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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 227, March 4, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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{189}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 227.]
SATURDAY, MARCH 4. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                              Page
  Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy," by Dr. E. F.
  Rimbault                                               191
  "[Greek: Aiôn]," its Derivation                        192
  William Lyons, Bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross        192
  Curious Marriage Agreement                             193
  Ancient American Languages, by K. R. H. Mackenzie      194
  Conduitt and Newton, by Bolton Corney                  195

  MINOR NOTES:--The Music in Middleton's Tragi-Comedy
  of the "Witch"--Mr. Macaulay and Sir Archibald Alison
  in error--"Paid down upon the nail"--Corpulence a
  Crime--Curious Tender--The Year 1854--A Significant
  Hint                                                   196

  QUERIES:--
  Literary Queries, by the Rev. R. Bingham               197

  MINOR QUERIES:--Hunter of Polmood in Tweed-dale--
  Dinteville Family--Eastern Practice of Medicine--
  Sunday--Three Picture Queries--"Cutting off with a
  Shilling"--Inman or Ingman Family--Constable of
  Masham--Fading Ink--Sir Ralph Killigrew                198

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Pepys--"Retainers to
  Seven Shares and a Half"--Madden's "Reflections and
  Resolutions proper for the Gentlemen of Ireland"--
  King Edward I.'s Arm--Elstob, Elizabeth--Monumental
  Brasses in London                                      199

  REPLIES:--
  Rapping no Novelty: and Table-turning, by Wm. Winthrop,
  &c.                                                    200
  General Whitelocke, by J. S. Harry, &c.                201
  "Man proposes, but God disposes," by J. W. Thomas, &c. 202
  Napoleon's Spelling, by H. H. Breen                    203
  Memoirs of Grammont, by W. H. Lammin                   204
  The Myrtle Bee, by Charles Brown                       205
  Celtic Etymology                                       205

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Improvements in the
  Albumenized Process--Mr. Crookes on restoring old
  Collodion--Photographic Queries                        206

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--London Fortifications--
  Burke's Domestic Correspondence--Battle of
  Villers-en-Couché--"I could not love thee, dear, so
  much"--Sir Charles Cotterell--Muffins and Crumpets--
  "Clunk"--Picts' Houses--Tailless Cats--"Cock-and-bull
  story"--Market Crosses--"Largesse"--Awkward, Awart,
  Awalt--Morgan Odoherty--Black Rat--Blue Bells of
  Scotland--Grammars, &c. for Public Schools--Warville   207

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, &c.                                    210
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                           210
  Notices to Correspondents                              211

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{190}

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{191}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 4, 1854._

       *       *       *       *       *

Notes.

BURTON'S "ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY."

In this age of "new editions," it is a wonder that no one has favoured the
public with a reprint, with notes _variorum_, of this celebrated English
classic.

Dr. Dibdin, in a note to his edition of More's _Utopia_, vol. ii. p. 97.,
says:

    "Whoever will be at the trouble of consulting Part II, sect. IV. memb..
    i. subsect. 4. of the last folio edition of Burton [1676], will see how
    it varies from the first folio of 1624; and will, in consequence,
    regret the omission of the notice of these variations in the octavo
    editions of Burton recently published."

The octavo editions here referred to are those of 1800 and 1806; the
latter, I believe, edited by Edward Du Bois. The folio of 1676 is, in all
probability, an exact reprint of that of 1651, which certainly differs
considerably from those of an earlier date. Henry Cripps, the publisher of
the edition of 1651, has the following notice:

    "_To the Reader._

    Be pleased to know (courteous Reader) that since the last impression of
    this Book, the ingenuous author of it is deceased, leaving a copy of it
    exactly corrected, with several considerable additions by his own hand.
    This copy he committed to my care and custody, with directions to have
    those additions inserted in the next edition; which, in order to his
    command and the publicke good, is faithfully performed in this last
    impression.

    H. C."

Modern writers have been deeply indebted to old Robert Burton; but he, in
his turn, was equally indebted to earlier writers. Dr. Dibdin remarks:

    "I suspect that Burton, the author of the _Anatomy of Melancholy_, was
    intimately acquainted with Boiastuan's book as translated by Alday; for
    there are passages in Burton's 'Love Melancholy' (the most
    extraordinary and amusing part of his work), which bear a very strong
    resemblance to many in the 'Gests and Countenances ridiculous of
    Lovers,' at p. 195 of Boiastuan's _Theatre, or Rule of the World_."

The title of the curious book mentioned in this extract is--

    "Theatrum Mundi. Theatre, or Rule of the World: Wherein may bee seene
    the running Race and Course of everie Mannes Lyfe, as touching Miserie
    and Felicitie: whereunto is added a learned Worke of the excellencie of
    Man. Written in French by Peter Boiastuan. Translated by John Alday.
    Printed by Thomas East, for John Wright, 8vo. 1582."

But Burton was more indebted to another work, very similar in title and
matter to his own; I mean Dr. Bright's curious little volume, of which I
transcribe the title-page in full:

    "A Treatise of Melancholy: contayning the Causes thereof, and reasons
    of the strange Effects it worketh in our Minds and Bodies; with the
    Phisicke Cure, and Spirituall Consolation for such as have thereto
    adjoyned afflicted Conscience. The difference betwixt it and
    Melancholy, with diverse philosophical Discourses touching Actions, and
    Affections of Soule, Spirit, and Body: the Particulars whereof are to
    be seene before the Booke. By T. Bright, Doctor of Phisicke. Imprinted
    at London by John Windet, sm. 8vo. 1586."

It has been remarked that Burton does not acknowledge his obligations to
Bright. This, however, is not strictly true, as the former acknowledges
_several quotations_ in the course of his work. It would certainly be
desirable, in the event of a new edition of the _Anatomy_, that a
comparison of the two books should be made. As a beginning towards this
end, I subjoin a table of the contents of Bright's _Treatise_, with a
notice of some similar passages in Burton's _Anatomy_, arranged in parallel
columns.

I may just add, that Bright's _Treatise_ consists of 276 pages, exclusive
of a dedication "To the Right Worshipful M. Peter Osborne," &c. (dated from
"Little S. Bartlemews by Smithfield, the 13 of May, 1586"); and an address
"To his Melancholick Friend M."

All that is known of his biography has been collected by the Rev. Joseph
Hunter, and communicated to the last edition of Wood's _Athenæ Oxonienses_,
vol. ii. p. 174. _note_.

BRIGHT'S "TREATISE OF MELANCHOLY,"    | BURTON'S "ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY,"
1586.                                 | edit. 1651.
                                      |
_The Contentes of the Booke according | _Parallel Sections._
to the Chapters._                     |
                                      |
1. How diversely the word Melancholy  | Definition of Melancholy: name,
is taken.                             | difference.
                                      |
2. The causes of natural melancholy,  | The causes of melancholy.
and of the excesse thereof.           |
                                      |
3. Whether good nourishment           | Customs of dyet, delight, appetite,
breede melancholy, by fault of the    | accessity: how they cause
body turning it into melancholy:      | or hinder.
and whether such humour is found      |
in nourishments, or rather is made    |
of them.                              |
                                      |
4. The aunswere to objections         | Dyet rectified in substance.
made against the breeding of          |
melancholicke humour out of           |
nourishment.                          |
                                      |
5. A more particular and farther      |
answere to the former objections.     |
                                      |
6. The causes of the increase and     | Immediate cause of these precedent
excesse of melancholicke humour.      | symptomes.
                                      |
7. Of the melancholicke excrement.    | Of the matter of melancholy.
                                      |
8. What burnt choller is, and         |
the causes thereof.                   |
                                      |
9. How melancholie worketh            | Symptomes or signes in the
fearful passions in the mind.         | mind.
                                      |
10. How the body affecteth the        | Of the soul and her faculties.
soule.                                |
                                      |
11. Objections againste the manner    |
how the body affecteth the            |
soule, with answere thereunto.        |
                                      |
12. A farther answere to the          |
former objections, and of the simple  |
facultie of the soule, and onely      |
organicall of spirit and body.        |
                                      |
13. How the soule, by one simple      |
facultie, performeth so many and      |
diverse actions.                      |
                                      |
{192}
14. The particular answeres to        |
the objections made in the 11th       |
chapter.                              |
                                      |
15. Whether perturbations rise        | Division of perturbations.
of humour or not, with a division     |
of the perturbations.                 |
                                      |
16. Whether perturbations which       |
are not moved by outward occasions    |
rise of humour or not: and            |
how?                                  |
                                      |
17. How melancholie procureth         | Sorrow, fear, envy, hatred, malice,
feare, sadnes, despaire, and such     | anger, &c. causes.
passions.                             |
                                      |
18. Of the unnaturall melancholie     | Symptomes of head-melancholy.
rising by adjustion: how              |
it affecteth us with diverse passions.|
                                      |
19. How sickness and yeares           | Continent, inward, antecedent,
seeme to alter the mind, and the      | next causes, and how the body
cause: and how the soule hath         | works on the mind.
practise of senses separated from     |
the body.                             |
                                      |
20. The accidentes which befall       | An heap of other accidents causing
melancholie persons.                  | melancholy.
                                      |
21. How melancholie altereth          | Distemperature of particular
the qualities of the body.            | parts.
                                      |
22. How melancholie altereth          |
those actions which rise out of the   |
braine.                               |
                                      |
23. How affections be altered.        |
                                      |
24. The causes of teares, and         |
their saltnes.                        |
                                      |
25. Why teares endure not all         |
the time of the cause: and why in     |
weeping commonly the finger is        |
put in the eie.                       |
                                      |
26. Of the partes of weeping:         |
why the countenance is cast down,     |
the forehead lowreth, the nose        |
droppeth, the lippe trembleth, &c.    |
                                      |
27. The causes of sobbing and         |
sighing: and how weeping easeth       |
the heart.                            |
                                      |
28. How melancholie easeth            |
both weeping and laughing, with       |
the reasons why.                      |
                                      |
29. The causes of blushing and        | Causes of these symptomes [_i.e._
bashfulness, and why melancholie      | bashfulness and blushing].
persons are given therunto.           |
                                      |
30. Of the naturall actions altered   |
by melancholie.                       |
                                      |
31. How melancholie altereth          | Symptomes of melancholy
the naturall workes of the body:      | abounding in the whole body.
juice and excrement.                  |
                                      |
32. Of the affliction of conscience   | Guilty conscience for offence
for sinne.                            | committed.
                                      |
33. Whether the afflicted conscience  |
be of melancholie.                    |
                                      |
34. The particular difference betwixt | How melancholy and despair
melancholie and the afflicted         | differ.
conscience in the same                |
person.                               |
                                      |
35. The affliction of mind: to        | Passions and perturbations of
what persons it befalleth, and by     | the mind; how they cause
what means.                           | melancholy.
                                      |
36. A consolation to the afflicted    |
conscience.                           |
                                      |
37. The cure of melancholie;          | Cure of melancholy over all the
and how melancholicke persons         | body.
are to order themselves in actions    |
of minde, sense, and motion.          |
                                      |
38. How melancholicke persons         | Perturbations of the mind
are to order themselves in their      | rectified.
affections.                           |
                                      |
39. How melancholicke persons         | Dyet rectified; ayre rectified, &c.
are to order themselves in the rest   |
of their diet, and what choice they   |
are to make of ayre, meate, and       |
drinke, house, and apparell.          |
                                      |
40. The cure by medicine meete        | Of physick which cureth with
for melancholicke persons.            | medicines.
                                      |
41. The manner of strengthening       | Correctors of accidents to procure
melancholicke persons after           | sleep.
purging: with correction of some      |
of their accidents.                   |

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

"[Greek: Aiôn]," ITS DERIVATION.

As the old postulate respecting the etymology of this important word, from
[Greek: aeiôn], however superficial, is too attractive to be surrendered,
even in the present day, by some respectable authorities, the judgment of
your classical correspondents is requested, as to the accuracy of the more
philosophical origin of the term which has been adopted by commentators of
unquestionable erudition and undisputed eminence.

The rule by which those distinguished scholars, Lennep and Scheidius,
determine the etymology of [Greek: Aiôn], is as follows:

    "Nomina in [Greek: ôn] desinentia, formata ab aliis nominibus,
    _collectiva_ sunt, sive _copiam_ earum rerum, quæ _primitivo_
    designantur notant--ut sunt [Greek: dendrôn], a [Greek: dendron],
    arboretum; [Greek: Elaiôn], olivetum, ab [Greek: Elaion]; [Greek:
    Rhodôn], rosetum, a [Greek: rhodon] (also the nouns [Greek: ankôn,
    agôn, akremôn, bonbôn, paiôn, ploutôn, pôgôn, chitôn]).--Nempe formata
    videntur hæc nomina in [Greek: ôn], a genitivis pluralibus
    substantivorum. Genitivus singularis horum nominum, in [Greek: ônos],
    contractione sua, hanc originem satis videtur demonstrare."

In immediate reference to the word [Greek: Aiôn], they say:

    "[Greek: Aiôn], Ævum, Æternitas. Nomen ex eo genere, quod natura sua
    _collectionem_ et _multitudinem_ rerum notat; ut patet ex terminatione
    [Greek: ôn]. Quemadmodum in voce [Greek: aei], vidimus eam esse
    translatam eximie ad significationem _temporis_, ab illa flandi,
    spirandive, quæ est in origine [Greek: aô]; sic in nostro [Greek: Aiôn]
    eadem translationis ratio locum habet; ut adeo quasi _temporum
    collectionem_, vel _multitudinem_ significet. A qua denuo
    significatione propriâ profectæ sunt eæ, quibus vel _ævum_, vel
    _æternitatem_, vel _hominis ætatem_ descripsere veteres. Formata (vox)
    est a nomine inusitato [Greek: Aios], vel [Greek: Aïos], quod ab
    [Greek: aïs], cujus naturam, in voce [Greek: aei], expossi. Cæterum, a
    Græco nostro [Greek: Aiôn], interposito digammate Æolico, ortum, est
    [Greek: Aiwôn], et hinc Lat. ævum."

As then it is impossible to place [Greek: Aiôn], whose genitive is [Greek:
Aiônos], in the same category with the derivatives from [Greek: ôn], the
participle present of [Greek: Eimi], whose genitive is [Greek: ontos]; and
as, secondly, this derivation places the word out of the range of the
collective nouns so declined, which are derived from other nouns, as this
appears to be, can the real etymology of the word [Greek: Aiôn], and its
derivatives, remain any longer a matter of question and debate?

C. H. P.

       *       *       *       *       *

WILLIAM LYON, BISHOP OF CORK, CLOYNE, AND ROSS.

It is very generally believed that Dr. William Lyon (not Lyons, as he is
sometimes called) was originally in the navy; that having distinguished
himself in several actions against the Spaniards, he was promised by Queen
Elizabeth the first crown appointment that should be vacant; and that this
happening to be the see of Cork, he was appointed to it. This is mentioned
in other works as well as in Mr. Crofton Croker's very agreeable
_Researches in the South of Ireland_, p. 248.; and I have more than once
heard it given as a remarkable instance of church preferment. {193}

Sir James Ware informs us that Bishop Lyon was Vicar of Naas in 1573, Vicar
of Brandanston in 1580, and chaplain to Lord Grey, who was sent to Ireland
as Lord Deputy in September, 1580. This is inconsistent with the statement,
that Queen Elizabeth took him from the quarter-deck to make him a bishop,
inasmuch as he was in holy orders, and in possession of preferment in
Ireland, nearly ten years before he was raised to the highest order in the
ministry. If, therefore, he was ever distinguished for gallantry in naval
warfare, it must have been before 1573; for we have no reason to suppose
that the Rev. George Walker, the hero of Londonderry, had him as an
example. But, as no action with the Spaniards could have taken place prior
to 1577, how is this to be reconciled with the common account, that his
gallantry against them attracted the notice of the queen? In a
miscellaneous compilation, entitled _Jefferson's Selections_ (published in
York in 1795, and indebted for its information about Lyon to an old
newspaper, which gave oral tradition as its sole authority), we are told
that his picture, in the captain's uniform, the left hand wanting a finger,
is still to be seen in the bishop's palace at Cork. The picture is there,
and represents him certainly as wanting a finger; he is dressed, however,
not in a captain's uniform, but in a very scholar-like black gown.

I know not how Mr. Croker could have given the year 1606 as the date of his
appointment to the see of Cloyne, for we learn from Ware, who is no mean
authority, that he was first appointed to the see of Ross in 1582; that the
sees of Cork and Cloyne were given to him _in commendam_ in 1583 (as is
recorded in the Consistorial Court of Cork), and that the three sees were
formally united in his person in 1586.

In 1595 he was appointed one of the commissioners to consider the best
means of peopling Munster with English settlers, and of establishing a
voluntary composition throughout that province in lieu of cess and taxes;
this does not look as if he had been an illiterate captain of a ship, or
one of those "rude-bred soldiers, whose education was at the musket-mouth."
In fact, Ware does not seem to have considered him remarkable for anything
except such qualities as well became his order. And we have the high
testimony of Archbishop Bramhall (quoted by Ware), that "Cork and Ross
fared the best of any bishoprick in that province, a very good man, Bishop
Lyon, having been placed there early in the Reformation."

ABHBA.

       *       *       *       *       *

CURIOUS MARRIAGE AGREEMENT.

The original of the following paper is in existence in this city:

      "To MRS. DEBORAH LEAMING.

    "Madam.--Seeing I, Jacob Sprier, have addressed myself to you upon the
    design of marriage, I therefore esteem it necessary to submit to your
    consideration some particulars, before we enter upon that solemn
    enterprise which may either establish our happiness or occasion our
    inquietude during life, and if you concur with those particulars, I
    shall have great encouragement to carry my design into execution; and
    since happiness is the grand pursuit of a rational creature, so
    marriage ought not to be attempted short of a prospect of arriving
    thereat; and in order thereto (should we marry) I conceive the
    following rules and particulars ought to be steadily observed and kept,
    viz.:

    "1st. That we keep but one purse: a severance of interest bespeaking
    diffidence, mistrust, and disunity of mind.

    "2nd. That we avoid anger as much as possible, especially with each
    other; but if either should be overtaken therewith, the other to treat
    the angry party with temper and moderation during the continuance of
    such anger; and afterwards, if need require, let the matter of heat be
    coolly discussed when reason shall resume its government.

    "3rd. As we have different stocks of children to which we are and ought
    to be strongly attached by ties of nature, so it's proper when such
    children or any of them need correction, it be administered by the
    party from whom they have descended; unless, in the opinion of both
    parties, it shall be thought necessary to be otherwise administered for
    the children's good.

    "4th. That no difference or partiality be made with respect to such
    children who live with us in point of common usage touching education,
    food, raiment, and treatment, otherwise than as age, circumstance, and
    convenience may render it necessary, to be agreed upon between us, and
    grounded upon reason.

    "5th. That civility, courtesy, and kind treatment be always exercised
    and extended towards such child or children that now is or hereafter
    may be removed from us.

    "6th. That we use our mutual endeavours to instruct, counsel, improve,
    admonish, and advise all our children, without partiality, for their
    general good; and that we ardently endeavour to promote both their
    temporal and eternal welfare.

    "7th. That each of us use our best endeavours to inculcate upon the
    minds of our respective stocks of children a venerable and honourable
    opinion of the other of us; and avoid as much as possible any
    insinuation that may have a different tendency.

    "8th. That in matters where either of us is more capable of judging
    than the other of us, and best acquainted therein, that the person so
    most capable of judging, and best acquainted, do follow his or her own
    judgment without control, unless the other shall be able to give a
    sufficient reason to the contrary; then, and in such case, the same to
    be conclusive; and that we do adhere to each other in things reasonable
    and expedient {194} with a mutual condescension, and also advise with
    and consult each other in matters of importance.

    "9th. That if any misunderstanding should arise, the same be calmly
    canvassed and accommodated between ourselves, without admitting the
    interposition of any other, or seeking a confident to either to reveal
    our mind unto, or sympathise withal upon the occasion.

    "10th. That no suspicious jealousies of any kind whatever be harboured
    in our breasts, without absolute or good circumstantial evidence; and
    if conceived upon proof or strong presumption, the same to be
    communicated to the suspected person, in temper and moderation, and not
    told to another.

    "11th. That we be just, chaste, and continent to each other; and should
    either prove otherwise, that then we separate, notwithstanding the most
    solemn ties to the contrary, unless it shall suit the injured party to
    forgive the injury and continue the coverture; and in case of
    separation, each of us to keep such share of wealth as we were
    possessed of when are came together, if it remains in the same state,
    as to quantum; but if over or under, then in proportion to what we
    originally had.

    "12th. That we neither give into, nor countenance any ill advisers who
    may have a design to mar our happiness, and sow discord between us.

    "13th. That in matters of religious concernment, we be at liberty to
    exercise our sentiments freely without control.

    "14th. That we use our mutual endeavours to increase our affection,
    cultivate our harmony, promote our happiness, and live in the fear of
    God, and in obedience to His righteous laws.

    "15th. That we use the relatives of each other with friendly kindness;
    and that the same be extended to our friends and benefactors, mutually,
    without grudging.

    "16th. That the survivor of us endeavour, after the death of either of
    us, to maintain the reputation and dignity of the deceased, by avoiding
    levity of behaviour, dissoluteness of life and disgraceful marriage;
    not only so, but that such survivor persevere in good offices to the
    children of the deceased, as a discreet, faithful, and honourable
    survivor ought to do.

    "17th. That in case Jacob Sprier, after trial, shall not think it for
    his interest, or agreeable to his disposition, to live at the
    plantation where Deborah Leaming now resides, then, and in such case,
    she to remove with him elsewhere upon a prospect promising to better
    his circumstances or promote his happiness, provided the landed
    interest of the said Deborah's late husband be taken proper care of for
    the benefit of her son Christopher.

    "18th. That the said Jacob Sprier be allowed from time to time to
    purchase such books from our joint stock as he shall think necessary
    for the advantage and improvement of himself and our children jointly,
    or either of them, without grudging.

    "19th. That the said Jacob Sprier do continue to keep Elisha Hughes,
    and perform his express agreement to him according to indenture already
    executed, and discharge the trust reposed in him the said Sprier by the
    another of the said Elisha, without grudging or complaint.

    "20th. And as the said Deborah Leaming, and the said Jacob Sprier, are
    now something advanced in years and ought to take the comfort of life
    as free from hard toil as convenience will admit, therefore neither of
    them be subject thereunto unless in case of emergence, and this
    exemption to be no ways censured by each other, provided they
    supervise, contrive, and do the light necessary services incumbent on
    the respected heads of a family, not omitting to cultivate their minds
    when convenience will admit.

    "21st. That if anything be omitted in the foregoing rules and
    particulars, that may conduce to our future happiness and welfare, the
    same to be hereafter supplied by reason and discretion, as often as
    occasion shall require.

    "22nd. That the said Jacob Sprier shall not upbraid the said Deborah
    Leaming with the extraordinary industry and good economy of his
    deceased wife, neither shall the said Deborah Leaming upbraid the said
    Jacob Sprier with the like extraordinary industry and good economy of
    her deceased husband, neither shall anything of this nature be observed
    by either to the other of us, with any view to offend or irritate the
    party to whom observed; a thing too frequently practised in a second
    marriage, and very fatal to the repose of parties married.

    "I, Deborah Leaming, in case I marry with Jacob Sprier, do hereby
    promise to observe and perform the before-going rules and particulars,
    containing twenty-two in number to the best of my power. As witness my
    hand, the 16th day of Decem'r, 1751:

      (Signed) "DEBORAH LEAMING.

    "I, Jacob Sprier, in case I marry with Deborah Leaming, do hereby
    promise to observe and perform the before-going rules and particulars,
    containing twenty two in number, to the best of my power. As witness my
    hand, the 16th day of December, 1751:

      (Signed) "JACOB SPRIER."

OLDBUCK.

Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANCIENT AMERICAN LANGUAGES.

(_Continued from_ Vol. vi., pp. 60, 61.)

Since communicating to you a short list of a few books I had noted as
having reference to this obscure subject, I have stumbled over a few others
which bear special reference to the Quichua: and of which I beg to send you
a short account, which may be worthy a place in your valuable pages.

The first work upon the Quichua language, of which I find mention, is a
grammar of the Peruvian Indians (_Gramatica ó arte general de la lengua de
los Indios del Perù_), by the brother Domingo de San Thomas, published in
Valladolid in 1560, and republished in the same year with an appendix,
being a Vocabulary of the Quichua. The demand for the first edition appears
to have been considerable; or, what is more likely, from the extreme rarity
of the work, the careful author {195} suppressed or called in the first
edition, in order to add, for the benefit of his purchasers, the vocabulary
which he had found time to prepare within the year.

The work of San Thomas seems to have glutted the market for some twenty
years; for we do not find that any one made a collection of words or
grammatical forms until the year 1586, when Antonio Ricardo published a
kind of introduction to the Quichua, having sole reference to that
language, without anything more than an explanation in Spanish.[1] This
work, like that of his predecessor, was immediately remodelled and
re-published in a very much extended form in the same year. Ricardo's books
are amongst the first printed in that part of America.

Diego de Torres Rubio is the next writer of whom I am cognizant. He
published at Seville, in 1603, a grammar and vocabulary of the Quichua; the
subject still continuing to attract attention. Still, as was to be
expected, the Quichua language was of more consequence to the Spaniards of
Peru. No doubt, therefore, that Father Juan Martinez found a ready sale for
his vocabulary, published at Los Reyes in 1604. Indeed, the subject is now
attracting the attention of the eminent Diego Gonzalez Holguin, who
published first a new grammar (_Gramatica nuevu_) of the Quichua and Inca
dialect, in four books, at the press of Francisco del Canto, in Los Reyes,
1607; and second, a vocabulary of the language of the whole of Peru (_de
todo el Perù_), in the same year and at the same press.

It is worthy to remark, as confuting somewhat fully the assertion of
Prescott (_Conquest of Peru_, v. ii. p. 188.), that the Spanish name of
Ciudad de los Reyes ceased to be used in speaking of Lima "within the first
generation," that the books of Ricardo, Holguin, and Huerta (of whom
presently) are all stated to have been printed in the Ciudad de los Reyes,
though the latest of these appeared in 1616. In 1614, however, to confine
myself strictly to the bibliographical inquiry suggested by the heading of
my article, a method and vocabulary of the Quichua did appear from Canto's
press, dated Lima,--a corruption, as is well known, of the word _Rimac_.

That, however, the Castilian name should be employed later, is curious. At
any rate, it occurs for the last time on the title of a work printed by the
same printer, Canto, in 1616; and written by Don Alonso de Huerta, the old
title being adhered to, probably from some cause unknown to us, but
possibly in consequence of old aristocratic opinions and prejudices in
favour of the Spanish name. That the name of Lima had obtained considerably
even in the time of the Conquerors, Mr. Prescott has sufficiently proved;
but as an official and recognised name it evidently existed to a later
period than the historian has mentioned.

The work of Torres Rubio, already mentioned, was reprinted in Lima by
Francisco Lasso in 1619. From this time forward, the subject of the native
language of Peru seems to have occupied the attention of many writers. A
quarto grammar was published by Diego de Olmos in 1633 of the Indian
language, as the Quichuan now came to be called.

Eleven years later, we find Fernando de Carrera, curate and vicar of San
Martin de Reque, publishing an elaborate word bearing the following title:

    "Arte de la lengua yunga de los valles del obispado de Truxillo; con un
    confesonario y todas las oraciones cotidianas y otras cosas: Lima, por
    Juan de Contreras, 1644, 16mo."

Grammars and methods here follow thick and fast. A few years after
Carrera's book, in 1648, comes Don Juan Roxo Mexia y Ocon, _natural de
Cuzco_, as he proudly styles himself with a method of the Indian language:
and after a few insignificant works, again another in 1691, by Estevan
Sancho de Melgar.

The most common works on the Quichua are the third and fourth editions of
Torres Rubio, published at Lima in the years 1700 and 1754. Of these two
works done with that care and evident pleasure which Jesuits always, and
perhaps only, bestow upon these difficult by-roads of philology, I need say
no more, as they are very well known.

Before I close this communication, allow me to suggest to the readers and
contributors to the truly valuable "N. & Q.," that no tittle of knowledge
concerning these early philological researches ought to be allowed to
remain unrecorded; and with the position which the "N. & Q." occupies, and
the facilities that journal offers for the preservation of these stray
scraps of knowledge, surely it would not be amiss to send them to the
Editor, and let him decide as he is very capable of doing, as to their
value.

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

February 20. 1854.

[Footnote 1: Arte y Vocabulario de la lengua, Uamada quichua. En la Ciudad
de los Reyes, 1586, 8vo.]

       *       *       *       *       *

CONDUITT AND NEWTON

In the prospectus of a new _Life_ of sir Isaac Newton, by sir David
Brewster, it is stated that in examining the papers at Hurstbourne Park,
the seat of the earl of Portsmouth, the discovery had been maple of
"copious materials which Mr. Conduit had collected for a life of Newton,
_which had never been supposed to exist_."

About the year 1836 I consulted the principal biographers of
Newton--Conduitt, Fontenelle, Birch, Philip Nichols, Thomas Thomson, Biot,
{196} Brewster--and I have ever since believed that such materials _did
exist_.

We are assured by Mr. Edmund Turnor, in the preface to his _History of
Grantham_, printed in 1806, which work is quoted in the prospectus, that
the manuscripts at Hurstbourne Park then chiefly consisted of some
pocket-books and memorandums of sir Isaac Newton, and "the information
obtained by Mr. Conduitt for the purpose of writing his life." Moreover,
the collections of Mr. Conduitt are repeatedly quoted in that work as
distinct from the memoirs which were sent to M. de Fontenelle.

I shall give another anecdote in refutation of the statement made in the
prospectus, albeit a superfluity. In 1730 the author of _The Seasons_
republished his _Poem to the memory of sir Isaac Newton_, with the addition
of the lines which follow, and which prove that he was aware of the task on
which Mr. Conduitt was then occupied. The lines, it should be observed,
have been omitted in all the editions printed since 1738.

  "This, CONDUITT, from thy rural hours we hope;
  As through the pleasing shade, where nature pours
  Her every sweet, in studious ease you walk;
  The social passions smiling at thy heart,
  That glows with all the recollected sage."

The _pleasing shade_ indicates the grounds of Cranbury-lodge, in Hampshire,
the seat of Mr. Conduitt--whose guest the poet seems previously to have
been.

Some inedited particulars of the life of Mr. Conduitt, drawn from various
sources, I reserve for another occasion.

BOLTON CORNEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The Music in Middleton's Tragi-Comedy of the "Witch."_--Joseph Ritson, in
a letter addressed to J. C. Walker (July, 1797), printed in Pickering's
edition of Ritson's _Letters_ (vol. ii. p. 156.) has the following
passage:--

    "It may be to your purpose, at the same time, to know that the songs in
    Middleton's _Witch_, which appear also to have been introduced in
    _Macbeth_, beginning, 'Hecate, Hecate, come away,' and 'Black spirits
    and white,' have (as I am informed) been lately discovered in MS. with
    the complete harmony, as performed at the original representation of
    these plays. You will find the words in a note to the late editions of
    Shakspeare; and I shall, probably, one of these days, obtain a sight of
    the musick."

The MS. here mentioned was in the collection of the late Mr. J. Stafford
Smith, one of the Organists of the Chapel Royal. At the sale of this
gentleman's valuable library it passed, with many other treasures of a
similar nature, into my possession, where it now remains.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Mr. Macaulay and Sir Archibald Alison in error._--How was it that Mr.
Macaulay, in two editions of his _History_, placed the execution of Lord
Russell on Tower Hill? Did it not take place in Lincoln's Inn Fields? And
why does Sir A. Alison, in the volume of his _History_ just published,
speak of the children of Catherine of Arragon? and likewise inform us that
Locke was expelled from Cambridge? Was he not expelled from the University
of Oxford?

ABHBA.

"_Paid down upon the nail._"--The origin of this phrase is thus stated in
the _Recollections of O'Keefe_ the dramatist:

    "An ample piazza under the Exchange [in Limerick] was a thoroughfare:
    in the centre stood a pillar about four feet high, and upon it a
    circular plate of copper about three feet in diameter: this was called
    _the nail_, and on it was paid the earnest for any commercial bargains
    made; which was the origin of saying, 'Paid down upon the nail.'"

But perhaps the custom, of which Mr. O'Keefe speaks, was common to other
ancient towns?

ABHBA.

_Corpulence a Crime._--Mr. Bruce has written, in his _Classic and Historic
Portraits_, that the ancient Spartan paid as much attention to the rearing
of men as the cattle dealers in modern England do to the breeding of
cattle. They took charge of firmness and looseness of men's flesh; and
regulated the degree of fatness to which it was lawful, in a free state,
for any citizen to extend his body. Those who dared to grow too fat, or too
soft for military exercise and the service of Sparta, were soundly whipped.
In one particular instance, that of Nauclis, the son of Polytus, the
offender was brought before the Ephori, and a meeting of the whole people
of Sparta, at which his unlawful fatness was publicly exposed; and he was
threatened with perpetual banishment if he did not bring his body within
the regular Spartan compass, and give up his culpable mode of living; which
was declared to be more worthy of an Ionian than a son of Lacedæmon.

W. W.

_Curious Tender._--

    "If any young clergyman, somewhat agreeable in person, and who has a
    small fortune independent, can be well recommended as to strictness of
    morals and good temper, firmly attached to the present happy
    establishment, and is willing to engage in the matrimonial estate with
    an agreeable young lady in whose power it is immediately to bestow a
    living of nearly 100l. per annum, in a very pleasant situation, with a
    good prospect of preferment,--any person whom this may suit may leave a
    line at the bar of the Union Coffee House in the Strand, directed to
    Z. Z., within three days of this advertisement. The utmost secrecy and
    honour may be depended upon."--_London Chronicle_, March, 1758.

E. H. A.

{197}

_The Year 1854._--This year commenced and will terminate on a Sunday. In
looking through the Almanac, it will be seen that there are _five Sundays
in five months_ of the year, viz. in January, April, July, October, and
December; five _Mondays_ in January, May, July, and October; five
_Tuesdays_ in January, May, August, and October; five _Wednesdays_ in
March, May, August, and November; five _Thursdays_, in March, June, August,
and November; five _Fridays_ in March, June, September, and December; five
_Saturdays_ in April, July, September, and December; and, lastly,
fifty-three _Sundays_ in the year.

The age of her Majesty the Queen is thirty-five, or seven times five; and
the age of Prince Albert the same.

Last Christmas having fallen on the Sunday, I am reminded of the following
lines:

  "Lordings all of you I warn,
  If the day that Christ was born
  Fall upon a Sunday,
  The winter shall be good I say,
  But great winds aloft shall be;
  The summer shall be fine and dry.
  _By kind skill, and without loss,_
  _Through all lands there shall be peace._
  Good time for all things to be done;
  But he that stealeth shall be found soon.
  What child that day born may be,
  A great lord he shall live to be."

W. W.

Malta.

_A Significant Hint._--The following lines were communicated to me by a
friend some years ago, as having been written by a blacksmith of the
village of Tideswell in Derbyshire; who, having often been reproved by the
parson, or ridiculed by his neighbours, for drunkenness, placed them on the
church door the day after the event they commemorate:

  "Ye Tideswellites, can this be true,
    Which Fame's loud trumpet brings;
  That ye, to view the Cambrian Prince,
    Forsook the King of Kings?
  That when his rattling chariot wheels,
    Proclaim'd his Highness near,
  Ye trod upon each others' heels,
    To leave the house of prayer.
  Be wise next time, adopt this plan,
    Lest ye be left i' th' lurch;
  And place at th' end of th' town a man
    To ask him into Church."

It is said that, on the occasion of the late Prince of Wales passing
through Tideswell on a Sunday, a man was placed to give notice of his
coming, and the parson and his flock rushed out to see him pass at full
gallop.

E. P. PALING.

Chorley.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

LITERARY QUERIES.

MR. RICHARD BINGHAM will feel grateful to any literary friend who may be
able to assist him in solving some or all of the following difficulties.

1. Where does Panormitan or Tudeschis (_Commentar. in Quinque Libros
Decretalium_) apply the term nullatenenses to titular and utopian bishops?
See _Origines Ecclesiasticæ_, 4. 6. 2.

2. In which of his books does John Bale, Bishop of Ossory, speaking of the
monks of Bangor, term them "Apostolicals?" See Ibid., 7. 2. 13.

3. Where does Erasmus say that the preachers of the Roman Church invoked
the Virgin Mary in the beginning of their discourses, much as the heathen
poets were used to invoke their Muses? See Ibid., 14. 4. 15.; and
_Ferrarius de Ritu Concionum_, l. I. c. xi.

4. Bona (_Rer. Liturg._, l. II. c. ii. n. 1.) speaks of an epistle from
Athanasius to Eustathius, where he inveighs against the Arian bishops, who
in the beginning of their sermons said "_Pax vobiscum!_" while they
harassed others, and were tragically at war. But the learned Bingham (14.
4. 14.) passes this by, and leaves it with Bona, because there is no such
epistle in the works of Athanasius. Where else? How can Bona's error be
corrected? or is there extant _in operibus Athanasii_ a letter of his to
some other person, containing the expressions to which Bona refers?

5. In another place (_Rer. Liturg._, l. II. c. 4. n. 3.) Bona refers to
tom. iii. p. 307. of an _Auctor Antiquitatum Liturgicarum_ for certain
_formulæ_; and Joseph Bingham (15. 1. 2.) understands him to mean
_Pamelius_, whose work does not exceed two volumes. Neither does Pamelius
notice at all the _first of the two formulæ_, though he has the second, or
nearly the same. How can this also be explained? And to what work, either
anonymous or otherwise, did Bona refer in his expression "Auctor
Antiquitatum Liturgicarum?"

6. In which old edition of _Gratiani Decretum_, probably before the early
part of the sixteenth century, can be found the unmutilated glosses of John
Semeca, surnamed Teutonicus? and especially the gloss on _De Consecrat.,
Distinct._ 4. c. 4., where he says that even in his time (1250?) the custom
still prevailed in some places of giving the eucharist to babes? See _Orig.
Ecclesiast._, 15. 4. 7.

7. Joseph Bingham (16. 3. 6.) finds fault with Baronius for asserting that
Pope Symmachus anathematized the Emperor Anastasius, and asserts that
instead of _Ista quidem ego_, as given by Baronius and Binius, in the
epistle of Symmachus, Ep. vii. al. vi. (see also Labbe and Cossart, t. iv.
p. 1298.), the true reading is _Ista quidem nego_. How can this be
verified? The epistle is not extant either in Crabbe or Merlin. Is the
argument {198} of J. B. borne out by any good authority, either in
manuscript or print?

MR. BINGHAM will feel further obliged if the Replies to any or all of these
Queries be forwarded direct to his address at 57. Gloucester Place, Portman
Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Hunter of Polmood in Tweed-dale._--Where can the pedigree of the Hunters
of Polmood, in Peebleshire, be seen?

HUFREER.

_Dinteville Family._--Of the family of Dinteville there were at this time,
viz. 1530, two knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. 1st. _Pierre
de Dinteville_, Commander of Troyes, and Seneschal of his Order; son of
Claude de Dinteville, Seigneur de Polisi and Chevets in Burgundy, and his
wife Jeanne de la Beaume, daughter of the Lord of Mont St. Sorlin. The
other was nephew to the _Pierre_ above mentioned, son of his younger
brother Gaucher, Lord of Polisi, &c.; and his wife, Anne du Plessis
d'Ouschamps. His name was _Louis de Dinteville_: he was born June 25, 1503;
was Commander of Tupigni and Villedieu, and died at Malta, July 22, 1531;
leaving a natural son, Maria de Dinteville, Abbé of St. Michael de
Tonnerre, who was killed in Paris by a pistol-shot in 1574. The brother of
this Chevalier Louis, _Jean_, Seign. of Polisi, &c., was _ambassador_ in
England, and died a cripple A.D. 1555.

Query, Which was the "Dominus" of the king's letter?

ANON.

_Eastern Practice of Medicine._--I shall feel indebted to any correspondent
who will refer me to some works on the theory and practice of medicine as
pursued by the native practitioners of India and the East generally?

C. CLIFTON BARRY.

_Sunday._--When and where does Sunday begin or end?

T. T. W.

_Three Picture Queries._--1. Kugler (_Schools of Painting in Italy_, edited
by Sir Charles Eastlake, 2nd edit., 1851, Part II. p. 284.), speaking of
Leonardo da Vinci's cartoon, representing the victory of the Florentines in
1440 over Nicolo Picinnino, general of the Duke of Milan, and which has now
perished, says:

    "Rubens copied from Leonardo's, a group of four horsemen fighting for a
    standard: this is engraved by Edelingk, and is just sufficient to make
    us bitterly deplore the loss of this rich and grand work."

Does this picture exist? Does Edelingk's engraving state in whose
possession it was then?

2. Where can I find any account of a painter named St. Denis? From his name
and style, he appears to have been French, and to have flourished
subsequently to 1700.

3. Titian painted Charles III., Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France,
who was killed May 6, 1527, at the siege of Rome. Where is this picture? It
is said to have been engraved by Nörsterman. Where may I see the engraving?

ARTHUR PAGET.

"_Cutting off with a Shilling._"--This is understood to have arisen from
the notion that the heir could not be utterly disinherited by will: that
something, however small, must be left him. Had such a notion any
foundation in the law of England at any time?

J. H. CHATEAU.

Philadelphia.

_Inman or Ingman Family._--The family of Inman, Ionman, or Ingman,
variously spelt, derive from John of Gaunt. This family was settled for
five successive generations at Bowthwaite Grange, Netherdale or Nithisdale,
co. York, and inter-married with many of the principal families of that
period.

Alfred Inman married Amelia, daughter of Owen Gam. Who was Owen Gam?

Arthur Inman married Cecilia, daughter of Llewellyn Clifford. Who was
Llewellyn Clifford? Not mentioned in the Clifford Peerage. Perhaps MR.
HUGHES, or some other correspondent of "N. & Q.," may know, and have the
kindness to make known his genealogical history.

This family being strong adherents of the House of Lancaster, raised a
troop in the royal cause under the Duke of Newcastle, at the fatal battle
of Marston Moor, where several brothers were slain, the rest dispersed, and
the property confiscated to Cromwell's party about 1650-52. Any
genealogical detail from public records prior to that period, would be
useful in tracing the descent.

Sir William de Roas de Ingmanthorpe was summoned to parliament in the reign
of Edw. I. This Ingmanthorpe, or Inmanthorpe (spelt both ways), is,
according to Thoresby, near Knaresborough on the Nidd. Query, Was this
person's name Inman from his residence, as usual at that period?

Arms: Vert, on a chevron or, three roses gules, slipped and leaved vert.
Crest, on a mount vert, a wyvern ppr. ducally gorged, and lined or. Motto
lost.

A SUBSCRIBER.

Southsea.

_Constable of Masham._--Alan Bellingham of Levins, in Westmoreland, married
Susan, daughter of Marmaduke Constable of Masham, in Yorkshire, before the
year 1624.

I should be very much obliged to any of your genealogical readers, if they
can inform me who was Marmaduke Constable of Masham; to which {199} family
of Constable he belonged; and where I could find a pedigree of his family.

COMES STABULI.

Malta.

_Fading Ink._--I have somewhere seen a receipt for an ink, which completely
fades away after it has been written a few months. Will some chemical
reader kindly refer me to it?

C. CLIFTON BARRY.

_Sir Ralph Killigrew._--Who was Sir Ralph Killigrew, born _circa_ 1585. I
should be very much obliged to be referred to a good pedigree of the
Killigrew family of the above period.

PATONCE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Pepys._--I have lately acquired a collection of letters between Pepys and
Major Aungier, Sir Isaac Newton, Halley, and other persons, relating to the
management of the mathematical school at Christ's Hospital; and containing
details of the career of some of the King's scholars after leaving the
school. The letters extend from 1692 to 1695; and are the original letters
received by Pepys, with his drafts of the answers. They are loosely
stitched, in order of date, in a thick volume, and are two hundred and
upwards in number. Are these letters known, and have they ever been
published or referred to?

A. F. B.

Diss.

    [It is a singular coincidence that we should receive the communication
    of A. F. B. on the day of the publication of the new and much improved
    library edition of Pepys's _Diary_. Would our correspondent permit us
    to submit his collection to the editor of Pepys, who would no doubt be
    gratified with a sight of it? We will guarantee its safe return, and
    any expenses incurred in its transmission. On turning to the fourth
    volume of the new edition of the _Diary_, we find the following letter
    (now first published) from Dr. Tanner, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph,
    to Dr. Charlett, dated April 28, 1699:--"Mr. Pepys was just finishing a
    letter to you last night when I gave him yours. I hear he has printed
    some letters lately about the abuses of Christ's Hospital; they are
    only privately handed about. A gentleman that has a very great respect
    for Mr. Pepys, saw one of them in one of the Aldermen's hands, but
    wishes there had been some angry expressions left out; which he fears
    the Papists and other enemies of the Church of England will make ill
    use of." Is anything known of this "privately printed" volume? In the
    Life of Pepys (4th edit., p. xxxi.), mention is made of his having
    preserved from ruin the mathematical foundation at Christ's Hospital,
    which had been originally designed by him.--ED.]

"_Retainers to Seven Shares and a Half._"--Can any reader of "N. & Q.,"
conversant with the literature of the seventeenth century, furnish an
explanation of this phrase? It occurs in the preface to _Steps to the
Temple, &c._, of Richard Crashaw (the 2nd edit., in the Savoy, 1670),
addressed by "the author's friend" to "the learned reader," and is used in
disparagement of pretenders to poetry. The passage runs thus:

    "It were prophane but to mention here in the preface those under-headed
    poets, retainers to seven shares and a half; madrigal fellows, whose
    only business in verse is to rime a poor sixpenny soul, a subburb
    sinner into hell," &c.

H. L.

    [The performers at our earlier theatres were distinguished into whole
    shares, three-quarter sharers, half sharers, seven-and-a-half sharers,
    hired men, &c. In one scene of the _Histriomastic_, 1610, the dissolute
    performers having been arrested by soldiers, one of the latter
    exclaims, "Come on, players! now we are the sharers, and you the hired
    men;" and in another scene, Clout, one of the characters, rejects with
    some indignation the offer of "half a share." Gamaliel Ratsey, in that
    rare tract, _Ratseis Ghost_, 1606, knights the principal performer of a
    company by the title of "Sir Three Shares and a Half;" and Tucca, in
    Ben Jonson's _Poetaster_, addressing Histrio, observes, "Commend me to
    Seven shares and a half," as if some individual at that period had
    engrossed as large a proportion. Shakspeare, in _Hamlet_, speaks of "a
    whole share" as a source of no contemptible emolument, and of the owner
    of it as a person filling no inferior station in "a cry of payers." In
    _Northward Ho!_ also, a sharer is noticed with respect. Bellamont the
    poet enters, and tells his servant, "Sirrah, I'll speak with none:" on
    which the servant asks, "Not a player?" and his master replies:

                  "No, though a sharer bawl:
      I'll speak with none, although it be the mouth
      Of the big company."

    The value of a share in any particular company would depend upon the
    number of subdivisions, upon the popularity of the body, upon the
    stock-plays belonging to it, upon the extent of its wardrobe, and the
    nature of its properties.--See Collier's _English Dramatic Poetry_,
    vol. iii. p. 427.]

_Madden's "Reflections and Resolutions proper for the Gentlemen of
Ireland."_--This work, by the Rev. Samuel Madden, was first published in
Dublin in 1738, and was reprinted at the expense of the late Mr. Thomas
Pleasants, in one vol. 8vo., pp. 224, Dub. 1816. I possess two copies of
the original edition, likewise in one vol. 8vo., pp. 237, and I have seen
about a dozen; and yet I find in the preface to the reprint the following
paragraph:

    "The very curious and interesting work which is now reprinted, and
    intended for a wide and gratuitous circulation, is also of uncommon
    rarity; there is not a copy of it in the library of Trinity College, or
    in any of the other public libraries of this city, which have been
    searched on purpose. (One was purchased some {200} years ago for the
    library of the Royal Dublin Society, if I mistake not, for 1l. 6s., or
    rather more.) The profoundly learned Vice-Provost, Doctor Barrett,
    never met with one; and many gentlemen well skilled in the literature
    of Ireland, who have been applied to for information on the subject,
    are even unacquainted with the name of the book."

Of Dr. Madden, known as "Premium" Madden, few memorials exist; and yet he
was a man of whom Johnson said, "His was a name Ireland ought to honour."
The book in question does not appear to be of "uncommon rarity." Is it
considered by competent judges of "exceeding merit?" I would be glad to
know.

ABHBA.

    [Probably, from this work having appeared anonymously, it was unknown
    to the writers of his life in Chalmers' and Rose's _Biographical
    Dictionaries_, as well as to Mr. Nichols, when he wrote his account of
    Dr. Madden in his _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. ii. p. 32. A volume
    containing the _Reflections and Resolutions_, together with the
    author's tragedy, _Themistocles_, 1729, and his tract, _A Proposal for
    the General Encouragement of Learning in Dublin College_, 1732, is in
    the Grenville Collection in the British Museum. This volume was
    presented by Dr. Madden to Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, as appears
    from the following MS. note on a fly-leaf: "To his Excellency the Right
    Hon. Philip Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, these
    Tracts, writ (how meanly soever) with a real zeal for the service of
    that country, are most humbly presented by the author, his most
    obedient humble servant."]

_King Edward I.'s Arm._--Fuller, speaking of the death and character of
King Edward I., winds up with these words:

    "As the arm of King Edward I. was accounted the measure of a yard,
    generally received in England; so his actions are an excellent model
    and a praiseworthy platform for succeeding princes to
    imitate."--_Church History_, b. iii., A.D. 1307.

Query, Is there historical proof of this statement of "honest Tom?" He
gives no reference apparently considering the fact too well established to
require any.

J. M. B.

    [Ask that staunch and sturdy royalist, Peter Heylin, whether Old Tom is
    not sometimes more facetious than correct; and whether, in the extract
    given above, we should not read _Richard I._ for Edward I. In
    Knyghton's _Chronicle_, lib. II. cap. viii. sub Hen. I., we find,
    "Mercatorum falsam ulnam castigavit adhibita brachii sui mensura." See
    also William of Malmsbury in Vita Hen. I., and Spelm. Hen. I. apud
    Wilkins, 299., who inform us, that a new standard of longitudinal
    measure was ascertained by Henry I., who commanded that the ulna, or
    ancient ell, which answers to the modern yard, should be made of the
    exact length of his own arm.]

_Elstob, Elizabeth._--Can any of your numerous correspondents state where
that celebrated Saxon linguist, Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob, was buried? In
Chambers's _Biographical Illustrations of Worcestershire_, she is said to
have been buried at Saint Margaret's, Westminster; but after every inquiry,
made many years since of the then worthy churchwarden of the parish, our
researches were in vain, for there is no account of her sepulture in the
church or graveyard.

J. B. WHITBOURNE.

    [Most of the biographical notices of Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob state that
    she was buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster. We can only account for
    the name not appearing in the register of that church, from her having
    _changed her name_ when she opened her school in Worcestershire, as
    stated, on the authority of Mr. Geo. Ballard, in Nichols's _Literary
    Anecdotes_, vol. iv. p. 714. Ballard's Correspondence is in the
    Bodleian.]

_Monumental Brasses in London._--Can any of your correspondents favour me
with a list of churches in London, or within a mile of the same, containing
monumental brasses? I know of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, only.

J. W. BROWN.

    [As our young crypto-antiquary dates his letter from Crosby Hall, he
    will probably find in its library the following works to assist him in
    his researches:--_List of Monumental Brasses in England_ (Rivington),
    _Manual for the Study of Monumental Brasses_ (Parker), and Sperling's
    _Church Walks in Middlesex_ (Masters). Two are noticed in Waller's
    _Monumental Brasses_, fol., 1842, viz. Dr. Christopher Urswick, in
    Hackney Church, A.D. 1521, and Andrew Evyngar and wife, in All-Hallows
    Barking Church. If we mistake not, there is one in St. Faith's, near
    St. Paul's.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

RAPPING NO NOVELTY; AND TABLE-TURNING.

(Vol. viii., pp. 512. 632.; Vol. ix., pp. 39. 88. 135.)

    "There is a curious criminal process on record, manuscript 1770,
    noticed by Voltaire as in the library of the King of France, which was
    founded upon a remarkable set of visions said to have occurred to the
    monks of Orleans.

    "The illustrious house of St. Memin had been very liberal to the
    convent, and had their family vault under the church. The wife of a
    Lord of St. Memin, Provost of Orleans, died, and was buried. The
    husband, thinking that his ancestors had given more than enough to the
    convent, sent the monks a present, which they thought too small. They
    formed a plan to have her body disinterred, and to force the widower to
    pay a second fee for depositing it again in holy ground.

    "The soul of the lady first appeared to two of the brethren, and said
    to them, 'I am damned, like Judas, because my husband has not given
    sufficient.' They hoped to extort money for the repose of her soul. But
    the husband said, 'If she is really damned, all the money in the world
    won't save her,' and gave them nothing. Perceiving their mistake, they
    declared she appeared again, saying she was in _Purgatory_, and {201}
    demanding to be disinterred. But this seemed a curious request, and
    excited suspicion, for it was not likely that a soul in purgatory would
    ask to have the body removed from holy ground, neither had any in
    purgatory ever been known to desire to be exhumed.

    "The soul after this did not try _speaking_ any more, but haunted
    everybody in the convent and church. Brother Peter of Arras adopted a
    very awkward manner of conjuring it. He said to it, 'If thou art the
    soul of the late Madame de St. Memin, strike four knocks,' and the four
    knocks were struck. 'If thou art damned, strike six knocks,' and the
    six knocks were struck. 'If thou art still tormented in hell, because
    thy body is buried in holy ground, knock six more times,' and the six
    knocks were heard still more distinctly. 'If we disinter thy body, wilt
    thou be less damned, certify to us by five knocks,' and the soul so
    certified. This statement was signed by twenty-two cordeliers. The
    father provincial asked the same questions and received the same
    answers. The Lord of St. Memin prosecuted the father cordeliers. Judges
    were appointed. The general of the commission required that they should
    be burned; but the sentence only condemned them to make the 'amende
    honorable,' with a torch in their bosom, and to be banished."

This sentence is of the 18th of February, 1535. Vide Abbé Langlet's
_History of Apparitions_.

From the above extract, and from what your correspondents MR. JARDINE and
R. I. R. have written, it is satisfactorily shown that rapping is no
novelty, having been known in England and France some centuries ago. MR.
JARDINE has given us an instance in 1584, and leads us to suppose that it
was the earliest on record. I now give one as early as 1534; and it would
be interesting to know if the monks of Orleans were the first to have
practised this imposition, and to have been banished for their deception
and fraud.

WILLIAM WINTHROP.

Malta.

In Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. XXIX. cap. i. p. 552. of a Paris edition,
1681, two persons, Patricius and Hilarius, charged with disseminating
prophecies injurious to the Emperor Valens, were brought before a court of
justice, and a tripod, which they were charged with using, was also
produced. Hilarius then made the following acknowledgment:

    "Construximus, magnifici judices, ad cortinæ similitudinem Delphicæ,
    diris auspiciis, de laureis virgulis infaustam hanc mensulam quam
    videtis; et imprecationibus carminum secretorum, choragiisque multis ac
    diuturnis ritualiter consecratam movimus tandem; movendi autem, quoties
    super rebus arcanis consulebatur, erat institutio talis. Collocabatur
    in medio domûs emaculatæ odoribus Arabicis undique, lance rotunda pure
    superposita, ex diversis metallicis materiis fabrefacta; cujus in
    ambitu rotunditatis extremo elementorum viginti quatuor scriptiles
    formæ incisæ perite, dijungebantur spatiis examinate dimensis. Hac
    linteis quidam indumentis amictus, calciatusque itidem linteis soccis,
    torulo capiti circumflexo, verbenas felicis arboris gestans, litato
    conceptis carminibus numine præscitionum auctore, cærimoniali scientia
    perstitit; cortinulis pensilem anulum librans, sartum ex carpathio filo
    perquam levi, mysticis disciplinis initiatum: qui per intervalla
    distincta retinentibus singulis litteris incidens saltuatim, heroos
    efficit versus interrogationibus consonos, ad numeros et modos plene
    conclusos; quales leguntur Pythici, vel ex oraculis editi Branchidarum.
    Ibi tum quærentibus nobis, qui præsenti succedet imperio, quoniam omni
    parte expolitus fore memorabatur et adsiliens anulus duas perstrinxerat
    syllabas, [Greek: THEO] cum adjectione litteræ postrema, exclamavit
    præsentium quidem, Theodorum præscribente fatali necessitate portendi."

In lib. XXXI. cap. ii. p. 621. of same edition, a method of prognostication
by the Alami is described; but there is no mention of tables there. The
historian only says:

    "Rectiores virgas vimineas colligentes, easque cum incantamentis
    quibusdam secretis præstituto tempore discernentes, aperte quid
    portendatur norunt."

H. W.

The mention of table-turning by Ammianus Marcellinus reminds me of a
curious passage in the _Apologeticus_ of Tertullian, cap. xxiii., to which
I invite the attention of those interested in the subject:

    "Porro si et magi phantasmata edunt et jam defunctorum infamant animas;
    si pueros in eloquium oraculi elidunt; si multa miracula circulatoriis
    præstigiis ludunt; si et somnia immittunt habentes semel invitatorum
    angelorum et dæmonum assistentem sibi potestatem, _per quos_ et capræ
    et _mensæ divinare consueverunt_; quanto magis," &c.

Here table divination by means of angels and demons seems distinctly
alluded to. How like the modern system! The context of this passage, as
well as the extract itself, will suggest singular coincidence between
modern and ancient pretensions of this class.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

GENERAL WHITELOCKE.

(Vol. viii., pp. 521. 621.)

Much interesting information concerning General Whitelocke, about whose
conduct some difference of opinion appears to exist, will be found in the
Rev. Erskine Neale's _Risen from the Ranks_ (London, Longmans, 1853); but
neither the date nor the place of his death is there given. The reverend
writer's account of the general's conduct is not at all favourable. After
alluding to him as "a chief unequal to his position," he says:

    "John Whitelocke was born in the year 1759, and received his early
    education in the Grammar School at Marlborough. His father was steward
    to John, fourth Earl of Aylesbury; and the peer, in {202}
    acknowledgment of the faithful services of his trusted dependent,
    placed young Whitelocke at Lochee's Military Academy, near Chelsea.
    There he remained till 1777, when, the Earl's friendly disposition
    remaining in full force, and the youth's predilection for a military
    career continuing unabated, an ensigncy was procured him, through Lord
    Aylesbury's intervention, in the 14th regiment of Foot."--_Risen from
    the Ranks_, p. 68.

Through the influence of his brother-in-law, General Brownrigge,
Whitelocke's promotion was rapid; and in 1807 he was gazetted
commander-in-chief of an expedition destined for the recapture of Buenos
Ayres. His conduct during this expedition became the subject of a
court-martial; he was found guilty, sentenced to be cashiered, and declared
to be "totally unfit to serve his Majesty in any military capacity
whatever."

Judging from the evidence adduced, the conduct of the commander-in-chief
was totally unworthy of the flag under which he served, and highly
calculated to arouse the indignation of the men whom he commanded; and for
some considerable time, whenever the soldiers met together to take a
friendly glass, the toast was, "Success to _grey hairs_, but bad luck to
_White-locks_!" On the whole, the Rev. E. Neale's account seems to be quite
impartial; and most persons, after reading the evidence of the general's
extremely vacillating conduct, will be inclined to agree with him in
awarding this unfortunate officer the title of the "Flincher-General at
Buenos Ayres."

JAMES SPENCE HARRY.

I have only just seen your correspondent's Reply (Vol. ix., p. 87.)
respecting General Whitelocke. He is right in stating that the general
resided at Clifton: he might have added, as late as 1830; but he had
previously, for time, lived at Butcombe Court, Somersetshire.

There is an anecdote still rife in the neighbourhood, that when Whitelocke
came down to see the house before taking it, he put up at an inn, and after
dinner asked the landlord to take a glass of wine with him. Upon
announcing, however, who he was, the landlord started up and declared he
would not drink another glass with him, throwing down at the same time the
price of the bottle, that he might not be indebted to the general.

Respecting the story of the flints, it is said that he desired them to be
taken out of the muskets, wishing that the men should only use their
bayonets against the enemy.

ARDELIO.

I remember well that soon after the unsuccessful attack of General
Whitelocke upon Buenos Ayres, it was stated that the flints had been taken
out of the muskets of some of our regiments because they were quite raw
troops, and the General thought that they might, from want of knowledge and
use of fire-arms, do more mischief to themselves than to the enemy, and
that they had better trust to the bayonet alone. The consequence was, that
when they entered the streets of the town, they found no enemy in them to
whom they could apply the bayonet. The inhabitants and troops were in the
strong stone houses, and fired on and killed our men with perfect impunity,
as not a shot could be fired in return: to surrender was their only chance
of life. A reference to a file of newspapers of that date (which I am too
lazy to make myself) will show whether this was understood at the time to
be a fact or not.

J. SS.

In the _Autobiography of B. Haydon_ (I think vol. i.), he mentions that as
he was passing through Somersetshire on his way from Plymouth to London, he
saw General Whitelocke. A reference to the passage may interest G. L. S.

W. DENTON.

The following charade was in vogue at the time of Whitelocke's death:

  "My first is an emblem of purity;
  My second is that of security;
  My whole forms a name
  Which, if yours were the same,
  You would blush to hand down to posterity."

J. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

"MAN PROPOSES, BUT GOD DISPOSES."

(Vol. viii., p. 552.; Vol. ix., p. 87.)

1. If your correspondent H. P. will again examine my communication on this
subject, he will find that I have _not_ overlooked the view which
attributes the _De Imitatione_ to John Gerson, but have expressly referred
to it.

2. If Gerson _was_ the author, this will not prove that in quoting the
proverb in question, Piers Ploughman quoted from the _De Imitatione_, as
H. P. supposes. The dates which I gave will show this. The _Vision_ was
written about A.D. 1362, whereas, according to Du Pin, John Gerson was born
December 14, 1363, took a prominent part in the Council of Constance, 1414,
and died in 1429. Of the Latin writers of the fifteenth century, Mosheim
says:

    "At their head we may justly place John Gerson, Chancellor of the
    University of Paris, the most illustrious ornament that this age can
    boast of, a man of great influence and authority, whom the Council of
    Constance looked upon an its oracle, the lovers of liberty as their
    patron, and whose memory is yet precious to such among the French
    clergy as are at all zealous for the maintenance of their privileges
    against papal despotism."--_Ecc. Hist._, cent. xv. ch. ii. sec. 24.

3. Gerson was not a Benedictine monk, but a Parisian curé, and Canon of
Notre Dame:

    "He was made curate (_curé_, parson or rector) of St. John's, in Greve,
    on the 29th of March, 1408, and {203} continued so to 1413, when in a
    sedition raised by the partizans of the Duke of Burgundy, his house was
    plundered by the mob, and he obliged to fly into the church of Notre
    Dame, where he continued for some time concealed."--Du Pin, _History of
    the Church_, cent. xv. ch. viii.

It is said that the treatise in question first appeared--

    "Appended to a MS. of Gerson's _De Consolatione Theologiæ_, dated 1421.
    This gave rise to the supposition that he was the real author of that
    celebrated work; and indeed it is a very doubtful point whether this
    opinion is true or not, there being several high authorities which
    ascribe to him the authorship of that book."--Knight's _Penny
    Cyclopædia_, vol. vi. art. "Gerson."

Was there then _another_ John Gerson, a monk, and Abbot of St. Stephen,
between 1200 and 1240, to whom, as well as to the above, the _De
Imitatione_ has been ascribed? This, though not impossible, appears
extremely improbable. Is H. P. prepared with evidence to prove it?

Du Pin, in the chapter above quoted, farther says, in speaking of the _De
Imitatione Christi_:

    "The style is pretty much like that of the other devotional books of
    Thomas à Kempis. Nevertheless, in his lifetime it was attributed to St.
    Bernard and Gerson. The latter was most commonly esteemed the author of
    it in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Afterwards some MSS. of it
    were found in Italy, where it is attributed to one Gerson or Gessen, to
    whom is given the title of _abbot_. Perhaps Gersen or Gessen are only
    corruptions of the name of Gerson. Notwithstanding, there are two
    things which will hardly let us believe that this was Gerson's book;
    one, that the author calls himself a monk, the other, that the style is
    very different from that of the Chancellor of Paris. All this makes it
    difficult to decide to which of these three authors it belongs. We must
    leave Thomas à Kempis in possession of what is attributed to him,
    without deciding positively in his favour."

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

This saying is quoted twice, as follows, in _The Chronicle of Battel Abbey
from 1066 to 1177_, translated by Mr. Lower, 8vo., London, 1851:

    "Thus, '_Man proposes, but God disposes_,' for he was not permitted to
    carry that resolution into effect."--P. 27.

    "But, as the Scripture saith, '_Man proposes, but God disposes_,' so
    Christ suffered not His Church to want its ancient and rightful
    privileges."--P. 83.

Mr. Lower says in his Preface, p. x.:

    "Of the identity of the author nothing certain can be inferred, beyond
    the bare fact of his having been a monk of Battel. A few passages would
    almost incline one to believe that Abbot Odo, who was living at the
    date of the last events narrated in the work, and who is known to have
    been a literary character of some eminence, was the writer of at least
    some portions of the volume."

It is stated at the beginning to be in part derived from early document and
traditional statements.

E. J. M.

Hastings.

       *       *       *       *       *

NAPOLEON'S SPELLING.

(Vol. viii., pp. 386. 502.)

The question as to Napoleon's spelling may seem, at first sight, to be one
of little importance; and yet, if we will look at it aright, we shall find
that it involves many points of interest for the philosopher and the
historian. During a residence of some years in France, I had heard it
remarked, more than once, by persons who appeared hostile to the Napoleon
dynasty, that its great founder had, in his bulletins and other public
documents, shown an unaccountable ignorance of the common rules of
orthography: but I had never seen the assertion put forth by any competent
writer until I met with the remarks of Macaulay, already quoted by me, Vol.
viii., p. 386.

In reply to my inquiry as to the authority for this statement, your
correspondent C. has readily and kindly furnished a passable from
Bourrienne's _Mémoires_, in which it is alleged that Napoleon's
"orthographe est en général _extraordinairement estropiée_."

From all this it must be taken for granted, as, indeed, it has never been
denied, that Napoleon's spelling is defective; but the question to be
considered is, whether that defectiveness was the effect of ignorance or of
design. That it did not arise from ignorance would seem probable for the
following reasons.

Napoleon received his education chiefly in France; and it is to be presumed
that the degree of instruction in grammar, orthography, &c., _ordinarily_
bestowed on educated Frenchmen, was not withheld from him.

To say the least of it, he was endued with sufficient intelligence to
acquire an _ordinary_ knowledge of such matters.

Nay more: he was a man of the highest order of genius. Between the
possession of genius, and a knowledge of orthography, there is, I admit, no
necessary connexion. The humblest pedagogue may be able to spell more
correctly than the greatest philosopher. But neither, on the other hand,
does genius of any kind necessarily preclude a knowledge of spelling.

While still a young man, Napoleon wrote several works in French, such as
the _Souper de Beaucaire_, the _Mémoire sur la Culture du Mûrier_, &c. Some
of the manuscripts of these writings must be still extant; and a comparison
of the spelling of his unpretending youth, with that of his aspiring {204}
manhood, would show at once whether the "_orthographe extraordinairement
estropiée_" of his later productions was the result of habit or design.

The orthography of the French language is peculiarly intricate; and it is
no uncommon thing to meet with educated men in that country who are unable
to spell with accuracy. That Napoleon may have been in a similar
predicament, would not be surprising; but that it should be said of the
most _extraordinary_ man of the age, that his spelling is
_extraordinairement estropiée_, seems inexplicable upon any fair
supposition, except that he accounted the rules of spelling unworthy the
attention of any but copyists and office drudges; or (which is more
probable) that he wished this extraordinary spelling to be received as an
indication of the great rapidity with which he could commit his thoughts to
paper.

HENRY H. BREEN.

       *       *       *       *       *

MEMOIRS OF GRAMMONT.

(Vol. viii., pp. 461. 549.; Vol. ix., p. 3.)

There appearing to be a strong feeling that a correct edition of these
_Memoirs_ should be published, with the present inaccurate notes thoroughly
revised, I send you a few notes from a collection I have made on the
subject.

The proper orthography of the name is "Gramont," and the family probably
originally came from Spain. Matta's friend, the Marquis de Sevantes,
asserts the fact; and it is corroborated by the fact, that on the occasion
of the Marshal de Grammont's demanding the hand of the Infanta Maria
Theresa for Louis XIV., the people cried, "Viva el Marescal de Agramont,
que es de nuestro sangue!" And the King of Spain said to the Marshal after
the presentation of his sons, the Counts de Guiche and De Louvigny, "Teneis
Muy Buenos y lindos hijos y bien se hecha de ver que los Agramonteses salen
de la sangue de Espana."

The Grammont family had been so enriched and ennobled by its repeated
marriages with the heiresses of great families, that, like many noble
houses of our own times, members of it hardly knew their own correct
surname: thus, in the famous declaration of the parliament of Paris against
the Peers in 1717, on the subject of the Caps, it was said:

    "The Grammonts have determined on their armorial bearings, and hold to
    those of the house of Aure. The Count de Grammont said one day to the
    Marshal, What arms shall we use this year?"

The Grammonts in the male line are descended from Sancho Garcia d'Aure,
Viscount de l'Arboust. Menaud d'Aure, his lineal representative, married
Claire de Grammont, sister and heiress of Jean, Seigneur de Grammont, and
daughter of Francis, Seigneur de Grammont, and Catherine d'Andoins his
wife.

Menaud d'Aure is the ancestor who is disguised in the _Memoirs_ as
"Menaudaure" and "Menodore;" and in the notes, coupled with "la belle
Corisande," they are styled two of the ancestresses of the family
celebrated for their beauty.

Philibert, who was styled Philibert de Grammont and de Toulongeon, Count de
Grammont and de Guiche, Viscount d'Aster, Captain of fifty men at arms,
Governor and Mayor of Bayonne, Seneschal of Bearne, married on Aug. 7,
1567, Diana, better known as "La belle Corisande" d'Andouins, Viscountess
de Louvigny, Dame de Lescun, the only daughter of Paul Viscount de
Louvigny; who, although a Huguenot, was killed at the siege of Rouen,
fighting under the command of the Duke de Guise. They had two children:
Antoine, subsequently the first duke, and Catherine, who married Francois
Nompar de Chaumont, Count de Lauzun, the ancestor of the celebrated Duke de
Lauzun, who was first introduced at court by his relative the Marshal de
Grammont.

This Philibert, Count de Grammont, was killed at the siege of La Fere in
Aug. 1580. The connexion between his widow, the fair Corisande, and Henry
IV., was subsequent to the Count's death.

The Duchy Peerage was created on Dec. 13, 1643. Antoine, the first duke,
married, firstly, on Sept. 1, 1601, Louise, eldest daughter of the Marshal
de Roquelaure; she died in 1610, leaving Antoine, subsequently the Marshal
Duke de Grammont, and Roger, Count de Louvigny, killed in a duel in
Flanders on March 18, 1629. The Duke de Grammont married, secondly, on
March 29, 1618, Claude, eldest daughter of Louis de Montmorency, Baron de
Boutteville; and had Henri, Count de Toulongeon, who died unmarried on
Sept. 1, 1679; Philibert, the celebrated Chevalier de Grammont, who was
born in 1621; and three daughters.

The Marshal de Grammont was one of the most celebrated men of the court of
Louis XIV.: he was a favourite both of Richelieu and Mazarin, and married a
niece of the former; and, as a wit, was not inferior to his brother the
Chevalier. He sided with the Court during the wars of the Fronde; whilst
the Chevalier in the first instance joined the Prince of Condé, probably
from their mutual connexion with the Montmorency family. The Marshal died
at Bayonne, on July 12, 1678, aged seventy-four years, leaving four
children, of whom the Count de Guiche and the Princess de Monaco are well
known.

The Chevalier de Grammont received his outfit from his mother, and joined
the army under Prince Thomas of Savoy, then besieging Trin in Piedmont,
which was taken on Sept. 24, 1643. The notes to the _Memoirs_ say May 4,
1639; but that {205} was a former siege by the French, then under the
command of the Cardinal de la Vallette.

Probably this will be as much as you can afford space for at present, and I
will therefore reserve any farther communications for a future Number.

W. H. LAMMIN.

Fulham.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE MYRTLE BEE.

(Vol. viii., p. 593.)

Ere venturing an opinion as to the exact size of the above, as compared
with the Golden-crested Wren, I should much like to ascertain where I am
likely to meet with a faithful specimen of the latter? The Myrtle Bee is
about half the size of the common Wren, certainly not larger: and I always
took it for granted, the bird derived its name from its diminutiveness and
the cover it frequented. I cannot say the bird was generally known in the
neighbourhood, having only met with it when in company with sportsmen, in a
description of country little frequented by others. I originally obtained
the name when a boy from a deceased parent whom I accompanied out shooting;
and for a succession of years the bird was familiar to me, in fact, to all
sportsmen of that period who shot over the immediate locality; we all knew
it, although its name was seldom mentioned. In fact, it never induced a
thought beyond--"Confound the bees, how they bother the dogs"--or some such
expression. I am unacquainted with the Dartford Warbler (_Sylvia
provincialis_, Gmel.); but the description as quoted by Mr. Salmon from
Yarrell's _Hist. of British Birds_, 1839, vol. i. p. 311. et seq., differs
from the Myrtle Bee. The Warbler is said to haunt and build among furze on
commons, and flies with jerks; whereas I never met with the Myrtle Bee
among furze, neither does it fly with jerks: on the contrary, its short
flight is rapid, steady, and direct. The description of the Warbler appears
to agree with a small bird well known here as the Furze Chat, but which is
out of all proportion as compared with the Myrtle Bee.

As regards the Query touching the possibility of my memory being
treacherous respecting the colour of the bird, after a lapse of twenty-five
years, more faith will be placed therein on my stating that I am an old
fly-fisher, making my own flies: and that no strange bird ever came to hand
without undergoing a searching scrutiny as to colour and texture of the
feathers, with the view of converting it to fishing purposes. No such use
could be made of the Bee. In a former Number I described the tongue of the
Myrtle Bee as round, sharp, and pointed at the end, appearing capable of
penetration. I beg to say that I was solely indebted to accident in being
able to do so, viz. the tongue protruded beyond the point of the bill,
owing to the pressure it received in my dog's mouth; the dog having brought
it out enveloped in dead grass, from the foot of the myrtle bush.

CHARLES BROWN.

       *       *       *       *       *

CELTIC ETYMOLOGY.

(Vol. ix., p. 136.)

MR. CROSSLEY seems to confine the word _Celtic_ to the Irish branch of that
dialect. My notion of the words _iosal_ and _iriosal_ is taken from the
Highland Gaelic, and the authorised version of the Bible in that language.
Let Celtic scholars who look to the sense of words in the _four_ spoken
languages, decide between us. There can be no doubt of the meaning of the
two words in the Gaelic of Job v. 11. and Ps. iv. 6. In Welsh, and (I
believe) in bas-Breton, there is no word similar to _uim_ or _umhal_, in
the senses of _humus_ and _humilis_, to be found. In Gaelic _uir_ is more
common than _uim_, and _talamh_ more common than either in the sense of
_humus_; and in that of _humble_, _iosal_ and _iriosal_ are much more
common than _umhal_.

It is certain that Latin was introduced into Ireland before it reached the
Highlands, and Christianity with it; and therefore, as this word is not
found in one branch of the Celtic at all, and is not a very common word in
another, it is not unreasonable to suppose that it is of Latin origin. The
sense which MR. CROSSLEY declares to be the only sense of _iosal_ and
_iriosal_, is precisely that which is the nearest to the original meaning
of _low_, and _low as the earth_; and this is also the sense which
_humilis_ always bears in classical Latin, though Christianity (which first
recognised _humility_ as a virtue, instead of stigmatising it as a
meanness) attached to it the sense which its derivatives in all modern
Romance languages, with the exception of Italian, exclusively bear.

Now MR. CROSSLEY has omitted to notice the fact that _umhal_ in Gaelic,
and, I believe, _umal_ in Irish, have not the intermediate sense of _low_
and _cringing_, but only the Christian sense of _humble_, as a virtuous
attribute. It seems natural that if _uim_ and _umal_ were radical words,
the latter would bear the some relation to _uim_, in every respect, which
_humilis_ does to _humus_, its supposed derivative. But unless _humus_ be
derived from [Greek: chamai] (the root of [Greek: chthôn] and [Greek:
chthamalos]), how does MR. CROSSLEY account for the _h_, which had a sound
in Latin as well as _horror_ and _hostilis_, both of which retain the
aspirate in English, though they lose it in French? If MR. CROSSLEY will
tell me why _horreur_ and _hostile_ have no aspirate in French, I will tell
him why _heir_, _honour_, and _humour_ have none in English, though _humid_
(which is as closely connected with _humour_, as _humidus_ is with _humor_)
retains the aspirate. {206}

These Celtic etymologies, however, though amusing, do not touch the main
point, which is simply this: the usual mode of pronouncing the word
_humble_ in good English society. What that is, seems to be so
satisfactorily shown by your correspondent S. G. C., Vol. viii., p. 393.,
that all farther argument on the subject would be superfluous.

E. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Improvements in the Albumenized Process._--Your expectation of being soon
able to announce the successful manufacture of a new negative calotype
paper, will, I am sure, be gladly received by many photographers, and
especially by those who, like me, have been subjected to much
disappointment with Turner's paper. For one sheet that has turned out well,
at least half-a-dozen have proved useless from spottiness, and some sheets
do not take the iodizing solution evenly, from an apparent want of
uniformity in the texture of the paper, which causes the solution to
penetrate portions the moment it is laid on the solution. Undoubtedly, when
it does succeed, it is superior to Whatman's, but this is not enough to
compensate for its extreme uncertainty.

In DR. DIAMOND'S directions for the calotype, he gave a formula for the
addition of bromide of potassium to the iodide of potassium, but did not
speak with much certainty as to the proportions. Will he kindly say whether
he has made farther trials; and if so, whether they confirm the proportions
given by him, or have led him to adopt any change in this respect? and will
he likewise say whether the iodizing solution which he recommends for
Turner's paper, is suitable also to Whatman's?

In albumenizing paper, I have not found it desirable to remove the paper
very slowly from the solution. Whenever I have done so, it has invariably
dried with waves and streaks, which quite spoiled the sheet. A steady
motion, neither too slow nor too quick, I have found succeed perfectly, so
that I now never spoil a sheet. I have used the solution with less albumen
than recommended by DR. DIAMOND. My formula has been.--

  Albumen              8 oz.
  Water                12 oz.
  Muriate ammon.       60 grs.
  Common salt          60 grs.

And this, I find, gives a sufficient gloss to the paper; but that of course
is a matter of taste.

I have not either found it essential to allow the paper to remain on the
solution three minutes or longer, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND. With
Canson paper, either negative or positive, a minute and a half has been
sufficient. I have used two dishes, and as soon as a sheet was removed,
drained, and replaced, I have taken the sheet from the other dish. In this
way I found that each sheet lay on the solution about one and a half
minutes, and with the assistance of a person to hang and dry them (which I
have done before a fire), I have prepared from forty to forty-five sheets
in an hour, requiring of course to be ironed afterwards.

I have tried a solution of nitrate of silver of thirty grains to one ounce
of distilled water, to excite this paper, and it appears to answer just as
well as forty grains. I send you two small collodion views, takes by me and
printed on albumenized paper prepared as mentioned, and excited with a
30-grain solution of nitrate of silver.

Is there any certain way of telling the right side of Canson paper,
negative and positive? On the positive paper on one side, when held in a
particular position towards the light, shaded bars may be observed; and on
this side, when looked _through_, the name reads right. Is this the right
or the wrong side?

C. E. F.

Since I wrote to you last, I have tried a solution of twelve grains only of
nitrate of silver to the ounce of distilled water, for the paper
albumenized, as mentioned in my letter of the 13th of February, and have
found it to answer perfectly. The paper I used was _thin_ Canson, floated
for one minute exactly on the solution; but I have no doubt the thick
Canson will succeed just as well; and here I may observe that I have never
found any advantage in allowing the paper to rest on the solution for three
or four minutes, as generally recommended, but the contrary, as the paper,
without being in the least more sensitive, becomes much sooner discoloured
by keeping. My practice has been to float the thin Canson about half a
minute, and the thick Canson not more than a minute.

C. E. F.

_Mr. Crookes on restoring old Collodion._--I am happy to explain to your
correspondent what I consider to be the _rationale_ of the process.

The colour which iodized collodion assumes on keeping, I consider to be
entirely due to the gradual separation of iodine from the iodide of
potassium or ammonium originally introduced. There are several ways in
which this may take place; if the cotton on paper contain the slightest
trace of nitric acid, owing to its not being _thoroughly_ washed (and this
is not as easy as is generally supposed), the liberation of iodine in the
collodion is certain to take place a short time after its being made.

It is possible also that there may be a gradual decomposition of the
zyloidin itself, and consequent liberation of the iodide by this means,
with formation of nitrate of potassa or ammonia; but the most probable
cause I consider to be the following. The ether gradually absorbs oxygen
from the atmosphere, being converted into acetic acid; this, by its
superior affinities, reacts on the iodide present, converting it into
acetate, with liberation of hydriodic acid; while this latter, under the
influence of the atmospheric oxygen, is very rapidly converted into water
and iodine.

I am satisfied by experiment that this is one of the causes of the
separation of iodine, and I think it is the only one, for the following
reason; neither bromised nor chlorised collodion undergo the slightest
change of colour, however long they may be kept. Now, if the former
agencies were at work, there is no reason why bromine should not be
liberated from a bromide as well as iodine from an iodide; but on the
latter {207} supposition, could take place, the affinities of acetic acid
being insufficient to displace hydrobromic acid.

A great many experiments which I tried last autumn, for the express purpose
of clearing up this point, have convinced me that, _cæteris paribus_, the
addition of free iodine to the iodizing solution, tends to diminish the
sensitiveness of the subsequently formed iodide of silver. On paper, this
diminution of sensitiveness is attended with some advantages, so that at
present I hardly know whether to introduce the free iodine or not; but in
collodion, as far as my experience goes, I see no reason for retaining it;
on the contrary, everything seems to be in favour of its removal.

I can hardly imagine that the increased sensitiveness mentioned by MR.
HENNAH is really due to the free iodine which he introduces. Such a result
being so contrary to all my experience, I would venture to suggest that
there must be some other cause for its beneficial action; for instance,
commercial iodide of potassium is generally alkaline, owing to impurities
present; the tincture of iodine in this case would render the collodion
neutral, and unless a very large excess of iodine were introduced, its good
effects would be very apparent. This, however, involving the employment of
impure chemicals, is a very improbable explanation of a phenomenon observed
by so excellent an operator as MR. HENNAH: there is most likely some local
cause which would be overlooked unless expressly searched for.

With regard to the point, whether the free iodine is the _sole_ cause of
the deterioration of old collodion, I should say decidedly not, at least in
a theoretical view; the liberation of free iodine necessitates some other
changes in the collodion, and the result must be influenced by these in one
way or another, but practically I have as yet found nothing to warrant the
supposition that they perceptibly interfere with the sensitiveness of the
film.

In the above I have endeavoured as much as possible to avoid
technicalities, in order to make it intelligible to amateurs; but if there
be any part which may be considered obscure, on its being pointed out to
me, I will endeavour to solve the difficulty.

WILLIAM CROOKES.

Hammersmith.

_Photographic Queries._--1. Would you, Sir, or DR. DIAMOND (DR. MANSELL is
too far off), be kind enough to inform your readers whether DR. MANSELL'S
process, recommended in No. 225., is equally applicable to _inland_ as to
sea-side operations; or must we, in the one case, follow DR. DIAMOND, and
in the other DR. MANSELL, and thus be compelled to prepare two sets of
papers?

2. DR. MANSELL recommends, as a test for the iodized paper, a _strong_
solution of bichloride of mercury; may we ask _how strong_?

3. MR. SISSON'S developing fluid has undergone so many changes, and has
been so much written about, that we are at a loss to discover or to
determine whether it has been at length settled, in the mind of the
inventor, that it will do equally well for negatives as for positives.

FOUR PHOTOGRAPHIC READERS.

    [1. Both papers are equally available for both purposes. In actual
    practice we have not ourselves experienced any difference in their
    results.

    2. It is quite immaterial. A drachm of bichloride dissolved in one
    ounce of spirits of wine will cause a cloudiness and a precipitate, if
    a very few drops are added to the tested water.

    3. In general the salts of iron are more adapted for positives, and
    weak pyrogallic acid solutions for negatives; say one and a half grain
    of pyrogallic acid, twenty minims of glacial acetic acid, and an ounce
    of distilled water.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_London Fortifications_ (Vol. ix., p. 174.).--In last week's Number is an
inquiry as to "London Fortifications" in the time of the Commonwealth.

There is a Map by Vertue, dated 1738, in a folio _History of London_; there
is one a trifle smaller, copied from the above; also one with page of
description, _Gentleman's Magazine_, June, 1749. I subscribed to a set of
twenty etchings, published last year by Mr. P. Thompson of the New Road;
they are very curious, being facsimiles of a set of drawings done by a
Capt. John Eyre of Oliver Cromwell's own regiment, dated 1643. The drawings
are now I believe in the possession of the City of London.

A CONSTANT READER.

    [The drawings referred to by our correspondent are, we hear, by
    competent judges regarded as _not genuine_. Such also, we are told, is
    the opinion given of many drawings ascribed to Hollar and Captain John
    Eyre, which have been purchased by a gentleman of our acquaintance, and
    submitted by him to persons most conversant with such drawings. Query,
    Are the drawings purporting to be by Captain John Eyre, drawings of the
    period at which they are dated?]

_Burke's Domestic Correspondence_ (Vol. ix., p. 9.).--In reference to a
Query in "N.& Q." relative to unpublished documents respecting Edmund
Burke, I beg to inform your correspondent N. O. that I have no doubt but
that some new light might be thrown on the subject by an application to Mr.
George Shackleton, Ballitore, a descendant of Abraham Shackleton, Burke's
old schoolmaster, who I believe has a quantity of letters written to his
old master Abraham, and also to his son Richard, who had Burke for a
schoolfellow, and continued the friendship afterwards, both by writing and
personally. When Richard attended yearly meetings in London, he was always
a guest at Beaconsfield. Burke was so much attached to Richard, that on one
of these visits he caused Shackleton's portrait to be painted and presented
it to him, and it is now in the possession of the above family. I have no
doubt but that an application to the above gentleman would produce some
testimony.

F. H.

{208}

_Battle of Villers-en-Couché_ (Vol. viii. _passim_).--A good account of
this celebrated engagement, with several authentic documents relating to
what happened on the occasion, will be found in that very interesting
little work, _Risen from the Ranks_, by the Rev. E. Neale (London,
Longmans, 1853).

JAMES SPENCE HARRY.

"_I could not love thee, dear, so much_" (Vol. ix., p. 125.).--These lines
are from an exquisite _morceau_ entitled _To Lucasta, on going to the
Wars_, by the gay, gallant, and ill-fated cavalier, Richard Lovelace, whose
undying loyalty and love, and whose life, and every line that he wrote, are
all redolent of the best days of chivalry. They are to be found in a 12mo.
volume, _Lucasta_, London, 1649. The entire piece is so short, that I
venture to subjoin it:

  "Tell me not, sweet, I am unkinde,
    That from the nunnerie
  Of thy chaste breast and quiet minde,
    To warre and armes I flie.

  "True, a new mistresse now I chase,
    The first foe in the field;
  And with a stronger faith imbrace
    A sword, a horse, a shield.

  "Yet this inconstancy is such,
    As you too shall adore;
  I could not love thee, deare, so much,
    Loved I not honour more."

To the honour of Kent be it remembered that Lovelace was       CANTIANUS.

    [We are also indebted for Replies to E. L. HOLT WHITE, GEO. E. FRERE,
    E. C. H., J. K. R. W., H. J. RAINES, M.D., F. J. SCOTT, W. J. B. SMITH,
    E. S. T. T., C. B. E., F. E. E., &c. "Lovelace (says Wood) made his
    amours to a gentlewoman of great beauty and fortune, named Lucy
    Sacheverel, whom he usually called Lux casta; but she, upon a strong
    report that he was dead of his wound received at Dunkirk (where he had
    brought a regiment for the service of the French king), soon after
    married."--Wood's _Athenæ Oxonienses_, vol. iii. p. 462.]

_Sir Charles Cotterell_ (Vol. viii., p. 564.).--Sir Charles Cotterell, the
translator of _Cassandra_, was Master of the Ceremonies to Charles II.;
which office he resigned to his son in 1686, and died about 1687. I cannot
say where he was buried. I am in possession of a copy of--

    "The Memorialls of Margaret de Valoys, first Wife to Henry the Fourth,
    King of France and Navarre; compiled in French by her own most delicate
    and Royal hand, and translated into English by Robert Codrington,
    Master of Arts: London, printed by R. H. 1661."

It is dedicated to "To the true lover of all good learning, the truly
honourable Sir Charles Cotterell, Knight, Master of the Ceremonies," &c. On
the fly-leaf of it is written, "Frances Cottrell, her booke, given by my
honor'd grandfather Sir Cha. Cottrell." This edition is not mentioned by
Lowndes; he only speaks of one of the date of 1662, with a title slightly
different.

C--S. T. P.

_Muffins and Crumpets_ (Vol. ix., p. 77).--Crumpet, according to Todd's
_Johnson_, is derived from A.-S. [Anglo-Saxon: crompeht], which Boswell
explains, "full of crumples, wrinkled." Perhaps muffin is derived from, or
connected with, the following:

    "MOFFLET. _Moffletus._ Mofletus Panis delicatioris species, qui diatim
    distribui solet Canonicis præbendariis; Tolosatibus _Pain Moufflet_,
    quasi _Pain molet_ dictus; forte quod ejusmodi panes singulis diebus
    coquantur, atque recentes et teneri distribuantur."--_Du Cange._

The latter part of the description is very applicable to this article.

Under _Panes Præbendarii_, Du Cange says, "Innoc. Cironus observat ejusmodi
panes Præbendarios dici, et in Tolosano tractu _Moufflets_ appellari." (See
"N. & Q," Vol. i., pp. 173. 205. 253.)

ZEUS.

Todd, for the derivation of crumpet, gives the Saxon [Anglo-Saxon:
crompeht]. To _crump_ is to eat a hard cake (Halliwell's _Archaisms_).
Perhaps its usual accompaniment on the tea-table may be indebted for its
name to its muff-like softness to the touch before toasting.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

"_Clunk_" (Vol. viii., p. 65.).--The Scotch, and English, _clunk_ must have
different meanings: for Jamieson defines the verb _to clunk_ "to emit a
hollow and interrupted sound, as that proceeding from any liquid confined
in a cask, when shaken, if the cask be not full;" and _to guggle_, as a
"straight-necked bottle, when it is emptying;" and yet I am inclined to
believe that the word also signifies _to swallow_, as in England. In the
humorous ballad of "Rise up and bar the door," _clunk_ seems to be used in
the sense of to swallow:

  "And first they eat the while puddins, and then they eat the black;
  The gudeman said within himsel, the Deil _clunk_ ower ai that."

That is, may you swallow the devil with the black puddings, they perhaps
being the best to the good man's taste. True, I have seen the word printed
"clink," instead of _clunk_ in this song; but erroneously I think, as there
is no signification of _clink_ in Jamieson that could be appropriately used
by the man who saw his favourite puddings devoured before his face. To
_clink_, means to "beat smartly", to "rivet the point of a nail," to
"propagate scandal, or any rumour quickly;" none of which significations
could be substituted for _clunk_ in the ballad.

HENRY STEPHENS.

_Picts' Houses_ (Vol. viii., p. 392.).--Such buildings underground as those
described as Picts' {209} houses, were not uncommon on the borders of the
Tweed. A number of them, apparently constructed as described, were
discovered in a field on the farm of Whitsome Hill, Berwickshire, about
forty years ago. They were supposed to have been made for the detention of
prisoners taken in the frays during the Border feuds: and afterwards they
were employed to conceal spirits, smuggled either across the Border, or
from abroad.

HENRY STEPHENS.

_Tailless Cats_ (Vol. ix., p. 10.).--The tailless cats are still procurable
in the Isle of Man, though many an unfortunate pussey with the tail cut off
is palmed off as genuine on the unwary. The real tailless breed are rather
longer in the hind legs than the ordinary cat, and grow to a large size.

P. P.

Though not a Manx man by birth, I can assure your correspondent SHIRLEY
HIBBERD, that there is not only a species of tailless cats in the Isle of
Man, but also of tailless barn-door fowls. I believe the latter are also to
be found in Malta.

E. P. PALING.

Chorley.

"_Cock-and-bull story_" (Vol. v., pp. 414. 447.).--DR. MAITLAND, in his
somewhat sarcastic remarks respecting "cock-and-bull stories," extracted
from Mr. Faber's work, has, no doubt, given a true account of the "cock on
the church steeple, as being symbolical of a doctor or teacher." Still I
cannot see that this at all explains the expression of a "cock-and-bull
story." Will DR. MAITLAND be so good as to enlighten me on this point?

I. R. R.

_Market Crosses_ (Vol. v., p. 511.).--Does not the marriage at the market
cross allude simply to the civil marriages in the time of the Commonwealth,
not alluding to any religious edifice at all? An inspection of many parish
registers of that period will, I think, prove this.

I. R. R.

"_Largesse_" (Vol. v., p. 557.).--The word _largesse_ is not peculiar to
Northamptonshire: I well remember it used in Essex at harvest-time, being
shouted out at such time through the village to ask for a gift, as I always
understood. A. B. may be referred to _Marmion_, Canto I. note 10.

I. R. R.

_Awkward, Awart, Awalt_ (Vol. viii., p. 310.).--When fat sheep roll over
upon their backs, and cannot get up of themselves, they are said to be
lying _awkward_, in some places _awalt_, and in others _awart_. Is
_awkward_, in this sense, the same word that treated by H. C. K.?

S.

_Morgan Odoherty_ (Vol. viii., p. 11.).--In reference to the remarks of MR.
J. S. WARDEN on the Morgan Odoherty of Blackwood's _Magazine_, I had
imagined it was very generally known by literary men that that _nom de
guerre_ was assumed by the late Captain Hamilton, author of the _Annals of
the Peninsular Campaigns_, and other works; and brother of Sir William
Hamilton, Professor of Logic in the University of Edinburgh. I had never
heard, until mentioned by MR. WARDEN, that Dr. Maginn was ever identified
with that name.

S.

_Black Rat_ (Vol. vii., p. 206.).--In reply to the question of MR. SHIRLEY
HIBBERD, whether the original rat of this country is still in existence, I
may mention, that in the agricultural districts of Forfarshire, the Black
Rat (_Mus rattus_) was in existence a few years ago. On pulling down the
remains of an old farm-steading in 1823, after the building of a new one,
they were there so numerous, that a greyhound I had destroyed no fewer than
seventy-seven of them in the course of a couple of hours. Having used
precautions against their lodgment in the new steading, under the floors,
and on the tops of the party walls, they were effectually banished from the
farm.

HENRY STEPHENS.

_Blue Bells of Scotland_ (Vol. viii., p. 388.).--Your correspondent [Old
English W]. of Philadelphia is in error in supposing that the beautiful
song, "Blue Bells of Scotland," was any reference to bells painted blue.
That charming melody refers to a very common pretty flower in Scotland, the
_Campanula latifolia_ of Linnæus, the flowers of which are drooping and
bell-shaped, and of a blue colour.

HENRY STEPHENS.

_Grammars, &c. for Public Schools_ (Vol. ix., p. 8., &c.).--Pray add to the
list a Latin grammar, under the title of _The Common Accidence Improved_,
by the Rev. Edward Owen, Rector of Warrington, and for fifty years Master
of the Grammar School founded in that town, under the will of Sir Thomas
Boteler, on April 27, 1526. I believe it was first published in 1770, but
the copy now before me is of an edition printed in 1800; and the Preface
contains a promise (I know not whether afterwards fulfilled) of the early
publication of the rules, versified on the plan of Busbey and Ruddiman,
under the title of _Elementa Latina Metrica_.

J. F. M.

_Warville_ (Vol. viii., p. 516.).--As regards the letter _W_, there is a
distinction to be made between proper names and other words in the French
language. The exclusion of that letter from the alphabet is sufficient
proof that there are no words of French origin that begin with it; but the
proper names in which it figures are common enough in recent times. Of
these, the greater number have been imported from the neighbouring
countries of Germany, Switzerland, and {210} Belgium: and some too are of
local origin or formation.

In the latter category is the name of _Warville_, which is derived from
Ouarville, near Chartres, where Brissot was born in 1754. Between the
French _ouar_ and our "war," there is a close similarity of sound; and in
the spirit of innovation, which characterised the age of Brissot, the
transition was a matter of easy accomplishment. Hence the _nom de guerre_
of Warville, by which he was known to his cotemporaries.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

_The Camden Society_ has just issued a volume of domestic letters, which
contain much curious illustration of the stirring times to which they
refer. The volume is entitled _Letters of the Lady Brilliana Harley, wife
of Sir Robert Harley, of Brampton Bryan, Knight of the Bath, with
Introduction and Notes_, by the Rev. T. T. Lewis. The writer, Lady
Brilliana, was a daughter of Sir Edward Conway, afterwards Baron Conway,
and is supposed to have been born whilst her father was Lieut.-Governor of
the "Brill." The earlier letters (1625-1633) are addressed to her husband,
the remainder (1638-1643) to her son Edward, during his residence at
Oxford. The appendix contains several documents of considerable historical
interest.

_Elements of Jurisprudence_, by C. J. Foster, M.A., Professor of
Jurisprudence at University College, London, is an able and well-written
endeavour to settle the principles upon which law is to be founded.
Believing that law is capable of scientific reduction, Professor Foster has
in this little work attempted, and with great ability, to show the
principles upon which he thinks it must be so reduced.

Mr. Croker has reprinted from _The Times_ his correspondence with Lord John
Russell on some passages of Moore's _Diary_. In the postscript which he has
added, explanatory of Mr. Moore's acquaintance and correspondence with him,
Mr. Croker convicts Moore, by passages from his own letters, of writing
very fulsomely _to_ Mr. Croker, at the same time that he was writing very
sneeringly _of_ him.

A three days' sale of very fine books, from the library of a collector, was
concluded on Wednesday the 22nd ult. by Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson, at
their house in Wellington Street. The following prices of some of the more
rare and curious lots exhibit a high state of bibliographical prosperity,
notwithstanding the gloomy aspect of these critical times:--Lot 23,
Biographie Universelle, fine paper, 52 vols., 29l.; lot 82, Donne's Poems,
a fine large copy, 7l. 10s.; lot 90, Drummond of Hawthornden's Poems, 6l.;
lot 137, Book of Christian Prayers, known as Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book,
10l.; lot 53, a fine copy of Coryat's Crudities, 10l. 15s.; lot 184,
Breydenbach, Sanctarum Peregrinationum in Montem Syon, first edition, 15l.
15s.; lot 190, the Book of Fayttes of Armes and Chyvalry, by Caxton, with
two leaves in fac-simile, 77l.; lot 192, Chaucer's Works, the edition of
1542, 10l. 5s.; lot 200, Dugdale's Warwickshire, 13l. 10s.; lot 293, a
gorgeous Oriental Manuscript from the Palace of Tippoo Saib, enriched with
157 large paintings, full of subject, 112l.; lot 240, Horæ Virginis Mariæ,
a charming Flemish Manuscript, with 12 exquisite illuminations of a high
class, 100l.; lot 229, Milton's Minor Poems, first edition, 6l. 6s.; lot
315, Navarre Nouvelles, fine paper, 5l. 5s.; lot 326, Fenton's Certaine
Tragicall Discourses, first edition, 11l.; lot 330, Gascoigne's
Pleasauntest Workes, fine copy, 14l.; lot 344, Horæ Virginis Mariæ,
beautifully printed upon vellum, by Kerver, 26l.; lot 347, Latimer's
Sermons, Daye, 1571, 14l.; lot 364, Milton's Comus, first edition, 10l.
10s.; lot 365, Milton's Paradise Lost, first edition, 12l. 17s. 6d.; lot
376, The Shah Nameh, a fine Persian manuscript, 10l. 12s. 6d.; lot 379,
Froissart Chroniques, first edition, 22l. 15s.; lot 381, a fine copy of
Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, five vols., 69l.; lot 390, the original
edition of Holinshed's Chronicles, 16l. 10s.; lot 401, Lancelot du Lac,
Chevalier de la Table Ronde, Petit, 1533, 16l.; lot 406, the original
edition of Laud's Book of Common Prayer, 12l. 15s.; lot 412, Meliadus de
Leonnoys, a romance of the round table, 11l.; lot 417, a superb copy of
Montfaucon's Works, with the La Monarchie Française, 50l.; lot 418, Works
of Sir Thomas More, with the rare leaf, 14l. 5s.; lot 563, Shakspeare's
Life of Sir John Oldcastle, 11l.; lot 564, A Midsomer Night's Dream (1600),
18l. 5s.; lot 611, Shakspeare's Comedies, fine copy of the second edition,
28l.; lot 599, the celebrated Letter of Cardinal Pole, printed on large
paper, of which two copies only are known, 64l.; lot 601, Purchas, his
Pilgrimes, five vols., a fine copy, with the rare frontispiece, 65l. 10s.
The 634 lots produced 2,616l. 4s. 6d.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Dante translated into English Verse_, by J. C. Wright,
M.A., with Thirty-four Engravings on Steel, after Flaxman. This new volume
of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_ is one of those marvels of cheapness with
which Mr. Bohn ever and anon surprises us.--_Curiosities of Bristol and its
Neighborhood_, Nos. I.-V., is a sort of local "N. & Q," calculated to
interest not Bristolians only.--_Poetical Works of John Dryden_, edited by
Robert Bell, Vol. II., forms the new volume of the _Annotated Edition of
the English Poets.--The Carafas of Maddaloni: Naples under Spanish
Dominion_, the new volume of Bohn's _Standard Library_, is a translation
from a German work of considerable research by Alfred Reumont.

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{211}

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F. T. _The characteristic description of_ The Weekly Pacquet, _by the
author of the continuation of Sir James Mackintosh's_ History of England,
_seems perfectly just. We had marked for quotation, as a sample of its
virulent tone, "The Ceremony and Manner of Baptizing Antichrist," in No.
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JOHN WESTON. _The insertion of paginal figures to the Advertisement pages
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hinted to us that many of our subscribers would wish to retain those pages.
We may probably dispense them in our next Volume._

FOREIGNER. _The Canon inquired after will be found to be the 18th of the
"Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical, A.D. 1603." Its partial
observance complained of by our Correspondent has been of late years
frequently discussed in the various Church periodicals and newspapers,
especially in the_ British Magazine, vols. xviii., xix., _and_ xx. _See
also the official judgment of the Bishop of London on this Canon in his_
Charge _of 1842_, p. 43.

PRIMERS OF THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH.--_With reference to the article under
this heading in last week's Number, we have been reminded that the_
Liturgies and Private Prayers _put forth by authority during the reign of
Elizabeth, which were reprinted by the_ Parker Society, _have been sold by
that Society to Mr. Brown, of Old Street, and may be purchased of him at a
very moderate price. The introductions contain much valuable information._

COMUS. _We cannot learn that there is an edition of_ Locke on the
Understanding _epitomised published at Oxford. There is one in the_ London
Catalogue, _published some years ago by Whittaker and Co., price 4s. 6d.,
which may perhaps still be had._

A BORDERER. _Our Correspondent_ MR. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY _wishes to address
a letter to_ A BORDERER; _how will it reach him?_

FRANCIS BEAUFORT. Biblia Sacra Latina, _two volumes in one, printed by R.
Rodt and B. Richel circa 1471, folio, was bought by Thorpe for 4l. 4s. at
the sale of the Duke of Sussex's library._

CLERICUS RUSTICUS _asks "Whence the term 'Mare's nest,' and when first
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HUGH HENDERSON (Glasgow). _It is not needful to use any iodide of silver in
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                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, sent free by post. It
contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads,
in iron, brass, japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, rosewood, and
walnut-tree woods; also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and
Quilts.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton: certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenised paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL & MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte
Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington. OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS,
Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street;
and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras,
Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerrotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists. 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s., per
Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *


PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial,
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E.
F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G.F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT AND LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Prices, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES,
WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other traveller requisites, Gratis on
application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
In Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Level, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 4,
1854.





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