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Title: The 'Pioneer': Light Passenger Locomotive of 1851 - United States Bulletin 240, Contributions from the Museum - of History and Technology, paper 42, 1964
Author: White, John H., 1933-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 'Pioneer': Light Passenger Locomotive of 1851 - United States Bulletin 240, Contributions from the Museum - of History and Technology, paper 42, 1964" ***

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[Transcriber's Notes:

   This is Paper 42 from the Smithsonian Institution United States
   National Museum Bulletin 240, comprising Papers 34-44, which will
   also be available as a complete e-book.

   The front material, introduction and relevant index entries from
   the Bulletin are included in each single-paper e-book.

   The Sections entitled "Alba F. Smith" and "Seth Wilmarth" appear
   in the original as boxed "side bars". They have been moved, along
   with Figure 13, from their original locations to the end of the
   paper to preserve the flow of the text.

   Typographical errors have been corrected as follows:
      p259: "as late as 1880 and has been under steam" (was stream).
      p267: "made with parabolic reflectors" (was parobolic).]








_Papers 34-44_
_On Science and Technology_


_Publications of the United States National Museum_

The scholarly and scientific publications of the United States National
Museum include two series, _Proceedings of the United States National
Museum_ and _United States National Museum Bulletin_.

In these series, the Museum publishes original articles and monographs
dealing with the collections and work of its constituent
museums--The Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History
and Technology--setting forth newly acquired facts in the fields of
anthropology, biology, history, geology, and technology. Copies of each
publication are distributed to libraries, to cultural and scientific
organizations, and to specialists and others interested in the different

The _Proceedings_, begun in 1878, are intended for the publication, in
separate form, of shorter papers from the Museum of Natural History.
These are gathered in volumes, octavo in size, with the publication date
of each paper recorded in the table of contents of the volume.

In the _Bulletin_ series, the first of which was issued in 1875, appear
longer, separate publications consisting of monographs (occasionally in
several parts) and volumes in which are collected works on related
subjects. _Bulletins_ are either octavo or quarto in size, depending on
the needs of the presentation. Since 1902 papers relating to the
botanical collections of the Museum of Natural History have been
published in the _Bulletin_ series under the heading _Contributions from
the United States National Herbarium_, and since 1959, in _Bulletins_
titled "Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology," have
been gathered shorter papers relating to the collections and research of
that Museum.

The present collection of Contributions, Papers 34-44, comprises
Bulletin 240. Each of these papers has been previously published in
separate form. The year of publication is shown on the last page of each

_Director, United States National Museum_



_John H. White_






[Illustration: Figure 1.--THE "PIONEER," BUILT IN 1851, shown here as
renovated and exhibited in the Museum of History and Technology, 1964.
In 1960 the locomotive was given to the Smithsonian Institution by the
Pennsylvania Railroad through John S. Fair, Jr. (Smithsonian photo

_John H. White_


_In the Museum of History and Technology_

    _In the mid-nineteenth century there was a renewed interest in
    the light, single-axle locomotives which were proving so very
    successful for passenger traffic. These engines were built in
    limited number by nearly every well-known maker, and among the
    few remaining is the 6-wheel "Pioneer," on display in the Museum
    of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. This
    locomotive is a true representation of a light passenger
    locomotive of 1851 and a historic relic of the mid-nineteenth

    THE AUTHOR: _John H. White is associate curator of
    transportation in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of
    History and Technology._

The "PIONEER" is an unusual locomotive and on first inspection would
seem to be imperfect for service on an American railroad of the 1850's.
This locomotive has only one pair of driving wheels and no truck, an
arrangement which marks it as very different from the highly successful
standard 8-wheel engine of this period. All six wheels of the _Pioneer_
are rigidly attached to the frame. It is only half the size of an
8-wheel engine of 1851 and about the same size of the 4--2--0 so common
in this country some 20 years earlier. Its general arrangement is that
of the rigid English locomotive which had, years earlier, proven
unsuitable for use on U.S. railroads.

These objections are more apparent than real, for the _Pioneer_, and
other engines of the same design, proved eminently successful when used
in the service for which they were built, that of light passenger
traffic. The _Pioneer's_ rigid wheelbase is no problem, for when it is
compared to that of an 8-wheel engine it is found to be about four feet
less; and its small size is no problem when we realize it was not
intended for heavy service. Figure 2, a diagram, is a comparison of the
_Pioneer_ and a standard 8-wheel locomotive.

Since the service life of the _Pioneer_ was spent on the Cumberland
Valley Railroad, a brief account of that line is necessary to an
understanding of the service history of this locomotive.

    _Exhibits of the "Pioneer"_

    The _Pioneer_ has been a historic relic since 1901. In the fall
    of that year minor repairs were made to the locomotive so that
    it might be used in the sesquicentennial celebration at
    Carlisle, Pennsylvania. On October 22, 1901, the engine was
    ready for service, but as it neared Carlisle a copper flue
    burst. The fire was extinguished and the _Pioneer_ was pushed
    into town by another engine. In the twentieth century, the
    _Pioneer_ was displayed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
    St. Louis, Missouri, in 1904, and at the Wheeling, West
    Virginia, semicentennial in 1913. In 1927 it joined many other
    historic locomotives at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's "Fair
    of the Iron Horse" which commemorated the first one hundred
    years of that company. From about 1913 to 1925 the _Pioneer_
    also appeared a number of times at the Apple-blossom Festival
    at Winchester, Virginia. In 1933-1934 it was displayed at the
    World's Fair in Chicago, and in 1948 at the Railroad Fair in the
    same city. Between 1934 and March 1947 it was exhibited at the
    Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The Cumberland Valley Railroad

The Cumberland Valley Railroad (C.V.R.R.) was chartered on April 2,
1831, to connect the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers by a railroad
through the Cumberland Valley in south-central Pennsylvania. The
Cumberland Valley, with its rich farmland and iron-ore deposits, was a
natural north-south route long used as a portage between these two
rivers. Construction began in 1836, and because of the level valley some
52 miles of line was completed between Harrisburg and Chambersburg by
November 16, 1837. In 1860, by way of the Franklin Railroad, the line
extended to Hagerstown, Maryland. It was not until 1871 that the
Cumberland Valley Railroad reached its projected southern terminus, the
Potomac River, by extending to Powells Bend, Maryland. Winchester,
Virginia, was entered in 1890 giving the Cumberland Valley Railroad
about 165 miles of line. The railroad which had become associated with
the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1859, was merged with that company in 1919.

By 1849 the Cumberland Valley Railroad was in poor condition; the
strap-rail track was worn out and new locomotives were needed. Captain
Daniel Tyler was hired to supervise rebuilding the line with T-rail, and
easy grades and curves. Tyler recommended that a young friend of his,
Alba F. Smith, be put in charge of modernizing and acquiring new
equipment. Smith recommended to the railroad's Board of Managers on June
25, 1851, that "much lighter engines than those now in use may be
substituted for the passenger transportation and thereby effect a great
saving both in point of fuel and road repairs...."[1] Smith may well
have gone on to explain that the road was operating 3- and 4-car
passenger trains with a locomotive weighing about 20 tons; the total
weight was about 75 tons, equalling the uneconomical deadweight of 1200
pounds per passenger. Since speed was not an important consideration (30
mph being a good average), the use of lighter engines would improve the
deadweight-to-passenger ratio and would not result in a slower schedule.

The Board of Managers agreed with Smith's recommendations and instructed
him "... to examine the two locomotives lately built by Mr. Wilmarth
and now in the [protection?] of Captain Tyler at Norwich and if in his
judgment they are adequate to our wants ... have them forwarded to the
road."[2] Smith inspected the locomotives not long after this resolution
was passed, for they were on the road by the time he made the following
report[3] to the Board on September 24, 1851:

    In accordance with a resolution passed at the last meeting of
    your body relative to the small engines built by Mr. Wilmarth I
    proceeded to Norwich to make trial of their capacity--fitness or
    suitability to the Passenger transportation of our Road--and
    after as thorough a trial as circumstances would admit (being on
    another Road than our own) I became satisfied that with some
    necessary improvements which would not be expensive (and are now
    being made at our shop) the engines would do the business of
    our Road not only in a manner satisfactory in point of speed and
    certainty but with greater ultimate economy in Expenses than has
    before been practised in this Country.

[Illustration: Figure 2.--DIAGRAM COMPARING the _Pioneer_ (shaded
drawing) with the _Columbia_, a standard 8-wheel engine of 1851.
(Drawing by J. H. White.)]


    Hudson River Railroad
    Lowell Machine Shop, 1852
    Wt. 27-1/2 tons (engine only)
    Cyl. 16-1/2 x 22 inches
    Wheel diam. 84 inches


    Cumberland Valley Railroad
    Seth Wilmarth, 1851
    12-1/2 tons
    8-1/2 x 14 inches
    54 inches

    After making the above trial of the Engines--I stated to your
    Hon. President the result of the trial--with my opinion of their
    Capacity to carry our passenger trains at the speed required
    which was decidedly in favor of the ability of the Engines. He
    accordingly agreed that the Engines should at once be forwarded
    to the Road in compliance with the Resolution of your Board. I
    immediately ordered the Engines shipped at the most favorable
    rates. They came to our Road safely in the Condition in which
    they were shipped. One of the Engines has been placed on the
    Road and I believe performed in such a manner as to convince all
    who are able to judge of this ability to perform--although the
    maximum duty of the Engines was not performed on account of some
    original defects which are now being remedied as I before

    Within ten days the Engine will be able to run regularly with a
    train on the Road where in shall be enabled to judge correctly
    of their merits.

    An accident occurred during the trial of the Small Engine at
    Norwich which caused a damage of about $300 in which condition
    the Engine came here and is now being repaired--the cost of
    which will be presented to your Board hereafter. As to the
    fault or blame of parties connected with the accident as also
    the question of responsibility for Repairs are questions for
    your disposal. I therefore leave the matter until further called

    The Expenses necessarily incurred by the trial of the Engines
    and also the Expenses of transporting the same are not included
    in the Statement herewith presented, the whole amount of which
    will not probably exceed $400.00.

These two locomotives became the Cumberland Valley Railroad's _Pioneer_
(number 13) and _Jenny Lind_ (number 14). While Smith notes that one of
the engines was damaged during the inspection trials, Joseph Winters, an
employee of the Cumberland Valley who claimed he was accompanying the
engine enroute to Chambersburg at the time of their delivery, later
recalled that both engines were damaged in transit.[4] According to
Winters a train ran into the rear of the _Jenny Lind_, damaging both it
and the _Pioneer_, the accident occurring near Middletown, Pennsylvania.
The _Jenny Lind_ was repaired at Harrisburg but the _Pioneer_, less
seriously damaged, was taken for repairs to the main shops of the
Cumberland Valley road at Chambersburg.

[Illustration: Figure 3.--"PIONEER," ABOUT 1901, showing the sandbox and
large headlamp. Note the lamp on the cab roof, now used as the
headlight. (Smithsonian photo 49272.)]

While there seems little question that these locomotives were not built
as a direct order for the Cumberland Valley Railroad, an article[5]
appearing in the _Railroad Advocate_ in 1855 credits their design to
Smith. The article speaks of a 2--2--4 built for the Macon and Western
Railroad and says in part:

    This engine is designed and built very generally upon the ideas,
    embodied in some small tank engines designed by A. F. Smith,
    Esq., for the Cumberland Valley road. Mr. Smith is a strong
    advocate of light engines, and his novel style and proportions
    of engines, as built for him a few years since, by Seth
    Wilmarth, at Boston, are known to some of our readers. Without
    knowing all the circumstances under which these engines are
    worked on the Cumberland Valley road, we should not venture to
    repeat all that we have heard of their performances, it is
    enough to say that they are said to do more, in proportion to
    their weight, than any other engines now in use.

The author believes that the _Railroad Advocate's_ claim of Smith's
design of the _Pioneer_ has been confused with his design of the
_Utility_ (figs. 6, 7). Smith designed this compensating-lever engine to
haul trains over the C.V.R.R. bridge at Harrisburg. It was built by
Wilmarth in 1854.

[Illustration: Figure 4.--MAP OF THE CUMBERLAND VALLEY Railroad as it
appeared in 1919.]

According to statements of Smith and the Board of Managers quoted on
page 244, the _Pioneer_ and the _Jenny Lind_ were not new when purchased
from their maker, Seth Wilmarth. Although of recent manufacture,
previous to June 1851, they were apparently doing service on a road in
Norwich, Connecticut. It should be mentioned that both Smith and Tyler
were formerly associated with the Norwich and Worcester Railroad and
they probably learned of these two engines through this former
association. It is possible that the engines were purchased from
Wilmarth by the Cumberland Valley road, which had bought several other
locomotives from Wilmarth in previous years. It was the practice of at
least one other New England engine builder, the Taunton Locomotive
Works, to manufacture engines on the speculation that a buyer would be
found; if no immediate buyers appeared the engine was leased to a local
road until a sale was made.[6]

[Illustration: Figure 5.--AN EARLY BROADSIDE of the Cumberland Valley

Regarding the _Jenny Lind_ and _Pioneer_, Smith reported[7] to the Board
of Managers at their meeting of March 17, 1852:

    The small tank engines which were purchased last year ... and
    which I spoke in a former report as undergoing at that time some
    necessary improvements have since that time been fairly tested
    as to their capacity to run our passenger trains and proved to
    be equal to the duty.

    The improvements proposed to be made have been completed only on
    one engine [_Jenny Lind_] which is now running regularly with
    passenger trains--the cost of repairs and improvements on this
    engine (this being the one accidentally broken on the trial)
    amounted to $476.51. The other engine is now in the shop, not
    yet ready for service but will be at an early day.

[Illustration: Figure 6.--THE "UTILITY" AS REBUILT TO AN 8-WHEEL ENGINE,
about 1863 or 1864. It was purchased by the Carlisle Manufacturing Co.
in 1882 and was last used in 1896. (Smithsonian photo 36716F.)]

[Illustration: Figure 7.--THE "UTILITY," DESIGNED BY SMITH A. F. and
constructed by Seth Wilmarth in 1854, was built to haul trains across
the bridge at Harrisburg, Pa.]

[Illustration: Figure 8.--THE EARLIEST KNOWN ILLUSTRATION of the
_Pioneer_, drawn by A. S. Hull, master mechanic of the Cumberland Valley
Railroad in 1876. It depicts the engine as it appeared in 1871.
(_Courtesy of Paul Westhaeffer._)]

The _Pioneer_ and _Jenny Lind_ achieved such success in action that the
president of the road, Frederick Watts, commented on their performance
in the annual report of the Cumberland Valley Railroad for 1851. Watts
stated that since their passenger trains were rarely more than a baggage
car and two coaches, the light locomotives "... have been found to be
admirably adapted to our business." The Cumberland Valley Railroad,
therefore, added two more locomotives of similar design in the next few
years. These engines were the _Boston_ and the _Enterprise_, also built
by Wilmarth in 1854-1855.

Watts reported the _Pioneer_ and _Jenny Lind_ cost $7,642. A standard
8-wheel engine cost about $6,500 to $8,000 each during this period. In
recent years, the Pennsylvania Railroad has stated the _Pioneer_ cost
$6,200 in gold, but is unable to give the source for this information.
The author can discount this statement for it does not seem reasonable
that a light, cheap engine of the pattern of the _Pioneer_ could cost as
much as a machine nearly twice its size.

[Illustration: Figure 9.--ANNUAL PASS of the Cumberland Valley Railroad
issued in 1863.]

[Illustration: Figure 10.--TIMETABLE OF THE Cumberland Valley Railroad
for 1878.]

Service History of the _Pioneer_

After being put in service, the _Pioneer_ continued to perform well and
was credited as able to move a 4-car passenger train along smartly at 40
mph.[8] This tranquility was shattered in October 1862 by a raiding
party led by Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart which burned the
Chambersburg shops of the Cumberland Valley Railroad. The _Pioneer_,
_Jenny Lind_, and _Utility_ were partially destroyed. The Cumberland
Valley Railroad in its report for 1862 stated:

    The Wood-shop, Machine-shop, Black-smith-shop, Engine-house,
    Wood-sheds, and Passenger Depot were totally consumed, and with
    the Engine-house three second-class Engines were much injured by
    the fire, but not so destroyed but that they may be restored to

However, no record can be found of the extent or exact nature of the
damage. The shops and a number of cars were burned so it is reasonable
to assume that the cab and other wooden parts of the locomotive were
damaged. One unverified report in the files of the Pennsylvania Railroad
states that part of the roof and brick wall fell on the _Pioneer_ during
the fire causing considerable damage. In June 1864 the Chambersburg
shops were again burned by the Confederates, but on this occasion the
railroad managed to remove all its locomotives before the raid. During
the Civil War, the Cumberland Valley Railroad was obliged to operate
longer passenger trains to satisfy the enlarged traffic. The _Pioneer_
and its sister single-axle engines were found too light for these trains
and were used only on work and special trains. Reference to table 1 will
show that the mileage of the _Pioneer_ fell off sharply for the years


(From Annual Reports of the Cumberland Valley Railroad)

    _Year_:             _Miles_

    1852                  3,182[a]
    1853                 20,722[b]
    1854                 18,087
    1855                 14,151
    1856                 20,998
    1857                 22,779
    1858                 29,094
    1859                 29,571
    1860                  4,824
    1861                  4,346
    1862                   ([c])
    1863                  5,339
    1864                    224
    1865                  2,215
    1866                 20,546
    1867                  5,709
    1868                 13,626
    1869                  1,372
    1870                    ...
    1871                  2,102
    1872                  4,002
    1873                  3,721
    1874                  3,466
    1875                    636
    1876                    870
    1877                    406
    1878                  4,433
    1879                    ...
    1880                  8,306
    1881                   ([d])
    Total               244,727[e]


[a] Mileage 1852 for January to September (no record of mileage recorded
in Annual Reports previous to 1852).

[b] 15,000 to 20,000 miles per year was considered very high mileage for
a locomotive of the 1850's.

[c] No mileage reported for any engines due to fire.

[d] Not listed on roster.

[e] The Pennsylvania Railroad claims a total mileage of 255,675. This
may be accounted for by records of mileages for 1862, 1870, and 1879.

In 1871 the _Pioneer_ was remodeled by A. S. Hull, master mechanic of
the railroad. The exact nature of the alterations cannot be determined,
as no drawings or photographs of the engine previous to this time are
known to exist. In fact, the drawing (fig. 8) prepared by Hull in 1876
to show the engine as remodeled in 1871 is the oldest known illustration
of the _Pioneer_. Paul Westhaeffer, a lifelong student of Cumberland
Valley R. R. history, states that according to an interview with one of
Hull's descendants the only alteration made to the _Pioneer_ during the
1871 "remodeling" was the addition of a handbrake. The road's annual
report of 1853 describes the _Pioneer_ as a six-wheel tank engine. The
report of 1854 mentions that the _Pioneer_ used link motion. These
statements are enough to give substance to the idea that the basic
arrangement has survived unaltered and that it has not been extensively
rebuilt, as was the _Jenny Lind_ in 1878.

By the 1870's, the _Pioneer_ was too light for the heavier cars then in
use and by 1880 it had reached the end of its usefulness for regular
service. After nearly thirty years on the road it had run 255,675 miles.
Two new passenger locomotives were purchased in 1880 to handle the
heavier trains. In 1881 the _Pioneer_ was dropped from the roster, but
was used until about 1890 for work trains. After this time it was stored
in a shed at Falling Spring, Pennsylvania, near the Chambersburg yards
of the C.V.R.R.

Mechanical Description of the _Pioneer_

[Illustration: Figure 11.--"PIONEER," ABOUT 1901, scene unknown. (_Photo
courtesy of Thomas Norrell._)]

After the early 1840's the single-axle locomotive, having one pair of
driving wheels, was largely superseded by the 8-wheel engine. The
desire to operate longer trains and the need for engines of greater
traction to overcome the steep grades of American roads called for
coupled driving wheels and machines of greater weight than the 4--2--0.
After the introduction of the 4--4--0, the single-axle engine received
little attention in this country except for light service or such
special tasks as inspection or dummy engines.

[Illustration: Figure 12.--THE "PIONEER" IN CARLISLE, PA., 1901. (_Photo
courtesy of Thomas Norrell._)]

There was, however, a renewed interest in "singles" in the early 1850's
because of W. B. Adams' experiments with light passenger locomotives in
England. In 1850 Adams built a light single-axle tank locomotive for the
Eastern Counties Railway which proved very economical for light
passenger traffic. It was such a success that considerable interest in
light locomotives was generated in this country as well as in England.
Nearly 100 single-axle locomotives were built in the United States
between about 1845-1870. These engines were built by nearly every
well-known maker, from Hinkley in Boston to the Vulcan Foundry in San
Francisco. Danforth Cooke & Co. of Paterson built a standard pattern
4--2--4 used by many roads. One of these, the _C. P. Huntington_,
survives to the present time.

The following paragraphs describe the mechanical details of the
_Pioneer_ as it appears on exhibition in the Smithsonian Institution's
new Museum of History and Technology.


The boiler is the most important and costly part of a steam locomotive,
representing one-fourth to one-third of the total cost. A poorly built
or designed boiler will produce a poor locomotive no matter how well
made the remainder of mechanism. The boiler of the _Pioneer_ is of the
wagon-top, crownbar, fire-tube style and is made of a 5/16-inch thick,
wrought-iron plate. The barrel is very small, in keeping with the size
of the engine, being only 27 inches in diameter. While some readers may
believe this to be an extremely early example of a wagon-top boiler, we
should remember that most New England builders produced few locomotives
with the Bury (dome) boiler and that the chief advocates of this later
style were the Philadelphia builders. By the early 1850's the Bury
boiler passed out of favor entirely and the wagon top became the
standard type of boiler with all builders in this country.

Sixty-three iron tubes, 1-7/8 inches by 85 inches long are used. The
original tubes may have been copper or brass since these were easier to
keep tight than the less malleable iron tubes. The present tube sheet is
of iron but was originally copper. Its thickness cannot be conveniently
measured, but it is greater than that of the boiler shell, probably
about 1/2 to 5/8 inch. While copper tubes and tube sheets were not much
used in this country after about 1870, copper was employed as recently
as 1950 by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns, Ltd., on some small industrial

The boiler shell is lagged with wooden tongue-and-groove strips about
2-1/2 inches wide (felt also was used for insulation during this
period). The wooden lagging is covered with Russia sheet iron which is
held in place and the joints covered by polished brass bands. Russia
sheet iron is a planish iron having a lustrous, metallic gray finish.

[Illustration: Figure 14.--THE "FURY," BUILT FOR THE Boston and
Worcester Railroad in 1849 by Wilmarth. It was known as a "Shanghai"
because of its great height. (Smithsonian Chaney photo 6443.)]

[Illustration: Figure 15.--THE "NEPTUNE," BUILT FOR THE Boston and
Worcester in 1847 by Hinkley and Drury. Note the similarity of this
engine and the _Fury_.]

[Illustration: Figure 16.--THE "PIONEER" AS FIRST EXHIBITED in the Arts
and Industries building of the Smithsonian Institution prior to
restoration of the sandbox. (Smithsonian photo 48069D.)]

The steam dome (fig. 18) is located directly over the firebox, inside
the cab. It is lagged and jacketed in an identical manner to the boiler.
The shell of the dome is of 5/16-inch wrought iron, the top cap is a
cast-iron plate which also serves as a manhole cover offering access to
the boiler's interior for inspection and repair.

[Illustration: Figure 17.--"PIONEER" locomotive. (Drawing by J. H.

[Illustration: Figure 18.--"PIONEER" LOCOMOTIVE, (1) Safety valve, (2)
spring balance, (3) steam jet, (4) dry pipe, (5) throttle lever, (6)
throttle, (7) crown bar, (8) front tube sheet, (9) check valve, (10) top
rail, (11) rear-boiler bracket, (12) pedestal, (13) rocker bearing, (14)
damper, (15) grate, (16) bottom rail, (17) pump heater valve, (18)
cylinder lubricator, (19) reversing lever, (20) brake shoe, (21) mud
ring, (22) blowoff cock, (23) ashpan. (Drawing by J. H. White.)]

A round plate, 20 inches in diameter, riveted on the forward end of the
boiler, just behind the bell stand, was found when the old jacket was
removed in May 1963. The size and shape of the hole, which the plate
covers, indicate that a steam dome or manhole was located at this point.
It is possible that this was the original location of the steam dome
since many builders in the early 1850's preferred to mount the dome
forward of the firebox. This was done in the belief that there was less
danger of priming because the water was less agitated forward of the

The firebox is as narrow as the boiler shell and fits easily between the
frame. It is a deep and narrow box, measuring 27 inches by 28 inches by
about 40 inches deep, and is well suited to burning wood. A deep firebox
was necessary because a wide, shallow box suitable for coal burning,
allowed the fuel to burn so quickly it was difficult to fire the engine
effectively. With the deep, narrow firebox, wood was filled up to the
level of the fire door. In this way, the fire did not burn so furiously
and did not keep ahead of the fireman; at the same time, since it burned
so freely, a good fire was always on hand. The _Pioneer_ burned oak and
hickory.[14] For the firebox 5/16-inch thick sheet was used, for heavier
sheet would have blistered and flaked off because of the intense heat of
the fire and the fibrous quality of wrought-iron sheet of the period.
Sheet iron was fabricated from many small strips of iron rolled together
while hot. These strips were ideally welded into a homogeneous sheet,
but in practice it was found the thicker the sheet the less sure the

The fire grates are cast iron and set just a few inches above the bottom
of the water space so that the water below the grates remains less
turbulent and mud or other impurities in the water settle here. Four
bronze mud plugs and a blowoff cock are fitted to the base of the
firebox so that the sediment thus collected can be removed (figs. 17,

The front of the boiler is attached to the frame by the smokebox, which
is a cylinder, bolted on a light, cast-iron saddle (not part of the
cylinder castings nor attached to them, but bolted directly to the top
rail of the frame; it may be a hastily made repair put on at the shops
of the C.V.R.R.). The rear of the boiler is attached to the frame by two
large cast-iron brackets, one on each side of the firebox (fig. 18).
These are bolted to the top rail of the frame but the holes in the
brackets are undoubtedly slotted, so that they may slide since the
boiler will expand about 1/4 inch when heated. In addition to the crown
bars, which strengthen the crown sheet, the boiler is further
strengthened by stay bolts and braces located in the wagon top over the
firebox, where the boiler had been weakened by the large hole necessary
for the steam dome. This boiler is a remarkably light, strong, and
compact structure.


Few boiler fittings are found on the _Pioneer_ and it appears that
little was done to update the engine with more modern devices during its
many years of service. With the exception of the steam gauge, it has no
more boiler fitting than when it left the builder's shop in 1851.

The throttle valve is a simple slide valve and must have been primitive
for the time, for the balance-poppet throttle valve was in use in this
country previous to 1851. It is located directly below the steam dome
even though it was common practice to place the throttle valve at the
front of the boiler in the smokebox. Considering the cramped condition
inside the smokebox, there would seem to be little space for the
addition of the throttle valve; hence its present location. The dry pipe
projects up into the steam dome to gather the hottest, driest steam for
the cylinders. The inverted, funnel-like cap on the top of the dry pipe
is to prevent priming, as drops of water may travel up the sides of the
pipe and then to the cylinders, with the possibility of great damage.
After the steam enters the throttle valve it passes through the front
end of the valve, through the top of the boiler via the dry pipe (fig.
18), through the front tube sheet, and then to the cylinders via the
petticoat pipes. The throttle lever is a simple arrangement readily
understood from the drawings. It has no latch and the throttle lever is
held in any desired setting by the wingnut and quadrant shown in figure
18. The water level in the boiler is indicated by the three brass cocks
located on the backhead. No gauge glass is used; they were not employed
in this country until the 1870's, although they were commonly used in
England at the time the _Pioneer_ was built.

While two safety valves were commonly required, only one was used on the
_Pioneer_. The safety valve is located on top of the steam dome.
Pressure is exerted on the lever by a spring balance, fixed at the
forward end by a knife-blade bearing. The pressure can be adjusted by
the thumbscrew on the balance. The graduated scale on the balance gave a
general but uncertain indication of the boiler pressure. The valve
itself is a poppet held against the face of the valve seat by a second
knife blade attached to the lever. The ornamental column forming the
stand of the safety valve is cast iron and does much to decorate the
interior of the cab. The pipe carrying the escaping steam projects
through the cab roof. It is made of copper with a decorative brass band.
This entire mechanism was replaced by a modern safety valve for use at
the Chicago Railroad Fair (1949). Fortunately, the old valve was
preserved and has since been replaced on the engine.

The steam gauge is a later addition, but could have been put on as early
as the 1860's, since the most recent patent date that it bears is 1859.
It is an Ashcroft gauge having a handsome 4--4--0 locomotive engraved on
its silver face.

The steam jet (item 3, fig. 18) is one of the simplest yet most notable
boiler fitting of the _Pioneer_, being nothing more than a valve tapped
into the base of the steam dome with a line running under the boiler
jacket to the smokestack. When the valve is opened a jet of steam goes
up the stack, creating a draft useful for starting the fire or
enlivening it as necessary. This device was the invention of Alba F.
Smith in 1852, according to the eminent 19th-century technical writer
and engineer Zerah Colburn.[15]

The two feedwater pumps (fig. 20) are located beneath the cab deck (1,
fig. 17). They are cast-iron construction and are driven by an eccentric
on the driving-wheel axle (fig. 27). The airchamber or dome (1, fig. 27)
imparts a more steady flow of the water to the boiler by equalizing the
surges of water from the reciprocating pump plunger. A steam line (3,
fig. 18), which heats the pump and prevents freezing in cold weather, is
regulated by a valve in the cab (figs. 18, 27). Note that the line on
the right side of the cab has been disconnected and plugged.

The eccentric drive for the pumps is unusual, and the author knows of no
other American locomotive so equipped. Eastwick and Harrison, it is
true, favored an eccentric drive for feed pumps, but they mounted the
eccentric on the crankpin of the rear driving wheel and thus produced in
effect a half-stroke pump. This was not an unusual arrangement, though a
small crank was usually employed in place of the eccentric. The
full-stroke crosshead pump with which the _Jenny Lind_ (fig. 22) is
equipped, was of course the most common style of feed pump used in this
country in the 19th century.

[Illustration: Figure 19.--BACKHEAD of the _Pioneer_. (Smithsonian photo

Of all the mechanisms on a 19th-century locomotive, the feed pump was
the most troublesome. If an engineer could think of nothing else to
complain about, he could usually call attention to a defective pump and
not be found a liar. Because of this, injectors were adopted after their
introduction in 1860. It is surprising that the _Pioneer_, which was in
regular service as late as 1880 and has been under steam many times
since for numerous exhibitions, was never fitted with one of these
devices. Because its stroke is short and the plunger is in less rapid
motion, the present eccentric arrangement is more complex but less prone
to disorder than the simpler but faster crosshead pump.

[Illustration: Figure 20.--FEEDWATER PUMP of the _Pioneer_. (Smithsonian
photo 63344.)]

The check valves are placed slightly below the centerline of the boiler
(fig. 18). These valves are an unfinished bronze casting and appear to
be of a recent pattern, probably dating from the 1901 renovation. At the
time the engine was built, it was usual to house these valves in an
ornamental spun-brass casing. The smokestack is of the bonnet type
commonly used on wood-burning locomotives in this country between about
1845 and 1870. The exhaust steam from the cylinders is directed up the
straight stack (shown in phantom in fig. 27) by the blast pipe. This
creates a partial vacuum in the smokebox that draws the fire, gases,
ash, and smoke through the boiler tubes from the firebox. The force of
the exhausting steam blows them out the stack. At the top of the
straight stack is a deflecting cone which slows the velocity of the
exhaust and changes its direction causing it to go down into the
funnel-shaped outer casing of the stack. Here, the heavy embers and
cinders are collected and prevented from directly discharging into the
countryside as dangerous firebrands. Wire netting is stretched overtop
of the deflecting cone to catch the lighter, more volatile embers which
may defy the action of the cone. The term "bonnet stack" results from
the fact that this netting is similar in shape to a lady's bonnet. The
cinders thus accumulated in the stack's hopper could be emptied by
opening a plug at the base of the stack.

While the deflecting cone was regarded highly as a spark arrester and
used practically to the exclusion of any other arrangement, it had the
basic defect of keeping the smoke low and close to the train. This was a
great nuisance to passengers, as the low trailing smoke blew into the
cars. If the exhaust had been allowed to blast straight out the stack
high into the air, most of the sparks would have burned out before
touching the ground.

[Illustration: Figure 21.--"PIONEER" ON EXHIBIT in old Arts and
Industries building of the Smithsonian Institution. In this view can be
seen the bonnet screen of the stack and arrangement of the boiler-frame
braces and other details not visible from the floor. (Smithsonian photo

[Illustration: Figure 22.--"JENNY LIND," SISTER ENGINE of the _Pioneer_,
shown here as rebuilt in 1878 for use as an inspection engine. It was
scrapped in March 1905. (_Photo courtesy of E. P. Alexander._)]

[Illustration: Figure 23.--CYLINDER head with valve box removed.]

[Illustration: Figure 24.--BOTTOM of valve box with slide valve

[Illustration: Figures 25 and 26.--CYLINDER with valve box removed,
showing valve face.]


The frame of the _Pioneer_ defies an exact classification but it more
closely resembles the riveted- or sandwich-type frame than any other
(figs. 18, 27). While the simple bar frame enjoyed the greatest
popularity in the last century, riveted frames were widely used in this
country, particularly by the New England builders between about 1840 and
1860. The riveted frame was fabricated from two plates of iron, about
5/8-inch thick, cut to the shape of the top rail and the pedestal. A bar
about 2 inches square was riveted between the two plates. A careful
study of photographs of Hinkley and other New England-built engines of
the period will reveal this style of construction. The frame of the
_Pioneer_ differs from the usual riveted frame in that the top rail is
1-3/4 inches thick by 4-1/8 inches deep and runs the length of the
locomotive. The pedestals are made of two 3/8-inch plates flush-riveted
to each side of the top rail. The cast-iron shoes which serve as guides
for the journal boxes also act as spacers between the pedestal plates.

The bottom rail of the frame is a 1-1/8-inch diameter rod which is
forged square at the pedestals and forms the pedestal cap. The frame is
further stiffened by two diagonal rods running from the top of each
truck-wheel pedestal to the base of the driving-wheel pedestal, forming
a truss. Six rods, riveted to the boiler shell and bolted to the frame's
top rail, strengthen the frame laterally. Four of these rods can be seen
easily as they run from the frame to the middle of the boiler; the other
two are riveted to the underside of the boiler. The attachment of these
rods to the boiler was an undesirable practice, for the boiler shell
was thus subjected to the additional strain of the locomotive's
vibrations as it passed over the road. In later years, as locomotives
grew in size, this practice was avoided and frames were made
sufficiently strong to hold the engine's machinery in line without using
the boiler shell.

The front and rear frame beams are of flat iron plate bolted to the
frame. The rear beam had been pushed in during an accident, and instead
of its being replaced, another plate was riveted on and bent out in the
opposite direction to form a pocket for the rear coupling pin. Note that
there is no drawbar and that the coupler is merely bolted to the beams.
Since the engine only pulled light trains, the arrangement was
sufficiently strong.


The running gear is simply sprung with individual leaf springs for each
axle; it is not connected by equalizing levers. To find an American
locomotive not equipped with equalizers is surprising since they were
almost a necessity to produce a reasonably smooth ride on the rough
tracks of American railroads. Equalizers steadied the motion of the
engine by distributing the shock received by any one wheel or axle to
all the other wheels and axles so connected, thus minimizing the effects
of an uneven roadbed. The author believes that the _Pioneer_ is a
hard-riding engine.

The springs of the main drives are mounted in the usual fashion. The
rear boiler bracket (fig. 18) is slotted so that the spring hanger may
pass through for its connection with the frame. The spring of the
leading wheels is set at right angles to the frame (fig. 27) and bears
on a beam, fabricated of iron plate, which in turn bears on the journal
boxes. The springs of the trailing wheels are set parallel with the
frame and are mounted between the pedestal plates (fig. 18).

The center of the driving wheel is cast iron and has spokes of the old
rib pattern, which is a T in cross section, and was used previous to the
adoption of the hollow spoke wheel. In the mid-1830's Baldwin and others
used this rib-pattern style of wheel, except that the rib faced inside.
The present driving-wheel centers are unquestionably original. The
sister engine _Jenny Lind_ (fig. 22) was equipped with identical driving
wheels. The present tires are very thin and beyond their last turning.
They are wrought iron and shrunk to fit the wheel centers. Flush rivets
are used for further security. The left wheel, shown in figure 17, is
cracked at the hub and is fitted with an iron ring to prevent its

The truck wheels, of the hollow spoke pattern, are cast iron with
chilled treads. They were made by Asa Whitney, one of the leading
car-wheel manufacturers in this country, whose extensive plant was
located in Philadelphia. Made under Whitney's patent of 1866, these
wheels may well have been added to the _Pioneer_ during the 1871
rebuilding. Railroad wheels were not cast from ordinary cast iron, which
was too weak and brittle to stand the severe service for which they were
intended, but from a high-quality cast iron similar to that used for
cannons. Its tensile strength, which ranged from 31,000 to 36,000 psi,
was remarkably high and very nearly approached that of the best
wrought-iron plate.

The cylinders are cast iron with an 8-1/2-inch bore about half the size
of the cylinders of a standard 8-wheel engine. The cylinders are bolted
to the frame but not to the saddle, and are set at a 9° angle to clear
the leading wheels and at the same time to line up with the center of
the driving-wheel axle. The wood lagging is covered with a decorative
brass jacket. Ornamental brass jacketing was extensively used on
mid-19th-century American locomotives to cover not only the cylinders
but steam and sand boxes, check valves, and valve boxes. The greater
expense for brass (Russia iron or painted sheet iron were a cheaper
substitute) was justified by the argument that brass lasted the life of
the engine, and could be reclaimed for scrap at a price approaching the
original cost; and also that when brightly polished it reflected the
heat, preventing loss by radiation, and its bright surface could be seen
a great distance, thus helping to prevent accidents at grade crossings.
The reader should be careful not to misconstrue the above arguments
simply as rationalization on the part of master mechanics more intent on
highly decorative machines than on the practical considerations

The valve box, a separate casting, is fastened to the cylinder casting
by six bolts. The side cover plates when removed show only a small
opening suitable for inspection and adjustment of the valve. The valve
box must be removed to permit repair or removal of the valve. A better
understanding of this mechanism and the layout of the parts can be
gained from a study of figures 23-26, 28 (8, 8A, and 8B).

[Illustration: Figure 27.--"PIONEER" LOCOMOTIVE. (1) Air chamber, (2)
reversing lever, (3) counterweight, (4) reversing shaft, (5) link
hanger, (6) rocker, (7) feedwater line to boiler, (8) link block, (9)
link, (10) eccentric, (11) pump plunger, (12) pump steamheater line,
(13) feedwater pump, (14) wire netting [bonnet], (15) deflecting cone,
(16) stack, (17) stack hopper. (Drawing by J. H. White.)]

[Illustration: Figure 28.--REAR ELEVATION of _Pioneer_ and detail of
valve shifter; valve face and valve. (Drawing by J. H. White.)]

Both crossheads were originally of cast iron but one of these has been
replaced and is of steel. They run into steel guides, bolted at the
forward end to the rear cylinder head and supported in the rear by a
yoke. The yoke is one of the more finished and better made pieces on the
entire engine (fig. 27). The main rod is of the old pattern, round in
cross section, and only 1-1/2 inches in diameter at the largest point.


The valve gear is of the Stephenson shifting-link pattern (see fig. 27),
a simple and dependable motion used extensively in this country between
about 1850 and 1900. The author believes that this is the original valve
gear of the _Pioneer_, since the first mention (1854) in the _Annual
Report_ of the Cumberland Valley Railroad of the style of valve gear
used by each engine, states that the _Pioneer_ was equipped with a
shifting-link motion. Assuming this to be the original valve gear of the
_Pioneer_, it must be regarded as an early application, because the
Stephenson motion was just being introduced into American locomotive
practice in the early 1850's. Four eccentrics drive the motion; two are
for forward motion and two for reverse. The link is split and made of
two curved pieces. The rocker is fabricated of several forged pieces
keyed and bolted together. On better made engines the rocker would be a
one-piece forging. The lower arm of each rocker is curiously shaped,
made with a slot so that the link block may be adjusted. Generally, the
only adjustment possible was effected by varying the length of the valve
stem by the adjusting nuts provided. A simple weight and lever attached
to the reversing shaft serve as a counterbalance for the links and thus
assist the engineer in shifting the valve motion. There are eight
positions on the quadrant of the reversing lever.

[Illustration: Figure 29.--"PIONEER" on exhibit in old Arts and
Industries building, showing the tank and backhead. (Smithsonian photo


The cab is solid walnut with a natural finish. It is very possible that
the second cab was added to the locomotive after the 1862 fire. A brass
gong used by the conductor to signal the engineer is fastened to the
underside of the cab roof. This style of gong was in use in the 1850's
and may well be original equipment.

The water tank is in two sections, one part extending below the deck,
between the frame. The tank holds 600 gallons of water. The tender holds
one cord of wood.

The small pedestal-mounted sandbox was used on several Cumberland Valley
engines including the _Pioneer_. This box was removed from the engine
sometime between 1901 and 1904. It was on the engine at the time of the
Carlisle sesquicentennial but disappeared by the time of the St. Louis
exposition. Two small sandboxes, mounted on the driving-wheel splash
guards, replaced the original box. The large headlamp (fig. 3)
apparently disappeared at the same time and was replaced by a crudely
made lamp formerly mounted on the cab roof as a backup light. Headlamps
of commercial manufacture were carefully finished and made with
parabolic reflectors, elaborate burners, and handsomely fitted cases.
Such a lamp could throw a beam of light for 1000 feet. The present lamp
has a flat cone-shaped piece of tin for a reflector.

The brushes attached to the pilot were used in the winter to brush snow
and loose ice off the rail and thus improve traction. In good weather
the brushes were set up to clear the tracks.

[Illustration: Figure 30.--RECONSTRUCTED SANDBOX replaced on the
locomotive, August 1962. (Drawing by J. H. White.)]

After the _Pioneer_ had come to the National Museum, it was decided that
some refinishing was required to return it as nearly as possible to the
state of the original engine. Replacing the sandbox was an obvious
change.[20] The brass cylinder jackets were also replaced. The cab was
stripped and carefully refinished as natural wood. The old safety valve
was replaced, as already mentioned. Rejacketing the boiler with
simulated Russia iron produced a most pleasing effect, adding not only
to the authenticity of the display but making the engine appear lighter
and relieving the somber blackness which was not characteristic of a
locomotive of the 1850's. Several minor replacements are yet to be done;
chiefly among these are the cylinder-cock linkage and a proper headlamp.

The question arises, has the engine survived as a true and accurate
representation of the original machine built in 1851? In answer, it can
be said that although the _Pioneer_ was damaged en route to the
Cumberland Valley Railroad, modified on receipt, burned in 1862, and
operated for altogether nearly 40 years, surprisingly few new appliances
have been added, nor has the general arrangement been changed.
Undoubtedly, the main reason the engine is so little changed is that its
small size and odd framing did not invite any large investment for
extensive alteration for other uses. But there can be no positive answer
as to its present variance from the original appearance as represented
in the oldest known illustration of it--the Hull drawing of 1871 (fig.
8). There are few, if any, surviving 19th-century locomotives that have
not suffered numerous rebuildings and are not greatly altered from the
original. The _John Bull_, also in the U.S. National Museum collection,
is a good example of a machine many times rebuilt in its 30 years of
service.[21] Unless other information is uncovered to the contrary, it
can be stated that the _Pioneer_ is a true representation of a light
passenger locomotive of 1851.

_Alba F. Smith_

Alba F. Smith, the man responsible for the purchase of the _Pioneer_,
was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, June 28, 1817.[9] Smith showed promise
as a mechanic at an early age and by the time he was 22 had established
leadpipe works in Norwich. His attention was drawn particularly to
locomotives since the tracks of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad
passed his shop. His attempts to develop a spark arrester for
locomotives brought Smith to the favorable attention of Captain Daniel
Tyler (1799-1882), president of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad. When
Tyler was hired by the Cumberland Valley Railroad in 1850 to supervise
the line's rebuilding, he persuaded the managers of that road to hire
Smith as superintendent of machinery.[10] Smith was appointed as
superintendent of the machine shop of the Cumberland Valley Railroad on
July 22, 1850.[11] On January 1, 1851, he became superintendent of the

In March of 1856 Smith resigned his position with the Cumberland Valley
Railroad and became superintendent of the Hudson River Railroad, where
he remained for only a year. During that time he designed the
coal-burning locomotive _Irvington_, rebuilt the Waterman condensing
dummy locomotive for use in hauling trains through city streets, and
developed a superheater.[12]

After retiring from the Hudson River Railroad he returned to Norwich and
became active in enterprises in that area, including the presidency of
the Norwich and Worcester Railroad. While the last years of Smith's life
were devoted to administrative work, he found time for mechanical
invention as well. In 1862 he patented a safety truck for locomotives,
and became president of a concern which controlled the most important
patents for such devices.[13] Alba F. Smith died on July 21, 1879, in
Norwich, Connecticut.




SETH WILMARTH, Proprietor,






_Parts connected with Railroads, including Frogs, Switches, Chairs and
Hand Cars._

MACHINISTS' TOOLS, of all descriptions, including _TURNING LATHES_, of
sizes varying from 6 feet to 50 feet in length, and weighing from 500
pounds to 40 tons each; the latter capable of turning a wheel or pulley,
_thirty feet in diameter_.


Varying from 2 feet to 60 feet in length, and weighing from 200 lbs. to
70 tons each, and will plane up to 55 feet long and 7 feet square.

Boring Mills, Vertical and Horizontal Drills, Slotting Machines,
Punching Presses, Gear and Screw Cutting Machines, &c. &c. Also,

Mill Gearing and Shafting.

JOBBING AND REPAIRS, and any kind of work usually done in Machine Shops,
executed at short notice.

Figure 13.--ADVERTISEMENT OF SETH WILMARTH appearing in Boston city
directory for 1848-1849.]

_Seth Wilmarth_

Little is known of the builder of the _Pioneer_, Seth Wilmarth, and
nothing in the way of a satisfactory history of his business is
available. For the reader's general interest the following information
is noted.[16]

Seth Wilmarth was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, on September 8, 1810. He
is thought to have learned the machinist trade in Pawtucket, Rhode
Island, before coming to Boston and working for the Boston Locomotive
Works, Hinkley and Drury proprietors. In about 1836 he opened a machine
shop and, encouraged by an expanding business, in 1841 he built a new
shop in South Boston which became known as the Union Works.[17] Wilmarth
was in the general machine business but his reputation was made in the
manufacture of machine tools, notably lathes. He is believed to have
built his first locomotive in 1842, but locomotive building never became
his main line of work. Wilmarth patterned his engines after those of
Hinkley and undoubtedly, in common with the other New England builders
of this period, favored the steady-riding, inside-connection engines.
The "Shanghais," so-called because of their great height, built for the
Boston and Worcester Railroad by Wilmarth in 1849, were among the best
known inside-connection engines operated in this country (fig. 14).
While the greater part of Wilmarth's engines was built for New England
roads, many were constructed for lines outside that area, including the
Pennsylvania Railroad, Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, and the Erie.

A comparison of the surviving illustrations of Hinkley and Wilmarth
engines of the 1850's reveals a remarkable similarity in their details
(figs. 14 and 15). Notice particularly the straight boiler, riveted
frame, closely set truck wheels, feedwater pump driven by a pin on the
crank of the driving wheel, and details of the dome cover. All of the
features are duplicated exactly by both builders. This is not surprising
considering the proximity of the plants and the fact that Wilmarth had
been previously employed by Hinkley.

In 1854 Wilmarth was engaged by the New York and Erie Railroad to build
fifty 6-foot gauge engines.[18] After work had been started on these
engines, and a large store of material had been purchased for their
construction, Wilmarth was informed that the railroad could not pay cash
but that he would have to take notes in payment.[19] There was at this
time a mild economic panic and notes could be sold only at a heavy
discount. This crisis closed the Union Works. The next year, 1855, Seth
Wilmarth was appointed master mechanic of the Charlestown Navy Yard,
Boston, where he worked for twenty years. He died in Malden,
Massachusetts, on November 5, 1886.


[1] _Minutes of the Board of Managers of the Cumberland Valley
Railroad._ This book may be found in the office of the Secretary,
Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Pa., June 25, 1851. Hereafter cited
as "Minutes C.V.R.R."

[2] Ibid.

[3] Minutes C.V.R.R.

[4] _Franklin Repository_ (Chambersburg, Pa.), August 26, 1909.

[5] _Railroad Advocate_ (December 29, 1855), vol. 2, p. 3.

[6] C. E. FISHER, "Locomotives of the New Haven Railroad," _Railway and
Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin_ (April 1938), no. 46, p. 48.

[7] Minutes C.V.R.R.

[8] _Evening Sentinel_ (Carlisle, Pa.), October 23, 1901.

[9] _Norwich Bulletin_ (Norwich, Conn.), July 24, 1879. All data
regarding A. F. Smith is from this source unless otherwise noted.

[10] _Railway Age_ (September 13, 1889), vol. 14, no. 37. Page 600 notes
that Tyler worked on C.V.R.R. 1851-1852; Smith's obituary (footnote 9)
mentions 1849 as the year; and minutes of C.V.R.R. mention Tyler as
early as 1850.

[11] Minutes C.V.R.R.

[12] A. F. HOLLEY, _American and European Railway Practice_ (New York:
1861). An illustration of Smith's superheater is shown on plate 58,
figure 13.

[13] JOHN H. WHITE, "Introduction of the Locomotive Safety Truck,"
(Paper 24, 1961, in _Contributions from the Museum of History and
Technology: Papers 19-30_, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 228;
Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1963), p. 117.

[14] _Annual Report_, C.V.R.R., 1853.

[15] ZERAH COLBURN, _Recent Practice in Locomotive Engines_ (1860), p.

[16] _Railroad Gazette_ (September 27, 1907), vol. 43, no. 13, pp.
357-360. These notes on Wilmarth locomotives by C. H. Caruthers were
printed with several errors concerning the locomotives of the Cumberland
Valley Railroad and prompted the preparation of these present remarks on
the history of Wilmarth's activities. Note that on page 359 it is
reported that only one compensating-lever engine was built for the
C.V.R.R. in 1854, and not two such engines in 1852. The _Pioneer_ is
incorrectly identified as a "Shanghai," and as being one of three such
engines built in 1871 by Wilmarth.

[17] The author is indebted to Thomas Norrell for these and many of the
other facts relating to Wilmarth's Union Works.

[18] _Railroad Gazette_ (October 1907), vol. 43, p. 382.

[19] _Boston Daily Evening Telegraph_ (Boston, Mass.), August 11, 1854.
The article stated that one engine a week was built and that 10 engines
were already completed for the Erie. Construction had started on 30

[20] The restoration work has been ably handled by John Stine of the
Museum staff. Restoration started in October 1961.

[21] S. H. OLIVER, _The First Quarter Century of the Steam Locomotive in
America_ (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 210; Washington: Smithsonian
Institution, 1956), pp. 38-46.


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office Washington, D.C., 20402--Price 30 cents.


Adams, W. B., 252

Baldwin, Matthias William, 264

Boston Locomotive Works, 260

Colburn, Zerah, 259

Danforth Cooke & Co., 252

Drury, Gardner P., 260

Eastwick, Andrew M., 259

Harrison, Joseph, Jr., 259

Hinkley, Holmes, 252, 260, 263

Hull, A. S., 251, 268

Smith, Alba F., 244, 246, 247, 259

Stephenson, Robert, & Hawthorns, Ltd., 253

Stuart, J. E. B., 249

Taunton Locomotive Works, 247

Tyler, Daniel, 244, 253

Union Works, 260

Vulcan Foundry, 252

Watts, Frederick, 249

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to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.