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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 218, December 31, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 218, December 31, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 218.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  St. Stephen's Day and Riley's Hoveden, by J. S. Warden       637

  The Holy Trinity Church, Hull, by R. W. Elliot               638

  MINOR NOTES:--Italian-English--American Names--
  Rulers of the World in 1853--Revocation of the Edict of
  Nantes                                                       638


  Derivation of Silo, by Augustus Strong                       639

  MINOR QUERIES:--Handwriting--Rev. Joshua Brooks--"New
  Universal Magazine"--Francis Browne--Advent Hymn--Milton's
  Correspondence--"Begging the Question"--Passage of Cicero    639

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Goldsmith's "Haunch of Venison" 640


  School Libraries, by Weld Taylor, P. H. Fisher, &c.          640

  Trench on Proverbs, by T. J. Buckton, &c.                    641

  Major André                                                  643

  Passage in Whiston                                           645

  Helmets                                                      645

  Hampden's Death                                              646

  Peter Allan, by Shirley Hibberd                              647

  "Could we with ink," &c., by the Rev. Moses Margoliouth, &c. 648

  What Day is it at our Antipodes?                             648

  Silver--On the Restoration of old Collodion                  649

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Admissions to Inns of Court--
  Inedited Lyric by Felicia Hemans--Derivation of Britain--
  Derivation of the Word Celt--"Kaminagadeyathooroosoomokanoogonagira"--
  Cash--"Antiquitas Sæculi Junentus Mundi"--Caves at Settle,
  Yorkshire--Character of the Song of the Nightingale--
  Inscriptions in Books--Door-head Inscription--Fogie--Sir W.
  Hewet--Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge--The Crescent--
  Abigail--Handbook to the Library of the British Museum--The
  Arms of Richard, King of the Romans--Greek and Roman
  Fortifications--Osbernus filius Herfasti--Devonianisms--Gentile
  Names of the Jews--Longevity--Reversible Names--Etymology of
  Eve--Manifesto of the Emperor Nicholas--Binometrical
  Verse--Gale of Rent                                          650

  Notes on Books, &c                                           655

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 656

  Notices to Correspondents                                    656

  Advertisements                                               657

       *       *       *       *       *



In Roger de Hoveden's account of the accident which proved fatal to
Leopold, Duke of Austria, the jailer of Richard I. (Bohn's edit., vol. ii.
p. 345.), St. Stephen's Day, on which it occurred, is twice stated to be
_before_ Christmas Day, instead of after it. Is this an error of the
author, or of translator?[1] or are they right, and was St. Stephen's
martyrdom in those times commemorated on a different day from what it now
is? I cannot find, on reference to the authorities within my reach, that
this last was the case. Mr. Riley does not notice the discrepancy at all.

In the translation of this Volume, a few errors have come under my
observation, to which I beg to call Mr. R.'s attention: 1. In his note on
Corumphira's prophecy, at p. 36., he seems to forget that the Mahometan
year differs from the Julian by eleven or twelve days, and that in
consequence A. D. 1186 does not correspond to A. H. 564; in fact, the old
astrologer is perfectly correct in his chronology, more so than in his
predictions, many of which were signally falsified in the course of the
next few years. 2. A mountain frequently mentioned by his author as
projecting into the sea at the boundary of Catalonia and Valencia, and
called "Muncian," he says in a note at p. 151. is "probably Montserrat,"
which is far from either the sea or the frontier; the maps of Spain all
show, near the town of Vinaros on the east coast, a hill on the sea-shore
called "Monte Sia," which still, as then, forms the boundary in that
direction between the two provinces. 3. In his note at p. 156. on "Mount
Gebel," the translator says, "he (the author) probably means Stromboli;"
surely the name of Mongibello, and the mention of Catania a few lines
farther down should have shown him that Etna only could be meant, although
part of the mistake is due to Hoveden himself, who talks of it as a
separate island from Sicily. Mr. Riley's other geographical notes are
generally {638} correct, though a little more pains might have greatly
increased their number, to the elucidation of his author's account of the
Crusaders' proceedings in the East. 4. At p. 249. a well-known passage from
Horace is ascribed to Juvenal.


[Footnote 1: The text in the _Scriptores post Bedam_ reads:--"Eodam anno
die S. Stephani protomartyris _infra_ natale Domini."]

       *       *       *       *       *


There is an error in the heading of one of the architectural notes appended
to the _Proceedings of the Arch. Inst._ held at York in 1846. From the
description which is given (p. 38.), it is plain that the above church is
the one to which the note refers; not that of St. Mary's, which is the
title of the article.

The material of the whole church is not, also, "brick with stone
dressings," as the note informs us, only the chancel, south porch, and
south transept; all the rest is of stone, and in a very sad state of
repair. A few years ago, the south transept was restored; but the
ornamental part was worked in such bad stone, that the crockets of the
pinnacles have already begun to moulder away. It is a curious fact, that
Bishop Lyttleton, who visited Hull in 1756 for the express purpose of
"examining the walls of the town, and the materials of which the Holy
Trinity Church is constructed," should have stated in the _Archæologia_
(vol. i. p. 146.) that there did not appear to be "_a single brick_ in or
about the whole fabric, except a few in the south porch, placed there of
late years."

There is a matter of great archæological interest connected with the part
of the church which is built of brick; for, as there is reason to believe
that the chancel was raised in the year 1285, there is good foundation for
the supposition, that Hull was "the first town to restore in this country
the useful art of brickmaking" (Frost's _Hull_, p. 138.). The walls of the
town, which were erected by royal licence in 1322, and still standing with
their gates and towers in the time of Leland and Camden, are described by
them as being of brick. Leland also says (_Itin._, edit. Hearne, fol. 53.)
that the greater part of the "houses of the town at that tyme (Richard II.)
was made al of brike."



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Italian-English_ (Vol. viii., p. 436.).--The following wholesale
assassination of the English language was perpetrated in the form of a
circular, and distributed among the British residents at Naples in 1832:

    "Joseph the Cook, he offer to one illuminated public and most
    particular for British knowing men in general one remarkable, pretty,
    famous, and splendid collection of old goods, all quite new, excavated
    from private personal diggings. He sells cooked clays, old marble
    stones, with basso-relievos, with stewing-pots, brass sacrificing pots,
    and antik lamps. Here is a stocking of calves heads and feets for
    single ladies and amateurs travelling. Also old coppers and
    candlesticks; with Nola jugs, Etruscan saucers, and much more
    intellectual minds articles; all entitling him to learned man's
    inspection to examine him, and supply it with illustrious protection,
    of which he hope full and valorous satisfaction.

    "N. B.--He make all the old thing brand new for gentlemans who has
    collections, and wishes to change him. He have also one manner quite
    original for make join two sides of different monies; producing one
    medallion, all indeed unique, and advantage him to sell by exportation
    for strange cabinets and museums of the exterior potentates."


_American Names._--In the Journal of Thomas Moore, lately published in Lord
John Russell's memoirs of the poet, is the following passage, under date of
October 18, 1818:

    "Some traveller in America mentions having met a man called Romulus
    Riggs; whether true or not, very like their mixture of the classical
    and the low."

The name was borne by a very respectable man, who, in the year 1801, was in
partnership with his brother Remus Riggs, as a broker in Georgetown, in the
district of Columbia. Romulus, who survived his brother, afterwards became
an eminent merchant in Philadelphia, where he died a few years ago.



_Rulers of the World in 1853._--Perhaps the following table, which I have
recently met with in a foreign journal, may be thought of sufficient
interest to make a Note of. In these unsettled times, and in case of a
general war, how much might it be changed!

There are at present eighty-three empires, monarchies, republics,
principalities, duchies, and electorates.

There are six emperors, including his sable highness, Faustin I. of St.
Domingo; sixteen kings, numbering among them Jamaco, King of all the
Mosquitoes, and also those of Dahomey and the Sandwich Islands; five
queens, including Ranavalona of Madagascar, and Pomare of the Society
Islands; eighteen presidents, ten reigning princes, seven grand dukes, ten
dukes, one pope, two sultans, of Borneo and Turkey; two governors, of Entre
Rios and Corrientes; one viceroy, of Egypt; one shah, of Persia; one imaun,
of Muscat; one ameer, of Cabul; one bey, of Tunis; and lastly; one
director, of Nicaragua.

W. W.



_Revocation of the Edict of Nantes._--The immense loss sustained by France
in all her great interests, as affecting her civil and religious liberties,
her commerce, trade, arts, sciences, not to speak of the unutterable
anguish inflicted upon hundred of thousands of individuals (among whom were
the writer's maternal ancestors,--their name, Courage), by the revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, has lately called into action the pens of some
industrious and talented men of letters, among whom M. Weiss is one of the
most meritorious. His interesting work, I observe, is about to receive an
English dress. In the shape of a Note through your medium, in order that
the translator may avail himself of information which, possibly, may not
have reached him, it should be known that Mr. William Jones, one of the
highly respected and accomplished _employés_ of the British Museum, has
written a letter to the _Journal des Débats_ (inserted in its number of
Nov. 30, and signed with his name), containing farther information of a
painfully-absorbing nature, from documents in the Museum, respecting the
_dragonnades_, and the sufferings and persecutions of a French pastor.



       *       *       *       *       *



Can you or any of your correspondents inform me what is the derivation of
the word _silo_?

For many years after the colony of New South Wales was founded, it was
almost wholly dependent upon the mother country for such supplies of grain,
&c. as were necessary for the life and health of its inhabitants; and,
consequently, store ships were regularly despatched from our shores to

It happened however that, in consequence of wrecks and other disasters, the
colonists were, on more than one occasion, reduced to the greatest
distress, and starvation almost began to stare them in the face. Under
these circumstances, one of the early governors of Sydney, to prevent the
recurrence of famine, gathered a large supply of corn and deposited it in
granaries which he had excavated out of the solid rock at the head of the
bay, near the mouth of the Paramatta River. These were termed _silos_ or
_siloes_: they were hermetically sealed up, and from time to time the old
corn was exchanged for new.

The supply of corn in these remarkable storehouses is still kept up; nor as
late as the time of my departure from those colonies last year, did I hear
of any intention of discontinuing this old custom.

Now the termination of this word in _o_ marks it as Spanish; and
accordingly, on reference to Baretti's dictionary of that language, I find
the word "SILO, a subterraneous granary." But, Sir, this discovery only
raises another question, and one which I wish much to see solved. A Spanish
substantive must be for the most part the name of something existing at
some time or other in Spain.

_When_, therefore, did such granaries exist in Spain, _in what part_ of the
country, and _under what circumstances_?


Walcot Rectory, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Handwriting._--I should be much obliged if any of your correspondents
could inform me (and that soon) whether there be published, in English,
French, German, or Spanish (though it is most desired in English), a manual
giving a standard alphabet for the various kinds of writing now in use,
viz. English hand, engrossing, Italian, German text, &c., with directions
for teaching the same; in fact, a sort of writing-master's key: and if so,
what is its title, and where it can be procured.

A friend believes to have seen such a work advertised in _The Athenæum_
(probably three or four years ago), but has no recollection of the name.

E. B.

_Rev. Joshua Brooks_.--Can any of your numerous readers inform me as to the
early history of the late Rev. Joshua Brooks, who was for many years
chaplain of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, and who died in 1821?

C. (1.)

"_New Universal Magazine._"--I wish to know the time of the commencement
and termination of the _The New Universal Magazine, or Lady's Polite

A few volumes are in the British Museum. Vol. vi. is for July 1754 to
January 1755.


_Francis Browne._--Anthony Browne, first Viscount Montague, married,
secondly, Magdalen, daughter of Lord Dacre of Gillesland, from whom
descended (amongst others) Sir Henry Browne of Kiddington. This Sir Henry
married twice: his second wife was Mary Anne, daughter of Sir P. Hungate;
by her he had issue Sir Peter Browne, who died of wounds at Naseby. Sir
Peter married Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Knollys, and had two sons,
Henry and _Francis_. Did this Francis Browne ever marry? and if so, whom,
and when, and where?


_Advent Hymn._--Why is this hymn not included amongst those at the end of
the Book of Common Prayer?

Might it not be added to those already given for the other festivals of the
Church, &c.? It {640} would be an advantage in those churches where the
Prayer Book Psalms are used, and might avoid the necessity of having
separate Psalm and Hymn Books; a custom much to be objected to, differing
as they do in different churches, as well as preventing strangers from
taking part in them.


_Milton's Correspondence._--Has any English translation of Milton's _Latin
familiar Correspondence_ been published; and if so, when and by whom?


"_Begging the Question._"--Will any correspondent explain this phrase, and
give its origin?


_Passage of Cicero._--I lately met with a writer of some deep learning and
research, who, amongst other topics, entered into the subject of musical
inflection by orators, &c. Now, unfortunately, the title and preface of the
book is absent without leave, nor is there any heading to it, so I can do
no more than say, the author refers to a passage in these words:

    "Cicero declares that only three tones or variations of sound, or
    interval, were used in speaking in his time; whereas now our preachers,
    orators, and elocutionists take in a range of eight at least."

Will some indulgent reader of "N. & Q." tell me where such a passage


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Goldsmith's "Haunch of Venison._"--What is the name in this poem beginning
with H, which Goldsmith makes to rhyme with "beef?" The metre requires it
to be a monosyllable, but there is no name that I have ever heard of that
would answer in this place. Is the H a mistake for K, which would give a
well-known Irish name?


    [A variation in the Aldine edition gives the line--

    "There's Coley and Williams, and Howard and Hiff."

    MR. BOLTON CORNEY, in his unrivalled edition of Goldsmith's _Poetical
    Works_, 1846, has furnished the following note:--"_Howard_=H. Howard?
    author of _The Choice Spirits Museum_, 1765; _Coley_=Colman, says
    Horace Walpole; _H--rth_=Hogarth? a surgeon of Golden Square;
    _Hiff_=Paul Hiffernan, M.D., author of _Dramatic Genius_, &c." Mr.
    Peter Cunningham, in his forthcoming edition of _Goldsmith_, will
    probably tell us more.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., pp. 220. 395. 498.)

When I mentioned the above subject in "N. & Q.," I admit that my meaning
may have taken too wide a signification. I, however, wrote advisedly, my
object being to draw the attention of those schools that were in fault, and
in the hope of benefiting those that desired to do more. I suppose I must
exonerate Tonbridge, therefore, from any aspersion; and as it appears they
are well provided, from Bacon and Newton to _Punch_ and the _Family
Friend_, I am at a loss to know how I can be of service.

Of the defects in popular education I am as sensible as the rest of the
multitude appear to be, and my particular view of the case would, I fear,
be too lengthy a subject for these columns. It is quite clear, however,
that education is partial, and in some sort a monopoly; its valuable
branches being altogether out of the reach of more than half the
population, and the staple industry of the people not sufficiently
represented,--as, for instance, the steam-engine. In them there is not
sufficient concentration, if I may use the term, of instruction; and the
requirements of many arts and trades insufficiently carried out; the old
schools and old colleges much too classical and mathematical. If this
position is untrue, no popular scheme can be adopted at present; but it
appears more than probable that before long the subject will be brought
before the House of Commons, and education made accessible to all. As to
the money for the purpose, the country will never grudge that. The obstacle
appears to lie more in persuading the endless religious sects into which we
are divided to shake hands over the matter.

At present my only desire is, that boys at public schools should have
plenty of books, being assured that reading while we are young leaves a
very strong and permanent impression, and cannot be estimated too highly;
besides which, if a youth has access to works suited to his natural bent,
he will unconsciously lay in a store of valuable information adapted to his
future career.


When I was at the College school, Gloucester, in 1794, there was a
considerable library in a room adjoining the upper school. I never knew the
books used by the boys, though the room was unlocked: in fact, it was used
by the upper master as a place of chastisement; for there was kept the
block (as it was called) on which the unfortunate culprits were horsed and
whipped. The library, no doubt, contained many valuable and excellent
works; but the only book of which I know the name as having been in it (and
that {641} only by a report in the newspapers of the day) was Oldham's
_Poems_, which, after a fire which occurred in the school-room, was said to
have been the only book returned of the many which had been taken away.



In Knight's _Life of Dean Colet_ (8vo., London, 1724), founder of St.
Paul's School, there is a catalogue of the books in the library of the
school at the date specified. The number of the volumes is added up at the
end of the catalogue, in MS., and the total amount is 663 volumes. The
latest purchases bear the date of 1723, and are:--Pierson (sic) _On the
Creed_, Greenwood's _English Grammar_, and Terentius _In usum Delphini_.
The books for the most part are of a highly valuable and standard
character. Does the library still exist? have many additions been made to
it up to the present time? and is there a printed catalogue of it?

J. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 387. 519.)

The error, which Luther was the first to fall into, in departing from the
anciently received version of Ps. cxxvii. 2., Mendelsohn adopted; but no
translator of eminence has followed these two Hebraists; although some
critics have been carried away by their authority to the proper Jewish
notion of "gain," and not sleep, being the subject. Luther's version--"Denn
seinen Freunden gibt er _es_ schlafend"--was certainly before the revisers
of our authorised version of James I.; but was rejected, I consider, as
ungrammatical and false: _ungrammatical_, because the transitive verb
"give" (_gibt_) has no accusative noun; and _false_, because he supplies,
without authority, the place of the missing noun by the pronoun "it"
(_es_), there being no antecedent to which this _it_ refers. Mendelsohn
omits the _it_ in his Hebrew comment, supplied however unauthorisedly by
MR. MARGOLIOUTH in his translation of such comment. But Mendelsohn
introduces the "_es_" (it), in his German version (Berlin, 1788, dedicated
to Ramler), without however any authority from the Hebrew original of this
Psalm. He is therefore at variance with himself. And, farther, he has
omitted altogether the important word [Hebrew: KEIN] (_so_ or _thus_),
rendered "_denn_" (for) by Luther.

As to the "unintelligible authorised version," I must premise that no
version has yet had so large an amount of learning bestowed on it as the
English one; indeed it has fairly beaten out of the field all the versions
of all other sections of Christians. The difficulty of the English version
arises from its close adherence to the oriental letter; but if we put the
scope of this Psalm into the vernacular, such difficulty is eliminated.

Solomon says, in this Psalm: "Without Jehovah's support, my house will
fall: if He keep this city, the watch, with its early-risings,
late-resting, and ill-feeding, is useless: _thus He_ (by so keeping or
watching the city himself) _gives sleep to him whom He loves_." The
remainder of the Psalm refers to the increase of population as Jehovah's
gift, wherein Solomon considers the strength of the city to consist. The
words in Italics correspond precisely in sense with those of the authorised
version--"_For_ so He giveth His beloved sleep;" and the latter is
supported fully by all the ancient versions, and, as far as I can at
present ascertain, by all the best modern ones.



What is there _unintelligible_ in the authorised translation of Psalm
cxxvii. 2., "He giveth His beloved sleep?" It is a literal translation of
three very plain words, of the simplest grammatical construction, made in
accordance with all the ancient versions. A difficulty there does indeed
exist in the passage, viz. in the commencing word [Hebrew: KN]; but this
word, though capable of many _intelligible_ meanings, does not enter into
the present question. Since the great majority of critics have been
contented to see no objection to the received translations, it is perfectly
allowable to maintain that the proposed rendering makes, instead of
removing, a difficulty, and obscures a passage which, as generally
understood, is sufficiently lucid. Hengstenberg's difficulty is, that the
subject is not about the _sleep_, but the _gain_. But is not sleep a gain?
Can we forget the [Greek: hupnou dôron] of Homer? that is, sufficient,
undisturbed sleep, rest. Hengstenberg's remark, that all, even the beloved,
must labour, is a mere truism. The Psalmist evidently opposes excessive and
over-anxious labours, interfering with natural rest, to ordinary labour
accompanied with refreshing sleep. The object of his censure is precisely
the [Greek: merimna] which forms the subject of our Lord's warning; who
censures not due care and providence, but over-anxiety. Burkius rightly
remarks, that [Hebrew: SHN'] is antithetical to _surgere, sedere, dolorum_.
Hammond observes, with far more clearness and good sense than Hengstenberg,

    "For as to the former of these, wicked men that incessantly moil, and
    cark, and drudge for the acquiring of it, and never enjoy any of the
    comforts of this life, through the vehement pursuit of riches, are
    generally frustrated and disappointed in their aims: whereas, on the
    contrary, those who have God's blessing thrive insensibly, become very
    prosperous, _and yet never lose any sleep in the pursuit of it_."

Bishop Horne agrees; his remarks having evident reference to Hammond's. So
Bishop {642} Horsley, more briefly, but with his usual force: "You take all
this trouble for your security in vain, whilst He gives His beloved sleep."
Dr. French and Mr. Skinner adhere to the same sense in their translation,
and pertinently refer to Psalms iii. and iv., in which the Psalmist, though
beset by enemies, lies down and takes his rest, defended by God his Keeper.
So far, indeed, from seeing anything unintelligible, I see no obscurity,
either of expression or connexion, in this view, but very great obscurity
in the double ellipsis now proposed. In the received translation we have a
transitive verb, and a noun, obviously its accusative, according to the
natural sequence and simple construction of the Hebrew language. In the
proposed rendering we must understand an accusative case after _giveth_
(i.e. _bread_, as Rosenmüller and others observe), and a particle before
_sleep_. The transitive verb has no subject; the noun nothing to govern it.
We must guess at both.

As for the alleged instances of ellipses, I maintain they are not
analogous. I cannot call to mind any which are; and if any of your
correspondents would show some they would do good service. Hengstenberg's
examples of [Hebrew: TSRB], [Hebrew: BQR], &c. are surely not in point. We
have a similar ellipsis, often used in idiomatic English, _morning_,
_noon_, and _night_; but who would say _sleep_, instead of _in sleep_, or
_while asleep_? The ellipses in the Psalms, in the Songs of Degrees
themselves, are very numerous, but they are of a different nature; and
neither the position nor the nature of the word [Hebrew: SHN'] warrants
that now defended, as far I can remember.

May I remark, by the way, that the Psalm falls rather into three strophes
than into two. The first speaks of the raising up of the house, and of the
city (an aggregation of houses), protected by the Almighty. The last is in
parallelism to the first, though, as often happens, expanded; and speaks of
the raising up of the family, and of the family arrived at maturity, the
defenders of the city, through the same protecting Providence. The central
portion is the main and cardinal sentiment, viz. the vanity of mere human
labour, and the peace of those who are beloved of God.


There is a proverb which foretells peril to such as interpose in the
quarrels of others. But as neither Mr. Trench, nor E. M. B., nor MR.
MARGOLIOUTH, have as yet betrayed any disposition to quarrel about the
question in dispute, a looker-on need not be afraid of interposing.

The Query, about the solution of which they differ, is the proper mode of
rendering the last clause of v. 2. Ps. cxxvii. In our Liturgy and Bible it
is rendered, "_For_ so He giveth His beloved sleep;" of which E. M. B.
says, "It seems to me to be correct;" though he justly observes that "He
will give" would be more close. Mr. Trench appears to have rendered it, "He
giveth His beloved _in their_ sleep." MR. MARGOLIOUTH says "the words
should be, He will give to His beloved _whilst he_ [the beloved] _is_
asleep." In each case the Italics, as usual, designate words not existing
in the Hebrew text.

When expositors would get through a difficult passage, their readers have,
not unfrequently, the vexation of finding that a word of some importance
has been ignored. Such has been the case here with the little word [Hebrew:
KN], which introduces the clause. Its ordinary meaning is _so_; and the
office of the word _so_, in such a position, is to lead the remind to
revert to what has been previously said, as necessary to the proper
application of what follows. Now, the Psalmist's theme was the vanity of
all care and labour, unless the Lord both provide for and watch over His
people; _for_ so He will give His beloved sleep--that happy, confiding
repose which the solicitude of the worldly cannot procure. This is, surely,
intelligible enough and even if [Hebrew: KN] may be translated _for_ (which
Noldius, in his _Concordantia Particularum_, affirms that it here may,
adducing however but one dubious instance of its being so used elsewhere,
viz. Jeremiah xiv. 10.), or if the various reading, [Hebrew: KY], be
accepted, which would mean _for_, our version of the clause will be quite
compatible with either alteration.

In this concentrated proposition are contained, the mode of giving, _so_;
the character of the recipient, _his beloved_; and we reasonably expect to
be next told what the Lord will give, and the text accordingly proceeds to
say, _sleep_. Whereas, if either Mr. Trench's or MR. MARGOLIOUTH's version
of the clause could properly be accepted, the gift would remain entirely
unmentioned; after attention had been called to the giver, to his mode of
giving, and to the recipient who might expect his bounty. But whilst Mr.
Trench is constrained to interpolate _in their_, apparently unconscious
that the Hebrew requires _beloved_ to be in the singular number, MR.
MARGOLIOUTH translates [Hebrew: SHN'] as if it were a participle, which
Luther seems also to have heedlessly done. Yet unless [Hebrew: SHN'] be a
noun, derived with a little irregularity from [Hebrew: YSHN], _he slept_,
it has nothing to do with sleep. It cannot be the participle of [Hebrew:
YSHN], for that verb has a participle in the usual form, not wanting the
initial [Hebrew: Y], which occurs in several places in the Old Testament,
and is used by Mendelsohn in the very sentence MR. MARGOLIOUTH has quoted
from that Jewish expositor. The critic who will not acknowledge [Hebrew:
SHN'] to be a noun in this clause, is therefore tied up to translating it
as either the participle or the preterite of [Hebrew: SHN'], _to change_,
or _to repeal_, and would thus make the clause really unintelligible.



N. B. inquires, whether the translation of Psalm cxxvii. 2. adopted by Mr.
Trench has the sanction of any version but that of Luther. I beg leave to
inform him that the passage was translated in the same manner by Coverdale:
"For look, to whom it pleaseth Him He giveth it in sleep." De Wette also,
in modern times, has "Giebt er seinen Geliebten im Schlafe."

Vatablus, in his Annotations, approves of such a rendering: "Dabit in somno
dilectis suis." It has also been suggested in the notes of several modern

Not one of the ancient versions sanctions this translation.

The sense of the passage will be much the same whichever of these
translations be adopted. But the common rendering appears to me to
harmonise best with the preceding portion of it.

S. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 174. 604.)

The following extracts and cuttings from newspapers, relative to the
unfortunate Major André, may interest your correspondent SERVIENS. I
believe I have some others, which I will send when I can lay my hand upon
them. I inclose a pencil copy of the scarce print of a sketch from a
pen-and-ink drawing, made by André himself on Oct. 1, 1780, of his crossing
the river when he was taken:

    "_Visit to the Grave of André._--We stopped at Piermont, on the widest
    part of Tappan Bay, where the Hudson extends itself to the width of
    three miles. On the opposite side, in full view from the hotel, is
    Tarrytown, where poor André was captured. Tradition says that a very
    large white-wood tree, under which he was taken, was struck by
    lightning on the very day that news of André's death was received at
    Tarrytown. As I sat gazing on the opposite woods, dark in the shadows
    of moonlight, I thought upon how very slight a circumstance often
    depends the fate of individuals and the destiny of nations. In the
    autumn of 1780, a farmer chanced to be making cider at a mill on the
    east bank of the Hudson, near that part of Haverstraw Bay called
    'Mother's Lap.' Two young men, carrying muskets, as usual in those
    troubled times, stopped for a draught of sweet cider, and seated
    themselves on a log to wait for it. The farmer found them looking very
    intently on some distant object, and inquired what they saw. 'Hush,
    hush!' they replied; 'the red coats are yonder, just within the Lap,'
    pointing to an English gun-boat, with twenty-four men, lying on their
    oars. Behind the shelter of a rock, they fired into the boat, and
    killed two persons. The British returned a random shot; but ignorant of
    the number of their opponents, and seeing that it was useless to waste
    ammunition on a hidden foe, they returned whence they came with all
    possible speed. This boat had been sent to convey Major André to the
    British sloop-of-war Vulture, then lying at anchor off Teller's Point.
    Shortly after André arrived, and finding the boat gone, he, in
    attempting to pass through the interior, was captured. Had not those
    men stopped to drink sweet cider, it is probable that André would not
    have been hung; the American revolution might have terminated in quite
    a different fashion; men now deified as heroes might have been handed
    down to posterity as traitors; our citizens might be proud of claiming
    descent from Tories, and slavery have been abolished eight years ago,
    by virtue of our being British Colonies. So much may depend on a
    draught of cider! But would England herself have abolished slavery had
    it not been for the impulse given to free principles by the American
    revolution? Probably not. It is not easy to calculate the consequences
    involved even in a draught of cider, for no fact stands alone; each has
    infinite relations. A very pleasant ride at sunset brought us to Orange
    Town, to the lone field where Major André was executed. It is planted
    with potatoes, but the plough spares the spot on which was once his
    gallows and his grave. A rude heap of stones, with the remains of a
    dead fir tree in the midst, are all that mark it; but tree and stones
    are covered with names. It is on an eminence commanding a view of the
    country for miles. I gazed on the surrounding woods, and remembered
    that on this selfsame spot, the beautiful and accomplished young man
    walked back and forth, a few minutes preceding his execution, taking an
    earnest farewell look of earth and sky. My heart was sad within me. Our
    guide pointed to a house in full view, at half a mile's distance, which
    he told us was at that time the head-quarters of General Washington. I
    turned my back suddenly upon it. The last place on earth where I would
    wish to think of Washington is at the grave of André. I know that
    military men not only sanction but applaud the deed; and, reasoning
    according to the maxims of war, I am well aware how much can be said in
    his defence. That Washington considered it a duty, the discharge of
    which was most painful to him, I doubt not. But, thank God, the
    instincts of any childhood are unvitiated by any such maxims. From the
    first hour I read of the deed, until the present day, I never did, and
    never could, look upon it as otherwise than cool, deliberate murder.
    That the theory and practice of war commends the transaction, only
    serves to prove the infernal nature of war itself.... A few years ago,
    the Duke of York requested the British Consul to send the remains of
    Major André to England. At that time two thriving firs were found near
    the grave, and a peach-tree; which a lady in the neighbourhood had
    planted there, in the kindness of her heart. The farmers who came to
    witness the interesting ceremony generally evinced the most respectful
    tenderness for the memory of the unfortunate dead, and many of the
    children wept. A few idlers, educated by militia trainings and Fourth
    of July declaration, began to murmur that the memory of General
    Washington was insulted by any respect shown to the remains of André;
    but the offer of a treat lured them to the tavern, where they soon
    became too drunk to guard the character of Washington. It was a
    beautiful day, and these disturbing spirits being removed, the
    impressive ceremony proceeded in solemn silence. {644} The coffin was
    in good preservation, and contained all the bones, with a small
    quantity of dust. The roots of the peach-tree had entirely interwoven
    the skull with their fine network. His hair, so much praised for its
    uncommon beauty, was tied, on the day of his execution, according to
    the fashion of the times. When his grave was opened, half a century
    afterwards, the riband was found in perfect preservation, and sent to
    his sister in England. When it was known that the sarcophagus
    containing his remains had arrived in New York, for London, many ladies
    sent garlands and emblematic devices, to be wreathed around it, in
    memory of the 'beloved and lamented André.' In their compassionate
    hearts, the teachings of nature were unperverted by maxims of war, or
    that selfish jealousy which dignifies itself with the name of
    patriotism. Blessed be God, that custom forbids women to electioneer or
    fight. May the sentiment remain till war and politics have passed away!
    Had not women and children been kept free from their polluting
    influence, the medium of communication between earth and heaven would
    have been completely cut off. At the foot of the eminence where the
    gallows had been erected, we found an old Dutch farm-house, occupied by
    a man who witnessed the execution, and whose father often sold peaches
    to the unhappy prisoner. He confirmed the account of André's uncommon
    personal beauty, and had a vivid remembrance of the pale but calm
    heroism with which he met his untimely death."--From Miss Child's
    _Letters from New York_.

    "_André._--At the little town of Tappan, the unfortunate Major André,
    condemned by the council of war as a spy, was executed and buried. His
    remains were disinterred a few years ago, by order of the English
    Government, carried to England, and, if I mistake not, deposited in
    Westminster Abbey; whilst the remains of General Frazer, who fell like
    a hero, at the head of the King's troops, lie without a monument in the
    old redoubt near Still Water. The tree that grew over André's grave was
    likewise sent to England; and, as I was told, planted in the King's
    Garden, behind Carlton Palace."--Duke of Weimar's _Travels_.

    "_Disinterment of Major André_.--This event took place at Tappan on
    Friday, 10th inst., at one p. m., amidst a considerable concourse of
    ladies and gentlemen that assembled to witness this interesting
    ceremony. The British Consul, with several gentlemen, accompanied by
    the proprietor of the ground and his labourers, commenced their
    operations at eleven o'clock, by removing the heap of loose stones that
    surrounded and partly covered the grave. Great caution was observed in
    taking up a small peach-tree that was growing out of the grave, as the
    Consul stated his intention of sending it to his Majesty, to be placed
    in one of the Royal Gardens. Considerable anxiety was felt lest the
    coffin could not be found, as various rumours existed of its having
    been removed many years ago. However, when at the depth of three feet,
    the labourers came to it. The lid was broken in the centre, and had
    partly fallen in, but was kept up by resting on the skull. The lid
    being raised, the skeleton of the brave André appeared entire; bone to
    bone, each in its place, without a vestige of any other part of his
    remains, save some of his hair, which appeared in small tufts; and the
    only part of his dress was the leather string which tied it.

    "As soon as the curiosity of the spectators was gratified, a large
    circle was formed; when Mr. Eggleso, the undertaker, with his
    assistants, uncovered the sarcophagus, into which the remains were
    carefully removed. This superb depository, in imitation of those used
    in Europe for the remains of the illustrious dead, was made by Mr.
    Eggleso, of Broadway, of mahogany; the pannels covered with rich
    crimson velvet, surrounded by a gold bordering; the rings of deep
    burnished gold; the pannel also crimson velvet, edged with gold; the
    inside lined with black velvet; the whole supported by four gilt balls.

    "The sarcophagus, with the remains, has been removed on board his
    Majesty's packet; where, it is understood, as soon as some repairs on
    board are completed, an opportunity will be afforded of viewing
    it."--From the _New York Evening Post_ of Aug. 11.

    "The remains of the lamented Major André have (as our readers already
    know) been lately removed from the spot where they were originally
    interred in the year 1780, at Tappan, New York, and brought to England
    in the Phæton frigate by order of his Royal Highness the Duke of York.
    Yesterday the sarcophagus was deposited in front of the cenotaph in
    Westminster Abbey, which was erected by his late Majesty to the memory
    of this gallant officer. The reinterment took place in the most private
    manner, the Dean of Westminster superintending in person, Major-Gen.
    Sir Herbert Taylor attending on the part of his Royal Highness the
    Commander-in-Chief and Mr. Locker, Secretary to Greenwich Hospital, on
    behalf of the three surviving sisters of the deceased."--From newspaper
    of which the name and date have not been preserved.

G. C.

With many thanks for the obliging replies to my Query for information
concerning this gentleman, I would desire to repeat it in a more specific
form. Can none of your readers inform me whether there do not remain
papers, &c. of or concerning Major André, which might without impropriety
be at this late day given to the world; and if so, by what means access
could be had thereto? Are there none such in the British Museum, or in the
State Paper Offices? My name and address are placed with the Editor of this
journal, at the service of any correspondent who may prefer to communicate
with me privately.


Major André occupied Dr. Franklin's house when the British army was in
Philadelphia in 1777 and 1778. When it evacuated the city, André carried
off with him a portrait of the Doctor, which has never been heard of since.
The British officers amused themselves with amateur theatricals at the
South Street Theatre in Southwark, then the only one in Philadelphia,
theatres being prohibited in the city. The tradition here is, that André
painted the scenes. They were {645} destroyed with the theatre by fire
about thirty-two years ago.

M. E.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 244. 397.)

The book for which J.T. inquires is:

    "The Important Doctrines of Original Sin, Justification by Faith and
    Regeneration, clearly stated from Scripture and Reason, and vindicated
    from the Doctrines of the Methodists; with Remarks on Mr. Law's late
    Tract on New Birth. By _Thomas_ Whiston, A.B. Printed for John Whiston,
    at the Boyle's Head, Fleet Street. Pp. 70."

I do not know who the author was. Perhaps a son of the celebrated _William_
Whiston, six of whose works are advertised on the back of the title-page;
and whose _Memoirs_, Lond. 1749, are "sold by Mr. Whiston in Fleet Street."
If the passage cited by J. T. is all that Taylor says of Thomas Whiston, it
conveys an erroneous notion of his pamphlet, which from pp. 49. to 70. is
occupied by the question of regeneration. I think his doctrine may be
shortly stated thus: Regeneration accompanies the baptism of adults, and
follows that of infants. In the latter case, the time is uncertain; but the
fact is ascertainable by the recipients becoming spiritually minded.

Afterwards he says:

    "I cannot dismiss this subject without observing _another sense of
    regeneration_ in the Gospel. However, _this makes no alteration in the
    doctrine I have before established_; because, with us, regeneration and
    new birth are terms that bear the same exact meaning. What I before
    delivered of the spiritual new birth or regeneration is strictly true,
    though the word regeneration _is sometimes used in another sense_. It
    is not to be there understood of a spiritual or figurative birth, but
    of a literal and actual revival of the body from corruption. But _this
    is not that new birth we have before inquired after_, but only the
    assured and certain consequence of our preserving ourselves to the end
    in that spiritual state or birth we have entered into in this world.
    That I do not represent the sense of the word regeneration unfairly,
    may be gathered from Matt. xix. 28., rightly pointed and distinguished:

    "'And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that ye which have
    followed me (in the _regeneration_, when the Son of Man shall sit upon
    the throne of his glory), ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones,
    judging the twelve tribes of Israel.' Here regeneration _is not to be
    understood in the same sense as the new birth or regeneration mentioned
    by our Saviour_ (John iii.), from whence the new birth is to be derived
    and stated; but, as I before observed, must be referred to a literal
    restoration to life, _i. e_. either to the general resurrection, or
    rather to the Millennium, when Christ is to reign upon earth over the
    Saints for a thousand years, after the dissolution of the present form
    of it. I make no doubt that this latter opinion is the genuine sense of
    the text I have quoted from St. Matthew; and consequently, that
    regeneration, _in this passage_, is to be applied to the first
    resurrection of the dead, or to the supposed Millennium."--Pp. 67, 68.

The above will show that Thomas Whiston did not "_maintain_ that
regeneration is a literal and physical being born again," in the sense
which the passage quoted by J. T. conveys. I have not seen Taylor's work
with the date 1746. As the name is common, and the pamphlets and sermons of
that time on original sin are innumerable, many Taylors may have written
besides the one mentioned by [Greek: Halieus]. J. T.'s Taylor cannot be
excused even on the ground of having read only a part of the book he
misrepresented: for he refers to p. 68., from which he must have seen that
Thomas Whiston there explained only an isolated passage.

H. B. C.

Garrick Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 538.)

The following observations upon the helmet, by Stephen Martin Leake, Esq.,
Garter, may be acceptable to your querist S. N.

    "The helmet, called _galea_ by the Greeks, _cassis_ by the Romans, is
    called _helm_ (which signifies the head) by the Germans; whence the
    French _heaume_, and our _helmet_. It is of great account with the
    Germans: the helm and crest deriving their use from tournaments, whence
    arms took their origin; and this being with them the most essential
    mark of noblesse, neither the Germans nor French allow a new made
    gentleman to bear a helmet, but only a wreath of his colours; and when
    he is a gentleman of three descents, to bear a helmet with three barrs
    for his three descents (Menestrier, _Abrégé méthodique des Armoiries_,
    1672, p. 28.; _Origine des Ornemens des Armoiries_, p. 2.). _Tymbre_ is
    the general word used for the casque or helm by the French. Menestrier,
    in his _Origine des Ornemens des Armoiries_, p. 13., says the modern
    heralds observe three things with regard to the _tymbre_: the matter,
    the form, and the situation. That kings should have their helmets of
    gold open, and in full front; princes and lords of silver, and somewhat
    turned with a certain number of barrs, according to their degree;
    gentlemen to have their helmets of steel, and in profile. Colombiere
    assigns a knight a helmet bordered with silver, barons with gold,
    counts and viscounts the like, and the barrs gold; marquisses the helm
    same, and damasked with gold; dukes and princes the gold helmet,
    damasked. And as to the barrs, new gentlemen without any; gentlemen of
    three descents, three barrs; knights and ancient gentlemen, five;
    barons seven; counts and viscounts nine; marquisses eleven. But Moreau,
    who first propagated these inventions (_Origine des Ornemens des
    Armoiries_, p. 17.), assigns to an emperor or king eleven, a prince or
    duke nine, a marquis and count seven, a baron five: whence it seems
    there is no {646} certain rule or uniform practice observed herein,
    unless in the situation of the helmet, wherein both the Germans and
    French account it more noble to bear an open helmet than a close one;
    but these are novel distinctions. Anciently, the helmets were all
    turned to the right, and close; and it is but some years since, says
    Menestrier (_Abrégé Méthodique_, 1672, p. 28.), that they began to
    observe the number of grilles or barrs, to distinguish the different
    degrees. But however ingenious these inventions are, it is certain that
    they are useless (as gold and silver helmets would be) because every
    rank of nobility is distinguished by the coronet proper to his degree.
    Whatever honour may be attributed to the helmet, the use of it with the
    arms is but modern; and upon the coins of kings and sovereign princes,
    where they are chiefly to be met with, the helmets are barred, and
    either full or in profile, as best suited the occasion; and upon the
    Garter plates of Christian Duke of Brunswick (1625), Gustavus Adolphus
    King of Sweden (1628), and Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine (1633
    and 1680), they are full fronted with seven barrs.

    "In Great Britain we have but four kinds of helmets, according to the
    four different degrees in the state--the king, the nobility, knights,
    and gentry. The sovereign helmet full fronted, having seven barrs or
    guards, visure without any bever; the nobilities the same, but half
    turned to the right, and usually showing four barrs; the knight's
    helmet full fronted, with the bever turned up; and the gentleman's in
    profile, the bever or visor close; using steel helmets for all as the
    only proper metal for a helmet common to all. Foreigners condemn us for
    attributing that helmet to a knight, which they give to a king; and
    more proper, says Mackensie, for a king without guard-visure than for a
    knight (_Science of Heraldry_, p. 87.), because knights are in danger,
    and have less need to command. But it must be observed, the knight's
    helmet has a visor, and no barrs; the sovereign's barrs, because no
    visor. And this kind of helmet, with barrs instead of a visor, seems to
    have been contrived for princes and great commanders, who would have
    been incommoded by the visor, and too much exposed without anything,
    therefore had barrs: whereas knights being, according to Mackensie, in
    more danger and having less need to command, had their helmet for
    action; and are represented with the bever up, ready to receive the
    king or general's command. As to the resemblance of the one to the
    other, both being in full front, the connexion was not anciently so
    remote as seems at this day. Knighthood is the first and most ancient
    military honour, and therefore at this day sovereign princes and
    knights are the only two honours universally acknowledged. Knighthood
    is the source of all honours, and of all military glory, and an honour
    esteemed by and conferred upon kings; without which they were
    heretofore thought incomplete, and could not confer that honour on
    others, no more than ordination could be conferred by one unordained:
    so that there was a very near connexion between sovereignty and
    knighthood. And besides, the propriety of the open helmet with a visor
    for a knight, and the helmet guard-visure for a king, the latter is
    more ornamental, especially if, according to the modern practice, the
    barrs are gold. As the king's helmet is without a visor, and barred, so
    is that of the nobility in imitation of it, but turned to the right as
    a proper distinction as, in like manner, that of the gentry differs
    from the knights. As there are in fact but two orders of men, nobility
    of which the king is the first degree, and gentry of which knights are
    the first, so they are by this means sufficiently distinguished
    according to their respective orders and degrees: the first order
    distinguished by the barred helmet, the gentry by the visored helmet
    with proper differences of the second degrees of each class from the
    first; and all other distinctions more than this are unnecessary and

    "The helmet does not seem to have been formerly used but in a military
    way, and affairs of chivalry. I do not find any helmets upon the
    monuments of our Kings of England, nor upon other ancient monuments,
    nor upon any of the Great Seals, coins, or medals. Upon the plates of
    the Knights of the Garter at Windsor, all degrees used the old profile
    close helmet till about 1588, some few excepted; and soon after, the
    helmet with barrs came into fashion, and was used for all degrees of
    nobility, and it has continued ever since; and the same has been used
    for all degrees of nobility upon the plates of the Knights of the Bath,
    those that are knights only using a knight's helmet. And the same may
    be observed in Sir Edward Walker's _Books of the Nobility from the
    Restoration to the Revolution_, wherein all degrees have the helmet
    turned towards the right, showing four barrs; the sovereign's being
    full with seven barrs."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 495.)

"On the 21st of July, 1828, the corpse of John Hampden was disinterred by
the late Lord Nugent for the purpose of settling the disputed point of
history as to the manner in which the patriot received his death-wound. The
examination seems to have been conducted after a somewhat bungling fashion
for a scientific object, and the facts disclosed were these: 'On lifting up
the right arm we found that it was dispossessed of its hand. We might
therefore naturally conjecture that it had been amputated, as the bone
presented a perfectly flat appearance, as if sawn off by some sharp
instrument. On searching under the cloths, to our no small astonishment we
found the hand, or rather a number of small bones, inclosed in a separate
cloth. For about six inches up the arm the flesh had wasted away, being
evidently smaller than the lower part of the left arm, to which the hand
was very firmly united, and which presented no symptoms of decay further
than the two bones of the forefinger loose. Even the nails remained entire,
of which we saw no appearance in the cloth containing the remains of the
right hand.... The clavicle of the right shoulder was firmly united to the
scapula, nor did there appear any contusion or indentation that evinced
symptoms of any wound ever having been inflicted. The left shoulder, on the
contrary, was smaller and sunken in, as if the clavicle had been displaced.
To {647} remove all doubts, it was adjudged necessary to remove the arms,
which were amputated with a penknife (!). The socket of the left (_sic_)
arm was perfectly white and healthy, and the clavicle firmly united to the
scapula, nor was there the least appearance of contusion or wound. The
socket of the right (_sic_) shoulder, on the contrary, was of a brownish
cast, and the clavicle being found quite loose and disunited from the
scapula, proved that dislocation had taken place. The bones, however, were
quite perfect.' These appearances indicated that injuries had been received
both in the hand and shoulder, the former justifying the belief in Sir
Robert Pye's statement to the Harleys, that the pistol which had been
presented to him by Sir Robert, his son-in-law, had burst and shattered his
hand in a terrible manner at the action of Chalgrave Field; the latter
indicating that he had either been wounded in the shoulder by a spent ball,
or had received an injury there by falling from his horse after his hand
was shattered. Of these wounds he died three or four days after, according
to Sir Philip Warwick. According to Clarendon, 'three weeks after being
shot into the shoulder with a brace of bullets, which broke the bone.' The
bone, however, was not found broken, and the 'brace of bullets' is equally

This account is from a newspaper cutting of _The News_, August 3, 1828.

W. S.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 539. 630.)

Peter Allan deserves more than a brief notice. His history is so full of
romance, the relics of his name and fame are so many, and he is withal so
little known, that I presume I may on this occasion trespass on more than
the ordinary space allotted to a "minor," but which should be a "major"

Peter Allan was born at Selkirk (?) in the year 1798. His parents were
peasants, and Peter in early life became valet to Mr. Williamson, brother
of Sir Hedworth Williamson. He afterwards became gamekeeper to the Marquis
of Londonderry, and in that capacity acquired a reputation as an unerring
shot, and a man of unusual physical strength and courage. He afterwards
married, and became a publican at Whitburn, and in the course of few years
purchased a little property, and occupied himself in the superintendence of
dock works and stone quarries. In this latter capacity he acquired the
skill in quarrying, on which his fame chiefly rests. Having a turn for a
romantic life, he conceived the strange project of founding a colony at
Marsden, a wild, rocky bay below the mouth of the Tyne, five miles from
Sunderland, and three from South Shields. The spot chosen by Peter as his
future home had been colonised some years before by one "Jack the Blaster,"
who had performed a series of excavations, and amongst them a huge round
perforation from the high land above to the beach below, through which it
is said many a cargo has passed ashore without being entered in the books
of the excise. Here the cliff is formed of hard magnesian limestone, and
rises perpendicularly from the beach more than a hundred feet. When Peter
set to work, the only habitable portions were two wild caves opening to the
sea, into which at high tide the breakers tumbled, and where during rough
weather it was impossible to continue with safety. On the face of the rock
Peter built a homestead of timber, and set up farm and tavern. In the rock
itself he excavated fifteen rooms, to each of which he gave an appropriate
name; the most interesting are the "Gaol Room," the "Devil's Chamber," the
"Circular Room," the "Dining Room," and the "Ball Room." The height of the
entire excavation is twenty feet, its breadth thirty, and its length, from
the ball room to the cottage, one hundred and twenty. Several parts of the
cave are lighted by windows hewn in the face of the rock, and these give
the cave a picturesque appearance as viewed frown the beach below. In
addition to these labours, Peter took possession of a huge table-rock,
which stands some distance from the cliffs opposite to the grotto. By dint
of extraordinary exertions he excavated a passage from the land side of
this rock through its substance to the surface, and by placing scaling
ladders against its face, made provision for ascent and descent at high
water. The three-quarters of an acre of surface he colonised with rabbits,
and built a shanty for himself and companions, where they dwelt for some
time thinning the wild fowl with their deadly shots, and raising many an
echo with their shouts of revelry.

To describe the strange scene presented by the grotto itself, the
farm-buildings on the face of the cliff, the huge table-rock and flagstaff,
the many quaint blocks, pillars and wild escarpments, and the numerous
domestic animals, such as mastiffs, pigs, ravens, and goats, all
congregated together in a small bay, and literally separated from the world
by the barren waste land above, and the huge cliffs and restless sea below,
would be beyond the scope of "N. & Q.," though it is worth a note in
passing, that for the tourist a visit to Marsden would be highly

Peter Allan endured many hardships in his cave at Marsden. He was accused
of smuggling, and annoyed by the excise. He and his family were once shut
in for six weeks by the snow, during the whole of which time it was
impossible for any human being to approach them. Yet in spite of many
hardships, Peter reared in the grotto a family of eight children, three
daughters and five sons, all of whom are living and prospering in the
world. The grotto is still kept by his widow, his {648} eldest son William,
and one daughter, assisting Mrs. Allan in the management The son William is
an experienced blaster, and occupies himself in excavations and
improvements; the daughter, a brunette, is a first-rate shot, and a girl of
extraordinary spirit and gaiety. She is the Grace Darling of the
neighbourhood, and both her and her mother have saved many lives by their
dexterity in boating and extraordinary courage. Peter himself was a bold,
determined, and honest man, fond of a joke, and passionately devoted to
bees, birds, pigs, and dogs, many of whom (pigs especially) used to follow
him to Shields and Sunderland, when he went thither. After twenty-two
years' possession of the caverns, the proprietor of the adjoining land
served him with a process of ejectment; Peter refused to leave the
habitation which he had formed by twenty years' unremitting toil, and which
he had actually won from the sea, without encroachment on an inch of the
mainland. After a tedious law-suit, judgment was given in his favour, but
he had to pay costs. The anxieties of this lawsuit broke his heart, and he
never recovered either health or spirits. He died on the 31st of August,
1849, in the 51st year of his age, leaving his wife and eight children to
lament him. He was buried in Whitburn churchyard, and over his grave was
placed a stone with the inscription:

 "The Lord is my rock and my salvation."

Numerous memorials of Peter exist at the grotto, and in the neighbourhood
of Marsden. Particulars of these and other matters touching this romantic
history, may be obtained in No. 2. of _Summer Excursions to the North_,
published by Ward, of Newcastle; and in a paper entitled _A Visit to
Marsden Rocks_, contributed by myself to the _Peoples Illustrated Journal_,
No. XIV.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 127. 180. 422.)

I think that your well-read correspondent J. W. THOMAS will agree with me
that the _bonâ fide_ authorship of the beautiful lines alluded to must be
ascertained, not by a single expression, but by the whole of the charming
poem. The striking expression of Mohammed, quoted by J. W. THOMAS, is quite
common amongst the Easterns even at the present day. I remember, when at
Malta, in March, 1848, whilst walking in company of the most accomplished
Arabian of the day, the conversation turned upon a certain individual who
had since acquired a most unenviable notoriety in the annals of British
jurisprudence, my companion abruptly turned upon me, whilst at the shore of
the Mediterranean, and said, in his fascinating Arabic, "Behold this great
sea! were all its water turned into ink, it would be insufficient to
describe the villany of the individual you speak of."

Rabbi Mayir ben Isaac's poem corresponds not merely in a single expression,
but in every one. The Chaldee hymn has the ink and ocean, parchment and
heavens, stalks and quills, mankind and scribes, &c. Pray do me the favour
to insert the original lines. I assure you that they are well worthy of a
place in "N. & Q." Here they are:




In the _Des Knaben Wunderhorn_ there is something of the same idea, though
not quite to the same purpose:

 "Und wenn der Himmel papyrige wär,
  Und e jede Sterne Schryber wär,
  Und jedere Schryber hat siebesiebe Hand,
  Ei schriebe doch alli mir Liebi Kesend!
          Dursli und Babeli."

G. H. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 102.)

This question was asked by H., and at p. 479. an answer to it was
undertaken by ESTE. But, probably from over-anxiety to be very brief, ESTE
was betrayed into a most strange and unaccountable misstatement, which
ought to be set right before the conclusion of the volume; since, if
correctness be generally desirable in all communications to "N. & Q.," it
is absolutely indispensable in professed answers to required information.
ESTE says:

    "A person sailing to our Antipodes westward will lose twelve hours; by
    sailing thither eastward he will gain twelve hours."

This is quite correct. But if one person lose twelve, and another gain
twelve, the manifest difference between them is twenty-four; and yet ESTE
goes on to say:

    "If both meet together at the same hour, say eleven o'clock, the one
    will reckon 11 A.M., the other 11 P.M."

This is the misstatement. No two persons, by any correct system of
reckoning, could arrive at a result which would imply a physical
impossibility; and it is needless to say that the concurrence of A.M. and
P.M. at the same time and place would come under that designation. What
ESTE should have said is, that both persons meeting {649} together on the
same day, if it be reckoned Monday by the one, it will be reckoned Tuesday
by the other. They may differ as to Monday or Tuesday, but they cannot
rationally differ as to whether it is day or night.

It may be added that, no matter where these two persons might meet, whether
at the Antipodes or at any other place, still, upon comparing their
journals, there would always appear a day's difference between them; and if
they were to keep continually sailing on, one always towards the west, and
the other always towards the east, every time they might meet or cross each
other, they would increase the difference between them by an additional

Whence it follows, that if two ships were to leave England on the same day,
one sailing east by the Cape of Good Hope, and the other west by Cape Horn,
returning home respectively by the opposite capes; and if both were to
arrive again in England at the same time, there would be found in the
reckoning of the eastern vessel two entire days more than in that of the
western vessel. Nor would this difference be merely theoretic or imaginary;
on the contrary, it would be a real and substantial gain on the part of the
eastern vessel: her crew would have consumed two whole rations of
breakfast, dinner, and supper, and swallowed two days' allowance of grog
more than the other crew; and they would have enjoyed two nights more

But all this is not an answer to H's question; what he wants to know is
whether the day at the Antipodes is twelve hours in advance or in arrear of
our day and, whichever it is, why is it?

But here H. is not sufficiently explicit. His question relates to a
practical fact, and therefore he should have been more particular in
designating the exact habitable place to which it referred. Our Antipodes,
strictly speaking, or rather the antipodal point to Greenwich Observatory,
is 180° of east (or west) longitude, and 51° 28' &c. of south latitude. But
this is not the only point that differs by exactly twelve hours in time
from Greenwich; all places lying beneath the meridian of 180°, "our
Periæci" as well as "our Antipodes," are similarly affected, and to them
the same question would be applicable. H. is right, however, in assuming
that, with respect to that meridian, the decision must be purely arbitrary.
It is as though two men were to keep moving round a circle in the same
direction, with the same speed, and at diametrically opposite points; it
must be an arbitrary decision which would pronounce that either was in
advance, or in arrear, of the other.

Regarding, then, the meridian of 180° as the neutral point, the most
rational system, so far as British settlements are concerned, is to reckon
longitude both ways, from 0° to 180°, east and west from Greenwich; and to
regard all west longitude as in arrear of British time, and all east
longitude as in advance of it. And this is the method practised by modern

It is not, however, in obedience to any preconceived system, but by pure
accident, that our settlements in Australia and New Zealand happen to be in
accordance with this rule. The last-named country is very close upon the
verge of eastern longitude, but still it is within it, and its day is
rightly in advance of our day. But the first settlers to Botany Bay, in
1788, were actually under orders to go out by Cape Horn, and were only
forced by stress of weather to adopt the opposite course by the Cape of
Good Hope. Had they kept to their prescribed route, there cannot be a doubt
that the day of the week and month in Australia would now be a day later
than it is.

The best proof of the truth of this assertion is, that a few years
afterwards a missionary expedition was sent out to Otaheite, with respect
to which a precisely similar accident occurred; they could not weather Cape
Horn, and were forced to go round, some twice the distance out of their
way, by the Cape of Good Hope; consequently they carried with them what may
be called the eastern day, and since then that is the day observed at
Otaheite, although fully two hours within the western limit of longitude.

From this cause an actual practical anomaly has recently arisen. The French
authorities in Tahiti, in accordance with the before-mentioned rule, have
arranged their day by _western longitude_; consequently, in addition to
other points of dissent, they observe the Sabbath and other festivals one
day later than the resident English missionaries.

I have extended this explanation to a greater length than I intended, but
the subject is interesting, and not generally well understood; to do it
justice, therefore, is not compatible with brevity. Much of what I have
said is doubtless already known to your readers; nevertheless I hope it may
be useful in affording to H. the information he required, and to ESTE more
fixed notions on the subject than he seems to have entertained when he
wrote the answer referred to.

A. E. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Aceto-Nitrate of Silver._--I have collected together several ounces of
aceto-nitrate of silver that has been used to excite waxed paper (iodized
by MR. CROOKES' method), and should be glad to know whether it can be used
again for the same purpose.


    [The aceto-nitrate _may_ be used, but in our own practice we do not do
    so. It is apt to give an unpleasant brownish colour. The solutions of
    silver, {650} whether used for albumenising or otherwise, being reduced
    to a state of chloride by the addition of common salt so long as any
    precipitate is formed: fine silver may then be readily obtained by
    heating a crucible, the chloride consisting of three-fourths of pure
    metal. It is a false economy to use dirty or doubtful solutions, and by
    adopting the above course the pecuniary loss is very trifling. Our
    ordinary stoves will not always give a sufficient heat, but any working
    jeweller or chemist having the ordinary furnace would accomplish it.]

_On the Restoration of old Collodion._--Many plans have been suggested for
the restoration of collodion when it has lost its sensitiveness by age. In
the last Number of the _Photographic Journal_, p. 147., MR. CROOKES
proposes "to remove the free iodine from the collodion by means of a piece
of pure silver. For two ounces of liquid I should recommend a sheet of
stout silver foil, about two inches long and half an inch broad. It will
require to remain in contact with the collodion for about two days, or even
longer if the latter be very dark-coloured; and in this case it will
sometimes be found advantageous to clean the surface of the silver, as it
becomes protected with a coating of iodide, by means of cyanide of
potassium or hyposulphite of soda.

"When thus renovated, the collodion will be found as sensitive and good as
it was originally."

This plan is certainly more simple than any that has yet been recommended.
The action of the silver being its mere combination with the free iodine,
thereby producing the reduction of the collodion to its original colourless
condition, I would venture to put this question to MR. CROOKES (to whom the
readers of "N. & Q." are already under great obligations): Does he consider
that it is the mere presence of free iodine which causes the want of
sensitiveness in the collodion? This is all which appears to be
accomplished by the process which Mr. Crookes recommends.

Now, as one who has had some experience, both in the manufacture and uses
of collodion, such a view does not agree with my practice and observation.
Occasionally, upon sensitising collodion, I have found it assume a deep
sherry colour a few hours after being made. This must have depended upon
the free iodide it contained, and yet such collodion has worked most
admirably. I have now before me a large body of collodion almost red, and
which has been made some three or four months; yet the last time I used
this, about a week since, it was just as good as when it was first made.
Undoubtedly collodion does more or less deteriorate with age; but here I
would observe, that there is an immense difference in the different
manufactures of collodion, and which can be ascertained by use only, and
not by appearance.

But Mr. Hennah, who has had much practical experience, recommends the
collodion to be made sensitive merely by the iodide of potassium; and he
said, "if it did not work quite clearly and well, a little tincture of
iodine brought it right." Here, then, is added the very thing which MR.
CROOKES proposes to abstract.

Again, MR. CROOKES considers the free iodine to be the cause of the
colouring of the collodion; will he then kindly explain its _modus

As he has on several occasions given your readers the benefit of his great
chemical knowledge, I trust they may be favoured by him with a solution of
these difficulties, which have puzzled


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Admissions to Inns of Court_ (Vol. viii., p. 540.).--The following
particulars may be of service to your correspondent who requires
information upon the subject of the matriculations at the inns of court.

The books of Lincoln's Inn, which record the calls to the bar and other
proceedings of the Society, commence in the second year of the reign of
Henry VI., 1423. Those of the Inner Temple, which contain the admittances
in 1547, and the calls to the bar in 1590; of the Middle Temple, which
contain a regular series of admissions and calls, about the year 1600; and
of Gray's Inn, about the year 1650. The earlier records of Gray's Inn were
destroyed by fire, but the Harleian MS. No. 1912., in the British Museum,

An alphabetical list of gentlemen admitted to that society, with the dates
of their admission, from 1521 to 1674.

Table of the admittances into Gray's Inn, declaring the names of the
gentlemen, the town and country whence they came, and the day, month, and
year when admitted, from the year 1626 to 1677.

Arms and names of noblemen and knights admitted to the said society.

An alphabetical list of all persons called to the bar by the said society.

The Lansdowne MS. No. 106., which is also in the British Museum, contains:

Names of benchers, associates, utter barristers, &c. of Lincoln's Inn, and
the same of the Inner Temple; and of the students of the several Inns of
Court, apparently about the end of the reign of Elizabeth.


Gower Street.

The MS. Harl. 1912. contains the admissions to Gray's Inn.


_Inedited Lyric by Felicia Hemans_ (Vol. viii., p. 629.)--A surviving
relative of the authoress in question begs to answer to the correspondent
of "N. & Q." who has produced this lyric from an imperfect MS. original,
that the piece has not remained inedited, but is to be found in the several
complete editions of Mrs. Hemans's works published by Blackwood. The
playful signature of the letter alluded to, as well as the subject of the
lyric, it may be added, was suggested by some conversation respecting the
fanciful creatures of {651} fairy-land, with whose ideal queen the
authoress affected sportively to identify herself, and hence signed the
little poem, produced rather as a _jeu d'esprit_ than anything else, "Mab."
In its subsequently corrected form, as admitted in the editions of her
works, it is here subjoined:

          _Water Lilies: A Fairy Song._

 "Come away, Elves! while the dew is sweet,
  Come to the dingles where fairies meet;
  Know that the lilies have spread their bells
  O'er all the pools in our forest dells;
  Stilly and lightly their vases rest
  On the quivering sleep of the water's breast,
  Catching the sunshine through the leaves that throw
  To their scented bosoms an emerald glow;
  And a star from the depths of each pearly cup,
  A golden star, unto heav'n looks up,
  As if seeking its kindred where bright they lie,
  Set in the blue of the summer sky.
  Come away, under arching boughs we'll float,
  Making those urns each a fairy boat;
  We'll row them with reeds o'er the fountains free,
  And a tall flag-leaf shall our streamer be.
  And we'll send out wild music so sweet and low,
  It shall seem from the bright flower's heart to flow;
  As if 'twere a breeze with a flute's low sigh,
  Or water-drops train'd into melody,
  Come away! for the midsummer sun grows strong,
  And the life of the lily may not be long."


_Derivation of Britain_ (Vol. viii., p. 344.).--Since my last reference to
this matter (Vol. viii., p. 445.) I find that the derivation of the name of
_Britain_ from _Barat-anach_ or _Brat-anach_, a land of tin, originated in
conjecture with Bochart, an oriental scholar and French protestant divine
in the first half of the seventeenth century. It certainly is a very
remarkable circumstance that the conjecture of a Frenchman as to the origin
of the name of _Britain_ should have been so curiously confirmed, as has
been shown by DR. HINCKS, through an Assyrian medium.

G. W.

Stansted, Montfichet.

_Derivation of the Word Celt_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--If C. R. M. has
access to a copy of the Latin Vulgate, he will find the word which our
translators have rendered "an iron pen," in the book of Job, chap. xix. v.
24., there translated _Celte_. Not having the book in my possession, I will
not pretend to give the verse as a quotation.[2]

T. B. B. H.

[Footnote 2: 24. Stylo ferreo, et plumbi laminâ, vel _celte_ sculpantur in

"_Kaminagadeyathooroosoomokanoogonagira_" (Vol. viii., p. 539.).--I happen
to have by me a transcript of the record in which this word occurs; and it
is followed immediately by another almost equally astounding, which
F. J. G. should, I think, have asked one of your correspondents to
translate while about the other. The following is the word:
_Arademaravasadeloovaradooyou_. They both appear to be names of estates.

H. M.


_Cash_ (Vol. viii., pp. 386. 524.).--In _The Adventures of the Gooroo
Paramartan_, a tale in the Tamul language, accompanied by a translation and
a vocabulary, &c., by Benjamin Babington London, 1822, is the following:
"Fanam or casoo is unnecessary, I give it to you gratis." To which the
translator subjoins: "The latter word is usually pronounced _cash_ by
Europeans, but the Tamul orthography is used in the text, that the reader
may not take it for an English word."

    "Christmas-boxes are said to be an ancient custom here, and I would
    almost fancy that our name of box for this particular kind of present,
    the derivation of which is not very easy to trace in the European
    languages, is a corruption of buckshish, a gift or gratuity, in
    Turkish, Persian, and Hindoostanee. There have been undoubtedly more
    words brought into our language from the East than I used to suspect.
    _Cash_, which here means small money, is one of these; but of the
    process of such transplantation I can form no conjecture."--Heber's
    _Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India_. vol. i.
    p. 52.

Angelo, in his _Gazophylaceum Linguæ Persarum_, gives a Persian word of the
same signification and sound, as Italicè _cassa_, Latinè _capsa_, Gallicè


"_Antiquitas Sæculi Juventus Mundi_" (Vol. viii., p. 502., &c.).--The
authority of Fuller ought, I think, to be sufficient to establish that this
saying was Bacon's own and not a quotation.

Fuller thus introduces it: "As _one_ excellently observes, 'Antiquitas
sæculi juventus mundi,'" &c., giving the remainder of the paragraph from
the _Advancement of Learning_; and refers in a note to Sir Frances Bacon's
_Advancement of Learning_ (_Holy and Profane State_, ch. vi.).

E. S. T. T.

_Caves at Settle, Yorkshire_ (Vol. viii., p. 412.).--BRIGANTIA will find a
very circumstantial and interesting account of these caves, and their
Romano-British contents, in vol. i. of Mr. Roach Smith's _Collectanea_.


_Character of the Song of the Nightingale_ (Vol. vii., p. 397.; Vol. viii.,
pp. 112. 475.).--One poet, not so well known as he deserves, has escaped
the observation of those who have contributed to your valuable pages the
one hundred and seventy-five epithets which others of his craft have
applied to the "Midnight Minstrel." I allude to the Rev. F. W. Faber, in
his poem of the _Cherwell Water Lily_. This poem his now become scarce, so
I send you the lines to which I refer, as the "summary of epithets" which
they contain, as {652} well as their intrinsic beauty, render them worthy
of notice:

 "I heard the raptured nightingale,
  Tell from yon elmy grove, his tale
    Of jealousy and love,
  In thronging notes that seem'd to fall,
  As faultless and as musical,
    As angels' strains above.
  So sweet, they cast on all things round,
  A spell of melody profound:
  They charm'd the river in his flowing,
  They stay'd the night-wind in its blowing,
  They lull'd the lily to her rest,
  Upon the Cherwell's heaving breast."

To those interested in this subject, so full of historical and classical,
as well as poetical associations, I would mention that a late Master of
Caius College, Cambridge, the Rev. Dr. Davy, printed some years since, for
private circulation, a small pamphlet entitled _Observations on Mr. Fox's
Letter to Mr. Grey_, in which he refutes that eminent statesman's theory of
the _merry_ note of the nightingale. This pamphlet is so full of elegance
and classical research, that it is much to be regretted, not only that it
has never been published, but that it is the _only work_ of the learned
author--the friend and associate of Porson, of Parr, and of Maltby. I
possess a presentation copy, which, as only a very few copies were printed,
I would gladly lend to any of your readers interested in this curious and
long-pending controversy.



Add to the already long list, this from Spenser:

 "That blessed bird, that spends her time of sleep
  In songs and plaintive pleas, the more t'augment
  The memory of his misdeed that bred her woe."

And this exquisite little song, written by I know not whom, but set to
music by Thomas Bateson in 1604:

 "The Nightingale, as soon as April bringeth
    Unto her rested sense a perfect waking,
  While late bare earth proud of her clothing springeth,
    Sings out her woes, a thorn her song-book making;
  And mournfully bewailing,
    Her throat in tunes expresseth,
    While grief her heart oppresseth,
  For Tereus' force o'er her chaste will prevailing."


_Inscriptions in Books_ (Vol. viii., p. 64. &c.).--John Bostock, sometime
Abbat of St. Alban's, gave some valuable books to the library of Gloucester
Hall, Oxford, with these lines in the commencement:

 "Quem si quis rapiat raptìm, titulumve retractet,
  Vel Judæ laqueum, vel furcas sentiat.   Amen."


_Door-head Inscription_ (Vol. viii., p. 454.).--A friend has kindly sent me
an improved version of the inscription over the gate of the Apostolical
Chancery, which, with his permission, I beg to forward to you:--

 "Fide Deo, dic sæpe preces, peccare caveto,
  Sis humilis, pacem dilige, magna fuge,
  Multa audi, dic pauca, tace abdita, scito minori
  Parcere, majori cedere, ferre parem,
  Propria fac, persolve fidem, sis æquus egenis,
  Parta tuere, pati disce, memento mori."


_Fogie_ (Vol. viii., pp. 154. 256.).--In the citadel of Plymouth, some
twenty or twenty-five years since, there was a band of old soldiers
(principally men of small stature) who went by this name. They were said to
be the only men acquainted with all the windings and outlets of the
subterranean passages of this fortification.

The cognomen "old fogie" is in this neighbourhood frequently applied to old
men remarkable for shrewdness, cunning, quaintness, or eccentricity. This
use of the term is evidently figurative, borrowed from its application to
veteran soldiers. Cannot some of the military correspondents of "N. & Q."
give the origin of the word?



_Sir W. Hewet_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--MR. GRIFFITH will find in Thoresby's
_Ducatus Leodinensis_, p. 2. (Whittaker's edit.), a pedigree of the family
of Osborne, which gives two generations previous to Edward Osborne, who
married Ann Hewet, namely,--

Richard Osborne, who married Elizabeth, daughter of ---- Fyldene, by whom
he had Richard, who married Jane, daughter of John Broughton of Broughton,
Esq., and sister and heir to Edward and Lancelyn Broughton.

Sir Edward Osborne, Knight, Citizen, and Lord Mayor of London (1582), who
died in 1591, married Ann, daughter and sole heir of Sir William Hewet,
Lord Mayor of London, 1559, by whom he had Sir Hewet Osborne, born 1567,
died 1614. Sir Edward had a second wife, Margaret, daughter of ----, who
died in 1602.

There is a note at the bottom of the page, quoted from a MS. in the College
of Arms, E 1. fol. 190., "That this descent was registered the 30th March,
1568, when Hewet Osborne was the age of one year and ... days."


Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey.

_Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge_ (Vol. viii., pp. 37. 83. 277. 329.).--The
difference between the fusil and the lozenge is well known to all heralds,
though coach-painters and silversmiths do not {653} always sufficiently
describe it. If BROCTUNA, however, be a _practical_ herald, he must often
have experienced the difficulty of placing impalements or quarterings
correctly, even on a lozenge. On the long and narrow fusil it would be
impossible. When the fusil, instead of being a mere heraldic bearing, has
to be used as the shape of a shield for the actual use of the painter or
engraver, it must of necessity be widened into the lozenge; and as the
latter is probably only the same distaff with little more wool upon it,
there seems no objection to the arrangement. BROCTUNA is too good an
antiquary not to know on recollection that the "vyings of widows" had
little to do with funeral arrangements in those days. Procrustes, the
herald, came down at all great funerals, and regulated everything with just
so much pomp, and no more, as the precise rank of the deceased entitled him

P. P. had not the smallest intention of giving BROCTUNA offence by pointing
out what seems a fatal objection to his theory.

Hugh Clark, a well-known modern writer upon Heraldry, gives the following
definition of the word lozenge:

    "Lozenge, a four-cornered figure, resembling a pane of glass in old
    casements: some suppose it a physical composition given for colds, and
    was invented to reward eminent physicians."

Plutarch says, in the _Life of Theseus_, that at Megara, an ancient town of
Greece, the tombstones, under which the bodies of the Amazons lay, were
shaped after that form, which some conjecture to be the cause why ladies
have their arms on lozenges.


_The Crescent_ (Vol. viii., p. 319.).--Be so good as to insert in "N. &
Q.," for the information of J. W. THOMAS, that the Iceni (a people of
England, whose territory consisted of the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk,
Essex, &c.) struck coins both in gold and silver; having on their reverses
crescents placed back to back generally, except where a rude profile is on
a few of them.

Two of the gold coins have fallen into my possession; one of which, found
at Oxnead in this county, I supplied to the British Museum some years
since. Twelve of the silver coins are figured on a plate in Part LVII. of
the _Numismatic Chronicle_. MR. THOMAS observing (at p. 321.) he has no
work on numismatics, induces me to make this communication to him through
your very useful and instructive publication.



_Abigail_ (Vol. iv., p. 424. Vol. v., pp. 38. 94. 450.).--The inquiry
suggested in the first of the above references, "Whence, or when,
originated the application of Abigail, as applied to a lady's maid?" has
not yet, to my mind, been satisfactorily answered. It occurs to me that it
may have been derived from the notorious Abigail Hill, better known as Mrs.
Masham, a poor relative of Sarah Duchess of Marlborough, and by her
introduced to a subordinate place about the person of Queen Anne. She
rapidly acquired sufficient influence to supplant her benefactress. The
intrigues of the Tory party received sufficient furtherance from this
bedchamber official to effect ultimately the downfall of the Whig ministry;
and the use of the term by Dean Swift, of which your original Querist MR.
WARDEN speaks, would suffice to give currency and to associate the name of
so famous an _intriguante_ with the office which she filled. It must be
matter of opinion whether the Dean (as MR. W. thinks) employed the term as
_not new in those_ days, or as one which had _taken_ so rapidly in the
current conversation of the day, as to require but his putting it in print
to establish it in its new sense so long as the language shall be spoken or


_Handbook to the Library of the British Museum_ (Vol. viii., p.
511.).--Neither Lord Seymour, nor MR. BOLTON CORNEY, nor Mr. Richard Sims,
can with justice claim originality in the suggestion carried out by the
latter gentleman in the publication of his _Handbook to the Library of the
British Museum_.

In my own collection is a book entitled,--

    "A Critical and Historical Account of all the celebrated Libraries in
    Foreign Countries, as well ancient as modern, with general Reflections
    on the choice of Books," &c.... "A work of great use to all men of
    letters. By a Gentleman of the Temple. London, printed for J. Jolliffe,
    in St James's Street, MDCCXXXIX."

In the preface to which work the author says:

    "It will be highly useful to such noblemen and gentlemen as visit
    foreign countries, _by instructing them in the manner of perusing
    whatever is curious in the Vatican and other famous libraries_."

And in which he promises that--

    "If it should meet with the approbation of the public, he (the author)
    will proceed with the _libraries of these kingdoms_," &c.



_The Arms of Richard, King of the Romans_ (Vol. viii., pp. 265. 454.). With
every respect for such heraldic authorities as MR. GOUGH and MR. LOVER, I
think the question as to whether the so-called bezants in the arms of
Richard, King of the Romans, referred to his earldom of Poictou or of
Cornwall, inclines in favour of the former: for instance, in 1253 he
granted to the {654} monks of Okebury a release of suit and service within
his manor of Wallingford, which charter has a seal appended bearing an
impress of the earl armed on horseback, with a _lion rampant crowned_ on
his surcoat, inscribed "Sigillum Richardi Comitis Cornubiæ." Now this
inscription seems to identify the lion as pertaining to the earldom of
Cornwall; surely, if the bezants represented this earldom, they would not
have been omitted on his seal as _Comes Cornubiæ_.

Again, a very high heraldic authority, one of deep research, Mr. J. R.
Planché, gives this opinion on the subject:

    "The border bezantée, or talentée, of Richard, King of the Romans, is
    no representation of coins but of peas (_poix_), being the arms of
    Poitiers or Poictou (Menestrier, _Orig._, p. 147.), of which he was
    earl, and not of his other earldom of Cornwall, as imagined by Sandford
    and others. The adoption of bezants as the arms of Cornwall, and by so
    many Cornish families on that account, are all subsequent assumptions
    derived from the arms of Earl Richard aforesaid, the peas having been
    promoted into bezants by being gilt, and become identified with the
    Cornish escutcheon as the garbs of Blundeville are with that of
    Chester, or the coat of Cantelupe with that of the see of
    Hereford."--_The Pursuivant at Arms_, p. 136.

A simple Query then would seem to settle this matter. Is any instance known
of bezants occurring as the arms of Cornell previous to the time of Earl
Richard, or earlier than the commencement of the thirteenth century?



_Greek and Roman Fortifications_ (Vol. viii., p. 469.).--J. H. J. will find
some information on this subject in Fosbroke's _Grecian and Roman
Antiquities_ (Longman, 1833).


_Osbernus filius Herfasti_ (Vol. viii., p. 515.).--In reply to the Query of
MR. SANSOM, "Whether Osborn de Crespon, the brother of the Duchess of
Normandy, had a brother of the same name?" I beg to reply that there
appears to be distinct evidence that he had; for in a grant of lands by
Richard II., Duke of Normandy, who died in 1026, to the monks of St.
Michael, there are, along with the signatures of his son Richard and
several other witnesses, those of _Osbernus frater Comitissæ_, and
_Osbernus filius Arfast_ (_Lobineau_, tom. ii. p. 97.). One of those may
probably have become Abbot of S. Evroult. No doubt MR. SANSOM is well aware
that one of the same family was Osborn, Bishop of Exeter. He was a son of
Osborn de Crespon, and brother of the Earl of Hereford, premier peer of
England. In 1066 he forbad the monks to be buried in the cloisters of their
monasteries; but they resisted his injunction, and, on an appeal to the
Pope, obtained a decision against him (_Mabillon_). For an eulogium on him
see Godwin, _De presul. Angl_. He died in 1104, and was buried in the
cathedral at Exeter.

I would observe that the ancient orthography of the name is Osbern, which
was continued for many centuries, and may even now be seen in Maidwell
Church, Northamptonshire, on the monument of Lady Gorges, the daughter of
Sir John Osbern, who died in 1633.


I think there can be little doubt that Herfastus "the Dane" was the father
of Gunnora, wife of Rich. I., Duke of Normandy; of Aveline, wife of
Osbernus de Bolebec, Lord of Bolbec and Count of Longueville; and of Weira,
wife of Turolf de Pont Audomere. The brother of these three sisters was
another Herfastus, Abbot of St. Evrau; who was the father of Osbernus de
Crepon, Steward of the Household, and Sewer to the Conqueror.

H. C. C.

_Devonianisms_ (Vol. viii., p. 65.).--Your correspondent MR. KEYS is at a
loss for the origin of the word _plum_, as used in Devonshire. Surely it is
the same word as _plump_, although employed in a somewhat different sense.
_Plum_ or _plump_, as applied to a bed, would certainly convey the idea of
softness or downiness. As to the employment of the word as a verb, I
conceive that it is analogous to an expression which I have often heard
used by cooks, in speaking of meat or poultry, "to plump up." A cook will
say of a fowl which appears deficient in flesh, "It is a young bird; it
will plump up when it comes to the fire." A native of Devonshire would
simply say, "It will plum."

As to the word _clunk_, it is in use throughout Cornwall in the sense of
"to swallow," and is undoubtedly Celtic. On referring to Le Gonidec's
_Dictionnaire Celto-Breton_, I find "_Lonka_, or _Lounka_, v.a. _avaler_."

I have neither a Welsh dictionary nor one of the ancient Cornish language
at hand, but I have no doubt that the same word, with the same
signification, will be found in both those dialects of the Celtic, probably
with some difference of spelling, which would bring it nearer to the word

It is not wonderful that a word, the sound of which is so expressive of the
action, should have continued in use among an illiterate peasantry long
after the language from which it is derived was forgotten; but many pure
Celtic words, which have not this recommendation, are still in common use
in Cornwall, and a collection of them would be highly interesting. Could
not some of your antiquarian correspondents in the west, MR. BOASE of
Penzance for example, furnish such a list? I will mention one or two words
which I chance to remember: _mabyer_, a chicken, Breton _mab_, a son,
_iar_, a hen; _vean_, little, Breton _vihan_. {655}

To persons acquainted with the Welsh or Breton, the names of places in
Cornwall, though sometimes strangely corrupted, are almost all significant.
The dialect of Celtic spoken in Cornwall appears to have approached more
closely to the latter than to the former of these tongues; or perhaps,
speaking more correctly, it formed a connecting link between them, as
Cornwall itself lies about midway between Wales and Brittany.



_Gentile Names of the Jews_ (Vol. viii., p. 563.).--The names of
Rothschild, Montefiore, and Davis are family names, and not _noms de

It is possible that the honoured names of Rothschild and Montefiore date
from a purchase by some one of their ancestry of _Gentile castles or
lands_, and with it the purchase right of name.

Davis is legitimately Jewish, but probably the Gentile name of Davis cannot
boast of its pure source, and no doubt where Gentile pedigree loses trace,
Jewish descent commences, either by a left-handed Jew connexion with a
Gentile fair one, or a renegade ancestry.


Red Lion Square.

_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 113.).--On October 15, Judy, a slave, died on
the plantation of Edmund B. Richardson, in Bladen county, North Carolina,
aged 110 years. She was one of eight slaves who nearly sixty years ago were
the first settlers on the plantation, where she died. Of the seven others,
one died over 90 years of age, another 93, and a third 81; two are living,
one 75 and the other over 60 years of age.

Within five miles of the place where Judy died, William Pridgen lived, who
died about five years ago, aged 122 years.

David Kennison, a soldier of the Revolution, died near Albany (N. Y.) on
the 24th of February, 1852, aged 117 years.

M. E.


_Reversible Names_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--Emme might have been added to
your correspondent's list, a female name which, when first known in
England, was spelt as above written, and not Emma, as at the present time.
In an old book I have seen the name and its meaning thus recorded,--in
English, _Emme_; in French, _Emme, bonne nourrice_.

I must beg to differ in opinion from your correspondent, even with his
epicene restriction, who states "that _varium et mutabile semper femina_
only means that whatever reads backwards and forwards, the same is _always

If M. will take the trouble to look in Boyle's _Court Guide_ for 1845, p.
358., he will find the name of a late very distinguished general officer,
Sir Burges Camac. A wealthy branch of this family is now established in the
United States, and one of its members bears the name of Camac Camac.

I am unable to give M. another instance, and doubt if one can be easily
found where the Christian and surnames of a gentleman are alike, and both

W. W.


_Etymology of Eve_.--Only one instance of a reversible name seems to me at
present among the _propria quæ maribus_, and that is Bob. As, however, the
name of our universal mother has been brought forward, you will, perhaps,
allow me to transcribe the following remarkable etymology:

    "Omnes nascimur ejulantes, ut nostram miseriam exprimamus. Masculus
    enim recenter natus dicit A; foemina vero E; dicentes E vel A quotquot
    nascuntur ab Eva. Quid est igitur _Eva_ nisi _heu ha_? Utrumque
    dolentis est interjectio doloris exprimens magnitudinem. Hinc enim ante
    peccatum virago, post peccatum _Era_ meruit appellari.... Mulier autem
    ut naufragus, cum parit tristitiam habet," &c.--_De Contemptu Mundi_,
    lib. i. c. 6., à Lothario, diacono cardinali, S.S. Sergii et Bacchi,
    editus, qui postea Innocentius Papa III. appellatus est.


_Manifesto of the Emperor Nicholas_ (Vol. viii., p. 585.).--Allow me to
correct a gross error into which I have been led, by an imperfect
concordance, in hastily concluding that the words "In te Domine speravi,
non confundar in æternum," were not in the Psalms, as I have found them in
the Vulgate, Psalms xxxi. 1. and lxxi. 1.



_Binometrical Verse_ (Vol. viii., pp. 292. 375.).--In answer to these
inquiries, the copyright of this united hexameter and pentameter belongs to
Mr. De la Pryme, of Trin. Coll., Cambridge, who is also the author of
another line which is both an alcaic and sapphic:

 "Quando nigrescit sacra latro patrat."


_Gale of Rent_ (Vol. viii., p. 563.).--Gale [_Gavel_, Sax., a rent or
duty,] a periodical payment of rent. The Latin form of the word is
_gabellum_, and the French _gabelle_. (See Wharton's _Law Lexicon_.)

[Greek: Halieus].


       *       *       *       *       *



_The History of Millwall, commonly called the Isle of Dogs, including
Notices of the West India Docks and City Canal, and Notes on Poplar,
Blackwall, Limehouse,_ {656} _and Stepney_, by B. H. Cowper, is
unquestionably one of the most carefully compiled, and judiciously
arranged, little topographical works, which we have ever been called upon
to notice. The intelligent M.P. who is recorded to have asked a witness
before a select committee for the _precise_ locality of the Isle of Dogs,
and to have been satisfied with the answer "Between London Bridge and
Gravesend," may, if inclined to pursue his inquiries, find its history told
most fully and most agreeably in the little volume now before us.

In our Number for the 21st of May last, we called attention to, and spoke
in terms of fitting approbation of, the First Part of _The English Bible_;
containing the Old and New Testaments, according to the authorised version;
newly divided into paragraphs, with concise Introductions to the several
Books, and with Maps and Notes illustrative of the Chronology, History, and
Geography of the Holy Scriptures; containing also the most remarkable
variations of the Ancient Versions, and the chief results of Modern
Criticism. Part II., comprising _Exodus_ and _Leviticus_, is now before us,
and exhibits the same merits as its predecessor.

Mr. Miller, of Chandos Street, who during the past year added to the value
of the Monthly Catalogues by the addition to each of them of several pages
of literary and bibliographical miscellanies, has just collected these into
a little volume, under the title of _Fly Leaves, or Scraps and Sketches,
Literary, Bibliographical, and Miscellaneous_, which may find a fitting
place beside Davis's _Olio_, and other works of that class.

We regret to learn, as we do from the _Literary Gazette_ of Saturday last,
that the Trustees of the British Museum, in defiance of the earnest
recommendation of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Archæological
Institute, and with a total disregard of the feelings and opinions of those
best qualified to advise them upon the subject, have declined to purchase
the Faussett Collection of Early Antiquities, and consequently will lose
the Fairford Collection offered to them as a free gift by Mr. Wylie: so
that the enlightened foreigner, who visits this great national
establishment, and admiring its noble collections of Greek, Roman,
Egyptian, and Assyrian antiquities, asks, "but where are your own national
antiquities?" must still be answered, "We have not got one!" They certainly
do manage these things better in France and Denmark.

Our readers, we have no doubt, shared the regret with which we read the
advertisement in our columns last week from the Rev. Dr. Hincks, who, from
the want of encouragement, and in the face of peculiarly adverse
circumstances, is compelled to withdraw from the field of Assyrian
discovery; and who is advertising for some competent person who will work
out what he has in progress. Although Assyrian literature may at present be
discouraged by the Church and neglected by the Universities, there can be
little doubt that it must ere long assume a very different position: and we
therefore trust that some means may yet be taken to prevent Dr. Hincks'
withdrawal from a field of study in which he has been so successful.

As we have deviated from our usual course in noticing subjects advertised
in our pages, we take the opportunity of calling the attention of our
antiquarian friends to the advertisement from the Rev. G. Cumming on the
subject of the casts now making from the Runic Monuments in the Isle of

       *       *       *       *       *



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No. 219.--_On Saturday, January 7, 1854, the opening Number of our_ New
Volume _will contain numerous interesting papers by many of our most
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_We are compelled to postpone until next week our usual_ NOTICES TO

INDEX TO VOLUME THE EIGHTH.--_This is in a very forward state, and will, we
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_Errata._--Vol. viii., p. 444. col. 2. l. 45., for "nearly" read "near;" p.
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THE REV. J. G. CUMMING, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-Principal of King William
College, Castletown, who is engaged in the Preparation of a Work on the
Monumental Remains of the Isle of Man, is superintending the labours of an
Italian Artist in taking Casts of the most beautiful and important Runic
Crosses, to be placed in the Insular Museum at the College: Parties
desiring Duplicates may obtain full particulars of cost, &c. by application
as above.

       *       *       *       *       *


REV. DR. E. HINCKS would dispose of a number of Books and MSS. connected
with the Assyrian Language, and would also give viva voce Instruction
therein to a Gentleman who may be willing to devote himself to this
important Study; and who, from his age, antecedents, and present position,
may appear to him likely to succeed in it. Apply to him at the Rectory,
Killyleagh, Co. Down, before the 21st of January.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
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Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
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Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
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       *       *       *       *       *




_Mathematics and Natural Philosophy._--Dr. Thos. A. Hirst, of the
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FRASER'S MAGAZINE FOR JANUARY, price 2s. 6d., or by poet 3s., contains:

    The Birth of the Year. By Frederick Tennyson.

    The Decline and Fall of the Corporation of London.--I. The

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    General Bounce; or, The Lady and the Locusts. By the Author of "Digby
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    Lord Palmerston and the Presbytery of Edinburgh.

    The Freight of the Jacobina.

    A Visit to the Hospital for Sick Children.

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    Cambridge Life according to C. A. Bristed. With Notes by P. Jenkinson.


    A Few Words on Irish Antiquities.


London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, fcap 8vo., 2s. 6d. cloth, Vol. I. of the POETICAL WORKS OF JOHN
DRYDEN, with Historical and Illustrative Notes and Biographical Memoir,
containing New Facts and several Original Letters of the Poet, now
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BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. With Plates and Vignettes. 10 vols. 30s.


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MILMAN'S POETICAL WORKS. With Plates and Vignettes. 3 vols. 18s.


MILMAN'S WORKS OF HORACE. Illustrated with 300 Vignettes by Scharf. 21s.


MILMAN'S LIFE OF HORACE. With Woodcuts. 9s.






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REJECTED ADDRESSES. With Portrait and Woodcuts. 5s.










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WILKINSON'S ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. With 500 Woodcuts. 2 vols. 12s.


BRAY'S LIFE OF STOTHARD. Illustrated with Portrait, and 70 Woodcuts. 21s.


THE FAMILY ARABIAN NIGHTS. Illustrated with 600 Woodcuts by Harvey. 21s.


JAMES' FABLES OF ÆSOP. With 100 Woodcuts by Tenniel. 2s. 6d.




THE FAIRY RING. With Woodcuts by RICHARD DOYLE. 7s. 6d.


JESSE'S COUNTRY LIFE. With Woodcuts. 6s.



       *       *       *       *       *

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Number must be forwarded to the Publisher by the 2nd, and BILLS for
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JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now Ready, with 100 Woodcuts, 16mo., 7s. 6d.

A SCHOOL HISTORY OF GREECE: with Supplementary Chapters on the Literature,
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JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street: and
WALTON & MABERLY, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, with 500 Woodcuts. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 12s.

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS: a Popular Account of their Manners and Customs,
revised and abridged from his larger Work. By SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, a New Edition, with an Index, Fcap. 8vo., 5s.


JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, 1 vol. 8vo., 12s.

GREAT. A Manual for General Readers as well as for Students in Theology. By
REV. JAMES C. ROBERTSON, M.A., Vicar of Beakesbourne.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, with Woodcuts, 8vo., 9s., bound.

LIFE OF HORACE. By the REV. H. H. MILMAN, Dean of St. Paul's.

Also, uniform with the above, 8vo., 21s.


Edited by DEAN MILMAN, and illustrated by 300 Engravings of Coins, Gems,
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    "Not a page can be opened where the eye does not light upon some
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JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, a new and beautiful Edition, with 600 woodcuts by HARVEY, One
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Author of the "Modern Egyptians," &c.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., 10s.


JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London: and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December
31. 1853.

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