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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 82, May 24, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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{401}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 82.]
SATURDAY, MAY 24. 1851.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                               Page

  Note upon a Passage in "Measure for Measure"            401

  Rhyming Latin Version of the Song on Robin Goodfellow,
  by S. W. Singer                                         402

  Folk Lore:--Devonshire Folk Lore: 1. Storms from
  Conjuring; 2. The Heath-hounds; 3. Cock scares the
  Fiend; 4. Cranmere Pool--St. Uncumber and the
  offering of Oats--"Similia similibus curantur"--Cure
  of large Neck                                           404

  Dibdin's Library Companion                              405

  Minor Notes:--A Note on Dress--Curious Omen at
  Marriage--Ventriloquist Hoax--Barker, the original
  Panorama Painter                                        406

  QUERIES:--

  Minor Queries:--Vegetable Sympathy--Court Dress--Dieu
  et mon Droit--Cachecope Bell--The Image
  of both Churches--Double Names--"If this fair
  Flower," &c.--Hugh Peachell--Sir John Marsham--Legend
  represented in Frettenham Church--King
  of Nineveh burns himself in his Palace--Butchers not
  Jurymen--Redwing's Nest--Earth thrown upon the
  Coffin--Family of Rowe--Portus Canum--Arms of
  Sir John Davies--William Penn--Who were the
  Writers in the North Briton?                            407

  MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--"Many a Word"--Roman
  Catholic Church--Tick--Hylles' Arithmetic               409

  REPLIES:--

  Villenage                                               410

  Maclean not Junius                                      411

  Replies to Minor Queries:--The Ten Commandments--
  Mounds, Munts, Mounts--San Graal--Epitaph on
  the Countess of Pembroke                                412

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                  414

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            414

  Notices to Correspondents                               414

  Advertisements                                          415

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

NOTE UPON A PASSAGE IN "MEASURE FOR MEASURE."

The Third Act of _Measure for Measure_ opens with Isabella's visit to her
brother (Claudio) in the dungeon, where he lies under sentence of death. In
accordance with Claudio's earnest entreaty, she has sued for mercy to
Angelo, the sanctimonious deputy, and in the course of her allusion to the
only terms upon which Angelo is willing to remit the sentence, she informs
him that he "must die," and then continues:

                  "This outward-sainted deputy,--
  Whose settled visage and deliberate word
  Nips youth i' the head, and follies doth emmew,
  As falcon doth the fowl,--is yet a devil;
  His filth within being cast, he would appear
  A pond as deep as hell."

Whereupon (according to the reading of the folio of 1623) Claudio, who is
aware of Angelo's reputation for sanctity, exclaims in astonishment:

  "The _prenzie_ Angelo?"

To which Isabella replies (according to the reading of the same edition):

  "O, 'tis the cunning livery of hell,
  The damned'st body to invest and cover
  In _prenzie_ guards! Dost thou think, Claudio,
  If I would yield him my virginity,
  Thou might'st be freed?"

Claudio, still incredulous, rejoins:

  "O, heavens! it cannot be."

The word _prenzie_ has given rise to much annotation, and it seems to be
universally agreed that the word is a misprint. The question is, what was
the word actually written, or intended, by Shakspeare? Steevens and Malone
suggested "princely;" Warburton, "priestly;" and Tieck, "precise." Mr.
Knight adopts "precise," the reading of Tieck, and thinks "that, having to
choose some word which would have the double merit of agreeing with the
sense of the passage and be similar in the number and form of the letters,
nothing can be more unfortunate than the correction of "princely;" Mr.
Collier, on the other hand, follows Steevens and Malone, and reads
"princely," observing the Tieck's reading ("precise") "sounds ill as
regards the metre, the accent falling on the wrong syllable. Mr. Collier's
choice is determined by the _authority_ of the second folio, which he
considers ought to have considerable weight, whilst Mr. Knight regards the
authority of that edition as very trifling; and the only point of agreement
between the two distinguished recent editors is with respect to Warburton's
word "priestly," which they both seem to think nearly conveys the meaning
of the poet.

I have over and over again considered the several emendations which have
been suggested, and it seems to me that none of them answer all the
necessary conditions; namely, that the word adopted shall be (1.) suitable
to the reputed character of Angelo; (2.) an appropriate epithet to the word
"guards," in the reply of Isabella above quoted; (3.) of the proper metre
in both {402} places in which the misprint occurred; and (4.) similar in
appearance to the word "prenzie." "Princely" does not agree with the sense
or spirit of the particular passage; for it is extremely improbable that
Claudio, when confined under sentence of death for an absurd and
insufficient cause, would use a term of mere compliment to the man by whom
he had been doomed. "Precise" and "priestly" are both far better than
"princely;" but "precise" is wholly unsuited to the metre in both places,
and "priestly" points too much to a special character to be appropriate to
Angelo's office and position. It may also be remarked, that both "princely"
and "priestly" differ from the number and form of the letters contained in
"prenzie."

The word which I venture to suggest is "PENSIVE," a word particularly
applicable to a person of saintly habits, and which is so applied by Milton
in "Il Penseroso:"

  "Come, pensive nun, devout and pure,
  Sober, stedfast, and demure."

The word "pensive" is stated by Dr. Johnson to mean "sorrowfully
thoughtful, sorrowfully serious," or melancholy; and that such epithets are
appropriate to the reputed character of Angelo will be seen from the
following extracts:

  "I implore her, in my service, that she make friends
  To the strict deputy."--_Claudio_, Act I. Sc. 3.

  "I have deliver'd to Lord Angelo,
  A man of stricture, and firm abstinence."--_Duke_, Act I. Sc. 4.

                  "Lord Angelo is precise;
  Stands at a guard with envy; scarce confesses
  That his blood flows, or that his appetite
  Is more to bread than stone."--_Duke_, Act I. Sc. 4.

                  "A man, whose blood
  Is very snow-broth; one who never feels
  The wanton stings and motions of the sense,
  But doth rebate and blunt his natural edge
  With profits of the mind, study and fast."--_Lucio_, Act I. Sc. 5.

See also Angelo's portraiture of himself in the soliloquy at the
commencement of Act II. Sc. 4.:

                  "My gravity,
  Wherein (let no man hear me) I take pride,
  Could I, with boot, change for an idle plume
  Which the air beats for vain."

And, lastly, the passage immediately under consideration:

                  "This outward-sainted deputy,
  Whose settled visage and deliberate word,
  Nips youth i' the head, and follies doth emmew."--_Isabella_, Act III.
      Sc. 1.

Thus much as to the propriety of the word "pensive," in relation to the
reputed character of Angelo.

The next question is, whether the word "pensive" is an appropriate epithet
to the word "guards." If Messrs. Knight and Collier are correct in
construing "guards" to mean the "trimmings or border of robe," this
question must be answered in the negative. But it appears to me that they
are in error, and that the true meaning of the word "guards," in this
particular passage, is "outward appearances," as suggested by Monck Mason;
and, consequently, that the expression "pensive guards" means a grave or
sanctified countenance or demeanour--"the settled visage and deliberate
word" which "nips youth i' the head, and follies doth emmew."

It requires no argument to establish that the word "pensive" is suitable to
the metre in both places in which the misprint occurred and it is equally
clear that "prenzie" and "pensive" in manuscript are so similar, both in
the number, form, and character of the letters, that the one might easily
be printed for the other. The two words also have a certain resemblance, in
point of sound; and if the word "pensive" be not very distinctly
pronounced, the mistake might be made by a scribe writing from dictation.

Referring to Mrs. Cowden Clarke's admirable concordance of Shakspeare, it
appears that the word "pensive" is used by Shakspeare in the _text_ of his
plays twice; namely, in _Romeo and Juliet_, Act IV. Sc. 1., where Friar
Laurence addresses Juliet thus:

  "My leisure serves me, pensive daughter, now."

and again, in the Third Part of _Henry VI_., Act IV. Sc. 1., where Clarence
is thus addressed by King Edward upon the subject of his marriage with the
Lady Grey:

  "Now, brother Clarence, how like you our choice,
  That you stand pensive, as half mal-content?"

I also find that, according to the stage directions (both ancient and
modern) of Act II. Sc 2. of _Henry VIII_. (see Collier's _Shakspeare_, vol.
v. p. 534., _note_), the king is described to be found "reading pensively,"
at a moment when he is meditating his divorce from Katharine of Arragon,
not "because the marriage of his brother's wife had crept too near his
conscience," but "because his conscience had crept too near another lady."

I might extend the argument by further observations upon the reference last
cited, but not without risk of losing all chance of a place in "NOTES AND
QUERIES."

Query, Whether pen_s_ive was ever written or printed pen_z_ive in
Shakspeare's time? If so, that word would bear a still closer resemblance
to "prenzie."

LEGES.

       *       *       *       *       *

RHYMING LATIN VERSION OF THE SONG ON ROBIN GOODFELLOW.

In the same MS. from which I extracted Braithwait's Latin Drinking Song,
the following version {403} of the well-known song on Robin Goodfellow
occurs. It is apparently by the same hand. I give the English, as it
contains but six stanzas, and affords some variations from the copy printed
by Percy; and indeed one stanza not given by him. Peck attributes the song
to Ben Jonson, but we know not on what foundation. It must be confessed
that internal evidence is against it. The publication of Percy's _Reliques_
had a no less beneficial influence on the literature of Germany than it had
on our own; and Voss had given an admirable version of nine stanzas of this
song as early as the year 1793. The first stanza will afford some notion of
his manner:

    "Von Oberon in Feenland,
    Dem Könige der Geister,
  Komm' ich, Knecht Robert, abgesandt,
    Von meinem Herrn und Meister.
      Als Kobolt und Pux,
      Wohlkundig des Spuks,
    Durchschwarm' ich Nacht vor Nacht.
      Jezt misch' ich mich ein
      Zum polternden Reihn,
    Wohlauf, ihr alle, gelacht, gelacht!"

Although the classic ear may be offended by the "barbarous adjunct of
rhyme," and by the solecisms and false quantities which sometimes occur,
"et alia multa damna atque outragia," others may be amused with these
emulations of the cloistered muse of the Middle Ages. The witty author of
_Whistlecraft_ has shown that he had a true relish for them, and has
successfully tried his hand, observing at the same time:

  "Those monks were poor proficients in divinity,
    And scarce knew more of Latin than myself;
  Compar'd with theirs, they say that true Latinity
    Appears like porcelain compar'd with delf."

Honest Barnaby had no intention of rivalling Horace: his humbler, but not
less amusing, prototypes were Walter de Mapes and his cotemporaries. We may
accept his own defence, if any is needed:

  "That paltry Patcher is a bald translator,
  Whose awl bores at the _words_ but not the matter;
  But this TRANSLATOR makes good use of leather,
  By stitching _rhyme_ and _reason_ both together."

S. W. SINGER.

A SONG ON ROBIN GOODFELLOW.

  "From Oberon in faery-land,
  The king of ghosts and goblins there,
  Mad Robin I, at his command,
  Am sent to view the night-sports here.
  What revel rout is here about,
  In every corner where I go;
  I will it see, and merry be,
  And make good sport with ho, ho, ho!

  "As swift as lightning I do fly
  Amidst the aery welkin soon,
  And, in a minute's space, descry
  What things are done below the moon.
  There's neither hag nor spirit shall wag,
  In any corner where I go;
  But Robin I, their feats will spy,
  And make good sport with ho, ho, ho!

  "Sometimes you find me like a man,
  Sometimes a hawk, sometimes a hound,
  Then to a horse me turn I can,
  And trip and troll about you round:
  But if you stride my back to ride,
  As swift as air I with you go,
  O'er hedge, o'er lands, o'er pool, o'er ponds,
  I run out laughing ho, ho, ho!

  "When lads and lasses merry be,
  With possets and with junkets fine;
  Unknown to all the company,
  I eat their cake and drink their wine;
  Then to make sport, I snore and snort,
  And all the candles out I blow;
  The maids I kiss; they ask who's this?
  I answer, laughing, ho, ho, ho!

  "If that my fellow elf and I
  In circle dance do trip it round,
  And if we chance, by any eye
  There present, to be seen or found,
  Then if that they do speak or say,
  But mummes continue as they go,[1]
  Then night by night I them affright,
  With pinches, dreams, and ho, ho, ho!

  "Since hag-bred Merlin's time have I
  Continued night-sports to and fro,
  That, for my pranks, men call me by
  The name of Robin Goodfellow.
  There's neither hag nor spirit doth wag,
  The fiends and goblins do me know;
  And beldames old my tales have told;
  Sing Vale, Vale, ho, ho, ho!"

_The Latine of the foregoing verses_.

  "Ab Oberone lemurum
  Coemetriorum regulo,
  Spectator veni lubricum,
  Illius jussu, Robbio;
  Quodcunque joci, sit hic loci,
  Quocunque vado in angulo,
  Id speculabor, et conjocabor,
  Sonorem boans, ho, ho, ho!

  "Præceps feror per aerem
  Telo trisulco citius,
  Et translunaria penetrem
  Momento brevi ocyus;
  Larvatus frater non vagatur
  Quocunque vado in angulo,
  Nam Robbio, huic obvio,
  Et facta exploro, ho, ho, ho!

  "Nunc canis nunc accipiter,
  Et homo nunc obambulo,
  Nunc equi forma induor
  Et levis circumcursito;
  {404}
  Si quis me prendat, et ascendat,
  Velocius aurâ rapio,
  Per prata, montes, vada, fontes,
  Risumque tollo, ho, ho, ho!

  "Cum juvenes convivio
  Admiscent se puellulis,
  Ignotus vinum haurio
  Et impleor bellariis;
  Tunc sterto, strepo, et dum crepo,
  Lucernam flatu adventillo,
  Hæc basiatur; hic quis? clamatur,
  Cachinnans reddo, ho, ho, ho!

  "Si quando cum consorte larva
  In circulum tripudio,
  Et observemur nos per arva
  Acutiori oculo;
  Et si spectator eloquatur
  Nec os obhæret digito,
  Nocte terremus et torquemus
  Ungue spectris, ho, ho, ho!

  "Post incubiginam Merlinum
  Nocturni feci ludicra,
  Et combibonem me Robbinum
  Vocent ob jocularia,
  Me dæmones, me lemures,
  Me novite tenebrio,
  Decantant me veneficæ;
  Vale! Valete! ho, ho, ho!"

[Footnote 1: This line is distinctly so written. We should probably read
_or_ instead of _but_. _Mummes_ may mean _mumbling_, muttering.]

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

DEVONSHIRE FOLK LORE.

1. _Storms from Conjuring_.--A common Devonshire remark on the rising of a
storm is, "Ah! there is a conjuring going on somewhere." The following
illustration was told me by an old inhabitant of this parish. In the parish
of St. Mary Tavy is a spot called "Steven's grave," from a suicide said to
have been buried there. His spirit proving troublesome to the
neighbourhood, was laid by a former curate on Sunday after afternoon
service. A man who accompanied the clergyman on the way was told by him to
make haste home, as a storm was coming. The man hurried away home; but
though the afternoon had previously been very fine, he had scarcely reached
his door before a violent thunderstorm came to verify the clergyman's
words.

2. _The Heath-hounds_.--The _brutende heer_ are sometimes heard near
Dartmoor, and are known by the appellation of "Heath-hounds." They were
heard in the parish of St. Mary Tavy several years ago by an old man called
Roger Burn: he was working in the fields, when he suddenly heard the baying
of the hounds, the shouts and horn of the huntsman, and the smacking of his
whip. This last point the old man quoted as at once settling the question.
"How could I be mistaken? why I heard the very smacking of his whip."

3. _Cock scares the Fiend_.--Mr. N. was a Devonshire squire who had been so
unfortunate as to sell his soul to the devil, with the condition that after
his funeral the fiend should take possession of his skin. He had also
persuaded a neighbour to undertake to be present on the occasion of the
flaying. On the death of Mr. N., this man went in a state of great alarm to
the parson of the parish, and asked his advice. By him he was told to
fulfil his engagement, but he must be sure and carry a cock into the church
with him. On the night after the funeral, the man proceeded to the church
armed with the cock; and, as an additional security, took up his position
in the parson's pew. At twelve o'clock the devil arrived, opened the grave,
took the corpse from the coffin and flayed it. When the operation was
concluded, he held the skin up before him, and remarked: "Well! 'twas not
worth coming for after all, for it is all full of holes!" As he said this,
the cock crew; whereupon the fiend, turning round to the man, exclaimed:
"If it had not been for the bird you have got there under your arm, I would
have your skin too." But, thanks to the cock, the man got home safe again.

4. _Cranmere Pool_.--Cranmere Pool, in the centre of Dartmoor, is a great
penal settlement for refractory spirits. Many of the former inhabitants of
this parish are still there expiating their ghostly pranks. An old farmer
was so troublesome to his survivors as to require seven clergymen to secure
him. By their means, however, he was transformed into a colt; and a servant
boy was directed to take him to Cranmere Pool. On arriving at the brink of
the pool, he was to take off the halter, and return instantly without
looking round. Curiosity proving too powerful, he turned his head to see
what was going on, when he beheld the colt plunge into the lake in the form
of a ball of fire. Before doing so, however, he gave the lad a parting
salute in the form of a kick, which knocked out one of his eyes.

J. M. (4.)

St. Mary Tavy, May 5. 1851.

_St. Uncumber and the offering of Oats_ (Vol. ii., pp. 286. 342. 381.).--A
further illustration of this custom is found in the legend of St.
Rhadegund, or at least in the metrical version of it, which is commonly
ascribed to Henry Bradshaw. A copy of this very scarce poem, from the press
of Pynson, is preserved in the library of Jesus College, Cambridge. We
there read as follows:

  "Among all myracles after our intelligence
    Which Radegunde shewed by her humilite,
  One is moost vsuall had in experience
    Among the common people noted with hert fre
  _By offeryng of otes_ after theyr degre
    At her holy aulters where myracles in sight
    Dayly haue be done by grace day and nyght.

  {405}
  "_By oblacion of othes_, halt lame and blynde
    Hath ben restored vnto prosperite;
  Dombe men to speke aboue cours of kynde
    Sickemen delyuered from payne and miserie,
    Maydens hath kept theyr pure virginite,
    Wyddowes defended from greuous oppression,
    And clarkes exalted by her to promocion."

It is also remarkable that a _reason_ exists in the story of this saint for
the choice of so strange an offering. As she was escaping from her husband,
a crop of _oats_ sprang up miraculously, to testify in her behalf, and to
silence the messengers who had been sent to turn her from her purpose.

On this account is there not room for the conjecture that _St. Rhadegund_
is the original St. Uncumber, and that the custom of offering oats at
Poules, when a wife was weary of her husband, is traceable to the story of
the French queen, who died in 587.

C. H.

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

"_Similia similibus curantur_."--The list proposed by MR. JAMES BUCKMAN
(Vol. iii., p. 320.) of "old wives' remedies," based on the above
principle, would, I imagine, be of endless length; but the following
extract from the _Herbal_ of Sir John Hill, M.D., "Fellow of the Royal
Academy of Sciences at Bordeaux," published in 1789, will show at how late
a period such notions have been entertained by men of education and even
scientific attainment:--

    "It is to be observed that nature seems to have set her stamp upon
    several herbs, which have the virtue to stop bleedings; this
    [cranesbill] and the tutsan, the two best remedies the fields afford
    for outward and inward bleedings, become all over as red as blood at a
    certain season."

SELEUCUS.

_Cure of large Neck_.--I send you two remedies in use here for the cure of
a common complaint, called "large neck." Perhaps they may be worthy of a
place in your "Folk Lore."

A common snake, held by its head and tail, is slowly drawn, by some one
standing by, nine times across the front part of the neck of the person
affected, the reptile being allowed, after every third time, to crawl about
for a while. Afterwards the snake is put alive into a bottle, which is
corked tightly and then buried in the ground. The tradition is, that as the
snake decays the swelling vanishes.

The second mode of treatment is just the same as the above, with the
exception of the snake's doom. In this case it is killed, and its skin,
sewn in a piece of silk, is worn round the diseased neck. By degrees the
swelling in this case also disappears.

ROVERT.

Withyam, Sussex.

       *       *       *       *       *

DIBDIN'S LIBRARY COMPANION.

A few days since the writer was musing over the treasures of one of the
most amiable of the bibliographical brotherhood, when his eye rested on a
document endorsed with the following mysterious notification: "A Squib for
Dibdin, to be let off on the next Fifth of November." What in the name of
Guido Fawkes have we here! Thinking that the explosion in "NOTES AND
QUERIES" would do no harm, but perhaps some good, a note was kindly
permitted to be taken of it for that publication. It was evidently written
soon after the appearance of the _Library Companion._

    "_Sundry Errors discovered in the Library Companion, recently put forth
    by the Rev. T. F. Dibdin_, F.R.S., A.S. This work exhibits the most
    extraordinary instance of gross negligence that has appeared since the
    discovery of the profitable art of book-making. In two notes (pp. 37,
    38.), comprised in twelve lines, occur _fifteen_ remarkable blunders,
    such as any intelligent bookseller could, without much trouble, have
    corrected for the Rev. and learned author.

    "Henry's _Exposition of the Old and New Testaments_ first appeared
    collectively in 1710[2], five[3] vols. folio; but the recent edition of
    1810[4], in six vols. 4to., is the best[5], as the last volume
    contains[6] additional matter from the author's MSS. left at his
    decease.--Dr. Gill's _Exposition of the New Testament_ was published in
    1746, &c., three vols. folio; of the Old, in 1748[7], &c., nine[8]
    vols. folio; but the work advancing in reputation and price, became
    rare, so as to induce Mr. Bagster[9] to put forth a new edition of the
    whole, in ten[10] vols. 4to. I recommend the annotations of Gill to
    every theological collector, and those who have the quarto edition will
    probably feel disposed to purchase Gill's _Body of Practical_[11]
    _Divinity_, containing[12] some account of his life, writings, and
    character, in two[13] volumes 4to. 1773.[14] These two[15] volumes are
    worth about 1l. 15s.[16]"

[Footnote 2: Instead of 1710, read 1707.]

[Footnote 3: This edition is in _six_ volumes.]

[Footnote 4: It bears the date of 1811.]

[Footnote 5: The best edition of Henry's _Commentary_ was elegantly printed
by Knapton, in 5 vols. folio, 1761, known as the fifth edition.]

[Footnote 6: This new edition is respectable, except the plates, which had
been well worn in Bowyer's _Cabinet Bible_. The _Commentary_ is printed
verbatim from the former editions, and has _no_ additional matter from the
author's MSS. left at his decease; no mention of anything of the kind is
made in the title, preface, or advertisement, until Mr. Dibdin so
marvellously brought it to light: upon what authority he makes the
assertion remains a mystery. A very considerable number of sets remain
unsold in the warehouse of a certain great bookseller. _Query_. Was the
Rev. gentleman's pen dipped in gold when he wrote this puff direct?]

[Footnote 7: Not 1748, &c.: it first appeared in 1763, &c.]

[Footnote 8: Nine volumes folio should be _six_ volumes folio.]

[Footnote 9: It was not Mr. Bagster, but Messrs. Mathews and Leigh of the
Strand, who put forth the new edition of Dr. Gill's _Exposition_.]

[Footnote 10: It was completed in _nine_ vols. 4to.]

[Footnote 11: The title is _A Body of Doctrinal Divinity_.]

[Footnote 12: Dr. Gill's _Body of Divinity_ was published by _himself_, and
has no account of his life, writings, and character.]

[Footnote 13: It was in _three_ vols. 4to, not in two.]

[Footnote 14: Instead of 1773, it was published in 1769-70; nor did any new
edition appear for many years, until those recently printed in 3 vols.
8vo., and 1 vol. 4to.]

[Footnote 15: These two vols. should be _three_ vols.]

[Footnote 16: Dr. Gill's _Body of Divinity_ is introduced under the head of
"English Bibles!"]

"These glaring errors are made with regard to {406} modern books, and may
seriously mislead the bibliomaniacs of the next generation; but what can be
expected from an author who, in giving directions for the selection of
Hebrew Bibles, forgets the beautiful and correct editions of VANDERHOOGHT
and JABLONSKI; who tells us that Frey republished Jahn's[17] edition of the
Hebrew Bible in 1812; and who calls Boothroyd's incorrect and ugly
double-columned 4to. '_admirable_.'[18]

"The Rev. gentleman fully proves, in the compilation of his volume, that he
can dip his pen in gall, as well as allow it to be guided by gold. Dr.
Warton's _History of English Poetry_, a very beautiful and correct edition,
greatly enlarged from most interesting materials at a very considerable
expense, has just issued from the press in 3 vols. 8vo. But 'Can any good
thing come out of Nazareth?' It was not published by any of the favoured
houses; hence the following ominous notice of it: 'Clouds and darkness rest
upon it!'[19] Gentle reader, they are the clouds and darkness of
_Cheapside._ It may be possible that some propitious golden breeze had
driven all the clouds and darkness from Cornhill, Paternoster Row, the
Strand, Pall-Mall, and Bedford Street."

J. Y.

Hoxton.

[Footnote 17: Frey republished Vanderhooght's Hebrew Bible in 1811.]

[Footnote 18: Note on page 24.]

[Footnote 19: Note on page 667.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_A Note on Dress._--Dress is mutable, who denies it? but still old fashions
are retained to a far greater extent than one would at first imagine. The
Thames watermen rejoice in the dress of Elizabeth: while the royal
beefeaters (buffetiers) wear that of private soldiers of the time of Henry
VII.; the blue-coat boy, the costume of a London citizen of the reign of
Edward VI.; the London charity-school girls, the plain mob cap and long
gloves of the time of Queen Anne. In the brass badge of the cabmen, we see
a retention of the dress of Elizabethan retainers: while the shoulder-knots
that once decked an officer now adorn a footman. The attire of the sailor
of William III.'s era is now seen amongst our fishermen. The university
dress is as old as the age of the Smithfield martyrs. The linen bands of
the pulpit and the bar are abridgments of the falling collar.

Other costumes are found lurking in provinces, and amongst some trades. The
butchers' blue is the uniform of a guild. The quaint little head-dress of
the market women of Kingswood, Gloucestershire, is in fact the gipsy hat of
George II. Scarlet has been the colour of soldiers' uniform from the time
of the Lacedemonians. The blue of the army we derived from the Puritans; of
the navy from the colours of a mistress of George I.

TORRO.

_Curious Omen at Marriage_.--In Miss Benger's _Memoirs of Elizabeth, Queen
of Bohemia_, it is mentioned that,--

    "It is by several writers observed that, towards the close of the
    ceremony, _certain coruscations of joy_ appeared in Elizabeth's face,
    which were afterwards supposed to be sinister presages of her
    misfortunes."

In a note, Echard is alluded to as the authority for this singular
circumstance.

Can any of your readers explain _why_ such a _coruscation of joy_ upon a
wedding day should forebode evil? or whether any other instances are on
record of its so doing?

H. A. B.

_Ventriloquist Hoax_ (Vol. ii., p. 101.).--The following is extracted from
_Admirable Curiosities, Rarities, and Wonders in England, Scotland, and
Ireland, by R. B., Author of the History of the Wars of England, &c._,
Remarks of London, &c., 12mo., 1684, p. 137. It may serve as a pendant to
the ventriloquist hoax mentioned by C. H., Vol. ii., p. 101.:--

    "I have a letter by me, saith Mr. Clark, dated July 7, 1606, written by
    one Mr. Bovy to a minister in London, where he thus writes: 'Touching
    news, you shall understand that Mr. Sherwood hath received a letter
    from Mr. Arthur Hildersham, which containeth this following narrative:
    that at Brampton, in the parish of Torksey, near Gainsborough in
    Lincolnshire, an ash-tree shaketh both in the body and boughs thereof,
    and there proceed from thence sighs and groans, like those of a man
    troubled in his sleep, as if it felt some sensible torment. Many have
    climbed to the top thereof, where they heard the groans more plainly
    than they could below. One among the rest being a-top, spoke to the
    tree; but presently came down much astonished, and lay grovelling on
    the earth speechless for three hours, and then reviving said,
    _Brampton, Brampton,_ thou art much bound to pray.' The author of this
    news is one Mr. Vaughan, a minister who was there present and heard and
    saw these passages, and told Mr. Hildersham of it. The Earl of Lincoln
    caused one of the arms of the ash to be lopped off, and a hole to be
    bored into the body, and then was the sound or hollow voice heard more
    audibly than before; but in a kind of speech which they could not
    comprehend nor understand."

K. P. D. E.

_Barker, the original Panorama Painter._--Mr. Cunningham, at p. 376. of his
admirable _Handbook of London,_ says that Robert Barker, who originated the
Panorama in Leicester Square, died in 1806. Now, Barker, who preceded
Burford, and eventually, I think, entered into partnership with him,
married a friend of my family, a daughter of the Admiral Bligh against whom
had been the mutiny in the _Bounty_. I remember Mr. Barker, and his house
in Surrey Square, or some small square on the Surrey side of London Bridge;
also its wooden rotunda for painting in; and this, too, at the time when
the picture of Spitzbergen was in progress {407} and you felt almost a
chill as the transparent icebergs were splashed on.

If there have not been two Messrs. Barker connected with the Panorama, Mr.
Cunningham must be incorrect in his date, for I was not in existence in
1806.

A. G.

Ecclesfield.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINOR QUERIES.

_Vegetable Sympathy._--I have been told that Sir Humphrey Davy asserted
that the shoots of trees, if transplanted, will only live as long as the
parent stock--supposing that to die naturally. How is this to be accounted
for, if true?

A. A. D.

_Court Dress_--When was the present court dress first established as the
recognised costume for state ceremonials? and if there are extant any
orders of the Earl Marshal upon the subject, where are they printed?

HENCO.

_Dieu et mon Droit._--When was this first adopted as the motto of our
sovereigns? I have heard widely different dates assigned to it.

LEICESTRENSIS.

_Cachecope Bell._--In the ancient accounts of the churchwardens of the
parish of St. Mary-de-Castro, Leicester, and also in those of St. Martin in
the same town, the term "cachecope," "kachecope," "catche coppe," or
"catch-corpe-bell," is not of unfrequent occurrence: _e. g._, in the
account for St. Mary's for the year 1490, we have:

    "For castynge ye cachecope bell, js.

    "It. To Thos. Raban for me'dyng ye kachecope bell whole, iiijd."

I have endeavoured in vain to ascertain the meaning and derivation of the
word, which is not to be found in Mr. Halliwell's excellent _Dictionary of
Archaic Words_. Can you enlighten me on the subject?

LEICESTRENSIS.

_The Image of both Churches._--A curious work, treating largely of the
schism between the Catholics and Protestants in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, was printed at Tornay in 1623, under the following title: _The
Image of bothe Churches, Hierusalem and Babel, Unitie and Confusion,
Obedience and Sedition, by P. D. M._ What is the proof that this was
written by Dr. Matthew Paterson?

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Double Names._--Perhaps some one would explain why so many persons
formerly bore two names, as "Hooker _alias_ Vowel." Illegitimacy may have
sometimes caused it: but this will not explain those cases where the
bearers ostentatiously set forth both names. Perhaps they were the names of
both parents, used even by lawfully born persons to distinguish themselves
from others of the same paternal name.

T.

"_If this fair flower_," &c.--Would you kindly find a place for the lines
which follow? I have but slender hopes of discovering their author, but
think that their beauty is such as to deserve a reprint. They are not by
Waller; nor Dryden, as far as I know. I found them in a periodical
published in Scotland during the last century, and called _The Bee_.

    "Lines supposed to have been addressed, with the present of a white
    rose, by a Yorkist, to a lady of the Lancastrian faction.

      'If this fair flower offend thy sight,
        It in thy bosom bear:
      'Twill blush to be outmatched in white
        And turn Lancastrian there!'"

I observe that amongst the many "Notes" and quotations on the subject of
the supposed power of prophecy before death, no one has cited those most
beautiful lines of Campbell in "Lochiel's Warning:"

  "'Tis the _sunset_ of life gives me mystical lore,
  And coming events cast their shadows before."

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

Temple.

_Hugh Peachell--Sir John Marsham._--Can any of your correspondents give me
information respecting one Hugh Peachell, of whom I find the following
curious notice in a bundle of MSS. in the State Paper Office, marked
"_America and West Indies, No._ 481A."

    "St. Michael's Toune in ye Barbados, Sept. 30. [1670]. Jo Neuington,
    Addrese w. Mr. James Drawater, Merch^t at Mr. Jo. Lindapp's, at ye
    Bunch of Grapes in Ship yard by Temple barre.--All ye news I can write
    from here is, y^t one Hugh Peachell, who hath been in this Island
    allmost twenty years and lived w^{th} many persons of good esteem, and
    was last with Coll. Barwick. It was observed that he gained much
    monyes, yet none thrived lesse than hee; and falling sicke about 3
    weeks since, was much troubled in his conscience, but would not utter
    himself to any but a minister, who being sent for He did acknowledge
    himself ye person y^t cut of ye head of King Charles, for w^{ch} he had
    100^{lbs} and w^{th} much seeming penitence and receiving such comforts
    as the Devine, one parson Leshely, an emminent man here, could afford
    him, he dyed in a quarter of an hour afterwards. This you may report
    for truth, allthough you should not have it from any other hand. He had
    100^{lbs} for ye doing of itt. There is one Wm. Hewit condemned for ye
    same, I think now in Newgate; he will be glad you acquaint him of this
    if he have it not allready."

Oldmixon, in his _British Empire in America_, mentions a Sir John Marsham
of Barbados; was he a knight or baronet, and when did he die?

W. DOWNING BRUCE, F.S.A.

Middle Temple.

_Legend represented in Frettenham Church._--Perhaps some one of your
numerous readers may {408} be able to give an explanation of the following
legend, for such I suppose it to be:--

In the parish church of Frettenham, co. Norfolk, several alabaster carvings
were discovered some years ago, near the chancel arch, having traces of
colour. The most perfect, and the one which had most claims to merit as a
piece of sculpture, represented a very curious scene. A horse was standing
fixed in a kind of stocks, a machine for holding animals fast while they
were being shod. But it (the horse) had only three legs: close by stood a
Bishop, or mitred Abbot, holding the horse's missing fore quarter, on the
hoof of which a smith was nailing a shoe. Of course the power which had so
easily removed a leg would as easily replace it.

The details of the story may be very safely conjectured to have been--a
Bishop or high church dignitary is going on a journey or pilgrimage; his
horse drops a shoe; on being taken to a smith's to have it replaced, the
animal becomes restive, and cannot be shod even with the help of the
stocks; whereupon the bishop facilitates the operation in the manner before
described. One feels tempted to ask why he could not have replaced the shoe
without the smith's intervention.

What I want to know is, of whom is this story told? I regret that not
having seen the carving in question, I can give no particulars of dress,
&c., which might help to determine its age; nor could my informant, though
he perfectly well remembered the subject represented. He told me that he
had often mentioned it to people likely to know of the existence of such a
legend, but could never gain any information respecting it.

C. J. E.

King's Col. Cambridge, May 9. 1851.

_King of Nineveh burns himself in his Palace_.--In a review of Mr. Layard's
work on Nineveh (_Quarterly_, vol. lxxxiv. p. 140.) I find the following
statement:

    "The act of Sardanapalus in making his palace his own funeral pyre and
    burning himself upon it, is also attributed to the king who was
    overthrown by Cyaxares."

May I ask where the authority for this statement is to be found?

X. Z.

_Butchers not Jurymen_.--

  "As the law does think it fit
  No butchers shall on juries sit."--Butler's _Ghost_, cant. ii.

The vulgar error expressed in these lines is not extinct, even at the
present day. The only explanation I have seen of its origin is given in
Barrington's _Observations on the more Ancient Statutes_, p. 474., on 3
Hen. VIII., where, after referring in the text to a statute by which
surgeons were exempted from attendance on juries, he adds in a note:

    "It may perhaps be thought singular to suppose that this exemption from
    serving on juries is the foundation of the vulgar error, that a surgeon
    or butcher from the barbarity of their business may be challenged as
    jurors."

Sir H. Spelman, in his _Answer to an Apology for Archbishop Abbott_,
says,--

    "In our law, those that were exercised in slaughter of beasts, were not
    received to be triers of the life of a man."--_Posth. Works_, p. 112.;
    _St. Trials_, vol. ii. p. 1171.

So learned a man as Spelman must, I think, have had some ground for this
statement, and could scarcely be repeating a vulgar error taking its rise
from a statute then hardly more than a hundred years old. I hope some of
your readers will be able to give a more satisfactory explanation than
Barrington's.

E. S. T. T.

_Redwing's Nest_.--I trust you will excuse my asking, if any of your
correspondents have found the nest of the redwing? for I lately discovered
what I consider as the egg of this bird in a nest containing four
blackbirds' eggs. The egg answers exactly the description given of that of
the redwing thrush, both in Bewick and Wood's _British Song Birds;_ being
bluish-green, with a few largish spots of a dark brown colour. The nest was
not lined with mud, as is usually the case with a blackbird's, but with
moss and dried grass.

Has the egg of the redwing been ever seen in this situation before?

C. T. A.

Lyndon.

_Earth thrown upon the Coffin_.--Is there anything known respecting the
origin of the ceremony of throwing earth upon the coffin at funerals? The
following note is from a little German tale, _Die Richtensteiner_, by Van
der Velde, a tale of the time of the Thirty Years' war. Whether the
ceremony is still performed in Germany as there described, I do not know.

    "Darauf warfen, nach der alten, frommen Sitte, zum letzten Lebewohl,
    der Wittwer, und die Waisen drei Hände voll Erde auf den Sarg hinunter
    ... Alle Zuschauer drangten sich nur um das Grab ... und aus hundert
    Händen flog die Erde hinab auf den Sarg."

J. M. (4.)

_Family of Rowe_.--Lysons, in his work _Environs of London_, gives an
extract from the will of Sir Thomas Rowe, of Hackney, and, as his
authority, says in a note:--

    "_Extracts of Wills in the Prerogative Office_, by E. Rowe Mores, Esq.,
    in the possession of Th. Astle, Esq., F.R.A.S."

Can any of your numerous readers inform me in whose possession the above
now is? And whether, wherever it is, it is open to inspection?

TEE BEE.

_Portus Canum_.--Erim, one of the biographers of Becket, states that the
archbishop's murderers {409} (_S. Thom. Cantuar_., ed. Giles, vol. i. p.
65.), having crossed from France, landed at _Portus Canum_. It has been
conjectured that this means Hythe, which is close to Saltwood Castle, where
the knights were received by Ranulph de Broc (_English Review_, December,
1846, p. 410.). Is the conjecture right? I believe Hasted does not notice
the name.

J. C. R.

_Arms of Sir John Davies_.--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
were the arms, crest, and motto (if any), borne by Sir John Davies, the
eminent lawyer and poet? In a collection which I have made of the armorial
bearings of the families of Davies, Davis, and Davys, amounting to more
than fifty distinct coats, there occur the arms of _three_ Sir John Davies
or Davys, but there is nothing to distinguish which of them was _the_ Sir
John.

LLAW GYFFES.

_William Penn_.--Will MR. HEPWORTH DIXON, or some of your correspondents,
be so good as to send a reply to this Query?

What was the name, and whose daughter was the lady to whom William Penn
(the son of William Penn and Miss Springett) was married?

A. N. C.

_Who were the Writers in the North Briton?_--The _Athenæum_ of Saturday,
May 17, contains a very interesting article on the recently published
_Correspondence of Horace Walpole with Mason_, in which certain very
palpable hits are made as to the identity of Mason and Junius. In the
course of the article the following Query occurs:

    "In the second Part of the folio edition of the _North Briton_
    published by Bingley, in the British Museum, are inserted two folio
    pages of manuscript thus headed:--

    'The Extraordinary
    NORTH BRITON.
    By W. M.'

    This manuscript is professedly a copy from a publication issued June
    3rd, 1768, by Staples Steare, 93. Fleet Street, price three-pence. It
    is a letter addressed to Lord Mansfield, and an appeal in favour of
    Wilkes, on whom, the writer says, judgment is this day to be
    pronounced. It is written somewhat in the style of Junius. The satire
    is so refined that the reader does not at first suspect that it is
    satire,--as in Junius's _Letters_, wherein the satirical compliments to
    the King have been mistaken for praise, and quoted in proof of
    inconsistency.

    "Who was this 'W. M.'? Who were the writers in the _North Briton?_--not
    only 'The Extraordinary' _North Briton_, published by Steare, but the
    genuine _North Briton_, published by Bingley. These questions may
    perhaps be very simple, and easily answered by persons better informed
    than ourselves."

As the inquiries of your correspondent W. M. S. (Vol. iii., p. 241.) as to
the Wilkes MSS. and the writers of the _North Briton_ have not yet been
replied to, and this subject is one of great importance, will you allow me
to recall attention to them?

F. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries Answered.

"_Many a Word_."--Your correspondent's observations are perfectly correct:
we daily use quotations we know not where to find. Perhaps some of your
friends may be able to reply whence

  "Many a word, at random spoke
  Will rend a heart that's well-nigh broke."

S. P.

    [The lines will be found in Walter Scott's _Lord of the Isles_, Canto
    V. St. 18.

      "O! many a shaft, at random sent
      Finds mark the archer little meant!
      And many a word, at random spoken
      May soothe or wound a heart's that broken!"]

_Roman Catholic Church_ (Vol. iii., p. 168.).--Many thanks for your
reference to the _Almanach du Clergé de France_; but as I have failed to
obtain the requisite information through my booksellers, might I beg the
additional favour of knowing what is the cost of the book, and where it can
be procured?

E. H. A.

    [The _Almanach_ to which our correspondent refers is or was published
    by _Gaume frères à Paris_, and sold also by Grand, rue du
    Petit-Bourbon, 6, in the same city. Its price, judging from the size of
    the book, is about a couple of francs.]

_Tick_ (Vol. iii., p. 357.).--MR. DE LA PRYME'S suggestion as to the origin
of the expression "going tick" is ingenious; nevertheless I take it to be
clear that "tick" is merely an abbreviation of ticket. (See Nares's
_Glossary_, and Halliwell's _Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words_,
under "Ticket.") In addition to the passages cited by them from Decker,
Cotgrave, Stephens, and Shirley, I may refer to the Act 16 Car. II. c. 7.
s. 3., which relates to gambling and betting "upon ticket or credit."

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge, May 3. 1851.

    [In the _Mirrour for Magistrates_, p 421., we read:--

      "Of _tickle credit_ ne had bin the mischiefe."

    "Tickle credit," says Pegge, "means easy credit, alluding to the
    credulity of Theseus."--_Anonymiana_, cent. ii. 44. Mr. Jon Bee, in his
    _Sportsman's Slang Dictionary_, gives the following definition:--

    "_Tick_", credit in small quantities; usually _scored_ up with chalk
    (called _ink_ ironically), which being done with a sound resembling
    'tick, tick, tick,' gives the appellation 'going to _tick_,' '_tick_ it
    up,' 'my _tick_ is out,' 'no more _tick_!'"]

_Hylles' Arithmetic_.--Having seen it mentioned in the public papers that a
copy of the first edition of Cocker's _Arithmetic_ (considered unique) was
lately sold at an exceedingly high price by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, I
am induced to send you a {410} copy of the title-page of an arithmetical
work in my possession which seems a curiosity in its way; but whether
unique or not, my slender bibliographical knowledge does not enable me to
determine. It is as follows:

    "The Arte of Vulgar Arithmeticke, both in Integers and Fractions,
    _devided into two Bookes, whereof the first is called Nomodidactus
    Numerorum_, and the second _Portus Proportionum_, with certeine
    Demonstrations, reduced into so plaine and perfect Method, _as the like
    hath not hetherto beene published in English_. _Wherevnto_ is added a
    third Booke, entituled _Musa Mercatorum_: comprehending all the most
    necessarie and profitable Rules _vsed in the trade of Merchandise_. In
    all which three Bookes, the Rules, Precepts, and Maxims are _onely
    composed in meeter for the better retaining of them in memorie_, but
    also the operations, examples, demonstrations, and questions, _are in
    most easie wise expounded and explaned, in the forme_ of a dialogue,
    for the reader's more cleere vnderstanding. _A knowledge pleasant for
    Gentlemen, commendable for Capteines_ and Soldiers, profitable for
    Merchants, and generally _necessarie for all estates and degrees_.
    Newly collected, digested, and in some part deuised by a _welwiller to
    the Mathematicals_."

    "_Ecclesiasticus_, cap. 19.

    "Learning unto fooles is as fetters on their feete and manicles vpon
    their right hand; but to the wise it is a Iewell of golde, and like a
    Bracelet vpon his right arme.

    "_Boetius_. I. _Arith_. cap. 2.

    "_Omnia quæcunque a primæua natura constructa sunt, Numerorum videntur
    racione formata. Hoc enim fuit principale in animo conditoris
    exemplar_. Imprinted at London by _Gabriel Simson_, dwelling in Fleete
    Lane, 1600."

The volume (which is a small quarto of 270 folios) is dedicated "To the
Right Honorable sir Thomas Sackuill, Knight, Baron of Buckhurst, Lord
Treasurer of England," &c. &c., by Thomas Hylles.

Perhaps one or other of your correspondents will kindly inform me whether
this volume is a rarity, and also oblige me with some information regarding
Thomas Hylles, its author.

SN. DAVIE, Jun.

    [Professor De Morgan, in his "_Arithmetical Books from the Invention of
    printing to the present Time_," describes Hylles' work "as a big book,
    heavy with mercantile lore;" and the author as being, "in spite of all
    his trifling, a man of learning." A list of the author's other works
    will be found in Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_, and Lowndes's
    _Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature_, under the word _Hills_
    (Thomas). See also Ames's _Typographical Antiquities_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

VILLENAGE.

(Vol. iii., p. 327.)

Your correspondent H. C. wishes to know whether bondage was a reality in
the time of Philip and Mary; and, if so, when it became extinct. It was a
reality much later than that, as several cases in the books will show.
Dyer, who was appointed chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1559,
settled several in which man claimed property in his fellow-man, hearing
arguments and giving judgment on the point whether one should be a "villein
regardant" or a "villein in gross." Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the
Chief Justices_, gives the following, tried before Dyer, _C.J._:

    "A. B., seised in fee of a manor to which a villein was regardant, made
    a feoffment of one acre of the manor by these words: 'I have given one
    acre, &c., and further I have given and granted, &c., John S., my
    villein.' Question, 'Does the villein pass to the grantee as a villein
    in gross, or as a villein appendant to that acre?' The Court being
    equally divided in opinion, no judgment seems to have been
    given."--_Dyer_, 48 b. pl. 2.

Another action was brought before him under these circumstances:--Butler,
Lord of the Manor of Badminton, in the county of Gloucester, contending
that Crouch was his villein regardant, entered into certain lands, which
Crouch had purchased in Somersetshire, and leased them to Fleyer. Crouch
thereupon disseised Fleyer, who brought his action against Crouch, pleading
that Butler and his ancestors were seised of Crouch and his ancestors as of
villeins regardant, from time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the
contrary. The jury found that Butler and his ancestors were seised of
Crouch and his ancestors until the first year of the reign of Henry VII.;
but, confessing themselves ignorant whether in point of law such seisin be
an actual seisin of the defendant, prayed the opinion of the Court thereon.
Dyer, _C.J._, and the other judges agreed upon this to a verdict for the
defendant, for "the lord having let an hundred years pass without redeeming
the villein or his issue, cannot, after that, claim them." (_Dyer_, 266.
pl. 11.)

When Holt was chief justice of the King's Bench, an action was tried before
him to recover the price of a slave who had been sold in Virginia. The
verdict went for the plaintiff. In deciding upon a motion made in arrest of
judgment, Holt, _C.J._, said,--"As soon as a negro comes into England he is
free: one may be a villein in England, but not a slave." (_Cases temp.
Holt_, 405.)

As to the period at which villenage in England became extinct, we find in
_Litt_. (sec. 185.):--

    "Villenage is supposed to have finally disappeared in the reign of
    James I., but there is great difficulty in saying when it ceased to be
    lawful, for there has been no statute to abolish it; and by the old
    law, if any freeman acknowledged himself in a court of record to be a
    villein, he and all his after-born issue and their descendants were
    villeins."

Even so late as the middle of the eighteenth century, when the great Lord
Mansfield adorned {411} the bench, it was pleaded "that villenage, or
slavery, had been permitted in England by the common law; that no statute
had ever passed to abolish this _status_;" and that "although _de facto_
villenage by birth had ceased, a man might still make himself a villein by
acknowledgment in a court of record." This was in the celebrated case of
the negro Somersett, in which Lord Mansfield first established that "the
air of England had long been too pure for a slave." In his judgment he
says,--

    "... Then what ground is there for saying that the _status_ of slavery
    is now recognised by the law of England?... At any rate, villenage has
    ceased in England, and it cannot be revived."--_St. Tr._, vol. xx. pp.
    1-82.

And Macaulay, in his admirable _History of England_, speaking of the
gradual and silent extinction of villenage, then, towards the close of the
Tudor period, fast approaching completion, says:

    "Some faint traces of the institution of villenage were detected by the
    curious as late as the days of the Stuarts; nor has that institution
    ever to this hour been abolished by statute."

TEE BEE.

_Villenage_ (Vol. iii., p. 327.).--In reply to the question put by H. C., I
beg to say that in Burton's _Leicestershire_ (published in 1622), a copy of
which is now before me, some curious remarks occur on this subject. Burton
says, under the head of "Houghton-on-the-Hill," that the last case he could
find in print, concerning the claim to a villein, was in Mich. 9 & 10 Eliz.
(_Dyer_, 266. b.), where one Butler, Lord of the Manor of Badminton in
Gloucestershire, did claim one Crouch for his villein regardant to his said
manor, and made an entry upon Crouch's lands in Somersetshire. Upon an
answer made by Crouch, an _ejectione firmæ_ was brought in the King's
Bench; and upon the evidence it was moved, that as no seizure of the body
had been made, or claim set up by the lord, for sixty years preceding, none
could then be made. The Court held, in accordance with this, that no
seizure could be made. I do not know what the reference means; perhaps some
of your legal correspondents may do so.

JAYTEE.

       *       *       *       *       *

MACLEAN NOT JUNIUS.

(Vol. iii., p. 378.)

Your correspondent ÆGROTUS (_antè_, p. 378.) is not justified in writing so
confidently on a subject respecting which he is so little informed. He is
evidently not even aware that the claims of Maclean have been ably and
elaborately set forth by Sir David Brewster, and, as I think, conclusively,
on the evidence, set aside in the _Athenæum_. He has, however, been pleased
to new vamp some old stories, to which he gives something of novelty by
telling them "with a difference." I remember, indeed, four or five years
since, to have seen a letter on this subject, written by Mr. Pickering, the
bookseller, to the late Sir Harris Nicolas, in which the same statements
were made, supported by the same authorities,--which, in fact, corresponded
so exactly with the communication of ÆGROTUS, that I must believe either
that your correspondent has seen that letter, or that both writers had
their information from a common story-teller.

Respecting the "vellum-bound copy" locked up in the ebony cabinet in
possession of the late Marquis of Lansdowne, Mr. Pickering's version came
nearer to the authority; for he said, "_My informant saw_ the bound volumes
and the cabinet _when a boy_." The proof then rests on the recollection of
an Anonymous, who speaks positively as to what took place nearly half a
century since; and this anonymous boy, we are to believe, was already so
interested about Junius as to notice the fact at the time, and remember it
ever after. Against the probabilities of this we might urge, that the
present Marquis--who was born in 1780, and came to the title in 1809, is
probably as old, or older than Anonymous; as much interested in a question
believed by many persons, ÆGROTUS amongst them, intimately to concern his
father, and quite as precocious, for he was Chancellor of the Exchequer in
1805--never saw or heard of either the volumes or the cabinet; and, as
ÆGROTUS admits, after a search expressly made by his order, they could not
be found. Further, allow me to remind you, that it is not more than six
weeks since it was recorded in "NOTES AND QUERIES" that a "vellum-bound"
Junius was lately sold at Stowe; and it is about two months since I learnt,
on the same authority, that a Mr. Cramp had asserted that vellum-bound
copies were so common, that the printer must have taken the Junius copy as
a pattern; so that, if ÆGROTUS'S facts be admitted, they would prove
nothing. There is one circumstance, however, bearing on this question,
which perhaps ÆGROTUS himself will think entitled to some weight. It was
not until 1812, when George Woodfall published the private letters of
Junius, that the public first heard about "a vellum-bound" copy. If
therefore the Anonymous knew before 1809 that some special interest did or
would attach more to one vellum-bound book than another, he must be Junius
himself; for Sampson Woodfall was dead, and when living had said nothing
about it.

ÆGROTUS then favours us with the anecdote about "old Mr. Cox" the printer,
and that Maclean corrected the proofs of _Junius' Letters_ at his
printing-office. Of course, persons acquainted with the subject have heard
the story before, though not with all the circumstantialities now given.
Where, I might ask, is the authority for {412} this story? Who is
responsible for it? But the emphatic question which common sense will ask
is this: Why should Junius go to Mr. Cox's printing-office to correct his
proofs? Where he wrote the letters he might surely have corrected the
proofs. Why, after all his trouble, anxiety, and mystification to keep the
secret, should he needlessly go to anybody's printing-office to correct the
proofs, and thus wantonly risk the consequences?--in fact, go there and
betray himself, as we are expected to believe he did? The story is absurd,
on the face of it. But what authority has ÆGROTUS for asserting that Junius
corrected proofs at all? Strong presumptive evidence leads me to believe
that he did not: in some instances he could not. In one instance he
specially desired to have a proof; but it was, as we now know, for the
purpose of forwarding it to Lord Chatham. Junius was also anxious to have
proofs of the Dedication and Preface, but it is by no means certain that he
had them; the evidence tends to show that they were, at Woodfall's request,
and to remove from his own shoulders the threatened responsibility, read by
Wilkes: and the collected edition was printed from Wheble's edition, so far
as it went, and the remainder from slips cut from the _Public Advertiser_,
both corrected by Junius; but we have no reason to believe that Junius ever
saw a proof, even of the collected edition,--many reasons that tend
strongly to the contrary opinion. Under these circumstances, we are
required to believe an anonymous story, which runs counter to all evidence,
that we may superadd an absurdity.

Mr. Pickering further referred to Mr. Raphael West, as one who "could tell
much on the subject." Here ÆGROTUS enlarges on the original, and tells us
what this "much" consisted of. The story, professedly told by Benjamin
West, about Maclean and Junius, on which Sir David Brewster founded his
theory, may be found in Galt's _Life of West_. But Galt himself, in his
subsequent autobiography, admits that the story told by West "does not
relate the actual circumstances of the case correctly;" that is to say,
Galt had found out, in the interval, that it was open to contradiction and
disproof, and it has since been disproved in the _Athenæum_. So much for a
story discredited by the narrator himself. Of these facts ÆGROTUS is
entirely ignorant, and therefore proceeds by the following extraordinary
circumstantialities to uphold it. "The late President of the Royal Academy
knew Maclean; and his son, the late Raphael West, _told the writer of these
remarks_ [ÆGROTUS himself] that _when a young man_ he had seen him
[Maclean] in the evening at his father's house in Newman Street, and _once
heard him repeat a passage in one of the letters which was not then
published_;" and ÆGROTUS adds, "a more correct and veracious man than Mr.
R. West could not be." So be it. Still it is strange that the President,
who was said to have told his anecdote expressly to show that Maclean was
Junius, never thought to confirm it by the conclusive proof of having read
the letters before they were published! Further,--and we leave the question
of extreme accuracy and _veraciousness_ to be settled by ÆGROTUS,--the
President West was born in 1738; he embarked from America for Italy in
1759; on his return he visited England in 1763, and such was the patronage
with which he was welcomed, that his friends recommended him to take up his
residence in London. This he was willing to do, provided a young American
lady to whom he was attached would come to England. She consented; his
father accompanied her, and they were married on the 2nd of September,
1765, at St. Martin's Church. Now Maclean embarked for India in December,
1773, or January, 1774, and was lost at sea, when "the young man," Master
Raphael, could not have been more than seven years of age,--nay, to speak
by the card, as Master Raphael heard one of Junius' letters read before it
was published, and as the last was published in January, 1772, it follows,
assuming that he was the eldest child, born in nine months to the hour, and
that it was the very last letter that he heard read, he _may have been_
five years and seven months old--a very "young man" indeed; or rather, all
circumstances considered, as precocious a youth as he who found out the
vellum-bound copy years before it was known to be in existence.

I regret to have occupied so much of your space. But speculation on this
subject is just now the fashion. "NOTES AND QUERIES" is likely hereafter to
become an authority, and if these circumstantial statements are admitted
into its columns, they must be as circumstantially disproved.

M. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Ten Commandments_ (Vol. iii., p. 166.).--The controversy on the
division of the Ten Commandments between the Romanists and Lutherans on the
one side, and the Reformers or Calvinists on the other, has been discussed
in the following works--1. Goth (Cardinalis), _Vera Ecclesia, &c._, Venet.,
1750 (Art. xvi. § 7.); 2. Chamieri _Panstratia_ (tom i. l. xxi. c. viii.);
3. Riveti _Opera_ (tom. i. p. 1227., and tom. iii. _Apologeticus pro vera
Pace Ecclesiastica contra H. Grotii Votum_.); 4. Bohlii _Vera divisio
Decalogi ex infallibili principio accentuationis_; 5. Hackspanii _Notæ
Philologicæ in varia loca S. Scripturæ_; 6. Pfeifferi _Opera_ (Cent. i.
Loc. 96.); 7. Ussher's _Answer to a Jesuit's Challenge (of Images) and his
Serm. at Westminster before the House of Commons, out of Deuteronomy, chap.
iv. ver_. 15, 16., _and Romans, chap. i. ver._ 23.; 8. Stillingfleet's
_Controversies with Godden, Author of "Catholics no Idolaters," and_ {413}
_with Gother, Author of "The Papist Misrepresented," &c._

The earliest notices of the division of the Decalogue, are those of
Josephus, lib. iii. c. 5. s. 5.; Philo-Judæus _de Decem Oraculis_; and the
Chaldaic Paraphrase of Jonathan. According to these, the third verse of
Exod. xx. contains the first commandment; the fourth, fifth, and sixth, the
second. The same distinction was adopted by the following early
writers:--Origen (_Homil. viii. in Exod._), Greg. Nazienzen (_Carmina Mosis
Decalogus_), Irenæus (lib. iii. c. 42.), Athanasius (_in Synopsi S.
Scripturæ_), Ambrose (_in Ep. ad Ephes. c. vi._).

It was first abandoned by Augustine, who was instigated to introduce this
innovation by the unwarranted representation of the doctrine of the Trinity
by the First Tablet containing three commandments. The schoolmen followed
his example, and accommodated the words of God to the legislative
requirements of their new divinity, progressive development, which
terminated in the Church of Rome, in compelling them to command what He
strictly prohibits (See Ussher's _Answer_.)

    "Hath God himself any where declared this to be only an explication of
    the first commandment? Have the prophets or Christ and His apostles
    ever done it? How then can any man's conscience be safe in this matter?
    For it is not a trifling controversy whether it be a distinct
    commandment or an explication of the first; but the lawfulness or
    unlawfulness of the worship of images depends very much upon it, for if
    it be only an explication of the first, then, unless one takes images
    to be gods, their worship is lawful, and so the heathens were excused
    in it, who were not such idiots; but if it be a new and distinct
    precept, then the worshipping any image or similitude becomes a
    grievous sin, and exposes men to the wrath of God in that severe manner
    mentioned in the end of it. And it is a great confirmation that this is
    the true meaning of it, because all the primitive writers[20] of the
    Christian Church not only thought it a sin against this commandment,
    but insisted upon the force of it against those heathens who denied
    that they took their images for gods; and, therefore, this is a very
    insufficient account of leaving out the second commandment (that the
    people are in no danger of superstition or idolatry by
    it.)."--Stillingfleet's _Doctrines of the Church of Rome, 25. Of the
    Second Commandment_.

    "If God allow the worship of the represented by the representation, he
    would never have forbidden that worship absolutely, which is unlawful
    only in a certain respect."--Ibid. _Answer to the Conclusion_.

With your permission I shall return to this subject, not of Images, but of
the Second Commandment, in reply to MR. GATTY'S Queries on the division at
present adopted by the Jews, &c.

T. JONES.

Chetham's Library, Manchester.

[Footnote 20: Thus St. Augustine himself: "In the first commandment, any
similitude of God in the figments of men is forbidden to be worshipped, not
because God hath not an image, but because no image of Him ought to be
worshipped, but that which is the same thing that He is, nor yet that for
Him but with Him."--See what is further cited from Augustine by Ussher in
his _Answer_.]

_Mounds, Munts, Mount_ (Vol. iii., p. 187.).--If R. W. B. will refer to Mr.
Lower's paper on the "Iron Works of the County of Sussex" in the second
volume of the _Sussex Archælogical Collections_, he will find that iron
works were carried on in the parish of Maresfield in 1724, and probably
much later. It is therefore probable that the lands which he mentions have
derived their names from the pit-mounts round the mouths of the pits
through which the iron ore was raised to the surface. In Staffordshire and
Shropshire the term _munt_ is used to denote fire-clay of an inferior kind,
which makes a large part of every coal-pit mount in those counties. If the
same kind of fire-clay was found in the iron mines of Sussex, it is not
necessary to suggest the derivation of the word _munt_.

I take this opportunity of suggesting to MR. ALBERT WAY that the utensil
figured in page 179. of the above-mentioned work is not an ancient
mustard-mill, but the upper part of an iron mould in which cannon-shot were
cast. The iron tongs, of which a drawing is given in page 179., were
probably useful for the purpose of drawing along a floor recently cast shot
while they were too hot to be handled.

V. X. Y.

_San Graal_ (Vol. iii., pp 224. 281.).--Roquefort's article of nine columns
in his _Glos. de la L. Rom._, is decisive of the word being derived from
_Sancta Cratera;_ of _Graal, Gréal_, always having meant a vessel or dish
and of all the old romancers having understood the expression in the same
meaning, namely, _Sancta Cratera, le Saint Graal, the Holy Cup or Vessel_,
because, according to the legend, Christ used it at the Paschal Supper; and
Joseph of Arimathea afterwards employed it to catch the blood flowing from
his wounds. Many cities formerly claimed the honour of possessing this
fabulous relic. Of course, as Price shows, it was an old Oriental
magic-dish legend, imitated in the West.

GEORGE STEPHENS.

Stockholm.

_Epitaph on the Countess of Pembroke_ (Vol. iii., pp 262. 307.).--It has
been asserted that the second part of this epitaph was written by Lady
Pembroke's son; among whose poems, which were published in 1660, the whole
piece was included. (Park's _Walpole_, ii. 203. _note_; Gifford's _Ben
Jonson_, viii. 337.) But it is notorious, that no confidence whatever can
be placed in that volume (see this shown in detail in Mr. Hannah's edit. of
Poems by Wotton and Raleigh, pp. 61. 63.); nor have we any right to
distribute the two parts between different authors. There are at least
_four_ {414} old copies of the whole; two in MSS. which are referred to by
Mr. Hannah; the one in Pembroke's _Poems_; and the one in that Lansdowne
MS., where it is ascribed to William Browne. Brydges assigned it to Browne,
when he published his _Original Poems_ from that MS. at the Lee Priory
Press in 1815, p. 5. Upon the whole, there seems to be more direct evidence
for Browne than any other person.

R.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISCELLANEOUS.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_A History of the Articles of Religion: to which is added a Series of
Documents from_ A.D. _1536 to_ A.D. _1615; together with Illustrations from
Contemporary Sources_, by Charles Hardwick, M.A., is the title of an octavo
volume, in which the author seeks to supply a want long felt, especially by
students for Holy Orders; namely, a work which should show not the
_doctrine_ but the _history_ of the Articles. For, as he well observes,
while many have enriched our literature by expositions of the _doctrine_ of
the Articles, "no regular attempt has been made to illustrate the framing
of the Formulary itself, either by viewing it in connection with the
kindred publications of an earlier and a later date, or still more in its
relation to the period out of which it originally grew." This attempt Mr.
Hardwick has now made very successfully; and it is because his book is
historical and not polemical, that we feel called upon to notice it, and to
bear our testimony to its interest, and its value to that "large class of
readers who, anxious to be accurately informed upon the subject, are
precluded from consulting the voluminous collectors, such as Strype, Le
Plat, or Wilkins." Such readers will find Mr. Hardwick's volume a most
valuable handbook.

A practical illustration that "union is strength," is shown by a volume
which has just reached us, entitled, _Reports and Papers read at the
Meetings of the Architectural Societies of the Archdeaconry of Northampton,
the Counties of York and Lincoln, and of the Architectural and
Archæological Societies of Bedfordshire and St. Alban's during the Year
_MDCCCL. _Presented gratuitously to the Members._ Had each of these
Societies, instead of joining with its fellows, put forth a separate
Report, the probability is, it would not only have involved such Society in
an expense far beyond what it would be justified in incurring, but the
Report itself would not have excited half the interest which will now be
created by a comparison of its papers with those of its associate
Societies; while, with the reduced expense, the benefit of a larger
circulation is secured. The volume is one highly creditable to the
Societies, and to the authors of the various communications which are to be
found in it.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will be engaged on Monday and
two following days in the Sale of a Library rich in works on every branch
of what is now known as Folk Lore and Popular Antiquities, and which may
certainly, and with great propriety, be styled "a very curious collection."
The mere enumeration of the various subjects on the title-page of the
Catalogue, ranging, as they do, from Mesmerism and Magic, to Celestial
Influences, Phrenology, Physiognomy, &c., might serve for the Table of
Contents to a History of Human Weakness.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Neander's History of the Planting and Training of the
Christian Church by the Apostles, translated from the third edition of the
original German by J. E. Ryland_, is the fourth volume of the Standard
Library which Mr. Bohn has devoted to translations of the writings of
Neander; the first and second being his _Church History_, in two volumes,
and the third his _Life of Christ_.--_Cosmos, a Sketch of the Physical
Description of the Universe by Alexander Von Humboldt, translated from the
German by E. C. Otté_, vol. iii., is the new volume of Bohn's Scientific
Library, and completes his edition of the translation of the great work of
the Prussian philosopher.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--Adam Holden's (60. High Street, Exeter) Catalogue
Part XXXI. of Books in every Department of Literature; J. Wheldon's (4.
Paternoster Row) Catalogue Part III. for 1851, of a valuable Collection of
Topographical Books; J. Rowsell's (28. Great Queen Street) Catalogue No.
XLIII. of a select Collection of Second-hand Books.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

DIANA (ANTONINUS) COMPENDIUM RESOLUTIONEM MORALIUM. Antwerp.-Colon.
1634-57.

PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LEVENT DER HEILIGEN. Folio. Basil, 1522.

CARTARI--LA ROSA D'ORO PONTIFICIA. 4to. Rome, 1681.

BROEMEL, M. C. H., FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. Jena, 1705.

THE COMPLAYNT OF SCOTLAND, edited by Leyden. 8vo. Edin. 1801.

THOMS' LAYS AND LEGENDS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. Parts I. to VII. 12mo. 1834.

L'ABBÉ DE SAINT PIERRE, PROJET DE PAIX PERPETUELLE. 3 Vols. 12mo. Utrecht,
1713.

CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité, de
l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes Formes de la
Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de Télémaque. 2 Vols. 12mo.
La Haye, without date, but printed in 1719.

The Same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur le
Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo. Londres, 1721.

PULLEN'S ETYMOLOGICAL COMPENDIUM, 8vo.

COOPER'S (C. P.) ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC RECORDS, 8vo. 1822. Vol. I.

LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sm. 8vo. 1837. Vols. X. XI. XII. XIII.

MILLER'S (JOHN, OF WORCESTER COLL.) SERMONS. Oxford, 1831 (or about that
year).

WHARTON'S ANGLIA SACRA. Vol. II.

PHEBUS (Gaston, Conte de Foix), Livre du deduyt de la Chasse.

TURNER'S SACRED HISTORY. 3 vols. demy 8vo.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. IV. Commencing from Abdication
of James II.

LORD DOVER'S LIFE OF FREDERICK THE GREAT. 8vo. 1832. Vol. II.

LADIES' DIARY FOR 1825 AND 1826.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

QUIDAM. _Vernon's_ Anglo-Saxon Guide _should be followed up by Thorpe's_
Analecta _and_ Anglo-Saxon Gospels.

SILENUS. _If our correspondent will refer to our First Volume_, pp. 177.
203. 210. 340., _and our Second Volume_, p. 3., _he will find the history
of the well-known couplet from the_ Musarum Deliciæ,

  "For he that fights, and runs away,
  May live to fight another day,"

_fully illustrated._

WRITING PAPER. _Will our correspondent, who sometime since_ {415} _sent us
a specimen manufactured at Penshurst, favour us for the information of
another correspondent with the name of the maker?_

RECORD OF EXISTING MONUMENTS. _We hope next week to return to this
important subject. In the meantime, Mr. A. J. Dunkin, of Dartford,
announces that the first part of his_ MONUMENT. ANGLIC. _is in the press,
and will be published in July._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Meaning of Crambe--Ex Pede Herculem--Cardinal
Azolin--Charles Lamb's Epitaph--Poem on the Grave--Bunyan and the Visions
of Hell--Colfabias--Coptic Language--Benedicite--Amicus Plato--Doctrine of
the Resurrection--Registry of Dissenting Baptisms--The Bellman--Babington's
Conspiracy--Epitaph--Quotations--Prayer of Mary Queen of Scots--Robertii
Sphæria--Ob--Blake Family--To endeavour oneself--Cart before the
Horse--Anonymous Ravennas--Family of Sir J. Banks--Mind your P's and
Q's--Mazer Wood._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_Errata._--Page 380. col. 1. lines 12. and 13. for _"Prichard"_ read
_"Richards;"_ p. 389., in the Query on the "Blake Family," for "Bishop's
H_a_ll" read "Bishop's H_u_ll;" p. 390. col. 2. l. 29., for "_frag_ments"
read "payments;" and l. 30., for "South _Green_" read "South Lynn;" p. 393.
col. 2. l. 11., for "T_ur_ners" read "T_an_ners."

       *       *       *       *       *


MECHI'S MANUFACTURES.

MR. MECHI respectfully informs his Patrons, the Public, that his
MANUFACTURES at the GREAT EXHIBITION will be found in the GALLERY at the
NORTH-EAST CORNER of the TRANSEPT.

4. Leadenhall Street, London, May 2, 1851.

P.S.--In order to afford room for the great accession of Stock which Mechi
has provided to meet the demand consequent upon the anticipated influx of
visitors to London during this season, he has fitted up an additional Show
Room of great splendour, and made other improvements, to which he earnestly
invites public attention.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 2 Vols., price 7s., with Portrait and numerous Illustrations,

CHAUCER'S CANTERBURY TALES, and other Poems; with a Life of the Author;
Remarks on his Language and Versification: a Glossary and Index; and a
concise History of English Poetry.

London: G. BERGER, and all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready,

SIR REGINALD MOHUN. Cantos I., II., III.

By GEORGE JOHN CAYLEY. Part IV. 7s. 6d.

    "Has a vivid and prolific fancy, great humour, brilliant imagery and
    depth of feeling. Sir Reginald Mohun, in truth, is a production
    finished of its kind both in style and power."--_Daily News_.

    "A vehicle for presenting the writer's views of society, exactly after
    the manner of the latter part of _Don Juan_."--_Spectator_.

    "The work of a man of genius, full of fine poetry, and as amusing as a
    novel."-- _Gardener's and Farmer's Journal_.

    "A picture in verse of society as it is."--_Sunday Times_.

    "We part from our author with the warmest good wishes for his journey
    on the path to fame and honours, which we feel certain he will
    merit."--_Tait's Magazine_.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


Price 4s. 6d., cloth, a new and enlarged Edition of

SOMNOLISM and PSYCHEISM; or, the Science of the Soul, and the Phenomena of
Nervation, as revealed by Mesmerism, considered Physiologically and
Philosophically; including Notes of Mesmeric and Psychical Experience. By
JOSEPH WILCOX HADDOCK, M.D. Second and enlarged Edition, illustrated by
Engravings of the Brain and Nervous System.

*** This Edition contains much new matter of considerable interest,
relative to Clairvoyance, together with Experiments in Chemistry in
connection with the Researches of Baron Von Reichenbach.

HODSON, 22. Portugal Street, Lincoln's Inn; and all other Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


Topography.--J. WHELDON'S New Catalogue of Books for Sale on English and
Welsh Topography, Local History, &c., is just published, and may be had
Gratis on Application, or will be sent by Post on the receipt of a Stamp.

London: JOHN WHELDON, 4. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW WORKS.

       *       *       *       *       *

I.

THE TRAVELLER'S LIBRARY.

LONDON in 1850 and 1851. By J. R. MCCULLOCH. Reprinted from the
"Geographical Dictionary." 16mo. One Shilling.

II.

FORESTER AND BIDDULPH'S RAMBLES in NORWAY in 1848 and 1849. Map, Plates and
Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s.

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MAUNDER'S SCIENTIFIC and LITERARY TREASURY; A portable Encyclopædia of the
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A TREATISE OF EQUIVOCATION. Edited, from an Original MS., by DAVID JARDINE,
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       *       *       *       *       *


{416} [Illustration]

GREAT EXHIBITION.

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CENTRAL AVENUE.

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GILBERT'S DESCRIPTION of the CRYSTAL PALACE: its Architectural History and
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ILLUSTRATIONS AND ENQUIRIES RELATING TO MESMERISM. Part I. By the REV.
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of Canterbury, and Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.

    "One of the most valuable and interesting pamphlets we ever
    read."--_Morning Herald_.

    "This publication, which promises to be the commencement of a larger
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    "A small pamphlet in which he throws a startling light on the practices
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    "Dr. Maitland, we consider, has here brought Mesmerism to the
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    "The Enquiries are extremely curious, we should indeed say important.
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    subject."--_Dublin Evening Post_.

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       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published,

[Greek: Ê PALAIA DIATHÊKÊ kata tous EBDOMÊKONTA.] The Greek Septuagint
Version, with the Apocrypha, including the Fourth Book of Maccabees, and
the real Septuagint Version of Daniel: with an Historical Introduction. One
Volume 8vo., 18s.

[Greek: Ê KAINÊ DIATHÊKÊ.] A Large-print Greek New Testament, with selected
various Readings and Parallel References, &c. &c. One Volume 8vo., 12s.
Uniform with the Septuagint.

London: SAMUEL BAGSTER and Sons, 15. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Books relating to America, Voyages, Maps, Charts, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on WEDNESDAY, June 4, and
following Day, a curious and valuable Library, including a collection of
interesting and rare works relating to America and its territories, their
history, natural history, progress, language, and literature; also relating
to Mexico, the East and West Indies, &c.; several very curious Voyages,
Travels, and Itineraries, including some pieces of the utmost rarity; a few
curious works on the Indian Languages; and a very extensive and highly
valuable collection of Maps and Charts in the finest condition. Catalogues
will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 24. 1851.





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