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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 212, November 19, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 212, November 19, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 212.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page

    Party-Similes of the Seventeenth Century:--No. 1.
      "Foxes and Firebrands." No. 2. "The Trojan
      Horse"                                             485
    Testimonials to Donkeys, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.      488
    Longevity in Cleveland, Yorkshire, by William Durrant
      Cooper                                             488
    Rev. Josiah Pullen                                   489

    FOLK LORE:--Ancient Custom in Warwickshire--
      Nottinghamshire Customs                            490

    MINOR NOTES:--A Centenarian Couple--"Veni,
      vidi, vici"--Autumnal Tints--Variety is pleasing--
      Rome and the Number Six--Zend Grammar--The
      Duke's First Victory--Straw Paper--American
      Epitaph                                            490


    Laurie (?) on Currency, &c.                          491
    "Donatus Redivivus"                                  492

    MINOR QUERIES:--Henry Scobell--The Court House
      --Ash-trees attract Lightning--Symbol of Sow, &c.
      --Passage in Blackwood--Rathband Family--
      Encaustic Tiles from Caen--Artificial Drainage--
      Storms at the Death of Great Men--Motto on Wylcotes'
      Brass--"Trail through the leaden sky," &c.--
      Lord Audley's Attendants at Poictiers--Roman
      Catholic Bible Society                             493

      Dei"--"Lanquettes Cronicles"--"Our English
      Milo"--"Delights for Ladies"--Burton's Death
      --Joannes Audoënus--Hampden's Death                494


    "Pinece with a Stink," by W. Pinkerton, &c.          496
    Monumental Brasses abroad, by Josiah Cato            497
    Milton's "Lycidas," by C. Mansfield Ingleby          497
    School Libraries, by Weld Taylor and G. Brindley
      Acworth                                            498
    Cawdray's "Treasurie of Similies," and Simile of
      Magnetic Needle, by Rev. E. C. Harington, &c.      499
    "Mary, weep no more for me," by J. W. Thomas         500

      --Albumenized Paper--Stereoscopic Angles
      --Photographic Copies of MSS.                      501

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Lord Cecil's "Memorials"
      --Foreign Medical Education--Encyclopædias
      --Pepys's Grammar--"Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus
      Mundi"--Napoleon's Spelling--Black as a mourning
      Colour--Chanting of Jurors--Aldress--Huggins
      and Muggins--Camera Lucida--"When Orpheus
      went down"--The Arms of De Sissone--Oaths of
      Pregnant Women--Lepel's Regiment--Editions of
      the Prayer Book prior to 1662--Creole--Daughter
      pronounced "Dafter"--Richard Geering--Island       502


    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                         505
    Notices to Correspondents                            505
    Advertisements                                       505

       *       *       *       *       *



With Englishmen, at least, the seventeenth was a century pre-eminent for
quaint conceits and fantastic similes: the literature of that period,
whether devotional, poetical, or polemical[1], was alike infected with the
universal mania for strained metaphors, and men vied with each other in
giving extraordinary titles to books, and making the {486} contents justify
the title. Extravagance and the far-fetched were the gauge of wit: Donne,
Herbert, and many a man of genius foundered on this rock, as well as
Cowley, who acted up to his own definition:

 "In a true Piece of Wit _all things_ must be,
    Yet all things there agree;
  As in the _Ark_, join'd without force or strife,
  All creatures dwelt--all creatures that had life."

It is not, however, for the purpose of illustrating this mania that I am
about to dwell on the two similes which form the subject of my present
Note: I selected them as favourite party-similes which formed a standing
dish for old Anglican writers; and also because they throw light on the
history of religious party in England, and thus form a suitable supplement
to my article on "High Church and Low Church" (Vol. viii., p. 117.).

As the object of the Church of England, in separating from Rome, was the
_reformation_, not the _destruction_ of her former faith, by the very act
of reformation she found herself opposed to two bodies; namely, _that_ from
which she separated, and the ultra-reformers or Puritans, who clamoured for
a _radical_ reformation.

Taking these as the Scylla and Charybdis--the two extremes to be
avoided--the Anglican Church hoped to attain the safe and golden mean by
steering between these opposites, and find, in this _via media_ course, the
path of truth.

Accordingly, her divines abound with warnings against the aforesaid Scylla
and Charybdis, and with exhortations to cleave to the middle line of
safety. Acting on the proverb that _extremes meet_, they were ever drawing
parallels between their two opponents. On the other hand, the Puritans
stoutly contended that _they_ were the true middle-men; and in their turn
traced divers similarities and parallels betwixt "Popery and Prelacy," the
"Mass Book and Service Book."[2]

Without farther preface, I shall give the title of a curious work, which
will tell its own story:

    "_Foxes and Firebrands_; or _A Specimen of the Danger and Harmony of
    Popery and Separation_. Wherein is proved from undeniable Matter of
    Fact and Reason, that Separation from the Church of England is, in the
    Judgment of Papists, and by Experience, found the most Compendious way
    to introduce Popery, and to ruine the Protestant Religion:

     '_Tantum Religio potuit suadere Malorum._'"

A work under this title was published, if I mistake not, in London in 1678
by Dr. Henry Nalson; in 1682, Robert Ware reprinted it with a second part
of his own; and in 1689 he added a _third_ and last part in 12mo., uniform
with the previous volume.[3] In the Epist. Ded. to Part II. the writer says
of the Church of England:

    "The Papists on the one hand, and the Puritans on the other, did
    endeavour to sully and bespatter the glory of her Reformation: the one
    taxing it with innovation, and the other with superstition."

The Preface to the Third Part declares that the object of the whole work is
"to reclaim the most haggard Papists" and Puritans.

Wheatly, in treating of the State Service for the 29th of May, remarks:

    "The Papists and Sectaries, like Sampson's Foxes, though they look
    contrary ways, do yet both join in carrying Fire to destroy us: their
    End is the same, though the method be different."--_Rational Illust. of
    the Book of Common Prayer_, 3rd edit., London, 1720, folio.

The following passage occurs in _A Letter to the Author of the Vindication
of the Clergy_, by Dr. Eachard, London, 1705:

    "I have put in hard, I'll assure you, in all companies, for two or
    three more: as for example, _The Papist and the Puritan being tyed
    together like Sampson's Foxes_. I liked it well enough, and have
    beseeched them to let it pass for a phansie; but I could never get the
    rogues in a good humour to do it: for they say that _Sampson's foxes_
    have been so very long and so very often tied together, that it is high
    time to part them. It may be because something very like it is to be
    found in a printed sermon, which was preached thirty-eight years ago:
    it is no flam nor whisker. It is the forty-third page upon the right
    hand. Yours go thus, viz. _Papist and Puritan, like Sampson's Foxes,
    though looking and running two several ways, yet are ever joyned
    together the tail._ My author has it thus, viz. _The Separatists and
    the Romanists consequently to their otherwise most distant principles
    do fully agree, like Sampson's Foxes, tyed together by the tails, to
    set all on fire, although their faces look quite contrary ways._"--P.

It would be easy to multiply passages in which this simile occurs; but what
I have given is {487} suffcient for my purpose, and I must leave room for
"The Trojan Horse."[4]

I must content myself with giving the title of the following work, as I
have never met with the book itself: _The Trojan Horse, or The Presbyterian
Government Unbowelled_, London, 1646.

In a brochure of Primate Bramhall's, entitled

    "A Faire Warning for England to take heed of the Presbyterian
    Government.... Also the Sinfulnesse and Wickednesse of the _Covenant_,
    to introduce that Government upon the Church of England."

the second paragraph of the first page proceeds:

    "But to see those very men who plead so vehemently against all kinds of
    tyranny, attempt to obtrude their own dreames not only upon their
    fellow-subjects, but upon their sovereigne himself, contrary to the
    dictates of his own conscience, contrary to all law of God and man; yea
    to compell forreigne churches to dance after their pipe, to worship
    that counterfeit image which they feign to have fallen down from
    Jupiter, and by force of arms to turne their neighbours out of a
    possession of above 1400 years, to make roome for their _Trojan Horse_
    of ecclesiastical discipline (a practice never justified in the world
    but either by the Turk or by the Pope): this put us upon the defensive
    part. They must not think that other men are so cowed or grown so tame,
    as to stand still blowing of their noses, whilst they bridle them and
    ride them at their pleasure. It is time to let the world see that _this
    discipline_ which they so much adore, is _the very quintessence of
    refined Popery_."

My copy of this tract has no place or date: but it appears to have been
printed at the Hague in 1649. It was answered in the same year by "Robert
Baylie, minister at Glasgow," whose reply was "printed at Delph."

As the tide of the time and circumstance rolled on, this simile gained
additional force and depth; and to understand the admirable aptitude of its
application in the passage I shall next quote, a few preliminary remarks
are necessary.

There was always in the Church of England a portion of her members who
could not forget that the Puritans, though external to her communion, were
yet fellow Protestants; that they differed not in kind, but in degree--and
that these differences were insignificant compared with those of Rome. At
the same time, they reflected that perhaps the Church of England was not
exactly in the middle, and that she would not lose were she to move a
little nearer the Puritan side. Accordingly, various attempts were made to
enlarge the terms of her communion, and eject from her service-book any
lingering "relics of Popery" which might offend the weaker brethren yclept
the Puritans: thus to make a grand Comprehension Creed--a Church to include
all Protestants.

This was tried in James I.'s reign at the Savoy Conference; but in spite of
Baxter's strenuous efforts and model prayer-book, it was a failure. Even
Archbishop Sancroft was led to attempt a similar Comprehensive Scheme, so
terrified was he at the dominance of the Roman Church in the Second James's
reign: however, William's accession, and his becoming a nonjuror, crossed
his design. In 1689, Tillotson, Burnet, and a number of William's
"Latitudinarian" clergy made a bold push for it. A Comprehension Bill
actually passed the House of Lords, but was thrown out by the Commons and
Convocation. From William's time toleration and encouragement were extended
to all save "Popish Recusants;" so that there were a large number in the
Church of England ready to assist their comrades _outside_ in breaking down
her fences. The High Churchmen, however, as may be guessed, would not sit
tamely by, and see the leading idea of the Anglican Church thrown to the
winds, her _via media_ profaned, her park made a common, and her
distinctive doctrines and fences levelled to the ground. What _their_
feelings were, may be gathered from this indignant invective:

    "The most of the inconveniences we labour under to this day, owe their
    original to the weakness of some and to the cowardice of others of the
    clergy. For had they stood stiff and inflexible at first against the
    encroachments and intrigues of a Puritanical faction, like a threefold
    cord, we could not have been so easily shattered and broken. The
    dissenters, as well skilled in the art of war, have besieged the Church
    in form: and at all periods and seasons have raised their batteries,
    and carried on their saps and counter-scarps against her. They have
    left no means unessayed or practised, to weaken her. And when open
    violence has been baffled, and useless, _stratagem_ and contrivance
    have supplied what force could never effect. Hence it is, that under
    the cant of _conscience_ and _scruple_, they have feigned a compliance
    of embracing her communion; if such and such ceremonies and rules that
    then stood in force could be omitted, or connived at: and having once
    broke ground on her discipline, they have continued to carry on their
    trenches, and had almost brought the _Great Comprehension-Horse_ within
    our walls; whilst the _complying_, or the _moderate_ clergy (as they
    are called), like the infatuated _Trojans_, helped forward the
    _unwieldy machine_; nor were they aware of the danger and destruction
    that might have issued out of him."--_The Entertainer_, London, 1718,
    p. 153.[5]


I shall but add a postscript to my former Note. In "N. & Q." (Vol. viii.,
p. 156.), a number of pamphlets on High Church and Low Church are referred
to. A masterly sketch of the two theories is given at pp. 87, 88. of Mr.
Kingsley's _Yeast_, London, 1851.


[Footnote 1: Dr. Eachard, in his work on _The Grounds and Occasions of the
Contempt of the Clergy and Religion inquired into_, London, 1712, after
ably showing up the pedantry of some preachers, next attacks the
"indiscreet and horrid Metaphor Mongers." "Another thing that brings great
disrespect and mischief upon the clergy ... is their packing their sermons
so full of similitudes" (p. 41.). Eachard has a museum of curiosities in
this line. _The Puritan Pulpit_, however, far outstrips even the incredible
nonsense and irreverence which he adduces. Let any one curious in such
matters dip into a collection of Scotch Sermons of the seventeenth century.
Sir W. Scott, in some of his works, has endeavoured to give a faint idea of
the extraordinary way in which passages of Holy Scripture were applied in
the same century. I have a very curious _book of soliloquies_, which
unfortunately wants the title-page. From internal evidence, however, it
appeals to have been written in Ireland in the seventeenth century: the
writer signs himself "P. P." The editor of this little 12mo., in "An
Epistle to the Reader," after reprehending "the wits of our times" for
"quibbling and drolling upon the Bible," says immediately after:--"This
author's _innocent abuse of Scripture_ is so far from countenancing, that
it rather shames and condemns that licentious and abominable practice. Nor
can we admit of the most useful allusions without that harmless (nay
helpful and advantageous) [Greek: katachrêsis], or abuse here practised:
wherein the words are indeed used to another, but yet to a Holy end and
purpose, besides that for which they were at first instituted and
intended." The most reverend of our readers must need smile, were I to give
a specimen of this "innocent abuse."

While noticing the false wit which passed current in that century, we must
not forget that the same age produced a South and a Butler: and that in
beauty of simile, few, if any, surpass Bishop Jeremy Taylor.]

[Footnote 2: An Analysis of the "divers pamphlets published against the
Book of Common Prayer" would make a very curious volume. Take a passage
from the _Anatomy of the Service Book_, for instance: "The cruellest of the
American savages, called the Mohaukes, though they fattened their captive
Christians to the slaughter, yet they eat them up at once; but the
Service-book savages eat the servants of God by piece-meal: keeping them
alive (if it may be called a life) _ut sentiant se mori_, that they may be
the more sensible of their dying" (p. 56.). Sir Walter Scott quotes a
curious tract in _Woodstock_, entitled _Vindication of the Book of Common
Prayer against the Contumelious Slanders of the Fanatic Party terming it_
"Porridge." The author of this singular and rare tract (says Sir W.)
indulges in the allegorical style, till he fairly hunts down the allegory.
The learned divine chases his metaphor at a very cold scent, through a
pamphlet of his mortal quarto pages.--See a _Parallel of the Liturgy with
the Mass Book, Breviary, &c._, by Robert Baylie. 1661, 4to.]

[Footnote 3: [See "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 172.--ED.]]

[Footnote 4: See Grey's _Hudibras_, Dublin, 1744, vol. ii. p. 248., vol. i.
pp. 150, 151., where allusions both to "The Trojan Mare" and tying "the fox
tails together" occur. Butler was versed in the controversies of his day,
and, moreover, loved to satirise the metaphor mania by his exquisitely
comic similes.]

[Footnote 5: Let any one interested in the history of Comprehension refer
to the proceedings relative to the formation of the "Evangelical Alliance."
Jeremy Collier gives a curious parallel:--"Lord Burleigh, upon some
complaint against the Liturgy, bade the Dissenters draw up another, and
contrive the offices in such a form as might give general satisfaction to
their brethren. Upon this overture the first classis struck out their
lines, and drew mostly by the portrait of Geneva. This draught was referred
to the consideration of a second classis, who made no less than _six
hundred_ exceptions to it. The third classis quarrelled with the
corrections of the second, and declared for a new model. The fourth refined
no less upon the third. The treasurer advised all these reviews, and
different committees, on purpose to break their measures and silence their
clamours against the Church. However, since they could not come to any
agreement in a form for divine service, he had a handsome opportunity for a
release: for now they could not decently importune him any farther. To part
smoothly with them, he assured their agents that, when they came to any
unanimous resolve upon the matter before them, they might expect his
friendship, and that he should be ready to bring their scheme to a
settlement." Collier's _Hist._, vol. viii. p. 16. See Cardwell's _Hist. of
the Conference connected with the Revision of the Book of Common Prayer_,
London, 1849, 8vo. See also _Quarterly Review_, vol. 1. pp. 508-561., No.
C. Jan. 1834. The present American Prayer Book is formed on the
Comprehension scheme. Last year Pickering published a _Book of Common
Prayer of the Church of England, adapted for General Use in other
Protestant Churches_, which is well worth referring to.

Those who wished to "comprehend" at the Roman side of the _via media_ were
very few. Elizabeth and Laud are the most prominent instances. Charles I.,
and afterwards the Nonjurors, had schemes of communion with the Greek
Church. A _History of Comprehension_ would involve a historical notice of
the Thirty-nine Articles, and the plan of Comprehension maintained by some
to be the intention of their framers. It should include also distinctive
sketches of the classes formerly denominated _Church Papists_ and _Church

       *       *       *       *       *


The following extract from an article on "Angling in North Wales," which
appeared in _The Field_ newspaper of October 22nd, contains a specimen of
an entirely original kind of testimonial, which seems to me worthy of
preservation in "N. & Q.'s" museum of curiosities:

    "Beguiled by the treacherous representations of a certain Mr. Williams,
    and the high character of his donkeys, I undertook the ascent of Dunas
    Bran, and poked about among the ruins of Crow Castle on its summit,
    where I found nothing of any consequence, except an appetite for my
    dinner. The printed paper which Mr. Williams hands about, deploring the
    loss of his 'character,' and testifying to the wonderful superiority of
    all his animals, is rather amusing. Mr. Williams evidently never had a
    donkey 'what wouldn't go.' This paper commences with an affidavit from
    certain of the householders and _literati_ of Llangollen, that he 'had
    received numerous testimonials, all of which we are sorry to say _has_
    been lost.' Those preserved, however, and immortalised in print,
    suffice to establish Mr. Williams' reputation:

    "Mr. W. and his son and daughter bear testimony to the civility and
    attention of Mr. Williams _and_ his donkeys.

    "S. P., Esquire, attended at the Haud Hotel, 24th June, 1851, and
    engaged four of Mr. Williams' donkeys for the use of a party of ladies,
    who expressed themselves highly gratified. The animals were remarkably
    tractable, and void of stupidity.

    "Mrs. D. A. B. visited Valle Crucis Abbey on the back of Mr. Williams'
    ass, and is well satisfied.

     "Sept. 4. 1852.
          This is to certify that
            LADY MARSHALL
        Is to Donkeys very partial,
        And no postilion in a car, shall
      Ever more her drive
        O'er all the stones;
        On 'Jenny Jones'
      She'll ride while she's alive!"

Those who have visited Malvern will remember the vast quantity of donkeys
who rejoice in the cognomen of "The Royal Moses." Their history is as
follows:--When the late Queen Dowager was at Malvern, she frequently
ascended the hills on donkey-back; and on all such occasions patronised a
poor old woman, whose stud had been reduced, by a succession of
misfortunes, to a solitary donkey, who answered to the name of "Moses." At
the close of her visit, her majesty, with that kindness of heart which was
such a distinguishing trait in her character, not only liberally rewarded
the poor old woman, but asked her if there was anything that she could do
for her which would be likely to bring back her former prosperity. The old
woman turned the matter over in her mind, and then said, "Please your
majesty to give a name to my donkey." This her Majesty did. "Moses" became
"the Royal Moses;" every body wanted to ride him; the old woman's custom
increased, and when the favoured animal died (for he is dead) he left
behind him a numerous family, all of whom called after their father, "the
Royal Moses."


       *       *       *       *       *


A cursory conversation with a lady in her eighty-fifth year, now living at
Skelton in Cleveland, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, when she {489}
deprecated the notion that she was one of the _old_ inhabitants, led me to
inquire more particularly into the duration of life in that township. The
minister, the Rev. W. Close, who has been the incumbent since the year
1813, and who has had the duties to perform, and the registers to keep,
therefore, from about the period of the act which required the age to be
stated, now forty years ago, was most willing to give me aid and extracts
from the burial register, from the commencement of 1813 to August, 1852,
during which period 799 persons were buried. The extracts show these
extraordinary facts.

Out of the 799 persons buried in that period, no less than 263, or nearly
one-third, attained the age of 70. Of these two, viz. Mary Postgate, who
died in 1816, and Ann Stonehouse, who died in 1823, attained respectively
the ages of 101. Nineteen others were 90 years of age and upwards, viz. one
was 97, one was 96, one was 95, four were 94, one was 93, five were 92,
three were 91, and three were 90. Between the ages of 80 and 90 there died
109, of whom thirty-nine were 85 and upwards, and seventy were under 85;
and between the ages of 70 and 80 there died 133, of whom sixty-five were
75 years and upwards, and sixty-eight were between 70 and 75. In one page
of the register containing eight names, six were above 80, and in another
five were above 70.

In this parish of Skelton there is now living a man named Moon, 104 years
old, who is blind now, but managed a small farm till nearly or quite 100;
and a blacksmith named Robinson Cook, aged 98, who worked at his trade till
May last.

In the chapelry of Brotton, which adjoins Skelton township, and has been
also under the spiritual charge of Mr. Close, the longevity is even more
remarkable. Out of 346 persons buried since the new register came into
force in 1813, down to 1st October, 1853, no less than 121, or more than
one-third, attained the age of 70. One Betty Thompson, who died in 1834,
was 101; nineteen were more than 90, of whom one was 98, two were 97, three
were 95, one was 93, four were 92, five were 91, and three were 90; there
were forty-four who died between 80 and 90 years old, of whom nineteen were
85 and upwards, and twenty-five were between 80 and 85; and there were
fifty-seven who died between the ages of 70 and 80, of whom no less than
thirty-one were 75 and upwards. The average of the chapelry is increased
from the circumstance that sixteen bodies of persons drowned in the sea in
wrecks, and whose ages were not of course very great, are included in the
whole number of 346 burials. That celibacy did not lessen the chance of
life, was proved by a bachelor named Simpson, who died at 92, and his
maiden sister at 91.

I am told that the neighbouring parish of Upleatham has also a high
character for longevity, but I had not the same opportunity of examining
the register as was afforded me by Mr. Close.

And now for a Query. What other, if any district in the north or south,
will show like or greater longevity?


       *       *       *       *       *


Every Oxford man regards with some degree of interest that goal of so many
of his walks, Joe Pullen's tree, on Headington Hill. So at least it was in
my time, now some thirty years since. Perhaps the following notices of him,
who I suppose planted it, or at all events gave name to it, may be
acceptable to your Oxford readers. They are taken from that most curious
collection (alas! too little known) the Pocket-books of Tom Hearne, vol.
liii. pp. 25-35., now in the Bodleian:

    "Jan. 1, 1714-15. Last night died Mr. Josiah Pullen, A.M., minister of
    St. Peter's in the East, and Vice-Principal of Magdalen Hall. He had
    also a parsonage in the country. He was formerly domestick chaplain to
    Bishop Sanderson, to whom he administered the sacrament at his death.
    He lived to a very great age, being about fourscore and three, and was
    always very healthy and vigorous. He was regular in his way of living,
    but too close, considering that he was a single man, and was wealthy.
    He seldom used spectacles, which made him guilty of great blunders at
    divine service, for he would officiate to the last. He administered the
    Sacrament last Christmas Day to a great congregation at St. Peter's,
    which brought his illness upon him. He took his B.A. degree May 26,
    1654. He became minister of St. Peter's in the East anno 1668, which
    was the year before Dr. Charlett was entered at Oxford."--P. 25.

    "Jan. 7, Friday. This day, at four in the afternoon, Mr. Pullen was
    buried in St. Peter's Church, in the chapel at the north side of the
    chancell. All the parishioners were invited, and the pall was held up
    by six Heads of Houses, though it should have been by six Masters of
    Arts, as Dr. Radcliffe's pall should have been held up by Doctors in
    Physic, and not by Doctors of Divinity and Doctors of Law."--P. 32.

Dr. Radcliffe's funeral had taken place in the preceding month.

In Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. iv. p. 181., is the following
epitaph of Pullen, drawn up by Mr. Thomas Wagstaffe:

    "Hic jacet reverendus vir Josia Pullen, A.M. Aulæ Magd. 57 annos vice
    principalis, necnon hujusce ecclesiæ Pastor 39 annos. Obiit 31^o
    Decembris, anno Domini 1714, ætatis 84."

From the notice of Thomas Walden, in Johnson's _Lives of the Poets_, it
appears that Yalden was a pupil of Pullen. (See also Walton's _Life of
Sanderson_, towards the end.) I hope this may elicit some farther account
of a man whose name has survived so long in Oxford memory. {490}

As to the tree, I have some recollection of having heard that it had a few
years ago a narrow escape of being thrown down, sometime about the
vice-chancellorship of Dr. Symons, who promptly came forward to the rescue.
Was it ever in such peril? and, if so, was it preserved?


       *       *       *       *       *


_Ancient Custom in Warwickshire._--In Sir William Dugdale's _Diary_, under
the year 1658, is noted the following:

    "On All Hallow Even, the master of the family antiently used to carry a
    bunch of straw, fired, about his corne, saying,

     'Fire and red low,
      Light on my teen low.'"

Can any of your readers learned in ancient lore explain the custom and the
meaning of the couplet, well as its origin? Does it now at all prevail in
that county?


_Nottinghamshire Customs._--1. The 29th of May is observed by the Notts
juveniles not only by wearing the usual piece of oak-twig, but each young
loyalist is armed with a nettle, as coarse as can be procured, with which
instrument of torture are coerced those unfortunates who are unprovided
with "royal oak," as it is called. Some who are unable to procure it
endeavour to avoid the penalty by wearing "dog-oak" (maple), but the
punishment is always more severe on discovery of the imposition.

2. On Shrove Tuesday, the first pancake cooked is given to Chanticleer for
his sole gratification.

3. The following matrimonial custom prevails at Wellow or Welley, as it is
called, a village in the heart of the county. The account is copied from
the _Notts Guardian_ of April 28, 1853:

    "Wellow. It has been a custom from time immemorial in this parish, when
    the banns of marriage are published, for a person, selected by the
    clerk, to rise and say 'God speed them well,' the clerk and
    congregation responding, Amen! Owing to the recent death of the person
    who officiated in this ceremony, last Sunday, after the banns of
    marriage were read, a perfect silence prevailed, the person chosen,
    either from want of courage or loss of memory, not performing his part
    until after receiving an intimation from the clerk, and then in so
    faint a tone as to be scarcely audible. His whispered good wishes were,
    however, followed by a hearty Amen, mingled with some laughter in
    different parts of the church."

I do not know whether any notices of the above have appeared in "N. & Q.,"
and send to inquire respecting 1. and 3. whether a similar custom holds
elsewhere; and whether 2. has any connexion with the disused practice of


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_A Centenarian Couple._--The obituary of _Blackwood's Magazine_ for August,
1821, contains the following:

    "Lately, in Campbell, County Virginia, Mr. Chas. Layne, sen., aged 121
    years, being born at Albemarle, near Buckingham county, 1700. He has
    left a widow aged 110 years, and a numerous and respectable family down
    to the fourth generation. He was a subject of four British sovereigns,
    and a citizen of the United States for nearly forty-eight years. Until
    within a few years he enjoyed all his faculties, and excellent health."

The above extract is followed by notices of the deaths of Anne Bryan, of
Ashford, co. Waterford, aged 111; and Wm. Munro, gardener at Rose Hall,
aged 104.


_"Veni, vidi, vici."_--To these remarkable and well-known words of the
Roman general, I beg to forward two more sententious despatches of
celebrated generals:

  _Suwarrow._ "Slava bogu! Slava vam!
              Krepost Vzala, yiatam."

 "Glory to God and the Empress! Ismail's ours."

It is also stated, I do not know on what authority, that the old and
lamented warrior, Sir Charles Napier, wrote on the conquest of Scinde,

Perhaps some of your correspondents could add a few more pithy sentences on
a like subject.



_Autumnal Tints._--Scarce any one can have failed to notice the unusual
richness and brilliance of the autumnal tints on the foliage this year. I
have more particularly remarked this in Clydesdale, the lake districts of
Cumberland and Westmoreland, and in Somersetshire and Devonshire. Can any
of the contributors to "N. & Q." inform me if attributable to the
extraordinary wetness of the season?

R. H. B.

_Variety is pleasing._--Looking over my last year's note-book, I find the
following _morceau_, which I think ought to be preserved in "N. & Q.:"

    "Nov. 30, 1851. Observed in the window of the Shakspeare Inn a written
    paper running thus:

         'To be raffled for:
      The finding of Moses, and six
            Fat geeze(!!).
          Tickets at the bar.'"



_Rome and the Number Six._--It has been remarked lately in "N. & Q." that
in English history, the reign of the second sovereign of the same name has
been infelicitous. I cannot turn to the {491} note I read, and I forget
whether it noticed the remarks in Aubrey's _Miscellanies_ (London, 8vo.,
1696), that "all the _second_ kings since the Conquest have been
unfortunate." It may be worth the while to add (what is remarked by Mr.
Matthews in his _Diary of an Invalid_), that the number _six_ has been
considered at Rome as ominous of misfortune. Tarquinius Sextus was the very
worst of the Tarquins, and his brutal conduct led to a revolution in the
government; under Urban the Sixth, the great schism of the West broke out;
Alexander the Sixth outdid all that his predecessors amongst the Tarquins
or the Popes had ventured to do before him; and the presentiment seemed to
receive confirmation in the misfortunes of the reign of his successor Pius
VI., to whose election was applied the line:

 "Semper sub sextis perdita Roma fuit."

W. S. G.


_Zend Grammar._--The following fragment on Zend grammar having fallen in my
way, I inclose you a copy, as the remarks contained in it may be of service
to Oriental scholars.

I am unable to state the author's name, although I suspect the MS. to be
from a highly important quarter. The subject-matter, however, is
sufficiently important to merit publication.

    "The _Zend_, of disputed authenticity, and the _Asmani Zuban_, a
    notoriously fictitious tongue, compared."

    "It is well known that Sanscrit words abound in _Zend_; and that some
    of its inflexions are formed by the rules of the Vyacaran or _Sanscrit_

    "It would therefore seem quite possible that by application of these
    rules a grammar might be written of the _Zend_. Would such a
    composition afford any proof of the disputed point--the authenticity of
    the _Zend_?

    "I think it would not, and support my opinion by reasons founded on the
    following facts.

    "The _Asmani Zuban_ of the Desstù is most intimately allied to Persian.
    It is, in fact, fabricated out of that language, as is shown by clear
    internal evidence. Now the grammatical structure of this fictitious
    tongue is identical with that of Persian: and hence by following the
    rules of Persian grammar, a grammar of the _Asmani Zuban_ might be
    easily framed. But would this work advance the cause of forgery, and
    tend to invest it with the quality of truth? No more, I answer, and for
    the same reason, than is a grammar of the _Zend_, founded on the
    Vyacaran, to be received in proof of the authenticity of that


_The Duke's first Victory._--Perhaps it may interest the future author of
the life of the Duke of Wellington to be informed of his _first victory_.
It was not in India, as commonly supposed, but on Donnybrook Road, near
Dublin, that his first laurels were won. This appears from the _Freeman's
Journal_, September 18th, 1789, where we learn that in consequence of a
wager between him and Mr. Whaley of 150 guineas, the Hon. Arthur Wesley
walked from the five-mile stone on Donnybrook Road to the corner of the
circular road in Leeson Street, in fifty-five minutes, and that a number of
gentlemen rode with the walker, whose horses he kept in a tolerable smart
trot. When it is recollected that those were Irish miles, even deducting
the distance from Leeson Street to the Castle, whence the original
measurements were made, this walk must be computed at nearly six English


_Straw Paper._--Various papers manufactured of straw are now in the market.
The pen moves so easily over any and all of them, that literary men should
give them a trial. As there seems considerable likelihood of this
manufacture being extensively introduced, on account of the dearness of
rags, &c., it is to be hoped that it will not be _improved_ into the
resemblance of ordinary paper. Time was when ordinary paper could be
written on in comfort, but that which adulterated Falstaff's sack spoiled
it for the purpose, and converted it into limed twigs to catch the winged


_American Epitaph_ (Vol. viii., p. 273.).--The following lines are to be
seen on a tombstone in Virginia:

 "My name, my country, what are they to thee?
  What whether high, or low, my pedigree?
  Perhaps I far surpassed all other men:
  Perhaps I fell behind them all--what then?
  Suffice it, stranger, that thou see'st a tomb,
  Thou know'st its use; it hides--no matter whom."

W. W.


       *       *       *       *       *



I have before me a bulky volume, apparently unpublished, treating of
currency and of many other politico-economical affairs; the authorship of
which I am desirous of tracing. If any reader of "N. & Q." can assist my
search I shall feel greatly obliged to him.

This volume extends to 936 closely printed pages, and is altogether without
divisions either of book, chapter, or section. It has neither title-page,
conclusion, imprint, or date; and my copy seems to consist of revises or
"clean sheets" as they came from the press. The main gist of the work is
thus described, apparently by the author himself, in a MS. note which
occupies the place of the title-page:

    "It is here meant to show that in civilised nations money is an
    emanating circulable wealth and power, {492} without which individuals
    cannot go on in improvement on independent principles. It resolves
    wealth into the forms most conducive to this object, and prepares for
    the highest services both individuals and communities."

The book, however, is extremely discursive, and no small portion of it is
devoted to foreign politics. Thus, of the "Eastern Question," the author
disposes in this fashion:

    "Austria, to answer its destination, ought to comprise Wallachia,
    Bessarabia, Moldavia, and, following the line of demarcation drawn by
    the Danube, the whole territory at its debouchment.... Turkey cannot
    regard the sacrifices proposed as of much importance, when such
    security as that now in contemplation could be obtained. The whole
    strength of her immense empire is at present drained to support her
    contest on this very barrier with Russia. But that barrier, it is
    evident, would this way be effectually secured: for Austria has too
    many points of importance to protect, to dream of creating new ones on
    this feeble yet extended confine of her domains."--Pp. 835, 836.

From internal evidence, the book appears to have been written between 1812
and 1815. It is printed in half-sheets, from sig. A to sig. 6 B, and three
half-sheets are wanting, viz. E, 5 Q, and 5 R. In place of the last two,
the following MS. note is inserted:

    "The speculations in the two following sheets included views that
    related to the disorganised state of Turkey, and the unhappy dependence
    of the Bourbon family; which are now, from the changes which have taken
    place, altogether unfit for publication."

The sole indication of the authorship which I have observed throughout the
volume lies in the following foot-note, at p. 893.:

    "This is all that seems to be necessary to say on the subject of
    education. In a treatise published by me a few years ago, entitled
    _Improvements in Glasgow_, I think I have exhausted," &c.[6]

The only treatise with such a title which I find in Watt's _Bibliotheca
Britannica_ is thus entered:

    "LAURIE, David. Proposed improvements in Glasgow. Glasg., 1810,
    8vo.--Hints regarding the East India Monopoly, 1813. 2s."

My _Queries_ then are these:

1. Is anything known of such a treatise on "circulable wealth," &c., as
that which I have named?

2. Is any biographical notice extant of the "David Laurie" mentioned by

I may add that the volume in question was recently purchased along with
about 1000 other pamphlets and books, chiefly on political economy: all of
which appear to have formerly belonged to the late Lord Bexley, and to have
been for the most part collected by him when Chancellor of the Exchequer.


Old Trafford, near Manchester.

[Footnote 6: I find no mention of Mr. Laurie, or of his "Improvements in
Glasgow," in Cleland's _Annals of Glasgow_, published in 1816, nor is he
mentioned in Mr. McCulloch's _Literature of Political Economy_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Can you, or any of your correspondents, give me any information relative to
the history or authorship of the following pamphlet?--

    "Donatus Redivivus: or a Reprimand to a modern Church-Schismatick, for
    his Revival of the Donatistical Heresy of Rebaptization, in Defiance to
    the Judgment and Practice of the Catholick Church, and of the Church of
    England in particular. In a Letter to Himself. London, 1714."

The same tract (precisely identical, except in the title-page) is also to
be found with the following title:

    "Rebaptization condemned. Wherein is shown, 1. That to Rebaptize any
    Person that was once Baptiz'd, even by Laymen, in the name of the
    Sacred Trinity, is contrary to the Practice of the Catholick Church in
    all Ages. 2. That it is repugnant to the Principles and Practice of the
    Church of England. 3. The Pernicious Consequences of such a Practice.
    By the Author of Plain Dealing, or Separation without Schism," &c.
    London, 1716.

I am aware that, according to Dr. Watt, the author of _Plain Dealing_ was
Charles Owen, D.D., but he makes no mention of _Donatus Redivivus_, and I
am unable to discover any account of Dr. Charles Owen or his writings
elsewhere. There appears to have been a reply to _Donatus Redivivus_,
purporting to be from the pen of a Mrs. Jane Chorlton. This I have never
seen, and have only learned of its existence from a subsequent pamphlet
with the following title:

    "The Amazon Disarm'd: or, the Sophisms of a Schismatical Pamphlet,
    pretendedly writ by a Gentlewoman, entituled An Answer to Donatus
    Redivivus, exposed and confuted; being a further Vindication of the
    Church of England from the scandalous imputation of Donatism or
    Rebaptization. London, 1714."

The dedication of this last tract begins as follows:

    "To the Reverend Mr. L--ter, and the Demi-reverend Mr. M--l--n.


    "This letter belongs to you upon a double account, as you were the
    chief Actors in the late Rebaptizaton, and are the supposed Vindicators
    of it, in the Answer to Donatus: a Treatise writ in Defence of the
    Sentiments of the Church, which you father upon a Dissenting Minister,
    and disingenuously point out to Mr. O----n by Name," &c.

The point which I wish particularly to ascertain is, whether Dr. Charles
Owen was really the {493} author of either of the tracts I have mentioned;
and if so, who he was, and where I can find an account of him and his

[Greek: Halieus].


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Henry Scobell._--Henry Scobell, compiler of a well-known Collection of
Acts, was for several years clerk to the Long Parliament. I should be glad
to learn what became of him after the dissolution of that assembly.


_The Court House._--This place is situated in Painswick, in
Gloucestershire, and has been described to me as an old out-of-the-way
place. Where can I meet with a full description of it? Is the tradition
that a king--supposed to be either the first or second Charles--ever slept
there true?

F. M.

_Ash-trees attract Lightning._--Is it true that ash-trees are more
attractive to lightning than any others? and the reason, because the
surface of the ground around is drier than round other trees?

C. S. W.

_Symbol of Sow, &c._--A sow suckled by a litter of young pigs is a common
representation carved on the bosses of the roofs of churches. What is this
symbolical of?

F. G. C.

Ottery St. Mary.

_Passage in Blackwood._--

    "I sate, and wept in secret the tears that men have ever given _to the
    memory of those that died before the dawn_, and by the treachery of
    earth our mother."--_Blackwood's Magazine_, December, 1849, p. 72., 3rd
    line, second column.

Will some of your readers give information respecting the above words in

D. N. O.

_Rathband Family._--Can any of your readers assist me in distinguishing
between the several members of this clerical family, which flourished
during the period of the Commonwealth, and immediately preceding? From
Palmer's _Nonconformist Mem._ (vol. i. p. 520.), there was a Mr. William
Rathband, M.A., ejected from Southwold, a member of Oxford University, who
was brother to Mr. Rathband, sometime preacher in the Minster of York, and
son of an old Nonconformist minister, Mr. W. Rathband, who wrote against
the Brownists.--I should feel obliged by any information which would
identify them with the livings they severally held.


_Encaustic Tiles from Caen._--In the town of Caen, in Normandy, is an
ancient Gothic building standing in the grounds of the ancient convent of
the Benedictines, now used as a college. This building, which is commonly
known as the "Salle des Gardes de Guillaume le Conquerant," was many years
ago paved with glazed emblazoned earthenware tiles, which were of the
dimensions of about five inches square, and one and a quarter thick; the
subjects of them are said to be the arms of some of the chiefs who
accompanied William the Conqueror to England. Some antiquaries said these
tiles were of the age of William I.; others that they could only date from
Edward III. I find it stated in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for March, 1789,
vol. lix. p. 211., that twenty of the tiles above spoken of were taken up
by the Benedictine monks, and sent as a present to Charles Chadwick, Esq.,
Healey Hall, Lancashire, in 1786. The rest of the tiles were destroyed by
the revolutionists, with the exception of some which were fortunately saved
by the Abbé de la Rue and M. P. A. Lair, of Caen. What I wish to inquire
is, firstly, who was Charles Chadwick, Esq.? and secondly, supposing that
he is no longer living, which I think from the lapse of time will be most
probable, does any one know what became of the tiles which he had received
from France in 1786?


P.S.--The _Gentleman's Magazine_ gives a plate of these tiles, as well as a
plate of some others with which another ancient building, called "Grand
Palais de Guillaume le Conquerant," was paved.

Alverton Vean, Penzance.

_Artificial Drainage._--Can any of your correspondents refer me to a work,
or works, giving a history of draining marshes by machines for raising the
water to a higher level? Windmills, I suppose, were the first machines so
used, but neither Beckmann nor Dugdale informs us when first used. I have
found one mentioned in a conveyance dated 1642, but they were much earlier.
Any information on the history of the drainage of the marshes near Great
Yarmouth, of which Dugdale gives passing notice only, would also be very
acceptable to me.

E. G. R.

_Storms at the Death of great Men._--Your correspondent at Vol. vi., p.
531., mentions "the storms which have been noticed to take place at the
time of the death of many great men known to our history."

A list of these would be curious. With a passing reference to the familiar
instance of the Crucifixion, as connected with all history, we may note, as
more strictly belonging to the class, those storms that occurred at the
deaths of "The Great Marquis" of Montrose, 21st May, 1650; Cromwell, 3rd
September, 1658; Elizabeth Gaunt, who was burnt 23rd October, 1685, and
holds her reputation as the last female who suffered death for a political
offence in England; and Napoleon, 5th May, 1821; as well as that which
solemnised {494} the burial of Sir Walter Scott, 26th September, 1832.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_Motto or Wylcotes' Brass._--In the brass of Sir John Wylcotes, Great Tew
Church, Oxfordshire, the following motto occurs:

 "IN . ON . IS . AL."

I shall feel obliged if any one of your numerous correspondents will
enlighten my ignorance by explaining it to me.

W. B. D.


_"Trail through the leaden sky," &c._--

 "Trail through the leaden sky their bannerets of fire."

Where is this line to be found, as applied to the spirits of the storm?



_Lord Audley's Attendants at Poictiers._--According to the French historian
Froissart, four knights or esquires, whose names he does not supply,
attended the brave Lord Audley at the memorable battle of Poictiers, who,
some English historians say, were Sir John Delves of Doddington, Sir Thomas
Dutton of Dutton, Sir Robert Fowlehurst of Crewe (all these places being in
Cheshire), and Sir John Hawkstone of Wrinehill in Staffordshire; whilst
others name Sir James de Mackworth of Mackworth in Derbyshire, and Sir
Richard de Tunstall _alias_ Sneyde of Tunstall in Staffordshire, as _two of
such knights or esquires_. The accuracy of Froissart as an historian has
never been questioned; and as he expressly names only _four_ attendants on
Lord Audley at the battle of Poictiers, it is extremely desirable it should
be ascertained if possible which of the six above-named knights really were
the companions of Lord Audley Froissart alludes to; and probably some of
your learned correspondents may be able to clear up the doubts on the point
raised by our historians.

T. J.


_Roman Catholic Bible Society._--About the year 1812, or 1813, a Roman
Catholic Bible Society was established in London, in which Mr. Charles
Butler, and many other leading gentlemen, took a warm part. How long did it
continue? Why was it dissolved? Did it publish any annual _reports_, or
issue any book or tract, besides an edition of the New Testament in 1815?
Where can the fullest account of it be found?

Will any gentleman be kind enough to _sell_, or even to _lend_, me Blair's
_Correspondence on the Roman Catholic Bible Society_, a pamphlet published
in 1813, which I have not been able to meet with at a bookseller's shop,
and am very desirous to see.


Thurles, Ireland.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_"Vox Populi Vox Dei."_--Lieber, in the last chapter of his _Civil
Liberty_, treating of this dictum, ascribes its origin to the Middle Ages,
acknowledging, however, that he is unable to give anything very definite.
Sir William Hamilton, in his edition of the _Works_ of Thomas Reid, gives
the concluding words of Hesiod's _Works and Days_ thus:

    "The word proclaimed by the concordant voice of mankind fails not; for
    in man speaks God."

And to this the great philosopher adds:

 "Hence the adage (?), 'Vox Populi vox Dei.'"

The sign of interrogation is Sir William Hamilton's, and he was right to
put it; for whatever the psychological connexion between Hesiod's dictum
and V. P. V. D. may be, there is surely no historical. "Vox Populi vox Dei"
is a different concept, breathing the spirit of a different age.

How far back, then, can the dictum in these very words be traced?

Does it, as Lieber says, originally belong to the election of bishops by
the people?

Or was it of Crusade origin?

America begs Europe to give her facts, not speculation, and hopes that
Europe will be good enough to comply with her request. Europe has given the
serious "V. P. V. D." to America, so she may as well give its history to
America too.


    [As this Query of AMERICUS contains some new illustration of the
    history of this phrase, we have given it insertion, although the
    subject has already been discussed in our columns. The writer will,
    however, find that the earliest known instances of the use of the
    sayings are, by William of Malmesbury, who, speaking of Odo yielding
    his consent to be Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 920, says: "Recogitans
    illud Proverbium, _Vox Populi Vox Dei_;" and by Walter Reynolds,
    Archbishop of Canterbury, who, as we learn from Walsingham, took it as
    his text for the sermon which he preached when Edward III. was called
    to the throne, from which the people had pulled down Edward II.
    AMERICUS is farther referred to Mr. G. Cornewall Lewis' _Essay on the
    Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion_ (pp. 172, 173., and the
    accompanying notes) for some interesting remarks upon it. See farther,
    "N. & Q.," Vol. i., pp. 370. 419. 492.; Vol. iii., pp. 288. 381.]

_"Lanquettes Cronicles."_--Of what date is the earliest printed copy of
these Chronicles? The oldest I am acquainted with is 1560, in quarto
(continued up to 1540 by Bishop Cooper). Is this edition rare?



    [The earliest edition is that printed by T. Berthelet, 4to., 1549. The
    first two parts of this Chronicle, {495} and the beginning of the
    third, as far as the seventeenth year after Christ, were composed by
    Thomas Lanquet, a young man of twenty-four years of age. Owing to his
    early death, Bishop Cooper finished the work; and his part, which is
    the third, contains almost thrice as much as Lanquet's two parts, being
    taken from Achilles Pyrminius. When it was finished, a surreptitious
    edition appeared in 1559, under the title of Lanquet's _Chronicle_;
    hereupon the bishop protested against "the vnhonest dealynge" of this
    book, edited by Thomas Crowley, in the next edition, entitled Cooper's
    _Chronicle_, "printed in the house late Thomas Berthelettes," 1560. The
    running title to the first and second parts is, "Lanquet's Chronicle;"
    and to the third, "The Epitome of Chronicles." The other editions are,
    "London, 1554," 4to., and "London, 1565," 4to. We should think the
    edition of 1560 rare: it was in the collections of Mr. Heber and Mr.
    Herbert. In this work the following memorable passage occurs, under the
    year 1542:--"One named Johannes Faustius fyrste founde the crafte of
    printynge in the citee of Mens in Germanie."]

_"Our English Milo."_--Bishop Hall extols in his _Heaven upon Earth_ the
valour of a countryman in a Spanish bull-fight (see p. 335., collected ed.
_Works_, 1622). Of whom does he speak?



    [If we may offer a conjecture, in the passage cited the bishop seems to
    refer to that "greatest scourge of Spain" Sir Walter Raleigh, and not
    so much to a bull-fight as to the Spanish Armada. The bishop is
    prescribing Expectation as a remedy for Crosses, and says, "Is it not
    credible what a fore-resolved mind can do--can suffer? Could our
    English Milo, of whom Spain yet speaketh, since their last peace, have
    overthrown that furious beast, made now more violent through the rage
    of his baiting, if he had not settled himself in his station, and
    expected?" Sir Walter's "fore-resolved and expectant mind" was shown in
    the publication of his treatise, _Notes of Directions for the Defence
    of the Kingdom_, written three years before the Spanish invasion of

_"Delights for Ladies."_--I lately picked up a small volume entitled--

    "Delights for Ladies; to adorn their Persons, Tables, Closets, and
    Distillatories, with Beauties, Bouquets, Perfumes, and Waters. Reade,
    practise, and censure." London, Robert Young. 1640.

Who is the author of this interesting little work? Some one has written on
the fly-leaf, "See Douce's _Illustrations of Shakspeare_, vol. i. p. 69.,
where there is a reference to this curious little book;" but as I cannot
readily lay my hand on Douce, I will feel obliged for the information
sought for from any of your valued correspondents.



    [The author was Sir Hugh Plat, who, says Harte, "not to mention his
    most excellent talents, was the most ingenious husbandman of the age he
    lived in. In a word, no man ever discovered, or at least brought into
    use, so many new sorts of manure." The _Delights for Ladies_ first
    appeared in 1602, and passed through several editions. Douce merely
    quotes this work. Plat was the author of several other works: see Watt
    and Lowndes.]

_Burton's Death._--Did Burton, author of _Anatomy of Melancholy_, commit

C. S. W.

    [The supposition that Robert Burton committed suicide originated from a
    statement found in Wood's _Athenæ_, vol. ii. p. 653. (Bliss). Wood
    says, "He, the said R. Burton, paid his last debt to nature in his
    chamber in Christ Church, at or very near that time which he had some
    years before foretold from the calculation of his own nativity; which,
    being exact, several of the students did not forbear to whisper among
    themselves that, rather than there should be a mistake in the
    calculation, he sent up his soul to heaven through a slip about his

_Joannes Audoënus._--I shall be obliged by any notices of the personal or
literary history of John Owen, the famous Latin epigrammatist, in addition
to those furnished by the _Athenæ Oxonienses_. Wood remarks, that "whereas
he had made many epigrams on several people, so few were made on or written
to him. Among the few, one by Stradling, and another by Dunbar, a Scot," I
have met with one allusion to him among the epigrams of T. Bancroft, 4to.,
Lond. 1639, signat. A 3.:

             "_To the Reader._

  Reader, till Martial thou hast well survey'd,
  Or Owen's wit with Jonson's learning weighed,
  Forbeare with thanklesse censure to accuse
  My writ of errour, or condemne my Muse."

As translators of Audoënus, Wood mentions, in 1619, Joh. Vicars, usher of
Christ's Hospital school, as having rendered some select epigrams, and
Thomas Beck six hundred of Owen's, with other epigrams from Martial and
More, under the title of _Parnassi Puerperium_, 8vo., Lond. 1659. In
addition to these I find, in a catalogue of Lilly, King Street, Covent
Garden, No. 4., 1844:

    "HAYMAN, Robert. Certaine Epigrams out of the First Foure Bookes of the
    excellent Epigrammatist Master John Owen, translated into English at
    Harbor Grace in Bristol's Hope, anciently called Newfoundland, 4to.,
    unbound; a rare poetical tract, 1628, 10s. 6d."


    [The personal and literary history of John Owen (_Audoënus_) is given
    in the _Biographia Britannica_, vol. v., and in Chalmers' and Rose's
    Biographical Dictionaries.]

_Hampden's Death._--Was the great patriot Hampden actually slain by the
enemy on Chalgrove Field? or was his death, as some have asserted, {496}
caused by the bursting of his own pistol, owing to its having been
incautiously overcharged?

T. J.


    [See the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for May, 1815, p. 395., for "A true and
    faithfull Narrative of the Death of Master Hambden, who was mortally
    wounded at Challgrove Fight, A.D. 1643, and on the 18th of June." From
    this narrative we learn, that whilst Hampden was fighting against
    Prince Rupert at Chalgrove Field, he was struck with two carbine-balls
    in the shoulder, which broke the bone, and terminated fatally.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., pp. 270. 350.)

I would not have meddled with this subject if R. G., getting on a wrong
scent, had not arrived at the very extraordinary conclusion that Bramhall
meant a "pinnace," and an "offensive composition well known to sailors!"

The earliest notice that I have met with of the _pinece_ in an English
work, is in the second part of the _Secrets of Maister Alexis of Piemont_,
translated by W. Warde, Lond. 1568. There I find the following
secrets--worth knowing, too, if effective:

    "_Against stinking vermin called Punesies._--If you rub your bedsteede
    with squilla stamped with vinaigre, or with the leaves of cedar tree
    sodden in oil, you shall never feel punese. Also if you set under the
    bed a payle full of water the puneses will not trouble you at all."

Butler, in the first canto of the third part of _Hudibras_, also mentions
it thus:

 "And stole his talismanic louse--
  His flea, his morpion, and punaise."

If the Querist refers to his French dictionary he will soon discover the
meaning of _morpion_ and _punaise_--the latter without doubt the _pinece_
of Bishop Bramhall. Cotgrave, in his _French-English Dictionary_, London,
1650, defines _punaise_ to be "the noysome and stinking vermin called the
bed punie."

It may be bad taste to dwell any longer on this subject; but as it
illustrates a curious fact in natural history, and as it has been well
said, that whatever the Almighty has thought proper to create is not
beneath the study of mankind, I shall crave a word or two more.

The _pinece_ is not originally a native of this country; and that is the
reason why, so many years after its first appearance in England, it was
known only by a corruption of its French name _punaise_, or its German
appellation _wandlaus_ (wall-louse). Penny, a celebrated physician and
naturalist in the reign of Henry VII., discovered it at Mortlake in rather
a curious manner. Mouffet, in his _Theatrum Insectorum_ (Lond. 1634), thus
relates the story:

    "Anno 1503, dum hæc Pennio scriptitaret, Mortlacum Tamesin adjacentem
    viculum, magna festinatione accersebatur ad duas nobiles, magno metu ex
    cimicum vestigiis percussas, et quid nescio contagionis valde veritas.
    Tandem recognita, ac bestiolis captis, risu timorem omnem excussat."

Mouffet also tells us that in his time the insect was little known in
England, though very common on the Continent, a circumstance which he
ascribes to the superior cleanliness of the English:

    "Munditiem frequentemque lectulorum et culcitrarem lotionem, cum Galli,
    Germani, et Itali minus curant, pariunt magis hane pestem, Angli autem
    munditei et cultus studiosissimi rarius iis laborant."

Ray, in his _Historia Insectorum_, published in 1710, merely terms it the
_punice_ or wall-louse; indeed, I am not aware that the modern name of the
insect appears in print previous to 1730, when one Southal published _A
Treatise of Buggs_. Southal appears to have been an illiterate person; and
he erroneously ascribes the introduction of the insect into this country to
the large quantities of foreign fir used to rebuild London after the Great

The word _bug_, signifying a frightful object or spectre, derived from the
Celtic and the root of _bogie_, bug-aboo, bug-bear--is well known in our
earlier literature. Spenser, Shakspeare, Milton, Beaumont and Fletcher,
Holinshed and many others, use it; and in Matthew's _Bible_, the fifth
verse of the ninety-first psalm is rendered:

    "Thou shalt not nede to be afraid of any bugs by night."

Thus we see that a real "terror of the night" in course of time, assumed,
by common consent, the title of the imaginary evil spirit of our ancestors.

One word more. I can see no difficulty in tracing the derivation of the
word _humbug_, without going to Hamburg, Hume of the Bog, or any such
distant sources. In Grose's _Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue_, I find the
word _hum_ signifying deceive. Peter Pindar, too, writes writes:

 "Full many a trope from bayonet and drum
  He threaten'd but behold! 'twas all a hum."

Now, the rustic who frightens his neighbour with a turnip lanthorn and a
white sheet, or the spirit-rapping medium, who, for a consideration, treats
his verdant client with a communication from the unseen world, most
decidedly humbugs him; that is, hums or deceives him with an imaginary
spirit, or bug.



I take it that the editor of Archbishop Bramhall's _Works_ was judicious in
not altering the {497} word _pinece_ to _pinnace_, as an object very
different from the latter was meant; _i. e._ a _cimex_, who certainly
_revenges_ any attack upon his person with a _stink_. _Pinece_ is only a
mistaken orthography of _punese_, the old English name of the obnoxious
insect our neighbours still call a _punaise_ (see Cotgrave _in voce_).
Florio says "Cimici, a kinde of vermine in Italie that breedeth in beds and
biteth sore, called punies or wall-lice." We have it in fitting company in
_Hudibras_, III. 1.:

 "And stole his talismanic louse,
  His flea, his morpion, and punese."

This is only one more instance of the danger of altering the orthography,
or changing an obsolete word, the meaning of which is not immediately
obvious. The substitution of _pinnace_ would have been entirely to depart
from the meaning of the Archbishop.

S. W. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 167.)

A recent visit to the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle enables me to add the
following Notes to the list already published in "N. & Q."

The brasses are five in number, and are all contained in a chapel on the
north-west side of the dome:

1. Arnoldus de Meroide, 1487, is a mural, rectangular plate (3' · 10" × 2'
· 4"), on the upper half of which are engraved the Virgin and Child, to
whom an angel presents a kneeling priest, and St. Bartholomew with knife
and book.

2. Johannes Pollart, 1534, is also mural and rectangular (5' · 2½" × 2' ·
4"), but is broken into two unequal portions, now placed side by side. The
upper half of the larger piece has the following engraving:--In the centre
stands the Virgin, wearing an arched imperial crown. Angels swing censers
above her head. St. John Baptist, on her right hand, presents a kneeling
priest in surplice and alb; and St. Christopher bears "the mysterious
Child" on her left. The lower half contains part of the long inscription
which is completed on the smaller detached piece.

3. Johannes et Lambertus Munten, 1546. This is likewise mural and
rectangular (2' · 11½" × 2' · 1"). It is _painted_ a deep blue colour, and
has an inscription in gilt letters, at the foot of which is depicted an
emaciated figure, wrapped in a shroud and lying upon an altar-tomb: large
worms creep round the head and feet.

4. Johannes Paiel, 1560. Mural, rectangular (3' · 4" × 2' · 4¼"). This is
_painted_ as the last-mentioned plate, and represents the Virgin and Child
in a flaming aureole. Her feet rest in a crescent, around which is twisted
a serpent; on her right hand stand St. John Baptist and the Holy Lamb, each
bearing a cross; and to her left is St. Mary Magdalene, who presents a
kneeling priest.

5. Henricus de .... This is on the floor in front of the altar-rails, and
consists of a rectangular plate (2' · 9" × 2' · 1"), on which is
represented an angel wearing a surplice and a stole semée of crosses
fitcheé, and supporting a shield bearing three fleurs-de-lis, with as many
crosses fitchée. A partially-effaced inscription runs round the plate,
within a floriated margin, and with evangelistic symbols at the corners.

In the centre of the choir of Cologne Cathedral lies a _modern_ rectangular
brass plate (8' · 10" × 3' · 11") to the memory of a late archbishop,
Ferdinandus Augustus, 1835.

Beneath a single canopy is a full-length picture of the archbishop in
eucharistic vestments (the stole unusually short), a pall over his
shoulders, and an elaborate pastoral staff in his hand.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 246.; Vol. vi., p. 143.)

Your correspondent JARLTZBERG, at the first reference, asks for the sense
of the passage,--

 "Besides what the grim wolf with privy paw
  Daily devours apace, and nothing sed:
  But that two-handed engine at the door
  Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more."

My own view of this passage strongly testifies against the interpretation
of another passage at the second reference.

The _two-handed engine_, I am positive, is St. Michael's sword. Farther on
in the poem the bard addresses the angel St. Michael (according to Warton),
who is conceived as guarding the Mount from enemies with a drawn sword, for
in this form I apprehend does tradition state the vision to have been seen;
and he bids him to desist from looking out for enemies towards the coast of
Spain, and to "look homeward," at one of his own shepherds who is being
washed ashore, in all probability upon this very promontory. Milton
elsewhere (_Par. Lost_, book vi. 251.) speaks of the "huge two-handed sway"
of this sword of St. Michael; and here, in _Lycidas_ he repeats the epithet
to identify the instrument which is to accomplish the destruction of the
wolf. St. Michael's sword is to smite off the head of Satan, who at the
door of Christ's fold is, "with privy paw," daily devouring the hungry
sheep. Note here that, according to some theologians, the archangel
Michael, in prophecy, means Christ himself. (See the authorities quoted by
Heber, _Bampton Lectures_, iv. note _l_, p. 242.) Hence it is His business
to preserve _His own_ sheep. In the Apocalypse the final blow of St.
Michael's (or Christ's) two-edged sword, which {498} is to cleave the
serpent's head, is made a distinct subject of prophecy. (See Rev. xii.

While on this subject allow me to ask, Can a dolphin waft? Can a shore



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 220. 395.)

In returning thanks to those of your correspondents who replied to my
Query, I ought, perhaps, to have begged to learn such of our public schools
that were _without_ libraries, as the best means of obtaining for them
bequests or gifts that would form a nucleus of a good library. For example,
a correspondent informs me that the governors of Queen Elizabeth's Grammar
School, Wimborne, Dorset, are laying by 10l. a year towards the purchase of
books for that purpose: that having no library at present, there now is a
favourable opportunity for either a gift or a bequest: but I should in any
case prefer a selection of works likely to prove readable for young people,
as history, biography, travels, and the popular works of science.

I can quite imagine that Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Harrow, Shrewsbury,
and other similar great schools, would have such libraries, but these are
not half the number of our public foundations; the wealthy schools above
mentioned, and the rich men's children who go to them, would be in a sad
plight indeed were they not amply provided for in such matters. But there
are others whose mission is not less important, perhaps more so; and on
this head none would be better pleased than I to find I laboured under an
"erroneous impression," as remarked by ETONENSIS. The English public
appeared to have an "erroneous impression" that they were better provided
with books than any other people a short time ago, till it was disproved
when the agitation respecting parochial libraries was set on foot, the
facts appearing on the institution of the Marylebone public library.

It has been shown that in France and Germany the public libraries, and the
volumes in them, far exceed any that we possess; a strange fact, when we
are better provided with standard authors than any other language in the
world. I should much wish these brief parallels answered. The city of Lyons
has a magnificent public library of 100,000 vols., open to all; how many
has her rival Manchester? Boulogne has a public library of 16,000 vols.;
how many has Southampton? From the obliging notices of correspondents in
"N. & Q.," we have had several articles on parochial libraries, and the sum
of the whole appears to be most miserable; surely some bad system has
prevailed either in not having proper places for them, or in some other
fault. In one place the resident clergyman sells them: surely if they were
combined under some enlarged plan, people desirous of making bequests or
gifts would do so very willingly when they knew they would be cared for and
made use of; for it is probably the case that private libraries are more
numerous here than abroad, and that there are altogether more books in the
country. I am told by a correspondent that in his time there were no books
at Christ's Hospital, therefore the bequest made is, I presume, a late one;
and if such is the case, it will be a favourable opportunity for the
governors of that school to enlarge the collection and make it available to
the scholars.

If, therefore, our schools are no better provided than our public
libraries, the inquiry may be of service; but if they are, it cannot do
harm to know their condition. It is true I have heard of but one public
school hitherto that has no library and wants one, but I shall remain
unsatisfied till other returns make their appearance in "N. & Q." or
privately, when, if it should appear I have taken a wrong opinion, I shall
be as please as anybody else to find myself mistaken.



In answer to your correspondent MR. WELD TAYLOR'S Query on this subject,
may I be allowed to say that at Tonbridge School, where I was educated,
there is a very good general library, consisting of the best classical
works in our own language, travels, chronicles, histories, and the best
works of fiction and poetry, and I believe all modern periodicals.

This library is under the care of the head boy for the time being, and he,
with the other monitors, acts as librarian. Books are given out, I believe,
daily; the library is maintained by the boys themselves, and few leave the
school without making some contribution to its funds, or placing some work
on its shelves.

The head master, the Rev. Dr. Welldon, approves of all books before they
are added to the library.

There is also what is called the "Sunday Library," consisting of standard
works of theology and church history, and other works, chiefly presented by
the head and other masters, to induce a taste for such reading.

I am sorry that MR. WELD TAYLOR should have to complain of the _general_
ignorance of public schoolboys; but I know I may on behalf of the head boy
of Tonbridge say, he will be happy to acknowledge any contribution from MR.
WELD TAYLOR, which he may be disposed to give, towards the removal of this


Star Hill, Rochester.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 386.)

There can be no doubt as to the authorship of the _Store-house of
Similies_. The work is now before me, and the title-page is as follows:

    "A Treasurie or Store-house of Similies; both Pleasaunt, Delightfull,
    and Profitable for all Estates of Men in Generall: newly collected into
    Heades and Common Places. By Robert Cawdray. London: printed by Thomas
    Creede, 1609."

The only reference to his Life, which I can find, is in "The Epistle
Dedicatorie;" and two ancestors of mine, "Sir John Harington, Knight, and
the Worshipful James Harington, Esquire, his brother," in which, when
assigning his reasons for the "Dedication," he says:

    "Calling to mind (right worshipfuls) not only the manifold curtesies
    and benefits, which I found and received, now more than thirty years
    ago, _when I taught the grammar schoole at Okeham in Rutland_, and
    sundry times since, of the religious and virtuous lady, Lucie
    Harington," &c.

The "Dedication" is subscribed "Robert Cawdray." Cawdray was also the
author of a work _On the Profit and Necessity of Catechising_, London,
1592, 8vo.


The Close, Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *

The "Epistle Dedicatorie," as well as the title-page, appears to be wanting
in J. H. S.'s copy of Robert Cawdray's _Store-house_, which was "printed by
Thomas Creede, London, 1609." From this we find that it was dedicated to
"his singular benefactors, Sir John Harington, Knight, as also to the
Worshipfull James Harington, Esquire, his brother," whose "great kindness
and favourable good will (during my long trouble, and since)" the author
afterwards "calls to mind," and also the "manifold curtesies and benefites
which I found and received, now more than thirtie years agoe (when I taught
the Grammar School at Okeham in Rutland, and sundrie times since) of the
religious and vertuous lady, _Lucie Harington_ your Worship's Mother, and
my especial friend in the Lord." Would this be the "lady, a prudent woman,"
who "had the princess Elizabeth committed to her government" (vide Fuller's
_Worthies_, Rutlandshire)?

J. H. S.'s Query recalls two examples of the "magnetic needle simile" (Vol.
vi. and vii. _passim_), which Cawdray has garnered in his _Store-house_,
and which fact would probably account for their appearance in many sermons
of the period, as the book being expressly intended to "lay open, rip up,
and display in their kindes," "verie manie most horrible and foule vices
and dangerous sinnes of all sorts;" and the "verie fitte similitudes" being
for the most part "borrowed from manie kindes and sundrie naturall things,
both in the Olde and New Testament," and being as the writer says "for
preachers profitable," would find a place on many a clerical shelf; and its
contents be freely used to "learnedly beautifie their matter, and brauely
garnish and decke out" their discourses. I fear that I have already
encroached too much on your valuable space, but send copies for use at
discretion. In the first, the "Sayler's Gnomon" is used as an emblem of the
constancy which ought to animate every "Christian man;" and in the second,
of steadfastness amidst the temptations of the world. I shall be glad to
know more of Cawdray than the trifles I have gathered from his book:

    "Euen as the Sayler's Gnomon, or rule, which is commonly called the
    mariner's needle, doth alwayes looke towards the north poole, and will
    euer turne towards the same, howsoeuer it bee placed: which is
    maruellous in that instrument and needle, whereby the mariners doo
    knowe the course of the windes: Euen so euerie Christian man ought to
    direct the eyes of his minde, and the wayes of his heart, to Christ;
    who is our north poole, and that fixed and constant north starre,
    whereby we ought all to bee governed: for hee is our hope and our
    trust; hee is our strength, whereupon wee must still relie."

    "Like as the Gnomon dooth euer beholde the north starre, whether it be
    closed and shutte uppe in a coffer of golde, siluer, or woode, neuer
    loosing his nature: So a faithfull Christian man, whether hee abound in
    wealth, or bee pinched with pouertie, whether hee bee of high or lowe
    degree in this worlde, ought continually to haue his faith and hope
    surely built and grounded uppon Christ: and to haue his heart and minde
    fast fixed and settled in him, and to follow him through thicke and
    thinne, through fire and water, through warres and peace, through
    hunger and colde, through friendes and foes, through a thousand
    perilles and daungers, through the surges and waues of enuie, malice,
    hatred, euill speeches, rayling sentences, contempt of the worlde,
    flesh, and diuell: and, euen in death itselfe, bee it neuer so bitter,
    cruell, and tyrannicall; yet neuer to loose the sight and viewe of
    Christ, neuer to giue ouer our faith, hope, and trust in him."



       *       *       *       *       *

Robert Cawdray, the author of _A Treasurie or Store-house of Similes_, was
a Nonconformist divine of learning and piety. Having entered into the
sacred function about 1566, he was presented by Secretary Cecil to the
rectory of South Luffenham in Rutlandshire. After he had been employed in
the ministry about twenty years, he was cited before Bishop Aylmer and
other high commissioners, and charged with having omitted parts of the Book
of Common Prayer in public worship, {500} and with having preached against
certain things contained in the book. Having refused, according to Strype,
to take the oath to answer all such articles as the commissioners should
propose, he was deprived of his ministerial office. Mr. Brook, however, in
his _Lives of the Puritans_, states that though he might at first have
refused the oath, yet that he afterwards complied, and gave answers to the
various articles which he proceeds to detail at length. He was cited again
on two subsequent occasions; and, on his third appearance, being required
to subscribe, and to wear the surplice, he refused, and was imprisoned, and
ultimately deprived. He applied to Lord Burleigh to intercede on his
behalf, and his lordship warmly espoused his cause, and engaged Attorney
Morrice to undertake his defence, but his arguments proved ineffectual. Mr.
Cawdray, refusing to submit, was brought before Archbishop Whitgift, and
other high commissioners, May 14, 1590, and was degraded and deposed from
the ministry and made a mere layman. The above account is abridged from
Brook's _Lives of the Puritans_, London, 1813, pp. 430-43.

[Greek: Halieus].


P. S. Besides the _Treasurie of Similies_, I find the following work under
his name in the Bodleian Catalogue:

    "A Table Alphabeticall; conteyning and teaching the True Writing and
    Vnderstanding of hard vsuall English Wordes, borrowed from the Hebrew,
    Greeke, Latine, or French, &c. London. 8vo. 1604."

       *       *       *       *       *

The title of this work is--

    "A Treasurie or Store-house of Similies; both Pleasant, Delightfull,
    and Profitable for all Estates of Men in Generall: newly collected into
    Heades and Common Places. By Robert Cawdray. Thomas Creed, London,
    1609, 4to."

Cawdray was rector of South Luffenham, in Rutland; and was deprived by
Bishop Aylmer for nonconformity in 1587. He appealed to the Court of
Exchequer, and his case was argued before all the judges in 1591. A report
of the trial is in Coke's _Reports_, inscribed "De Jure Regis
Ecclesiastico." There is a Life of Cawdray in Brook's _Lives of the
Puritans_ (vol. i. pp. 430-443.), which contains an interesting account of
his examination before the High Commission, extracted from a MS. register.
Notices of him will also be found in Neal's _Puritans_, 1837 (vol. i. pp.
330. 341.); and Heylin's _History of the Presbyterians_, 1672 (fol. p.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 385.)

For the following information respecting the author, and the original, I am
indebted to the _Lady's Magazine_ of 1820, from which I copied it several
years ago.

Mr. Joseph Lowe, born at Kenmore in Galloway, 1750, the son of a gardener,
at fourteen apprenticed to a weaver, by persevering diligence in the
pursuit of knowledge, was enabled in 1771 to enter himself a student in
Divinity in the University of Edinburgh. On his return from college he
became tutor in the family of a gentleman, Mr. McGhie of Airds, who had
several beautiful daughters, to one of whom he was attached, though it
never was their fate to be united. Another of the sisters, Mary, was
engaged to a surgeon, Mr. Alexander Miller. This young gentleman was
unfortunately lost at sea, an event immortalised by _Mary's Dream_. The
author was unhappy in his marriage with a lady of Virginia, whither he had
emigrated, and died in 1798. This poem was originally composed in the
Scottish dialect, and afterwards received the polished English form from
the hand of its author.

         "MARY'S DREAM.

 "The lovely moon had climb'd the hill,
    Where eagles big aboon the Dee,
  And, like the looks of a lovely dame,
    Brought joy to every body's ee:
  A' but sweet Mary deep in sleep,
    Her thoughts on Sandy far at sea;
  A voice drapt saftly on her ear--
   'Sweet Mary, weep nae mair for me!'

 "She lifted up her waukening een,
    To see from whence the sound might be,
  And there she saw young Sandy stand,
    Pale, bending on her his hollow ee.
 'O Mary dear, lament nae mair!
    I'm in death's thraws aneath the sea:
  Thy weeping makes me sad in bliss,
    Sae Mary, weep nae mair for me!

 "'The wind slept when we left the bay,
    But soon it waked and raised the main;
  And God he bore us down the deep--
    Wha strave wi' him, but strave in vain.
  He stretch'd his arm and took me up,
    Tho' laith I was to gang but thee:
  I look frae heaven aboon the storm,
    Sae Mary, weep nae mair for me!

 "'Take aff thae bride-sheets frae thy bed,
    Which thou hast faulded down for me,
  Unrobe thee of thy earthly stole--
    I'll meet in heaven aboon wi' thee.'
  Three times the gray cock flapp'd his wing,
    To mark the morning lift his ee;
  And thrice the passing spirit said,
   'Sweet Mary, weep nae mair for me!'"



       *       *       *       *       *



_Clouds in Photographs_ (Vol. viii., p. 451.).--Your correspondent on this
subject may easily produce clouds on paper negatives by drawing in the
lights on the back with common writing ink. There is usually some tint
printed with all negatives, therefore the black used will stop it out.

It is at the same time unfair and untrue to the art, because clouds cannot
be represented in the regular mode of practice. If they appear, as they do
sometimes by accident, it is well to leave them; but in no art is any trick
so easily detected as in photography, and it cannot add to any operator's
credit in expertness to practise them.

W. T.

_Albumenized Paper._--In a late Number of "N. & Q." you published an
account of albumenizing paper for positives by MR. SHADBOLT. Having
considerable experience in the manipulation of photographical art, I have
bestowed great pains in testing the process he recommends; and, I regret to
say, the results are by no means satisfactory. I well know the delicacy
which is required in applying the albumen _evenly_ to the surface of the
paper, and am therefore not surprised to find that each of his
"longitudinal strokes" remains clearly indicated, thereby entirely
destroying the effect of the picture.

He also advises that the paper should not be afterwards _ironed_, as it is
apt to produce flaws and spots on the albumenized surface; and he believes
that the chemical action of the nitrate of silver alone is sufficient to
coagulate the albumen, without the application of heat. This I have found
_in practice_ to be incorrect: for when I have excited albumenized paper,
to which a sufficient heat has not been applied, I have invariably observed
that a portion of the albumen becomes detached into the silver solution,
making it viscid, and favouring its decomposition. Consequently, the sheets
_last_ excited seldom retain their colour so long as those which are first
prepared. But even laying aside the question of the coagulation of the
albumen, the paper, unless it is ironed, remains so "cockled up," that it
is not only unsightly, but very difficult to use. 100-grain solution of
nitrate of silver (I presume to the ounce) is also recommended. In a late
Number, I find DR. DIAMOND uses a 40-grain solution with perfect success;
and my own experience enables me to verify this formula as being
sufficiently powerful:--no additional intensity of colour being obtained by
these strong solutions, it is a mere waste of material. Therefore I think
your correspondent fails in effecting either economy of material or time.

However painful it may be to me to offer remarks at variance with the
opinions of your kind and intelligent correspondents, yet I consider it a
duty that yourself and readers should not be misled, and so interesting and
elegant an art as photography brought into disrepute by experiments which,
however well intentioned, plainly indicate a want of experience.

K. N. M.

    [MR. SHADBOLT'S scientific acquirements appeared to us to demand that
    we should give insertion to his plan of albumenizing paper: although we
    felt some doubts whether it did not contain the disadvantages which our
    correspondent now points out. We had met with such complete success in
    following out the process recommended by DR. DIAMOND in our 205th
    Number, that we did not think it advisable to make any alteration. For
    our own experience has shown us the wisdom, in photography as in other
    matters, of holding fast that which is good.--ED.]

_Stereoscopic Angles._--Notwithstanding the space you have devoted to this
subject, I find little practical information to the photographer: will you
therefore allow me to presume to offer you my mode, which, regardless of
all scientific rules, I find to be perfectly successful in obtaining the
desired results?

My focussing-glass is ruled with a few perpendicular and horizontal lines
with a pencil, and I also cross it from corner to corner, which marks the
centre of the glass. These lines always allow me to place my camera level,
because the perpendicular lines being parallel with any upright line
secures it.

Having taken a picture, I note well the spot of some object near the centre
of the picture: thus, if a window or branch of a tree be upon the spot
where the lines cross [Cross lines], I remove the camera in a straight line
about one foot for every ten yards distance from the subject, and bring the
same object to the same spot: I believe it is not very important if the
camera is moved more or less. This may be known and practised by many of
your friends; but I am sure others make a great difficulty in effecting
those satisfactory results which, as I have shown, may be so easily

H. W. D.

_Photographic Copies of MSS._--I am glad to find from your Notices to
Correspondents in Vol. viii., p. 456., that the applicability of
photography to the copying of MSS., or printed leaves, is beginning to
excite attention. The facility and cheapness of thus applying it (as I have
been informed by a professional photographer) is so great, that I have no
doubt but that we shall shortly have it used in our great public libraries;
so as to supersede the present slow, expensive, and uncertain process of
copying by hand. And it is in order to help to bring about so desirable a
state of things, that I send these few lines to your widely-circulated

M. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Lord Cecil's "Memorials"_ (Vol. viii., p. 442.).--Cecil's "First Memorial"
is printed in Lord Somers's _Tracts_. It appears that Primate Ussher, and,
subsequently, Sir James Ware and his son Robert, had the benefit of
extracts from Lord Burleigh's papers. MR. BRUCE may find the "Examination"
of the celebrated Faithfull Comine, and "Lord Cecyl's Letters," together
with other interesting documents, entered among the Clarendon MSS. in _Pars
altera_ of the second volume of _Catal. Lib. Manuscr. Angl. et Hib._, Oxon.

R. G.

_Foreign Medical Education_ (Vol. viii., pp. 341. 398.).--In addition to
the previous communications on this subject, I beg to refer your
correspondent MEDICUS to Mr. Wilde's _Austria; its Literary, Scientific,
and Medical Institutions, with Notes on the State of Science, and a Guide
to the Hospitals and Sanitary Institutions of Vienna_, Dublin: Curry and
Co., 1842.

J. D. MCK.

_Encyclopædias_ (Vol. viii., p. 385.).--Surely there must be many persons
who sympathise with ENCYCLOPÆDICUS in wishing to have a work _not_
encumbered and swollen by the heavy and bulky articles to which he refers:
perhaps there may be as many as would make it worth the while of some
publisher to furnish one. Of course copyright, and all sorts of rights,
must be respected but that being done, there would be little else to do
than to cut out and wheel away the heavy articles from a copy of any
encyclopædia, and put the rest into the hands of a printer. The residuum
(which is what we want) would probably be to a considerable extent the
same. When necessary additions had been made, the work would still be of
moderate size and price.

N. B.

_Pepys's Grammar_ (Vol. viii., p. 466.).--I am unable to answer MR.
KEIGHTLEY'S Query, not having the slightest knowledge of short-hand; but I
always understood that the original spelling of every word in the _Diary_
was carefully preserved by the gentleman who decyphered it.

No estimate, however, of Pepys's powers of writing can be formed from the
hasty entries recorded in his short-hand journal, and, as I conceive, they
derive additional interest from the quaint terms in which they are


_"Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus Mundi"_ (Vols. ii. and iii. _passim_).--The
following instances of this thought occur in two writers of the seventeenth

    "Those times which we term vulgarly they Old World, were indeed the
    youth or adolescence of it ... if you go to the age of the world in
    general, and to the true length and longevity of things, we are
    properly the older cosmopolites. In this respect the cadet may be
    termed more ancient than his elder brother, because the world was older
    when he entered into it. Nov. 2, 1647."--Howell's _Letters_, 11th
    edit.: London, 1754, p.426.

Butler, in his _character_ of "An Antiquary," observes:

    "He values things wrongfully upon their antiquity, forgetting that the
    most modern are really the most ancient of all things in the world;
    like those that reckon their pounds before their shillings and pence,
    of which they are made up."--Thyer's edit., vol.ii. p. 97.


_Napoleon's Spelling_ (Vol. viii., p. 386).--The fact inquired after by
HENRY H. BREEN is proved by the following extract from the _Mémoires_ of
Bourrienne, Napoleon's private secretary for many years:

    "Je préviens une fois pour toutes que dans les copies que je donnerai
    des écrits de Bonaparte, je rétablirai l'orthographe, qui est en
    général _si extraordinairement estropiée_ qu'il serait ridicule de les
    copier exactement."--_Mém._ i. 73.


_Black as a mourning Colour_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--Mourning habits are
said first to appear in England in the time of Edward III. Chaucer and
Froissart are the first who mention them. The former, in _Troylus and
Creseyde_, says:

 "Creseyde was in widowe's habit _black_."


 "My clothes everichone
  Shall _blacke_ ben, in tolequyn, herte swete,
  That I am as out of this world gone."

Again, in the _Knights Tale_, Palamon appeared at a funeral

 "In clothes _black_ dropped all with tears."

Froissart says, the Earl of Foix clothed himself and household in _black_
on the death of his son. At the funeral of the Earl of Flanders black gowns
were worn. On the death of King John of France, the King of Cyprus wore
black. The very mention of these facts would suggest that black was not
then universally worn, but being gradually adopted for mourning.

B. H. C.

_Chanting of Jurors_ (Vol. vi., p. 315.).--No answer has yet been given to
J. F. F.'s Query on this, yet the expression "to chant" was not an unusual
one, if we may believe Lord Stratford:

    "They collected a grand jury in each county, and proceeded to claim a
    ratification of the rights of the crown. The gentlemen on being
    empanelled informed that the case before them was irresistible, and
    that no doubts could exist in the minds of reasonable {503} men upon
    it. His majesty was, in fact, indifferent whether they found for him or
    no. 'And there I left them,' says Strafford, '_to chant_ together, as
    they call it, over their evidence.' The counties of Roscommon, Sligo,
    and Mayo instantly found a title for the king."

This extract is from a very eloquent article on Lord Strafford in the
_British Critic_, No. LXVI. p. 485.



_Aldress_ (Vol. v., p. 582.).--Your correspondent COWGILL gives an instance
of the use of this obsolete word in an epitaph in St. Stephen's, Norwich,
and asks where else it may be met with. I have just found it in a
manuscript diary, under date 1561, and also as used in the same city:

    "A Speech made after Mr. Mayor Mingay's Dinner.

    "Master Mayor of Norwich; an it please your worship you have feasted us
    like a kinge. God bless the Queen's grace. We have fed plentifully, and
    now whilom I can speak plain English, I heartily thank you Master
    Mayor, and so do we all. Answer, boys, answer! Your beere is pleasant
    and potent, and soon catches us by the caput and stops our manners, and
    so Huzza for the Queen's Majesty's Grace, and all her bonny brow'd
    dames of honour! Huzza for Master Mayor and our good dame Mayoress, the
    Alderman and his faire _Aldress_; there they are, God save them and all
    this jolly company. To all our friends round country who have a penny
    in their purse, and an English heart in their bodies, to keep out
    Spanish Dons and Papists with their faggots to burn our whiskers. Shove
    it about. Twirl your cup-cases, handle your jugs, and huzza for Master
    Mayor and his good dame!"

How long is it since the ladies of our civic dignitaries relinquished the
distinction here given to one of their order? What was the cup-case?


Paternoster Row.

_Huggins and Muggins_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.).--In the edition of Mallet's
_Northern Antiquities_, edited by J. A. Blackwell, Esq., and published by
Bohn (_Antiquarian Library_, 1847), the following conjectural etymology of
the words Huggins and Muggins is given by the editor in a note on the word
_Muninn_, in the glossary to the Prose Edda:

    "We cannot refrain for once from noticing the curious coincidence
    between the names of Odin's ravens, Hugin and Munin--Mind and
    Memory--and those of two personages who figure so often in our comic
    literature as Messrs. Huggins and Muggins. _Huggins_, like _Hugh_,
    appears to have the same root as _Hugin_, viz. _hugr_, mind, spirit;
    and as Mr. Muggins is as invariably associated with Mr. Huggins, as one
    of Odin's ravens was with the other (as mind is with memory), the name
    may originally have been written _Munnins_, and _nn_ changed into _gg_
    for the sake of euphony. Should this _conjecture_, for it is nothing
    else, be well founded, one of the most poetical ideas in the whole
    range of mythology would, in this plodding, practical, spilling-jenny
    age of ours, have thus undergone a most singular metamorphosis."



_Camera Lucida_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--With my camera lucida I received a
printed sheet of instructions, from which the following extract is made, in
answer to CARET:

    "Those who cannot sketch comfortably, without perfect distinctness of
    both the pencil and object, must observe, that the _stem_ should be
    drawn out to the mark D, for all distant objects, and to the numbers 2,
    3, 4, 5, &c. for objects that are at the distances of only 2, 3, 4, or
    5 feet respectively, the stem being duly inclined according to a mark
    placed at the bottom; but, after a little practice, such exactness is
    wholly unnecessary. The farther the prism is removed from the paper,
    that is, the longer the stem is drawn out, the larger the objects will
    be represented in the drawing, and accordingly the less extensive the

    "The nearer the prism is to the paper, the smaller will be the objects,
    and the more extensive the view comprised on the same piece of paper.

    "If the drawing be two feet from the prism, and the paper only one
    foot, the copy will be half the size of the original. If the drawing be
    at one foot, and the paper three feet distant, the copy will be three
    times as large as the original: and so for all other distances."



_"When Orpheus went down"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 196. 281.).--This seems to be
rightly attributed to Dr. Lisle. See Dodsley's _Collection of Poems_, vol.
vi. p. 166. (1758), where it is stated to have been imitated from the
Spanish, and set to music by Dr. Hayes. It is not quite correctly given in
"N. & Q."


_The Arms of De Sissone_ (Vol. viii., p. 243.).--I beg to refer J. L. S. to
_Histoire Généalogique et Chronologique de la Maison Royale de France,
&c._, tom. viii. p. 537., Paris, 1733; and also to _Livre d'Or de la
Noblesse_, p. 429., Paris, 1847.


_Oaths of Pregnant Women_ (Vol. v., p. 393.).--Women of the humbler classes
in the British Islands appear to have an objection, when pregnant, to take
an oath. I have not observed any attempt to explain or account for this
prejudice. The same objection exists among the Burmese. Indeed, pregnant
women there are, by long-observed custom, absolved from taking an oath, and
affirm to their depositions, "remembering their pregnant condition." The
reason of this is as follows. The system of Budhism, as it prevails in the
Indo-Chinese countries, consists essentially in the negation of a Divine
Providence. The oath of Budhists is an imprecation of evil on the swearer,
{504} addressed to the innate rewarding powers of nature, animate and
inanimate, if the truth be not spoken. This evil may be instantaneous, as
sudden death from a fit, or from a flash of lightning; the first food taken
may choke the false swearer; or on his way home, a tiger by land, or an
alligator by water, may seize and devour him. I have known an instance of
this occur, which was spoken of by hundreds as a testimony to the truth of
the system. Now it is supposed by Budhists that even an unconscious
departure from truth may rouse jealous nature to award punishment. In the
case of pregnant women this would involve the unborn offspring in the
calamity. Hence women in that condition do not take an oath in Burmah.



_Lepel's Regiment_ (Vol. vii., p. 501.).--J. K. may rest assured that no
trace can now be discovered of a regiment thus named, which existed in the
year 1707. I have searched the lists of cavalry and infantry regiments at
the battle of Almanza, fought April 25th of that year, and do not find this
regiment mentioned. May I substitute for "Lepel's" regiment, "Pepper's"
regiment? The colonelcy of that corps, now the 8th Royal Irish Hussars,
became vacant by the fall of Brigadier-General Robert Killigrew at Almanza,
and it was immediately conferred on the lieutenant-colonel of the corps,
John Pepper, who held it until March 23, 1719.

G. L. S.

_Editions of the Prayer Book prior to 1662_ (Vol. vi., pp. 435. 564; Vol.
vii. _passim_).--I have recently met with the following editions, which
have not, I think, been yet recorded in your pages:

  1630. folio, London.
  1639. 4to. Barker and Bill.
  1661. 8vo. London, Duporti, Latin.

The first and third are in Mr. Darling's _Encyc. Bibl._, see columns 366,
367; the second I saw at Mr. Straker's, Adelaide Street, Strand.

Will some of your readers kindly tell me in what edition of the Prayer Book
the "Prayers at the Healing" are last met with? I have them in a Latin
Prayer Book, 12mo. London, 1727.[7]


[Footnote 7: It appears from a note in Pepys's _Diary_, June 23, 1660, that
the library of the Duke of Sussex contained four several editions of the
Book of Common Prayer, all printed after the accession of the House of
Hanover, and all containing, as an integral part of the service, "The
Office for the Healing."--ED.]

_Creole_ (Vol. vii., p. 381. Vol. viii., p. 138.).--I have never met with
any satisfactory explanation of the origin of this word; its meaning has
undergone various modifications. At first it was limited in its application
to the descendants of Europeans born in the colonies. By degrees it came to
be extended to all classes of the population of colonial descent and now it
is indiscriminately employed to express things as well as persons, of local
origin or growth. We say a _creole_ Negro, as contra-distinguished from a
negro born in Africa or elsewhere; a _creole_ horse, as
contra-distinguished from an English or an American horse; and we speak
"Creole" when we address the uneducated classes in their native jargon.


St. Lucia.

_Daughter pronounced "Dafter"_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--This pronunciation
is universal in North Cornwall and North-west Devonshire.

J. R. P.

_Richard Geering_ (Vol. viii., p. 340.).--If Y. S. M. will favour me with
the parentage of "Richard Geering, one of the six clerks in chancery in
Ireland," I shall be better able to judge whether he was of the family of
Geering, Gearing, or Geary, of South Denchworth in the co. of Berks, of
which family I have a pedigree. I can also supply their coat of arms and
crest. Any information of the Geerings, ancestors of the said Richard, the
chancery clerk, will be acceptable to your occasional correspondent

H. C. C.

If this Richard Geering is related to the Geerings of South Denchworth, in
Berkshire, I refer Y. S. M. to Clare's _Hundred of Wanting_, Parker,
Oxford, 1824.

The Geerings bought the manor of Viscount Cullen. It was formerly in the
possession of the Hydes: several of the Geering monuments are in the
church. Their arms, Or, on two bars gules six mascles of the field, on a
canton sable a leopard's face of the first. The Geerings were long tenants
of a part of the estate which they purchased; they are extinct in the male
line. A grandson, John Bockett, Esq. (by the female line), of the last
heir, possessed a small farm in the parish which was sold by him some years
ago. The manor now belongs to Worcester College, Oxford, who purchased it
of Gregory Geering, gent., in 1758. The name is spelt Gearing and Geary in
the early registers.

The books in the small study (mentioned in "N. & Q." some time ago) were
given by Gregory Geering, Esq., Mr. Ralph Kedden, vicar of Denchworth, and
Mr. Edward Brewster, stationer, of London, most of which are attached by
long chains to the cases.


Southcote Lodge.

_Island_ (Vol. viii., p. 279.).--H. C. K. is quite right in saying that the
_s_ has been inserted in this word: not, however, as he thinks, "to
assimilate {505} the Saxon and French terms," but from a fancied French or
Latin derivation, just as _rime_ is spelt _rhyme_, because it was fancied
that it came from [Greek: rhuthmos]; and as critics and editors will print
_coelum_ instead of _cælum_, contrary to all authority, because they have
taken it into their heads that it comes from [Greek: koilon]. We have also
_spright_, _impregnable_, and other misspelt words, for which it is
difficult to assign a reason. But I think H. C. K. is altogether mistaken
in connecting the A.-S. _ig_ (pr. _ee_), an island, with _eye_. It is
evidently one of the original underived nouns of the Teutonic family, being
_ig_ A.-S., _ey_ Icel., whence _ö_ Swed., _ö_ or _öe_ Dan., and which also
appears in the German and Dutch _eiland_; while in the words for _eye_ the
_g_ is radical, as _eage_ A.-S., _auga_ Icel., _auge_ Germ., _oog_ Dutch.

T. K.

       *       *       *       *       *



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  SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. By Russell Sedgfield.
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Parts I. II. III. and IV. are now reprinted.

Now ready,

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF CONSTANTINOPLE. Twenty Views of the most Important
Buildings, taken by JAMES ROBERTSON, Esq. Imperial folio, half-bound
morocco, price 6l. 16s. 6d.

Just published, price 16s.,



Part I. is now reprinted. Part III. is in preparation.

Just published, fcap. 8vo. cloth, price 4s. 6d.,

THE PRACTICE OF PHOTOGRAPHY: A Manual for Students and Amateurs. By PHILIP
H. DELAMOTTE, F.S.A. Illustrated with a Picture taken by the Collodion

*** This Manual contains much practical information.

Now ready, price 14s.,



Part II. is just ready.


  Sold also by SAMPSON LOW & SON, 47. Ludgate Hill.

       *       *       *       *       *

XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments.--The superiority of this preparation is now universally
acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal
scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no
preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect
pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where
a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in
separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for for years, and Exported
to any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware of
purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent.
The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label
bearing this Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL
MALL, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals: and may be procured of
all respectable Chemists, in Pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through
MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., 95.
Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



One of the Largest in Europe, is published every Saturday, by J. LIVESEY,
Crane Court, Fleet Street, and can be had of all News Vendors throughout
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"The Empire" contains a larger Miscellany of Foreign, Colonial,
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contributions than almost any other Paper in the Kingdom, and its
circulation is already superior to that of two-thirds of the London Weekly

"The Empire" advocates a complete remodelling, by a New Reform Bill, of the
representative system; the abolition of the present panic-producing
Currency Restrictions; the development of Colonial Enterprise and
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Provincial Interests from the despotism of the Centralisation system.
Provincial readers will find in "The Empire" a constant discussion of
questions immediately interesting to themselves, and a large selection of
news from their respective localities.

Literary Articles and Critical Notices of Scientific Improvements, and of
Public Works at home and abroad, are supplied to "The Empire" by the ablest
writers and highest authorities of the day.

       *       *       *       *       *


As an appropriate accompaniment to a Paper which circulates in all parts of
the British Empire,--a copy of the magnificent


By Count D'Orsay, Three Feet by Two Feet,


Will be presented to each Subscriber for Three Months, commencing from the
present month, November.

TERMS:--Per Copy, 6d.; Three Months, 6s. 6d.; Six Months, 13s.; One Year,

Advertisements inserted on Moderate Terms.

Orders for "The Empire" may be sent to MR. ROBERT HARVEY, No. 1. Crane
Court, Fleet Street, London, or may be given to any News Vendor in town or

       *       *       *       *       *

is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its extreme Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Causon Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society.


_Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION._


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum
assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on
Capital, for a Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
nearly Two PER CENT. per annum on the _amount assured_, or at the rate of
from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the _Premiums paid_.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.


The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. Assurances may be effected by
applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of
the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

offered by this Society are Security, Economy and lower Rates of Premium
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No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low as
20l., at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

  HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

WRITING-DESKS. DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites. Gratis on
application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
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of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION No. 1. Class X., in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may
now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
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Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver 40 guineas. Every watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
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    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
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    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
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6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
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IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
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BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *




To which is added the


With Fine Portrait of NELL GWYNNE.

Post 8vo. cloth. Price 3s. 6d.


With Portrait.

Post 8vo., cloth. Price 3s. 6d.



With Additional Notes by the Celebrated JOHN WILKES.

Complete in 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth.

Price 3s. 6d.


       *       *       *       *       *


Now Ready, in 12mo., price 5s.

NOTES, translated from the German of DR. KARL NIPPERDEY (with Additions),
by the REV. HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon of Chichester. (Forming a new Volume
of Arnold's "Classics.")

  RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place:

Of whom may be had, with ENGLISH NOTES, by the late REV. T. K. ARNOLD,

1. TACITUS, Part I. (ANNALES, Books I.-VI.) 6s.

2. THUCYDIDES, Book I. 5s. 6d. (The SECOND BOOK in the Press.)

       *       *       *       *       *

Just Published, price 1s.


Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by
C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same author, price 1s.,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr. Thomas

    "Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M.
    Jobert."--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand, Cambridge: E. JOHNSON. Birmingham: H.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALBEMARLE STREET,_November, 1853_.



Chief Collections of Paintings, Sculptures, MSS., Miniatures, &c., in this
Country. 3 vols. 8vo.


Account of the different Styles prevailing in all Ages and Countries of the
World. With a Description of the most Remarkable Buildings. With 1000
Illustrations. 8vo.


KUGLER'S HISTORY OF PAINTING. (The Dutch, Flemish, French and Spanish
Schools.) Edited by SIR EDMUND HEAD. Illustrated Edition. 2 vols. Post 8vo.


OLIVER GOLDSMITH'S WORKS: a New Library Edition, now first printed from the
last editions which passed under the Author's own eye. Edited by PETER
CUNNINGHAM. 4 vols. 8vo.


LIFE OF HORACE. By DEAN MILMAN. A New Edition, with Woodcuts and Coloured
Borders. 8vo.


the Pontificate of Nicholas V. 3 vols. 8vo.


MR. MANSFIELD PARKYNS' LIFE IN ABYSSINIA: during a Three Years' Residence
in that Country. With Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo.




Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo.


Arranged with his Sanction. 2 vols. 8vo.


PRIMÆVAL ROCKS, and their IMBEDDED REMAINS. With Plates. 8vo.


Woodcuts. 2 vols. Post 8vo.


of Gregory the Great, A.D. 590: a Manual for general Readers as well as for
Students in Theology. 8vo.


COL. FANCOURT'S EARLY HISTORY OF YUCATAN, from the Discovery to the Close
of the Seventeenth Century. With Map. 8vo.


DR. WM. SMITH'S SCHOOL HISTORY OF GREECE: with Chapters on the Literature,
Art, and Domestic Manners of the Greeks. With Woodcuts. Post 8vo.






GOOD MEN, intended as a Sunday Book for Children. By A LADY. 16mo.


HANDBOOK OF FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS, chiefly from English Authors. A New
Edition, with an Index. Fcp. 8vo.




"Jesse's Gleanings." Woodcuts. Fcp. 8vo.




MR. CROKER'S STORIES FOR CHILDREN. Selected from the History of England.
Cheaper Edition. Woodcuts. 16mo.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November
19, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 497, "This is on the floor": 'This in' in original.

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