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Title: Our Calendar
Author: Packer, George Nichols
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive.)



  OUR CALENDAR.


  The Julian Calendar and Its Errors.

  HOW CORRECTED BY THE GREGORIAN.


  Rules For Finding the Dominical Letter,

  AND THE DAY OF THE WEEK OF ANY EVENT FROM THE
  DAYS OF JULIUS CÆSAR 46 B. C. TO THE YEAR OF
  OUR LORD FOUR THOUSAND--A NEW AND EASY
  METHOD OF FIXING THE DATE OF EASTER.


  HEBREW CALENDAR;

  SHOWING THE CORRESPONDENCE IN THE DATE OF
  EVENTS RECORDED IN THE BIBLE WITH OUR
  PRESENT GREGORIAN CALENDAR.


  ILLUSTRATED BY VALUABLE TABLES AND CHARTS.


  BY REV. GEORGE NICHOLS PACKER,
  CORNING, N. Y.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in 1890, 1892 and 1893,
  BY REV. GEORGE NICHOLS PACKER,
  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C.
  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.


  WILLIAMSPORT, PA.:
  FRED R. MILLER BLANK BOOK CO.
  1893.



TO HON. HENRY W. WILLIAMS, JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA
WHOM I HAVE FOUND A TRUE FRIEND IN POVERTY AND IN SICKNESS, AND FROM WHOM
I HAVE RECEIVED WORDS OF ENCOURAGEMENT AND COMFORT DURING MANY YEARS OF
ADVERSITY, AND AT WHOSE SUGGESTION THIS LITTLE VOLUME HAS BEEN WRITTEN,
AND BY WHOSE ASSISTANCE IT IS NOW PUBLISHED, THIS HUMBLE VOLUME IS
DEDICATED AS A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT BY THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE.


Many years ago, while engaged in teaching, the writer of this little
volume was in the habit of bringing to the attention of his pupils a few
simple rules for finding the dominical letter and the day of the week of
any given event within the past and the present centuries; further than
this he gave the subject no special attention.

A few years ago, having occasion to learn the day of the week of certain
events that were transpiring at regular intervals on the same day of the
same month, but in different years, he was led to investigate the subject
more thoroughly, so that he is now able to give rules for finding the
dominical letter and the day of the week of any event that has transpired
or will transpire, from the commencement of the Christian era to the year
of our Lord 4,000, and to explain the principles on which these rules
rest. When the investigations were entered upon he had no thought of
writing a book; but having been laid aside from active labor by ill
health, he found relief from the despondency in which sickness and poverty
plunged him by pursuing the study of the calendar, its history, and the
method of disposing of the fraction of a day found in the time required
for the revolution of the Earth in its orbit about the Sun.

He became so much interested in the study of this subject that he
frequently spoke of it to friends and acquaintances whom he met. On one
occasion, while speaking to Hon. H. W. Williams about some of the curious
results of the process by which the coincidence of the solar and the civil
year is preserved, it was suggested to him that he should put the story of
the calendar, its correction by Gregory, and the theory and results of
intercalation, in writing. It was urged that this would give increased
interest to the study, help the writer to forget his pains, and probably
enable him to realize a little money from the sale of his work to meet
pressing wants. Acting upon this suggestion, an effort has been made to
put into this little volume some of the most interesting facts relating to
the origin, condition, and practical operation of the calendar now in use;
together with rules for finding the day of the week on which any given day
of any month has fallen or will fall during four thousand years from the
beginning of our era.

The writer does not claim absolute originality for all that appears in the
following pages; on the contrary, he has made free use of all the
materials that came within his reach relating to the history of the
calendar and the work of its correction by Gregory. These materials,
together with his own calculations, he has arranged in accordance with a
plan of his own devising, so that the outline and the execution of the
work may be truly said to be original. Of its value the world must judge.
It has been prepared in weakness of body and in suffering, which have been
to some extent relieved by the mental occupation thus afforded, but which
may have nevertheless left their impress on the work. But let it be read
before pronouncing judgment upon it. Cicero could infer the littleness of
the Hebrew God from the smallness of the territory he had given his
people. To whom Kitto replies: "The interest and importance of a country
arise, not from its territorial extent, but from the men who form its
living soul; from its institutions bearing the impress of mind and spirit,
and from the events which grow out of the character and condition of its
inhabitants." So the value of a book does not consist in the size and
number of its pages, but from the knowledge that may be gained by its
perusal.

THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE

TO THE REVISED EDITION.


Soon after the publication of the former edition of this work, it was
suggested that a chapter be added on Easter; rules for fixing its date,
and also church festivals that depended upon the date of Easter. It was
suggested that this would add very much to the value of the work, if so
presented as to be brought within the comprehension of ordinary minds.
Knowing that the determination of Easter was an affair of considerable
nicety and complication, and had had the attention of our best minds, and
they had failed so to present it, that even among scholarly men, probably
not one in a hundred was able to determine its date without referring to
tables prepared for that purpose the author of this work felt as though he
was hardly competent for the task. Nevertheless it was undertaken, and the
work has been revised and enlarged by a Chapter on the Peculiarities of
the Roman Calendar, another on fixing the date of events prior to the
Christian era, and a third part on Easter, church festivals, and the
Hebrew Calendar. In the opinion of the author, the rules for determining
the date of Easter are so simplified by his new method that any person of
ordinary intelligence may understand them. How well he has succeeded the
public will decide.

G. N. P.



CONTENTS.


  PART FIRST.

  DEFINITIONS--HISTORY.

                                                                  _Pages._

  CHAPTER I.--Definitions                                               11

  CHAPTER II.--History of the divisions of time, and the old
               Roman Calendar                                           12

  CHAPTER III--History of the reformation of the Calendar by
               Julius Cæsar                                             18

  CHAPTER IV.--History of the reformation of the Julian Calendar
               by Pope Gregory XIII                                     20

  CHAPTER V.--Peculiarities of the Roman Calendar                       26


  PART SECOND.

  MATHEMATICAL.

  CHAPTER I.--Errors of the Julian Calendar                             36

  CHAPTER II.--Errors of the Gregorian Calendar                         38

  CHAPTER III.--Dominical Letter                                        39

  CHAPTER IV.--Rule for finding the Dominical Letter                    44

  CHAPTER V.--Rule for finding the day of the week of any given
              date, for both Old and New Styles                         50

  CHAPTER VI.--A simple method of finding the day of the week of
               events, which occur quadrennially; the inaugural of
               the Presidents, the day of the week on which they
               have occurred and on which they will occur for the
               next one hundred years                                   61

               Some peculiarities concerning events which fall on
               the 29th of February                                     64

  CHAPTER VII.--Rule for finding the day of the week of events
                prior to the Christian era                              68


  PART THIRD.

  CYCLES--JULIAN PERIOD--EASTER.

  CHAPTER I.--The Solar Cycle                                           73

  CHAPTER II.--The Lunar Cycle                                          75

  CHAPTER III.--The Lunar Cycle and Golden Number                       77

  CHAPTER IV.--Cycle of Indiction, and the Julian Period                79

  CHAPTER V.--Easter                                                    82

  CHAPTER VI.--A new and easy method of fixing the date of Easter       88

  CHAPTER VII.--Church feasts and fasts whose date depend on the
                date of Easter                                         108

  CHAPTER VIII.--Hebrew Calendar                                       124

  APPENDIX                                                             134

  ERRATA                                                               149



OUR CALENDAR.

PART FIRST.

DEFINITIONS. HISTORY.



CHAPTER I.

DEFINITIONS.


_a_--A Calendar is a method of distributing time into certain periods
adapted to the purposes of civil life, as hours, days, weeks, months,
years, etc.

_b_--The only natural divisions of time are the solar day, the solar year,
and the lunar month.

_c_--An hour is one of the subdivisions of the day into twenty-four equal
parts.

_d_--The true solar day is the interval of time which elapses between two
consecutive returns of the same terrestrial meridian to the Sun, the mean
length of which is twenty-four hours.

_e_--The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to
the celestial motions, a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable
uniformity.

_f_--The lunar month is the time which elapses between two consecutive new
or full moons, and was used in the Roman calendar until the time of Julius
Cæsar, and consists of 29d, 12h, 44m, 2.87s.

_g_--The calendar month is usually employed to denote an arbitrary number
of days approaching a twelfth part of a year, and has now its place in the
calendar of nearly all nations.

_h_--The year is either astronomical or civil. The solar astronomical year
is the period of time in which the Earth performs a revolution in its
orbit about the sun or passes from any point of the ecliptic to the same
point again, and consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 49.62
seconds of mean solar time. Appendix A.

_i_--The civil year is that which is employed in chronology, and varies
among different nations, both in respect of the seasons at which it
commences and of its subdivisions.



CHAPTER II.

HISTORY OF THE DIVISIONS OF TIME AND THE OLD ROMAN CALENDAR.


_Day_--The subdivision of the day into twenty-four parts or hours has
prevailed since the remotest ages, though different nations have not
agreed either with respect to the epoch of its commencement or the manner
of distributing the hours. Europeans in general, like the ancient
Egyptians, place the commencement of the civil day at midnight; and reckon
twelve morning hours from midnight to midday and twelve evening hours from
midday to midnight. Astronomers, after the example of Ptolemy, regarded
the day as commencing with the Sun's culmination, or noon, and find it
most convenient for the purpose of computation to reckon through the whole
twenty-four hours. Hipparchus reckoned the twenty-four hours from midnight
to midnight.

The Roman day, from sunrise to sunset, and the night, from sunset to
sunrise, were each divided at all seasons of the year into twelve hours,
the hour being uniformly one-twelfth of the day or the night, of course,
varied in length with the length of the day or night at different seasons
of the year.

_Week_--Although the week did not enter into the calendar of the Greeks,
and was not introduced at Rome till after the reign of Theodosius, A. D.
292, it has been employed from time immemorial in almost all Eastern
countries; and as it forms neither an aliquot part of a year nor of the
lunar months, those who reject the Mosaic recital will be at a loss to
assign to it an origin having much semblance of probability. In the
Egyptian astronomy the order of the planets, beginning with the most
remote, is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon. Now,
the day being divided into twenty-four hours, each hour was consecrated to
a particular planet, namely: One to Saturn, the following to Jupiter,
third to Mars, and so on according to the above order; and the day
received the name of the planet which presided over its first hour. If,
then, the first hour of a day was consecrated to Saturn, that planet would
also have the 8th, the 5th and the 22d hours; the 23d would fall to
Jupiter, the 24th to Mars, and the 25th or the first hour of the second
day would belong to the Sun. In like manner the first hour of the third
day would fall to the Moon, the first hour of the fourth to Mars, of the
fifth to Mercury, of the sixth to Jupiter and the seventh to Venus. The
cycle being completed, the first hour of the eighth day would again return
to Saturn and all the others succeed in the same order. See table on the
17th page.

It will be seen by the table, and it is also recorded by Dio Cassius, of
the second Century, that the Egyptian week commenced with Saturday. On
their flight from Egypt the Jews, from hatred to their ancient oppressors,
made Saturday the last day of the week. It is stated that the ancient
Saxons borrowed the week from some Eastern nation, and substituted the
names of their own divinities for those of the gods of Greece. The names
of the days are here given in Latin, Saxon and English. It will be seen
that the English names of the days are derived from the Saxon.

  LATIN.              SAXON.              ENGLISH.
  _Dies Solis._       Sun's Day.          SUNDAY.
  _Dies Lunae._       Moon's Day.         MONDAY.
  _Dies Martis._      Tiw's Day.          TUESDAY.
  _Dies Mercurii._    Woden's Day.        WEDNESDAY.
  _Dies Jovis._       Thor's Day.         THURSDAY.
  _Dies Veneris._     Friga's Day.        FRIDAY.
  _Dies Saturni._     Seterne's Day.      SATURDAY.

_Month_--The ancient Roman year contained but ten months and is indicated
by the names of the last four. September from Septem, seven; October from
Octo, eight; November from Novem, nine, and December from Decem, ten; July
and August were also denominated Quintilis and Sextilis, from Quintus
five, and Sex, six.

Quintilis was changed to July in honor of Julius Cæsar, who was born on
the 12th of that month 98 B. C. Sextilis was changed to August by the
Roman Senate to flatter Augustus on his victories about 8 B. C. In the
reign of Numa Pompilius, about 700 B. C., two months were added to the
year, January at the beginning, and February at the end of the year. This
arrangement continued till 450 B. C., when the Decemvirs (ten magistrates)
changed the order, placing February after January, making March the third
instead of the first month of the Roman year.

_Year_--If the civil year correspond with the solar the seasons of the
year will always come at the same period. But if the civil year is
supposed to be too long (as is the case in the Julian year) the seasons
will go back proportionately; but if too short they will advance in the
same proportion. Now, as the ancient Egyptians reckoned thirty days to the
month invariably, and to complete the year, added five days, called
supplementary days, their year consisted of 365 days.

They made use of no intercalation, and by losing one-fourth of a day every
year, the commencement of the year went back one day in every period of
four years, and consequently made a revolution of the seasons in 1460
years. Hence the Egyptian year was called a vague or erratic year because
the first day of the year in the course of 1460 years wandered, as it
were, over all the seasons. Therefore 1460 Julian years of 365-1/4 days
each are equal to 1461 Egyptian years of 365 days each.

The ancient Roman year consisted of twelve lunar months, of twenty-nine
and thirty days alternately, which equals 354 days; but a day was added
to make the number odd, which was considered more fortunate, so that the
year consisted of 355 days.

This differed from the solar year by ten whole days and a fraction; but to
restore the coincidence, Numa ordered an additional or intercalary month
to be inserted every second year between the 23d and 24th of February,
consisting of twenty-two and twenty-three days alternately, so that four
years contained 1465 days, and the mean length of the year was
consequently 366-1/4 days, so that the year was then too long by one day.

As the error amounted to twenty-four days in as many years, it was ordered
that every third period of eight years, instead of containing four
intercalary months, two of twenty-two and two of twenty-three days,
amounting in all to ninety days, should contain only three of those months
of twenty-two days each, amounting to sixty-six days, thereby suppressing
twenty-four days in as many years, reducing the mean length of the year to
365-1/4 days.

Had the intercalations been regularly made the concurrence of the solar
and the civil year would have been preserved very nearly. But its
regulation was left to the pontiffs, who, to prolong the term of a
magistracy or hasten an annual election, would give to the intercalary
month a greater or less number of days, and consequently the calendar was
thrown into confusion, so that in the time of Julius Cæsar there was a
discrepancy between the solar and the civil year of about three months;
the winter months being carried back into autumn and the autumnal into
summer.

A table of the order and the names of the planets in the Egyptian
astronomy illustrating the origin of the names of the days of the week:

  ---------+---------+--------+-------+-------+----------+-------
  Saturn,  |Jupiter, |Mars,   |Sun,   |Venus, |Mercury,  |Moon,
  Saturday.|Thursday.|Tuesday.|Sunday.|Friday.|Wednesday.|Monday.
  ---------+---------+--------+-------+-------+----------+-------
     1     |   2     |   3    |   4   |   5   |    6     |   7
     8     |   9     |  10    |  11   |  12   |   13     |  14
    15     |  16     |  17    |  18   |  19   |   20     |  21
    22     |  23     |  24    |   1   |   2   |    3     |   4
     5     |   6     |   7    |   8   |   9   |   10     |  11
    12     |  13     |  14    |  15   |  16   |   17     |  18
    19     |  20     |  21    |  22   |  23   |   24     |   1
     2     |   3     |   4    |   5   |   6   |    7     |   8
     9     |  10     |  11    |  12   |  13   |   14     |  15
    16     |  17     |  18    |  19   |  20   |   21     |  22
    23     |  24     |   1    |   2   |   3   |    4     |   5
     6     |   7     |   8    |   9   |  10   |   11     |  12
    13     |  14     |  15    |  16   |  17   |   18     |  19
    20     |  21     |  22    |  23   |  24   |    1     |   2
     3     |   4     |   5    |   6   |   7   |    8     |   9
    10     |  11     |  12    |  13   |  14   |   15     |  16
    17     |  18     |  19    |  20   |  21   |   22     |  23
    24     |   1     |   2    |   3   |   4   |    5     |   6
     7     |   8     |   9    |  10   |  11   |   12     |  13
    14     |  15     |  16    |  17   |  18   |   19     |  20
    21     |  22     |  23    |  24   |   1   |    2     |   3
     4     |   5     |   6    |   7   |   8   |    9     |  10
    11     |  12     |  13    |  14   |  15   |   16     |  17
    18     |  19     |  20    |  21   |  22   |   23     |  24
  ---------+---------+--------+-------+-------+----------+-------



CHAPTER III.

HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CALENDAR BY JULIUS CÆSAR.


In order to put an end to the disorders arising from the negligence or
ignorance of the pontiffs, Julius Cæsar, 46 B. C., abolished the use of
the lunar year and the intercalary month, and regulated the civil year
entirely by the Sun. With the advice and assistance of the astronomers,
especially Sosigenes of Alexandria, he fixed the mean length of the year
at 365-1/4 days, and decided that there should be three consecutive years
of 365 days, and a fourth of 366.

In order to restore the vernal equinox to the 24th of March, the place it
occupied in the time of Numa, two months, together consisting of 67 days,
were inserted between the last day of November and the first day of
December of that year. An intercalary month of 23 days had already been
added to February of the same year according to the old method, so that
the first Julian year commenced with the first day of January, 45 years
before Christ, and 709 from the foundation of Rome, making the year A. U.
C. 708 to consist of the prodigious number of 445 days, (i. e. 355 + 23 +
67 = 445). Hence it was called by some the year of confusion; Macrobius
said it should be named the last year of confusion.

There was also adopted at the same time a more commodious arrangement in
the distribution of the days throughout the several months. It was decided
to give to January, March, May, July, September and November each
thirty-one days; and the other months thirty, excepting February, which
in common years should have but twenty-nine days, but every fourth year
thirty; so that the average length of the Julian year was 365-1/4 days.

Augustus Cæsar interrupted this order by taking one day from February,
reducing it to twenty-eight and giving it to August, that the month
bearing his name should have as many days as July, which was named in
honor of his great-uncle, Julius. In order that three months of thirty-one
days might not come together, September and November were reduced to
thirty days, and thirty-one given to October and December.

In the Julian calendar a day was added to February every fourth year, it
being the shortest month, which was called the additional or intercalary
day, and was inserted in the calendar between the 23d and 24th of that
month. In the ancient Roman calendar the first day of every month was
invariably called the calends. The 24th of February then was the 6th of
the calends of March--Sexto calendas; the preceding, which was the
additional or intercalary day, was called bis-sexto calendas (from _bis_,
twice, and _sextus_, six), twice the sixth day. Hence the term bis-sextile
as applied to every fourth year, commonly called leap-year. Appendix B.



CHAPTER IV.

HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF THE JULIAN CALENDAR BY POPE GREGORY XIII.


True enough, the year in which Julius Cæsar reformed the ancient Roman
calendar was the last year of confusion, and the method adopted by him a
commodious one, and answered a very good purpose for a short time; but as
the years rolled on and century after century had passed away, astronomers
began to discover the discrepancy between the solar and the civil year;
that the vernal equinox did not occupy the place it occupied in the time
of Cæsar, namely, the 24th of March, but was gradually retrograding
towards the beginning of the year, so that at the meeting of the Council
of Nice in 325 it fell on the 21st. Appendix C.

The venerable Bede, in the 8th century, observed that these phenomena took
place three or four days earlier than at the meeting of that council.
Roger Bacon, in the 13th century, wrote a treatise on this subject and
sent it to the Pope, setting forth the errors of the Julian calendar. The
discrepancy at that time amounted to seven or eight days.

Thus the errors of the calendar continued to increase until 1582, when the
vernal equinox fell on the 11th instead of the 21st of March. Gregory,
perceiving that the measure (of reforming the calendar) was likely to
confer great eclat on his pontificate, undertook the long desired
reformation; and having found the governments of the principal Catholic
states ready to adopt his views, he issued a brief in the month of March,
1582, in which he abolished the use of the ancient calendar, and
substituted that which has since been received in almost all Christian
countries under the name of the Gregorian calendar or New Style.

The edict of the Pope took effect in October of that year, causing the 5th
to be called the 15th of that month, thus suppressing ten days and making
the year 1582 to consist of only 355 days. So we see that the ten days
that had been gained by incorrect computation during the past 1257 years,
were deducted from 1582, restoring the concurrence of the solar and the
civil year, and consequently the vernal equinox to the place it occupied
in 325, namely, the 21st of March.

The Pope was promptly obeyed in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. The change
took place the same year in France, by calling the 10th the 20th of
December. Many other Catholic countries made the change the same year, and
the Catholic states of Germany the year following; but most of the
Protestant countries adhered to the Old Style until after the year 1700.
Among the last was Great Britain; she, after having suffered a great deal
of inconvenience for nearly two hundred years by using a different date
from the most of Europe, at length, by an act of Parliament, fixed on
September, 1752, as the time for making the much desired change, which was
done by calling the 3d of that month the 14th (as the error now amounted
to eleven days), adopting at the same time the Gregorian rule of
intercalation.

Russia is the only Christian country that still adheres to the Old Style,
and by using a different date from the rest of Europe is now twelve days
behind the true time. The discrepancy between solar and civil time does
not effect the day, for, as has already been shown, the mean length of the
day is twenty-four hours, and is marked by one revolution of the earth
upon its axis.

Nor does it effect the week, for the week is uniformly seven of those
days. But it effects the year, the month and the day of the month.

Russia, by adhering to the Old Style, has reckoned as many days and as
many weeks, and events have transpired on the same day of the week as they
have with us who have adopted the New Style; as Christian nations we are
observing the same day as the Sabbath.

When it was Tuesday, the 20th day of December, 1888, in Russia, it was
Tuesday, the 1st day of January, 1889, in those countries which have
adopted the New Style. Columbus sailed from Palos, in Spain, on Friday,
August 3d, 1492, Old Style, which was Friday, August 12th, New Style.
Washington was born on Friday, February 11th, 1732, Old Style, which was
Friday, February 22d, New Style.

Now, the difference in styles during the 15th century is nine days; during
the 16th and 17th centuries, ten days; the 18th century, eleven days, and
the 19th, twelve days. In regard to the sailing of Columbus, the change is
made by suppressing nine days, calling the 3d the 12th of August. In
regard to the birth of Washington, the change is effected by suppressing
eleven days, calling the 11th of February the 22d. As regards Russia, she
could have made the change last year by calling the 20th of December,
1888, the 1st day of January, 1889, thereby suppressing twelve days, and
making the year 1888 to consist of only 354 days, and the month of
December twenty days. The methods of computation, both Old and New Styles,
will be explained in another chapter.

To persons unacquainted with astronomy, the difference between Old and New
Styles would probably be better understood by the diagram on the 25th
page. The figures represent the ecliptic, which is the apparent path of
the Sun, or the real path of the Earth as seen from the Sun, in her annual
or yearly revolution around the Sun in the order of the months, as marked
on the ecliptic.

Attention is called to four points on the ecliptic, namely, the vernal
equinox, the autumnal equinox, the winter solstice, and the summer
solstice. These occur, in the order given above, on the 21st of March, the
21st of September, the 21st of December and the 21st of June. It has
already been stated that if the civil year correspond with the solar, the
seasons of the year will always come at the same period. Julius Cæsar
found the ancient Roman year in advance of the solar; Gregory found the
Julian behind the solar year; so one reforms the calendar by
intercalation, the other by suppression. Appendix D.

Cæsar restored the coincidence of the solar and the civil year, but failed
to retain it by allowing what probably appeared to him at the time a
trifling error in his calendar. The error, which was 11 minutes and 10.38
seconds every year, was hardly perceptable for a short period, but still
amounted to three days every 400 years. Hence the necessity in 1582 of
reforming the reformed calendar of Julius Cæsar to restore the
coincidence. Appendix E.

From the meeting of the Council of Nice, in 325, to 1582, a period of 1257
years, there was found to be an error in the Julian calendar of ten days.
Now, in 1257 years the Earth performs 1257 annual and 459,109 daily
revolutions, after which the vernal equinox was found to occur on the 21st
of March, true or solar time; thus concurring with the vernal equinox of
325. But the erroneous Julian calendar would make the Earth perform
459,119 daily revolutions to complete the 1257 years, a discrepancy of ten
days, making the vernal equinox to fall on the 11th instead of the 21st.
It will be seen by the diagram that the ten days were deducted from
October, in 1582, making it a short month, consisting of only twenty-one
days.

The discrepancy between the Julian and Gregorian calendar amounts to
thirty days in 4000 years; three months in 12,175 years. Hence, in 12,175
years the equinoxes would take the place of the solstices, and the
solstices the place of the equinoxes. In 24,350 years, the vernal equinox
would take the place of the autumnal equinox, and the winter solstice the
place of the summer solstice.

And in 48,700 years, according to the Julian rule of intercalation, there
would be gained nearly 365-1/4 days, or one entire revolution of the
Earth. So, to restore the concurrence of the Julian and Gregorian years,
there would have to be suppressed 365-1/4 days, calling the 1st day of
January, 48,699, the 1st day of January, 48,700.

Thus would disappear from the Julian calendar twelve months, or one whole
year, it having been divided among the thousands of the preceding years.


[Illustration: The Julian calendar, reformed by Gregory XIII, Oct. 5th,
1582, by suppressing ten days, calling the 5th of Oct. the 15th, making it
a short month of 21 days, and the year to consist of 355 days.

The Roman calendar, reformed by Julius Cæsar, 46 B. C., by intercalating
90 days, making that year to consist of 445 days, that is, 355 + 23 + 67 =
445 days, and "the last year of confusion."]


To make this subject better understood, let us suppose the solar year to
consist in round numbers of 365 days, and the civil year 366. It is
evident that at the end of the year of 365 days, there would still be
wanting one day to complete the civil year of 366 days, so one day must be
added to that year, and to every succeeding year, to complete the years of
366 days each, which would be the loss of one year of 365 days in 365
years. Hence, 364 years of 366 days each are equal to 365 years of 365
days each, wanting one day.

Again, let us suppose the civil year to consist of 364 days. It is evident
that at the end of the supposed solar year of 365 days, there would be an
advance or gain of one day in that year and every succeeding year, so that
in 365 years there would be a gain of 365 days or one whole year. Hence,
366 years of 364 days each are equal to 365 years of 365 days each,
wanting one day. Appendix F.



CHAPTER V.

PECULIARITIES OF THE ROMAN CALENDAR.


The Romans, instead of distinguishing the days of the month by the ordinal
numbers, first, second, third, etc., counted backwards from three fixed
points, namely, the Calends, the Nones, and the Ides.

Calends (Latin _Calandae_, from _Calare_, to call,) was so denominated
because it had been an ancient custom of the pontiffs to call the people
together on that day to apprise them of the festivals, or days that were
to be kept sacred during the month.

Nones (Latin _nonae_, from _nonus_, the ninth,) the ninth day before the
Ides.

Ides (Latin _idus_, supposed to be derived from an obsolete verb _iduare_,
to divide,) was near the middle of the month, either the 13th or the 15th
day.

The first day of each month was invariably called the Calends. The Nones
were the fifth, and the Ides the thirteenth, except in March, May, July,
and October, in which the Nones occurred on the seventh day and the Ides
on the fifteenth.

From these three points the days of the month were numbered--not forward,
but backward--as so many days before the Nones, the Ides, or the Calends,
the point of departure being counted in the reckoning, so that the last
day of every month was the second of the Calends of the following month.

It will be seen by the Roman and English calendar found on the following
pages, that there are six days of Nones in March, May, July and October,
and four of all the other months; also that all the months have eight days
of Ides. The number of days of Calends depend upon the number of days in
the month, and the day of the month on which the Ides fall.

If the month has thirty-one days and the Ides fall on the thirteenth,
there are nineteen days of Calends; but if the Ides fall on the fifteenth,
there are only seventeen days of Calends. As the Ides fall on the
thirteenth of all the months of thirty days, they have eighteen days of
Calends. February, the month of twenty-eight days, has only sixteen,
except in leap-year, when the sixth of the Calends is reckoned twice.

It may also be seen from the calendar that the Romans, after the first
day of the month, began to reckon so many days before the Nones, as 4th,
3d, 2d, then Nones; after the Nones, so many days before the Ides, as 8th,
7th, 6th, etc., and after the Ides, so many before the Calends of the next
month, the highest numbers being reckoned first.

In reducing the Roman calendar to our own, it should be remembered that in
reckoning backward from a fixed point, that the point of departure is
counted; also, that the last day of the month is not the point from which
the Calends are reckoned, but the first day of the following month. We
have then this rule for finding the English expression for any Latin date:


RULE.

If the given date be Calends, add two to the number of days in the month,
from which subtract the given date; if the date be Nones, or Ides, add one
to that of the day on which the Nones or Ides fall, from which subtract
the given date, and you will have the day of the month in our calendar. To
find the Latin expression for any English date, the preceding method is to
be reversed, upon the principle that if 5 - 3 = 2, then 5 - 2 = 3.

But in reducing a Roman date to a date of February in leap-year, for the
first twenty-four days, proceed according to the preceding rule as if the
month had only twenty-eight days, and to obtain the proper expression for
the remaining five days, regard the month as having twenty-nine days,
taking the Roman date from 31 instead of 30. Thus 31 - 6 = 25, while 30 -6
= 24; the former corresponding with sexto calendas, the latter with
bis-sexto calendas of the Julian calendar. By referring to the table on
the 35th page, one may easily learn how to find the English expression for
any Latin date, or the Latin expression for any English date.

It has already been stated that in January the Nones fall on the 5th, and
the Ides on the 13th, January then having thirty one days, the number from
which to subtract the Roman date to obtain the corresponding day of the
month is, for Nones, 5 + 1 = 6; for Ides, 13 + 1 = 14; for Calends, 31 + 2
= 33. Hence the first column in the table under January are the numbers 6,
14 and 33. February is the same as January for Nones and Ides. For Calends
in leap-year, for the first 24 days, it is 28 + 2 = 30; for the remaining
5 days it is 29 + 2 = 31. Hence for the first column under February are
the numbers 6, 14, 30 and 31. March is the same as January, except that
the Nones fall on the 7th and the Ides on the 15th, consequently we have
for Nones, 7 + 1 = 8, and for Ides, 15 + 1 = 16; hence, for the first
column under March we have the numbers 8, 16, and 33.

In the table the three months are taken to illustrate how easily the
change may be made from Roman to English, or from English to Roman date. A
complete calendar for 1892, both in Roman and English, which will be very
convenient for reference, may be found on the four following pages.

The first seven letters of the alphabet, used to represent the days of the
week, are placed in the calendar beside the days of the week. The letter
that represents Sunday is called the dominical or Sunday letter. The
letter that represents the first Sunday in any given year represents all
the Sundays in that year, unless it be leap-year, when two Sunday letters
are used. The first represents all the Sundays in January and February,
while the letter that precedes it represents all the Sundays for the rest
of the year.

The reason of this is, the day intercalated, or thrust in, between the
28th day of February and the 1st day of March so interrupts the order of
the letters that D, which always represents the 1st day of March, now
represents the 29th day of February, so that in 1892 it represents Monday,
the 29th day of February, also Tuesday the 1st day of March. As it
represented all the Mondays in January and February, it will now represent
all the Tuesdays for the rest of the year, while C, the letter preceding,
represented all the Sundays, will now represent all the Mondays, and B all
the Sundays. For January and February we have then C, Sunday; D, Monday;
E, Tuesday; F, Wednesday; G, Thursday; A, Friday, and B, Saturday. For the
rest of the year we have B, Sunday; C, Monday; D, Tuesday; E, Wednesday;
F, Thursday; G, Friday, and A, Saturday. See Part Second, chapters IV and
V.

  ------------------++------------------++------------------
     JAN., 1892.    ||    FEB., 1892.   ||    MARCH, 1892.
  ------------------++------------------++------------------
   1|_Cal._ |a|Fri. || 1|_Cal._ |d|Mon. || 1|_Cal._ |d|Tues.
   2|   4   |b|Sat. || 2|   4   |e|Tues.|| 2|   6   |e|Wed.
   3|   3   |c|Sun. || 3|   3   |f|Wed. || 3|   5   |f|Thur.
   4|   2   |d|Mon. || 4|   2   |g|Thur.|| 4|   4   |g|Fri.
   5|_Non._ |e|Tues.|| 5|_Non._ |a|Fri. || 5|   3   |a|Sat.
   6|   8   |f|Wed. || 6|   8   |b|Sat. || 6|   2   |b|Sun.
   7|   7   |g|Thur.|| 7|   7   |c|Sun. || 7|_Non._ |c|Mon.
   8|   6   |a|Fri. || 8|   6   |d|Mon. || 8|   8   |d|Tues.
   9|   5   |b|Sat. || 9|   5   |e|Tues.|| 9|   7   |e|Wed.
  10|   4   |c|Sun. ||10|   4   |f|Wed. ||10|   6   |f|Thur.
  11|   3   |d|Mon. ||11|   3   |g|Thur.||11|   5   |g|Fri.
  12|   2   |e|Tues.||12|   2   |a|Fri. ||12|   4   |a|Sat.
  13|_Ides._|f|Wed. ||13|_Ides._|b|Sat. ||13|   3   |b|Sun.
  14|  19   |g|Thur.||14|  16   |c|Sun. ||14|   2   |c|Mon.
  15|  18   |a|Fri. ||15|  15   |d|Mon. ||15|_Ides._|d|Tues.
  16|  17   |b|Sat. ||16|  14   |e|Tues.||16|  17   |e|Wed.
  17|  16   |c|Sun. ||17|  13   |f|Wed. ||17|  16   |f|Thur.
  18|  15   |d|Mon. ||18|  12   |g|Thur.||18|  15   |g|Fri.
  19|  14   |e|Tues.||19|  11   |a|Fri. ||19|  14   |a|Sat.
  20|  13   |f|Wed. ||20|  10   |b|Sat. ||20|  13   |b|Sun.
  21|  12   |g|Thur.||21|   9   |c|Sun. ||21|  12   |c|Mon.
  22|  11   |a|Fri. ||22|   8   |d|Mon. ||22|  11   |d|Tues.
  23|  10   |b|Sat. ||23|   7   |e|Tues.||23|  10   |e|Wed.
  24|   9   |c|Sun. ||24|   6   |f|Wed. ||24|   9   |f|Thur.
  25|   8   |d|Mon. ||25|   6   |g|Thur.||25|   8   |g|Fri.
  26|   7   |e|Tues.||26|   5   |a|Fri. ||26|   7   |a|Sat.
  27|   6   |f|Wed. ||27|   4   |b|Sat. ||27|   6   |b|Sun.
  28|   5   |g|Thur.||28|   3   |c|Sun. ||28|   5   |c|Mon.
  29|   4   |a|Fri. ||29|   2   |d|Mon. ||29|   4   |d|Tues.
  30|   3   |b|Sat. ||  |       | |     ||30|   3   |e|Wed.
  31|   2   |c|Sun. ||  |       | |     ||31|   2   |f|Thur.
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----

  ------------------++------------------++------------------
     APRIL, 1892.   ||    MAY, 1892.    ||   JUNE, 1892.
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----
   1|_Cal._ |g|Fri. || 1|_Cal._ |b|Sun. || 1|_Cal._ |e|Wed.
   2|   4   |a|Sat. || 2|   6   |c|Mon. || 2|   4   |f|Thur.
   3|   3   |b|Sun. || 3|   5   |d|Tues.|| 3|   3   |g|Fri.
   4|   2   |c|Mon. || 4|   4   |e|Wed. || 4|   2   |a|Sat.
   5|_Non._ |d|Tues.|| 5|   3   |f|Thur.|| 5|_Non._ |b|Sun.
   6|   8   |e|Wed. || 6|   2   |g|Fri. || 6|   8   |c|Mon.
   7|   7   |f|Thur.|| 7|_Non._ |a|Sat. || 7|   7   |d|Tues.
   8|   6   |g|Fri. || 8|   8   |b|Sun. || 8|   6   |e|Wed.
   9|   5   |a|Sat. || 9|   7   |c|Mon. || 9|   5   |f|Thur.
  10|   4   |b|Sun. ||10|   6   |d|Tues.||10|   4   |g|Fri.
  11|   3   |c|Mon. ||11|   5   |e|Wed. ||11|   3   |a|Sat.
  12|   2   |d|Tues.||12|   4   |f|Thur.||12|   2   |b|Sun.
  13|_Ides._|e|Wed. ||13|   3   |g|Fri. ||13|_Ides._|c|Mon.
  14|  18   |f|Thur.||14|   2   |a|Sat. ||14|  18   |d|Tues.
  15|  17   |g|Fri. ||15|_Ides._|b|Sun. ||15|  17   |e|Wed.
  16|  16   |a|Sat. ||16|  17   |c|Mon. ||16|  16   |f|Thur.
  17|  15   |b|Sun. ||17|  16   |d|Tues.||17|  15   |g|Fri.
  18|  14   |c|Mon. ||18|  15   |e|Wed. ||18|  14   |a|Sat.
  19|  13   |d|Tues.||19|  14   |f|Thur.||19|  13   |b|Sun.
  20|  12   |e|Wed. ||20|  13   |g|Fri. ||20|  12   |c|Mon.
  21|  11   |f|Thur.||21|  12   |a|Sat. ||21|  11   |d|Tues.
  22|  10   |g|Fri. ||22|  11   |b|Sun. ||22|  10   |e|Wed.
  23|   9   |a|Sat. ||23|  10   |c|Mon. ||23|   9   |f|Thur.
  24|   8   |b|Sun. ||24|   9   |d|Tues.||24|   8   |g|Fri.
  25|   7   |c|Mon. ||25|   8   |e|Wed. ||25|   7   |a|Sat.
  26|   6   |d|Tues.||26|   7   |f|Thur.||26|   6   |b|Sun.
  27|   5   |e|Wed. ||27|   6   |g|Fri. ||27|   5   |c|Mon.
  28|   4   |f|Thur.||28|   5   |a|Sat. ||28|   4   |d|Tues.
  29|   3   |g|Fri. ||29|   4   |b|Sun. ||29|   3   |e|Wed.
  30|   2   |a|Sat. ||30|   3   |c|Mon. ||30|   2   |f|Thur.
    |       | |     ||31|   2   |d|Tues.||  |       | |
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----

  --+---------------++------------------++------------------
     JULY, 1892.    ||   AUG., 1892.    ||   SEPT., 1892.
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----
   1|_Cal._ |g|Fri. || 1|_Cal._ |c|Mon. || 1|_Cal._ |f|Thur.
   2|   6   |a|Sat. || 2|   4   |d|Tues.|| 2|   4   |g|Fri.
   3|   5   |b|Sun. || 3|   3   |e|Wed. || 3|   3   |a|Sat.
   4|   4   |c|Mon. || 4|   2   |f|Thur.|| 4|   2   |b|Sun.
   5|   3   |d|Tues.|| 5|_Non._ |g|Fri. || 5|_Non._ |c|Mon.
   6|   2   |e|Wed. || 6|   8   |a|Sat. || 6|   8   |d|Tues.
   7|_Non._ |f|Thur.|| 7|   7   |b|Sun. || 7|   7   |e|Wed.
   8|   8   |g|Fri. || 8|   6   |c|Mon. || 8|   6   |f|Thur.
   9|   7   |a|Sat. || 9|   5   |d|Tues.|| 9|   5   |g|Fri.
  10|   6   |b|Sun. ||10|   4   |e|Wed. ||10|   4   |a|Sat.
  11|   5   |c|Mon. ||11|   3   |f|Thur.||11|   3   |b|Sun.
  12|   4   |d|Tues.||12|   2   |g|Fri. ||12|   2   |c|Mon.
  13|   3   |e|Wed. ||13|_Ides._|a|Sat. ||13|_Ides._|d|Tues.
  14|   2   |f|Thur.||14|  19   |b|Sun. ||14|  18   |e|Wed.
  15|_Ides._|g|Fri. ||15|  18   |c|Mon. ||15|  17   |f|Thur.
  16|  17   |a|Sat. ||16|  17   |d|Tues.||16|  16   |g|Fri.
  17|  16   |b|Sun. ||17|  16   |e|Wed. ||17|  15   |a|Sat.
  18|  15   |c|Mon. ||18|  15   |f|Thur.||18|  14   |b|Sun.
  19|  14   |d|Tues.||19|  14   |g|Fri. ||19|  13   |c|Mon.
  20|  13   |e|Wed. ||20|  13   |a|Sat. ||20|  12   |d|Tues.
  21|  12   |f|Thur.||21|  12   |b|Sun. ||21|  11   |e|Wed.
  22|  11   |g|Fri. ||22|  11   |c|Mon. ||22|  10   |f|Thur.
  23|  10   |a|Sat. ||23|  10   |d|Tues.||23|   9   |g|Fri.
  24|   9   |b|Sun. ||24|   9   |e|Wed. ||24|   8   |a|Sat.
  25|   8   |c|Mon. ||25|   8   |f|Thur.||25|   7   |b|Sun.
  26|   7   |d|Tues.||26|   7   |g|Fri. ||26|   6   |c|Mon.
  27|   6   |e|Wed. ||27|   6   |a|Sat. ||27|   5   |d|Tues.
  28|   5   |f|Thur.||28|   5   |b|Sun. ||28|   4   |e|Wed.
  29|   4   |g|Fri. ||29|   4   |c|Mon. ||29|   3   |f|Thur.
  30|   3   |a|Sat. ||30|   3   |d|Tues.||30|   2   |g|Fri.
  31|   2   |b|Sun. ||31|   2   |e|Wed. ||  |       | |
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----

  ------------------++------------------++------------------
     OCT., 1892.    ||   NOV., 1892.    ||   DEC., 1892.
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----
   1|_Cal._ |a|Sat. || 1|_Cal._ |d|Tues.|| 1|_Cal._ |f|Thur.
   2|   6   |b|Sun. || 2|   4   |e|Wed. || 2|   4   |g|Fri.
   3|   5   |c|Mon. || 3|   3   |f|Thur.|| 3|   3   |a|Sat.
   4|   4   |d|Tues.|| 4|   2   |g|Fri. || 4|   2   |b|Sun.
   5|   3   |e|Wed. || 5|_Non._ |a|Sat. || 5|_Non._ |c|Mon.
   6|   2   |f|Thur.|| 6|   8   |b|Sun. || 6|   8   |d|Tues.
   7|_Non._ |g|Fri. || 7|   7   |c|Mon. || 7|   7   |e|Wed.
   8|   8   |a|Sat. || 8|   6   |d|Tues.|| 8|   6   |f|Thur.
   9|   7   |b|Sun. || 9|   5   |e|Wed. || 9|   5   |g|Fri.
  10|   6   |c|Mon. ||10|   4   |f|Thur.||10|   4   |a|Sat.
  11|   5   |d|Tues.||11|   3   |g|Fri. ||11|   3   |b|Sun.
  12|   4   |e|Wed. ||12|   2   |a|Sat. ||12|   2   |c|Mon.
  13|   3   |f|Thur.||13|_Ides._|b|Sun. ||13|_Ides._|d|Tues.
  14|   2   |g|Fri. ||14|  18   |c|Mon. ||14|  19   |e|Wed.
  15|_Ides._|a|Sat. ||15|  17   |d|Tues.||15|  18   |f|Thur.
  16|  17   |b|Sun. ||16|  16   |e|Wed. ||16|  17   |g|Fri.
  17|  16   |c|Mon. ||17|  15   |f|Thur.||17|  16   |a|Sat.
  18|  15   |d|Tues.||18|  14   |g|Fri. ||18|  15   |b|Sun.
  19|  14   |e|Wed. ||19|  13   |a|Sat. ||19|  14   |c|Mon.
  20|  13   |f|Thur.||20|  12   |b|Sun. ||20|  13   |d|Tues.
  21|  12   |g|Fri. ||21|  11   |c|Mon. ||21|  12   |e|Wed.
  22|  11   |a|Sat. ||22|  10   |d|Tues.||22|  11   |f|Thur.
  23|  10   |b|Sun. ||23|   9   |e|Wed. ||23|  10   |g|Fri.
  24|   9   |c|Mon. ||24|   8   |f|Thur.||24|   9   |a|Sat.
  25|   8   |d|Tues.||25|   7   |g|Fri. ||25|   8   |b|Sun.
  26|   7   |e|Wed. ||26|   6   |a|Sat. ||26|   7   |c|Mon.
  27|   6   |f|Thur.||27|   5   |b|Sun. ||27|   6   |d|Tues.
  28|   5   |g|Fri. ||28|   4   |c|Mon. ||28|   5   |e|Wed.
  29|   4   |a|Sat. ||29|   3   |d|Tues.||29|   4   |f|Thur.
  30|   3   |b|Sun. ||30|   2   |e|Wed. ||30|   3   |g|Fri.
  31|   2   |c|Mon. ||  |       | |     ||31|   2   |a|Sat.
  --+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----++--+-------+-+-----

  --------------++----------------++----------------
    JANUARY.    ||   FEBRUARY.    ||    MARCH.
  --------------++----------------++----------------
   _Cal._    1  ||   _Cal._    1  ||   _Cal._    1
   6 -  4 =  2  ||   6 -  4 =  2  ||   8 -  6 =  2
   6 -  3 =  3  ||   6 -  3 =  3  ||   8 -  5 =  3
   6 -  2 =  4  ||   6 -  2 =  4  ||   8 -  4 =  4
  _Nones_    5  ||  _Nones_    5  ||   8 -  3 =  5
  14 -  8 =  6  ||  14 -  8 =  6  ||   8 -  2 =  6
  14 -  7 =  7  ||  14 -  7 =  7  ||  _Nones_    7
  14 -  6 =  8  ||  14 -  6 =  8  ||  16 -  8 =  8
  14 -  5 =  9  ||  14 -  5 =  9  ||  16 -  7 =  9
  14 -  4 = 10  ||  14 -  4 = 10  ||  16 -  6 = 10
  14 -  3 = 11  ||  14 -  3 = 11  ||  16 -  5 = 11
  14 -  2 = 12  ||  14 -  2 = 12  ||  16 -  4 = 12
    _Ides_  13  ||    _Ides_  13  ||  16 -  3 = 13
  33 - 19 = 14  ||  30 - 16 = 14  ||  16 -  2 = 14
  33 - 18 = 15  ||  30 - 15 = 15  ||    _Ides_  15
  33 - 17 = 16  ||  30 - 14 = 16  ||  33 - 17 = 16
  33 - 16 = 17  ||  30 - 13 = 17  ||  33 - 16 = 17
  33 - 15 = 18  ||  30 - 12 = 18  ||  33 - 15 = 18
  33 - 14 = 19  ||  30 - 11 = 19  ||  33 - 14 = 19
  33 - 13 = 20  ||  30 - 10 = 20  ||  33 - 13 = 20
  33 - 12 = 21  ||  30 -  9 = 21  ||  33 - 12 = 21
  33 - 11 = 22  ||  30 -  8 = 22  ||  33 - 11 = 22
  33 - 10 = 23  ||  30 -  7 = 23  ||  33 - 10 = 23
  33 -  9 = 24  ||  30 -  6 = 24  ||  33 -  9 = 24
  33 -  8 = 25  ||  31 -  6 = 25  ||  33 -  8 = 25
  33 -  7 = 26  ||  31 -  5 = 26  ||  33 -  7 = 26
  33 -  6 = 27  ||  31 -  4 = 27  ||  33 -  6 = 27
  33 -  5 = 28  ||  31 -  3 = 28  ||  33 -  5 = 28
  33 -  4 = 29  ||  31 -  2 = 29  ||  33 -  4 = 29
  33 -  3 = 30  ||                ||  33 -  3 = 30
  33 -  2 = 31  ||                ||  33 -  2 = 31
  --------------++----------------++----------------



PART SECOND.

MATHEMATICAL.



CHAPTER I.

ERRORS OF THE JULIAN CALENDAR.


It will be necessary in the first place to understand the difference
between the Julian and Gregorian rule of intercalation. If the number of
any year be exactly divisible by four it is leap year; if the remainder be
1, it is the first year after leap-year; if 2, the second; if 3, the
third; thus:

  1888 ÷ 4 = 472, no remainder.
  1889 ÷ 4 = 472, remainder, 1.
  1890 ÷ 4 = 472, remainder, 2.
  1891 ÷ 4 = 472, remainder, 3.
  1892 ÷ 4 = 473, no remainder.

And so on, every fourth year being leap-year of 366 days.

This is the Julian rule of intercalation, which is corrected by the
Gregorian by making every centurial year, or the year that completes the
century, a common year, if not exactly divisible by 400; so that only
every fourth centurial year is leap-year; thus, 1,700, 1,800, and 1,900
are common years, but 2,000, the fourth centurial year, is leap year, and
so on.

By the Julian rule three-fourths of a day is gained every century, which
in 400 years amounts to three days. This is corrected by the Gregorian, by
making three consecutive centurial years common years, thus suppressing
three days in 400 years.


RULE.

Multiply the difference between the Julian and the solar year by 100, and
we have the error in 100 years. Multiply this product by 4 and we have the
error in 400 years. Now, 400 is the tenth of 4,000; therefore, multiply
the last product by 10, and we have the error in 4,000 years. Now, as the
discrepancy between the Julian and Gregorian year is three days in 400
years, making 3-400 of a day every year, so by dividing 365-1/4, the
number of days in a year, by 3-400, we have the time it would take to make
a revolution of the seasons.


SOLUTION.

(365 d, 6 h.) - (365 d, 5 h, 48 m, 49.62 s.) = (11 m, 10.38 s.) Now, (11
m, 10.38 s.) × 100 = 18 h, 37.3 m, the gain in 100 years. This is,
reckoned in round numbers, 18 hours, or three-fourths of a day. Now, (3/4
× 4) = (1 × 3) = 3: the Julian rule gaining three days, the Gregorian
suppressing three days in 400 years. (3 × 10) = 30, the number of days
gained by the Julian rule in 4,000 years. 365-1/4 ÷ 3 400 = 48,700, so
that in this long period of time, this falling back 3/4 of a day every
century would amount to 365-1/4 days; therefore, 48,699 Julian years are
equal to 48,700 Gregorian years.



CHAPTER II.

ERRORS OF THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR.


By reference to the preceding chapter it will be seen that there is an
error of 37.3 minutes in every 100 years not corrected by the Gregorian
calendar; this amounts to only .373 of a minute a year, or one day in
3,861 years, and one day and fifty-two minutes in 4,000 years.


RULE.

To find how long it would take to gain one day: Divide the number of
minutes in a day by the decimal .373, that being the fraction of a minute
gained every year. To find how much time would be gained in 4,000 years,
multiply the decimal .373 by 4,000, and you will have the answer in
minutes, which must be reduced to hours.


SOLUTION.

(24 × 60) ÷ .373 = 3,861, nearly; hence the error would amount to only one
day in 3,861 years.

(.373 × 4,000) ÷ 60 = (24 h, 52 m,) = (1 d, 0 h, 52 m), the error in 4,000
years.

This trifling error in the Gregorian calendar may be corrected by
suppressing the intercalations in the year 4,000, and its multiples,
8,000, 12,000, 16,000, etc., so that it will not amount to a day in
100,000 years.


RULE.

Divide 100,000 by 4,000 and you will have the number of intercalations
suppressed in 100,000 years. Multiply 1 d, 52 m, (that being the error in
4,000 years) by this quotient, and you will have the discrepancy between
the Gregorian and solar year for 100,000 years. By this improved method we
suppress 25 days, so that the error will only amount to 25 times 52
minutes.


SOLUTION.

100,000 ÷ 4,000 × (1 d, 52 m,) = (25d, 21 h, 40 m.) Now, (25d, 21 h, 40
m,) - 25 d = (21 h, 40 m,) the error in 100,000.



CHAPTER III.

DOMINICAL LETTER.


Dominical (from the Latin _Dominus_, Lord,) indicating the Lord's day or
Sunday. Dominical letter, one of the first seven letters of the alphabet
used to denote the Sabbath or Lord's day.

For the sake of greater generality, the days of the week are denoted by
the first seven letters of the alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, which are
placed in the calendar beside the days of the year, so that A stands
opposite the first day of January, B opposite the second, C opposite the
third, and so on to G, which stands opposite the seventh; after which A
returns to the eighth, and so on through the 365 days of the year.

Now, if one of the days of the week, Sunday for example, is represented by
F, Monday will be represented by G, Tuesday by A, Wednesday by B, Thursday
by C, Friday by D, and Saturday by E; and every Sunday throughout the year
will have the same character, F, every Monday G, every Tuesday A, and so
with regard to the rest.

The letter which denotes Sunday is called the Dominical or Sunday letter
for that year; and when the dominical letter of the year is known, the
letters which respectively correspond to the other days of the week become
known also. Did the year consist of 364 days, or 52 weeks invariably, the
first day of the year and the first day of the month, and in fact any day
of any year, or any month, would always commence on the same day of the
week. But every common year consists of 365 days, or 52 weeks and 1 day,
so that the following year will begin one day later in the week than the
year preceding. Thus the year 1837 commenced on Sunday, the following
year, 1838, on Monday, 1839 on Tuesday, and so on.

As the year consists of 52 weeks and 1 day, it is evident that the day
which begins and ends the year must occur 53 times; thus the year 1837
begins on Sunday and ends on Sunday; so the following year, 1838, must
begin on Monday. As A represented all the Sundays in 1837 and as A always
stands for the first day of January, so in 1838 it will represent all the
Mondays, and the dominical letter goes back from A to G; so that G
represents all the Sundays in 1838, A all the Mondays, B all the Tuesdays,
and so on, the dominical letter going back one place in every year of 365
days.

While the following year commences one day later in the week than the year
preceding, the dominical letter goes back one place from the preceding
year; thus while the year 1865 commenced on Sunday, 1866 on Monday, 1867
on Tuesday, the dominical letters are A, G and F, respectively. Therefore,
if every year consisted of 365 days, the dominical cycle would be
completed in seven years, so that after seven years the first day of the
year would again occur on the same day of the week.

But this order is interrupted every four years by giving February 29 days,
thereby making the year to consist of 366 days, which is 52 weeks and two
days, so that the following year would commence two days later in the week
than the year preceding, thus the year 1888 being leap-year, had two
dominical letters, A and G; A for January and February, and G for the rest
of the year. The year commenced on Sunday and ended on Monday, making 53
Sundays and 53 Mondays, and the following year, 1889, to commence on
Tuesday. It now becomes evident that if the years all consisted of 364
days, or 52 weeks, they would all commence on the same day of the week; if
they all consisted of 365 days, or 52 weeks and one day, they would all
commence one day later in the week than the year preceding; if they all
consisted of 366 days, or 52 weeks and two days, they would commence two
days later in the week; if 367 days or 52 weeks and three days, then three
days later, and so on, one day later for every additional day. It is also
evident that every additional day causes the dominical letter to go back
one place. Now in leap-year the 29th day of February is the additional or
intercalary day. So one letter for January and February, and another for
the rest of the year. If the number of years in the intercalary period
were two, and seven being the number of days in the week, their product
would be 2 × 7 = 14; fourteen, then, would be the number of years in the
cycle. Again, if the number of years in the intercalary period were three,
and the number of days in the week being seven, their product would be 3 ×
7 = 21; twenty-one would then be the number of years in the cycle. But the
number of years in the intercalary period is four, and the number of days
in the week is seven, therefore their product is 4 × 7 = 28; twenty-eight
is then the number of years in the cycle.

This period is called the dominical or solar cycle, and restores the first
day of the year to the same day of the week. At the end of the cycle the
dominical letters return again in the same order, on the same days of the
month. Thus, for the year 1801, the dominical letter is D; 1802, C; 1803,
B; 1804, A and G; and so on, going back five places every four years for
twenty-eight years, when the cycle, being ended, D is again dominical
letter for 1829, C for 1830, and so on every 28 years forever, according
to the Julian rule of intercalation.

But this order is interrupted in the Gregorian calendar at the end of the
century by the secular suppression of the leap-year. It is not
interrupted, however, at the end of every century, for the leap-year is
not suppressed in every fourth centurial year; consequently the cycle will
then be continued for two hundred years. It should be here stated that
this order continued without interruption from the commencement of the era
until the reformation of the calendar in 1582, during which time the
Julian calendar, or Old Style was used.

It has already been shown that if the number of years in the intercalary
period be multiplied by seven, the number of days in the week, their
product will be the number of years in the cycle. Now, in the Gregorian
calendar, the intercalary period is 400 years; this number being
multiplied by seven, their product would be 2,800 years, as the interval
in which the coincidence is restored between the days of the year and the
days of the week.

This long period, however, may be reduced to 400 years; for since the
dominical letter goes back five places every four years, in 400 years it
will go back 500 places in the Julian and 497 in the Gregorian calendar,
three intercalations being suppressed in the Gregorian every 400 years.
Now 497 is exactly divisible by seven, the number of days in the week,
therefore, after 400 years the cycle will be completed, and the dominical
letters will return again in the same order, on the same days of the
month.

In answer to the question, "Why two dominical letters for leap-year?" we
reply, because of the additional or intercalary day after the 28th of
February. It has already been shown that every additional day causes the
dominical letter to go back one place. As there are 366 days in leap-year,
the letter must go back two places, one being used for January and
February, and the other for the rest of the year. Did we continue one
letter through the year and then go back two places, it would cause
confusion in computation, unless the intercalation be made at the end of
the year. Whenever the intercalation is made there must necessarily be a
change in the dominical letter. Had it been so arranged that the
additional day was placed after the 30th of June or September, then the
first letter would be used until the intercalation is made in June or
September, and the second to the end of the year. Or suppose that the end
of the year had been fixed as the time and place for the intercalation,
(which would have been much more convenient for computation,) then there
would have been no use whatever for the second dominical letter, but at
the end of the year we would go back two places; thus, in the year 1888,
instead of A being dominical letter for two months merely, it would be
continued through the year, and then passing back to F, no use whatever
being made of G, and so on at the end of every leap-year. Hence it is
evident that this arrangement would have been much more convenient, but we
have this order of the months, and the number of days in the months as
Augustus Cæsar left them eight years before Christ. The dominical letter
probably was not known until the Council of Nice, in the year of our Lord
325, where, in all probability, it had its origin.



CHAPTER IV.

RULE FOR FINDING THE DOMINICAL LETTER.


Divide the number of the given year by 4, neglecting the remainders, and
add the quotient to the given number. Divide this amount by 7, and if the
remainder be less than three, take it from 3; but if it be 3 or more than
3, take it from 10 and the remainder will be the number of the letter
calling A, 1; B, 2; C, 3, etc.

By this rule the dominical letter is found from the commencement of the
era to October 5th, 1582. O. S. From October 15th, 1582, till the year
1700, take the remainder as found by the rule from 6, if it be less than
6, but if the remainder be 6, take it from 13, and so on according to
instructions given in the table on 49th page. It should be understood
here, that in leap-years the letter found by the preceding rule will be
the dominical letter for that part of the year that follows the 29th of
February, while the letter which follows it will be the one for January
and February.


EXAMPLES.

To find the dominical letter for 1365, we have 1365 ÷ 4 = 341 +; 1365 +
341 = 1706; 1706 ÷ 7 = 243, remainder 5. Then 10 - 5 = 5; therefore E
being the fifth letter is the dominical letter for 1365.

To find the dominical letter for 1620, we have 1620 ÷ 4 = 405; 1620 + 405
= 2025; 2025 ÷ 7 = 289, remainder 2. Then 6 - 2 = 4; therefore, D and E
are the dominical letters for 1620; E for January and February, and D for
the rest of the year. The process of finding the dominical letter is very
simple and easily understood, if we observe the following order:

1st. Divide by 4.

2d. Add to the given number.

3d. Divide by 7.

4th. Take the remainder from 3 or 10, from the commencement of the era to
October 5th, 1582. From October 15th, 1582 to 1700, from 6 or 13. From
1700 to 1800, from 7, and so on. See table on 49th page.

We divide by 4 because the intercalary period is four years; and as every
fourth year contains the divisor 4 once more than any of the three
preceding years, so there is one more added to the fourth year than there
is to any of the three preceding years; and as every year consists of 52
weeks and one day, this additional year gives an additional day to the
remainder after dividing by 7. For example, the year

  1 of the era consists of             52 w. 1 d.
  2 years consist of                  104 w. 2 d.
  3 years consist of                  156 w. 3 d.
  (4 ÷ 4) + 4 = 5 years consist of    260 w. 5 d.

Hence the numbers thus formed will be 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13,
15, and so on.

We divide by 7, because there are seven days in the week, and the
remainders show how many days more than an even number of weeks there are
in the given year. Take, for example, the first twelve years of the era
after being increased by one-fourth, and we have

   1 ÷ 7 = 0 remainder 1  Then  3 - 1 = 2 = B
   2 ÷ 7 = 0     "     2   "    3 - 2 = 1 = A
   3 ÷ 7 = 0     "     3   "   10 - 3 = 7 = G
   5 ÷ 7 = 0     "     5   "   10 - 5 = 5 = F E
   6 ÷ 7 = 0     "     6   "   10 - 6 = 4 = D
   7 ÷ 7 = 1     "     0   "    3 - 0 = 3 = C
   8 ÷ 7 = 1     "     1   "    3 - 1 = 2 = B
  10 ÷ 7 = 1     "     3   "   10 - 3 = 7 = A G
  11 ÷ 7 = 1     "     4   "   10 - 4 = 6 = F
  12 ÷ 7 = 1     "     5   "   10 - 5 = 5 = E
  13 ÷ 7 = 1     "     6   "   10 - 6 = 4 = D
  15 ÷ 7 = 2     "     1   "    3 - 1 = 2 = C B

From this table it may be seen that it is these remainders representing
the number of days more than an even number of weeks in the given year,
that we have to deal with in finding the dominical letter.

Did the year consist of 364 days, or 52 weeks, invariably, there would be
no change in the dominical letter from year to year, but the letter that
represents Sunday in any given year would represent Sunday in every year.
Did the year consist of only 363 days, thus wanting one day of an even
number of weeks, then these remainders, instead of being taken from a
given remainder, would be added to that number, thus removing the
dominical letter forward one place, and the beginning of the year, instead
of being one day later, would be one day earlier in the week than in the
preceding year.

Thus, if the year 1 of the era be taken from 3, we would have 3 - 1 = 2;
therefore, B being the second letter, is dominical letter for the year 1.
But if the year consist of only 363 days, then the 1 instead of being
taken from 3 would be added to 3; then we would have 3 + 1 = 4; therefore,
D being the fourth letter would be dominical letter for the year 1. The
former going back from C to B, the latter forward from C to D; or which
amounts to the same thing, make the year to consist of 51 weeks and 6
days; then 10 - 6 = 4, making D the dominical letter as before.

As seven is the number of days in the week, and the object of these
subtractions is to remove the dominical letter back one place every common
year, and two in leap-year, why not take these remainders from 7? We
answer, all depends upon the day of the week on which the era commenced.
Had G, the seventh letter been dominical letter for the year preceding the
era, then these remainders would be taken from 7; and 7 would be used
until change of style in 1582. But we know from computation that C, the
third letter, is dominical letter for the year preceding the era; so we
commence with three, and take the smaller remainders, 1 and 2 from 3; that
brings us to A. We take the larger remainders, from 3 to 6, from 3 + 7 =
10. We add the 7 because there are seven days in the week. We use the
number 10 until we get back to C, the third letter, the place from whence
we started. For example, we have

   3 - 1 = 2 = B
   3 - 2 = 1 = A
  10 - 3 = 7 = G
  10 - 4 = 6 = F
  10 - 5 = 5 = E
  10 - 6 = 4 = D
   3 - 0 = 3 = C

The cycle of seven days being completed, we commence with the number three
again, and so on until 1582, when on account of the errors of the Julian
calendar, ten days were suppressed to restore the coincidence of the solar
and civil year. Now every day suppressed removes the dominical letter
forward one place; so counting from C to C again is seven, D is eight, E
is nine, and F is ten. As F is the sixth letter, we take the remainders
from 1 to 5, from 6; if the remainder be 6, take it from 6 + 7 = 13. Then
6 or 13 is used till 1700, when, another day being suppressed, the number
is increased to 7. And again in 1800, for the same reason, a change is
made to 1 or 8; in 1900 to 2 or 9, and so on. It will be seen by the table
on the 49th page that the smaller numbers run from 1 to 7; the larger ones
from 8 to 13.

From the commencement of the Christian era to October 5th, 1582, take the
remainders, after dividing by 7, from 3 or 10; from October 15th,

  1582 to 1700    from 6 or 13
  1700 to 1800      "  7
  1800 to 1900      "  1 or  8
  1900 to 2100      "  2 or  9
  2100 to 2200      "  3 or 10
  2200 to 2300      "  4 or 11
  2300 to 2500      "  5 or 12
  2500 to 2600      "  6 or 13
  2600 to 2700      "  7
  2700 to 2900      "  1 or  8
  2900 to 3000      "  2 or  9
  3000 to 3100      "  3 or 10
  3100 to 3300      "  4 or 11
  3300 to 3400      "  5 or 12
  3400 to 3500      "  6 or 13
  3500 to 3700      "  7
  3700 to 3800      "  1 or  8
  3800 to 3900      "  2 or  9
  3900 to 4000      "  3 or 10
  4000 to 4100      "  4 or 11
  4100 to 4200      "  5 or 12
  4200 to 4300      "  6 or 13
  4300 to 4500      "  7
  4500 to 4600      "  1 or  8
  4600 to 4700      "  2 or  9
  4700 to 4900      "  3 or 10
  4900 to 5000      "  4 or 11
  5000 to 5100      "  5 or 12



CHAPTER V.

RULE FOR FINDING THE DAY OF THE WEEK OF ANY GIVEN DATE, FOR BOTH OLD AND
NEW STYLES.


By arranging the dominical letters in the order in which the different
months commence, the day of the week on which any month of any year, or
day of the month has fallen or will fall, from the commencement of the
Christian era to the year of our Lord 4000, may be calculated. (Appendix
G.) They have been arranged thus in the following couplet, in which At
stands for January, Dover for February, Dwells for March, etc.

  At Dover Dwells George Brown, Esquire,
  Good Carlos Finch, and David Fryer.

Now if A be dominical or Sunday letter for a given year, then January and
October being represented by the same letter, begin on Sunday; February,
March and November, for the same reason, begin on Wednesday; April and
July on Saturday; May on Monday, June on Thursday, August on Tuesday,
September and December on Friday. It is evident that every month in the
year must commence on some one day of the week represented by one of the
first seven letters of the alphabet. Now let

  January 1st be represented                    by A, Sun.
  Feb.  1st (4 w. 3 d. from the preceding date) by D, Wed.
  Mar.  1st  4 w. 0 d.   "         "       "    by D, Wed.
  Apr.  1st  4 w. 3 d.   "         "       "    by G, Sat.
  May   1st  4 w. 2 d.   "         "       "    by B, Mon.
  June  1st  4 w. 3 d.   "         "       "    by E, Thur.
  July  1st  4 w. 2 d.   "         "       "    by G, Sat.
  Aug.  1st  4 w. 3 d.   "         "       "    by C, Tues.
  Sept. 1st  4 w. 3 d.   "         "       "    by F, Fri.
  Oct.  1st  4 w. 2 d.   "         "       "    by A, Sun.
  Nov.  1st  4 w. 3 d.   "         "       "    by D, Wed.
  Dec.  1st  4 w. 2 d.   "         "       "    by F, Fri.

Now each of these letters placed opposite the months respectively
represents the day of the week on which the month commences, and they are
the first letters of each word in the preceding couplet.

To find the day of the week on which a given day of any year will occur,
we have the following


RULE.

Find the dominical letter for the year. Read from this to the letter which
begins the given month, always reading from A toward G, calling the
dominical letter Sunday, the next Monday, etc. This will show on what day
of the week the month commenced; then reckoning the number of days from
this will give the day required.


EXAMPLES.

History records the fall of Constantinople on May 29th, 1453. On what day
of the week did it occur? We have then 1453 ÷ 4 = 363 +; 1453 + 363 =
1816; 1816 ÷ 7 = 259, remainder 3. Then 10 - 3 = 7; therefore, G being the
seventh letter is dominical letter for 1453. Now reading from G to B, the
letter for May, we have G Sunday, A Monday, and B Tuesday; hence May
commenced on Tuesday and the 29th was Tuesday.

The change from Old to New Style was made by Pope Gregory XIII, October
5th, 1582. On what day of the week did it occur? We have then 1582 ÷ 4 =
395+; 1582 + 395 = 1977; 1977 ÷ 7 = 282, remainder 3. Then 10 - 3 = 7;
therefore, G being the seventh letter, is dominical letter for 1582. Now
reading from G to A, the letter for October, we have G Sunday, A Monday,
etc. Hence October commenced on Monday, and the 5th was Friday.

On what day of the week did the 15th of the same month fall in 1582? We
have then 1582 ÷ 4 = 395+; 1582 + 395 = 1977; 1977 ÷ 7 = 282, remainder 3.
Then 6 - 3 = 3; therefore, C being the third letter, is the dominical
letter for 1582. Now reading from C to A, the letter for October, we have
C Sunday, D Monday, E Tuesday, etc. Hence October commenced on Friday, and
the 15th was Friday.

How is this, says one? You have just shown by computation that October,
1582, commenced on Monday, you now say that it occurred on Friday. You
also stated that the 5th was Friday; you now say that the 15th was Friday.
This is absurd; ten is not a multiple of seven. There is nothing absurd
about it. The former computation was Old Style, the latter New Style, the
Old being ten days behind the new.

As regards an interval of ten days between the two Fridays, there was
none; Friday, the 5th, and Friday, the 15th, was one and the same day;
there was no interval, nothing ever occurred, there was no time for
anything to occur; the edict of the Pope decided it; he said the 5th
should be called the 15th, and it was so.

Hence to October the 5th, 1582, the computation should be Old Style; from
the 15th to the end of the year New Style.

On what day of the week did the years 1, 2 and 3, of the era commence?
None of these numbers can be divided by 4; neither are they divisible by
7; but they may be treated as remainders after dividing by 7. Now each of
these numbers of years consists of an even number of weeks with remainders
of 1, 2 and 3 days respectively. Hence we have then for the year 1, 3 - 1
= 2; therefore, B being the second letter, is the dominical letter for the
year 1. Now reading from B to A, the letter for January, we have B Sunday,
C Monday, D Tuesday, etc. Hence January commenced on Saturday.

Then we have for the year 2, 3 - 2 = 1; therefore A being the first
letter, is dominical letter for the year 2; hence it is evident that
January commenced on Sunday. Again we have for the year 3, 10 - 3 = 7;
therefore, G being the seventh letter, is dominical letter for the year 3.
Now reading from G to A, the letter for January, we have G Sunday, A
Monday; hence January commenced on Monday.

On what day of the week did the year 4 commence? Now we have a number that
is divisible by 4, it being the first leap-year in the era, so we have 4 ÷
4 = 1; 4 + 1 = 5; 5 ÷ 7 = 0, remainder 5. Then 10 - 5 = 5; therefore, E
being the 5th letter, is dominical letter for that part of the year which
follows the 29th of February, while F, the letter that follows it, is
dominical letter for January and February. Now reading from F to A, the
letter for January, we have F Sunday, G Monday, A Tuesday; hence January
commenced on Tuesday.

Now we have disposed of the first four years of the era; the dominical
letters being B, A, G, and F, E. Hence it is evident, while one year
consists of an even number of weeks and one day, two years of an even
number of weeks and two days, three years of an even number of weeks and
three days, that every fourth year, by intercalation, is made to consist
of 366 days; so that four years consist of an even number of weeks and
five days; for we have (4 ÷ 4) + 4 = 5, the dominical letter going back
from G in the year 3, to F, for January and February in the year 4, and
from F to E for the rest of the year, causing the following year to
commence two days later in the week than the year preceding.

The year 1 had 53 Saturdays; the year 2, 53 Sundays; the year 3, 53
Mondays, and the year 4, 53 Tuesdays and 53 Wednesdays, causing the year 5
to commence on Thursday, two days later in the week than the preceding
year. Now what is true concerning the first four years of the era, is true
concerning all the future years, and the reason for the divisions,
additions and subtractions in finding the dominical letter is evident.

The Declaration of Independence was signed July 4, 1776. On what day of
the week did it occur? We have then 1776 ÷ 4 = 444; 1776 + 444 = 2220;
2220 ÷ 7 = 317, remainder 1. Then 7 - 1 = 6, therefore F and G are the
dominical letters for 1776, G for January and February, and F for the rest
of the year. Now reading from F to G, the letter for July, we have F
Sunday, G Monday; hence July commenced on Monday, and the fourth was
Thursday. On what day of the week did Lee surrender to Grant, which
occurred on April 9th, 1865? We have then 1865 ÷ 4 = 466+; 1865 + 466 =
2331; 2331 ÷ 7 = 333, remainder 0. Then 1 - 0 = 1; therefore, A being the
first letter, is dominical letter for 1865. Now reading from A to G, the
letter for April, we have A Sunday, B Monday, C Tuesday, etc. Hence April
commenced on Saturday, and the 9th was Sunday.

Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated President of the United States on
Monday, March 4, 1889. On what day of the week will the 4th of March fall
in 1989? We have then 1989 ÷ 4 = 497+; 1989 + 497 = 2486; 2486 ÷ 7 = 355,
remainder 1. Then 2 - 1 = 1; therefore, A being the first letter, is
dominical letter for 1989. Now, reading from A to D, the letter for March,
we have A Sunday, B Monday, C Tuesday, and D Wednesday; hence March will
commence on Wednesday, and the 4th will fall on Saturday. Columbus landed
on the island of San Salvador on Friday, October 12, 1492. On what day of
the month and on what day of the week will the four hundredth anniversary
fall in 1892?

The day of the month on which Columbus landed is, of course, the day to be
observed in commemoration of that event. The Julian calendar, which was
then in use throughout Europe, and the very best that had ever been given
to the world, made the year too long by more than eleven minutes. Those
eleven minutes a year had accumulated, from the council of Nice, in 325,
to the discovery of America, in 1492, to nine days, so that the civil year
was nine days behind the true or solar time; that is, when the Earth, in
her annual revolution, had arrived at that point of the ecliptic
coinciding with the 21st of October, the civil year, according to the
Julian calendar, was the 12th.

Now, to restore the coincidence, the nine days must be dropped, or
suppressed, calling what was erroneously called the 12th of October, the
21st. Since the Julian calendar was corrected by Gregory, in 1582, we have
so intercalated as to retain, very nearly, the coincidence of the solar
and the civil year. It has already been shown in Chapter III, (q. v.) that
in the Gregorian calendar, the cycle which restores the coincidence of the
day of the month and the day of the week, is completed in 400 years; so
that after 400 years, events will again transpire in the same order, on
the same day of the week. Now, as Columbus landed on Friday, October 21st,
1492, so Friday, October 21st, 1892, is the day of the month and also the
day of the week to be observed in commemoration of that event. We have
then 1892 ÷ 4 = 473; 1892 + 473 = 2365; 2365 ÷ 7 = 337, remainder 6. Then
8 - 6 = 2; therefore, B and C are dominical letters for 1892, C for
January and February, and B for the rest of the year. Now, reading from B
to A, the letter for October, we have B Sunday, C Monday, etc. Hence
October will commence on Saturday and the 21st will be Friday.

Although there was an error of thirteen days in the Julian calendar when
it was reformed by Gregory, in 1582, there was a correction made of only
ten days. There was still an error of three days from the time of Julius
Cæsar to the Council of Nice, which remained uncorrected. Gregory restored
the vernal equinox to the 21st of March, its date at the meeting of that
council, not to the place it occupied in the time of Cæsar, namely, the
24th of March. Had he done so it would now fall on the 24th, by adopting
the Gregorian rule of intercalation. Appendix H.

If desirable calculations may be made in both Old and New Styles from the
year of our Lord 300. There is no perceptible discrepancy in the
calendars, however, until the close of the 4th century, when it amounts to
nearly one day, reckoned in round numbers one day. Now in order to make
the calculation, proceed according to rule already given for finding the
dominical letter, and for New Style take the remainders after dividing by
seven from the numbers in the following table:

  From  400 to  500      From 4 or 11
    "   500 "   600        "  5 "  12
    "   600 "   700        "  6 "  13
    "   700 "   900        "  7
    "   900 "  1000        "  1 "   8
    "  1000 "  1100        "  2 "   9
    "  1100 "  1300        "  3 "  10
    "  1300 "  1400        "  4 "  11
    "  1400 "  1500        "  5 "  12
    "  1500 "  1700        "  6 "  13

It will be found by calculation that from the year

   400 to  500 the discrepancy is  1 day
   500 "   600  "       "      "   2  "
   600 "   700  "       "      "   3  "
   700 "   900  "       "      "   4  "
   900 "  1000  "       "      "   5  "
  1000 "  1100  "       "      "   6  "
  1100 "  1300  "       "      "   7  "
  1300 "  1400  "       "      "   8  "
  1400 "  1500  "       "      "   9  "
  1500 "  1700  "       "      "  10  "

Hence the necessity, in reforming the calendar in 1582, of suppressing ten
days. (See table on 59th page.) On what day of the week did January
commence in 450? We have then 450 ÷ 4 = 112+; 450 + 112 = 562; 562 ÷ 7 =
80, remainder 2. Then 3 - 2 = 1; therefore, A being the first letter, is
dominical letter for 450, Old Style, and January commenced on Sunday. For
New Style we have 4 - 2 = 2; therefore, B being the second letter, is
dominical letter for the year 450. Now reading from B to A, the letter for
January, we have B Sunday, C Monday, D Tuesday, etc.

Hence, January commenced on Saturday. Old Style makes Sunday the first
day; New Style makes Saturday the first and Sunday the second. On what day
of the week did January commence in the year 1250? We have then 1250 ÷ 4 =
312+; 1250 + 312 = 1562; 1562 ÷ 7 = 223, remainder 1. Then 3 - 1 = 2;
therefore, B being the second letter, is dominical letter for the year
1250, Old Style. Now, reading from B to A, the letter for January, we have
B Sunday, C Monday, etc. Hence January commenced on Saturday. B is also
dominical letter, New Style; for we take the remainder after dividing by
7, from the same number.

As both Old and New Styles have the same dominical letter, so both make
January to commence on the same day of the week; but Old Style, during
this century, is seven days behind the true time, so that when it is the
first day of January by the Old, it is the eighth by the New.

  Vernal equinox in the time of Numa, about 700 B. C.

  It is here seen by the errors of the Julian Calendar
    the Vernal Equinox is made to occur
    three days earlier every 400 years, so
    that in 1582 it fell on the
    11th instead of the
    21st of March.                                        18

                                                  17

                                          16

                                  15

                          14

                  13

          12

  11                                        By suppressing 10 d

                                                            Hou

                                                             "

                                                             "



                                                            Hou

                                                             "

                                                             "



      By the Gregorian rule of intercalation the coincidence of
  years.


                                       March 24,             46 B. C.

                                     23      |           |    1 A. D.
                                             | Restored  |
                             22              |           |  100 "  "
                                             |    by     |
                     21                      |           |  300 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |  Julius   |
             20  |    |    |                 |           |  400 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |  Cæsar,   |
     19          | Vernal  |                 |           |  500 "  "
                 | equinox |                 | 46 B. C., |
                 | at the  |                 |           |  600 "  "
                 | Council |                 |  to the   |
                 |   of    |                 |           |  800 "  "
                 |  Nice,  |                 | place it  |
                 |   325   |                 |           |  900 "  "
                 |  A. D.  |                 | occupied  |
                 |    |    |                 |           | 1000 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |  in the   |
                 |    |    |                 |           | 1200 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |  time of  |
                 |    |    |                 |           | 1300 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |   Numa.   |
                 |    |    |                 |           | 1400 "  "
                 |    |    |                 |           |
  ays, Coincidence    0    Restored in       |           | 1600 "  "
                      |                      |           |
  rs behind time, 18  |  6 in advance.       |           | 1700 "  "
                      |                      |           |
        "     "   12  | 12  "    "           |           | 1800 "  "
                      |                      |           |
        "     "    6  | 18  "    "           |           | 1900 "  "
                      |                      |           |
       Coincidence    0    Restored.         |           | 2000 "  "
                      |                      |           |
  rs behind time, 18  |  6 in advance.       |           | 2100 "  "
                      |                      |           |
        "     "   12  | 12  "    "           |           | 2200 "  "
                      |                      |           |
        "     "    6  | 18  "    "           |           | 2300 "  "
                      |                      |           |
       Coincidence    0    Restored.         |           | 2400 "  "

   the solar and civil year is restored very nearly every 400

Appendix I.



CHAPTER VI.

A SIMPLE METHOD FOR FINDING THE DAY OF THE WEEK OF EVENTS WHICH OCCUR
QUADRENNIALLY.


The inaugural of the Presidents. The day of the week on which they have
occurred, and on which they will occur for the next one hundred years:

  April 30th, 1789, Thursday,  George Washington.
  March 4th,  1793, Monday,      "        "
    "    "    1797, Saturday,  John Adams
    "    "    1801, Wednesday, Thomas Jefferson.
    "    "    1805, Monday,       "       "
    "    "    1809, Saturday,  James Madison.
    "    "    1813, Thursday,    "      "
    "    "    1817, Tuesday,   James Monroe.
    "    "    1821, Sunday,      "     "
    "    "    1825, Friday,    John Q. Adams.
    "    "    1829, Wednesday, Andrew Jackson.
    "    "    1833, Monday,      "       "
    "    "    1837, Saturday,  Martin Van Buren.
    "    "    1841, Thursday,  Wm. H. Harrison.
    "    "    1845, Tuesday,   James K. Polk.
    "    "    1849, Sunday,    Zachary Taylor.
    "    "    1853, Friday,    Franklin Pierce.
    "    "    1857, Wednesday, James Buchanan.
    "    "    1861, Monday,    Abraham Lincoln.
    "    "    1865, Saturday,     "       "
    "    "    1869, Thursday,  Ulysses S. Grant.
    "    "    1873, Tuesday,      "         "
    "    "    1877, Sunday,    Rutherford B. Hays.
    "    "    1881, Friday,    James A. Garfield.
    "    "    1885, Wednesday, Grover Cleveland.
    "    "    1889, Monday,    Benjamin Harrison.
    "    "    1893, Saturday,  Grover Cleveland.
    "    "    1897, Thursday,
    "    "    1901, Monday,
    "    "    1905, Saturday,
    "    "    1909, Thursday,
    "    "    1913, Tuesday,
    "    "    1917, Sunday,
    "    "    1921, Friday,
    "    "    1925, Wednesday,
    "    "    1929, Monday,
    "    "    1933, Saturday,
    "    "    1937, Thursday,
    "    "    1941, Tuesday,
    "    "    1945, Sunday,
    "    "    1949, Friday,
    "    "    1953, Wednesday,
    "    "    1957, Monday,
    "    "    1961, Saturday,
    "    "    1965, Thursday,
    "    "    1969, Tuesday,
    "    "    1973, Sunday,
    "    "    1977, Friday,
    "    "    1981, Wednesday,
    "    "    1985, Monday,
    "    "    1989, Saturday,
    "    "    1993, Thursday.

Any one understanding what has been said in a preceding chapter concerning
the dominical letter, can very easily make out such a table without going
through the process of making calculations for every year. As every
succeeding year, or any day of the year, commences one day later in the
week than the year preceding, and two days later in leap-year, which makes
five days every four years, and as the Presidential term is four years, so
every inaugural occurs five days later in the week than it did in the
preceding term.

Now, as counting forward five days is equivalent to counting back two, it
will be much more convenient to count back two days every term. There is
one exception, however, to this rule; the year which completes the century
is reckoned as a common year (that is, three centuries out of four),
consequently we count forward only four days or back three.

Commencing, then, with the second inaugural of Washington, which occurred
on Monday, March 4, 1793, and counting back two days to Saturday in 1797,
three days to Wednesday in 1801 and two days to 1805, and so on two days
every term till 1901, when, for reasons already given, we count back three
days again for one term only, after which it will be two days for the next
two hundred years; hence anyone can make his calculations as he writes,
and as fast as he can write. See table on 61st page.


SOME PECULIARITIES CONCERNING EVENTS WHICH FALL ON THE TWENTY-NINTH DAY OF
FEBRUARY.

The civil year and the day must be regarded as commencing at the same
instant. We cannot well reckon a fraction of a day, giving to February 28
days and 6 hours, making the following month to commence six hours later
every year; if so, then March, for example, in

  1888 would commence at 12 m. night.
  1889   "      "     "   6 a. m.
  1890   "      "     "  12 m.
  1891   "      "     "   6 p. m.
  1892   "      "     "  12 m. night,

again, and so on.

Instead of doing so, we wait until the fraction accumulates to a whole
day; then give to February 29 days, and the year 366. Therefore, events
which fall on the 29th of February cannot be celebrated annually, but only
quadrennially; and at the close of those centuries in which the
intercalations are suppressed only octennially. For example: From the year
1696 to 1704, 1796 to 1804, and 1896 to 1904, there is no 29th day of
February; consequently no day of the month in the civil year on which an
event falling on the 29th of February could be celebrated. Therefore, a
person born on the 29th of February, 1896, could celebrate no birthday
till 1904, a period of eight years.

In every common year February has 28 days, each day of the week being
contained in the number of days in the month four times; but in leap-year,
when February has 29 days, the day which begins and ends the month is
contained five times. Let us suppose that in a certain year, when February
has 29 days, the month comes in on Friday; it also must necessarily end on
Friday.

After four years it will commence on Wednesday, and end on Wednesday, and
so on, going back two days in the week every four years, until after 28
years we come back to Friday again. This, as has already been explained,
is the dominical or solar cycle. For example: February in

  The year  4 has five Fridays.
   "   "    8  "   "   Wednesdays.
   "   "   12  "   "   Mondays.
   "   "   16  "   "   Saturdays.
   "   "   20  "   "   Thursdays.
   "   "   24  "   "   Tuesdays.
   "   "   28  "   "   Sundays.
   "   "   32  "   "   Fridays.

So that after 28 years we come back to Friday again; and so on every 28
years, until change of style in 1582, when the Gregorian rule of
intercalation being adopted by suppressing the intercalations in three
centurial years out of four interrupts this order at the close of these
three centuries. For example--1700, 1800 and 1900, after which the cycle
of 28 years will be continued until 2100, and so on. The cycle being
interrupted by the Gregorian rule of intercalation, causes all events
which occur between 28 and 12 years of the close of the centuries to fall
on the same day of the week again in 40 years; and those events that fall
within 12 years of the close of these centuries, to fall on the same day
of the week again in 12 years; after which the cycle of 28 years will be
continued during the century. See following table:

  1804 February has five Wednesdays.
  1808    "      "   "   Mondays.
  1812    "      "   "   Saturdays.
  1816    "      "   "   Thursdays.
  1820    "      "   "   Tuesdays.
  1824    "      "   "   Sundays.
  1828    "      "   "   Fridays.
  1832    "      "   "   Wednesdays.
  1836    "      "   "   Mondays.
  1840    "      "   "   Saturdays.
  1844    "      "   "   Thursdays.
  1848    "      "   "   Tuesdays.
  1852    "      "   "   Sundays.
  1856    "      "   "   Fridays.
  1860    "      "   "   Wednesdays.
  1864    "      "   "   Mondays.
  1868    "      "   "   Saturdays.
  1872    "      "   "   Thursdays.
  1876    "      "   "   Tuesdays.
  1880    "      "   "   Sundays.
  1884    "      "   "   Fridays.
  1888    "      "   "   Wednesdays.
  1892    "      "   "   Mondays.
  1896    "      "   "   Saturdays.
  1900
  1904    "      "   "   Mondays.
  1908    "      "   "   Saturdays.
  1912    "      "   "   Thursdays.
  1916    "      "   "   Tuesdays.
  1920    "      "   "   Sundays.
  1924    "      "   "   Fridays.
  1928    "      "   "   Wednesdays.

It will be seen from this table that in 1804 February had five Wednesdays;
and then again in 1832, 1860 and 1888; then suppressing the intercalation
in the year 1900 suppresses the 29th of February; so opposite 1900 in the
table is blank, and the 29th of February does not occur again till 1904,
and the five Wednesdays do not occur again till 1928--that is, 40 years
from 1888, when it last occurred.

Again taking the five Mondays which occurred first in this century, in
1808, and then again in 1836, 1864 and in 1892, you will see, for reasons
already given, that it will occur again in 12 years, that is, in 1904; and
so on with all the days of the week, when it will be seen what is peculiar
concerning the 29th of February.

But attention is particularly called to the five Thursdays, which occur
first in this century 1816, and then again in 1844 and 1872, the last date
being within 28 years of the close of the century. Suppressing the
intercalation suppresses the 29th of February; consequently the five
Thursdays do not occur again till 1912, that is 40 years from the
preceding date, after which the cycle will be continued for two hundred
years.

Hence it may be seen that the dominical or solar cycle of 28 years is so
interrupted at the close of these centuries by the suppression of the
leap-year, that certain events do not occur again on the same day of the
week under 40 years, while others are repeated again on the same day of
the week in 12 years; also the number of years in the cycle, that is 28 +
12 = 40.

And again the change of style in 1582, causes all events which occur
between 28 and 8 years of that change, to fall again on the same day of
the week in 36 years, and all that occur within 8 years of that change to
be repeated again on the same day of the week in 8 years, after which the
cycle of 28 years is continued for 100 years; also that the number of
years in the cycle, that is, 28 + 8 = 36.



CHAPTER VII.

RULES FOR FINDING THE DAY OF THE WEEK OF EVENTS THAT TRANSPIRED PRIOR TO
THE CHRISTIAN ERA.


First, it should be understood that the year 4 is the first leap year in
our era, reckoning from the year 1 B. C., which must necessarily be leap
year; so that the odd numbers 1, 5, 9, 13, etc., are leap years. Hence
every year that is divisible by four and one remainder, is leap year; if
no remainder, it is the first year after leap-year; if 3, the second; if
2, the third, thus:

  45 ÷ 4 = 11, remainder, 1,
  44 ÷ 4 = 11, no remainder,
  43 ÷ 4 = 10, remainder, 3,
  42 ÷ 4 = 10, remainder, 2,
  41 ÷ 4 = 10, remainder, 1,

and so on, every year being divided by four and 1 remainder is leap-year
of 366 days. It should be borne in mind that the same calendar was in use
without any correction from the days of Julius Cæsar 46 B. C. to Pope
Gregory XIII in 1582; consequently the method of finding the dominical
letter is, in some respects, similar to the one already given on the 44th
page. But in some respects the one is the reverse of the other, for we
reckon backward and forward from a fixed point--the era; that is the
numbers increase each way from the era. Also the dominical letters occur
in the natural order of the letters in reckoning backward, but exactly the
reverse in reckoning forward. See table on the 73d page, where the
dominical letter is placed opposite each year from 45 B. C. to 45 A. D.
Now we use the same number 3, because C, the third letter is dominical
letter for the year 1 B. C., the point from which we reckon. But instead
of taking the remainder, after dividing by 7, _from_ 3 or 10, to find the
number of the letter, as in Part Second, Chapter IV, (q. v.) we add the
remainder _to_ 3; hence we have the following:


RULE.

Divide the number of the given year by 4, neglecting the remainders, and
add the quotient to the given number, divide this amount by 7, and add the
remainder to 3, and that amount will give the number of the letter,
calling A, 1; B, 2; C, 3, etc.; except the first year after leap-year,
(which is the year exactly divisible by 4), the number of the letter is
one less than is indicated by the rule.

This rule gives the dominical letter for January and February only, in
leap-year, while the letter that precedes it, is the letter for the rest
of the year. If the amount be greater than seven, we should reckon from A
to A or B again.

It has already been stated in Part First, Chapter III, (q. v.), that a
change was made by Augustus Cæsar about 8 B. C., in the number of days in
the month; and, as this change effects the day of the week on which
certain events fall, it becomes necessary that they should be presented as
they were arranged by Julius Cæsar, and as corrected by Augustus. Julius
Cæsar gave to February 29 days in common years, and in leap-year 30. This
arrangement was the very best that could possibly be made, but, as has
already been shown, it was interrupted to gratify the vanity of Augustus.

The left hand column in the table on the 72d page represents the number of
days in each month from the days of Julius Cæsar to Augustus, a period of
37 years. The right hand column represents the number of days in the
months as they now are, and have been since the change was made by
Augustus, 8 B. C. Consequently the rule for finding the day of the week on
which events have fallen for the 37 years prior to the last mentioned
date, is not perfectly exact, and needs a little explanation here.

The rule itself is given, and fully explained in Part Second, Chapter V,
(q. v.) but cannot be applied to the 37 years without some correction. In
all the months marked with a star, events fall one day later in the week
than that which is indicated by the rule. This should be borne in mind,
and make the event one day later in the week than that which is found by
the rule. For example, Julius Cæsar was assassinated on the 15th of March,
44 B. C. By giving to February 28 days the first day of March would fall
on Wednesday, and, of course, the 15th would be Wednesday. But Cæsar gave
to February 29 days, so that the first day of March fell on Thursday, and
the 15th was Thursday.

Hence, every event from March to September will fall one day later in the
week than the rule indicates. But the rule is applicable to September, for
it will make no difference whether there are 29 days in February or 31 in
August, there are the same number of days from February to September. But
the 31 days in September will cause all events to fall one day later in
the week during the month of October, but they coincide again during the
month of November. The order is interrupted again in December by giving 31
days to November. See following table:

  _As Arranged by Julius_ |  _As Corrected by Augustus,_
        _Cæsar._          |         _8 B. C._
                          |
       January, 31        |        January, 31
       February, 29       |        February, 28
       March, 31*         |        March, 31
       April, 30*         |        April, 30
       May, 31*           |        May, 31
       June, 30*          |        June, 30
       July, 31*          |        July, 31
       August, 30*        |        August, 31
       September, 31      |        September, 30
       October, 30*       |        October, 31
       November, 31       |        November, 30
       December, 30*      |        December, 31


  ---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----
  Dominical|Year.|Dominical|Year.|Dominical|Year.|Dominical|Year.
   Letter. |     | Letter. |     | Letter. |     | Letter. |
  ---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----
           |B. C.|         |B. C.|         |A. D.|         |A. D.
     cb    |  45 |     b   |  22 |     b   |   1 |     c   |  23
      a    |  44 |    ag   |  21 |     a   |   2 |    ba   |  24
      g    |  43 |     f   |  20 |     g   |   3 |     g   |  25
      f    |  42 |     e   |  19 |    fe   |   4 |     f   |  26
     ed    |  41 |     d   |  18 |     d   |   5 |     e   |  27
      c    |  40 |    cb   |  17 |     c   |   6 |    dc   |  28
      b    |  39 |     a   |  16 |     b   |   7 |     b   |  29
      a    |  38 |     g   |  15 |    ag   |   8 |     a   |  30
     gf    |  37 |     f   |  14 |     f   |   9 |     g   |  31
      e    |  36 |    ed   |  13 |     e   |  10 |    fe   |  32
      d    |  35 |     c   |  12 |     d   |  11 |     d   |  33
      c    |  34 |     b   |  11 |    cb   |  12 |     c   |  34
     ba    |  33 |     a   |  10 |     a   |  13 |     b   |  35
      g    |  32 |    gf   |   9 |     g   |  14 |    ag   |  36
      f    |  31 |     e   |   8 |     f   |  15 |     f   |  37
      e    |  30 |     d   |   7 |    ed   |  16 |     e   |  38
     dc    |  29 |     c   |   6 |     c   |  17 |     d   |  39
      b    |  28 |    ba   |   5 |     b   |  18 |    cb   |  40
      a    |  27 |     g   |   4 |     a   |  19 |     a   |  41
      g    |  26 |     f   |   3 |    gf   |  20 |     g   |  42
     fe    |  25 |     e   |   2 |     e   |  21 |     f   |  43
      d    |  24 |    dc   |   1 |     d   |  22 |    ed   |  44
      c    |  23 |         |     |         |     |     c   |  45
  ---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----+---------+-----



PART THIRD.

CYCLES--JULIAN PERIOD--EASTER.

HEBREW CALENDAR.



CHAPTER I.

THE SOLAR CYCLE.


Cycle, (Latin _Cyclus_, ring or circle). The revolution of a certain
period of time which finishes and re-commences perpetually. Cycles were
invented for the purpose of chronology, and for marking the intervals in
which two or more periods of unequal length are each completed a certain
number of times, so that both begin exactly in the same circumstance as at
first. Cycles used in chronology are three: The solar cycle, the lunar
cycle, and the cycle of indiction.

The solar cycle is a period of time after which the same days of the year
recur on the same days of the week. If every year contained 365 days, then
every year would commence one day later in the week than the year
preceding, and the cycle would be completed in seven years. For if the
first day of January, in any given year, fall on Sunday, then the
following year on Monday, the third on Tuesday, and so on to Sunday again
in seven years.

But this order is interrupted in the Julian calendar every four years by
giving to February 29 days, and consequently the year 366. Now the number
of years in the intercalary period being four and the days of the week
being seven, their product is 4 × 7 = 28; twenty-eight years then is a
period after which the first day of the year and the first day of every
month recur again in the same order on the same day of the week. This
period is called the solar cycle or the cycle of the sun, the origin of
which is unknown; but is supposed to have been invented about the time of
the Council of Nice, in the year of our Lord 325; but the first year of
the cycle is placed by chronologists nine years before the commencement of
the Christian era.

Hence the year of the cycle corresponding to any given year in the Julian
calendar is found by the following rule: Add nine to the date and divide
the sum by twenty-eight; the quotient is the number of cycles elapsed, and
the remainder is the year of the cycle. Should there be no remainder, the
proposed year is the twenty-eighth, or last of the cycle. Thus, for the
year 1892, we have (1892 + 9) ÷ 28 = 67, remainder 25. Therefore, 67 is
the number of cycles, and 25 the number in the cycle.



CHAPTER II.

THE LUNAR CYCLE.


The Lunar cycle, or the cycle of the moon, is a period of nineteen years,
after which the new and full moons fall on the same days of the year as
they did nineteen years before. This cycle was invented by Meton, a
celebrated astronomer of Athens, and may be regarded as the masterpiece of
ancient astronomy. In nineteen solar years there are 235 lunations, a
number which, on being divided by nineteen, gives twelve lunations, with
seven of a remainder, to be distributed among the years of the period.

The period of Meton, therefore, consisted of twelve years containing
twelve months each, and seven years containing thirteen mouths each, and
these last formed the third, fifth, eighth, eleventh, thirteenth,
sixteenth, and nineteenth years of the cycle. As it had now been
discovered that the exact length of the lunation is a little more than
twenty-nine and a half days, it became necessary to abandon the alternate
succession of full and deficient months; and, in order to preserve a more
accurate correspondence between the civil month and the lunation, Meton
divided the cycle into 125 full months of 30 days, and 110 deficient
months of 29 days each. The number of days in the period was, therefore,
6940; for (125 × 30) + (110 × 29) = 6940.

In order to distribute the deficient months through the period in the most
equable manner, the whole period may be regarded as consisting of 235 full
months of thirty days, or 7050 days, from which 110 days are to be
deducted; for (235 × 30) = 7050; 7050 - 110 = 6940, as before. This gives
one day to be suppressed in sixty-four, so that if we suppose the months
to contain each thirty days, and then omit every sixty-fourth day in
reckoning from the beginning of the period, those months in which the
omission takes place will, of course, be the deficient months.

The number of days in the period being known, it is easy to ascertain its
accuracy both in respect of the solar and lunar motions. The exact length
of nineteen solar years is (365d, 5h, 48m, 49.62s.) × 19 = 6939d, 14h,
27m, 42.78s.; hence, the period, which is exactly 6940 days, exceeds
nineteen annual revolutions of the earth by a little more than nine and a
half hours. On the other hand, the exact time of the synodic revolution of
the moon is 29d, 12h, 44m, 2.87s.; 235 lunations, therefore, contain 235 ×
(29d, 12h, 44m, 2.87s.) = (6939d, 16h, 31m, 14.45s.), so that the period
exceeds 235 lunations by nearly seven and a half hours.

At the end of four cycles, or seventy-six years, the accumulation of the
seven and a half hours of difference between the cycle and 235 lunations
amounts to thirty hours, or one whole day and six hours. Calippus,
therefore, in order to make a correction of the Metonic cycle, proposed to
quadruple the period of Meton, and deduct one day at the end of that time
by changing one of the full months into a deficient month. The period of
Calippus, therefore, consisted of three Metonic cycles of 6940 days each,
and a period of 6939 days; and its error in respect to the moon,
consequently, amounted to only six hours, or to one day in 304 years.
This period exceeds seventy-six true solar years by 14h, 9m, 8.88s., but
coincides exactly with seventy-six Julian years; and in the time of
Calippus the length of the solar year was almost universally supposed to
be exactly 365-1/4 days.



CHAPTER III.

THE LUNAR CYCLE AND GOLDEN NUMBER.


In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the
ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which
they supposed to be exact. A different arrangement has, however, been
followed with respect to the distribution of the months. The lunations are
supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the
lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six
embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in
the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.
This gives (19 × 354) + (6 × 30) + 29 = 6935 days, to be distributed among
235 lunar months.

But every leap-year one day must be added to the lunar month in which the
29th of February is included. Now if leap-year happened on the first,
second or third year of the period, there will be five leap-years in the
period, but only four when the first leap-year falls on the fourth. In the
former case the number of days in the period becomes 6940, and in the
latter 6939. The mean length of the cycle is, therefore, 6939-3/4 days,
agreeing exactly with nineteen Julian years. By means of the lunar cycle
the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the reformation in
1582. As the cycle restores these phenomena to the same days of the civil
month, they will fall on the same days in any two years which occupy the
same place in the cycle; consequently a table of the moon's phases for
nineteen years will serve for any year whatever when we know its number in
the cycle.

The number of the year in the cycle is called the Golden Number; either
because it was so termed by the Greeks, who, on account of its utility,
ordered it to be inscribed in letters of gold in their temples, or more
probably because it was usual to distinguish it by red letters in the
calendar. The Golden Numbers were introduced into the calendar about the
year 530, but disposed as they would have been if they had been inserted
at the time of the Council of Nice. The cycle is supposed to commence with
the year in which the new moon falls on the first day of January, which
took place the year preceding the commencement of our era.

Hence to find the Golden Number for any year, we have the following rule:
Add one to the date, divide the sum by nineteen; the quotient is the
number of cycles elapsed, and the remainder is the Golden Number. Should
there be no remainder, the proposed year is, of course, the last or
nineteenth of the cycle. Thus, for the year 1892, we have (1892 + 1) ÷ 19
= 99, remainder 12; therefore, 99 is the number of cycles, and 12 the
number in the cycle, or the Golden number.

It ought to be remarked that the new moons determined in this manner, may
differ from the astronomical new moons sometimes as much as two days. The
reason is, that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities which are
compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to 10 degrees
and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after
its mean time.

The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of
the week; the cycle of the moon restores the new moons to the same day of
the month; therefore, 28 × 19 = 532 years, includes all the variations in
respect of the new moons and the dominical letter, and is consequently a
period after which the new moons again occur on the same day of the month
and the same day of the week. This is called the Dionysian or Great
Paschal Period, from its having been employed by Dionysius Exiguus in
determining Easter Sunday.



CHAPTER IV.

CYCLE OF INDICTION, AND THE JULIAN PERIOD.


The cycle of Indiction or Roman Indiction, is a period of fifteen years;
not astronomical like the two former, but entirely arbitrary. Its origin
and the purpose for which it was established are alike uncertain; but it
is conjectured that it was introduced by Constantine the Great, about the
year 312 of the common era, and had reference to certain judicial acts
that took place under the Greek emperors at stated intervals of fifteen
years. In chronological reckoning, it is considered as having commenced on
the first day of January of the year 313.

By extending it backward, it will be found that the cycle commenced three
years before the beginning of our era. In order, therefore, to find the
number of any year in the cycle of indiction, we have this rule: Add three
to the date, divide the number by fifteen; and the remainder is the year
of the indiction. Should there be no remainder, the proposed year is the
fifteenth or last of the cycle. Thus, for the year 1892, we have (1892 +
3) ÷ 15 = 126, remainder 5. Therefore, 5 is the number in the cycle.

The Julian period, proposed by the celebrated Joseph Scaliger, as an
universal measure of chronology, is a period of 7980 years, and is formed
by the continual multiplication of the three numbers, 28, 19 and 15; that
is, of the cycle of the sun, the cycle of the moon, and the cycle of
indiction. Thus, (28 × 19 × 15) = 7980. In the course of this long period
no two years can be expressed by the same numbers in all the three cycles.

The first year of the Christian era had 10 for its number in the cycle of
the sun, 2 in the cycle of the moon, and 4 in the cycle of the indiction.
Now, it is found by actual calculation, that the only number less than
7980 which, on being divided successively by 28, 19, and 15, leaves the
respective remainders 10, 2 and 4, is 4714. Hence, the first year of the
Christian era corresponded with the year 4714 of the Julian period, which
period coincides with the 710th before the common mundane era 4004 B. C.;
for 4004 + 710 = 4714. Hence, also, the year of our era corresponding to
any other year of the period, or _vice versa_, is found by the following
rule:

When the given year is anterior to the commencement of the era, subtract
the number of the year of the Julian period from 4714, and the remainder
is the year before Christ; or, subtract the year before Christ from 4714,
and the remainder is the corresponding year in the Julian period. Thus,
Rome was founded in the year 3960 of the Julian period. What was the year
before Christ? We have then 4714 - 3960 = 754. Julius Cæsar was
assassinated 44 years before Christ, what was the corresponding year of
the Julian period? We have then, 4714 - 44 = 4670.

When the given year is after Christ, subtract 4713 from the year of the
period, and the remainder is the year of the era; or add 4713 to the year
of the era, and the sum is the corresponding year in the Julian period.
Thus, the Council of Nice was convened in the year 5038 of the Julian
period, what was the year of our era? We have then, 5038 - 4713 = 325.
What year of the Julian period corresponds with the present year, 1892? We
have then, 4713 + 1892 = 6605.



CHAPTER V.

EASTER.


Easter (Germ. _Ostern_, Old Saxon _Oster_, from _Osten_, signifying
rising). The English name is probably derived from Ostera or Eostre, the
Teutonic goddess of spring, whose festival occurred about the same time of
the year as the celebration of Easter. The Hebrew-Greek word Pascha has
passed into the name given to this feast by most Christian nations. This
festival is held in commemoration of our Lord's resurrection.

The Jews celebrated their passover, in conformity with the directions
given them by Moses, on the 14th day of the month Nisan, being the lunar
month of which the 14th day either falls on or next follows the day of the
vernal equinox. In the year of our Lord's crucifixion this fell on a
Friday; the resurrection, therefore, took place on the first day of the
week, which from thence is denominated the Lord's Day.

The primitive Christians, in celebrating this anniversary, fell into two
different systems. The Western churches observed the nearest Sunday to the
full moon of Nisan, taking no account of the day on which the passover
would be celebrated. The Asiatics, on the other hand, following the Jewish
calendar, adopted the 14th of Nisan upon which to commemorate the
crucifixion, and observed the festival of Easter on the third day
following, upon whatever day of the week that might fall, hence they
obtained the name of Quartodecimans, (from quarto, four, and decem, ten,)
the fourteenth day men. The former appealed to the authority of St. Peter
and St. Paul, the latter to that of St. John.

The dispute which took place upon this point in the second and third
centuries of our era is remarkable, as connected with perhaps the first
event which can be brought to bear upon the question of the primacy of the
Roman bishop; and it is the more interesting as both parties are
accustomed to claim it as a testimony in favor of their own views. Victor,
bishop of Rome, wrote an imperious letter to the Asiatic bishops,
requiring their conformity to the Western rule; which was answered by
Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus, in the name of the rest, expressing their
resolution to maintain the custom handed down to them by their ancestors.
The Roman bishop thereupon broke off communion with them; but he was
rebuked by Irenaeus, of Lyons, and it was agreed by his mediation that
each party should retain its customs. Such continued to be the practice
till the time of Constantine, when the Council of Nice determined the
matter by the following Canons:

_a_--Easter must be celebrated on a Sunday.

_b_--This Sunday must follow the 14th day of the paschal moon, so that if
the 14th day of the paschal moon fall on a Sunday, then Easter must be
celebrated on the Sunday following.

_c_--The paschal moon is that moon of which the 14th day either falls on
or next follows the day of the vernal equinox.

_d_--The 21st of March is to be accounted the day of the vernal equinox.
(Appendix L.)

Sometimes a misunderstanding has arisen from not observing that this
regulation is to be construed according to the tabular full moon as
determined from the epact, and not by the true full moon, which in
general, occurs one or two days earlier. From these conditions it follows,
that if the paschal full moon fall on Saturday, the 21st of March, then
Easter will happen on the 22d, its earliest possible date. For if the full
moon arrive on the 20th, it would not be the paschal full moon, which
cannot happen before the 21st, consequently the following moon is the
paschal full moon, which happens 30 days after the 20th of March, which is
the 19th of April. Now, if in this case the 19th of April is Sunday, then
Easter must be celebrated the following Sunday, or the 26th of April.
Hence, Easter Sunday cannot happen earlier than the 22d of March, or later
than the 26th of April.

The observance of these rules renders it necessary to reconcile three
periods which have no common measure, namely, the week, the lunar month,
and the solar year; and as this can be done only approximately, and within
certain limits, the determination of Easter is an affair of considerable
nicety and complication. It has already been shown that the lunar cycle
contained 6939 days and 18 hours; also, that the exact time of 235
lunations is 6939d, 16h, 31m, 14.45s. The difference, which is 1h, 28m,
45.55s., amounts to a day in 308 years, so that at the end of this time
the new moons occur one day earlier than they are indicated by the Golden
Numbers. During the 1257 years that elapsed between the Council of Nice
and the reformation, the error had accumulated to four days, so that the
new moons, which were marked in the calendar as happening, for example, on
the 5th of the month, actually fell on the 1st.

It would have been easy to correct this error by placing the Golden
Numbers four lines higher in the new calendar, but the suppression of ten
days had already rendered it necessary to place them ten lines lower, and
to carry those which belonged, for example, to the 5th and 6th of the
month, to the 15th and 16th. But supposing this correction to have been
made, it would have become necessary, at the end of 308 years, to place
them one line higher, in consequence of the accumulation of the error of
the cycle to a whole day. On the other hand, as the Golden Numbers were
only adapted to the Julian calendar, every omission of the centenary
intercalation would require them to be placed one line lower, opposite the
6th, for example, instead of the 5th of the month, so that, generally
speaking, the places of the Golden Numbers would have to be changed every
century. On this account Lilius thought fit to reject the Golden Numbers
from the Calendar, and supply their places by another set of numbers
called Epacts, the use of which we shall now proceed to explain.

Epact, (Greek _epaktos_, added or introduced). The excess of the solar
year beyond the lunar, employed in the calendar to signify the moon's age
at the beginning of the year. The common solar year consisted of 365 days
and the lunar year only 354 days, the difference is eleven; whence, if a
new moon fall on the first day of January in any year, the moon will be
eleven days old on the first day of the following year, and twenty-two
days old on the first of the third year. The numbers eleven and twenty-two
are therefore the epacts of those years respectively. Another addition of
eleven gives thirty-three for the epact of the fourth year; but in
consequence of the insertion of the intercalary month in each third year
of the lunar cycle, this epact is reduced to three; for 33 - 30 = 3. In
like manner the epacts of all the following years of the cycle are
obtained by successively adding eleven to the epact of the former year,
and rejecting thirty as often as the sum exceeds or equals that number.

In order to show how the epacts are connected with the Golden Numbers, let
a cypher represent the new moon on the first day of January in any year,
then the epacts and Golden Numbers for a whole lunar cycle would be
represented thus:

  1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9
  0     11    22    3     14    25    6     17    28

  10    11    12    13    14    15    16    17    18    19
  9     20     1    12    23     4    15    26     7    18

But the order is interrupted at the end of the cycle; for the epact of the
following year found in the same manner would be 18 + 11 = 29, whereas it
ought to be a cipher to correspond with the moon's age and the Golden
Number 1. The reason for this is, that the intercalary month, inserted at
the end of the cycle, contains only twenty-nine days instead of thirty;
whence, after 11 has been added to the epact of the year corresponding to
the Golden Number 19, we must reject twenty-nine instead of thirty, in
order to have the epact of the succeeding year; or, which comes to the
same thing, we must add twelve to the epact of the last year of the cycle,
and then reject thirty as before. Thus, 18 + 12 = 30; 30 - 30 = 0; the
cipher corresponding with the Golden Number 1.

This method of forming the epacts might have been continued indefinitely
if the Julian intercalation had been followed without correction and the
cycle had been perfectly exact; but as neither of these suppositions is
true, two equations or corrections must be applied, one depending on the
error of the Julian year, which is called the solar equation; the other on
the errors of the lunar cycle, which is called the lunar equation. The
solar equation occurs three times in 400 years, namely, in every secular
year which is not a leap-year; for in this case the omission of the
intercalary day causes the new moons to arrive one day later in all the
following months, so that the moon's age at the end of the month is one
day less than it would have been if the intercalation had been made, and
the epacts must accordingly be all diminished by unity. Thus, the epacts
11, 22, 3, 14, etc., become 10, 21, 2, 13, etc.

On the other hand, when the time by which the new moons anticipate the
lunar cycle amounts to a whole day, which, as we have seen, it does in 308
years, the new moons will arrive one day earlier and the epacts must,
consequently, be increased by unity. Thus, the epacts 11, 22, 3, 14, etc.,
in consequence of the lunar equation, becomes 12, 23, 4, 15, etc. In order
to preserve the uniformity of the calendar, the epacts are changed only at
the commencement of the century; the correction of the error of the lunar
cycle is therefore made at the end of 300 years. In the Gregorian calendar
this error is assumed to amount to a day in 312-1/2 years, or eight days
in 2500 years, an assumption which requires the line of epacts to be
changed seven times successively at the end of each period of 300 years,
and once at the end of 400 years; and from the manner in which the epacts
were disposed at the reformation, it was found most correct to suppose one
of the periods of 2500 years to terminate with the year 1800.

The years in which the solar equation occurs, counting from the
reformation, are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, etc. Those in
which the lunar equation occurs are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300,
3600, 3900, after which 4300, 4600, and so on. When the solar equation
occurs, the epacts are diminished by unity; when the lunar equation
occurs, the epacts are augmented by unity; and when both equations occur
together, as in 1800, 2100, 2700, etc., they compensate each other, and
the epacts are not changed.



CHAPTER VI.

A NEW AND EASY METHOD OF FIXING THE DATE OF EASTER.


In determining the date of Easter, we make use of the numbers called
epacts; and, as these numbers have already been explained in the preceding
chapter, (q. v.) it will be necessary to give them only a brief notice
here. Epact, as has already been defined, is the excess of the solar year
beyond the lunar, employed in the calendar to signify the moon's age at
the beginning of the year; that is, if a new moon fall on the first day
of January in any year, it will be eleven days old on the first day of
the following year, and twenty-two days old on the first day of the third
year, and so on.

Now, in this work, in fixing the date of Easter, we abandon the use of the
new moons altogether, and make calculations wholly from the paschal full
moons, which cannot happen earlier than the 21st of March, nor later than
the 19th of April. Appendix J. The epacts are here used to show the day of
the month on which the paschal full moons fall; that is, if the paschal
moon fall on a given day of the month in any year, it will happen eleven
days earlier the following year, and twenty-two days earlier the third
year, and so on. To illustrate, suppose the paschal moon fall on the 18th
of April in any given year, on the following year it would fall on the
7th, in the third year on the 27th of March; and in the fourth year the
moon would full on the 16th of March, but that would not be the paschal
moon, which cannot happen earlier than the 21st; so the following moon
would be the paschal moon, which happens thirty days later, or the 15th of
April; then the fifth year it would fall on the 4th of April, and so on.

The solar and lunar equations or corrections are not made by change of
epacts, for only one line of epacts is used in this work, but these
corrections are made by a change of the day of the month on which the
cycle commences. This change is made at the beginning of a century, and,
of course, does not occur but once in a hundred years, and frequently no
change is made for two, and even three hundred years. The reason for
making these changes has been given in the preceding chapter, (q. v.),
and will again be noticed in the proper place. The line of epacts used are
thus represented, commencing with a cipher as the point of departure: 0,
11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18. It
should be borne in mind that the epacts are obtained by successively
adding eleven to the epact of the former year, and rejecting thirty as
often as the sum exceeds or equals that number. But, as the intercalary
month inserted at the end of the cycle contains only 29 days, add twelve
instead of eleven, to eighteen, the last of the cycle, and then reject
thirty as before; thus, 18 + 12 = 30; then 30 - 30 = 0. The cycle being
completed, we again commence with the cipher as the point of departure.

After having found the paschal full moons for one lunar cycle, a period of
nineteen years, then the paschal moons again occur in the same order, on
the same days of the month, as they did nineteen years before. Now, as has
also been shown in the preceding chapter, this cycle might have been
continued indefinitely had the Julian intercalation been followed without
correction, and the cycle been perfectly exact; but neither of these being
true, two equations or corrections must be made, one depending on the
error of the Julian calendar, which is called the solar-equation; the
other on the error of the lunar cycle, which is called the lunar equation.

Every omission of the intercalary day, which occurs three times in 400
years, will cause the full moons to fall one day later; for example, on
the 13th of the month instead of the 12th. On the other hand, as has also
been shown in the preceding chapter, the error of the lunar cycle is one
day in 300 years; so that at the end of every 300 years the full moons
will fall one day earlier, for example, on the 11th of the month instead
of the 12th. Now, when both equations occur together, they compensate each
other; that is, while the solar equation would cause the full moon to fall
on the 13th, the lunar equation would make it fall on the 11th; therefore,
no correction is to be made--there is nothing to correct. Had they
occurred singly, the full moon, at the beginning of the cycle, would have
fallen either on the 13th or the 11th; but as they occur together, no
change is made; and the full moons of the calendar will remain as they are
for the next one hundred years.

Hence, the date of Easter may very easily be determined, as indicated in
the following tables (q. v.). It is known by actual calculation that the
paschal full moon fell on the 12th of April in the year 1596, which moon
was the first of a cycle after the reformation of the calendar by Gregory.
Now, by taking the epact of the following years of the cycle, which are
11, 22, 3, 14, 25, etc., from 12, the date of the first paschal moon, and
you will have all the moons of the cycle. Of course, the epacts 22, 25,
etc., cannot be taken from 12, but being carried back from the 12th of
April, they will show on what day in March the full moons fall. When the
epacts are greater than 12, it would be more convenient to take them from
43, as the number of days in March being 31, so 12 + 31 = 43.

To find the paschal moons of the cycle, we have then this rule: If the
epact is less than 12, take it from 12; if greater, take it from 43, and
the remainder will be the date of the paschal moon; unless the full moon
fall before the 21st of March, in which case the following moon will be
the paschal moon, which happens thirty days later. But when the solar
equation occurs in 1710, causing the cycle to commence with the 13th of
April, then the epacts must be taken from 13, or 13 + 31 = 44. And again
in 1900, the correction makes the cycle commence on the 14th of April; so
the number from which the epacts are taken is 14, or 14 + 31 = 45, and so
on. Whenever there is a change of date of the paschal moon in the
beginning of the cycle, as there is again in 2204, 2318 and 2413, etc., as
may be seen in the following tables, then the epacts must be taken from
that date, or that date plus 31, the number of days in March.

Or the date of the paschal moons may very easily be determined by taking
eleven successively from the date of every preceding full moon, and that
will give the date of the paschal moons; only it should be borne in mind
that, whenever the full moon falls before the 21st of March, the following
moon is the paschal moon, which happens thirty days later.

As Easter Sunday is the first Sunday after the paschal full moon, so all
that remains to be done in fixing the date of Easter, is to find the day
of the month on which that Sunday falls; and as this can easily be done by
the use of the dominical letter, which letter and its use in fixing dates
having been fully explained in Part Second, Chapters IV and V, (q. v.), a
repetition seems to be unnecessary here.

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
   _Letter._ |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      gf     | 1596  | April 12 |   14    |    0   |    1
       e     | 1597  |   "    1 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 1598  | March 21 |   22    |   22   |    3
       c     | 1599  | April  9 |   11    |    3   |    4
      ba     | 1600  | March 29 |    2    |   14   |    5
       g     | 1601  | April 17 |   22    |   25   |    6
       f     | 1602  |   "    6 |    7    |    6   |    7
       e     | 1603  | March 26 |   30    |   17   |    8
      dc     | 1604  | April 14 |   18    |   28   |    9
       b     | 1605  |   "    3 |   10    |    9   |   10
       a     | 1606  | March 23 |   26    |   20   |   11
       g     | 1607  | April 11 |   15    |    1   |   12
      fe     | 1608  | March 31 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 1609  | April 19 |   26    |   23   |   14
       c     | 1610  |   "    8 |   11    |    4   |   15
       b     | 1611  | March 28 |    3    |   15   |   16
      ag     | 1612  | April 16 |   22    |   26   |   17
       f     | 1613  |   "    5 |    7    |    7   |   18
       e     | 1614  | March 25 |   30    |   18   |   19
       d     | 1615  | April 12 |   19    |    0   |    1
      cb     | 1616  |   "    1 |    3    |   11   |    2
       a     | 1617  | March 21 |   26    |   22   |    3
       g     | 1618  | April  9 |   15    |    3   |    4
       f     | 1619  | March 29 |   31    |   14   |    5
      ed     | 1620  | April 17 |   19    |   25   |    6
       c     | 1621  |   "    6 |   11    |    6   |    7
       b     | 1622  | March 26 |   27    |   17   |    8
       a     | 1623  | April 14 |   16    |   28   |    9
      gf     | 1624  |   "    3 |    7    |    9   |   10
       e     | 1625  | March 23 |   30    |   20   |   11
       d     | 1626  | April 11 |   12    |    1   |   12
       c     | 1627  | March 31 |    4    |   12   |   13
      ba     | 1628  | April 19 |   23    |   23   |   14
       g     | 1629  |   "    8 |   15    |    4   |   15
       f     | 1630  | March 28 |   31    |   15   |   16
       e     | 1631  | April 16 |   20    |   26   |   17
      dc     | 1632  |   "    5 |   11    |    7   |   18
       b     | 1633  | March 25 |   27    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

By close examination of the above tables, it will be seen that there is
just eleven days difference in the date of these paschal moons, from year
to year, through the whole lunar cycle, and through all lunar cycles. In
determining the date of Easter, it will also be seen, that whenever the
full moon falls before the 21st of March, then the following moon, which
happens thirty days later, is the paschal moon, as the 21st of March is
its earliest possible date. Also when the cycle is

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       a     | 1634  | April 12 |   16    |    0   |    1
       g     | 1635  |   "    1 |    8    |   11   |    2
      fe     | 1636  | March 21 |   23    |   22   |    3
       d     | 1637  | April  9 |   12    |    3   |    4
       c     | 1638  | March 29 |    4    |   14   |    5
       b     | 1639  | April 17 |   24    |   25   |    6
      ag     | 1640  |   "    6 |    8    |    6   |    7
       f     | 1641  | March 26 |   31    |   17   |    8
       e     | 1642  | April 24 |   20    |   28   |    9
       d     | 1643  |   "    3 |    5    |    9   |   10
      cb     | 1644  | March 23 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 1645  | April 11 |   16    |    1   |   12
       g     | 1646  | March 31 |    1    |   12   |   13
       f     | 1647  | April 19 |   21    |   23   |   14
      ed     | 1648  |   "    8 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 1649  | March 28 |    4    |   15   |   16
       b     | 1650  | April 16 |   17    |   26   |   17
       a     | 1651  |   "    5 |    9    |    7   |   18
      gf     | 1652  | March 25 |   31    |   18   |   19
       e     | 1653  | April 12 |   13    |    0   |    1
       d     | 1654  |   "    1 |    5    |   11   |    2
       c     | 1655  | March 21 |   28    |   22   |    3
      ba     | 1656  | April  9 |   16    |    3   |    4
       g     | 1657  | March 29 |    1    |   14   |    5
       f     | 1658  | April 17 |   21    |   25   |    6
       e     | 1659  |   "    6 |   13    |    6   |    7
      dc     | 1660  | March 26 |   28    |   17   |    8
       b     | 1661  | April 14 |   17    |   28   |    9
       a     | 1662  |   "    3 |    9    |    9   |   10
       g     | 1663  | March 23 |   25    |   20   |   11
      fe     | 1664  | April 11 |   13    |    1   |   12
       d     | 1665  | March 31 |    5    |   12   |   13
       c     | 1666  | April 19 |   25    |   23   |   14
       b     | 1667  |   "    8 |   10    |    4   |   15
      ag     | 1668  | March 28 |    1    |   15   |   16
       f     | 1669  | April 16 |   21    |   26   |   17
       e     | 1670  |   "    5 |    6    |    7   |   18
       d     | 1671  | March 25 |   29    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

completed, then the paschal moons again occur in the same order, on the
same day of the month as they did nineteen years before. Now this cycle is
six times repeated in a period of 114 years, when the intercalary day
being suppressed in 1700, causes the first paschal moon of the cycle to
fall on the 13th of April instead of the 12th, and all the moons of the
cycle to fall one day later than they would had the correction not been
made. The cycle is now repeated ten times without

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      cb     | 1672  | April 12 |   17    |    0   |    1
       a     | 1673  |   "    1 |    2    |   11   |    2
       g     | 1674  | March 21 |   25    |   22   |    3
       f     | 1675  | April  9 |   14    |    3   |    4
      ed     | 1676  | March 29 |    5    |   14   |    5
       c     | 1677  | April 17 |   18    |   25   |    6
       b     | 1678  |   "    6 |   10    |    6   |    7
       a     | 1679  | March 26 |    2    |   17   |    8
      gf     | 1680  | April 24 |   21    |   28   |    9
       e     | 1681  |   "    3 |    6    |    9   |   10
       d     | 1682  | March 23 |   29    |   20   |   11
       c     | 1683  | April 11 |   18    |    1   |   12
      ba     | 1684  | March 31 |    2    |   12   |   13
       g     | 1685  | April 19 |   22    |   23   |   14
       f     | 1686  |   "    8 |   14    |    4   |   15
       e     | 1687  | March 28 |   30    |   15   |   16
      dc     | 1688  | April 16 |   18    |   26   |   17
       b     | 1689  |   "    5 |   10    |    7   |   18
       a     | 1690  | March 25 |   26    |   18   |   19
       g     | 1691  | April 12 |   15    |    0   |    1
      fe     | 1692  |   "    1 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 1693  | March 21 |   22    |   22   |    3
       c     | 1694  | April  9 |   11    |    3   |    4
       b     | 1695  | March 29 |    3    |   14   |    5
      ag     | 1696  | April 17 |   22    |   25   |    6
       f     | 1697  |   "    6 |    7    |    6   |    7
       e     | 1698  | March 26 |   30    |   17   |    8
       d     | 1699  | April 14 |   19    |   28   |    9
       c     | 1700  |   "    3 |    4    |    9   |   10
       b     | 1701  | March 23 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 1702  | April 11 |   16    |    1   |   12
       g     | 1703  | March 31 |    1    |   12   |   13
      fe     | 1704  | April 19 |   20    |   23   |   14
       d     | 1705  |   "    8 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 1706  | March 28 |    4    |   15   |   16
       b     | 1707  | April 16 |   17    |   26   |   17
      ag     | 1708  |   "    5 |    8    |    7   |   18
       f     | 1709  | March 25 |   31    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

correction, that is, till the year 1900, a period of 190 years, when the
intercalation being again suppressed, causes the first paschal moon of the
cycle to fall on the 14th of April, and, of course, all the other moons of
the cycle to fall one day later. The reason the correction is not made the
first year of the century is, the lunar cycle must first be completed, and
that did not occur until 1710. As 100 is not a multiple of 19, the number
of years in the cycle, and, as the corrections

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       e     | 1710  | April 13 |   20    |    0   |    1
       d     | 1711  |   "    2 |    5    |   11   |    2
      cb     | 1712  | March 22 |   27    |   22   |    3
       a     | 1713  | April 10 |   16    |    3   |    4
       g     | 1714  | March 30 |    1    |   14   |    5
       f     | 1715  | April 18 |   21    |   25   |    6
      ed     | 1716  |   "    7 |   12    |    6   |    7
       c     | 1717  | March 27 |   28    |   17   |    8
       b     | 1718  | April 15 |   17    |   28   |    9
       a     | 1719  |   "    4 |    9    |    9   |   10
      gf     | 1720  | March 24 |   31    |   20   |   11
       e     | 1721  | April 12 |   13    |    1   |   12
       d     | 1722  |   "    1 |    5    |   12   |   13
       c     | 1723  | March 21 |   28    |   23   |   14
      ba     | 1724  | April  9 |   16    |    4   |   15
       g     | 1725  | March 29 |    1    |   15   |   16
       f     | 1726  | April 17 |   21    |   26   |   17
       e     | 1727  |   "    6 |   13    |    7   |   18
      dc     | 1728  | March 26 |   28    |   18   |   19
       b     | 1729  | April 13 |   17    |    0   |    1
       a     | 1730  |   "    2 |    9    |   11   |    2
       g     | 1731  | March 22 |   25    |   22   |    3
      fe     | 1732  | April 10 |   13    |    3   |    4
       d     | 1733  | March 30 |    5    |   14   |    5
       c     | 1734  | April 18 |   25    |   25   |    6
       b     | 1735  |   "    7 |   10    |    6   |    7
      ag     | 1736  | March 27 |    1    |   17   |    8
       f     | 1737  | April 15 |   21    |   28   |    9
       e     | 1738  |   "    4 |    6    |    9   |   10
       d     | 1739  | March 24 |   29    |   20   |   11
      cb     | 1740  | April 12 |   17    |    1   |   12
       a     | 1741  |   "    1 |    2    |   12   |   13
       g     | 1742  | March 21 |   25    |   23   |   14
       f     | 1743  | April  9 |   14    |    4   |   15
      ed     | 1744  | March 29 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 1745  | April 17 |   18    |   26   |   17
       b     | 1746  |   "    6 |   10    |    7   |   18
       a     | 1747  | March 26 |    2    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

cannot be made only at the beginning of the cycle, so they cannot be made
the first year of the century only once in 1900 years. It may be seen from
one of the above tables that the correction is made in the year 1900, for
the reason that that is the first century which is a multiple of 19. The
next centurial year that is exactly divisible by 19, is 3800. Therefore,
none of the corrections for the next 1900 years, will occur on the first
year of the century. It may also be seen from

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      gf     | 1748  | April 13 |   14    |    0   |    1
       e     | 1749  |   "    2 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 1750  | March 22 |   29    |   22   |    3
       c     | 1751  | April 10 |   11    |    3   |    4
      ba     | 1752  | March 30 |    2    |   14   |    5
       g     | 1753  | April 18 |   22    |   25   |    6
       f     | 1754  |   "    7 |   14    |    6   |    7
       e     | 1755  | March 27 |   30    |   17   |    8
      dc     | 1756  | April 15 |   18    |   28   |    9
       b     | 1757  |   "    4 |   10    |    9   |   10
       a     | 1758  | March 24 |   26    |   20   |   11
       g     | 1759  | April 12 |   15    |    1   |   12
      fe     | 1760  |   "    1 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 1761  | March 21 |   22    |   23   |   14
       c     | 1762  | April  9 |   11    |    4   |   15
       b     | 1763  | March 29 |    3    |   15   |   16
      ag     | 1764  | April 17 |   22    |   26   |   17
       f     | 1765  |   "    6 |    7    |    7   |   18
       e     | 1766  | March 26 |   30    |   18   |   19
       d     | 1767  | April 13 |   19    |    0   |    1
      cb     | 1768  |   "    2 |    3    |   11   |    2
       a     | 1769  | March 22 |   26    |   22   |    3
       g     | 1770  | April 10 |   15    |    3   |    4
       f     | 1771  | March 30 |   31    |   14   |    5
      ed     | 1772  | April 18 |   19    |   25   |    6
       c     | 1773  |   "    7 |   11    |    6   |    7
       b     | 1774  | March 27 |    3    |   17   |    8
       a     | 1775  | April 15 |   16    |   28   |    9
      gf     | 1776  |   "    4 |    7    |    9   |   10
       e     | 1777  | March 24 |   30    |   20   |   11
       d     | 1778  | April 12 |   19    |    1   |   12
       c     | 1779  |   "    1 |    4    |   12   |   13
      ba     | 1780  | March 21 |   26    |   23   |   14
       g     | 1781  | April  9 |   15    |    4   |   15
       f     | 1782  | March 29 |   31    |   15   |   16
       e     | 1783  | April 17 |   20    |   26   |   17
      dc     | 1784  |   "    6 |   11    |    7   |   18
       b     | 1785  | March 26 |   27    |   18   |   19
  ----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+----------

the above tables, that, though the intercalary day was suppressed in the
year 1800, no change is made in the date of the paschal moon. The reason
is, the lunar equation also occurred; while the former correction would
cause the paschal moon to fall one day later, that is on the 14th day of
April, the latter would make it fall one day earlier, that is on the 12th;
so they compensate each other, and there is no correction to be made until
the year 1900, when the solar equation

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       a     | 1786  | April 13 |   16    |    0   |    1
       g     | 1787  |   "    2 |    8    |   11   |    2
      fe     | 1788  | March 22 |   23    |   22   |    3
       d     | 1789  | April 10 |   12    |    3   |    4
       c     | 1790  | March 30 |    4    |   14   |    5
       b     | 1791  | April 18 |   24    |   25   |    6
      ag     | 1792  |   "    7 |    8    |    6   |    7
       f     | 1793  | March 27 |   31    |   17   |    8
       e     | 1794  | April 15 |   20    |   28   |    9
       d     | 1795  |   "    4 |    5    |    9   |   10
      cb     | 1796  | March 24 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 1797  | April 12 |   16    |    1   |   12
       g     | 1798  |   "    1 |    8    |   12   |   13
       f     | 1799  | March 21 |   24    |   23   |   14
       e     | 1800  | April  9 |   13    |    4   |   15
       d     | 1801  | March 29 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 1802  | April 17 |   18    |   26   |   17
       b     | 1803  |   "    6 |   10    |    7   |   18
      ag     | 1804  | March 26 |    1    |   18   |   19
       f     | 1805  | April 13 |   14    |    0   |    1
       e     | 1806  |   "    2 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 1807  | March 22 |   29    |   22   |    3
      cb     | 1808  | April 10 |   17    |    3   |    4
       a     | 1809  | March 30 |    2    |   14   |    5
       g     | 1810  | April 18 |   22    |   25   |    6
       f     | 1811  |   "    7 |   14    |    6   |    7
      ed     | 1812  | March 27 |   29    |   17   |    8
       c     | 1813  | April 15 |   18    |   28   |    9
       b     | 1814  |   "    4 |   10    |    9   |   10
       a     | 1815  | March 24 |   26    |   20   |   11
      gf     | 1816  | April 12 |   14    |    1   |   12
       e     | 1817  |   "    1 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 1818  | March 21 |   22    |   23   |   14
       c     | 1819  | April  9 |   11    |    4   |   15
      ba     | 1820  | March 29 |    2    |   15   |   16
       g     | 1821  | April 17 |   22    |   26   |   17
       f     | 1822  |   "    6 |    7    |    7   |   18
       e     | 1823  | March 26 |   30    |   18   |   19
  ----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+----------

again occurs, and the first paschal moon of the cycle falls on the 14th;
which cycle is repeated sixteen times in a period of 304 years, after
which, in 2204, the date of the first paschal moon is the 15th of April.
The reason there is no correction to make in this long period is, first,
the year 2000 is a common year in the Gregorian calendar; second, in the
year 2100 both the solar and the lunar equations again occur, and
occurring together, they compensate each other; consequently

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      dc     | 1824  | April 13 |   17    |    0   |    1
       b     | 1825  |   "    2 |    2    |   11   |    2
       a     | 1826  | March 22 |   25    |   22   |    3
       g     | 1827  | April 10 |   14    |    3   |    4
      fe     | 1828  | March 30 |    5    |   14   |    5
       d     | 1829  | April 18 |   18    |   25   |    6
       c     | 1830  |   "    7 |   10    |    6   |    7
       b     | 1831  | March 27 |    2    |   17   |    8
      ag     | 1832  | April 15 |   21    |   28   |    9
       f     | 1833  |   "    4 |    6    |    9   |   10
       e     | 1834  | March 24 |   29    |   20   |   11
       d     | 1835  | April 12 |   18    |    1   |   12
      cb     | 1836  |   "    1 |    2    |   12   |   13
       a     | 1837  | March 21 |   22    |   23   |   14
       g     | 1838  |   "    9 |   14    |    4   |   15
       f     | 1839  | March 29 |   30    |   15   |   16
      ed     | 1840  | April 17 |   18    |   26   |   17
       c     | 1841  |   "    6 |   10    |    7   |   18
       b     | 1842  | March 26 |   26    |   18   |   19
       a     | 1843  | April 13 |   15    |    0   |    1
      gf     | 1844  |   "    2 |    6    |   11   |    2
       e     | 1845  | March 22 |   22    |   22   |    3
       d     | 1846  | April 10 |   11    |    3   |    4
       c     | 1847  | March 30 |    3    |   14   |    5
      ba     | 1848  | April 18 |   22    |   25   |    6
       g     | 1849  |   "    7 |    7    |    6   |    7
       f     | 1850  | March 27 |   30    |   17   |    8
       e     | 1851  | April 15 |   19    |   28   |    9
      dc     | 1852  |   "    4 |    4    |    9   |   10
       b     | 1853  | March 24 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 1854  | April 12 |   16    |    1   |   12
       g     | 1855  |   "    1 |    1    |   12   |   13
      fe     | 1856  | March 21 |   20    |   23   |   14
       d     | 1857  |   "    9 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 1858  | March 29 |    4    |   15   |   16
       b     | 1859  | April 17 |   17    |   26   |   17
      ag     | 1860  |   "    6 |    8    |    7   |   18
       f     | 1861  | March 26 |   31    |   18   |   19
  ----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+----------

the cycle is continued until 2204, after which, as has already been
stated, the date of the first paschal moon is the 15th of April. This
cycle is repeated six times in a period of 114 years, when in 2318, for
reasons already given, the date of the first paschal moon of the next
cycle falls on the 16th, and is repeated five times in a period of 95
years, when, in 2413, the lunar equation occurs alone, and the date of the
first paschal moon for the next 95 years, that is till the year 2508,

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       e     | 1862  | April 13 |   20    |    0   |    1
       d     | 1863  |   "    2 |    5    |   11   |    2
      cb     | 1864  | March 22 |   27    |   22   |    3
       a     | 1865  | April 10 |   16    |    3   |    4
       g     | 1866  | March 30 |    1    |   14   |    5
       f     | 1867  | April 18 |   21    |   25   |    6
      ed     | 1868  |   "    7 |   12    |    6   |    7
       c     | 1869  | March 27 |   28    |   17   |    8
       b     | 1870  | April 15 |   17    |   28   |    9
       a     | 1871  |   "    4 |    9    |    9   |   10
      gf     | 1872  | March 24 |   31    |   20   |   11
       e     | 1873  | April 12 |   13    |    1   |   12
       d     | 1874  |   "    1 |    5    |   12   |   13
       c     | 1875  | March 21 |   28    |   23   |   14
      ba     | 1876  | April  9 |   16    |    4   |   15
       g     | 1877  | March 29 |    1    |   15   |   16
       f     | 1878  | April 17 |   21    |   26   |   17
       e     | 1879  |   "    6 |   13    |    7   |   18
      dc     | 1880  | March 26 |   28    |   18   |   19
       b     | 1881  | April 13 |   17    |    0   |    1
       a     | 1882  |   "    2 |    9    |   11   |    2
       g     | 1883  | March 22 |   25    |   22   |    3
      fe     | 1884  | April 10 |   13    |    3   |    4
       d     | 1885  | March 30 |    5    |   14   |    5
       c     | 1886  | April 18 |   25    |   25   |    6
       b     | 1887  |   "    7 |   10    |    6   |    7
      ag     | 1888  | March 27 |    1    |   17   |    8
       f     | 1889  | April 15 |   21    |   28   |    9
       e     | 1890  |   "    4 |    6    |    9   |   10
       d     | 1891  | March 24 |   29    |   20   |   11
      cb     | 1892  | April 12 |   17    |    1   |   12
       a     | 1893  |   "    1 |    2    |   12   |   13
       g     | 1894  | March 21 |   25    |   23   |   14
       f     | 1895  | April  9 |   14    |    4   |   15
      ed     | 1896  | March 29 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 1897  | April 17 |   18    |   26   |   17
       b     | 1898  |   "    6 |   10    |    7   |   18
       a     | 1899  | March 26 |    2    |   18   |   19
  ----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+----------

falls back to the 15th of April. After which the 16th, on account of the
solar equation, is again the date of the first paschal moon of the cycle
for another period of 95 years; that is till the year 2603, when the solar
equation causes the first paschal moon to fall on the 17th, which cycle is
repeated sixteen times during another period of 304 years, after which, in
2907, the correction makes the date of the first paschal moon of the

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       g     | 1900  | April 14 |   15    |    0   |    1
       f     | 1901  |   "    3 |    7    |   11   |    2
       e     | 1902  | March 23 |   30    |   22   |    3
       d     | 1903  | April 11 |   12    |    3   |    4
      cb     | 1904  | March 31 |    3    |   14   |    5
       a     | 1905  | April 19 |   23    |   25   |    6
       g     | 1906  |   "    8 |   15    |    6   |    7
       f     | 1907  | March 28 |   31    |   17   |    8
      ed     | 1908  | April 16 |   19    |   28   |    9
       c     | 1909  |   "    5 |   11    |    9   |   10
       b     | 1910  | March 25 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 1911  | April 13 |   16    |    1   |   12
      gf     | 1912  |   "    2 |    7    |   12   |   13
       e     | 1913  | March 22 |   23    |   23   |   14
       d     | 1914  | April 10 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 1915  | March 30 |    4    |   15   |   16
      ba     | 1916  | April 18 |   23    |   26   |   17
       g     | 1917  |   "    7 |    8    |    7   |   18
       f     | 1918  | March 27 |   31    |   18   |   19
       e     | 1919  | April 14 |   20    |    0   |    1
      dc     | 1920  |   "    3 |    4    |   11   |    2
       b     | 1921  | March 23 |   27    |   22   |    3
       a     | 1922  | April 11 |   16    |    3   |    4
       g     | 1923  | March 31 |    1    |   14   |    5
      fe     | 1924  | April 19 |   20    |   25   |    6
       d     | 1925  |   "    8 |   12    |    6   |    7
       c     | 1926  | March 28 |    4    |   17   |    8
       b     | 1927  | April 16 |   17    |   28   |    9
      ag     | 1928  |   "    5 |    8    |    9   |   10
       f     | 1929  | March 25 |   31    |   20   |   11
       e     | 1930  | April 13 |   20    |    1   |   12
       d     | 1931  |   "    2 |    5    |   12   |   13
      cb     | 1932  | March 22 |   27    |   23   |   14
       a     | 1933  | April 10 |   16    |    4   |   15
       g     | 1934  | March 30 |    1    |   15   |   16
       f     | 1935  | April 18 |   21    |   26   |   17
      ed     | 1936  |   "    7 |   12    |    7   |   18
       c     | 1937  | March 27 |   28    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

cycle, the 18th of April, which cycle is continued without correction till
the year 3116, a period of 209 years. By reference to the above tables, it
will be seen that the solar and lunar equations occur together in the year
2700 and compensate each other; also, that the year 2800 is a common year
in the Gregorian calendar; consequently there is no correction to make
from 2603 to 2907; also the two equations occur together

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       b     | 1938  | April 14 |   17    |    0   |    1
       a     | 1939  |   "    3 |    9    |   11   |    2
      gf     | 1940  | March 23 |   24    |   22   |    3
       e     | 1941  | April 11 |   13    |    3   |    4
       d     | 1942  | March 31 |    5    |   14   |    5
       c     | 1943  | April 19 |   25    |   25   |    6
      ba     | 1944  |   "    8 |    9    |    6   |    7
       g     | 1945  | March 28 |    1    |   17   |    8
       f     | 1946  | April 16 |   21    |   28   |    9
       e     | 1947  |   "    5 |    6    |    9   |   10
      dc     | 1948  | March 25 |   28    |   20   |   11
       b     | 1949  | April 13 |   17    |    1   |   12
       a     | 1950  |   "    2 |    9    |   12   |   13
       g     | 1951  | March 22 |   25    |   23   |   14
      fe     | 1952  | April 10 |   13    |    4   |   15
       d     | 1953  | March 30 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 1954  | April 18 |   25    |   26   |   17
       b     | 1955  |   "    7 |   10    |    7   |   18
      ag     | 1956  | March 27 |    1    |   18   |   19
       f     | 1957  | April 14 |   21    |    0   |    1
       e     | 1958  |   "    3 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 1959  | March 23 |   29    |   22   |    3
      cb     | 1960  | April 11 |   17    |    3   |    4
       a     | 1961  | March 31 |    2    |   14   |    5
       g     | 1962  | April 19 |   22    |   25   |    6
       f     | 1963  |   "    8 |   14    |    6   |    7
      ed     | 1964  | March 28 |   29    |   17   |    8
       c     | 1965  | April 16 |   18    |   28   |    9
       b     | 1966  |   "    5 |   10    |    9   |   10
       a     | 1967  | March 25 |   26    |   20   |   11
      gf     | 1968  | April 13 |   14    |    1   |   12
       e     | 1969  |   "    2 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 1970  | March 22 |   29    |   23   |   14
       c     | 1971  | April 10 |   11    |    4   |   15
      ba     | 1972  | March 30 |    2    |   15   |   16
       g     | 1973  | April 18 |   22    |   26   |   17
       f     | 1974  |   "    7 |   14    |    7   |   18
       e     | 1975  | March 27 |   30    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

again in the year 3000 and compensate each other, is the reason there is
no correction to make from 2907 to 3116, after which the first paschal
moon falls on the 19th, and is repeated fifteen times in a period of 285
years, that is till the year 3401, when the correction makes the 20th of
April, the date of the full moon, but that cannot be the paschal moon,
which cannot happen later than the 19th; consequently the

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      dc     | 1976  | April 14 |   18    |    0   |    1
       b     | 1977  |   "    3 |   10    |   11   |    2
       a     | 1978  | March 23 |   26    |   22   |    3
       g     | 1979  | April 11 |   15    |    3   |    4
      fe     | 1980  | March 31 |    6    |   14   |    5
       d     | 1981  | April 19 |   26    |   25   |    6
       c     | 1982  |   "    8 |   11    |    6   |    7
       b     | 1983  | March 28 |    3    |   17   |    8
      ag     | 1984  | April 16 |   22    |   28   |    9
       f     | 1985  |   "    5 |    7    |    9   |   10
       e     | 1986  | March 25 |   30    |   20   |   11
       d     | 1987  | April 13 |   19    |    1   |   12
      cb     | 1988  |   "    2 |    3    |   12   |   13
       a     | 1989  | March 22 |   26    |   23   |   14
       g     | 1990  | April 10 |   15    |    4   |   15
       f     | 1991  | March 30 |   31    |   15   |   16
      ed     | 1992  | April 18 |   19    |   26   |   17
       c     | 1993  |   "    7 |   11    |    7   |   18
       b     | 1994  | March 27 |    3    |   18   |   19
       a     | 1995  | April 14 |   16    |    0   |    1
      gf     | 1996  |   "    3 |    7    |   11   |    2
       e     | 1997  | March 23 |   30    |   22   |    3
       d     | 1998  | April 11 |   12    |    3   |    4
       c     | 1999  | March 31 |    4    |   14   |    5
      ba     | 2000  | April 19 |   23    |   25   |    6
       g     | 2001  |   "    8 |   15    |    6   |    7
       f     | 2002  | March 28 |   31    |   17   |    8
       e     | 2003  | April 16 |   20    |   28   |    9
      dc     | 2004  |   "    5 |   11    |    9   |   10
       b     | 2005  | March 25 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 2006  | April 13 |   16    |    1   |   12
       g     | 2007  |   "    2 |    8    |   12   |   13
      fe     | 2008  | March 22 |   23    |   23   |   14
       d     | 2009  | April 10 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 2010  | March 30 |    4    |   15   |   16
       b     | 2011  | April 18 |   24    |   26   |   17
      ag     | 2012  |   "    7 |    8    |    7   |   18
       f     | 2013  | March 27 |   31    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

moon that precedes it by thirty days, and which falls on the 21st of
March, is the date of the first paschal moon of the cycle which commences
with the year 3401. The day of the month on which Easter Sunday has fallen
or will fall, from the year 1596 to 2013, is already determined, and may
be seen by reference to the above tables. From 2013 to 3401, the date of
Easter is determined for one lunar cycle only, at the

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      ag     | 2204  | April 15 |   22    |    0   |    1
       f     | 2205  |   "    4 |    7    |   11   |    2
       e     | 2206  | March 24 |   30    |   22   |    3
       d     | 2207  | April 12 |   19    |    3   |    4
      cb     | 2208  |   "    1 |    3    |   14   |    5
       a     | 2209  | March 21 |   26    |   25   |    6
       g     | 2210  | April  9 |   15    |    6   |    7
       f     | 2211  | March 29 |   31    |   17   |    8
      ed     | 2212  | April 17 |   19    |   28   |    9
       c     | 2213  |   "    6 |   11    |    9   |   10
       b     | 2214  | March 26 |   27    |   20   |   11
       a     | 2215  | April 14 |   16    |    1   |   12
      gf     | 2216  |   "    3 |    7    |   12   |   13
       e     | 2217  | March 23 |   30    |   23   |   14
       d     | 2218  | April 11 |   12    |    4   |   15
       c     | 2219  | March 31 |    4    |   15   |   16
      ba     | 2220  | April 19 |   23    |   26   |   17
       g     | 2221  |   "    8 |   15    |    7   |   18
       f     | 2222  | March 28 |   31    |   18   |   19
       f     | 2318  | April 16 |   21    |    0   |    1
       e     | 2319  |   "    5 |    6    |   11   |    2
      dc     | 2320  | March 25 |   28    |   22   |    3
       b     | 2321  | April 13 |   17    |    3   |    4
       a     | 2322  |   "    2 |    9    |   14   |    5
       g     | 2323  | March 22 |   25    |   25   |    6
      fe     | 2324  | April 10 |   13    |    6   |    7
       d     | 2325  | March 30 |    5    |   17   |    8
       c     | 2326  | April 18 |   25    |   28   |    9
       b     | 2327  |   "    7 |   10    |    9   |   10
      ag     | 2328  | March 27 |    1    |   20   |   11
       f     | 2329  | April 15 |   21    |    1   |   12
       e     | 2330  |   "    4 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 2331  | March 24 |   29    |   23   |   14
      cb     | 2332  | April 12 |   17    |    4   |   15
       a     | 2333  |   "    1 |    2    |   15   |   16
       g     | 2334  | March 21 |   25    |   26   |   17
       f     | 2335  | April  9 |   14    |    7   |   18
      ed     | 2336  | March 29 |    5    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

beginning of each period; for the reason that it was deemed unnecessary,
because the paschal moons, the epacts, and the Golden Numbers are the same
for every cycle in the period. Therefore, all that remains to be done is
to find the day of the month on which the first Sunday, after the paschal
moon, falls. The dominical letters for any period may very easily be found
by counting backwards one letter each year for every common

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       f     | 2413  | April 15 |   21    |    0   |    1
       e     | 2414  |   "    4 |    6    |   11   |    2
       d     | 2415  | March 24 |   29    |   22   |    3
      cb     | 2416  | April 12 |   17    |    3   |    4
       a     | 2417  |   "    1 |    2    |   14   |    5
       g     | 2418  | March 21 |   25    |   25   |    6
       f     | 2419  | April  9 |   14    |    6   |    7
      ed     | 2420  | March 29 |    5    |   17   |    8
       c     | 2421  | April 17 |   18    |   28   |    9
       b     | 2422  |   "    6 |   10    |    9   |   10
       a     | 2423  | March 26 |    2    |   20   |   11
      gf     | 2424  | April 14 |   21    |    1   |   12
       e     | 2425  |   "    3 |    6    |   12   |   13
       d     | 2426  | March 23 |   29    |   23   |   14
       c     | 2427  | April 11 |   18    |    4   |   15
      ba     | 2428  | March 31 |    2    |   15   |   16
       g     | 2429  | April 19 |   22    |   26   |   17
       f     | 2430  |   "    8 |   14    |    7   |   18
       e     | 2431  | March 28 |   30    |   18   |   19
      ag     | 2508  | April 16 |   22    |    0   |    1
       f     | 2509  |   "    5 |    7    |   11   |    2
       e     | 2510  | March 25 |   30    |   22   |    3
       d     | 2511  | April 13 |   19    |    3   |    4
      cb     | 2512  |   "    2 |    3    |   14   |    5
       a     | 2513  | March 22 |   26    |   25   |    6
       g     | 2514  | April 10 |   15    |    6   |    7
       f     | 2515  | March 30 |   31    |   17   |    8
      ed     | 2516  | April 18 |   19    |   28   |    9
       c     | 2617  |   "    7 |   11    |    9   |   10
       b     | 2518  | March 27 |    3    |   20   |   11
       a     | 2519  | April 15 |   16    |    1   |   12
      gf     | 2520  |   "    4 |    7    |   12   |   13
       e     | 2521  | March 24 |   30    |   23   |   14
       d     | 2522  | April 12 |   19    |    4   |   15
       c     | 2523  |   "    1 |    4    |   15   |   16
      ba     | 2524  | March 21 |   26    |   26   |   17
       g     | 2525  | April  9 |   15    |    7   |   18
       f     | 2526  | March 29 |   31    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

year, and two for leap-year, the fourth letter being dominical letter for
January and February and the fifth for the rest of the year; thus, if G be
dominical letter for any given year, we would have then, G, F, E, DC; B,
A, G, FE; D, C, B, AG; F, E, D, CB, etc. By counting these letters
backwards, or in the tables, from the bottom of the column upwards, they
will occur in alphabetical order. Again it may be seen by reference

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
       b     | 2603  | April 17 |   24    |    0   |    1
      ag     | 2604  |   "    6 |    8    |   11   |    2
       f     | 2605  | March 26 |   31    |   22   |    3
       e     | 2606  | April 14 |   20    |    3   |    4
       d     | 2607  |   "    3 |    5    |   14   |    5
      cb     | 2608  | March 23 |   27    |   25   |    6
       a     | 2609  | April 11 |   16    |    6   |    7
       g     | 2610  | March 31 |    1    |   17   |    8
       f     | 2611  | April 19 |   21    |   28   |    9
      ed     | 2612  |   "    8 |   12    |    9   |   10
       c     | 2613  | March 28 |    4    |   20   |   11
       b     | 2614  | April 16 |   17    |    1   |   12
       a     | 2615  |   "    5 |    9    |   12   |   13
      gf     | 2616  | March 25 |   31    |   23   |   14
       e     | 2617  | April 13 |   20    |    4   |   15
       d     | 2618  |   "    2 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 2619  | March 22 |   28    |   26   |   17
      ba     | 2620  | April 10 |   16    |    7   |   18
       g     | 2621  | March 30 |    1    |   18   |   19
       b     | 2907  | April 18 |   24    |    0   |    1
      ag     | 2908  |   "    7 |    8    |   11   |    2
       f     | 2909  | March 27 |   31    |   22   |    3
       e     | 2910  | April 15 |   20    |    3   |    4
       d     | 2911  |   "    4 |    5    |   14   |    5
      cb     | 2912  | March 24 |   27    |   25   |    6
       a     | 2913  | April 12 |   16    |    6   |    7
       g     | 2914  |   "    1 |    8    |   17   |    8
       f     | 2915  | March 21 |   24    |   28   |    9
      ed     | 2916  | April  9 |   12    |    9   |   10
       c     | 2917  | March 29 |    4    |   20   |   11
       b     | 2918  | April 17 |   24    |    1   |   12
       a     | 2919  |   "    6 |    9    |   12   |   13
      gf     | 2920  | March 26 |   31    |   23   |   14
       e     | 2921  | April 14 |   20    |    4   |   15
       d     | 2922  |   "    3 |    5    |   15   |   16
       c     | 2923  | March 23 |   28    |   26   |   17
      ba     | 2924  | April 11 |   16    |    7   |   18
       g     | 2925  | March 31 |    1    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

to these tables, that Easter occurs less frequently on the 22d of March,
its earliest possible date, and the 25th of April, which has hitherto been
considered its latest possible date, than any of the days intervening. It
cannot happen on the 22d, only when the paschal moon falls on the 21st,
and that day must be Saturday. It fell on the 22d, first, after the
reformation of the calendar by Gregory in 1598; again in 1693, 1761,

  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
  _Dominical_|_Year._| _Paschal_|_Easter._|_Epact._|_Golden_
  _Letter._  |       | _Full_   |         |        |_Number._
             |       | _Moon._  |         |        |
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------
      ba     | 3116  | April 19 |   23    |    0   |    1
       g     | 3117  |   "    8 |   15    |   11   |    2
       f     | 3118  | March 28 |   31    |   22   |    3
       e     | 3119  | April 16 |   20    |    3   |    4
      dc     | 3120  |   "    5 |   11    |   14   |    5
       b     | 3121  | March 25 |   27    |   25   |    6
       a     | 3122  | April 13 |   16    |    6   |    7
       g     | 3123  |   "    2 |    8    |   17   |    8
      fe     | 3124  | March 22 |   23    |   28   |    9
       d     | 3125  | April 10 |   12    |    9   |   10
       c     | 3126  | March 30 |    4    |   20   |   11
       b     | 3127  | April 18 |   24    |    1   |   12
      ag     | 3128  |   "    7 |    8    |   12   |   13
       f     | 3129  | March 27 |   31    |   23   |   14
       e     | 3130  | April 15 |   20    |    4   |   15
       d     | 3131  |   "    4 |    5    |   15   |   16
      cb     | 3132  | March 24 |   27    |   26   |   17
       a     | 3133  | April 12 |   16    |    7   |   18
       g     | 3134  |   "    1 |    8    |   18   |   19
       d     | 3401  | March 21 |   22    |    0   |    1
       c     | 3402  | April  9 |   11    |   11   |    2
       b     | 3403  | March 29 |    3    |   22   |    3
      ag     | 3404  | April 17 |   22    |    3   |    4
       f     | 3405  |   "    6 |    7    |   14   |    5
       e     | 3406  | March 26 |   30    |   25   |    6
       d     | 3407  | April 14 |   19    |    6   |    7
      cb     | 3408  |   "    3 |   10    |   17   |    8
       a     | 3409  | March 23 |   26    |   28   |    9
       g     | 3410  | April 11 |   15    |    9   |   10
       f     | 3411  | March 31 |    7    |   20   |   11
      ed     | 3412  | April 19 |   26    |    1   |   12
       c     | 3413  |   "    8 |   11    |   12   |   13
       b     | 3414  | March 28 |    3    |   23   |   14
       a     | 3415  | April 16 |   23    |    4   |   15
      gf     | 3416  |   "    5 |    7    |   15   |   16
       e     | 3417  | March 25 |   30    |   26   |   17
       d     | 3418  | April 13 |   19    |    7   |   18
       c     | 3419  |   "    2 |    4    |   18   |   19
  -----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+---------

and in 1818. It has not occurred since, nor will not again till 2285, a
period of 467 years. The reason that it does not occur on the 22d of March
in this long period is, the paschal moon does not fall on the 21st, from
the year 1900 to 2204, a period of 304 years. We refer to the tabular
moon, not to the true or astronomical moon, which may occur on the 21st
more than once in this long period.



CHAPTER VII.

CHURCH FEASTS AND FASTS WHOSE DATE DEPEND ON THE DATE OF EASTER.


Feasts, or Festivals, are days set apart by the church, either for the
grateful memorial of the most remarkable events connected with the plan of
redemption, or upon which to commemorate the actions and sufferings of
such persons as have been most instrumental in carrying forward the
designs of God for the salvation of mankind.

The ecclesiastical year is divided into eight seasons, namely:
Advent-tide, Christmas-tide, Epiphany-tide, Lenten-tide, Easter-tide,
Ascension-tide, Whitsun-tide, and Trinity-tide. The first day of each of
these seasons has been, and is now observed by the church in commemoration
of some of the most remarkable events connected with the plan of
redemption. All these will be noticed in the order in which they occur in
the ecclesiastical year, while many other days intervening, which are
observed as feasts or fasts, will be given a passing notice.

_a_--Advent Sunday, which is the day nearest St. Andrew's Day (Nov. 30),
or the first Sunday after the 26th of November, has been recognized since
the sixth century as the first day of the ecclesiastical year.

Advent (Latin _Adventus_, the coming,) signifies the coming of our
Saviour, the period of the approach of the nativity. As Advent-tide lasts
from Advent Sunday to Christmas, the length of the season depends upon
the day of the month on which Advent Sunday falls. As it may happen as
early as the 27th of November or as late as the 3d of December, so
Advent-tide will contain no more than twenty-eight days nor less than
twenty-two. It should be borne in mind that, though this festival is
classed among the movable feasts, it does not depend upon the date of
Easter, but upon the day of the month on which Advent Sunday falls. The
four Sundays before Christmas were made preparation days for the festival
of Christmas, and were called the first, second, third, and fourth Sundays
in Advent.

Ember days and Ember weeks are the four seasons set apart by the Western
church for special prayer and fasting, and the ordination of clergy; known
in the church as _quatuor tempora_, (the four seasons.) The Ember weeks
are the weeks next following St. Lucy's Day (Dec. 13th), the first Sunday
in Lent, Whitsun Day, and Holy Cross Day (Sept. 14th). The Wednesdays,
Fridays and Saturdays of these weeks are the Ember days distinctively. The
name by some is supposed to be derived from a German word signifying
Abstinence; by others it is supposed to signify Ashes.

_b_--Christmas (from Christ and the Saxon _maess_, signifying the mass and
a feast), is a festival held in commemoration of the nativity of our
Saviour throughout nearly the whole of Christendom. It is occupied,
therefore, with the event (the incarnation) which forms the center and
turning point of the history of the world. Though the day of Christ's
birth cannot be ascertained from the New Testament, nor from any other
source, yet the whole Christian world for more than 1300 years have
concurred in celebrating the nativity on the 25th of December. This is
the first of the four great feasts in the ecclesiastical year; the other
three are Easter, Ascension, and Whitsun Day. The length of Christmas-tide
or season is twelve days, lasting from the 25th of December to Epiphany.

_c_--Epiphany (Greek _Epiphania_, _Theophania_ or _Christophania_,) is a
festival in commemoration of the manifestation of Jesus Christ to the
world as the Son of God, and referring to the appearance of the star which
announced our Saviour's birth to the Gentiles, and the visit of the Magi,
or wise Men of the East to the infant Jesus. This festival is held on the
6th of January invariably, consequently is not a movable feast, though the
length of Epiphany-tide depends upon the date of Easter. As Easter may
happen as early as the 22d of March or as late as the 26th of April (a
variation of thirty-five days), so Epiphany-tide may consist of no less
than twelve days nor more than forty-seven, as the season always ends the
day before Septuagesima Sunday. (See tables at the close of this chapter.)

Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima. There being exactly fifty days
between the Sunday next before Lent and Easter Day, inclusive, that Sunday
was termed Quinquagesima, i. e., the fiftieth; and the two immediately
preceding Sundays were called from the next round numbers Sexagesima, the
sixtieth; and Septuagesima, the seventieth.

The Paschal Season extends from Septuagesima Sunday to Low Sunday, a
period of seventy days. It takes its name from the Paschal festival or
Easter, whose services end with Low Sunday, the octave, or eighth day, of
Easter. It begins with Septuagesima Sunday because the church services
then begin to prepare the minds of the faithful for the services of Lent,
which are themselves the preparation for Easter. May not Septuagesima
Sunday be so called because there are just seventy days in the Paschal
Season?

Shrove-tide literally means confession-time, and is the name given to the
days immediately preceding Ash Wednesday. These days were so called
because on them, and especially on the last of them (Shrove Tuesday)
people were accustomed to confess their sins as a preparation for Lent. In
most Roman Catholic countries it begins with Quinquagesima Sunday, the
Sunday before Lent.

Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, (Latin _dies cinerum_, the day of
Ashes), was so called because it was customary on that day for penitents
to appear in sackcloth, upon which occasion ashes were sprinkled upon
them.

_d_--Lent, (Anglo-Saxon _lengten_. Perhaps from _lenegan_, to lengthen,
because at this season the days lengthen) the forty days fast, is the
preparation for Easter, and is observed in commemoration of our Lord's
fast in the wilderness. In most languages the name given to this fast
signifies the number of days--forty; but our word Lent signifies the
Spring Fast, for Lenten-tide in the Anglo-Saxon language was the Season of
Spring, in German, Lenz.

The six Sundays in the Lenten-tide of forty-six days are not counted in
the fast, as all Sundays in the year are reckoned as feast days, because
our Saviour arose from the dead on the first day of the week.

Quadragesima Sunday, the first Sunday in Lent, is so called by analogy
with the three Sundays which precede Lent, and which (as has already been
stated) are called respectively Septuagesima, seventieth; Sexagesima,
sixtieth; Quinquagesima, fiftieth; and then Quadragesima, fortieth; in
round numbers forty days before Easter.

Holy Week, the last week in Lent, called also Passion Week, because within
it is commemorated our Lord's sufferings. The days specially solemnized
are Palm Sunday, Spy Wednesday, Holy, or Maundy Thursday, and Good Friday.

Palm Sunday (Latin _Dominica Palmarium_, or _Dominica_ in _Palmis_) is the
name usually given the Sunday before Easter; a day celebrated in
commemoration of Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, so called
because the people who had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus
was coming, took branches of palm trees and went forth to meet him, and
cried, "Hosanna; blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of
the Lord."

Spy Wednesday, so called in allusion to the betrayal of Christ by Judas,
or the day on which he made the bargain to deliver him into the hands of
his enemies for thirty pieces of silver.

Maundy Thursday (from _Dies mandati_, mandate Thursday), so called either
from the command given his disciples to love one another, or to
commemorate the sacrament of His supper.

Good Friday, so called in acknowledgment of the benefit derived from the
death of Christ.

The closing scenes in the life of Christ, the events of Wednesday,
Thursday and Friday of Holy Week, are events of much more importance than
were ever before crowded into any one week in the history of the world.
The betrayal on Wednesday, the institution of the sacrament on Thursday
night, also the words of our Saviour as recorded in John's gospel, from
the 14th to the 17th chapters inclusive, the agony and the bloody sweat in
the garden, the arrest and trial during Thursday night and Friday morning,
the crucifixion at the third hour, the darkness that was over all the land
from the sixth to the ninth hour, and the last words of the blessed Jesus,
"It is finished," (tasted death for every man); these we say, are events
of more importance to man than were ever before crowded into any one week
in the world's history.

The prophets who prophesied of these things, inquired and searched
diligently, "searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ
which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings
of Christ and the glory that should follow." And about an hour before this
prophecy began to be fulfilled our Saviour uttered these words: "Verily,
verily, I say unto you, that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall
rejoice; and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into
joy." It was probably not more than an hour from the time these words fell
from the Saviour's lips, that he was arrested and led away to undergo a
trial; cruel mocking and scourging, crucifixion and death upon the cross.

Then cometh Joseph of Arimathea, bringing fine linen, and Nicodemus with
his hundred pounds of myrrh and aloes, and they two took the body of the
Lord Jesus and wrapped it in the linen with the spices, and laid it in
Joseph's own new tomb, which he had hewn out in a rock, wherein never man
before was laid, and rolled a great stone against the door of the
sepulcher and departed. Thus endeth Passion Week. While the body of Jesus
is in the sepulcher the world is rejoicing, and the disciples are weeping
and lamenting, according to the words of the Saviour, "Ye shall weep and
lament, but the world shall rejoice."

  He dies! the friend of sinners dies!
    Lo! Salem's daughters weep around;
  A solemn darkness veils the skies,
    A sudden trembling shakes the ground.

_e_--Easter (German, _Ostern_, Old Saxon _Oster_, from _osten_, signifying
rising,) is a church festival in commemoration of the resurrection of our
Lord from the dead. But the apparent victory which the enemies of Christ
had gained was of short duration, the rejoicing of the world did not long
continue, the remaining words of our Saviour must needs be fulfilled: "But
your sorrow shall be turned into joy." Now, upon the first day of the
week, very early in the morning, (Easter morning) the two Marys came to
the sepulcher bringing the sweet spices and ointments which they had
prepared for the purpose of anointing the body of the Lord Jesus, but were
greatly astonished when they saw that the great stone, which they had seen
rolled against the door of the sepulcher on Friday afternoon, was rolled
away, and an angel sitting upon it whose countenance was like lightning,
and for fear of whom the keepers did shake and become as dead men. But to
the women he said, "Fear not ye; for I know that ye seek Jesus which was
crucified, He is not here, for He is risen." That you may know for a
certainty that He is risen, come and see the place where you saw Him laid
only a few hours ago. Now go quickly and tell His disciples that He is
risen from the dead, and behold He goeth before you into Galilee, there
shall ye see Him. And they departed quickly from the sepulcher with fear
and great joy, and did run to carry the good news to the disciples. But
how much greater their joy soon after their departure when Jesus himself
met them with the comforting words, "Be not afraid, but go tell my
brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see Me."

The subject for conversation for the past two days had been Jesus and the
crucifixion, but now Jesus and the resurrection. Some believed, but some
doubted. Others ran to the sepulcher and found it even as the women had
said. While the chief priests and elders hired the soldiers to say that
the disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept. But how
should they know what had become of Him if they were sleeping? The truth
was they were so overcome with fear by the brightness of the angels'
countenance that they became as dead men, not knowing what was transpiring
around them. But it was truly good tidings and great joy to the disciples
of Christ on that Easter morning.

  The rising God forsakes the tomb;
  In vain the tomb forbids His rise;
  Vain the stone, the watch, the seal,
  Christ has burst the gates of hell;
  Death in vain forbids His rise;
  Christ hath opened Paradise.

The spirit of Christ in the prophets had testified beforehand the
suffering of Christ and the glory that should follow. That morning and
that day was not only joyful to the disciples of Christ, but _glorious_;
it was "joy unspeakable and _full_ of glory." Although 1863 years have
rolled around since that Easter morning, yet we are as much interested in
what then and there transpired as were the Marys, and Peter, and John, who
were the first at the sepulcher, and who were permitted the same day to
see their risen Lord, whom having not seen, we love; in whom, though now
we see Him not, yet believing, we [as well as they] rejoice "with joy
unspeakable and full of glory."

Low Sunday. The first Sunday after Easter is so called because it was
customary to repeat on this day some part of the solemnity which was used
on Easter day, whence it took the name of Low Sunday, being celebrated as
a feast, but of a lower degree than Easter day itself. The next Sunday
after Easter has been popularly, so called in England, perhaps by
corruption for close, (_Pascha Clausum_) close of Easter. _Dominica_ in
_Albis_, (the Sunday of white garments) a title anciently given to the
first Sunday after Easter, because on this day those persons who had been
baptized at Easter appear for the last time in the chrysomes, or white
robes which they received at baptism. These were laid up in the church as
evidences of their baptismal profession.

Rogation Days, (Latin _rogare_, to beseech,) are the Monday, Tuesday and
Wednesday after Rogation Sunday and before Ascension Day, (Holy Thursday.)
About the middle of the fifth century Mamertus, bishop of Vienna, upon the
prospect of a great fire that threatened his diocese, appointed that
extraordinary prayer and supplication should be offered up to God, with
fasting, for averting the impending evils upon the above mentioned days;
from which supplications (called by the Latins _rogationes_) these days
have ever since been called Rogation Days. As retained in our present
calendar, they are simply private fasts.

_f_--Ascension Day, or Holy Thursday, one of the great religious festivals
of the Roman Catholic and Episcopal churches, is held on the fortieth day
after Easter, and ten days before Whitsun Day, to commemorate the
Ascension of our Lord into heaven. Ascension Day has been observed at
least since the year of our Lord 64, and perhaps earlier. Saint Augustine
believed it to have been instituted either by the apostles themselves, or
the bishops immediately succeeding them.

Expectation Week is the whole of the interval between Ascension Day and
Whitsun Day, so called because at this time the apostles, according to the
command of our Saviour, continued at Jerusalem, in earnest prayer and
expectation of the Holy Comforter which was to abide with them forever.
The Sunday between Ascension Day and Whitsun Day is called Expectation
Sunday.

Pentecost, (Greek, _Pentecostos_, fiftieth), a Jewish festival; so called
because it was observed on the fiftieth day after the feast of unleavened
bread, called also the feast of weeks, being celebrated seven weeks from
the feast of the Passover. It also commemorated the giving of the law on
Mount Sinai upon that day. The origin of the Anglo-Saxon name of White
Sunday, which also occurs in Icelandic, is somewhat obscure, for in the
Roman churches the _Dominica_ in _Albis_, (Low Sunday, q. v.) so called
from the white robes then worn by the persons baptized at Easter, has
always been the Sunday immediately following Easter. It hardly seems
probable that there should be another Sunday of White Garments within six
weeks. In German it is known by the name _Pfingsten_, old German
_Wingsten_, old English _Whitsun_, hence, probably, our word Whitsun Day,
not White Sunday.

_g_--Whitsun Day, or Pentecost, is the last of the four _great_ festivals
in the ecclesiastical year, held in commemoration of the outpouring of the
Holy Spirit on the infant church ten days after the Ascension. Among the
last words of our Saviour to the apostles on the very day that He was
taken up, were "Behold I send the promise of my Father upon you, but tarry
ye in the city of Jerusalem until ye be endowed with power from on high."
After ten days of earnest, believing prayer, and expectation, suddenly,
but not unexpectedly, there came a sound from heaven as a rushing, mighty
wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting, and there
appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of
them; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak
with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance; and the multitude
came together, and were amazed, saying one to the other what meaneth this?
Others mocking said, these men are full of new wine. But Peter lifted up
his voice and said, these are not drunken as ye suppose, seeing it is but
the third hour of the day, (nine o'clock in the morning,) men are not
usually drunk so early in the morning; but this is that which the prophet
Joel eight hundred years ago said should come to pass in these last days;
the promise of the Father, the baptism of the Holy Ghost for which they
had been waiting for the past ten days; something of that _glory_ that
should follow the crucifixion, death, resurrection and ascension of the
Lord Jesus into Heaven, the glory of the Christian church, of the
Christian dispensation, and which is destined to fill the whole earth.

  "Waft, Waft, ye winds his story,
    And you, ye waters, roll,
  Till like a sea of glory,
    It spreads from pole to pole."

_h_--Trinity Sunday, the octave, or eighth day of the feast of Pentecost,
is a church festival held in commemoration of the doctrine of the Trinity.
The introduction of this day into the calendar is of comparatively recent
date, it being established by Pope Benedict XI, in the year of our Lord
1305. It is probable that the zeal of many Christians against the use of
images in the eighth and ninth centuries may have been the first cause of
the appointment of a distinct day for meditating upon the nature of the
Holy Trinity in unity, or the one true God as distinguished from idols.
The reason for its late introduction is that in the creed of the church,
and in its psalms, hymns, and doxologies, great prominence was given to
this doctrine, and it was thought that there was no need to set apart a
particular day for that which was done every day. This is the last of the
movable feasts in the ecclesiastical year, being held eight weeks after
Easter; so it may happen as early as the 17th of May or as late as the
20th of June. The length of both Epiphany and Trinity-tide depend upon the
date of Easter. As Epiphany-tide is shortened by the early date of
Easter, so Trinity-tide is lengthened proportionately, and as
Epiphany-tide is lengthened by the later date of Easter so Trinity-tide is
shortened proportionately; so Trinity-tide may contain no more than 196
days nor less than 161. (See tables at the close of this chapter.)

All Saints Day, or All hallowmass (Anglo-Saxon _all_, and _halig_, holy) a
festival celebrated by the Roman Catholic and Episcopal churches on the
first day of November, in honor of all Saints and martyrs. It was
introduced into the Western church in the beginning of the seventh century
by Boniface. The number of saints being exceedingly multiplied, it was
found too burdensome to dedicate a feast day to each, there being, indeed,
scarcely hours enough in the year to distribute among them all. It was
therefore resolved to commemorate on one day all who had no particular
day. By order of Gregory IV, it was celebrated on the first of November,
834; formerly the first of May was the day appointed. It was introduced
into England about 870, and is still observed in the English and Lutheran
churches, as well as the Church of Rome on the first of November.

All-Souls' Day, a festival held by Roman Catholics on the 2d of November,
for special prayer in behalf of all the faithful dead. It was first
introduced in 998, by Odilon, Abbot of Clugni, who enjoined it on his own
order. It was soon after adopted by neighboring churches. It is the day on
which, in the Romish church, extraordinary masses are repeated for the
relief of souls said to be in purgatory. Formerly on this day persons
dressed in black perambulated the towns and cities, each provided with a
bell of dismal tone, which was rung in public places by way of exhortation
to the people to remember the souls in purgatory. In some parts of the
west of England it is still the custom for the village children to go
around to all their neighbors souling, as they call it, collecting small
contributions, and singing the following verses, taken down from two of
the children themselves:

  Soul! Soul! for a soul-cake,
  Pray good mistress, for a soul-cake,
  One for Peter, two for Paul,
  Three for Him that made us all.

  Soul! soul! for an apple or two;
  If you've got no apples, pears will do,
  Up with your kettle, and down with your pan,
  Give me a good big one and I'll be gone.

The soul cake referred to in the verses is a sort of bun which the people
used to make, and to give to one another on the 2d of November.

In the following tables there is presented at one view the day of the
month on which the principal feasts and fasts fall in the ecclesiastical
year 1817-18 and 1885-86. In the former Easter happens at its earliest
possible date, in the latter at its latest date in this century:

  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                _YEAR 1817-18._             | _Days in_    | _Sundays in_
                                            |_Each Season._|_Each Season._
  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                                            |              |
  _a_--Advent Sunday, November 30th;        |              |
         Advent-tide,                       |      25      |         4
                                            |              |
  _1st_ Ember Week, after December 13th;    |              |
          Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday and |              |
          Saturday.                         |              |
                                            |              |
  _b_--Christmas, December 25th;            |              |
         Christmas-tide,                    |      12      |         2
                                            |              |
  _c_--Epiphany, January 6th; Epiphany-tide,|      12      |         1
       Septuagesima Sunday, January 18th,   |       7      |         1
       Paschal season from Jan. 18th to     |              |
       March 29th, 70 days                  |              |
       Sexagesima Sunday, January 25th,     |       7      |         1
       Quinquagesima Sunday, February 1st,  |       3      |         1
       Shrove-tide, (confession time) Shrove|              |
         Tues., Feb. 3d.                    |              |
                                            |              |
  _d_--Ash Wednesday, Feb 4th, Lent begins; |              |
         Lenten-tide,                       |      46      |         6
       First Sunday in Lent (Quadragesima)  |              |
         February 8th.                      |              |
                                            |              |
  _2d_ Ember Week after first Sunday in     |              |
         Lent; Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday|              |
         and Saturday.                      |              |
       Holy Week, the week before Easter;   |              |
         Special Days, Palm Sunday, Spy     |              |
         Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, and    |              |
         Good Friday, March 15th, 18th,     |              |
         19th and 20th.                     |              |
                                            |              |
  _e_--Easter Sunday, March 22d;            |              |
         Easter-tide,                       |      39      |         6
       Low Sunday, March 29th; Paschal      |              |
         Season ends.                       |              |
       Rogation Sunday, April 26th; Rogation|              |
         Days, the Monday, Tuesday and      |              |
         Wednesday after Rogation Sunday.   |              |
                                            |              |
  _f_--Ascension Day (Holy Thursday), April |              |
         30th; Ascension-tide,              |      10      |         1
       Expectation Sunday, First Sunday     |              |
         after Ascension, May 3d.           |              |
                                            |              |
  _g_--Whitsun Day, (Pentecost) May 10th;   |              |
         Whitsun-tide,                      |       7      |         1
                                            |              |
  _3d_ Ember Week, after Whitsun Day; Ember |              |
         Days, Wednesday, Friday and        |              |
         Saturday.                          |              |
                                            |              |
  _h_--Trinity Sunday, May 17th;            |     196      |        28
         Trinity-tide,                      |              |
                                            |              |
  _4th_ Ember Week, after September 14th;   |              |
          Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday and |              |
          Saturday.                         |              |
                                            |              |
        All Saints' Day, November 1st.      |              |
                                            |              |
        All Souls' Day, November 2d.        |              |
                                            +--------------+--------------
                         Appendix K.        |     364      |        52
  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------

  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                _YEAR 1885-86._             | _Days in_    | _Sundays in_
                                            |_Each Season._|_Each Season._
  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------
                                            |              |
  _a_--Advent Sunday, November 29th,        |              |
         Advent-tide,                       |      26      |         4
                                            |              |
  _1st_ Ember Week, after December 13th;    |              |
          Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday and |              |
          Saturday.                         |              |
                                            |              |
  _b_--Christmas, December 25th;            |              |
         Christmas-tide,                    |      12      |         2
                                            |              |
  _c_--Epiphany, January 6th; Epiphany-tide,|      46      |         6
       Septuagesima Sunday, February 21st,  |       7      |         1
       Paschal season, from Feb. 21st to May|              |
         2d, 70 days.                       |              |
       Sexagesima Sunday, February 28th,    |       7      |         1
       Quinquagesima Sunday, March 7th,     |       3      |         1
       Shrove-tide, (confession time) Shrove|              |
         Tues., Mar. 9th.                   |              |
                                            |              |
  _d_--Ash Wednesday, March 10th, Lent      |              |
         begins; Lenten-tide                |      46      |         6
       First Sunday in Lent (Quadragesima)  |              |
         March 14th.                        |              |
                                            |              |
  _2d_ Ember Week after first Sunday in     |              |
         Lent; Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday|              |
         and Saturday.                      |              |
       Holy Week, the week before Easter;   |              |
         Special Days, Palm Sunday, Spy     |              |
         Wednesday, Maundy Thursday and Good|              |
         Friday, April 18th, 21st, 22d and  |              |
         23d.                               |              |
                                            |              |
  _e_--Easter Sunday, April 25th;           |              |
         Easter-tide,                       |      39      |         6
       Low Sunday, May 2d, Paschal Season   |              |
         ends.                              |              |
       Rogation Sunday, May 30th; Rogation  |              |
         Days, the Monday, Tuesday and      |              |
         Wednesday after Rogation Sunday.   |              |
                                            |              |
  _f_--Ascension Day (Holy Thursday), June  |              |
         3d; Ascension-tide,                |      10      |         1
       Expectation Sunday, first Sunday     |              |
         after Ascension, June 6th.         |              |
                                            |              |
  _g_--Whitsun Day, (Pentecost) June 13th;  |              |
         Whitsun-tide,                      |       7      |         1
                                            |              |
  _3d_ Ember Week, after Whitsun Day; Ember |              |
         Days, Wednesday, Friday and        |              |
         Saturday.                          |              |
                                            |              |
  _h_--Trinity Sunday, June 20th;           |              |
         Trinity-tide,                      |     161      |        23
                                            |              |
  _4th_ Ember Week, after September 14th;   |              |
          Ember Days, Wednesday, Friday and |              |
          Saturday.                         |              |
                                            |              |
         All Saints' Day, November 1st.     |              |
                                            |              |
         All Souls' Day, November 2d        |              |
                                            +--------------+--------------
                            Appendix K.     |     364      |        52
  ------------------------------------------+--------------+--------------



CHAPTER VIII.

HEBREW CALENDAR.


To the Bible student a knowledge of the Hebrew calendar is indispensable,
if he would know how the date of events recorded in the Bible are made to
correspond with our present English calendar. From the exodus (1491 B. C.)
downward, the Hebrew month was lunar, and commenced invariably with the
new moon.

Dr. Smith, author of Bible Dictionary, says that the terms for month and
moon have the same close connection in the Hebrew language as in our own,
only the Hebrew Codesh (that is new moon) is, perhaps, more distinctive
than the corresponding term in our language; for it expresses not simply
the idea of a lunation, but the recurrence of a period commencing
definitely with the new moon. Though the identification of the Jewish
month with our own cannot be effected with precision on account of the
variations that must necessarily exist between the lunar and the solar
month, each of the former ranging over portions of two of the latter,
still it can be shown how they may be made to coincide very nearly by a
systematic method of intercalation.

Now from new moon to new moon again, is about 29-1/2 days; therefore, the
Hebrew year consisted of 354 days, for 29-1/2 × 12 = 354; so that the
epact, (which is the excess of the solar year beyond the lunar) is eleven
days. Hence, had they no method of intercalation, the commencement of
their year would go back eleven days every year, and consequently make a
revolution of the seasons every thirty-three years, for 365 ÷ 11 = 33
nearly.

To illustrate, let us suppose that the new moon of Nisan, which is the
first month in the Sacred year, should on any given year fall on the 10th
of April, then the following year it would fall on the 30th of March,
which is eleven days earlier; the second year it would fall on the 19th of
March or twenty-two days earlier; the third year the new moon would fall
on the 8th of March or thirty-three days earlier, but that would not be
the new moon of Nisan, which cannot happen earlier than the 11th, so the
following moon which happens thirty days later on the 7th of April is the
new moon of Nisan. Hence it may be seen that by intercalating a full month
every three years, or which comes nearer to accuracy seven times in
nineteen years, restores the coincidence of the solar and the lunar year,
and consequently the moons to the same day of the month on which they fell
nineteen years before.

The method of designating the months previous to the exodus, was by their
numerical order, as the ancient Hebrews had no particular name to express
their month. They said the first, second and third month, and so on. No
names of months appear in the Bible until about the time of the
institution of the passover, when the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in
the land of Egypt, saying this month, (Abib, which appears to have had its
origin in Egypt,) shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be
the first month of the year to you.

The names of the months appear to belong to two distinct periods. In the
first place we have those peculiar to the Jews previous to the captivity,
viz: Abib, the first month in commemoration of the exodus; Zif, the
second, Ethanim, the seventh, and Bul, the eighth. These names are of
Hebrew origin, and have reference to the characteristics of the seasons, a
circumstance which clearly shows that the months, by intercalation, were
made to return at the same period of the year. Thus, Abib was the month of
the ears of corn, that is the month in which the ears of corn became full,
or ripe on the 16th day, that is the 2d day of the feast of unleavened
bread. Zif, the month of blossoms or the bloom of flowers. Ethanim, the
month of gifts, that is of fruits, and Bul, the month of rain. These were
superceded after the captivity, by Nisan, Iyar, Tisri and Hesvan, or
Marchesvan.

Marchesvan, coinciding as it does with the rainy season in Palestine, is
considered a pure Hebrew term. The modern Jews consider it a compound
word, from mar, drop, and Chesvan; the former betokening that it was wet,
and the latter being the proper name of the month. Hence the name
indicates the wet month. In the second place we have the names of six
others which appear in the Bible subsequently to the Babylonian captivity,
viz.: Sivan, the third; Elul, the sixth; Kislev, the ninth; Tebet, the
tenth; Sebat, the eleventh, and Adar, the twelfth. There are two other
months whose names do not appear in the Bible, viz.: Tamuz, the fourth,
and Ab, the fifth. The name of the intercalary month is called Ve-Adar, or
2d Adar because placed in the calendar after Adar and before Nisan.

Dr. Smith says these names are probably borrowed from the Syrians in whose
regular calendar we find names answering to most of them. He also says it
was the opinion of the Talmudists, that these names were introduced by the
Jews who returned from the Babylonish captivity, and also that they are
certainly used exclusively by writers of the post-Babylonian period.

Inasmuch as the Hebrew months coincided with the seasons, as we have
already shown, it follows as a matter of course, that an additional month
must have been inserted every third year, which would bring the number up
to thirteen. No notice, however, is taken of this month in the Bible,
neither have we reason to think that it was inserted according to any
exact rule, but it was added whenever it was discovered that the barley
harvest did not coincide with the ordinary return of the month Abib. It
has already been shown that in the modern Jewish calendar the intercalary
month is introduced seven times in nineteen years, according to the
Metonic, or lunar cycle which was adopted by the Jews about 360 A. D.

The Hebrew calendar is dated from the creation, which is supposed to have
taken place 3761 years before Christ. Hence, to find the number of cycles
elapsed since the creation, also the number in the cycle, we have the
following rule: Add 3761 to the date, divide the sum by nineteen; the
quotient is the number of cycles, and the remainder is the number in the
cycle. Should there be no remainder, the proposed year is, of course, the
last or nineteenth of the cycle. Thus, for the year 1883, we have 1883 +
3761 ÷ 19 = 297, remainder 1; therefore, 297 is the number of cycles, and
1 the number in the cycle. Again, for the year 1893, we have 1893 + 3761 ÷
19 = 297, remainder 11; therefore 297 is the number of cycles, and 11 the
number in the cycle. Again for the year 1901, we have 1901 + 3761 ÷ 19 =
298, remainder 0; therefore 298 is the number of cycles, and 19 the last
of the cycle. Hence it may be seen that the present cycle commenced with
1883, that 11 is the number in the cycle for the present year 1893, also
that the cycle ends with 1901; so that the next cycle commences with 1902.
If the remainder after dividing by nineteen be 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 or 19
(0), the year is intercalary or embolismic, consisting of 384 days; if
otherwise it is ordinary, containing only 354 days; so that in a cycle of
nineteen years, we have twelve ordinary years of 354 days each, and seven
embolismic years of 384 days each. But, in either case, the year is
sometimes made a day more, and sometimes a day less, in order that certain
festivals may fall on proper days of the week for their due observance.
Hence the ordinary year may consist of 353, 354 or 355 days, and the
embolismic year of 383, 384 or 385 days.

In the modern Jewish calendar the New Year commences with the new moon of
Tisri, which may happen as early as the 5th of September or as late as the
5th of October. The new moon of Nisan, which is the first month in the
Sacred year, may happen as early as the 11th of March or as late as the
11th of April. It should be borne in mind that the names of the months
Abib, Zif, Ethanim and Bul were superceded after the captivity, by Nisan,
Iyar, Tisri and Hesvan or Marchesvan; also the name of the third month in
the civil year, Chisleu in the Bible, Kislev in the modern Jewish
calendar. In table No. 1 we have the names of the months in numerical
order, also the number of days in each month. Though the months consist of
30 and 29 days alternately, yet, in the embolismic year, Adar, which in
common years has 29 days, is given 30 days, and 2d Adar 29; so that two
months of 30 days come together. Table No. 2 shows the earliest and the
latest possible date of the new moons of each of the months respectively.

TABLE 1. HEBREW MONTHS.

        _Sacred Year._             _Civil Year._
  Nisan                 30 | Tisri                 30
  Iyar                  29 | Hesvan                29
  Sivan                 30 | Kislev                30
  Tamuz                 29 | Tebet                 29
  Ab                    30 | Sebat                 30
  Elul                  29 | Adar                  30
  Tisri                 30 | 2d Adar, Embolismic   29
  Hesvan                29 | Nisan                 30
  Kislev                30 | Iyar                  29
  Tebet                 29 | Sivan                 30
  Sebat                 30 | Tamuz                 29
  Adar                  30 | Ab                    30
  2d Adar, Embolismic   29 | Elul                  29


TABLE II. HEBREW MONTHS.

  Nisan,  March 11th     or April 11th
  Iyar,   April 11th     "  May 10th
  Sivan,  May 10th       "  June 9th
  Tamuz,  June 9th       "  July 9th
  Ab,     July 9th       "  August 7th
  Elul,   August 7th     "  September 5th
  Tisri,  September 5th  "  October 5th
  Hesvan, October 6th    "  November 4th
  Kislev, November 4th   "  December 3d
  Tebet,  December 3d    "  January 2d
  Sebat,  January 3d     "  February 10th
  Adar,   February 10th  "  March 12th

The charts on the three following pages are used to illustrate the
correspondence of the Hebrew months with our own. Each chart represents
the ecliptic, which is the apparent path of the Sun or real path of the
Earth, also the names of the months as they occur in their seasons. The
figures represent the days of the month on which the new moons of the
Hebrew calendar fall. These charts represent the month and the day of the
month on which both the Sacred and the Civil year begins and ends for
three successive years. Hence it may be seen that by intercalating a month
every three years the new moons are restored, very nearly, to the place
they occupied three years before.


CHART I.

[Illustration: This chart represents the day of the month on which all the
new moons fall in the year 1891-92. The sacred year commenced with the new
moon of Nisan on the 9th of April, and the civil year with the new moon of
Tisri on the 3d of October, 1891, and ended respectively with the 28th of
March and the 21st of September, 1892.]


CHART II.

[Illustration: This chart represents the day of the month on which all the
new moons fall in the year 1892-93. It may be here seen that the year
begins and ends about eleven days earlier than the year preceding, also
that all the new moons fall eleven days earlier than they did in the
preceding year.]


CHART III.

[Illustration: This chart represents the year 1893-94. Though the year
begins about eleven days earlier than the preceding, viz.: the 17th of
March, yet it being the year in which a 2d Adar is intercalated, instead
of falling back eleven days, the beginning of the following year is
carried forward 20 days, making a year of 384 days; so that the year
1894-95 will commence with April 5. In 1891 we commenced with April 9. It
will be 19 years before we commence on the 9th of April again.]



APPENDIX.


A.--PAGE 12.

Authors differ in regard to the length of the solar year. One gives 365
days, 5 hours, 47 minutes and 51.5 seconds; another, 365 days, 5 hours, 48
minutes and 46 seconds; and still another, 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes
and 49.62 seconds. In this work the last has been accepted as the true
length of the solar year, and all calculations have been made accordingly.


B.--PAGE 19.

There is an apparent discrepancy among authors in regard to the
intercalary day. While one asserts that it was between the 24th and 25th
of February, another equally reliable, says that the 25th was the sexto
calendas and the 24th was the bis-sexto calendas of the Julian calendar.
Now it should be borne in mind that the Julian calendar is the basis of
our own, and is identical with it in the number of months in the year, and
in the number of days in the month. Also when the method of numbering the
days from the beginning of the month was adopted, the intercalation was
made to correspond with the intercalary day in the Julian calendar.

As in the Julian calendar there were twice the sixth day, so in the
reformed calendar there were twice the 24th day, which was equivalent to
29 days in February. When the calendar was again corrected, making the
29th the intercalary day, then the 24th corresponded with the bis-sexto
calendas of the Julian calendar. This reconciles the apparent
discrepancy. While one author refers to the calendar in which the Julian
rule of intercalation is adopted, another refers to the calendar when so
corrected as to make the 29th of February the intercalary day. See
following table:

  -----------------------------------++-----------------------------------
          JULIAN METHOD              ||         MODERN METHOD
        OF INTERCALATION.            ||       OF INTERCALATION.
  -----------------------------------++-----------------------------------
   1 |_Cal._ | Calendae              ||  1 |_Cal._ | Calendae
   2 |   4   | Quarto Nonas          ||  2 |   4   | Quarto Nonas
   3 |   3   | Tertio Nonas          ||  3 |   3   | Tertio Nonas
   4 |   2   | Pridie Nonas          ||  4 |   2   | Pridie Nonas
   5 |_Nomes_|        Nonae          ||  5 |_Nomes_|        Nonae
   6 |   8   | Octavo Idus           ||  6 |   8   | Octavo Idus
   7 |   7   | Septimo Idus          ||  7 |   7   | Septimo Ides
   8 |   6   | Sexto Idus            ||  8 |   6   | Sexto Idus
   9 |   5   | Quinto Idus           ||  9 |   5   | Quinto Idus
  10 |   4   | Quarto Idus           || 10 |   4   | Quarto Idus
  11 |   3   | Tertio Idus           || 11 |   3   | Tertio Idus
  12 |   2   | Pridie Idus           || 12 |   2   | Pridie Idus
  13 | _Ides_|        Idus           || 13 | _Ides_|        Idus
  14 |  16   | Sextodecimo Calendas  || 14 |  16   | Sextodecimo Calendas
  15 |  15   | Quintodecimo Calendas || 15 |  15   | Quintodecimo Calendas
  16 |  14   | Quartodecimo Calendas || 16 |  14   | Quartodecimo Calendas
  17 |  13   | Tertiodecimo Calendas || 17 |  13   | Tertiodecimo Calendas
  18 |  12   | Duodecimo Calendas    || 18 |  12   | Duodecimo Calendas
  19 |  11   | Undecimo Calendas     || 19 |  11   | Undecimo Calendas
  20 |  10   | Decimo Calendas       || 20 |  10   | Decimo Calendas
  21 |   9   | Nono Calendas         || 21 |   9   | Nono Calendas
  22 |   8   | Octavo Calendas       || 22 |   8   | Octavo Calendas
  23 |   7   | Septimo Calendas      || 23 |   7   | Septimo Calendas
  24 |   6   | Bis-Sexto Calendas    || 24 |   6   | Bis-sexto Calendas
  24 |   6   | Sexto Calendas        || 25 |   6   | Sexto Calendas
  25 |   5   | Quinto Calendas       || 26 |   5   | Quinto Calendas
  26 |   4   | Quarto Calendas       || 27 |   4   | Quarto Calendas
  27 |   3   | Tertio Calendas       || 28 |   3   | Tertio Calendas
  28 |   2   | Pridie Calendas       || 29 |   2   | Pridie Calendas
  ---+-------+-----------------------++----+-------+----------------------


C.--PAGE 20.

The city where the great council was convened in 325 is not in France, as
some have supposed, that being a more modern city of the same orthography,
but pronounced Nees. The city which is so frequently referred to in this
work is in Bythinia, one of the provinces of Asia Minor, situated about 54
miles southeast of Constantinople, of the same orthography as the former,
but pronounced Ni´ce, and was so named by Lysimachus, a Greek general,
about 300 years before Christ, in honor of his wife Nicea.


D.--PAGE 23.

Between the 23d and 24th of February, 46 years before Christ, there was
intercalated a month of 23 days according to an established method, but
still the civil year was in advance of the solar year by 67 days; so that
when the Earth in her annual revolutions should arrive to that point of
the ecliptic marked the 22d of October, it would be the 1st day of January
in the Roman year.

Cæsar and his astronomers, knowing this fact and fixing on the 1st day of
January, 45 years before Christ and 709 from the foundation of Rome, for
the reformed calendar to take effect, were under the necessity of
intercalating two months, together consisting of 67 days. Now, as the
civil year would end on the 22d of October, true or solar time, it would
be reckoned in the old calendar the 1st day of January; so they let the
old calendar come to a stand while the Earth performs 67 diurnal
revolutions, and thereby restored the concurrence of the solar and the
civil year.

As an illustration, let us suppose that in a certain shop where hangs a
regulator are two clocks to be regulated. Both are set with the regulator
at 8 a. m. to see how they will run for ten consecutive hours. It was
found that when it was 6 p. m., by the first clock, it was 5:50 by the
regulator, the clock having gained one minute every hour.

To rectify this discrepancy we must intercalate 10 minutes by stopping the
clock until it is 6 by the regulator. By this means the coincidence is
restored, and the time lost in the preceding hours is now reckoned in this
last hour, making it to consist of 70 minutes. By this it may be seen how
Cæsar reformed the Roman calendar. The Roman year was too short, by reason
of which the calendar was thrown into confusion, being 90 days in advance
of the true time, so that December, January and February took the place in
the seasons of September, October and November, and September, October and
November the place of June, July and August. To make the correction he
must stop the old Roman clock (the calendar) while the Earth performs 90
diurnal revolutions to restore the concurrence of the solar and the civil
year, making the year 46 B. C. to consist of 445 days.

It was also found that when it was 6 p. m., by the regulator, it was only
5:50 by the second clock, it having lost one minute every hour. To rectify
this discrepancy we must suppress 10 minutes, calling it 6 p. m., turning
the hands of the clock to coincide with the regulator, making the last
hour to consist of only 50 minutes, too much time having been reckoned in
the preceding hours. It may be seen by this illustration, how Gregory
corrected the Julian calendar, the Julian year was too long, consequently
behind true or solar time, so that when the correction was made in 1582,
the ten days gained had to be suppressed to restore the coincidence,
making the year to consist of only 355 days.

As the solar year consists of 365 days and a fraction, Cæsar intended to
retain the concurrence of the solar and the civil year by intercalating a
day every four years; but this made the year a little too long, by reason
of which it became necessary, in 1582, to rectify the error, and by
adopting the Gregorian rule, three intercalations are suppressed every 400
years; so that by a series of intercalations and suppressions, our
calendar may be preserved in its present state of perfection.


E.--PAGE 23.

As the day and the civil year always commence at the same instance, so
they must end at the same instance; and as the solar year always ends with
a fraction, not only of a day, but of an hour, a minute and even a second;
so there is no rule of intercalation by which the solar and the civil year
can be made to coincide exactly. But the discrepancy is only a few hours
in a hundred years, and that is so corrected by the Gregorian rule of
intercalation that it would amount to a little more than a day in 4,000
years; and by the improved method less than a day in 100,000 years.


F.--PAGE 26.

It has been stated that by adopting the Julian rule of intercalation, time
was gained; it has also been stated that by the same rule time was lost.
Now both are true. Time is gained in that there is too much time in a
given year, in other words, the year is too long; but what is gained in a
given year is lost to the following year.

As an illustration let us take the case of the supposed solar year of 365
days, and the civil year of 366. The civil year would gain one day every
year, or be too long by one day; but the one day gained is lost to the
following years, and if continued 31 years, when the Earth is in that part
of its orbit marked the 1st day of January 32, the civil year would reckon
the 1st day of December 31; so that in the thirty-one years would reckon
thirty-one days too much, and before the civil year is completed, the
Earth will have passed on in its orbit to a point marked the 1st day of
February.

Now to reform such a calendar, we would have to suppress or drop the
thirty-one days, by calling the 1st day of December the 1st day of
January, and thus the month of December would disappear from the calendar
in the year 31, making a year of only eleven months, consisting of 334
days.

If this method be continued 92 years, there would be gained 92 days, to
the loss of 92 days in the year 92. If the calendar be now reformed by
suppressing 92 days, calling the 1st day of October, 92, the 1st day of
January, 93, then October, November and December would disappear from the
calendar in the year 92; and if continued 365 years there would be crowded
into 364 years, 364 days too much; gained to the 364 years to the total
loss of the year 365, passing from 364 to 366; 365 disappearing from the
calendar.


G.--PAGE 50.

An era is a fixed point of time from which a series of years is reckoned.
Among the nations of the Earth there are no less than twenty-five
different eras; but the most of them are not of enough importance to be
mentioned here. Attention is particularly called to the Roman era which
commenced with the building of the city of Rome 753 years before Christ.

Also the Mahometan era, or the era of the Hegira, employed in Turkey,
Persia and Arabia, which is dated from the flight of Mahomet from Mecca to
Medina, which was Thursday night, the 15th of July, A. D., 622, and it
commenced on Friday, the day following.

But there is a point from which all computation originally commenced,
namely, the creation of man. Such an era is called the Mundane era. Now
there are different Mundane eras--the common Mundane era 4,004 B. C., the
Grecian Mundane era 5,598 B. C., and the Jewish Mundane era 3,761 B. C.
All these commence computation from the same point, but differ in regard
to the time which has elapsed since their computation commenced. God's
people used the Mundane era, until the Great Creator appeared among us, as
one of us, in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ, to accomplish the great
work of redemption; then His name was introduced as the turning point of
the ages, the starting point of computation.

This was done by Dionysius Exiguus in the year of our Lord about 540,
known at that time as the Dionysian, as well as the Christian era, and was
first used in historical works by the venerable Bede early in the eighth
century. "It was a great thought of the little monk (whether so called
from his humility or littleness of stature is unknown), to view Christ as
the turning point of the ages, and to introduce this view into
chronology."

All honor to him who introduced it, and to the nations which have
approved, for thus honoring the Great Redeemer. Dionysius probably did not
know, neither is it now known for a certainty the year of Christ's birth,
but it is evident, however, from the best authorities, that the era
commenced at least five years too late, and probably more.


H.--PAGE 57.

It is recorded that, in the time of Numa, the vernal equinox fell on the
25th of March, and that Julius Cæsar restored it to the 25th, when he
reformed the ancient Roman calendar in the year 46 B. C. It is also
recorded that in less than 400 years from that time, at the meeting of the
Council of Nice in 325, it had fallen back to the 21st--four days in less
than 400 years.

Now there is an error somewhere, for it is found by actual computation
that the discrepancy between the solar and the Julian year is about three
days in 400 years. It certainly is true that the vernal equinox fell on
the 21st in 325, and was restored to that place by Gregory in 1582; since
which time it has been made to fall on the 21st by the Gregorian rule of
intercalation. Again it is stated by the same author that the
discrepancies in time from Cæsar to Gregory is thirteen days, from the
Council of Nice to Gregory ten days; now 10 + 4 = 14. While our author
states it is thirteen days, he also states it is fourteen days; a
discrepancy of one day. The mistake evidently is in making the 25th
instead of the 24th, the date of the vernal equinox in the time of Cæsar,
consequently a difference of four days instead of three from Cæsar to the
Council of Nice.


I.--PAGE 59.

The concurrence of the solar and the civil year was restored by Gregory in
1582, or 1600 is the same in computation; but the discrepancy between
civil and solar time is 11 minutes and 10.38 seconds every year, which in
100 years will amount to 18 hours, and 37.3 minutes; reckoned in round
numbers 18 hours, and is represented on the chart, hours behind time 18.

The intercalary day or 24 hours being suppressed in 1700, causes the civil
year to be 6 hours in advance of the solar, and is represented on the
chart 6 hours in advance.

Now this discrepancy of 18 hours for the next 100 years, will cause the
civil year in 1800 to be 12 hours behind; again suppressing the
intercalation it will be 12 hours in advance. In 1900 it will be 6 hours
behind, but the correction makes 18 hours in advance. The 18 hours gained
the next 100 years restores the coincidence in the year 2000 and so on,
the solar and the civil year being made to coincide very nearly every 400
years.

From close examination it will become evident that the solar and the civil
year coincide twice every 400 years, though no account is made of it in
computation. From 6 hours in advance in 1700, the civil year falls back to
12 hours behind the solar in 1800, consequently they must coincide in
1733.

Again from 12 hours in advance in 1800, it falls back to 6 hours behind
the solar in 1900, consequently they must coincide again in 1867.

Discrepancy between Julian and solar time in--1 year is (365d. 6h.)
- (365d. 5h. 48m. 49.62s.) = (11m. 10.38s.)

  100    years is (11m. 10.38s.) × 100 = (18h. 37.3.)
  400      "     (18h. 37.3m.) × 4 = (3d. 2h. 29.2m.)
  4,000    "    (3d. 2h. 29.2m.) × 10 = (31d. 0h. 52m.)
  100,000  "   (31d. 0h. 52m.) × 25 = (773d. 21h. 40m.)

Discrepancy between Gregorian and solar time in--

  1      year is                           .373m.
  100    years is .373m. × 100 =           37.3m.
  400    years 37.3m. × 4 =            2h. 29.2m.
  4,000    "  (2h. 29.2m.) × 10 =     1d. 0h. 52m.
  100,000  " (1d. 0h. 52m.) × 25 = 25d. 21h. 40m.

Discrepancy between corrected Gregorian and solar time in--

    4,000 years is (1d. 0h. 52m.) - 1 day = 52m.
  100,000   "   "  (52m. × 25) =       21h. 40m.


J.--PAGE 89.

Lilius, author of the "Extended Table of Epacts," says, when the full moon
falls on the 10th of March, the following moon, which happens 29 days
later, is the paschal moon, making the 18th of April its latest possible
date. For, says he, because of the double epact that occurs on the 4th and
5th of April that lunation has only 29 days. It may have been very
convenient for Lilius, in his peculiar method of determining the date of
the paschal moon, to give to that lunation only 29 days; but nevertheless,
when he did so, it was at the expense of accuracy, for he makes a
difference of 12 days in the date of the paschal moon of that year, and
the year preceding, and only 10 days difference between that year and the
succeeding year; whereas the difference is uniformly 11 days from year to
year through the whole cycle of 19 years.

By referring to the table on the 93d page, it will be seen that, in fixing
the date of the paschal moon, six times in a cycle of 19 years the full
moon falls before the 21st of March, and in every instance except this one
the following moon is reckoned by Lilius 30 days later. By this uniform
method of determining the date of the paschal moon, we make the 19th of
April instead of the 18th, its latest possible date; so it should be borne
in mind that whenever the 19th of April is the date of the paschal moon,
as indicated in the tables commencing with the 93d page, that Lilius, and
probably most, if not all other authors, have the 18th.

Now it is admitted that notwithstanding the cumbersome apparatus employed
by Lilius in his calculations, the conditions of the problem are not
always satisfied, nor is it possible that they can be always satisfied by
any similar method of proceeding. We admit that none of these calculations
are perfectly exact, but the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities is
compensated in the whole period, or corrections made at the end of certain
periods, not by interrupting the order of a uniform method during the
cycle of 19 years.

Now the table of epacts was introduced by Lilius himself, making the
excess of the solar year beyond the lunar, in round numbers 11 days. Then
why interrupt this order every 19 years, for a period of 114 years; that
is from 1596 to 1710, by making the epact 12 days for one year, and the
following year only 10? After which, from 1710 to 1900, a period of 190
years, according to Lilius' own calculations, the epact is uniformly 11
days, coinciding exactly with the calculations made in this work.

Then again after the year 1900, he gives to that particular lunation, in
every lunar cycle for a period of 304 years, only 29 days; and having done
so, he is under the necessity of giving only 29 days to another lunation
in the same cycle, and also to all the cycles in the period to avoid the
absurdity of making the paschal moon fall twice on the same day in the
course of a lunar cycle.

By reference to the 101st page, opposite the year 1905, it will be seen
that the date of the paschal moon is the 19th of April. Lilius, by giving
to that lunation only 29 days, makes its date the 18th; and then again in
the year 1916, lest he should make the paschal moon fall twice on the 18th
of April in the course of a lunar cycle, (a thing which cannot really
occur) he for the first time in more than 400 years, gives only 29 days to
a second lunation in the same cycle and of course to all the cycles in the
period of 304 years. Now the epacts for a lunar cycle of 19 years are
represented thus:

                    26
                    --
  0, 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20

                    27
                    --
  1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18

The number 26 placed over the 25 shows Lilius' first error in giving to
that lunation only 29 days. He thereby makes a difference of 12 days
between the epact 14 and 26, and only 10 between 26 and 6. He now has two
epacts of the same number 26. In order to get out of the dilemma he makes
that 27, by giving to another lunation only 29 days.


K.--PAGE 122-3.

It will probably be noticed that according to the showing in the tables
the ecclesiastical year contains only 364 days. The reason for this is,
that Advent Sunday, which is the first day of the year, happens one day
earlier every year until it occurs on the 27th of November, its earliest
possible date; then the first Sunday after the 26th of November, which is
Advent Sunday, falls on the 3d of December, its latest possible date, so
that the year begins six days later, making a year of 371 days. Then there
is the loss of a day every year until Advent Sunday again falls on the
27th of November and so on. Hence, did the civil year always consist of
365 days, then the ecclesiastical year would always contain either 364 or
371 days. But as every fourth year contains 366 days, this order is so
interrupted that sometimes the first Sunday falls on the 2d instead of the
3d of December; so that the year begins only five days later, making a
year of only 370 days. Hence the ecclesiastical year may consist of either
364, 370 or 371 days. But five times out of six it will contain only 364
days.


L.--PAGE 83.

But why did the Pope, in correcting the Julian calendar in 1582, not
correct the whole error of thirteen days? Why did he leave the three days
uncorrected? This question has been asked an hundred times, but a correct
answer has never yet been given. Some say that the Pope did according to
his best ability, and would make us believe that neither he nor his
astronomers knew what the error was. This is not true, for history records
the fact of the error, and just what that error was. He simply did not
want to correct the three days, and for good reasons, which we shall
endeavor to show; reasons which every churchman ought to know.

When Cæsar formed his calendar, 46 B. C., the vernal equinox fell on the
24th of March. At the meeting of the Council of Nice, in 325, it had
fallen back to the 21st, the error being three days in about 400 years.
Now it should be borne in mind that the Julian calendar was the only one
in use at that time, and for the next 1257 years, when in 1582, it was
corrected by Pope Gregory XIII. Easter, and all the movable feasts, had
been unsettled during the 1257 years intervening, from the Council of Nice
to Gregory, on account of the errors of the Julian calendar. The Easter
question had been the cause of a good deal of discussion between the
Eastern and Western churches during the second and third centuries, as
they could not agree on the day of the week on which that event should be
celebrated.

The Western churches observed the nearest Sunday to the full moon of
Nisan. The Asiatics, on the other hand, adopted the 14th of Nisan upon
which to commemorate the crucifixion, and observed the festival of Easter
on the third day following, upon whatever day of the week that might fall.
Finally, the Council of Nice was convened, and the matter came before that
council, and a reconciliation was accomplished. It was then and there
agreed by the two parties that Easter should be celebrated on the first
Sunday after the full moon that falls upon or next following the day of
the vernal equinox, and that the 21st of March should be accounted the day
of the vernal equinox.

It has already been shown that the error in the Julian calendar is three
days in 400 years; so that in 400 years from the Council of Nice the
vernal equinox had fallen back to the 18th of March; in 800 years it had
fallen back to the 15th; in 1257 years, that is in 1582, it fell on the
11th. Still the 21st of March, by the only calendar in use at that time,
was accounted the date of the vernal equinox, by which date Easter was
determined, so that, in 1582, when it was the 21st by the calendar, the
correct date was the 31st. Hence, the error had been increasing at the
rate of three days every 400 years until in 1582 it amounted to ten days.

Again it should be borne in mind that the Pope was a churchman and wished
to abide by the decision of that council in celebrating the festival of
Easter, so he drops the ten days and restores the vernal equinox to the
21st of March, its date at the meeting of the Council of Nice in 325, the
date by which Easter day was determined. He not only made the correction,
but he so reformed the calendar that the solar and the civil year are now
made to coincide very nearly. Had he dropped the thirteen days, the vernal
equinox would have been restored to the 24th of March, its date in the
time of Cæsar, and the 24th would still be its date. But the Council of
Nice decided that the 21st should be the date by which Easter day should
be determined. Hence the reason for dropping the ten days instead of the
thirteen is evident; and it is also evident that the Pope acted
understandingly when he made the correction in 1582.



ERRATA.


On 51st page, ninth line from the bottom of the page, instead of 1453 ÷ 43
= 63+, should be 1453 ÷ 4 = 363+.

On 76th page, twelfth line from the top of the page, 356 should be 365.



THE COLUMBUS CELEBRATION.

THE WELLSBORO MAN WHO BROUGHT ABOUT THE CHANGE IN THE DATE.

_State Superintendent D. J. Waller, in the School Journal._

Who brought about the change in the date? It was down in the books as
October 12th. The Committee of the National Educational Association issued
circulars to the country to observe that day. Congress solemnly resolved
that that day should be celebrated throughout the land. The Commissioners
of the World's Fair fixed upon October 12, as dedication-day, and sent out
invitations to the exercises. Suddenly there was a change. Heralded by no
newspaper discussion, preceded by no exhaustive treatise, without any
authoritative decree, a change was made to October 21.

The following facts are indisputable. An aged retired minister in the
Methodist Episcopal Church, living in Wellsboro, Tioga County, Pa., author
of a little book entitled "Our Calendar," Rev. George Nichols Packer, saw
the error. He possessed the confidence of Judge Henry W. Williams, of the
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. After laying the facts before him, he
secured through him the approval by the several Justices composing that
body, of an effort to change to the proper date, October 21st. Equipped
with this approval, he secured the endorsement of his project by Governor
Pattison and some of the heads of the Executive departments at Harrisburg.
He then went to Washington, gained an audience with the President, laid
the subject before the member of Congress from his district, and went
before the Congressional Committee.

The evidence in support of the proposition was so presented that it could
not be successfully disputed. Congressman W. A. Stone skillfully enlisted
influential collegiates in an effort to correct the error already widely
spread. The correction by the National Legislature was in time to have its
influence upon President Harrison, who named October 21 in his
proclamation, as the day to be observed, and Boston and Chicago fell into
line.

All honor to Rev. George Nichols Packer, of Wellsboro, Tioga County,
Pennsylvania.



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

Punctuation has been corrected without note.

Corrections noted in the Errata section have been applied to the text.

The following misprints have been corrected:
  "aad" corrected to "and" (page 8)
  "leap-year" corrected to "leap-years" (page 45)
  missing "the" added (page 45)
  "1993" corrected to "1793" (page 63)
  "co-incide" standardized to "coincide" (page 71)
  "Caesar" standardized to "Cæsar" (page 71)
  "conseqently" corrected to "consequently" (page 74)
  "1736" corrected to "1737" (page 96)
  "countenace" corrected to "countenance" (page 114)

Other than the corrections listed above, inconsistencies in spelling and
hyphenation have been retained from the original.

On page 37, "3 400" is presented with a space as in the original text.





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