Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: How to Form a Library, 2nd ed
Author: Wheatley, Henry Benjamin, 1838-1917
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How to Form a Library, 2nd ed" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration]



  The Book-Lover's Library.

  Edited by

  Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A.



  HOW
  TO FORM A LIBRARY

BY

H.B. WHEATLEY, F.S.A.


_SECOND EDITION._


  NEW YORK
  A.C. ARMSTRONG & SON, BROADWAY.
  LONDON: ELLIOT STOCK.
  1886



_PREFACE._


_It will be generally allowed that a handy guide to the formation of
libraries is required, but it may be that the difficulty of doing justice
to so large a subject has prevented those who felt the want from
attempting to fill it. I hope therefore that it will not be considered
that I have shown temerity by stepping into the vacant place. I cannot
hope to have done full justice to so important a theme in the small space
at my disposal, but I think I can say that this little volume contains
much information which the librarian and the book lover require and cannot
easily obtain elsewhere. They are probably acquainted with most of this
information, but the memory will fail us at times and it is then
convenient to have a record at hand._

_A book of this character is peculiarly open to criticism, but I hope the
critics will give me credit for knowing more than I have set down. In
making a list of books of reference, I have had to make a selection, and
works have been before me that I have decided to omit, although some would
think them as important as many of those I have included._

_I need not extend this preface with any lengthy explanation of the
objects of the book, as these are stated in the Introduction, but before
concluding I may perhaps be allowed to allude to one personal
circumstance. I had hoped to dedicate this first volume of the Book
Lover's Library to HENRY BRADSHAW, one of the most original and most
learned bibliographers that ever lived, but before it was finished the
spirit of that great man had passed away to the inexpressible grief of all
who knew him. It is with no desire to shield myself under the shelter of a
great name, but with a reverent wish to express my own sense of our
irreparable loss that I dedicate this book (though all unworthy of the
honour) to his memory._



CONTENTS.


        PAGE

  INTRODUCTION                                             1

  CHAPTER I. HOW MEN HAVE FORMED LIBRARIES                23

                  II. HOW TO BUY                          57

                 III. PUBLIC LIBRARIES                    73

                  IV. PRIVATE LIBRARIES                   89

                   V. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES             141

                  VI. SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES             160

                 VII. PUBLISHING SOCIETIES               184

                VIII. CHILD'S LIBRARY                    217

                  IX. ONE HUNDRED BOOKS                  227



HOW TO FORM A LIBRARY.



INTRODUCTION.


Although there can be little difference of opinion among book lovers as to
the need of a Handbook which shall answer satisfactorily the
question--"How to Form a Library"--it does not follow that there will be a
like agreement as to the best shape in which to put the answer. On the one
side a string of generalities can be of no use to any one, and on the
other a too great particularity of instruction may be resented by those
who only require hints on a few points, and feel that they know their own
business better than any author can tell them.

One of the most important attempts to direct the would-be founder of a
Library in his way was made as long ago as 1824 by Dr. Dibdin, and the
result was entitled _The Library Companion_.[1] The book could never have
been a safe guide, and now it is hopelessly out of date. Tastes change,
and many books upon the necessity of possessing which Dibdin enlarges are
now little valued. Dr. Hill Burton writes of this book as follows in his
_Book-Hunter_: "This, it will be observed, is not intended as a manual of
rare or curious, or in any way peculiar books, but as the instruction of a
Nestor on the best books for study and use in all departments of
literature. Yet one will look in vain there for such names as Montaigne,
Shaftesbury, Benjamin Franklin, D'Alembert, Turgot, Adam Smith,
Malebranche, Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Fénélon, Burke, Kant, Richter,
Spinoza, Flechier, and many others. Characteristically enough, if you turn
up Rousseau in the index, you will find Jean Baptiste, but not Jean
Jacques. You will search in vain for Dr. Thomas Reid the metaphysician,
but will readily find Isaac Reed the editor. If you look for Molinæus, or
Du Moulin, it is not there, but alphabetical vicinity gives you the good
fortune to become acquainted with "Moule, Mr., his _Bibliotheca
Heraldica_." The name of Hooker will be found, not to guide the reader to
the _Ecclesiastical Polity_, but to Dr. Jackson Hooker's _Tour in
Iceland_. Lastly, if any one shall search for Hartley _on Man_, he will
find in the place it might occupy, or has reference to, the editorial
services of 'Hazlewood, Mr. Joseph.'"

Although this criticism is to a great extent true, it does not do justice
to Dibdin's book, which contains much interesting and valuable matter, for
if the _Library Companion_ is used not as a Guide to be followed, but as a
book for reference, it will be found of considerable use.

William Goodhugh's _English Gentleman's Library Manual, or a Guide to the
Formation of a Library of Select Literature_, was published in 1827. It
contains classified lists of library books, but these are not now of much
value, except for the notes which accompany the titles, and make this work
eminently readable. There are some literary anecdotes not to be found
elsewhere.

A most valuable work of reference is Mr. Edward Edwards's Report on the
formation of the Manchester Free Library, which was printed in 1851. It is
entitled, "_Librarian's First Report to the Books Sub-Committee on the
Formation of the Library, June 30, 1851, with Lists of Books suggested for
purchase_." The Lists are arranged in the following order:--

     1. Works--collective and miscellaneous--of Standard British
     authors; with a selection of those of the Standard authors
     of America.

     2. Works relative to the History, Topography, and Biography
     of the United Kingdom, and of the United States of America.

     3. Works relative to Political Economy, Finance, Trade,
     Commerce, Agriculture, Mining, Manufactures, Inland
     Communication, and Public Works.

     4. Works relating to Physics, Mathematics, Mechanics,
     Practical Engineering, Arts, and Trades, etc.

     5. Voyages and Travels.

     6. Works on Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, and Geology.

     7. Periodical Publications and Transactions of Learned
     Societies (not included in Lists 2, 3, or 6), Collections,
     Encyclopædias, Gazetteers, Atlases, Dictionaries,
     Bibliographies, Indexes, etc.

These draft lists include 4582 distinct works, extending to about 12,438
volumes, including pamphlets, but exclusive of 553 Parliamentary Papers
and Reports, or _Blue Books_. Such a practically useful collection of
lists of books will not easily be found elsewhere.

Mr. Edwards gives some rules for the formation of Libraries in the second
volume of his _Memoirs of Libraries_ (p. 629), where he writes, "No task
is more likely to strip a man of self-conceit than that of having to
frame, and to carry out in detail a plan for the formation of a large
Library. When he has once got beyond those departments of knowledge in
which his own pursuits and tastes have specially interested him, the duty
becomes a difficult one, and the certainty, that with his best efforts, it
will be very imperfectly performed is embarrassing and painful. If, on the
other hand, the task be imposed upon a 'Committee,' there ensues almost
the certainty that its execution will depend at least as much on chance as
on plan: that responsibility will be so attenuated as to pass off in
vapour; and that the collection so brought together will consist of parts
bearing but a chaotic sort of relation to the whole."

Mr. Henry Stevens printed in 1853 his pretty little book entitled
_Catalogue of my English Library_, which contains a very useful selection
of Standard books. In his Introduction the author writes, "It was my
intention in the outset not to exceed 4000 volumes, but little by little
the list has increased to 5751 volumes. I have been considerably puzzled
to know what titles to strike out in my next impression, being well aware
that what is trash to one person is by no means such to another; also that
many books of more merit than those admitted have been omitted. You may
not think it difficult to strike out twenty authors, and to add twenty
better ones in their place, but let me relate to you a parable. I
requested twenty men, whose opinions on the Literary Exchange are as good
as those of the Barings or the Rothschilds on the Royal, each to expunge
twenty authors and to insert twenty others of better standing in their
places, promising to exclude in my next impression any author who should
receive more than five votes. The result was, as may be supposed, not a
single expulsion or addition."

In 1855 Mons. Hector Bossange produced a companion volume, entitled _Ma
Bibliothèque Française_. It contains a select list of about 7000 volumes,
and is completed with Indexes of Subjects, Authors, and Persons.

For helpful Bibliographical Guides we often have to look to the United
States, and we do not look in vain. A most useful Handbook, entitled _The
Best Reading_, was published in 1872 by George P. Putman, and the work
edited by F.B. Perkins is now in its fourth edition.[2] The books are
arranged in an alphabet of subjects, and the titles are short, usually
being well within a single line. A very useful system of appraisement of
the value of the books is adopted. Thus: _a_, means that the book so
marked is considered _the_ book, or as good as any, _at a moderate cost_;
_b_ means, in like manner, the best of the more elaborate or costly books
on the subject. In the department of FICTION, a more precise
classification has been attempted, in which a general idea of the
relative importance of the _authors_ is indicated by the use of the
letters _a_, _b_, and _c_, and of the relative value of their several
works by the asterisks * and **."

Having noted a few of the Guides which are now at hand for the use of the
founders of a library, we may be allowed to go back somewhat in time, and
consider how our predecessors treated this same subject, and we can then
conclude the present Introduction with a consideration of the less
ambitious attempts to instruct the book collector which may be found in
papers and articles.

One of the earliest works on the formation of a library was written by
Bishop Cardona, and published at Tarragona in 1587, in a thin volume
entitled _De regia S. Laurentii Bibliothecâ. De Pontificia Vaticana_
[etc.].

Justus Lipsius wrote his _De Bibliothecis Syntagma_ at the end of the
sixteenth century, and next in importance we come to Gabriel Naudé, who
published one of the most famous of bibliographical essays. The first
edition was published at Paris in 1627, and the second edition in 1644.
This was reprinted in Paris by J. Liseux in 1876--"_Advis pour dresser une
Bibliothèque, présenté à Monseigneur le Président de Mesme_, par G. Naudé
P. Paris, chez François Farga, 1627."

This essay was translated by John Evelyn, and dedicated to Lord Chancellor
Clarendon. "_Instructions concerning erecting of a Library_; Presented to
My Lord the President De Mesme. By Gabriel Naudeus P., and now interpreted
by Jo. Evelyn, Esquire, London, 1661."

Naudé enlarges on the value of Catalogues, and recommends the book-buyer
to make known his desires, so that others may help him in the search, or
supply his wants. He specially mentions two modes of forming a library;
one is to buy libraries entire, and the other is to hunt at book-stalls.
He advised the book-buyer not to spend too much upon bindings.

Naudé appears to have been a born librarian, for at the early age of
twenty the President De Mesme appointed him to take charge of his
library. He left his employer in 1626, in order to finish his medical
studies. Cardinal Bagni took him to Rome, and when Bagni died, Naudé
became librarian to Cardinal Barberini. Richelieu recalled him to Paris in
1642, to act as his librarian, but the Minister dying soon afterwards,
Naudé took the same office under Mazarin. During the troubles of the
Fronde, the librarian had the mortification of seeing the library which he
had collected dispersed; and in consequence he accepted the offer of Queen
Christina, to become her librarian at Stockholm. Naudé was not happy
abroad, and when Mazarin appealed to him to reform his scattered library,
he returned at once, but died on the journey home at Abbeville, July 29,
1653.

The Mazarin Library consisted of more than 40,000 volumes, arranged in
seven rooms filled from top to bottom. It was rich in all classes, but
more particularly in Law and Physic. Naudé described it with enthusiasm as
"the most beautiful and best furnished of any library now in the world,
or that is likely (if affection does not much deceive me) ever to be
hereafter." Such should be a library in the formation of which the Kings
and Princes and Ambassadors of Europe were all helpers. Naudé in another
place called it "the work of my hands and the miracle of my life." Great
therefore was his dejection when the library was dispersed. Of this he
said, "Beleeve, if you please, that the ruine of this Library will be more
carefully marked in all Histories and Calendars, than the taking and
sacking of Constantinople." Naudé's letter on the destruction of the
Mazarin Library was published in London in 1652, and the pamphlet was
reprinted in the _Harleian Miscellany_. "_News from France, or a
Description of the Library of Cardinall Mazarini, before it was utterly
ruined._ Sent in a letter from G. Naudæus, Keeper of the Publick Library.
London, Printed for Timothy Garthwait, 1652." 4to. 4 leaves.

In 1650 was published at London, by Samuel Hartlib, a little book
entitled, "_The Reformed Librarie Keeper, with a Supplement to the
Reformed School, as Subordinate to Colleges in Universities._ By John
Durie. London, William Du-Gard, 1650."[3]

John Durie's ideas on the educational value of Libraries and the high
function of the Librarian are similar to those enunciated by Carlyle, when
he wrote, "The true University of these days is a Collection of Books." Of
this point, as elaborated in the proposal to establish Professorships of
Bibliography, we shall have something more to say further on.

It is always interesting to see the views of great men exemplified in the
selection of books for a Library, and we may with advantage study the
lists prepared by George III. and Dr. Johnson. The King was a collector of
the first rank, as is evidenced by his fine library, now in the British
Museum, and he knew his books well. When he was about to visit Weymouth,
he wrote to his bookseller for the following books to be supplied to him
to form a closet library at that watering place. The list was written from
memory, and it was printed by Dibdin in his _Library Companion_, from the
original document in the King's own handwriting:

     The Holy Bible. 2 vols. 8vo. Cambridge.

     New Whole Duty of Man. 8vo.

     The Annual Register. 25 vols. 8vo.

     The History of England, by Rapin. 21 vols. 8vo. 1757.

     Elémens de l'Histoire de France, par Millot. 3 vols. 12mo.
     1770.

     Siècle de Louis XIV., par Voltaire, 12mo.

     Siècle de Louis XV., par Voltaire, 12mo.

     Commentaries on the Laws of England, by Sir William
     Blackstone. 4 vols. 8vo. Newest Edition.

     The Justice of the Peace and Parish Officer, by R. Burn. 4
     vols. 8vo.

     An Abridgement of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary. 2 vols. 8vo.

     Dictionnaire François et Anglois, par M.A. Boyer. 8vo.

     The Works of the English Poets, by Sam. Johnson. 68 vols.
     12mo.

     A Collection of Poems, by Dodsley, Pearch, and Mendez. 11
     vols. 12mo.

     A Select Collection of Poems, by J. Nichols. 8 vols. 12mo.

     Shakespeare's Plays, by Steevens.

     OEuvres de Destouches. 5 vols. 12mo.

     The Works of Sir William Temple. 4 vols. 8vo.

     The Works of Jonathan Swift. 24 vols. 12mo.

Dr. Johnson recommended the following list of books to the Rev. Mr. Astle,
of Ashbourne, Derbyshire, as a good working collection:--

  Rollin's Ancient History.
  Universal History (Ancient).
  Puffendorf's Introduction to History.
  Vertot's History of the Knights of Malta.
  Vertot's Revolutions of Portugal.
  Vertot's Revolutions of Sweden.
  Carte's History of England.
  Present State of England.
  Geographical Grammar.
  Prideaux's Connection.
  Nelson's Feasts and Fasts.
  Duty of Man.
  Gentleman's Religion.
  Clarendon's History.
  Watts's Improvement of the Mind.
  Watts's Logick.
  Nature Displayed.
  Lowth's English Grammar.
  Blackwall on the Classicks.
  Sherlock's Sermons.
  Burnet's Life of Hale.
  Dupin's History of the Church.
  Shuckford's Connection.
  Law's Serious Call.
  Walton's Complete Angler.
  Sandys's Travels.
  Sprat's History of the Royal Society.
  England's Gazetteer.
  Goldsmith's Roman History.
  Some Commentaries on the Bible.

It is curious to notice in both these lists how many of the books are now
quite superseded.

In another place Boswell tells us what were Johnson's views on book
collecting. "When I mentioned that I had seen in the King's Library
sixty-three editions of my favourite _Thomas à Kempis_, amongst which it
was in eight languages, Latin, German, French, Italian, Spanish, English,
Arabick, and Armenian, he said he thought it unnecessary to collect many
editions of a book, which were all the same, except as to the paper and
print; he would have the original, and all the translations, and all the
editions which had any variations in the text. He approved of the famous
collection of editions of Horace by Douglas, mentioned by Pope, who is
said to have had a closet filled with them; and he said every man should
try to collect one book in that manner, and present it to a Publick
Library."

Dr. Johnson's notion as to the collection of editions which are alike
except in the point of paper is scarcely sound, but it has been held by a
librarian of the present day, as I know to my cost. On one occasion I was
anxious to see several copies of the first folio of Shakespeare (1623),
and I visited a certain library which possessed more than one. The
librarian expressed the opinion that one was quite sufficient for me to
see, as "they were all alike."

The possessor of a Private Library can act as a _censor morum_ and keep
out of his collection any books which offend against good morals, but this
_role_ is one which is unfit for the librarian of a Public Library. He may
put difficulties in the way of the ordinary reader seeing such books, but
nevertheless they should be in his library for the use of the student. A
most amusing instance of misapplied zeal occurred at the Advocates'
Library on the 27th June, 1754. The Minutes tell the tale in a way that
speaks for itself and requires no comment. "Mr. James Burnet [afterwards
Lord Monboddo], and Sir David Dalrymple [afterwards Lord Hailes], Curators
of the Library, having gone through some accounts of books lately bought,
and finding therein the three following French books: _Les Contes de La
Fontaine_, _L'Histoire Amoureuse des Gaules_ and _L'Ecumoire_, they
ordain that the said books be struck out of the Catalogue of the Library,
and removed from the shelves, as indecent books, unworthy of a place in a
learned Library."

At a Conference of Representatives of Institutions in Union with the
Society of Arts held in July, 1855, the question of the compilation of a
Catalogue of Books fitted for the Libraries of Institutions was raised,
and shortly afterwards was published, under the sanction of the Council,
"_A Handbook of Mechanics' Institutions, with Priced Catalogue of Books
suitable for Libraries, and Periodicals for Reading Rooms_, by W.H.J.
Traice." A second edition of this book was published in 1863. The list,
however, is not now of much use, as many of the books have been
superseded. Theology and Politics are not included in the classification.

In 1868 Mr. Mullins read a paper before a Meeting of the Social Science
Association at Birmingham, on the management of Free Libraries, and, in
its reprinted form, this has become a Handbook on the subject: "_Free
Libraries and News-rooms, their Formation and Management._ By J.D.
Mullins, Chief Librarian, Birmingham Free Libraries. Third edition.
London, Sotheran and Co., 1879." An appendix contains copies of the Free
Libraries Acts and Amendments, and a "Short List of Books for a Free
Lending Library, ranging in price from 1_s._ to 7_s._ 6_d._ per volume."

Mr. Axon read a paper on the Formation of Small Libraries intended for the
Co-Operative Congress in 1869, which was reprinted as a pamphlet of eight
pages: "_Hints on the Formation of Small Libraries intended for Public
Use._ By Wm. E.A. Axon. London, N. Trübner and Co."

Mr. A.R. Spofford has given a valuable list of books and articles in
periodicals, on the subject of Libraries in chapter 36 (Library
Bibliography), of the _Report on Public Libraries in the U.S._ (1876).

The volume of _Transactions and Proceedings of the Conference of
Librarians_, London, 1877, contains two papers on the Selection of Books,
one by Mr. Robert Harrison, Librarian of the London Library, and the
other by the late Mr. James M. Anderson, Assistant Librarian of the
University of St. Andrews. Mr. Harrison gives the following as the three
guiding principles of selection in forming a library: 1. Policy; 2.
Utility; 3. Special or Local Appropriateness; and he deals with each
successively. Mr. Anderson writes that "the selection of books should
invariably be made (1) in relation to the library itself, and (2) in
relation to those using it."

We have chiefly to do with the formation of libraries, and therefore the
use made of them when they are formed cannot well be enlarged upon here,
but a passing note may be made on the proposal which has been much
discussed of late years, viz. that for Professorships of Books and
Reading. The United States Report on Public Libraries contains a chapter
on this subject by F.B. Perkins and William Matthews (pp. 230-251), and
Mr. Axon also contributed a paper at the First Annual Meeting of the
Library Association. The value of such chairs, if well filled, is
self-evident, for it takes a man a long time (without teaching) to learn
how best to use books, but very special men would be required as
Professors. America has done much to show what the duties of such a
Professor should be, and Harvard College is specially fortunate in
possessing an officer in Mr. Justin Winsor who is both a model librarian
and a practical teacher of the art of how best to use the books under his
charge.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] "_The Library Companion, or the Young Man's Guide and the Old Man's
Comfort in the Choice of a Library._ By the Rev. T.F. Dibdin, F.R.S.,
A.S., London, 1824."

[2] _The Best Reading_: Hints on the Selection of Books; on the Formation
of Libraries, Public and Private; on Courses of Reading, etc., with a
Classified Bibliography for every reference. Fourth revised and enlarged
edition, continued to August, 1876, with the addition of Select Lists of
the best French, German, Spanish, and Italian Literature. Edited by
Frederic Beecher Perkins; New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1881. Second
Series, 1876 to 1882, by Lynds E. Jones.

[3] Dr. Richard Garnett read an interesting paper on this book under the
title of _Librarianship in the Seventeenth Century_, before the Library
Association. See _Library Chronicle_, vol. i. p. 1 (1884).



CHAPTER I.

HOW MEN HAVE FORMED LIBRARIES.


As long as books have existed there have been book collectors. It is easy
now to collect, for books of interest are to be found on all sides; but in
old times this was not so, and we must therefore admire the more those men
who formed their libraries under the greatest difficulties. In a book
devoted to the formation of libraries it seems but fair to devote some
space to doing honour to those who have formed libraries, and perhaps some
practical lessons may be learned from a few historical facts.

Englishmen may well be proud of Richard Aungerville de Bury, a man
occupying a busy and exalted station, who not only collected books with
ardour united with judgment, but has left for the benefit of later ages a
manual which specially endears his memory to all book lovers.

He collected books, and often took them in place of corn for tithes and
dues, but he also produced books, for he kept copyists in his house. Many
of these books were carefully preserved in his palace at Durham, but it is
also pleasant to think of some of them being carefully preserved in the
noble mansion belonging to his see which stood by the side of the Thames,
and on the site of the present Adelphi.

Petrarch was a book-loving poet, and he is said to have met the
book-loving ecclesiastic Richard de Bury at Rome. He gave his library to
the Church of St. Mark at Venice in 1362; but the guardians allowed the
books to decay, and few were rescued. Boccaccio bequeathed his library to
the Augustinians at Florence, but one cannot imagine the books of the
accomplished author of the _Decameron_ as very well suited for the needs
of a religious society, and it was probably weeded before Boccaccio's
death. The remains of the library are still shown to visitors in the
Laurentian Library, the famous building due to the genius of Michael
Angelo.

Cardinal John Bessarion gave his fine collection (which included about 600
Greek MSS.) to St. Mark's in 1468, and in the letter to the Doge which
accompanied his gift, he tells some interesting particulars of his early
life as a collector. He writes, "From my youth I have bestowed my pains
and exertion in the collection of books on various sciences. In former
days I copied many with my own hands, and I have employed on the purchase
of others such small means as a frugal and thrifty life permitted me to
devote to the purpose."

The Rev. Joseph Hunter printed in 1831 a valuable Catalogue of the Library
of the Priory of Bretton in Yorkshire, and added to it some notices of the
Libraries belonging to other Religious Houses, in which he gives us a good
idea of the contents of these libraries. He writes, "On comparing the
Bretton Catalogue with that of other religious communities, we find the
libraries of the English monasteries composed of very similar materials.
They consisted of--

     1. The Scriptures; and these always in an English or the
     Latin version. A Greek or Hebrew Manuscript of the
     Scriptures is not found in Leland's notes, or, I believe, in
     any of the catalogues. In Wetstein's Catalogue of MSS. of
     the New Testament, only one (Codex 59) is traced into the
     hands of an English community of religious.

     2. The Commentators.

     3. The Fathers.

     4. Services and Rituals of the Church.

     5. Writers in the Theological Controversies of the Middle
     Ages.

     6. Moral and Devotional Writings.

     7. Canon Law.

     8. The Schoolmen.

     9. Grammatical Writers.

     10. Writers in Mathematics and Physics.

     11. Medical Writers.

     12. Collections of Epistles.

     13. The Middle Age Poets and Romance-Writers.

     14. The Latin Classics.

     15. The Chronicles.

     16. The Historical Writings of doubtful authority, commonly
     called Legends.

Most of the manuscripts which composed the monastic libraries were
destroyed at the Reformation."

Humphry Plantagenet Duke of Gloucester, whose fame has been so lasting as
the 'good Duke Humphry,' was also a book-collector of renown; but most of
the old libraries we read about have left but little record of their
existence: thus the Common Library at Guildhall, founded by Dick
Whittington in 1420, and added to by John Carpenter, the Town Clerk of
London, has been entirely destroyed, the books having, in the first
instance, been carried away by Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset.

Although, as we have seen from Mr. Hunter's remarks, there was a
considerable amount of variety in the subjects of these manuscript
collections, we must still bear in mind that in a large number of
instances the contents of the libraries consisted of little more than
Breviaries and Service Books. It has been pointed out that this fact is
illustrated by the union of the offices of Precentor and Armarius in one
person, who had charge of the Library (Armarium) and its great feeder, the
Writing-room (Scriptorium), as well as the duty of leading the singing in
the church. Many lists of old libraries have been preserved, and these
have been printed in various bibliographical works, thus giving us a
valuable insight into the reading of our forefathers.

When we come to consider libraries of printed books in place of
manuscripts, we naturally find a greater variety of subjects collected by
the famous men who have formed collections. Montaigne, the friend of all
literary men, could not have been the man we know him to have been if he
had not lived among his books. Like many a later book-lover, he decorated
his library with mottoes, and burnt-in his inscriptions letter by letter
with his own hands. Grotius made his love of books do him a special
service, for he escaped from prison in a box which went backwards and
forwards with an exchange of books for his entertainment and instruction.

Grolier and De Thou stand so pre-eminent among book collectors, and from
the beauty of the copies they possessed the relics of their libraries are
so frequently seen, that it seems merely necessary here to mention their
names. But as Frenchmen may well boast of these men, so Englishmen can
take pride in the possession of the living memory of Archbishop Parker,
who enriched Cambridge, and of Sir Thomas Bodley, who made the Library at
Oxford one of the chief glories of our land.

Old Lists of Books are always of interest to us as telling what our
forefathers cared to have about them, but it is seldom that a list is so
tantalising as one described by Mr. Edward Edwards in his _Libraries and
Founders of Libraries_. Anne of Denmark presented her son Charles with a
splendid series of volumes, bound in crimson and purple velvet. Abraham
van der Dort, who was keeper of Charles's cabinet, made an inventory of
this cabinet; and having no notion of how to make a catalogue of books, he
has managed to leave out all the information we wish for. The inventory is
among the Harleian MSS. (4718), and the following are specimens of the
entries:--

     "Im'pris 19 books in Crimson velvet, whereof 18 are bound
     4to. and y^e 19th in folio, adorn'd with some silver guilt
     plate, and y^e 2 claspes wanting. Given to y^e King by Queen
     Ann of famous memory.

     Item, more 15 books, 13 thereof being in long 4to. and y^e 2
     lesser cover'd over also with purple velvet. Given also to
     y^e King by y^e said Queen Ann."

Most of the famous private libraries of days gone by have left little
record of their existence, but Evelyn's collection is still carefully
preserved at Wotton, the house of the Diarist's later years, and Pepys's
books continue at Cambridge in the cases he had made for them, and in the
order he fixed for them. In a long letter to Pepys, dated from Sayes
Court, 12th August, 1689, Evelyn gives an account of such private
libraries as he knew of in England, and in London more particularly. He
first mentions Lord Chancellor Clarendon, to whom he dedicated his
translation of Naudé's Advice, and who "furnished a very ample library."
Evelyn observes that England was peculiarly defective in good libraries:
"Paris alone, I am persuaded, being able to show more than all the three
nations of Great Britain." He describes Dr. Stillingfleet's, at
Twickenham, as the very best library.[4] He did not think much either of
the Earl of Bristol's or of Sir Kenelm Digby's books, but he says Lord
Maitland's "was certainly the noblest, most substantial and accomplished
library that ever passed under the spear."

In a useful little volume published at London in 1739, and entitled, _A
Critical and Historical Account of all the Celebrated Libraries in Foreign
Countries, as well ancient as modern_, which is stated to be written by "a
Gentleman of the Temple," are some "General Reflections upon the Choice of
Books and the Method of furnishing Libraries and Cabinets." As these
reflections are interesting in themselves, and curious as the views of a
writer of the middle of the eighteenth century on this important subject,
I will transfer them bodily to these pages.

"Nothing can be more laudable than forming Libraries, when the founders
have no other view than to improve themselves and men of letters: but it
will be necessary, in the first place, to give some directions, which will
be of great importance towards effecting the design, as well with regard
to the choice of books as the manner of placing to advantage: nor is it
sufficient in this case, to be learned, since he who would have a
collection worthy of the name of a library must of all things have a
thorough knowledge of books, that he may distinguish such as are valuable
from the trifling. He must likewise understand the price of Books,
otherwise he may purchase some at too high a rate, and undervalue others:
all which requires no small judgment and experience.

"Let us suppose, then, the founder possessed of all those qualifications,
three things fall next under consideration.

"First, the number of books; secondly, their quality; and, lastly, the
order in which they ought to be ranged.

"As to the quantity, regard must be had, as well to places as to persons;
for should a man of moderate fortune propose to have a Library for his own
use only, it would be imprudent in him to embarrass his affairs in order
to effect it. Under such circumstances he must rather consider the
usefulness than the number of books, for which we have the authority of
Seneca, who tells us that a multitude of books is more burthensome than
instructive to the understanding.

"But if a private person has riches enough for founding a Library, as well
for his own use as for the public, he ought to furnish it with the most
useful volumes in all arts and sciences, and procure such as are scarcest
and most valuable, from all parts, that the learned, of whom there are
many classes, may instruct themselves in what may be useful to them, and
may gratify their enquiries. But as the condition and abilities of such as
would form Libraries are to be distinguished, so regard must likewise be
had to places, for it is very difficult to procure, or collect books in
some countries, without incredible expense; a design of that kind would be
impracticable in America, Africa, and some parts of Asia; so that nothing
can be determined as to the number of books, that depending entirely upon
a variety of circumstances, and the means of procuring them, as has been
observ'd before.

"As to the second topic, special care must be taken in the choice of
books, for upon that alone depends the value of a Library. We must not
form a judgment of books either by their bulk or numbers, but by their
intrinsic merit and usefulness. Alexander Severus's Library consisted of
no more than four volumes, that is the works of Plato, Cicero, Virgil, and
Horace. Melanchthon seems to have imitated that Prince, for his collection
amounted to four books only, Plato, Pliny, Plutarch, and Ptolemy.

"There is another necessary lesson for those who form designs of making
libraries, that is, that they must disengage themselves from all
prejudices with regard either to ancient or modern books, for such a wrong
step often precipitates the judgment, without scrutiny or examination, as
if truth and knowledge were confined to any particular times or places.
The ancients and moderns should be placed in collections, indifferently,
provided they have those characters we hinted before.

"Let us now proceed to the third head, the manner of placing books in such
order, as that they may be resorted to upon any emergency, without
difficulty, otherwise they can produce but little advantage either to the
owners or others.

"The natural method of placing books and manuscripts is to range them in
separate classes or apartments, according to the science, art, or subject,
of which they treat.

"Here it will be necessary to observe, that as several authors have
treated of various subjects, it may be difficult to place them under any
particular class; Plutarch, for instance, who was an historian, a
political writer, and a philosopher. The most advisable method then is to
range them under the head of Miscellaneous Authors, with proper references
to each subject, but this will be more intelligible by an example.

"Suppose, then, we would know the names of the celebrated Historians of
the ancients; nothing more is necessary than to inspect the class under
which the historians are placed, and so of other Faculties. By this
management, one set of miscellaneous authors will be sufficient, and may
be resorted to with as much ease and expedition as those who have
confined themselves to one subject. In choice of books regard must be had
to the edition, character, paper and binding. As to the price, it is
difficult to give any positive directions; that of ordinary works is
easily known, but as to such as are very scarce and curious, we can only
observe that their price is as uncertain as that of medals and other
monuments of antiquity, and often depends more on the caprice of the buyer
than the intrinsic merit of the work, some piquing themselves upon the
possession of things from no other consideration than their exorbitant
price."

Dr. Byrom's quaint library is still preserved at Manchester in its
entirety. Bishop Moore's fine collection finds a resting place in the
University Library at Cambridge, and the relics of the Library of Harley,
Earl of Oxford, a mine of manuscript treasure, still remain one of the
chief glories of the British Museum. How much cause for regret is there
that the library itself, which Osborne bought and Johnson described, did
not also find a settled home, instead of being dispersed over the land.

It is greatly to the credit of the rich and busy man to spend his time and
riches in the collection of a fine library, but still greater honour is
due to the poor man who does not allow himself to be pulled down by his
sordid surroundings. The once-famous small-coalman, Thomas Britton,
furnishes a most remarkable instance of true greatness in a humble
station, and one, moreover, which was fully recognized in his own day. He
lived next door to St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, and although he gained
his living by selling coals from door to door, many persons of the highest
station were in the habit of attending the musical meetings held at his
house. He was an excellent chemist as well as a good musician, and Thomas
Hearne tells us that he left behind him "a valuable collection of musick
mostly pricked by himself, which was sold upon his death for near an
hundred pounds," "a considerable collection of musical instruments which
was sold for fourscore pounds," "not to mention the excellent collection
of printed books that he also left behind him, both of chemistry and
musick. Besides these books that he left, he had some years before his
death (1714) sold by auction a noble collection of books, most of them in
the Rosicrucian faculty (of which he was a great admirer), whereof there
is a printed catalogue extant, as there is of those that were sold after
his death, which catalogue I have by me (by the gift of my very good
friend Mr. Bagford), and have often looked over with no small surprize and
wonder, and particularly for the great number of MSS. in the
before-mentioned faculties that are specified in it."[5]

Dr. Johnson, although a great reader, was not a collector of books. He was
forced to possess many volumes while he was compiling his Dictionary, but
when that great labour was completed, he no longer felt the want of them.
Goldsmith, on the other hand, died possessed of a considerable number of
books which he required, or had at some time required, for his studies.
"The Select Collection of Scarce, Curious, and Valuable Books, in English,
Latin, Greek, French, Italian, and other Languages, late the Library of
Dr. Goldsmith, deceased," was sold on Tuesday, the 12th of July, 1774, and
the Catalogue will be found in the Appendix to Forster's Life. There were
30 lots in folio, 26 in quarto, and 106 in octavo and smaller sizes. Among
the books of interest in this list are Chaucer's Works, 1602; Davenant's
Works, 1673; Camoens, by Fanshawe, 1655; Cowley's Works, 1674; Shelton's
Don Quixote; Raleigh's History of the World, 1614; Bulwer's Artificial
Changeling, 1653; Verstegan's Antiquities, 1634; Hartlib's Legacie, 1651;
Sir K. Digby on the Nature of Bodies, 1645; Warton's History of English
Poetry, 1774; Encyclopédie, 25 vols., 1770; Fielding's Works, 12 vols.,
1766; Bysshe's Art of Poetry; Hawkins's Origin of the English Drama, 3
vols., 1773; Percy's Reliques, 3 vols., Dublin, 1766; Sir William
Temple's Works; and De Bure, Bibliographie Instructive.

A catalogue such as this, made within a few weeks of the death of the
owner, cannot but have great interest for us. The library could not have
been a very choice one, for there is little notice of bindings and much
mention of odd volumes. It was evidently a working collection, containing
the works of the poets Goldsmith loved, and of the naturalists from whom
he stole his knowledge.

Gibbon was a true collector, who loved his books, and he must have needed
them greatly, working as he did at Lausanne away from public libraries.
After his death the library was purchased by 'Vathek' Beckford, but he
kept it buried, and it was of no use to any one. Eventually it was sold by
auction, a portion being bought for the Canton, and another portion going
to America. There was little in the man Gibbon to be enthusiastic about,
but it is impossible for any true book lover not to delight in the
thoroughness of the author of one of the noblest books ever written. The
fine old house where the _Decline and Fall_ was written and the noble
library was stored still stands, and the traveller may stroll in the
garden so beautifully described by Gibbon when he walked to the historical
_berceau_ and felt that his herculean labour was completed. His heart must
be preternaturally dull which does not beat quicker as he walks on that
ground. The thought of a visit some years ago forms one of the most vivid
of the author's pleasures of memory.

Charles Burney, the Greek scholar, is said to have expended nearly £25,000
on his library, which consisted of more than 13,000 printed volumes and a
fine collection of MSS. The library was purchased for the British Museum
for the sum of £13,500.

Charles Burney probably inherited his love of collecting from his father,
for Dr. Burney possessed some twenty thousand volumes. These were rather
an incumbrance to the Doctor, and when he moved to Chelsea Hospital, he
was in some difficulty respecting them. Mrs. Chapone, when she heard of
these troubles, proved herself no bibliophile, for she exclaimed, "Twenty
thousand volumes! bless me! why, how can he so encumber himself? Why does
he not burn half? for how much must be to spare that never can be worth
his looking at from such a store! and can he want to keep them all?"

The love of books will often form a tie of connection between very
divergent characters, and in dealing with men who have formed libraries we
can bring together the names of those who had but little sympathy with
each other during life.

George III. was a true book collector, and the magnificent library now
preserved in the British Museum owes its origin to his own judgment and
enthusiastic love for the pursuit. Louis XVI. cared but little for books
until his troubles came thick upon him, and then he sought solace from
their pages. During that life in the Temple we all know so well from the
sad reading of its incidents, books were not denied to the persecuted
royal family. There was a small library in the "little tower," and the
king drew up a list of books to be supplied to him from the library at the
Tuileries. The list included the works of Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and
Terence; of Tacitus, Livy, Cæsar, Marcus Aurelius, Eutropius, Cornelius
Nepos, Florus, Justin, Quintus Curtius, Sallust, Suetonius and Velleius
Paterculus; the _Vies des Saints_, the _Fables de la Fontaine_,
_Télèmaque_, and Rollin's _Traité des Etudes_.[6]

The more we know of Napoleon, and anecdotes of him are continually being
published in the ever-lengthening series of French memoirs, the less
heroic appears his figure, but he could not have been entirely bad, for he
truly loved books. He began life as an author, and would always have books
about him. He complained if the printing was bad or the binding poor, and
said, "I will have fine editions and handsome binding. I am rich enough
for that."[7] Thus spoke the true bibliophile. Mr. Edwards has collected
much interesting information respecting Napoleon and his libraries, and of
his labours I here freely avail myself. Bourrienne affirms that the
authors who chiefly attracted Napoleon in his school days were Polybius,
Plutarch, and Arrian. "Shortly before he left France for Egypt, Napoleon
drew up, with his own hand, the scheme of a travelling library, the charge
of collecting which was given to John Baptist Say, the Economist. It
comprised about three hundred and twenty volumes, more than half of which
are historical, and nearly all, as it seems, in French. The ancient
historians comprised in the list are Thucydides, Plutarch, Polybius,
Arrian, Tacitus, Livy, and Justin. The poets are Homer, Virgil, Tasso,
Ariosto, the _Télèmaque_ of Fénélon, the _Henriade_ of Voltaire, with
Ossian and La Fontaine. Among the works of prose fiction are the English
novelists in forty volumes, of course in translations, and the
indispensable _Sorrows of Werter_, which, as he himself told Goethe,
Napoleon had read through seven times prior to October, 1808. In this list
the Bible, together with the _Koran_ and the _Vedas_, are whimsically, but
significantly, entered under the heading Politics and Ethics (Politique et
Morale).[8]

Napoleon was not, however, satisfied with the camp libraries which were
provided for him; the good editions were too bulky and the small editions
too mean: so he arranged the plan of a library to be expressly printed for
him in a thousand duodecimo volumes without margins, bound in thin covers
and with loose backs. "In this new plan 'Religion' took its place as the
first class. The Bible was to be there in its best translation, with a
selection of the most important works of the Fathers of the Church, and a
series of the best dissertations on those leading religious sects--their
doctrines and their history--which have powerfully influenced the world.
This section was limited to forty volumes. The Koran was to be included,
together with a good book or two on mythology. One hundred and forty
volumes were allotted to poetry. The epics were to embrace Homer, Lucan,
Tasso, _Telemachus_, and the _Henriade_. In the dramatic portion Corneille
and Racine were of course to be included, but of Corneille, said Napoleon,
you shall print for me 'only what is vital' (ce qui est resté), and from
Racine you shall omit '_Les Frères ennemis_, the _Alexandre_, and _Les
Plaideurs_. Of Crébillon, he would have only _Rhadamiste_ and _Atrée et
Thyeste_. Voltaire was to be subject to the same limitation as
Corneille.'"[9] In prose fiction Napoleon specifies the _Nouvelle Héloise_
and Rousseau's _Confessions_, the masterpieces of Fielding, Richardson and
Le Sage, and Voltaire's tales. Soon after this Napoleon proposed a much
larger scheme for a camp library, in which history alone would occupy
three thousand volumes. History was to be divided into these sections--I.
Chronology and Universal History. II. Ancient History (_a._ by ancient
writers, _b._ by modern writers). III. History of the Lower Empire (in
like subdivisions). IV. History, both general and particular. V. The
Modern History of the different States of Europe. The celebrated
bibliographer Barbier drew up, according to the Emperor's orders, a
detailed catalogue of the works which should form such a library. "He
calculated that by employing a hundred and twenty compositors and
twenty-five editors, the three thousand volumes could be produced, in
satisfactory shape, and within six years, at a total cost of £163,200,
supposing fifty copies of each book to be printed."[10] The printing was
begun, but little was actually done, and in six years Napoleon was in St.
Helena.

In his last island home Napoleon had a library, and he read largely, often
aloud, with good effect. It is an interesting fact that among Napoleon's
papers were found some notes on Geography written when a boy, and these
close with the words--"_Sainte-Hélène--petite ile_."[11]

In recapitulating here the names of a few of the famous men who have
formed libraries it will be necessary to divide them into two classes, 1,
those whose fame arises from their habit of collecting, and 2, those
authors in whose lives we are so much interested that the names of the
books they possessed are welcomed by us as indications of their
characters. What can be said of the libraries of the Duke of Roxburghe,
Earl Spencer, Thomas Grenville, and Richard Heber that has not been said
often before? Two of these have been dispersed over the world, and two
remain, one the glory of a noble family, and the other of the nation, or
perhaps it would be more proper to say both are the glory of the nation,
for every Englishman must be proud that the Spencer Library still remains
intact.

Heber left behind him over 100,000 volumes, in eight houses, four in
England and four on the Continent, and no record remains of this immense
library but the volumes of the sale catalogues. Such wholesale collection
appears to be allied to madness, but Heber was no selfish collector, and
his practice was as liberal as Grolier's motto. His name is enshrined in
lasting verse by Scott:--

    "Thy volumes, open as thy heart,
    Delight, amusement, science, art,
    To every ear and eye impart;
    Yet who of all that thus employ them,
    Can like the owner's self enjoy them?--
    But hark! I hear the distant drum:
    The day of Flodden Field is come--
    Adieu, dear Heber! life and health,
    And store of literary wealth."

    --MARMION, _Introduction to the Sixth Canto_.

The Duke of Sussex was a worthy successor of his father, George III., in
the ranks of book-collectors, and his library is kept in memory by
Pettigrew's fine catalogue.

Douce and Malone the critics, and Gough the antiquary, left their
libraries to the Bodleian, and thus many valuable books are available to
students in that much-loved resort of his at Oxford. Anthony Morris
Storer, who is said to have excelled in everything he set his heart on and
hand to, collected a beautiful library, which he bequeathed to Eton
College, where it still remains, a joy to look at from the elegance of the
bindings. His friend Lord Carlisle wrote of him--

    "Whether I Storer sing in hours of joy,
    When every look bespeaks the inward boy;
    Or when no more mirth wantons in his breast,
    And all the man in him appears confest;
    In mirth, in sadness, sing him how I will,
    Sense and good nature must attend him still."

Jacob Bryant the antiquary left his library to King's College, Cambridge.
At one time he intended to have followed Storer's example, and have left
it to Eton College, but the Provost offended him, and he changed the
object of his bequest. It is said that when he was discussing the matter,
the Provost asked whether he would not arrange for the payment of the
carriage of the books from his house to Eton. He thought this grasping,
and King's gained the benefit of his change of mind.

Among great authors two of the chief collectors were Scott and Southey.
Scott's library still remains at Abbotsford, and no one who has ever
entered that embodiment of the great man's soul can ever forget it. The
library, with the entire contents of the house, were restored to Scott in
1830 by his trustees and creditors, "As the best means the creditors have
of expressing their very high sense of his most honourable conduct, and in
grateful acknowledgment of the unparalleled and most successful exertions
he has made, and continues to make for them." The library is rich in the
subjects which the great author loved, such as Demonology and Witchcraft.
In a volume of a collection of Ballads and Chapbooks is this note written
by Scott in 1810: "This little collection of stall tracts and ballads was
formed by me, when a boy, from the baskets of the travelling pedlars.
Until put into its present decent binding, it had such charms for the
servants, that it was repeatedly, and with difficulty, recovered from
their clutches. It contains most of the pieces that were popular about
thirty years since, and I dare say many that could not now be procured for
any price."

It is odd to contrast the book-loving tastes of celebrated authors.
Southey cared for his books, but Coleridge would cut the leaves of a book
with a butter knife, and De Quincey's extraordinary treatment of books is
well described by Mr. Burton in the _Book Hunter_. Charles Lamb's loving
appreciation of his books is known to all readers of the delightful Elia.

Southey collected more than 14,000 volumes, which sold in 1844 for nearly
£3000. He began collecting as a boy, for his father had but few books. Mr.
Edwards enumerates these as follows: The _Spectator_, three or four
volumes of the _Oxford Magazine_, one volume of the _Freeholder's
Magazine_, and one of the _Town and Country Magazine_, Pomfret's _Poems_,
the _Death of Abel_, nine plays (including _Julius Cæsar_, _The Indian
Queen_, and a translation of _Merope_), and a pamphlet.[12]

Southey was probably one of the most representative of literary men. His
feelings in his library are those of all book-lovers, although he could
express these feelings in language which few of them have at command:--

    My days among the dead are passed;
      Around me I behold,
    Where'er these casual eyes are cast,
      The mighty minds of old:
    My never-failing friends are they,
    With whom I converse day by day.

    With them I take delight in weal,
      And seek relief in woe;
    And while I understand and feel
      How much to them I owe,
    My cheeks have often been bedewed
    With tears of thoughtful gratitude.

    My thoughts are with the dead; with them
      I live in long-past years;
    Their virtues love, their faults condemn,
      Partake their hopes and fears,
    And from their lessons seek and find
    Instruction with a humble mind.

    My hopes are with the dead; anon
      My place with them will be
    And I with them shall travel on
      Through all futurity;
    Yet leaving here a name, I trust,
    That will not perish in the dust.

Mr. Henry Stevens read a paper or rather delivered an address at the
meeting of the Library Association held at Liverpool in 1883, containing
his recollections of Mr. James Lenox, the great American book collector. I
had the pleasure of listening to that address, but I have read it in its
finished form with even greater delight. It is not often that he who
pleases you as a speaker also pleases you as writer, but Mr. Stevens
succeeds in both. If more bibliographers could write their reminiscences
with the same spirit that he does, we should hear less of the dullness of
bibliography. I strongly recommend my readers to take an early opportunity
of perusing this paper in the Liverpool volume of the Transactions of the
Library Association.

Mr. Stevens, among his anecdotes of Mr. Lenox, records that he "often
bought duplicates for immediate use, or to lend, rather than grope for the
copies he knew to be in the stocks in some of his store rooms or chambers,
notably Stirling's _Artists of Spain_, a high-priced book."

This is a common trouble to large book collectors, who cannot find the
books they know they possess. The late Mr. Crossley had his books stacked
away in heaps, and he was often unable to lay his hands upon books of
which he had several copies.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] Narcissus Marsh, Archbishop of Armagh, is said to have given £2500 for
Bishop Stillingfleet's Library.

[5] _Reliquiæ Hearnianæ_, by Bliss, 2nd edition, 1869, vol. ii. p. 14.

[6] Edwards, _Libraries and Founders of Libraries_, p. 115.

[7] Edwards, _Libraries and Founders_, p. 136.

[8] _Correspondance de Napoleon I^er_, IV. pp. 37, 38, quoted by Edwards,
_Libraries and Founders_, p. 130.

[9] Edwards, _Libraries and Founders_, p. 133.

[10] Edwards, _Libraries and Founders_, p. 135.

[11] Edwards, _Libraries and Founders_, p. 142.

[12] _Libraries and Founders of Libraries_, p. 95.



CHAPTER II.

HOW TO BUY.


A discussion has arisen lately in bibliographical journals as to how best
to supply libraries with their books, the main principle agreed upon being
that it is the duty of the librarian to buy his books as cheaply as
possible. Some of these views are stated by Mr. H.R. Tedder in a letter
printed in the _Library Chronicle_ for July, 1884 (vol. i. p. 120). It
appears that Professor Dziatzko contends that the books should always be
bought as cheaply as possible, but that Dr. Julius Petzholdt holds the
opinion that the chief object of the librarian should be to get his books
as early as possible and not to wait until they can be had at second-hand.
Mr. Tedder thinks that the two plans of rapidity of supply and cheapness
of cost can in some respect be united. Of course there can be no
difference of opinion in respect to the duty of the librarian to get as
much for his money as he can, but there are other points which require to
be considered besides those brought forward before a satisfactory answer
to the question--How to Buy? can be obtained. There are three points which
seem to have been very much overlooked in the discussion, which may be
stated here. 1. Is the librarian's valuable time well occupied by looking
after cheap copies of books? 2. Will not the proposed action on the part
of librarians go far to abolish the intelligent second-hand bookseller in
the same way as the new bookseller has been well-nigh abolished in
consequence of large discounts? 3. Will not such action prevent the
publication of excellent books on subjects little likely to be popular?

1. Most librarians find their time pretty well occupied by the ordinary
duties of buying, arranging, cataloguing, and finding the books under
their charge, and it will be generally allowed that the librarian's first
duty is to be in his library, ready to attend to those who wish to consult
him. Now the value of his time can be roughly estimated for this purpose
in money, and the value of the time spent in doing work which could be as
well or better done by a bookseller should fairly be added to the cost of
the books.

2. It has hitherto been thought advisable to have one or more second-hand
booksellers attached to an important library, from whom the librarian may
naturally expect to obtain such books as he requires. Of course a man of
knowledge and experience must be paid for the exercise of these qualities,
but the price of books is so variable that it is quite possible that the
bookseller, from his knowledge, may buy the required books cheaper than
the librarian himself would pay for them. As far as it is possible to
judge from the information given us respecting the collection of
libraries, bookbuyers have little to complain of as to the price paid by
them to such respectable booksellers as have acted as their agents.
Perhaps too little stress has been laid upon that characteristic which is
happily so common among honest men, viz. that the agent is as pleased to
get wares cheap for a good customer as for himself. Mr. Tedder says in his
letter, "For rarer books I still consider it safer and cheaper in the long
run to cultivate business relations with one or more second-hand
booksellers, and pay them for their knowledge and experience." But is this
quite fair, and is it not likely that the rarer books will be supplied
cheaper if the bookseller is allowed to pay himself partly out of the sale
of the commoner books, which it is now proposed the librarian shall buy
himself? My contention is that it is for the advantage of libraries that
intelligent booksellers, ready to place their knowledge at the service of
the librarians, should exist, and it is unwise and uneconomic to do that
which may cause this class to cease to exist. Sellers of books must always
exist, but it is possible to drive out of the trade those who do it the
most honour. We see what has occurred in the new book trade, and there can
be little doubt that the book-buyer loses much more than he gains by the
present system of discount. When the bookseller could obtain sufficient
profit by the sale of new books to keep his shop open, it was worth his
while to take some trouble in finding the book required; but now that the
customer expects to buy a book at trade price, he cannot be surprised if
he does not give full particulars as to the publisher of the book he
requires if it is reported to him as "not known." Those only who, by
taking a large quantity of copies, obtain an extra discount, can make new
bookselling pay.

3. There are a large number of books which, although real additions to
literature, can only be expected to obtain a small number of readers and
buyers. Some of these are not taken by the circulating libraries, and
publishers, in making their calculations, naturally count upon supplying
some of the chief libraries of the country. If these libraries wait till
the book is second-hand, the number of sales is likely to be so much
reduced that it is not worth while to publish the book at all, to the
evident damage of the cause of learning.

It has been often suggested that an arrangement should be made by
libraries in close proximity, so that the same expensive book should not
be bought by more than one of the libraries. No doubt this is advantageous
in certain circumstances, but in the case of books with a limited sale it
would have the same consequence as stated above, and the book would not be
published at all, or be published at a loss.

Selden wrote in his _Table Talk_: "The giving a bookseller his price for
his books has this advantage; he that will do so, shall have the refusal
of whatsoever comes to his hand, and so by that means get many things
which otherwise he never should have seen." And the dictum is as true now
as it was in his time.

Many special points arise for consideration when we deal with the
question--How to buy at sales? and Mr. Edward Edwards gives the following
four rules for the guidance of the young book-buyer (_Memoirs of
Libraries_, vol. ii. p. 645):

1. The examination of books before the sale, not during it. 2. A steady
unintermittent bidding up to his predetermined limit, for all the books
which he wants, from the first lot to the last; and--if there be any signs
of a "combination"--for a few others which he may _not_ want. 3. Careful
avoidance of all interruptions and conversation; with especial
watchfulness of the hammer immediately after the disposal of those
especially seductive lots, which may have excited a keen and spirited
competition. (There is usually on such occasions a sort of "lull," very
favourable to the acquisition of good bargains.) 4. The uniform
preservation and storing up of priced catalogues of all important sales
for future reference.

A case of conscience arises as to whether it is fit and proper for two
buyers to agree not to oppose each other at a public sale. Mr. Edwards
says, "At the sales Lord Spencer was a liberal opponent as well as a
liberal bidder. When Mason's books were sold, for example, in 1798, Lord
Spencer agreed with the Duke of Roxburghe that they would not oppose each
other, in bidding for some books of excessive rarity, but when both were
very earnest in their longings, "toss up, after the book was bought, to
see who should win it." Thus it was that the Duke obtained his unique, but
imperfect, copy of Caxton's _Historye of Kynge Blanchardyn and Prince
Eglantyne_, which, however, came safely to Althorp fourteen years later,
at a cost of two hundred and fifteen pounds; the Duke having given but
twenty guineas."[13]

It is easy to understand the inducement which made these two giants agree
not to oppose each other, but the agreement was dangerously like a
"knock-out." Mr. Henry Stevens (in his _Recollections of Mr. James
Lenox_) boldly deals with this question, and condemns any such agreement.
He writes, "Shortly after, in 1850, there occurred for sale at the same
auction rooms a copy of '_Aratus, Phaenomena_,' Paris, 1559, in 4^o, with
a few manuscript notes, and this autograph signature on the title, 'Jo.
Milton, Pre. 2_s._ 6_d._ 1631.' This I thought would be a desirable
acquisition for Mr. Lenox, and accordingly I ventured to bid for it as far
as £40, against my late opponent for the Drake Map, but he secured it at
£40 10_s._, remarking that 'Mr. Panizzi will not thank you for, thus
running the British Museum.' 'That remark,' I replied, 'is apparently one
of your gratuities. Mr. Panizzi is, I think, too much a man of the world
to grumble at a fair fight. He has won this time, though at considerable
cost, and I am sure Mr. Lenox will be the first to congratulate him on
securing such a prize for the British Museum.' 'I did not know you were
bidding for Mr. Lenox.' 'It was not necessary that you should.' 'Perhaps
at another time,' said he, 'we may arrange the matter beforehand, so as
not to oppose each other.' 'Very well,' I replied, 'if you will bring me a
note from Mr. Panizzi something to this effect: 'Mr. Stevens, please have
a knock-out with the bearer, the agent of the British Museum, on lot **,
and greatly oblige Mr. John Bull and your obdt. servant, A.P.,' I will
consider the proposition, and if Mr. Lenox, or any other of my interested
correspondents, is not unwilling to combine or conspire to rob or cheat
the proprietors, the 'thing' may possibly be done. Meanwhile, until this
arrangement is concluded, let us hold our tongues and pursue an honest
course.' That man never again suggested to me to join him in a
'knock-out.'"

In another place Mr. Stevens relates his own experience as to holding two
commissions, and the necessity of buying the book above the amount of the
lowest of the two. The circumstance relates to a copy of the small octavo
Latin edition of the _Columbus Letter_, in eight leaves, at the first
Libri sale, Feb. 19, 1849. Mr. Stevens writes, "Mr. Brown ordered this lot
with a limit of 25 guineas, and Mr. Lenox of £25. Now as my chief
correspondents had been indulged with a good deal of liberty, scarcely
ever considering their orders completely executed till they had received
the books and decided whether or not they would keep them, I grew into the
habit of considering all purchases my own until accepted and paid for.
Consequently when positive orders were given, which was very seldom, I
grew likewise into the habit of buying the lot as cheaply as possible, and
then awarding it to the correspondent who gave the highest limit. This is
not always quite fair to the owner; but in my case it would have been
unfair to myself to make my clients compete, as not unfrequently the
awarded lot was declined and had to go to another. Well, in the case of
this Columbus Letter, though I had five or six orders, I purchased it for
£16 10_s._, and, accordingly, as had been done many times before within
the last five or six years without a grumble, I awarded it to the highest
limit, and sent the little book to Mr. John Carter Brown. Hitherto, in
cases of importance, Mr. Lenox had generally been successful, because he
usually gave the highest limit. But in this case he rebelled. He wrote
that the book had gone under his commission of £25, that he knew nobody
else in the transaction, and that he insisted on having it, or he should
at once transfer his orders to some one else. I endeavoured to vindicate
my conduct by stating our long-continued practice, with which he was
perfectly well acquainted, but without success. He grew more and more
peremptory, insisting on having the book solely on the ground that it went
under his limit. At length, after some months of negotiation, Mr. Brown,
on being made acquainted with the whole correspondence, very kindly, to
relieve me of the dilemma, sent the book to Mr. Lenox without a word of
comment or explanation, except that, though it went also below his higher
limit, he yielded it to Mr. Lenox for peace.... From that time I
resorted, in cases of duplicate orders from them, to the expedient of
always putting the lot in at one bid above the lower limit, which, after
all, I believe is the fairer way in the case of positive orders. This
sometimes cost one of them a good deal more money, but it abated the
chafing and generally gave satisfaction. Both thought the old method the
fairest when they got the prize. But I was obliged, on the new system of
bidding, to insist on the purchaser keeping the book without the option of
returning it." There can be no doubt that the latter plan was the most
satisfactory.

Some persons appear to be under the impression that whatever a book
fetches at a public sale must be its true value, and that, as the
encounter is open and public, too much is not likely to be paid by the
buyer; but this is a great mistake, and prices are often realized at a
good sale which are greatly in advance of those at which the same books
are standing unsold in second-hand booksellers' shops.

Much knowledge is required by those who wish to buy with success at
sales. Books vary greatly in price at different periods, and it is a
mistake to suppose, from the high prices realized at celebrated sales,
which are quoted in all the papers, that books are constantly advancing in
price. Although many have gone up, many others have gone down, and at no
time probably were good and useful books to be bought so cheap as now. If
we look at old sale catalogues we shall find early printed books,
specimens of old English poetry and the drama, fetching merely a fraction
of what would have to be given for them now; but, on the other hand, we
shall find pounds then given for standard books which would not now
realize the same number of shillings; this is specially the case with
classics.

The following passage from Hearne's _Diaries_ on the fluctuations in
prices is of interest in this connection:--"The editions of Classicks of
the first print (commonly called _editones principes_) that used to go at
prodigious prices are now strangely lowered; occasioned in good measure
by Mr. Thomas Rawlinson, my friend, being forced to sell many of his
books, in whose auction these books went cheap, tho' English history and
antiquities went dear: and yet this gentleman was the chief man that
raised many curious and classical books so high, by his generous and
courageous way of bidding."[14]

These first editions, however, realize large prices at the present time,
as has been seen at the sale of the Sunderland Library. It is experience
only that will give the necessary knowledge to the book buyer, and no
rules laid down in books can be of any real practical value in this case.
Persons who know nothing of books are too apt to suppose that what they
are inclined to consider exorbitant prices are matters of caprice, but
this is not so. There is generally a very good reason for the high price.

We must remember that year by year old and curious books become scarcer,
and the number of libraries where they are locked up increase; thus while
the demand is greater, the supply diminishes, and the price naturally
becomes higher. A unique first edition of a great author is surely a
possession to be proud of, and it is no ignoble ambition to wish to obtain
it.

FOOTNOTES:

[13] _Libraries and Founders of Libraries_, 1864, p. 404.

[14] _Reliquiæ Hearnianæ_, 1869, vol. ii. p. 158.



CHAPTER III.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES.


Libraries may broadly be divided into Public and Private, and as private
libraries will vary according to the special idiosyncrasies of their
owners, so still more will public libraries vary in character according to
the public they are intended for. The answer therefore to the
question--How to form a Public Library?--must depend upon the character of
the library which it is proposed to form. Up to the period when free town
libraries were first formed, collections of books were usually intended
for students; but when the Public Libraries' Acts were passed, a great
change took place, and libraries being formed for general readers, and
largely with the object of fostering the habit of reading, an entirely
new idea of libraries came into existence. The old idea of a library was
that of a place where books that were wanted could be found, but the new
idea is that of an educational establishment, where persons who know
little or nothing of books can go to learn what to read. The new idea has
naturally caused a number of points to be discussed which were never
thought of before.

But even in Town Libraries there will be great differences. Thus in such
places as Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester, the Free Libraries should
be smaller British Museums, and in this spirit their founders have worked;
but in smaller and less important towns a more modest object has to be
kept in view, and the wants of readers, more than those of consulters of
books, have to be considered.

Mr. Beriah Botfield has given a very full account of the contents of the
libraries spread about the country and associated with the different
Cathedrals in his _Notes on the Cathedral Libraries of England_, 1849.
These libraries have mostly been formed upon the same plan, and consist
very largely of the works of the Fathers, and of old Divinity. Some
contain also old editions of the classics, and others fine early editions
of English authors. In former times these libraries were much neglected,
and many of the books were lost; but the worst instance of injury to a
library occurred at Lincoln at the beginning of the present century, when
a large number of Caxtons, Pynsons, Wynkyn de Wordes, etc., were sold to
Dr. Dibdin, and modern books purchased for the library with the proceeds.
Dibdin printed a list of his treasures under the title of "The Lincolne
Nosegay." Mr. Botfield has reprinted this catalogue in his book.

The first chapter of the _United States Report on Public Libraries_ is
devoted to Public Libraries a hundred years ago. Mr. H.E. Scudder there
describes some American libraries which were founded in the last century.
One of these was the Loganian Library of Philadelphia. Here is an extract
from the will of James Logan, the founder--

"In my library, which I have left to the city of Philadelphia for the
advancement and facilitating of classical learning, are above one hundred
volumes of authors, in folio, all in Greek, with mostly their versions.
All the Roman classics without exception. All the Greek mathematicians,
viz. Archimedes, Euclid, Ptolemy, both his Geography and Almagest, which I
had in Greek (with Theon's Commentary, in folio, above 700 pages) from my
learned friend Fabricius, who published fourteen volumes of his
_Bibliothèque Grecque_, in quarto, in which, after he had finished his
account of Ptolemy, on my inquiring of him at Hamburgh, how I should find
it, having long sought for it in vain in England, he sent it to me out of
his own library, telling me it was so scarce that neither prayers nor
price could purchase it; besides, there are many of the most valuable
Latin authors, and a great number of modern mathematicians, with all the
three editions of Newton, Dr. Watts, Halley, etc." The inscription on the
house of the Philadelphia Library is well worthy of repetition here. It
was prepared by Franklin, with the exception of the reference to himself,
which was inserted by the Committee.

  Be it remembered,
  in honor of the Philadelphia youth
  (then chiefly artificers),
  that in MDCCXXXI
  they cheerfully,
  at the instance of BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
  one of their number,
  instituted the Philadelphia Library,
  which, though small at first,
  is become highly valuable and extensively useful,
  and which the walls of this edifice
  are now destined to contain and preserve:
  the first stone of whose foundation
  was here placed
  the thirty-first day of August, 1789.

Mr. F.B. Perkins, of the Boston Public Library, contributed to the _Report
on Public Libraries in the United States_ a useful chapter on "How to make
Town Libraries successful" (pp. 419-430). The two chief points upon which
he lays particular stress, and which may be said to form the texts for his
practical remarks, are: (1) that a Public Library for popular use must be
managed not only as a literary institution, but also as a business
concern; and (2) that it is a mistake to choose books of too thoughtful or
solid a character. He says, "It is vain to go on the principle of
collecting books that people ought to read, and afterwards trying to coax
them to read them. The only practical method is to begin by supplying
books that people already want to read, and afterwards to do whatever
shall be found possible to elevate their reading tastes and habits."

A series of articles on "How to Start Libraries in Small Towns" was
published in the _Library Journal_ (vol. i. pp. 161, 213, 249, 313, 355,
421), and Mr. Axon's _Hints on the Formation of Small Libraries_ has
already been mentioned. We must not be too rigid in the use of the term
Public Libraries, and we should certainly include under this description
those institutional Libraries which, although primarily intended for the
use of the Members of the Societies to which they belong, can usually be
consulted by students who are properly introduced.

Of Public Libraries first in order come the great libraries of a nation,
such as the British Museum. These are supplied by means of the Copyright
Law, but the librarians are not from this cause exonerated from the
troubles attendant on the formation of a library. There are old books and
privately printed and foreign books to be bought, and it is necessary that
the most catholic spirit should be displayed by the librarians. The same
may be said in a lesser degree of the great libraries of the more
important towns.

In England the Universities have noble libraries, more especially those of
Oxford and Cambridge, but although some colleges possess fine collections
of books, college libraries are not as a rule kept up to a very high
standard. The United States Report contains a full account of the college
libraries in America (pp. 60-126).

The libraries of societies are to a large extent special ones, and my
brother, the late Mr. B.R. Wheatley, in a paper read before the Conference
of Librarians, 1877, entitled "Hints on Library Management, so far as
relates to the Circulation of Books," particularly alluded to this fact.
He wrote, "Our library is really a medical and surgical section of a great
Public Library. Taking the five great classes of literature, I suppose
medicine and its allied sciences may be considered as forming a thirtieth
of the whole, and, as our books number 30,000, we are, as it were, a
complete section of a Public Library of nearly a million volumes in
extent."

The United States Report contains several chapters on special libraries,
thus chapter 2 is devoted to those of Schools and Asylums; 4, to
Theological Libraries; 5, to Law; 6, to Medical; and 7, to Scientific
Libraries. For the formation of special libraries, special bibliographies
will be required, and for information on this subject reference should be
made to Chapter VI. of the present work.

When we come to deal with the Free Public Libraries, several ethical
questions arise, which do not occur in respect to other libraries. One of
the most pressing of these questions refers to the amount of Fiction read
by the ordinary frequenters of these libraries.

This point is alluded to in the United States Report on Public Libraries.
Mr. J.P. Quincy, in the chapter on Free Libraries (p. 389), writes,
"Surely a state which lays heavy taxes upon the citizen in order that
children may be taught to read is bound to take some interest in what they
read; and its representatives may well take cognizance of the fact that an
increased facility for obtaining works of sensational fiction is not the
special need of our country at the close of the first century of its
independence." He mentions a free library in Germanstown, Pa., sustained
by the liberality of a religious body, and frequented by artisans and
working people of both sexes. It had been in existence six years in 1876,
and then contained 7000 volumes. No novels are admitted into the library.
The following is a passage from the librarian's report of 1874: "In
watching the use of our library as it is more and more resorted to by the
younger readers of our community, I have been much interested in its
influence in weaning them from a desire for works of fiction. On first
joining the library, the new comers often ask for such books, but failing
to procure them, and having their attention turned to works of interest
and instruction, in almost every instance they settle down to good reading
and cease asking for novels. I am persuaded that much of this vitiated
taste is cultivated by the purveyors to the reading classes, and that they
are responsible for an appetite they often profess to deplore, but
continue to cater to, under the plausible excuse that the public will have
such works."

Mr. Justin Winsor in chapter 20 (Reading in Popular Libraries) expresses a
somewhat different view. He writes, "Every year many young readers begin
their experiences with the library. They find all the instructive reading
they ought to have in their school books, and frequent the library for
story books. These swell the issues of fiction, but they prevent the
statistics of that better reading into which you have allured the older
ones, from telling as they should in the average."

At the London Conference of Librarians (1877), Mr. P. Cowell, Librarian of
the Liverpool Public Library, read a paper on the admission of Fiction in
Free Public Libraries, where he discussed the subject in a very fair
manner, and deplored the high percentage of novel reading in these
libraries. At the Second Annual Meeting of the Library Association (1879)
Mr. J. Taylor Kay, Librarian of Owens College, Manchester, in his paper on
the Provision of Novels in Rate-supported Libraries, more completely
condemned this provision. He concluded his paper with these words:
"Clearly a hard and fast line must be drawn. A distinct refusal by the
library committees to purchase a single novel or tale would be appreciated
by the rate-payers. The suggestion of a sub-committee to read this
literature would not be tolerated, and no man whose time is of value would
undergo the infliction. The libraries would attain their true position,
and the donations would certainly be of a higher class, if the aims of the
committees were known to be higher. Manchester has already curtailed its
issues of novels. It has been in the vanguard on the education question:
and let us hope it will be true to its traditions, to its noble impulses,
and lead the van in directing the educational influence of the free
libraries, and striking out altogether any expenditure in the
dissemination of this literature."

This question probably would not have come to the front if it were not
that the educational value of Free Libraries, as the complement of Board
Schools, has been very properly put forward by their promoters. With this
aim in view, it does startle one somewhat to see the completely
disproportionate supply of novels in the Free Libraries. This often rises
to 75 per cent. of the total supply, and in some libraries even a higher
percentage has been reached. There are, however, exceptions. At the
Baltimore Peabody Institute Fiction did not rise to more than one-tenth of
the total reading. The following are some figures of subjects circulated
at that library above 1000:--

  Belles Lettres                4598
  Fiction                       3999
  Biography                     2003
  Greek and Latin Classics      1265
  History (American)            1137
  Law                           1051
  Natural History               1738
  Theology                      1168
  Periodicals (Literary)        4728
  Periodicals (Scientific)      1466

Mr. Cowell says that during the year ending 31st August, 1877, 453,585
volumes were issued at the reference library alone (Liverpool Free Public
Library); of these 170,531 were strictly novels. The high-percentage of
novel reading is not confined to Free Public Libraries, for we find that
in the Odd Fellows' Library of San Francisco, in 1874, 64,509 volumes of
Prose Fiction were lent out of a total of 78,219. The other high figures
being Essays, 2280; History, 1823; Biography and Travels, 1664. In the
College of the City of New York, of the books taken out by students
between Nov. 1876, and Nov. 1877, 1043 volumes were Novels, the next
highest numbers were Science, 153; Poetry, 133; History, 130.[15]

In considering this question one naturally asks if the masterpieces of our
great authors, which every one should read, are to be mixed up with the
worthless novels constantly being published in the condemnation of
Fiction; but, to some extent, both Mr. Cowell and Mr. Kay answer this. The
first of these gentlemen writes: "As to the better class novels, which are
so graphic in their description of places, costumes, pageantry, men, and
events, I regret to say that they are not the most popular with those who
stand in need of their instructive descriptions. I could generally find
upon the library shelves 'Harold,' 'The Last of the Barons,' 'Westward
Ho!' 'Hypatia,' 'Ivanhoe,' 'Waverley,' 'Lorna Doone,' etc., when not a
copy of the least popular of the works of Mrs. Henry Wood, 'Ouida,' Miss
Braddon, or Rhoda Broughton were to be had." Mr. Kay corroborates this
opinion in his paper.

Most of us recognize the value of honest fiction for children and the
overwrought brains of busy men, but the reading of novels of any kind can
only be justified as a relaxation, and it is a sad fact that there is a
large class of persons who will read nothing but novels and who call all
other books dry reading. Upon the minds of this class fiction has a most
enervating effect, and it is not to be expected that ratepayers will
desire to increase this class by the indiscriminate supply of novels to
the Free Libraries. Some persons are so sanguine as to believe that
readers will be gradually led from the lower species of reading to the
higher; but there is little confirmation of this hope to be found in the
case of the confirmed novel readers we see around us.

The librarian who, with ample funds for the purpose, has the duty before
him of forming a Public Library, sets forward on a pleasant task. He has
the catalogues of all kinds of libraries to guide him, and he will be able
to purchase the groundwork of his library at a very cheap rate, for
probably at no time could sets of standard books be bought at so low a
price as now. Many books that are not wanted by private persons are
indispensable for a Public Library, and there being little demand for them
they can be obtained cheap. When the groundwork has been carefully laid,
then come some of the difficulties of collecting. Books specially required
will not easily be obtained, and when they are found, the price will
probably be a high one. Books of reference will be expensive, and as these
soon get out of date, they will frequently need renewal.

FOOTNOTES:

[15] _Library Journal_, vol. ii. p. 70.



CHAPTER IV.

PRIVATE LIBRARIES.


Treating of private libraries, it will be necessary to consider their
constitution under two heads, according as they are required in town or
country. In London, for instance, where libraries of all kinds are easily
accessible, a man need only possess books on his own particular hobby, and
a good collection of books of reference; but in the country, away from
public libraries, a well-selected collection of standard books will be
necessary.


1. _Town._

Every one who loves books will be sure to have some favourite authors on
special subjects of study respecting which he needs no instruction
farther than that which is ready to his hand. Books on these subjects he
will need, both in town and country, if he possesses two houses. Some
collectors make their town house a sort of gathering-place for the
accessions to their country libraries. Here a class is completed, bound,
and put in order, and then sent to the country to find its proper place in
the family library.

This is an age of books of reference, and as knowledge increases, and the
books which impart it to readers become unwieldy from their multitude,
there are sure to be forthcoming those who will reduce the facts into a
handy form. I have gathered in the following pages the titles of some of
the best books of reference which are to be obtained. Many, if not all of
these, are to be found in that magnificent library of reference--the
Reading Room of the British Museum. In some cases where the books are
constantly being reprinted, dates have been omitted. There are, doubtless,
many valuable works which I have overlooked, and some Text-books I have
had to leave out owing to the exigencies of space, but I trust that the
present list will be found useful.

     _Abbreviations._--Dictionnaire des Abréviations Latines et
     Françaises usitées dans les inscriptions lapidaires et
     métalliques, les manuscrits et les chartes du Moyen Age. Par
     L. Alph. Chassant. Quatrième édition. Paris, 1876. Sm. 8vo.

     _Anthropology._--Notes and Queries on Anthropology, for the
     use of Travellers and Residents in Uncivilized Lands. Drawn
     up by a Committee appointed by the British Association.
     London, 1874. Sm. 8vo.

     _Antiquities._--Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
     Edited by Dr. William Smith. Roy. 8vo.

     ---- Dictionnaire des Antiquités Grecques et
     Romaines d'après les textes et les Monuments ... Ouvrage
     rédigé ... sous la direction de Ch. Daremberg et Edm.
     Saglio. Paris, 1873. 4to.

     ---- The Life of the Greeks and Romans described from
     Antique Monuments, by E. Guhl and W. Koner, translated from
     the third German edition by F. Hueffer. London, 1875. 8vo.

     ---- Gallus or Roman Scenes of the Time of Augustus. By W.A.
     Becker, translated by F. Metcalfe. London.

     ---- Charicles: Illustrations of the Private Life of the
     Ancient Greeks. By W.A. Becker, translated by F. Metcalfe.
     London.

     _Antiquities._--Archæological Index to remains of antiquity
     of the Celtic, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon Periods. By
     John Yonge Akerman. London, 1847. 8vo.

     ---- Introduction to English Antiquities. By James
     Eccleston. London, 1847. 8vo.

     ---- The English Archæologist's Handbook. By Henry Godwin.
     Oxford, 1867. 8vo.

     _Architecture._--A Dictionary of the Architecture and
     Archæology of the Middle Ages.... By John Britton. London,
     1838.

     ---- History of Architecture in all countries, from the
     earliest times to the present day. By James Fergusson.
     London, 1865-76. 4 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Nicholson's Dictionary of the Science and Practice of
     Architecture, Building, Carpentry, etc. New edition, edited
     by Edward Lomax and Thomas Gunyon. London. 2 vols. 4to.

     ---- An Encyclopædia of Architecture, historical,
     theoretical, and practical. By Joseph Gwilt, revised by
     Wyatt Papworth. New edition. London, 1876. 8vo.

     ---- The Dictionary of Architecture, issued by the
     Architectural Publication Society. A to Oz. 4 vols. Roy.
     4to. (In progress.)

     ---- A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian,
     and Gothic Architecture. Fifth edition, enlarged. Oxford,
     1850. 3 vols. 8vo.

     ---- An Encyclopædia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa
     Architecture and Furniture.... By J.C. Loudon. London, 1833.
     8vo.

     _Arts, Manufactures_, etc.--Ure's Dictionary of Arts,
     Manufactures, and Mines, containing a clear exposition of
     their Principles and Practice. By Robert Hunt, assisted by
     F.W. Rudler. Seventh edition. London, 1875. 3 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Spons' Encyclopædia of the Industrial Arts,
     Manufactures, and Commercial Products. London, 1879. 8 vols.
     Roy. 8vo.

     ---- History of Physical Astronomy. By Robert Grant. London
     [1852]. A most valuable book, but now out of print and
     scarce.

     ---- An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients.
     By G. Cornewall Lewis. London, 1862. 8vo.

     _Bible._--Dictionary of the Bible, comprising its
     Antiquities, Biography, Mythology, and Geography. By Dr.
     William Smith. Roy. 8vo.

     ---- A Biblical Cyclopædia or Dictionary of Eastern
     Antiquities, Geography, Natural History, Sacred Annals and
     Biography, Theology and Biblical Literature, illustrative of
     the Old and New Testaments. Edited by John Eadie, D.D.,
     LL.D. Twelfth edition. London, 1870. 8vo.

     ---- The Bible Atlas of Maps and Plans to illustrate the
     Geography and Topography of the Old and New Testaments and
     the Apocrypha, with Explanatory Notes by Samuel Clark, M.A.
     Also a complete Index of the Geographical Names ... by
     George Grove. London, 1868. 4to.

     _Bible._ See _Concordances_.

     _Bibliography._--See Chapters V. and VI.

     _Biography._--Mr. Chancellor Christie contributed a very
     interesting article to the _Quarterly Review_ (April, 1884)
     on Biographical Dictionaries, in which he details the
     history of the struggle between the publishers of the
     _Biographie Universelle_ and Messrs. Didot, whose Dictionary
     was eventually entitled _Nouvelle Biographie Générale_. The
     new edition of the _Biographie Universelle_ (45 vols. Imp.
     8vo. Paris, 1854) is an invaluable work. Chalmers's
     Biographical Dictionary (32 vols. 8vo. 1812-17) is a mine of
     literary wealth, from which compilers have freely dug.
     Rose's (12 vols. 8vo. 1848) was commenced upon a very
     comprehensive plan, but the lives were considerably
     contracted before the work was completed. It is, however, a
     very useful work. L.B. Phillips's "Dictionary of
     Biographical Reference" contains 100,000 names, and gives
     the dates of birth and death, which in many instances is all
     the information the consulter requires, and should more be
     required, he is referred to the authority. This book is
     quite indispensable for every library. There are several
     national Biographical Dictionaries, and at last a thoroughly
     satisfactory Biographia Britannica is in course of
     publication by Messrs. Smith & Elder. The "Dictionary of
     National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen," has reached
     the fifth volume, and extends to Bottisham.

     ---- Robert Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Eminent
     Scotsmen (Glasgow, 1835-56. 5 vols. 8vo.) will be found
     useful.

     _Biography._--Dr. William Allen's "American Biographical
     Dictionary" was published at Boston in 1857.

     ---- Biographie Nouvelle des Contemporains ... Par A.V.
     Arnault [etc.]. Paris, 1820-25. 20 vols. 8vo. Mr. Edward
     Smith points this book out to me as specially valuable for
     information respecting actors in the French Revolution.

     ---- Handbook of Contemporary Biography. By Frederick
     Martin. London, 1870. Sm. 8vo.

     ---- Men of the Time: a Dictionary of Contemporaries.
     Eleventh edition. Revised by Thompson Cooper. London, 1884.
     Sm. 8vo. A volume of 1168 pages should contain a fair
     representation of the men of the day, and yet it is
     ludicrously incomplete. The literary side is as much
     overdone as the scientific side is neglected. This is not
     the place to make a list of shortcomings, but it will
     probably astonish most of our readers to learn that such
     eminent Men of the Time as Sir Frederick Abel, Sir Frederick
     Bramwell, and the late Dr. W.B. Carpenter are not mentioned.
     As this book has as a high reputation, the editor should
     thoroughly revise it for a new edition.

     ---- Men of the Reign. A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent
     Characters of both Sexes, who have died during the reign of
     Queen Victoria. Edited by T. Humphry Ward. (Uniform with
     "Men of the Time.") London, 1885.

     _Biography._--Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains....
     Par G. Vapereau. Cinquième edition. Paris, 1880. 8vo.

     ---- Supplément. Oct. 1881.

     ---- Biographie Nationale des Contemporains, redigée par une
     Société de Gens de Lettres sous la direction de M. Ernest
     Glaeser. Paris, 1878. Royal 8vo.

     ---- Dictionnaire Général de Biographie Contemporaine
     Française et Etrangère. Par Ad. Bitard. Paris, 1878. 8vo.

     ---- To this list of Contemporary Biography may be added the
     Indexes of Obituary Notices published by the Index Society.

     (_Bishops._)--Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, or a Calendar of the
     principal Ecclesiastical Dignitaries in England and Wales,
     and of the chief officers in the Universities of Oxford and
     Cambridge, from the earliest time to the year 1715. Compiled
     by John Le Neve. Corrected and continued from 1715 to the
     present time by T. Duffus Hardy. Oxford, 1854. 3 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Fasti Ecclesiæ Hibernicæ. The Succession of the
     Prelates and Members of Cathedral Bodies in Ireland. By
     Henry Cotton, D.C.L. Dublin, 1847-60. 5 vols. 8vo.

     (_Lawyers._)--Lives of the Chief Justices of England. By
     John Lord Campbell. Second edition. London, 1858. 3 vols.
     8vo.

     ---- Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great
     Seal of England. By John Lord Campbell. Fourth edition.
     London, 1856. 10 vols. Sm. 8vo.

     (_Scientific Men._)--Poggendorff (J.C.).
     Biographisch-Literarisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der
     exacten Wissenschaften, enthaltend Nachweisungen über
     Lebensverhältnisse und Leistungen von Mathematikern,
     Astronomen, Physikern, Chemikern, Mineralogen, Geologen
     u.s.w. aller Völker und Zeiten. Leipzig, 1863. Roy. 8vo.

       *       *       *       *       *

     (_Cambridge._)--Athenæ Cantabrigienses. By Charles Henry
     Cooper, F.S.A., and Thompson Cooper. Cambridge, 1858-61.
     Vol. I. 1500-1585. Vol. II. 1586-1609. 8vo.

     ---- Graduati Cantabrigienses, 1760-1856. Cura Josephi
     Romilly, A.M. Cantabrigiæ, 1856.

     ---- Graduati Cantabrigienses, 1800-1884. Cura Henrici
     Richardo Luard, S.T.P. Cantabrigiæ, 1884.

     (_Oxford._)--Athenæ and Fasti Oxonienses. By Ant. à Wood.
     New edition, with Notes, Additions, and Continuation by the
     Rev. Dr. P. Bliss. 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.

     ---- Catalogue of all Graduates in the University of Oxford,
     1659-1850. Oxford, 1851. 8vo.

     (_Dublin._)--A Catalogue of Graduates who have proceeded to
     degrees in the University of Dublin from the earliest
     recorded Commencements to July, 1866, with Supplement to
     December 16, 1868. Dublin, 1869. 8vo. Vol. II. 1868-1883.
     Dublin, 1884. 8vo.

     (_Eton._)--Alumni Etonenses, or a Catalogue of the Provosts
     and Fellows of Eton College and King's College, Cambridge,
     from the Foundation in 1443 to the Year 1797. By Thomas
     Harwood. Birmingham, 1797. 4to.

     (_Westminster._)--The List of the Queen's Scholars of St.
     Peter's College, Westminster, admitted on that Foundation
     since 1663, and of such as have been thence elected to
     Christ Church, Oxford, and Trinity College, Cambridge, from
     the Foundation by Queen Elizabeth, 1561, to the present
     time. Collected by Joseph Welch. A new edition ... by an old
     King's Scholar. London, 1852. Roy. 8vo.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Botany._--An Encyclopædia of Trees and Shrubs; being the
     Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum abridged.... By J.C.
     Loudon. London, 1842. 8vo.

     ---- Loudon's Encyclopædia of Plants ... New edition
     corrected to the present time. Edited by Mrs. Loudon.
     London, 1855. 8vo.

     ---- The Vegetable Kingdom; or the structure, classification
     and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. By
     John Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S. Third edition. London, 1853.
     8vo.

     ---- International Dictionary of Plants in Latin, German,
     English and French, for Botanists, and especially
     Horticulturists, Agriculturists, Students of Forestry and
     Pharmaceutists, by Dr. William Ulrich. Leipzig, 1872. 8vo.

     _Botany._--Topographical Botany: being Local and Personal
     Records towards shewing the distribution of British Plants
     traced through 112 counties and vice-counties of England,
     Wales and Scotland. By Hewett Cottrell Watson. Second
     edition, corrected and enlarged. London, 1883. 8vo.

     The need of an authoritative list of Botanical names must be
     frequently felt by a large number of writers, those who have
     but little knowledge of the science even more than Botanists
     themselves. The following work will be found useful for this
     purpose, but there is reason to hope that a much larger and
     more exhaustive list will shortly be published, as Mr.
     Daydon Jackson, Secretary of the Linnean Society, is, we
     believe, now engaged upon such a work. "Nomenclator
     Botanicus seu Synonymia Plantarum Universalis.... Autore
     Ernesto Theoph. Steudel; editio secunda, Stuttgartiæ et
     Tubingæ, 1841." Royal 8vo.

     _Cards._--Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History
     of Playing Cards. By William Andrew Chatto. London, 1848.
     8vo.

     ---- A Descriptive Catalogue of Playing and other Cards in
     the British Museum, accompanied by a Concise General History
     of the Subject, and Remarks on Cards of Divination and of a
     Politico-Historical Character. By William Hughes Willshire,
     M.D. Printed by order of the Trustees, 1876. Royal 8vo.

     _Chemistry._--A Dictionary of Chemistry and the allied
     Branches of other Sciences, founded on that of the late Dr.
     Ure. By Henry Watts. 1863-68. 5 vols. 8vo. Supplement, 1872.
     Second Supplement, 1879. Third Supplement, 1879-81. 2 vols.

     ---- Handbook of Modern Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic,
     for the use of Students. By Charles Meymott Tidy, M.B.,
     F.C.S. London, 1878. 8vo.

     ---- Handbook of Chemistry. By L. Gmelin. Trans. by H.
     Watts. London, 1848-67. 17 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Industrial Chemistry, based upon the German edition of
     Payen's "Précis de Chimie Industrielle," edited by B.H.
     Paul. London, 1878.

     ---- A Treatise on Chemistry. By [Sir] H.E. Roscoe and C.
     Schorlemmer. London. 8vo.

     _Coins._--A Numismatic Manual. By John Yonge Akerman, F.S.A.
     London, 1840. 8vo.

     ---- The Silver Coins of England arranged and described by
     E. Hawkins. London, 1841. 8vo.

     ---- The Gold Coins of England arranged and described, being
     a sequel to Mr. Hawkins's Silver Coins of England, by his
     grandson, Robert Lloyd Kenyon. London, 1880. 8vo.

     _Commerce._--A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and
     Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation. By the
     late J.R. McCulloch. Latest edition by A.J. Wilson. London,
     1882. 8vo.

     ---- History of British Commerce, 1763-1870. By Leone Levi.
     London, 1872. 8vo.

     _Concordances._

     _Aristophanes._--A Complete Concordance to the Comedies and
     Fragments of Aristophanes. By Henry Dunbar, M.D. Oxford,
     1883. 4to.

     _Bible._--A complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of
     the Old and New Testaments. By Alexander Cruden, M.A.
     London, 1737. 4to. Second edition 1761, third edition 1769;
     this is the last corrected by the author. Most of the
     Concordances published since are founded upon Cruden.

     ---- An Analytical Concordance to the Holy Scriptures, or
     the Bible presented under distinct and classified heads of
     topics. Edited by John Eadie, D.D., LL.D. London and
     Glasgow, 1856. 8vo.

     _Homer._--A Complete Concordance to the Iliad of Homer. By
     Guy Lushington Prendergast. London, 1875. 4to.

     ---- A Complete Concordance to the Odyssey and Hymns of
     Homer, to which is added a Concordance to the parallel
     passages in the Iliad, Odyssey and Hymns. By Henry Dunbar,
     M.D. Oxford, 1880. 4to.

     _Milton._--A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of
     Milton. By Guy Lushington Prendergast, Madras Civil Service.
     Madras, 1857. 4to. Originally published in 12 parts.

     ---- A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of John
     Milton. By Charles Dexter Cleveland, LL.D. London, 1867. Sm.
     8vo.

     The Rev. H.J. Todd compiled a verbal Index to the whole of
     Milton's Poetry, which was appended to the second edition of
     his life of the Poet (1809).

     _Pope._--A Concordance to the Works of Alexander Pope. By
     Edwin Abbott, with an Introduction by Edwin A. Abbott, D.D.
     London, 1875. Royal 8vo.

     _Shakespeare._--The Complete Concordance to Shakspere: being
     a verbal Index to all the passages in the dramatic works of
     the Poet. By Mrs. Cowden Clarke. London, 1845. Royal 8vo.

     ---- Shakespeare-Lexicon: a Complete Dictionary of all the
     English words, phrases and constructions in the works of the
     poet. By Dr. Alexander Schmidt. (Berlin and London), 1874. 2
     vols. royal 8vo.

     ---- A Concordance to Shakespeare's Poems: an Index to every
     word therein contained. By Mrs. Horace Howard Furness.
     Philadelphia, 1874.

     ---- A Handbook Index to the Works of Shakespeare, including
     references to the phrases, manners, customs, proverbs,
     songs, particles, etc., which are used or alluded to by the
     great Dramatist. By J.O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. London,
     1866. 8vo. Only fifty copies printed.

     _Tennyson._--A Concordance of the entire works of Alfred
     Tennyson, P.L., D.C.L., F.R.S. By D. Barron Brightwell.
     London, 1869. 8vo.

     _Tennyson._--Concordance to the works of Alfred Tennyson,
     Poet Laureate. London, 1870. "The Holy Grail," etc., is
     indexed separately.

     ---- An Index to "In Memoriam." London, 1862.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Costume._--A Cyclopædia of Costume or Dictionary of Dress,
     including Notices of Contemporaneous Fashions on the
     Continent.... By James Robinson Planché, Somerset Herald.
     London, 1876-79. 2 vols. 4to. Vol. I. Dictionary. Vol. II.
     General History of Costume in Europe.

     _Councils._--Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating
     to Great Britain and Ireland. Edited after Spelman and
     Wilkins, by Arthur West Haddan, B.D., and William Stubbs,
     M.A. Oxford, 1869. Vol. II. Part I. 1873. Vol. III. 1871.
     8vo.

     ---- England's Sacred Synods. A Constitutional History of
     the Convocations of the Clergy from the earliest Records of
     Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of
     the present Book of Common Prayer, including a List of all
     Councils, Ecclesiastical as well as Civil, held in England
     in which the Clergy have been concerned. By James Wayland
     Joyce, M.A. London, 1855. 8vo.

     _Dates._--See _History_.

     _Dictionaries._

     (_English._)--One of the most useful English Dictionaries is
     the "Imperial Dictionary" by Ogilvie, which has been edited
     with great care by Charles Annandale.[16] The vocabulary is
     very full, the etymology is trustworthy, and the definitions
     are clear and satisfactory. The engravings which are
     interspersed with the text are excellent, and greatly add to
     the utility of the Dictionary.

     For years preparations have been made for a Standard English
     Dictionary, and at last the work has been commenced under
     the able editorship of Dr. James A.H. Murray. In 1857, on
     the suggestion of Archbishop Trench, the Philological
     Society undertook the preparation of a Dictionary, "which by
     the completeness of its vocabulary, and by the application
     of the historical method to the life and use of words, might
     be worthy of the English language and of English
     scholarship." The late Mr. Herbert Coleridge and Dr.
     Furnivall undertook the editorship, and a large number of
     volunteers came forward to read books and extract
     quotations. Mr. Coleridge died in the midst of his work, and
     upon Dr. Furnivall devolved the entire editorship in
     addition to his other onerous duties as Secretary of the
     Philological Society. He projected the admirable system of
     sub-editing, which proved so successful. As the work
     proceeded several of the most energetic and most competent
     workers undertook to sub-edit the materials already
     collected, each one taking a separate letter of the
     alphabet. Some two million quotations were amassed, but
     still the man was wanting who would devote his life to
     forming the Dictionary from these materials. In course of
     time Dr. Murray came forward, and in 1878 he prepared some
     specimens for submission to the Delegates of the Clarendon
     Press, who agreed to publish the Dictionary. The first part
     was published in 1884, and the second in 1885.[17] It is
     hoped that in future it will be possible to issue a part
     every six months. At present the alphabet is carried down to
     Batten. This is one of the most magnificent pieces of work
     that has ever been produced in any country, and it is an
     honour to every one concerned. To the Philological Society
     who conceived it, to Dr. Murray and his staff who have
     devoted so much labour and intellect to its production, and
     to the Clarendon Press who have published it to the world.
     It is, moreover, an honour to the country which now
     possesses a well-grounded hope of having, at no distant day,
     the finest Historical Dictionary ever produced.

     In this connection the _Encyclopædic Dictionary_, now in
     course of publication by Messrs. Cassell, should be
     mentioned as a valuable work.

     Up to a few years ago it was impossible to obtain any
     satisfactory etymological information on English words from
     our Dictionaries. Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood partly removed this
     reproach by the publication of his very valuable "Dictionary
     of English Etymology" in 1859,[18] but in this work Mr.
     Wedgwood only dealt with a portion of the vocabulary.

     Professor Skeat commenced the publication of his
     indispensable "Etymological Dictionary of the English
     Language" (Clarendon Press) in 1879, and in 1884 he produced
     a second edition. In 1882 Professor Skeat published "A
     Concise Etymological Dictionary," which is something more
     than an abridgment, and a book which should find a place in
     all libraries of reference.

     A Glossarial Index to the Printed English Literature of the
     Thirteenth Century. By H. Coleridge. London, 1859. 8vo. This
     was one of the earliest publications which grew out of the
     preparations for the great Philological Society's
     Dictionary. Stratmann's Dictionary of the Old English
     Language (third edition, Krefeld, 1878) is an indispensable
     work. A new edition, prepared by Mr. H. Bradley, is about to
     be issued by the Clarendon Press.

     Of single volume Dictionaries, Mr. Hyde Clarke's "New and
     Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language as spoken
     and written" in Weale's Educational Series (price 3_s._
     6_d._) is one of the most valuable. I have time after time
     found words there which I have searched for in vain in more
     important looking Dictionaries. Mr. Clarke claims that he
     was the first to raise the number of words registered in an
     English Dictionary to 100,000.

     The Rev. James Stormonth's "Dictionary of the English
     Language, Pronouncing, Etymological, and Explanatory," is a
     work of great value. It is so well arranged and printed that
     it becomes a pleasure to consult it.

     Those who are interested in Dialects will require all the
     special Dictionaries which have been published, and these
     may be found in the Bibliography now being compiled by the
     English Dialect Society, but those who do not make this a
     special study will be contented with "A Dictionary of
     Archaic and Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs,
     and Ancient Customs, from the Fourteenth Century, by J.O.
     Halliwell" (fifth edition, London, 1865, 2 vols. 8vo.),
     which is well-nigh indispensable to all. Nares's Glossary
     (1822-46, new edition, by J.O. Halliwell and T. Wright, 2
     vols. 8vo. 1859) is also required by those who make a study
     of Old English Literature.


     The following is a short indication of some of the most
     useful working Dictionaries:

     _Arabic._--Lane.

     _Greek._--Liddell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, both in
     4to. and in abridged form in square 12mo.

     _Latin._--The Clarendon Press publish a Latin Dictionary
     founded on Andrews's edition of Freund, and edited by C.T.
     Lewis and C. Short, which is of great value. Smith's
     Dictionary, both the large edition and the smaller one, and
     that of Riddle are good.

     _French._--The Dictionaries of Fleming and Tibbins, and
     Spiers, keep up their character, but for idioms the
     International French and English Dictionary of Hamilton and
     Legros is the best. For smaller Dictionaries Cassell's is
     both cheap and good. Bellows's Pocket Dictionary has
     obtained considerable fame, but those who use it need a good
     eyesight on account of the smallness of the type. It is,
     however, beautifully printed. The Standard French
     Dictionaries of that language alone are the noble work of
     Littré and the excellent Dictionary of Poitevin (2 vols.
     4to.). For early French Godefroy's elaborate work, which is
     now in progress, must be consulted.

     _German._--Fluegel's German and English Dictionary still
     holds its own, but Koehler's Dictionary is also excellent.
     Hilpert's and Lucas's Dictionaries, both good ones, are now
     out of print. Of Standard German Dictionaries Grimm's great
     work is still in progress. Sanders's Dictionary is also of
     great value.

     _Danish and Norwegian._--The Dictionary by Ferrall, Repp,
     Rosing and Larsen is good.

     _Dutch._--Calisch (2 vols. 8vo. 1875).

     _Hebrew._--Fuerst, Gesenius.

     _Icelandic._--Vigfusson.

     _Italian._--Baretti's Dictionary still keeps up its
     character, but Millhouse's work is also good.

     _Portuguese._--Vieyra.

     _Russian._--Alexandrow.

     _Sanscrit._--Monier Williams. Boehtlingk and Roth.

     _Pâli._--Childers.

     _Spanish._--Neumann and Baretti, and also Velasquez.

     _Swedish._--Oman.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Drama._--Biographia Dramatica; or a Companion to the
     Playhouse ... originally compiled in the year 1764 by David
     Erskine Baker, continued thence to 1782 by Isaac Reed, and
     brought down to the end of November, 1811 ... by Stephen
     Jones. London, 1812. 3 vols. 8vo.

     ---- A Dictionary of Old English Plays existing either in
     print or in manuscript, from the earliest times to the close
     of the seventeenth century; by James O. Halliwell, Esq.,
     F.R.S. London, 1860. 8vo.

     _Drugs._--Pharmacographia: a History of the Principal Drugs
     of Vegetable Origin met with in Great Britain and British
     India. By Friedrich A. Flückiger, Ph.D., and Daniel Hanbury,
     F.R.S. Second edition. London, 1879. 8vo.

     _Ecclesiology._--Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical
     Theology. Edited by the Rev. J.H. Blunt, M.A. Second
     edition. London, 1872. Imp. 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. By William Smith,
     LL.D., and Professor S. Cheatham. London, 1876-80. 2 vols.
     royal 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties,
     and Schools of Religious Thought. Edited by the Rev. John
     Henry Blunt, M.A. London, 1874. Imp. 8vo.

     ---- Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume,
     compiled from Ancient Authorities and Examples. By A. Welby
     Pugin, Architect.... Enlarged and revised by the Rev.
     Bernard Smith, M.A. Third edition. London, 1868. 4to.

     ---- A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms.
     Compiled and arranged by the Rev. Frederick George Lee,
     D.C.L. London, 1877. Sq. 8vo.

     ---- See _Ritual_.

     _Encyclopædias._--The Encyclopædia Britannica, or a
     Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. Ninth
     edition. Edinburgh, 1875. 4to. Now in course of publication.

     ---- Encyclopædia Metropolitana, or Universal Dictionary of
     Knowledge.... London, 1815-41. 26 vols. 4to.

     ---- Chambers's Encyclopædia. 10 vols. royal 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. By W.T.
     Brande. 1842. New edition, edited by the Rev. J.W. Cox.
     London, 1866-67. 3 vols. 8vo.

     _Encyclopædias._--Rees's Cyclopædia (39 vols., plates 6
     vols. 1820, 4to.) can be bought excessively cheap, and is
     well worth a place in a library where room can be found for
     it, as many of its articles have never been superseded.

     ---- Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX^e Siècle Français,
     Historique, Géographique, Mythologique, Bibliographique,
     Littéraire, Artistique, Scientifique, etc.... Par Pierre
     Larousse. Paris, 1866-76. 15 vols. 4to. Supplément, tome 16,
     1878.

     ---- Dictionnaire Universel des Sciences, des Lettres et des
     Arts ... redigé avec la collaboration d'Auteurs spéciaux par
     M.N. Bouillet ... douzième édition. Paris, 1877. 8vo.

     _Geography._--A General Dictionary of Geography,
     descriptive, physical, statistical, historical, forming a
     complete Gazetteer of the World. By A. Keith Johnston. New
     edition. London, 1877. 8vo.

     ---- The Library Cyclopædia of Geography, descriptive,
     physical, political and historical, forming a New Gazetteer
     of the World. By James Bryce, M.A. and Keith Johnston.
     London, 1880. Royal 8vo.

     ---- Index Geographicus, being a List alphabetically
     arranged of the principal places on the Globe, with the
     countries and sub-divisions of the countries in which they
     are situated and their latitudes and longitudes. Compiled
     specially with reference to Keith Johnston's Royal Atlas,
     but applicable to all modern atlases and maps, Edinburgh,
     1864. Roy. 8vo.

     _Geography._--Etymologisch-Geographisches Lexikon.
     Separat-Ausgabe des lexikalischen Theils der Nomina
     Geographica von Dr. J.J. Egli. Leipzig, 1880. Royal 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, by various
     writers, edited by Dr. W. Smith. London, 1852. 2 vols. 8vo.

     (_Scotland._)--Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland. A Survey of
     Scottish Topography, statistical, biographical and
     historical. Edited by Francis H. Groome. Edinburgh, 1884.
     Vol. 1, roy. 8vo.

     (_France._)--Santini. Dictionnaire Général ... des Communes
     de France et des Colonies. Paris. 8vo.

     ---- Dictionnaire des Postes de la République Française. 6^e
     édition. Rennes, 1881. Roy. 8vo.

     (_Italy._)--Il Libro dé Comuni del Regno d'Italia. Compilato
     sopra elementi officiali da Achille Moltedo. Napoli, 1873.
     Roy. 8vo.

     (_United States._)--The National Gazetteer, a Geographical
     Dictionary of the United States.... By L. de Colange, LL.D.
     London, 1884. Roy. 8vo.

     (_India._)--Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern
     Asia, Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific.... Edited by
     Edward Balfour.... Second edition. Madras, 1871-73. 5 vols.
     Roy. 8vo. Third edition. London, 1885. 3 vols. The first
     edition was published in 1858, and two Supplements in 1862.

     _Geology._--A Catalogue of British Fossils: comprising the
     Genera and Species hitherto described, with references to
     their geological distribution.... By John Morris, F.G.S.
     Second edition. London, 1854. 8vo.

     _Geology._--Principles of Geology. By Sir Charles Lyell.
     10th edition. London, 1867-8. 2 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Manual of Elementary Geology. By Sir Charles Lyell.
     London, 1865. 8vo.

     _History._--Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables from
     the Creation to the present times.... [Edited by Sir Henry
     Ellis.] Imp. 8vo. London, 1844.

     ---- Atlas Universel d'Histoire et de Géographie contenant
     1^e la Chronologie.... 2^e la Généologie.... 3^e la
     Géographie.... Par M.N. Bouillet. Deuxième édition. Paris,
     1872. 8vo.

     ---- Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire et de Géographie
     contenant 1^e l'Histoire proprement dite.... 2^e la
     Biographie Universelle.... 3^e la Mythologie.... 4^e la
     Géographie ancienne et moderne. Par M.N. Bouillet ...
     ouvrage revu et continué par A Chassang. Nouvelle édition
     (vingt-cinquième), avec un Supplement. Paris, 1876. 8vo.

     ---- The Map of Europe by Treaty, showing the various
     political and territorial changes which have taken place
     since the General Peace of 1814, with numerous maps and
     notes. By Edward Hertslet, C.B. London, 1875. Vol. 1,
     1814-1827; vol. 2, 1828-1863; vol. 3, 1864-1875.--This work
     shows the changes which have taken place in the Map of
     Europe by Treaty or other International arrangements. It
     contains a List of Treaties, etc., between Great Britain and
     Foreign Powers for the maintenance of the Peace of Europe
     and for the Settlement of European Questions, 1814-75.

     _History._--Moniteur des Dates, contenant un million des
     renseignements biographiques, généalogiques et historiques.
     Par Edouard Oettinger. Dresde, 1866-68. 6 thin vols. 4to.
     Tomes 7, 8, 9, Supplément commencé par E.M. Oettinger
     considérablement augmenté ... par Dr. Hugo Schramm. Leipzig,
     1873-1882.

     ---- Haydn's Dictionary of Dates and Universal Information
     relating to all Ages. 16th edition, by Benjamin Vincent.
     London.

     ---- The Manual of Dates. A Dictionary of Reference of the
     most important facts and events in the History of the World.
     By George H. Townsend. Fifth edition entirely remodelled and
     edited by Frederick Martin. London, 1877. 8vo.

     ---- Encyclopædia of Chronology, Historical and
     Biographical. By B.B. Woodward, B.A., and William L.R.
     Gates. London, 1872. 8vo.

     ---- The Dictionary of Chronology, or Historical and
     Statistical Register. Compiled and edited by William Henry
     Overall, F.S.A. London, 1870. 8vo.

     ---- The Anniversary Calendar, Natal Book, and Universal
     Mirror; embracing anniversaries of persons, events,
     institutions, and festivals, of all denominations,
     historical, sacred and domestic, in every period and state
     of the world. London, 1832. 2 vols. 8vo.

     _History._--An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chronology
     of Rome and Constantinople, from the death of Augustus to
     the death of Heraclius. By Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. Edited
     by the Rev. C.J. Fynes Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1853. 8vo.

     ---- Fasti Romani: the Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome
     and Constantinople, from the death of Augustus to the death
     of Justin II. [to the death of Heraclius]. By Henry Fynes
     Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1845-50. 2 vols. 4to.

     ---- Fasti Hellenici: the Civil and Literary Chronology of
     Greece, from the earliest accounts to the death of Augustus.
     By Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1834-51. 3 vols. 4to.

     ---- Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the
     History of Great Britain and Ireland to the end of the reign
     of Henry VII. By Thomas Duffus Hardy. London, 1862-71. Vol.
     I. From the Roman Period to the Norman Invasion. Vol. II.
     A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1200. Vol. III. A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1327.

     ---- The Dictionary of English History. Edited by Sidney J.
     Low, B.A., and F.S. Pulling, M.A. London, 1884. 8vo.

     ---- Introduction to the Study of English History. By Samuel
     R. Gardiner, Hon. LL.D., and J. Bass Mullinger, M.A.
     London, 1881. 8vo. The Second part by Mr. Mullinger is
     devoted to Authorities, and is a model of what such a work
     should be.

     _History._--Handy-Book of Rules and Tables for Verifying
     Dates with the Christian Era ... with Regnal years of
     English Sovereigns from the Norman Conquest to the present
     time, A.D. 1066 to 1874. By John J. Bond. London, 1875. Sm.
     8vo.

     ---- The Annals of England: an Epitome of English History,
     from contemporary writers, the Rolls of Parliament and other
     Public Records. Library Edition. Oxford and London, 1876.
     8vo. Contains some valuable information as to the sources of
     history in the Appendix.

     ---- The Representative History of Great Britain and
     Ireland, being a History of the House of Commons and of the
     Counties, Cities, and Boroughs of the United Kingdom from
     the earliest period. By T.H.B. Oldfield. London, 1816. 6
     vols. 8vo.

     ---- An Index to "The Times," and to the topics and events
     of the year 1862. [By J. Giddings.] London, 1863. 8vo.

     ---- An Index to "The Times," and to the topics and events
     of the year 1863. By J. Giddings. London, 1864. 8vo.

     ---- Index to "The Times" Newspaper, 1864, to September,
     1885. London. 410.

     ---- Annals of our Time, from the accession of Queen
     Victoria, 1837, to the Peace of Versailles, 1871. By J.
     Irving. London, 1871. 8vo. Supplement (Feb. 1871-July,
     1878). London, 1879. 8vo.

     (_France._)--Dictionnaire Historique de la France.... Par
     Ludovic Lalanne. Paris, 1872. 8vo.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Insurance._--The Insurance Cyclopædia, being a Dictionary
     of the definition of terms used in connexion with the theory
     and practice of Insurance in all its branches; a
     Biographical Summary ... a Bibliographical Reportery.... By
     Cornelius Walford. London, vol. 1, 1871, to vol. 6. Royal
     8vo.

     _Language._--See _Dictionaries_, _Philology_.

     _Law._--The Law-Dictionary, explaining the rise, progress,
     and present state of the British Law.... By Sir Thomas
     Edlyne Tomlins; fourth edition by Thomas Colpitts Granger.
     London, 1835. 2 vols. 4to.

     ---- Wharton's Law-Lexicon, forming an Epitome of the Law of
     England ... seventh edition by J.M. Lely, M.A. London, 1863.
     Royal 8vo.

     ---- A Law Dictionary, adapted to the Constitution and Laws
     of the United States of America and of the several States of
     the American Union.... By John Bouvier. Fourteenth edition.
     Philadelphia, 1870.

     ---- The Lawyer's Reference Manual of Law Books and
     Citations. By Charles C. Soule. Boston, 1883. 8vo.

     ---- Ancient Law; its connection with the early history of
     Society, and its relation to modern ideas. By H.S. Maine.
     London, 1861. 8vo.

     _Law._--Lectures in Jurisprudence. By John Austin. Third
     edition, revised and edited by R. Campbell. London, 1869. 3
     vols. 8vo.

     ---- Justice of the Peace and Parish Officer. By R. Burn.
     The 30th edition was published in 1869. The 13th edition of
     Archbold's Justice of the Peace appeared in 1878.

     ---- Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England.
     Student's edition.

     _Literature._

     (_English._)--Cyclopædia of English Literature. Edited by
     Robert Chambers. Edinburgh, 1843. New edition by Robert
     Carruthers. Edinburgh. 2 vols. Royal 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of English Literature, being a Comprehensive
     Guide to English Authors and their Works. By Davenport
     Adams. London, n.d. Sq. 8vo.

     ---- Professor Henry Morley's _English Writers_, his _Tables
     of English Literature_, and his volumes of Selections,
     entitled _Library of English Literature_, will be found of
     great value.

     (_American._)--Cyclopædia of American Literature: embracing
     personal and critical Notices of Authors, and selections
     from their writings.... By Evert A. Duyckinck and George L.
     Duyckinck. Edited to date by M. Laird Simons. Philadelphia,
     1877. 2 vols. Imp. 8vo.

     ---- The Poets and Poetry of Europe, with Introductions and
     Biographical Notices, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. London,
     1855. Roy. 8vo.

     (_Polish._)--Bentkowskiego (F.). Historya Literatury
     Polskiey. Warszawie, 1814. 2 vols. 8vo.

     (_Russian._)--Otto (Friedrich). History of Russian
     Literature, with a Lexicon of Russian Authors. Translated
     from the German by George Cox. Oxford, 1839. 8vo.

     (_Spanish._)--Ticknor (George). History of Spanish
     Literature. New York, 1849. 3 vols. 8vo.

     (_Classical._)--A History of Latin Literature from Ennius to
     Boethius. By George Augustus Simcox, M.A. London, 1883. 2
     vols. 8vo.

     ---- A History of Roman Classical Literature. By R.W.
     Browne, M.A. London, 1884. 8vo.

     ---- A History of Roman Literature. By W.S. Teuffel,
     translated by Wilhelm Wagner, Ph.D. London, 1873. 2 vols.
     8vo.

     ---- Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature. Edited after
     Dr. E. Hübner, with large additions by the Rev. John E.B.
     Mayor. London, 1875. 12mo.

     ---- Guide to the Choice of Classical Books. By Joseph B.
     Mayor. Third edition, with Supplementary List. London, 1885.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Manuscripts._--Guide to the Historian, the Biographer, the
     Antiquary, the man of literary curiosity, and the collector
     of autographs, towards the verification of Manuscripts, by
     reference to engraved facsimiles of handwriting. [By Dawson
     Turner.] Yarmouth, 1848. Roy. 8vo. A most valuable
     alphabetical Index of the names of celebrated men, with
     references to the books where specimens of their writing can
     be found.

     _Mathematics._--Dictionnaire des Mathématiques appliqués....
     Par H. Sonnet. Paris, 1867. Roy. 8vo.

     _Mechanics._--Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary.... By
     Edward H. Knight. London and New York, 1874-77. 3 vols.
     royal 8vo.

     ---- Cyclopædia of Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical,
     Manufactures, Mining and Engineering. Edited by Charles
     Tomlinson. London, 1866. 3 vols. roy. 8vo.

     _Medical._--The Cyclopædia of Anatomy and Physiology. Edited
     by Robert B. Todd, M.D., F.R.S. London, 1835-59. 5 vols, in
     6, royal 8vo.

     ---- A Dictionary of Practical Medicine.... By James
     Copland. London, 1858. 3 vols. 8vo.

     ---- An Expository Lexicon of the terms, ancient and modern,
     in Medical and General Science; including a complete
     Medico-Legal Vocabulary.... By R.G. Mayne, M.D. London,
     1860. 8vo.

     ---- Cooper's Dictionary of Practical Surgery and
     Encyclopædia of Surgical Science. New edition brought down
     to the present time by Samuel A. Lane. London, 1872. 2 vols,
     royal 8vo.

     ---- Medical Lexicon: a Dictionary of Medical Science ...
     by Robley Dunglison, M.D., LL.D. A new edition enlarged and
     thoroughly revised by Richard J. Dunglison, M.D.
     Philadelphia, 1874. Roy. 8vo.

     _Monograms._--Dictionnaire des Monogrammes, marques
     figurées, lettres initiales, noms abrégés, etc., avec
     lesquels les Peintres, Dessinateurs, Graveurs et Sculpteurs
     ont designé leurs noms. Par François Brulliot. Nouvelle
     édition. Munich, 1832-34. 3 parts. Imp. 8vo.

     _Music._--General History of the Science and Practice of
     Music. By Sir John Hawkins. London, 1776. 5 vols. 4to.

     ---- History of Music from the earliest ages to the present
     period. By Charles Burney. London, 1776-89. 4 vols. 4to.

     ---- Biographie Universelle des Musiciens et Bibliographie
     générale de la musique. Par F.J. Fétis. Deuxième édition.
     Paris, 1860-65. 8 vols. roy. 8vo.

     ---- Supplément et Complément, publiés sous la direction de
     M. Arthur Pougin. Paris, 1878-80. 2 vols. roy. 8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by [Sir] G.
     Grove. London, 1878. 8vo. In progress.

     _Mythology._--Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
     Mythology, edited by Dr. W. Smith. 1845-48. 3 vols. 8vo.

     _Natural History._--Dictionary of Natural History Terms,
     with their derivations, including the various orders,
     genera, and species. By David H. McNicoll, M.D. London,
     1863. Sm. 8vo.

     _Natural History._--See _Botany_, _Zoology_.

     _Painters._--A General Dictionary of Painters.... By Matthew
     Pilkington, A.M. A new edition, corrected and revised by R.
     A. Davenport. London, 1852. 8vo.

     ---- A Catalague Raisonné of the Works of the most eminent
     Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters, ... to which is added a
     Brief Notice of the Scholars and Imitators of the Great
     Masters of the above schools. By John Smith. London,
     1829-42. 9 parts. Roy. 8vo.

     ---- The Picture Collector's Manual, adapted to the
     Professional Man and the Amateur; being a Dictionary of
     Painters ... together with an alphabetical arrangement of
     the Scholars, Imitators, and Copyists of the various
     masters, and a Classification of Subjects. By James R.
     Hobbes. London, 1849. 2 vols. 8vo.

     _Peerage._--Courthope's "Historical Peerage," founded on Sir
     Nicholas Harris Nicolas's "Synopsis of the Peerage," is an
     indispensable work, but it only refers to English Titles.
     Mr. Solly's "Index of Hereditary Titles of Honour" contains
     the Peerage and Baronetage of England, Scotland, and
     Ireland.

     ---- The Official Baronage of England, 1066 to 1885, by
     James E. Doyle (vols. 1-3. 4to.), has just appeared.

     _Peerage._--Of the current peerages, Burke's, Dod's,
     Debrett's, and Foster's, all have their points of merit.

     _Periodicals._--Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all
     countries, including the Transactions of Learned Societies
     in the Natural, Physical and Mathematical Sciences,
     1633-1876. By Samuel H. Scudder. Library of Harvard
     University, 1879. 8vo.--In this valuable list of
     periodicals, which is arranged geographically according to
     countries with an alphabet under each country, transactions
     and journals are joined together in the same arrangement. At
     the end there are an Index of Towns, an Index of Titles, and
     an Index of Minor Subjects.

     ---- An Index to Periodical Literature. By Wm. Fred. Poole.
     New York. Roy. 8vo. 1st ed. 1843; 2nd ed. 1848; 3rd ed.
     1882.

     ---- Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800-1863). Compiled
     and published by the Royal Society of London. London,
     1867-72. 6 vols. 4to. (1864-73.) Vol. 7, 1877; Vol. 8,
     1879.--Vol. 1, A-Clu; Vol. 2, Coa-Gra; Vol. 3, Gre-Lez; Vol.
     4, Lhe-Poz; Vol. 5, Pra-Tiz; Vol. 6, Tka-Zyl; Vol. 7, A-Hyr;
     Vol. 8, I-Zwi.

     ---- The celebrated Dr. Thomas Young published in the second
     volume of his _Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and
     the Mechanical Arts_ (1807) a most valuable Catalogue of
     books and papers relating to the subject of his Lectures,
     which is classified minutely, and occupies 514 quarto pages
     in double columns. In Kelland's new edition (1845) the
     references are abridged and inserted after the several
     lectures to which they refer.

     _Philology._--Max Müller's "Lectures on the Science of
     Language"; Marsh's "Lectures" and "Origin and History of the
     English Language"; Abp. Trench's "English. Past and
     Present"; "Select Glossary."

     _Physics._--Elementary Treatise on Natural Philosophy. By A.
     P. Deschanel. 8vo.

     ---- Elementary Treatise on Physics. By A. Ganot, edited by
     E. Atkinson. Sm. 8vo.

     _Plate._--Old English Plate, ecclesiastical, decorative, and
     domestic, its makers and marks. By Wilfred Joseph Cripps,
     M.A., F.S.A. Second edition. London, 1881. 8vo.

     _Plays._--See _Drama_.

     _Pottery._--Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain of
     the Renaissance and Modern periods, with historical notices
     of each Manufactory.... By William Chaffers. Fourth edition.
     London, 1874. Roy. 8vo.

     _Prices._--History of Prices from 1793 to 1856. By Thomas
     Tooke and William Newmarch. London, 1838-57. 6 vols. 8vo.

     _Prints._--An Introduction to the Study and Collection of
     Ancient Prints. By William Hughes Willshire, M.D. Edin.
     Second edition, revised and enlarged. London, 1877. 2 vols.
     8vo.

     ---- The Print Collector, an Introduction to the Knowledge
     necessary for forming a Collection of Ancient Prints. By J.
     Maberly, ... Edited with Notes, an Account of Contemporary
     Etching and Etchers, and a Bibliography of Engraving. By
     Robert Hoe, jun. New York, 1880. Sq. 8vo.

     ---- Etching and Etchers. By P.G. Hamerton. New edition.
     London, 1876. 8vo.

     _Printing._--Typographia or the Printers' Instructor:
     including an Account of the Origin of Printing.... By J.
     Johnson, Printer. London, 1824. 2 vols. 8vo.

     ---- A Dictionary of the Art of Printing. By William Savage.
     London, 1841. 8vo.

     _Proverbs._--A Hand-Book of Proverbs, comprising an entire
     republication of Ray's Collection of English Proverbs ...
     and a complete alphabetical Index ... in which are
     introduced large additions collected by Henry G. Bohn, 1857.
     London, 1872.

     ---- A Polyglot of Foreign Proverbs, comprising French,
     Italian, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, and Danish,
     with English translations and a general Index. By Henry G.
     Bohn. London, 1867.

     ---- English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases collected from
     the most authentic sources, alphabetically arranged and
     annotated. By W. Carew Hazlitt. London, 1869. 8vo. Second
     edition. London, 1882. Sm. 8vo.

     _Quotations._--Many Thoughts of Many Minds: being a Treasury
     of References, consisting of Selections from the Writings
     of the most celebrated Authors. Compiled and analytically
     arranged by Henry Southgate. Third edition. London, 1862.
     8vo. Second Series. London, 1871. 8vo.

     _Quotations._--Noble Thoughts in Noble Language: a
     Collection of Wise and Virtuous Utterances in Prose and
     Verse, from the writings of the known good and the great
     unknown. Edited by Henry Southgate. London. 8vo.

     ---- Prose Quotations from Socrates to Macaulay, with
     Indexes. By S. Austin Allibone. Philadelphia, 1876. Roy.
     8vo.

     ---- Poetical Quotations from Chaucer to Tennyson, with
     copious Indexes. By S. Austin Allibone. Philadelphia, 1875.
     Roy. 8vo.

     ---- A Dictionary of Quotations from the English Poets. By
     Henry G. Bohn. London, 1867. Sq. 8vo. Second edition.
     London. Sm. 8vo.

     ---- An Index to Familiar Quotations, selected principally
     from British Authors, with parallel passages from various
     writers, ancient and modern. By J.C. Grocott. Liverpool,
     1863. Sm. 8vo.

     ---- Familiar Quotations: being an attempt to trace to their
     source passages and phrases in common use. By John Bartlett.
     Author's edition. London, Sm. 8vo.

     ---- Words, Facts and Phrases, a Dictionary of Curious,
     Quaint, and Out-of-the-Way Matters. By Eliezer Edwards.
     London, 1882. Sm. 8vo.

     _Quotations._--The Reader's Handbook of Allusions,
     References, Plots and Stories, with their appendices. By the
     Rev. E. Brewer, LL.D.... Third edition. London, 1882. Sm.
     8vo.

     ---- Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.... By the Rev. E.
     Cobham Brewer, LL.D. Twelfth edition. London, no date.

     ---- A Dictionary of Latin and Greek Quotations, Proverbs,
     Maxims and Mottos, Classical and Mediæval, including Law
     Terms and Phrases. Edited by H.T. Riley, B.A. London, 1880.
     Sm. 8vo.

     _Receipts._--Cooley's Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts and
     Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures,
     Professions and Trades ... designed as a comprehensive
     Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia.... Sixth edition, revised
     and greatly enlarged by Richard V. Tuson. London, 1880. 2
     vols. 8vo.

     _Records._--Handbook of the Public Record Office. By F.S.
     Thomas, Secretary of the Public Record Office. London, 1853.
     Roy. 8vo.

     ---- Index to the Printed Reports of Sir Francis Palgrave,
     K.H., the Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records, 1840-1861.
     London, 1865. By John Edwards and Edward James Tabrum. In
     one alphabet.

     _Ritual._--Hierurgia; or, Transubstantiation, Invocation of
     Saints, Relics and Purgatory, besides those other articles
     of Doctrine set forth in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
     expounded; and the use of Holy Water, Incense, and Images
     [etc.] Illustrated. By D. Rock, D.D. Second edition. London,
     1851. 8vo.

     _Ritual._--Hierurgia Anglicana; or, Documents and Extracts
     illustrative of the Ritual of the Church in England after
     the Reformation. Edited by Members of the Ecclesiological,
     late Cambridge Camden Society. London, 1848. 8vo.

     _Sports._--An Encyclopædia of Rural Sports, or complete
     account (historical, practical, and descriptive) of Hunting,
     Shooting, Fishing, Racing, etc., etc. By Delabere P. Blaine.
     A new edition. London, 1840. 8vo.

     _Taxes._--A Sketch of the History of Taxes in England from
     the earliest times to the present day. By Stephen Dowell.
     London, 1876. 8vo. Vol. 1 to the Civil War 1642.

     _Theology._--See _Ecclesiology_.

     _Topography._--A Topographical Dictionary of England.... By
     Samuel Lewis. Seventh edition. London, 1849.

     ---- A Topographical Dictionary of Wales.... By Samuel
     Lewis. Fourth edition. London, 1849. 2 vols. 4to.

     ---- A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.... By Samuel
     Lewis. Second edition. London, 1842. 2 vols. 4to.

     ---- See _Geography_.

     _Wills._--An Index to Wills proved in the Court of the
     Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and to such of the
     records and other instruments and papers of that Court as
     relate to matters or causes testamentary. By the Rev. John
     Griffiths, M.A., Keeper of the Archives. Oxford, 1862. Roy.
     8vo. In one alphabet, with a chronological list appended.

     _Zoology._--Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens Nomina
     Systematica Generum Animalium tam viventium quam fossilium,
     secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis
     auctoribus, libris in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis,
     etymologia et familiis, ad quas pertinent, in singulis
     classibus. Auctore L. Agassiz.... Soliduri, 1842-46. 4to.

     ---- Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens Nomina Systematica
     generum animalium tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum
     ordinem alphabeticum disposita sub auspicis et sumptibus
     C.R. Societatis Zoologico-Botanicæ conscriptus a Comite
     Augusto de Marschall [1846-1868]. Vindobonæ, 1873. 8vo.


2. _Country._

A library in a large country house should contain a representative
collection of English literature, and also a selection of books of
reference from the previous list. Standard Authors, in their best
editions, County Histories, Books of Travel, Books on Art, and a
representative collection of good novels, will of course find a place
upon the shelves. A book such as Stevens's _My English Library_ will be a
good guide to the foundation of the library, but each collector will have
his special tastes, and he will need guidance from the more particular
bibliographies which are ready to his hand, and a note of which will be
found in Chapter V. Room will also be found for sets of Magazines, such as
the _Gentleman's_, the _Edinburgh_, and the _Quarterly_, and for the
Transactions of such Societies as the owner may be member of. The issues
of Publishing Societies form quite a library of themselves, and an account
of these will be found in Chapter VII.

We have seen on a previous page how Napoleon wished to form a convenient
travelling library, in which everything necessary could be presented in a
comparatively small number of handy volumes. Few men are like Napoleon in
the wish to carry such a library about with them; but where space is
scarce there are many who find it necessary to exercise a wise spirit of
selection. This, however, each man must do for himself, as tastes differ
so widely.

Auguste Comte succeeded in selecting a library in which all that it is
necessary for a Positivist to know is included in 150 volumes, but this
result is obtained by putting two or more books together to form one
volume.


     POSITIVIST LIBRARY FOR THE 19TH CENTURY.

     150 Volumes.

     I. _Poetry._ (Thirty Volumes.)

     The Iliad and the Odyssey, in 1 vol. without notes.

     Æschylus, the King OEdipus of Sophocles, and Aristophanes,
     in 1 vol. without notes.

     Pindar and Theocritus, with Daphnis and Chloe, in 1 vol.
     without notes.

     Plautus and Terence, in 1 vol. without notes.

     Virgil complete, Selections from Horace, and Lucan, in 1
     vol. without notes.

     Ovid, Tibullus, Juvenal, in 1 vol. without notes.

     Fabliaux du Moyen Age, recueillies par Legrand D'Aussy.

     Dante, Ariosto, Tasso, and Petrarch, in 1 vol. in Italian.

     Select Plays of Metastasio and Alfieri, also in Italian.

     I Promessi Sposi, by Manzoni, in 1 vol. in Italian.

     Don Quixote, and the Exemplary Novels of Cervantes, in
     Spanish, in 1 vol.

     Select Spanish Dramas, a collection edited by Don José
     Segundo Florez, in 1 vol. in Spanish.

     The Romancero Espagnol, a selection, with the poem of the
     Cid, 1 vol. in Spanish.

     Select Plays of P. Corneille.

     Molière, complete.

     Select Plays of Racine and Voltaire, in 1 vol.

     La Fontaine's Fables, with some from Lamotte and Florian.

     Gil Blas, by Lesage.

     The Princess of Cleves, Paul and Virginia, and the Last of
     the Abencerrages, to be collected in 1 vol.

     Les Martyres, par Chateaubriand.

     Select Plays of Shakespeare.

     Paradise Lost and Lyrical Poems of Milton.

     Robinson Crusoe and the Vicar of Wakefield, in 1 vol.

     Tom Jones, by Fielding, in English, or translated by Chéron.

     The seven masterpieces of Walter Scott--Ivanhoe, Waverley,
     the Fair Maid of Perth, Quentin Durward, Woodstock (Les
     Puritains), the Heart of Midlothian, the Antiquary.

     Select Works of Byron, Don Juan in particular to be
     suppressed.

     Select Works of Goethe.

     The Arabian Nights.

     II. _Science._ (Thirty Volumes.)

     Arithmetic of Condorcet, Algebra, and Geometry of Clairaut,
     the Trigonometry of Lacroix or Legendre, to form 1 vol.

     Analytical Geometry of Auguste Comte, preceded by the
     Geometry of Descartes.

     Statics, by Poinsot, with all his Memoirs on Mechanics.

     Course of Analysis given by Navier at the Ecole
     Polytechnique, preceded by the Reflections on the
     Infinitesimal Calculus by Carnot.

     Course of Mechanics given by Navier at the Ecole
     Polytechnique, followed by the Essay of Carnot on Equilibrum
     and Motion.

     Theory of Functions, by Lagrange.

     Popular Astronomy of Auguste Comte, followed by the
     Plurality of Worlds of Fontenelle.

     Mechanical Physics of Fischer, translated and annotated by
     Biot.

     Alphabetical Manual of Practical Philosophy, by John Carr.

     The Chemistry of Lavoisier.

     Chemical Statics, by Berthollet.

     Elements of Chemistry, by James Graham.

     Manual of Anatomy, by Meckel.

     General Anatomy of Bichat, preceded by his Treatise on Life
     and Death.

     The first volume of Blainville on the Organization of
     Animals.

     Physiology of Richerand, with notes by Bérard.

     Systematic Essay on Biology, by Segond, and his Treatise on
     General Anatomy.

     Nouveaux Eléments de la Science de l'Homme, par Barthez (2nd
     édition, 1806).

     La Philosophie Zoologique, par Lamarck.

     Duméril's Natural History.

     The Treatise of Guglielmini on the Nature of Rivers (in
     Italian).

     Discourses on the Nature of Animals, by Buffon.

     The Art of Prolonging Human Life, by Hufeland, preceded by
     Hippocrates on Air, Water, and Situation, and followed by
     Cornaro's book on a Sober and Temperate Life, to form 1 vol.

     L'Histoire des Phlegmasies Chroniques, par Broussais,
     preceded by his Propositions de Médecine, and the Aphorisms
     of Hippocrates (in Latin), without commentary.

     Les Eloges des Savans, par Fontenelle et Condorcet.

     III. _History._ (Sixty Volumes.)

     L'Abrégé de Géographie Universelle, par Malte Brun.

     Geographical Dictionary of Rienzi.

     Cook's Voyages, and those of Chardin.

     History of the French Revolution, by Mignet.

     Manual of Modern History, by Heeren.

     Le Siècle de Louis XIV., par Voltaire.

     Memoirs of Madame de Motteville.

     The Political Testament of Richelieu, and the Life of
     Cromwell, to form 1 vol.

     History of the Civil Wars of France, by Davila (in Italian).

     Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini (in Italian).

     Memoirs of Commines.

     L'Abrégé de l'Histoire de France, par Bossuet.

     The Revolutions of Italy, by Denina.

     The History of Spain, by Ascargorta.

     History of Charles V., by Robertson.

     History of England, by Hume.

     Europe in the Middle Ages, by Hallam.

     Ecclesiastical History, by Fleury.

     Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Gibbon.

     Manual of Ancient History, by Heeren.

     Tacitus (Complete), the Translation of Dureau de la Malle.

     Herodotus and Thucydides, in 1 vol.

     Plutarch's Lives, translation of Dacier.

     Cæsar's Commentaries, and Arrian's Alexander, in 1 vol.

     Voyage of Anacharsis, by Barthelemy.

     History of Art among the Ancients, by Winckelmann.

     Treatise on Painting, by Leonardo da Vinci (in Italian).

     Memoirs on Music, by Grétry.

     IV. _Synthesis._ (Thirty Volumes.)

     Aristotle's Politics and Ethics, in 1 vol.

     The Bible.

     The Koran.

     The City of God, by St. Augustine.

     The Confessions of St. Augustine, followed by St. Bernard on
     the Love of God.

     The Imitation of Jesus Christ, the original, and the
     translation into verse, by Corneille.

     The Catechism of Montpellier, preceded by the Exposition of
     Catholic Doctrine, by Bossuet, and followed by St.
     Augustine's Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount.

     L'Histoire des Variations Protestantes, par Bossuet.

     Discourse on Method, by Descartes, preceded by the Novum
     Organum of Bacon, and followed by the Interpretation of
     Nature, by Diderot.

     Selected Thoughts of Cicero, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius,
     Pascal, and Vauvenargues, followed by Conseils d'une Mère,
     by Madame de Lambert, and Considérations sur les Moeurs, par
     Duclos.

     Discourse on Universal History, by Bossuet, followed by the
     Esquisse Historique, by Condorcet.

     Treatise on the Pope, by De Maistre, preceded by the
     Politique Sacrée, by Bousset.

     Hume's Philosophical Essays, preceded by the two
     Dissertations on the Deaf, and the Blind, by Diderot, and
     followed by Adam Smith's Essay on the History of Astronomy.

     Theory of the Beautiful, by Barthez, preceded by the Essay
     on the Beautiful, by Diderot.

     Les Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, par
     Cabanis.

     Treatise on the Functions of the Brain, by Gall, preceded by
     Letters on Animals, by Georges Leroy.

     Le Traité sur l'Irritation et la Folie, par Broussais (first
     edition).

     The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte (condensed by Miss
     Martineau), his Positive Politics, his Positivist Catechism,
     and his Subjective Synthesis.

  Paris, 3 Dante 66 (Tuesday, 18th July, 1854).
  AUGUSTE COMTE,
  (10 rue Monsieur le Prince).



This is an interesting list as having been compiled with special thought
by a celebrated man, but in many of its details it is little likely to
find acceptance with the general reader. It seems rather odd to an
Englishman to find the _Princess of Cleves_ included, while Shakespeare is
only to be found in a selection of his plays. It is not Comte's fault that
science has not stood still since 1854, and that his selection of books is
rather out of date.

A list of a hundred good novels is likely to be useful to many, but few
lists would be open to more criticism, for readers differ more as to what
constitutes a good novel than upon any other branch of literature. The
following list was contributed by Mr. F.B. Perkins to the _Library
Journal_ (vol. i. p. 166). The titles are very short, and they are put down
in no particular order. Most of us will miss some favourite book, but two
people, Mr. Perkins says, have agreed on this list within four or five
items. He says he was tempted to add a few alternatives, as Amadis de
Gaul, Morte d'Arthur, Paul and Virginia, Frankenstein, Rasselas, etc.

  Don Quixote.
  Gil Blas.
  Pilgrim's Progress.
  Tale of a Tub.
  Gulliver.
  Vicar of Wakefield.
  Robinson Crusoe.
  Arabian Nights.
  Decameron.
  Wilhelm Meister.
  Vathek.
  Corinne.
  Minister's Wooing.
  Undine.
  Sintram.
  Thisdolf.
  Peter Schlemihl.
  Sense and Sensibility.
  Pride and Prejudice.
  Anastasius.
  Amber Witch.
  Mary Powell.
  Household of Sir T. More.
  Cruise of the Midge.
  Guy Mannering.
  Antiquary.
  Bride of Lammermoor.
  Legend of Montrose.
  Rob Roy.
  Woodstock.
  Ivanhoe.
  Talisman.
  Fortunes of Nigel.
  Old Mortality.
  Quentin Durward.
  Heart of Midlothian.
  Kenilworth.
  Fair Maid of Perth.
  Vanity Fair.
  Pendennis.
  Newcomes.
  Esmond.
  Adam Bede.
  Mill on the Floss.
  Romola.
  Middlemarch.
  Pickwick.
  Chuzzlewit.
  Nickleby.
  Copperfield.
  Tale of Two Cities.
  Dombey.
  Oliver Twist.
  Tom Cringle's Log.
  Japhet in Search of a Father.
  Peter Simple.
  Midshipman Easy.
  Scarlet Letter.
  House with the Seven Gables.
  Wandering Jew.
  Mysteries of Paris.
  Humphry Clinker.
  Eugénie Grandet.
  Knickerbocker's New York.
  Charles O'Malley.
  Harry Lorrequer.
  Handy Andy.
  Elsie Venner.
  Challenge of Barletta.
  Betrothed (Manzoni's).
  Jane Eyre.
  Counterparts.
  Charles Auchester.
  Tom Brown's Schooldays.
  Tom Brown at Oxford.
  Lady Lee's Widowhood.
  Horseshoe Robinson.
  Pilot.
  Spy.
  Last of the Mohicans.
  My Novel.
  On the Heights.
  Bleak House.
  Tom Jones.
  Three Guardsmen.
  Monte Christo.
  Les Miserables.
  Notre Dame.
  Consuelo.
  Fadette (Fanchon).
  Uncle Tom's Cabin.
  Woman in White.
  Love me little love me long.
  Two Years Ago.
  Yeast.
  Coningsby.
  Young Duke.
  Hyperion.
  Kavanagh.
  Bachelor of the Albany.

FOOTNOTES:

[16] The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: a Complete
Encyclopædic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological. By John
Ogilvie, LL.D. New edition. Carefully revised and greatly augmented,
edited by Charles Annandale, M.A. London, 1882-83. 4 vols. Imp. 8vo.

[17] A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, founded mainly on
the materials collected by the Philological Society. Edited by James A.H.
Murray, LL.D., with the assistance of many Scholars and Men of Science.
Oxford, Clarendon Press. Royal 4to.

[18] A second edition appeared in 1871-72.



CHAPTER V.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES.


A good collection of bibliographies is indispensable for a public library,
and will also be of great use in a private library when its possessor is a
true lover of books. One of the most valuable catalogues of this class of
books is the "Hand-List of Bibliographies, Classified Catalogues, and
Indexes placed in the Reading Room of the British Museum for Reference"
(1881). It is not intended to give in this chapter anything like a
complete account of these books, as a separate volume would be required to
do justice to them. Here it will be sufficient to indicate some of the
foremost works in the class. The catalogues of some of our chief libraries
are amongst the most valuable of bibliographies for reference. The
Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution is one of the
handsomest ever produced.[19] Unfortunately the cost of production was too
great for the funds of the Institution, and the elaborate Catalogue of
Tracts was discontinued after the letter F.

The London Library being a specially well-selected one, the catalogue
(which is a good example of a short-titled catalogue) is particularly
useful for ready reference.[20]

The Royal Institution Library is very rich in British Topography, and the
catalogue forms a convenient handbook.[21]

The Catalogue of the Patent Office Library is by no means a model, but the
second volume forms a good book of reference.[22] Many other catalogues
might be mentioned, but these will be sufficient for our present purpose.
There is great want of a good Handbook of Literature, with the prices of
the different books. Until this want is supplied good booksellers'
catalogues will be found the most trustworthy guides. Pre-eminent among
these are the catalogues of Mr. Quaritch, and the "Catalogue of upwards
of fifty thousand volumes of ancient and modern books," published by
Messrs. Willis and Sotheran in 1862. Mr. Quaritch's catalogues are
classified with an index of subjects and authors.[23] A previous General
Catalogue was issued in 1874, and a Supplement 1875-77 (pp. iv. 1672). Now
Mr. Quaritch is issuing in sections a new Catalogue on a still larger
scale, which is of the greatest value.

For the study of early printed books, Hain,[24] Panzer,[25] and
Maittaire's[26] books are indispensable.

For general literature Brunet's Manual[27] stands pre-eminent in its
popularity. It has held its own since 1810, when it was first published in
three volumes, demy octavo. Graesse's Trésor[28] is less known out of
Germany, but it also is a work of very great value. Ebert's work[29] is
somewhat out of date now, but it still has its use. Watt's Bibliotheca[30]
is one of the most valuable bibliographies ever published, chiefly on
account of the index of subjects which gives information that cannot be
found elsewhere. The titles were largely taken from second-hand sources,
and are in many instances marred by misprints. Every one who uses it must
wish that it was brought down to date, but it is scarcely likely that any
one will sacrifice a life to such labour as would be necessary. Moreover,
the popular feeling is somewhat adverse to universal bibliographies, and
it is thought that the literature of his own country is sufficiently large
a subject for the bibliographer to devote his time to.

English literature has not been neglected by English bibliographers,
although a full bibliography of our authors is still a crying want.
Complete lists of the works of some of our greatest authors have still to
be made, and it is to be hoped that all those who have the cause of
bibliography at heart will join to remedy the great evil. It would be
quite possible to compile a really national work by a system of
co-operation such as was found workable in the case of the Philological
Society's Dictionary of the English Language. Sub-editors of the different
letters might be appointed, and to them all titles could be sent. When the
question of printing arose, it would be well to commence with the chief
authors. These bibliographies might be circulated, by which means many
additions would be made to them, and then they could be incorporated in
the general alphabet. In such a bibliography books in manuscript ought to
be included, as well as printed books. Although there is little doubt that
many books still remain unregistered, we are well supplied with catalogues
of books made for trade purposes. Maunsell[31] was the first to publish
such a list, and in 1631 was published a catalogue of books issued between
1626 and 1631.[32] William London[33] published his Catalogue in 1658,
and Clavell's his in 1696.[34] Bent's Catalogue, published in 1786, went
back to 1700,[35] and this was continued annually as the London Catalogue.
The British and English Catalogues[36] followed, and the latter is also
published annually.[37]

For early printed books, Ames and Herbert's great work[38] is of much
value, but information respecting our old literature has increased so much
of late that a new history of typographical antiquities is sadly needed.
Mr. Blades has done the necessary work for Caxton, but the first English
printer's successors require similar treatment.

William Thomas Lowndes, the son of an eminent bookseller and publisher,
and himself a bookseller, published in 1834 his _Bibliographer's
Manual_[39] which has remained the great authority for English Literature.
It had become very scarce when Henry Bohn, in 1857, brought out a new
edition with additions in a series of handy volumes, which is an
indispensable book of reference, although it is far from being the
complete work that is required.

Allibone's _Dictionary_[40] contains much that is omitted in Lowndes's
Manual, but it is more literary than bibliographical in its scope. The
well-selected criticisms appended to the titles of the several books are
of considerable interest and value to the reader. Mr. W.C. Hazlitt's
Handbooks[41] are exceedingly valuable as containing information
respecting a class of books which has been much neglected in
bibliographical works. The compiler has been indefatigable for some years
past in registering the titles of rare books as they occurred at public
sales.

Mr. Collier's account of rare books,[42] founded on his Bridgewater
Catalogue (1837), is of great use for information respecting
out-of-the-way literature, as also is Mr. Corser's descriptive Catalogue
of Old English Poetry.[43]

Accounts of books published in Gaelic,[44] in Welsh,[45] and in Irish,[46]
have been published. The works of American authors are included in
Allibone's _Dictionary_, referred to under English literature, but special
books have also been prepared, such as Trübner's Guide,[47] Stevens's
American Books in the British Museum,[48] and Leypoldt's great book, the
American Catalogue.[49] Catalogues of Books on America, such as those of
Obadiah Rich, have also been compiled, but these are more properly special
bibliographies. France has always stood in a foremost position in respect
to bibliography, and she alone has a national work on her literature,
which stands in the very first rank--this is due to the enthusiastic
bibliographer Querard.[50] A better model as to what a national
bibliography should be could not well be found. The catalogue of current
literature, which bears the name of O. Lorenz, is also an excellent
work.[51]

German literature has been, and is, well registered. Heyse,[52]
Maltzahn,[53] Heinsius,[54] and Kayser,[55] have all produced valuable
works. Heinsius published his original Lexicon in 1812, and Kayser his in
1834, and Supplements to both of these have been published about every ten
years. A more condensed work was commenced by A. Kirchhoff in 1856,
containing the catalogue of works published from 1851 to 1855; a second
volume of the next five years appeared in 1861, and since Kirchhoff's
death Hinrichs has published a volume every five years. The Leipzig
Book-fairs have had their catalogues ever since 1594, and the half-yearly
volumes now bearing the name of Hinrichs,[56] which have been published
regularly since 1798, and to which the Fair catalogues succumbed in 1855,
may be considered as their legitimate successors.

The Literature of Holland is well recorded by Campbell[57] and
Abkoude,[58] and for Belgium there is the _Bibliographie de Belgique_.[59]
Italy can boast of a Gamba[60] and a Bertocci,[61] and a public office
publishes the _Bibliografia Italiana_.[62]

Spain is fortunate in possessing a splendid piece of bibliography in the
great works of Antonio.[63] Some years ago, when I was occupied in
cataloguing one of the chief collections of Spanish books in this country,
I was in the daily habit of consulting these _Bibliothecas_, and while
comparing the books themselves with the printed titles, I seldom found a
mistake. Hidalgo's[64] work and the Boletin[65] show that at the present
time bibliography is not neglected in that country.

The works of Barbosa Machado[66] and Silva[67] show that Portugal is not
behind the sister kingdom in the love for bibliography.

Bibliographies of other countries might be mentioned here, but space will
not permit. There is one branch of general bibliography to which special
attention has been paid for a long period of years. O. Placcius published
his _Theatrum Anonymorum et Pseudonymorum_ at Hamburgh in 1674 (2nd ed.
1708). Villani continued the record of pseudonymous literature by
publishing at Parma, in 1689, a small volume entitled _La Visiera alzata_.
J.C. Mylius published his _Bibliotheca Anonymorum et Pseudonymorum_ at
Hamburgh in 1740.

Barbier's great work on the Anonymous in French Literature was first
published in 1806-8, the second edition appeared in 1822-27, and the third
in 1872-78, as a continuation to the second edition of Querard's _Les
Supercheries Littéraires_. Querard's work is more curious than useful,
because the author has entered into minute questions of authorship which
do not really belong to the domain of bibliography. Manne's volume (1834)
is not of much value. Lancetti published an octavo volume on Pseudonyms in
Italian (1836), but Barbier's work was not worthily imitated in any other
country until Mr. Paterson commenced the publication of the very valuable
work of the late Mr. Halkett.[68]

FOOTNOTES:

[19] A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution, systematically
classed. [London] 1835. 5 vols. royal 8vo. Vol. 1 (1835), General Library;
vol. 2 (1840), Tracts and Pamphlets arranged in alphabetical order as far
as the letter F. (never completed); vol. 3 (1843), General Library,
Additions; vol. 4 (1852), Additions from 1843 to 1852.

[20] Catalogue of the London Library, 12, St. James's Square, S.W. With
Preface, Laws and Regulations, List of Members and Classified Index of
Subjects. By Robert Harrison. Fourth edition. Sold at the Library, 1875,
royal 8vo. pp. 1022.

---- Supplemental Volume, 1875-1880, sold at the Library, 1881, royal 8vo.
pp. 219.

[21] A New Classified Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Institution of
Great Britain with Indexes of Authors and Subjects, and a list of
Historical Pamphlets, Chronologically arranged. By Benjamin Vincent.
London. Sold at the Royal Institution. 1857, 8vo. pp. xvii.-928.

---- Vol. II., including the Additions from 1857 to 1882. London. Sold at
the Royal Institution. 1882. 8vo. pp. xvii.-388.

[22] Catalogue of the Library of the Patent Office, arranged
alphabetically. In two volumes: vol. 1, Authors; vol. 2, Subjects. London.
Published and Sold at the Commissioners of Patents Sale Department.
1881-83. Royal 8vo.

[23] A General Catalogue of Books, offered for sale to the public at the
affixed prices. By Bernard Quaritch London, 15, Piccadilly, 1880. 8vo. pp.
x.-2395.

[24] 1457-1500. HAIN (L.). Repertorium Bibliographicum in quo libri omnes
ab arte typographica inventa usque ad annum MD typis expressi, ordine
alphabetico vel simpliciter enumerantur vel adcuratius recensentur.
Stuttgartiæ, 1826-38. 2 vols. 8vo.

[25] 1457-1536. PANZER (G.W.). Annales Typographici ab artis inventæ
origine ad annum 1536. Norimbergæ, 1793-1803. 11 vols. 4to.

[26] 1457-1664. MAITTAIRE (M.). Annales Typographici ab artis inventæ
origine ad annum 1664, cum Supplemento Michaelis Denisii. Hag. Com. et
Viennæ, 1719-89. 7 vols in 11 parts.

[27] BRUNET (J.C.). Manuel du Libraire, cinquième édition. Paris, 1860-65.
6 vols. 8vo. Supplément par P. Deschamps et G. Brunet. Paris, 1878-80, 2
vols. Royal 8vo.

[28] GRAESSE (J.G.T.). Trésor de Livres rares et précieux ou Nouveau
Dictionnaire Bibliographique. Dresde, 1859-69. 7 vols. 4to.

[29] EBERT (F.A.). Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexikon. Leipzig,
1821-30. 2 vols. 4to.

---- A General Bibliographical Dictionary, from the German [by A. Brown].
Oxford, 1837. 4 vols. 8vo.

[30] WATT (R.). Bibliotheca Britannica: a General Index to British and
Foreign Literature. In two parts, Authors and Subjects. Edinburgh, 1824. 4
vols. 4to.

[31] Before 1595. MAUNSELL (A.). Catalogue of English printed Books.
London, 1595. 4to. Part 1, Divinitie. Part 2, Sciences Mathematicall.

[32] 1626-1631. A Catalogue of certaine Bookes which have been published
and (by authoritie) printed in England both in Latine and English, since
the year 1626 until November, 1631. London, 1631. 4to.

[33] Before 1658. LONDON (WILLIAM). A Catalogue of the most vendible Books
in England, orderly and alphabetically digested. With a Supplement.
1658-60. 4to.

[34] 1666-1695. CLAVELL (R.). General Catalogue of Books printed in
England since the dreadful Fire of London, 1666. Fourth edition. London,
1696. Folio.

[35] 1700-1786. A General Catalogue of Books in all Languages, Arts, and
Sciences, printed in Great Britain and published in London. London (W.
Bent), 1786. 8vo.

1811. London Catalogue of Books. London (W. Bent), 1811. 8vo.

1810-1831. London Catalogue of Books. London (W. Bent), 1831. 8vo.

1816-1851. London Catalogue of Books. London (Hodgson), 1851. 8vo.
Classified Index. London (Hodgson), 1853.

1831-1855. London Catalogue of Books. London (Hodgson), 1855.

[36] 1837-52. The British Catalogue. Sampson Low, 1853. And Index. 2 vols.
8vo.

[37] 1835-1880. The English Catalogue of Books. Sampson Low. And Indexes.
8vo. _Continued annually._

[38] 1471-1600. AMES (JOSEPH). Typographical Antiquities: being an
Historical Account of Printing in England, with some Memoirs of our
Antient Printers, and a Register of the Books printed by them ... with an
Appendix concerning Printing in Scotland, Ireland to the same time.
London, 1749. 4to. 1 vol. Considerably augmented by W. Herbert. London,
1785-90. 3 vols. 4to. Enlarged by T.F. Dibdin. London, 1810-19. 4 vols.
4to.

[39] LOWNDES (W.T.), The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature.
London, 1834. 4 vols. 8vo. New Edition, by H.G. Bohn. London, 1857-64. 6
vols. Sm. 8vo.

[40] ALLIBONE (S.A.). Dictionary of English Literature, and British and
American Authors. Philadelphia, 1859-71. 3 vols. Royal 8vo.

[41] HAZLITT (W. CAREW). Handbook to the Popular, Poetical, and Dramatic
Literature of Great Britain, from the Invention of Printing to the
Restoration. London (J. Russell Smith), 1867. 8vo.

---- Collections and Notes, 1867-1876. London (Reeves & Turner), 1876.
8vo.

---- Second Series of Bibliographical Collections and Notes on Early
English Literature, 1474-1700. London (Bernard Quaritch), 1882.

[42] COLLIER (J.P.). A Bibliographical and Critical Account of the rarest
books in the English language, alphabetically arranged. London, 1865. 2
vols. 8vo.

[43] CORSER (T.). Collectanea Anglo-Poetica; or a bibliographical and
descriptive Catalogue of a portion of a Collection of Early English
Poetry. Manchester (Chetham Society), 1860-79. 9 vols. Sm. 4to.

[44] _Gaelic._ Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica; or, an account of all the books
which have been published in the Gaelic Language. By John Reid. Glasgow,
1832. 8vo.

[45] _Welsh._ Cambrian Bibliography: containing an account of the books
printed in the Welsh Language; or relating to Wales, from the year 1546 to
the end of the 18th century. By W. Rowlands. Llanidloes, 1869. 8vo.

[46] _Irish._ Transactions of the Iberno-Celtic Society for 1820.
Containing a chronological account of nearly four hundred Irish writers
... carried down to the year 1750, with a descriptive Catalogue of such of
their works as are still extant. By E. O'Reilly. Dublin, 1820. 4to.

[47] Trübner's Bibliographical Guide to American Literature: a classed
list of books published in the United States of America during the last
forty years. London, 1859. 8vo.

[48] Catalogue of the American Books in the Library of the British Museum.
Christmas, 1856. By H. Stevens. London, 1866. 8vo.

[49] The American Catalogue under the direction of F. Leypoldt. New York,
1880. 2 vols. 4to. Suppl. 1876-84. Compiled under the editorial direction
of R.R. Bowker by Miss Appleton. New York, 1885.

[50] QUERARD (J.M.). La France Littéraire, ou Dictionnaire Bibliographique
des Savants qui ont écrit en français, plus particulièrement pendant les
XVIII^e et XIX^e siècles. Paris, 1827-64. 12 vols. 8vo.

---- Littérature Française contemporaine (1826-49). Continuation de la
France Littéraire. Paris, 1842-57. 6 vols. 8vo.

[51] LORENZ (O.). Catalogue de la Librairie Française 1840-1865. 4 vols.
1866-1875. 2 vols. 8vo. The Catalogue of Books from 1876 to 1885 is in
preparation.

---- Tables des Matières, 1840-1875. Paris, 1879-80. 2 vols. 8vo.

[52] [HEYSE (C.W.).] Bücherschatz der deutschen National-Litteratur des
XVI und XVII Jahrhunderts. Systematisch geordnetes Verzeichniss einer
reichhaltigen Sammlung deutschen Büchen. Berlin, 1854. 8vo.

[53] MALTZAHN (W. VON). Deutschen Bücherschatz des sechszehnten,
siebenzehnten und achtzehnten bis um die Mitte des neunzehnten
Jahrhunderts. Jena, 1875. 8vo.

[54] HEINSIUS (W.). Allgemeines Bücher Lexicon, 1700-1815. Leipzig,
1812-56. 14 vols. 4to. 7th Supplement.

[55] KAYSER (C.G.). Index Librorum. Vollständiges Bücher-Lexicon,
enthaltend alle von 1750 bis zu Ende des Jahres (-1876) in Deutschland ...
gedruckten Bücher. Leipzig, 1834-77. 4to.

[56] HINRICHS (J.C.). Verzeichniss der Bücher ... welche in Deutschland
vom Januar, 1877, bis zum (December, 1885) neu erschienen oder neu
aufgelegt worden sind. Leipzig, 1876-80. 12mo. _In progress._

---- Repertorium über die nach den ... Verzeichnissen, 1871-75,
erschienenen Bücher. Von E. Baldamus. (1876-80.) Leipzig, 1877-82. 12mo.

[57] CAMPBELL (M.F.A.G.). Annales de la Typographie Néerlandaise au XV^e
Siècle. La Haye, 1874. 8vo.

---- 1^{er} Supplément. La Haye, 1878. 8vo.

[58] ABKOUDE (J. VAN). Naamregister van de bekendste ... Nederduitsche
Boeken ... 1600 tot 1761. Nu overzien en tot het jaar 1787 vermeerderd
door R. Arrenberg. Rotterdam, 1788. 4to.

---- Alphabetische Naamlijst van Boeken 1790 tot 1832, Amsterdam, 1835.
4to. 1833-1875. Amsterdam, 1858-78. 3 vols. 4to.

---- Wetenschappelijk Register behoorende bij Brinkman's Alphabetische
Naamlijsten van Boeken ... 1850-75 ... bewerkt door R. van der Meulen.
Amsterdam, 1878. 4to.

[59] Bibliographie de Belgique. Journal Officiel de la Librairie. Année 1.
Bruxelles, 1876. 8vo.

[60] GAMBA (B.). Serie dei testi di Lingua Italiana e di altri opere
importanti nella Italiana letteratura del Secolo XV al XIX. Quarta
edizione. Venezia, 1839. 8vo.

[61] BERTOCCI (D.G.). Repertorio bibliografico delle opere stampate in
Italia nel Secolo XIX. Vol. I. Roma, 1876. 8vo.

[62] Bibliografia Italiana: Giornale compilato sui documenti communicati
dal Ministero dell'Istruzione Pubblica. Anno 1-14. 1867-80. Firenze,
1868-81. 8vo. In progress.

[63] ANTONIO (N.). Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus sive Hispani Scriptores ...
ad annum Christi 1500 floruerunt. Matriti, 1788. 2 vols. Folia.

---- Bibliotheca Hispana Nova sive Hispanorum Scriptorum qui ab anno 1500
ad 1684 floruere notitia. Matriti, 1783-1788. 2 vols. Folio.

[64] HIDALGO (D.). Diccionario general de Bibliografia Española. Madrid,
1862-79. 6 vols. 8vo.

[65] Boletin de la Libreria. Año 1. 1873. Madrid, 1874. 8vo. In progress.

[66] BARBOSA MACHADO (D.). Bibliotheca Lusitana, historica, critica e
cronologica. Na qual se comprehende a noticia dos authores Portuguezes, e
das obras que compuserão. Lisboa, 1741-59. 4 vols. Folio.

[67] SILVA (J.F. DA). Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez. Lisboa,
1858-70. Tom. 1-9. 8vo.

[68] A Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great
Britain, including the works of Foreigners written in or translated into
the English Language. By the late Samuel Halkett, and the late Rev. John
Laing. Edinburgh (William Paterson), 1882-85. Vols. 1, 2, 3 (to 'Tis).



CHAPTER VI.

SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES.


Bibliographies of special subjects are more useful than any other books in
the formation of a library. The articles in the new edition of the
_Encyclopædia Britannica_ will be found valuable for this purpose, but
those who wish for fuller information must refer to Dr. Julius Petzholdt's
elaborate _Bibliotheca Bibliographica_ (Leipzig, 1866), or to the
_Bibliographie des Bibliographies_ of M. Léon Vallée (Paris, 1885). The
late Mr. Cornelius Walford contributed a paper "On Special Collections of
Books" to the Transactions of the Conference of Librarians, 1877 (pp.
45-49), in which he specially referred to the subject of Insurance.

In the present chapter I propose to refer to some of the most useful
bibliographies, but to save space the full titles will not be given, and
this is the less necessary as they can mostly be found in the above books
or in that useful little volume we owe to the authorities of the British
Museum--"Hand-list of Bibliographies, Classified Catalogues, and Indexes
placed in the Reading-room," 1881.

     _Agriculture._--Weston's Tracts on Practical Agriculture and
     Gardening (1773), contains a Chronological Catalogue of
     English Authors, and Donaldson's Agricultural Biography
     (1854) brings the subject down to a later date. Victor
     Donatien de Musset-Pathay published a _Bibliographie
     Agronomique_ in 1810, and Loudon's _Encyclopædia of
     Agriculture_ contains the Literature and Bibliography of
     Agriculture, British, French, German, and American.

     _Ana._--In Peignot's _Repertoire de Bibliographies
     Spéciales_ (1810) will be found at pp. 211-268, a list of
     books of Ana, and Gabriel Antoine Joseph Hécart published at
     Valenciennes, 1821, under the name of J.G. Phitakaer, a
     bibliography entitled "Anagrapheana." Namur's _Bibliographie
     des Ouvrages publiés sous le nom d'Ana_ was published at
     Bruxelles in 1839. The late Sir William Stirling Maxwell
     made a collection of books of Ana, a privately printed
     catalogue of which he issued in 1860.

     _Angling._--Sir Henry Ellis printed privately in 1811 a
     small octavo pamphlet of 21 pages which he entitled "A
     Catalogue of Books on Angling, with some brief notices of
     several of their authors," which was an extract from the
     _British Bibliographer_. In 1836, Pickering printed a
     _Bibliotheca Piscatoria_, which was formed upon Sir Henry
     Ellis's corrected copy of the above Catalogue. Mr. J.
     Russell Smith published in 1856 "A Bibliographical Catalogue
     of English writers on Angling and Ichthyology," which was
     soon superceded by the following work by Mr. T. Westwood. "A
     new Bibliotheca Piscatoria, or a general Catalogue of
     Angling and Fishing Literature." London, 1861 (another
     edition, edited conjointly with T. Satchell, 1883). Mr. R.
     Blakey published in 1855, "Angling Literature of all
     Nations." London, 1855. 12mo. Mr. J.J. Manley, M.A.,
     published in 1883, "Literature of Sea and River Fishing," as
     one of the Handbooks of the International Fisheries
     Exhibition.

     _Architecture._--LACROIX (E.). Bibliographie des Ingénieurs,
     des Architectes, des Chefs d'Usines industrielles, des
     Elèves des Ecoles polytechniques et professionnelles et des
     Agriculteurs. Première (--Troisième) Série. Paris, 1864-67.
     4to.

     _Assurance_ (_Life_).--Lewis Pocock published "A
     Chronological List of Books and Single Papers" relating to
     this subject in 1836, a second edition of which was
     published in 1842.

     _Astronomy._--Lalande published his valuable "Bibliographie
     Astronomique" at Paris, 1803. Otto Struve's Catalogue of the
     Library of the Pulkova Observatory, published at St.
     Petersburg in 1860, is highly esteemed by astronomers. The
     first part of the Catalogue of the United States Naval
     Observatory at Washington, by Prof. E.S. Holden, is devoted
     to Astronomical Bibliography.

     ---- HOUZEAU (J.C.) and LANCASTER (A.), Bibliographie
     générale de l'Astronomie. Bruxelles, 1880. 8vo. In progress.

     ---- Mr. E.B. Knobel, Secretary of the Royal Astronomical
     Society, printed in the _Monthly Notices_ of that Society
     for November, 1876 (pp. 365-392), a very useful short
     Reference Catalogue of Astronomical Papers and Researches,
     referring more especially to (1) Double Stars; (2) Variable
     Stars; (3) Red Stars; (4) Nebulæ and Clusters; (5) Proper
     Motions of Stars; (6) Parallax and Distance of Stars; (7)
     Star Spectra. Mr. E.S. Holden's "Index Catalogue of Books
     and Memoirs relating to Nebulæ and Clusters of Stars" was
     printed in the _Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections_ in
     1877.

     _Bible._--The famous Le Long published at Paris, in 1713,
     his "Discours historiques sur les principales éditions des
     Bibles polyglottes," and in 1723, in two volumes, folio, his
     great work "Bibliotheca Sacra." This was edited and
     continued by A.G. Masch, and published at Halæ Magd. in five
     volumes, quarto. 1774-97. T. Llewelyn published in 1768
     "Historical Account of the British or Welsh Versions and
     editions of the Bible." A privately printed "List of various
     editions of the Bible" was issued in 1778, which has been
     attributed to Dr. Ducarel. John Lewis's "Complete History of
     the several Translations of the Holy Bible and New Testament
     into English" was published in 1818, and Dr. Henry Cotton's
     "List of Editions" (Oxford, 1821, 2nd edition, 1852) was
     intended as an Appendix to that work. Orme's _Bibliotheca
     Biblica_ was published at Edinburgh in 1824, and Hartwell
     Horne's _Manual of Biblical Bibliography_ at London in 1839.
     Bagster's _Bible in Every Land_ (1848), although not
     strictly bibliographical, must be mentioned here, because it
     gives under each language a notice of all versions published
     in that language. Lowndes' British Librarian or Book
     Collector's Guide. Class I. Religion and its History.
     London, 1839. 8vo. Parts 1, 2, 3 are devoted to Holy
     Scriptures, Biblical Commentaries, Biblical Disquisitions,
     Scripture Biography, Scripture Geography, etc. The work
     itself was left incomplete Dr. H. Cotton published at
     Oxford, in 1855, a work entitled "Rhemes and Doway. An
     Attempt to show what has been done by Roman Catholics for
     the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures in English." In 1859
     J.G. Shea published at New York a "Bibliographical Account
     of Catholic Bibles, Testaments, and other portions of
     Scripture translated from the Latin Vulgate, and printed in
     the United States," and in 1861 E.B. O'Callaghan published
     at Albany a "List of editions of the Holy Scriptures and
     parts thereof, printed in America previous to 1860." E.
     Reuss published at Brunswick, in 1872, a Bibliography of the
     Greek New Testament. Dr. Isaac Hall printed a Critical
     Bibliography of American Greek Testaments at Philadelphia in
     1883. Mr. Henry Stevens, the eminent bibliographer, is a
     special authority on Bibles, and his work, entitled "The
     Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition, 1877, or a bibliographical
     description of nearly one thousand representative Bibles in
     various languages, chronologically arranged" (London, 1878),
     contains some of the information he possesses.

     _Biography._--Oettinger's _Bibliographie Biographique
     Universelle_ (1854) is a most useful work, although it is
     now unfortunately somewhat out of date.

     _Book-keeping._--B.F. Foster's _Origin and Progress of
     Book-keeping_ (1852) contains an account of books published
     on this subject from 1543 to 1852.

     _Botany._--Pritzel's _Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ_ (1851,
     another edition 1872-77) is _the_ Bibliography of the
     subject, and this work is supplemented by Mr. Daydon
     Jackson's Index of Botany, published by the Index Society.
     Trimen's Botanical Bibliography of the British counties,
     London, 1874. 8vo.

     _Chemistry._--R. Ruprecht, Bibliotheca Chemica et
     Pharmaceutica, 1858-70. _Göttingen_, 1872.

     _Classics._--Dr. Edward Harwood published his "View of the
     various editions of the Greek and Roman Classics" in 1790.
     He was followed in 1802 by Thomas Frognall Dibdin, whose
     work was much enlarged, and reappeared in several editions;
     the fourth and best being published in 1827 (2 vols. 8vo.).
     J.W. Moss published his "Manual of Classical Bibliography"
     in 1825, 2 vols. 8vo. Henry G. Bohn's General Catalogue,
     Part II. Section I. 1850, contains a valuable list of Greek
     and Latin Classics. Engelmann's Bibliotheca Scriptorum
     Classicorum et Græcorum et Latinorum (1858) is an elaborate
     work on the subject, and Professor John E.B. Mayor's
     translation and adaptation of Dr. Hübner's Bibliographical
     Clue to Latin Literature will be found to be a very useful
     handbook.

     _Commerce._--See _Trade_.

     _Dialects._--Mr. J. Russell Smith published, in 1839, a
     useful "Bibliographical List of the Works that have been
     published towards illustrating the Provincial Dialects of
     England" (24 pages). When the Rev. Professor Skeat started
     the English Dialect Society, he at once laid the foundation
     of an extensive Bibliographical List to include MSS. as well
     as printed works. This Bibliography is being published by
     the Society in parts.

     _Dictionaries._--William Marsden printed privately, in 1796,
     a valuable "Catalogue of Dictionaries, Vocabularies,
     Grammars, and Alphabets."

     _Dictionaries._--Trübner's Catalogue of Dictionaries and
     Grammars (1872, second edition 1882) is a very useful work.
     H.B. Wheatley's account of English Dictionaries was
     published in the Transactions of the Philological Society
     for 1865.

     _Drama._--A notice of some books in the English Drama will
     be found in Chapter IV. The _Bibliothèque Dramatique de
     Mons. de Soleinne_ (1843-44, 5 vols.), with its continuation
     to 1861, is a splendid Catalogue, in which the books are
     fully described, with valuable notes and preface.

     _Earthquakes._--Mr. Robert Mallet's Bibliography of
     Earthquakes will be found in the British Association Report
     for 1858, and Mons. Alexis Perrey's Bibliographie Seismique
     in the Dijon _Memoires_ for 1855, 1856, and 1861.

     _Electricity._--Sir Francis Ronalds' Catalogue of Books and
     Papers relating to Electricity, Magnetism, and the Electric
     Telegraph (1880) contains a large number of titles. O.
     Salle's Bibliography of Electricity and Magnetism, 1860 to
     1883, was published in 1884.

     _Entomology._--Dr. Hagen's Bibliotheca Entomologica
     (Leipzig, 1862-63) is a carefully compiled and useful book.

     _Epigrams._--There is a list of books connected with
     Epigrammatic Literature appended to _The Epigrammatists_, by
     the Rev. Philip Dodd. 8vo. London, 1870.

     _Fine Art._--The First Proofs of the Universal Catalogue of
     Books in Art, compiled for the use of the National Art
     Library and the Schools of Art in the United Kingdom.
     London, 1870. 2 vols. Sm. 4to. Supplement. London, 1877.

     ---- Essai d'une Bibliographie de l'Histoire spéciale de la
     Peinture et de la Gravure en Hollande et en Belgique
     (1500-1875), par J.F. van Someren, Amsterdam, 1882. 8vo.

     _Freemasonry._--GOWANS (W.). Catalogue of Books on
     Freemasonry and kindred subjects. New York, 1858. 8vo.

     ---- HEMSWORTH (H.W.). Catalogue of Books in the Library at
     Freemasons' Hall, London. Privately printed.

     There is a list of books on Freemasonry in Petzholdt's
     Bibliotheca Bibliographica, pp. 468-474. Mr. Folkard printed
     privately a Catalogue of Works on Freemasonry in the Wigan
     Free Library in 1882, and in the Annals of the Grand Lodge
     of Iowa, Vol. IX. Part I. (1883) is a Catalogue of Works on
     this subject in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa.

     _Future Life._--Catalogue of Works relating to the Nature,
     Origin, and Destiny of the Soul, by Ezra Abbot. Appended to
     W.R. Alger's Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future
     Life. Philadelphia, 1864. 8vo. Reprinted, New York, 1871.

     _Geography._--See _Voyages and Travels_.

     _Health._--Catalogue of the International Health Exhibition
     Library. Division I. Health. Division II. Education. London,
     1884. 8vo.

     _Heraldry._--Thomas Moule's valuable _Bibliotheca Heraldica
     Magnæ Britanniæ_ was published in 1822. There is a "List of
     the principal English and Foreign Text-Books on Heraldry" at
     the end of _The Handbook of Heraldry_, by J.E. Cussans,
     London, 1869.

     _History_ (_General_).--BRUNET (J.C.). Table Méthodique en
     forme de Catalogue raisonné, Histoire. Paris, 1865. 8vo.

     ---- OETTINGER (E.M.). Historisches Archiv. Archives
     historiques, contenant une classification de 17,000 ouvrages
     pour servir à l'étude de l'histoire de tous les siècles et
     de toutes les nations. Carlsruhe, 1841. 4to.

     (_Great Britain and Ireland._)--Bishop Nicholson's English,
     Scotch, and Irish Historical Libraries, 1776, will still be
     found useful. Mr. Mullinger's portion of the Introduction to
     the Study of English History (1881) gives the latest
     information on the subject. Sir Duffus Hardy's "Descriptive
     Catalogue of Materials relating to the History of Great
     Britain and Ireland to the end of the reign of Henry VIII."
     is an invaluable book, but is unfortunately incomplete.

     (_France._)--LELONG (J.). Bibliothèque Historique (1768-78,
     5 vols, folio). "Les Sources de l'Histoire de France," by A.
     Franklin, was published in 1877.

     _History_ (_Germany._)--Bibliographical Essay on the
     Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, by A. Asher, was published in
     1843.

     (_Holland._)--NIJHOFF. Bibliotheca Historico-Neerlandica. La
     Haye, 1871.

     (_Italy._)--LICHTENTHAL (P.). Manuale Bibliografico del
     Viaggiatore in Italia. Milano, 1844. A Catalogue of Sir
     Richard Colt Hoare's Collection of Books relating to the
     History and Topography of Italy was printed in 1812. The
     Collection was presented to the British Museum by Hoare in
     1825.

     (_Portugal._)--FIGANIERE. Bibliographia Historica
     Portugueza. Lisboa, 1850.

     (_Spain._)--MUNOZ Y ROMERO. Diccionario
     bibliografico-historico ... de Espana. Madrid, 1858.

     _Language._--See _Dictionaries_, _Philology_.

     _Law._--Mr. Stephen R. Griswold contributed an article on
     Law Libraries to the U.S. Report on Libraries (pp. 161-170).
     He writes, "Law books may be classified generally as
     follows: Reports, Treatises, Statute Law. The practice of
     reporting the decisions of the Judges began in the reign of
     Edward I., and from that time we have a series of judicial
     reports of those decisions. In the time of Lord Bacon, these
     reports extended to fifty or sixty volumes. During the two
     hundred and fifty years that have passed since then, nothing
     has been done by way of revision or expurgation; but these
     publications have been constantly increasing, so that at
     the close of the year 1874 the published volumes of reports
     were as follows: English, 1350 volumes; Irish, 175 volumes;
     Scotch, 225 volumes; Canadian, 135 volumes; American, 2400
     volumes. With respect to treatises (including law
     periodicals and digests), and without including more than
     one edition of the same work, it is safe to say that a fair
     collection would embrace at least 2000 volumes. The statute
     law of the United States, if confined to the general or
     revised statutes and codes, may be brought within 100
     volumes. If, however, the sessional acts be included, the
     collection would amount to over 1500 volumes. It is thus
     seen that a fairly complete law library would embrace more
     than 7000 volumes, which could not be placed upon its
     shelves for less than $50,000."

     _Law._--There is a useful list of legal bibliographies in
     the "Hand-list of Bibliographies in the Reading-room of the
     British Museum" (pp. 40-44). Clarke's _Bibliotheca Legum_,
     which was compiled by Hartwell Horne (1819), is a valuable
     work. Marvin's _Legal Bibliography_, which was published at
     Philadelphia in 1847, contains 800 pages. The Catalogue of
     the Law Library in the New York State Library (1856), forms
     a useful guide to the subject, and Herbert G. Sweet's
     "Complete Catalogue of Modern Law Books" is one of the
     latest catalogues of authority.

     _Mathematics._--A really good bibliography of Mathematics is
     still wanting. The following books, however, all from
     Germany, are useful.

     _Mathematics._--MURHARD (F.W.A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica.
     Lipsiæ, 1797-1804. 4 vols.

     ---- ROGG (J.). Handbuch der Mathematischen Literatur.
     Tübingen, 1830.

     ---- SOHNCKE (L.A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica. 1830-54.
     Leipsic, 1854.

     ---- ERLECKE (A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica. Halle-a.-S.,
     1873.

     ---- Professor De Morgan's Arithmetical Books (1847) is a
     model of what a good bibliography ought to be.

     _Medical._--Dr. Billings contributed a chapter on "Medical
     Libraries in the United States" to the U.S. Report on Public
     Libraries (pp. 171-182), in which he wrote--"The record of
     the researches, experiences, and speculations relating to
     Medical Science during the last four hundred years is
     contained in between two and three hundred thousand volumes
     and pamphlets; and while the immense majority of these have
     little or nothing of what we call 'practical value,' yet
     there is no one of them which would not be called for by
     some inquirer if he knew of its existence." The writer added
     a list of works of reference which should be in every
     Medical Library.

     There have been a specially large number of Medical
     Bibliographies, from Haller's works downwards. James
     Atkinson's Medical Bibliography (1834, A and B only), is an
     amusing book, but of little or no utility. The most useful
     books are Dr. Billings's Index Catalogue of the Library of
     the Surgeon-General's Office (Washington, 1880) and the
     Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Medical and
     Chirurgical Society (3 vols. 1879), by B.R. Wheatley.
     Neale's Medical Digest (1877) forms a convenient guide to
     the medical periodicals. The two great French
     dictionaries--Raige-Delorme and A. Dechambre, Dictionnaire
     Encyclopédique des Sciences Médicales (4 series, commenced
     in 1854, and still in progress); Jaccoud, Nouveau
     Dictionnaire de Médecine et de Chirurgie Pratiques (1864,
     and still in progress)--contain very valuable references to
     the literature of the various subjects. Of special subjects
     may be mentioned H. Haeser's Bibliotheca Epidemiographica
     (1843), John S. Billings's Bibliography of Cholera in the
     Report of the Cholera Epidemic of 1873 in the United States
     (1875, pp. 707-1025), Beer's Bibliotheca Ophthalmica (1799),
     Dr. E.J. Waring's Bibliotheca Therapeutica (1878-79, 2 vols.
     8vo.), and Bibliography of Embryology, in Balfour's
     Embryology, vol. ii.

     _Meteorology._--A full bibliography of books and papers upon
     Meteorology is being prepared at the United States Signal
     Office, and it is reported that 48,000 titles are now in the
     office. There have been several articles on this subject in
     _Symons's Meteorological Magazine_, the last being in the
     number for December, 1885.

     _Mineralogy._--DANA (J.D.). Bibliography of Mineralogy.
     1881. 8vo.

     _Mining._--Wigan Free Public Library Index Catalogue of
     Books and Papers relating to Mining, Metallurgy, and
     Manufactures. By Henry Tennyson Folkard, Librarian.
     Southport, 1880. Roy. 8vo.

     _Motion (Perpetual)._--Perpetuum Mobile; or, search for
     Self-Motive Power during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries,
     illustrated from various authentic sources in papers,
     essays, letters, paragraphs, and numerous Patent
     Specifications, with an Introductory Essay. By Henry Dircks,
     C.E. London, 1861. Sm. 8vo. Second Series. London, 1870. Sm.
     8vo.

     _Music._--ENGEL (C.). The Literature of National Music.
     London, 1879. 8vo.

     ---- Catalogue of the Library of the Sacred Harmonic
     Society. A new edition [by W.H. Husk]. London, 1872. 8vo.

     ---- RIMBAULT (F.). Bibliotheca Madrigaliana, a
     Bibliographical Account of the Musical and Poetical Works
     published in England during the 16th and 17th centuries,
     under the titles of Madrigals, Ballets, Ayres, Canzonets,
     etc. London, 1847. 8vo.

     There are bibliographies of the subject in F.L. Kilter's
     History of Music, London, 1876, and F. Clement, Histoire
     générale de la Musique Religieuse. Paris, 1861.

     _Natural History._--Dryander's Catalogue of Sir Joseph
     Banks's Library, now in the British Museum, is the most
     famous bibliography of this subject, although made so many
     years ago. It consists of 5 vols. 8vo. (1798-1800). Vol. 1,
     General Writers; Vol. 2, Zoology; Vol. 3, Botany; Vol. 4,
     Mineralogy; Vol. 5, Supplement.

     _Natural History._--ENGELMANN (W.). Bibliotheca
     Historico-Naturalis. Leipzig, 1846.

     ---- ZUCKOLD (E.A.). Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis,
     Physico-Chemica et Mathematica. Göttingen, 1852.

     ---- See _Zoology_.

     _Philology._--MARSDEN (W.) Bibliotheca Marsdenia,
     Philologica et Orientalis. London, 1827. 4to.

     ---- ENGELMANN (W.). Bibliotheca Philologica. Leipzig, 1853.

     ---- See _Dictionaries_.

     _Political Economy._--MCCULLOCH (J.R.) The Literature of
     Political Economy, London, 1845.--This is a very valuable
     work up to the date of publication, but a good bibliography
     of the subject is still a desideratum. The late Professor
     Stanley Jevons proposed to draw up a Handy Book of the
     Literature for the Index Society, but, to the great loss of
     bibliography, was prevented by other work from undertaking
     it. He contributed a list of Selected Books in Political
     Economy to the _Monthly Notes_ of the Library Association
     (Vol. 3, No. 7).

     _Poor._--A Catalogue of Publications in the English Language
     on subjects relative to the Poor will be found in Eden's
     _State of the Poor_, vol. iii. pp. ccclxvii--ccclxxxvi.

     _Printing._--BIGMORE (E.C.), and WYMAN (C.W.H.). A
     Bibliography of Printing, with Notes and Illustrations.
     London, 1880. 4to.

     ---- The Literature of Printing. A Catalogue of the Library
     illustrative of the History and Art of Typography,
     Chalcography, and Lithography, by R.M. Hoe. London, 1877.
     8vo.

The following is a list of some of the bibliographies of the productions
of the chief printers:

     _Aldus._--Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde ou Histoire des
     trois Manuce et de leurs éditions. Par Ant. Aug. Renouard.
     Paris, an XII. Seconde édition. Paris, 1825. 8vo. 3 vols.

     _Caxton._--The Life and Typography of William Caxton,
     England's first Printer, with evidence of his typographical
     connection with Colard Mansion, the Printer at Bruges.
     Compiled from original sources by William Blades. London,
     1861-63. 2 vols. 4to. A condensed edition was published
     under the following title: The Biography and Typography of
     William Caxton, England's first Printer. By William Blades.
     Second edition. London, 1882. 8vo.

     _Elzevirs._--Willems (A.). Les Elzevier. Histoire et Annales
     Typographiques. Bruxelles, 1880. 8vo.

     ---- C. Pieters. Annales de l'Imprimerie des Elsevier. Gand,
     1858. 8vo.

     _Plantin._--La Maison Plantin à Anvers. Par L. Degeorge.
     Deuxième édition, augmentée d'une liste chronologique des
     ouvrages imprimés par Plantin à Anvers de 1555 à 1589.
     Bruxelles, 1878. 8vo.

     _Stephens._--Annales de l'Imprimerie des Estienne, ou
     Histoire de la Famille, des Estienne et de ses éditions. Par
     A.A. Renouard. Paris, 1837-38. 8vo. 2 parts.

     _Privately Printed Books._--The second edition of John
     Martin's Bibliographical Catalogue of Privately Printed
     Books was published in 1854, and a newer work on this
     important subject is much required. Mr. W.P. Courtney has
     been engaged in the production of such a work for some
     years, and the labour could not be in better hands.

     _Proverbs._--The _Bibliographie Parémiologique_ of Pierre
     Alexandre Gratet-Duplessis (1847), is one of the most
     elaborate and carefully compiled bibliographies ever
     published. Sir William Stirling Maxwell printed privately a
     catalogue of his collection of books of proverbs, in which
     were specially marked those unknown to Duplessis, or those
     published since the issue of his catalogue.

     _Science._--An article on the Scientific Libraries in the
     United States was contributed by Dr. Theodore Gill to the
     U.S. Report on Public Libraries (pp. 183-217). It contains
     an account of the various periodical records of work in the
     various departments of science.

     _Shorthand._--Thomas Anderson's History of Shorthand, London
     (1882), contains Lists of Writers on Shorthand in different
     languages.

     _Theology._--There is an article on Theological Libraries in
     the United States, in the U.S. Report on Public Libraries
     (pp. 127-160). The following extract contains some
     particulars respecting these.--"There are reported
     twenty-four libraries, which contain from 10,000 to 34,000
     volumes; and these twenty-four libraries belong to ten
     different denominations. Three Baptist, two Catholic, two
     Congregational, three Episcopal, one Lutheran, two
     Methodist, seven Presbyterian, one Reformed (Dutch), one
     Reformed (German), and two Unitarian. And, if we include
     those libraries which contain less than 10,000 volumes, the
     list of different denominations to which they belong is
     extended to fifteen or sixteen."

     A considerable number of Bibliographies of Theology will be
     found in the British Museum Hand-list. Darling's Cyclopædia
     Bibliographica (1854-59), Malcom's Theological Index
     (Boston, 1868), and Zuchold's Bibliotheca Theologica
     (Göttingen, 1864), may be specially mentioned.

     _Topography._--Gough's British Topography (2 vols. 4to.
     1780) is an interesting and useful book, and Upcott's
     Bibliographical Account of the principal works relating to
     British Topography, 3 vols. 8vo. (1818), forms one of the
     best specimens of English bibliography extant.

     _Topography._--Mr. J.P. Anderson's Book of British
     Topography (1881) is an indispensable book. Mr. Robert
     Harrison has prepared for the Index Society an Index of
     Books on Topography, arranged in one alphabet of places,
     which has not yet been published. Mr. W.H.K. Wright
     contributed a paper on "Special Collections of Local Books
     in Provincial Libraries" to the Transactions of the First
     Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 1878 (pp. 44-50).
     Another paper on the same subject, by Mr. J.H. Nodal,
     appears in the Transactions of the Second Annual Meeting of
     the Library Association, 1879 (pp. 54-60), entitled "Special
     Collections of Books in Lancashire and Cheshire," and in the
     Appendix (pp. 139-148) is a full account of these
     collections in Public Libraries and private hands.

An indication of some of the chief bibliographies of particular counties
and places is here added--

     Cornwall: Boase & Courtney, 1874-82. 3 vols. A model
     bibliography.

     Devonshire: J. Davidson, 1852.

        "       Plymouth (Three Towns' Bibliotheca), R.N. Worth, 1872-73.

     Dorsetshire: C.H. Mayo, privately printed, 1885.

     Gloucestershire: Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, J. Washbourn,
     1823-25.

     Gloucestershire: Collectanea Glocestriensia, J.D. Phelps,
     1842.

     Hampshire: Bibliotheca Hantoniensis, H.M. Gilbert, 1872?

        "       List of Books, Sir W.H. Cope, 1879.

     Herefordshire: J. Allen, jun., 1821.

     Kent: J. Russell Smith, 1837.

     Lancashire: H. Fishwick, 1875.

     Man (Isle of): W. Harrison, 1876.

     Norfolk: S. Woodward and W.C. Ewing, 1842.

     Nottinghamshire: S.F. Creswell, 1863.

     Sussex: G.S. Butler, 1866.

     Yorkshire: Rt. Hon. John Smythe, Pontefract, 1809.

        "       E. Hailstone, 1858.

        "       W. Boyne, 1869.

     _Trade and Finance._--Catalogue of Books, comprising the
     Library of William Paterson, Founder of the Bank of England,
     in vol. iii. of the Collection of his "Writings, edited by
     Saxe Bannister," (3 vols. 8vo. London, 1859).

     ---- Enslin und Engelmann. Bibliothek der
     Handlungswissenschaft 1750-1845. Leipzig, 1856.

     _Trials._--The Catalogue of the Library of the Philosophical
     Institution of Edinburgh (1857) contains (pp. 297-319) a
     very useful list of trials in an alphabet of the persons
     tried. The table is arranged under name, charge, date of
     trial, and reference.

     _Voyages and Travels._--Locke's Catalogue and character of
     most books of Voyages and Travels is interesting on account
     of Locke's notes. (Locke's Works, 1812, 10 vols. 8vo., vol.
     x. pp. 513-564.)

     There are catalogues of books of travels in Pinkerton's
     collection (1814), and Kerr's collection (1822).

     ---- Boucher de la Richaderie, Bibliothèque Universelle des
     Voyages, Paris, 1808. 6 vols. 8vo.

     ---- Engelmann (W.). Bibliotheca Geographica. Leipzig, 1858.

     _Zoology._--Agassiz's Bibliographia Zoologicæ et Geologicæ,
     published by the Ray Society, 1848-54, was a useful book in
     its day, but it is of no value bibliographically, and the
     titles being mostly taken at second-hand, the work is full
     of blunders.

     ---- Carus and Engelmann's Bibliotheca Zoologica, Leipzig
     1861, forms a Supplement to the Bibliotheca
     Historico-Naturalis of Engelmann.

       *       *       *       *       *

A large number of bibliographies of particular authors have been published
in this country and abroad, and it may be useful here to make a note of
some of these.

     Ariosto, Orlando Furioso: Ulisse Guidi, _Bologna_, 1861,
     1868. G.J. Ferrazzi, _Bassano_, 1881.

     Boccaccio: M. Landau, _Napoli_, 1881.

     Burns: J. Mackie, _Kilmar_, 1866.

     Calderon: E. Dorer, _Leipzig_, 1881.

     Camoens: Adamson's Life of Camoens, vol. 2, 1820.

     Cervantes: E. Dorer, _Leipzig_, 1881.

     Corneille: E. Picot, _Paris_, 1876.

     Dante: Bibliografia Dantesca, _Prato_, 1845-46. C.U.J.
     Chevalier, 1877. G.A. Scartazzini, Dante in Germania, 1881.
     J. Petzholdt, _Dresden_, 1880.

     Goethe: S. Hirzel, 1878.

     Luther: E.G. Vogel, _Halle_, 1851. J. Edmands,
     _Philadelphia_, 1883.

     Manzoni: A. Vosmara, _Milano_, 1875.

     Molière: P. Lacroix, _Paris_, 1875.

     Montaigne: J.F. Payer, _Paris_, 1837.

     Persius: J. Tarlier, _Bruxelles_, 1848.

     Petrarch: Marsand, _Milano_, 1826.

        "    A. Hortis, _Trieste_, 1874.

        "    G.J. Ferrazzi, _Bassano_, 1877. C.U.J. Chevalier,
     Montpéliard, 1880.

     Rabelais: J.C. Brunet, _Paris_, 1852.

     Schiller: L. Unflad, _München_, 1878.

     Tasso: G.J. Ferrazzi, _Bassano_, 1880.

     Voltaire: G. Bengesco, _Paris_, 1882.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Browning: F.J. Furnivall, Browning Society, 1881-2.

     Carlyle: R.H. Shepherd, 1882.

     Defoe: M. Stace, 1829; Wilson, 1830; Lee, 1862.

     Dickens: R.H. Shepherd, 1881.

        "    J. Cook, Paisley, 1879.

     Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb: A. Ireland, 1868.

     Ruskin: R.H. Shepherd, 1882.

     Shakespeare: J. Wilson, 1827; J.O. Halliwell, 1841; Moulin,
     1845; Sillig and Ulrici, 1854; H.G. Bohn, 1864; F. Thimm,
     1865-72; K. Knortz, 1876; Unflad, 1880; Justin Winsor
     (Poems); Birmingham Memorial Library Catalogue (J.D.
     Mullens).

     Shelley: H.B. Forman, 1886.

     Tennyson: R.H. Shepherd, 1879.

     Thackeray: R.H. Shepherd, 1881.

     Wycliffe: J. Edmands, 1884.

Dr. Garnett commenced a MS. list of such special bibliographies as he came
across in Treatises on the different subjects. This list is added to and
kept in the Reading Room for use by the Librarians. I was allowed the
privilege of referring to this very useful list.



CHAPTER VII.

PUBLISHING SOCIETIES.


A large amount of important information is to be found in the publications
of the numerous Societies formed for the purpose of supplying to their
subscribers valuable works which are but little likely to find publishers.
These publications have in a large number of instances added to our
knowledge of history and literature considerably. The Societies have much
increased of late years, but no record of the publications is easily to be
obtained, since the full account given in Bohn's Supplement to Lowndes's
_Bibliographer's Manual_.

     The earliest of Publishing Societies was the _Dilettanti
     Society_, instituted in London in 1734, which issued some
     fine illustrated volumes of classical travel. A long period
     of time elapsed without any societies of a similar character
     being formed.

     _The Roxburghe Club_ formed in the year 1812 in
     commemoration of the sale of the magnificent library of John
     third Duke of Roxburghe (died March 19, 1804). It was
     chiefly intended as a Social Club, and a long list of
     bibliographical toasts was run through at the banquets. The
     publications were not at first of any great literary value,
     although some of them were curious and interesting. After a
     time competent editors were employed, and some important
     works produced. Sir Frederick Madden's editions of "Havelok
     the Dane" was issued in 1828, of the Romance of "William and
     the Werwolf" in 1832, and of the old English version of
     "Gesta Romanorum" in 1838. The valuable "Manners and
     Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and
     Fifteenth Centuries," edited by T. Hudson Turner, was
     presented to the Club by Beriah Botfield in 1841; Payne
     Collier's edition of the "Household Books of John Duke of
     Norfolk, and Thomas Earl of Surrey, 1481-1490," was issued
     in 1844, and his "Five Old Plays illustrative of the Early
     Progress of the English Drama" in 1851; the Rev. Joseph
     Stevenson's edition of "The Owl and the Nightingale, a Poem
     of the Twelfth Century," was issued in 1838, and his edition
     of "The Ayenbite of Inwyt" in 1855; John Gough Nichols's
     edition of the "Literary Remains of King Edward the Sixth"
     appeared in 1857 and 1858 (2 vols.), and Dr. Furnivall's
     edition of Henry Lonelich's "Seynt Graal" in 1863-1864.

     Several years elapsed before the second great Printing Club
     was founded. In 1823 _The Bannatyne Club_ was started in
     Edinburgh, chiefly by Sir Walter Scott, for the purpose of
     printing works illustrative of the History, Antiquities and
     Literature of Scotland. It derives its names from George
     Bannatyne (born Feb. 22, 1545, died 1607). A long series of
     books have been issued by the Club to its members, many of
     which are of great interest. The Catalogue of the Abbotsford
     Library was presented in 1839 to the members "by Major Sir
     Walter Scott, Bart., as a slight return for their liberality
     and kindness in agreeing to continue to that Library the
     various valuable works printed under their superintendence."
     In the same year appeared Sir Frederick Madden's edition of
     _Sir Gawayne_. Bishop Gawin Douglas's "Palace of Honour" was
     printed in 1827, and his translation of Virgil's "Æneid" in
     1839 (2 vols.). The Club was closed in 1867.

     _The Maitland Club_, which derived its name from Sir Richard
     Maitland of Lethington (born in 1496, died March 20, 1586),
     was instituted in Glasgow in 1828. A volume containing "The
     Burgh Records of the City of Glasgow, 1573 to 1581," was
     presented to the Club in 1832-34; the Poems of Drummond of
     Hawthornden in 1832; Robert Wodrow's "Collection upon the
     Lives of the Reformers and most eminent Ministers of the
     Church of Scotland" in 1834-45 (2 vols.). Dauncey's Ancient
     Scottish Melodies in 1838. Sir Bevis of Hamtoun in the same
     year, the Metrical Romance of Lancelot du Lak in 1839;
     Wodrow's Analecta, or Materials for a History of Remarkable
     Providences, in 1842-3 (4 vols.). Henry Laing's Descriptive
     Catalogue of Ancient Seals, in 1850. The Club was closed in
     1859.

     _The Abbotsford Club_ was founded in honour of Sir Walter
     Scott in 1834, by Mr. W.B.D.D. Turnbull. The first book
     (issued in 1835) was a volume of "Ancient Mysteries from the
     Digby MS."; "Arthur and Merlin, a Metrical Romance," was
     printed in 1838; "Romances of Sir Guy of Warwick and Rembrun
     his Son," in 1840; "The Legend of St. Katherine of
     Alexandra," in 1841; "Sir Degaree, a Metrical Romance of the
     end of the nineteenth century," in 1849. The Club was closed
     in 1866.

     These Printing Clubs were select in their constitution, and
     the books being printed for the members in small numbers,
     they are difficult to obtain and their price is high.

     With the foundation of the Camden Society an entirely new
     system was adopted, and the general body of book lovers,
     poor as well as rich, were appealed to with great success,
     and valuable books were supplied to the subscribers at a
     price which would have been impossible without such means.
     The Camden Society is entitled to this honour on account of
     the general interest of its publications, but the Surtees
     Society was actually the first to inaugurate the new system.
     The subscription fixed was double that which the founders of
     the Camden Society adopted, but it was, perhaps, a bolder
     step to start a Society, appealing to a somewhat restricted
     public with a two guinea subscription, than to appeal to the
     whole reading public with a subscription of one pound.
     Before saying more of the Surtees and Camden Societies, it
     will be necessary to mention some other printing clubs which
     preceded them.

     _The Oriental Translation Fund_ was established in 1828,
     with the object of publishing Translations from Eastern MSS.
     into the languages of Europe. When the issue of books was
     discontinued, the stock of such books as remained was sold
     off, and many of these can still be obtained at a cheap
     rate.

     _The Iona Club_ was instituted in 1833, for the purpose of
     investigating the History, Antiquities, and early Literature
     of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, but little has
     been done in the way of publication. The first book was
     "Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis," and the second,
     "Transactions of the Club," vol. i. in 4 parts. A second
     volume was announced, but never appeared.

     _The Surtees Society_ was founded at Durham in 1834 for the
     publication of inedited Manuscripts, illustrative of the
     moral, the intellectual, the religious, and the social
     condition of those parts of England and Scotland included on
     the East, between the Humber and the Frith of Forth, and on
     the west, between the Mersey and the Clyde, a region which
     constituted the ancient kingdom of Northumberland. The
     Society is named after Robert Surtees, of Mainforth, author
     of the "History of the County Palatine of Durham." Although
     founded more than fifty years ago, the Society is still
     flourishing, and carried on with the same vigour as of old.
     The series of publications is a long one, and contains a
     large number of most important works. The second book issued
     was "Wills and Inventories, illustrative of the History,
     Manners, Language, Statistics, etc., of the Northern
     Counties of England, from the Eleventh Century downwards"
     (Part 2 was issued in 1860); the third, "The Towneley
     Mysteries or Miracle Plays"; the fourth, "Testamenta
     Eboracensia: Wills illustrative of the History, Manners,
     Language, Statistics, etc., of the Province of York, from
     1300" (vol. 1). The second volume of this series was issued
     in 1855. "Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter" was issued
     in 1843-44 (2 vols.); "The Durham Household Book; or, the
     Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham, from 1530
     to 1534," in 1844.

     _The Camden Society_, instituted in 1838, has issued to its
     subscribers a large number of books of the greatest interest
     on historical and literary subjects. The set of publications
     is so well known that it is not necessary to enumerate
     titles here. Among the most valuable are the several volumes
     devoted to the correspondence of certain old families, such
     as the "Plumpton Correspondence" (1839), "Egerton Papers"
     (1840), "Rutland Papers" (1842), and "Savile Correspondence"
     (1858). The Romances and Chronicles must also be mentioned,
     and the remarkable edition of the oldest English Dictionary,
     "Promptorium Parvulorum," which was fully and learnedly
     edited by the late Mr. Albert Way. A second series was
     commenced in 1871, which is still continued.

     The same year which saw the foundation of the Camden Society
     also gave birth to _The English Historical Society_. Sixteen
     works of considerable value were issued, but the greatest of
     these is the grand "Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici" of the
     late J. Mitchell Kemble (1845-48).

     _The Spalding Club_, named after John Spalding, Commissary
     Clerk of Aberdeen, and founded at Aberdeen in 1839 for the
     printing of the Historical, Ecclesiastical, Genealogical,
     Topographical, and Literary Remains of the North-Eastern
     Counties of Scotland, was formed on the model of the
     exclusive clubs; but being affected by the more democratic
     constitution of the later printing societies, its
     subscription was fixed at one guinea. Amongst the most
     interesting of the Club's publications are the "Sculptured
     Stones of Scotland" (1856), "Barbour's Brus" (1856), and
     the "Fasti Aberdonensis: Selections from the Records of the
     University and King's College of Aberdeen from 1494 to 1854"
     (1854).

     The year 1840 saw the foundation of three very important
     Societies, viz. the Parker, the Percy, and the Shakespeare.

     _The Parker Society_ took its name from the famous
     Archbishop of Canterbury, Martin Parker, and its objects
     were (1) the reprinting, without abridgment, alteration or
     omission, of the best works of the Fathers and early Writers
     of the Reformed English Church published in the period
     between the accession of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth; (2)
     the printing of such works of other writers of the Sixteenth
     Century as may appear desirable (including under both
     classes some of the early English Translations of the
     Foreign Reformers), and (3) the printing of some MSS. of the
     same authors hitherto unpublished. The Society was an
     enormous success, and at one time the list contained seven
     thousand members; but owing to the multitude of copies
     printed, and the somewhat dry character of the books
     themselves, many of them can now be obtained at a
     ridiculously small sum, the price of a complete set usually
     averaging little more than a shilling a volume. When the
     series was completed, a valuable General Index to the whole
     was compiled by Mr. Henry Gough, 1855.

     _The Percy Society_ took its name from Bishop Percy, author
     of the "Reliques of Ancient English Poetry" (born 1729, died
     1811), and was founded for the purpose of bringing to light
     important but obscure specimens of Ballad Poetry, or Works
     illustrative of that department of Literature. The Society
     was dissolved in 1853, but during the thirteen years of its
     existence it produced a singularly interesting series of
     publications. The number of separate works registered in
     Bohn's Appendix to Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual is 94,
     besides "Quippes for Upstart Newfangled Gentlewomen by
     Stephen Gosson," which was suppressed, and "Rhyming Satire
     on the Pride and Vices of Women Now-a-days, by Charles
     Bansley," 1540, which was reprinted in 1841, but not issued.
     The set is much sought after, and fetches a good price.

     _The Shakespeare Society_ was founded in 1840, to print
     books illustrative of Shakespeare and of the literature of
     his time, and a very valuable collection of works was issued
     to the subscribers during the term of its existence. It was
     dissolved in 1853, and the remaining stock was made up into
     volumes and sold off. There was much for the Society still
     to do; but the controversy arising out of the discovery of
     the forgeries connected with John Payne Collier's name made
     it difficult for the Shakespearians to work together with
     harmony.

     In this same year the _Musical Antiquarian Society_ was
     founded, and during the seven years of its existence it
     issued books of Madrigals, Operas, Songs, Anthems, etc., by
     early English composers.

     In the following year (1841), the _Motett Society_ was
     founded for the publication of Ancient Church Music. Five
     parts only, edited by Dr. Rimbault, were issued.

     In 1841 the _Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts_
     was founded, and a series of works in Syriac, Arabic,
     Sanscrit, and Persian was distributed to the subscribers
     until 1851, when the Society was dissolved.

     _The Wodrow Society_ was instituted in Edinburgh in 1841,
     for the publication of the early writers of the Reformed
     Church of Scotland, and named after the Rev. Robert Wodrow.
     Among its publications are, "Autobiography and Diary of
     James Melvill," "Correspondence of the Rev. R. Wodrow" (3
     vols.), "History of the Reformation in Scotland, by John
     Knox" (2 vols.). The Society was dissolved in 1848.

     _The Ælfric Society_ was founded in 1842 for the publication
     of those Anglo-Saxon and other literary monuments, both
     civil and ecclesiastical, tending to illustrate the early
     state of England. The publications, which were not numerous,
     were edited by Benjamin Thorpe and J.M. Kemble, and the
     Society was discontinued in 1856.

     _The Chetham Society_, founded at Manchester in 1843, for
     the publication of Historical and Literary remains connected
     with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester, was
     named after Humphrey Chetham (born 1580, died 1653). The
     Society, which still flourishes, has now produced a very
     long series of important works, and the volumes, which are
     not often met with, keep up their price well.

     _The Sydenham Society_ for reprinting Standard English Works
     in Medical Literature, and for the Translation of Foreign
     Authors, with notes, was founded in 1843. After printing a
     number of important works, the Society was dissolved in
     1858, and was succeeded by _The New Sydenham Society_.

     _The Spottiswoode Society_ was founded at Edinburgh in 1843,
     for the revival and publication of the acknowledged works of
     the Bishops, Clergy, and Laity of the Episcopal Church of
     Scotland, and rare, authentic, and curious MSS., Pamphlets
     and other Works illustrative of the Civil and Ecclesiastical
     State of Scotland. It takes its name from John Spottiswoode,
     the first duly consecrated Scottish Archbishop after the
     Reformation (born 1566, died 1639.) The late Mr. Hill Burton
     gives an amusing account of the foundation of this Society
     in his delightful _Book-Hunter_. He writes: "When it was
     proposed to establish an institution for reprinting the
     works of the fathers of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, it
     was naturally deemed that no more worthy or characteristic
     name could be attached to it than that of the venerable
     prelate, who by his learning and virtues had so long adorned
     the Episcopal Chair of Moray and Ross [Robert Jolly], and
     who had shown a special interest in the department of
     literature to which the institution was to be devoted. Hence
     it came to pass that, through a perfectly natural process,
     the Association for the purpose of reprinting the works of
     certain old divines was to be ushered into the world by the
     style and title of the JOLLY CLUB. There happened to be
     amongst those concerned, however, certain persons so
     corrupted with the wisdom of this world, as to apprehend
     that the miscellaneous public might fail to trace this
     designation to its true origin, and might indeed totally
     mistake the nature and object of the institution,
     attributing to it aims neither consistent with the ascetic
     life of the departed prelate, nor with the pious and
     intellectual object of its founders. The counsels of these
     worldly-minded persons prevailed. The Jolly Club was never
     instituted,--at least as an association for the reprinting
     of old books of divinity,--though I am not prepared to say
     that institutions, more than one so designed may not exist
     for other purposes. The object, however, was not entirely
     abandoned. A body of gentlemen united themselves together
     under the name of another Scottish prelate, whose fate had
     been more distinguished, if not more fortunate, and the
     Spottiswoode Society was established. Here, it will be
     observed, there was a passing to the opposite extreme, and
     so intense seems to have been the anxiety to escape from all
     excuse for indecorous jokes or taint of joviality, that the
     word Club, wisely adopted by other bodies of the same kind,
     was abandoned, and this one called itself a Society." The
     publications were discontinued about 1851.

     _The Calvin Translation Society_ was established at
     Edinburgh in 1843, and its work was completed in 1855, by
     the publication of twenty-two Commentaries, etc., of the
     great reformer in fifty-two volumes.

     _The Ray Society_ was founded in 1844 for the publication of
     works on Natural History (Zoology and Botany), and a large
     number of valuable books, fully illustrated, have been
     produced, many of them translations from foreign works. Many
     of the later publications are more elaborately coloured than
     the earlier ones.

     _The Wernerian Club_ was instituted in 1844 for the
     republication of standard works of Scientific Authors of old
     date.

     _The Handel Society_ was founded at London in 1844, for the
     purpose of printing the Works of Handel in full score.
     Sixteen volumes were issued, and in 1858 the Society was
     dissolved, the German Handel Society resuming the
     publication.

     _The Hanserd Knollys Society_ was instituted in 1845 for the
     publication of the works of early English and other Baptist
     writers, and one of these was an edition of Bunyan's Pilgrim
     Progress from the text of the first edition. The Society was
     dissolved about 1851.

     _The Caxton Society_ was instituted in 1845 for the
     publication of Chronicles and other writings hitherto
     unpublished, illustrative of the history and miscellaneous
     literature of the middle ages. This Society was formed on a
     somewhat original basis. The members were to pay no annual
     subscription, but they engaged to purchase one copy of all
     books published by the Society. The expense of printing and
     publishing to be defrayed out of the proceeds of the sale,
     and the money remaining over to be paid to the editors.

     _The Cavendish Society_ was instituted in 1846 for the
     promotion of Chemical Science by the translation and
     publication of valuable works and papers on Chemistry not
     likely to be undertaken by ordinary publishers. During its
     last years the Society existed for the publication of
     Gmelin's voluminous "Handbook of Chemistry," and when this
     work was completed, with a general Index, the Society ceased
     to exist.

     _The Ecclesiastical History Society_ was instituted in 1846,
     and one of its early publications was the first volume of
     Wood's "Athenæ Oxoniensis," edited by Dr. Bliss, but this
     only contained the life of Anthony Wood himself. The Society
     was dissolved in 1854, after publishing the Book of Common
     Prayer according to a MS. in the Rolls Office, Dublin (3
     vols.), and sundry other works.

     _The Hakluyt Society_, named after Richard Hakluyt (born
     1553, died 1616), was founded at the end of 1846 for the
     purpose of printing the most rare and valuable Voyages,
     Travels and Geographical Records, from an early period of
     exploratory enterprise to the circumnavigation of Dampier.
     The first two volumes ("Sir Richard Hawkins's Voyage into
     the South Sea, 1593," and "Select Letters of Columbus") were
     issued in 1847, and the Society still flourishes. Between
     1847 and 1885 the Society has presented to its members an
     important series of books of travel, at the rate of about
     two volumes a year for an annual subscription of one guinea.

     _The Palæontographical Society_ was founded in 1847 for the
     purpose of figuring and describing a stratigraphical series
     of British Fossils. The annual volumes consist of portions
     of works by the most eminent palæontologists, and these
     works are completed as soon as circumstances allow, but
     several of them are still incomplete.

     _The Arundel Society_ is so important an institution that it
     cannot be passed over in silence, although, as the
     publications chiefly consist of engravings,
     chromolithographs, etc., it scarcely comes within the scope
     of this chapter. The Society takes its name from Thomas
     Howard Earl of Arundel, in the reigns of James I. and
     Charles I., who has been styled the "Father of _vertu_ in
     England." It was founded in 1849, and its purpose is to
     diffuse more widely, by means of suitable publications, a
     knowledge both of the history and true principles of
     Painting, Sculpture, and the higher forms of ornamental
     design, to call attention to such masterpieces of the arts
     as are unduly neglected, and to secure some transcript or
     memorial of those which are perishing from ill-treatment or
     decay. The publications of the Society have been very
     successful, and many of them cannot now be obtained.

     Most of the societies above described have appealed to a
     large public, and endeavoured to obtain a large amount of
     public support; but in 1853 was formed an exclusive society,
     with somewhat the same objects as the Roxburghe Club. _The
     Philobiblon Society_ was instituted chiefly through the
     endeavours of Mr. R. Monckton Milnes (the late Lord
     Houghton) and the late Mons. Sylvain Van de Weyer. The
     number of members was at first fixed at thirty-five, but was
     raised in 1857 to forty, including the patron and honorary
     secretaries. The publications consist chiefly of a series of
     Bibliographical and Historical Miscellanies, contributed by
     the members, which fill several volumes. Besides these there
     are "The Expedition to the Isle of Rhe by Lord Herbert of
     Cherbury," edited and presented to the members by the Earl
     of Powis; "Inventaire de tous les meubles du Cardinal
     Mazarin," edited and presented by H.R.H. the Duke d'Aumale;
     "Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne sous la regne de Charles II.,
     1678-82," edited and presented by William Stirling
     (afterwards Sir William Stirling Maxwell); "The Biography
     and Bibliography of Shakespeare," compiled and presented by
     Henry G. Bohn; "Analyse des Travaux de la Société des
     Philobiblon de Londres," par Octave Delepierre.

     _The Ossianic Society_ was instituted at Dublin in 1853 for
     the preservation and publication of manuscripts in the Irish
     Language, illustrative of the Fenian period of Irish
     history, etc., with literal translations and notes.

     _The Warton Club_ was instituted in 1854 and issued four
     volumes, after which it was dissolved.

     _The Manx Society_ was instituted at Douglas, Isle of Man,
     in 1858, for the publication of National Documents of the
     Isle of Man.

All the Societies mentioned above are registered in Henry Bohn's Appendix
to Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, and lists of the publications up to
1864 are there given. Most of them are also described in Hume's "Learned
Societies and Printing Clubs of the United Kingdom" (1853). Since,
however, the publication of these two books, a considerable number of
important Printing Societies have been formed, and of these a list is not
readily obtainable, except by direct application to the respective
Secretaries.

The newly printed General Catalogue of the British Museum in the Reading
Room however contains a full list of the publications of the various
Societies under the heading of _Academies_.

     The foundation of the _Early English Text Society_ in 1864
     caused a renewed interest to be taken in the publications of
     the Printing Clubs. The origin of the Society was in this
     wise. When the Philological Society undertook the formation
     of a great English Dictionary, the want of printed copies of
     some of the chief monuments of the language was keenly
     felt. Mr. F.J. Furnivall, with his usual energy, determined
     to supply the want, and induced the Council of the
     Philological Society to produce some valuable texts. It was
     found, however, that these publications exhausted much of
     the funds of the Society, which was required for the
     printing of the papers read at the ordinary meetings, so
     that it became necessary to discontinue them. Mr. Furnivall,
     then, in conjunction with certain members of the
     Philological Society, founded the Early English Text
     Society. The Society possessed the inestimable advantage of
     having among its founders Mr. Richard Morris (afterwards the
     Rev. Dr. Morris), who entered with fervour into the scheme,
     and produced a large amount of magnificent work for the
     Society. Dr. Furnivall put the objects of the Society
     forward very tersely when he said that none of us should
     rest "till Englishmen shall be able to say of their early
     literature what the Germans can now say with pride of
     theirs--'every word of it is printed, and every word of it
     is glossed.'"

     The Society prospered, and in 1867 an Extra Series was
     started, in which were included books that had already been
     printed, but were difficult to obtain from their rarity and
     price.

     One hundred and twenty-six volumes have been issued between
     1864 and 1884, eighty-two volumes of the Original Series and
     forty-four of the Extra Series, and there can be no doubt
     that the publications of the Society have had an immense
     influence in fostering the study of the English language.
     The prefaces and glossaries given with each work contain an
     amount of valuable information not elsewhere to be obtained.

     These books throw light upon the growth of the language, and
     place within the reach of a large number of readers works of
     great interest in the literature of the country. The
     greatest work undertaken by the Society is the remarkable
     edition of "William's Vision of Piers the Plowman," which
     Prof. Skeat has produced with an expenditure of great labour
     during nearly twenty years. The last part, containing
     elaborate notes and glossary, was issued in 1884.

     The subjects treated of are very various. There is a fair
     sprinkling of Romances, which will always be amongst the
     most interesting of a Society's publications. Manners and
     Customs are largely illustrated in a fair proportion of the
     Texts, as also are questions of Social and Political
     History. Perhaps the least interesting to the general reader
     are the Theological Texts, which are numerous, but the
     writers of these were thoroughly imbued with the spirit of
     their times, and although they are apt to be prosy, they are
     pretty sure to introduce some quaint bits which compensate
     for a considerable amount of dulness. These books help us to
     form a correct idea of the beliefs of our forefathers, and
     to disabuse our minds of many mistaken views which we have
     learnt from more popular but less accurate sources.

     _The Ballad Society_ grew out of the publication, by special
     subscription, of Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript, edited by
     F.J. Furnivall and J.W. Hales. This was issued in connection
     with the Early English Text Society (but not as one of its
     Texts), through the energy of Mr. Furnivall, who had many
     difficulties to overcome before he was able to get
     permission to print the manuscript, which had been very
     faithfully guarded from the eyes of critics. He had to pay
     for the privilege, and in the end the old volume was sold to
     the nation, and it now reposes among the treasures of the
     British Museum. When this useful work was completed, Mr.
     Furnivall was anxious to follow it by a reprint of all the
     known collections of Ballads, such as the Roxburghe,
     Bagford, Rawlinson, Douce, etc., and for this purpose he
     started the Ballad Society in 1868. He himself edited some
     particularly interesting "Ballads from Manuscripts," and an
     elaborate account of Captain Cox's Ballads and Books in a
     new edition of Robert Laneham's Letter on the Entertainment
     at Kenilworth in 1575. The veteran Ballad illustrator, Mr.
     William Chappell, undertook to edit the "Roxburghe Ballads,"
     and produced nine parts, when the Rev. J.W. Ebsworth took
     the work off his hands. Mr. Ebsworth had previously
     reproduced the "Bagford Ballads," and he is now the
     editor-in-chief of the Society. The following is a short
     list of the publications of the Society: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 10,
     "Ballads from Manuscripts"; Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18,
     19. "The Roxburghe Ballads," edited by Wm. Chappell; No. 7,
     "Captain Cox, his Ballads and Books"; No. 11, "Love Poems
     and Humourous Ones"; Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17, "The Bagford
     Ballads." No. 20, "The Amanda Group of Bagford Ballads;"
     Nos. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, "The Roxburghe Ballads," edited
     by the Rev. J.W. Ebsworth. No. 26 completes the fifth volume
     of the "Roxburghe Ballads." There are two more volumes to
     come, and then Mr. Ebsworth will undertake "The Civil War
     and Protectorate Ballads." Much of the work on these volumes
     is done, and they only await an increase in the subscription
     list. It is to be hoped that when the good work done by the
     Ballad Society is better known, the editor will not be kept
     back in his useful course by the want of funds for printing.
     Mr. Ebsworth's thorough work is too well known to need
     praise here, but it may be noted that his volumes contain a
     remarkable amount of illustration of the manners of the time
     not to be obtained elsewhere. The value of this is the more
     apparent by the system of arrangement in marked periods
     which the editor has adopted.

     _The Chaucer Society_ was founded in 1868 by Mr. Furnivall,
     "to do honour to Chaucer, and to let the lovers and students
     of him see how far the best unprinted Manuscripts of his
     Works differed from the printed texts." For the Canterbury
     Tales, Mr. Furnivall has printed the six best unprinted MSS.
     in two forms--(1) in large oblong parts, giving the parallel
     texts; (2) in octavo, each text separately. The six
     manuscripts chosen are--The Ellesmere; The Lansdowne (Brit.
     Mus.); The Hengwrt; The Corpus, Oxford; The Cambridge
     (University Library); The Petworth. Dr. Furnivall has now
     added Harleian 7334 to complete the series. The Society's
     publications are issued in two series, of which the first
     contains the different Texts of Chaucer's Works, and the
     second such originals of and essays on these as can be
     procured, with other illustrative treatises and
     Supplementary Tales.

     _The Spenser Society_ was founded at Manchester in 1867 for
     the publication of well-printed editions of old English
     authors in limited numbers. The chief publication issued to
     subscribers was a reprint, in three volumes folio, of the
     works of John Taylor, the Water-poet, from the original
     folio. The other publications are in small quarto, and among
     them are the works of John Taylor not included in the folio,
     the works of Wither, etc.

     _The Roxburghe Library_ was a subscription series, commenced
     by Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt in 1868, with the same objects as a
     publishing society. It was discontinued in 1870. The
     following is a list of the publications:--"Romance of Paris
     and Vienne"; "William Browne's Complete Works," 2 vols.;
     "Inedited Tracts of the 16th and 17th Centuries
     (1579-1618)"; "The English Drama and Stage under the Tudor
     and Stuart Princes, 1543-1664"; "George Gascoigne's Complete
     Poems," 2 vols.; "Thomas Carew's Poems."

     _The Harleian Society_ was founded in 1869. Their chief
     publication has been the late Colonel Chester's
     magnificently edited Registers of Westminster Abbey. Other
     Registers published are those of St. Peter's, Cornhill; St.
     Dionis Backchurch; St. Mary Aldermary; St. Thomas the
     Apostle; St. Michael, Cornhill; St. Antholin, Budge Lane;
     and St. John the Baptist, on Wallbrook. Of the other
     publications there are Visitations of Bedfordshire,
     Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumberland, Devon, Essex,
     Leicestershire, London 1568, 1633, Nottingham, Oxford,
     Rutland, Somersetshire, Warwickshire, and Yorkshire, and Le
     Neve's Catalogue of Knights.

     _The Hunterian Club_ was founded at Glasgow in 1871, and
     named after the Hunterian Library in the University. Among
     the publications of the Club are a Series of Tracts by
     Thomas Lodge and Samuel Rowlands; the Poetical Works of
     Alexander Craig; Poetical Works of Patrick Hannay; Sir T.
     Overburie's Vision by Richard Niccols, 1616. The printing of
     the famous Bannatyne Manuscript, compiled by George
     Bannatyne, 1568, was commenced by the Society in 1873, and
     the seventh part, which completed this invaluable collection
     of Scottish Poetry, was issued in 1881.

     _The Folk Lore Society_ was founded by the late Mr. W.J.
     Thoms (inventor of the term Folk Lore) in 1878, and during
     the seven years of its existence it has done much valuable
     work, chiefly through the energetic direction of Mr. G.L.
     Gomme, the Hon. Sec. (now Director). The object of the
     Society is stated to be "the preservation and publication of
     Popular Traditions, Legendary Ballads, Local Proverbial
     Sayings, Superstitions and Old Customs (British and
     Foreign), and all subjects relating to them." The principal
     publication of the Society, the _Folk Lore Record_, now the
     _Folk Lore Journal_, was at first issued in volumes, and
     afterwards in monthly numbers. It is now a quarterly. The
     other publications are:--Henderson's Folk-Lore of the
     Northern Counties of England and the Borders, a new edition;
     Aubrey's Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme; Gregor's Notes
     on the Folk-Lore of the North-east of Scotland; Comparetti's
     Book of Sindibad and Pedroso's Portuguese Folk Tales;
     Black's Folk Medicine; Callaway's Religious System of the
     Amazulu.

     The year 1873 saw the formation of several publishing
     Societies.

     _The New Shakspere Society_ was founded by Dr. F.J.
     Furnivall, for the reading of papers, which have been
     published in a Series of Transactions, and also for the
     publication of collations of the Quarto Plays, and works
     illustrating the great Dramatist's times. Among the latter
     works are Harrison's Description of England, Stubbes's
     Anatomie of Abuses, Dr. Ingleby's Shakespeare's Centurie of
     Prayse, etc.

     _The English Dialect Society_ was founded at Cambridge by
     the Rev. Professor Skeat. Its objects are stated to be (1)
     to bring together all those who have made a study of any of
     the Provincial Dialects of England, or who are interested in
     the subject of Provincial English; (2) to combine the
     labours of collectors of Provincial English words by
     providing a common centre to which they may be sent, so as
     to gather material for a general record of all such words;
     (3) to publish (subject to proper revision) such collections
     of Provincial English words that exist at present only in
     manuscript; as well as to reprint such Glossaries of
     provincial words as are not generally accessible, or are
     inserted in books of which the main part relates to other
     subjects; and (4) to supply references to sources of
     information which may be of material assistance to
     word-collectors, students, and all who have a general or
     particular interest in the subject. The publications are
     arranged under the following Series: A, Bibliographical; B,
     Reprinted Glossaries; C, Original Glossaries; D,
     Miscellaneous. In 1875 the Society was transferred to
     Manchester, and Mr. J.H. Nodal became Honorary Secretary.

     _The Palæographical Society_ was formed for the purpose of
     reproducing Specimens of Manuscripts, and it has produced a
     Series of Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts, edited by E.A.
     Bond and E.M. Thompson, Part 1 being issued in 1873.

     At the end of the year 1877 _The Index Society_ was founded
     for the purpose of producing (1) Indexes of Standard Works;
     (2) Subject Indexes of Science, Literature and Art; and (3)
     a General Reference Index. The publications were commenced
     in 1878, and the First Annual Meeting was held in March,
     1879, the Earl of Carnarvon being the first President. The
     first publication was "What is an Index?" by H.B. Wheatley.
     Among the important books issued by the Society may be
     mentioned Solly's "Index of Hereditary Titles of Honour";
     Daydon Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany" and
     "Literature of Vegetable Technology," and Rye's "Index of
     Norfolk Topography."

     The _Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies_ was
     founded in 1879 for the following objects: (1) To advance
     the study of the Greek language, literature, and art, and to
     illustrate the history of the Greek race in the ancient,
     Byzantine, and Neo-Hellenic periods, by the publication of
     memoirs and inedited documents or monuments in a Journal to
     be issued periodically. (2) To collect drawings, facsimiles,
     transcripts, plans, and photographs of Greek inscriptions,
     MSS., works of art, ancient sites and remains, and with this
     view to invite travellers to communicate to the Society
     notes or sketches of archæological and topographical
     interest. (3) To organise means by which members of the
     Society may have increased facilities for visiting ancient
     sites and pursuing archæological researches in countries
     which, at any time, have been the sites of Hellenic
     civilization. Five volumes of the _Journal_ have been
     issued.

     _The Topographical Society of London_ was formed in 1880.
     The Inaugural Meeting was held at the Mansion House, and the
     first Annual Meeting at Drapers' Hall on Feb. 3, 1882, with
     the Lord Mayor (Sir John Whitaker Ellis), President, in the
     chair. The following reproductions have been issued to
     subscribers:--Van der Wyngaerde's View of London, ab. 1550,
     7 sheets; Braun & Hogenberg's Plan of London, 1 sheet;
     Visscher's View of London, 4 sheets.

     _The Browning Society_ was founded by Dr. Furnivall in
     1881, and besides papers read at the meetings, the Society
     has issued Dr. Furnivall's "Bibliography of Browning."

     _The Wyclif Society_ was founded also by Dr. Furnivall in
     1882, for the publication of the complete works of the great
     Reformer.

     _The Pipe Roll Society_ was established in 1883, and in 1885
     the first three volumes of its publications have been issued
     to the members. These are--Vol. 1, Pipe Rolls, 5 Hen. II.;
     Vol. 2, 6 Hen. II.; Vol. 3, Introduction.

     _The Oxford Historical Society_ was formed in 1884, and four
     handsome volumes have been issued for that year and 1885.
     These are--1, "Register of the University of Oxford" (vol.
     1, 1449-63, 1505-71), edited by the Rev. C.W. Boase; 2,
     "Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne" (vol. 1, July 4,
     1705-March 19, 1707), edited by C.E. Doble, M.A. Both these
     volumes are supplied with temporary Indexes. 3, "The Early
     History of Oxford, 727-1100," by James Parker; 4, "Memories
     of Merton College," by the Hon. George C. Brodrick; 5,
     "Collectanea." First Series. Edited by C.R.L. Fletcher.

     _The Middlesex County Record Society_ was formed in 1885
     "for the purpose of publishing the more interesting portions
     of the old County Records of Middlesex, which have lately
     been arranged and calendared by order of the Justices."
     Nothing has been published as yet, but Mr. Cordy Jeaffreson
     is engaged upon the first two volumes, one of which will be
     issued shortly.

     The Rev. Dr. A.B. Grosart has himself printed by
     subscription more works of our Old Writers than many a
     Society, and therefore it is necessary to mention his
     labours here, although a complete list of them cannot be
     given. The chief series are: "The Fuller Worthies Library,"
     39 volumes; "The Chertsey Worthies Library," 14 vols. 4to.,
     and "The Huth Library."



CHAPTER VIII.

CHILD'S LIBRARY.


The idea of a Child's Library is to a great extent modern, and it is not
altogether clear that it is a good one, except in the case of those
children who have no books of their own. It is far better that each child
should have his own good books, which he can read over and over again,
thus thoroughly mastering their contents.

It is a rather wide-spread notion that there is some sort of virtue in
reading for reading's sake, although really a reading boy may be an idle
boy. When a book is read, it should be well thought over before another is
begun, for reading without thought generates no ideas.

One advantage of a Child's Library should be that the reader is
necessarily forced to be careful, so as to return the books uninjured.
This is a very important point, for children should be taught from their
earliest years to treat books well, and not to destroy them as they often
do. We might go farther than this and say that children should be taught
at school how to handle a book. It is really astonishing to see how few
persons (not necessarily children) among those who have not grown up among
books know how to handle them. It is positive torture to a man who loves
books to see the way they are ordinarily treated. Of course it is not
necessary to mention the crimes of wetting the fingers to turn over the
leaves, or turning down pages to mark the place; but those who ought to
know better will turn a book over on its face at the place where they have
left off reading, or will turn over pages so carelessly that they give a
crease to each which will never come out.

For a healthy education it is probably best that a child should have the
run of a library for adults (always provided that dangerous books are
carefully excluded). A boy is much more likely to enjoy and find benefit
from the books he selects himself than from those selected for him.

The circumstances of the child should be considered in the selection of
books; thus it is scarcely fair when children are working hard at school
all day that they should be made to read so-called instructive books in
the evening. They have earned the right to relaxation and should be
allowed good novels. To some boys books of Travels and History are more
acceptable than novels, but all children require some Fiction, and, save
in a few exceptional cases, their imaginations require to be cultivated.

It will soon be seen whether children have healthy or unhealthy tastes. If
healthy, they are best left to themselves; if unhealthy, they must be
directed.

It is easy for the seniors to neglect the children they have under them,
and it is easy to direct them overmuch, but it is difficult to watch and
yet let the children go their own way. We are apt, in arranging for
others, to be too instructive; nothing is less acceptable to children or
less likely to do them good than to be preached at. Moral reflections in
books are usually skipped by children, and unless somewhat out of the
common, probably by grown-up persons as well. Instruction should grow
naturally out of the theme itself, and form an integral part of it, so
that high aims and noble thoughts may naturally present themselves to the
readers.

One of the chapters in the United States Libraries' Report is on "School
and Asylum Libraries" (pp. 38-59), in which we are informed that New York
was the pioneer in founding school libraries. "In 1827 Governor De Witt
Clinton, in his message to the legislature, recommended their formation;
but it was not till 1835 that the friends of free schools saw their hopes
realized in the passage of a law which permitted the voters in any school
district to levy a tax of $20 to begin a library, and a tax of $10 each
succeeding year to provide for its increase."

Another chapter in the same Report is on "Public Libraries and the Young"
(pp. 412-418), in which Mr. Wm. J. Fletcher advocates the use of the
library as an addition to the school course. He writes, "It only remains
now to say that, as we have before intimated, the public library should be
viewed as an adjunct of the public school system, and to suggest that in
one or two ways the school may work together with the library in directing
the reading of the young. There is the matter of themes for the writing of
compositions; by selecting subjects on which information can be had at the
library, the teacher can send the pupil to the library as a student, and
readily put him in communication with, and excite his interest in, classes
of books to which he has been a stranger and indifferent."

A very interesting book on this subject is entitled "Libraries and
Schools. Papers selected by Samuel S. Green. New York (F. Leypoldt),
1883." It contains the following subjects: "The Public Library and the
Public Schools;" "The Relation of the Public Library to the Public
Schools"; "Libraries as Educational Institutions"; "The Public Library as
an Auxiliary to the Public Schools"; "The Relation of Libraries to the
School System"; and "A Plan of Systematic Training in Reading at School."

"_Books for the Young, a Guide for Parents and Children._ Compiled by C.
M. Hewins. New York (F. Leypoldt), 1882," is an extremely useful little
book. It contains a valuable list of books arranged in classes. Certain
marks are used to indicate the character of the books, thus the letter
(_c_) indicates that the book is especially suitable for children under
ten, (_b_) that it is especially suitable for boys, and (_g_) that it is
especially suitable for girls.

Prefixed are eight sensible rules as to how to teach the right use of
books.

Perkins's "Best Reading" contains a good list of books for children (pp.
299-303).

The children's books of the present day are so beautifully produced that
the elders are naturally induced to exclaim, "We never had such books as
these," but probably we enjoyed our books as well as our children do
theirs. What a thrill of pleasure the middle-aged man feels when a book
which amused his childhood comes in his way: this, however, is seldom, for
time has laid his decaying hand upon them--

    "All, all are gone, the old familiar faces."

The children for whom Miss Kate Greenaway and Mr. Caldecott draw and Mrs.
Gatty and Mrs. Ewing wrote are indeed fortunate, but we must not forget
that Charles and Mary Lamb wrote delightful books for the young, that Miss
Edgeworth's stories are ever fresh, and that one of the most charming
children's stories ever written is Mrs. Sherwood's _Little Woodman_.

A short list of a Child's Library is quoted in the _Library Journal_ (vol.
viii. p. 57) from the _Woman's Journal_. The family for whom it was chosen
consisted of children from three to twelve, the two eldest being girls.
The books are mostly American, and but little known in this country--

  Snow-bound. Illustrated. Whittier.
  Life of Longfellow. Kennedy.
  A Summer in the Azores. Baker.
  Among the Isles of Shoals. Celia Thaxter.
  The boys of '76. Coffin.
  The boys of '61. Coffin.
  Story of our Country. Higginson.
  Sir Walter Raleigh. Towle.
  Child's History of England. Dickens.
  Tales from Shakespear. Lamb.
  Tales from Homer. Church.
  The Wonder-book. Illustrated. Hawthorne.
  Young folks' book of poetry. Campbell.
  Poetry for childhood. Eliot.
  Bits of talk about home matters. H.H.
  The Seven Little Sisters. Andrews.
  Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates. Dodge.
  Room for one more. Mary T. Higginson.
  King Arthur for boys. Lanier.
  Doings of the Bodley family. Scudder.
  Mother-play and Nursery-rhymes.
  Children's Robinson Crusoe.
  The four-footed lovers.
  Mammy Tittleback and her family. H.H.
  The Little Prudy books. Six volumes.

The editor of the _Library Journal_ remarks on the list, "Guest's Lectures
on English History is better than Dickens's, and the 'Prudy' children are
so mischievous, so full of young Americanisms, and so far from being
'wells of English undefiled,' that they are not always good companions for
boys and girls. I have known a child's English spoiled by reading the
Prudy books."

Some of the old-fashioned children's books have been reprinted, and these
will generally be found very acceptable to healthy-minded children, but
some of the old books are not easily met with. No Child's Library should
be without a good collection of Fairy Tales, a careful selection of the
Arabian Nights, or Robinson Crusoe. Gulliver's Travels is very unsuited for
children, although often treated as a child's book. Berquin's _Children's
Friend_, Edgeworth's _Parent's Assistant_ and the Aikins's _Evenings at
Home_, will surely still amuse children, although some may think their
teaching too didactic. It is only by practical experience that we can tell
what children will like. _Sandford and Merton_ is, I believe, usually
considered as hopelessly out of date, but I have found young hearers
follow my reading of it with the greatest interest. _The Pilgrim's
Progress_ will always have as great a fascination for the young as it must
have for their elders; but there is much preaching in it which must be
skipped, or the attention of the hearers will flag.



CHAPTER IX.

ONE HUNDRED BOOKS.


In the Fourth Chapter of this Volume two lists of selected books are
given, viz. The Comtist's Library, and a list of one hundred good novels.
Since that chapter was written and printed, much public attention has been
drawn to this branch of our subject by the publication of Sir John
Lubbock's list of books which he recommended to the members of the Working
Men's College, when he lectured at that place on "Books." The comments by
eminent men, which have appeared in the _Pall Mall Gazette_, have also
attracted attention, and it seems desirable that some note on this list
should appear in these pages.

The list issued by the _Pall Mall Gazette_ is as follows:

NON-CHRISTIAN MORALISTS.

  Marcus Aurelius, _Meditations_.
  Epictetus, _Encheiridion_.
  Confucius, _Analects_.
  Aristotle, _Ethics_.
  Mahomet, _Koran_.

THEOLOGY AND DEVOTION.

  Apostolic Fathers, _Wake's Collection_.
  St. Augustine, _Confessions_.
  Thomas à Kempis, _Imitation_
  Pascal, _Pensées_.
  Spinoza, _Tractatus Theologico-Politicus_.
  Butler, _Analogy_.
  Jeremy Taylor, _Holy Living and Holy Dying_.
  Keble, _Christian Year_.
  Bunyan, _Pilgrim's Progress_.

CLASSICS.

  Aristotle, _Politics_.
  Plato, _Phædo_ and _Republic_.
  Æsop, _Fables_.
  Demosthenes, _De Coronâ_.
  Lucretius.
  Plutarch.
  Horace.
  Cicero, _De Officiis_, _De Amicitiâ_, and _De Senectute_.

EPIC POETRY.

  Homer, _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_.
  Hesiod.
  Virgil.
  Niebelungenlied.
  Malory, _Morte d'Arthur_.

EASTERN POETRY.

  _Mahabharata_ and _Ramayana_ (epitomised by Talboys Wheeler).
  Firdausi, _Shah-nameh_ (translated by Atkinson).
  _She-king_ (Chinese Odes).

GREEK DRAMATISTS.

  Æschylus, _Prometheus_, _The House of Atreus_, Trilogy, or _Persæ_.
  Sophocles, _OEdipus_, Trilogy.
  Euripides, _Medea_.
  Aristophanes, _The Knights_.

HISTORY.

  Herodotus.
  Thucydides.
  Xenophon, _Anabasis_.
  Tacitus, _Germania_.
  Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_.
  Voltaire, _Charles XII._ or _Louis XIV._
  Hume, _England_.
  Grote, _Greece_.

PHILOSOPHY.

  Bacon, _Novum Organum_.
  Mill, _Logic_ and _Political Economy_.
  Darwin, _Origin of Species_.
  Smith, _Wealth of Nations_ (selection).
  Berkeley, _Human Knowledge_.
  Descartes, _Discourse sur la Méthode_.
  Locke, _Conduct of the Understanding_.
  Lewes, _History of Philosophy_.

TRAVELS.

  Cook, _Voyages_.
  Darwin, _Naturalist in the Beagle_.

POETRY AND GENERAL LITERATURE.

  Shakspeare.
  Milton.
  Dante.
  Spenser.
  Scott.
  Wordsworth.
  Pope.
  Southey.
  Longfellow.
  Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_.
  Swift, _Gulliver's Travels_.
  Defoe, _Robinson Crusoe_.
  _The Arabian Nights._
  _Don Quixote._
  Boswell, _Johnson_.
  Burke, _Select Works_.
  Essayists--Addison, Hume, Montaigne, Macaulay, Emerson.
  Molière.
  Sheridan.
  Carlyle, _Past and Present_ and _French Revolution_.
  Goethe, _Faust_ and _Wilhelm Meister_.
  Marivaux, _La Vie de Marianne_.

MODERN FICTION.

  Selections from--Thackeray, Dickens, George Eliot, Kingsley, Scott,
  Bulwer-Lytton.

It must be borne in mind by the reader that this list, although the one
sent round for criticism by the editor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_, is not
really Sir John Lubbock's. This will be found on p. 240. Sir John
Lubbock's address was not given in full, and the list drawn up by the
_Pall Mall_, from the reports in the daily papers, contained in fact only
about 85 books.

It seems necessary to allude particularly to this imperfect list, because
it is the only one upon which the critics were asked to give an opinion,
and their criticisms are peculiarly interesting, as they give us an
important insight into the tastes and opinions of our teachers. In itself
it is almost impossible to make a list that will be practically useful,
because tastes and needs differ so widely, that a course of reading
suitable for one man may be quite unsuitable for another. It is also very
doubtful whether a conscientious passage through a "cut-and-dried" list of
books will feed the mind as a more original selection by each reader
himself would do. It is probably best to start the student well on his way
and then leave him to pursue it according to his own tastes. Each book
will help him to another, and consultation with some of the many manuals
of English literature will guide him towards a good choice. This is in
effect what Mr. Bond, Principal Librarian of the British Museum, says in
his reply, to the circular of the editor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_. He
writes "The result of several persons putting down the titles of books
they considered 'best reading' would be an interesting but very imperfect
bibliography of as many sections of literature;" and, again, "The beginner
should be advised to read histories of the literature of his own and
other countries--as Hallam's 'Introduction to the Literature of Europe,'
Joseph Warton's 'History of English Poetry,' Craik's 'History of English
Literature,' Paine's History, and others of the same class. These would
give him a survey of the field, and would quicken his taste for what was
naturally most congenial to him."

There probably is no better course of reading than that which will
naturally occur to one who makes an honest attempt to master our own noble
literature. This is sufficient for the lifetime of most men without
incursions into foreign literature. All cultivated persons will wish to
become acquainted with the masterpieces of other nations, but this
diversion will not be advisable if it takes the reader away from the study
of the masterpieces of his own literature.

Turning to the comments on the _Pall Mall Gazette's_ list, we may note one
or two of the most important criticisms. The Prince of Wales very justly
suggested that Dryden should not be omitted from such a list. Mr.
Chamberlain asked whether the Bible was excluded by accident or design,
and Mr. Irving suggested that the Bible and Shakespeare form together a
very comprehensive library.

Mr. Ruskin's reply is particularly interesting, for he adds but little,
contenting himself with the work of destruction. He writes, "Putting my
pen lightly through the needless--and blottesquely through the rubbish and
poison of Sir John's list--I leave enough for a life's liberal
reading--and choice for any true worker's loyal reading. I have added one
quite vital and essential book--Livy (the two first books), and three
plays of Aristophanes (_Clouds_, _Birds_, and _Plutus_). Of travels, I
read myself all old ones I can get hold of; of modern, Humboldt is the
central model. Forbes (James Forbes in Alps) is essential to the modern
Swiss tourist--of sense." Mr. Ruskin puts the word _all_ to Plato,
_everything_ to Carlyle, and _every word_ to Scott. Pindar's name he adds
in the list of the classics, and after Bacon's name he writes "chiefly the
_New Atlantis_."

The work of destruction is marked by the striking out of all the
_Non-Christian Moralists_, of all the Theology and Devotion, with the
exception of Jeremy Taylor and the _Pilgrim's Progress_. The
Nibelungenlied and Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_ (which, by the way, is in
prose) go out, as do Sophocles and Euripides among the Greek Dramatists.
_The Knights_ is struck out to make way for the three plays of
Aristophanes mentioned above. Gibbon, Voltaire, Hume, and Grote all go, as
do all the philosophers but Bacon. Cook's Voyages and Darwin's Naturalist
in the _Beagle_ share a similar fate. Southey, Longfellow, Swift, Hume,
Macaulay, and Emerson, Goethe and Marivaux, all are so unfortunate as to
have Mr. Ruskin's pen driven through their names. Among the novelists
Dickens and Scott only are left. The names of Thackeray, George Eliot,
Kingsley, and Bulwer-Lytton are all erased.

Mr. Ruskin sent a second letter full of wisdom till he came to his reasons
for striking out Grote's "History of Greece," "Confessions of St.
Augustine," John Stuart Mill, Charles Kingsley, Darwin, Gibbon, and
Voltaire. With these reasons it is to be hoped that few readers will
agree.

Mr. Swinburne makes a new list of his own which is very characteristic.
No. 3 consists of "Selections from the Bible: comprising Job, the Psalms,
Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Joel; the Gospels of
St. Matthew and St. Luke, the Gospel and the First Epistle of St. John and
Epistle of St. James." No. 12 is Villon, and Nos. 45 to 49 consist of the
plays of Ford, Dekker, Tourneur, Marston, and Middleton; names very dear
to the lover of our old Drama, but I venture to think names somewhat
inappropriate in a list of books for a reader who does not make the drama
a speciality. Lamb's Selections would be sufficient for most readers.

Mr. William Morris supplies a full list with explanations, which are of
considerable interest as coming from that distinguished poet.

Archdeacon Farrar gives, perhaps, the best test for a favourite author,
that is, the selection of his works in the event of all others being
destroyed. He writes, "But if all the books in the world were in a blaze,
the first twelve which I should snatch out of the flames would be the
Bible, _Imitatio Christi_, Homer, Æschylus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Virgil,
Marcus Aurelius, Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth. Of living authors
I would save first the works of Tennyson, Browning and Ruskin."

Another excellent test is that set up by travellers and soldiers. A book
must be good when one of either of these classes decides to place it among
his restricted baggage. Mr. H.M. Stanley writes, "You ask me what books I
carried with me to take across Africa. I carried a great many--three
loads, or about 180 lbs. weight; but as my men lessened in numbers,
stricken by famine, fighting and sickness, they were one by one
reluctantly thrown away, until finally, when less than 300 miles from the
Atlantic, I possessed only the Bible, Shakespeare, Carlyle's Sartor
Resartus, Norie's Navigation, and Nautical Almanac for 1877. Poor
Shakspeare was afterwards burned by demand of the foolish people of Zinga.
At Bonea, Carlyle and Norie and Nautical Almanac were pitched away, and I
had only the old Bible left." He then proceeds to give a list of books
which he allowed himself when "setting out with a tidy battalion of men."

Lord Wolseley writes, "During the mutiny and China war I carried a
Testament, two volumes of Shakespeare that contained his best plays, and
since then, when in the field, I have always carried: Book of Common
Prayer, Thomas à Kempis, Soldier's Pocket Book.... The book that I like
reading at odd moments is 'The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius.'" He then
adds, for any distant expedition, a few books of History (Creasy's
"Decisive Battles," Plutarch's "Lives," Voltaire's "Charles XII.,"
"Cæsar," by Froude, and Hume's "England"). His Fiction is confined to
Macaulay's "History of England" and the "Essays."

Mr. Quaritch remarks that "Sir John's 'working man' is an ideal creature.
I have known many working men, but none of them could have suggested such
a feast as he has prepared for them." He adds, "In my younger days I had
no books whatever beyond my school books. Arrived in London in 1842, I
joined a literary institution, and read all their historical works. To
read fiction I had no time. A friend of mine read novels all night long,
and was one morning found dead in his bed." If Mr. Quaritch intends this
as a warning, he should present the fact for the consideration of those
readers who swell the numbers of novels in the statistics of the Free
Libraries.

Looking at the _Pall Mall Gazette's_ list, it naturally occurs to us that
it would be a great error for an Englishman to arrange his reading so that
he excluded Chaucer while he included Confucius. Among the names of modern
novelists it is strange that Jane Austen and Charlotte Brontë should have
been omitted. In Sir John Lubbock's own list it will be seen that the
names of Chaucer and Miss Austen occur. Among Essayists one would like to
have seen at least the names of Charles Lamb, De Quincey, and Landor, and
many will regret to find such delightful writers as Walton and Thomas
Fuller omitted. We ought, however, to be grateful to Sir John Lubbock for
raising a valuable discussion which is likely to draw the attention of
many readers to books which might otherwise have been most unjustly
neglected by them.[69]

The following is Sir John Lubbock's list. It will be seen that several of
the books, whose absence is remarked on, do really form part of the list,
and that the objections of the critics are so far met.

  _The Bible._

         *       *       *       *       *

  Marcus Aurelius, _Meditations_.
  Epictetus.
  Confucius, _Analects_.
  _Le Bouddha et sa Religion_ (St.-Hilaire).
  Aristotle, _Ethics_.
  Mahomet, _Koran_ (parts of).

         *       *       *       *       *

  _Apostolic Fathers_, Wake's collection.
  St. Augustine, _Confessions_.
  Thomas à Kempis, _Imitation_.
  Pascal, _Pensées_.
  Spinoza, _Tractatus Theologico-Politicus_.
  Comte, _Cat. of Positive Philosophy_ (Congreve).
  Butler, _Analogy_.
  Jeremy Taylor, _Holy Living and Holy Dying_.
  Bunyan, _Pilgrim's Progress_.
  Keble, _Christian Year_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Aristotle, _Politics_.
  Plato's Dialogues--at any rate the _Phædo_ and _Republic_.
  Demosthenes, _De Coronâ_.
  Lucretius.
  Plutarch.
  Horace.
  Cicero, _De Officiis_, _De Amicitiâ_, _De Senectute_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Homer, _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_.
  Hesiod.
  Virgil.
  Niebelungenlied.
  Malory, _Morte d'Arthur_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Maha-Bharata, _Ramayana_, epitomized by Talboys
  Wheeler in the first two vols. of his _History of India_.
  Firdusi, _Shah-nameh_. Translated by Atkinson.
  _She-king_ (Chinese Odes).

         *       *       *       *       *

  Æschylus, _Prometheus_, _House of Atreus_, Trilogy, or _Persæ_.
  Sophocles, _OEdipus_, Trilogy.
  Euripides, _Medea_,
  Aristophanes, _The Knights_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Herodotus.
  Xenophon, _Anabasis_.
  Thucydides.
  Tacitus, _Germania_.
  Livy.
  Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_.
  Hume, _England_.
  Grote, _Greece_.
  Carlyle, _French Revolution_.
  Green, _Short History of England_.
  Bacon, _Novum Organum_.
  Mill, _Logic_ and _Political Economy_.
  Darwin, _Origin of Species_.
  Smith, _Wealth of Nations_ (part of).
  Berkeley, _Human Knowledge_.
  Descartes, _Discours sur la Méthode_.
  Locke, _Conduct of the Understanding_.
  Lewes, _History of Philosophy_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Cook, _Voyages_.
  Humboldt, _Travels_.
  Darwin, _Naturalist in the Beagle_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Shakespeare.
  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, and the shorter poems.
  Dante, _Divina Commedia_.
  Spenser, _Faerie Queen_.
  Dryden's Poems.
  Chaucer, Morris's (or, if expurgated, Clarke's or Mrs. Haweis's) edition.
  Gray.
  Burns.
  Scott's Poems.
  Wordsworth, Mr. Arnold's selection.
  Heine.
  Pope.
  Southey.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_.
  Swift, _Gulliver's Travels_.
  Defoe, _Robinson Crusoe_.
  _The Arabian Nights._
  Cervantes, _Don Quixote_.
  Boswell, _Johnson_.
  Burke, _Select Works_ (Payne).
  Essayists:--Bacon, Addison, Hume, Montaigne, Macaulay, Emerson.
  Molière.
  Sheridan.

  Voltaire, _Zadig_.
  Carlyle, _Past and Present_.
  Goethe, _Faust_, _Wilhelm Meister_.
  White, _Natural History of Selborne_.
  Smiles, _Self Help_.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Miss Austen, either _Emma_ or _Pride and Prejudice_.
  Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ and _Pendennis_.
  Dickens, _Pickwick_ and _David Copperfield_.
  George Eliot, _Adam Bede_.
  Kingsley, _Westward Ho_!
  Bulwer-Lytton, _Last Days of Pompeii_.
  Scott's Novels.

FOOTNOTES:

[69] The whole of the correspondence has been reissued as a _Pall Mall
"Extra"_ No. 24, and threepence will be well laid out by the purchaser of
this very interesting pamphlet.



INDEX.


  Abbotsford Club, 187.

  Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, Indecent books turned out, 18.

  Ælfric Society, 195.

  Arundel Society, 200.

  Authors, Bibliographies of particular, 181.


  Ballad Society, 206.

  Bannatyne Club, 186.

  Bibliographies (General), 141-159.

  ---- (Special), 160-183.

  Bindings in Charles I.'s Cabinet, 29.

  Book Collectors, 23.

  Books, One Hundred, 227-244.

  Booksellers, Use of, 58.

  Bossange (Hector), Ma Bibliothèque Française, 7.

  Burton's Book Hunter, 2, 53, 196.

  Buy, How to, 57-72.


  Calvin Translation Society, 197.

  Camden Society, 190.

  Catalogues of Public Libraries, 141.

  Cavendish Society, 199.

  Caxton Society, 198.

  Chaucer Society, 28.[TN 208]

  Chetham Society, 195.

  Child's Library, 217-226.

  Comte's Positivist Library, 131.


  Dibdin's Library Companion, 2.

  Dilettanti Society, 184.

  Durie's Reformed Librarie Keeper, 13.


  Early English Text Society, 203.

  Ecclesiastical History Society, 199.

  Edwards (Edward), Report on Formation of Manchester Free Library, 4.
  ---- Memoirs of Libraries, 5, 63.
  ---- Libraries and Founders of Libraries, 29, 44.

  English Dialect Society, 212.

  English Historical Society, 191.


  Fiction in Public Libraries, 81.

  Folk Lore Society, 210.

  Franklin's foundation of the Philadelphia Library, 77.


  George III.'s list of books, 14.

  Goodhugh's Library Manual, 3.


  Hakluyt Society, 200.

  Handel Society, 198.

  Hanserd Knollys Society, 198.

  Harleian Society, 209.

  Hellenic Studies, Society for the promotion of, 213.

  Hunterian Club, 210.


  Index Society, 213.

  Iona Club, 189.


  Johnson's (Dr.) List of Books, 15.


  Libraries, How men have Formed them, 23-56.

  ---- (Cathedral), 75.

  ---- (Monastic), 25.

  ---- (Private), 89-140.

  ---- (Public), 73-88.

  ---- United States Report on, 20, 75, 220.

  Louis XVI., his books during his captivity, 43.

  Lubbock's (Sir John), List of Books, 227-244.


  Maitland Club, 187.

  Manx Society, 202.

  Middlesex County Record Society, 215.

  Motett Society, 194.

  Musical Antiquarian Society, 194.


  Napoleon's Libraries, 44.

  Naudé, Gilbert [TN Gabriel], 9.

  Novels, One Hundred Good, 138.

  ---- in Public Libraries, 81.


  Oriental Texts, Society for the Publication of, 194.

  Oriental Translation Fund, 189.

  Ossianic Society, 202.

  Oxford Historical Society, 215.


  Palæographical Society, 213.

  Palæontographical Society, 200.

  Parker Society, 192.

  Percy Society, 193.

  Perkins's Best Reading, 8.

  Philobiblon Society, 201.

  Pipe Roll Society, 215.

  Positivist Library, 131.

  Printers, Bibliographies of celebrated, 176.


  Ray Society, 198.

  Reference, Books of, 91-129.

  Roxburghe Club, 185.

  Roxburghe Library, 209.


  Sales, How to Buy at, 63.

  Shakespeare Society, 193.

  Shakspere (New) Society, 211.

  Societies (Publishing), 184-216.

  Spalding Club, 191.

  Spenser Society, 209.

  Spottiswoode Society, 195.

  Stevens (Henry), "My English Library," 6.
  ---- his paper on Mr. James Lenox, 55, 64.

  Surtees Society, 189.

  Sydenham Society, 195.


  Topographical Bibliographies, 179.

  Topographical Society of London, 214.


  Warton Club, 202.

  Wernerian Club, 198.

  Wodrow Society, 194.

  Wyclif Society, 215

[Illustration]


Transcriber's Note
Inconsistent spelling retained.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How to Form a Library, 2nd ed" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home