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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 217, December 24, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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{613} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 217.]
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 24. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Folk Lore in the Reign of King James I.                      613

  The Ballad of Sir Hugh, &c.                                  614

  Pennsylvanian Folk Lore: Christmas                           615

  County Rhymes                                                615

  Legends of the County Clare: Fuenvicouil (Fingal)
  and the Giant, by Frances Robert Davies                      616

  FOLK LORE MISCELLANIES:--Yorkshire Tradition--Custom on St.
  Thomas's Day--Custom on Innocents' Day--Marriage Custom at
  Knutsford, Cheshire--Folk Lore in Hampshire--Propitiating
  the Fairies--Cornish Folk Lore--King Arthur in the Form of
  a Raven--St. Clement's Apple Feast in Staffordshire--New
  Year's Eve and New Year's Day                                617

  MINOR NOTES:--Carlist Calembourg--Jewish Custom--Lachlan
  Macleane--German Tree--The late Duke                         618

  QUERIES:--

  The Story of Crispin and Crispianus, by J. Davies Devlin     619

  MINOR QUERIES:--Barrels Regiment--Okey the Regicide--Lady
  Mason's Third Husband--Creation of Knights--Martyn the
  Regicide--History of the Nonjurors--Florin and the Royal
  Arms--A Mistletoe Query                                      620

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Sewell Family--Greek
  Epigram--Translations from Æschylus--Prince Memnon's
  Sister--"Oh! for a blast," &c.--Robin Hood's
  Festival--Church in Suffolk                                  621

  REPLIES:--

  Children called Imps                                         623

  The Divining Rod                                             623

  Change of Meaning in Proverbial Expressions, &c.             624

  Sneezing, by Francis John Scott, &c.                         624

  Books burned by the common Hangman, by W.
  Fraser, &c.                                                  625

  Jews in China, by T.J. Buckton                               626

  Poetical Tavern Signs                                        626

  The Curfew, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.                           628

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Photographic Engraving--Collodion
  Negatives                                                    628

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--"London Labour and the London
  Poor"--Felicia Hemans's inedited Lyric--Sir Arthur
  Aston--Grammar in relation to Logic--Descendants of
  Milton--Pronunciation of Bible Names--Henry I.'s
  Tomb--Bells at Berwick-upon-Tweed--Return of Gentry, temp.
  Henry VI.--Peter Allan--Burial in an erect Posture--The
  Word "Mob"--Gen. Sir C. Napier--To Come--Passage in
  Sophocles--Party-Similes of the Seventeenth Century--Judges
  styled Reverend--Veneration for the Oak--Rapping no Novelty  629

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 632

  Notices to Correspondents                                    632

  Advertisements                                               633

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

FOLK LORE IN THE REIGN OF KING JAMES I.

In turning over the pages of an old book of controversial divinity, I
stumbled upon the following illustrations of folk lore; which, as well from
their antiquity as from their intrinsic curiosity, seem worthy of a place
in your columns. They make us acquainted with some of the usages of our
ancestors, who lived in the remoter districts of England early in the reign
of James I. The title of the volume in which they occur is the following:

    "The Way to the True Church; wherein the principall Motives persuading
    to Romanisme, and Questions touching the Nature and Authoritie of the
    Church and Scriptures, are familiarly disputed ... directed to all that
    seeks for Resolution; and especially to all his loving Countrymen of
    Lancashire, by John White, Minister of God's Word at Eccles. Folio.
    London, 1624."

This, however, is described as being "the fifth impression;" the Preface is
dated Oct. 29, 1608; so that we arrive at the conclusion that the usages
and rhymes, to which I now desire to invite the attention of your readers,
were current in the north-west districts of England more than two hundred
and fifty years since.

White is insisting upon "the prodigious ignorance" which he found among his
parishioners when he entered upon his ministrations, and he proceeds thus
to tell his own tale:

    "I will only mention what I saw and learned, dwelling among them,
    concerning the saying of their prayers; for what man is he whose heart
    trembles not to see simple people so far seduced that they know not how
    to pronounce or say their daily prayers; or so to pray that all that
    hear them shall be filled with laughter? And while, superstitiously,
    they refuse to pray in their own language with understanding, they
    speak that which their leaders may blush to hear. These examples I have
    observed from the common people."

    THE CREED.

    "Creezum zuum patrum onitentem creatorum ejus anicum, Dominum nostrum
    qui sum sops, virgini Mariæ, crixus fixus, Ponchi Pilati audubitiers,
    morti {614} by sonday, father a fernes, scelerest un judicarum, finis a
    mortibus. Creezum spirituum sanctum, ecli Catholi, remissurum,
    peccaturum, communiorum obliviorum, bitam et turnam again."

              THE LITTLE CREED.
     "Little Creed, can I need,
      Kneele before our Ladies knee;
      Candle light, candles burne,
      Our Ladie pray'd to her deare Sonne,
      That we might all to heaven come.
          Little Creed, Amen."

    "This that followeth they call the 'White Pater-noster:'

     "White Pater-noster, Saint Peter's brother,
      What hast i' th' t'one hand? white booke leaves.
      What hast i' th' t'other hand? heaven yate keyes.
      Open heaven yates, and steike [shut] hell yates:
      And let every crysome child creepe to its owne mother.
          White Pater-noster, Amen."

    "Another Prayer:

     "I blesse me with God and the rood,
      With his sweet flesh and precious blood;
      With his crosse and his creed,
      With his length and his breed,
      From my toe to my crowne,
      And all my body up and downe,
      From my back to my brest,
      My five wits be my rest;
      God let never ill come at ill,
      But through Jesus owne will,
      Sweet Jesus, Lord. Amen."

    "Many also use to weare vervein against blasts; and when they gather it
    for this purpose, firste they crosse the herbe with their hand, and
    then they blesse it thus:

     "Hallowed be thou, Vervein,
      As thou growest on the ground,
      For in the Mount of Calvary,
      There thou wast first found.
      Thou healedst our Saviour Jesus Christ,
      And staunchedst his bleeding wound;
      In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost,
      I take thee from the ground."

These passages may be seen in the "Preface to the Reader," § 13., no page,
but on the reverse of Sig. A 4.

It might at first appear somewhat strange that these interesting remnants
of early belief should have escaped the notice of your numerous
correspondents, whose attention has for so long a period been directed to
this inquiry: but this may be accounted for if we remember that the volume
in which they occur is one which would seem, _primâ facie_, least likely to
afford any such materials. It is one of those uninviting bulky folios of
which the reigns of James and Charles I. furnish us with so many specimens.
Here we might fairly expect to discover abundant illustrations of patristic
and scholastic theology, of learning and pedantry, of earnest devotion, and
ill-temper no less earnest; but nothing whereby to illustrate the manners
or customs, the traditions, or the popular usages or superstitions, of the
common people. This may be a hint for us, however, to direct our attention
to a class of literature which hitherto has scarcely received the attention
to which it would appear to be entitled; and I would venture to express my
conviction, that if those who are interested in the illustration of our
popular antiquities were to give a little of their time to early English
theology, the result would be more important than might at first be
anticipated.

L. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE BALLAD OF SIR HUGH, ETC.

The fact mentioned by your correspondent C. CLIFTON BARRY, at p. 357., as
to the affinity of Midland songs and ballads to those of Scotland, I have
often observed, and among the striking instances of it which could be
adduced, the following may be named, as well known in Northamptonshire:

 "It rains, it rains, in merry Scotland;
  It rains both great and small;
  And all the schoolfellows in merry Scotland
  Must needs go and play at ball.

 "They tossed the ball so high, so high,
  And yet it came down so low;
  They tossed it over the old Jew's gates,
  And broke the old Jew's window.

 "The old Jew's daughter she came out;
  Was clothed all in green;
 'Come hither, come hither, thou young Sir Hugh,
  And fetch your ball again.'

 "'I dare not come, I dare not come,
  Unless my schoolfellows come all;
  And I shall be flogged when I get home,
  For losing of my ball.'

 "She 'ticed him with an apple so red,
  And likewise with a fig:
  She laid him on the dresser board,
  And stickéd him like a pig.

 "The thickest of blood did first come out,
  The second came out so thin;
  The third that came was his dear heart's blood,
  Where all his life lay in."

I write this from memory: it is but a fragment of the whole, which I think
is printed, with variations, in Percy's _Reliques_. It is also worthy of
remark, that there is a resemblance also between the words which occur as
provincialisms in the same district, and some of those which are used in
Scotland; e.g. _whemble_ or _whommel_ (sometimes not aspirated, and
pronounced _wemble_), to turn upside down, as a dish. This word is Scotch,
although they do not pronounce the b any more than in _Campbell_, which
sounds very much like _Camel_.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

{615}

PENNSYLVANIAN FOLK LORE: CHRISTMAS.

This anniversary holds the same rank in the middle, southern, and western
states as Thanksgiving Day in the eastern states or New England, where,
owing to the Puritan origin of the bulk of the inhabitants, Christmas is
not much celebrated. In Pennsylvania many of the usages connected with it
are of German origin, and derived from the early settlers of the Teutonic
race, whose descendants are now a very numerous portion of the population.
The Christmas Tree is thus devised: It is planted in a flower-pot filled
with earth, and its branches are covered with presents, chiefly of
confectionary, for the younger members of the family.

When bed-time arrives on Christmas Eve, the children hang up their
stockings at the foot of their beds, to receive presents brought them by a
fabulous personage called _Krishkinkle_, who is believed to descend the
chimney with them for all the children who have been good during the
previous year. The word _Krishkinkle_ is a corruption of _Christ-kindlein_,
literally _Christ-infant_, and is understood to be derived from the fact
that a representation of the Infant Saviour in the manger formed part of
the decorations prepared for the children at Christmas.

If the children have not been good during the year previous, instead of
finding sugar-plums and other presents in their stockings on Christmas
morning, they discover therein a birch-rod. This is said to have been
placed there by _Pelsnichol_, or Nicholas with the fur, alluding to the
dress of skins in which he is said to be clad. Some make _Pelsnichol_
identical with _Krishkinkle_, but the more general opinion is that they are
two personages, one the rewarder of the good, the other the punisher of the
bad.

The functions ascribed to Krishkinkle in Pennsylvania are attributed to
Saint Nicholas, or Santa Claus in the State of New York, first settled by
the Hollanders. The following poem, written by Clement C. Moore, LL.D., of
New York, describes the performances of St. Nicholas on Christmas Eve, and
is equally applicable to our Krishkinkle:

             "_A Visit from St. Nicholas._
 'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
  Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
  The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
  In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there.
  The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
  While visions of sugar-plums danced in their heads;
  And mamma in her kerchief and I in my cap
  Had just settled our brains for a long winter's nap,
  When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
  I sprang from my bed to see what was the matter.
  Away to the window I flew like a flash,
  Tore open the shutters and threw up the sash;
  The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow
  Gave the lustre of day to the objects below;
  When what to my wondering eyes should appear
  But a miniature sleigh and eight tiny reindeer,
  With a little old driver so lively and quick,
  I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
  More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
  And he whistled and shouted and call'd them by name,
 'Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer! now,     Vixen!
  On, Comet! on, Cupid! on, Dunder and Blixen!
  To the top of the stoop[1], to the top of the wall!
  Now dash away! dash away! dash away all!'
  As dry leaves before the wild hurricane fly,
  When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky,
  So up to the house-top the coursers they flew,
  With the sleigh full of toys and St. Nicholas too;
  And then in a twinkling I heard on the roof
  The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
  As I drew in my head and was turning around,
  Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound.
  He was dress'd all in fur from his head to his foot,
  And his clothes were all tarnish'd with ashes and soot.
  A bundle of toys he had flung on his back;
  And he look'd like a pedlar just opening his pack.
  His eyes, how they twinkled! his dimples, how merry!
  His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
  His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
  And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow;
  The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
  And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath.
  He had a broad face and a little round belly,
  That shook, when he laugh'd, like a bowl full of jelly.
  He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
  And I laugh'd when I saw him, in spite of myself.
  A wink of his eye and a twist of his head
  Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.
  He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
  And fill'd all the stockings, then turn'd with a jerk;
  And laying his finger aside of his nose,
  And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose.
  He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
  And away they all flew like the down of a thistle:
  But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight,
 'Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night.'"

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

[Footnote 1: Stoop means, in the language of the New Yorkers, a portico.]

       *       *       *       *       *

COUNTY RHYMES.

                  KENT.

 "He that will not live long,
  Let him dwell at Murston, Tenham, or Tong."

   "Dover, Sandwich, and Winchelsea,
    Rumney and Rye, the five ports be."

              CHESHIRE.

   "Chester of Castria took the name,
    As if that Castria were the same."

  {616}
          LINCOLNSHIRE--_Stamford_.

 "Doctrinæ studium, quod nunc viget ad vada Boum,
  Tempore venturo celebrabitur ad vada Saxi."

   "Science that now o'er Oxford sheds her ray,
    Shall bless fair Stamford at some future day."

      WILTSHIRE--_Salisbury Cathedral_.

 "As many days as in one year there be,
  So many windows in this church you see.
  As many marble pillars here appear,
  As there are hours through the fleeting year.
  As many gates as moons one here does view
  Strange tale to tell, yet not more strange than true."

          _Chippenham_--On a Stone.

     "Hither extendeth Maud Heath's gift,
      For where I stand is Chippenham clift."

      SURREY--_Market House, Farnham_.

 "You who do like me, give money to end me,
  You who dislike me, give as much to mend me."

              _Woking_--_Sutton_.

       "Beastly 'Oking--pretty Sutton,
        Filthy foxglove--bach'lors button."

 "'Oking was--Guildford is--Godalming shall be."

              SOMERSETSHIRE.

 "Stanton Drew,
  A mile from Pensford--another from Chew."

              PEMBROKESHIRE.

       "Once to Rome thy steps incline,
        But visit twice St. David's shrine."

       "When Percelty weareth a hat,
        All Pembrokeshire shall weet of that."

J. EBFF.

Bolt Court.

       *       *       *       *       *

LEGENDS OF THE CO. CLARE: FUENVICOUIL (FINGAL) AND THE GIANT.

Once upon a time, a Scottish giant who had heard of Fuenvicouil's fame,
determined to come and see which of them was the stronger. Now Fuenvicouil
was informed by his thumb of the giant's intentions, and also that on the
present occasion matters would not turn out much to his advantage if they
fought: so as he did not feel the least bit "blue-mowlded for the want of a
batin'," like Neal Malone, he was at a loss what to do. Oonagh, his wife,
saw his distress, and soon contrived to find out the cause of it; and
having done so, she assured him that if he would leave things to her
management, and strictly obey her directions, she would make the giant
return home faster than he came. Fuenvicouil promised obedience; and, as no
time was to be lost, Oonagh commenced her preparations. She first baked two
or three large cakes of bread, taking care to put the griddle (the iron
plate used in Ireland and Scotland for baking bread on) into the largest.
She then put several gallons of milk down to boil, and made whey of it; and
carefully collected the curd into a mass, which she laid aside. She then
proceeded to dress up Fuenvicouil as a baby; and having put a cap on his
head, tucked him up in the cradle, charging him on no account to speak, but
to carefully obey any signs she might make to him. The preparations were
only just completed, when the giant arrived, and, striding into the house,
demanded to see Fuenvicouil. Oonagh received him politely; said she could
not tell _any more than the child in the cradle_, where her husband then
was; but requested the giant to sit down and rest, till Fuenvicouil came
in. She then placed bread and whey before him till some better refreshments
could be got ready, taking care to give him the cake with the griddle in
it, and serving the whey in a vessel that held two or three gallons. The
giant was a little surprised at the _quantity_ of the lunch set before him,
and proceeded to break a piece off the cake but in vain; he then tried to
bite it, with as little success: and as to swallowing the ocean of whey set
before him, it was out of the question; so he said he was not hungry, and
would wait. He then asked Oonagh what was the favourite feat of strength
her husband prided himself upon. She could not indeed particularise any
one, but said that sometimes Fuenvicouil amused himself with squeezing
water out of that stone there, pointing to a rock lying near the door. The
giant immediately took it up; and squeezed it till the blood started from
his fingers, but made no impression on the rock. Oonagh laughed at his
discomfiture, and said a child could do that, handing at the same time the
lump of curds to "the baby." Fuenvicouil, who had been attentively
listening to all that was going on, gave the curd a squeeze, and some drops
of whey fell from it. Oonagh, in apparently great delight, kissed and
hugged her "dear baby;" and breaking a bit off one of the cakes she had
prepared, began to coax the "child" to eat a little bit and get strong. The
giant amazed, asked, could that child eat such hard bread? And Oonagh
persuaded him to put his finger into the child's mouth, "just to feel his
teeth;" and as soon as Fuenvicouil got the giant's finger in his mouth, he
bit it off. This was more than the giant could stand; and seeing that a
child in the cradle was so strong, he was convinced that the sooner he
decamped before Fuenvicouil's return the better; so he hastened from the
house, while Oonagh in vain pressed him to remain; and never stopped till
he returned to his own place, very happy at having escaped a meeting with
Fuenvicouil.

FRANCES ROBERT DAVIES.

       *       *       *       *       *

{617}

FOLK LORE MISCELLANIES.

_Yorkshire Tradition._--The following tradition of Osmotherly, in
Yorkshire, was related to me as being current in that county. Can you
inform me if it is authentic?

Some years ago there lived in a secluded part of Yorkshire a lady who had
an only son named Os or Oscar. Strolling one day with her child they met a
party of gipsies, who were anxious to tell her the child's fortune. After
being much importuned she assented to their request. To the mother's
astonishment and grief they prognosticated that the child would be drowned.
In order to avert so dreadful a calamity, the infatuated mother purchased
some land and built a house on the summit of a high hill, where she lived
with her son a long time in peace and seclusion. Happening one fine
summer's day in the course of a perambulation to have fatigued themselves,
they sat down on the grass to rest and soon fell asleep. While enjoying
this repose, a spring rose up from the ground, which caused such an
inundation as to overwhelm them, and side by side they found a watery
grave. After this had occurred, the people residing in the neighbourhood
named it Os-by-his-mother-lay, which has since been corrupted into
Osmotherly.

R. W. CARTER.

_Custom on St. Thomas's Day_ (_Dec. 21_).--At Harvington, in
Worcestershire, it is the custom on St. Thomas's Day for persons (chiefly
children) to go round the village begging for apples, and singing the
following rhymes:

 "Wissal, wassail through the town,
  If you've got any apples, throw them down.
  Up with the stocking, and down with the shoe,
  If you've got no apples, money will do.
  The jug is white, and the ale is brown,
  This is the best house in the town."

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Custom on Innocents' Day_ (_Dec. 28_).--At Norton (near Evesham) it is the
custom on Dec. 28 to ring, first a muffled peal for the slaughter of the
Holy Innocents, and then an unmuffled peal of joy for the deliverance of
the Infant Christ.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Marriage Custom at Knutsford, Cheshire._--A singular but pleasing custom
exists among the inhabitants of Knutsford in Cheshire. On the occasion of a
wedding, when the bride has set out for the church, a relative invariably
spreads on the pavement, which is composed of pebbles, before her house, a
quantity of silver sand, there called "greet," in the form of wreaths of
flowers, and writes, with the same material, wishes for her happiness.
This, of course, is soon discovered by others, and immediately, especially
if the bride or bridegroom are favorites, appear before most of the houses
numerous flowers in sand. It is said that this custom arose from the only
church they had being without bells, and therefore, to give notice of a
wedding, they adopted it; and though now there are other churches and a
peal of bells, they still adhere to the above method of communicating
intelligence of such happy events. Why sand should be used I have not been
able to learn, and I should be much obliged for any information on the
point, there being no sandpits in the locality of Knutsford, or such like
reason for its use.

One circumstance I may mention connected with weddings there. On the return
of the party from church, it is usual to throw money to the boys, who, of
course, follow, and if this is omitted, the latter keep up a cry of "a
buttermilk wedding."

RUSSELL GOLE.

_Folk Lore in Hampshire._--In Hampshire the country people believe that a
healing power exists in the alms collected at the administration of the
sacrament, and many of them use the money as a charm to cure the diseases
of the body. A short time ago a woman came to a clergyman, and brought with
her half-a-crown, asking at the same time for five "sacrament sixpences" in
exchange. She said that one of her relations was ill, and that she wished
to use the money as a charm to drive away the disease. This superstition
may have arisen from the once prevalent custom of distributing the alms in
the church to those of the poor who were present at the sacrament.

I have heard that the negroes in Jamaica attach the same "gifts of healing"
to the consecrated bread, and often, if they can escape notice, will carry
it away with them. As no account of this superstition seems to be recorded
in "N. & Q.," perhaps you would like to "make a note of it."

F. M. MIDDLETON.

_Propitiating the Fairies._--Having some years since, on a Sunday
afternoon, had occasion to ride on horseback between two towns in the
eastern part of Cornwall, I met a christening party, also on horseback,
headed by the nurse with a baby in her arms. Making a halt as I approached
her, she stopped me, and producing a _cake_, presented it to me, and
insisted on my taking it. Several years after, when in the Isle of Man, I
had the opportunity of hearing an elderly person relate several pieces of
folk lore respecting the witches and fairies in that island. It had been
customary, within his recollection, for a woman, when carrying a child to
be christened, to take with her _a piece of bread and cheese_, to give to
the first person she met, for the purpose of _saving the child from
witchcraft or the fairies_. Another custom was that of the "Queeltah," or
salt put under the churn _to keep off bad people_. Stale water was thrown
on the plough "to keep it from the _little {618} folks_." A cross was tied
in the tail of a cow "to keep her from _bad bodies_." On May morning it was
deemed of the greatest importance to avoid going to a neighbour's house for
fire; a turf was therefore kept burning all night at home. Flowers growing
in a hedge, especially green or yellow ones, were good to keep off the
fairies. And finally, the last cake was left "behind the turf-flag for the
little people."

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

_Cornish Folk Lore: King Arthur in the Form of a Raven._--In Jarvis's
translation of _Don Quixote_, book II. chap. v., the following passage
occurs:

    "'Have you not read, sir,' answered Don Quixote, 'the annals and
    histories of England, wherein are recorded the famous exploits of King
    Arthur, whom in our Castilian tongue we always call King Artus; of whom
    there goes an old tradition, and a common one all over that kingdom of
    Great Britain, that this king did not die, but that by magic art he was
    turned into a raven; and that, in process of time, he shall reign
    again, and recover his kingdom and sceptre; for which reason it cannot
    be proved, that, from that time to this, any Englishman has killed a
    raven?'"

My reason for transcribing this passage is to record the curious fact that
the legend of King Arthur's existence in the form of a raven was still
repeated as a piece of folk lore in Cornwall about sixty years ago. My
father, who died about two years since at the age of eighty, spent a few
years of his youth in the neighbourhood of Penzance. One day, as he was
walking along Marazion Green with his fowling-piece on his shoulder, he saw
a raven at a distance and fired at it. An old man who was near immediately
rebuked him, telling him that he ought on no account to have shot at a
raven, for that King Arthur was still alive in the form of that bird. My
father was much interested when I drew his attention to the passage which I
have quoted above. Perhaps some of your Cornish or Welsh correspondents may
be able to say whether the legend is still known among the people of
Cornwall or Wales.

EDGAR MACCULLOCH.

Guernsey.

_St. Clement's Apple Feast in Staffordshire._--On the feast of St.
Clement's (Nov. 23) the children go round to the various houses in the
villages to which they belong singing the following doggerel:

 "Clemany! Clemany! Clemany mine!
  A good red apple and a pint of wine,
  Some of your mutton and some of your veal,
  If it is good, pray give me a deal;
  If it is not, pray give some salt.
  Butler, butler, fill your bowl;
  If thou fillst it of the best,
  The Lord'll send your soul to rest;
  If thou fillst it of the small,
  Down goes butler, bowl and all.
  Pray, good mistress, send to me
  One for Peter, one for Paul,
  One for Him who made us all,
  Apple, pear, plum, or cherry,
  Any good thing to make us merry;
  A bouncing buck and a velvet chair,
  Clement comes but once a year;
  Off with the pot and on with the pan,
  A good red apple and I'll begone."

How the above came to be conglomerated I know not, as there seem to be at
least three separate compositions pressed into St. Clement's service.

I shall be glad to know if any of your contributors can furnish farther
illustrations of St. Clement's apple feast. I believe, in Worcestershire,
St. Catherine and St. Clement unite in becoming the patrons on these
occasions.

G. E. T. S. R. N.

_New Year's Eve and New Year's Day._--Another German custom prevalent in
Philadelphia is the custom of celebrating the departure of the old year and
the arrival of the new by discharges of fire-arms. As soon as the sun sets
the firing commences, and it is kept up all night with every description of
musket, fowling-piece, and pistol. It is called "firing out the old year"
and "firing in the new year."

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Carlist Calembourg._--The original of the French _jeu d'esprit_ in Vol.
viii., p. 242., was a Carlist calembourg circulated in the _salons_ about
the middle of 1831:

 "La nation n'aime pas Louis-Philippe mais en rit (Henri)."

There was another also very popular:

 "In travelling to Bordeaux you must go to Orleans."

V. T. STERNBERG.

_Jewish Custom._--In a recently published music-novel of some merit, called
_Charles Auchester_, occurs the following:

    "'I shall treat him as my son, because he will indeed be my
    music-child, and no more indebted to me than I am to music, or than we
    all are to Jehovah.' _'Sir, you are certainly a Jew, if you say
    Jehovah_; I was quite sure of it before, and I am so pleased.'"

There is a great error as to custom here, for the Jews never attempt to
pronounce the "four-lettered" Name, and in reading and speaking always use
instead Adonai or Elohim. And even converted Jews retain for the most part
the same habit. The writer of _Charles Auchester_ can only defend himself
by the example of the writer of {619} _Ivanhoe_, who has made the same
oversight; and a still more glaring one besides in making Isaac the Jew
wish his daughter had been called Benoni, _i.e._ the _son_ of sorrow. The
vowel letters of Jehovah are merely those of Adonai, inserted by the
Massorites; but this is another subject.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Lachlan Macleane._--This individual, whose claim to the authorship of
Junius has been lately revived, was in Philadelphia ninety-five years ago,
and his name figures there in the accounts of the overseers of the poor,
under date of November 9, 1758:

    "By cash received of James Coultass, late sheriff, being a fine paid by
    Laughlane McClain for kissing of Osborn's wife (after his commissions
    and writing bond were deducted)

    £24 : 5 : 0"

This was in Pennsylvania currency; but it was an expensive kiss even in
that, being (besides the commissions and sheriff's charge for writing the
bond) equivalent to sixty-four dollars and fifty cents of our present
currency.

M. E.

Philadelphia.

_German Tree._--The following extract concerning this accessory to
Christmas, which is now so popular, may perhaps be interesting at the
present season. It is taken from the _Loseley Manuscripts_, edited by A. J.
Kempe, F.S.A., 1836, p. 75. note.

    "We remember a German of the household of the late Queen Caroline,
    making what he termed a _Christmas tree_ for a juvenile party at that
    festive season. The tree was a branch of some evergreen fastened on a
    board. Its boughs bent under the weight of gilt oranges, almonds, &c.;
    and under it was a neat model of a farm-house, surrounded by figures of
    animals, &c., and all due accompaniments. The forming Christmas trees
    is, we believe, a common custom in Germany: evidently a remain of the
    pageants constructed at that season in ancient days."

Is this the first notice of a German tree in England? The adjunct of the
farm-house seems now to be dispensed with in this country.

ZEUS.

_The late Duke._--The following curious coincidence, which lately appeared
in the _Meath Herald_, deserves transplanting to the literary museum of "N.
& Q.":

    "From the fact of the Mornington family having been so connected by
    property, &c. with the parish of Trim, in which town the late Duke
    spent so many of his early days, and commenced his career in life by
    being elected, when scarcely twenty-one years of age, to represent the
    old borough of Trim, the following coincidence is worth relating. On
    the news of the death of the Duke reaching Trim, the Very Rev. Dean
    Butler caused the chime of bells to be rung in respect to his memory;
    and the large bell, which was considered one of the finest and sweetest
    in Ireland, hardly had tolled a second time for the occasion when it
    suddenly broke, became mute, and ceased to send forth its notes.
    Whether this was to be attributed to neglect of the ringer, or regret
    for the great man of the age, it is hard to say; but, very odd as it
    may appear to be, on examining the bell, it was found to be cast by
    Edmund Blood, 1769, the very year the Duke was born. Thus this fine
    bell commenced its career with the birth of the Duke, and ceased to
    sound at his death. The parish of Trim is now getting the bell recast,
    and the old metal is to be seen at Mr. Hodges, Abbey Street, Dublin."

J. YEOWELL.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

THE STORY OF CRISPIN AND CRISPIANUS.

_A Recitation for the 25th of October, and other Convivial Meetings of
Shoemakers._

 "The CRISPIN trade! What better trade can be?
  Ancient and famous, independent, free!
  No other trade a brighter claim can find;
  No other trade display more share of mind!
  No other calling prouder names can boast,--
  In arms, in arts,--themselves a perfect host!
  All honour, zeal, and patriotic pride;
  To dare heroic, and in suffering tried!
  But first and chief--and as such claims inspire--
  Our Patron Brothers, who doth not admire?
  CRISPIN and CRISPIANUS! they who sought
  Safety with us, and at the calling wrought:
  Martyrs to Truth, who in old times were cast
  Lorn outcasts forth to labour at the _last_!
  Mould the stout sole, sew with the woven thread,
  Make the _good fit_, and win their daily bread.
  This was their strait and doing--this their doom;
  They sought our shelter, and they found a home!
  Helpless and hapless, wandering to and fro,
  Weary they came and hid them from the foe;
  Two high-born youths, to holy things impell'd,
  Hunted from place to place, though still they held
  Their sacred faith, and died for it, and threw
  The glory of that death on all who made the Shoe!

   "Such is the story--so behaved our trade;
  And then the Church its zealous homage paid,
  And made their death-day holy, as we see
  Still in the Calendar, and still to be!
  And long the Shoemaker has felt the claim,
  And proved him joyful at such lofty fame;
  For theirs it was by more than blood allied,
  Alike they worshipp'd, and alike they died!
  Nor minded how the Pagan nipp'd their youth--
  They are not dead who suffer for the Truth!
  The skies receive them, and the earth's warm heart
  In grateful duty ever plays its part,
  Embalms their memory to all future time,
  And thus, in love, still punishes the crime;
  Sees, though the corse be trampled to the dust,
  The murder'd dead have retribution just!

  {620}
   "Where are they now who wrought this fiendish wrong?
  We hate the actors, and have hated long.
  And where are they, the victims? Always here;
  We feel their glory, and we hold it dear!
  Oh yes, 'tis ours! that glory still is ours,
  And, lo! how breaks it on these festive hours;
  Each heart is warm, each eye lit up with pride,
 'Tis sanction'd in our loves and sanctified!
  Far o'er the earth--the Christianised--where'er
  The Saviour's name is hymn'd in daily prayer,
  The winds of heaven their memories tender waft,
  Commix'd with all the sorceries of the _craft_.
  The little leather artizan--the boy
  To whom the shoe is yet but as a toy,
  A thing to smile and look at, ere the day
  Severer task will make it one of _pay_
  (A constant duty and a livelihood),--
  He, the young Crispin, emulous and good,
  Is told of the Prince Martyrs--sometimes Royal!
  (The trade, in its devotion, being so loyal,
  It fain would stretch the fact or trifle still,
  Eager, as 'twere, to get on highest hill.)
  Through the fair France, through Germany, and Spain,
  The blue-skied Italy, the Russias twain,
  And farther still, across the Western Main.
  There is the story known, engraft, 'tis true,
  With things, as often is, of weight undue;
  Yet still's enough, when sifted to the most,
  To make the trade rejoice, and as a toast,
  Now, as is wont, and ever to be given,
  Hail to the memory of our friends in heaven!
  CRISPIN and CRISPIANUS--they, the two,
  Who, like ourselves, have made the Boot and Shoe!"

The story as told in these verses is not exactly the same as the one
current among the makers of the boot and shoe in our own island, an account
in an old book called _The History of the Gentle Craft_ (the production, no
doubt, of the well-known Thomas Delony) being the basis of the tradition as
received now by the British shoemaker. In the _Golden Legende_, one of the
earliest of our printed books, and in Alban Butler's _Lives of the Saints_,
as compiled from the Roman Martyrologies, as also in the inscriptions of
some pieces of ancient tapestry formerly belonging to the shoemakers'
chapel in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, but, when I saw them, in one
of the galleries of the Louvre, is the like version as the one here given.
The authority, too, of the Church Calendar of England, even as it still
remains after the loppings of the Reformation, is another corroboration
that CRISPIN and CRISPIANUS, brothers, were early martyrs to the Christian
faith, and through that chiefly honoured, and not because the one became a
redoubted general and the other a successful suitor to the daughter of some
all-potent emperor. In the Delony version--itself, in every probability, a
borrowing from the popular mind of the Elizabethan period,--these things
are put forth; while in trade paintings and songs the Prince CRISPIN is
assumed to have a wife or sister, one can hardly tell which, in the person
of a princess, the Princess CRISPIANUS, and who figures as the patron of
the women's branch of the shoemakers' art; CRISPIN himself presiding over
the coarser labour for the rougher sex. This artifice, if not purely
historical, is at least very excusable, because so natural, seeing that the
duplex principle has such an extensive range; that even the feet themselves
come into the world in pairs, and so shoes must be produced after the same
fashion--paired, as the shoemakers have done by their adored CRISPIN and
CRISPIANUS.

It has now but to be stated that the writer of the foregoing lines (a long
time now the common property of his fellow-workmen) and this present
paragraph, has for many years contemplated the production of something,
which might assume even the size of a book, in connexion with the various
curious particulars which may be affiliated with this Crispin story, and
therefore would be glad to find some of the numerous erudite renders of "N.
& Q." helping his inquiries either through the medium of future Numbers, or
as might be addressed privately to himself, care of Mr. Clements,
bookseller, 22. Little Pulteney Street, Regent Street.

J. DAVIES DEVLIN.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Barrels Regiment._--I suppose that to this regiment a song refers which
has for its burden,--

 "And ten times a day whip the barrels,
  And ten times a day whip the barrels,
                          Brave boys."

I shall be very much obliged to any one who will tell me where I can find
this song, or the circumstances or persons to which it refers. It was
probably written about the year 1747.

E. H.

_Okey the Regicide._--I should be much obliged for any information relative
to the descendants of Colonel John Okey, the regicide, executed April 19,
1662, O.S.

E. P. H.

Clapham.

_Lady Mason's Third Husband_.--Secretary Davison, in a letter dated London,
23rd December, 1581, and addressed to Lady Mason, requests this lady "to
join with his honour her husband" in standing sponsor with Sir Christopher
Hatton, or Sir Thomas Skirley, to his son, born a few days before. Sir John
Mason, second husband to Lady Mason, died in 1566. Who then was "this
honour," her third?

G. S. S.

_Creation of Knights._--When were the following knights made?--Sir William
Fleming, Sir George Barker, Sir George Hamilton, Sir Edward {621} de
Carteret, Sir William Armourer:--the first by Charles I.; the four
following by Charles II.

G. S. S.

_Martyn the Regicide._--Was Martyn the regicide married or not? If married,
is it known whether he had children? and if any of his children settled in
Ireland, and became possessed of property in that country?

E. A. G.

_History of the Nonjurors._--What are the best authorities for the history
of the Nonjurors and their sufferings? Of course, Lathbury, Hickes's _Life
of Kettlewell_, &c. are well known. Whence came their adopted motto:
"Cætera quis nescit?" Any reader who would communicate any information on
these points to C. R. would confer a favour.

C. R.

_Florin and the Royal Arms._--What is the authority for placing the
national arms (which are by royal proclamations ordered to be borne
_quarterly_ in ratification of the respective unions, and to be borne under
one imperial crown) in separate shields? They surely cannot with any
heraldic propriety be so arranged. The absurdity was remarked in the reign
of the Georges, for by the separation of the coats the arms of the German
Dominions of George I. obtained the second place, viz. the dexter side,
with France on the sinister, and Ireland at the bottom or fourth place.

MAT O' THE MINT.

_A Mistletoe Query._--Why has mistletoe the privilege of allowing the fair
sex to be kissed under its branches, on condition that a berry is plucked
off at the time? And also, when was this first allowed?[2]

J. W. ASTON (late of Trin. Col.)

[Footnote 2: This Query has been incidentally noticed in "N. & Q.,"
Vol. v., pp. 13. 208.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Sewell Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 521.).--Your correspondent D. N. states,
that "nothing farther is known of the family of Lieut.-Col. Sewell, who
died in 1803, than that he had a son Thos. Bailey Heath Sewell, Cornet in
32nd Light Dragoons, and Lieutenant 4th Dragoon Guards." Had he referred to
Lodge's _Peerage_, he would have found that the Honorable Harriet
Beresford, fourth daughter of the Most Rev. Wm. Beresford, Lord Archbishop
of Tuam, and first Baron Decies, married Jan. 25, 1796, Thos. Henry
Bermingham (not Bailey) Daly Sewell, Esq.; and died June 11, 1834, having
had three children, viz.:

1. Thomas, formerly Page of Honour to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,
_circa_ 1829, afterwards a pensioner of Trin. Coll. Dublin, and
subsequently Lieutenant 13th Light Infantry; who died at Landour, Bengal,
Aug. 1, 1836.

2. Isabella, who married her cousin Major Marcus Beresford, in October,
1828; and died in 1836.

3. Louisa, married to the Hon. Sir W. E. Leeson, and died in 1849 or 1850.

Will D. N. favour me with the dates of the birth and death of the late
unfortunate, and, as I believe, ill-used Lieut.-General John Whitelocke,
whom he mentions, with the localities where the birth and death occurred?

G. L. S.

    [We have submitted our correspondent's communication to D. N., who has
    kindly forwarded the following reply:

    "My communication (Vol. viii., p. 521.) I was aware was far from a
    perfect pedigree of the Sewell family, and my object was to give such
    notices as might form an outline to be filled up by some one more
    competently informed. Your correspondent G. L. S. has very well
    supplied the _cætera desunt_, where my information terminated with the
    appointment of Cornet Sewell to a Lieutenancy in the 4th (Royal Irish)
    Dragoon Guards. In the London Gazette 13789, June 23, 1795, he is
    inserted as 'Mr. Bermingham Daly Henry Sewell' to be a cornet in the
    32nd Light Dragoons; and as in filling up commissions much accuracy is
    always considered very essential, I am disposed to regard those
    Christian names as correct.

    "There was a Rev. George Sewell, Rector of Byfleet, Surrey, Was he a
    brother of Lieut.-Col. Sewell of the Surrey Light Dragoons?

    "Did the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Sewell marry a second wife? For I find,
    in _The Globe_ of October 9, 1820: 'Died, Saturday, Sept. 16, at
    Twyford Lodge, Maresfield, Sussex, in her seventy-eighth year, Lady
    Sewell, widow of the late Right Hon. Sir Thomas Sewell, Master of the
    Rolls and Privy Councillor, &c.' Now, in Manning's _Surrey_, vol. iii.
    p. 201., it is stated that Lieut.-Col. Sewell died in 1803, in his
    fifty-eighth year, which would render it impossible for him to be the
    son of the above-named Lady Sewell. In Horsfield's _Sussex_, 4to.,
    1835, vol. i. p. 375., I find a William Luther Sewell, Esq., who most
    probably was connected by the second marriage, residing at the above
    Twyford Lodge.

    "I regret that I cannot reply distinctly to the inquiries of G. L. S.
    respecting the late Lieut.-General Whitelocke. I have ineffectually
    searched all the various biographical dictionaries to that of the Rev.
    H. J. Rose in twelve volumes, 1848, inclusive, without having found one
    that has taken the least notice of him. I had casually heard, some
    years since, that he had fixed his residence in Somersetshire, and that
    he had died there; which I find confirmed by a paragraph in the _Annual
    Register_, vol. lxxvi. for 1834 (_Chronicle_), p. 218., which states
    that he died 'near Bath,' in February, 1834. With such scanty
    information on the required points, I would still refer G. L. S. to a
    work entitled _The Georgian Æra_, in 4 vols., London, 1832; where he
    will find, in vol. ii. p 475., a short _military_ memoir of
    Lieut.-General Whitelocke, which is dispassionately and candidly
    written, and which accounts very reasonably for the inauspicious result
    of his military operations. There is one slight error in the account of
    _The Georgian Æra_, viz. in the date of the {622} _first_ appointment
    of Mr. Whitelocke to a commission in the army, which appears in the
    _London Gazette_, No. 11938. of December 26, 1778, and runs thus: '14th
    Foot, John Whitelocke, Gent., to be Ensign _vice_ Day."--I trust some
    reader of "N. & Q." will furnish us with the dates of the birth and
    death of Lieut.-General Whitelocke, specifying when they took place, as
    desired by G. L. S., with an abridgment of deficient particulars in his
    history. D. N."]

_Greek Epigram._--In the _Bath Chronicle_ of the 10th of November last, I
find the following advertisement:

    "The Clergyman of a Town Parish, in which are several crippled persons,
    at present unable to attend divine worship, will feel very grateful to
    any gentleman or lady who will give him an old Bath chair for the use
    of these poor people; two blind men having offered, in this case,
    charitably to convey their crippled neighbours regularly to the house
    of God."

Surely this arrangement is not a new idea, and there is, if I mistake not,
a Greek epigram that records its success in practice several hundred years
ago. Can any of your readers, whose Greek is less faded than mine, refer me
to the epigram?

GEO. E. FRERE.

    [Probably the following epigram is the one floating in the faded memory
    of our correspondent:

            [Greek: PHILIPPOU, hoi de ISIDÔROU.]
      [Greek: Pêros ho men guiois, ho d' ar' ommasin; amphoteroi de]
        [Greek: Eis hautous to tuchês endees êranisan,]
      [Greek: Tuphlos gar lipoguion epômadion baros airôn,]
        [Greek: Tais keinou phônais atrapon ôrthobatei,]
      [Greek: Panta de taut' edidaxe pikrê pantolmos anankê,]
        [Greek: Allêlois merisai toullipes eis eleon.]
            _Anthologia, in usum Scholæ Westmonast._:
                Oxon. 1724, p. 58.]

_Translations from Æschylus._--Whose translation of the tragedies of
Æschylus is that which accompanies Flaxman's compositions from the same? I
ought to state that there is merely a line or two under each plate, to
explain the subject of each composition, and that my copy is the unreduced
size.

H.

Kingston-on-Thames.

    [The lines are taken from N. Potter's translation of the Tragedies of
    Æschylus, 4to., 1777.]

_Prince Memnon's Sister._--Who was Prince Memnon's sister, alluded to by
Milton in _Il Penseroso_?

J. W. T.

Dewsbury.

    [Dunster has the following note on this line:--"Prince Memnon's sister;
    that is, an Ethiopian princess, or sable beauty. Memnon, king of
    Ethiopia, being an auxiliary of the Trojans, was slain by Achilles.
    (See Virg. _Æn._ I. 489., '_Nigri_ Memnonis arma.') It does not,
    however, appear that Memnon had any sister. Tithonus, according to
    Hesiod, had by Aurora only two sons, Memnon and Emathion, _Theog._ 984.
    This lady is a creation of the poet."]

_"Oh! for a blast," &c._--Who was the author of the couplet--

 "Oh! for a blast of that dread horn,
  On Fontarabian echoes borne?"

A. J. DUNKIN.

    [The lines--

     "O for the voice of that wild horn,
      On Fontarabia's echoes borne,
            The dying hero's call,"--

    are by Sir Walter Scott, and form part of those which excited the
    horror of the father of Frank Osbaldiston, when he examined his
    waste-book in search of _Reports outward and inward_--Corn Debentures,
    &c. See _Rob Roy_, chap. ii. p. 24. ed. 1829.]

_Robin Hood's Festival._--Can any of your correspondents refer me to a good
account of the festival of Robin Hood, which was so popular with our
ancestors, that Bishop Latimer could get no one to come to hear him preach
on that day?

In the churchwardens' accounts of St. Helens, Abingdon, published in the
first volume of the _Archæologia_, there is an entry in 1566 of the sum of
18d. paid for "setting up Robin Hood's Bower."

R. W. B.

    [The best account of Robin Hood's festival on the first and succeeding
    days of May is given in _Robin Hood: a Collection of all the Ancient
    Poems, Songs, and Ballads, relative to that celebrated Outlaw_; [by
    Joseph Ritson], among the notes and illustrations in vol. i. pp.
    xcvii--cx. Consult also _A Lytell Geste of Robin Hode_, by John Matthew
    Gutch, vol. i. pp. 60--64.; and George Soane's _New Curiosities of
    Literature_, vol. i. pp. 231--236.]

_Church in Suffolk._--In restoring a church in Suffolk, apparently of the
date of Henry VII., except two Norman doors, the walls were found full of
Norman mouldings of about 1100, or not much after. Will you kindly give me
a list of the works where I may be likely to find an account of this
original church? Davy and Jermyn's _Suffolk_, in the British Museum, says
nothing about it. The two Norman doors are universally admired, and the
church is now Norman still throughout. In the reconstruction of about 1100,
the two doors do not seem to have been in any way restored or meddled with.

G. L.

    [Our correspondent may probably find some account of this church either
    in Suckling's _Antiquities of Suffolk_, 4to., 2 vols., Gage's _History
    of Suffolk_ (Thingoe Hundred), 4to., or in H. Jermyn's Collections for
    a General History of Suffolk, in the British Museum, Add. MSS.
    8168--8196.]

       *       *       *       *       *


{623}

Replies.

CHILDREN CALLED IMPS.

(Vol. viii., p. 443.)

"Heere resteth the bodye of the noble Impe, Robert of Duddeley, Baron of
Denbigh, sonne of Robert, Earle of Leicester, nephew and heire unto
Ambrose, Earle of Warwick, brethren, both sonnes of the mighty Prince John,
late Duke of Northumberland, that was cosin and heire to Sir John Grey,
Vicount L'Isle, nephew and heire unto the Lady Margaret, Countesse of
Shrewsbury, the eldest daughter and coheire of the noble Earle of Warr: Sir
Richard Beauchampe here interred; a childe of great parentage, but of farr
greater hope and towardnesse, taken from this transitory unto everlasting
life in his tender age, at Wanstead in Essex, on Sunday, 19th of July, in
the yeare of our Lord God 1584, being the 26th yeare of the happy raine of
the most virtuous and godly Princesse, Queene Elizabeth, and in this place
layd up among his noble auncestors, in assured hope of the generall
resurrection."--_Lady's Chapel, St. Mary's Church, Warwick._

H. B.

Warwick.

An inscription on a tomb at Besford, near Pershore, Worcestershire, of the
same period as that at Aylesbury (mentioned by MR. BROOKS), contains also
the word _imp_. The tomb at Besford is a most singular one, consisting of
two large folding doors fixed against the wall, their panels and the
interior being painted over with figures and inscriptions. From the latter,
which are of some length, the following extracts will be sufficient to
illustrate the subject:

 "An _impe_ entombed heere doth lie."

 "... elder ... from Christ to straie,
  When such an _impe_ foreshewes the waie."

The old poetical word _sugared_, "Noe sugred word," occurs in the
inscription.

The "impe" is supposed to be Richard Harewell, who died in 1576, aged 15
years, to whom a second monument, of alabaster (close by the former), was
also erected; a rare circumstance, I should suppose. The Harewells appear
to have been a family at the time of the Conquest; the two following lines
are a part of one of the inscriptions:

 "Of Harewell's blodde ere Conquest made,
  Knowne to descende of gentle race."

Nash, in his _History of Worcestershire_, makes mention of this singular
monument, but is anything but correct in giving its inscriptions.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B. A.

T. W. D. BROOKS will find this word used by some modern authors to denote a
child. In _Moral and Sacred Poetry_, selected and arranged by the Rev. T.
Willcocks and the Rev. T. Horton (Devonport, W. Byers, 1834), there is at
p. 254. a piece by Baillie, addressed "To a Child," the first line of which
runs thus:

 "Whose _imp_ art thou, with dimpled cheek?"

And in a poem by Rogers, on the following page, the children of a gipsy are
called _imps_.

J. W. N. KEYS.

Plymouth.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE DIVINING ROD.

(Vol. viii., pp. 293. 479.)

The inclosed extract from a letter which I have just received from a friend
on the subject of the divining rod, will probably interest your readers as
an answer to a Query which appeared some weeks ago in your excellent work.
You may entirely rely on the accuracy of the facts stated.

J. A. H.

"However the pretended effect of the divining rod may be attributed to
knavery and credulity by philosophers who will not take the trouble of
witnessing and investigating the operation, any one who will pay a visit to
the Mendip Hills in Somersetshire, and the country round their base, may
have abundant proof of the efficacy of it. Its success has been very
strikingly proved along the range of the Pennard Hills also, to the South
of the Mendip. The faculty of discovering water by means of the divining
rod is not possessed by every one; for indeed there are but few who possess
it in any considerable degree, or in whose hands the motion of the rod,
when passing over an underground stream, is very decided; and they who have
it are quite unconscious of their capability until they are made aware of
it by experiment.

"I saw the operation of the rod, or rather of a fork, formed of the shoots
of the last year, held in the hands of the experimentor by the extremities,
with the angle projecting before him. When he came over the spot beneath
which the water flowed, the rod, which had before been perfectly still,
writhed about with considerable force, so that the holder could not keep it
in its former position; and he appealed to the bystanders to notice that he
had made no motion to produce this effect, and used every effort to prevent
it. The operation was several times repeated with the same result, and each
time under the close inspection of shrewd and doubting, if not incredulous,
observers. Forks of any kind of green wood served equally well, but those
of dead wood had no effect. The experimentor had discovered water, in
several instances, in the same parish (Pennard), but was perfectly unaware
of his capability till he was requested by his landlord to try. The
operator had the reputation of a perfectly honest man, whose word might be
safely {624} trusted, and who was incapable of attempting to deceive any
one--as indeed appeared by his open and ingenuous manner and conversation
on this occasion. He was a farmer, and respected by all his neighbours. So
general is the conviction of the efficacy of the divining rod in
discovering both water and the ores of calamine or zinc all over the
Mendip, that the people are quite astonished when any doubt is expressed
about it. The late Dr. Hutton wrote against the pretension, as one of many
instances of deception founded upon gross ignorance and credulity; when a
lady of quality, who herself possessed the faculty, called upon him, and
gave him experimental proof, in the neighbourhood of Woolwich, that water
was discoverable by that means. This Dr. Hutton afterwards publicly
acknowledged.

"The above I suppose will suffice for your present purpose; I could,
however, say a great deal more, for I wrote a very long account many years
ago to our friend ----, of what I have now only briefly stated. That letter
was treated by certain scientific friends of his with contempt; but when I
afterwards saw poor Dr. Turner, he said he would go down to Somerset to see
it himself; but alas! he did not live to carry his intention into effect."

       *       *       *       *       *

CHANGE OF MEANING IN PROVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS, ETC.

(Vol. viii., pp. 464, 465.)

Very hesitatingly I venture to express dissent from MR. KEIGHTLEY'S
ingenious suggestion of a change of meaning in the proverb "Tread on a worm
and it will turn." I support my dissent, however, by the following lines
from Shakspeare:

 "Who 'scapes the lurking serpent's mortal sting?
  Not he that sets his foot upon her back.
  The smallest worm will turn, being trodden on;
  And doves will peck in safe-guard of their brood."
      Third Part of _King Henry VI._, Act II. Sc. 2.

King Henry says, Withhold revenge, dear God!

Clifford replies, The lion, the bear, the serpent, the smallest worm, and
doves, if injured, will make an effort at revenge or defence. It is clear
that Shakspeare uses the word _worm_ as meaning, not a venomous serpent,
but the most defenceless of reptiles.

Again, I do not think that MR. KEIGHTLEY'S quotation from Schiller's
_Wallenstein's Tod_ supports his view. I am not a German scholar, but I
find that the translator of _Wallenstein's Tod_ (I believe Lord Ellesmere)
has translated or paraphrased the lines quoted by MR. KEIGHTLEY as follows:

 "But nature gave the very worm a sting,
  When trampled on by man, to turn again."

The sense of the passage (spoken by Butler) requires that "wurm" should be
understood to mean a harmless despised reptile, not a venomous serpent.

It seems that Schiller had Shakspeare in his mind when he wrote the lines
in question; indeed, they are almost a copy of Shakspeare's line. I
consider them as parallel passages.

It may not be irrelevant to observe that _worm_ in some places still means
a serpent; but I believe it has usually a prefix, as "hag-worm" in
Westmoreland and the West Riding of Yorkshire; so also in the latter
"slow-worm" means a species of small snake or viper found on some of the
moors. (For "slow-worm," see "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., pp. 33. and 479.) I
have been told that "blind-worm" in Surrey means a viper. I conclude with a
Query, Does _Wurm_ in modern German ever mean a serpent?

F. W. J.

"To put a spoke in one's wheel," is not singular in its _double entendre_
(Vol. viii., pp. 262. 351. 464.). "There is no love lost between them" is
in a similar predicament. We now speak of no love being lost between A. and
B., when we would intimate that the warmth of their mutual affection may be
accurately represented by 32° Fahrenheit. That this has not always been the
meaning of the phrase, the following verse from the old ballad of _The
Children in the Wood_ will testify:

 "Sore sick he was, and like to die,
    No help that he could have;
  His wife by him as sick did lie,
    And both possess'd one grave.
  _No love between these two was lost_,
    Each was to other kind;
  In love they lived, in love they died,
    And left two babes behind."

R. PRICE.

St. Ives.

       *       *       *       *       *

SNEEZING.

(Vol. viii., p. 366.)

A collection of "facts, theories, and popular ideas" upon this subject
would fill a volume. I send, however, a few extracts, &c., which may
interest your correspondent MEDICUS:

 "Et n'esternuay point regardant le soleil."

 "And did not sneeze as he looked upon the sun."
    Ronsard, tom. v. p. 158., quoted in Southey's
      _Common Place Book_, 3rd series, p. 303.

Here, not to sneeze appears to be looked on as an ill omen.

Ammianus has an epigram upon one whose nose was so long that he never heard
it sneeze, and therefore never said [Greek: Zeu sôson], God bless.--_Notes
on the Variorum Plautus_ (ed. Gronov., Lugd. Bat.), p. 720. {625}

Athenæus, says Potter in his _Archæologia Græca_, proves that the head was
esteemed holy, because it was customary to swear by it, and adore as holy
the sneezes that proceeded from it. And Aristotle tells us in express terms
that sneezing was accounted a deity: "[Greek: Ton Ptarmon theon
hêgoumetha]"--_Archæol. Græc._ (5th ed.), p. 338.

 "Oscitatio in nixu letalis est, sicut
  Sternuisse a coitu abortivum."
    Quoted from Pliny by Aulus Gellius,
      _Noct. Att._ III. xvi. 24.

Erasmus, in his _Colloquies_, bids one say to him who sneezes, "Sit faustum
ac felix," or "Servet te Deus," or "Sit salutiferum" or "Bene vertat Deus."

    "Quare homines sternutant?

    "Respondetur, ut virtus expulsiva et visiva, per hoc purgetur, et
    cerebrum a sua superfluitate purgetur, etc. Etiam qui sternutat
    frequenter, dicitur habere forte cerebrum."--_Aristotelis Problemata_:
    Amstelodami, anno 1690.

Query whether from some such idea of the beneficial effect of sneezing,
arose the practice of calling for the divine blessing on the sneezer?

When Themistocles was offering sacrifice, it happened that three beautiful
captives were brought him, and at the same time the fire burnt clear and
bright, and a sneeze happened on the right hand. Hereupon Euphrantides the
soothsayer, embracing him, predicted the memorable victory which was
afterwards obtained by him, &c.

There is also mention of this custom (the observation of sneezing) in
Homer, who has introduced Penelope rejoicing at a sneeze of her son
Telemachus:

    "[Greek: Ouch horaas ho moi huios epeptaren]"

Sneezing was not always a lucky omen, but varied according to the
alteration of circumstances--"[Greek: Tôn ptarmôn hoi men eisin ôphelimoi,
hoi de blaberoi]," "Some sneezes are profitable, others
prejudicial"--according to the scholiast upon the following passage of
Theocritus, wherein he makes the sneezing of the Cupids to have been an
unfortunate omen to a certain lover:

    "[Greek: Simichida men erôtes epeptaron.]"

If any person sneezed between midnight and the following noontide it was
fortunate, but from noontide till midnight it was unfortunate.

If a man sneezed at the table while they were taking away, or if another
happened to sneeze upon his left hand, it was unlucky; if on the right
hand, fortunate.

If, in the undertaking any business, two or four sneezes happened, it was a
lucky omen, and gave encouragement to proceed; if more than four, the omen
was neither good nor bad; if one or three, it was unlucky, and dehorted
them from proceeding in what they had designed. If two men were
deliberating about any business, and both of them chanced to sneeze
together, it was a prosperous omen.--_Archæol. Græc._ (5th ed.), pp. 339,
340.

FRANCIS JOHN SCOTT.

Tewkesbury.

The custom your correspondent MEDICUS alludes to, of wishing a person "good
health," after sneezing, is also very common in Russia. The phrases the
Russians use on these occasions are--"To your good health!" or "How do you
do?"

J. S. A.

Old Broad Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS BURNED BY THE COMMON HANGMAN.

(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346.)

To the list of these literary _auto da fé's_ we may well add the burning of
Bishop Burnet's famous _Pastoral Letter_, which was censured by the House
of Commons, January, 1692, and was burned by the common hangman. The
offence contained in it was the ascribing the title of William III. to the
crown of England to a right of conquest. A recollection of this gives
additional point to the irony of Atterbury in attacking Wake:

    "William the Conqueror is another of the pious patterns he recommends,
    'who would suffer nothing,' he says, 'to be determined in any
    ecclesiastical causes without leave and authority first had from
    him.'... His present majesty is not William the Conqueror; and can no
    more by our constitution rule absolutely either in Church or State than
    he would if he could: his will and pleasure is indeed a law to all his
    subjects; not in a conquering sense, but because his will and pleasure
    is only that the laws of our country should be obeyed, which he came
    over on purpose to rescue, and counts it his great prerogative to
    maintain; and contemns therefore, I doubt not, such sordid flattery as
    would measure the extent of his supremacy from the Conqueror's
    claim."--Atterbury's _Rights, Powers, and Privileges of Convocation_,
    pp. 158--160.

Atterbury never misses a hit at Burnet when he can conveniently administer
one, and the Bishop endeavours to smile even while he winces:

    "He writes with just and due respect of the king and the present
    constitution. This has come so seldom from that corner that it ought to
    be the more considered. I will not give that scope to jealousy as to
    suspect that this was an artifice; but accept it sincerely," &c.--The
    Bishop of Sarum's _Reflections on the Rights, Powers, &c._. p. 4.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

The following, may come under the list wanted by BALLIOLENSIS:

    "The covenant itself, together with the act for erecting the high court
    of justice, that for subscribing the engagement, and that for declaring
    England a {626} Commonwealth, were ordered to be burned by the hands of
    the hangman. The people assisted with great alacrity on this
    occasion."--From Hume, Reign of Charles II., edit. London, 1828, p.
    762.

On a copy of _La Défense de la Réformation, &c_., par I. Claude, à La Haye,
1683, I noted the following about thirty years ago as a striking passage,
but cannot now recollect from whence I took it. This book was condemned by
the Pope to be burned, on which circumstance the editor of an old edition
of it very appositely observes:

    "Books have souls as well as men, which survive their martyrdom, and
    are not burnt, but crowned by the flames that encircle them. The Church
    of Rome has quickly felt there was nothing combustible but the paper.
    The truth flew upward like the angel from Manoah's sacrifice, untouched
    by the fire, and unsullied by the smoke, and found a safe refuge at the
    footstool of the God of Truth."

G. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

JEWS IN CHINA.

(Vol. viii., p. 515.)

The only people known as descendants of any of the ten tribes are the
Spomerim, or Samaritans; whose chief peculiarity is, that they acknowledge
as sacred only the five books of Moses: for, although other books held
sacred by the Jews are known to them, such books are not written in the
same ancient alphabetic character as those of the Samaritan Pentateuch. The
ten tribes were then taken captive B.C. 721 (2 Kings xvii. 24--41.). The
inference is, therefore, that all the books, from Joshua to Malachi
inclusive, had not been composed or admitted into the holy canon till after
that date. The criterion then for ascertaining whether the Chinese Jews are
descended from the ten tribes, appears to be their adherence to the
Pentateuch _alone_ as sacred. I. The Chinese Jews have not the ancient
Hebrew character, but the comparatively modern square Chaldee one, as in
our printed Bibles. II. Gozani states that the Jews of Kaafung Foo, in
Honan, had some traditions from the Talmud. The Mishnah, constituting the
text of the Talmud, is manifestly a compilation _subsequent_ to the closing
of the Jewish canon; the quotations from the books following those of Moses
being constantly in use therein. III. On Gozani mentioning Jesus the
Messiah, the Chinese Jew said they had a knowledge of Jesus the son of
Sirach. As, however, the book of the last-named writer is unknown in
Hebrew, Gozani, who was ignorant of that language, may have mistaken him
for Jesus (=Joshua) the son of Nun, with which book the Chinese Jew was
acquainted.[3] In either case, _more_ books than the Pentateuch were
undoubtedly held sacred by these Chinese Jews; therefore the connexion with
the ten tribes (house of Israel), as distinct from the house of Judah (the
Jews properly so called), cannot be inferred. The authorities for the
Samaritans are Scaliger, Ludolf, Prideaux, Jahn, Huntington, Winer,
Schnurrer, and Kitto. For the eastern Jews: Josephus, Peritsol, Manasseh,
Basnage, Büsching; Fathers Ricci, Aleni, Gozani, and other Jesuits, in the
_Lettres édifiantes et curieuses_, vol. xviii.; and the _Chinese
Repository_, vol. i. pp. 8. 44., vol. iii. p. 175.

Circumcision is too general a practice in the hotter regions of the south
and east, to permit such practice to be deemed proof of Jewish descent,
unless corroborated by other customs peculiar to the Jews. Besides the
physiological characteristics of the native Australians preclude us from
deducing their natural descent from either the _Jews_ or the ten tribes.

T.J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

[Footnote 3: The opprobrious name of Christ amongst the Jews is Jesus son
of Sadta, which Gozani may have mistaken for Sirach; indeed,--the Chinese
pronunciation of Hebrew is quite peculiar, as they cannot pronounce, for
instance, the letters _b_, _r_, _th_, naming them respectively _p_, _l_,
_z_.]

       *       *       *       *       *

POETICAL TAVERN SIGNS.

(Vol. viii., pp. 242. 452.)

I made a note of the following specimen of poetical tavern sign, in one of
Mr. Mark Lemon's Supplements to _The Illustrated London News_ (Dec. 27,
1851). I here transcribe it to add to MR. WARDE'S collection:

    "The following is a literal copy of a sign conspicuously displayed in
    front of a small public-house in the village of Folkesworth,[4] near
    Stilton, Hunts. It contains as much poetry as, perhaps, the rustic
    Folkesworth folks are worth; and doubtless they think it to be (in the
    Stilton vernacular) 'quite the cheese:'

        [A rude figure of a Fox.]

     'I . HAM . A . CUNEN . FOX
      YOU . SEE . THER . HIS
      NO . HARME . ATCHED
      TO . ME . IT . IS . MY . MRS.
      WISH . TO . PLACE . ME
      HERE . TO . LET . YOU . NO
      HE . SELS . GOOD . BEERE.'

    "The Captain Rawlinson of the district has deciphered this inscription,
    and conjectures its meaning to be as follows:

     'I am a cunning fox, you see;
      There is no harm attach'd to me;
      It is my master's wish to place me here,
      To let you know he sells good beer.'"

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

[Footnote 4: It was in the lane between Folkesworth and the Norman Cross
Barracks, that Borrow was first induced to try the gipsy life. (Vide
_Lavengro_.)]

{627}

Bradford:

 "Who lives here? who do you think?
  Major Lister: give him a drink.
  Give him a drink--for why?
  Because, when he's sweeping,
    He's always dry."

 "John Thompson doth live here,
  He sweeps your chimney not too dear.
  And if your chimney should get on fire,
  He puts it out at your desire.
  Sweep that chimney clean,
  And then come down and drink."

The public-houses to which the above are appended are kept by sweeps.

 "Call here, my boy, if you are dry.
  The fault's in you, and not in I.
  If Robin Hood from home is gone,
  Step in and drink with Little John."

The name of the public-house is "The Robin Hood."

Over another tavern door I noticed the following very pithy and brief
sentence:

    "Tobacco given away to-morrow."

CHARLES WILLISON.

Bradford, Yorkshire.

A sign at Newhouse, a small public-house on Dartmoor, hard by a
rabbit-warren, on the roadside leading from Moreton to Tavistock, six miles
from the former town. John Roberts was the worthy landlord some
considerable time since. It ran thus:

 "John Roberts lives here,
  Sells brandy and beer,
  Your spirits to cheer;
  And should you want meat,
  To make up the treat,
  There be rabbits to eat."
      (A verbatim copy.)

A swinging sign on the front of a public-house on the borders of Dartmoor
could once boast of like following quaint invitations.

The side presented to view, prior to entering the wild waste, underneath a
rude painting of a weary traveller in a storm, had the following rude
couplet:

 "Before the wild moor you venture to pass,
  Pray step within and take a glass."

The attempt at poetry on the reverse side, below a highly-coloured daub
representing a Christmas fire on the hearth, surrounded by a goodly band of
jolly fellows, read thus:

 "Now that the bleak moor you've safely got over,
  Do stop a while, your spirits to recover."

Over the door of a spirit and beer shop at the lower end of Market or High
Street, Plymouth, may be seen the following very salutary aid disinterested
piece of advice. It is printed in the triangle formed by the spread of a
gigantic pair of compasses, which gives name to the house:

 "Keep within compass,
    And then you'll be sure,
  To avoid many troubles,
    That others endure."

The house is located near the quay; and it is devoutly to be wished that
the jolly tars of the neighbourhood, who make it a constant place of
resort, would profit by its wise counsel.

H. H. H.

There is (or was some two or three years since) at Coopersale, in Essex, a
sign-board in front of the "Queen Victoria" (only a beer-house by the way),
with these lines:

   "The Queen some day,
    May pass this way,
  And see our Tom and Jerry;
    Perhaps she'll stop,
    And stand a drop,
  To make her subjects merry."

On the other side are some different lines, which I forget.

  ALEXANDER ANDREWS.

       *       *       *       *       *


1. At Overseal, Leicestershire:

 "Robin Hood is
  Dead and gone:
  Pray call, and drink
  With Little John."

2. The sign of "The Bee Hive," in Birmingham and other places:

 "Within this Hive, we're all alive,
    Good liquor makes us funny:
  If you are dry, step in and try,
    The flavour of our honey."

3. The sign of "The Gate" (of frequent occurrence):

 "The Gate hangs well,
    And hinders none;
  Refresh and pay,
    And travel on."

T. H. KERSLEY, B.A.

Audlem, Nantwich.

In King Street, Norwich, at the sign of "The Waterman," kept by a man who
is a barber, and over whose door is the pole, are these lines:

 "Roam not from pole to pole,
    But step in here;
  Where nought exceeds the shaving,
    But the beer."

J. L. S.

There used to be at a small roadside inn, between Wetherby and Borobridge
(Yorkshire), at a place called Ninivy, the following inscription; {628}
whether or not it is still in existence I cannot say:

 "At Nineveh, where dwelt Old Toby,
  Pray stop and drink before you go by."

C. I. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CURFEW.

    (Vol. ii., pp. 103. 175. 189. 311.; Vol. iv., p. 240.; Vol. vi., pp.
    53. 112.; Vol. vii., pp. 167. 530.; Vol. viii., p. 603.)

The curfew is still rung at Kidderminster at eight o'clock. It is the
annual custom there, on a certain night, to continue the ringing for one
hour, a sum of money having been left for that purpose as a thank-offering
to God, for the curfew having been the means of saving a person from
destruction. This person had lost his way on his return from Bridgenorth
Fair, and when (as he afterwards discovered) on the point of falling from a
great height, the sound of the Kidderminster curfew caused him to retrace
his steps and regain the road. A five o'clock morning bell is also rung at
Kidderminster. This and the curfew bell have been rung for many years past
by "Blind William," who, notwithstanding his total blindness, finds his way
along the streets that lead from his house to the church, and gains the
belfry with the greatest ease. So well is he acquainted with the path to
church, that he may be seen to turn the corners of the streets in as
decided a manner as if his wide-open eyes were endowed with sight; and,
with similar facility, he unlocks the gates and church doors. It is curious
to see him on the dark winter evenings, apparently guiding his steps by the
light of a lanthorn, which he probably carries in order to prevent careless
people, who are blessed with sight, from running against him. Like most (if
not all) blind people, he has an extraordinary ear for music, and will
quickly reproduce on his violin any tune that may have caught his fancy. At
this present festive period, a Kidderminster Christmas would lack one of
its component parts, were Blind Willie and his fiddle not there to add to
the harmony of the kindly season. During the month preceding Christmas, he
promenades the streets at untimely hours, and draws from his old fiddle all
the music which it is capable of giving forth. Indeed, Blind Willie may be
considered (in Kidderminster at least) as the harbinger of Christmas, for
he warns the inhabitants of its approach, long before the ordinary "waits"
have taken their ordinary measures for the same purpose. And when Christmas
Day is past and gone, he makes house-to-house visitation for the
Christmas-box which is to be the reward of his "early minstrelsy."

The curfew is rung at Bewdley in Worcestershire.

At Durham the curfew is rung (on the great bell of the cathedral) at nine
o'clock. It is therefore of the same use to the students of the University
of Durham as "Tom" is to the students of the University of Oxford, viz. it
marks the closing of the college gates.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Photographic Engraving._--I inclose a copy of a little book for your
inspection, which is remarkable only in this, that the illustrations are
produced by photography. The general theory of the method is this: a piece
of glass is covered with a uniform thin coating of some substance, so as to
be opaque or semi-opaque (the substance should be light coloured), and a
design is etched on it with a needle. From this _negative_ positive
pictures are printed photographically.

As to details, the prints of the mice (p. 46.) and the cat (p. 37.) are
from a glass coated with iodized collodion rendered sensitive, exposed to
faint light for a short time and developed. In this method, the glass
should be heated; and the collodion _burnished_ with the hand, to make it
adhere well.[5] The owl (p. 22.) and the stork (p. 10.) are from a glass
coated with iodized collodion "rendered sensitive" only, and not developed
so as to be only semi-opaque. On this high lights were put with opaque
white, and darks were etched out. This has the effect of a tinted
lithograph, but requires much more care in printing than the former method,
in order to hit the right tint; so much so, that I have usually printed the
stork faintly so as not to show the "tint" at all. The frontispiece is from
a paper negative, a method much more troublesome and tedious than either of
the others, both in preparation of the negative and in printing.

I have lately tried gilt glass to etch upon. This would be excellent, were
it not most painful to the eyes. And more than two years ago, I prepared a
negative by painting whites with water colour on transparent glass with
moderate success.

I have recently received from Rome a positive printed from a negative on
smoked glass, the subject being a mule's head. Of all the methods I have
tried, the best is the first mentioned; and it seems to me easier than any
species of engraving.

Query, What is the best coating for the glass; and what will be the cost of
printing on a great scale, as compared with woodcut, lithograph, &c.; in
which must be included the cost of the skilled workman which will be saved
by this method?

HUGH BLACKBURN.

    [When we add that the work referred to is an edition of _The History of
    Little Downey_, that the prints in it are executed by a lady, and
    printed at home by the photographic process, and that a limited number
    of copies may be had on application to Messrs. {629} Constable and Co.
    of Edinburgh, the sale being for the benefit of the Glasgow Ragged
    School, we have no doubt many of our readers will be glad to secure
    copies, and help to forward the good work which its publication is
    intended to promote.]

[Footnote 5: This method was suggested to me by Professor Maconochie, who
indeed prepared the glass on which the mice were etched.]

_Collodion Negatives._--Allow me to communicate a sure and simple way of
darkening collodion positives for printing. It was shown to me by a friend
of mine; and not having seen it in your "N. & Q.," I have undertaken to lay
it before your readers, hoping that it may be found useful to many
beginners.

After having developed your picture, as a positive, with protosulphate of
iron and nitric acid, wash it well from the developing fluid, and keep it
on one end that all the water may drop from the plate. Then take three
parts of a concentrated solution of gallic acid, and one part of a nitrate
of silver solution, 60 grains to the ounce of water; mix together, and pour
on the plate. The picture will gradually begin to blacken; and after half
an hour or more, you will obtain a sufficient density for printing a
positive on paper.

Every one who will take the trouble to try it will be sure to succeed. Of
all the ways to blackening a picture for printing I have tried, not
excepting Professor Maconochie's method with chloride of gold and muriate
of ammonia, the surest I find is the one which I have laid before you. Just
try it, and you will be glad with the result.

F. M. (a Maltese.)

Malta, Valetta.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

"_London Labour and the London Poor_" (Vol. viii., p. 527.).--I beg to
inform MR. GANTILLON that the above work is discontinued. The parts
entitled "Those that will work" and "Those that cannot work" have been
completed, and form a valuable book; but the discontinuance of the third
part is no loss at all, for in commencing upon "Those that will not work,"
Mr. Mayhew began with a history of prostitution in ancient and modern
times, a subject which did not possess the novelty or originality of his
other divisions, and consequently his readers fell off so fast that he was
forced first to raise the price of, and afterwards to discontinue
altogether, the publication. Probably, if he had confined himself to
treating the London prostitutes as he did the costermongers, the work would
have been completed, and would then have formed a complete encyclopædia of
London Labour and the London Poor.

ARTHUR C. WILSON.

Brompton.

_Felicia Hemans's inedited Lyric_ (Vol. viii., p. 407.).--Your
correspondent MR. WELD TAYLOR seems to possess the first rude draught of
the following beautiful piece by Felicia Hemans, entitled, "The Elfin
Call," a duet sung by Miss A. Williams and Miss M. Williams, Miss Messent
and Miss Dolby, Mrs. A. Newton and Miss Lanza, Miss Cubitt and Miss Porter,
Mrs. Aveling Smith and Miss Sara Flower, Miss Emma Lucombe and Miss Eliza
Birch, Miss Turner and Miss E. Turner. The music by Stephen Glover:

 "Come away, Elves! while the dew is sweet,
  Come to the dingles where fairies meet;
  Know that the lilies have spread their bells
  O'er all the pools in our forest dells;
  Come away, under arching bows we'll float,
  Making each urn a fairy boat;
  We'll row them with reeds o'er the fountains free,
  And a tall flag-leaf shall our streamer be.
  And we'll send out wild music so sweet and low,
  It shall seem from the bright flower's heart to flow;
  As if 'twere a breeze with a flute's low sigh,
  Or water-drops train'd into melody,
  And a star from the depth of each pearly cup,
  A golden star into heav'n looks up,
  As if seeking its kindred where bright they lie,
  Set in the blue of the summer sky."

J. YEOWELL.

_Sir Arthur Aston_ (Vol. viii., pp. 126. 302.).--Though unable to inform
CHARTHAM and A READER in what part of the co. of Berks the above cavalier
resided during the interval of time named by the former, I think I can
state the connexion, by marriage only, between the Tattersall and Aston
families: I believe it will be found that they were not "nearly related."

Thomas Howard, fourth duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Mary Fitzalan,
had Philip (_jure matris_), Earl of Arundel, who died 1595 attainted, and
was succeeded by Thomas, created Earl of Norfolk. This last was father of
Henry Frederick and grandfather of Charles Howard, of Greystock Castle, who
married Mary, eldest daughter and coheiress of George Tattersall, of West
Court, Finchampstead, and Stapleford, co. Wilts.

Charles Howard, as above, was the fourth brother of Henry, sixth Duke of
Norfolk, which last was grandfather (through Thomas, his son, of Worksop)
of Mary Howard, who married Walter Aston, fourth Baron Aston, of Forfar, in
Scotland.

H. C. C.

I furnished a memoir of this famous soldier to the _Gentleman's Magazine_
in 1833 or 1834.

G. STEINMAN STEINMAN.

_Grammar in relation to Logic_ (Vol. viii., p. 514).--MR. INGLEBY evidently
has but a superficial view of this doctrine, which is not only Dr.
Latham's, but one, I apprehend, pretty well known to every Oxford
undergraduate, viz. that, logically, _conjunctions connect propositions,
not words_. By way of proving the falsity of it (which he says is
demonstrable), he bids Dr. Latham "resolve this sentence: _All men are
either two-legged, one-legged, or no-legged_:" and adds, "It cannot be
done." I may inform him that the three categorical propositions, "A man is
two-legged, or he is {630} one-legged, or he is no-legged," connected by
their several copulas, are equivalent to and co-extensive with the
disjunctive proposition which he instances.

MR. INGLEBY quotes Boole's _Mathematical (?) Analysis of Logic_ in support
of his opinion; but, from the following specimen of that work, it does not
appear to be much of an authority. The author says:

    "The proposition, Every animal is either rational or irrational, cannot
    be resolved into, Either every animal is rational or every animal is
    irrational. The former belongs to pure categoricals, the latter to
    hypotheticals."

Now the first sentence of this passage is an absurd truism; but the
proposition in question can be resolved into--An animal is rational or it
is irrational. Again, "the former does _not_ belong to pure categoricals,"
it is simply disjunctive. MR. INGLEBY falls into the same error, and
moreover seems not to be aware that a disjunctive proposition is at the
same time hypothetical.

Logically speaking, a conjunction implies two propositions; and, strictly,
connects propositions only. To say that conjunctions connect words, may be
true in a certain sense; but it is a very superficial and loose mode of
stating the matter.

H. C. K.

----Rectory, Hereford.

_Descendants of Milton_ (Vol. viii., p. 339.).--I have in the course of my
life met with or heard of more than once or twice, people of the same
names, and those very uncommon ones, who were in no way related to each
other; nevertheless, I venture to tell your correspondent J. F. M. that
about twenty years ago there was living the skipper of a coasting vessel,
trading between Bridport and London, named Caleb Clark. He or his family
are probably living at Bridport now.

[Greek: Alpha].

_Pronunciation of Bible Names_ (Vol. viii., p. 469.).--The clerk of a
retired parish in North-west Devon, who had to read the first lesson
always, used to make a hash of Shadrac, Meshac, and Abednego; and as the
names are twelve times repeated in the third chapter of Daniel, after
getting through them the first time, he called them "the aforesaid
gentlemen" afterwards.

W. COLLYNS.

Harlow.

_Henry I.'s Tomb_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--I fancy that the much mooted
question, as to the existence of a monumental tomb over the remains of King
Henry I. in Reading Abbey, may at once be set at rest by referring to
Tanner's _Notitia Monastica_, edit. 1744, in the second column of p. 15.:
where it is evident that a tomb and an effigy of King Henry I. had once
existed; that they had both fallen into decay; and that, in the time of
King Richard II., the Abbot of Reading was required to repair both the tomb
and the effigy of King Henry the founder, who was there buried, within the
space of one year, as the condition on which the charters were to be
confirmed:

"Cart. 5 & 6 Ric. II. n. 24.; Pat. 8 Ric. II. p. 1. m. 18. Pat. 16 Ric. II.
p. 1. m. 38.; Pat. 21 Ric. II. p. 3. m. 16. Confirm. Libertatum, modo Abbas
infra unum Annum honeste repararet Tumbam et Imaginem _R. Henrici_
Fundatoris, ibidem humati."

I. T. A.

_Bells at Berwick-upon-Tweed_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.): _Chandler, Bishop of
Durham_ (Vol. viii, p. 331.).--I may perhaps "kill two birds with one
stone," by reminding MESSRS. GATTY and NEWBURN that the Bishops of Durham
were formerly _Princes of the Palatinate_. It was probably in that capacity
that Bishop Chandler delivered a charge to the Grand Jury, and Bishop
Barington licensed a meeting-house bell. This latter prelate was, I
believe, the last who exercised the functions of that high office.

WM. HAZEL.

_Return of Gentry, temp. Henry VI._ (Vol. viii., p. 469.).--The return of
12th Henry VI. is printed in Fuller's _Worthies_, under each county.

G. STEINMAN STEINMAN.

I read in Fuller's _Worthies_, edit. Nuttall, vol. i. p. 60.:

    "A later list might be presented of the English gentry towards the end
    of the reign of King Henry VIII."

Does this list exist in any of our record offices?

And has it ever been printed?

TEWARS.

_Peter Allan_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.).--Your correspondent E. C. will find
much interesting information respecting this person in an account of him
reprinted from the _Sunderland and Durham County Herald_, and published
(1848) by Vint and Carr, Sunderland, under the title of _Marsden Rock, or
the Story of Peter Allan, and Marsden Marine Grotto_. He, his wife, eight
children, and aged father and mother, are there described as being in a
very flourishing condition: and (if I remember rightly) I saw them all,
when I last visited the rock in 1850.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Burial in an Erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., p. 5.).--The following passage,
which I quote from Hearne's _Collection of Antiquarian Discourses_, vol. i.
p. 212., may perhaps prove acceptable to CHEVERELLS, as showing (on
traditional authority) that this mode of burial was anciently adopted in
the case of captains in the army:

    "For them above the grounde buryed, I have by tradition heard, that
    when anye notable captayne dyed in battel or campe, the souldyers used
    to take his bodye, and to sette him on his feet _uprighte_, and put his
    {631} launce or pike into his hand; and then his fellowe souldyers did
    by travell everye man bringe so muche earthe, and laye aboute him as
    should cover him, and mount up to cover the top of his pike."

I have a very curious print in my possession, illustrating the manners and
customs of the Laplanders; and, amongst the rest, their modes of burial. In
one case several bodies are represented standing in an upright posture,
perfectly nude, with railings all round except in the front; and another,
one body is represented in a similar condition, inclosed in a kind of
sentry-box.

R. W. ELLIOTT.

Clifton.

_The Word "Mob"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 386. 524. 573.).--Roger North, speaking
of the King's Head, or Green Ribbon Club, which was "a more visible
administration, mediate, as it were, between his lordship (Shaftsbury) and
the greater and lesser vulgar, who were to be the immediate tools," says:

    "I may note that the rabble first changed their title, and were called
    _the mob_, in the assemblies of this club. It was their beast of
    burthen, and called first _mobile vulgus_, but fell naturally into the
    contraction of one syllable, and ever since is become proper
    English."--_Examen_, part III. ch. vii. p. 89.

H. GARDINER.

_Gen. Sir C. Napier_ (Vol. viii., p. 490.).--I may state, for the
instruction of officers who think study needless in their profession, that,
having enjoyed the intimate friendship of Sir C. Napier for some time
before he had the command in the midland district of England, I constantly
found him engaged in inquiries connected with his profession. He was always
in training. Not long before this time he had returned from Caen, in
Normandy, and he told me that when there he had surveyed the ground on
which William the Conqueror had acquired military fame before he made his
descent on England, and his conclusion was that that Conqueror was
remarkably well instructed for his time in the art of war. He expressed his
intention to write on this subject; but great events soon afterwards called
him to India, which became the scene of his own mastery in military and
civil command.

T. F.

_To Come_ (Vol. viii., p. 468.).--In the Lower Saxon dialect, to come is
_camen_, and the imperfect, as in Gothic, _quam_. It would therefore seem
that the English _came_ is not an innovation, but a partial restoration or
preservation of a very ancient form. (See Adelung's _Wörterbuch_.)

E. C. H.

_Passage in Sophocles_ (Vol. viii., pp. 73. 478.).--The Italics were
introduced to draw attention to the _new_ version which was adventured, "N.
& Q." being an excellent medium for such suggestions.

Sophocles having referred to "an illustrious saying of some one," and the
old scholiast having furnished this saying,

 "[Greek: Hotan d' ho daimôn andri porsunêi kaka]
  [Greek: Ton noun eblapse prôton hôi bouleuetai],"

it merely became necessary to compare the form which Sophocles adopted to
suit his metre with the words of this "illustrious saying," whence it
appeared that--

  [Greek: hôi bouleuetai  prassei d' oligoston chronon ektos atas];

and therefore I could not agree with the common version "and that he lives
for a brief space apart from its visitation;" erroneous, as I submit, from
the adoption of Brunck's reading [Greek: prassein], instead of reading, as
I venture to do, with Hermann, [Greek: theos agei ... prassei d'], taking
[Greek: theos] as the nominative of both verbs.

Neither the Oxford translation, Edwards's, nor Buckley's, renders [Greek:
oligoston] "_very_ brief," agreeably to the admonition of the old scholiast
to the contrary. The word "practise" objected to is, I submit, derived from
[Greek: prassô], to act, through [Greek: pragma], business, and [Greek:
praxis], practice, and is therefore the most appropriate English word,
although the word "does" will furnish Sophocles' meaning nearly as well. I
shall, however, be most happy to submit to correction by any classical
scholar.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

_Party-Similes of the Seventeenth Century_ (Vol. viii., p. 485.).--I must
beg of you to contradict the loose statement of JARLTZBERG at p. 486. of
this Volume, "as to the object of the Church of England in _separating
from_ Rome." Now, the Church of England did never _separate herself_ from
_any_ Christian Church; the doctrine and discipline of the Church of
England is to be found in her Book of Common Prayer. Popes Paul IV. and
Pius IV. offered to confirm this book, if Queen Elizabeth would acknowledge
the Pope's supremacy; and Roman Catholics in these realms habitually
conformed to the worship of the Church of England for the first _twelve
years_ of Queen Elizabeth's reign, after which time they were prevented
from doing so by the bull of Pius V. (dated Feb. 23, 1569), which
excommunicated that sovereign.

So Romanists are the separatists, and not Anglicans.

THOMAS COLLIS.

_Judges styled Reverend_ (Vol. viii., pp. 158. 276. 351.).--Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert was certainly not chief justice, yet in _A Letter to a
Convocation Man_ I find him so styled:

    "I must admit that it is said in the second part of Rolle's
    _Abridgment_, that the Archbishop of Canterbury {632} was prohibited to
    hold such assemblies by Fitzherbert, Chief Justice, because he had not
    the King's licence; but he adds that the archbishop would not obey it,
    and he quotes Speed for it. I shall not consult that lame historian for
    a law-point, and it seems strange that Rolle should cite
    him."--_L. C. M._, p. 38.

I have not lately had an opportunity of looking into either Rolle's
_Abridgment of Cases_, or Speed's _History of Great Britain_, but I am not
able to discover to what event in any of Henry VIII.'s convocations
allusion is here made. I am therefore led to think that Fitzherbert must be
a misprint, and that we should read in the above passage "Fitz-Peter," and
that the following is the circumstance, in King John's reign, which is
referred to by the author of the _Letter_:

    "This year (1200), Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, held a National
    Synod at Westminster, notwithstanding the prohibition of Geoffrey
    Fitz-Peter, Earl of Essex, and Chief Justiciary of England."--Collier's
    _Ecclesiastical History_, vol. i. folio, p. 410.

I shall be glad if any of your readers can throw farther light on the
passage.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Veneration for the Oak_ (Vol. viii., p. 468.).--Since my Query upon this
matter appeared, I find that Mr. Layard, in his work upon _Nineveh and
Babylon_, at p. 160., describes a cylinder of green felspar, which he
believes to have been the signet of Sennacherib, and upon which is engraved
a rare mode of portraying the supreme deity, and a sacred tree, whose
flowers are in this instance in the shape of an _acorn_. Whence did the
Assyrians derive this veneration for a tree bearing acorns? Did they derive
this notion, as they did their tin, from Celtic Britain? I believe they
did.

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

_Rapping no Novelty_ (Vol. viii., p. 512.).--De Foe, in his veracious
_History of Mr. Duncan Campbell_ (2nd ed., p. 107.), quotes a story of
sprit-knocking from "the renowned and famous" Mr. Baxter's _History of
Apparitions_, prefacing it thus:

    "What in nature can be more trivial than for a spirit to employ himself
    in knocking on a morning at the wainscot by the bed's head of a man who
    got drunk over night, according to the way that such things are
    ordinarily explained? And yet I shall give you such a relation of this,
    that not even the most devout and precise Presbyterian will offer to
    call in question."

According to De Foe, Mr. Baxter gave full credit to the story, adding many
pious reflections upon the subject, and expressing himself "posed to think
what kind of spirit this is."

R. I. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
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DR. H. MORE'S PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS. Lond. 1662. Folio.

HIRCHER'S MUSURGIA UNIVERSALIS. Romæ, 1650. 2 Toms. in 1. Folio.

  Wanted by _J. G._, care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton Street,
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       *       *       *       *       *

ORMEROD'S CHESHIRE. Parts II. and X. Small Paper.

HEMMINGWAY'S CHESTER. Parts I. and III. Large Paper.

  Wanted by _T. Hughes_, 13. Paradise Row, Chester.

       *       *       *       *       *

AARON HILL'S PLAIN DEALER.

EDINBURGH MISCELLANY. Edinb. 1720.

  Wanted by _F. Dinsdale_, Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *

LADERCHII ANNALES ECCLESIASTICI. 3 Tom. Folio. Romæ, 1728-37.

THE BIBLE in Shorthand, according to the method of Mr. James Weston, whose
Shorthand Prayer Book was published in the Year 1730. A Copy of Addy's
Copperplate Shorthand Bible, London, 1687, would be given in exchange.

LOESCHER, DE LATROCINIIS, QUÆ IN SCRIPTORES PUBLICOS SOLENT COMMITTERE
HÆRETICI. 4to. Vitemb. 1674.

LOESCHER, ACTA REFORMATIONIS.

SCHRAMM, DISSERT. DE LIBRORUM PROHIBITORUM INDICIBUS. 4to. Helmst. 1708.

JAMESII SPECIMEN CORRUPTELARUM PONTIFIC. 4to. Lond. 1626.

MACEDO, DIATRIBE DE CARDINALIS BONÆ ERRONIBUS.

  Wanted by _Rev. Richard Gibbings_, Falcarragh, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

A MERRY CHRISTMAS TO YOU ALL, GENTLE READERS! _We trust that, in presenting
you this week with the curious collection of_ FOLK LORE _articles which is
now before you, we have done that which will be agreeable to you._

A MERRY CHRISTMAS TO YOU ALL, KIND FRIENDS AND CORRESPONDENTS! _and_ THANKS
TO YOU FOR YOUR VALUABLE CO-OPERATION. _May your Christmas logs burn
brightly on your hearths, and bright eyes and happy hearts surround you, at
this "so hallowed and so gracious time!"_

_Being anxious to make the present Volume as complete as circumstances will
admit by including within its pages, as far as practicable, all Answers to
the Queries which have been propounded in it, we have this week omitted our
usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. _for the purpose of making room for the
numerous_ REPLIES _which we have in type._

E. C. H. _Your friendly suggestion is a very valuable one. There are many
difficulties in the way of carrying it out; but we do not despair of being
enabled to surmount them in the course of another year or two, which we
think will be time enough._

W. E. (Pimperne). _Your note has been forwarded._

G. C._'s Reply to_ SERVIENS _will appear next week; his Query in the new
Volume._

J. D. L. (Bristol). _The custom is almost universal. Horsehoes were found
nailed on the celebrated Gates of Somnauth._

E. H. D. D._'s wishes shall be attended to in our next._

PHOTOGRAPHER. _Your complaint of the shortness of the notice of the
proposed Exhibition is one we have heard from several quarters. Many will
consequently be prevented sending in pictures for exhibition by the
impossibility of printing them during the present unfavourable weather._

INDEX TO VOLUME THE EIGHTH.--_This is in a very forward state, and will, we
trust, be ready for delivery with_ NO. 221. _on the 21st of January._

_Errata._--Vol. viii., p. 590., for "not in the New Testament" read "or of
the New Testament;" and for "read this with an accent on the antepenultima"
read "read this with an accent on the penultima."

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


{633}

Price One Guinea, in massive carved covers; or 30s. bound,

PARABLES OF OUR LORD, Illuminated in the Missal Style. By HENRY NOEL
HUMPHREYS.

By the same Illuminator, price One Guinea each,

  MIRACLES OF OUR LORD.
  MAXIMS AND PRECEPTS OF THE SAVIOUR.
  BOOK OF RUTH.
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London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN,& LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


A New Edition, in 2 vols. 8vo., with 6 Maps, price 63s.

McCULLOCH'S DICTIONARY, GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, and HISTORICAL, of the
WORLD.

*** A New Edition of McCULLOCH'S DICTIONARY of COMMERCE will be ready in
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London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 1 vol. 8vo., price 36s. cloth; or half-russia 41s.

MR. A. KEITH JOHNSTON'S NEW DICTIONARY OF GEOGRAPHY, Descriptive, Physical,
Statistical, and Historical; forming a complete GENERAL GAZETTEER of the
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London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in 8vo., price to the Trade, 3s. 6d.

THE TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR-GENERAL OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND
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    London: Published for H. M. Stationery Office by MESSRS. LONGMAN,
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    Of whom the previous REPORTS (from the FIRST to the ELEVENTH inclusive)
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THE SAXONS IN ENGLAND: A History of the English Commonwealth till the
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London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

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LECTURES ON THE TRUE, THE BEAUTIFUL, AND THE GOOD. By M. VICTOR COUSIN.
Translated, with the Author's approbation, from the new and greatly
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Edinburgh: T. & J. CLARK.
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CHAMBERS'S JOURNAL of POPULAR LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ARTS.

The Second Series of CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL, will close with No. 523.
on December 31, and the First Number of a

NEW PERIODICAL,

with the above title, will be issued on Saturday, 7th January, 1854.
Resembling the existing Work in its external form, the new one will exhibit
such fresh features as will afford, it is hoped, a pledge of the wishes of
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In particular there will be presented a higher class of Fiction, commencing
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TALE OF MODERN LIFE,

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MONTHLY REVIEW OF THE LIBRARY AND STUDIO,

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PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND THE USEFUL ARTS.

Among expected contributions of importance, may be mentioned a series of
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It will be the constant study of the Editors to maintain in the New Work
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of any kind.

  Issued in Weekly Numbers, at 1½d.
  -------- Monthly Parts. at 7d. and 8½d.
  -------- Half-yearly Volumes. at 4s. 6d.

The Second Series of CHAMBERS'S EDINBURGH JOURNAL will form complete work,
in Twenty Handsome Volumes, well adapted for Popular as well as Private
Libraries, for Emigrants, and for Presents; price 3l. 7s. in sheets, or 4l.
10s. bound in cloth. Price of each volume separately, in cloth, 4s. 6d.

    Published by W.& R. CHAMBERS, 3. Bride Passage, Fleet Street, London.
    and 339. High Street. Edinburgh; J. McGLASHAN, Dublin; H. CAMPBELL,
    Glasgow; and all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, Fourth and Cheaper Edition, 3 vols. 10s.

THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE. By the Author of "Henrietta's Wish," "The Kings of
England," &c.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW AND COMPLETE EDITION OF MR. BURKE'S WORKS AND CORRESPONDENCE.

In 8 vols. 8vo., price 4l. 4s.

THE WORKS AND CORRESPONDENCE OF THE RIGHT HON. EDMUND BURKE.

This Edition contains.--1. MR. BURKE'S CORRESPONDENCE between the year 1744
and his decease in 1797 (first Published from the original MSS. in 1844, by
Earl Fitswilliam and Sir Richard Bourke), containing numerous Historical
and Biographical Notes and original Letters from the leading Statesmen of
the period, and forming an Autobiography of this celebrated Writer.--2. The
WORKS of MR. BURKE, as edited by his Literary Executor, the late Bishop of
Rochester. (This Edition includes the whole of the contents of the former
Editions published in 20 vols., at the price of 9l. 5s.)

RIVINGTONS, Waterloo PLACE.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day is published price 4s.,

ELEMENTS OF PHYSICAL AND CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY, comprising the Geography of
the Ancient World in so far as it is subservient to the understanding of
the Classics.

With an Introduction, containing--

1. A POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, and Suggestions as to the best
mode of teaching Geography.--2. An OUTLINE of the GEOLOGICAL HISTORY of the
GLOBE.--3. A DIGEST of all that is known of the PROPERTIES and RELATIONS of
the HEAVENLY BODIES, arranged in a Tabular Series. By PROFESSOR PILLANS, of
the University of Edinburgh.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS. Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


HERALDIC ILLUSTRATIONS, &c. By A. P. HARRISON.

    The following Works illustrative of English History, Genealogy, &c.,
    may be had of the Author and Designer. No. 30. Gilbert Street.
    Grosvenor Square, at the prices set against the respective works.
    Copies will be forwarded, Post Free, on Receipt of a Post Office Order
    for the amount.

I. Roll of Arms granted by Henry III. as Hereditary Bearings to the
Nobility. Price, in colours, 1l. 10s. 6d. Emblazoned in gold, 2l. 2s.

II. Roll of Arms granted by Edward I. as Hereditary Bearings to the Knights
Companions at the Siege of Karlaverock, A.D. 1300. Price, in colours, 15s.
6d. Emblazoned in gold, 21s.

III. Roll of Arms granted by Richard II. to his Nobility, A.D. 1377. Price,
in colours. 4l. 14s. 6d. Emblazoned in gold, 6l. 6s.

IV. Roll of Arms of all the Knights of the Garter from their Installation
Plates at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, &c. Price, in colours, 15l.
15s. Emblazoned in gold, 21l.

V. Facsimile of Magna Charta, with Arms of the Barons.

VI. Genealogy of Sovereigns of England from Egbert, with their Arms, &c.
Price, coloured, 21s. Emblazoned in gold, 1l. 11s. 6d.

VII. Facsimiles of the Warrant for the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots and
of King Charles I. Price, on parchment, 2s. 6d. each. On vellum paper, 1s.
6d. each.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCIENCE OF ARCHERY, showing its Affinity to Heraldry, &c. By A. P.
HARRISON, Author of "Treatise on the Formation of the English
Constitution," &c. 8vo. Price 3s. 6d.

A. P. HARRISON, 30. Gilbert Street, Grosvenor Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


{634} QUEENWOOD COLLEGE,

NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, HANTS.

_Principal_--GEORGE EDMONDSON.

_Mathematics and Natural Philosophy._--Dr. Thos. A. Hirst, of the
Universities of Marburg and Berlin.

_Chemistry._--Dr. H. Debus, late Assistant in the Laboratory of Professor
Bunsen, and Chemical Lecturer in the University of Marburg.

_Classics and History._--Mr. John S. Mummery, L. C. P.

_Modern Languages and Foreign Literature._--Mr. John Haas, from M. de
Fellenberg's Institution, Hofwyl, Switzerland.

_Geodesy._--Mr. Richard P. Wright.

_Painting and Drawing._--Mr. Richard P. Wright.

_English, and Junior Mathematics._--Mr. William Singleton.

DITTO.--Mr. Edwin Coombes.

_Music._--Mr. William Cornwall.

TERMS.

  For Boys under 12 years of age       40l. per ann.
       "   from 12 to 16               50      "
       "   above 16                    60      "

For further information see Prospectus, to be had of the Principal.

The First Session of 1854 commences on the 19th of January.

       *       *       *       *       *


CHRISTMAS PRESENTS.--EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY.

AMUSEMENT FOR LONG EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S Chemical Cabinets and
Portable Laboratories, 5s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 21s., 31s. 6d., 42s.,
63s., and upwards. Book of Experiments, 6d. "Illustrated Descriptive
Catalogue" forwarded Free for Stamp.

    WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Chemist. 29c. Rotherfield Street,
    Islington, London, and of Chemists and Opticians everywhere.

       *       *       *       *       *


WINTER EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHY.--An entirely New Collection of
Photographic Pictures, including Mr. Robertson's Views of Constantinople;
M. Martin's Magnificent Scenery among the Glaciers of Switzerland; and Mr.
Delamotte's Progress of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham; is now open.
Admission 6d.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION,
166. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PRINCE OF WALES'S SKETCH-BOX.--Containing Colours, Pencils. &c., with
printed directions, as now used by the Royal Family. Price 5s.

    MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 56. Long Acre, London; and at
    her Majesty's Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 Guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,
65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


POPULAR SCIENCE.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW WORK BY PROFESSOR JOHNSTON.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CHEMISTRY OF COMMON LIFE.

By JAMES F. W. JOHNSTON, M.A. F.R.SS. L. & E., &c.

Author of "Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology," "A Catechism of
Agricultural Chemistry," &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is the object of the Author to exhibit in this Work the present
Condition of Chemical Knowledge and mastered Scientific Opinion upon the
subjects it treats of. The reader will not be surprised, therefore, should
he find in it some things which differ from what is to be found in other
Popular Works already in his hands, or on the shelves of his Library.

It will be issued in MONTHLY NUMBERS, in the following order:

  1.--The AIR we Breathe.
  The WATER we Drink.

  2.--The SOIL we Cultivate.
  The PLANT we Rear.

  3.--The BREAD we Eat.
  The BEEF we Cook.

  4.--The BEVERAGES we Infuse.

  5.--The SWEETS we Extract.
      The LIQUORS we Ferment.

  6.--The NARCOTICS we Indulge in.

  7.--The ODOURS we Enjoy.       The SMELLS we Dislike.

  8.--What we BREATHE and
        BREATHE For.
      What, How, and Why we
       Digest.

  9.--The BODY we Cherish.
      The CIRCULATION of
        MATTER, a Recapitulation.

*** Nos. 1 & 2. are published, price Sixpence each.

       *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


SURREY ARCHÆOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

PRESIDENT.--His Grace the Duke of Norfolk.

Gentlemen desiring to join the Society, are informed that Copies of the
Rules, List of Members (upwards of 250), and Forms of Application for
Admission, may be obtained from the Honorary Secretary.

                               £   s.
  Annual Subscription          0   10
  Composition for Life         5    0

On and after January 1, 1854, an entrance fee of 10s. will be required,
from which those Members who join the Society during the present month will
be exempt.

      GEORGE BISH WEBB,
              Honorary Secretary.
  46. Addison Road North, Notting Hill.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ANTIQUITARIES AND SECRETARIES OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

THE REV. J. G. CUMMING, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-Principal of King William
College, Castletown, who is engaged in the Preparation of a Work on the
Monumental Remains of the Isle of Man, is superintending the labours of an
Italian Artist in taking Casts of the most beautiful and important Runic
Crosses, to be placed in the Insular Museum at the College: Parties
desiring Duplicates may obtain full particulars of cost, &c. by application
as above.

       *       *       *       *       *


ASSYRIAN LANGUAGE.

REV. DR. E. HINCKS would dispose of a number of Books and MSS. connected
with the Assyrian Language, and would also give _vivâ voce_ Instruction
therein to a Gentleman who may be willing to devote himself to this
important Study: and who, from his age, antecedents, and present position,
may appear to him likely to succeed in it. Apply to him at the Rectory,
Killyleagh, Co. Down, before the 21st January.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.

NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS of NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
"Microscopic Cabinet." By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also in 8vo.; pp. 720; Plates 24; price 21s., or coloured, 36s.

A HISTORY of INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES. Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every Species, British and foreign; the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By
ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

    "There is no work extant in which so much valuable information
    concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist
    should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._

Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Reflecting and Solar Microscopes;
Eye-Pieces; Micrometers, &c.

Also, edited by the same, price 18s.,

ENGLISH PATENTS; being a Register of all those granted in the Arts,
Manufactures, Chemistry, &c., during the first forty-five years of this
century.

WHITTAKER & Co., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE MOST COMFORTABLE CHRISTMAS PRESENT is HEAL & SON'S EIDER DOWN QUILT. It
is the warmest, the Highest and the most elegant Covering, suitable for the
Bed, the Couch, or the Carriage; and for Invalids, its comfort cannot be
too highly appreciated. It is made in Three Varieties, of which a large
Assortment can be seen at their Establishment. List of Prices of the above,
together with the Catalogue of Bedsteads, sent Free by Post.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


{635}

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,

52. CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION._

       *       *       *       *       *

THIS SOCIETY PRESENTS THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:

The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum
assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on
Capital, for a Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
nearly TWO PER CENT. per annum on the _amount assured_, or at the rate of
from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the _Premiums paid_.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.

Next DIVISION OF PROFITS in 1856.

The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. Assurance may be effected by
applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of
the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be
obtained.

CHARLES JOHN GILL, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments.--The superiority of this preparation is now universally
acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal
scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no
preparation has been discovered which produces uniformly such perfect
pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where
a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in
separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for for years, and Exported
to any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. The Genuine
is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label bearing this
Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL MALL,
Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals: and may be procured of all
respectable Chemists, in pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through
MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., 95.
Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.

A COMPLETE SET OF APPARATUS for 4l. 4s., containing an Expanding Camera,
with warranted Double Achromatic Adjusting Lenses, a Portable Stand,
Pressure Frame, Levelling Stand, and Baths, complete.

PORTRAIT LENSES of double Achromatic combination, from 1l. 12s. 6d.

LANDSCAPE LENSES, with Rack Adjustment, from 25s.

A GUIDE to the Practice of this interesting Art, 1s., by post free, 1s. 6d.

French Polished MAHOGANY STEREOSCOPES, from 10s. 6d. A large assortment of
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen,
at equally low prices.

ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPES.

Beautifully finished ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPE, with all the latest improvement
and apparatus, complete from 3l. 15s., at

    C. BAKER'S, Optical and Mathematical Instrument Warehouse, 244. High
    Holborn (opposite Day & Martin's).

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most
celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION,
168. NEW BOND STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. Hockin. Price 1s., per
Post. 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


VIEWS IN LONDON.

STEREOSCOPES AND STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES.

BLAND & LONG, 153. FLEET STREET, OPTICIANS and PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT
MAKERS, invite attention to their Stock of STEREOSCOPES of all Kinds, and
in various Materials; also, to their New and Extensive Assortment of
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same, in DAGUERREOTYPE on PAPER, and
TRANSPARENT ALBUMEN PICTURES on GLASS, including Views of London, Paris,
the Rhine, Windsor, &c. These Pictures, for minuteness of Detail and Truth
in the Representation of Natural Objects, are unrivalled.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** "Familiar Explanation of the Phenomena" sent on Application.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
other travelling requisites. Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


{636}

LITERARY GIFT BOOKS.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE FOLLOWING MAY NOW BE HAD:--

I.

BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. With Plates and Vignettes. 10 vols. 30s.

II.

BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. Complete in One Volume, with Portrait and Vignette.
12s.

III.

BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. In Eight Pocket Volumes. 20s.

IV.

BYRON'S CHILDE HAROLD. Illustrated by a Portrait of Ada and 30 Vignettes.
10s. 6d.

V.

BYRON'S LIFE AND LETTERS. With Plates and Vignettes. 6 vols. 18s.

VI.

BYRON'S LIFE AND LETTERS. Complete in One Volume, with Portraits and
Vignette. 12s.

VII.

CRABBE'S LIFE AND POEMS. With Plates and Vignettes. 8 vols. 24s.

VIII.

CRABBE'S LIFE AND POEMS. Complete in One Volume, with Portrait and
Vignettes. 10s. 6d.

IX.

BISHOP HEBER'S INDIAN JOURNALS. 2 vols. 10s.

X.

BISHOP HEBER'S POEMS. With Portrait. 7s. 6d.

XI.

MILMAN'S POETICAL WORKS. With Plates and Vignettes. 3 vols. 18s.

XII.

MILMAN'S WORKS OF HORACE. Illustrated with 300 Vignettes by Scharf. 21s.

XIII.

MILMAN'S LIFE OF HORACE. With Woodcuts. 9s.

XIV.

LOCKHART'S ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS. 2s. 6d.

XV.

LOCKHART'S LIFE OF ROBERT BURNS. 3s.

XVI.

CROKER'S BOSWELL'S JOHNSON. Complete in One Volume. Portraits. 15s.

XVII.

REJECTED ADDRESSES. With Portrait and Woodcuts. 5s.

XVIII.

ALLAN CUNNINGHAM'S POEMS AND SONGS. With Woodcuts. 2s. 6d.

XIX.

SIR HUMPHRY DAVY'S CONSOLATIONS. With Woodcuts. 6s.

XX.

SIR HUMPHRY DAVY'S SALMONIA. With Woodcuts. 6s.

XXI.

HALLAM'S LITERARY ESSAYS AND CHARACTERS. 2s.

XXII.

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. With 1000 Woodcuts, Initials, and Coloured Borders.
21s.

XXIII.

SOUTHEY'S BOOK OF THE CHURCH. 12s.

XXIV.

WILKINSON'S ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. With 500 Woodcuts. 2 vols. 12s.

XXV.

BRAY'S LIFE OF STOTHARD. Illustrated with Portrait, and 70 Woodcuts. 21s.

XXVI.

THE FAMILY ARABIAN NIGHTS. Illustrated with 600 Woodcuts by Harvey. 21s.

XXVII.

JAMES' FABLES OF ÆSOP. With 100 Woodcuts by Tenniel. 2s. 6d.

XXVIII.

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES." 4s.

XXIX.

THE FAIRY RING. With Woodcuts by RICHARD DOYLE. 7s. 6d.

XXX.

JESSE'S COUNTRY LIFE. With Woodcuts. 6s.

XXXI.

JESSE'S NATURAL HISTORY. With Woodcuts. 6s.

       *       *       *       *       *

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVII. ADVERTISEMENTS for the forthcoming
Number must be forwarded to the Publisher by the 2nd, and BILLS for
insertion by the 4th, of January.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


DR. SMITH'S SCHOOL HISTORY OF GREECE.

Now Ready, with 100 Woodcuts, 16mo., 7s. 6d.

A SCHOOL HISTORY OF GREECE: with Supplementary Chapters on the Literature,
Art, and Domestic Manners of the Greeks. By DR. WM. SMITH, Editor of the
"Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," &c.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street; and WALTON & MABERLY, Upper Gower Street and
Ivy Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


WILKINSON'S ANCIENT EGYPTIANS.

Now ready, with 500 Woodcuts. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 12s.

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS: a Popular Account of their Manners and Customs,
revised and abridged from his larger Work. By SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, a New Edition, with an Index, Fcap. 8vo., 5s.

HANDBOOK OF FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS, chiefly from ENGLISH AUTHORS.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ROBERTSON'S CHURCH HISTORY.

Now ready, 1 vol. 8vo., 12s.

THE HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH TO THE PONTIFICATE of GREGORY the
GREAT. A Manual for General Readers as well as for Students in Theology. By
REV. JAMES C. ROBERTSON. M. A. Vicar of Beakesbourne.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


MILMAN'S LIFE AND WORKS OF HORACE.

This Day, with Woodcuts, 8vo., 9s., bound.

LIFE OF HORACE. By the REV. H. H. MILMAN, Dean of St. PAUL'S.

Also, uniform with the above, 8vo., 21s.

THE WORKS OF HORACE. Edited by DEAN MILMAN, and illustrated by 300
Engravings of Coins, Gems, Statues, &c., from the Antique.

    "Not a page can be opened where the eye does not light upon some
    antique gem. Mythology, history, art, manners, topography, have all
    their fitting representatives. It is the highest praise to say, that
    the designs throughout add to the pleasure with which Horace is
    read."--_Classical Museum._

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE FAMILY ARABIAN NIGHTS.

Now ready, a new and beautiful Edition, with 600 Woodcuts by HARVEY, One
Volume, royal 8vo., price One Guinea.

THE ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENT. Translated by EDWARD WILLIAM LANE, ESQ.,
Author of the "Modern Egyptians," &c.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., 10s.

ONCE UPON A TIME. By CHARLES KNIGHT.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December
24. 1853.





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