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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 235, April 29, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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{389}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 235.]
SATURDAY, APRIL 29. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Curious Old Pamphlet                                         391
  Errata in Printed Bibles                                     391
  Impossibilities of History                                   392
  Unregistered Proverbs, by C. Mansfield Ingleby               392
  Mr. Justice Talfourd, by H. M. Bealby and T. J. Buckton      393
  The Screw Propeller                                          394
  Ancient Chattel-Property in Ireland, by James F. Ferguson    394
  Bishop Atterbury                                             395

  MINOR NOTES:--"Milton Blind"--Hydropathy--Cassie--The Duke
  of Wellington--Romford Jury--Edward Law (Lord Ellenborough),
  Chief Justice--Chamisso--Dates of Maps--Walton--Whittington's
  Stone on Highgate Hill--Turkey and France                    395

  QUERIES:--
  A Female Aide-Major                                          397

  MINOR QUERIES:--"Chintz Gowns"--"Noctes Ambrosianæ"--B.
  Simmons--Green Stockings--Nicholas Kieten--Warwickshire
  Badge--Armorial--Lord Brougham and Horne Tooke--Rileys
  of Forest Hill--Fish "Lavidian"--"Poeta nascitur, non
  fit"--John Wesley and the Duke of Wellington--Haviland--
  Byron--Rutabaga--A Medal--The Black Cap--The Aboriginal
  Britons                                                      397

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"Gossip"--Humphry Repton--
  "Oriel"--"Orchard"--"Peckwater"--Richard III.--Binding of
  old Books--Vessel of Paper                                   399

  REPLIES:--
  King James's Irish Army List, 1689, by John D'Alton          401
  Quotations Wanted, by G. Taylor, &c.                         402
  Oaths, by James F. Ferguson, &c.                             402
  Remuneration of Authors, by Alexander Andrews                404
  Occasional Forms of Prayer, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson,
  &c.                                                          404

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--
  Photographic Query--Improvement in Collodion--Printing
  Positives--Photographic Excursions                           406

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--"To Garble"--"Lyra Apostolica"--
  John Bale, Bishop of Ossory--Burial in an erect Posture--
  "Carronade"--"Largesse"--Precious Stones--"A Pinch of
  Snuff"--Darwin on Steam--Gale of Rent--Cobb Family--"Aches"
  --"Meols"--Polygamy--Wafers                                  407

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, &c.                                          410
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 410
  Notices to Correspondents                                    411

       *       *       *       *       *


THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE.

In consequence of the Advertisement Duty having been taken off, the
customary charges for Advertisements in "The Gardeners' Chronicle and
Agricultural Gazette" have been reduced.

Advertisements appear in both Editions without extra charge.

                                            s. d.
  Space of Four lines and under (body type) 2  6
  Each additional line up to Twenty         0  6

From the Official Stamp Returns published April 5, 1854, it appears that
during the three preceding years, 1851, 1852, and 1853, the Stamps supplied
to each of the undermentioned Journals gave them an average sale of--

  GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND
  AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE                  6277
  Era                                   5500
  Wesleyan Times                        5094
  Magnet                                4705
  Examiner                              4694
  Mark Lane Express                     4500
  Evening Mail                          4488
  Field                                 4409
  Morning Herald                        4021
  Daily News                            3910
  Guardian                              3904
  Economist                             3837
  British Banner                        3798
  Record                                3736
  Watchman                              3681
  Nonconformist                         2987
  Spectator                             2856
  St. James's Chronicle                 2844
  Morning Post                          2652
  Sun                                   2539
  Morning Chronicle                     2364
  Britannia                             2329
  Express                               2235
  Leader                                2140
  Herapath's Journal                    2066
  John Bull                             2020
  Globe                                 1926
  Weekly News                           1709
  United Service Gazette                1708
  Railway Times                         1641
  Atlas                                 1479
  Standard                              1456
  Naval and Military Gazette            1313
  Patriot                               1304
  Gardeners' and Farmers' Journal        752

OFFICE FOR ADVERTISEMENTS AND COMMUNICATIONS,

5. Upper Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


SECOND-HAND BOOKS.--Gratis and Post Free, a New Catalogue of Good and Cheap
Books, on Sale by SOTHERAN & CO., 331. Strand (opposite Somerset House).
Libraries purchased.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, Cheaper Edition, Two Volumes, fcap. 8vo., 9s.,

FRIENDS IN COUNCIL.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE CAMDEN SOCIETY for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary
Remains.

The ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING will be held at the FREEMASON'S TAVERN, Great
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, on TUESDAY, MAY 2, at Four o'clock.
LORD BRAYBROOKE, the President, in the Chair.

  WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are the Publications of the Society which have been issued
during the past year:--

I. PROMPTORIUM PARVULORUM: Tom. II. Edited by ALBERT WAY, Esq., M.A.,
F.S.A.

II. REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties
of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the 13th Century. Edited by
the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln.

III. LETTERS OF THE LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY: 1625-1643. Edited by the REV. T.
T. LEWIS, M.A.

IV. THE HOUSEHOLD ROLL OF RICHARD SWINFIELD, BISHOP OF HEREFORD, 18 Edw. I.
Vol. I. Edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., F.S.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due on the
1st of May.

Communications from gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed
to the Secretary, or to MESSRS. NICHOLS, No. 25. Parliament Street,
Westminster; by whom the Subscriptions are received.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.,

NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
"Microscopic Cabinet." By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also, in 8vo., pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every species, British and Foreign, the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By
ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

    "There is no work extant in which so much valuable information
    concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist
    should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


SMEE'S BINOCULAR PERSPECTIVE PHOTOGRAPHS.--A full account of the mode of
taking these extraordinary Likenesses in "Smee on the Eye," just published,
price 5s.

HORNE, THORNTHWAITE & WOOD, 123. Newgate Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{390}

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVIII., is published THIS DAY.

              CONTENTS:
     I. LAURENCE STERNE.
    II. SACRED GEOGRAPHY.
   III. THE WHIG PARTY.
    IV. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
     V. CRIMINAL LAW DIGEST.
    VI. THE TURKS AND THE GREEKS.
   VII. TREASURES OF ART IN BRITAIN.
  VIII. NEW REFORM BILL.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, No. VI., 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


NORTH BRITISH REVIEW. No. XLI. MAY. Price 6s.

              CONTENTS.
     I. THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS.
    II. BRITISH AND CONTINENTAL CHARACTERISTICS.
   III. THE UNION WITH ENGLAND AND SCOTTISH NATIONALITY.
    IV. CHRISTIANITY IN THE SECOND CENTURY, AND THE CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES.
     V. THE ART OF EDUCATION.
    VI. RUSKIN AND ARCHITECTURE, PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE.
   VII. PROFESSOR FORBES AND MR. LLOYD IN SCANDINAVIA.
  VIII. AUGUSTE COMTE AND POSITIVISM.

Edinburgh: W. P. KENNEDY. London: HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO. Dublin: J.
McGLASHAN.

       *       *       *       *       *


SIR ARCHIBALD ALISON'S NEW HISTORY.

THE HISTORY OF EUROPE, from the Fall of Napoleon to the Accession of Louis
Napoleon, in Five Vols. 8vo. Price 15s. each. Vols. I. and II. are
published.

The THIRD VOLUME, to be published in May, will contain:

Asia Minor, Greece, Turkey, in 1821--The Greek Revolution, Battle of
Navarino, and Establishment of Greek Independence--The war between Russia
and Turkey, 1827-1829--France to the Revolution of 1830, &c. &c.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISS STRICKLAND'S SCOTTISH QUEENS.

This Day is published, a Second Edition of Vols. I. and II. of

LIVES OF THE QUEENS OF SCOTLAND, AND ENGLISH PRINCESSES connected with the
Regal Succession of Great Britain. By AGNES STRICKLAND.

The Volumes published contain:--1. Life of Margaret Tudor, Magdalene of
France, and Mary of Lorraine. 2. Continuation of Mary of Lorraine, Margaret
Douglas, Countess of Lennox. 3. and 4. Life of Mary Stuart.

Price 10s. 6d. each, with Portraits and Historical Vignettes.

The Fifth Volume will be published early in Summer.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S BRITISH CLASSICS.--The new Volume of this Series of STANDARD
EDITIONS of ENGLISH AUTHORS, contains the Third Volume of CUNNINGHAM'S
EDITION OF GOLDSMITH'S WORKS, and is now published; and the Fourth Volume,
completing the Work, will be ready early in May.

  ALBEMARLE STREET,
  _April 29th, 1854_.

       *       *       *       *       *


RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY.

QUARTO SERIES.

Evangelia Augustini Gregoriana. By the REV. J. GOODWIN, B.D. 20s.

An Historical Inquiry touching St. Catherine of Alexandria, illustrated by
a Semi-Saxon Legend. By the REV. C. HARDWICK, M.A. 12s.

OCTAVO SERIES.

I. Anglo-Saxon Legends of St. Andrew and St. Veronica. By C. W. GOODWIN,
M.A. 3s. 6d.

II. Græco-Egyptian Fragment on Magic. By C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 3s. 6d.

III. Ancient Cambridgeshire. By C. C. BABINGTON, M.A. 3s. 6d.

Reports and Communications, Nos. I. and II. 1s. each.

Index to Baker Manuscripts. 7s. 6d.

J. DEIGHTON: MACMILLAN & CO., Cambridge.

JOHN W. PARKER & SON, and GEORGE BELL, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY FOR MAY.

LOCKE'S PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS, containing the "Essay on the Human
Understanding," the "Conduct of the Understanding," &c., with Preliminary
Discourse and Notes, by J. A. ST. JOHN, ESQ. In Two Volumes. With Portrait.
Vol. I. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S BRITISH CLASSICS FOR MAY.

ADDISON'S WORKS, with the Notes of BISHOP HURD. With Portrait and
Engravings on Steel. Vol. III. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOR MAY.

CATULLUS, TIBULLUS and THE VIGIL OF VENUS. A literal Prose Translation. To
which are added Metrical Versions by LAMB, GRAINGER, and others. With
Frontispiece. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY FOR MAY.

THEODORET AND EVAGRIUS. Histories of the Church, from A.D. 322 to A.D. 427,
and from A.D. 431 to A.D. 544. Translated from the Greek, with General
Index. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in 8vo., with Views, price, in cloth, 6s. 6d.; or, large
paper (royal 8vo.), price, in cloth, 12s.

DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL NOTICES of NORTHUMBRIAN CASTLES, CHURCHES, and
ANTIQUITIES. By WILLIAM SIDNEY GIBSON, Esq., F.S.A.--THIRD SERIES:
Comprising Visits to Naworth Castle, Lanercost Priory, and Corby Castle, in
Cumberland: the ruined Monasteries of Brinkburn, Jarrow, and Tynemouth;
Bishop Middleham, and the Town of Hartlepool; Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Durham
Cathedral.

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in 16mo., price 1s.

MOROCCO, its PRESENT STATE: A Chapter of Mussulman Civilisation. By XAVIER
DURRIEU. Forming Part 60 of the "Traveller's Library."

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in fcp. 8vo., price, in cloth, 6s.

THE STATISTICAL COMPANION for 1854: exhibiting the most interesting Facts
in Moral and Intellectual, Vital, Economical, and Political Statistics, at
Home and Abroad. Compiled by T. C. BANFIELD, Esq.

London: LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


CHUBB'S LOCKS, with all the recent improvements. Strong fire-proof safes,
cash and deed boxes. Complete list of sizes and prices may be had on
application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool;
16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE. MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical
Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the
most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *


{391}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 23, 1854._

Notes.

CURIOUS OLD PAMPHLET.

Grubbing among old pamphlets, the following has turned up:

    "A Fragment of an Essay towards the most ancient Histories of the Old
    and New Worlds, connected. Intended to be carried on in four Parts or
    Æras. That is, from the Creation of all Things to the Time of the
    Deluge: thence to the Birth of Abraham: from that Period to the Descent
    of Jacob and his Family into Egypt: and, lastly, to the Time of the
    Birth of Moses. Attempted to be executed in Blank Verse, 8vo. pp. 59.
    Printed in the year 1765."

This Miltonic rhapsody supposes Adam, when verging on his nine hundreth
year, to have assembled his descendants to a kind of jubilee, when
sacrifices, and other antediluvian solemnities, being observed, "Seth, the
pious son of his comfort, gravely arose, and, after due obedience to the
first of men, humbly beseeched the favour to have their memories refreshed
by a short history of the marvellous things in the beginning." Then Adam
thus:--Hereupon the anonymous author puts into the mouth of the great
progenitor of the human race a history of the Creation, in blank verse, in
accordance with the Mosaic and orthodox account. Concluding his revelations
without reference to the Fall, Seth would interrogate their aged sire upon
what followed thence, when Adam excuses himself from the painful recital by
predicting the special advent in after times of a mind equal to that task:

 "But of this Fall, this heart-felt, deep-felt lapse,
  This Paradise thus lost, no mortal man
  Shall sing which lives on earth.
                          Far distant hence
  In farther distant times, fair Liberty
  Shall reign, queen of the Seas, and lady of
  The Isles; nay, sovereign of the world's repose.
  And Peace!
          In her a mighty genius shall
  Arise, of high ethereal mould, great in
  Renown, sublime, superior far to praise
  Of sublunary man--or Fame herself.
    Though blind to all things here on earth below,
  The heav'ns of heav'ns themselves shall he explore,
  And soar on high with strong, with outstretched wings!
  There sing of marvels not to be conceived,
  Express'd, or thought by any but himself!"

This curious production is avowedly from the other side of the Tweed, and I
would ask if its paternity is known to any of your antiquarian
correspondents there or here.

The Fragment is preceded by a very remarkable Preface, containing "some
reasons why this little piece has thus been thrown off in such a loose and
disorderly manner;" among which figure the desire "to disperse a parcel of
them gratis,--because they are, perhaps, worth nothing; that nobody may pay
for his folly but himself; that, if his Fragment is damned, which it
probably may be, he will thenceforth drop any farther correspondence with
Adam, Noah, Abraham, &c.; and, lastly, that he may be benefited by the
criticisms upon its faults and failings, while he himself lurks cunningly
behind the curtain. But if, after all," says the facetious author, "this
little northern urchin shall chance to spring forward under the influence
of a more southern and warmer sun, the author will then endeavour to bring
his goods to market as plump, fresh, and fair as the soil will admit."

I presume, however, the public did not call for any of the farther
instalments promised in the title.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *

ERRATA IN PRINTED BIBLES.

Mr. D'Israeli, in his _Curiosities of Literature_, has an article entitled
"The Pearl Bibles and Six Thousand Errata," in which he gives some notable
specimens of the blunders perpetrated in the printing of Bibles in earlier
times. The great demand for them prompted unscrupulous persons to supply it
without much regard to carefulness or accuracy; and, besides, printers were
not so expert as at the present day.

    "The learned Ussher," Mr. D'Israeli tells us, "one day hastening to
    preach at Paul's Cross, entered the shop of one of the stationers, as
    booksellers were then called, and inquiring for a Bible of the London
    edition, when he came to look for his text, to his astonishment and his
    horror he discovered that the verse was omitted in the Bible! This gave
    the first occasion of complaint to the king, of the insufferable
    negligence and incapacity of the London press; and first bred that
    great contest which followed between the University of Cambridge and
    the London stationers, about the right of printing Bibles."

Even during the reign of Charles I., and in the time of the Commonwealth,
the manufacture of spurious Bibles was carried on to an alarming extent.
English Bibles were fabricated in Holland for cheapness, without any regard
to accuracy. Twelve thousand of these (12mo.) Bibles, with notes, were
seized by the King's printers as being contrary to the statute; and a large
impression of these Dutch-English Bibles were burned, by order of the
Assembly of Divines, for certain errors. The Pearl (24mo.) Bible, printed
by Field, in 1653, contains some scandalous blunders;--for instance,
Romans, vi. 13.: "Neither yield ye your members as instruments of
_righteousness_ unto sin"--for _unrighteousness_. 1 Cor. vi. 9.: "Know ye
not that {392} the unrighteous _shall inherit_ the kingdom of God?"--for
_shall not inherit_.

The printer of Miles Coverdale's Bible, which was finished in 1535, and of
which only two perfect copies, I believe, are known to exist--one in the
British Museum, the other in the library of the Earl of Jersey--deserves
some commendation for his accuracy. At the end of the New Testament is the
following solitary erratum:

    "A faute escaped in pryntyng the New Testament. Upon the fourth leafe,
    the first syde in the sixth chapter of S. Mathew, 'Seke ye first the
    kingdome of heaven,' read, 'Seke ye first the kingdome of God.'"

ABHBA.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPOSSIBILITIES OF HISTORY.

"That unworthy hand."

I am not aware that the fact of Cranmer's holding his right hand in the
flames till it was consumed has been questioned. Fox says:

    "He stretched forth his right hand into the flames, and there held it
    so stedfast that all the people might see it burnt to a coal before his
    body was touched."--P. 927. ed. Milner, London, 1837, 8vo.

Or, as the passage is given in the last edition,--

    "And when the wood was kindled, and the fire began to burn near him, he
    put his right hand into the flame, which he held so stedfast and
    immovable (saving that once with the same hand he wiped his face), that
    all men might see his hand burned before his body was touched."--_Acts
    and Monuments_, ed. 1839, vol. viii. p. 90.

Burnet is more circumstantial:

    "When he came to the stake he prayed, and then undressed himself: and
    being tied to it, as the fire was kindling, he stretched forth his
    right hand towards the flame, never moving it, save that once he wiped
    his face with it, till it was burnt away, which was consumed before the
    fire reached his body. He expressed no disorder from the pain he was
    in; sometimes saying, 'That unworthy hand;' and oft crying out, 'Lord
    Jesus, receive my spirit.' He was soon after quite burnt."--_Hist. of
    the Reformation_, vol. iii. p. 429., ed. 1825.

Hume says:

    "He stretched out his hand, and, without betraying either by his
    countenance or motions the least sign of weakness, or even feeling, he
    held it in the flames till it was entirely consumed."--Hume, vol. iv.
    p. 476.

It is probable that Hume believed this, for while Burnet states positively
as a fact, though only inferentially as a miracle, that "the heart was
found entire and unconsumed among the ashes," Hume says, "it was pretended
that his heart," &c.

I am not about to discuss the character of Cranmer: a timid man might have
been roused under such circumstances into attempting to do what it is said
he did. The laws of physiology and combustion show that he could not have
gone beyond the attempt. If a furnace were so constructed, that a man might
hold his hand in the flame without burning his body, the shock to the
nervous system would deprive him of all command over muscular action before
the skin could be "entirely consumed." If the hand were chained over the
fire, the shock would produce death.

In this case the fire was unconfined. Whoever has seen the effect of flame
in the open air, must know that the vast quantity sufficient entirely to
consume a human hand, must have destroyed the life of its owner; though,
from a peculiar disposition of the wood, the vital parts might have been
protected.

The entire story is utterly impossible. May we, guided by the words "as the
fire was kindling," believe that he _then_ thrust his right hand into the
flame--a practice I believe not unusual with our martyrs, and peculiarly
suitable to him--and class the "holding it till consumed" with the whole
and unconsumed heart?

I may observe that in the accounts of martyrdoms little investigation was
made as to what was possible. Burnet, describing Hooper's execution, says,
"one of his hands fell off before he died, with the other he continued to
knock on his breast some time after." This, I have high medical authority
for saying, could not be.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNREGISTERED PROVERBS.

In Mr. Trench's charming little book on _Proverbs_, 2nd ed., p. 31., he
remarks:

    "There are not a few (proverbs), as I imagine, which, living on the
    lips of men, have yet never found their way into books, however worthy
    to have done so; either because the sphere in which they circulate has
    continued always a narrow one, or that the occasions which call them
    out are very rare, or that they, having only lately risen up, have not
    hitherto attracted the attention of any one who cared to record them.
    It would be well, if such as take an interest in the subject, and are
    sufficiently well versed in the proverbial literature of their own
    country to recognise such unregistered proverbs when they meet them,
    would secure them from that perishing, which, so long as they remain
    merely oral, might easily overtake them; and would make them at the
    same time, what all _good_ proverbs ought certainly to be, the common
    heritage of all."

    "_Note._--The pages of the excellent _Notes and Queries_ would no doubt
    be open to receive such, and in them they might be safely garnered up,"
    &c.

I trust this appeal of Mr. Trench's will be at once responded to by both
the editor and correspondents of this periodical. With the former {393}
must rest the responsibility of withholding from reproduction any proverbs,
which though sent him as novelties, may be already registered in the
recognised collections.

Mr. Trench's first contribution to this _bouquet_ of the wild flowers of
proverbial lore is the following, from Ireland:

    "'_The man on the dyke always hurls well._' The looker on," says Mr.
    Trench in explanation, "at a game of hurling, seated indolently on the
    wall, always imagines that he could improve on the strokes of the
    actual players, and if you will listen to him, would have played the
    game much better than they, a proverb of sufficiently wide
    application."--P. 32.

Each proverb sent in should be accompanied with a statement of the class
among whom, or the locality in which, it is current. The index to "N. & Q."
should contain a reference to every proverb published in its pages, under
the head of _Unregistered Proverbs_, or _Proverbs_ only. Correspondents
should bear in mind the essential requisite of a proverb, _currency_. Curt,
sharp sayings might easily be multiplied; what is wanted, however, is a
collection of such only as have that prerequisite of admission into the
ranks of recognised proverbs. And while contributors should not lose sight
of "the stamp of merit," as that which renders the diffusion of proverbs
beneficial to mankind, still they should not reject a genuine proverb for
want of that characteristic, remembering that,--

 "'Tween man and man, they weight not every stamp;
  Though light, take pieces for the _figure's_ sake."

And that the mere _form_ of a proverb often affords some indication of its
age and climate, even where the _matter_ is spurious. I have a large MS.
collection of English proverbs by me, from which I doubt not I shall be
able to extract some few which have never yet been admitted into any
published collection. Of these at some future time.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

    [We shall be happy to do all in our power to carry out this very
    excellent suggestion.--Ed. "N. & Q."]

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. JUSTICE TALFOURD.

The noble sentiments uttered by Justice Talfourd in his last moments gave a
charm to his sudden death, and shed a hallowed beauty about the painfully
closing scenes of this great man. I want them to have a niche in "N. & Q.,"
and along with them a passage from his beautiful tragedy of _Ion_, which
may be considered as a transcript of those thoughts which filled his mind
on the very eve of quitting the high and honourable duties of his earthly
course. It forcibly illustrates the loving soul, the kind heart, and the
amiable character of this deeply lamented judge.

After speaking of the peculiar aspect of crime in that part of the country
where he delivered his last charge, he goes on to say:

    "I cannot help myself thinking it may be in no small degree
    attributable to that separation between class and class, which is the
    great curse of British society, and for which we are all, more or less,
    in our respective spheres, in some degree responsible, and which is
    more complete in these districts than in agricultural districts, where
    the resident gentry are enabled to shed around them the blessings
    resulting from the exercise of benevolence, and the influence and
    example of active kindness. I am afraid we all of us keep too much
    aloof from those beneath us, and whom we thus encourage to look upon us
    with suspicion and dislike. Even to our servants we think, perhaps, we
    fulfil our duty when we perform our contract with them--when we pay
    them their wages, and treat then with the civility consistent with our
    habits and feelings--when we curb our temper, and use no violent
    expressions towards them. But how painful is the thought, that there
    are men and women growing up around us, ministering to our comforts and
    necessities, continually inmates of our dwellings, with whose
    affections and nature we are as much unacquainted as if they were the
    inhabitants of some other sphere. This feeling, arising from that kind
    of reserve peculiar to the English character, does, I think, greatly
    tend to prevent that mingling of class with class, that reciprocation
    of kind words and gentle affections, gracious admonitions and kind
    inquiries, which often, more than any book-education, tend to the
    culture of the affections of the heart, refinement and elevation of the
    character of those to whom they are addressed. And if I were to be
    asked what is the great want of English society--to mingle class with
    class--I would say, in one word, the want is the want of sympathy."

Act I. Sc. 2. After Clemanthe has told Ion that, forsaking all within his
house, and risking his life with strangers, he can do but little for their
aid, Ion replies:

                     "It is little:
  But in these sharp extremities of fortune,
  The blessings which the weak and poor can scatter
  Have their own season. 'Tis a little thing
  To give a cup of water; yet its draught
  Of cool refreshment, drain'd by fever'd lips,
  May give a shock of pleasure to the frame
  More exquisite than when nectarean juice
  Renews the life of joy in happiest hours.
  It is a little thing to speak a phrase
  Of common comfort, which, by daily use,
  Has almost lost its sense; yet, on the ear
  Of him who thought to die unmourn'd, 'twill fall
  Like choicest music; fill the glazing eye
  With gentle tears; relax the knotted hand
  To know the bonds of fellowship again;
  And shed on the departing soul a sense,
  More precious than the benison of friends
  About the honour'd death-bed of the rich,
  {394}
  To him who else were lonely, that another
  Of the great family is near and feels."

The analogy is as beautiful as it is true.

H. M. BEALBY.

North Brixton.

Before this talented judge was advanced to the bench, he amused himself and
instructed his clients by occasional _metrical_ notes, of which the annexed
is a specimen. To make it intelligible to those whom it may _not_ concern,
I must add an explanation by the attorney in the suit, who has obligingly
placed the learned serjeant's notes at my disposal. This gentleman says:
"These notes are in the margin of a brief held by the serjeant as leading
counsel in an action of ejectment brought against a person named Rock, in
1842. In converting into rhyme the evidence of the witness Hopkins, as set
out in the brief, he has adhered strictly to the statements, whilst he has
at the same time seized the prominent points of the testimony as supporting
the case."

  John Hopkins will identify the spot,
  Unless his early sports are quite forgot,
  And from his youngest recollection show
  The house fell down some forty years ago.
  And then--a case of adverse claim to meet,
  Show how the land lay open to the street;
  And there the children held their harmless rambles,
  Till Robert Woolwich built his odious shambles,
  And never did the playmates fear a shock,
  From anything so hateful as a _Rock_.

Perhaps the above may elicit from other quarters similar contributions;
indeed, any memorial of the friend of Charles Lamb must be precious to the
Muse.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SCREW PROPELLER.

In 1781, when the steam engine, only recently improved by Watt, was merely
applied to the more obvious purposes of mine drainage and the like, Darwin,
in his _Botanic Garden_, wrote--

 "Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd Steam! afar
  Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car."

And in an appended note prophecies that the new agent might "in time be
applied to the rowing of barges, and the moving of carriages along the
road." The ingenious chronicler of the "loves of the plants," however, was
in no doubt, when he wrote, aware of the experiments of D'Auxiron, Perier,
and De Jouffroy; those prosecuted at Dalswinton and in America were some
years later, about 1787-8 I think. But in another and less widely known
poem by the same author, the _Temple of Nature_, published in 1802, there
occurs a very complete anticipation of one of the most important
applications of science to navigation, which may prove as novel and
striking to some of your readers as it did to me. It is, indeed, a
remarkable instance of scientific prevision. In a note to line 373, canto
ii. of the poem, the author sets out with, "The progressive motion of fish
beneath the water is produced principally by the undulation of their
tails;" and after giving the _rationale_ of the process, he goes on to say
that "this power seems to be better adapted to push forward a body in the
water than the oars of boats;" concluding with the query, "Might not some
machinery resembling the tails of fish be placed behind a boat so as to be
moved with greater effect than common oars, by the force of wind or steam?"

ANON.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANCIENT CHATTEL-PROPERTY IN IRELAND.

The Memoranda Roll of the Exchequer, 4 & 5 Edward II., membrane 14.,
contains a list of the chattel-property of Richard de Fering, Archbishop of
Dublin, which had been sold by Master Walter de Istelep, the custos of said
See, for the sum of 112l. 10s. 9¾d. sterling, consisting, amongst other
things, of--

  iij affr', price xijs.
  xiij bobus, iiij_li_. vs.
  xlvij acr' warrectan' & rebinand' ibidem, lxxs. vjd.
  ij carucis cum apparatu, iiijs.
  v crannoc' frumenti ad semen & liberationes famulorum ibidem sibi
      venditis per predictum custodem, xxijs. vjd.
  xj crannoc', iij bussellis aven', xxxixs. iijd.
  iij carucis cum apparatu, vjs.

The chattel-property of Sir James Delahyde is set forth upon the Memoranda
Roll 3 & 4 Rich. II., mem. 3. _dorso_, and is as follows:

    "Unu' collobiu' de rubio scarleto duplucat' c[=u] panno rubio, unu'
    collobiu' duplex de sanguineto et Bukhorn', unu' collobi[=u] duplex, de
    sanguineto et nigro, unu' gip' de serico auro int'text furrat' c[=u]
    menivero, unu' gyp' de rubio et nigro furrat' cu' calibir', unu' gyp'
    furrat cu' grys, unu' paltok' de nigro serico, unu' paltok de nigro
    panno, unu' paltok' de nigro Bustian, duo cap'icia, una' pec' de rubio
    Wyrset, unam pec' de nigro Wyrset, una' pec' panni linei vocat'
    Westenale, quinq; pec' Aule pro camera & Aula, tres curtynis c[=u] uno
    celuro de rubio Wyrset, quinq; mappas, duas pelves c[=u] lavatorio &
    quatuor p'ia secular'."

Upon the attainder of William Fytzhenry of Dublin, "Capytayn," in the reign
of Edward VI., it was found by inquisition that he had "unum torquem aureum
ponder' septem uncias d[=i]," put in pledge for 20l., and worth 22l.
sterling. In this reign "quinque vasa vocat' fyrkyns de prunis" each worth
6s. 8d.; a firkin of wine, 5s., "a fyrkyn de aceto," 6s. 8d.; "quinque
tycks", worth 11s. 8d. each; and "duas duodenas cultellorum," worth 4s.,
{395} were brought to Dublin from St. Mallow in Brittany. In this reign
also 200 "grossos arbores," near Drogheda, were valued at 16l.; 18 "porcos"
were worth 40s.; 3 "modios frumenti" worth 20s.; and 5 "lagenas butteri,"
20s. During this reign a sum of 300l. was paid out of the Treasury to Sir
William Seyntloo, for the purpose of fortifying, &c. the Castle of Dyngham,
called "The Governor of Offayley," of which sum he paid to Matthew Lynete,
the Clerk of the Ordnance,--

    For the hire of 4 carts from Dublin to the forte, 28th December, 71s.
    1½d. ster.

    3 other carts from Dublin to the sayd forte, 27th March, 2 Edw. VI.,
    40s.

    The carters that came from Dublin to the forte, 15th January and 19th
    April, 2 Edw. VI., for the hire of 4 cartes by the space of 6 dayes,
    53s. 4d.

In the 6 Edward VI. the goods of Thomas Rothe of Kilkenny, merchant, which
were seized by a searcher at Waterford, consisted of "30 pecias auri vocat'
Crussades," and "un' wegge argenti ponderant' xvj uncias argenti precij
cujuslibet uncie, 4s."

In the same year the property of Andrew Tyrrell, a merchant of Athboy,
consisted of--

  Unam fardellam sive paccam, containing       _Sterling._
  unam peciam de lychefeldkerfeys, price        36s.
  Unam peciam de greneclothe                    4l.
  Di' duoden' pellium vocat' red leese          3s. 4d.
  2 duoden' de orphell skynnes                  8s. 4d.
  6 duoden' de Rosell gyrdels                   12s.
  Sex libr' de Brymstone                        2s.
  3 dudoen' de playng cardes                    10s.
  Un' gross' de fyne knyves                     48s.
  26 libr' cerici voc' sylke                    8l. 13s. 4d.
  Un' gross' de red poynts                      [104s. or 4s.]
  Un' duoden' de pennars                        [102s. or 2s.]
  Sex libr' de bykeres                          102s.
  1000 pynnes                                   20d.
  Sex rubeas crumenas                           2s.
  Un' bagam de droggs                           4s.
  Un' burden' de stele                          3s.
  Sex boxes de comfetts                         12s.
  6 duoden' de lokyng glasses                   18d.
  Un' bolte de threde                           2s. 8d.
  Duas fyrkins de soketts                       5s.
  Duas duoden' de combes                        12d.
  2 lb. of packethrede                          6d.
  1 doz. of great bells                         16d.
  One payre of ballaunce                        8d.
  One piece of red cloth                        4l.

In Queen Mary's time, in Ireland, a yard of black velvet was valued at 20s.
sterling; a yard of purple-coloured damask, at 13s. 4d. sterling; and a
yard of tawny-coloured damask, at 10s. sterling.

The foregoing have been taken from the ancient records of the Irish
Exchequer.

JAMES F. FERGUSON.

Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

BISHOP ATTERBURY.

I have observed in some former Numbers of "N. & Q.," that an interest has
been manifested in regard to the writings, and especially to the letters,
of this prelate. It may therefore be interesting to your readers to be
informed, that an original painting, and perhaps the only one, of the
Bishop, is preserved at Trelawny House in Cornwall; and from its close
resemblance to the engraved portrait which is found in his works, I have no
doubt it is that from which that likeness was taken. There are also several
letters in the handwriting of Bishop Atterbury among the documents
preserved in the collection at that ancient mansion. That this portrait and
the letters should be preserved at Trelawny, is explained by the fact, that
before his elevation to the episcopal bench, Dr. Atterbury was chaplain to
Bishop Trelawny.

J. C.

Lines by Bishop Atterbury on Mr. Harley being stabbed by Guiscard:

 "Devotum ut cordi sensit sub pectore ferrum,
    Immoto Harlæus saucius ore stetit.
  Dum tamen huic læta gratatur voce senatus,
    Confusus subito pallor in ore sedet.
  O pudor! O virtus! partes quam dignus utrasque
    Sustinuit, vultu dispare, laude pari."

I found these lines written on the back of an odd volume of Atterbury's
_Sermons_. Most likely they have already appeared in print.

E. H. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

"_Milton Blind._"--A little poem bearing this title, and commencing,--

 "Though I am old and blind,"

is said to have been included in an edition of the poet's works recently
published at Oxford. It was written by Miss Lloyd, a lady of this city, a
short time ago.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Hydropathy._--For a long time, I believe in common with many others, I
have imagined that the water cure is of late origin, and that we are
indebted for it to Germany, to which we look for all novel quackeries (good
and bad) in medicine and theology. This belief was put to flight a short
time ago by a pamphlet which I discovered among others rare and curious. It
is entitled _Curiosities of Common Water, or the Advantages thereof in
preventing and curing many Distempers_. The price of the pamphlet was one
shilling, and the author rejoices in the name of John Smith. After his name
follows a motto, the doctrine of which it {396} is the duty of all licensed
to kill according to law strenuously to protest against both by argument
and practice:

 "That's the best physick which doth cure our ills
  Without the charge of pothecaries pills."

E. W. J.

Crawley.

_Cassie._--MR. M. A. LOWER (a correspondent of "N. & Q."), in his _Essays
on English Surnames_ (see vol. ii. p. 63.), quotes from a brochure on
Scottish family names. He seems, from a footnote, to be in difficulty about
the word _cassie._ May I suggest to him that it is a corruption of
"causeway?"

The "causeway" is, in Scotch towns, an usual name for a particular street;
and of a man's surname, his place of residence is a most common source of
derivation.

W. T. M.

_The Duke of Wellington._--Lord de Grey, in his _Characteristics of the
Duke of Wellington_, pp. 171, 172., gives the following extract from the
despatches published by Colonel Gurwood, and refers to vol. viii. p. 292.

    "It would undoubtedly be better if _language_ of this description were
    never used, and if officers placed as you were could correct errors and
    neglect in _language, which should not hurt the feelings_ of the person
    addressed, and without vehemence."

Compare this passage with the following advice which Don Quixote gives to
Sancho Panza before he sets off to take possession of his government:

    "Al che has de castigar con obras, no trates mal con palabras, pues le
    basta al desdichado la pena del suplicio sin la anadidura de las malas
    rezones."--Part II. ch. xlii.

See translation of _Don Quixote_ by Jarvis, vol. iv. b. III. ch. x. p.
76.[1]

The very depreciatory terms in which the Emperor Napoleon used to speak of
the Duke of Wellington as a general is well known. The following extract
from Forsyth's _Napoleon at St. Helena and Sir Hudson Lowe_, appears to me
worthy of being brought under the notice of the readers of "N. & Q.:"

    "After the governor had left the house (upon the death of Napoleon he
    had gone to the house of the deceased with Major Gorrequer to make an
    inventory of and seal up his papers), Count Montholon called back Major
    Gorrequer to ask him a question, and he mentioned that he had been
    searching for a paper dictated to him by Napoleon a long time
    previously, and which he was sorry he could not find, as it was a
    _eulogium on the Duke of Wellington_, in which Napoleon had spoken in
    the highest terms of praise of the military conduct of the Duke."--See
    vol. iii. p. 299.

J. W. FARRER.

[Footnote 1: Jarvis translates the passage in _Don Quixote_,--"Him you are
to punish with deeds, do no evil; intreat with words, for the pain of the
punishment is enough for the wretch to bear, without the addition of
ill-language."]

_Romford Jury._--The following entry appears on the court register of the
Romford Petty Sessions (in Havering Liberty) for the year 1730, relating to
the trial of two men charged with an assault on Andrew Palmer. As a curious
illustration of the manner in which justice was administered in country
parts in "the good old times," I think it may be interesting to the readers
of "N. & Q."

    "The jury could not for several hours agree on their verdict, seven
    being inclinable to find the defendants guilty, and the others not
    guilty. It was therefore proposed by the foreman to put twelve
    shillings in a hat, and hustle most heads or tails, whether guilty or
    not guilty. The defendants, therefore, were acquitted, the chance
    happening in favour of not guilty."

E. J. SAGE.

_Edward Law (Lord Ellenborough), Chief Justice._--J. M.'s quotation of the
song in the _Supplement to the Court of Sessions Garland_ (Vol. ix., p.
221.), reminds me of the lines on Mr. Law's being made Chief Justice:

 "What signifies now, quirk, quibble, or flaw,
  Since _Law_ is made _Justice_, seek justice from _Law_."

W. COLLYNS.

Drewsteignton.

_Chamisso._--Chamisso, in his poem of "The Three Sisters," who, crushed
with misery, contended that each had the hardest lot, has this fine passage
by the last speaker:

     "In one brief sentence all my bitter cause
      Of sorrow dwells--thou arbiter! oh, pause
        Ere yet thy final judgment thou assign,
      And learn my better right--too clearly proved.
      Four words comprise it--I was never loved:
        The palm of grief thou wilt allow is mine."

    "He knew humanity--there can be no grief like that grief. Death had
    bereaved one sister of her lover--the second mourned over her fallen
    idol's shame--the third exultingly says,--

     'Have they not lived and loved?'"

The above is written in a beautiful Italian female hand on the fly-leaf-of
the _Basia_, 1775.

E. D.

_Dates of Maps._--It is very much to be wished that map-makers would always
affix to their maps the date of their execution; the want of this in the
maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge has often been an
annoyance to me, for it frequently happens that one or both of two maps
including the same district are without date, {397} and when they differ in
some of the minor details, it requires some time and trouble to find, from
other sources, which is the most modern, and therefore likely to be the
most accurate.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Walton._--The following cotemporary notice of the decease and character of
honest Isaac's son, is from a MS. Diary of the Rev. John Lewis, Rector of
Chalfield and Curate of Tilbury:

    "1719, Dec. 29. Mr. Canon Walton of Polshott died at Salisbury; he was
    one of the members of the clergy club that meets at Melksham, and a
    very pious, sober, learned, inoffensive, charitable, good man."

E. D.

_Whittington's Stone on Highgate Hill._--It is well that there is a "N. &
Q." to record the removal and disappearance of noted objects and relics of
antiquity, as one after another disappears before the destroying hand of
Time, and more ruthless and relentless spirit of enterprise. I have to ask
you on the present occasion to record the removal of Whittington's stone on
Highgate Hill. I discovered it as I strolled up the hill a few days since.
I was informed that it was removed about a fortnight since, and a
public-house is now being built where it stood.

TEE BEE.

_Turkey and France._--The following fact, taken from the foreign
correspondence of _The Times_, may suitably seek perpetuity in a corner of
"N. & Q."

    "I wish to mention a curious fact connected with the port of Toulon,
    and with the long existing relations between France and Turkey, and
    which I have not seen mentioned, although it is recorded in the
    municipal archives of this town. In the year 1543, the sultan, Selim
    II., at the request of the King of France, sent a large army and fleet
    to his assistance, under the command of the celebrated Turkish admiral
    Barbarossa, who, according to the record, was the grandson of a French
    renegade. This army and fleet occupied the town and port of Toulon at
    the express wish of Francis I., from the end of September 1543, to the
    end of March 1544. And on this day, the last of March 1854, a French
    army and fleet has sailed from the same port of Toulon to succour the
    descendant of the Sultan Selim in his distress. What a remarkable
    example of the rise and fall of empires!"

It will not invalidate the force of the foregoing extract to state, that
Selim II. did not become sultan until 1566, and that it must have been his
father Suleyman (whom he succeeded) who came to the rescue of France in
1543. The same Turkish fleet was afterwards nearly annihilated by the
Venetians in 1571, at the battle of Lepanto.

GEO. DYMOND.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

A FEMALE AIDE-MAJOR.

The following is an extract from the letter of the French general, Custine,
to the National Convention, June 14, 1793:

    "My morality is attacked; it is found out that I have a _woman_ for my
    aide-de-camp. Without pretending to be a Joseph, I know too well how to
    respect myself, and the laws of public decency, ever to render myself
    guilty of such an absurdity. I found in the army a woman under the
    uniform of a volunteer bombardier, who, in fulfilling that duty at the
    siege of Liege, had received a musket-ball in the leg. She presented
    herself to the National Convention, desired to continue her military
    service, and was admitted to the honours of the sitting. She was
    afterwards sent by you, Representatives, to the Minister of War, who
    gave her the rank of aide-major to the army. On my arrival here, the
    representatives of the people, commissioners with this army, had
    dismissed her. Her grief was extreme; and the phrenzy of her
    imagination, and her love for glory, would have carried her to the last
    extremity. I solicited the representatives of the people to leave her
    that rank which her merit and wounds had procured her; and they
    consented to it. This is the truth. She is not my aide-de-camp, but
    _attached to the staff as aide-major_. Since that time I have never had
    any public or private conversation with her."--From the _Political
    State of Europe_, 1793, p. 164.

Can any of your readers furnish me with the name and history of this French
heroine?

JAMES.

Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

"_Chintz Gowns._"--Tuesday, Jan. 9, 1768:

    "Two ladies were convicted before the Lord Mayor, in the penalty of
    5l., for wearing chintz gowns."--_Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xxxviii.
    p. 395.

Can any other instances be given?

INVESTIGATOR.

"_Noctes Ambrosianæ._"--Can any one inform me why the celebrated "Noctes
Ambrosianæ" of Blackwood's _Magazine_ has never been printed in a separate
form in this country (I understand it has been so in America)? I should
think few republications would meet with a larger sale.

S. WMSON.

_B. Simmons._--Will you permit me to ask for a little information
respecting B. Simmons? I believe he was born in the county of Cork: for he
has sung, in most bewitching strains, his return to his native home on the
banks of the Funcheon. He was the writer of that great poem on the
"Disinterment of Napoleon," which appeared in _Blackwood_ some years ago.
He was a regular {398} poetical contributor to its pages for many years. He
held a situation in the Excise Office in London, and died there I believe
in July, 1852.

What manner of man was he; young or old, married or single? Any information
respecting such a child of genius and of song must be interesting to those
who have ever read a line of his wondrous poems. To what other periodicals
did he contribute?

ITH.

_Green Stockings._--Is the custom of sending a pair of green stockings to
the eldest unmarried daughter of a family, upon the occasion of the
marriage of a younger sister, of English, Irish, or Scottish origin?

L. A.

_Nicholas Kieten._--In the thirteenth century, "there was a giant in
Holland named Nicholas Kieten, whose size was so prodigious, that he
carried men under his arms like little children. His shoe was so large,
that four men together could put their feet in it. Children were too
terrified to look him in the face, and fled from his presence." So says our
author; but he does not give the dimensions of Kieten. May not such a real
giant, in the thirteenth century, have laid the foundation of the fabulous
stories of giants that have for so many years been the favourite romances
of the nursery? Kieten appears to be the type of the giants of our modern
pantomimes. Will he serve as a key, to disclose the origin of these
marvellous stories and captivating absurdities?

TIMON.

_Warwickshire Badge._--Will you permit me to ask, through your journal, if
any of your readers can inform me whether the proper Warwickshire badge is
"the antelope" or "the bear and ragged staff?" The former is borne by the
6th regiment of the line, they being the Royal First Warwickshire. The
latter is borne by the 36th regiment of militia, they being the First
Warwickshire. This latter badge is also borne by the retainers of the Earls
of Warwick and Leicester; which latter county would seem to lay as much
claim to the bear and ragged staff as Warwick does.

The county cannot well have both, or either; this makes me think that the
bear and ragged staff is not a _county_ badge, but pertains more properly
to the Earl of Warwick.

ANTIQUARY.

_Armorial._--Will any correspondent oblige me with the names to the
following coats: 1. Arg., three hares (or conies) gu. 2. Arg., on a bend
engrailed vert, between two bucks' heads cabossed sable, attired or, three
besants; a canton erminois. 3. Quarterly, per fesse indented sable and or.
4. Per pale sable and or, a cheveron between three escallop shells, all
counterchanged. 5. Gu., a lion rampant arg. Glover's _Ordinary of Arms_
would, I think, answer the above Query; and if any of your _numerous_
readers, who possess that valuable work, would refer to it in this case,
they would be conferring a favour on your constant subscriber,

CID.

Would any correspondent help me to the solution of the following case?--A.
was the _last_ and _only_ representative of an ancient family; he left at
his decease, some years ago, a daughter and heiress who married B. Can the
issue of B. (having no arms of their own) _legally_ use the arms,
quarterings, crest, and motto of A., without a license from the Heralds'
College?

CID.

_Lord Brougham and Horne Tooke._--In Lord Brougham's _Statesmen of the Time
of George III._, he says of Mr. Horne Tooke:

    "Thus he (H. T.) would hold that the law of libel was unjust and
    absurd, because _libel_ means a little book."

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." say on what occasion Tooke maintained
this strange doctrine, or where his Lordship obtained his information that
Tooke did maintain it?

Q.

Bloomsbury.

_Rileys of Forest Hill._--Can any of your correspondents inform me relative
to the arms and motto of the Rileys of (Forest Hill) Windsor, Berks, their
descent, &c.?

J. M. R.

_Fish "Lavidian."_--In some ancient acts of parliament mention is made of a
fish called "lavidian," and from the regulations made concerning it, it
appears to have been of such small size as to be capable of being caught in
the meshes of an ordinary net. But I cannot find that this name is
contained in any of the books of natural history, written by such authors
as Gesner or Rondeletius. Is it at this time a common name anywhere? Or can
any of your readers assist in determining the species?

J. C.

"_Poeta nascitur, non fit._"--Can any of your correspondents inform me who
is the author of the well-known saying--

    "Poeta nascitur, non fit"?

I have more than once seen it quoted as from Horace, but I have never been
able to find it in any classical author whose works I have examined. Cicero
expresses a similar sentiment in his oration for the poet Archias, cap.
viii.:

    "Atqui sic a summis hominibus eruditissimisque accepimus, ceterarum
    rerum studia, et doctrina, et præceptis, et arte constare: poëtam
    natura ipsa valere, et mentis viribus excitari, et quasi divino quodam
    spiritu inflari."

J. P.

Boston, U.S.A.

{399}

_John Wesley and the Duke of Wellington._--It has always been understood
that the property bequeathed to the Colleys, who in consequence took the
surname of Wesley, afterwards altered to Wellesley, was offered to and
declined by the father of John Wesley, who would not allow his son to
accept the condition, a residence in Ireland, and the being adopted by the
legatee. Has there been a relationship ever proved between the founder of
the Methodists and the victor of Waterloo?

PRESTONIENSIS.

_Haviland_--Can any of your Plymouth correspondents give any information,
as tombs, in memory of persons of the name of Haviland, Havilland, or De
Havilland, existing in the churches of that place, of a date prior to A.D.
1688? Mention is made of such tombs as existing in a letter of that date in
my possession. Also, in what chronicle or history of the Conquest of
England, mention is made of a Sieur de Havilland, as having accompanied
Duke William from Normandy on that occasion?

D. F. T.

_Byron._--Will you kindly inform me, through the medium of your "N. & Q.,"
whence the line "All went merry as a marriage bell" (in Byron's _Childe
Harold_) is derived?

C. B.

"_Rutabaga._"--What is the etymology of the word _rutabaga_? I have heard
one solution of it, but wish to ascertain whether there is any other. The
word is extensively used in the United States for Swedish turnips or
"Swedes."

LUCCUS.

_A Medal._--A family in this city possesses a silver medal granted to
Joseph Swift, a native of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, by the University of
Oxford or of Cambridge, of which the following is a description. It is
about two inches in diameter; on the face are the head and bust of Queen
Anne in profile, with an inscription setting forth her royal title, and on
the reverse a full-length figure of Britannia, with ships sailing and men
ploughing in the background, and this motto, "Compositis venerantur Annis."
The date is MDCCXIII. An explanation of the object of the medal is desired.

OLDBUCK.

Philadelphia.

_The Black Cap._--Can any of your antiquarian legal readers inform me of
the origin of the custom of the judges putting on a black cap when
pronouncing sentence of death upon a criminal? I can find no illustration
of this peculiar custom in Blackstone, Stephens, or other constitutional
writers.

F. J. G.

_The Aboriginal Britons._--A friend of mine wants some information as to
the history, condition, manners, &c. of the Britons, prior to the arrival
of the Romans. What work, accessible to ordinary readers, supplies the best
compendium of what is known on this subject? The fullest account of which I
have, just now, any recollection, is contained in Milton's _History of
England_, included in an edition of Milton's _Prose Works_, three vols.
folio, Amsterdam, 1694. Is Milton's _History_ a work of any merit or
authority?

H. MARTIN.

Halifax.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

"_Gossip._"--This word, in its obsolete sense, according no doubt to its
Saxon origin, means a sponsor, one who answers for a child in baptism, a
godfather. Its modern acceptation all know to be widely different. Can any
of your correspondents quote a passage or two from old English authors,
wherein its obsolete sense is preserved?

N. L. J.

    [The word occurs in Chaucer, _The Wyf of Bathes Prologue_, v. 5825.:

     "And if I have a _gossib_, or a friend,
      (Withouten gilt) thou chidest as a frend,
      If that I walke or play into his hous."

    And in Spenser, _Faerie Queene_, b. i. c. 12.:

     "One mother, when as her foole-hardy child
        Did come too neare, and with his talons play,
      Halfe dead through feare, her little babe reuil'd,
        And to her _gossips_ gan in counsell say."

    Master Richard Verstegan is more to the point:

    "Our Christian ancestors, understanding a spiritual affinity to grow
    between the parents and such as undertooke for the child at baptisme,
    called each other by the name of _Godsib_, which is as much as to say,
    that they were _sib_ together, that is, _of kin_ together through God.
    And the child, in like manner, called such his God-fathers, or
    God-mothers."--_Restitution of Decayed Intelligence_, ch. vii.

A quotation or two from that delightful old _gossip_, Mr. Pepys, will show
its use in the middle of the seventeenth century:

    "Lord's Day. With my wife to church. At noon dined nobly, ourselves
    alone. After dinner, my wife and Mercer by coach to Greenwich, to be
    _gossip_ to Mrs. Daniel's child. My wife much pleased with the
    reception she had, and she was godmother, and did hold the child at the
    font, and it is called John."--_Diary_, May 20, 1666.

    "Lord's Day. My wife and I to Mr. Martin's, where I find the company
    almost all come to the christening of Mrs. Martin's child, a girl.
    After sitting long, till the church was done, the parson comes, and
    then we to christen the child. I was godfather, and Mrs. Holder (her
    husband, a good man, I know well) and a pretty lady that waits, it
    seems, on my Lady Bath at Whitehall, her name Mrs. Noble, were
    godmothers. After the christening comes in the wine {400} and
    sweetmeats, and then to prate and tattle, and then very good company
    they were, and I among them. Here was Mrs. Burroughs and Mrs. Bales
    (the young widow whom I led home); and having staid till the moon was
    up, I took my pretty _gossip_ to Whitehall with us, and I saw her in
    her lodging."--_Ibid._, Dec. 2, 1666.]

_Humphry Repton._--To snatch from utter oblivion the once highly reputed
Humphry, the king of landscape gardeners, to whom many of our baronial
parks owe much of their picturesque beauty, and who, by the side of Sir
Joseph Paxton, would now most duly have taken knightful station in these
go-ahead days, I ask, in what publication was it, that in 1780, or
thereabouts, being an indefatigable attendant at all exhibitions and sales
of art, he, the said Humphry, was accustomed (as well able he was) to
enlighten the public upon what was passing in matters of art now nearly
three quarters of a century ago? Was it the _Bee_? Again, did he not, at
his death, leave two large volumes for publication, entitled _Recollections
of my Past Life_? Where are these?

INQUEST.

    [The MS. collection of the late Humphry Repton, containing interesting
    details of his public and private life, has been used by Mr. Loudon in
    his biographical notice of Repton prefixed to the last edition of _The
    Landscape Gardening_, 8vo., 1840. Mr. Loudon states that 'these papers
    were left as a valued memorial for his children: it may be imagined,
    therefore, that they contain details of a private nature, which would
    be found devoid of interest to the world. Mr. Repton, indeed, possessed
    a mind as keenly alive to the ludicrous, as it was open to all that was
    excellent, in the variety of characters with whom his extensive
    professional connexions brought him acquainted; and he did not fail to
    observe and note down many curious circumstances and traits of
    character, in themselves highly amusing, but, for obvious reasons,
    unfit subjects for publication. Not one taint of satire or ill-nature,
    however, ever sullied the wit which flowed spontaneously from a mind
    sportive sometimes even to exuberance." His artistic critiques will be
    found in the following works: _The Bee_: or, a Critique on the
    Exhibition of Paintings at Somerset House, 1788, 8vo. _Variety_: a
    Collection of Essays, 1788, 12mo. _The Bee_: a Critique on the
    Shakspeare Gallery, 1789, 8vo. _Odd Whims_: being a republication of
    some papers in Variety, with a Comedy and other Poems, 2 vols. 12mo.,
    1804.]

"_Oriel._"--I should be glad if any of your correspondents could inform me
of the origin of the term _oriel_, as applied to a window? It is not, I
believe, necessarily to the East.

T. L. N.

Jamaica.

    [_Oriol_, or _Oriel_, is a portico or court; also a small room near the
    hall in monasteries, where particular persons dined. (Blount's
    _Glossog._) Du Cange says, "_Oriolum_, porticus, atrium;" and quotes
    Matthew Paris for it. Supposed by some to be a diminutive from _area_
    or _areola_. "In modern writings," says Nares, "we meet with mention of
    _Oriel_ windows. I doubt the propriety of the expression; but, if
    right, they must mean those windows that project like a porch, or small
    room. At St. Albans was an _oriel_, or apartment for persons not so
    sick as to retire to the infirmary. (Fosbroke's _Brit. Monachism_, vol.
    ii. p. 160.) I may be wrong in my notion of _oriel_ window, but I have
    not met with ancient authority for that expression. Cowel conjectured
    that _Oriel_ College, in Oxford, took its name from some such room or
    portico. There is a remarkable portico, in the farther side of the
    first quadrangle, but not old enough to have given the name. It might,
    however, be only the successor of one more ancient, and more exactly an
    _oriel_." For articles on the disputed derivation of this term, which
    seems involved in obscurity, see Parker's _Glossary of Architecture_; a
    curious paper by Mr. Hamper, in _Archæologia_, vol. xxiii.; and
    _Gentleman's Magazine_ for Nov. 1823, p. 424., and March, 1824, p.
    229.]

"_Orchard._"--Professor Martyn, in his Notes on Virgil's _Georgics_, seems
to be of opinion that the English word "orchard" is derived from the Greek
[Greek: orchatos], which Homer uses to express the garden of Alcinous; and
he observes that Milton writes it _orchat_, thereby corroborating this
impression. Is the word spelt according to Milton's form by any other
writers?

N. L. J.

    [It is spelt _orchat_ by J. Philips, _Cider_, book i.:

                  ----"Else false hopes
      He cherishes, nor will his fruit expect
      Th' autumnal season, but in summer's pride,
      When other orchats smile, abortive fail."]

"_Peckwater._"--Why is the quadrangle at Christ Church, in Oxford, called
"Peckwater?"

N. L. J.

    [The Peckwater Quadrangle derives its name from an ancient hostle, or
    inn, which stood on the south-west corner of the present court; and was
    the property of Ralph, the son of Richard Peckwater, who gave it to St.
    Frideswide's Priory, 30th Henry III.; and about the middle of the reign
    of Henry VIII., another inn, called Vine Hall, was added to it; which,
    with other buildings, were reduced into a quadrangle in the time of
    Dean Duppa and Dr. Samuel Fell. The two inns were afterwards known by
    the name of Vine Hall, or Peckwater's Inn; and by this name were given
    to Christ Church, in 1547, by Henry VIII.]

_Richard III._--What became of the body after the battle of Bosworth Field?
Was it buried at Leicester?

A. BRITON.

Athenæum.

    [After the battle of Bosworth Field, the body of Richard III. was
    stript, laid across a horse behind a pursuivant-at-arms, and conducted
    to Leicester, where, after it had been exposed for two days, it was
    buried with little ceremony in the church of the Grey Friars. In
    Burton's MS. of the History of Leicester, we read that, "within the
    town was a house of Franciscan or Grey Friars, built by Simon Montfort,
    Earl of {401} Leicester, whither (after Bosworth Field) the dead body
    of Richard III., naked, trussed behind a pursuivant-at-arms, all dashed
    with mire and blood, was there brought and homely buried; where
    afterward King Henry VII. (out of royal disposition) erected for him a
    fair alabaster monument, with his picture cut out, and made
    thereon."--Quoted in Nichols's _Leicestershire_, vol. i. p. 357.: see
    also pp. 298. 381.]

_Binding of old Books._--I shall feel obliged to any of your readers who
will tell me how to polish up the covers of old books when the leather has
got dry and cracked. Bookbinders use some composition made of glair, or
white of egg, which produces a very glossy appearance. How is it made and
used? and how do they polish the leather afterwards? Is there any little
work on book-binding?

CPL.

    [Take white of an egg, break it with a fork, and, having first cleaned
    the leather with dry flannel, apply the egg with a soft sponge. Where
    the leather is rubbed or decayed, rub a little paste with the finger
    into the parts affected, to fill up the broken grain, otherwise the
    glair would sink in and turn it black. To produce a polished surface, a
    hot iron must be rubbed over the leather. The following is, however, an
    easier, if not a better, method. Purchase some "bookbinders' varnish,"
    which may be had at any colour shop; clean the leather well, as before;
    if necessary, use a little water in doing so, but rub quite dry with a
    flannel before varnishing; apply your varnish with wool, lint, or a
    very soft sponge, and place to dry.]

_Vessel of Paper._--When I was at school in the north of Ireland, not very
many years ago, a piece of paper, about the octavo size, used for writing
"exercises," was commonly known amongst us as a vessel of paper. Can any of
your correspondents tell me the origin of the phrase; and whether it is in
use in other localities?

ABHBA.

    [Lemon, in his English _Etymology_, has the following remarks on this
    phrase:--"_Vessel of Paper_: The etymology of this word does not at
    first sight appear very evident; but a derivation has been lately
    suggested to me, which seems to carry some probability with it; viz.
    that _a vessel of paper_ may have derived its appellation from
    _fasciculus_, or _fasciola_; quasi _vassiola_; a vessel, or small slip
    of paper; a little winding band, or swathing cloth; a garter; a
    _fascia_, a small narrow binding. The root is undoubtedly _fascis_, a
    bundle, or anything tied up; also, the fillet with which it is bound."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

KING JAMES'S IRISH ARMY LIST, 1689.

(Vol. ix., pp. 30, 31.)

My collections are arranged for illustrating, in the manner alluded to in
the above notice, upwards of four hundred families. In Tyrconnel's _Horse_,
I find a Dominick _Sheldon_, Lieut.-Colonel. His name appears in the
"Establishment" of 1687-8 for a pension of 200l. Early in the campaign, he
was actively opposed to the revolutionary party in Down and Antrim; and was
afterwards joined in an unsuccessful negotiation for the surrender of
Derry. At the battle of the Boyne he commanded the cavalry, and in a
gallant charge nearly retrieved the day, but had two horses shot under him.
When Tyrconnel left Ireland for France, to aid the cause of the Stuarts, he
selected this colonel as one of the directory, who were to advise the young
Duke of Berwick, to whom Tyrconnel had committed the command of the Irish
army, and who was afterwards so distinguished in the wars of the brigades
abroad. After the capitulation of Limerick in 1691, Sarsfield, then the
beloved commander of the last adherents of the cause of the royal exile,
intrusted to Colonel Sheldon the care of embarking all who preferred a
foreign land to the new Government; and King James (for, in justice to my
subject, I must still style him _King_) especially thanked him for his
performance of that duty. When his own regiment was brigaded in France, it
was called, _par excellence_, "the King's Regiment;" and Dominick Sheldon,
"an Englishman," was gazetted its Colonel. The successes of his gallant
band are recorded, in 1702, at the confluence of the Mincio and the Po; in
1703, against the Imperialists under Visconti, when he was wounded; in the
army of the Rhine, and at the battle of Spire within the same year, &c. He
appears, throughout his career, an individual of whom his descendants
should be proud; but I cannot discover the house of this _Englishman_.

In the Outlawries of 1691, he is described on one as "of the city of
Dublin," on another, as "of Pennyburn Mill, co. Derry." No other person of
his name appears in my whole _Army List_; although the "Diary" preserved in
the _Harleian Miscellany_ (old edit., vol. vii. p. 482.) erroneously
suggests a subaltern of his name. In the titular Court of St. Germains, two
of the name of Sheldon were of the Board of Green Cloth. Dr. Gilbert
Sheldon was Archbishop of Canterbury in the middle of the seventeenth
century; and the Sheldons are shown by Burke to be still an existing family
at Brailes House in Warwickshire, previously in Oxfordshire, and _semble_
in Staffordshire. I have made application on the subject to Mr. Sheldon of
Brailes House, the more confidently as the Christian name of "Ralph" is
frequent in the pedigree of that family, and Colonel Dominick Sheldon had a
brother Ralph; but Mr. Sheldon could not satisfy me.

One of the adventurers or soldiers in Cromwell's time, in Ireland, was a
William Sheldon; who, on the Restoration, in the royal policy of that day,
obtained a patent for the lands in Tipperary, which {402} the usurping
powers had allotted for him by certificate. Could Colonel Dominick have
been his relative?

I pray information on this subject, and any others connected with the _Army
List_, with any documentary assistance which, or the inspection of which,
the correspondents of "N. & Q." may afford me; and such services will be
thankfully acknowledged. If I were aided with such by them, and by the old
families of Ireland, the work should be a gem.

JOHN D'ALTON.

48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

QUOTATIONS WANTED.

(Vol. ix., pp. 247, 301.)

 "The knights are dust,
  Their good swords are rust,
  Their souls are with the saints, we trust."

This seems to be an imperfect recollection of the concluding lines of a
short poem by Coleridge, entitled "The Knight's Tomb." (See _Poems_ of
S. T. Coleridge: Moxon, 1852, p. 306.)

The correct reading is as follows:

 "The knight's bones are dust,
  And his good sword rust;
  His soul is with the saints, I trust."

G. TAYLOR.

Your correspondent's mutilated version I have seen on a china match-box, in
the shape of a Crusader's tomb.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

 "Of whose omniscient and all-spreading love."

These lines are also Coleridge's (_Poems_, &c., p. 30., edit. 1852). He
afterwards added the following note on this passage:

    "I utterly recant the sentiment contained in the lines--

      Of whose omniscient and all-spreading love
      Aught to _implore_ were impotence of mind;

    it being written in Scripture, '_Ask_, and it shall be given you!' and
    my human reason being, moreover, convinced of the propriety of offering
    _petitions_, as well as thanksgivings, to Deity.--S. T. C., 1797."

H. G. T.

Weston-super-Mare.

The line quoted (p. 247.) as having been applied by Twining to Pope's
_Homer_, is from _Tibullus_, iii. 6. 56.

P. J. F. GANTILLON

 "A fellow feeling makes us wond'rous kind,"

is to be found in the epilogue written and spoken by Garrick on quitting
the stage, 1776.[2]

A parallel passage appears in _Troilus and Cressida_, Act III. Sc. 3.:

 "One touch of nature makes the whole world kin."

NEWBURIENSIS.

The following lines, and the accompanying paraphrase, probably those
inquired after by X. Y., are in Davison's _Poems, or a Poetical Rhapsody_
(p. 50., 4th impression, 1621), where they form the third "device." I do
not know who the writer was.


 "Quid plumâ lævius? Pulvis. Quid pulvere? Ventus.
  Quid vento? Mulier. Quid muliere? Nihil."

 "Dust is lighter than a feather,
  And the wind more light than either;
  But a woman's fickle mind
  More than a feather, dust, or wind."

F. E. E.

The lines quoted by L. are the first two (a little altered) in the opening
stanza of a ballad entitled _The Berkshire Lady_. The correct version (I
speak on the authority of a copy which I procured nearly thirty years ago
in the great ballad-mart of those days, the Seven Dials) is,--

 "Bachelors of every station,
  Mark this strange but true relation,
  Which in brief to you I bring;
  Never was a stranger thing."

The ballad is an account of "love at first sight," inspired in the breast
of a young lady, wealthy and beautiful of course, but who, disdaining such
adventitious aids, achieves at the sword's point, and covered with a mask,
her marriage with the object of her passion. It is much too long, and not
of sufficient merit, for insertion in "N. & Q."

F. E. E.

[Footnote 2: [See "N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 300.]]

       *       *       *       *       *

OATHS.

(Vol. viii., no. 364, 605.; Vol. ix., p. 45.)

I am extremely obliged to your several correspondents who have replied to
my Query.

I now send you "a remarkable case," which occurred in 1657, and throws
considerable light upon the subject.

Dr. Owen, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, being a witness for the plaintiff in a
cause, refused to be sworn in _the usual manner, by laying his right hand
upon the book, and by kissing it afterwards_; but he caused the book to be
held open before him, and he raised his right hand; whereupon the jury
prayed the direction of the Court whether they ought to weigh such evidence
as strongly as the evidence of another witness. Glyn, Chief Justice,
answered them, that in his opinion he had taken {403} as strong an oath as
any other of the witnesses; but he added that, if he himself were to be
sworn, he would lay his right hand upon the book itself (_il voilt deponer
sa maine dexter sur le liver mesme_). Colt _v._ Dutton, 2 Siderfin's _R._
6.

This case shows that the usual practice at the time it was decided was, not
to take the book in the hand, but to lay the hand upon it. Now, if a person
laid his hand upon a book, which rested on anything else, he most probably
would lay his fingers upon it, and, if he afterwards kissed it, would raise
it with his fingers at the top, and his thumb under the book; and possibly
this may account for the practice I mentioned of the Welsh witnesses,
which, like many other usages, may have been once universally prevalent,
but now have generally ceased.

With regard to kissing the book, so far from assuming that it was
essential, I stated that "in none of these instances does kissing the book
appear to be essential." Indeed, as, "upon the principles of the common
law, there is no particular form essential to an oath to be taken by a
witness; but as the purpose of it is to bind his conscience, every man of
every religion should be bound by that form which he himself thinks will
bind his own conscience most" (per Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice, Atcheson
_v._ Everitt, Cowper's _R._ 389.), the form of the oath will vary according
to the particular opinion of the witness.

Lord Mansfield, in the case just mentioned, referred to the case in
Siderfin, and stated that "the Christian oath was settled in very ancient
times;" and it may, perhaps, be inferred that he meant that it was so
settled in the form there mentioned; but, as he inaccurately translates the
words I have given thus, "If I were sworn, _I would kiss the book_," it may
be doubtful whether he did not consider kissing the book as a part of the
form of the oath so settled.

I cannot assent to the opinion of Paley, that the term _corporal_, as
applied to oath, was derived from the corporale--the square piece of linen
on which the chalice and host were placed. The term doubtless was adopted,
in order to distinguish some oaths from others; and it would be very
strange if it had become the invariable practice to apply it to all that
large class of oaths, in every civil and criminal tribunal, to which it did
not apply; and when it is remembered that in indictments (which have ever
been construed with the strictest regard to the truth of the statements
contained in them) this term has always been used where the book has been
touched, and where the use of the term, if incorrect, would inevitably have
led to an acquittal, no one I think can doubt that Paley is in error.

In addition to the authorities I before referred to, I may mention that
Puffendorff clearly uses the term in the sense I attributed to it; and so
does Mr. Barbeyrac, in his note to "corporal oath," as used by Puffendorff,
where he says: "Juramentum corporale, or, as it is called in the code,
juramentum _corporaliter_ præstitum;" and then refers to a rescript of
Alexander, where the terms used are "jurejurando _corporaliter_ præstito."
(Puffendorff, _Law of Nature and Nations_, lib. iv. ss. 11. and 16., pp.
345. and 350.: London, 1729.) And it seems very probable that the term came
to us from the Romans; and as it appears from the books, referred to in the
notes to s. 16., that there were some instances in which an oath had been
taken by proxy, it may, perhaps, be that the term _corporal_ was originally
used to distinguish such oaths as were taken by the party himself from such
as were taken by proxy.

The word corporale plainly is the "_corporale_ Linteum," on which the
sacred elements were placed, and by which they were covered; and no doubt
were so used, because it covered or touched what was considered to be the
very body of our blessed Lord. In fact, the term is the same, whether it be
applied to oath or cloth; and when used with oath, it is used in the same
sense as our immortal bard uses it in "corporal suffering" and "corporal
toil."

S. G. C.

As the various forms in which oaths have been administered and taken is a
question not altogether devoid of interest, I would wish to add a few words
to what I have already written upon this subject. The earliest notice of
this ceremony is probably that which is to be found in Genesis xxiv. 2, 3.:

    "And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over
    all that he had. Put, I pray thee, _thy hand under my thigh_; And I
    will make thee swear," &c.

That at a very early period the soldier swore by his sword, is shown by the
Anglo-Norman poem on the conquest of Ireland by Henry II., published by
Thomas Wright, Esq.: London, 1837, p. 101.:

 "Morice par sa espé ad juré,
  N' i ad vassal si osé."

In a charter of the thirteenth century, made by one Hugh de Sarnefelde to
the Abbey of Thomascourt in Dublin, of a certain annuity, we find the
passage:

    "Et sciendum quod jam dictus Adam de Sarnefelde _affidavit in manu_
    Magistri Roberti de Bedeford pro se et heredibus suis quod fideliter et
    absque omni fallacia persolvent, etc. redditum prenominatum."

And such clauses are probably of frequent occurrence in ancient charters.
The expression "affidavit in manu" may be perhaps explained by referring to
the mode in which the oath of homage was accustomed to be taken. This form,
as it was of old time observed in England, is, I presume, {404} fully
described in other publications; but as many of the most valuable of the
ancient public records of Ireland have been, and are still, in a sadly
neglected state, it is not probable that the following description of the
manner in which certain of the Irish chieftains in the time of Richard II.
performed their homage to Thomas Earl of Nottingham, his deputy, has been
hitherto printed:

    "Gerraldus O'Bryn predictus zonam, glaudium et capitium ipsius a se
    amovens, et genibus flexis ad pedes dicti domini comitis procedit,
    ambas manus suas palmis [adgremium] junctis erigens, et inter manus
    dicti domini comitis crectas tenens, protulit hec verba in lingua
    hibernicana," &c.--_Inquisition deposited in the Exchequer Record
    Office, Dublin; James I._ No. 84.

JAMES F. FERGUSON.

Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

REMUNERATION OF AUTHORS.

(Vol. viii., p. 81.)

Some time ago I suggested, in the columns of "N. & Q.," a collection which
might prove interesting, of the remuneration received by authors for their
works, sending my first instalment thereof. A correspondent (W. R.) has
since contributed to the stock; and I now beg to add a few more cases which
have lately occurred to me. In the instances of plays, &c., I have confined
myself to the sums paid for the copyright; any remuneration accruing to the
author from the performance, a share of the profit, benefit, &c. &c. being
too diffuse to bring into a tabular form; and, in the case of works
published while that servile system was in vogue, I have not attempted to
record the amounts paid for dedications by the inflated "patrons," nor even
those raised by subscription, except in one or two cases, where such was
(which was rarely the case) a genuine transaction:

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Title of Work.         |Author.       |Price.    |Publisher.  |Authority.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
_Phædra_               |Edmund Smith  |60l.      |Lintot.     |Dr. Johnson.
_The Wanderer_         |Savage        |10l. 10s. |  --        |Ditto.
_Beggar's Opera_       |Gay           |400l.     |  --        |Spence.
Poems                  |Ditto         |1000l.    |Subscription|Dr. Johnson.
Translation of eight   |W. Broome     |600l.     |Paid by Pope|Ditto.
books of the _Odyssey_,|              |          |            |
and all the notes.     |              |          |            |
Ditto of four books of |Fenton        |300l.     |Ditto       |Ditto.
  ditto                |              |          |            |
Edition of Shakspeare  |Pope          |217l. 12s.|Tonson      |Ditto.
_Amynta and Theodora_  |Mallet        |120l.     |Vaillant.   |Ditto.
_The Poor Gentleman_   |G Colman, sen.|150l.     |  --        |R. B. Peake.
_Who wants a Guinea?_  |Ditto         |150l.     |  --        |Ditto.
_Tales from Shakspeare_|Charles Lamb  |63l.      |  --        |Himself.
                       |Mary Lamb     |          |            |
Contributions for two  |Charles Lamb  |170l.     |  --        |T. Moore,
 years to the _London  |              |          |            | Lord J.
 Magazine._            |              |          |            | Russell.
The King of Prussia's  |Thos. Holcroft|1200l.    |  --        |Galt.
 works, translation of |              |          |            |
_Exchange no Robbery_  |Theodore Hook |60l.      |  --        |R. H. D.
                       |              |          |            | Barham.
_Sayings and Doings_   |Ditto         |600l.     |Colburn     |Ditto.
 (1st series)          |              |          |            |
_Ditto_ (2nd series)   |Ditto         |1050l.    |Ditto       |Ditto.
                       |              |150l.     |            |
                       |              |200l.     |            |
_Ditto_ (3rd series)   |Ditto         |1050l.    |Ditto       |Ditto.
_Births, Marriages, and|Ditto         |600l.     |Ditto       |Ditto.
 Deaths_               |              |          |            |
Editorship of Colburn's|Ditto         |400l. per |Ditto       |Ditto.
 _New Monthly_         |              | annum.   |            |
_Rejected Addresses_   |J. and H.     |131l.     |Murray      |H. Smith.
                       | Smith        |after 16th|            |
                       |              | edition  |            |
_Country Cousins_  }   |              |          |Paid for by |}
_A Trip to Paris_  }   |James Smith.  |1000l.    |C. Matthews |}Himself.
_Air Ballooning_   }   |              |          |for his Ent-|}
_A Trip to America_}   |              |          |ertainments.|



ALEXANDER ANDREWS.

       *       *       *       *       *

OCCASIONAL FORMS OF PRAYER.

(Vol. viii., p. 535.)

The list of Occasional Forms of Prayer, recently contributed to your pages
by the REV. THOMAS LATHBURY, contained no less than forty-eight items. All
the forms which he enumerates, with one exception, are earlier than the
year 1700. Using the same limitation of date, I send you herewith a farther
list of such occasional forms: all these are to be found in the British
Museum, and the press-marks by which they are designated in the catalogue
are here added. The present list comprises fifty-one items, all of them, I
think, different from those which have been already mentioned. Unless
otherwise stated, the copies of the forms here referred to are printed at
London, and they are for the most part in black-letter, without pagination.

    A Psalme and Collect of Thankesgiving, not unmeet for the present Time
    [_i.e._ after the defeat of the Spanish Armada]. 1588. (3406. c.)

    {405}

    An Order for Prayer and Thanksgiving (necessary to be used in these
    dangerous Times) for the Safetie and Preservation of her Majestie and
    this Realm. 1598.

    A revision of the form first issued in 1594. (3406. c.) 1.

    Certain Prayers collected out of a Form of godly Meditations ... to be
    used at this Time in the present Visitation of God's heavy Hand, &c.
    With the Order of a Fast to be kept every Wednesday. 1603. (3406. c.)

    Thanksgiving, August 5; being the Day of his Highnesse's happy
    Deliverance from the trayterous and bloody Attempt of the Earle of
    Gowry and his Brother, with their Adherents. 1606. (3406. c.)

    Forme of Common Prayer, together with an Order of Fasting: for the
    averting of God's heavy Visitation upon many Places of this Kingdom
    [two editions, the second with a few MS. notes]. 1625. (3406. d.) 1.
    and (3406. d. 1.) 2.

    Thanksgiving. March 27, 1626. (3406. d. 1.) 4.

    Prayer for Safety and Preservation of his Majestie and this Realm.
    1626. (3406. d. 1.) 5.

    Thanksgiving. Safe Delivery of the Queen. 1631. Fol. (3406. e.) 1.

    Thanksgiving. Safe Child-bearing of the Queene's Majestie. 1635. Fol.
    (3406. e.) 2.

    Thanksgiving. November 5, 1636. (3406. c.)

    Thanksgiving. November 5, 1638. (3406. d. 1.) 6.

    Prayer for the King's Majestie, in the Northern Expedition. 1639. Fol.
    (3406. e.) 3.

    A Form of Thanksgiving to be used September 7, 1640, thorowout the
    Diocese of Lincoln, and in the Jurisdiction of Westminster. 1640(?)
    (3407. c.)

    Thanksgiving. March 27, 1640. (3406. d. 1.) 8.

    Prayer for the King's Majestie, in his Expedition against the Rebels of
    Scotland. 1640. Fol. (3406. e.) 4.

    Fast, February 5, 1644, for a Blessing on the Treaty now begunne.
    (3406. d. 1.) 9.

    Thanksgiving for the late Defeat given unto the Rebells at Newarke (and
    A Prayer for the Queene's safe Delivery). 1644. Oxford, fol. (3406. e.)
    5.

    Prayer to be used upon January 15, 1661, in London and Westminster,
    &c.; and upon the 22nd of the said moneth in the rest of England and
    Wales. (3406. d. 2.) 1.

    Prayer on June 12 and June 19, 1661 (as in the last form). (3406. d.
    2.) 2.

    Fast. July 12, 1665, in London, &c. (3406. d. 2.) 3.

    Prayer. April 10, 1678. (3407. c.)

    Fast. November 13, 1678. (3406. d. 2.) 5.

    Prayer for King. 1684. (3407. c.)

    Thanksgiving. July 26, 1685. Victories over the Rebels. (3406. d. 3.)
    3.

    Prayers ... during this time of Public Apprehension from the Danger of
    Invasion. 1688. (3407. c.)

    Additional Prayers to be used, together with those appointed in the
    Service for November 5, 1689. (3406. d. 4.) 4.

    Fast. March 12, 1689. Preservation of his Majestie's sacred Person, and
    the Prosperity of his Arms in Ireland, &c. (3406. d. 4.) 1.

    Fast. June 5 and June 19, 1689. To implore Success in the War declared
    against the French King. (3406. d. 4.) 2.

    Thanksgiving: Success towards the reducing of Ireland. October 19,
    1690. (3406. d. 4.) 3.

    Thanksgiving. November 5, 1690. (3406. d. 4.) 6.

    A Prayer for the King, to be used instead of that appointed for his
    Majestie's present Expedition. 1690. (3406. d. 4.) 5.

    A Prayer for the King, to be constantly used while his Majesty is
    abroad in the Wars. 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 7.

    Fast. April 29, 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 8. Two editions.

    Thanksgiving. Success in Ireland. November 26, 1691. (3406. d. 4.) 10.

    Thanksgiving. 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 12.

    Thanksgiving. 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 14.

    Thanksgiving. October 27 and November 10, 1692. For the signal Victory
    vouchsafed to the Fleet. (3406. d. 4.) 15.

    Prayer, during the Time of their Majesties' Fleet being at Sea. 1692.
    (3406. d. 4.) 18.

    Fast. April 8, 1692. (3406. d. 4.) 11.

    Prayer. May 10, 1693, and second Wednesday of every month following,
    &c. (3406. d. 4.) 16.

    Thanksgiving. November 12 and November 26, 1693. (3406. d. 4.) 17.

    Thanksgiving. December 9 and December 16, 1694. (3406. d. 5.) 3.

    Prayers to be used during the Queen's Sickness, &c. 1694. (3406. d. 5.)
    2.

    Thanksgiving. April 16, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 4.

    Fast. June 19, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 5.

    Prayer. December 11 and December 18, 1695. (3406. d. 5.) 6.

    Fast. June 26. (3406. d. 5.) 7.

    Form of Prayer to be used Yearly on September 2, 1696, for the dreadful
    fire of London. (3406. d. 5.) 8.

    Fast. April 28, 1697. (3406. d. 5.) 9.

    Thanksgiving. December 2, 1697. (3406. d. 5.) 10.

    Fast. April 5, 1699. (3406. d. 5.) 11.

It would occupy more space than "N. & Q." can afford to complete the list
up to the present time. In the British Museum Catalogue alone, between the
years 1700 and 1800, there are about 120 Forms of Prayer; and, between 1800
and 1850, about 113 more. Let me, before leaving the subject, draw the
attention of your readers to the following extract from Straker's (Adelaide
Street, West Strand) _Catalogue of Books_, printed in 1853, pp. 419.:

    Article "1862. COMMON PRAYER. Forms of Prayer, an extensive collection
    of, issued by authority, on public occasions; such as War and Peace,
    Plague and Pestilence, Earthquakes, Treason and Rebellion, Accession of
    Kings, Birth of Princes, &c. &c., from A.D. 1550 to A.D. 1847,
    consisting of 45 in manuscript and 181 printed, together 226; many of
    which are of the greatest scarcity, with a detailed catalogue of the
    collection, 8l. 8s. 1550-1840 [_sic_].

        "The late J. W. Niblock, D.D., F.S.A., was actively engaged for
        upwards of _thirty years_, (with {406} great trouble and expense)
        in forming this exceedingly interesting and valuable collection for
        his projected work, to be entitled 'FORMÆ PRECUM, or National State
        Prayers, issued by Authority, on Fast and Thanksgiving Days, and
        other public Occasions, from the Reformation to the present Time,'
        those in manuscript are copied with great care from the originals
        in public libraries and private collections."

This important collection may possibly be unknown to some of your readers
who take an interest in matters liturgical.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

Having made it a point, for some years past, to preserve at least one copy
of each Occasional Form of Prayer, and wishing to comply with MR.
LATHBURY'S request, I send a list of those in my own possession.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Prince.
    1841.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Preservation of the Queen "from the atrocious
    and treasonable Attempt against her sacred Person." 1842.

    Form and Thanksgiving for abundant Harvest. 1842.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a
    Princess. 1843.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of Prince.
    1844.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Victories in the Sutledge. 1846.

    Form and Thanksgiving, for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a
    Princess. 1846.

    Form for Relief from Dearth and Scarcity. 1846.

    Form for Removal of Dearth and Scarcity. Fast. 1847.

    Form and Thanksgiving for abundant Harvest. 1847.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a
    Princess. 1848.

    Form for Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity. 1848.

    Form for Removal of Disease. 1849.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Removal of Disease. 1849.

    Form and Thanksgiving for Delivery of the Queen, and Birth of a Prince.
    1850.

ABHBA.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Photographic Query._--Given the diameter and focal length of a simple
achromatic lens; at what distance from it must a diaphragm of given
diameter be placed to give the best possible image?

O.

_Improvement in Collodion._--As there are many photographers who are not
members of the Photographic Society, and who do not see the journal
published by that body, a statement of what I think will be found a very
material improvement in the manufacture of collodion may not be
unacceptable to the readers of "N. & Q." To five drachms of pure _washed_
ether, add one drachm alcohol 60° over proof, and dissolve therein
sufficient soluble cotton to make it of the consistence of oil (the exact
quantity must depend rather upon the dexterity of the operator, as the
thicker it is the more difficult to use) then add twenty minims of
chloroform, dropping in the latter, which will fall to the bottom, but is
readily dissolved on shaking the mixture for a few minutes.

To two drachms of the same alcohol add the iodizing material preferred, and
mix with the other ingredients.

The above will be found to flow very evenly smoothly over the plate; is
tough, intense, and _structureless_ in appearance. I have not yet
determined what is the best iodizing mixture, but at present I prefer
iodide of potassium _alone_, if pure, and twenty grains to the ounce of
alcohol is the proportion I generally adopt; thus having five grains in
each ounce of collodion.

Lastly, as regards the soluble cotton, I cannot find any better material
than that produced according to the formula published by Mr. Hadow, in the
March Number of the _Photographic Journal_, thus: "Take of nit. potash,
five parts; sulphuric acid, ten parts; water, one part; _all by weight_.
Add the water to the nitrate of potash, and then the acid, and immediately
immerse as much cotton wool as can be thoroughly saturated by the mixture,
leaving it in for _at least_ ten minutes, and wash with a great abundance
of water. The object of adding the cotton immediately that the acid has
been mixed with the nitrate of potash, is to expose it to the action of the
chemicals while they are at a temperature of from 120° to 130°. For farther
particulars on this head, I must refer to Mr. Hadow's paper.

GEO. SHADBOLT.

    [This application is not a novelty to us: DR. DIAMOND has for some time
    added a small portion of his amber varnish (which is prepared from
    chloroform) to his collodion, and with satisfactory results. It is a
    pity that so admirable a varnish is not to be procured at the
    generality of photographic warehouses. We have never yet been able to
    procure any which will bear comparison with some which DR. DIAMOND was
    good enough to prepare for us.--ED. "N. & Q."]

_Printing Positives._--I will venture to assure AMATEUR that,--if he will
follow DR. DIAMOND'S formula for albumenizing Canson paper, either positive
or negative, viz.,

  Chloride of sodium (salt)                   5 grs.
  Chloride of ammonium                        5 grs.
  Water                                       1 oz.
  Albumen, or the white of one egg, which
  is near enough for the purpose              1 oz.

and will excite this paper by floating it for about two minutes on a
solution of nitrate of silver twenty grains to the ounce, distilled
water,--provided his chemicals are good, he will obtain perfectly
satisfactory results.

Let his fixing bath be a saturated solution of hypo. soda, and if newly
made let him, as recommended by DR. DIAMOND, add 40 grains of chloride of
silver to every 8 ounces of the solution. The addition of a grain of sel
d'or to every 8 ounces of solution will greatly improve the tones of
colour; and if, after some {407} time, the positives become more of a brown
tint than he likes, let him add a small quantity of sel d'or, half a grain
to a bath of from 12 to 16 ounces, and he will find the dark tints
restored.

I inclose a copy of the print of "Horse-shoeing," obtained precisely by the
method described. It is rather overprinted; but if AMATEUR will give you
his address, and you will forward it to him, it will show him what tones of
colour and depth may be procured by following the foregoing directions.

C. E. F.

_Photographic Excursions._--A few Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries
have formed themselves into a Photographic Club for the purpose of making
periodical excursions into the country, and so securing accurate views of
the objects of antiquarian interest in the different localities they may
visit. As it is intended that a copy of every photograph so taken shall be
deposited in the portfolios of the Society, the advantages likely to result
from this little reunion, both to the Society of Antiquaries and to
Archæology generally, are very obvious.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

"_To Garble_" (Vol. ix., pp. 243. 359.).--I venture, with deference, to
express a doubt as to whether E. S. T. T. has correctly defined either the
former or the present meaning of the verb _to garble_, when he says "it
meant a selection of the good and the discarding of the bad parts of
anything: its present meaning is exactly the reverse of this." The statutes
referred to by your correspondent, the first enacting that no bow staves
shall be sold ungarbled, and the second imposing a penalty on the sale of
spices and drugs not garbled, appear to me to indicate the former meaning
of the word to have been the selection (picking out) of the _bad_ and the
discarding of it. Experience shows that in all operations, involving the
separation of objects worthless and of value, such as weeding, sifting, and
winnowing, the former is removed from the latter and discarded. This view
of the case seems to be supported by the fact of the dust and dross sifted
from spices being called "garbles." The weeder removes weeds from flowers
or plants, the garbler removes garbles from spices and bad bow staves from
amongst good ones. Richardson's _Dictionary_ contains the following notes
under the head _Garble_:

    "Fr. _Grabeler_; It. _Garbellare_. Cotgrave says, Grabeller, to garble
    spices, &c., (and hence) also to examine precisely, sift nearly, look
    narrowly, search curiously into."

After giving some examples of its use, Richardson says:

    "As usually applied in England, to garble is to pick out, sift out what
    may serve a particular purpose, and thus destroy or mutilate the fair
    character of the whole."

To go no farther, the reports of the parliamentary debates, when a "Blue
Book" happens to furnish matter for discussion, amply confirm Richardson's
definition, that _to garble_ is to pick out what may serve a purpose. In
this sense, however, E. S. T. T. must admit that it would be as much
garbling to quote all the _good_ passages of a work as to quote all the bad
ones. May we not then assume the present meaning of the word _garble_ to be
this--to quote passages with the view of conveying an impression of the
ability or intention of a writer, which is not warranted by the general
scope of the work?

C. ROSS.

_"Lyra Apostolica_" (Vol. ix., p. 304.).--There is, I believe, a slight
inaccuracy in the rotation of the names given at the above page as the
writers in the _Lyra Apostolica_. They go in alphabetical order, thus
[alpha], Bowden; [beta], Froude; [gamma], Keble; [delta], Newman;
[epsilon], Wilberforce; [zeta], Williams.

B. R. A. Y.

The poems signed [zeta]. were written by _Williams_, not by _Wilberforce_.

Can you explain the meaning of the motto on the title-page--

 "[Greek: Gnoien d', hôs dê dêron egô polemoio pepaumai]"?

M. D.

    [This motto is from Homer, _Iliad_, xviii. 125. Its literal translation
    is, They (the enemy) shall know that it was I who have long kept away
    from the war," and, by implication, that I have now returned to it;
    even I, the great hero Achilles; for he is the taunting speaker. Had it
    not been for my absence, he intimates, the Trojans had not gained so
    many and great victories. We must leave our correspondent to apply this
    Homeric verse to the Protestant dark ages of the Georgian era, and to
    the theological movement of 1833.]

_John Bale, Bishop of Ossory_ (Vol. ix., p. 324.).--A catalogue, professing
to be a complete one, of this over-ardent reformer's voluminous works, with
a portrait, may be seen in Holland's _Heroölogia Anglica_, fol. 165-7.
There are some curious notices concerning him in Blomefield's _History of
Norwich_ (fol. 1741), pp. 154, 155, 794., where reference is also made to
his brother Robert as a learned man and great writer.

WILLIAM MATTHEWS.

Cowgill.

_Burial in an erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 233. 455. 630.; Vol.
ix., p. 279.).--How strange it is that all of us should have forgotten
Charlemagne. When his tomb at Aix-la-Chapelle was opened by the Emperor
Frederic Barbarossa in 1165, "he found the body of Charlemagne, not
reclining in his coffin, as is the usual fashion of the dead, but seated in
his throne, as one alive, clothed in the imperial robes, bearing the
sceptre in his hand, and on his knees a copy of the gospels." (See Murray's
{408} _Handbook to Belgium_.) The throne in which the body was seated, the
sarcophagus (of Parian marble, the work of Roman or Greek artists,
ornamented with a fine bas-relief of the Rape of Proserpine) in which the
feet of the dead king were placed, are still preserved in the cathedral,
where I saw them last year, together with some portions of the robes, and
some curious ancient embroidery: these last are not usually exhibited to
strangers.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

"_Carronade_" (Vol. ix., p. 246.).--"The folk story," as to the derivation
of this word (if such a comparatively modern invention deserves such an
epithet, for the Carron works, I believe, did not exist a hundred years
ago) is quite correct. This gun is said to have been invented in Ireland by
General Melville; but having been perfected at Carron, it thence took its
name.

Landmann (no mean authority at the beginning of this century), in his
_Questions and Answers on Artillery_, says: "The carronade takes its name
from being first made at Carron."

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

"_Largesse_" (Vol. v., p. 557.; Vol. ix., p. 209.).--The use of this word
is not confined to Essex and Northamptonshire, but extends also to Norfolk.
It is met with in many parishes in the western division of Norfolk: where,
at the time of harvest, after accompanying the last load of corn home with
the procession of the "Harvest Lady," it is customary that the labourers on
the several farms should go round their respective parishes, and collect
various sums of money, under the name of _largesse_, at the houses of the
chief inhabitants, whether lay or clerical. Few were to be met with who
refused this species of "black mail" thus levied on them; doubtless
regarding it as one out of many means of testifying their thankfulness to
the "Lord of the Harvest" for "filling their mouth with good things," and
giving them an abundance of "corn and wine and oil."

[Sigma].

This word is of common occurrence in Suffolk during the shooting season,
where sportsmen are affrays greeted with it, for a donation, by the
labourers on the land where game is sought for.

N. L. J.

_Precious Stones_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix., pp. 37. 88. 284.).--As
the titles of so many works on this subject have been already given in your
pages, perhaps I may be of some service to your correspondents in farther
completing the list, and referring them to the following in my own
collection:

    On the Origin of Gems, by the Hon. Robert Boyle: London, 12mo.

    The Mirror of Stones, in which the Nature, Generation, &c., of more
    than 200 Jewels, &c., are distinctly described by Camillus Leonardus,
    12mo.: London, 1750.

    A Treatise on Diamonds and Pearls, by David Jeffries, 2nd edit., 8vo.:
    London, 1751. [This work, which was very scarce, has been recently
    reprinted by E. Lumley for 6s.]

    Traité des Pierres précieuses et des Pierres fines, par L. Dutens,
    12mo.: London, Paris, and Florence. [Reprinted, with additions, in "Les
    Oeuvres Mélés de Dutens:" Génève, 8vo., 1784.]

    A Treatise on Diamonds and Precious Stones, by John Mawe, 2nd edit.:
    London, 8vo., 1823.

    A Memoir of the Diamond, by John Murray, F.S.A., &c., 12mo.: London,
    1831.

Besides these may be consulted, the treatise of Gemma, _Delle Gemme
pretiose_, 2 vols. 4to., a ponderous map of obsolete puerilities; the
_Minéralogie_ of M. de Bomare; the _Crystallographie_ of M. Romé Delisle;
the essay of Wallerius, _De Lapidum Origine_; the learned researches of
Bergman, _Sur les Pierres précieuses_, &c.

I may add, that a practical work on the nature and value of precious
stones, comprehending the opinions and superstitions of the ancients
respecting them, together with an essay upon engraved gems, an account of
celebrated collections and specimens, &c., is much wanted, and would
probably be well received.

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

"_A Pinch of Snuff_" (Vol. vi., p. 431.; Vol. vii., p. 268.).--This work is
correctly attributed to Benson E. Hill, Esq. The companion volume, _A Paper
of Tobacco_, of which F. R. A. speaks in just terms of commendation, was
the production of Mr. W. A. Chatto, the ingenious author of a _History of
Playing Cards_, &c. His son, Mr. Thomas Chatto, from whom I received this
information, is a bookseller, at No. 25. Museum Street, Bloomsbury: where I
hope his civility, and anxiety to serve his visitors, will ensure the
success he merits.

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

_Darwin on Steam_ (Vol. ix., p. 271.).--The lines in question are not cited
quite correctly by UNEDA. They run as follows:

 "Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd Steam, afar
  Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car;
  Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear,
  The flying-chariot through the fields of air."

They occur in the First Part of the _Botanic Garden_, p. 29., 2nd edit.,
4to., London, 1791.

L. (1)

    [We are also indebted to J. K. R. W. and other correspondents for
    similar replies.]

_Gale of Rent_ (Vol. viii., pp. 563. 655.).--The word _gale_ is used in the
west of Philadelphia in the sense of an instalment. Thus, if land is {409}
bought to be paid for in annual sums, one of these is called a yearly gale.
I have supposed, I cannot now say why, that this was an Irish expression.

UNEDA.

_Cobb Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 272).--I have much reason to believe that MR.
ARTHUR PAGET will find a clue to his inquiries in the following particulars
extracted from documents in my possession. The estate of St. Katharine's
Hall, or St. Kattern's, near Bath, belonged to the family of Blanchard; and
in 1748 the property passed to the family of Parry of St. Kattern's by
marriage with the heiress of the Blanchards, who is thus described:

    "Thomas Parry, and Querinah his wife, niece and heiress-at-law of
    William Blanchard, who was only son and heir of Henry Blanchard, and
    Querinah his wife," [only child of John Curle, Esq.].

In 1795 Thomas Parry devised the estate to his son John Parry, who was the
rector of Sturmer, co. Essex; and by his will [May, 1797] his property went
to his sisters, Elizabeth Knight, Querinah Cobb, and Hannah Parry.
Elizabeth married, Aug. 1781, Henry Knight of Lansdown, near Bath. Querinah
married, Nov. 1781, William Milles Cobb, of Ringwood, gentleman, third son
of Christopher Cobb, merchant, and Sarah his wife.

I have in my possession some portraits of the Blanchard, Curle, and Parry
families; two by Sir Peter Lely, which may afford MR. PAGET farther
evidence of the consanguinity of Richard Cobb, Esq., and the Cobbs of
Ringwood.

J. KNIGHT.

Aylestone.

On the principle that every little helps, and out of gratitude for
CRANMORE'S assistance in the Milton-Minshull controversy, I would offer the
following suggestions, which may haply serve as finger-posts to direct him
on his way. William Cobb, Esq., of Adderbury, Oxon, immediate ancestor of
the baronets of that name and place, derived from the Cobbs of Sandringham,
in the hundred of Freebridge, Norfolk. Blomefield's _History_ of the latter
county might be consulted with advantage. The Cobbs of Adderbury bore
"Sable, a chevron argent between three dolphins naiant embowed or, a chief
of the last." Randle Holme, in his _Academy of Armory_, 1688, gives the
following as the arms of Cobb,--"Per chevron sable and gules, two swans
respecting each other and a herring cobb argent." Thomas Cobb, of
Otterington, Yorkshire, a loyal subject of King Charles I., compounded for
his estates in the sum of 472l. There is a brass in Sharnbrook Church,
Bedfordshire, commemorating William Cobbe, who died in 1522, Alice his
wife, a son Thomas, and other children.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

"_Aches_" (Vol. ix., p. 351.).--I am not aware of any rhyme which fixes the
pronunciation of _aches_ in the time of Shakspeare, but I think the
following quite as decisive:

    "_Of the Fallacie in the Accent or Pronunciation._--The fallacie of the
    accent is, when a false thing is affirmed under colour of pronouncing
    it as another thing that is true. For example:

     'Where no _ache_ is, there needs no salve;
      In the gout there is no H,
      Therefore, in the gout, there needs no salve.'"

        _The Elements of Logicke_, by Peter Dumoulin. Translated out of the
        French copie by Nathanael De-Lawne, with the Author's approbation:
        London, 1624, 24mo.

     "_Anthony._ Thou bleedest apace.
      _Scarus._ I had a wound here that was like a T;
      But now 'tis made an H."
                  _Ant. and Cleop._, Act IV. Sc. 7.

See also on the "aitch" question, _Letters of an Irish Student_, vol. i. p.
256., London, 1812; and _The Parlour Window_, by the Rev. Edward Mangin, p.
146., London, 1841.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

"_Meols_" (Vol. vii., pp. 208. 298.).--There is an extensive parish called
North _Meols_ (the favourite watering-place of Southport being within it)
in the sandy district to the south of the estuary of the Ribble, in
Lancashire.

PRESTONIENSIS.

_Polygamy_ (Vol. ix., p. 246.).--The practice of monogamy had been
established among the Jews before the Christian era, as is shown by various
expressions in the New Testament; but their law (like that of other
oriental nations) still permitted polygamy, and they were expressly
prohibited by an enactment of the Emperor Theodosius, of the year 393, from
marrying several wives at the same time (Cod. 1. 9. 7.); so that the
practice was not then extinct among them. Monogamy was the law and practice
of all the Greek and Italian communities, so far back as our accounts
reach. There is no trace of polygamy in Homer. Even in the incestuous
marriages supposed by him in the mythical family of Æolus, the monogamic
rule is observed, _Odyssey_, x. 7. The Roman law recognised monogamy alone,
and hence polygamy was prohibited in the entire Roman empire. It thus
became practically the rule of Christians, and was engrafted into the canon
law of the Eastern and Western Churches.

L.

_Wafers_ (Vol. ix., p. 376.).--I have in my possession a volume of original
Italian letters, addressed to a Venetian physician (who appears to have
been eminent in his profession), Michael Angelo Rota, written during the
early part of the seventeenth century. Many of these letters have been
sealed with red wafers, still adhering to the {410} paper, and precisely
similar to those now in use. The earliest of the letters which I have found
sealed is dated April, 1607, which is seventeen years earlier than the
earliest known instance, mentioned by Beckmann (_History of Inventions_,
Bohn's edit., vol. i. p. 146.), of a letter sealed with a wafer.

WALTER SNEYD.

Denton.

I have before me a reprieve from the Council, dated in 1599, sealed with a
wafer, and am certain that I have earlier instances, had I time at this
moment to look them up.

L. B. L.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

The Northern Antiquaries set their brethren in this country a noble
example. Every year sees one or more of them engaged in the production of
carefully-edited volumes of early Scandinavian history. We have now to
record the publication, by Professor Munch, of the old Norse text of _Kong
Olaf Tryggvesön's Saga_ from a MS. in the Library at Stockholm which has
not hitherto been made use of; and also, by the same gentleman, in
conjunction with his friend Professor Unger, of an edition of the _Saga
Olafs Konungs ens Helga_, from the earliest MS. in the library at
Stockholm. Each work is introduced by a preface of great learning, and
illustrated by a large body of valuable notes.

Those who have shared our regret, that the brilliant notices of books which
occasionally appear in the columns of _The Times_ should be presented in a
form which scarcely admits of their being preserved, and also our
satisfaction when Mr. Murray put forth his selection from them under the
title of _Essays from the Times_, will be glad that the same publisher has
issued in his _Railway Reading_ a Second Series of them, comprising
fourteen articles.

We may remind all lovers of beautiful illustrations of Mediæval Art, that
Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson will sell by auction on Monday next the
entire stock of the magnificent publications of Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A.,
whose _Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_ are a type of the whole.
Such an opportunity of securing copies at a reasonable rate will never
occur again. While on the subject of sales, we may mention that Messrs.
Puttick and Simpson announce a sale of _Photographs_. This is the first
instance; but we may be sure, with the growing taste for these accurate
and, in many cases, also artistic transcripts of nature, every season will
see many similar sales.

At the anniversary of the Society of Antiquaries on Monday last, Admiral
Smyth moved a vote of thanks to MR. BRUCE, on his retirement from the
Treasurership, for his zeal and indefatigable exertions in that office. The
manner in which the gallant Admiral's remarks were received showed, first,
that the reforms advocated by Mr. Bruce now meet the general approval of
the Society; and secondly, that the warmth of feeling which they had called
forth on both sides has entirely disappeared.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Condé's History of the Arabs in Spain, translated from
the Spanish_, by Mrs. Jonathan Foster, in three volumes, Vol. I. Mr. Bohn
deserves the best thanks of all lovers of history for this English
translation--the first which has ever been made--of the admirable work of
Condé. It is one of the most important volumes which he has published in
his _Standard Library.--The Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay_, Vol. II.
The second volume of this amusing, gossiping, and egotistical work,
comprises the period 1781-1786.--_Pantomime Budgets, &c._, a clever
pamphlet in favour of prepaid taxation.--_John Penry, the Pilgrim Martyr_,
1559-1593, by John Waddington. A violent anti-church biography of Penry,
whose share in the Marprelate Controversy Mr. Waddington disbelieves on
very insufficient grounds.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

LINGARD'S ENGLAND. Foolscap 8vo. 1844. Vols. I. to V., and X. and XI.

THE WORKS OF DR. JONATHAN SWIFT. London, printed for C. Bathurst, in Fleet
Street, 1768. Vol. VII. (Vol. VI. ending with "Verses on the Death of Dr.
Swift," written in Nov. 1731.)

BYRON'S WORKS. Vol. VI. of Murray's Edition. 1829.

The Volume of the LONDON POLYGLOTT which contains the Prophets.
Imperfection in other parts of no consequence.

CARLISLE ON GRAMMAR SCHOOLS.

THE CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. London, 1828. 12mo. Two copies.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

Any of the occasional Sermons of the Rev. Charles Kingsley, of Eversley,
more particularly THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH TO THE LABOURING CLASSES, and
CLOTHES CHEAP AND NASTY, by Parson Lot.

  Wanted by _H. C. Cowley_, Melksham, Wilts.

The Numbers of the BRITISH AND COLONIAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, published in
1846, by Smith and Elder, Cornhill, containing a review of a work on
graduated, sliding-scale, Taxation. Also any work of the French School on
the same subject, published from 1790 down to the end of the Revolution.

  Wanted by _R. J. Cole_, 12. Furnival's Inn.

BREVINT'S CHRISTIAN SACRAMENT AND SACRIFICE, 4th Edition, 1757. Rivingtons.

  Wanted by _S. Hayward_, Bookseller, Bath.

J. G. AGARDH, SPECIES, GENERA ET ORDINES ALGARUM. Royal 8vo. London
1848-1853.

LACROIX, DIFF. ET INTEG. CALCULUS. Last edition.

  Wanted by the _Rev. Frederick Smithe_, Churchdown, Gloucester.

ADMIRAL NAPIER'S REVOLUTION IN PORTUGAL. Moxon, Dover Street.

  Wanted by _Hugh Owen, Esq._, Bristol.

PLATONIS OPERA OMNIA (Stallbaum). Gothæ et Erfordiæ, Sumptibus Guil.
Hennings, 1832; published in Jacobs and Rost's Bibliotheca Græca. Vol. iv.
Sect. 2., containing Menexenus, Lysis, Hippias uterque, Io.

  Wanted by the _Rev. G. R. Mackarness_, Barnwell Rectory, near Oundle.

{411}

ANCIENT COMMERCE OF HINDOSTAN, forming Vol. VII. of "Maurice's Indian
Antiquities, 1796."

  Wanted by the _Rev. H. Atlay, B.-Casterton, Stamford_.

BISHOP O'BRIEN'S TEN SERMONS ON JUSTIFICATION.

  Wanted by _Lieut. Bruce_, Royal Horse Artillery, Chatham.

LATIMER'S SERMONS. Published by the Parker Society. Vol. I.

  Wanted by _Mr. J. G. Nichols_, 25. Parliament Street.

PLANS OR MAPS OF ANCIENT LONDON, and Representations of Remarkable and
Interesting Objects connected therewith--large size (such as Old St.
Paul's, Paul's Cross, Old London Bridge, &c.).

A Copy of No. 1. (or early number) of "The Times" Newspaper.

A Copy of one of the "Broadsheets" issued during the Plague.

  Wanted by _Mr. Joseph Simpson_, Librarian, Literary and Scientific
      Institution, Islington, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

SIGMA. _The Rev. Richard Warner, the Historian of Bath, we believe, is
still living, and is Rector of Chadfield, Wilts, and Chelwood,
Somersetshire._

F. S. A. _The origin as well as the demolition of Castell Dinâs, Bran, near
Llangollen, have baffled our topographical antiquaries. For some notices of
this fortress consult Pennant's_ Tour in Wales, p. 279., edit. 1778 (_with
a plate of it_); _Leland's_ Itinerary, vol. v. p. 51.; _and_ Beauties of
England and Wales, vol. xviii. p. 558.

RUSTICA. _The Dutch Gothic Church_, noticed in The Times _of the 5th inst.,
is in Austin Friars_.

J--G. _We did not succeed in getting the book._

NEISON ON RAILWAY ACCIDENTS _is published in the_ Journal of the
Statistical Society _for December, 1853, and may be had of Parker, 445
Strand_.

B. T. A. _The line_ "England, with all thy faults I love thee still," _is
by Cowper_ (The Task, book ii.).

REV. J. J. _We fear some injustice was done--unintentionally, but fear also
that it is now too late to remedy it._

INQUIRER (Birmingham). _Some of our correspondents have met with great
success from Mr. Crookes' process; but we are bound to say that it has not
been universal._

G. W. E. _recommends that in immersing a collodion plate it should first be
inserted horizontally, and then transversely in the nitrate of silver bath,
as a sure means of avoiding spots_.

_He is informed that if the edges of his glass are roughed, it will greatly
tend to the adhesion of the collodion. The nitrate of silver bath, used for
exciting collodion plates, is not available for exciting albumenized paper
or any other purpose._

H. C. C. _1. The addition of cyanide of potassium to the sensitive
collodion not only prevents its decomposition, but appears to add to its
general good qualities. 2. Protosulphate of iron mixed with your nitrate
bath is quite fatal. 3. Good pictures are constantly taken when the
temperature is below sixty; though there is no doubt all chemical action is
quicker in warm weather._

B. (Manchester). _See_ "N. & Q.," No. 205, _October 1, 1853_.

W. BEATSON. _There are difficulties in the way of such an exchange of
photographic pictures, which are very difficult to overcome. At present we
believe the Photographic Society, with the aid of an energetic Council,
have been unable to effect this, even to a limited extent._

ERRATUM.--Vol. ix., p. 220. col. 1. line 9, _for_ 1533-5 _read_ 1633-5.

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price_ 10s. 6d.,
_cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up,
price_ 4l. 4s.--_For these early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Patronised by the Royal Family.

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the
following:

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BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
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BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
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the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

    Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY
    & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main
    Street, Kinsale; GRATTAN, Belfast; MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow; DUNCAN &
    FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand;
    KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY,
    63. Oxford Street; London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure
    them.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography, Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s., per
Post. 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.

OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS. Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{412}

Sale of Photographic Pictures, Landscape Camera by Horne & Co.; Prints and
Drawings.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, early in MAY, an important
Collection of Photographic Pictures by the most celebrated Artists and
Amateurs; comprising some _chefs d'oeuvre_ of the Art, amongst which are
large and interesting Views taken in Paris, Rouen, Brussels, Switzerland,
Rome, Venice, various parts of England and Scotland. Rustic Scenes,
Architectural Subjects, Antiquities, &c. Also, some interesting Prints and
Drawings.

Catalogues will be sent on Application (if at a distance, on Receipt of Two
Stamps.)

       *       *       *       *       *


SALE of the REV. G. S. FABER'S LIBRARY.--MR. WHITE has received
instructions to sell by Auction in the House No. 1. North Bailey (next door
to the Exhibition Room), Durham, on Tuesday, May 9th, and three following
days, the extensive and valuable Library of the late REV. G. S. FABER,
Prebendary of Salisbury, and Master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham,
consisting of editions of the Fathers, Works on Divinity, General
Literature, &c.

Catalogues are now ready, and may be had of MESSRS. F. & J. RIVINGTON, No.
3. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, and of MR. S. LOW, 169. Fleet Street, London;
MESSRS. BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh; of MR. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham,
and of the Auctioneer.

Catalogues will be forwarded by Post by MR. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham, on
receipt of Two Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *


PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial;
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
under-signed members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & Co., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby,
E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, Y. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History,
Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable
experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT.

No. 3. Pall Mall East, and 7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

_Established_ A.D. 1844.

INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS may be opened daily, with capital of any amount.

Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON,
  Managing Director.

Prospectuses and Forms sent free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


London Homoeopathic Hospital.

32. GOLDEN SQUARE,

Founded by the British Homoeopathic Association, October 10, 1849; opened
for the Reception of Patients, April 10, 1850.

          _Patroness._

  Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge.

          _President._

  Field-Marshal the Marquis of Anglesey, K.G., G.C.B.

          _Vice-Presidents._

  His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin.
  His Grace the Duke of Beaufort.
  Right Hon. the Earl of Essex.
  Right Hon. the Viscount Sydney.
  Right Hon. the Lord Gray.
  The Viscount Maldon.
  Lord Francis Gordon.
  Captain Lord C. Paget, R.N., M.P.
  Captain Lord A. Paget, M.P
  Colonel Lord G. Paget, M.P.
  Colonel Wyndham.
  F. Foster Quin, Esq., M.D.
  Marmaduke B. Sampson, Esq.

          _Treasurer._

  Sir John Dean Paul, Bart., 217. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

A CONVERSAZIONE

(Instead of the Annual Dinner),

In Aid of the Funds of this Hospital, will be held at

THE HANOVER SQUARE ROOMS,

On TUESDAY EVENING, May 2, at Eight o'clock.

Tickets may be had at the Hospital, 32. Golden Square of Messrs. Aylott &
Jones, Paternoster Row; Mr. Bailliere, 219. Regent Street; Mr. Headland,
15. Princes Street, Hanover Square; Mr. Leath, Vere Street, Cavendish
Square, and St. Paul's Churchyard; Mr. Walker, Conduit Street; Mr. James
Epps, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury Square, and Broad Street, City; Mr.
Turner, Piccadilly, Manchester; Mr. Thompson, Liverpool; and at all the
Homoeopathic Chemists and Booksellers.

Single Tickets, 7s. 6d.; Family Tickets to admit Four, 1l. 4s.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.

THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION,
168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 29,
1854.





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