and she replyed, he would
    not be soe foolish as to take any thinge of her, but she would be even
    w^{th} him before he went out of towne."


    "The informac[=o]n of R^d Spencer, aged thirtie yeeres or thereabouts,
    Servant to Capt^n Thomas Caldwell, taken upon oath the day and yeere

    "This informant saieth, that the before-named W^m Beard being very
    sicke and in a strange distemper, and {465} haveing heard that
    Margaret, the wife of the before-named Thomas Burgis, had threatened
    him, did suspect the s^d W^m Beard might be bewitched or ill dealt
    w^{th}, did cut off some of his haire off from his head, and did wind
    it up together and put it into the fire, and could not for a good while
    make it burne, untill he tooke a candle and put under it or into it,
    and then w^{th} much adoe it did burne, and after it was burnt y^e s^d
    Beard laie still, and before it was burnt he was in such a distemper
    that three men could hardlie hold him into his bed.

    "his + mark."

       *       *       *       *       *


One hears it so often repeated, that Convocation was finally suppressed in
1717, in consequence of the accusations brought by the Lower House against
Bishop Hoadley, that it seems worth while noting in correction of this,
that though no licence from the Crown to make canons has ever been granted
since that time, yet that Convocation met and sat in 1728, and again for
some sessions in the spring of 1742, when several important subjects were
brought before it; among which was the very interesting question of
curates' stipends, in these words:

    "VIIth. That much reproach is brought upon the beneficed, and much
    oppression upon the unbeneficed, clergy, by curates accepting too
    scanty salaries from incumbents."

and which was really the last subject that was ever brought before
Convocation. On Jan. 27, 1742, it was unanimously agreed, that "the motion
made by the Archdeacon of Lincoln concerning ecclesiastical courts and
clandestine marriages, the qualifications of persons to be admitted into
holy orders, and the salaries and titles of curates," should be "reduced
into writing, and the particulars offered to the House at their next
assembly." But in the next session, on March 5, 1742, the Prolocutor, Dr.
Lisle, was afraid to go on with the business before the House, and after
"speaking much of a _præmunire_," and "echoing and reverberating the word
from one side of good King Henry's Chapel to the other," the whole was let
drop; and Convocation was fully consigned to the silence and the slumber of
a century. The whole of these transactions are detailed in a scarce
pamphlet, _A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Lisle, Prolocutor of the Lower House_,
by the Archdeacon of Lincoln (the Venerable G. Reynolds).



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iv., p. 435.; Vol. vi., p. 123.; Vol. vii., p. 151.)

    1. "When she had passed it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite
    music."--Longfellow's _Evangeline_, Part i. I.

    "When she comes into the room, it is like a beautiful air of Mozart
    breaking upon you."--Thackeray "On a good-looking young Lady." (Quoted
    in _Westminster Review_, April 1853.)

    2. "Two stars keep not their motion in one sphere."--Whence?

    "We are the twin stars, and cannot shine in one sphere. When he rises I
    must set."--Congreve, _Love for Love_, Act III. Sc. 4.

    3. "Et ce n'est pas toujours par valeur et par chasteté que les hommes
    sont vaillants et que les femmes sont chastes."--De La Rochefoucauld,
    _Max._ I.

    "Yes, faith! I believe some women are virtuous, too; but 'tis as I
    believe some men are valiant, through fear."--Congreve, _Love for
    Love_, Act III. Sc. 14.

    4. "Mais si les vaisseaux sillonnent un moment les ondes, la vague
    vient effacer aussitôt cette légère marque de servitude, et la mer
    reparait telle qu'elle fut au premier jour de la Création."--_Corinne_,
    b. I. ch. 4.

    "Such as Creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now!"--Byron, _Childe

    5. "Il est plus honteux de se méfier de ses amis que d'en être
    trompé."--De La Rochefoucauld, _Max._ LXXXIV.

 "Better trust all, and be deceived,
    And weep that trust, and that deceiving,
  Than doubt one heart that, if believed,
    Had blessed thy life with true believing!

 "Oh! in this mocking world, too fast
    The doubting fiend o'ertakes our youth:
  Better be cheated to the last,
    Than lose the blessed hope of truth!"--Mrs. Butler (Fanny Kemble).

6. In "N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p. 435., I cited, as a parallel to Shelley, the
following from Southey's _Doctor_, vol. vi. p. 158.:

    "The sense of flying in our sleep might, he thought, probably be the
    anticipation or forefeeling of an unevolved power, like an Aurelia's
    dream of butterfly motion."

In Spicer's _Sights and Sounds_ (1853), p. 140., is to be found a poem
professing to have been "dictated by the spirit of Robert Southey," on
March 25, 1851, the fourth stanza of which runs as follows:

 "The soul, like some sweet flower-bud yet unblown,
    Lay tranced in beauty in its silent cell:
  The spirit slept, but dreamed of worlds unknown,
    _As dreams the chrysalis within its shell_,
          Ere summer breathes its spell."

What inference should be drawn from this coincidence for or against the
reality of the "spiritual dictation?"


       *       *       *       *       *



_Shakspeare's Works with a Digest of all the Readings_ (Vol. viii., pp. 74.
170. 362.).--I am exceedingly obliged to your correspondent ESTE for his
suggestions, and need not say that any sincere advice will be most
respectfully considered. In the second volume of my folio edition of
Shakspeare, I am partially endeavouring to carry out the design to which he
alludes, by giving a digest of all the readings up to the year 1684. How is
it possible to carry out his wish farther with any advantage? I should feel
particularly thankful for a satisfactory reply to the following questions
in relation to this important subject:--1. As many copies of the first and
other folio editions, as well as nearly all the copies of the same quarto
editions, differ from each other, how are these differences to be treated?
What copies are to be taken for texts, and how many copies of each are to
be collated? 2. Are such books as Beckett, Jackson and others, to be
examined? If not, are _any_ conjectural emendations of the last and present
centuries to be given? Where is the line to be drawn? A mere selection is
valueless, or next to valueless; because, setting aside the differences in
opinion in such matters, we want to know what conjectures are new, and
which are old? 3. Are the various readings suggested in periodicals to be
given? 4. Can any positive and practical rules be furnished, likely to
render such an undertaking useful and successful?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Local Rhymes, Kent._--

 "Between Wickham and Welling
  There's not an honest man dwelling;
  And I'll tell you the reason why,
  Because Shooters' Hill's so nigh."

Unless this is preserved in "N. & Q." it will probably be forgotten with
the highwaymen, whose proceedings at Shooters' Hill, no doubt, originated


_Samuel Pepys's Grammar._--I have lately been looking over the _Diary_ of
this very clever person, and I confess it has surprised me to find him, a
graduate of Cambridge, and, in fact, I may say a man of letters, constantly
employing such vulgar bad grammar as "he _do_ say," and such like. I am the
more surprised when, on looking at his letters, even the familiar ones to
his cousin Roger and to W. Hewer, I can find nothing of the kind, they
being as grammatical and as well written as any of the time.

My hypothesis is--LORD BRAYBROOKE can correct me if I am wrong--that Pepys,
writing his _Diary_ in short-hand, used one and the same character for all
the persons of the present tense of _do_, and that the decypherer did not
attend to this circumstance. In his letter to Col. Legge (vol. v. p. 296.),
Pepys writes "His R. H. _does_ think," &c., which in the _Diary_ would
surely be "His R. H. _do_ think," &c. In a similar way I would account for
the use of _come_ instead of _came_ in the _Diary_, as there is nothing of
the kind in the Letters. Should I be right, I may have rendered a slight
service to the memory of an able and worthy man.


_Roman Remains._--In Wright's _Celt, Roman, and Saxon_, p. 207., a curious
Roman altar, dedicated to Silvanus, "ab aprum eximiæ forme captum," is
mentioned as found at Durham. It was found in the wild district to the
west, in the neighbourhood of Stanhope in Weardale, and is preserve in the
rectory house there.

P. 330., figure A. This armilla (?) was not found in Northumberland, but in
Sussex, together with several others of the same form, a torques and celts.



_To grab._--A very popular writer has lately rightly denounced the use of
this word as a vulgarism. Like many other monosyllables used by our working
classes, it may plead antiquity in extenuation of its vulgarity. It has
been derived from the Welsh word _grabiaw_, to grasp, and in ancient times
was one of our "household words." The retention by a tailor of a portion of
the cloth delivered to him, although it had been a usage from time
immemorial, might have been considered by our forefathers as a _grabbage_:
we now call it _cabbage_.

N. W. S.

_Curfew at Sandwich._--Sometime back it was stated that the curfew at
Sandwich had been discontinued. It has been resumed in consequence of the
opposition made by the inhabitants. The same occurred about twenty years
ago. (From information on the spot.)

E. M.

_Ecclesiastical Censure._--Ecclesiastical censure was often used in the
Middle Ages to enforce civil rights, specially that of the exemption of the
clergy from the judgment of a lay tribunal. The following instance thereof
is new to me. I have copied it from "Collectanea Gervasii Holles," vol. i.
p. 529., Lansdowne MS. 207., in the British Museum:

    "Ex Archis Linc. a^o 1307.

    "The Major and Burgesses of Grimesby hanged a Preist for theft called
    Richard of Notingham. Hereupon y[=e] B^p sendes to y[=e] Abbott of
    Wellow to associate to himselfe twelue adjacent chapleins to examine
    y[=e] cause, and in St. James his Church Excommunicates all y^t had any
    hand in it of whatsoever condition they were, y[=e] King, Queen, and
    Prince of Wales excepted; {467} and y[=e] B^p himselfe did
    Excommunicate them in y[=e] Cathedral Church of Lincolne, y[=e] fifth
    of y[=e] Ides of Aprill following."


Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

_The Natural History of Balmoral._--Dr. William Macgillivray, Professor of
Civil and Natural History in the Marischal College of Aberdeen, and who
died there Sept. 5, 1852, left an unpublished MS. on "The Natural History
of Balmoral and its Neighbourhood." This work has been purchased from his
executors by His Royal Highness Prince Albert; and is to be printed for the
use of Her Majesty and the Royal Family, and for circulation among their
august relatives. It was the last work on which the distinguished author
was engaged, and was only completed a short time previous to his death. It
also contains some curious speculations regarding several plants and herbs
of that Alpine district, and their uses in a medicinal and domestic point
of view, as known to the ancient Caledonians and Picts. Altogether it is a
most interesting work.


_Shirt Collars._--In Hone's _Every-day Book_, vol. ii. p. 381., I find the
following, which I think is after the present ridiculous fashion of wearing
shirt collars, viz. so tight round the neck, and so stiff, that it is a
wonder there are not some serious accidents.

These collars, at present worn by the fast young men of the day, are called
"The Piccadilly three-folds." Now, if this goes on until they get to a
"nail in depth, and stiffened with yellow starch, and _double wired_," I
think it will only be proper to put a heavy tax upon them.

    "_Piccadilly._--The picadil was the round hem, or the piece set about
    the edge or skirt of a garment, whether at top or bottom; also a kind
    of _stiff collar_, made in fashion of a band, that went about the neck
    and round about the shoulders: hence the term 'wooden piccadilloes'
    (meaning the pillory) in _Hudibras_; and see Nares' _Glossary_, and
    Blount's _Glossographia_. At the time that ruffs and picadils were much
    in fashion, there was a celebrated ordinary near St. James's, called
    _Piccadilly_: because, as some say, it was the outmost, or skirt-house,
    situate at the hem of the town: but it more probably took its name from
    one Higgins, a tailor, who made a fortune by picadils, and built this
    with a few adjoining houses. The name has by a few been derived from a
    much frequented shop for the sale of these articles; this probably took
    its rise from the circumstance of Higgins having built houses there,
    which however were not for selling ruffs; and indeed, with the
    exception of his buildings, the site of the present Piccadilly was at
    that time open country, and quite out of the way of trade. At a later
    period, when Burlington House was built, its noble owner chose the
    situation, then at some distance from the extremity of the town, that
    _none might build beyond_ him. The ruffs formerly worn by gentlemen
    were frequently _double wired_, and _stiffened_ with _yellow starch_:
    and the practice was at one time carried to such an excess, that they
    were limited by Queen Elizabeth '_to a nayle of a yeard in depth_.' In
    the time of James I., they still continued of a preposterous size: so
    that, previous to the visit made by that monarch to Cambridge in 1615,
    the Vice-chancellor of the University thought fit to issue an order,
    prohibiting 'the fearful enormity and excess of apparel seen in all
    degrees, as, namely, _strange piccadilloes_, vast bands, huge cuffs,
    shoe roses, tufts, locks, and tops of hair, unbeseeming that modesty
    and carriage of students in so renowned a university.'"

It is scarcely to be supposed that the ladies were deficient in the size of
their ruffs, &c.

I must conclude this in the words of the immortal poet:

 "    .    .    .    .     New fashions,
  Though they be never so ridiculous,
  Nay, let them be unmanly, yet are followed."

H. E.

       *       *       *       *       *



The following lines are understood to have been written by the late Mr. St.
George Tucker of Virginia, U. S. Any information in support of this
opinion, or, if it be unfounded, in disproof of it, is requested by


          DAYS OF MY YOUTH.

  Days of my youth! ye have glided away,
  Hairs of my youth! ye are frosted and gray;
  Eyes of my youth! your keen sight is no more;
  Cheeks of my youth! ye are furrow'd all o'er;
  Strength of my youth! all your vigour is gone;
  Thoughts of my youth! all your visions are flown!

  Days of my youth! I wish not your recall,
  Hairs of my youth! I'm content you should fall;
  Eyes of my youth! ye much evil have seen;
  Cheeks of my youth! bathed in tears have you been;
  Thoughts of my youth! ye have led me astray;
  Strength of my youth! why lament your decay!

  Days of my age! ye will shortly be past;
  Pains of my age! yet awhile can ye last;
  Joys of my age! in true wisdom delight;
  Eyes of my age! be religion your light;
  Thoughts of my age! dread not the cold sod,
  Hopes of my age! be ye fix'd on your God!--ST. GEORGE TUCKER, Judge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Randall Minshull and his Cheshire Collections._--Of what family was
Randall Minshull, who, in the Addenda to Gower's _Sketch for a History of_
{468} _Cheshire_, p. 94., is stated to have professedly made a collection
for the _Antiquities of Cheshire_ by the desire of Lord Malpas? and where
is such collection at the present time to met with?


_Mackey's "Theory of the Earth."_--I have a small pamphlet entitled,

    "A New Theory of the Earth and of Planetary Motion; in which it is
    demonstrated that the Sun is Vicegerent of his own System. By Sampson
    Arnold Mackey, author of _Mythological Astronomy_ and _Urania's Key to
    the Revelations, &c._ Norwich, printed for the Author."

There is no date on the title-page, but a notice on the second page
indicates 1825. The book is extraordinary, and shows great astronomical and
philological attainments, with some startling facts in geology, and bold
theories as to the formation of the earth. I have endeavoured to procure
the other two works of which Mr. Mackey is said to be the author, and also
some account of him, but without success. I can hardly suppose that a
writer of so much ability and learning can be unknown, and shall feel much
obliged by any information as to him or his writings.



_Birthplace of King Edward V._--Can you give me any information as to the
exact birthplace of this monarch?

Hume (vol. ii. p. 430.) merely says that he was born while his mother was
in sanctuary in London, and his father was a fugitive from the victorious
Earl of Warwick.

Commynes (book iii. chap. 5.) also says that she took refuge "es franchises
qui sont à Londres," and "y accoucha d'ung filz en grant povreté."

Chastellain, at p. 486. of his _Chronique_, says: "Elle alla à
Saincte-Catherine, une abbeye, disoient aucuns: aucuns autres disoient à
Vasemonstre (Westminster), lieu de franchise, qui oncques n'avoit esté

I should be glad to have some more definite information on this point, if
any of your readers can supply it.


_Name of Infants._--In Scotland there is a superstition that it is unlucky
to tell the name of infants before they are christened. Can this be

R. J. A.

_Geometrical Curiosity._--Take half a sheet of note-paper; fold and crease
it so that two opposite corners exactly meet; then fold and crease it so
that the remaining two opposite corners exactly meet. Armed with a fine
pair of scissors, proceed now to repeat both these folds alternately
without cessation, taking care to cut off quite flush and clear all the
overlappings on both sides after each fold. When these overlappings become
too small to be cut off, _the paper is in the shape of a circle_, _i. e._
the ultimate intersection of an infinite series of tangents. Perhaps
PROFESSOR DE MORGAN will give the _rationale_ of this procedure.



_Denison Family._--Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." inform me how the
Denisons of Denbies, near Dorking, in Surrey, and the Denisons of
Ossington, in Nottinghamshire, were related? Who was Mr. Robert Denison of
Nottingham, who took a very active part in politics at the commencement of
the French Revolution? His wife had a handsome legacy from a rich old lady,
one Mrs. Williams, of whom I would much like to know something farther.

E. H. A.

_"Came."_--In Pegge's _Anecdotes of the English Language_, p. 189., we

    "The real preterit of the Saxon verb _coman_, is _com_. _Came_ is
    therefore a violent infringement, though it is impossible to detect the
    innovator, or any of his accomplices."

When was the word _came_ introduced into our language? Early instances of
its use would be very welcome.

H. T. G.


_Montmartre._--By some this name is derived from _mons martis_; by others
from _mons martyrum_. Which is the more satisfactory etymology, and upon
what authority does it rest?


St. Lucia.

_Law of Copyright: British Museum._--Observing that the _new_ law of
copyright, which was passed and came into operation on the 1st of July,
1842, _expressly repeals_ all of the statutes previously existing on that
subject, I am anxious to know, through the medium of "N. & Q.," if the
British Museum authorities can claim and enforce the delivery of any book,
_although not entered on the books of Stationers' Hall_, which may have
been printed and published _before_ the passing of the said act of 1842. If
so, then what is the state of the act or statute which bears upon that
particular privilege?

J. A.


_Veneration for the Oak._--The oak--"the brave old oak"--has been an object
of veneration in this country from the primæval to the present times. The
term _oak_ is used in several places in Scripture, but nowhere does it
appear to refer to the oak as we know it--_our indigenous oak_. The _oak_,
under which God appeared to Abraham, bears apparently a resemblance to the
_tree of life_ of the Assyrian sculptures; and, perhaps, the _Zoroastrian_
{469} _Homa_, or sacred tree, and the _sacred tree of the Hindus_; and the
same may yet be found in the _British oak_. Is there a botanical affinity
between these trees? Are they all _oaks_? Was the _tree of life_, as
described in the Bible, an _oak_?

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

_Father Matthew's Chickens._--Can any of your correspondents explain why
grouse in Scotland are sometimes called "Father Matthew's chickens?"

M. R. G.

_Pronunciation of Bible and Prayer Book proper Names._--I feel sure that
many of your clerical correspondents would feel much obliged by any
assistance that might be forwarded them through the medium of your columns
respecting the correct pronunciation of those proper names which occur
during divine service: such as Sabaoth, Moriah, Aceldama, Sabacthani,
Abednego, and several others of the same class.--The opinions already given
in publications are so contradictory, that I have been induced to ask you
to insert this Query.


Cornworthy Vicarage, Totnes.

_MSS. of Anthony Bave._--I possess a volume of MS. Sermons, Treatises, and
Memorandums in the autograph of one Anthony Bave, who appears, from the
doctrines broached therein, to have been a moderate Puritan. What is known
concerning him? It is a book I value much from the beauty of the writing
and the vigorous style of the discourses.



_Return of Gentry, temp. Hen. VI._--In what collection, or where, can the
Return of Gentry of England 12th Henry VI. be seen or met with?


_Taylor's "Holy Living."_--In Pickering's edition of this work (London,
1848), _some_ of the quotations are placed in square brackets (_e. g._ on
p. xii.); and _some_ of the paragraphs have an asterisk prefixed to them
(as on p. 8.). Why?

A. A. D.

_Captain Jan Dimmeson._--Can any one give me some information about him? I
find his name on a pane of glass, with the date of 1667, in the vicinity of
Windsor. I had not an opportunity to obtain a copy of some words that were
painted on the glass, beneath a fine flowing sea with a ship in full sail
upon its bosom.

F. M.

_Greek and Roman Fortification._--Where can I obtain an account of Greek
and Roman fortification? I am surprised to find that Smith's _Classical
Dictionary_ has no article upon that subject.

J. H. J.

_The Queen at Chess._--In the old titles of the men at chess, the queen,
who does all the hard work, was called the prime minister, or grand vizier.
When did the change take place, and who thought of giving all the power to
a woman? Truly in the game "woman is the head of the man," reversing the
just order.

C. S. W.

_Vida on Chess._--I have had in my possession for more than five years a
translation of Vida on _Chess_. It is in the handwriting of a celebrated
poet of the last century; but whether a mere transcript or a version of his
own, is more than I can affirm. Now, I shall feel obliged by any
information on the subject, whether positive or negative, and transcribe
the exordium with that view. It is not the version which was made by George
Jeffreys, and revised by _Alexander Pope_[1]:

         "Vida's Scacchis, or Chess."

 "Armies of box that sportively engage,
  And mimick real battels in their rage,
  Pleas'd I recount; how smit with glory's charms,
  Two mighty monarchs met in adverse arms,
  Sable and white: assist me to explore,
  Ye Serian nymphs, what ne'er was sung before."

Bolton Corney.

[Footnote 1: The only one which I have seen.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Thornton Abbey._--Can any of your readers give me some information
respecting an old and ruinous building called "Thornton Abbey," situate
about ten miles from Grimsby, Lincolnshire, and also about two miles from
the river Humber?



    [Tanner states, the house was called Thorneton Curteis, and Torrington.
    It was founded by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, and Lord of
    Holderness, about the year 1139, for Austin Canons, and was dedicated
    to the Virgin Mary. Dugdale says, that when first founded it was a
    priory, and the monks were introduced from the monastery of Kirkham;
    but was changed into an abbey by Pope Eugenius III., A.D. 1148. Though
    Henry VIII. suppressed the Abbey, he reserved the greater part of the
    lands to endow a college, which he erected in its room, for a dean and
    prebendaries, to the honour of the Holy and Undivided Trinity. From the
    remains it must have been a magnificent building. Originally it
    consisted of an extensive quadrangle, surrounded by a deep ditch, with
    high ramparts, and built in a style adapted for occasional defence. To
    the east of the gateway are the remains of the abbey church. The
    chapter-house, part of which is standing, was of an octangular shape,
    and highly decorated. On the south of the ruins of the church is a
    building, now occupied as a farm-house, which formerly was the
    residence of the abbots. It was afterwards the seat of Edward {470}
    Skinner, Esq., who married Ann, daughter of Sir William Wentworth,
    brother to the unfortunate Earl of Strafford. The estate was purchased
    from one of the Skinner family by Sir Richard Sutton, Bart.; it is now
    in the possession of Lord Yarborough. In taking down a wall in the
    ruins of the abbey, a human skeleton was found, with a table, a book,
    and a candle-stick. It is supposed to have been the remains of the
    fourteenth abbot, who, it is stated, was for some crime sentenced to be
    immured--a mode of capital punishment not uncommon in monasteries. Four
    views of the abbey are given in Allen's _History of Lincolnshire_, vol
    ii., and some farther notices of its ancient state will be found in
    Dugdale's _Monasticon_, vol. vi. pl. i. p. 324.; Tanner's _Notitia_,
    Lincolnshire, lxxvii.; and _Beauties of England and Wales_, vol. ix. p.

_Bishop Wilson's "Sacra Privata."_--In the new edition of this work, p.
381., there is given a table of "The Collects, with their Tendencies."
Under the head of Fasting, references are made to the First Sunday in Lent,
_and the Tenth and Twenty-third after Trinity_.--There must be some mistake
in this, as the last two collects refer to prayer. This for your
correspondent MR. DENTON, to whom I understand the Church is indebted for
the redintegration of the good bishop's journal.

A. A. D.

    [We have submitted the above to the REV. WILLIAM DENTON, who expresses
    his obligations to A. A. D. for pointing out the error, which seems to
    have escaped the notice of all the previous editors of the _Sacra
    Privata_. The second edition is now at press, and, if not too late, the
    correction will be made. MR. DENTON doubts whether the list after all
    is the bishop's; but thinks it was only copied by him from some work.
    Can any one point out the source? It is singular that another mistake
    of the bishop's should have escaped the notice of all previous editors,
    namely, the tendency of the collect for Whit-Sunday being described as
    _Humiliation_ instead of _Illumination_.]

_Derivation of "Chemistry."_--Are there any historical reasons for deriving
the word _chemistry_ from _Chemi_, the name of Egypt, as is done by Bunsen
and others?

T. H. T.

    [Dr. Thomson, the writer of the article "Chemistry" in the
    _Encyclopædia Britannica_, thus notices this derivation: "The generally
    received opinion among alchymistical writers was, that chemistry
    originated in Egypt; and the honour of the invention has been
    unanimously conferred on Hermes Trismegistus. He is by some supposed to
    be the same person with Chanaan, the son of Ham, whose son Mizraim
    first occupied and peopled Egypt. Plutarch informs us that Egypt was
    sometimes called _Chemia_: this name is supposed to be derived from
    Chanaan. Hence it was inferred that Chanaan was the inventor of
    _chemistry_, to which he affixed his own name. Whether the Hermes of
    the Greeks was Chanaan, or his son Mizraim, it is impossible to decide;
    but to Hermes is assigned the invention of _chemistry_, or _the art of
    making gold_, by almost the unanimous consent of the adepts." Dr.
    Webster says, "The orthography of this word has undergone changes
    through a mere ignorance of its origin, than which nothing can be more
    obvious. It is the Arabic _kimia_, the occult art or science, from
    _kamai_, to conceal. This was originally the art or science now called
    alchemy; the art of converting baser metals into gold." Webster says
    the correct orthography is _chimistry_.]

_Burning for Witchcraft._--When and where was the last person burned to
death for witchcraft in England?

W. R.

    [We believe the last case of burning for witchcraft was at Bury St.
    Edmunds in 1664, tried by Sir Matthew Hale, although some accounts
    state that the victims, Amy Duny and Rose Callender, were executed. In
    the same year Alice Hudson was burnt at York for having received 10s.
    at a time from his Satanic majesty. The last case of burning in
    Scotland was in Sutherland, A.D. 1722: the judge was Captain David
    Ross, of Little Dean. At Glarus, in Ireland, a servant girl was burnt
    so late as 1786. The last authenticated instance of the swimming ordeal
    occurred in 1785, and is quoted by Mr. Sternberg from a _Northampton
    Mercury_ of that year:--"A poor woman named Sarah Bradshaw, of Mears
    Ashby, who was accused of being a witch, in order to prove her
    innocence, submitted to the ignominy of being dipped, when she
    immediately sunk to the bottom of the pond, which was deemed to be an
    incontestable proof that she was no witch!"]

_The Small City Companies._--Where does the fullest information appear
respecting their early condition, &c.? Herbert's work only occasionally
refers to them, and I am aware of many incidental notices of them in
Histories of London, &c.; but it does not amount to much, and I should be
glad to know if there is no fuller account of them. The companies of
Pewterers or Bakers, for example.


    [Beside the incidental notices to be found in Stow, Maitland, and
    Seymour, our correspondent must consult the Harleian MSS.; and if he
    will turn to the Index volume at p. 294., he will find references to
    the following companies:--Bakers', Drapers', Painters', Stainers',
    Pinners', Scriveners', Skinners', Wax-chandlers', Wharfingers',
    Weavers', and other miscellaneous notes relating to the city of London

_Rousseau and Boileau._--Are there any full and complete English
translations of Rousseau's _Confessions_ and Boileau's _Satires_?


    [The following translations have been published:--_The Confessions of
    J. J. Rousseau_, in two Parts, London, 12mo., five vols., 1790;
    Boileau's _Satires_, 8vo., 1808: see also his _Works_ made English by
    Mr. Ozell and others, two vols. 8vo., London, 1711-12, and three vols.
    8vo., London, 1714.]

_Bishop Kennett's MS. Diary._--Where is Bishop Kennett's MS. Diary, from
which his often-cited description of Dean Swift is taken, to be found?
{471} Sir Walter Scott (Swift's _Works_, vol. xvi. p. 76.) says "it was
formerly in the possession of Lord Lansdowne, and is now in the British
Museum." I have never been able to find it.

F. B.

    [The _Diary_ here referred to by Sir Walter Scott will be found at p.
    428. in Lansdowne MS. 1024., which forms the third and last volume of
    Bishop Kennett's "Materials for an Ecclesiastical History of England."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., p. 596.; Vol. vii., pp. 12. 134. 200. 375.)

It may be worth recording, that among the MS. papers of the late James
Boswell, which were I believe sold by auction by Messrs. Sotheby and Co.,
there was the office copy and probate of the will of Milton's widow. She
was described as Elizabeth Milton of Namptwich, widow; and it was dated the
27th of August, 1727. In the will she bequeathed all her effects, after the
payment of her debts, to be divided between her nieces and nephews in
Namptwich; and named as her executors, Samuel Acton and John Allcock, Esqs.
Probate was granted to John Allcock, October 10, 1727.

Beside this, there was a bond or acquittance, dated 1680 from Richard
Mynshull, described of Wistaston in Cheshire, frame-work knitter, for
100_l_. received of Mrs. Elizabeth Milton in consideration of a transfer to
her of a lease for lives, or ninety-nine years, of a messuage at Brindley
in Cheshire, held under Sir Thomas Wilbraham.

There were also receipts or releases from Milton's three daughters, Anne
Milton, Mary Milton, and Deborah Clarke (to the last of which Abraham
Clarke was a party): the first two dated Feb. 22, 1674; the last, March 27
in the same year; for 100l. each, received of Elizabeth Milton their
step-mother in consideration of their shares of their father's estate. The
sums were, with the consent of Christopher Milton and Richard Powell, both
described of the Inner Temple, to be disposed of in the purchase of
rent-charges or annuities for the benefit of the said daughters.

Two of these documents appear to be now in the possession of your
correspondents MR. MARSH and MR. HUGHES; but I have met with no mention
hitherto of the destination of the others.

These may seem trifling minutiæ to notice, but nothing can fairly be
considered unimportant which may lead to the elucidation of the domestic
history of Milton.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 364.)

There can be no doubt that, as your correspondent suggests, the judicial
oath was originally taken without kissing the book, but with the form of
laying the right hand upon it; and, moreover that this custom is of Pagan
origin. Amongst the Greeks, oaths were frequently accompanied by sacrifice;
and it was the custom to lay the hands upon the victim, or upon the altar,
thereby calling to witness the deity by whom the oath was sworn. So
Juvenal, _Sat._ XIV. 218.:

 "Falsus erit testis, vendet perjuria summa
  Exigua, et Cereris tangens aramque pedemque."

Christians under the later Roman emperors adopted from the Greeks a similar
ceremony. In the well-known case of Omychund _v._ Barker, heard in
Michaelmas Term, 1744, and reported in 1 Atk. 27., the Solicitor-General
quoted a passage from Selden, which gives us some information on this

    "Mittimus hic, principibus Christianis, ut ex historiis satis obviis
    liquet, solennia fuisse et peculiaria juramenta, ut per vultum sancti
    Lucæ, per pedem Christi, per sanctum hunc vel illum, ejusmodi alia
    nimis crebra: _Inolevit hero tandem, ut quemadmodum Pagani sacris ac
    mysteriis aliquo suis aut tactis aut præsentibus jurare solebant, ita
    solenniora Christianorum juramenta fierent, aut tactis sacrosanctis
    evangeliis, aut inspectis, aut in eorum præsentia manu ad pectus amota,
    sublata aut protensa_; atque is corporaliter seu personaliter
    juramentum præstari dictum est, ut ab juramentis per epistolam, aut in
    scriptis solummodo præstitis distingueretur, inde in vulgi passim ore."

Lord Coke tells us, in the passage quoted at p. 364., that this was called
the corporal oath, because the witness "toucheth with his hand some part of
the Holy Scripture;" but the better opinion seems to be, that it was so
called from the ancient custom of laying the hands upon the _corporale_, or
cloth which covered the sacred elements, by which the most solemn oath was
taken in Popish times.

As to the form of kissing the book, I am inclined to think that it is not
of earlier date than the latter part of the sixteenth century, and that it
was first prescribed as part of the ceremony of taking the oaths of
allegiance and supremacy. In the _Harl. Misc._, vol. vi. p. 282. (edit.
1810), is an account of the trial of Margaret Fell and George Fox, for
refusing to take the oath of allegiance, followed by "An Answer to Bishop
Lancelot Andrewe's Sermon concerning Swearing." At p 298., Fox brings
forward instances of conscientious scruples among Christians in former
times, respecting the taking of oaths. He says:

    "Did not the Pope, when he had got up over the churches, give forth
    both oath and curse, with bell, {472} book, and candle? And was not the
    ceremony of his oath, to lay three fingers a-top of the book, to
    signify the Trinity; and two fingers under the book, to signify
    damnation of body and soul if they sware falsely? And was not there a
    great number of people that would not swear, and suffered great
    persecution, as read the _Book of Martyrs_ but to Bonner's days? And it
    is little above an hundred years since the Protestants got up; and they
    gave forth the oath of allegiance, and the oath of supremacy: the one
    was to deny the Pope's supremacy, and the other to acknowledge the
    kings of England; _so we need not tell to you of their form, and show
    you the ceremony of the oath; it saith_, '_Kiss the book_;' and the
    book saith 'Kiss the Son,' which saith 'Swear not at all.'"

Still the laying of the hand on the book seems to have been an essential
form; for, during the trial, when the oath was offered to Margaret Fell,
"the clerk held out the book, and bid her pull off her glove, and lay her
hand on the book" (_H. M._, p. 285.). And directly after, when the oath had
been read to Fox, the following scene is described:

    "'Give him the book,' _said they_; and so a man that stood by him held
    up the book, and said, 'Lay your hand on the book.'

    "_Geo. Fox._ 'Give me the book in my hand.' Which set them all
    a-gazing, and as in hope he would have sworn."

And it appears from the case of Omychund v. Barker, that, at that time, the
usual form was by laying the right hand on the book, and kissing it
afterwards (1 Atk. 42.). It seems not improbable that Paley's suggestion,
in his _Moral Philosophy_, vol. i. p. 192. (10th edit.), may be correct. He

    "The kiss seems rather an act of reverence to the contents of the book,
    as, in the Popish ritual, the priest kisses the gospel before he reads
    it, than any part of the oath."

The Query respecting the Welsh custom I must leave to those who are better
informed respecting the judicial forms of that country; merely suggesting
whether the practice alluded to by your correspondent may not originally
have had a meaning similar to that of the three fingers on the book, and
two under, as described by Fox in the passage above quoted.



In the bailiwick of Guernsey the person sworn lifts his right hand, and the
presiding judge, who administers the oath, says "Vous jurez par la foi et
le serment que vous devez à Dieu que," &c. Oaths of office, however, are
taken on the Gospels, and are read to the person swearing by the greffier,
or clerk of the court. The reason of this difference may be accounted for
by the fact that the official oaths, as they now exist, appear to have been
drawn up about the beginning of the reign of James I., and that in all
probability the form was enjoined by the superior authority of the Privy

Which of the two forms was generally used before the Reformation, I have
not been able to discover; but in an account of the laws, privileges, and
customs of the island, taken by way of inquisition in the year 1331, but
more fully completed and approved in the year 1441, it appears that the
juries of the several parishes were sworn "sur Sainctes Evangiles de Dieu
par eulx et par chacun d'eulx corporellement touché,"--"par leurs
consciences sur le peril de la dampnation de leurs ames."

I remember to have seen men from some of the Baltic ports, when told to
lift their right hands to be sworn, double down the ring finger and the
little finger, as is done by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church when
giving the benediction.

In France the person making oath lifts his right hand. The oath is
administered by the presiding judge without any reference to the Deity, but
the person who swears is required to answer "Je le jure." I observed that
in Britanny, when the person sworn was ignorant of the French language, the
answer was "Va Doué," which, I believe, means in the Breton dialect, "By

In the Ecclesiastical Court of Guernsey I have seen the book presented to
the person swearing open at one of the Gospels; but in the Royal Court the
book is put into the right hand of the party making oath, shut. In either
case it is required that the book should be kissed.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 64. 153.)

Many inscriptions, comminatory or exhortatory, written in books and
directed to readers, have been commemorated in "N. & Q." Towards the
beginning of the present century, the most common epigram of the kind in
the French public schools was the following elegant motto, with its
accompanying illustration:

 "Aspice _Pierrot_ pendu,
  Quota librum n'a pas rendu!"

Poor Pierrot is exhibited in a state of suspension, as hanging from the
inverted letter L ([Gamma]), which symbolises the fatal tree. Comminatory
and exhortatory cautions not to soil, spoil, or tear books and MSS. occur
so frequently in the records of monastic libraries, that a whole album
could easily be filled with them. The coquettish bishop, Venantius
Fortunatus, has a distich on the subject. Another learned Goth, Theud-wulf,
or Theodulfus, Charlemagne's _Missus dominicus_, {473} recommends readers a
proper ablution of their hands before turning the consecrated leaves:

 "Utere me, lector, mentisque in sede locato;
  Cumque librum petis hinc, sit tibi _lota_ manus!"--_Saith Library._

Less lenient are the imprecations commemorated by Don Martenne and Wanley.
The one inscribed on the blank leaf of a Sacramentary of the ninth century
is to the following effect:

    "Si quis eum (librum) de monasterio aliquo ingenio non redditurus,
    abstraxerit, cum Juda proditore, Annâ et Caïphâ, portionem æternæ
    damnationis accipiat. Amen! Amen! Fiat! fiat!"--_Voyage Littéraire_, p.

That is fierce and fiery, and in very earnest. A MS. of the Bodleian bears
this other inscription, to the same import:

    "Liber Sanctæ Mariæ de Ponte Roberti. Qui eum abstulerit aut vendiderit
    ... aut quamlibet ejus partem absciderit, sit anathema maranatha."

Canisius, in his _Antiquæ Lectiones_ (I. ii. p. 3. 320.), transcribes
another comminatory distich, copied from a MS. of the Saint Gall library:

 "Auferat hunc librum _nullus hinc_, omne per ævum,
    Cum Gallo partem quisquis habere cupit!"

Such recommendations are now no longer in use, and seem rather excessive.
But whoever has witnessed the extreme carelessness, not to say improbity,
of some of the readers admitted into the public continental libraries, who
scruple not to soil, spoil, and even purloin the most precious and rare
volumes, feels easily reconciled to the _anathema maranatha_ of the ninth
and tenth centuries.

P.S.--Excuse my French-English.


Paris, Palais de l'Institut.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 146.)

However remarkable the conduct of the rustic esquire of Downham may appear
in the present duly, when he accepted and wore the livery of his neighbour
the Knight-Baronet of Houghton Tower, it was a Common practice for
gentlemen of good birth and estate to accept and wear, and even to assume
without solicitation, upon state occasions, the livery of an influential
neighbour, friend, or relation, in testimony of respect and affection for
the giver of the livery.

Thus it appears in the Diary of Nicholas Assheton that, in 1617, to the
Court at Mirescough "Cooz Assheton came with his gentlemanlie servants as
anie was there," and that the retinue of menial servants in attendance upon
Sir Richard Houghton was graced by the presence of more than one country
gentleman of good family. Baines, in his _History of Lancashire_, vol. ii.
p. 366., also relates concerning Humphrey Chetham, that--

    "In 1635 he was nominated to serve the office of sheriff of the county,
    and discharged the duties thereof with great honour, several gentlemen
    of birth and estate attending and wearing his livery at the assizes, to
    testify their respect and affection for him."

Evelyn, in his _Diary_, gives a similar account of the conduct of "divers
gentlemen and persons of quality" in the counties of Surrey and Sussex:

    "1634. My father was appointed sheriff for Surrey and Sussex before
    they were disjoyned. He had 116 servants in liverys, every one livery'd
    in greene sattin doublets. Divers gentlemen and persons of quality
    waited on him in the same garbe and habit, which at that time (when
    thirty or forty was the the usual retinue of the high sheriff) was
    esteemed a great matter. Nor was this out of the least vanity that my
    father exceeded (who was one of the greatest decliners of it); but
    because he could not refuse the civility of his friends and relations,
    who voluntarily came themselves, or sent in their servants."

The practice of assuming the livery of a relation or friend, and of
permitting servants also to wear it, appears to have existed in England in
the time of Richard II., and to have had the personal example of this
sovereign to support it. He seems, however, to have thereby excited the
disapprobation of many of his spiritual and temporal peers. I produce the
following passage with some hesitation, because it is by no means certain
that any one of the liveries thus assumed by Richard was a livery of cloth:

    "17^{th} Richard II. A.D. 1393-4.

    "Richard Count d'Arundell puis le comencement de cest present Parlement
    disoit au Roy, en presence des Achevesques de Canterbirs et d'Everwyk,
    le Duc de Gloucestr', les Evesques de Wyncestre et Saresbirs, le Count
    de Warrewyk et autres....

    "Item [=q] le Roy deust porter la Livere de coler le Duc de Guyene et
    de Lancastr'.

    "Item [=q] gentz de retenue de Roi portent mesme la Livere....

    "A qei [=n]re S[=r] le Roi alors respondi au dit Count ... [=q] bientot
    apres la venue son dit uncle de Guyene quant il vient d'Espaign darrein
    en Engleterre [=q] mesme [=n]re S[=r] le Roi prist le Coler du cool
    mesme son uncle et mist a son cool demesne et dist q'il vorroit porter
    et user en signe de bon amour d'entier coer entre eux auxi come il fait
    les Liveres ses autres uncles.

    "Item (quant au tierce) [=n]re S[=r] le Roi disoit [=q] ceo fuist de
    counge de luy et de sa volunte [=q] gentz de sa retenue portent et
    usent mesme la Livere de Coler."--_Rolls of Parliament_, vol. iii. p.

    "Richard Earl of Arundel, after the commencement of this present
    parliament, said to the King in the presence of the archbishops of
    Canterbury and of York, {474} the Duke of Gloucester, the Bishops of
    Winchester and Salisbury, the Earl of Warwick, and others....

    "Item. That the King uses to wear the livery of the collar of the Duke
    of Guienne and of Lancaster.

    "Item. That persons of the retinue of the King wear the same livery.

    "To which our lord the King then answered to the said earl....

    "That soon after the coming of his said uncle of Guienne, when he came
    from Spain last into England, that himself our lord the King took the
    collar from the neck of the same his uncle and put it on his own neck,
    and said that he vowed to wear and to use it in sign of good love of
    whole heart between them also, as he did the liveries of his other

    "Item (as to the third). Our lord the King said that it was by leave
    from him, and by his wish, that persons of his retinue wear and use the
    same livery of the collar."

This practice of one of our early sovereigns seems to afford a precedent
for the mode in which divers gentlemen and persons of quality voluntarily
showed civility towards Richard Evelyn, and for that in which several
gentlemen of birth and estate testified their respect and affection for
Humphrey Chetham. Nicholas Assheton also appears to have the support of
this royal precedent in so far as relates to his accepting and wearing the
livery of a friend and neighbour; and the custom of his day evidently lends
its sanction to his forming, upon a state occasion, one of the body of
menial servants in attendance upon Sir Richard Houghton, when he went to
meet the king.

Another passage in the _Rolls of Parliament_ seems to afford a respectable
civic precedent for the services performed by Nicholas Assheton and other
liveried gentlemen, when they waited at the lords' table at Houghton Tower:

    "11^{th} Edward III. A.D. 1337.

    "A [=n]re Seigneur le Roy et a son conseil monstre Richard de Bettoyne
    de Loundres, qe come au Coronement [=n]re Seigneur le Roy [=q] ore est
    il adonge Meire de Loundres fesoit l'office de Botiller ove CCC e LX
    vadletz vestutz d'une sute chescun portant en sa mayn un coupe blanche
    d'argent come autres Meirs de Loundres ountz faitz as Coronementz des
    [crossed p]genitours nostre Seigneur le Roy dont memoire ne court pars
    et le fee q appendoit a cel jorne c'est asavoir un coupe d'or ove la
    covercle et un ewer d'or enamaille lui fust livere [crossed p] assent
    du Counte de Lancastre et d'autres Grantz qu'adonges y furent du
    Conseil nostre Seigneur le Roy [crossed p] la mayn Sire Ro[/b]t de
    Wodehouse et ore vient en estreite as Viscountes de Londres hors del
    Chekker de faire lever des Biens et Chateux du dit Richard xx/iiii
    ix_li._ xiis. vid. pur le fee avant dit dont il prie qe remedie lui
    soit ordeyne.

    "Et le Meire et Citoyens d'Oxenford ount [crossed p] point de chartre
    q'ils vendront a Londres l'Encorronement d'eyder le Meire de Loundres
    pur servir a la fest et toutz jours l'ount usee. Et si i plest a [=n]re
    Seigneur le Roy et a son Conseil nous payerons volonters la fee issent
    qe nous soyons descharges de la service."--_Rolls of Parliament_, vol.
    ii. p. 96.

    "To our lord the King and to his Council sheweth Richard de Bettoyne of
    London, that whereas at the coronation of our lord the King that now
    is, he their mayor of London performed the office of butler with three
    hundred and sixty valets clothed of one suit each, bearing in his hand
    a white cup of silver, as other mayors of London have done at the
    coronations of the progenitors of our lord the King, whereof memory
    runneth not, and the fee which appertained to this day's work, that is
    to wit, a cup of gold with the cover, and a ewer of gold enamelled,
    were delivered to him by assent of the Earl of Lancaster, and of the
    other grandees who then there were of the council of our lord the King,
    by the hand of Sire Robert de Wodehouse, and now comes in estreat to
    the viscounts of London out of the Checquer, to cause to take the goods
    and chattels of the said Richard, eighty-nine pounds twelve shillings
    and sixpence, for the fee aforesaid, whereof he prays that remedy be
    ordained to him.

    "And the mayor and citizens of Oxford have, by point of charter, that
    they shall come to London to the coronation, to help the mayor of
    London to serve at the feast, and always have so done. And if it please
    our lord the King and his Council, we will pay willingly the fee,
    provided that we be discharged of the service."

There can be little doubt that the citizens of Oxford bore their own
travelling expenses; and it seems probable that the citizens of London and
Oxford bore the cost of the three hundred and sixty suits of clothes and
three hundred and sixty silver cups; but this is scarcely sufficient to
account for their willingness to pay a sum of money equivalent to about
fifteen hundred pounds in the present day, in order to be relieved from the
honourable service of waiting clothed in uniform, each with a silver cup in
his hand, helping the Mayor of London to perform the office of butler at
coronation feasts. However this may be, it is still somewhat remarkable
that, in the seventeenth century, Nicholas Assheton of Downham, Esq., and
other gentlemen of Lancashire, upon a less important occasion than a
coronation feast, dressed in the livery of Sir Richard Houghton and
voluntarily attended, day after day, at the lords' table at Houghton Tower,
and served the lords with biscuit, wine, and Jelly.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 338.)

The cases of Rex _v._ Stubbs and Olive _v._ Ingram, mentioned in the
following extracts from Prideaux's _Guide to Churchwardens_, p. 4., may be
of service:

    "Generally speaking, all persons _inhabitants_ of the parish are liable
    to serve the office of churchwarden, {475} and from the cases of Rex
    _v._ Stubbs (2 T. R. 395.; 1 Bott. 10.), in which it was held that a
    woman is not exempt from serving the office of overseer of the poor,
    and Olive _v._ Ingram (2 Str. 1114.), in which it was held that she may
    be a parish sexton, there may, perhaps, be some ground for contending a
    woman is not exempt from this duty."


A few years ago (she may still be so) there was a gentlewoman the parish
clerk of some church in London; perhaps some of your readers may be able to
say where: a deputy officiated, excepting occasionally. But many such
instances have occurred.

In a note in Prideaux's _Directions to Churchwardens_ (late edition), the
following references are given as to the power of women to fill parochial
and other such offices: Rex _v._ Stubbs, 2 T. R. 359.; Olive _v._ Ingram, 2
Strange, 1114.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

I beg to inform Y. S. M. that when I went to reside near Lincoln in 1828, a
woman was clerk to the parish of Sudbrooke, and died in that capacity a
very few years after. I do not remember her name at this moment, but I
could get all particulars if required on my return to Sudbrooke Holme.


Balmoral Hotel, Broadstairs, Kent.

I am able to mention another instance of a woman acting as parish clerk at
Ickburgh, in the county of Norfolk. It is the parish to Buckenham Hall, the
seat of the Honourable Francis Baring, near Thetford. A woman there has
long officiated as parish clerk, and still continues acting in that

F. R.

I beg to refer Y. S. M. to the following passage Madame d'Arblay's _Diary_,
vol. v. p. 246.:

    "There was at Collumpton only a poor wretched ragged woman, a female
    clerk, to show us this church: she pays a man for doing the duty, while
    she receives the salary in right of her deceased husband!"

M. L. G.

At Misterton, near Crewkerne, in Somersetshire, Mary Mounford was clerk for
more than thirty years. She gave up the office about the year 1832, and is
now in Beaminster Union, just eighty-nine years old.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 397.; Vol. viii., p. 112.)

To the one hundred and ten epithets poetically applied to the nightingale
and its song, collected by MR. BEDE, permit me to add sixty-five more.

  _Azure-crested._ Cowper.
  _Bewailing._ Drummond.
  _Chaunting._ Skelton.
  _Chaste poet._ Grainger.
  _Dappled._ Anon.[2]
  _Darling._ Carey.
  _Daulian minstrel._ Herrick.
  _Delightful._ Shelley.
  _Dusky-brown._ Trench.
  _Early._ C. Smith.
  _Elegiac._ Dibdin.
  _Enamoured._ Shelley.
  _Fabled._ Byron.
  _Fair._ Smart.
  _Greeful._[3] Lodge.
  _Gurgling._ Lloyd.
  _Hallow'd._ Moore.
  _Hundred-throated._ Tennyson.
  _Invisible._ Hurdis.
  _Lesbian._ Bromley.
  _Love-learned._ Thomson.
  _Love-sick._ Warton.
  _Loud-complaining._ Gibbons.
  _Lulling._ Anon.[4]
  _Lute-tongued._ Anon.[5]
  _Mellow._ Strangford.
  _Midnight minstrel._ Logan.
  _Moody._ Hurdis.
  _Nightly._ Bidlake.
  _Pandionian._ Drummond.
  _Panged._ Hood.
  _Pitiful._ Herrick.
  _Plaintful._ Drummond.
  _Quavering._ Poole.
  _Querulous._ Kennedy.
  _Rapturous._ Southey.
  _Rural._ Dryden.
  _Sable._[6] Drummond.
  _Sadly-pleasing._[7] Anon.
  _Secret._ Shelley.
  _Sely._ Chaucer.
  _Sequestered._ J. Montgomery.
  _Shy._ Dallas.
  _Silver-tuned._ Carey.
  _Simple._ Derrick.
  _Sobbing._ Planché.
  _Soft-tuned._ Whaley.
  _Solitary._ Bowring.
  _Sorrow-soothing._ Shaw.
  _Sprightly._ Elton.
  _Sweet-breasted._ Beaumont and Fletcher.
  _Sweet-tongued._ Anon.[8]
  _Sylvan syren._ Pattison.
  _Tearful._ Potter.
  _Tenderest._ Wiffen.
  _Thracian._ Lewis.
  _Transporting._ Hurdis.
  _Unadorned._ Hurdis.
  _Unhappy._ Croxall.
  _Watchful._ Philips.
  _Witching._ Proctor.
  _Woodland._ Smith.
  _Wretched._ Shirley.
  _Wronged._ P. Fletcher.
  _Yearly._ Drayton.
  _Young._ Lewis.

The character of the mere song alone has been described in the following

  _Melodious lay._ Potter.
  _Lofty song._ Yalden.
  _A storm of sound._ Shelley.
  _Impressive lay._ Merry.
  _Swelling slow._ Kirk White.
  _Tremulously slow._ C. Smith.
  _Wild melody._ Shelley.
  _Thick melodious note._ Lloyd.
  _Hymn of lore._ Logan.
  _Melting lay._ Henley.
  _Harmonious woe._ Pomfret.
  _Well-tuned warble._ Shakspeare.
  _Luscious lays._ Warton.
  _Sadly sweet._ Potter.
  _Varied strains._ Pope.
  _Thick-warbled notes._ Milton.



[Footnote 2: Blackwood's Mag., Jan. 1838.]

[Footnote 3:

 "I regard the prettie, greeful bard
  With tearfull, yet delightfull, notes complaine."--_Heliconia._

[Footnote 4: Lays of the Minnesingers.]

[Footnote 5: Weekly Visitor, July, 1835.]

[Footnote 6: "Night's sable birds, which plain when others

[Footnote 7: Evening Elegy.--_Poetical Calendar._]

[Footnote 8: Harleian Miscellany, vol. viii.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Photographic Exhibition._--We understand that the Photographic Society has
made arrangements for an exhibition of photographs in the metropolis during
the months of January and February next. The exhibition will not be
confined to the works of native photographers, but will comprise specimens
of the most eminent foreign artists, who have been specially invited to
contribute. From the advances which have been made in this favourite art,
even since the recent exhibition in the rooms of the Society of Arts, we
may confidently anticipate that the display on the present occasion will be
one of the highest interest.

_How much Light is obstructed by a Lens?_--Can any of your scientific
correspondents furnish me with an approximation to the quantity of light
which is transmitted through an ordinary double achromatic lens, say of
Ross, Voightlander, or any other celebrated maker?


_Stereoscopic Articles._--I cannot agree to my opponent's assumed amendment
(?) (Vol. viii., p. 419.) _space_, for the simple reason that it would be
virtually abandoning the whole of the points in dispute between us; when
farther discussion and more mature consideration, only tend to convince me
more firmly of the correctness of the propositions I have advocated, viz.:

1st. That circumstances _may_ and _do_ arise in which a better result is
obtained in producing stereographs, when the chord of the angle of
generation is more or less than 2½ inches.

2nd. That the positions of the camera should _not_ be parallel but radial.

I certainly thought that I had, as I intended, expressed the fact that I
treat the cameras _precisely as two eyes_, and moreover I still contend
that they should be so treated; my object being to present to each eye
_exactly such a picture and in such a direction as would be presented under
certain circumstances_. The plane of delineation being a flat, instead of a
curved surface, has nothing whatever to do with this point, because the
curves of the retinas are not portions of one curve having a common centre,
but each having its own centre in the axis of the pupil. That a plane
surface for receiving the image is not so good as a spherical one would be,
is not disputed; but this observation applies to photographs _universally_,
and is only put up with as the lesser of two evils. A plane surface
necessarily contracts the field of view to such a space as could be cut out
of the periphery of a hollow sphere, the versed sine of which bears but a
small ratio to its chord.

There is another misunderstanding into which my opponent has fallen, viz.
the part of the object to be delineated, which should form the centre of
radiation, is not the most contiguous visible point, but the most remote
principal point of observation. I perceive that this is the case from two
illustrations he was kind enough to forward me, being stereographs of a
[T-square] square, placed with the points of junction towards the observer,
and the tail receding from him; and in one case the angle of the square is
made the centre of radiation, and while its distance from the camera is
only six feet, the points of delineation are no less than three feet apart.

To push an argument to the extreme to test its value, is quite right; but
this goes far beyond the extreme, if I may be allowed such a very Hibernian

No object, however minute, can be clearly seen if brought nearer to the
eyes than a certain point, because it will be what is technically called
out of focus. It is true that this point differs in different individuals,
but the _average distance_ of healthy vision is 10 inches. Now, adopting
MR. MERRITT'S own standard of 2½ inches between the eyes, it is clear that
supposing the central point had been rightly selected, the distance between
the cameras was _only double_ what might have been taken an extreme
distance. It is scarcely necessary to suggest what a person devoid of taste
(in which category I am no doubt included) might do in producing
monstrosities by adopting the radial method, as such an one is not very
likely to produce good results at all.

I now address myself to another accusation. It is quite true that I am
unacquainted with the _scholastic dogmas_ of perspective, but equally true
that I am familiar with _the facts_ thereof, as any one must be who has
studied optical and geometrical science generally; and while I concur in
the propositions as enunciated for a one-eyed picture, I by no means agree
to the assumption that the "vanishing points," in the two stereographs
taken radially with the necessary precautions, "would be so far apart, that
they could not in the stereoscope flow into one;" on the contrary, direct
experiment shows me, what reason also suggests, that they do flow into one
as _completely as in nature when viewed by both eyes_.

I put the proposition thus, because I do not hesitate to avow that in
nature, as interpreted by binocular vision, these points do not
_absolutely_, but only approximately, flow _into one_; otherwise one eye
would be as effective as two.

I have not the smallest objection to my views being considered "false to
art," as, alas! her fidelity to nature is by no means beyond suspicion.

Lastly, as to the model-like appearance of stereographs taken at a large
angle, for the fact I need only refer the objector to most of the beautiful
foreign views now so abundant in our opticians' shops: for the reason, is
it not palpable that increasing the width of the eyes is analogous to
decreasing the size of the object? and if naturally we cannot "perceive at
one view three sides of a cake, two heads of a drum, nor any other like
absurdity," it is only because we do not use objects sufficiently _small_
to permit us to do so. Even while I am writing this, I have before me a
small rectangular inkholder about 1¼ inches square, and distant from my
eyes about one foot, in which the very absurd phenomenon complained of does
exist, the front, top, and _both_ sides being perfectly visible at once:
and being one of those obstinate fellows who will persist in judging
personally from experience if possible, I fear I shall be found
incorrigible on the points on which your correspondent has so kindly
endeavoured to enlighten me.


_To introduce Clouds_ (Vol. viii., p. 451.) as desired by your
correspondent [Greek: S]., the negative must be treated in the sky by
solution of cyanide of potassium laid on in the form desired with a camel's
hair pencil. This discharges a portion of the reduced silver, and allows
the light to penetrate; but great care is required to stop the action by
well washing in water before the process has gone too far. White clouds are
produced by painting them in with a black pigment mixed in size.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Death of Edward II._ (Vol. viii., p. 387.).--P. C. S. S. has noticed with
considerable surprise the very strange assertion of MR. C. M. INGLEBY with
reference to the murder of Edward II. at Berkeley Castle, viz. that "Echard
and Rapin are silent, both as to the event and the locality." If MR.
INGLEBY will again refer to Echard (vol. i. p. 341., edit. 1718) and to
Rapin (vol. iii. p. 147., edit. 1749), he will perceive that the two
historians record "both the event and the locality."

MR. INGLEBY did not perhaps consider that the transaction in question took
place during the reign of Edward III.; and is, therefore, not to be sought
for at the close of that of Edward _II._ (where probably MR. C. M. INGLEBY
looked for it), but among the occurrences in the time of Edward _III._ MR.
C. M. INGLEBY will assuredly find it there, not only in Echard and Rapin,
but in every other History of England since the date of the "event."

P. C. S. S.

_Luther no Iconoclast_ (Vol. viii., p. 335.).--An occasional contributor
wishes the Editor to note down this Query. What could have led your
correspondent J. G. FITCH to use so peculiarly inappropriate a synonym for
Martin Luther as "the great Iconoclast?" Has he any historical evidence for
Luther's breaking a single image?

It is not to defend Luther, but to point out a defect in his teaching, as
it is regarded by the adherents of other Protestant churches, that Dr.
Maclaine has said, in his note on Book IV. ch. i. § 18. of Mosheim:

    "It is evident, from several passages in the writings of Luther, that
    he was by no means averse to the use of images, but that, on the
    contrary, he looked upon them as adapted to excite and animate the
    devotion of the people."

Mosheim, and Merle D'Aubigné, and probably any other historian of the
Reformation in Germany, may be cited as witnesses for the notorious fact,
that Carlstadt excited the citizens of Wittemberg to break the images in
their churches when Luther was concealed in the Castle of Wartburg, and
that he rebuked and checked these proceedings on his return. See Mosheim,
as cited before, or D'Aubigné, book IX. ch. vii. and viii.

H. W.

_Rev. Urban Vigors_ (Vol. viii., p. 340.).--My great-great-grandmother was
a sister of Bishop Vigors, who was consecrated to the see of Leighlin and
Ferns, March 8, 1690. He, I know, was a near relative of the Rev. Urban
Vigors. An Urban Vigors of Ballycormack, co. Wexford, also married my
great-great-aunt, a Miss Thomas, sister of Vigors Thomas, Esq., of
Limerick. I should, equally with your correspondent Y. S. M., wish to know
any particulars of the "Vigors" family; and should be delighted to enter
into correspondence with him.


Cornworthy Vicarage, Totnes.

_Portrait of Baretti_ (Vol. VIII., p. 411.).--In reply to MR. G. R.
CORNER'S Query regarding Sir Joshua Reynolds' picture of Baretti, I can
give him the information he requires.

This very interesting portrait is now at my brother's, Holland House,

My late father, Lord Holland, had a pretty picture of the late Lord
Hertford's mother (I believe), or some near relation of his. Not being
connected with that family, my father offered it to Lord Hertford, leaving
it to his lordship to give him such picture as he might choose in exchange.
Some time afterwards this portrait of Baretti was sent, and was much prized
and admired. It represents Baretti reading a small book, which he holds
close to his face with both hands; he is in a white coat, and the whole
carries with it a certainty of resemblance. This occurred about twenty-five
years ago. Perhaps it may interest your readers to learn that our
distinguished {478} painter, Watts, painted for my brother, Lord Holland, a
portrait of another distinguished Italian, Mr. Panizzi, and pendant to the
former. He is represented leaning forward and writing, and the likeness is
very striking.


Addison Road.

_Passage in Sophocles._--In Vol. viii., p. 73., appears an article by MR.
BUCKTON, in which he quotes the following conclusion of a passage in

             "[Greek: Hotôi phrenas]
  [Greek: Theos agei pros atan;]
  [Greek: Prassein d' oligoston chronon ektos atas.]"

This, [Greek: petrôi stathmên harmozôn], he translates,--

    "Whose mind the God leads to destruction; _but that he_ (_the God_)
    practises this a short time without destroying such an one."

But for the Italics it might have been an oversight: they would seem to
imply he has some authority for his translation. I have no edition of
Sophocles by me to discover, but surely no critical scholar can acquiesce
in it. The only _active_ sense of [Greek: prassein] I remember at the
moment is _to exact_. It surely should be translated, "_And he, whom the
God so leads to_ [Greek: atê], _fares_ a _very_ short time without it." The
best translation of [Greek: atê] is, perhaps, _infatuation_. Moreover, how
is the above translation reconciled with the very superlative [Greek:


_Brothers of the same Name_ (Vol. viii., p. 338.).--It is not unusual in
old pedigrees to find two brothers or two sisters with the same Christian
name; but it is unusual to find more than two living at the same time with
only one Christian name between them: this, however, occurs in the family
of Gawdy of Gawdy Hall, Norfolk. Thos. Gawdy married three wives, and by
each had a son Thomas. The eldest was a serjeant-at-law, and died in 1556.
The second was a judge of the Queen's Bench, and died in November, 1587 or
1588. The third is known as Sir Francis Gawdy, Chief Justice of the Common
Pleas; but he also was baptized by the name of Thomas. Lord Coke, who
succeeded him as Chief Justice, says (Co. Lit. 3. a.):

    "If a man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after at his
    confirmation by the bishop he is named John, he may purchase by his
    name of confirmation; and this was the case of Sir Francis Gawdie, late
    C. J. of C. B., whose name of baptism was Thomas, and his name of
    confirmation Francis; and that name of Francis, by the advice of all
    the judges in anno 36 Henry VIII. (1544-5), he did bear and after used
    in all his purchases and grants."

The opportunity afforded by the Roman Catholic Church of thus changing the
baptismal name may help to account for this practice, which probably arose
from a desire to continue the particular name in the family. If one of two
sons with the same name of baptism died in childhood, the other continued
the name: if both lived, one of them might change his name at confirmation.
There is no name given at confirmation according to the form of the Church
of England.

F. B.

_High Dutch and Low Dutch_ (Vol. viii., p. 413.).--Considerable
misapprehension appears to have arisen with regard to these expressions,
from the fact of the German word _Deutsch_ being sometimes erroneously
understood to mean Dutch. But German scholars very well know that in
Germany nothing is more common than to speak of _Hoch Deutsch_ and _Nieder
Deutsch_ (High German and Low German), as applied respectively to that
language when grammatically spoken and correctly pronounced, and to the bad
grammar and worse pronunciation indulged in by many of the provincials, and
also by the lower class of people in some of the towns where High German is
supposed to prevail. Thus, for examples Dresden is regarded as the
head-quarters of _Hoch Deutsch_, because there the language is spoken and
pronounced with the most purity: Berlin, also, as regards the well-educated
classes, boasts of the _Hoch Deutsch_; but the common people (das Volk) of
the Prussian capital indulge in a dialect called _Nieder Deutsch_, and
speak and pronounce the language as though they were natives of some remote
province. Now, the instance of Berlin I take to be a striking illustration
of the meaning of these expressions, as both examples are comprised in the
case of this city.

The German word for "German" is _Deutsch_; for "Dutch" the German is
_Holländisch_; and I presume it is from the similarity of _Deutsch_ and
_Dutch_ that this common error is so frequently committed. For the future
let it be remembered, that _Dutch_ is a term which has no relation whatever
to German; and that "High German" is that language spoken and written in
its purity, "Low German" all the dialects and mispronunciations which do
not come up to the standard of correctness.


8. Arthur Street.

_Translations of the Prayer Book into French_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.; Vol.
viii., p. 343.).--Besides the editions already mentioned, a 4to. one was
published at London in 1689, printed by R. Everingham, and sold by R.
Bentley and M. Magnes. Prefixed to it is the placet of the king, dated 6th
October, 1662, with the subsequent approbation of Stradling, chaplain to
Gilbert (Sheldon), Bishop of London, dated 6th April, 1663.

It seems ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 92.) that a {479} copy is in the British
Museum; one is also in my possession.

I presume that there were other editions between the years 1663 and 1689.

H. P.

_Divining-rod_ (Vol. viii., p. 293.).--For a full account of the divining
rod see _La Physique occulte, ou Traité de la Baguette Divinatoire, &c._,
par Père L. de Vallemont, a work by no means uncommon, having passed
through several editions. Mine is "à Paris, chez Jean Boudot, avec priv.
1709, in 12^o. avec figures," with the addition of a "Traité de la
Connoissance des Causes Magnétiques, &c., par un Curieux."

A Cornish lady informs me that the Cornish miners to this day use the
divining-rod in the way represented in fig. 1. of the above-mentioned work.

R. J. R.

In the 351st number of the _Monthly Magazine_, dated March 1st, 1821, there
is a letter to the editor from W. Partridge, dated Boxbridge, Gloucester,
giving several instances of his having successfully used the divining-rod
for the purpose of discovering water. He says the gift is not possessed by
more than one in two thousand, and attributes the power to electricity.
Those persons in whose hands it will work must possess a redundancy of that
fluid. He also states that metals are discovered by the same means.

K. B.

_Slow-worm Superstition_ (Vol. vii., p. 33.).--The belief that the
slow-worm cannot die until sunset prevails in Dorsetshire. In the New
Forest the same superstition exists with regard to the brown adder. Walking
in the heathy country between Beaulieu and Christ Church I saw a very large
snake of this kind, recently beaten to death by the peasant boys, and on
remarking that the lower jaw continued to move convulsively, I was told it
would do so "till the moon was up."

An aged woman, now deceased, who had when young been severely bitten by a
snake, told me she always felt a severe pain and swelling near where the
wound had been, on the anniversary of the occurrence. Is this common? and
can it be accounted for?

W. E.

Pimperne, Dorset.

_Ravailliac_ (Vol. viii., p. 219.).--The destruction of the pyramid erected
at Paris upon the murder of Henry IV., is mentioned by Thuanus, _Hist._,
lib. 134. cap. 9. In your correspondent's Query, _Thesaur._ is, I presume,
misprinted for Thuan.

B. J.

_Lines on the Institution of the Garter_ (Vol. viii., p. 182.).--A. B. R.
says, "as also from the proverbial expression used in Scotland, and to be
found in Scott's _Works_, of 'casting a leggin girth,' as synonymous with a
female 'faux pas.'" I may mention to your correspondent (if he is not
already aware) that the expression is taken from Allan Ramsay's
continuation of _Christ's Kirk on the Green_ (edit. Leith, 1814, 1 vol. p.

 "Or bairns can read, they first maun spell,
    I learn'd this frae my mammy;
  And _coost a legen girth_ mysell,
    Lang or I married Tammie."

and is explained by the author in a note, "Like a tub that loses one of its
bottom hoops." In the west of Scotland the phrase is now restricted to a
young woman who has had an illegitimate child, or what is more commonly
termed "a misfortune," and it is probable never had another meaning.
_Legen_ or _leggen_ is not understood to have any affinity in its etymology
to the word _leg_, but is _laggen_, that part of the staves which projects
from the bottom of the barrel, or of the child's _luggie_, out of which he
sups his oatmeal _parritch_; and the _girth_, _gird_, or hoop, that by
which the vessel at this particular place is firmest bound together. Burns
makes a fine and emphatic use of the word _laggen_ in the "Birthday
Address," in speaking of the "Royal lasses dainty" (_Cunninghame_, edit.
1826, vol. ii. p. 329.):

 "God bless you a', consider now,
    Ye're unco muckle dantet:
  But ere the course o' life be thro'
    It may be bitter santet.
  An I hae seen their coggie fou,
    That yet hae tarrow't at it;
  But or the day was done, I trow,
    The _laggen_ they hae clautet."

which means, that at last, whether through pride, hunger, or long fasting,
the appetite had become so keen, that all, even to the last particle of the
_parritch_, was _clautet_, _scartit_, or scraped from the bottom of the
_coggie_, and to its inmost recesses surrounded by the _laggen girth_. Of
the motto of the garter, "Honi soit qui mal y pense," I have heard a
burlesque translation known but to few, in "_Honeys sweet quo' Mally
Spence_," synonymous with Proverbs, chap. ix. verse 17: "Stolen waters are
sweet, and bread _eaten_ in secret is pleasant."

G. N.

_Passage in Bacon_ (Vol. viii., p. 303.).--I had, partly from inadvertence,
and partly from a belief that a tautology would be created by a recurrence
to the idea of death, after the words "mortis terrore carentem," in the
preceding line, understood the verse in question to mean, "which regards
length of life as the last of Nature's gifts." On reconsideration, however,
I do not doubt that the received interpretation, which makes _spatium
extremum_ equivalent to _finem_, is the correct one.


_What Day is it at our Antipodes?_ (Vol. viii., p. 102.).--A person sailing
to our Antipodes westward will lose twelve hours; by sailing thither
eastward he will gain twelve hours. If {480} both meet at the same hour,
say eleven o'clock, the one will reckon 11 A.M., the other 11 P.M.


_Calves' Head Club_ (Vol. viii., p. 315.).--In Hone's _Every Day Book_,
vol. ii. pp. 158, 159, 160., some more information is given on the
interesting event referred to in the Note made by MR. E. G. BALLARD. A
print is given of the scene; and the obnoxious toasts are also quoted; they
are: "The pious memory of Oliver Cromwell;" "Damn--n to the race of the
Stuarts;" "The glorious year 1648;" "The man in the mask," &c. The print is
dated 1734, which proves that the meeting at which the disturbance arose
was not the first which had taken place.

S. A. S.


_Heraldic Query_ (Vol. viii., p. 219.).--Although A. was killed in open
rebellion, I think his armorial bearings were not forfeited unless he was
subsequently attainted by act of parliament; and even in that case it is
possible that the act contained a provision that the penalty should not
extend to the prejudice of any other person than the offender. Assuming
that A. was not attainted, or that the consequences of his attainder were
thus restricted to himself, or that his attainder has been reversed, it is
clear that his lawful posterity are still entitled to his arms,
notwithstanding the acceptance by his grandson C. of a new grant, which
obviously could no more affect the title to the ancient arms than the
creation of a modern barony can destroy the right of its recipient to an
older one. The descendants of C. being thus entitled to both coats, could,
I imagine, without difficulty obtain a recognition of their right; and I
think they might either use the ancient arms alone, or the ancient and the
modern arms quarterly, precedence being given to the former. The proper
course would be to seek the licence of the crown for the resumption of the
ancient surname, as well as of the arms. Such permission would, I
apprehend, be now conceded, even though it should appear that the arms were
really forfeited.


Emberton, Bucks.

_The Temple Lands in Scotland_ (Vol. viii., p. 317.).--These lands, or a
portion of them, were acquired, and afterwards transferred by sale, to Mr.
Gracie, by James Maidment, Esq., the eminent Scottish antiquary, who, in
1828-29, privately printed--

    "Templaria: Papers Relative to the History, Privileges, and Possessions
    of the Scottish Knights Templars, and their Successors, the Knights of
    St. John of Jerusalem, with Notes," &c.

This will no doubt contain all that your correspondent ABREDONENSIS could
desire upon the subject, provided he can obtain it; for the work,
professing to be printed by the author for presents, is confined to
twenty-five copies, and must therefore be rare. In 1831 was published by
Stevenson, Edinburgh, an _Historical Account of Linlithgowshire_, by the
late John Penney.[9] This is edited by Mr. Maidment, and contains a chapter
entitled an "Account of the Transmission of the United Estates of the
Templars and Hospitallers, after the dissolution of the Order in the reign
of Queen Mary;" and although the object of the editor is to notice the
charters connected with Linlithgowshire, the book contains a sketch of the
general history of the lands in question, abridged from the _Templaria_.

J. O.

[Footnote 9: Query the late George Chalmers.]

_Sir John Vanbrugh_ (Vol. viii., p. 65. &c.).--In _An Account of the Life
and Death of Mr. Matthew Henry_, published in the year 1716, his biographer
having related that he was chosen a minister of a congregation of
Dissenters in the city of Chester, and that he went there to reside on the
first day of June, 1687, goes on to state (p. 75.):

    "That city was then very happy in several worthy gentlemen that had
    habitations there; they were not altogether strangers to Mr. Henry
    before he came to live among them, but now they came to be his very
    intimate acquaintance; some of these, as Alderman Mainwaring and Mr.
    Vanbrugh, father to Sir John Vanbrugh, were in communion with the
    Church of England, but they heard Mr. Henry on the week-day lectures,
    and always treated him with great and serious respect."

This evidence serves to show that a Mr. Vanbrugh, who was living in Chester
in 1687, was the father of Sir John Vanbrugh. I have been told that in
former times there was a sugar-bakery at Chester. Did the father of Sir
John Vanbrugh carry on that business at Chester during any period of his
residence there?

N. W. S.

_Sir Arthur Aston_ (Vol. viii., p. 126.).--In reference to the Query of
your correspondent CHARTHAM, I take leave to refer him to Playfair's
_Baronetage_, vol. ii. p. 257., where a pedigree of that ancient family is
inserted. In p. 261. is a note, by which it appears that the said Sir
Arthur Aston had a daughter Elizabeth, born in Russia, and married to James
Thompson of Joyce Grove in Berkshire.

In addition thereto, I recollect seeing the copy of a deed of sale, dated
April, 1637, by which it appears that Nicholas Hercy, of Nettlebed, in co.
Oxon., sold to James Thompson of Wallingford, in co. Berkshire, "Joys
Grove," in Nettlebed aforesaid; and there is united with the same James
Thompson, apparently as a trustee, "George Tattersall the younger, of
Finchampstead in said co. of Berkshire."


I also take leave to refer your correspondent to Lysons's _Environs of
London_, vol. ii. p. 393., under head of "Fulham," where it is stated that
Sir Arthur Aston's father resided in that parish.


_Nugget_ (Vol. viii., p. 357.).--Colonel Mundy, in _Our Antipodes_, says
that the word _nugget_ was, before the days of gold digging, used by the
farmers of Australia to express a small thick bullock, such as our English
farmers would call a lumpy one, or a little great one.


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GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


In the Press, and will be published, in 1 vol. folio, price 10s. 6d.

Records and Instruments further illustrating the Ancient Conventual,
Collegiate, and Eleemosynary Foundations in the Counties of Devon and
Cornwall. By GEORGE OLIVER, D.D. To correspond exactly in size, paper, and
type with the original work, and to contain a large folding Map of the
Diocese of Exeter at the time of the Dissolution of Monasteries. When
published, the price will be raised.

Subscribers' Names received by A. HOLDEN, Bookseller, Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *


XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments.--The superiority of this preparation is now universally
acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal
scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no
preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect
pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where
a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in
separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to
any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware of
purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent.
The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label
bearing this Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL
MALL, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals: and may be procured of
all respectable Chemists, in Pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through
MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., 95.
Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases. Passepartoutes. Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAL AND SON'S EIDER DOWN QUILTS are made in three Varieties--the BORDERED
QUILT, the PLAIN QUILT, and the DUVET. The Bordered Quilt is in the usual
form of Bed Quilts, and is a most elegant and luxurious article. The Plain
Quilt is smaller, and useful as an extra covering on the bed, or as a
wrapper in the carriage, or on the couch. The Duvet is a loose case filled
with Eider Down as in general use on the Continent. Lists of Prices and
Sizes sent free by Post, on application to

  HEAL & SON'S Bedding Factory,
  196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


LIBRARIAN.--Wanted a Gentleman of Literary Attainments, competent to
undertake the duty of Librarian in the Leeds Library. The Institution
consists of about 500 Proprietary Members, and an Assistant Librarian is
employed. The hours of attendance required will be from 10 A.M. to 8 P.M.
daily, with an interval of two hours. Salary 120l. a year. Applications,
with Certificates of Qualifications, must be sent by letter, post paid, not
later then 1st December next, to ABRAHAM HORSFALL, ESQ., Hon. Sec., 9. Park
Row, Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE FOR NOVEMBER contains the following articles--1.
Sir Walter Raleigh at Sherborne. 2. The Pariah Girl, a Poem: by the Rev.
John Mitford. 3. Cotele, and the Edgecumbes of the Olden Time, by Mrs.
Bray, Part II. 4. The Annals of Appetite: Soyer's Pantropheon. 5. Notes on
Mediæval Art France and Germany, by J. G. Waller: Mayence, Heidelberg,
Basle, and Strasburg. 6. Remarks on the White Horse of Saxony and
Brunswick, by Stephen Martin Leake, Esq., Garter. 7. The Campaigns of
1793-95 in Flanders and Holland. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban:
Counsels' Fees and Lawyers' Bills; Shops in Westminster Hall; The Family of
Phipps; Mr. John Knill of St Ive's; Antiquity of the Mysterious Word
"Wheedle." With Notes of the Month; Historical and Miscellaneous Reviews;
Reports of the Archæological Societies of Wales, Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Suffolk, and Essex; Historical Chronicle; and
OBITUARY, including Memoirs of Earl Brownlow, Lord Anderson, Right Hon. Sir
Frederick Adam, Adm. Sir Charles Adam, James Dodsley Cuff, Esq., Mr.
Adolphus Asher, Leon Jablonski, &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Will be ready in November,

MILLER, ESQ., Author of "Rural Sketches," &c. With Thirty Engravings of the
Olden Time, from Drawings by J. M. W. TURNER and T. GIRTIN, Portraits, &c.
Handsomely bound, price One Guinea.

HOGARTH, Haymarket, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Fourth Edition of RUINS OF MANY LANDS. NOTICE.--A Fourth and Cheaper
Edition, Revised and considerably Enlarged, of MR. MICHELL'S "RUINS OF MANY
LANDS," with Portrait, cloth, price 4s. 6d.

This Edition contains Remarks on Layard's latest Discoveries at Nineveh,
and treats of nearly all the Ruins of Interest now in the world.

  London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO.,
  85. Queen Street, Cheapside.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOLUMES of SECOND-HAND BOOKS. Catalogues Gratis, and Post Free. N.B.
Libraries purchased or exchanged. A discount of 2d. in the 1s. allowed on
all new books. Ency. Britt., 7th edit., by Napier, 18 gs.; another, 6th
edit., calf, 12 gs.; Ency. Met., last edit., hf. clf., 18 gs.; Penny
Cyclo., 29 vols., hf. clf. 7 gs.; Illustrated London News, to end of 1852,
cloth, 12 gs.; Stafford Gallery Collection of Pictures, 2 vols. fol., mor.
elegant, 5 gs.; Rose's Biographical Dictionary, 12 vols. 8vo. cloth, new,
4l. 8s., &c.--70. Newgate Street, City, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

TWELFTH PUBLIC DRAWING.--The Fifteenth Purchase of Land having just been
made for the CONSERVATIVE LAND SOCIETY, consisting of a Mansion and Part of
Seventy-four Acres at St. Margaret's on the Banks of the Thames, opposite
Richmond Gardens, close to Three Stations on the South-Western Railroad, it
has been resolved that the TWELFTH PUBLIC DRAWING shall take place at
Freemason's Hall, at 8 o'clock in the evening, on Thursday, November the
17th, Viscount Ranelagh in the Chair. On this occasion, 131 Shares will be
added to the Order of Rights for priority of Selection on the Society
Estates, namely, 87 by drawing, and 44 by seniority of date of Membership.
All Shares taken prior to the final numbers being placed in the wheel, will
be included in this drawing.


       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
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flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin,
rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea,
and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
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_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
    Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
    authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
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    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
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    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
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    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society.


_Subscribed capital, ONE MILLION._


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum
assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on
Capital, for a Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
nearly Two PER CENT. per annum on the _amount assured_, or at the rate of
from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the _Premiums paid_.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.


The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'clock. Assurances may be effected by
applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of
the Society. where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be


       *       *       *       *       *

offered by this Society are Security, Economy, and lower Rates of Premium
than most other Offices.

No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low as
20l., at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

              PETER MORRISON,
                  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites. Gratis on
application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



In 12mo., price 9s.

THE SECOND HEBREW BOOK: containing the BOOK of GENESIS, with Syntax,
Vocabulary, and Grammatical Commentary. By the late REV. T. K. ARNOLD,
M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge;
and the REV. H. BROWNE, M.A. Canon of Chichester.

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had,

THE FIRST HEBREW BOOK: on the Plan of "Henry's First Latin Book." 7s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following Works illustrative of English History, Genealogy, &c., may be
had of the Author and Designer, No. 30. Gilbert Street, Grosvenor Square,
at the prices set against the respective works. Copies will be forwarded,
Post Free, on Receipt of a Post Office Order for the amount.

I. Roll of Arms granted by Henry III. as Hereditary Bearings to the
Nobility. Price, in colours, 1l. 10s. 6d. Emblazoned in gold, 2l. 2s.

II. Roll of Arms granted by Edward I. as Hereditary Bearings to the Knights
Companions at the Siege of Karlaverock, A.D. 1300. Price, in colours, 15s.
6d. Emblazoned in gold, 21s.

III. Roll of Arms granted by Richard II. to his Nobility, A.D. 1377. Price,
in colours, 4l. 14s. 6d. Emblazoned in gold, 6l. 6s.

IV. Roll of Arms of all the Knights of the Garter from their Installation
Plates at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, &c. Price, in colours, 15l.
15s. Emblazoned in gold, 21l.

V. Facsimile of Magna Charta, with Arms of the Barons.

VI. Genealogy of Sovereigns of England from Egbert, with their Arms, &c.
Price coloured, 21s. Emblazoned in gold, 1l. 11s. 6d.

VII. Facsimiles of the Warrant for the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots and
of King Charles I. Price, on parchment, 2s. 6d. each. On vellum paper, 1s.
6d. each.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCIENCE OF ARCHERY, showing its Affinity to Heraldry, &c. By A. P.
HARRISON, Author of "Treatise on the Formation of the English
Constitution," &c. 8vo. Price 3s. 6d.

A. P. HARRISON, 30. Gilbert Street, Grosvenor Square

       *       *       *       *       *

Price 1½d.

CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL. No. 515. Saturday, Nov. 12, 1853.


  The Sea-side Resorts of the Londoners.
  A few Jottings about Maps.
  Trouble-the-House: A Legend of Livonia.
  Present Aspects of Life Assurance.
  Poetry of Trees.
  Alligators of the Valley of the Amazon.

W. & R. CHAMBERS, 3. Bride Court Passage, Fleet Street, London; and 339.
High Street, Edinburgh. And sold by all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following Documents and Letters are Missing within the last Twelve

Letters from Mathew Hutton to the Duke of Somerset, describing the Three
Daughters of Lord Winchelsea, enigmatically, as Three Books. Dated August,

Letters from Beau Nash as to Ladies C. and H. Finch. Dated August and
September, 1725.

Letter from W. Edwards to Mathew Hutton. Dated Burly, December 11th, 1725.

Letters containing A Proposal of Marriage from the Duke of Somerset to Lady
C. Finch. Dated 1725.

Letter from the Duke of Somerset to the Earl of Winchelsea on the same

Letters between Lord Granville and the Duke of Somerset, as to Titles on
the Death of the Duke's Grandson. Dated November and December, 1744.

Autograph Notes from George III. to Charles, Earl of Egremont, on Public
Business. Dated 1762 and 1763.

Letter of Lord Lyttleton to the Earl of Egremont, inclosing Complimentary
Verses to Lady Egremont. Dated January 1st, 1761.

A Particular of the Duchess of Somerset's Debts. Dated October 7th, 1697.

Holograph Letter from Charles II. to the Countess of Northumberland,
proposing the Marriage of his son George with her Grand-daughter, the Percy

Letter from Lord Hertford to his Father, consenting to marry.

The Commencement of a Letter of Lord Nelson's, &c. &c.

Any information relative to the above will be thankfully received and a
liberal Reward paid on restoration of the Papers.

Apply to MESSRS. RYMER, A. MURRAY, & RYMER, No. 5. Whitehall, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day is published,

A CATALOGUE of a very Choice and Valuable Collection of Books, Ancient and
Modern, in the English and Foreign Languages, and Books of Prints, in very
fine condition, also some beautifully Illuminated Manuscripts upon Vellum,
including a most splendid Vellum MS. of the Latin Bible, in two very large
volumes folio, written circa 1380; also a richly Illuminated Copy of
Ferdosi's Shah Nameh, in Persian, with Thirty-seven beautiful
Paintings:--principally bound by the best Binders, Derome, Bozerian,
Kalthoeber, Walther, Lewis, Clarke, Bedford, Riviere, Aitken, &c.: selected
from the Libraries of the Rev. Dr. Hawtrey, Provost of Eton; Very Rev. Dr.
Butler, Dean of Peterborough, formerly Head Master of Harrow; Right Hon.
Warren Hastings, formerly Governor-General of India; Rev. R. J. Coates,
Sopworth House, Gloucestershire, collected by him during the last sixty
years, with great taste and judgment, regardless of expense; S. Freeman,
Esq., Fawley Court (built by Inigo Jones), Henley-on-Thames; John Miller,
Esq., of Lincoln's Inn; and various other Libraries sold in London and the
Country, with some private purchases. Now on sale at the prices affixed, by

JOSEPH LILLY, 19. King Street, Covent Garden, London.

This Valuable Catalogue will be forwarded to any gentleman inclosing Two
Postage Stamps to prepay it. It may also be seen attached to the
"Gentleman's Magazine" for November.

*** Such a Catalogue of Rare, Valuable and Choice Books, in fine condition,
has not been published for some years.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day is published, price 8s. 6d.


Cambridge. Second Edition, carefully revised.

  Cambridge: JOHN DEIGHTON.
  London: GEORGE BELL.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day is published. price 5s. 6d.

M.A., Mathematical Lecturer and Late Fellow of Sidney Sussex College,

  Cambridge: JOHN DEIGHTON.
  London: GEORGE BELL, Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s.


Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by
C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same Author, Price 1s.,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr. Thomas

    "Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M.
    Jobert."--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand. Cambridge: E. JOHNSON. Birmingham: H.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November
12. 1853.

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Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.