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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 2 - "Fairbanks, Erastus" to "Fens"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE FALLIÈRES, CLÉMENT ARMAND: "He was elected on the first
      ballot by 449 votes against 371 for his opponent, Paul Doumer."
      'against' amended from 'againt'.

    ARTICLE FARINI, LUIGI CARLO: "As a member of the Sardinian
      parliament and as a journalist Farini was one of the staunchest
      supporters of Cavour (q.v.), and strongly favoured the proposal
      that Piedmont should participate in the Crimean War, ..." 'Crimean'
      amended from 'Cimean'.

    ARTICLE FARMERS' MOVEMENT: "Nor could politics be excluded, though
      officially tabooed; for economics must be considered by social
      idealists, and economics everywhere ran into politics." 'tabooed'
      amended from 'tatooed'.

    ARTICLE FARNESE: "Of these the most famous was Pierluigi Farnese
      (1503-1547), who served in the papal army in various campaigns, but
      also took part in the sack of Rome in 1527." 'campaigns' amended
      from 'compaigns'.

    ARTICLE FASTING: "Confucianism ought perhaps to be named as one.
      Zoroastrianism is frequently given as another, but hardly
      correctly." 'correctly' amended from 'corrrectly'.

    ARTICLE FEATHER : "The plumage in nestling birds is still further
      complicated by the fact that it may be almost, or entirely,
      composed of pre-plumulae; that is to say, of down-feathers which
      are later succeeded by adult down-feathers." 'further' ameded from
      'futher'.

    ARTICLE FELTHAM, OWEN : "He is famous chiefly as the author of a
      volume entitled Resolves, Divine, Moral and Political, containing
      one hundred short and pithy essays." 'He' amended from 'Hs'.

    ARTICLE FÉNELON, FRANÇOIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA MOTHE : "Tender-hearted
      he might be in practice; but toleration he declares synonymous with
      'cowardly indulgence and false compassion .'" 'compassion' amended
      from 'compasssion'.

    ARTICLE FÉNELON, FRANÇOIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA MOTHE : "Followed
      thereon an independent philosophical Treatise on the Existence of
      God, wherein Fénelon rewrote Descartes in the spirit of St
      Augustine." 'philosophical' amended from 'philsophical'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


             VOLUME X, SLICE II

         Fairbanks, Erastus to Fens



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  FAIRBANKS, ERASTUS               FASCIA
  FAIRFAX, EDWARD                  FASCINATION
  FAIRFAX OF CAMERON, FERDINANDO   FASCINE
  FAIRFAX OF CAMERON, THOMAS       FASHION
  FAIRFIELD (Connecticut, U.S.A.)  FASHODA
  FAIRFIELD (Iowa, U.S.A.)         FAST AND LOOSE
  FAIRHAVEN                        FASTI
  FAIRHOLT, FREDERICK WILLIAM      FASTING
  FAIRMONT                         FASTOLF, SIR JOHN
  FAIR OAKS                        FAT
  FAIRUZABADI                      FATALISM
  FAIRY                            FATE
  FAIRY RING                       FATEHPUR
  FAITHFULL, EMILY                 FATEHPUR SIKRI
  FAITH HEALING                    FATHER
  FAITHORNE, WILLIAM               FATHERS OF THE CHURCH
  FAIZABAD                         FATHOM
  FAJARDO                          FATIMITES
  FAKHR UD-DIN RAZI                FAUBOURG
  FAKIR                            FAUCES
  FALAISE                          FAUCHER, LÉONARD JOSEPH
  FALASHAS                         FAUCHET, CLAUDE
  FALCÃO, CHRISTOVÃO DE SOUSA      FAUCHET, CLAUDE
  FALCK, ANTON REINHARD            FAUCIT, HELENA SAVILLE
  FALCÓN                           FAUJAS DE SAINT-FOND, BARTHÉLEMY
  FALCON                           FAULT
  FALCONE, ANIELLO                 FAUNA
  FALCONER, HUGH                   FAUNTLEROY, HENRY
  FALCONER, WILLIAM                FAUNUS
  FALCONET, ÉTIENNE MAURICE        FAURE, FRANÇOIS FÉLIX
  FALCONRY                         FAURÉ, GABRIEL
  FALDSTOOL                        FAURIEL, CLAUDE CHARLES
  FALERII                          FAUST
  FALERIO                          FAUSTINA, ANNIA GALERIA
  FALGUIÈRE, JEAN ALEXANDRE JOSEPH FAVARA
  FALIERO, MARINO                  FAVART, CHARLES SIMON
  FALISCI                          FAVERSHAM
  FALK, JOHANN DANIEL              FAVORINUS
  FALK, PAUL LUDWIG ADALBERT       FAVRAS, THOMAS DE MAHY
  FALKE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB FAVRE, JEAN ALPHONSE
  FALKIRK                          FAVRE, JULES CLAUDE GABRIEL
  FALKLAND, LUCIUS CARY            FAVUS
  FALKLAND (burgh of Scotland)     FAWCETT, HENRY
  FALKLAND ISLANDS                 FAWCETT, JOHN
  FALLACY                          FAWKES, FRANCIS
  FALLIÈRES, CLÉMENT ARMAND        FAWKES, GUY
  FALL-LINE                        FÁY, ANDRÁS
  FALLMERAYER, JAKOB PHILIPP       FAYAL
  FALLOPIUS, GABRIELLO             FAYETTEVILLE (Arkansas, U.S.A.)
  FALLOUX, FRÉDÉRIC ALFRED PIERRE  FAYETTEVILLE (North Carolina, U.S.A.)
  FALLOW                           FAYRER, SIR JOSEPH
  FALLOW-DEER                      FAYUM
  FALL RIVER                       FAZOGLI
  FALMOUTH                         FEA, CARLO
  FALSE POINT                      FEARNE, CHARLES
  FALSE PRETENCES                  FEASTS AND FESTIVALS
  FALTICHENI                       FEATHER
  FALUN                            FEATHERSTONE
  FAMA                             FEATLEY DANIEL
  FAMAGUSTA                        FEBRONIANISM
  FAMILIAR                         FEBRUARY
  FAMILISTS                        FEBVRE, ALEXANDRE FRÉDÉRIC
  FAMILY                           FÉCAMP
  FAMINE                           FECHNER, GUSTAV THEODOR
  FAN                              FECHTER, CHARLES ALBERT
  FANCY                            FECKENHAM, JOHN
  FANG                             FEDCHENKO, ALEXIS PAVLOVICH
  FANO                             FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
  FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD            FEDERALIST PARTY
  FANTAN                           FEDERICI, CAMILLO
  FANTASIA                         FEE
  FANTI, MANFREDO                  FEHLING, HERMANN VON
  FANTI                            FEHMARN
  FANTIN-LATOUR, JEAN THÉODORE     FEHMIC COURTS
  FANUM FORTUNAE                   FEHRBELLIN
  FAN VAULT                        FEIJÓO Y MONTENEGRO, BENITO JERÓNIMO
  FARADAY, MICHAEL                 FEITH, RHIJNVIS
  FARAH (river of Afghanistan)     FEJÉR, GYORGY
  FARAH (town of Afghanistan)      FELANITX
  FARAZDAQ                         FELDKIRCH
  FARCE                            FÉLIBIEN, ANDRÉ
  FAREHAM                          FELIX (five popes)
  FAREL, GUILLAUME                 FELIX (bishop from Burgundy)
  FAREY, JOHN                      FELIX (Spanish bishop)
  FARGO, WILLIAM GEORGE            FELIX (of Valois)
  FARGO                            FELIX, ANTONIUS
  FARIA Y SOUSA, MANUEL DE         FÉLIX, LIA
  FARIBAULT                        FELIXSTOWE
  FARIDKOT                         FELL, JOHN
  FARIDPUR                         FELL
  FARID UD-DIN 'ATTAR              FELLAH
  FARINA, SALVATORE                FELLENBERG, PHILIPP EMANUEL VON
  FARINATO, PAOLO                  FELLER, FRANÇOIS XAVIER DE
  FARINELLI                        FELLING
  FARINGDON                        FELLOE
  FARINI, LUIGI CARLO              FELLOW
  FARM                             FELLOWS, SIR CHARLES
  FARM BUILDINGS                   FELO DE SE
  FARMER, RICHARD                  FELONY
  FARMERS' MOVEMENT                FELSITE
  FARNABY, THOMAS                  FELSPAR
  FARNBOROUGH, THOMAS ERSKINE MAY  FELSTED
  FARNBOROUGH                      FELT
  FARNE ISLANDS                    FELTHAM, OWEN
  FARNESE                          FELTON, CORNELIUS CONWAY
  FARNESE, ALEXANDER               FELTON, JOHN
  FARNESE, ELIZABETH               FELTRE, MORTO DA
  FARNHAM                          FELTRE
  FARNWORTH                        FELUCCA
  FARO (town of Portugal)          FEMALE
  FARO (game of cards)             FEMERELL
  FARQUHAR, GEORGE                 FENCING
  FARR, WILLIAM                    FENDER
  FARRAGUT, DAVID GLASGOW          FÉNELON, BERTRAND DE SALIGNAC
  FARRANT, RICHARD                 FÉNELON, FRANÇOIS DE LA MOTHE
  FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM         FENESTELLA
  FARREN, ELIZABETH                FENESTRATION
  FARREN, WILLIAM                  FENIANS
  FARRER, THOMAS HENRY FARRER      FENNEL
  FARRIER, and FARRIERY            FENNER, DUDLEY
  FARS                             FENNY STRATFORD
  FARTHING                         FENRIR
  FARTHINGALE                      FENS
  FASCES



FAIRBANKS, ERASTUS (1792-1864), American manufacturer, was born in
Brimfield, Massachusetts, on the 28th of October 1792. He studied law
but abandoned it for mercantile pursuits, finally settling in St
Johnsbury, Vermont, where in 1824 he formed a partnership with his
brother Thaddeus for the manufacture of stoves and ploughs. Subsequently
the scales invented by Thaddeus were manufactured extensively. Erastus
was a member of the state legislature in 1836-1838, and governor of
Vermont in 1852-1853 and 1860-1861, during his second term rendering
valuable aid in the equipment and despatch of troops in the early days
of the Civil War. His son HORACE (1820-1888) became president of E. & T.
Fairbanks & Co. in 1874, and was governor of Vermont from 1876 to 1878.

His brother, THADDEUS FAIRBANKS (1796-1886), inventor, was born at
Brimfield, Massachusetts, on the 17th of January 1796. He early
manifested a genius for mechanics and designed the models from which he
and his brother manufactured stoves and ploughs at St Johnsbury. In 1826
he patented a cast-iron plough which was extensively used. The growing
of hemp was an important industry in the vicinity of St Johnsbury, and
in 1831 Fairbanks invented a hemp-dressing machine. By the old
contrivances then in use, the weighing of loads of hemp-straw was
tedious and difficult, and in 1831 Fairbanks invented his famous
compound-lever platform scale, which marked a great advance in the
construction of machines for weighing bulky and heavy objects. He
subsequently obtained more than fifty patents for improvements or
innovations in scales and in machinery used in their manufacture, the
last being granted on his ninetieth birthday. His firm, eventually known
as E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., went into the manufacture of scales of all
sizes, in which these inventions were utilized. He, with his brothers,
Erastus and Joseph P., founded the St Johnsbury Academy. He died at St
Johnsbury on the 12th of April 1886.

The latter's son HENRY, born in 1830 at St Johnsbury, Vermont, graduated
at Dartmouth College in 1853 and at Andover Theological Seminary in
1857, and was professor of natural philosophy at Dartmouth from 1859 to
1865 and of natural history from 1865 to 1868. In the following year he
patented a grain-scale and thenceforth devoted himself to the scale
manufacturing business of his family. Altogether he obtained more than
thirty patents for mechanical devices.



FAIRFAX, EDWARD (c. 1580-1635), English poet, translator of Tasso, was
born at Leeds, the second son of Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton (father of
the 1st Baron Fairfax of Cameron). His legitimacy has been called in
question, and the date of his birth has not been ascertained. He is said
to have been only about twenty years of age when he published his
translation of the _Gerusalemme Liberala_, which would place his birth
about the year 1580. He preferred a life of study and retirement to the
military service in which his brothers were distinguished. He married a
sister of Walter Laycock, chief alnager of the northern counties, and
lived on a small estate at Fewston, Yorkshire. There his time was spent
in his literary pursuits, and in the education of his children and those
of his elder brother, Sir Thomas Fairfax, afterwards baron of Cameron.
His translation appeared in 1600,--_Godfrey of Bulloigne, or the
Recoverie of Jerusalem, done into English heroicall Verse by Edw.
Fairefax, Gent._, and was dedicated to the queen. It was
enthusiastically received. In the same year in which it was published
extracts from it were printed in _England's Parnassus_. Edward Phillips,
the nephew of Milton, in his _Theatrum Poetarum_, warmly eulogized the
translation. Edmund Waller said he was indebted to it for the harmony of
his numbers. It is said that it was King James's favourite English poem,
and that Charles I. entertained himself in prison with its pages.
Fairfax employed the same number of lines and stanzas as his original,
but within the limits of each stanza he allowed himself the greatest
liberty. Other translators may give a more literal version, but Fairfax
alone seizes upon the poetical and chivalrous character of the poem. He
presented, says Mr Courthope, "an idea of the chivalrous past of Europe,
as seen through the medium of Catholic orthodoxy and classical
humanism." The sweetness and melody of many passages are scarcely
excelled even by Spenser. Fairfax made no other appeal to the public. He
wrote, however, a series of eclogues, twelve in number, the fourth of
which was published, by permission of the family, in Mrs Cooper's
_Muses' Library_ (1737). Another of the eclogues and a _Discourse on
Witchcraft, as it was acted in the Family of Mr Edward Fairfax of
Fuystone in the county of York in 1621_, edited from the original copy
by Lord Houghton, appeared in the _Miscellanies_ of the Philobiblon
Society (1858-1859). Fairfax was a firm believer in witchcraft. He
fancied that two of his children had been bewitched, and he had the poor
wretches whom he accused brought to trial, but without obtaining a
conviction. Fairfax died at Fewston and was buried there on the 27th of
January 1635.



FAIRFAX OF CAMERON, FERDINANDO FAIRFAX, 2ND BARON (1584-1648), English
parliamentary general, was a son of Thomas Fairfax of Denton
(1560-1640), who in 1627 was created Baron Fairfax of Cameron in the
peerage of Scotland. Born on the 29th of March 1584, he obtained his
military education in the Netherlands, and was member of parliament for
Boroughbridge during the six parliaments which met between 1614 and 1629
and also during the Short Parliament of 1640. In May 1640 he succeeded
his father as Baron Fairfax, but being a Scottish peer he sat in the
English House of Commons as one of the representatives of Yorkshire
during the Long Parliament from 1640 until his death; he took the side
of the parliament, but held moderate views and desired to maintain the
peace. In the first Scottish war Fairfax had commanded a regiment in the
king's army; then on the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 he was made
commander of the parliamentary forces in Yorkshire, with Newcastle as
his opponent. Hostilities began after the repudiation of a treaty of
neutrality entered into by Fairfax with the Royalists. At first he met
with no success. He was driven from York, where he was besieging the
Royalists, to Selby; then in 1643 to Leeds; and after beating off an
attack at that place he was totally defeated on the 30th of June at
Adwalton Moor. He escaped to Hull, which he successfully defended
against Newcastle from the 2nd of September till the 11th of October,
and by means of a brilliant sally caused the siege to be raised. Fairfax
was victorious at Selby on the 11th of April 1644, and joining the Scots
besieged York, after which he was present at Marston Moor, where he
commanded the infantry and was routed. He was subsequently, in July,
made governor of York and charged with the further reduction of the
county. In December he took the town of Pontefract, but failed to secure
the castle. He resigned his command on the passing of the Self-denying
Ordinance, but remained a member of the committee for the government of
Yorkshire, and was appointed, on the 24th of July 1645, steward of the
manor of Pontefract. He died from an accident on the 14th of March 1648
and was buried at Bolton Percy. He was twice married, and by his first
wife, Mary, daughter of Edmund Sheffield, 3rd Lord Sheffield (afterwards
1st earl of Mulgrave), he had six daughters and two sons, Thomas, who
succeeded him as 3rd baron, and Charles, a colonel of horse, who was
killed at Marston Moor. During his command in Yorkshire, Fairfax engaged
in a paper war with Newcastle, and wrote _The Answer of Ferdinando, Lord
Fairfax, to a Declaration of William, earl of Newcastle_ (1642; printed
in Rushworth, pt. iii. vol. ii. p. 139); he also published _A Letter
from ... Lord Fairfax to ... Robert, Earl of Essex_ (1643), describing
the victorious sally at Hull.



FAIRFAX OF CAMERON, THOMAS FAIRFAX, 3RD BARON (1612-1671), parliamentary
general and commander-in-chief during the English Civil War, the eldest
son of the 2nd lord, was born at Denton, near Otley, Yorkshire, on the
17th of January 1612. He studied at St John's College, Cambridge
(1626-1629), and then proceeded to Holland to serve as a volunteer with
the English army in the Low Countries under Sir Horace (Lord) Vere. This
connexion led to one still closer; in the summer of 1637 Fairfax married
Anne Vere, the daughter of the general.

The Fairfaxes, father and son, though serving at first under Charles I.
(Thomas commanded a troop of horse, and was knighted by the king in
1640), were opposed to the arbitrary prerogative of the crown, and Sir
Thomas declared that "his judgment was for the parliament as the king
and kingdom's great and safest council." When Charles endeavoured to
raise a guard for his own person at York, intending it, as the event
afterwards proved, to form the nucleus of an army, Fairfax was employed
to present a petition to his sovereign, entreating him to hearken to the
voice of his parliament, and to discontinue the raising of troops. This
was at a great meeting of the freeholders and farmers of Yorkshire
convened by the king on Heworth Moor near York. Charles evaded receiving
the petition, pressing his horse forward, but Fairfax followed him and
placed the petition on the pommel of the king's saddle. The incident is
typical of the times and of the actors in the scene. War broke out, Lord
Fairfax was appointed general of the Parliamentary forces in the north,
and his son, Sir Thomas, was made lieutenant-general of the horse under
him. Both father and son distinguished themselves in the campaigns in
Yorkshire (see GREAT REBELLION). Sometimes severely defeated, more often
successful, and always energetic, prudent and resourceful, they
contrived to keep up the struggle until the crisis of 1644, when York
was held by the marquess of Newcastle against the combined forces of the
English Parliamentarians and the Scots, and Prince Rupert hastened with
all available forces to its relief. A gathering of eager national forces
within a few square miles of ground naturally led to a battle, and
Marston Moor (q.v.) was decisive of the struggle in the north. The
younger Fairfax bore himself with the greatest gallantry in the battle,
and though severely wounded managed to join Cromwell and the victorious
cavalry on the other wing. One of his brothers, Colonel Charles Fairfax,
was killed in the action. But the marquess of Newcastle fled the
kingdom, and the Royalists abandoned all hope of retrieving their
affairs. The city of York was taken, and nearly the whole north
submitted to the parliament.

In the south and west of England, however, the Royalist cause was still
active. The war had lasted two years, and the nation began to complain
of the contributions that were exacted, and the excesses that were
committed by the military. Dissatisfaction was expressed with the
military commanders, and, as a preliminary step to reform, the
Self-denying Ordinance was passed. This involved the removal of the earl
of Essex from the supreme command, and the reconstruction of the armed
forces of the parliament. Sir Thomas Fairfax was selected as the new
lord general with Cromwell as his lieutenant-general and cavalry
commander, and after a short preliminary campaign the "New Model"
justified its existence, and "the rebels' new brutish general," as the
king called him, his capacity as commander-in-chief in the decisive
victory of Naseby (q.v.). The king fled to Wales. Fairfax besieged
Leicester, and was successful at Taunton, Bridgwater and Bristol. The
whole west was soon reduced.

Fairfax arrived in London on the 12th of November 1645. In his progress
towards the capital he was accompanied by applauding crowds.
Complimentary speeches and thanks were presented to him by both houses
of parliament, along with a jewel of great value set with diamonds, and
a sum of money. The king had returned from Wales and established himself
at Oxford, where there was a strong garrison, but, ever vacillating, he
withdrew secretly, and proceeded to Newark to throw himself into the
arms of the Scots. Oxford capitulated, and by the end of September 1646
Charles had neither army nor garrison in England. In January 1647 he was
delivered up by the Scots to the commissioners of parliament. Fairfax
met the king beyond Nottingham, and accompanied him during the journey
to Holmby, treating him with the utmost consideration in every way. "The
general," said Charles, "is a man of honour, and keeps his word which he
had pledged to me." With the collapse of the Royalist cause came a
confused period of negotiations between the parliament and the king,
between the king and the Scots, and between the Presbyterians and the
Independents in and out of parliament. In these negotiations the New
Model Army soon began to take a most active part. The lord general was
placed in the unpleasant position of intermediary between his own
officers and parliament. To the grievances, usual in armies of that
time, concerning arrears of pay and indemnity for acts committed on
duty, there was quickly added the political propaganda of the
Independents, and in July the person of the king was seized by Joyce, a
subaltern of cavalry--an act which sufficiently demonstrated the
hopelessness of controlling the army by its articles of war. It had, in
fact, become the most formidable political party in the realm, and
pressed straight on to the overthrow of parliament and the punishment of
Charles. Fairfax was more at home in the field than at the head of a
political committee, and, finding events too strong for him, he sought
to resign his commission as commander-in-chief. He was, however,
persuaded to retain it. He thus remained the titular chief of the army
party, and with the greater part of its objects he was in complete,
sometimes most active, sympathy. Shortly before the outbreak of the
second Civil War, Fairfax succeeded his father in the barony and in the
office of governor of Hull; In the field against the English Royalists
in 1648 he displayed his former energy and skill, and his operations
culminated in the successful siege of Colchester, after the surrender of
which place he approved the execution of the Royalist leaders Sir
Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, holding that these officers had
broken their parole. At the same time Cromwell's great victory of
Preston crushed the Scots, and the Independents became practically
all-powerful.

Milton, in a sonnet written during the siege of Colchester, called upon
the lord general to settle the kingdom, but the crisis was now at hand.
Fairfax was in agreement with Cromwell and the army leaders in demanding
the punishment of Charles, and he was still the effective head of the
army. He approved, if he did not take an active part in, Pride's Purge
(December 6th, 1648), but on the last and gravest of the questions at
issue he set himself in deliberate and open opposition to the policy of
the officers. He was placed at the head of the judges who were to try
the king, and attended the preliminary sitting of the court. Then,
convinced at last that the king's death was intended, he refused to act.
In calling over the court, when the crier pronounced the name of
Fairfax, a lady in the gallery called out "that the Lord Fairfax was not
there in person, that he would never sit among them, and that they did
him wrong to name him as a commissioner." This was Lady Fairfax, who
could not forbear, as Whitelocke says, to exclaim aloud against the
proceedings of the High Court of Justice. His last service as
commander-in-chief was the suppression of the Leveller mutiny at Burford
in May 1649. He had given his adhesion to the new order of things, and
had been reappointed lord general. But he merely administered the
affairs of the army, and when in 1650 the Scots had declared for Charles
II., and the council of state resolved to send an army to Scotland in
order to prevent an invasion of England, Fairfax resigned his
commission. Cromwell was appointed his successor, "captain-general and
commander-in-chief of all the forces raised or to be raised by authority
of parliament within the commonwealth of England." Fairfax received a
pension of £5000 a year, and lived in retirement at his Yorkshire home
of Nunappleton till after the death of the Protector. The troubles of
the later Commonwealth recalled Lord Fairfax to political activity, and
for the last time his appearance in arms helped to shape the future of
the country, when Monk invited him to assist in the operations about to
be undertaken against Lambert's army. In December 1659 he appeared at
the head of a body of Yorkshire gentlemen, and such was the influence of
Fairfax's name and reputation that 1200 horse quitted Lambert's colours
and joined him. This was speedily followed by the breaking up of all
Lambert's forces, and that day secured the restoration of the monarchy.
A "free" parliament was called; Fairfax was elected member for
Yorkshire, and was put at the head of the commission appointed by the
House of Commons to wait upon Charles II. at the Hague and urge his
speedy return. Of course the "merry monarch, scandalous and poor," was
glad to obey the summons, and Fairfax provided the horse on which
Charles rode at his coronation. The remaining eleven years of the life
of Lord Fairfax were spent in retirement at his seat in Yorkshire. He
must, like Milton, have been sorely grieved and shocked by the scenes
that followed--the brutal indignities offered to the remains of his
companions in arms, Cromwell and Ireton, the sacrifice of Sir Harry
Vane, the neglect or desecration of all that was great, noble or
graceful in England, and the flood of immorality which, flowing from
Whitehall, sapped the foundations of the national strength and honour.
Lord Fairfax died at Nunappleton on the 12th of November 1671, and was
buried at Bilborough, near York. As a soldier he was exact and
methodical in planning, in the heat of battle "so highly transported
that scarce any one durst speak a word to him" (Whitelocke), chivalrous
and punctilious in his dealings with his own men and the enemy. Honour
and conscientiousness were equally the characteristics of his private
and public character. But his modesty and distrust of his powers made
him less effectual as a statesman than as a soldier, and above all he is
placed at a disadvantage by being both in war and peace overshadowed by
his associate Cromwell.

Lord Fairfax had a taste for literature. He translated some of the
Psalms, and wrote poems on solitude, the Christian warfare, the
shortness of life, &c. During the last year or two of his life he wrote
two _Memorials_ which have been published--one on the northern actions
in which he was engaged in 1642-1644, and the other on some events in
his tenure of the chief command. At York and at Oxford he endeavoured to
save the libraries from pillage, and he enriched the Bodleian with some
valuable MSS. His only daughter, Mary Fairfax, was married to George
Villiers, the profligate duke of Buckingham of Charles II.'s court.

  His correspondence, edited by G.W. Johnson, was published in 1848-1849
  in four volumes (see note thereon in _Dict. Nat. Biogr._, s.v.), and a
  life of him by Clements R. Markham in 1870. See also S.R. Gardiner,
  _History of the Great Civil War_ (1893).

His descendant Thomas, 6th baron (1692-1782), inherited from his mother,
the heiress of Thomas, 2nd Baron Culpepper, large estates in Virginia,
U.S.A., and having sold Denton Hall and his Yorkshire estates he retired
there about 1746, dying a bachelor. He was a friend of George
Washington. Thomas found his cousin William Fairfax settled in Virginia,
and made him his agent, and Bryan (1737-1802), the son of William
Fairfax, eventually inherited the title, becoming 8th baron in 1793. His
claim was admitted by the House of Lords in 1800. But it was practically
dropped by the American family, until, shortly before the coronation of
Edward VII., the successor in title was discovered in Albert Kirby
Fairfax (b. 1870), a descendant of the 8th baron, who was an American
citizen. In November 1908 Albert's claim to the title as 12th baron was
allowed by the House of Lords.



FAIRFIELD, a township in Fairfield county, Connecticut, U.S.A., near
Long Island Sound, adjoining Bridgeport on the E. and Westport on the W.
Pop. (1890) 3868; (1900) 4489 (1041 being foreign-born); (1910) 6134. It
is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway. The principal
villages of the township are Fairfield, Southport, Greenfield Hill and
Stratfield. The beautiful scenery and fine sea air attract to the
township a considerable number of summer visitors. The township has the
well-equipped Pequot and Fairfield memorial libraries (the former in the
village of Southport, the latter in the village of Fairfield), the
Fairfield fresh air home (which cares for between one and two hundred
poor children of New York during each summer season), and the Gould home
for self-supporting women. The Fairfield Historical Society has a museum
of antiquities and a collection of genealogical and historical works.
Among Fairfield's manufactures are chemicals, wire and rubber goods.
Truck-gardening is an important industry of the township. In the Pequot
Swamp within the present Fairfield a force of Pequot Indians was badly
defeated in 1637 by some whites, among whom was Roger Ludlow, who,
attracted by the country, founded the settlement in 1639 and gave it its
present name in 1645. Within its original limits were included what are
now the townships of Redding (separated, 1767), Weston (1787) and Easton
(formed from part of Weston in 1845), and parts of the present Westport
and Bridgeport. During the colonial period Fairfield was a place of
considerable importance, but subsequently it was greatly outstripped by
Bridgeport, to which, in 1870, a portion of it was annexed. On the 8th
of July 1779 Fairfield was burned by the British and Hessians under
Governor William Tryon. Among the prominent men who have lived in
Fairfield are Roger Sherman, the first President Dwight of Yale (who
described Fairfield in his _Travels_ and in his poem _Greenfield Hill_),
Chancellor James Kent, and Joseph Earle Sheffield.

  See Frank S. Child, _An Old New England Town, Sketches of Life,
  Scenery and Character_ (New York, 1895); and Mrs E.H. Schenck,
  _History of Fairfield_ (2 vols., New York, 1889-1905).



FAIRFIELD, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Iowa, U.S.A.,
about 51 m. W. by N. of Burlington. Pop. (1890) 3391; (1900) 4689, of
whom 206 were foreign-born and 54 were negroes; (1905) 5009; (1910)
4970. Area, about 2.25 sq. m. Fairfield is served by the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways.
The city is in a blue grass country, in which much live stock is bred;
and it is an important market for draft horses. It is the seat of
Parsons College (Presbyterian, coeducational, 1875), endowed by Lewis
Baldwin Parsons, Sr. (1798-1855), a merchant of Buffalo, N.Y. The
college offers classical, philosophical and scientific courses, and has
a school of music and an academic department; in 1907-1908 it had 19
instructors and 257 students, of whom 93 were in the college and 97 were
in the school of music. Fairfield has a Carnegie library (1892), and a
museum with a collection of laces. Immediately E. of the city is an
attractive Chautauqua Park, of 30 acres, with an auditorium capable of
seating about 4000 persons; and there is an annual Chautauqua assembly.
The principal manufactures of Fairfield are farm waggons, farming
implements, drain-tile, malleable iron, cotton gloves and mittens and
cotton garments. The municipality owns its waterworks and an
electric-lighting plant. Fairfield was settled in 1839; was incorporated
as a town in 1847; and was first chartered as a city in the same year.

  See Charles H. Fletcher, _Jefferson County, Iowa: Centennial History_
  (Fairfield, 1876).



FAIRHAVEN, a township in Bristol county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on New
Bedford Harbor, opposite New Bedford. Pop. (1890) 2919; (1900) 3567 (599
being foreign-born); (1905, state census) 4235; (1910) 5122. Area, about
13 sq. m. Fairhaven is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford
railway and by electric railway to Mattapoisett and Marion, and is
connected with New Bedford by two bridges, by electric railway, and by
the New York, New Haven & Hartford ferry line. The principal village is
Fairhaven; others are Oxford, Naskatucket and Sconticut Neck. As a
summer resort Fairhaven is widely known. Among the principal buildings
are the following, presented to the township by Henry H. Rogers
(1840-1909), a native of Fairhaven and a large stockholder and long
vice-president of the Standard Oil Co.; the town hall, a memorial of Mrs
Rogers, the Rogers public schools; the Millicent public library (17,500
vols. in 1908), a memorial to his daughter; and a fine granite memorial
church (Unitarian) with parish house, a memorial to his mother; and
there is also a public park, of 13 acres, the gift of Mr Rogers. From
1830 to 1857 the inhabitants of Fairhaven were chiefly engaged in
whaling, and the fishing interests are still important. Among
manufactures are tacks, nails, iron goods, loom-cranks, glass, yachts
and boats, and shoes.

Fairhaven, originally a part of New Bedford, was incorporated as a
separate township in 1812. On the 5th of September 1778 a fleet and
armed force under Earl Grey, sent to punish New Bedford and what is now
Fairhaven for their activity in privateering, burned the shipping and
destroyed much of New Bedford. The troops then marched to the head of
the Acushnet river, and down the east bank to Sconticut Neck, where they
camped till the 7th of September, when they re-embarked, having
meanwhile dismantled a small fort, built during the early days of the
war, on the east side of the river at the entrance to the harbour. On
the evening of the 8th of September a landing force from the fleet,
which had begun to set fire to Fairhaven, was driven off by a body of
about 150 minute-men commanded by Major Israel Fearing; and on the
following day the fleet departed. The fort was at once rebuilt and was
named Fort Fearing, but as early as 1784 it had become known as Fort
Phoenix; it was one of the strongest defences on the New England coast
during the war of 1812. The township of Acushnet was formed from the
northern part of Fairhaven in 1860.

  See James L. Gillingham and others, _A Brief History of the Town of
  Fairhaven, Massachusetts_ (Fairhaven, 1903).



FAIRHOLT, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1814-1866), English antiquary and wood
engraver, was born in London in 1814. His father, who was of a German
family (the name was originally Fahrholz), was a tobacco manufacturer,
and for some years Fairholt himself was employed in the business. For a
time he was a drawing-master, afterwards a scene-painter, and in 1835 he
became assistant to S. Sly, the wood engraver. Some pen and ink copies
made by him of figures from Hogarth's plates led to his being employed
by Charles Knight on several of his illustrated publications. His first
published literary work was a contribution to Hone's _Year-Book_ in
1831. His life was one of almost uninterrupted quiet labour, carried on
until within a few days of death. Several works on civic pageantry and
some collections of ancient unpublished songs and dialogues were edited
by him for the Percy Society in 1842. In 1844 he was elected fellow of
the Society of Antiquaries. He published an edition of the dramatic
works of Lyly in 1856. His principal independent works are _Tobacco, its
History, and Association_ (1859); _Gog and Magog_ (1860); _Up the Nile
and Home Again_ (1862); many articles and serials contributed to the
_Art Journal_, some of which were afterwards separately published, as
_Costume in England_ (1846); _Dictionary of Terms in Art_ (1854). These
works are illustrated by numerous cuts, drawn on the wood by his own
hand. His pencil was also employed in illustrating Evans's _Coins of the
Ancient Britons_, Madden's _Jewish Coinage_, Halliwell's folio
_Shakespeare_ and his _Sir John Maundeville_, Roach Smith's
_Richborough_, the _Miscellanea Graphica_ of Lord Londesborough, and
many other works. He died on the 3rd of April 1866. His books relating
to Shakespeare were bequeathed to the library at Stratford-on-Avon;
those on civic pageantry (between 200 and 300 volumes) to the Society of
Antiquaries; his old prints and works on costume to the British Museum;
his general library he desired to be sold and the proceeds devoted to
the Literary Fund.



FAIRMONT, a city and the county-seat of Marion county, West Virginia,
U.S.A., on both sides of the Monongahela river, about 75 m. S.E. of
Wheeling. Pop. (1890) 1023; (1900) 5655, of whom 283 were negroes and
182 foreign-born; (1910) 9711. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio
railway. Among its manufactures are glass, machinery, flour and
furniture, and it is an important shipping point for coal mined in the
vicinity. The city is the seat of one of the West Virginia state normal
schools. Fairmont was laid out as Middletown in 1819, became the
county-seat of the newly established Marion county in 1842, received its
present name about 1844, and was chartered as a city in 1899.



FAIR OAKS, a station on a branch of the Southern railway, 6 m. E. of
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A. It is noted as the site of one of the battles
of the Civil War, fought on the 31st of May and the 1st of June 1862,
between the Union (Army of the Potomac) under General G.B. McClellan and
the Confederate forces (Army of Northern Virginia) commanded by General
J.E. Johnston. The attack of the Confederates was made at a moment when
the river Chickahominy divided the Federal army into two unequal parts,
and was, moreover, swollen to such a degree as to endanger the bridges.
General Johnston stationed part of his troops along the river to prevent
the Federals sending aid to the smaller force south of it, upon which
the Confederate attack, commanded by General Longstreet, was directed.
Many accidents, due to the inexperience of the staff officers and to the
difficulty of the ground, hindered the development of Longstreet's
attack, but the Federals were gradually driven back with a loss of ten
guns, though at the last moment reinforcements managed to cross the
river and re-establish the line of defence. At the close of the day
Johnston was severely wounded, and General G.W. Smith succeeded to the
command. The battle was renewed on the 1st of June but not fought out.
At the close of the action General R.E. Lee took over the command of the
Confederates, which he held till the final surrender in April 1865. So
far as the victory lay with either side, it was with the Union army, for
the Confederates failed to achieve their purpose of destroying the
almost isolated left wing of McClellan's army, and after the battle they
withdrew into the lines of Richmond. The Union losses were 5031 in
killed, wounded and missing; those of the Confederates were 6134. The
battle is sometimes known as the battle of Seven Pines.



FAIRUZABADI [Abu-t-Tahir ibn Ibrahim Majd ud-Din ul-Fairuzabadi]
(1329-1414), Arabian lexicographer, was born at Karazin near Shiraz. His
student days were spent in Shiraz, Wasit, Bagdad and Damascus. He taught
for ten years in Jerusalem, and afterwards travelled in western Asia
and Egypt. In 1368 he settled in Mecca, where he remained for fifteen
years. He next visited India and spent some time in Delhi, then remained
in Mecca another ten years. The following three years were spent in
Bagdad, in Shiraz (where he was received by Timur), and in Ta'iz. In
1395 he was appointed chief cadi (qadi) of Yemen, married a daughter of
the sultan, and died at Zabid in 1414. During this last period of his
life he converted his house at Mecca into a school of Malikite law and
established three teachers in it. He wrote a huge lexicographical work
of 60 or 100 volumes uniting the dictionaries of Ibn Sida, a Spanish
philologist (d. 1066), and of Sajani (d. 1252). A digest of or an
extract from this last work is his famous dictionary _al-Qamus_ ("the
Ocean"), which has been published in Egypt, Constantinople and India,
has been translated into Turkish and Persian, and has itself been the
basis of several later dictionaries.     (G. W. T.)



FAIRY (Fr. _fée_, _faerie_; Prov. _fada_; Sp. _hada_; Ital. _fata_; med.
Lat. _fatare_, to enchant, from Lat. _fatum_, fate, destiny), the common
term for a supposed race of supernatural beings who magically
intermeddle in human affairs. Of all the minor creatures of mythology
the fairies are the most beautiful, the most numerous, the most
memorable in literature. Like all organic growths, whether of nature or
of the fancy, they are not the immediate product of one country or of
one time; they have a pedigree, and the question of their ancestry and
affiliation is one of wide bearing. But mixture and connexion of races
have in this as in many other cases so changed the original folk-product
that it is difficult to disengage and separate the different strains
that have gone to the making or moulding of the result as we have it.

It is not in literature, however ancient, that we must look for the
early forms of the fairy belief. Many of Homer's heroes have fairy
lemans, called nymphs, fairies taken up into a higher region of poetry
and religion; and the fairy leman is notable in the story of Athamas and
his cloud bride Nephele, but this character is as familiar to the
unpoetical Eskimo, and to the Red Indians, with their bird-bride and
beaver-bride (see A. Lang's _Custom and Myth_, "The Story of Cupid and
Psyche"). The Gandharvas of Sanskrit poetry are also fairies.

One of the most interesting facts about fairies is the wide distribution
and long persistence of the belief in them. They are the chief factor in
surviving Irish superstition. Here they dwell in the "raths," old
earth-forts, or earthen bases of later palisaded dwellings of the Norman
period, and in the subterranean houses, common also in Scotland. They
are an organized people, often called "the army," and their life
corresponds to human life in all particulars. They carry off children,
leaving changeling substitutes, transport men and women into fairyland,
and are generally the causes of all mysterious phenomena. Whirls of dust
are caused by the fairy marching army, as by the being called Kutchi in
the Dieri tribe of Australia. In 1907, in northern Ireland, a farmer's
house was troubled with flying stones (see POLTERGEIST). The neighbours
said that the fairies caused the phenomenon, as the man had swept his
chimney with a bough of holly, and the holly is "a gentle tree," dear to
the fairies. The fairy changeling belief also exists in some districts
of Argyll, and a fairy boy dwelt long in a small farm-house in Glencoe,
now unoccupied.

In Ireland and the west Highlands neolithic arrow-heads and flint chips
are still fairy weapons. They are dipped in water, which is given to
ailing cattle and human beings as a sovereign remedy for diseases. The
writer knows of "a little lassie in green" who is a fairy and, according
to the percipients, haunts the banks of the Mukomar pool on the Lochy.
In Glencoe is a fairy hill where the fairy music, vocal and
instrumental, is heard in still weather. In the Highlands, however,
there is much more interest in second sight than in fairies, while in
Ireland the reverse is the case. The best book on Celtic fairy lore is
still that of the minister of Aberfoyle, the Rev. Mr Kirk (_ob._ 1692).
His work on _The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns and Fairies_, left
in MS. and incomplete (the remainder is in the Laing MSS., Edinburgh
University library), was published (a hundred copies) in 1815 by Sir
Walter Scott, and in the Bibliothèque de Carabas (Lang) there is a
French translation. Mr Kirk is said (though his tomb exists) to have
been carried away by fairies. He appeared to a friend and said that he
would come again, when the friend must throw a dirk over his shoulder
and he would return to this world. The friend, however, lost his nerve
and did not throw the dirk. In the same way a woman reappeared to her
husband in Glencoe in the last generation, but he was wooing another
lass and did not make any effort to recover his wife. His character was
therefore lost in the glen.

It is clear that in many respects fairyland corresponds to the
pre-Christian abode of the dead. Like Persephone when carried to Hades,
or Wainamoïnen in the Hades of the Finns (Manala), a living human being
must not eat in fairyland; if he does, he dwells there for ever. Tamlane
in the ballad, however, was "fat and fair of flesh," yet was rescued by
Janet: probably he had not abstained from fairy food. He was to be given
as the _kane_ to Hell, which shows a distinction between the beliefs in
hell and in the place of fairies.

It is a not uncommon theory that the fairies survive in legend from
prehistoric memories of a pigmy people dwelling in the subterranean
earth-houses, but the contents of these do not indicate an age prior to
the close of the Roman occupation of Britain; nor are pigmy bones common
in neolithic sepulchres. The "people of peace" (_Daoine Shie_) of
Ireland and Scotland are usually of ordinary stature, indeed not to be
recognized as varying from mankind except by their proceedings (see J.
Curtin, _Irish Folk-tales_).

The belief in a species of lady fairies, deathly to their human lovers,
was found by R.L. Stevenson to be as common in Samoa (see _Island
Nights' Entertainments_) as in Strathfinlas or on the banks of Loch Awe.
In New Caledonia a native friend of J.J. Atkinson (author of _Primal
Law_) told him that he had met and caressed the girl of his heart in the
forest, that she had vanished and must have been a fairy. He therefore
would die in three days, which (Mr Atkinson informs the writer) he
punctually did. The Greek sirens of Homer are clearly a form of these
deadly fairies, as the Nereids and Oreads and Naiads are fairies of
wells, mountains and the sea. The fairy women who come to the births of
children and foretell their fortunes (_Fata_, _Moerae_, ancient Egyptian
_Hathors_, _Fées_, _Dominae Fatales_), with their spindles, are
refractions of the human "spae-women" (in the Scots term) who attend at
birth and derive omens of the child's future from various signs. The
custom is common among several savage races, and these women,
represented in the spiritual world by _Fata_, bequeath to us the French
_fée_, in the sense of fairy. Perrault also uses _fée_ for anything that
has magical quality; "the key was _fée_," had _mana_, or _wakan_, savage
words for the supposed "power," or _ether_, which works magic or is the
vehicle of magical influences.

Though the fairy belief is universally human, the nearest analogy to the
shape which it takes in Scotland and Ireland--the "pixies" of
south-western England--is to be found in _Jan_ or _Jinnis_ of the Arabs,
Moors and people of Palestine. In stories which have passed through a
literary medium, like _The Arabian Nights_, the _geni_ or _Jan_ do not
so much resemble our fairies as they do in the popular superstitions of
the East, orally collected. The _Jan_ are now a subterranean
commonwealth, now they reside in ruinous places, like the fairies in the
Irish raths. Like the fairies they go about in whirls of dust, or the
dust-whirls themselves are _Jan_. They carry off men and women "to their
own herd," in the phrase of Mr Kirk, and are kind to mortals who are
kind to them. They chiefly differ from our fairies in their greater
tendency to wear animal forms; though, like the fairies, when they
choose to appear in human shape they are not to be distinguished from
men and women of mortal mould. Like the fairies everywhere they have
amours with mortals, such as that of the Queen of Faery with Thomas of
Ercildoune. The herb rue is potent against them, as in British
folk-lore, and a man long captive among the _Jan_ escaped from them by
observing their avoidance of rue, and by plucking two handfuls thereof.
They, like the British brownies (a kind of domesticated fairy), are the
causes of strange disappearances of things. To preserve houses from
their influences, rue, that "herb of grace," is kept in the apartments,
and the name of Allah is constantly invoked. If this is omitted, things
are stolen by the _Jan_.

They often bear animal names, and it is dangerous to call a cat or dog
without pointing at the animal, for a _Jinni_ of the same name may be
present and may take advantage of the invocation. A man, in fun, called
to a goat to escort his wife on a walk: he did not point at the goat,
and the wife disappeared. A _Jinni_ had carried her off, and her husband
had to seek her at the court of the _Jan_. Euphemistically they are
addressed as _mubarakin_, "blessed ones," as we say "the good folk" or
"the people of peace." As our fairies give gold which changes into
withered leaves, the _Jan_ give onion peels which turn into gold. Like
our fairies the _Jan_ can apply an ointment, kohl, to human eyes, after
which the person so favoured can see _Jan_, or fairies, which are
invisible to other mortals, and can see treasure wherever it may be
concealed (see _Folk-lore of the Holy Land_, by J.E. Hanauer, 1907).

It is plain that fairies and _Jan_ are practically identical, a curious
proof of the uniformity of the working of imagination in peoples widely
separated in race and religion. Fairies naturally won their way into the
poetry of the middle ages. They take lovers from among men, and are
often described as of delicate, unearthly, ravishing beauty. The
enjoyment of their charms is, however, generally qualified by some
restriction or compact, the breaking of which is the cause of calamity
to the lover and all his race, as in the notable tale of Melusine. This
fay by enchantment built the castle of Lusignan for her husband. It was
her nature to take every week the form of a serpent from the waist
below. The hebdomadal transformation being once, contrary to compact,
witnessed by her husband, she left him with much wailing, and was said
to return and give warning by her appearance and great shrieks whenever
one of the race of Lusignan was about to die. At the birth of Ogier le
Danois six fairies attend, five of whom give good gifts, which the sixth
overrides with a restriction. Gervaise of Tilbury, writing early in the
13th century, has in his _Otia Imperialia_ a chapter, _De lamiis et
nocturnis larvis_, where he gives it out, as proved by individuals
beyond all exception, that men have been lovers of beings of this kind
whom they call _Fadas_, and who did in case of infidelity or
infringement of secrecy inflict terrible punishment--the loss of goods
and even of life. There seems little in the characteristics of these
fairies of romance to distinguish them from human beings, except their
supernatural knowledge and power. They are not often represented as
diminutive in stature, and seem to be subject to such human passions as
love, jealousy, envy and revenge. To this class belong the fairies of
Boiardo, Ariosto and Spenser.

  There is no good modern book on the fairy belief in general.
  Keightley's _Fairy Mythology_ is full of interesting matter; Rhys's
  _Celtic Mythology_ is especially copious about Welsh fairies, which
  are practically identical with those of Ireland and Scotland. The
  works of Mr Jeremiah Curtin and Dr Douglas Hyde are useful for
  Ireland; for Scotland, Kirk's _Secret Commonwealth_ has already been
  quoted. Scott's dissertation on fairies in _The Border Minstrelsy_ is
  rich in lore, though necessarily Scott had not the wide field of
  comparative study opened by more recent researches. There is a full
  description of French fairies of the 15th century in the evidence of
  Jeanne d'Arc at her trial (1431) in Quicherat's _Procès de Jeanne
  d'Arc_, vol. i. pp. 67, 68, 187, 209, 212, vol. ii. pp. 390, 404, 450.
       (A. L.)



FAIRY RING, the popular name for the circular patches of a dark green
colour that are to be seen occasionally on permanent grass-land, either
lawn or meadow, on which the fairies were supposed to hold their
midnight revels. They mark the area of growth of some fungus, starting
from a centre of one or more plants. The mycelium produced from the
spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates
outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new
growth round the circle. The rich colour of the grass is due to the
fertilizing quality of the decaying fungi, which are peculiarly rich in
nitrogenous substances. The most complete and symmetrical grass rings
are formed by _Marasmius orcades_, the fairy ring champignon, but the
mushroom and many other species occasionally form rings, both on
grass-lands and in woods. Observations were made on a ring in a
pine-wood for a period of nine years, and it was calculated that it
increased from centre to circumference about 8½ in. each year. The
fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the
ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its
growth having become exhausted.



FAITHFULL, EMILY (1835-1895), English philanthropist, was the youngest
daughter of the Rev. Ferdinand Faithfull, and was born at Headley
Rectory, Surrey, in 1835. She took a great interest in the conditions of
working-women, and with the object of extending their sphere of labour,
which was then painfully limited, in 1860 she set up in London a
printing establishment for women. The "Victoria Press," as it was
called, soon obtained quite a reputation for its excellent work, and
Miss Faithfull was shortly afterwards appointed printer and publisher in
ordinary to Queen Victoria. In 1863 she began the publication of a
monthly organ, _The Victoria Magazine_, in which for eighteen years she
continuously and earnestly advocated the claims of women to remunerative
employment. In 1868 she published a novel, _Change upon Change_. She
also appeared as a lecturer, and with the object of furthering the
interests of her sex, lectured widely and successfully both in England
and the United States, which latter she visited in 1872 and 1882. In
1888 she was awarded a civil list pension of £50. She died in Manchester
on the 31st of May 1895.



FAITH HEALING, a form of "mind cure," characterized by the doctrine that
while pain and disease really exist, they may be neutralized and
dispelled by faith in Divine power; the doctrine known as Christian
Science (q.v.) holds, however, that pain is only an illusion and seeks to
cure the patient by instilling into him this belief. In the Christian
Church the tradition of faith healing dates from the earliest days of
Christianity; upon the miracles of the New Testament follow cases of
healing, first by the Apostles, then by their successors; but faith
healing proper is gradually, from the 3rd century onwards, transformed
into trust in relics, though faith cures still occur sporadically in
later times. Catherine of Siena is said to have saved Father Matthew from
dying of the plague, but in this case it is rather the healer than the
healed who was strong in faith. With the Reformation faith healing proper
reappears among the Moravians and Waldenses, who, like the Peculiar
People of our own day, put their trust in prayer and anointing with oil.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other
reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan
sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in
this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its
ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734). In the 19th
century Prince Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, canon of
Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and
Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last
quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and
Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many
adherents in England.

Under faith healing in a wider sense may be included (1) the cures in
the temples of Aesculapius and other deities in the ancient world; (2)
the practice of touching for the king's evil, in vogue from the 11th to
the 18th century; (3) the cures of Valentine Greatrakes, the "Stroker"
(1629-1683); and (4) the miracles of Lourdes, and other resorts of
pilgrims, among which may be mentioned St Winifred's Well in Flintshire,
Treves with its Holy Coat, the grave of the Jansenist F. de Paris in the
18th century, the little town of Kevelaer from 1641 onwards, the tombs
of St Louis, Francis of Assisi, Catherine of Siena and others.

An animistic theory of disease was held by Pastor J. Ch. Blumhardt,
Dorothea Trudel, Boltzius and other European faith healers. Used in this
sense faith healing is indistinguishable from much of savage
leech-craft, which seeks to cure disease by expelling the evil spirit in
some portion of the body. Although it is usually present, faith in the
medicine man is not essential for the efficacy of the method. The same
may be said of the lineal descendant of savage medicine--the magical
leech-craft of European folk-lore; cures for toothache, warts, &c., act
in spite of the disbelief of the sufferer; how far incredulity on the
part of the healer would result in failure is an open question.

From the psychological point of view all these different kinds of faith
healing, as indeed all kinds of mind cure, including those of Christian
Science and hypnotism, depend on suggestion (q.v.). In faith healing
proper not only are powerful direct suggestions used, but the religious
atmosphere and the auto-suggestions of the patient co-operate,
especially where the cures take place during a period of religious
revival or at other times when large assemblies and strong emotions are
found. The suggestibility of large crowds is markedly greater than that
of individuals, and to this and the greater faith must be attributed the
greater success of the fashionable places of pilgrimage.

  See A.T. Myers and F.W.H. Myers in _Proc. Soc. Psychical Research_,
  ix. 160-209, on the miracles of Lourdes, with bibliography; A.
  Feilding, _Faith Healing and Christian Science_; O. Stoll, _Suggestion
  und Hypnotismus in der Völkerpsychologie_; article "Greatrakes" in
  _Dict. Nat. Biog._     (N. W. T.)



FAITHORNE, WILLIAM (1626 or 1627-1691), English painter and engraver,
was born in London and was apprenticed to Robert Peake, a painter and
printseller, who received the honour of knighthood from Charles I. On
the outbreak of the Civil War he accompanied his master into the king's
service, and being made prisoner at Basinghouse, he was confined for
some time to Aldersgate, where, however, he was permitted to follow his
profession of engraver, and among other portraits did a small one of the
first Villiers, duke of Buckingham. At the earnest solicitation of his
friends he very soon regained his liberty, but only on condition of
retiring to France. There he was so fortunate as to receive instruction
from Robert Nanteuil. He was permitted to return to England about 1650,
and took up a shop near Temple Bar, where, besides his work as an
engraver, he carried on a large business as a printseller. In 1680 he
gave up his shop and retired to a house in Blackfriars, occupying
himself chiefly in painting portraits from the life in crayons, although
still occasionally engaged in engraving. It is said that his life was
shortened by the misfortunes, dissipation, and early death of his son
William. Faithorne is especially famous as a portrait engraver, and
among those on whom he exercised his art were a large number of eminent
persons, including Sir Henry Spelman, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Somerset,
the marquis of Worcester, John Milton, Queen Catherine, Prince Rupert,
Cardinal Richelieu, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Thomas Hobbes, Richard Hooker,
Robert second earl of Essex, and Charles I. All his works are remarkable
for their combination of freedom and strength with softness and
delicacy, and his crayon paintings unite to these the additional quality
of clear and brilliant colouring. He is the author of a work on
engraving (1622).

His son WILLIAM (1656-1686), mezzotint engraver, at an early age gave
promise of attaining great excellence, but became idle and dissipated,
and involved his father in money difficulties. Among persons of note
whose portraits he engraved are Charles II., Mary princess of Orange,
Queen Anne when princess of Denmark, and Charles XII. of Sweden.

  The best account of the Faithornes is that contained in Walpole's
  _Anecdotes of Painting_. A life of Faithorne the elder is preserved in
  the British Museum among the papers of Mr Bayford, librarian to Lord
  Oxford, and an intimate friend of Faithorne.



FAIZABAD, a town of Afghanistan, capital of the province of Badakshan,
situated on the Kokcha river. In 1821 it was destroyed by Murad Beg of
Kunduz, and the inhabitants removed to Kunduz. But since Badakshan was
annexed by Abdur Rahman, the town has recovered its former importance,
and is now a considerable place of trade. It is the chief cantonment for
eastern Afghanistan and the Pamir region, and is protected by a fort
built in 1904.



FAJARDO, a district and town on the E. coast of Porto Rico, belonging to
the department of Humacao. Pop. (1899) of the district, 16,782; and of
the town, 3414. The district is highly fertile and is well watered,
owing in great measure to its abundant rainfall. Sugar production is its
principal industry, but some attention is also given to the growing of
oranges and pineapples. The town, which was founded in 1774, is a busy
commercial centre standing 1¼ m. from a large and well-sheltered bay, at
the entrance to which is the cape called Cabeza de San Juan. It is the
market town for a number of small islands off the E. coast, some of
which produce cattle for export.



FAKHR UD-DIN RAZI (1149-1209), Arabian historian and theologian, was the
son of a preacher, himself a writer, and was born at Rai (Rei, Rhagae),
near Tehran, where he received his earliest training. Here and at
Maragha, whither he followed his teacher Majd ud-Din ul-Jili, he studied
philosophy and theology. He was a Shaf'ite in law and a follower of
Ash'ari (q.v.) in theology, and became renowned as a defender of
orthodoxy. During a journey in Khwarizm and Mawara'l-nahr he preached
both in Persian and Arabic against the sects of Islam. After this tour
he returned to his native city, but settled later in Herat, where he
died. His dogmatic positions may be seen from his work _Kitab
ul-Muhassal_, which is analysed by Schmölders in his _Essai sur les
écoles philosophiques chez les Arabes_ (Paris, 1842). Extracts from his
_History of the Dynasties_ were published by Jourdain in the _Fundgruben
des Orients_ (vol. v.), and by D.R. Heinzius (St Petersburg, 1828). His
greatest work is the _Mafatih ul-Ghaib_ ("The Keys of Mystery"), an
extensive commentary on the Koran published at Cairo (8 vols., 1890) and
elsewhere; it is specially full in its exposition of Ash'arite theology
and its use of early and late Mu'tazilite writings.

  For an account of his life see F. Wüstenfeld's _Geschichte der
  arabischen Ärzte_, No. 200 (Göttingen, 1840); for a list of his works
  cf. C. Brockelmann's _Gesch. der arabischen Literatur_, vol. 1
  (Weimar, 1898), pp. 506 ff. An account of his teaching is given by M.
  Schreiner in the _Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen
  Gesellschaft_ (vol. 52, pp. 505 ff.).     (G. W. T.)



FAKIR (from Arabic _faqir_, "poor"), a term equivalent to _Dervish_
(q.v.) or Mahommedan religious mendicant, but which has come to be
specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India. There are
two classes of these Indian Fakirs, (1) the religious orders, and (2)
the nomad rogues who infest the country. The ascetic orders resemble the
Franciscans of Christianity. The bulk lead really excellent lives in
monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while
others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers. Strict celibacy is
not enforced among them. These orders are of very ancient date, owing
their establishment to the ancient Hindu rule, followed by the
Buddhists, that each "twice-born" man should lead in the woods the life
of an ascetic. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable
beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms
from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the
villagers. As a rule they make no real pretence of leading a religious
life. They are said to number nearly a million. Many of them are known
as "Jogi," and lay claim to miraculous powers which they declare have
become theirs by the practice of abstinence and extreme austerities. The
tortures which some of these wretches will inflict upon themselves are
almost incredible. They will hold their arms over their heads until the
muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow
through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves,
drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or
hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch. Most of them are
inexpressibly filthy and verminous. Among the filthiest are the Aghoris,
who preserve the ancient cannibal ritual of the followers of Siva, eat
filth, and use a human skull as a drinking-vessel. Formerly the fakirs
were always nude and smeared with ashes; but now they are compelled to
wear some pretence of clothing. The natives do not really respect these
wandering friars, but they dread their curses.

  See John Campbell Oman, _The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India_
  (1903), and Indian Census Reports.



FALAISE, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Calvados, on the right bank of the Ante, 19 m. S. by
E. of Caen by road. Pop. (1906) 6215. The principal object of interest
is the castle, now partly in ruins, but formerly the seat of the dukes
of Normandy and the birthplace of William the Conqueror. It is situated
on a lofty crag overlooking the town, and consists of a square mass
defended by towers and flanked by a small donjon and a lofty tower added
by the English in the 15th century; the rest of the castle dates chiefly
from the 12th century. Near the castle, in the Place de la Trinité, is
an equestrian statue in bronze of William the Conqueror, to whom the
town owed its prosperity. The churches of La Trinité and St Gervais
combine the Gothic and Renaissance styles of architecture, and St
Gervais also includes Romanesque workmanship. A street passes by way of
a tunnel beneath the choir of La Trinité. Falaise has populous suburbs,
one of which, Guibray, is celebrated for its annual fair for horses,
cattle and wool, which has been held in August since the 11th century.
The town is the seat of a subprefecture and has tribunals of first
instance and commerce, a chamber of arts and manufacture, a board of
trade-arbitrators and a communal college. Tanning and important
manufactures of hosiery are carried on.

From 1417, when after a siege of forty-seven days it succumbed to Henry
V., king of England, till 1450, when it was retaken by the French,
Falaise was in the hands of the English.



FALASHAS (i.e. exiles; Ethiopic _falas_, a stranger), or "Jews of
Abyssinia," a tribe of Hamitic stock, akin to Galla, Somali and Beja,
though they profess the Jewish religion. They claim to be descended from
the ten tribes banished from the Holy Land. Another tradition assigns
them as ancestor Menelek, Solomon's alleged son by the queen of Sheba.
There is little or no physical difference between them and the typical
Abyssinians, except perhaps that their eyes are a little more oblique;
and they may certainly be regarded as Hamitic. It is uncertain when they
became Jews: one account suggests in Solomon's time; another, at the
Babylonian captivity; a third, during the 1st century of the Christian
era. That one of the earlier dates is correct seems probable from the
fact that the Falashas know nothing of either the Babylonian or
Jerusalem Talmud, make no use of phylacteries (_tefillin_), and observe
neither the feast of Purim nor the dedication of the temple. They
possess--not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in
Ethiopic (or Geez)--the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old
Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given
to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the
Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which
is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a
translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud. A copy of the Orit or Mosaic
law is kept in the holy of holies in every synagogue. Various pagan
observances are mingled in their ritual: every newly-built house is
considered uninhabitable till the blood of a sheep or fowl has been
spilt in it; a woman guilty of a breach of chastity has to undergo
purification by leaping into a flaming fire; the Sabbath has been
deified, and, as the goddess Sanbat, receives adoration and sacrifice
and is said to have ten thousand times ten thousand angels to wait on
her commands. There is a monastic system, introduced it is said in the
4th century A.D. by Aba Zebra, a pious man who retired from the world
and lived in the cave of Hoharewa, in the province of Armatshoho. The
monks must prepare all their food with their own hands, and no lay
person, male or female, may enter their houses. Celibacy is not
practised by the priests, but they are not allowed to marry a second
time, and no one is admitted into the order who has eaten bread with a
Christian, or is the son or grandson of a man thus contaminated. Belief
in the evil eye or shadow is universal, and spirit-raisers, soothsayers
and rain-doctors are in repute. Education is in the hands of the monks
and priests, and is confined to boys. Fasts, obligatory on all above
seven years of age, are held on every Monday and Thursday, on every new
moon, and at the passover (the 21st or 22nd of April). The annual
festivals are the passover, the harvest feast, the Baala Mazalat or
feast of tabernacles (during which, however, no booths are built), the
day of covenant or assembly and Abraham's day. It is believed that after
death the soul remains in a place of darkness till the third day, when
the first sacrifice for the dead is offered; prayers are read in the
synagogue for the repose of the departed, and for seven days a formal
lament takes place every morning in his house. No coffins are used, and
a stone vault is built over the corpse so that it may not come into
direct contact with the earth.

The Falashas are an industrious people, living for the most part in
villages of their own, or, if they settle in a Christian or Mahommedan
town, occupying a separate quarter. They had their own kings, who, they
pretend, were descended from David, from the 10th century until 1800,
when the royal race became extinct, and they then became subject to the
Abyssinian kingdom of Tigré. They do not mix with the Abyssinians, and
never marry women of alien religions. They are even forbidden to enter
the houses of Christians, and from such a pollution have to be purified
before entering their own houses. Polygamy is not practised; early
marriages are rare, and their morals are generally better than those of
their Christian masters. Unlike most Jews, they have no liking for
trade, but are skilled in agriculture, in the manufacture of pottery,
ironware and cloth, and are good masons. Their numbers are variously
estimated at from one hundred to one hundred and fifty thousand.

  Bibliography.--M. Flad, _Zwölf Jahre in Abyssinia_ (Basel, 1869), and
  his _Falashas of Abyssinia_, translated from the German by S.P.
  Goodhart (London, 1869); H.A. Stern, _Wanderings among the Falashas in
  Abyssinia_ (London, 1862); Joseph Halévy, _Travels in Abyssinia_
  (trans. London, 1878); Morais, "The Falashas" in _Penn Monthly_
  (Philadelphia, 1880); Cyrus Adler, "Bibliography of the Falashas" in
  _American Hebrew_ (16th of March 1894); Lewin, "Ein verlassener
  Bruderstamm," in Bloch's _Wochenschrift_ (7th February 1902), p. 85;
  J. Faitlovitch, _Notes d'un voyage chez les Falachas_ (Paris, 1905).



FALCÃO, CHRISTOVÃO DE SOUSA (? 1512-1557), Portuguese poet, came of a
noble family settled at Portalegre in the Alemtejo, which had originated
with John Falcon or Falconet, one of the Englishmen who went to Portugal
in 1386 in the suite of Philippa of Lancaster. His father, João Vaz de
Almada Falcão, was an upright public servant who had held the captaincy
of Elmina on the West African coast, but died, as he had lived, a poor
man. There is a tradition that in boyhood Christovão fell in love with a
beautiful child and rich heiress, D. Maria Brandão, and in 1526 married
her clandestinely, but parental opposition prevented the ratification of
the marriage. Family pride, it is said, drove the father of Christovão
to keep his son under strict surveillance in his own house for five
years, while the lady's parents, objecting to the youth's small means,
put her into the Cistercian convent of Lorvão, and there endeavoured to
wean her heart from him by the accusation that he coveted her fortune
more than her person. Their arguments and the promise of a good match
ultimately prevailed, and in 1534 D. Maria left the convent to marry D.
Luis de Silva, captain of Tangier, while the broken-hearted Christovão
told his sad story in some beautiful lyrics and particularly in the
eclogue _Chrisfal_. He had been the disciple and friend of the poets
Bernardim Ribeiro and Sá de Miranda, and when his great disappointment
came, Falcão laid aside poetry and entered on a diplomatic career. There
is documentary evidence that he was employed at the Portuguese embassy
in Rome in 1542, but he soon returned to Portugal, and we find him at
court again in 1548 and 1551. The date of his death, as of his birth, is
uncertain. Such is the story accepted by Dr Theophilo Braga, the
historian of Portuguese literature, but Senhor Guimarães shows that the
first part is doubtful, and, putting aside the testimony of a
contemporary and grave writer, Diogo do Couto, he even denies the title
of poet to Christovão Falcão, arguing from internal and other evidence
that _Chrisfal_ is the work of Bernardim Ribeiro; his destructive
criticism is, however, stronger than his constructive work. The eclogue,
with its 104 verses, is the very poem of _saudade_, and its simple,
direct language and chaste and tender feeling, enshrined in exquisitely
sounding verses, has won for its author lasting fame and a unique
position in Portuguese literature. Its influence on later poets has been
very considerable, and Camoens used several of the verses as proverbs.

  The poetical works of Christovão Falcão were published anonymously,
  owing, it is supposed, to their personal nature and allusions, and,
  in part or in whole, they have been often reprinted. There is a modern
  critical edition of _Chrisfal_ and a _Carta_ (letter) by A. Epiphanio
  da Silva Dias under the title _Obras de Christovão Falcão_ (Oporto,
  1893), and one of the _Cantigas_ and _Esparsas_ by the same scholar
  appeared in the _Revista Lusitana_, vol. 4, pp. 142-179 (Lisbon,
  1896), under the name _Fragmento de um Cancioneiro do Seculo XVI_. See
  _Bernardim Ribeiro e o Bucolismo_, by Dr T. Braga (Oporto, 1897), and
  _Bernardim Ribeiro_ (_O Poeta Crisfal_), by Delfim Guimarães (Lisbon,
  1908).     (E. Pr.)



FALCK, ANTON REINHARD (1777-1843), Dutch statesman, was born at Utrecht
on the 19th of March 1777. He studied at the university of Leiden, and
entered the Dutch diplomatic service, being appointed to the legation at
Madrid. Under King Louis Napoleon he was secretary-general for foreign
affairs, but resigned office on the annexation of the Batavian republic
to France. He took a leading part in the revolt of 1813 against French
domination, and had a considerable share in the organization of the new
kingdom of the Netherlands. As minister of education under William I. he
reorganized the universities of Ghent, Louvain and Liége and the Royal
Academy of Brussels. Side by side with his activities in education he
directed the departments of trade and the colonies. Falck was called in
Holland the king's good genius, but William I. presently tired of his
counsels and he was superseded by Van Maanen. He was ambassador in
London when the disturbances of 1830 convinced him of the necessity of
the separation of Belgium from Holland. He consequently resigned his
post and lived in close retirement until 1839, when he became the first
Dutch minister at the Belgian court. He died at Brussels on the 16th of
March 1843. Besides some historical works he left a correspondence of
considerable political interest, printed in _Brieven van A.R. Falck_,
1795-1843 (2nd ed. The Hague, 1861), and _Ambtsbrieven van A.R. Falck_
(ibid. 1878).



FALCÓN, the most northern state of Venezuela, with an extensive coast
line on the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Venezuela. Pop. (1905 est.)
173,968. It lies between the Caribbean on the N. and the state of Lara
on the S., with Zulia and the Gulf of Venezuela on the W. Its surface is
much broken by irregular ranges of low mountains, and extensive areas on
the coast are sandy plains and tropical swamps. The climate is hot, but,
being tempered by the trade winds, is not considered unhealthy except in
the swampy districts. The state is sparsely settled and has no large
towns, its capital, Coro, being important chiefly because of its
history, and as the entrepôt for an extensive inland district. The only
port in the state is La Vela de Coro, on a small bay of the same name, 7
m. E. of the capital, with which it is connected by railway.



FALCON (Lat. _Falco_;[1] Fr. _Faucon_; Teutonic, _Falk_ or _Valken_), a
word now restricted to the high-couraged and long-winged birds of prey
which take their quarry as it moves; but formerly it had a very
different meaning, being by the naturalists of the 18th and even of the
19th century extended to a great number of birds comprised in the genus
_Falco_ of Linnaeus and writers of his day,[2] while, on the other hand,
by falconers, it was, and still is, technically limited to the _female_
of the birds employed by them in their vocation (see FALCONRY), whether
"long-winged" and therefore "noble," or "short-winged" and "ignoble."

According to modern usage, the majority of the falcons, in the sense
first given, may be separated into _five_ very distinct groups: (1) the
falcons pure and simple (_Falco_ proper); (2) the large northern falcons
(_Hierofalco_, Cuvier); (3) the "desert falcons" (_Gennaea_, Kaup); (4)
the merlins (_Aesalon_, Kaup); and (5) the hobbies (_Hypotriorchis_,
Boie). A sixth group, the kestrels (_Tinnunculus_, Vieillot), is often
added. This, however, appears to have been justifiably reckoned a
distinct genus.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Peregrine Falcon.]

The typical falcon is by common consent allowed to be that almost
cosmopolitan species to which unfortunately the English epithet
"peregrine" (i.e. strange or wandering) has been attached. It is the
_Falco peregrinus_ of Tunstall (1771) and of most recent ornithologists,
though some prefer the specific name _communis_ applied by J.F. Gmelin a
few years later (1788) to a bird which, if his diagnosis be correct,
could not have been a true falcon at all, since it had yellow irides--a
colour never met with in the eyes of any bird now called by naturalists
a "falcon." This species inhabits suitable localities throughout the
greater part of the globe, though examples from North America have by
some received specific recognition as _F. anatum_ (the "duck-hawk"), and
those from Australia have been described as distinct under the name of
_F. melanogenys_. Here, as in so many other cases, it is almost
impossible to decide as to which forms should, and which should not, be
accounted merely local races. In size not surpassing a raven, this
falcon (fig. 1) is perhaps the most powerful bird of prey for its bulk
that flies, and its courage is not less than its power. It is the
species, in Europe, most commonly trained for the sport of hawking (see
FALCONRY). Volumes have been written upon it, and to attempt a complete
account of it is, within the limits now available, impossible. The
plumage of the adult is generally blackish-blue above, and white, with a
more or less deep cream-coloured tinge, beneath--the lower parts, except
the chin and throat, being barred transversely with black, while a black
patch extends from the bill to the ear-coverts, and descends on either
side beneath the mandible. The young have the upper parts deep
blackish-brown, and the lower white, more or less strongly tinged with
ochraceous-brown, and striped longitudinally with blackish-brown. From
Port Kennedy, the most northern part of the American continent, to
Tasmania, and from the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk to Mendoza in the
Argentine territory, there is scarcely a country in which this falcon
has not been found. Specimens have been received from the Cape of Good
Hope, and it is only a question of the technical differentiation of
species whether it does not extend to Cape Horn. Fearless as it is, and
adapting itself to almost every circumstance, it will form its eyry
equally on the sea-washed cliffs, the craggy mountains, or (though more
rarely) the drier spots of a marsh in the northern hemisphere, as on
trees (says H. Schlegel) in the forests of Java or the waterless ravines
of Australia. In the United Kingdom it was formerly very common, and
hardly a high rock from the Shetlands to the Isle of Wight but had a
pair as its tenants. But the British gamekeeper has long held the
mistaken faith that it is his worst foe, and the number of pairs now
allowed to rear their brood unmolested in the British Islands is very
small. Yet its utility to the game-preserver, by destroying every one of
his most precious wards that shows any sign of infirmity, can hardly be
questioned by reason, and G.E. Freeman (_Falconry_) has earnestly urged
its claims to protection.[3] Nearly allied to this falcon are several
species, such as _F. barbarus_ of Mauretania, _F. minor_ of South
Africa, the Asiatic _F. babylonicus_, _F. peregrinator_ of India (the
shaheen), and perhaps _F. cassini_ of South America, with some others.

Next to the typical falcons comes a group known as the "great northern"
falcons (_Hierofalco_). Of these the most remarkable is the gyrfalcon
(_F. gyrfalco_), whose home is in the Scandinavian mountains, though the
young are yearly visitants to the plains of Holland and Germany. In
plumage it very much resembles _F. peregrinus_, but its flanks have
generally a bluer tinge, and its superiority in size is at once
manifest. Nearly allied to it is the Icelander (_F. islandus_), which
externally differs in its paler colouring and in almost entirely wanting
the black mandibular patch. Its proportions, however, differ a good
deal, its body being elongated. Its country is shown by its name, but it
also inhabits south Greenland, and not unfrequently makes its way to the
British Islands. Very close to this comes the Greenland falcon (_F.
candicans_), a native of north Greenland, and perhaps of other countries
within the Arctic Circle. Like the last, the Greenland falcon from time
to time occurs in the United Kingdom, but it is always to be
distinguished by wearing a plumage in which at every age the prevailing
colour is pure white. In north-eastern America these birds are replaced
by a kindred form (_F. labradorus_), first detected by Audubon and
subsequently recognized by Dresser (_Orn. Miscell._ i. 135). It is at
once distinguished by its very dark colouring, the lower parts being
occasionally almost as deeply tinted at all ages as the upper.

All the birds hitherto named possess one character in common. The darker
markings of their plumage are longitudinal before the first real moult
takes place, and for ever afterwards are transverse. In other words,
when young the markings are in the form of stripes, when old in the form
of bars. The variation of tint is very great, especially in _F.
peregrinus_; but the experience of falconers, whose business it is to
keep their birds in the very highest condition, shows that a falcon of
either of these groups if light-coloured in youth is light-coloured when
adult, and if dark when young is also dark when old-age, _after the
first moult_, making no difference in the complexion of the bird. The
next group is that of the so-called "desert falcons" (_Gennaea_),
wherein the difference just indicated does not obtain, for long as the
bird may live and often as it may moult, the original style of markings
never gives way to any other. Foremost among these are to be considered
the lanner and the saker (commonly termed _F. lanarius_ and _F. sacer_),
both well known in the palmy days of falconry, but only since about 1845
readmitted to full recognition. Both of these birds belong properly to
south-eastern Europe, North Africa and south-western Asia. They are, for
their bulk, less powerful than the members of the preceding group, and
though they may be trained to high flights are naturally captors of
humbler game. The precise number of species is very doubtful, but among
the many candidates for recognition are especially to be named the
lugger (_F. jugger_) of India, and the prairie falcon (_F. mexicanus_)
of the western plains of North America.

The systematist finds it hard to decide in what group he should place
two somewhat large Australian species (_F. hypoleucus_ and F.
_subniger_), both of which are rare in collections--the latter
especially.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Merlin.]

A small but very beautiful group comes next--the merlins[4] (_Aesalon_
of some writers, _Lithofalco_ of others). The European merlin (_F.
aesalon_) is perhaps the boldest of the _Accipitres_, not hesitating to
attack birds of twice its own size, and even on occasion threatening
human beings. Yet it readily becomes tame, if not affectionate, when
reclaimed, and its ordinary prey consists of the smaller _Passeres_. Its
"pinion of glossy blue" has become almost proverbial, and a deep ruddy
blush suffuses its lower parts; but these are characteristic only of the
male--the female maintaining very nearly the sober brown plumage she
wore when as a nestling she left her lowly cradle in the heather. Very
close to this bird comes the pigeon-hawk (_F. columbarius_) of North
America--so close, indeed, that none but an expert ornithologist can
detect the difference. The turumti of Anglo-Indians (_F. chicquera_),
and its representative from southern Africa (_F. ruficollis_), also
belong to this group, but they are considerably larger than either of
the former.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Hobby.]

Lastly, the Hobbies (_Hypotriorchis_) comprise a greater number of
forms--though how many seems to be doubtful. They are in life at once
recognizable by their bold upstanding position, and at any time by their
long wings. The type of this group is the English hobby (_F. subbuteo_),
a bird of great power of flight, chiefly shown in the capture of
insects, which form its ordinary food. It is a summer visitant to most
parts of Europe, including the British Islands, and is most wantonly and
needlessly destroyed by gamekeepers. A second European species of the
group is the beautiful _F. eleonorae_, which hardly comes farther north
than the countries bordering the Mediterranean, and, though in some
places abundant, is an extremely local bird. The largest species of this
section seems to be the Neotropical _F. femoralis_, for _F. diroleucus_
though often ranked here, is now supposed to belong to the group of
typical falcons.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Unknown to classical writers, the earliest use of this word is
    said to be by Servius Honoratus (_circa_ A.D. 390-480) in his notes
    on _Aen._ x. 145. It seems possibly to be the Latinized form of the
    Teutonic _Falk_, though _falx_ is commonly accounted its root.

  [2] The nomenclature of nearly all the older writers on this point is
    extremely confused. What many of them, even so lately as Pennant's
    time, termed the "gentle falcon" is certainly the bird we now call
    the goshawk (i.e. goose-hawk), which name itself may have been
    transferred to the _Astur palumbarius_ of modern ornithologists, from
    one of the long-winged birds of prey.

  [3] It is not to be inferred, as many writers have done, that falcons
    habitually prey upon birds in which disease has made any serious
    progress. Such birds meet their fate from the less noble _Accipitres_
    or predatory animals of many kinds. But when a bird is _first_
    affected by any disorder, its power of taking care of itself is at
    once impaired, and hence in the majority of cases it may become an
    easy victim under circumstances which would enable a perfectly sound
    bird to escape from the attack even of a falcon.

  [4] French, _Émérillon_; Icelandic, _Smirill_.



FALCONE, ANIELLO (1600-1665), Italian battle-painter, was the son of a
tradesman, and was born in Naples. He showed his artistic tendency at an
early age, received some instruction from a relative, and then studied
under Ribera (Lo Spagnoletto), of whom he ranks as the most eminent
pupil. Besides battle-pictures, large and small, taken from biblical as
well as secular history, he painted various religious subjects, which,
however, count for little in his general reputation. He became, as a
battle-painter, almost as celebrated as Borgognone (Courtois), and was
named "L'Oracolo delle Battaglie." His works have animation, variety,
truth to nature, and careful colour. Falcone was bold, generous, used to
arms, and an excellent fencer. In the insurrection of Masaniello (1647)
he resolved to be bloodily avenged for the death, at the hands of two
Spaniards, of a nephew and of a pupil in the school of art which he had
established in Naples. He and many of his scholars, including Salvator
Rosa and Carlo Coppola, formed an armed band named the _Compagnia della
Morte_ ("Company of Death"; see ROSA, SALVATOR). They scoured the
streets by day, exulting in slaughter; at night they were painters
again, and handled the brush with impetuous zeal. Peace being restored,
they had to decamp. Falcone and Rosa made off to Rome; here Borgognone
noticed the works of Falcone, and became his friend, and a French
gentleman induced him to go to France, where Louis XIV. became one of
his patrons. Ultimately Colbert obtained permission for the painter to
return to Naples, and there he died in 1665. Two of his battle-pieces
are to be seen in the Louvre and in the Naples museum; he painted a
portrait of Masaniello, and engraved a few plates. Among his principal
scholars, besides Rosa and Coppola (whose works are sometimes ascribed
to Falcone himself), were Domenico Gargiuolo (named Micco Spadaro),
Paolo Porpora and Andrea di Lione.



FALCONER, HUGH (1808-1865), British palaeontologist and botanist,
descended from an old Scottish family, was born at Forres on the 29th of
February 1808. In 1826 he graduated at Aberdeen, where he manifested a
taste for the study of natural history. He afterwards studied medicine
in the university of Edinburgh, taking the degree of M.D. in 1829;
during this period he zealously attended the botanical classes of Prof.
R. Graham (1786-1845), and those on geology by Prof. R. Jameson.
Proceeding to India in 1830 as assistant-surgeon on the Bengal
establishment of the East India Company, he made on his arrival an
examination of the fossil bones from Ava in the possession of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal, and his description of the collection,
published soon afterwards, gave him a recognized position among the
scientists of India. Early in 1831 he was appointed to the army station
at Meerut, in the Northwestern Provinces, but in the same year he was
asked to officiate as superintendent of the botanic garden of
Saharanpur, during the ill-health and absence of Dr J.F. Royle; and in
1832 he succeeded to this post. He was thus placed in a district that
proved to be rich in palaeontological remains; and he set to work to
investigate its natural history and geology. In 1834 he published a
geological description of the Siwalik hills, in the Tertiary strata of
which he had in 1831 discovered bones of crocodiles, tortoises and other
animals; and subsequently, with conjoint labourers, he brought to light
a sub-tropical fossil fauna of unexampled extent and richness, including
remains of _Mastodon_, the colossal ruminant _Sivatherium_, and the
enormous tortoise _Colossochelys Atlas_. For these valuable discoveries
he and Captain (afterwards Sir Proby T.) Cautley (1802-1871) received in
1837 the Wollaston medal in duplicate from the Geological Society of
London. In 1834 Falconer was appointed to inquire into the fitness of
India for the growth of the tea-plant, and it was on his recommendation
that it was introduced into that country.

He was compelled by illness to leave India in 1842, and during his stay
in England he occupied himself with the classification and arrangement
of the Indian fossils presented to the British Museum and East India
House, chiefly by himself and Sir Proby T. Cautley. He then set to work
to edit the great memoir by Cautley and himself, entitled _Fauna Antiqua
Sivalensis_, of which Part I. text was issued in 1846, and a series of
107 plates during the years 1846-1849. Unfortunately the work, owing
partly to Dr Falconer's absence from England and partly to ill-health,
was never completed. He was elected F.R.S. in 1845. In 1847 he was
appointed superintendent of the Calcutta botanical garden, and professor
of botany in the medical college; and on entering on his duties in the
following year he was at once employed by the Indian government and the
Agricultural and Horticultural Society as their adviser on all matters
connected with the vegetable products of India. He prepared an important
report on the teak forests of Tenasserim, and this was the means of
saving them from destruction by reckless felling; and through his
recommendation the cultivation of the cinchona bark was introduced into
the Indian empire. Being compelled by the state of his health to leave
India in 1855, he spent the remainder of his life chiefly in examining
fossil species in England and the Continent corresponding to those which
he had discovered in India, notably the species of mastodon, elephant
and rhinoceros; he also described some new mammalia from the Purbeck
strata, and he reported on the bone-caves of Sicily, Gibraltar, Gower
and Brixham. In the course of his researches he became interested in the
question of the antiquity of the human race, and actually commenced a
work on "Primeval Man," which, however, he did not live to finish. He
died on the 31st of January 1865. Shortly after his death a committee
was formed for the promotion of a "Falconer Memorial." This took the
shape of a marble bust, which was placed in the rooms of the Royal
Society of London, and of a Falconer scholarship of the annual value of
£100, open for competition to graduates in science or medicine of the
university of Edinburgh.

  Dr Falconer's botanical notes, with 450 coloured drawings of Kashmir
  and Indian plants, have been deposited in the library at Kew Gardens,
  and his _Palaeontological Memoirs and Notes_, comprising all his
  papers read before learned societies, have been edited, with a
  biographical sketch, by Charles Murchison, M.D. (London, 1868). Many
  reminiscences of Dr Falconer, and a portrait of him, were published by
  his niece, Grace, Lady Prestwich, in her _Essays descriptive and
  biographical_ (1901).



FALCONER, WILLIAM (1732-1760), British poet, was born in Edinburgh on
the 11th of February 1732. His father was a wig-maker, and carried on
business in one of the small shops with wooden fronts at the Netherbow
Port, an antique castellated structure which remained till 1764,
dividing High Street from the Canongate. The old man became bankrupt,
then tried business as a grocer, and finally died in extreme poverty.
William, the son, having received a scanty education, was put to sea. He
served on board a Leith merchant vessel, and in his eighteenth year
obtained the appointment of second mate of the "Britannia," a vessel
employed in the Levant trade, and sailed from Alexandria for Venice. The
"Britannia" was overtaken by a dreadful storm off Cape Colonna and was
wrecked, only three of the crew being saved. Falconer was happily one of
the three, and the incidents of the voyage and its disastrous
termination formed the subject of his poem of _The Shipwreck_ (1762).
Meanwhile, on his return to England, Falconer, in his nineteenth year,
printed at Edinburgh an elegy on Frederick, prince of Wales, and
afterwards contributed short pieces to the _Gentleman's Magazine_. Some
of these descriptive and lyrical effusions possess merit. The fine naval
song of "The Storm" ("Cease, rude Boreas"), reputed to be by George
Alexander Stevens, the dramatic writer and lecturer, has been ascribed
to Falconer, but apparently on no authority. The duke of York, to whom
_The Shipwreck_ had been dedicated, advised Falconer to enter the royal
navy, and before the end of 1762 the poet-sailor was rated as a
midshipman on board the "Royal George." But as this ship was paid off at
the peace of 1763, Falconer received an appointment as purser of the
"Glory" frigate, a situation which he held until that vessel was laid up
on ordinary at Chatham. In 1764 he published a new and enlarged edition
of _The Shipwreck_, and in the same year a rhymed political tirade
against John Wilkes and Charles Churchill, entitled _The Demagogue_. In
1769 appeared his _Universal Marine Dictionary_, in which _retreat_ is
defined as a French manoeuvre, "not properly a term of the British
marine." While engaged on this dictionary, J. Murray, a bookseller in
Fleet Street, father of Byron's munificent publisher and correspondent,
wished him to join him as a partner in business. The poet declined the
offer, and became purser of the "Aurora" frigate, which had been
commissioned to carry out to India certain supervisors or
superintendents of the East India Company. Besides his nomination as
purser, Falconer was promised the post of private secretary to the
commissioners. Before sailing he published a third edition of his
_Shipwreck_, which had again undergone "correction," but not
improvement. The poet sailed in the "Aurora" from Spithead on the 20th
of September 1769. The vessel arrived safely at the Cape of Good Hope,
and left on the 27th of December. She was never more heard of, having,
as is supposed, foundered at sea. _The Shipwreck_, the poem with which
Falconer's name is connected, had a great reputation at one time, but
the fine passages which pleased the earlier critics have not saved it
from general oblivion.

  See his _Poetical Works_ in the "Aldine Edition" (1836), with a life
  by J. Mitford.



FALCONET, ÉTIENNE MAURICE (1716-1791), French sculptor, was born in
Paris. His parents were poor, and he was at first apprenticed to a
carpenter, but some of his clay-figures, with the making of which he
occupied his leisure hours, attracted the notice of the sculptor
Lemoine, who made him his pupil. He found time to study Greek and Latin,
and also wrote several _brochures_ on art. His artistic productions are
characterized by the same defects as his writings, for though
manifesting considerable cleverness and some power of imagination, they
display in many cases a false and fantastic taste, the result, most
probably, of an excessive striving after originality. One of his most
successful statues was one of Milo of Crotona, which secured his
admission to the membership of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1754. At the
invitation of the empress Catherine he went in 1766 to St Petersburg,
where he executed a colossal statue of Peter the Great in bronze. In
1788 he became director of the French Academy of Painting. Many of
Falconet's works, being placed in churches, were destroyed at the time
of the French Revolution. His "_Nymphe descendant au bain_" is in the
Louvre.

  Among his writings are _Reflexions sur la sculpture_ (Paris, 1768),
  and _Observations sur la statue de Marc-Aurèle_ (Paris, 1771). The
  whole were collected under the title of _Oeuvres littéraires_ (6
  vols., Lausanne, 1781-1782; 3 vols., Paris, 1787).



FALCONRY (Fr. _fauconnerie_, from Late Lat. _falco_, falcon), the art of
employing falcons and hawks in the chase, often termed _Hawking_.
Falconry was for many ages one of the principal sports of the richer
classes, and, since many more efficacious methods and appliances for the
capture of game undoubtedly existed, it is probable that it has always
been carried on as a pure sport. The antiquity of falconry is very
great. There appears to be little doubt that it was practised in Asia at
a very remote period, for which we have the concurrent testimony of
various Chinese and Japanese works, some of the latter being most
quaintly and yet spiritedly illustrated. It appears to have been known
in China some 2000 years B.C., and the records of a king Wen Wang, who
reigned over a province of that country 689 B.C., prove that the art was
at that time in very high favour. In Japan it appears to have been known
at least 600 years B.C., and probably at an equally early date in India,
Arabia, Persia and Syria. Sir A.H. Layard, in his _Nineveh and Babylon_,
considered that in a bas-relief found by him in the ruins of Khorsabad
"there appeared to be a falconer bearing a hawk on his wrist," from
which it would appear to have been known there some 1700 years B.C. In
all the above-mentioned countries of Asia it is practised at the present
day.

Little is known of the early history of falconry in Africa, but from
very ancient Egyptian carvings and drawings it seems to have been known
there many ages ago. It was probably also in vogue in the countries of
Morocco, Oran, Algiers, Tunis and Egypt, at the same time as in Europe.
The older writers on falconry, English and continental, often mention
Barbary and Tunisian falcons. It is still practised in Egypt.

Perhaps the oldest records of falconry in Europe are supplied by the
writings of Pliny, Aristotle and Martial. Although their notices of the
sport are slight and somewhat vague, yet they are quite sufficient to
show clearly that it was practised in their days--between the years 384
B.C. and A.D. 40. It was probably introduced into England from the
continent about A.D. 860, and from that time down to the middle of the
17th century falconry was followed with an ardour that perhaps no
English sport has ever called forth, not even fox-hunting. Stringent
laws and enactments, notably in the reigns of William the Conqueror,
Edward III., Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, were passed from time to time in
its interest. Falcons and hawks were allotted to degrees and orders of
men according to rank and station--for instance, to the emperor the
eagle and vulture, to royalty the jerfalcons, to an earl the peregrine,
to a yeoman the goshawk, to a priest the sparrow-hawk, and to a knave or
servant the useless kestrel. The writings of Shakespeare furnish ample
testimony to the high and universal estimation in which it was held in
his days. About the middle of the 17th century falconry began to decline
in England, to revive somewhat at the Restoration. It never, however,
completely recovered its former favour, a variety of causes operating
against it, such as enclosure of waste lands, agricultural improvements,
and the introduction of fire-arms into the sporting field, till it fell,
as a national sport, almost into oblivion. Yet it has never been even
temporarily extinct, and it is successfully practised even at the
present day.

In Europe the game or "quarry" at which hawks are flown consists of
grouse (confined to the British Isles), black-game, pheasants,
partridges, quails, landrails, ducks, teal, woodcocks, snipes, herons,
rooks, crows, gulls, magpies, jays, blackbirds, thrushes, larks, hares
and rabbits. In former days geese, cranes, kites, ravens and bustards
were also flown at. Old German works make much mention of the use of the
Iceland falcon for taking the great bustard, a flight scarcely alluded
to by English writers. In Asia the list of quarry is longer, and, in
addition to all the foregoing, or their Asiatic representatives, various
kinds of bustards, sand grouse, storks, ibises, spoonbills, pea-fowl,
jungle-fowl, kites, vultures and gazelles are captured by trained hawks.
In Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, and among the nomad tribes of central
Asia, the sport still flourishes; and though some late accounts are not
satisfactory either to the falconer or the naturalist, yet they leave no
doubt that a species of eagle is still trained in those regions to take
large game, as antelopes and wolves. Mr Atkinson, in his account of his
travels in the country of the Amur, makes particular mention of the
sport, as does also Mr Shaw in his work on Yarkand; and in a letter from
the Yarkand embassy, under Mr Forsyth, C.B., dated Camp near Yarkand,
Nov. 27, 1873, the following passage occurs:--"Hawking appears also to
be a favourite amusement, the golden eagle taking the place of the
falcon or hawk. This novel sport seemed very successful." It is
questionable whether the bird here spoken of is the golden eagle. In
Africa gazelles are taken, and also partridges and wild-fowl.

The hawks used in England are the three great northern falcons, viz. the
Greenland, Iceland and Norway falcons, the peregrine falcon, the hobby,
the merlin, the goshawk and the sparrow-hawk. In former days the saker,
the lanner and the Barbary or Tunisian falcon were also employed. (See
FALCON.)

Of the foregoing the easiest to keep, most efficient in the field, and
most suitable for general use are the peregrine falcon and the goshawk.

In all hawks, the female is larger and more powerful than the male.

Hawks are divided by falconers all over the world into two great
classes. The first class comprises "falcons," i.e. "long-winged hawks,"
or "hawks of the lure," distinguished by Eastern falconers as "dark-eyed
hawks." In these the wings are pointed, the second feather in the wing
is the longest, and the iris is of a deep, dark-brown hue. Merlins must,
however, be excepted; and here it would seem that the Eastern
distinction is the better, for though merlins are much more falcons than
they are hawks, they differ from falcons in having the third feather in
the wing the longest, while they are certainly "dark-eyed hawks."

The second class is that of "hawks," i.e. "short-winged hawks," or
"hawks of the fist," called by Eastern falconers "yellow (or rose) eyed
hawks." In these the wings are rounded, the fourth feather is the
longest in the wing, and the iris is yellow, orange or deep-orange.

The following glossary of the principal terms used in falconry may
assist the reader in perusing this notice of the practice of the art.
Useless or obsolete terms are omitted:--

  _Austringan._--A falconer.

  _Bate._--A hawk is said to "bate" when she flutters off from the fist,
  perch or block, whether from wildness, or for exercise, or in the
  attempt to chase.

  _Bewits._--Straps of leather by which the bells are fastened to a
  hawk's legs.

  _Bind._--A hawk is said to "bind" when she seizes a bird in the air
  and clings to it.

  _Block._--The conical piece of wood, of the form of an inverted
  flower-pot, used for hawks to sit upon; for a peregrine it should be
  about 10 to 12 in. high, 5 to 6 in diameter at top, and 8 to 9 in
  diameter at base.

  _Brail._--A thong of soft leather used to secure, when desirable, the
  wing of a hawk. It has a slit to admit the pinion joint, and the ends
  are tied together.

  _Cadge._--The wooden frame on which hawks, when numerous, are carried
  to the field.

  _Cadger._--The person who carries the cadge.

  _Calling off._--Luring a hawk (see LURE) from the hand of an
  assistant.

  _Carry._--A hawk is said to "carry" when she flies away with the
  quarry on the approach of the falconer.

  _Cast._--Two hawks which may be used for flying together are called a
  "cast," not necessarily a pair.

  _Casting._--The oblong or egg-shaped ball, consisting of feathers,
  bones, &c., which all hawks (and insectivorous birds) throw up after
  the nutritious part of their food has been digested. Also the fur or
  feathers given them to assist the process.

  _Cere._--The naked wax-like skin above the beak.

  _Check._--A hawk is said to fly at "check" when she flies at a bird
  other than the intended object of pursuit.

  _Clutching._--Taking the quarry in the feet as the short-winged hawks
  do. Falcons occasionally "clutch."

  _Come to._--A hawk is said to "come to" when she begins to get tame.

  _Coping._--Cutting the beak or talons of a hawk.

  _Crab._--To fight.

  _Creance._--A long line or string.

  _Crop, to put away._--A hawk is said to "put away her crop" when the
  food passes out of the crop into the stomach.

  _Deck feathers._--The two centre tail-feathers.

  _Eyas._--A hawk which has been brought up from the nest (nyas, from
  Fr. _niais_).

  _Eyry._--The nest of a hawk.

  _Foot._--A hawk is said to "foot" well or to be a "good footer" when
  she is successful in killing. Many hawks are very fine fliers without
  being "good footers."

  _Frounce._--A disease in the mouth and throat of hawks.

  _Get in._--To go up to a hawk when she has killed her quarry.

  _Hack._--The state of partial liberty in which young hawks must always
  at first be kept.

  _Haggard._--A wild-caught hawk in the adult plumage.

  _Hood._--(See fig.)

  _Hoodshy._--A hawk is said to be "hoodshy" when she is afraid of, or
  resists, having her hood put on.

  _Hunger trace._--A mark, and a defect, in the tail feathers, denoting
  a weak point; generally due to temporary starvation as a nestling.

  _Imping._--The process of mending broken feathers is called "imping."
  (See fig.)

  _Imping needle._--A piece of tough soft iron wire from about 1½ to 2½
  in. long, rough filed so as to be three-sided and tapering from the
  middle to the ends. (See fig.)

  _Intermewed._--A hawk moulted in confinement is said to be
  "intermewed."

  _Jack._--Mate of the merlin.

  _Jerkin._--Mate of the jerfalcon.

  _Jesses._--Strips of light but very tough leather, some 6 to 8 in.
  long, which always remain on a hawk's legs--one on each leg. (See
  fig.)

  _Jonk._--To sleep.

  _Leash._--A strong leathern thong, some 2½ or 3 ft. long, with a knot
  or button at one end, used to secure a hawk. (See fig.)

  _Lure._--The instrument used for calling long-winged hawks--a dead
  pigeon, or an artificial lure made of leather and feathers or wings of
  birds, tied to a string, with meat attached to it.

  _Mail._--The breast feathers.

  _Make hawk._--A hawk is called a "make hawk" when, as a thoroughly
  trained and steady hawk, she is flown with young ones to teach them
  their work.

  _Man a hawk._--To tame a hawk and accustom her to strangers.

  [Illustration: Implements used in Falconry.

    1. Hood.

    2. Back view of hood, showing braces a, a, b, b; by drawing the
    braces b, b, the hood, now open, is closed.

    3. Rufter hood.

    4. Imping-needle.

    5. Jess; d is the space for the hawk's leg; the point and slit a, a
    are brought round the leg, and passed through slit b, after which
    the point c and slit c, and also the whole remaining length of jess,
    are pulled through slits a and b; c is the slit to which the upper
    ring of swivel is attached.

    6. Hawk's leg with bell a, bewit b, jess c.

    7. Jesses, swivel and leash.

    8. Portion of first wing-feather of male peregrine falcon,
    "tiercel," half natural size, in process of imping; a, the living
    hawk's feather; b, piece supplied from another tiercel, with the
    imping needle c pushed half its length into it and ready to be
    pushed home into the living bird's feather.]

  _Mantle._--A hawk is said to "mantle" when she stretches out a leg and
  a wing simultaneously, a common action of hawks when at ease; also
  when she spreads out her wings and feathers to hide any quarry or food
  she may have seized from another hawk, or from man. In the last case
  it is a fault.

  _Mew._--A hawk is said to "mew" when she moults. The place where a
  hawk was kept to moult was in olden times called her "mew." Buildings
  where establishments of hawks were kept were called "mews."

  _Musket._--Male of the sparrow-hawk.

  _Mutes (mutings)._--Excrement of hawk.

  _Pannel._--The stomach of a hawk, corresponding with the gizzard of a
  fowl, is called her pannel. In it the casting is formed.

  _Passage._--The line herons take over a tract of country on their way
  to and from the heronry when procuring food in the breeding season.

  _Passage hawks._--Hawks captured when on their passage or migration.

  _Pelt._--The dead body of any quarry the hawk has killed.

  _Pitch._--The height to which a hawk, when waiting for game to be
  flushed, rises in the air.

  _Plume._--A hawk is said to "plume" a bird when she pulls off the
  feathers.

  _Point._--A hawk "makes her point" when she rises in the air over the
  spot where quarry has saved itself from capture by dashing into a
  hedge, or has otherwise secreted itself.

  _Pounces._--A hawk's claws.

  _Pull through the hood._--A hawk is said to pull through the hood when
  she eats with it on.

  _Put in._--A bird is said to "put in" when it saves itself from the
  hawk by dashing into covert or other place of security.

  _Quarry._--The bird or beast flown at.

  _Rake out._--A hawk is said to "rake out" when she flies, while
  "waiting on" (see WAIT ON), too far and wide from her master.

  _Ramage._--Wild.

  Red hawk.--Hawks of the first year, in the young plumage, are called
  "red hawks."

  _Ringing._--A bird is said to "ring" when it rises spirally in the
  air.

  _Rufter hood._--An easy fitting hood, not, however, convenient for
  hooding and unhooding--used only for hawks when first captured. (See
  fig.)

  _Sails._--The wings of a hawk.

  _Seeling._--Closing the eyes by a fine thread drawn through the lid of
  each eye, the threads being then twisted together above the head--a
  practice long disused in England.

  _Serving a hawk._--Driving out quarry which has taken refuge, or has
  "put in."

  _Stoop._--The hawk's rapid plunge upon the quarry.

  _Take the air._--A bird is said to "take the air" when it seeks to
  escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon.

  _Tiercel._--The male of various falcons, particularly of the
  peregrine, also _tarcell_, _tassell_ or _tercel_; the term is also
  applied to the male of the goshawk.

  _Trussing._--A hawk is said to "truss" a bird when she catches it in
  the air, and comes to the ground with it in her talons: this term is
  not applied to large quarry. (See BIND.)

  _Varvels._--Small rings, generally of silver, fastened to the end of
  the jesses, and engraved with the owner's name.

  _Wait on._--A hawk is said to "wait on" when she flies above her
  master waiting till game is sprung.

  _Weathering._--Hawks are "weathered" by being placed unhooded in the
  open air. Passage hawks which are not sufficiently reclaimed to be
  left out by themselves unhooded on blocks are "weathered" by being put
  out for an hour or two under the falconer's eye.

  _Yarak._--An Eastern term, generally applied to short-winged hawks.
  When a hawk is keen, and in hunting condition, she is said to be "in
  yarak."

The training of hawks affords much scope for judgment, experience and
skill on the part of the falconer, who must carefully observe the temper
and disposition as well as the constitution of each bird. It is through
the appetite principally that hawks, like most wild animals, are tamed;
but to fit them for use in the field much patience, gentleness and care
must be used. Slovenly taming necessitates starving, and low condition
and weakness are the result. The aim of the falconer must be to have his
hawks always keen, and the appetite when they are brought into the field
should be such as would induce the bird in a state of nature to put
forth its full powers to obtain its food, with, as near as possible, a
corresponding condition as to flesh. The following is an outline of the
process of training hawks, beginning with the management of a
wild-caught peregrine falcon. When first taken, a rufter hood should be
put on her head, and she must be furnished with jesses, swivel, leash
and bell. A thick glove or rather gauntlet must be worn on the left hand
(Eastern falconers always carry a hawk on the right), and she must be
carried about as much as possible, late into the night, every day, being
constantly stroked with a bird's wing or feather, very lightly at first.
At night she should be tied to a perch in a room with the window
darkened, so that no light can enter in the morning. The perch should be
a padded pole placed across the room, about 4½ ft. from the ground, with
a canvas screen underneath. She will easily be induced to feed in most
cases by drawing a piece of beefsteak over her feet, brushing her legs
at the time with a wing, and now and then, as she snaps, slipping a
morsel into her mouth. Care must be taken to make a peculiar sound with
the lips or tongue, or to use a low whistle as she is in the act of
swallowing; she will very soon learn to associate this sound with
feeding, and it will be found that directly she hears it, she will gripe
with her talons, and bend down to feel for food. When the falconer
perceives this and other signs of her "coming to," that she no longer
starts at the voice or touch, and steps quietly up from the perch when
the hand is placed under her feet, it will be time to change her rufter
hood for the ordinary hood. This latter should be very carefully
chosen--an easy fitting one, in which the braces draw closely and yet
easily and without jerking. An old one previously worn is to be
recommended. The hawk should be taken into a very dark room--one
absolutely dark is best--and the change should be made if possible in
total darkness. After this she must be brought to feed with her hood
off; at first she must be fed every day in a darkened room, a gleam of
light being admitted. The first day, the hawk having seized the food and
begun to pull at it freely, the hood must be gently slipped off, and
after she has eaten a moderate quantity, it must be replaced as slowly
and gently as possible, and she should be allowed to finish her meal
through the hood. Next day the hood may be twice removed, and so on; day
by day the practice should be continued, and more light gradually
admitted, until the hawk will feed freely in broad daylight, and suffer
the hood to be taken off and replaced without opposition. Next she must
be accustomed to see and feed in the presence of strangers and dogs, &c.
A good plan is to carry her in the streets of a town at night, at first
where the gas-light is not strong, and where persons passing by are few,
unhooding and hooding her from time to time, but not letting her get
frightened. Up to this time she should be fed on lean beefsteak with no
castings, but as soon as she is tolerably tame and submits well to the
hood, she must occasionally be fed with pigeons and other birds. This
should be done not later than 3 or 4 P.M., and when she is placed on her
perch for the night in the dark room, she must be unhooded and left so,
of course being carefully tied up. The falconer should enter the room
about 7 or 8 A.M. next day, admitting as little light as possible, or
using a candle. He should first observe if she has thrown her casting;
if so, he will at once take her to the fist, giving her a bite of food,
and re-hood her. If her casting is not thrown it is better for him to
retire, leaving the room quite dark, and come in again later. She must
now be taught to know the voice--the shout that is used to call her in
the field--and to jump to the fist for food, the voice being used every
time she is fed. When she comes freely to the fist she must be made
acquainted with the lure. Kneeling down with the hawk on his fist, and
gently unhooding her, the falconer casts out a lure, which may be either
a dead pigeon or an artificial lure garnished with beefsteak tied to a
string, to a distance of a couple or three feet in front of her. When
she jumps down to it, she should be allowed to eat a little on it--the
voice being used--the while receiving morsels from the falconer's hand;
and before her meal is finished she must be taken off to the hand, being
induced to forsake the lure for the hand by a tempting piece of meat.
This treatment will help to check her inclination hereafter to carry her
quarry. This lesson is to be continued till the falcon feeds very boldly
on the lure on the ground, in the falconer's presence--till she will
suffer him to walk round her while she is feeding. All this time she
will have been held by the leash only, but in the next step a strong,
but light creance must be made fast to the leash, and an assistant
holding the hawk should unhood her, as the falconer, standing at a
distance of 5 to 10 yds., calls her by shouting and casting out the
lure. Gradually day after day the distance is increased, till the hawk
will come 30 yds. or so without hesitation; then she may be trusted to
fly to the lure at liberty, and by degrees from any distance, say 1000
yds. This accomplished, she should learn to stoop at the lure. Instead
of allowing the hawk to seize upon it as she comes up, the falconer
should snatch the lure away and let her pass by, and immediately put it
out that she may readily seize it when she turns round to look for it.
This should be done at first only once, and then progressively until she
will stoop backwards and forwards at the lure as often as desired. Next
she should be entered at her quarry. Should she be intended for rooks or
herons, two or three of these birds should be procured. One should be
given her from the hand, then one should be released close to her, and a
third at a considerable distance. If she take these keenly, she may be
flown at a wild bird. Care must, however, be taken to let her have
every possible advantage in her first flights--wind and weather, and the
position of the quarry with regard to the surrounding country, must be
considered.

Young hawks, on being received by the falconer before they can fly, must
be put into a sheltered place, such as an outhouse or shed. Their basket
or hamper should be filled with straw. A hamper is best, with the lid so
placed as to form a platform for the young hawks to come out upon to
feed. This should be fastened to a beam or prop a few feet from the
ground. The young hawks must be most plentifully fed on the best fresh
food obtainable--good beefsteak and fresh-killed birds; the falconer
when feeding them should use his voice as in luring. As they grow old
enough they will come out, and perch about the roof of their shed, by
degrees extending their flights to neighbouring buildings or trees,
never failing to come at feeding time to the place where they are fed.
Soon they will be continually on the wing, playing or fighting with one
another, and later the falconer will observe them chasing other birds,
as pigeons and rooks, which may be passing by. As soon as one fails to
come for a meal, it must be at once caught with a bow net or a snare the
first time it comes back, or it will be lost. It must be borne in mind
that the longer hawks can be left at hack the better they are likely to
be for use in the field--those hawks being always the best which have
preyed a few times for themselves before being caught. Of course there
is great risk of losing hawks when they begin to prey for themselves.
When a hawk is so caught she is said to be "taken up" from hack. She
will not require a rufter hood, but a good deal of the management
described for the passage falcon will be necessary. She must be
carefully tamed and broken to the hood in the same manner, and so taught
to know the lure; but, as might be expected, very much less difficulty
will be experienced. As soon as the eyas knows the lure sufficiently
well to come to it sharp and straight from a distance, she must be
taught to "wait on." This is effected by letting the hawk loose in an
open place, such as a down. It will be found that she will circle round
the falconer looking for the lure she has been accustomed to
see--perhaps mount a little in the air, and advantage must be taken of a
favourable moment when the hawk is at a little height, her head being
turned in towards the falconer, to let go a pigeon which she can easily
catch. When the hawk has taken two or three pigeons in this way, and
mounts immediately in expectation, in short, begins to wait on, she
should see no more pigeons, but be tried at game as soon as possible.
Young peregrines should be flown at grouse first in preference to
partridges, not only because the season commences earlier, but because,
grouse being the heavier birds, they are not so much tempted to "carry"
as with partridges.

The training of the great northern falcons, as well as that of merlins
and hobbies, is conducted much on the above principles, but the
jerfalcons (gerfalcons or gyrfalcons) will seldom wait on well, and
merlins will not do it at all.

The training of short-winged hawks is a simpler process. They must, like
falcons, be provided with jesses, swivel, leash and bell. In these hawks
a bell is sometimes fastened to the tail. Sparrow-hawks can, however,
scarcely carry a bell big enough to be of any service. The hood is
seldom used for short-winged hawks--never in the field. They must be
made as tame as possible by carriage on the fist and the society of man,
and taught to come to the fist freely when required--at first to jump to
it in a room, and then out of doors. When the goshawk comes freely and
without hesitation from short distances, she ought to be called from
long distances from the hand of an assistant, but not oftener than twice
in each meal, until she will come at least 1000 yds., on each occasion
being well rewarded with some food she likes very much, as a
fresh-killed bird, warm. When she does this freely, and endures the
presence of strangers, dogs, &c., a few bagged rabbits should be given
to her, and she will be ready to take the field. Some accustom the
goshawk to the use of the lure, for the purpose of taking her if she
will not come to the fist in the field when she has taken stand in a
tree after being baulked of her quarry, but it ought not to be necessary
to use it.

Falcons or long-winged hawks are either "flown out of the hood," i.e.
unhooded and slipped when the quarry is in sight, or they are made to
"wait on" till game is flushed. Herons and rooks are always taken by the
former method. Passage hawks are generally employed for flying at these
birds, though sometimes good eyases are quite equal to the work. For
heron-hawking a well-stocked heronry is in the first place necessary.
Next an open country which can be ridden over--over which herons are in
the constant habit of passing to and from their heronry on their fishing
excursions, or making their "passage." A heron found at his
feeding-place at a brook or pond affords no sport whatever. If there be
little water any peregrine falcon that will go straight at him will
seize him soon after he rises. It is sometimes advisable to fly a young
falcon at a heron so found, but it should not be repeated. If there be
much water the heron will neither show sport nor be captured. It is
quite a different affair when he is sighted winging his way at a height
in the air over an open tract of country free from water. Though he has
no chance whatever of competing with a falcon in straightforward flight,
the heron has large concave wings, a very light body proportionately,
and air-cells in his bones, and can rise with astonishing rapidity, more
perpendicularly, or, in other words, in smaller rings, than the falcon
can, with very little effort. As soon as he sees the approach of the
falcon, which he usually does almost directly she is cast off, he makes
play for the upper regions. Then the falcon commences to climb too to
get above him, but in a very different style. She makes very large
circles or rings, travelling at a high rate of speed, due to her
strength and weight and power of flying, till she rises above the heron.
Then she makes her attack by stooping with great force at the quarry,
sometimes falling so far below it as the blow is evaded that she cannot
spring up to the proper pitch for the next stoop, and has to make
another ring to regain her lost command over the heron, which is ever
rising, and so on--the "field" meanwhile galloping down wind in the
direction the flight is taking till she seizes the heron aloft, "binds"
to him, and both come down together. Absurd stories have been told and
pictures drawn of the heron receiving the falcon on its beak in the air.
It is, however, well known to all practical falconers that the heron has
no power or inclination to fight with a falcon in the air; so long as he
is flying he seeks safety solely from his wings. When on the ground,
however, should the falcon be deficient in skill or strength, or have
been mutilated by the coping of her beak and talons, as was sometimes
formerly done in Holland with a view to saving the heron's life, the
heron may use his dagger-like bill with dangerous effect, though it is
very rare for a falcon to be injured. It is never safe to fly the
goshawk at a heron of any description. Short-winged hawks do not
immediately kill their quarry as falcons do, nor do they seem to know
where the life lies, and seldom shift their hold once taken even to
defend themselves; and they are therefore easily stabbed by a heron.
Rooks are flown in the same manner as herons, but the flight is
generally inferior. Although rooks fly very well, they seek shelter in
trees or bushes as soon as possible.

For game-hawking eyases are generally used, though undoubtedly passage
or wild-caught hawks are to be preferred. The best game hawks we have
seen have been passage hawks, but there are difficulties attending the
use of them. It may perhaps be fairly said that it is easy to make all
passage hawks "wait on" in grand style, but until they have got over a
season or two they are very liable to be lost. Among the advantages
attending the use of eyases are the following: they are easier to obtain
and to train and keep; they also moult far better and quicker than
passage hawks, while if lost in the field they will often go home by
themselves, or remain about the spot where they were liberated.
Experience, and, we must add, some good fortune also, are requisite to
make eyases good for waiting on for game. Slight mistakes on the part of
the falconer, false points from dogs, or bad luck in serving, will cause
a young hawk to acquire bad habits, such as sitting down on the ground,
taking stand in a tree, raking out wide, skimming the ground, or lazily
flying about at no height. A good game hawk in proper flying order goes
up at once to a good pitch in the air--the higher she flies the
better--and follows her master from field to field, always ready for a
stoop when the quarry is sprung. Hawks that have been successfully
broken and judiciously worked become wonderfully clever, and soon learn
to regulate their flight by the movements of their master. Eyases were
not held in esteem by the old falconers, and it is evident from their
writings that these hawks have been very much better understood and
managed in the 19th century than in the middle ages. It is probable that
the old falconers procured their passage and wild-caught hawks with such
facility, having at the same time more scope for their use in days when
quarry was more abundant and there was more waste land than there now
is, that they did not find it necessary to trouble themselves about
eyases. Here may be quoted a few lines from one of the best of the old
writers, which may be taken as giving a fair account of the estimation
in which eyases were generally held, and from which it is evident that
the old falconers did not understand flying hawks at hack. Simon Latham,
writing in 1633, says of eyases:

  They will be verie easily brought to familiaritie with the man, not in
  the house only, but also abroad, hooded or unhooded; nay, many of them
  will be more gentle and quiet when unhooded than when hooded, for if a
  man doe but stirre or speake in their hearing, they will crie and bate
  as though they did desire to see the man. Likewise some of them being
  unhooded, when they see the man will cowre and crie, shewing thereby
  their exceeding fondness and fawning love towards him....

  ... These kind of hawks be all (for the most part) taken out of the
  nest while verie young, even in the downe, from whence they are put
  into a close house, whereas they be alwaies fed and familiarly brought
  up by the man, untill they bee able to flie, when as the summer
  approaching verie suddenly they are continued and trained up in the
  same, the weather being alwaies warm and temperate; thus they are
  still inured to familiaritie with the man, not knowing from whence
  besides to fetch their relief or sustenance. When the summer is ended
  they bee commonly put up into a house again, or else kept in some warm
  place, for they cannot endure the cold wind to blow upon them.... But
  leaving to speak of these kind of scratching hawks that I never did
  love should come too neere my fingers, and to return unto the faire
  conditioned haggard faulcon....

The author here describes with accuracy the condition of unhacked
eyases, which no modern falconer would trouble himself to keep. Many
English falconers in modern times have had eyases which have killed
grouse, ducks and other quarry in a style almost equalling that of
passage hawks. Rooks also have been most successfully flown, and some
herons on passage have been taken by eyases. No sport is to be had at
game without hawks that wait on well. Moors, downs, open country where
the hedges are low and weak are best suited to game hawking. Pointers or
setters may be used to find game, or the hawk may be let go on coming to
the ground where game is known to lie, and suffered, if an experienced
one, to "wait on" till game is flushed. However, the best plan with most
hawks, young ones especially, is to use a dog, and to let the hawk go
when the dog points, and to flush the birds as soon as the hawk is at
her pitch. It is not by any means necessary that the hawk should be near
the birds when they rise, provided she is at a good height, and that she
is watching; she will come at once with a rush out of the air at great
speed, and either cut one down with the stoop, or the bird will save
itself by putting in, when every exertion must be made, especially if
the hawk be young and inexperienced, to "serve" her as soon as possible
by driving out the bird again while she waits overhead. If this be
successfully done she is nearly certain to kill it at the second flight.
Perhaps falcons are best for grouse and tiercels for partridges.

Magpies afford much sport. Only tiercels should be used for hunting
magpies. A field is necessary--at the very least 4 or 5 runners to beat
the magpie out, and perhaps the presence of a horseman is an advantage.
Of course in open flight a magpie would be almost immediately caught by
a tiercel peregrine, and there would be no sport, but the magpie makes
up for his want of power of wing by his cunning and shiftiness; and he
is, moreover, never to be found except where he has shelter under his
lee for security from a passing peregrine. Once in a hedge or tree he
is perfectly safe from the wild falcon, but the case is otherwise when
the falconer approaches with his trained tiercel, perhaps a cast of
tiercels, waiting on in the air, with some active runners in his field.
Then driven from hedge to hedge, from one kind of shelter to another,
stooped at every instant when he shows himself ever so little away from
cover by the watchful tiercels overhead, his egg-stealing days are
brought to an end by a fatal stroke--sometimes not before the field is
pretty well exhausted with running and shouting. The magpie always
manoeuvres towards some thick wood, from which it is the aim of the
field to cut him off. At first hawks must be flown in easy country, but
when they understand their work well they will kill magpies in very
enclosed country--with a smart active field a magpie may even be pushed
through a small wood. Magpie hawking affords excellent exercise, not
only for those who run to serve the hawks, but for the hawks also; they
get a great deal of flying, and learn to hunt in company with men--any
number of people may be present. Blackbirds may be hunted with tiercels
in the same way. Woodcock afford capital sport where the country is
tolerably open. It will generally be found that after a hawk has made
one stoop at a woodcock, the cock will at first try to escape by taking
the air, and will show a very fine flight. When beaten in the air it
will try to get back to covert again, but when once a hawk has outflown
a woodcock, he is pretty sure to kill it. Hawks seem to pursue woodcock
with great keenness; something in the flight of the cock tempts them to
exertion. The laziest and most useless hawks--hawks that will scarcely
follow a slow pigeon--will do their best at woodcock, and will very
soon, if the sport is continued, be improved in their style of flying.
Snipe may be killed by first-class tiercels in favourable localities.
Wild duck and teal are only to be flown at when they can be found in
small pools or brooks at a distance from much water--where the fowl can
be suddenly flushed by men or dogs while the falcon is flying at her
pitch overhead. For duck, falcons should be used; tiercels will kill
teal well.

The merlin is used for flying at larks, and there does not seem to be
any other use to which this pretty little falcon may fairly be put. It
is very active, but far from being, as some authors have stated, the
swiftest of all hawks. Its flight is greatly inferior in speed and power
to that of the peregrine. Perhaps its diminutive size, causing it to be
soon lost to view, and a limited acquaintance with the flight of the
wild peregrine falcon, have led to the mistake.

The hobby is far swifter than the merlin, but cannot be said to be
efficient in the field; it may be trained to wait on beautifully, and
will sometimes take larks; it is very much given to the fault of
"carrying."

The three great northern falcons are not easy to procure in proper
condition for training. They are very difficult to break to the hood and
to manage in the field. They are flown, like the peregrine, at herons
and rooks, and in former days were used for kites and hares. Their style
of flight is magnificent; they are considerably swifter than the
peregrine, and are a most deadly "footers." They seem, however, to lack
somewhat of the spirit and dash of the peregrine.

For the short-winged hawks an open country is not required; indeed they
may be flown in a wood. Goshawks are flown at hares, rabbits, pheasants,
partridges and wild-fowl. Only very strong females are able to take
hares; rabbits are easy quarry for any female goshawk, and a little too
strong for the male. A good female goshawk may kill from 10 to 15
rabbits in a day, or more. For pheasants the male is to be preferred,
certainly for partridges; either sex will take duck and teal, but the
falconer must get close to them before they are flushed, or the goshawk
will stand a poor chance of killing. Rabbit hawking may be practised by
ferreting, and flying the hawk as the rabbits bolt, but care must be
taken or the hawk will kill the ferret. Where rabbits sit out on grass
or in turnip fields, a goshawk may be used with success, even in a wood
when the holes are not too near. From various causes it is impossible,
or nearly so, to have goshawks in England in the perfection to which
they are brought in the East. In India, for instance, there is a far
greater variety of quarry suited to them, and wild birds are much more
approachable; moreover, there are advantages for training which do not
exist in England. Unmolested--and scarcely noticed except perhaps by
others of his calling or tastes--the Eastern falconer carries his hawk
by day and night in the crowded bazaars, till the bird becomes perfectly
indifferent to men, horses, dogs, carriages, and, in short, becomes as
tame as the domestic animals.

The management of sparrow-hawks is much the same as that of goshawks,
but they are far more delicate than the latter. They are flown in
England at blackbirds, thrushes and other small birds; good ones will
take partridges well till the birds get too wild and strong with the
advancing season. In the East large numbers of quail are taken with
sparrow-hawks.

It is of course important that hawks from which work in the field is
expected should be kept in the highest health, and they must be
carefully fed; no bad or tainted meat must on any account be given to
them--at any rate to hawks of the species used in England. Peregrines
and the great northern falcons are best kept on beefsteak, with a
frequent change in the shape of fresh-killed pigeons and other birds.
The smaller falcons, the merlin and the hobby, require a great number of
small birds to keep them in good health for any length of time. Goshawks
should be fed like peregrines, but rats and rabbits are very good as
change of food for them. The sparrow-hawk, like the small falcons,
requires small birds. All hawks require castings frequently. It is true
that hawks will exist, and often appear to thrive, on good food without
castings, but the seeds of probable injury to their health are being
sown the whole time they are so kept. If there is difficulty in
procuring birds, and it is more convenient to feed the hawks on
beefsteak, they should frequently get the wings and heads and necks of
game and poultry. In addition to the castings which they swallow,
tearing these is good exercise for them, and biting the bones prevents
the beaks from overgrowing. Most hawks, peregrines especially, require
the bath. The end of a cask, sawn off to give a depth of about 6 in.,
makes a very good bath. Peregrines which are used for waiting on require
a bath at least twice a week. If this be neglected, they will not wait
long before going off in search of water to bathe, however hungry they
may be.

The most agreeable and the best way, where practicable, of keeping hawks
is to have them on blocks on the lawn. Each hawk's block should stand in
a circular bed of sand--about 8 ft. in diameter; this will be found very
convenient for keeping them clean. Goshawks are generally placed on bow
perches, which ought not to be more than 8 or 9 in. high at the highest
part of the arc. It will be several months before passage or wild-caught
falcons can be kept out of doors; they must be fastened to a perch in a
darkened room, hooded, but by degrees as they get thoroughly tame may be
brought to sit on the lawn. In England (especially in the south)
peregrines, the northern falcons and goshawks may be kept out of doors
all day and night in a sheltered situation. In very wild boisterous
weather, or in snow or sharp frost, it will be advisable to move them to
the shelter of a shed, the floor of which should be laid with sand to a
depth of 3 or 4 in. Merlins and hobbies are too tender to be kept much
out of doors. An eastern aspect is to be preferred--all birds enjoy the
morning sun, and it is very beneficial to them. The more hawks confined
to blocks out of doors see of persons, dogs, horses, &c., moving about
the better, but of course only when there is no danger of their being
frightened or molested, or of food being given to them by strangers.
Those who have only seen wretched ill-fed hawks in cages as in
zoological gardens or menageries, pining for exercise, with battered
plumage, torn shoulders and bleeding ceres, from dashing against their
prison bars, and overgrown beaks from never getting bones to break, can
have little idea of the beautiful and striking-looking birds to be seen
pluming their feathers and stretching their wings at their ease at their
blocks on the falconer's lawn, watching with their large bright keen
eyes everything that moves in the sky and everywhere else within the
limits of their view. Contrary to the prevailing notion, hawks show a
good deal of attachment when they have been properly handled. It is true
that by hunger they are in a great measure tamed and controlled, and the
same may be said of all undomesticated and many domesticated animals.
And instinct prompts all wild creatures when away from man's control to
return to their former shyness, but hawks certainly retain their
tameness for a long time, and their memory is remarkably retentive.
Wild-caught hawks have been retaken, either by their coming to the lure
or upon quarry, from 2 to 7 days after they had been lost, and eyases
after 3 weeks. As one instance of retentiveness of memory displayed by
hawks we may mention the case of a wild-caught falcon which was
recaptured after being at liberty more than 3 years, still bearing the
jesses which were cut short close to the leg at the time she was
released; in five days she was flying at the lure again at liberty, and
was found to retain the peculiar ways and habits she was observed to
have in her former existence as a trained hawk. It is useless to bring a
hawk into the field unless she has a keen appetite; if she has not, she
will neither hunt effectually nor follow her master. Even wild-caught
falcons, however, may sometimes be seen so attached to their owner that,
when sitting on their blocks on a lawn with food in their crops, they
will on his coming out of the house bate hard to get to him, till he
either go up to them and allow them to jump up to his hand or withdraw
from their sight. Goshawks are also known to evince attachment to their
owner. Another prevailing error regarding hawks is that they are
supposed to be lazy birds, requiring the stimulus of hunger to stir them
to action. The reverse is the truth; they are birds of very active
habits, and exceedingly restless, and the notion of their being lazy has
been propagated by those who have seen little or nothing of hawks in
their wild state. The wild falcon requires an immense deal of exercise,
and to be in wind, in order to exert the speed and power of flight
necessary to capture her prey when hungry; and to this end instinct
prompts her to spend hours daily on the wing, soaring and playing about
in the air in all weathers, often chasing birds merely for play or
exercise. Sometimes she takes a siesta when much gorged, but unless she
fills her crop late in the evening she is soon moving again--before half
her crop is put over. Goshawks and sparrow-hawks, too, habitually soar
in the air at about 9 or 10 A.M., and remain aloft a considerable time,
but these birds are not of such active habits as the falcons. The
frequent bating of thoroughly tame hawks from their blocks, even when
not hungry or frightened, proves their restlessness and impatience of
repose. So does the wretched condition of the caged falcon (before
alluded to), while the really lazy buzzards and kites, which do not in a
wild state depend on activity or power of wing for their sustenance,
maintain themselves for years, even during confinement if properly fed,
in good case and plumage. Such being the habits of the falcon in a state
of nature, the falconer should endeavour to give the hawks under his
care as much flying as possible, and he should avoid the very common
mistake of keeping too many hawks. In this case a favoured few are sure
to get all the work, and the others, possibly equally good if they had
fair play, are spoiled for want of exercise.

The larger hawks may be kept in health and working order for several
years--15 or 20--barring accidents. The writer has known peregrines,
shaheens and goshawks to reach ages between 15 and 20 years. Goshawks,
however, never fly well after 4 or 5 seasons, when they will no longer
take difficult quarry; they may be used at rabbits as long as they live.
Shaheens may be seen in the East at an advanced age, killing wild-fowl
beautifully. The shaheen is a falcon of the peregrine type, which does
not travel, like the peregrine, all over the world. It appears that the
jerfalcons also may be worked to a good age. Old Simon Latham tells us
of these birds--"I myself have known one of them an excellent Hearnor
(killer of herons), and to continue her goodnesse very near twentie
yeeres, or full out that time."

  AUTHORITIES.--Schlegel's _Traité de fauconnerie_ contains a very large
  list of works on falconry in the languages of all the principal
  countries of the Old World. _Bibliotheca accipitraria_, by J.E.
  Harting (1891), gives a complete bibliography. See _Coursing_ and
  _Falconry_ in the Badminton Library; and _The Art and Practice of
  Hawking_, by E.B. Michell (1900), the best modern book on the subject.
  Perhaps the most useful of the old works are _The Booke of Faulconrie
  or Hawking_, by George Turberville (1575), and _The Faulcon's Lure and
  Cure_, by Simon Latham (1633).     (E. D. R.)



FALDSTOOL (from the O.H. Ger. _falden_ or _falten_, to fold, and
_stuol_, Mod. Ger. _Stuhl_, a stool; from the medieval Latin
_faldistolium_ is derived, through the old form _faudesteuil_, the Mod.
Fr. _fauteuil_), properly a folding seat for the use of a bishop when
not occupying the throne in his own cathedral, or when officiating in a
cathedral or church other than his own; hence any movable folding stool
used for kneeling in divine service. The small desk or stand from which
the Litany is read is sometimes called a faldstool, and a similar stool
is provided for the use of the sovereign at his coronation.



FALERII [mod. _Cività Castellana_ (q.v.)], one of the twelve chief
cities of Etruria, situated about 1 m. W. of the ancient Via
Flaminia,[1] 32 m. N. of Rome. According to the legend, it was of Argive
origin; and Strabo's assertion that the population, the Falisci (q.v.),
were of a different race from the Etruscans is proved by the language of
the earliest inscriptions which have been found here. Wars between Rome
and the Falisci appear to have been frequent. To one of the first of
them belongs the story of the schoolmaster who wished to betray his boys
to Camillus; the latter refused his offer, and the inhabitants thereupon
surrendered the city. At the end of the First Punic War, the Falisci
rose in rebellion, but were soon conquered (241 B.C.) and lost half
their territory. Zonaras (viii. 18) tells us that the ancient city,
built upon a precipitous hill, was destroyed and another built on a more
accessible site on the plain. The description of the two sites agrees
well with the usual theory that the original city occupied the site of
the present Cività Castellana, and that the ruins of Falleri (as the
place is now called) are those of the Roman town which was thus
transferred 3 m. to the north-west. After this time Falerii hardly
appears in history. It became a colony (Junonia Faliscorum) perhaps
under Augustus, though according to the inscriptions apparently not
until the time of Gallienus. There were bishops of Falerii up till 1033,
when the desertion of the place in favour of the present site began, and
the last mention of it dates from A.D. 1064.

The site of the original Falerii is a plateau, about 1100 yds. by 400,
not higher than the surrounding country (475 ft.) but separated from it
by gorges over 200 ft. in depth, and only connected with it on the
western side, which was strongly fortified with a mound and ditch; the
rest of the city was defended by walls constructed of rectangular blocks
of tufa, of which some remains still exist. Remains of a temple were
found at Lo Scasato, at the highest point of the ancient town, in 1888,
and others have been excavated in the outskirts. The attribution of one
of these to Juno Quiritis is uncertain. These buildings were of wood,
with fine decorations of coloured terra-cotta (_Notizie degli scavi_,
1887, p. 92; 1888, p. 414). Numerous tombs hewn in the rock are visible
on all sides of the town, and important discoveries have been made in
them; many objects, both from the temples and from the tombs, are in the
Museo di Villa Giulia at Rome. Similar finds have also been made at
Calcata, 6 m. S., and Corchiano, 5 m. N.W. The site of the Roman Falerii
is now entirely abandoned. It lay upon a road which may have been (see
H. Nissen, _Italische Landeskunde_, ii. 361) the Via Annia, a by-road of
the Via Cassia; this road approached it from the south passing through
Nepet, while its prolongation to the north certainly bore the name Via
Amerina. The circuit of the city is about 2250 yds., its shape roughly
triangular, and the walls are a remarkably fine and well-preserved
specimen of Roman military architecture. They are constructed of
rectangular blocks of tufa two Roman ft. in height; the walls themselves
reach in places a height of 56 ft. and are 7 to 9 ft. thick. There were
about 80 towers, some 50 of which are still preserved. Two of the gates
also, of which there were eight, are noteworthy. Of the buildings within
the walls hardly anything is preserved above ground, though the forum
and theatre (as also the amphitheatre, the arena of which measured 180
by 108 ft. outside the walls) were all excavated in the 19th century.
Almost the only edifice now standing is the 12th-century abbey church of
S. Maria. Recent excavations have shown that the plan of the whole city
could easily be recovered, though the buildings have suffered
considerable devastation (_Notizie degli scavi_, 1903, 14).

  See G. Dennis, _Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria_ (London, 1883), i.
  97; for philology and ethnology see FALISCI.     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The Roman town lay 3 m. farther N.W. on the Via Annia. The Via
    Flaminia, which did not traverse the Etruscan city, had two
    post-stations near it, Aquaviva, some 2½ m. S.E., and Aequum
    Faliscum, 4½ m. N.N.E.; the latter is very possibly identical with
    the Etruscan site which G. Dennis (_Cities and Cemeteries of
    Etruria_, London, 1883, i. 121) identified with Fescennium (q.v.).
    See O. Cuntz in _Jahreshefte des österr. arch. Inst._ ii. (1899), 87.



FALERIO (mod. _Falerone_), an ancient town of Picenum, Italy, about 10
m. S.E. of Urbs Salvia. We know almost nothing of the place except from
inscriptions, from which, and from the remains of its buildings, it
appears to have been of some importance. It was probably founded as a
colony by Augustus after his victory at Actium. A question arose in the
time of Domitian between the inhabitants of Falerio and Firmum as to
land which had been taken out of the territory of the latter (which was
recolonized by the triumvirs), and, though not distributed to the new
settlers, had not been given back again to the people of Firmum. The
emperor, by a rescript, a copy of which in bronze was found at Falerio,
decided in favour of the people of Falerio, that the occupiers of this
land should remain in possession of it (Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscr.
Latin._ ix., Berlin, 1883, No. 5, 420). Considerable remains of a
theatre in concrete faced with brickwork, erected, according to an
inscription, in 43 B.C., and 161 ft. in diameter, were excavated in 1838
and are still visible; and an amphitheatre, less well preserved, also
exists, the arena of which measures about 180 by 150 ft. Between the two
is a water reservoir (called Bagno della Regina) connected with remains
of baths.

  See G. de Minicis in _Giornale Arcadico_, lv. (1832), 160 seq.;
  _Annali dell' Istituto_ (1839), 5 seq.     (T. As.)



FALGUIÈRE, JEAN ALEXANDRE JOSEPH (1831-1900), French sculptor and
painter, was born at Toulouse. A pupil of the École des Beaux Arts he
won the _Prix de Rome_ in 1859; he was awarded the medal of honour at
the Salon in 1868 and was appointed officer of the Legion of Honour in
1878. His first bronze statue of importance was the "Victor of the
Cock-Fight" (1864), and "Tarcisus the Christian Boy-Martyr" followed in
1867; both are now in the Luxembourg Museum. His more important
monuments are those to Admiral Courbet (1890) at Abbeville and the
famous "Joan of Arc." Among more ideal work are "Eve" (1880), "Diana"
(1882 and 1891), "Woman and Peacock," and "The Poet," astride his
Pegasus spreading wings for flight. His "Triumph of the Republic"
(1881-1886), a vast quadriga for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris, is perhaps
more amazingly full of life than others of his works, all of which
reveal this quality of vitality in superlative degree. To these works
should be added his monuments to "Cardinal Lavigerie" and "General de La
Fayette" (the latter in Washington), and his statues of "Lamartine"
(1876) and "St Vincent de Paul" (1879), as well as the "Balzac," which
he executed for the _Société des gens de lettres_ on the rejection of
that by Rodin; and the busts of "Carolus-Duran" and "Coquelin cadet"
(1896).

Falguière was a painter as well as a sculptor, but somewhat inferior in
merit. He displays a fine sense of colour and tone, added to the
qualities of life and vigour that he instils into his plastic work. His
"Wrestlers" (1875) and "Fan and Dagger" (1882; a defiant Spanish woman)
are in the Luxembourg, and other pictures of importance are "The
Beheading of St John the Baptist" (1877), "The Sphinx" (1883), "Acis and
Galatea" (1885), "Old Woman and Child" (1886) and "In the Bull
Slaughter-House." He became a member of the Institute (Académie des
Beaux-Arts) in 1882. He died in 1900.

  See Léonce Bénédite, _Alexandre Falguière_, Librairie de l'art
  (Paris).



FALIERO (or FALIER), MARINO (1279-1355), doge of Venice, belonged to one
of the oldest and most illustrious Venetian families and had served the
republic with distinction in various capacities. In 1346 he commanded
the Venetian land forces at the siege of Zara, where he was attacked by
the Hungarians under King Louis the Great and totally defeated them;
this victory led to the surrender of the city. In September 1354, while
absent on a mission to Pope Innocent IV. at Avignon, Faliero was elected
doge, an honour which apparently he had not sought. His reign began, as
it was to end, in disaster, for very soon after his election the
Venetian fleet was completely destroyed by the Genoese off the island of
Sapienza, while plague and a declining commerce aggravated the
situation. Although a capable commander and a good statesman, Faliero
possessed a violent temper, and after his election developed great
ambition. The constitutional restrictions of the ducal power, which had
been further curtailed just before his election, and the insolence of
the nobility aroused in him a desire to free himself from all control,
and the discontent of the arsenal hands at their treatment by the nobles
offered him his opportunity. In concert with a sea-captain named
Bertuccio Ixarella (who had received a blow from the noble Giovanni
Dandolo), Filippo Calendario, a stonemason, and others, a plot was laid
to murder the chief patricians on the 15th of April and proclaim Faliero
prince of Venice. But there was much ferment in the city and disorders
broke out before the appointed time; some of the conspirators having
made revelations, the Council of Ten proceeded to arrest the ringleaders
and to place armed guards all over the town. Several of the conspirators
were condemned to death and others to various terms of imprisonment. The
doge's complicity having been discovered, he was himself arrested; at
the trial he confessed everything and was condemned and executed on the
17th of April 1355.

The story of the insult written by Michele Steno on the doge's chair is
a legend of which no record is found in any contemporary authority. The
motives of Faliero are not altogether clear, as his past record, even in
the judgment of the poet Petrarch, showed him as a wise, clear-headed
man of no unusual ambition. But possibly the attitude of the aristocracy
and the example offered by the tyrants of neighbouring cities may have
induced him to attempt a similar policy. The only result of the plot was
to consolidate the power of the Council of Ten.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--An account of Marino Faliero's reign is given in S.
  Romanin's _Storia documentata di Venezia_, lib. ix. cap. ii. (Venice,
  1855); M. Sanudo, _Le Vite dei Dogi_ in new edition of Muratori fasc,
  3, 4, 5 (Citta di Castello, 1900). For special works see V.
  Lazzerini's "Genealogia d. M. Faliero" in the _Archivio Veneto_ of
  1892; "M. Faliero avanti il Dogado," ibid. (1893), and his exhaustive
  study "M. Faliero, la Congiura," ibid. (1897). The most recent essay
  on the subject is contained in Horatio Brown's _Studies in Venetian
  History_ (London, 1907), wherein all the authorities are set forth.
       (L. V.*)



FALISCI, a tribe of Sabine origin or connexions, but speaking a dialect
closely akin to Latin, who inhabited the town of Falerii (q.v.), as well
as a considerable tract of the surrounding country, probably reaching as
far south as to include the small town of Capena. But at the beginning
of the historical period, i.e. from the beginning of the 5th century
B.C., and no doubt earlier, the dominant element in the town was
Etruscan; and all through the wars of the following centuries the town
was counted a member, and sometimes a leading member, of the Etruscan
league (cf. Livy iv. 23, v. 17, vii. 17).

In spite of the Etruscan domination, the Faliscans preserved many traces
of their Italic origin, such as the worship of the deities Juno Quiritis
(Ovid, _Fasti_, vi. 49) and Feronia (Livy xxvi. n), the cult of _Dis
Soranus_ by the _Hirpi_ or fire-leaping priests on Mount Soracte (Pliny,
_Nat. Hist._ vii. 2, 19; Servius, _ad Aen._ xi. 785, 787), above all
their language. This is preserved for us in some 36 short inscriptions,
dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., and is written in a peculiar
alphabet derived from the Etruscan, and written from right to left, but
showing some traces of the influence of the Latin alphabet. Its most
characteristic signs are--

  [symbol] a, [symbol] z, [symbol] f, [symbol] r, [symbol] t

As a specimen of the dialect may be quoted the words written round the
edge of a picture on a patera, the genuineness of which is established
by the fact that they were written before the glaze was put on: "foied
vino pipafo, era carefo," i.e. in Latin "hodie vinum bibam, cras carebo"
(R.S. Conway, _Italic Dialects_, p. 312, b). This shows some of the
phonetic characteristics of the Faliscan dialect, viz.:--

  1. The retention of medial f which in Latin became b;

  2. The representation of an initial Ind.-Eur. _gh_ by, f (_foied_,
  contrast Latin _hodie_);

  3. The palatalization of d+consonant i into some sound denoted merely
  by i-the central sound of _foied_,.from _fo-diëd_;

  4. The loss of final s, at all events before certain following sounds
  (cra beside Latin _cras_);

  Other characteristics, appearing elsewhere, are:

  5. The retention of the velars (Fal. _cuando_ = Latin _quando_;
  contrast Umbrian _pan(n)u_);

  6. The assimilation of some final consonants to the initial letter of
  the next word: "pretod de zenatuo sententiad" (Conway, lib. cit. 321),
  i.e. "praetor de senatus sententia" (_zenatuo_ for _senaiuos_., an
  archaic genitive). For further details see Conway, ib. pp. 370 if.,
  especially pp. 384-385, where the relation of the names _Falisci_,
  _Falerii_ to the local hero _Halaesus_ (e.g. Ovid, _Fasti_, iv. 73) is
  discussed, and where reason is given for thinking that the change of
  initial f (from an original bh or dh) into an initial h was a genuine
  mark of Faliscan dialect.

It seems probable that the dialect lasted on, though being gradually
permeated with Latin, till at least 150 B.C.

In addition to the remains found in the graves (see FALERII), which
belong mainly to the period of Etruscan domination and give ample
evidence of material prosperity and refinement, the earlier strata have
yielded more primitive remains from the Italic epoch. A large number of
inscriptions consisting mainly of proper names may be regarded as
Etruscan rather than Faliscan, and they have been disregarded in the
account of the dialect just given. It should perhaps be mentioned that
there was a town Feronia in Sardinia, named probably after their native
goddess by Faliscan settlers, from some of whom we have a votive
inscription found at S. Maria di Falleri(Conway, ib. p. 335).

  Further information may be sought from W. Deecke, _Die Falisker_ (a
  useful but somewhat uncritical collection of the evidence accessible
  in 1888); E. Bormann, in C.I.L. xi. pp. 465 ff., and Conway, op. cit.
       (R. S. C.)



FALK, JOHANN DANIEL (1768-1826), German author and philanthropist, was
born at Danzig on the 28th of October 1768, After attending the
gymnasium of his native town, he entered the university of Halle with
the view of studying theology, but preferring a non-professional life,
gave up his theological studies and went to live at Weimar. There he
published a volume of satires which procured him the notice and
friendship of Wieland, and admission into literary circles. After the
battle of Jena, Falk, on the recommendation of Wieland, was appointed to
a civil post under the French official authorities and rendered his
townsmen such good service that the duke of Weimar created him a
counsellor of legation. In 1813 he established a society for friends in
necessity (_Gesellschaft der Freunde in der Not_), and about the same
time founded an institute for the care and education of neglected and
orphan children, which, in 1820, was taken over by the state and still
exists as the _Falksches Institut_. The first literary efforts of Falk
took the form chiefly of satirical poetry, and gave promise of greater
future excellence than was ever completely fulfilled; his later pieces,
directed more against individuals than the general vices and defects of
society, gradually degenerated in quality. In 1806 Falk founded a
critical journal under the title of _Elysium und Tartarus_. He also
contributed largely to contemporary journals. He enjoyed the
acquaintance and intimate friendship of Goethe, and his account of their
intercourse was posthumously published under the title _Goethe aus
näherem persönlichen Umgange dargestellt_ (1832) (English by S. Austin).
Falk died on the 14th of February 1826.

  Falk's _Satirische Werke_ appeared in 7 vols. (1817 and 1826); his
  _Auserlesene Schriften_ (3 vols., 1819). See _Johannes Falk:
  Erinnerungsblatter aus Briefen und Tagebüchern, gesammelt von dessen
  Tochter Rosalie Falk_ (1868); Heinzelmann, _Johannes Falk und die
  Gesellschaft der Freunde in der Not_ (1879); A. Stein, _J. Falk_
  (1881); S. Schultze, _Falk und Goethe_ (1900).



FALK, PAUL LUDWIG ADALBERT (1827-1900), German politician, was born at
Matschkau, Silesia, on the 10th of August 1827. In 1847 he entered the
Prussian state service, and in 1853 became public prosecutor at Lyck. In
1858 he was elected a deputy, joining the Old Liberal party. In 1868 he
became a privy-councillor in the ministry of justice. In 1872 he was
made minister of education, and in connexion with Bismarck's policy of
the Kultur-kampf he was responsible for the famous May Laws against the
Catholics (see GERMANY: HISTORY). In 1879 his position became untenable,
owing to the death of Pius IX. and the change of German policy with
regard to the Vatican, and he resigned his office, but retained his seat
in the Reichstag till 1882. He was then made president of the supreme
court of justice at Hamm, where he died in 1900.



FALKE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB (1823-1876), German historian, was born
at Ratzeburg on the 20th of April 1823. Entering the university of
Erlangen in 1843, he soon began to devote his attention to the history
of the German language and literature, and in 1848 went to Munich, where
he remained five years, and diligently availed himself of the use of the
government library for the purpose of prosecuting his historical
studies. In 1856 he was appointed secretary of the German museum at
Nuremberg, and in 1859 keeper of the manuscripts. With the aid of the
manuscript collections in the museum he now turned his attention chiefly
to political history, and, with Johann H. Müller, established an
historical journal under the name of _Zeitschrift für deutsche
Kulturgeschichte_ (4 vols., Nuremberg, 1856-1859). To this journal he
contributed a history of German taxation and commerce. On the latter
subject he published separately _Geschichte des deutschen Handels_ (2
vols., Leipzig, 1850-1860) and _Die Hansa als deutsche See- und
Handelsmacht_ (Berlin, 1862). In 1862 he was appointed secretary of the
state archives at Dresden, and, a little later, keeper. He there began
the study of Saxon history, still devoting his attention chiefly to the
history of commerce and economy, and published _Die Geschichte des
Kurfürsten August von Sachsen in volkswirthschaftlicher Beziehung_
(Leipzig, 1868) and _Geschichte des deutschen Zollwesens_ (Leipzig,
1869). He died at Dresden on the 2nd of March 1876.



FALKIRK, a municipal and police burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1891) 19,769; (1901) 29,280. It is situated on high ground overlooking
the fertile Carse of Falkirk, 11 m. S.E. of Stirling, and about midway
between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Grangemouth, its port, lies 3 m. to the
N.E., and the Forth & Clyde Canal passes to the north, and the Union
Canal to the south of the town. Falkirk now comprises the suburbs of
Laurieston (E.), Grahamston and Bainsford (N.), and Camelon (W.). The
principal structures include the burgh and county buildings, town hall,
the Dollar free library and Camelon fever hospital. The present church,
with a steeple 146 ft. high, dates only from 1811. In the churchyard are
buried Sir John Graham, Sir John Stewart who fell in the battle of 1298,
and Sir Robert Munro and his brother, Dr Duncan Munro, killed in the
battle of 1746. The town is under the control of a council with provost
and bailies, and combines with Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark and Linlithgow
(the Falkirk group of burghs) to return a member to parliament. The
district is rich in coal and iron, which supply the predominant
industries, Falkirk being the chief seat of the light casting trade in
Scotland; but tanning, flour-milling, brewing, distilling and the
manufacture of explosives (Nobel's) and chemicals are also carried on.
Trysts or sales of cattle, sheep and horses are held thrice a year
(August, September and October) on Stenhousemuir, 3 m. N.W. They were
transferred hither from Crieff in 1770, and were formerly the most
important in the kingdom, but have to a great extent been replaced by
the local weekly auction marts. Carron, 2 m. N.N.W., is famous for the
iron-works established in 1760 by Dr John Roebuck (1718-1794), whose
advising engineers were successively John Smeaton and James Watt. The
short iron guns of large calibre designed by General Robert Melville,
and first cast in 1779, were called carronades from this their place of
manufacture.

Falkirk is a town of considerable antiquity. Its original name was the
Gaelic _Eaglais breac_, "church of speckled or mottled stone," which
Simeon of Durham (fl. 1130) transliterated as Egglesbreth. By the end of
the 13th century appears the form Faukirke (the present local
pronunciation), which is merely a translation of the Gaelic _fau_ or
_faw_, meaning "dun," "pale red." The first church was built by Malcolm
Canmore (d. 1093). Falkirk was made a burgh of barony in 1600 and a
burgh of regality in 1646, but on the forfeiture of the earl of
Linlithgow in 1715, its superiority was vested in the crown. Callender
House, immediately to the S., was the seat of the earl and his
ancestors. The mansion was visited by Queen Mary, captured by Cromwell,
and occupied by Generals Monk and Hawley. The wall of Antoninus ran
through, the grounds, and the district is rich in Roman remains,
Camelon, about 2 m. W., being the site of a Roman settlement; Merchiston
Hall, to the N.W., was the birthplace of Admiral Sir Charles Napier. The
eastern suburb of Laurieston was first called Langtoune, then
Merchistown, and received its present name after Sir Lawrence Dundas of
Kerse, who had promoted its welfare. At Polmont, farther east, which
gives the title of baron to the duke of Hamilton, is the school of Blair
Lodge, besides coal-mines and other industries.

_Batttles of Falkirk._--The battle of the 22nd of July 1298 was fought
between the forces of King Edward I. of England and those of the
Scottish national party under Sir William Wallace. The latter, after
long baffling the king's attempts to bring him to battle, had taken up a
strong position south of the town behind a morass. They were formed in
four deep and close masses ("schiltrons") of pikemen, the light troops
screening the front and flanks and a body of men-at-arms standing in
reserve. It was perhaps hoped that the English cavalry would plunge into
the morass, for no serious precautions were taken as to the flanks, but
in any case Wallace desired no more than to receive an attack at the
halt, trusting wholly to his massed pikes. The English right wing first
appeared, tried the morass in vain, and then set out to turn it by a
long détour; the main battle under the king halted in front of it, while
the left wing under Antony Bec, bishop of Durham, was able to reach the
head of the marsh without much delay. Once on the enemy's side of the
obstacle the bishop halted to wait for Edward, who was now following
him, but his undisciplined barons, shouting "'Tis not for thee, bishop,
to teach us war. Go say mass!" drove off the Scottish archers and
men-at-arms and charged the nearest square of pikes, which repulsed them
with heavy losses. On the other flank the right wing, its flank march
completed, charged with the same result. But Edward, who had now joined
the bishop with the centre or "main battle," peremptorily ordered the
cavalry to stand fast, and, taught by his experience in the Welsh wars,
brought up his archers. The longbow here scored its first victory in a
pitched battle. Before long gaps appeared in the close ranks of pike
heads, and after sufficient preparation Edward again launched his
men-at-arms to the charge. The shaken masses then gave way one after the
other, and the Scots fled in all directions.

The second battle of Falkirk, fought on the 17th of January 1746 between
the Highlanders under Prince Charles and the British forces under
General Hawley, resulted in the defeat of the latter. It is remarkable
only for the bad conduct of the British dragoons and the steadiness of
the infantry. Hawley retreated to Linlithgow, leaving all his baggage,
700 prisoners and seven guns in the enemy's hands.



FALKLAND, LUCIUS CARY, 2ND VISCOUNT (c. 1610-1643), son of Sir Henry
Cary, afterwards 1st Viscount Falkland (d. 1633), a member of an ancient
Devonshire family, who was lord deputy of Ireland from 1622 to 1629, and
of Elizabeth (1585-1639), only daughter of Sir Lawrence Tanfield, chief
baron of the exchequer, was born either in 1609 or 1610, and was
educated at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1625 he inherited from his
grandfather the manors of Great Tew and Burford in Oxfordshire, and,
about the age of 21, married Lettice, daughter of Sir Richard Morrison,
of Tooley Park in Leicestershire. Involved in a quarrel with his father,
whom he failed to propitiate by offering to hand over to him his
estate, he left England to take service in the Dutch army, but soon
returned. In 1633, by the death of his father, he became Viscount
Falkland. His mother had embraced the Roman Catholic faith, to which it
was now sought to attract Falkland himself, but his studies and
reflections led him, under the influence of Chillingworth, to the
interpretation of religious problems rather by reason than by tradition
or authority. At Great Tew he enjoyed a short but happy period of study,
and he assembled round him many gifted and learned men, whom the near
neighbourhood of the university and his own brilliant qualities
attracted to his house. He was the friend of Hales and Chillingworth,
was celebrated by Jonson, Suckling, Cowley and Waller in verse, and in
prose by Clarendon, who is eloquent in describing the virtues and genius
of the "incomparable" Falkland, and draws a delightful picture of his
society and hospitality.

Falkland's intellectual pleasures, however, were soon interrupted by war
and politics. He felt it his duty to take part on the king's side as a
volunteer under Essex in the campaign of 1639 against the Scots. In 1640
he was returned for Newport in the Isle of Wight to the Short and Long
Parliaments, and took an active part on the side of the opposition. He
spoke against the exaction of shipmoney on the 7th of December 1640,
denouncing the servile conduct of Lord Keeper Finch and the judges.[1]
He supported the prosecution of Strafford, at the same time endeavouring
on more than one occasion to moderate the measures of the Commons in the
interests of justice, and voted for the third reading of the attainder
on the 21st of April 1641. On the great question of the church he urged,
in the debate of the 8th of February 1641, that the interference of the
clergy in secular matters, the encroachments in jurisdiction of the
spiritual courts, and the imposition by authority of unnecessary
ceremonies, should be prohibited. On the other hand, though he denied
that episcopacy existed _jure divino_, he was opposed to its abolition;
fearing the establishment of the Presbyterian system, which in Scotland
had proved equally tyrannical. Triennial parliaments would be sufficient
to control the bishops, if they meditated any further attacks upon the
national liberties, and he urged that "where it is not necessary to
change, it is necessary not to change." Even Hampden still believed that
a compromise with the episcopal principle was possible, and assured
Falkland that if the bill taken up to the Lords on the 1st of May 1641,
excluding the bishops from the Lords and the clergy from secular
offices, were passed, "there would be nothing more attempted to the
prejudice of the church." Accordingly the bill was supported by
Falkland. The times, however, were not favourable to compromise. The
bill was lost in the Lords, and on the 27th of May the Root and Branch
Bill, for the total abolition of episcopacy, was introduced in the House
of Commons. This measure Falkland opposed, as well as the second bill
for excluding the bishops, introduced on the 21st of October. In the
discussion on the Grand Remonstrance he took the part of the bishops and
the Arminians. He was now opposed to the whole policy of the opposition,
and, being reproached by Hampden with his change of attitude, replied
"that he had formerly been persuaded by that worthy gentleman to believe
many things which he had since found to be untrue, and therefore he had
changed his opinion in many particulars as well as to things as to
persons."[2]

On the 1st of January 1642, immediately before the attempted arrest of
the five members, of which, however, he was not cognizant, he was
offered by the king the secretaryship of state, and was persuaded by
Hyde to accept it, thus becoming involved directly in the king's policy,
though evidently possessing little influence in his counsels. He was one
of the peers who signed the protestation against making war, at York on
the 15th of June 1642. On the 5th of September he carried Charles's
overtures for peace to the parliament, when he informed the leaders of
the opposition that the king consented to a thorough reformation of
religion. The secret correspondence connected with the Waller plot
passed through his hands. He was present with the king at Edgehill and
at the siege of Gloucester. By this time the hopelessness of the
situation had completely overwhelmed him. The aims and principles of
neither party in the conflict could satisfy a man of Falkland's high
ideals and intellectual vision. His royalism could not suffer the
substitution, as the controlling power in the state, of a parliament for
the monarchy, nor his conservatism the revolutionary changes in church
and state now insisted upon by the opposite faction. The fatal character
and policy of the king, the most incapable of men and yet the man upon
whom all depended, must have been by now thoroughly understood by
Falkland. Compromise had long been out of the question. The victory of
either side could only bring misery; and the prolongation of the war was
a prospect equally unhappy. Nor could Falkland find any support or
consolation in his own inward convictions or principles. His ideals and
hopes were now destroyed, and he had no definite political convictions
such as inspired and strengthened Stratford and Pym. In fact his
sensitive nature shrank from contact with the practical politics of the
day and prevented his rise to the place of a leader or a statesman.
Clarendon has recorded his final relapse into despair. "Sitting amongst
his friends, often, after a deep silence and frequent sighs (he) would
with a shrill and sad accent ingeminate the word _Peace_, _Peace_, and
would passionately profess that the very agony of the war, and the view
of the calamities and desolation the kingdom did and must endure, took
his sleep from him and would shortly break his heart." At Gloucester he
had in vain exposed himself to risks. On the morning of the battle of
Newbury, on the 20th of September 1643, he declared to his friends, who
would have dissuaded him from taking part in the fight, that "he was
weary of the times and foresaw much misery to his own Country and did
believe he should be out of it ere night."[3] He served during the
engagement as a volunteer under Sir John Byron, and, riding alone at a
gap in a hedge commanded by the enemy's fire, was immediately killed.

His death took place at the early age of 33, which should be borne in
mind in every estimate of his career and character. He was succeeded in
the title by his eldest son Lucius, 3rd Viscount Falkland, his male
descent becoming extinct in the person of Anthony, 5th viscount, in
1694, when the viscounty passed to Lucius Henry (1687-1730), a
descendant of the first viscount, and the present peer is his direct
descendant.

Falkland wrote a _Discourse of Infallibility_, published in 1646
(_Thomason Tracts_, E 361 [1]), reprinted in 1650, in 1651 (E 634 [1])
ed. by Triplet with replies, and in 1660 with the addition of two
discourses on episcopacy by Falkland. This is a work of some importance
in theological controversy, the general argument being that "to those
who follow their reason in the interpretation of the Scriptures God will
either give his grace for assistance to find the truth or his pardon if
they miss it. And then this supposed necessity of an infallible guide
(with the supposed damnation for the want of it) fall together to the
ground." Also _A Letter ... 30 Sept. 1642 concerning the late conflict
before Worcester_ (1642); and _Poems_, in which he shows himself a
follower of Ben Jonson, edited by A.B. Grosart in _Miscellanies of the
Fuller Worthies Library_, vol. iii. (1871).

The chief interest in Falkland does not lie in his writings or in the
incidents of his career, but in his character and the distinction of his
intellectual position, in his isolation from his contemporaries seeking
reformation in the inward and spiritual life of the church and state and
not in its outward and material form, and as the leader and chief of
rationalism in an age dominated by violent intolerance and narrow
dogmatism. His personal appearance, according to Clarendon, was
insignificant, "in no degree attractive or promising. His stature was
low and smaller than most men; his motion not graceful ... but that
little person and small stature was quickly found to contain a great
heart ... all mankind could not but admire and love him."[4]

  AUTHORITIES.--There is a _Life and Times_ by J.A.R. Marriott (1907);
  see also S.R. Gardiner's _Hist, of England_; _Hist. of the Civil War_;
  the same author's article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_ and
  references there given; Clarendon's _Hist. of the Rebellion_, _passim_
  and esp. vii. 217-234; Clarendon's _Life; Rational Theology ... in the
  17th Century_, by John Tulloch (1874), i. 76; _Life of Lady Falkland
  from a MS. in the imperial library at Lille_ (1861); _Life_ of the
  same by Lady Georgiana Fullerton (1883); Jonson's _Ode Pindaric to the
  memory and friendship of ... Sir Lucius Cary and Sir Henry Morrison_;
  W.J. Courthope, _History of English Poetry_ (1903), iii. 291; _Life of
  Falkland_, by W.H. Trale in the _Englishman's Library_, vol. 22
  (1842); D. Lloyd, _Memoires_ (1668), 331; and the _Life of Falkland_,
  by Lady M.T. Lewis in _Lives of the Friends ... of Lord Chancellor
  Clarendon_, vol. i. p. 3. John Duncan's account of Lettice, Lady
  Falkland, was edited in 1908 by M.F. Howard.     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] His speeches are in the _Thomason Tracts_, E 196 (9), (26), (36).

  [2] Clarendon's _Hist._ iv. 94, note.

  [3] Whitelocke, p. 73.

  [4] _Life_, i. 37.



FALKLAND, a royal and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901)
809. It is situated at the northern base of the hill of East Lomond
(1471 ft. high), 2½ m. from Falkland Road station (with which there is
communication by 'bus), on the North British railway company's main line
to Dundee, 21 m. N. of Edinburgh as the crow flies. It is an
old-world-looking place, many of the ancient houses still standing. Its
industries are chiefly concerned with the weaving of linen and the
brewing of ale, for which it was once specially noted; and it has few
public buildings save the town hall. The palace of the Stuarts,
however--more beautiful than Holyrood and quite as romantic--lends the
spot its fame and charm. The older edifice that occupied this site was a
hunting-tower of the Macduffs, earls of Fife, and was transferred with
the earldom in 1371 to Robert Stewart, earl of Fife and Menteith,
afterwards duke of Albany, second son of Robert II. Because of his
father's long illness and the incapacity of Robert III., his brother
Albany was during many years virtual ruler of Scotland, and, in the hope
of securing the crown, caused the heir-apparent--David, duke of
Rothesay--to be conveyed to the castle by force and there starved to
death, in 1402. The conversion of the Thane's tower into the existing
palace was begun by James III. and completed in 1538. The western part
had two round towers, similar to those at Holyrood, which were also
built by James V., and the southern elevation was ornamented with niches
and statues, giving it a close resemblance to the Perpendicular style of
the semi-ecclesiastical architecture of England. The palace soon became
the favourite summer residence of the Stuarts. From it James V. when a
boy fled to Stirling by night from the custody of the earl of Angus, and
in it he died in 1542.

Here, too, Queen Mary spent some of her happiest days, playing the
country girl in its parks and woods. When the court was held at Falkland
the Green was the daily scene of revelry and dance, and "To be Falkland
bred" was a proverb that then came into vogue to designate a courtier.
James VI. delighted in the palace and especially in the deer. He upset
the schemes of the Gowrie conspirators by escaping from Falkland to St
Andrews, and it was while His Majesty was residing in the palace that
the fifth earl of Bothwell, in 1592, attempted to kidnap him. In
September 1596 an intensely dramatic interview took place in the palace
between the king and Andrew Melville and other Presbyterian ministers
sent by the general assembly at Cupar to remonstrate with him on
allowing the Roman Catholic lords to return to Scotland. In 1654 the
eastern wing was accidentally destroyed by fire, during its tenancy by
the soldiers of Cromwell, by whose orders the fine old oaks in the park
were cut down for the building of a fort at Perth. Even in its neglected
state the mansion impressed Defoe, who declared the Scottish kings owned
more palaces than their English brothers. In 1715 Rob Roy garrisoned the
palace and failed not to levy dues on the burgh and neighbourhood. Signs
of decay were more evident when Thomas Carlyle saw it, for he likened it
to "a black old bit of coffin or protrusive shin-bone striking through
the soil of the dead past." But a munificent protector at length
appeared in the person of the third marquess of Bute, who acquired the
estate and buildings in 1888, and forthwith undertook the restoration of
the palace.

Falkland became a royal burgh in 1458 and its charter was renewed in
1595, and before the earlier date it had been a seat of the Templars. It
gives the title of viscount to the English family of Cary, the patent
having been granted in 1620 by James VI. The town's most distinguished
native was Richard Cameron, the Covenanter. His house--a three-storeyed
structure with yellow harled front and thatched roof--still stands on
the south side of the square in the main street. The Hackstons of
Rathillet also had a house in Falkland.



FALKLAND ISLANDS (Fr. _Malouines_; Span. _Malvinas_), a group of islands
in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Britain, and lying about 250
m. E. of the nearest point in the mainland of South America, between 51°
and 53° S., and 57° 40' and 61° 25' W. With the uninhabited dependency
of South Georgia Island, to the E.S.E., they form the most southerly
colony of the British empire. The islands, inclusive of rocks and reefs,
exceed 100 in number and have a total area of 6500 sq. m.; but only two
are of considerable size; the largest of these, East Falkland, is 95 m.
in extreme length, with an average width of 40 m., and the smaller, West
Falkland, is 80 m. long and about 25 m. wide. The area of East Falkland
is about 3000 sq. m., and that of West Falkland 2300. Most of the others
are mere islets, the largest 16 m. long by 8 m. wide. The two principal
islands are separated by Falkland Sound, a narrow strait from 18 to 2½
m. in width, running nearly N.E. and S.W. The general appearance of the
islands is not unlike that of one of the outer Hebrides. The general
colouring, a faded brown, is somewhat dreary, but the mountain heights
and promontories of the west display some grandeur of outline. The
coast-line of both main islands is deeply indented and many of the bays
and inlets form secure and well-protected harbours, some of which,
however, are difficult of access to sailing ships.

East Falkland is almost bisected by two deep fjords, Choiseul and
Brenton Sounds, which leave the northern and southern portions connected
only by an isthmus a mile and a half wide. The northern portion is
hilly, and is crossed by a rugged range, the Wickham Heights, running
east and west, and rising in some places to a height of nearly 2000 ft.
The remainder of the island consists chiefly of low undulating ground, a
mixture of pasture and morass, with many shallow freshwater tarns, and
small streams running in the valleys. Two fine inlets, Berkeley Sound
and Port William, run far into the land at the north-eastern extremity
of the island. Port Louis, formerly the seat of government, is at the
head of Berkeley Sound, but the anchorage there having been found rather
too exposed, about the year 1844 a town was laid out, and the necessary
public buildings were erected on Stanley Harbour, a sheltered recess
within Port William. West Falkland is more hilly near the east island;
the principal mountain range, the Hornby Hills, runs north and south
parallel with Falkland Sound. Mount Adam, the highest hill in the
islands, is 2315 ft. high.

The little town of Stanley is built along the south shore of Stanley
harbour and stretches a short way up the slope; it has a population of
little more than 900. The houses, mostly white with coloured roofs, are
generally built of wood and iron, and have glazed porches, gay with
fuchsias and pelargoniums. Government House, grey, stone-built and
slated, calls to mind a manse in Shetland or Orkney. The government
barrack is a rather imposing structure in the middle of the town, as is
the cathedral church to the east, built of stone and buttressed with
brick. Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is
Darwin on Choiseul Sound--a village of Scottish shepherds and a station
of the Falkland Island Company.

The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older
Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly
metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds
clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone
passing into the conspicuous white quartzites. There do not seem to be
any minerals of value, and the rocks are not such as to indicate any
probability of their discovery. Galena is found in small quantity, and
in some places it contains a large percentage of silver. The dark
bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the
quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a
seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value
should be found in rocks of that age.

Many of the valleys in the Falklands are occupied by pale glistening
masses which at a little distance much resemble small glaciers. Examined
more closely these are found to be vast accumulations of blocks of
quartzite, irregular in form, but having a tendency to a rude diamond
shape, from 2 to 20 ft. in length, and half as much in width, and of a
thickness corresponding with that of the quartzite ridges on the hills
above. The blocks are angular, and rest irregularly one upon another,
supported in all positions by the angles and edges of those beneath. The
whole mass looks as if it were, as it is, slowly sliding down the valley
to the sea. These "stone runs" are looked upon with great wonder by the
shifting population of the Falklands, and they are shown to visitors
with many strange speculations as to their mode of formation. Their
origin is attributed by some to the moraine formation of former
glaciers. Another out of many theories[1] is that the hard beds of
quartzite are denuded by the disintegration of the softer layers. Their
support being removed they break away in the direction of natural
joints, and the fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil.
This soil is spongy, and, undergoing alternate contraction and expansion
from being alternately comparatively dry and saturated with moisture,
allows the heavy blocks to slip down by their own weight into the
valley, where they become piled up, the valley stream afterwards
removing the soil from among and over them.

The Falkland Islands correspond very nearly in latitude in the southern
hemisphere with London in the northern, but the climatic influences are
very different. The temperature is equable, the average of the two
midsummer months being about 47° Fahr., and that of the two midwinter
months 37° Fahr. The extreme frosts and heats of the English climate are
unknown, but occasional heavy snow-falls occur, and the sea in shallow
inlets is covered with a thin coating of ice. The sky is almost
constantly overcast, and rain falls, mostly in a drizzle and in frequent
showers, on about 250 days in the year. The rainfall is not great, only
about 20 in., but the mean humidity for the year is 80, saturation being
100. November is considered the only dry month. The prevalent winds from
the west, south-west and south blow continuously, at times approaching
the force of a hurricane. "A region more exposed to storms both in
summer and winter it would be difficult to mention" (Fitzroy, _Voyages
of "Adventure" and "Beagle,"_ ii. 228). The fragments of many wrecks
emphasize the dangers of navigation, which are increased by the absence
of beacons, the only lighthouse being that maintained by the Board of
Trade on Cape Pembroke near the principal settlement. Kelp is a natural
danger-signal, and the sunken rock, "Uranie," is reputed to be the only
one not buoyed by the giant seaweed.

Of aboriginal human inhabitants there is no trace in the Falklands, and
the land fauna is very scanty. A small wolf, the _loup-renard_ of de
Bougainville, is extinct, the last having been seen about 1875 on the
West Falkland. Some herds of cattle and horses run wild; but these were,
of course, introduced, as were also the wild hogs, the numerous rabbits
and the less common hares. All these have greatly declined in numbers,
being profitably replaced by sheep. Land-birds are few in kind, and are
mostly strays from South America. They include, however, the snipe and
military starling, which on account of its scarlet breast is locally
known as the robin. Sea-birds are abundant, and, probably from the
islands having been comparatively lately peopled, they are singularly
tame. Gulls and amphibious birds abound in large variety; three kinds of
penguin have their rookeries and breed here, migrating yearly for some
months to the South American mainland. Stray specimens of the great king
penguin have been observed, and there are also mollymauks (a kind of
albatross), Cape pigeons and many carrion birds. Kelp and upland geese
abound, the latter being edible; and their shooting affords some sport.

The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which
they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, and their flora is
much the same as that of Antarctic South America. The trees which form
dense forest and scrub in southern Patagonia and in Fuegia are absent,
and one of the largest plants on the islands is a gigantic woolly
ragweed (_Senecio candicans_) which attains in some places a height of 3
to 4 ft. A half-shrubby veronica (_V. decussata_) is found in some
parts, and has also received cultivation. The greater part of the "camp"
(the open country) is formed of peat, which in some places is of great
age and depth, and at the bottom of the bed very dense and bituminous.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe:
cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed
almost entirely of the roots and stems of _Empetrum rubrum_, a variety
of the common crow-berry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called
by the Falklanders the "diddle-dee" berry; of _Myrtus nummularia_, a
little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a
substitute for tea; of _Caltha appendiculata_, a dwarf species of
marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as
_Astelia pumila_, _Gaimardia australis_ and _Bostkovia grandiflora_.
Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a
ton.

Two vegetable products, the "balsam bog" (_Bolar glebaria_) and the
"tussock grass" (_Dactylis caespitosa_) have been objects of curiosity
and interest ever since the first accounts of the islands were given.
The first is a huge mass of a bright green colour, living to a great
age, and when dead becoming of a grey and stony appearance. When cut
open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at
intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its
astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has
not been converted to any commercial purpose. The "tussock grass" is a
wonderful and most valuable natural production, which, owing to the
introduction of stock, has become extinct in the two main islands, but
still flourishes elsewhere in the group. It is a reed-like grass, which
grows in dense tufts from 6 to 10 ft. high from stool-like root-crowns.
It forms excellent fodder for cattle, and is regularly gathered for that
purpose. It is of beautiful appearance, and the almost tropical
profusion of its growth may have led to the early erroneous reports of
the densely-wooded nature of these islands.

The population slightly exceeds 2000. The large majority of the
inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is
Scottish--Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American
Gauchos. In 1867 there were no settlers on the west island, and the
government issued a proclamation offering leases of grazing stations on
very moderate terms. In 1868 all the available land was occupied. These
lands are fairly healthy, the principal drawback being the virulent form
assumed by simple epidemic maladies. The occupation of the inhabitants
is almost entirely pastoral, and the principal industry is
sheep-farming. Wool forms by far the largest export, and tallow, hides,
bones and frozen mutton are also exported. Trade is carried on almost
entirely with the United Kingdom; the approximate annual value of
exports is £120,000, and of imports a little more than half that sum.
The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an
important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive
business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the
general import trade. The development of this undertaking necessitated
the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and ships can be
repaired and provided in every way; a matter of importance since not a
few vessels, after suffering injury during heavy weather off Cape Horn,
call on the Falklands in distress. The maintenance of the requisite
plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly. A
former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller
number of whales and seals remaining about the islands. Communications
are maintained on horseback and by water, and there are no roads except
at Stanley. There is a monthly mail to and from England, the passage
occupying about four weeks.

The Falkland Islands are a crown colony, with a governor and executive
and legislative councils. The legislative council consists of the
governor and three official and two unofficial nominated members, and
the executive of the same, with the exception that there is only one
unofficial member. The colony is self-supporting, the revenue being
largely derived from the drink duties, and there is no public debt. The
Falklands are the seat of a colonial bishop. Education is compulsory.
The government maintains schools and travelling teachers; the Falkland
Islands Company also maintains a school at Darwin, and there is one for
those of the Roman Catholic faith in Stanley. There is also on Keppel
Island a Protestant missionary settlement for the training in
agriculture of imported Fuegians. Stanley was for some years a naval
station, but ceased to be so in 1904.

The Falkland Islands were first seen, by Davis in the year 1592, and Sir
Richard Hawkins sailed along their north shore in 1594. The claims of
Amerigo Vespucci to a previous discovery are doubtful. In 1598 Sebald de
Wert, a Dutchman, visited them, and called them the Sebald Islands, a
name which they bear on some Dutch maps. Captain Strong sailed through
between the two principal islands in 1690, landed upon one of them, and
called the passage Falkland Sound, and from this the group afterwards
took its English name. In 1764 the French explorer De Bougainville took
possession of the islands on behalf of his country, and established a
colony at Port Louis on Berkeley Sound. But in 1767 France ceded the
islands to Spain, De Bougainville being employed as intermediary.
Meanwhile in 1765 Commodore Byron had taken possession on the part of
England on the ground of prior discovery, and had formed a settlement at
Port Egmont on the small island of Saunders. The Spanish and English
settlers remained in ignorance, real or assumed, of each other's
presence until 1769-1770, when Byron's action was nearly the cause of a
war between England and Spain, both countries having armed fleets to
contest the barren sovereignty. In 1771, however, Spain yielded the
islands to Great Britain by convention. As they had not been actually
colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in
1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of
America concerning the rights to the products of these islands. On the
representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the
British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that
time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.

In 1845 Mr S. Lafone, a wealthy cattle and hide merchant on the river
Plate, obtained from government a grant of the southern portion of the
island, a peninsula 600,000 acres in extent, and possession of all the
wild cattle on the island for a period of six years, for a payment of
£10,000 down, and £20,000 in ten years from January 1, 1852. In 1851 Mr
Lafone's interest in Lafonia, as the peninsula came to be called, was
purchased for £30,000 by the Falkland Islands Company, which had been
incorporated by charter in the same year.

  See Pernety, _Journal historique d'une voyage faite aux îles Malouines
  en 1763 et 1764_ (Berlin, 1767); S. Johnson, _Thoughts on the late
  Transactions respecting Falkland's Islands_ (1771); L.A. de
  Bougainville, _Voyage autour du monde_ (1771); T. Falkner,
  _Description of Patagonia and the Falkland Islands_ (1774); B.
  Penrose, _Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the
  Falkland Islands_ (1775); _Observations on the Forcible Occupation of
  Malvinas by the British Government in 1833_ (Buenos Ayres, 1833);
  _Reclamacion del Gobierno de las provincias Unidas de la Plata contra
  el de S.M. Britanica sobre la soverania y possesion de las Islas
  Malvinas_ (London, 1841); Fitzroy, _Narrative of the Surveying Voyage
  of H.M.S. "Adventure" and "Beagle"_ (1839); Darwin, _Voyage of a
  Naturalist round the World_ (1845); S.B. Sullivan, _Description of the
  Falkland Islands_ (1849); W. Hadfield, _Brazil, the Falkland Islands,
  &c._ (1854); W. Parker Snow, _Two Years' Cruise off the Tierra del
  Fuego, the Falkland Islands, &c._ (1857); Sir C. Wyville Thomson,
  _Voyage of the "Challenger"_ (1877); C.P. Lucas, _Historical Geography
  of the British Colonies_, vol. ii. "The West Indies" (Oxford, 1890);
  _Colonial Reports Annual_; MS. Sloane, 3295.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See B Stechele, in _Münchener geographische Studien_, xx.(1906),
    and _Geographical Journal_ (December 1907).



FALLACY (Lat. _fall-ax_, apt to mislead), the term given generally to
any mistaken statement used in argument; in Logic, technically, an
argument which violates the laws of correct demonstration. An argument
may be fallacious in _matter_ (i.e. misstatement of facts), in _wording_
(i.e. wrong use of words), or in the _process of inference_. Fallacies
have, therefore, been classified as: I. Material, II. Verbal, III.
Logical Of Formal; II. and III. are often included under the general
description _Logical_, and in scholastic phraseology, following
Aristotle, are called fallacies _in dictione_ or _in voce_, as opposed
to material fallacies _in re_ or _extra dictionem_.

I. _Material._--The classification widely adopted by modern logicians
and based on that of Aristotle, _Organon_ (_Sophistici elenchi_), is as
follows:--(1) _Fallacy of Accident_, i.e. arguing erroneously from a
general rule to a particular case, without proper regard to particular
conditions which vitiate the application of the general rule; e.g. if
manhood suffrage be the law, arguing that a criminal or a lunatic must,
therefore, have a vote; (2) _Converse Fallacy of Accident_, i.e. arguing
from a special case to a general rule; (3) _Irrelevant Conclusion_, or
_Ignoratio Elenchi_, wherein, instead of proving the fact in dispute,
the arguer seeks to gain his point by diverting attention to some
extraneous fact (as in the legal story of "No case. Abuse the
plaintiff's attorney"). Under this head come the so-called argumentum
(a) _ad hominem_, (b) _ad populum_, (c) _ad baculum_, (d) _ad
verecundiam_, common in platform oratory, in which the speaker obscures
the real issue by appealing to his audience on the grounds of (a) purely
personal considerations, (b) popular sentiment, (c) fear, (d)
conventional propriety. This fallacy has been illustrated by ethical or
theological arguments wherein the fear of punishment is subtly
substituted for abstract right as the sanction of moral obligation. (4)
_Petitio principii_ (begging the question) or _Circulus in probando_
(arguing in a circle), which consists in demonstrating a conclusion by
means of premises which presuppose that conclusion. Jeremy Bentham
points out that this fallacy may lurk in a single word, especially in an
epithet, e.g. if a measure were condemned simply on the ground that it
is alleged to be "un-English"; (5) _Fallacy of the Consequent_, really a
species of (3), wherein a conclusion is drawn from premises which do not
really support it; (6) _Fallacy of False Cause_, or Non Sequitur ("it
does not follow"), wherein one thing is incorrectly assumed as the cause
of another, as when the ancients attributed a public calamity to a
meteorological phenomenon; (7) _Fallacy of Many Questions_ (_Plurium
Interrogationum_), wherein several questions are improperly grouped in
the form of one, and a direct categorical answer is demanded, e.g. if a
prosecuting counsel asked the prisoner "What time was it when you met
this man?" with the intention of eliciting the tacit admission that such
a meeting had taken place.

II. _Verbal Fallacies_ are those in which a false conclusion is obtained
by improper or ambiguous use of words. They are generally classified as
follows. (1) _Equivocation_ consists in employing the same word in two
or more senses, e.g. in a syllogism, the middle term being used in one
sense in the major and another in the minor premise, so that in fact
there are _four_ not _three_ terms ("All fair things are honourable;
This woman is fair; therefore this woman is honourable," the second
"fair" being in reference to complexion). (2) _Amphibology_ is the
result of ambiguity of grammatical structure, e.g. of the position of
the adverb "only" in careless writers ("He only said that," in which
sentence, as experience shows, the adverb has been intended to qualify
any one of the other three words). (3) _Composition_, a species of (1),
which results from the confused use of collective terms ("The angles of
a triangle are less than two right angles" might refer to the angles
separately or added together). (4) _Division_, the converse of the
preceding, which consists in employing the middle term distributively in
the minor and collectively in the major premise. (5) _Accent_, which
occurs only in speaking and consists of emphasizing the wrong word in a
sentence ("He is a fairly good pianist," according to the emphasis on
the words, may imply praise of a beginner's progress, or an expert's
depreciation of a popular hero, or it may imply that the person in
question is a deplorable violinist). (6) _Figure of Speech_, the
confusion between the metaphorical and ordinary uses of a word or
phrase.

III. The purely _Logical_ or Formal _fallacies_ consist in the violation
of the formal rules of the Syllogism (q.v.). They are (a) fallacy of
Four Terms (_Quaternio terminorum_); (b) of Undistributed Middle; (c) of
Illicit process of the major or the minor term; (d) of Negative
Premises.

Of other classifications of Fallacies in general the most famous are
those of Francis Bacon and J.S. Mill. Bacon (_Novum organum_, Aph. i.
33, 38 sqq.) divided fallacies into four _Idola_ (Idols, i.e. False
Appearances), which summarize the various kinds of mistakes to which the
human intellect is prone (see BACON, FRANCIS). With these should be
compared the _Offendicula_ of Roger Bacon, contained in the _Opus
maius_, pt. i. (see BACON, ROGER). J.S. Mill discussed the subject in
book v. of his _Logic_, and Jeremy Bentham's _Book of Fallacies_ (1824)
contains valuable remarks.

  See Rd. Whateley's _Logic_, bk. v.; A. de Morgan, _Formal Logic_
  (1847); A. Sidgwick, _Fallacies_ (1883) and other text-books. See also
  article LOGIC, and for fallacies of Induction, see INDUCTION.



FALLIÈRES, CLÉMENT ARMAND (1841-   ), president of the French republic,
was born at Mézin in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, where his father
was clerk of the peace. He studied law and became an advocate at Nérac,
beginning his public career there as municipal councillor (1868),
afterwards mayor (1871), and as councillor-general of the department of
Lot-et-Garonne (1871). Being an ardent Republican, he lost this position
in May 1873 upon the fall of Thiers, but in February 1876 was elected
deputy for Nérac. In the chamber he sat with the Republican Left, signed
the protestation of the 18th of May 1877, and was re-elected in October
by his constituency. In 1880 he became under-secretary of state in the
department of the interior in the Jules Ferry ministry (May 1880 to
November 1881). From the 7th of August 1882 to the 20th of February 1883
he was minister of the interior, and for a month (from the 29th of
January 1883) was premier. His ministry had to face the question of the
expulsion of the pretenders to the throne of France, owing to the
proclamation by Prince Jérome Napoleon (January 1883), and M. Fallières,
who was ill at the time, was not able to face the storm of opposition,
and resigned when the senate rejected his project. In the following
November, however, he was chosen as minister of public instruction by
Jules Ferry, and carried out various reforms in the school system. He
resigned with the ministry in March 1885. Again becoming minister of the
interior in the Rouvier cabinet in May 1887, he exchanged his portfolio
in December for that of justice. He returned to the ministry of the
interior in February 1889, and finally took the department of justice
from March 1890 to February 1892. In June 1890 his department
(Lot-et-Garonne) elected him to the senate by 417 votes to 23. There M.
Fallières remained somewhat apart from party struggles, although
maintaining his influence among the Republicans. In March 1899 he was
elected president of the senate, and retained that position until
January 1906, when he was chosen by a union of the groups of the Left in
both chambers as candidate for the presidency of the republic. He was
elected on the first ballot by 449 votes against 371 for his opponent,
Paul Doumer.



FALL-LINE, in American geology, a line marking the junction between the
hard rocks of the Appalachian Mountains and the softer deposits of the
coastal plain. The pre-Cambrian and metamorphic rocks of the mountain
mass form a continuous ledge parallel to the east coast, where they are
subject to denudation and form a series of "falls" and rapids in the
river courses all along this line. The relief of the land below the
falls is very slight, and this low country rarely rises to a height of
200 ft., so that the rivers are navigable up to the falls, while the
falls themselves are a valuable source of power. A line of cities may be
traced upon the map whose position will thus be readily understood in
relation to the economic importance of the fall-line. They are Trenton
on the Delaware, Philadelphia on the Schuylkill, Georgetown on the
Potomac, Richmond on the James, and Augusta on the Savannah. It will be
readily understood that the softer and more recent rocks of the coastal
plain have been more easily washed away, while the harder rocks of the
mountains, owing to differential denudation, are left standing high
above them, and that the trend of the edge of this great lenticular
mass of ancient rock is roughly parallel to that of the Appalachian
system.



FALLMERAYER, JAKOB PHILIPP (1790-1861), German traveller and historical
investigator, best known for his opinions in regard to the ethnology of
the modern Greeks, was born, the son of a poor peasant, at Tschötsch,
near Brixen in Tirol, on the 10th of December 1790. In 1809 he absconded
from the cathedral choir school at Brixen and made his way to Salzburg,
where he supported himself by private teaching while he studied
theology, the Semitic languages, and history. After a year's study he
sought to assure to himself the peace and quiet necessary for a
student's life by entering the abbey of Kremsmünster, but difficulties
put in his way by the Bavarian officials prevented the accomplishment of
this intention. At the university of Landshut, to which he removed in
1812, he first applied himself to jurisprudence, but soon devoted his
attention exclusively to history and philology. His immediate
necessities were provided for by a rich patron. During the Napoleonic
wars he joined the Bavarian infantry as a subaltern in 1813, fought at
Hanau (30th October 1813), and served throughout the campaign in France.
He remained in the army of occupation on the banks of the Rhine until
Waterloo, when he spent six months at Orleans as adjutant to General von
Spreti. Two years of garrison life at Lindau on Lake Constance after the
peace were spent in the study of modern Greek, Persian and Turkish.

Resigning his commission in 1818, he was successively engaged as teacher
in the gymnasium at Augsburg and in the progymnasium and lyceum at
Landshut. In 1827 he won the gold medal offered by the university of
Copenhagen with his _Geschichte des Kaisertums von Trapezunt_, based on
patient investigation of Greek and oriental MSS. at Venice and Vienna.
The strictures on priestcraft contained in the preface to this book gave
offence to the authorities, and his position was not improved by the
liberal views expressed in his _Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea während
des Mittelalters_ (Stuttgart, 1830-1836, 2 pts.). The three years from
1831 to 1834 he spent in travel with the Russian count Ostermann
Tolstoy, visiting Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Cyprus, Rhodes,
Constantinople, Greece and Naples. On his return he was elected in 1835
a member of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences, but he soon after
left the country again on account of political troubles, and spent the
greater part of the next four years in travel, spending the winter of
1839-1840 with Count Tolstoy at Geneva. Constantinople, Trebizond,
Athos, Macedonia, Thessaly and Greece were visited by him during
1840-1841; and after some years' residence in Munich he returned in 1847
to the East, and travelled in Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor. The
authorities continued to regard him with suspicion, and university
students were forbidden to attend the lectures he delivered at Munich.
He entered, however, into friendly relations with the crown prince
Maximilian, but this intimacy was destroyed by the events following on
1848. At that period he was appointed professor of history in the Munich
University, and made a member of the national congress at
Frankfort-on-Main. He there joined the left or opposition party, and in
the following year he accompanied the rump-parliament to Stuttgart, a
course of action which led to his expulsion from his professorate.
During the winter of 1849-1850 he was an exile in Switzerland, but the
amnesty of April 1850 enabled him to return to Munich. He died on the
26th of April 1861.

His contributions to the medieval history of Greece are of great value,
and though his theory that the Greeks of the present day are of Albanian
and Slav descent, with hardly a drop of true Greek blood in their veins,
has not been accepted in its entirety by other investigators, it has
served to modify the opinions of even his greatest opponents. A
criticism of his views will be found in Hopf's _Geschichte
Griechenlands_ (reprinted from Ersch and Gruber's _Encykl._) and in
Finlay's _History of Greece in the Middle Ages_. Another theory which he
propounded and defended with great vigour was that the capture of
Constantinople by Russia was inevitable, and would lead to the
absorption by the Russian empire of the whole of the Balkan and Grecian
peninsula; and that this extended empire would constitute a standing
menace to the western Germanic nations. These views he expressed in a
series of brilliant articles in German journals. His most important
contribution to learning remains his history of the empire of Trebizond.
Prior to his discovery of the chronicle of Michael Panaretos, covering
the dominion of Alexus Comnenus and his successors from 1204 to 1426,
the history of this medieval empire was practically unknown.

  His works are--_Geschichte des Kaiserthums Trapezunt_ (Munich,
  1827-1848); _Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea im Mittelalter_
  (Stuttgart, 1830-1836); _Über die Entstehung der Neugriechen_
  (Stuttgart, 1835); "Originalfragmente, Chroniken, u.s.w., zur
  Geschichte des K. Trapezunts" (Munich, 1843), in _Abhandl. der hist.
  Classe der K. Bayerisch. Akad. v. Wiss.; Fragmente aus dem Orient_
  (Stuttgart, 1845); _Denkschrift über Golgotha und das heilige Grab_
  (Munich, 1852), and _Das Todte Meer_ (1853)--both of which had
  appeared in the _Abhandlungen_ of the Academy; _Das albanesische
  Element in Griechenland_, iii. parts, in the _Abhandl._ for 1860-1866.
  After his death there appeared at Leipzig in 1861, under the
  editorship of G.M. Thomas, three volumes of _Gesammelte Werke_,
  containing _Neue Fragmente aus dem Orient, Kritische Versuche_, and
  _Studien und Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben_. A sketch of his life will
  also be found in L. Steub, _Herbsttage in Tyrol_ (Munich, 1867).



FALLOPIUS (or FALLOPIO), GABRIELLO (1523-1562), Italian anatomist, was
born about 1523 at Modena, where he became a canon of the cathedral. He
studied medicine at Ferrara, and, after a European tour, became teacher
of anatomy in that city. He thence removed to Pisa, and from Pisa, at
the instance of Cosmo I., grand-duke of Tuscany, to Padua, where,
besides the chairs of anatomy and surgery and of botany, he held the
office of superintendent of the new botanical garden. He died at Padua
on the 9th of October 1562. Only one treatise by Fallopius appeared
during his lifetime, namely the _Observationes anatomicae_ (Venice,
1561). His collected works, _Opera genuina omnia_, were published at
Venice in 1584. (See ANATOMY.)



FALLOUX, FRÉDÉRIC ALFRED PIERRE, COMTE DE (1811-1886), French politician
and author, was born at Angers on the 11th of May 1811. His father had
been ennobled by Charles X., and Falloux began his career as a
Legitimist and clerical journalist under the influence of Mme Swetchine.
In 1846 he entered the legislature as deputy for Maine-et-Loire, and
with many other ultra-Catholics he gave real or pretended support to the
revolution of 1848. Louis Napoleon made him minister of education in
1849, but disagreements with the president led to his resignation within
a year. He had nevertheless secured the passage of the Loi Falloux
(March 15, 1850) for the organization of primary and secondary
education. This law provided that the clergy and members of
ecclesiastical orders, male and female, might exercise the profession of
teaching without producing any further qualification. This exemption was
extended even to priests who taught in secondary schools, where a
university degree was exacted from lay teachers. The primary schools
were put under the management of the curés. Falloux was elected to the
French Academy in 1856. His failure to secure re-election to the
legislature in 1866, 1869, 1870 and 1871 was due to the opposition of
the stricter Legitimists, who viewed with suspicion his attempts to
reconcile the Orleans princes with Henri, comte de Chambord. In spite of
his failure to enter the National Assembly his influence was very great,
and was increased by the intimacy of his personal relations with Thiers.
But in 1872 he offended both sections of the monarchical party at a
conference arranged in the hope of effecting a fusion between the
partisans of the comte de Chambord and of the Orleans princes, divided
on the vexed question of the flag. He suggested that the comte de
Chambord might recede from his position with dignity at the desire of
the National Assembly, and not content with this encroachment on
royalist principles, he insinuated the possibility of a transitional
stage with the duc d'Aumale as president of the republic. His disgrace
was so complete that he was excommunicated by the bishop of Angers in
1876. He died on the 16th of January 1886.

  Of his numerous works the best known are his _Histoire de Louis XVI_
  (1840); _Histoire de Saint Pie_ (1845); _De la contre-revolution_
  (1876); and the posthumous _Mémoires d'un royaliste_ (2 vols., 1888).



FALLOW, land ploughed and tilled, but left unsown, usually for a year,
in order, on the one hand, to disintegrate, aërate and free it from
weeds, and, on the other, to allow it to recuperate. The word was
probably early confused with "fallow" (from O. Eng. _fealu_, probably
cognate with Gr. [Greek: polios], grey), of a pale-brown or yellow
colour, often applied to soil left unfilled and unsown, but chiefly seen
in the name of the "fallow deer." The true derivation is from the O.
Eng. _fealga_, only found in the plural, a harrow, and the ultimate
origin is a Teutonic root meaning "to plough," cf. the German _falgen_.
The recognition that continuous growing of wheat on the same area of
land robs the soil of its fertility was universal among ancient peoples,
and the practice of "fallowing" or resting the soil is as old as
agriculture itself. The "Sabbath rest" ordered to be given every seventh
year to the land by the Mosaic law is a classical instance of the
"fallow." Improvements in crop rotations and manuring have diminished
the necessity of the "bare fallow," which is uneconomical because the
land is left unproductive, and because the nitrates in the soil
unintercepted by the roots of plants are washed away in the drainage
waters. At the present time bare fallowing is, in general, only
advisable on stiff soils and in dry climates. A "green fallow" is land
planted with turnips, potatoes or some similar crop in rows, the space
between which may be cleared of weeds by hoeing. The "bastard fallow" is
a modification of the bare fallow, effected by the growth of rye,
vetches, or some other rapidly growing crop, sown in autumn and fed off
in spring, the land then undergoing the processes of ploughing, grubbing
and harrowing usual in the bare fallow.



FALLOW-DEER (that is, DUN DEER, in contradistinction to the red deer,
_Cervus [Dama] dama_), a medium-sized representative of the family
_Cervidae_, characterized by its expanded or palmated antlers, which
generally have no bez-tine, rather long tail (black above and white
below), and a coat spotted with white in summer but uniformly coloured
in winter. The shoulder height is about 3 ft. The species is
semi-domesticated in British parks, and occurs wild in western Asia,
North Africa, the south of Europe and Sardinia. In prehistoric times it
occurred throughout northern and central Europe. One park-breed has no
spots. Bucks and does live apart except during the pairing-season; and
the doe produces one or two, and sometimes three fawns at a birth. These
deer are particularly fond of horse-chestnuts, which the stags are said
to endeavour to procure by striking at the branches with their antlers.
The Persian fallow-deer (C. [D.] _mesopotamicus_), a native of the
mountains of Luristan, is larger than the typical species, and has a
brighter coat, differing in some details of colouring. The antlers have
the trez-tine near the small brow-tine, and the palmation beginning near
the former. Here may be mentioned the gigantic fossil deer commonly
known as the Irish elk, which is perhaps a giant type of fallow-deer,
and if so should be known as _Cervus (Dama) giganteus_. If a distinct
type, its title should be _C. (Megaceros) giganteus_. This deer
inhabited Ireland, Great Britain, central and northern Europe, and
western Asia in Pleistocene and prehistoric times; and must have stood 6
ft. high at the shoulder. The antlers are greatly palmated and of
enormous size, fine specimens measuring as much as 11 ft. between the
tips.



FALL RIVER, a city of Bristol county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on
Mount Hope Bay, at the mouth of the Taunton river, 49 m. S. of Boston.
Pop. (1890) 74,398; (1900) 104,863; (estimated, 1906) 105,942;[1] (1910
census) 119,295. It is the third city in size of the commonwealth. Of
the population in 1900, 50,042, or 47.7%, were foreign-born, 90,244 were
of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both parents were foreign), and
of these 81,721 had both foreign father and foreign mother. Of the
foreign-born, 20,172 were French Canadians, 2329 were English Canadians,
12,268 were from England, 1045 were from Scotland, 7317 were from
Ireland, 2805 were from Portugal, and 1095 were from Russia, various
other countries being represented by smaller numbers. Fall River is
served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and has good
steamer connexions with Providence, Newport and New York, notably by the
"Fall River Line," which is much used, in connexion with the N.Y., N.H.
& H. railway, by travellers between New York and Boston. The harbour is
large, deep and easy of access. The city lies on a plateau and on slopes
that rise rather steeply from the river, and is irregularly laid out.
Granite underlying the city furnishes excellent building material; among
the principal buildings are the state armoury, the county court house,
the B.M.C. Durfee high school, the custom house, Notre Dame College, the
church of Notre Dame, the church of St Anne, the Central Congregational
church and the public library. The commonwealth aids in maintaining a
textile school (the Bradford Durfee textile school), opened in 1904. The
city library contained in 1908 about 78,500 volumes. There is
considerable commerce, but it is as a manufacturing centre that Fall
River is best known. Above the city, on the plateau, about 2 m. from the
bay, are the Watuppa Lakes, 7 m. long and on an average three-fourths of
a mile wide, and from them runs the Fall (Quequechan) river, with a
constant flow and descending near its mouth through 127 ft. in less than
half a mile. The conjunction of water transportation and water power is
thus remarkable, and accounts in great part for the city's rapid growth.
The waters of the North Watuppa Lake (which is fed by springs and drains
out a very small area) are also exceptionally pure and furnish an
excellent water-supply. The Fall river runs directly through the city
(passing beneath the city hall), and along its banks are long rows of
cotton mills; formerly many of these were run by water power, and their
wheels were placed directly in the stream bed, but steam power is now
used almost exclusively. According to the special census of manufactures
of 1905, the value of all factory products for the calendar year 1904
was $43,473,105, of which amount $35,442,581, or 81.5%, consisted of
cotton goods and dyeing and finishing, making Fall River the largest
producer of cotton goods among American cities.[2] A large hat
manufactory (the Marshall Brothers' factory) furnishes the United States
army with hats. Until forced by the competition of mills in the Southern
states to direct attention to finer products, the cotton manufacturers
of Fall River devoted themselves almost exclusively to the making of
print cloth, in which respect the city was long distinguished from
Lawrence and Lowell, whose products were more varied and of higher
grade. The number of spindles increased from 265,328 in 1865 to
1,269,043 in 1875, 3,000,000 in 1900, and to about 3,500,000 in 1906.
Excellent drainage and sewerage systems contribute to the city's health.
The birth-rate was in 1900 the highest (38.75) of any city in the
country of above 30,000 inhabitants (three of the four next highest
being Massachusetts towns). The social conditions and labour problems of
Fall River have long been exceptional. The mills supplement the public
schools in the mingling of races and the work for Americanization, and
labour disturbances, for which Fall River was once conspicuous, have
become less frequent and less bitter, the great strike of
1904-1905--perhaps the greatest in the history of the textile industry
in the United States--being marked by little or no violence. Fall River
has become a "city of homes," and tenements are giving way to dwellings
for one or two families. The lists of the city's corporation
stockholders show more than 10,000 names. The municipal police is
controlled (as nowhere else in the state save in Boston) by a state
board; this arrangement is generally regarded as having worked for
better order. Lowell was about three times as large as Fall River in
1850, and Lawrence was larger until after 1870. Fall River was
originally a part of Freetown; it was incorporated as a township in 1803
(being known as "Troy" in 1804-1834), and was chartered as a city in
1854. In 1861 it was increased by certain territory secured from Rhode
Island, the city having spread across the state boundary and become
subject to a divided jurisdiction. In 1902 the city received a new
charter. Its manufactures amounted to little before the War of 1812. A
disastrous fire occurred in 1843 (loss above $500,000). In 1904 Fall
River became the see of the Roman Catholic diocese of that name.

  See H.H. Earl, _Centennial History of Fall River ... 1656-1876_ (New
  York, 1877); and the report of Carroll D. Wright on _Fall River,
  Lowell and Lawrence_, in 13th annual report of the Massachusetts
  Bureau of Statistics of Labor (1882), which, however, was regarded as
  unjust and partial by the manufacturers of Fall River.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The small increase between 1900 and 1906 was due in large part to
    the emigration of many of the inhabitants during the great strike of
    1904-1905.

  [2] The above figures do not show adequately the full importance of
    Fall River as a cotton manufacturing centre, for during six months of
    the census year the great strike was in progress; this strike, caused
    by a reduction in wages, lasted from the 25th of July 1904 to the
    18th of January 1905.



FALMOUTH, a municipal and contributary parliamentary borough and seaport
of Cornwall, England, 306 m. W.S.W. of London, on a branch of the Great
Western railway. Pop. (1901) 11,789. It is finely situated on the west
shore of the largest of the many estuaries which open upon the south
coast of the county. This is entered by several streams, of which the
largest is the Fal. Falmouth harbour lies within Pendennis Point, which
shelters the estuary from the more open Falmouth Bay. The Penryn river,
coming in from the north-west, forms one of several shallow, winding
arms of the estuary, the main channel of which is known as Carrick
Roads. To the east Pendennis Castle stands on its lofty promontory,
while on the opposite side of the roads the picturesque inlet of the
Porthcuel river opens between Castle Point on the north, with St Mawes'
Castle, and St Anthony Head and Zoze Point on the south. The shores of
the estuary as a rule slope sharply up to about 250 ft., and are
beautifully wooded. The entrance is 1 m. across, and the roads form one
of the best refuges for shipping on the south coast, being accessible at
all times by the largest vessels. Among the principal buildings and
institutions in Falmouth are the town hall, market-house, hall of the
Cornwall Polytechnic Society, a meteorological and magnetic observatory,
and a submarine mining establishment. The Royal Cornwall Yacht Club has
its headquarters here, and in the annual regatta the principal prize is
a cup given by the prince of Wales as duke of Cornwall. Engineering,
shipbuilding, brewing and the manufacture of manure are carried on, and
there are oyster and trawl fisheries, especially for pilchard. The inner
harbour, under the jurisdiction partly of commissioners and partly of a
dock company, is enclosed between two breakwaters, of which the eastern
has 23 ft. of water at lowest tides alongside. The area of the harbour
is 42 acres, with nearly 700 lineal yards of quayage. There are two
graving docks, and repairing yards. Grain, timber, coal and guano and
other manures are imported, and granite, china clay, copper ore, ropes
and fish exported. Falmouth is also in favour as a watering-place. The
parliamentary borough of Penryn and Falmouth returns one member. The
municipal borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area,
790 acres.

Falmouth (Falemuth) as a haven and port has had a place in the maritime
history of Cornwall from very early times. The site of the town, which
is comparatively modern, was formerly known as Smithick and
Pennycomequick and formed part of the manor of Arwenack held by the
family of Killigrew. The corporations of Penryn, Truro and Helston
opposed the undertaking, but the lords in council, to whom the matter
was referred, decided in Killigrew's favour. In 1652 the House of
Commons considered that it would be advantageous to the Commonwealth to
grant a Thursday market to Smithick. This market was confirmed to Sir
Peter Killigrew in 1660 together with two fairs, on the 30th of October
and the 27th of July, and also a ferry between Smithick and Flushing. By
the charter of incorporation granted in the following year the name was
changed to Falmouth, and a mayor, recorder, 7 aldermen and 12 burgesses
constituted a common council with the usual rights and privileges. Three
years later an act creating the borough a separate ecclesiastical parish
empowered the mayor and aldermen to assess all buildings within the town
at the rate of sixteen pence in the pound for the support of the rector.
This rector's rate occasioned much ill-feeling in modern times, and by
act of parliament in 1896 was taken over by the corporation, and
provision made for its eventual extinction. The disfranchisement of
Penryn, which had long been a subject of debate in the House of
Commons, was settled in 1832, by uniting Penryn with Falmouth for
parliamentary purposes and assigning two members to the united boroughs.
By the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the number of members was
reduced to one. The fairs granted in 1660 are no longer held, and a
Saturday market has superseded the chartered market. In the 17th and
18th centuries Falmouth grew in importance owing to its being a station
of the Packet Service for the conveyance of mails.



FALSE POINT, a landlocked harbour in the Cuttack district of Bengal,
India. It was reported by the famine commissioners in 1867 to be the
best harbour on the coast of India from the Hugli to Bombay. It derives
its name from the circumstance that vessels proceeding up the Bay of
Bengal frequently mistook it for Point Palmyras, a degree farther north.
The anchorage is safe, roomy and completely landlocked, but large
vessels are obliged to lie out at some distance from its mouth in an
exposed roadstead. The capabilities of False Point as a harbour remained
long unknown, and it was only in 1860 that the port was opened. It was
rapidly developed, owing to the construction of the Orissa canals. Two
navigable channels lead inland across the Mahanadi delta, and connect
the port with Cuttack city. The trade of False Point is chiefly with
other Indian harbours, but a large export trade in rice and oil-seeds
has sprung up with Mauritius, the French colonies and France. False
Point is now a regular port of call for Anglo-Indian coasting steamers.
Its capabilities were first appreciated during the Orissa famine of
1866, when it afforded almost the only means by which supplies of rice
could be thrown into the province. A lighthouse is situated a little to
the south of the anchorage, on the point which screens it from the
southern monsoon.



FALSE PRETENCES, in English law, the obtaining from any other person by
any false pretence any chattel, money or valuable security, with intent
to defraud. It is an indictable misdemeanour under the Larceny Act of
1861. The broad distinction between this offence and larceny is that in
the former the owner intends to part with his property, in the latter he
does not. This offence dates as a statutory crime practically from 1756.
At common law the only remedy originally available for an owner who had
been deprived of his goods by fraud was an indictment for the crime of
cheating, or a civil action for deceit. These remedies were insufficient
to cover all cases where money or other properties had been obtained by
false pretences, and the offence was first partially created by a
statute of Henry VIII. (1541), which enacted that if any person should
falsely and deceitfully obtain any money, goods, &c., by means of any
false token or counterfeit letter made in any other man's name, the
offender should suffer any punishment other than death, at the
discretion of the judge. The scope of the offence was enlarged to
include practically all false pretences by the act of 1756, the
provisions of which were embodied in the Larceny Act 1861.

The principal points to notice are that the pretence must be a false
pretence of some existing fact, made for the purpose of inducing the
prosecutor to part with his property (e.g. it was held not to be a false
pretence to promise to pay for goods on delivery), and it may be by
either words or conduct. The property, too, must have been actually
obtained by the false pretence. The owner must be induced by the
pretence to make over the absolute and immediate ownership of the goods,
otherwise it is "larceny by means of a trick." It is not always easy,
however, to draw a distinction between the various classes of offences.
In the case where a man goes into a restaurant and orders a meal, and,
after consuming it, says that he has no means of paying for it, it was
usual to convict for obtaining food by false pretences. But _R._ v.
_Jones_, 1898, L.R. 1 Q.B. 119 decided that it is neither larceny nor
false pretences, but an offence under the Debtors Act 1869, of obtaining
credit by fraud. (See also CHEATING; FRAUD; LARCENY.)

_United States._--American statutes on this subject are mainly copied
from the English statutes, and the courts there in a general way follow
the English interpretations. The statutes of each state must be
consulted. There is no Federal statute, though there are Federal laws
providing penalties for false personation of the lawful owner of public
stocks, &c., or of persons entitled to pensions, prize money, &c. (U.S.
Rev. Stats. § 5435), or the false making of any order purporting to be a
money order (id. § 5463).

In Arizona, obtaining money or property by falsely personating another
is punishable as for larceny (Penal Code, 1901, § 479). Obtaining credit
by false pretences as to wealth and mercantile character is punishable
by six months' imprisonment and a fine not exceeding three times the
value of the money or property obtained (id. § 481).

In Illinois, whoever by any false representation or writing signed by
him, of his own respectability, wealth or mercantile correspondence or
connexions, obtains credit and thereby defrauds any person of money,
goods, chattels or any valuable thing, or who procures another to make a
false report of his honesty, wealth, &c., shall return the money, goods,
&c., and be fined and imprisoned for a term not exceeding one year
(Crim. Code, 1903, ch. xxxviii. §§ 96, 97). Obtaining money or property
by bogus cheques, the "confidence game" (_Dorr_ v. _People_, 1907, §
228, Ill. 216), or "three card monte," sleight of hand, fortune-telling,
&c., is punishable by imprisonment for from one to ten years (id. §§ 98,
100). Obtaining goods from warehouse, mill or wharf by fraudulent
receipt wrongly stating amount of goods deposited--by imprisonment for
not less than one nor more than ten years (id. § 124). Fraudulent use of
railroad passes is a misdemeanour (id. 125a).

In Massachusetts it is simple larceny to obtain by false pretences the
money or personal chattel of another (Rev. Laws, 1902, ch. ccviii. §
26). Obtaining by a false pretence with intent to defraud the signature
of a person to a written instrument, the false making whereof would be
forgery, is punishable by imprisonment in a state prison or by fine (id.
§ 27).

In New York, obtaining property by false pretences, felonious breach of
trust and embezzlement are included in the term "larceny" (Penal Code, §
528; _Paul_ v. _Dumar_, 106 N.Y. 508; _People_ v. _Tattlekan_, 1907, 104
N.Y. Suppl. 805), but the methods of proof required to establish each
crime remain as before the code. Obtaining lodging and food on credit at
hotel or lodging house with intent to defraud is a misdemeanour (Pen.
Code, § 382). Purchase of property by false pretences as to person's
means or ability to pay is not criminal when in writing signed by the
party to be charged (Pen. Code, § 544).



FALTICHENI (_Faltiçeni_), the capital of the department of Suceava,
Rumania, situated on a small right-hand tributary of the Sereth, among
the hills of north-west Moldavia, and 2 m. S.E. of the frontier of
Bukovina. Pop. (1900) 9643, about half being Jews. A branch railway runs
for 15 m. to join the main line between Czernowitz in Bukovina, and
Galatz. The Suceava department (named after Suceava or Suciava, its
former capital, now Suczawa in Bukowina) is densely forested; its
considerable timber trade centres in Falticheni. For five weeks, from
the 20th July onwards, Russians and Austro-Hungarians, as well as
Rumans, attend the fair which is held at Falticheni, chiefly for the
sale of horses, carriages and cattle.



FALUN, a town of Sweden, capital of the district (_län_) of Kopparberg,
153 m. N.W. of Stockholm by rail. Pop. (1900) 9606. It is situated in a
bare and rocky country near the western shore of lake Runn. Here are the
oldest and most celebrated copper mines in Europe. Their produce has
gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but
sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and
sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced. The mines belong to the
Kopparberg Mining Company (_Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag_,
formerly _Kopparbergslagen_). This is the oldest industrial corporation
in Sweden, and perhaps the oldest still existing in the world; it is
known to have been established before 1347. Since its reorganization as
a joint-stock company in 1890 many of the shares have been held by the
crown, philanthropic institutions and other public bodies. The company
also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at
Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and
besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and
steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal. Falun has also railway
rolling-stock factories. There are museums of mineralogy and geology, a
lower school of mining, model room and scientific library. The so-called
"Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was
actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.



FAMA (Gr. [Greek: Phêmê, Ossa]), in classical mythology, the
personification of Rumour. The Homeric equivalent _Ossa_ (_Iliad_, ii.
93) is represented as the messenger of Zeus, who spreads reports with
the rapidity of a conflagration. Homer does not personify _Pheme_, which
is merely a presage drawn from human utterances, whereas Ossa (until
later times) is associated with the idea of divine origin. A more
definite character is given to Pheme by Hesiod (_Works and Days_, 764),
who calls her a goddess; in Sophocles (_Oed. Tyr._ 158) she is the
immortal daughter of golden Hope and is styled by the orator Aeschines
(_Contra Timarchum_, § 128) one of the mightiest of goddesses. According
to Pausanias (i. 17. 1) there was a temple of Pheme at Athens, and at
Smyrna (ib. ix. 11, 7), whose inhabitants were especially fond of
seeking the aid of divination, there was a sanctuary of Cledones (sounds
or rumours supposed to convey omens).

There does not seem to have been any cult of Fama among the Romans, by
whom she was regarded merely as "a figure of poetical religion." The
Temple of Fame and Omen (Pheme and Cledon) mentioned by Plutarch
(_Moralia_, p. 319) is due to a confusion with Aius Locutius, the
divinity who warned the Romans of the coming attack of the Gauls. There
are well-known descriptions of Fame in Virgil (_Aeneid_, iv. 173) and
Ovid (_Metam._ xii. 39); see also Valerius Flaccus (ii. 116), Statius
(_Thebais_, iii. 425). An unfavourable idea gradually became attached to
the name; thus Ennius speaks of Fama as the personification of "evil"
reputation and the opposite of Gloria (cp. the adjective _famosus_,
which is not used in a good sense till the post-Augustan age). Chaucer
in his _House of Fame_ is obviously imitating Virgil and Ovid, although
he is also indebted to Dante's _Divina Commedia_.



FAMAGUSTA (Gr. _Ammochostos_), a town and harbour on the east cost of
Cyprus, 2½ m. S. of the ruins of Salamis. The population in 1901 was
818, nearly all being Moslems who live within the walls of the fortress;
the Christian population has migrated to a suburb called Varosia (pop.
2948). The foundation of Salamis (q.v.) was ascribed to Teucer: it was
probably the most important town in early Cyprus. The revolt of the Jews
under Trajan, and earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine
the Great helped in turn to destroy it. It was restored by Fl.
Constantius II. (A.D. 337-361) as Constantia. Another town a little to
the south, built by Ptolemy Philadelphus in 274 B.C., and called Arsinoe
in honour of his sister, received the refugees driven from Constantia by
the Arabs under Mu'awiyah, became the seat of the orthodox
archbishopric, and was eventually known as Famagusta. It received a
large accession of population at the fall of Acre in 1291; was annexed
by the Genoese in 1376; reunited to the throne of Cyprus in 1464; and
surrendered, after an investment of nearly a year, to the Turks in 1571.
The fortifications, remodelled by the Venetians after 1489, the castle,
the grand cathedral church of St Nicolas, and the remains of the palace
and many other churches make Famagusta a place of unique interest. Acts
ii. and v. of Shakespeare's _Othello_ pass there. In 1903 measures were
taken to develop the fine natural harbour of Famagusta. Basins were
dredged to give depths of 15 and 24 ft. respectively at ordinary low
tides, and commodious jetties and quays were constructed.



FAMILIAR (through the Fr. _familier_, from Lat. _familiaris_, of or
belonging to the _familia_, family), an adjective, properly meaning
belonging to the family or household, but in this sense the word is
rare. The more usual meanings are: friendly, intimate, well known; and
from its application to the easy relations of intimate friends the term
may be used in an invidious sense of "free and easy" conduct on the part
of any one not justified by any close relationship, friendship or
intimacy. "Familiar" is, however, also used as a substantive,
especially of the spirit or demon which attended on a wizard or
magician, and was summoned to execute his master's wishes. The idea
underlies the notion of the Christian guardian angel and of the Roman
_genius natalis_ (see DEMONOLOGY; WITCHCRAFT). In the Roman Church the
term is applied to persons attached to the household of the pope or of
bishops. These must actually do some domestic service. They are
supported by their patron, and enjoy privileges which in the case of the
papal familiars are considerable. "Familiars of the Holy Office" were
lay officers of the Inquisition, whose functions were chiefly those of
police, in making arrests, &c., of persons charged.



FAMILISTS, a term of English origin (later adopted in other languages)
to denote the members of the _Familia Caritatis_ (_Hus der Lieften_;
_Huis der Liefde_; _Haus der Liebe_; "Family of Love"), founded by
Hendrik Niclaes (born on the 9th or 10th of January 1501 or 1502,
probably at Münster; died after 1570, not later than 1581, probably in
1580). His calling was that of a merchant, in which he and his son Franz
prospered, becoming ultimately wealthy. Not till 1540 did he appear in
the character of one divinely endowed with "the spirit of the true love
of Jesus Christ." For twenty years (1540-1560) Emden was the
headquarters at once of his merchandise and of his propaganda; but he
travelled in both interests to various countries, visiting England in
1552 or 1553. To this period belong most of his writings. His primary
work was _Den Spegel der Gherechticheit dorch den Geist der Liefden unde
den vergodeden Mensch H.N. uth de hemmelische Warheit betüget_. It
appeared in an English form with the author's revision, as _An
Introduction to the holy Understanding of the Glasse of Righteousness_
(1575?; reprinted in 1649). None of his works bear his name in full; his
initials were mystically interpreted as standing for _Homo Novus_. His
"glass of righteousness" is the spirit of Christ as interpreted by him.
The remarkable fact was brought out by G. Arnold (and more fully by F.
Nippold in 1862) that the printer of Niclaes's works was Christopher
Plantin, of Antwerp, a specially privileged printer of Roman Catholic
theology and liturgy, yet secretly a steadfast adherent of Niclaes. It
is true that Niclaes claimed to hold an impartial attitude towards all
existing religious parties, and his mysticism, derived from David Joris,
was undogmatic. Yet he admitted his followers by the rite of adult
baptism, and set up a hierarchy among them on the Roman model (see his
_Evangelium Regni_, in English _A Joyfull Message of the Kingdom_,
1574?; reprinted, 1652). His pantheism had an antinomian drift; for
himself and his officials he claimed impeccability; but, whatever truth
there may be in the charge that among his followers were those who
interpreted "love" as licence, no such charge can be sustained against
the morals of Niclaes and the other leaders of the sect. His chief
apostle in England was Christopher Vitel, a native of Delft, an
"illuminate elder," living at Colchester and Southwark, who ultimately
recanted. The society spread in the eastern counties, in spite of
repressive measures; it revived under the Commonwealth, and lingered
into the early years of the 18th century; the leading idea of its
"service of love" was a reliance on sympathy and tenderness for the
moral and spiritual edification of its members. Thus, in an age of
strife and polemics, it seemed to afford a refuge for quiet, gentle
spirits, and meditative temperaments.

  See F. Nippold, "H. Niclaes u. das Haus der Liebe," in _Zeitschrift
  für die histor. Theol._ (1862); article "H. Niclaes" in A.J. van der
  Aa, Biog. _Woordenboek der Nederlanden_ (1868); article "H. Nicholas,"
  by C. Fell Smith, in _Dict. Nat. Biog._ (1894); article "Familisten,"
  by Loofs, in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ (1898).     (A. Go.*)



FAMILY, a word of which the etymology but partially illustrates the
meaning. The Roman _familia_, derived from the Oscan _famel_ (_servus_),
originally signified the servile property, the thralls, of a master.
Next, the term denoted other domestic property, in things as well as in
persons. Thus, in the fifth of the laws of the Twelve Tables, the rules
are laid down: SI . INTESTATO . MORITUR . CUI · SUUS · HERES · NEC · SIT
· ADGNATUS · PROXIMUS · AMILIAM · ABETO, and SI · AGNATUS · NEC · ESCIT
· GENTILIS · FAMILIAM · NANCITOR; that is, if a man die intestate,
leaving no natural heir who had been under his _potestas_, the nearest
agnate, or relative tracing his connexion with the deceased exclusively
through males, is to inherit the _familia_, or family fortune of every
sort. Failing an agnate, a member of the _gens_ of the dead man is to
inherit. In a third sense, _familia_ was applied to all the persons who
could prove themselves to be descended from the same ancestor, and thus
the word almost corresponded to our own use of it in the widest meaning,
as when we say that a person is "of a good family" (Ulpian, _Dig._ 50,
16, 195 _fin_.).


  Old theory.

1. Leaving for awhile the Roman terms, to which it will be necessary to
return, we may provisionally define Family, in the modern sense, as the
small community formed by the union of one man with one woman, and by
the increase of children born to them. These in modern times, and in
most European countries, constitute the household, and it has been
almost universally supposed that little natural associations of this
sort are the germ-cell of early society. The Bible presents the growth
of the Jewish nation from the one household of Abraham. His patriarchal
family differed from the modern family in being polygamous, but, as
female chastity was one of the conditions of the patriarchal family, and
as descent through males was therefore recognized as certain, the
plurality of wives makes no real difference to the argument. In the same
way the earliest formal records of Indian, Greek and Roman society
present the family as firmly established, and generally regarded as the
most primitive of human associations. Thus, Aristotle derives the first
household ([Greek: oikia prôtê]) from the combination of man's
possession of property--in the slave or in domesticated animals--with
man's relation to woman, and he quotes Hesiod: [Greek: oikon men
prôtista gunaika te boun t' arotêra] (_Politics_, i. 2. 5). The village,
again, with him is a colony or offshoot of the household, and
monarchical government in states is derived from the monarchy of the
eldest male member of the family. Now, though certain ancient terms,
introduced by Aristotle in the chapters to which we refer, might have
led him to imagine a very different origin of society, his theory is, on
the face of it, natural and plausible, and it has been almost
universally accepted. The beginning of society, it has been said a
thousand times, is the family, a natural association of kindred by
blood, composed of father, mother and their descendants. In this family,
the father is absolute master of his wife, his children and the goods of
the little community; at his death his eldest son succeeds him; and in
course of time this association of kindred, by natural increase and by
adoption, develops into the clan, _gens_, or [Greek: genos]. As
generations multiply, the more distant relations split off into other
clans, and these clans, which have not lost the sense of primitive
kinship, unite once more into tribes. The tribes again, as civilization
advances, acknowledge themselves to be subjects of a king, in whose
veins the blood of the original family runs purest. This, or something
like this, is the common theory of the growth of society.


  Modern criticism

2. It was between 1866 and 1880 that the common opinion began to be
seriously opposed. John Ferguson McLennan, in his _Primitive Marriage_
and his essays on _The Worship of Plants and Animals_ (see his _Studies
in Ancient History_, second series), drew attention to the wide
prevalence of the custom of inheriting the kinship name through mothers,
not fathers; and to the law of "Exogamy" (q.v.). The former usage he
attributed to archaic uncertainty as to fatherhood; the natural result
of absolute sexual promiscuity, or of Polyandry (q.v.). Either practice
is inconsistent, prima facie, with the primitive existence of the
Family, whether polygamous or monogamous, whether patriarchal or modern.
The custom of Exogamy, again,--here taken to mean the unwritten law
which makes it incest, and a capital offence, to marry within the real
or supposed kin denoted by the common name of the kinship,--pointed to
an archaic condition of family affairs all unlike our Table of
prohibited degrees. This law of Exogamy was found, among many savage
races, associated with Totems, that is plants, animals and other
natural objects which give names to the various kinships, and are
themselves, in various degrees, reverenced by members of the kinships.
(See TOTEM AND TOTEMISM.) Traces of such kinships, and of Totemism, also
of alleged promiscuity in ancient times, were detected by McLennan in
the legends, folk-lore and institutions of Greece, Rome and India.
Later, Prof. Robertson Smith found similar survivals, or possible
survivals, among the Semitic races (_Kinship in Early Arabia_). Others
have followed the same trail among the Celts (S. Reinach, _Cultes,
mythes et religions_, 1904).

If arguments founded on these alleged survivals be valid, it may be that
the most civilized races have passed through the stages of Exogamy,
Totemism and reckoning descent in the female line. McLennan explained
Exogamy as a result of scarcity of women, due to female infanticide.
Women being scarce, the men of a group would steal them from other
groups, and it would become shameful, and finally a deadly sin, for a
man to marry within his own group-name, or name of kinship, say Wolf or
Raven. Meanwhile, owing to scarcity of women, one woman would be the
mate of many husbands (polyandry); hence, paternity being undetermined,
descent would be reckoned through mothers.


  McLennan's value.

Such are the outlines of McLennan's theory, which, as a whole, has been
attacked by many writers, and is now, perhaps, accepted by none.
McLennan's was the most brilliant pioneer work; but his supply of facts
was relatively scanty, and his friend Charles Darwin stated objections
which to many seem final, as regards the past existence of a stage of
sexual promiscuity. C.N. Starcke (_The Primitive Family_, 1889), Edward
Alexander Westermarck (_History of Human Marriage_, 1891), Ernest
Crawley (_The Mystic Rose_), Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Lord
Avebury and many others, have criticized McLennan, who, however, in
coining the term Exogamy, and drawing scientific attention to Totemism,
and reckoning of kin through mothers, founded the study of early
society. Here it must be observed that "Matriarchate" (q.v.) is a
misleading term, as is "Gynaecocracy," for the custom of deducing
descent on the spindle side. Women among totemistic and exogamous
savages are in a degraded position, nor does the deriving and inheriting
of the kinship name, or anything else, on the spindle side, imply any
ignorance of paternal relations; even where, as among Central Australian
tribes, the facts of reproduction are said to be unknown.


  Lewis Morgan.

3. Simultaneous with McLennan's researches and speculations were the
works of Lewis H. Morgan. He was the discoverer of a custom very
important in its bearing on the history of society. In about two-thirds
of the globe, persons in addressing a kinsman do not discriminate between
grades of relationship. All these grades are merged in large categories.
Thus, in what Morgan calls the "Malayan system," "all _consanguinei_,
near or far, fall within one of these relationships--grandparent, parent,
brother, sister, child and grandchild." No other blood-relationships are
recognized (_Ancient Society_). This at once reminds us of the Platonic
Republic. "We devised means that no one should ever be able to know his
own child, but that all should imagine themselves to be of one family,
and should regard as brothers and sisters those who were within a certain
limit of age; and those who were of an elder generation they were to
regard as parents and grandparents, and those who were of a younger
generation as children and grandchildren" (_Timaeus_, 18, Jowett's
translation, first edition, vol. ii., 1871). This system prevails in the
Polynesian groups and in New Zealand. Next comes what Morgan chooses to
call the Turanian system. "It was universal among the North American
aborigines," whom he styles Ganowanians. "Traces of it have been found in
parts of Africa" (_Ancient Society_), and "it still prevails in South
India among the Hindus, who speak the Dravidian language," and also in
North India, among other Hindus. The system, Morgan says, "is simply
stupendous." It is not exactly the same among all his miscellaneous
"Turanians," but, on the whole, assumes the following shapes. Suppose the
speaker to be a male, he will style his nephew and niece in the male
line, his brother's children, "son" and "daughter," and his grand-nephews
and grand-nieces in the male line, "grandson" and "granddaughter." Here
the Turanian and the Malayan systems agree. But change the sex; let the
male speaker address his nephews and nieces in the female line,--the
children of his sister,--he salutes them as "nephew" and "niece," and
they hail him as "uncle." Now, in the Malay system, nephews and nieces on
both sides, brother's children or sisters, are alike named "children" of
the uncle. If the speaker be a female, using the Turanian style, these
terms are reversed. Her sister's sons and daughters are saluted by her as
"son" and "daughter," her brother's children she calls "nephew" and
"niece." Yet the children of the persons thus styled "nephew" and "niece"
are not recognized in conversation as "grand-nephew" and "grand-niece,"
but as "grandson" and "granddaughter." It is impossible here to do more
than indicate these features of the classificatory nomenclature, from
which the others may be inferred. The reader is referred for particulars
to Morgan's _Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Race_.

The existence of the classificatory system is not an entirely novel
discovery. Nicolaus Damascenus, one of the inquirers into early society,
who lived in the first century of our era, noticed this mode of address
among the Galactophagi. Lafitau found it among the Iroquois. To Morgan's
perception of the importance of the facts, and to his energetic
collection of reports, we owe our knowledge of the wide prevalence of
the system. From an examination of the degrees of kindred which seem to
be indicated by the "Malayan" and "Turanian" modes of address, he has
worked out a theory of the evolution of the modern family. A brief
comparison of this with other modern theories will close our account of
the family. The main points of the theory are shortly stated in _Systems
of Consanguinity_, &c., and in _Ancient Society_. From the latter work
we quote the following description of the five different and successive
forms of the family:--

  "I. _The Consanguine Family._--It was founded upon the intermarriage
  of brothers and sisters, own and collateral, in a group.

  "II. _The Punaluan Family._--It was founded upon the intermarriage of
  several sisters, own and collateral, with each others' husbands, in a
  group--the joint husbands not being necessarily kinsmen of each other;
  also, on the intermarriage of several brothers, own and collateral,
  with each others' wives in a group--these wives not being necessarily
  of kin to each other, although often the case in both instances (sic).
  In each case the group of men were conjointly married to the group of
  women.

  "III. _The Syndyasmian or Pairing Family._--It was founded upon
  marriage between single pairs, but without an exclusive cohabitation.
  The marriage continued during the pleasure of the parties.

  "IV. _The Patriarchal Family._--It was founded upon the marriage of
  one man with several wives, followed in general by the seclusion of
  the wives.

  "V. _The Monogamian Family._--It was founded upon marriage between
  single pairs with an exclusive cohabitation.

  "Three of these forms, namely, the first, second, and fifth, were
  radical, because they were sufficiently general, and influential to
  create three distinct systems of consanguinity, all of which still
  exist in living forms. Conversely, these systems are sufficient of
  themselves to prove the antecedent existence of the forms of the
  family and of marriage with which they severally stand connected."

Morgan makes the systems of nomenclature proofs of the existence of the
Consanguine and Punaluan families. Unhappily, there is no other proof,
and the same systems have been explained on a very different principle
(McLennan, _Studies in Ancient History_). Looking at facts, we find the
Consanguine family nowhere, and cannot easily imagine how early groups
abstained from infringing on each other, and created a systematic
marriage of brothers and sisters. St Augustine, however (De civ. Dei,
xv. 16), and Archinus in his _Thessalica_ (_Odyssey_, xi. 7, scholia B,
Q) agree more or less with Morgan. Next, how did the Consanguine family
change into the Punaluan? Morgan says (_Ancient Society_) brothers
ceased to marry their sisters, because "the evils of it could not for
ever escape human observation." Thus the Punaluan family was hit upon,
and "created a distinct system of consanguinity" (_Ancient Society_),
the Turanian. Again, "marriages in Punaluan groups explain the
relationships in the system." But Morgan provides himself with another
explanation, "the Turanian system owes its origin to marriage in the
group _and_ to the gentile organization." He calls exogamy "the gentile
organization," though, in point of fact, the only gentes we know, the
Roman gentes, show scarcely a trace of exogamy. Again, "the change of
relationships which resulted from substituting Punaluan in the place of
Consanguine marriage turns the Malayan into the Turanian system." On the
same page Morgan attributes the change to the "gentile organization,"
and, still on the same page, uses _both_ factors in his working out of
the problem. Now, if the Punaluan marriage is a sufficient explanation,
we do not need the "gentile organization." Both, in Morgan's opinion,
were efforts of conscious moral reform. In _Systems of Consanguinity_
the gentile organization (there called tribal), that is, exogamy, is
said to have been "designed to work out a reformation in the
intermarriage of brothers and sisters." But the Punaluan marriage had
done that, otherwise it would not have produced (as Morgan says it did)
the change from the Malayan to the Turanian system, the difference in
the two systems, as exemplified in Seneca and Tamil, being "in the
relationships which depended on the intermarriage or non-intermarriage
of brothers and sisters" (_Ancient Society_). Yet the Punaluan family,
though itself a reform in morals and in "breeding," "did not furnish
adequate motives to reform the Malay system," which, as we have seen, it
did reform. The Punaluan family, it is suspected, "frequently involved
own brothers and sisters"; had it not been so, there would have been no
need of a fresh moral reformation,--"the gentile organization." Yet even
in the Punaluan family (_Ancient Society_) "brothers ceased to marry
their own sisters." What, then, did the "gentile organization" do for
men? As they had already ceased to marry their own sisters, and as,
under the gentile organization, they were still able to marry their
half-sisters, the reformatory "ingenuity" of the inventors of the
organizations was at once superfluous and useless. It is impossible to
understand the Punaluan system. Its existence is inferred from a system
of nomenclature which it does (and does not) produce; it admits (and
excludes) own brothers and sisters. Morgan has intended, apparently, to
represent the Punaluan marriage as a long transition to the definite
custom of exogamy, but it will be seen that his language is not very
clear nor his positions assured. He does not adduce sufficient proof
that the Punaluan family ever existed as an institution, even in Hawaii.
There is, if possible, a greater absence of historical testimony to the
existence of the Consanguine family. It is difficult to believe that
exogamy was a conscious moral and social reformation, because, _ex
hypothesi_, the savages had no moral data, nothing to cause disgust at
relations which seem revolting to us. It is as improbable that they
discovered the supposed physical evils of breeding in and in. That
discovery could only have been made after a long experience, and in the
Consanguine family that experience was impossible. Thus, setting moral
reform aside as inconceivable, we cannot understand how the Consanguine
families ever broke up. Morgan's ingenious speculations as to a
transitional step towards the gens (as he calls what we style the
totem-kindred), supposed to be found in the "classes" and marriage laws
of the Kamilaroi, are vitiated by the weakness and contradictory nature
of the evidence (see Pritchard; J.D. Lang's Queensland, Appendix;
_Proceedings of American Academy of Arts_, &c., vol. viii. 412; Nature,
October 29, 1874). Further, though Morgan calls the Australian "gentile
organization" "incipient," he admits (_Ancient Society_) that the
Narrinyeri have totem groups, in which "the children are of the clan of
the father." Far from being "incipient," the gens of the Narrinyeri is
on the footing of the ghotra of Hindu custom. Lastly, though Morgan
frequently declares that the Polynesians have not the gens (for he
thinks them not sufficiently advanced), W.W. Gill (_Myths and Songs from
the South Pacific_, London, 1876) has shown that unmistakable traces of
the totem survive in Polynesian mythology.


  Rival theories.

4. Morgan's theory was opposed by McLennan (_Studies in Ancient
History_, 1876), who maintained that the names of relationships, in the
"classificatory system," were merely terms of address, as among
ourselves when a preacher calls any adult male "brother," when an old
woman is addressed as "mother," when an elder man calls a junior "my
son." He also showed that his own system accounted for the terms. The
controversy is still alive; one set of writers regarding the savage
terms of relationship as indicating a state of things in which human
beings dwelt in a "horde," with promiscuous intercourse; another set
holding that the terms do not indicate consanguineous kinship, but
degrees of age, status, and reciprocal obligations in a local _tribe_,
and therefore that they do not yield any presumption that there was a
past of promiscuity or of what is called "group marriage." On Morgan's
side (not of course accepting all his details) are L. Fison and A.W.
Howitt, and Baldwin Spencer and F.J. Gillen. Against him are Starcke,
Westermarck, A. Lang, Dr Durkheim, apparently, Crawley and many others.


  Evidence of original promiscuity.

5. A second presumption in favour of original promiscuity has been drawn
by the eminent Australian students, Baldwin Spencer and F.J. Gillen, and
by A.W. Howitt, from the customs of some Australian aborigines. In each
tribe, owing to customary laws which are to be examined later, only men
and women of a given status are intermarriageable (_nupa_, _noa_,
_unawa_) with each other. Though child-betrothals are usual, and though
the woman is specialized to one man, who protects and nourishes her and
all her children, and though their union is immediately preceded by an
extended _jus primae noctis_ (such as Herodotus describes among the
Nasamones), yet, among certain tribes, the following custom prevails. At
great meetings the tribal leaders assign a woman as paramour (with what
amount of permanence remains obscure) to a man (_pirrauru_); one woman
may have several _pirrauru_ men, one man several _pirrauru_ women, in
addition to their regularly betrothed (_tippa malku_) wives and
husbands. The husband occasionally shows fight, and bitter jealousies
prevail, but, at the great ceremonial meetings, complaisance is enforced
under penalty of strangling. Thenceforth, if the husband permits, the
male _pirrauru_ has matrimonial rights over the other man's _tippa
malku_ wife when they meet. A symbolic ceremony of union precedes the
junction of the _pirrauru_ people. This institution, as far as reported,
is peculiar to a group of tribes near Lake Eyre, the Dieri, Urabunna,
and their congeners,--or perhaps to all who have the same "phratry"
names as the Dieri and Urabunna (_Kiraru_ and _Mattera_, in various
dialectic forms).

Elsewhere the _pirrauru_ custom is not known: but almost everywhere
there are licentious festivals, in which all marriage rules except those
which forbid incest (in our sense of the word, namely between the
closest relations) are thrown to the winds. Also a native travelling
among alien tribes is lent women of the status into which he may legally
marry.


  Group marriage.

Baldwin Spencer and F.J. Gillen, and A.W. Howitt, regard _pirrauru_ as
"group marriage" and as a proof that, at one time, all intermarriageable
people were actually husbands and wives, while the other examples of
licence are also survivals, in a later stage of decay, of promiscuity,
and "group marriage." To this it is replied that "_group_ marriage" is a
misnomer; that if _pirrauru_ be in a sense marriage it is _status_, not
_group_ marriage. Again, it is urged, _pirrauru_ is a modification of
_tippa malku_, which comes first; a woman is "specialized" to a man
_before_ she can be made _pirrauru_ to another, and her tippa _malku
husband_ continues to support her, and to recognize her children as his
own, after she has become _pirrauru_ to another man or other men.
Without the foregoing _tippa malku_ union, the _pirrauru_ unions are not
conceivable; they are mere legalized paramourships, modifying the _tippa
malku_ marriage (like the Italian cicisbeism); procuring a protector for
a woman in her husband's absence, and supplying legal loves for
bachelors. The custom is peculiar to a given set of kindred tribes. The
festivals are the legalized, restricted and more or less permanent
modification of the casual orgies of feasts of licence, or _Saturnalia_,
which have their analogies among many people, ancient and modern.
_Pirrauru_ is no more a survival of and a proof of primitive
promiscuity, than is the legalized incest of ancient Egypt or ancient
Peru. If these views be correct the argument for primitive promiscuity
derived from _pirrauru_ falls to the ground.


  The historical problem.

6. The questions at issue obviously are, was mankind originally
promiscuous, with no objections to marriage between persons of the
nearest kin; and was the first step in advance the prohibition of
marriage (or of amatory intercourse) between brothers and sisters; or
did mankind originally live in very small groups, under a jealous sire,
who imposed restrictions on intercourse between the young males, his
sons, and all the females of the "hearth-circle," who constituted his
harem? The problem has been studied, first, in the institutions of
savages, notably of the most backward savages, the black natives of
Australia; and next, in the light of the habits of the higher mammalia.

As regards Australian matrimonial institutions, it has been known since
the date of the _Journals of two Expeditions of Discovery_, by Sir
George Grey (1837-1839), that they are very complex and peculiar, in
points strongly resembling the customary laws of the more backward Red
Indian tribes of North America. Information came in, while McLennan was
working, from G. Taplin (_The Narrinyeri_, 1874), from A.W. Howitt and
L. Fison, and many other inquirers (in Brough Smyth's _Aborigines of
Victoria_, 1878), from Howitt and Fison again (in _Kamilaroi and
Kurnai_, 1880), and many essays by these authors, and finally, in
_Native Tribes of Central Australia_ (1899) and _Northern Tribes of
Central Australia_ (1904), by Baldwin Spencer and F.J. Gillen; and in
Howitt's _Native Tribes of South-East Australia_ (1904), with R. Roth's
_North-West Central Queensland Aborigines_ (1897). All of these are
works of very high merit. Knowledge is now much more wide, minute and
securely based than it was when McLennan's _Studies in Ancient History_,
second series, was posthumously published (1896). We know with certainty
that in Australia, among archaic savages who have neither metals,
agriculture, pottery nor domesticated animals, a graduated scale of
matrimonial institutions exists. First there are _local_ tribes, each
tribe having its own dialect; holding a recognized area of territory;
and living on friendly terms with neighbouring tribes. Territorial
conquest is never attempted. In many cases a knot of tribes of allied
dialects and kindred rites may be, or at least is, spoken of as a
"nation" by our authorities.


  Primitive restrictions on marriage.

7. Customary law is administered by the Seniors, the wise, the magically
skilled, who in many cases are "headmen" of local groups or of sets of
kindred. As to marriage, persons may wed within the local tribe, or into
a neighbouring local tribe, at will, provided that they obey the
restrictions of customary law. The local tribe is neither exogamous nor
endogamous, any more than is an English county. The restrictions, except
where they have become obsolete, fall into six main categories:--

(1) In the most primitive, each tribe consists of two intermarrying and
exogamous divisions, which are often styled _phratries_. Each such
division has a name, which, when it can be translated, is the name of an
animal: in the majority of cases, however, the meaning of the phratry
name is lost. In one instance, that of the Euahlayi tribe of north-west
New South Wales, the phratry names are said (by Mrs Langloh Parker) to
mean "Light Blood" and "Dark Blood." This, as in the theory of the Rev.
J. Mathews, _Eagle and Crow_, might be taken to indicate a blending of
two distinct _races_.

Taking, for the sake of clearness, tribes whose phratry names mean
"Crow" and "Eagle Hawk," every member of the tribe belongs either to
Eagle Hawk phratry or to Crow phratry: if to Crow, the man or woman can
only marry an Eagle Hawk, if to Eagle Hawk, can only marry a Crow. The
children invariably belong to the phratry of the mother, in this most
primitive type. Within Eagle Hawk phratry is one set of totem kins,
named usually after various species of animals and plants; within Crow
phratry is another set of totem kins, named always (except in one region
of Central Australia) after a _different_ set of plants and animals.
With the exception mentioned (that of the Arunta "nation"), in no tribe
does the same totem ever occur in both phratries. Totems and totem names
are inherited by the children from the mother, in this primitive type.
Thus a man, Eagle Hawk by phratry, Snipe by totem, marries a woman Crow
by phratry, Black Duck by totem. His children by her are of phratry
Crow, of totem Black Duck. Obviously no person can marry another of his
or her own totem, because, in the phratry into which he or she _must_
marry, no man or woman of his or her totem exists. The prohibition
extends to members of alien and remote tribes, if of the same totem
name.

The same rules exist in the more primitive North American tribes, but as
the phratry there has generally, though not always, decayed, the rule,
where this has occurred, merely forbids marriage within the totem kin.

(2) We find this type of organization, where the child inherits phratry
and totem from the father, not from the mother.

(3) We find tribes in which phratry and totem are inherited from the
mother, but an additional rule prevails: the rule of "Matrimonial
Classes." By this device, in phratry "Dilbi," there are two classes,
"Muri" and "Kubi." In phratry "Kupathin" are two classes, "Ipai" and
"Kumbo" (all these names are of unknown meaning). Each child inherits
its mother's phratry name and totem name, and also the name of that
class of the two in the mother's phratry to which the mother does _not_
belong. No person may marry into his or her own class--practically into
his or her own generation: the rule makes parental and filial marriages
impossible,--but these never occur even among more primitive tribes
which have not the institution of classes. Suppose that the class names
are really names of animals and other objects in nature--as in a few
cases they actually are. Then the rules, where classes exist, would
amount to this: no person may marry another who, by phratry, totem or
generation, owns the same hereditary animal name as himself or herself.
In practice, where phratries exist, a man who knows a woman's phratry
name knows whether or not he may marry her. Where class names exist
(even though the phratry name be lost), a man who knows a woman's class
name knows whether or not he may marry her. Nothing can be simpler in
practice.

(4) The same rules as under (3) exist, but the phratry, totem and class
are inherited through the father: the class of the child of course not
being the father's, but the linked class in his phratry.

(5) In the fifth category (Central North Australia), while phratry name
(if not lost) and totem name are inherited from the father, by a
refinement of law which is spreading southwards there are _four_ classes
in each phratry (or main exogamous division unnamed), and the choice of
a partner in life is thus more restricted than in more primitive tribes.


  Arunta customs.

(6) Finally we reach the institutions of the group of tribes called,
from the name of the most powerful tribe in the set, "the Arunta
nation." They occupy the Macdonnell Ranges and other territory in the
very centre of Australia. The Arunta reckon kinship in the male line:
their phratry names they have forgotten, in place of phratries eight
matrimonial classes regulate marriage. In these respects they resemble
most of the central and northern tribes, but present this unique
peculiarity, that the same totems may and do exist in _both_ of the
opposed intermarrying exogamous divisions consisting of four classes
each. It thus results that a man, in the Arunta tribe, may marry a woman
of his own totem, if she be in the class with which he may intermarry.
This licence is unknown in every other part of the totemic world, and
even in the Kaitish tribe of the Arunta nation intertotemic marriages,
in practice, almost never occur.

Among the Arunta the totems are only prominent in magical ceremonies,
unknown in South-Eastern Australia. At these ceremonies (Intichiuma) the
men of the totem do cooperative magic for the benefit of their plant or
animal, as part of the tribal food-supply. The members of the totem
taste it sparingly on these occasions, apparently under the belief that
to do so increases their magical power: the rest of the tribe eat
freely. But, as far as denoting kinship or regulating marriage is
concerned, the totems, among the Arunta, have no legally important
existence. Men and women of the same totem may intermarry, their
children need not belong to the totem of either father or mother.

The process by which Arunta totems came thus to differ from those of all
other savages is easily understood. Like the other tribes from the
centre to the north (including the Urabunna nation, which reckons
descent through women), the Arunta believe that the souls of the primal
semi-bestial ancestors of the Alcheringa or "dream time" are perpetually
reincarnated. This opinion does not affect by itself the usual exogamous
character of totemism among the other tribes. The Arunta nation,
however, cultivates an additional myth, namely that the primal
ancestors, when they sank into the ground, left behind them certain oval
stone slabs, with archaic markings, called _churinga nanja_, or "sacred
things of the _nanja_." The _nanja_, again, is a tree or rock, fabled to
have risen up to mark the spot where a group of primal ancestors, all of
one and the same totem in each case (Cats here, Grubs there, Ducks
elsewhere), "went into the ground." The souls of these ancestors haunt
such spots, especially they haunt the nanja tree or rock, and the stone
_churinga nanja_. Each district, therefore, has its own _oknanikilla_
(or local totem centre of the ghosts), Cat ghosts, Grub ghosts, Hakea
flower ghosts and so on. These spirits enter into women and are reborn
as children. When a child comes to birth, the mother names the
oknanikilla in which she conceived it, and, whatever the ghost totem of
that place may be, it is the child's totem. Its mother may be a Grub,
its father may be a Crow, but if the child was conceived in a Duck, or
Cat, or Opossum or Kangaroo locality, it is, by totem, a Cat, Opossum,
Duck or Kangaroo. The _churinga nanja_ of its primal ancestor is sought
for at the place of the child's conception, and is put into the sacred
repository of such objects.

Thus the child does not inherit its totem from father, or from mother,
as everywhere else, but _does_ inherit the right to do ceremonies for
the paternal totem: a proof that, of old, totems were inherited, as
elsewhere, and that in the male line. If totems among the Arunta, as
everywhere else, were once arranged on the plan that the same totem
never occurs in both exogamous moieties, that arrangement has been
destroyed, as was inevitable, by the existing method of allotting totems
to children,--not by inheritance,--but at haphazard. By this means (a
consequence of the unique Arunta belief about _churinga nanja_) the same
totems have got into _both_ exogamous moieties, so that persons of the
same totem, but of appropriate matrimonial classes, may marry. This
licence is absolutely confined to the limited region in which stone
_churinga nanja_ occur.

The whole system is impossible except where descent is reckoned in the
male line, for there alone is _local_ totemism possible, and the Arunta
system is based on local totemism, _plus_ the _churinga nanja_ and
reincarnation beliefs. With reckoning of descent in the female line, no
locality can possibly have its _local_ totem: all the totems
indiscriminately distributed everywhere: and thus no woman can say in
what totemic locality her child was conceived, for there is not and
cannot be, with female descent, any totemic _locality_. Now it is
admitted that reckoning by female descent is the earlier method, and it
is granted that in rites and ceremonies the Arunta are of a relatively
advanced and highly organized pattern. Their social organization is
local, and they have a kind of local magistracies, hereditary in the
male line.

In spite of these facts, Spencer and Gillen conceive that the peculiar
totemism of the Arunta is the most primitive type extant (cp. Spencer,
_J.A.I._ (N.S.), vol. i. 275-281; and Frazer, _ibid._ 281-288). It is
not easy to understand this position, as, without male kinship and
consequent local totemism (which are not primitive), and without the
_churinga nanja_ (which exist only in a strictly limited area), the
Arunta system of non-exogamous totems cannot possibly exist. Again, the
other tribes cannot have passed through the Arunta stage, for, if they
had, their totems would have existed, as among the Arunta, in _both_
exogamous moieties, and would there remain when they came to be
inherited; so that the totems of all these tribes would still be
non-exogamous, like those of the Arunta. But this is not the case. Once
more, it is clear that the Arunta system has but recently reached their
neighbours, the Kaitish, for though they have the _churinga nanja_
belief, and the haphazard method of acquiring totems by local accident,
these things have not yet overcome the old traditional reluctance to
marry within the totem name. It is not unlawful among the Kaitish; but
it is hardly ever done.

Despite these objections, however, Spencer and Gillen hold, as we have
said, that, originally, there were no restrictions (or no known
restrictions) on marriage. Totems were merely the result of the
formation of co-operative magical societies, in the interest of the
tribal food supply. Then, in some unknown way, regulations as to
marriage were introduced for some unknown purpose, or were involved in
some manner not understood. "The traditions of the Arunta," says
Spencer, "point to a very definite introduction of an exogamous system
long after the totemic groups were fully developed, and, further, they
point very clearly to the fact that the introduction was due to the
deliberate action of certain ancestors. Our knowledge of the natives
leads us to the opinion that it is quite possible that this really took
place, that the exogamic groups were deliberately introduced so as to
regulate marital relations."

Thus the wisdom of men living promiscuously as regards marriage, but
organized in magical societies for the benefit of the common food supply
of the local _tribe_ (a complex institution postulated as already in
being at this early stage), induced them to institute exogamy. Why they
did this, what harm they saw in their promiscuity, we are not informed.
Spencer goes on, "by this we do not mean that the regulations had
anything whatever to do with the idea of incest, or of any harm accruing
from the union of individuals who were regarded as too nearly
related.... There was felt the need of some kind of organization, and
this gradually resulted in the development of exogamous groups." But as
"it is quite possible that the exogamous groups were deliberately
introduced to regulate marital relations," and as they could only do so
by introducing exogamy, we do not see how that system can be the result
of the _gradual_ development of an organization _quelconque_,--of
unknown nature. A magical organization already existed (_Journal of the
Anthropological Institute_, New Series, i. pp. 284-285).

The traditions of the Arunta seem here to be first accepted: "quite
possibly" they are correct in stating that an exogamic system was
purposefully introduced, long after totemic groups had arisen, by "the
deliberate action of certain ancestors," and then that myth is rejected,
in favour of the _gradual_ development of exogamy, "out of some form of
organization," unknown.

People who, like the Arunta, have lost memory of the very names of the
phratries, cannot conceivably remember the nature of the origin of
exogamy. Accustomed as they now are to tribal councils which introduce
new rules, they fancy that, in the beginning, new rules were thus
introduced.


  Conclusion as to Spencer's hypothesis.

Meanwhile the working of magic for the behoof of the totem animals and
plants, or rather for the name-giving animals of magical societies, is
not known to Howitt among the tribes of primitive social organization,
while it is well known among agricultural natives of the Torres Strait
Islands and among the advanced Sioux and Omaha of North America. The
practice seems to belong rather to the decadence than to the dawn of
totemism. On the whole, then, there seem to be insuperable difficulties
in the way of Spencer's hypothesis that mankind were promiscuous, as
regards marriage, but were organized into cooperative magical groups,
athwart which came, in some unexplained way, the rule of exogamy; while,
when it did come, all savages except the Arunta arranged matters so that
totem kins were exogamous. The reverse was probably the case, totem kins
were originally exogamous, and ceased to be so, and even to be kins
among the Arunta, in consequence of the _churinga nanja_ creed, becoming
co-operative magical societies (Hartland, Marett, Durkheim and others).


  Origin of exogamy.

8. Spencer and Gillen leave the origin of exogamy an open question.
Howitt supposes that, in the shape of the phratriac division of the
tribe into two exogamous moieties, the scheme may have been introduced
to the tribal headmen by a medicine man "announcing to his fellow
headman a command received from some supernatural being ..." (_Natives
of South-East Australia_, pp. 89, 90). The Council, so to speak, of
"headmen" accept the divine decree, and the assembled tribe pass the
Act. But this explanation explains nothing. Why did the prophet wish to
introduce exogamy? Why were names of animals given, in so many cases, to
the two exogamous divisions? As Howitt asks (op. cit. p. 153), "How was
it that men assumed the names of objects, which in fact must have been
the commencement of totemism?"

It is apparent that any theory which begins by postulating the existence
of early mankind in promiscuous groups or hordes, into which exogamous
moieties are introduced by tribal decree, takes for granted that the
_tribe_, with its headman, councils and great meetings (not to mention
its inspired prophet, with the tribal "All Father" who inspires him),
existed before any rules regulating "marital relations" were evolved.
Even if all this were probable, we are not told why a promiscuous tribe
thought good to establish exogamous divisions. Some native myths
attribute the institution to certain wise ancestors; some to the
supernatural "All Father," say Baiame; some to a treaty between Eagle
Hawk and Crow, beings of cosmogonic legend, who give names to the
phratries. Such myths are mere hypotheses. It is impossible to imagine
how early savages, _ex hypothesi_ promiscuous, saw anything to reform in
their state of promiscuity. They now think certain unions wrong, because
they are forbidden: they were not forbidden, originally, because they
were thought wrong.


  Westermarck

Westermarck has endeavoured to escape the difficulty thus: "Among the
ancestors of man, as among other animals, there was no doubt a time when
blood relationship was no bar to sexual intercourse. But variations
here, as elsewhere, would naturally present themselves, and those of our
ancestors who avoided in and in breeding would survive," while the
others would die out. This appears to be orthodox evolutionary language,
but it carries us no further. Human societies are not animals or plants,
in whose structure various favourable "accidents" occur, producing
better types, which survive. We ask _why_ in human society did
"variations present themselves"; _why_ did certain sets of human beings
"avoid in and in breeding"? We are merely told that some of our
ancestors became exogamous and survived, while others remained
promiscuous and perished. No light is thrown on the problem,--wherefore
did some of our ancestors avoid in and in breeding, and become
exogamous? Nothing is gained by saying "thus an instinct would be
developed which would be powerful enough, as a rule, to prevent
injurious unions." There is no "instinct," there is a tribal law of
exogamy. If there had been an "instinct," it might account for the
avoidance of "in and in breeding"--that is, it might account for
exogamy, _ab initio_. But that is left unaccounted for by the theory
which, after maintaining that the avoidance produced the instinct, seems
to argue that the instinct produced the avoidance. Westermarck goes on
to say that "exogamy, as a natural extension of the instinct, would
arise when single families united in small hordes." But, if the single
families already had the "instinct," they would not marry within the
family: they would be exogamous,--marrying only into other
families,--_before_ they "united in small hordes." The difficulty of
accounting for exogamy does not seem to have been overcome, and no
attempt is made to explain the animal names of totem kins and phratries.
Westermarck, however, says that "there is no reason why we should
assume, as so many anthropologists have done, that primitive men lived
in small endogamous groups, practising incest in every degree,"
although, as he also says, "there was no doubt a time when blood
relationship was no bar to sexual intercourse." If there was no bar,
people would "practise incest in every degree,"--what was there to
prevent them? (_History of Human Marriage_, pp. 352, 353 (1891)).


  Durkheim.

So far we have seen no luminous and consistent account of how mankind
became exogamous, if they began by being promiscuous. The theories rest
on the idea that man, dwelling in an "undivided horde" (except so far as
it was divided into co-operative magical societies), bisected it into
two exogamous intermarrying moieties. Durkheim has put forward a theory
which is not at all points easily understood. He supposes that, "at the
beginning of societies of men, incest was not prohibited ... before each
horde (_peuplade_) divided itself into two primitive 'clans' at least"
(_L'Année sociologique_, i. pp. 62, 63). Each of the two "clans" claimed
descent from a different animal, which was its totem, and its "god." The
two clans were exogamous,--out of respect to the blood of their totem
(with which every member of the clan is mystically one), and, being
hostile, the two clans raided each other for women. Each clan threw off
colonies, which took new totems, new "gods," though still owning some
regard to their original clan, from which they had seceded, while
abandoning its "god." When the two "primary clans" made alliance and
_connubium_, they became the phratries in the local tribe, and their
colonies became the totem kins within the phratries.

We are not told why the original horde was disrupted into two hostile
and intermarrying "clans": we especially wonder why the horde, if it
wanted an animal god, did not choose one animal for the whole community;
and we may suspect that a difference of taste in animal "gods" caused
the hostility of the two clans. Nor do we see why, if things occurred
thus, the totem kins should not represent twenty or thirty differences
of religious taste, in the original horde, as to the choice of animal
gods. If the horde was going to vary in opinion, it is unlikely that
only _two_ factions put forward animal candidates for divinity. Again, a
"clan" (a totem kin, with exogamy and descent derived through mothers)
cannot overflow its territorial area and be therefore obliged to send
out colonies, for such a clan (as Durkheim himself remarks) has no
territorial area to overflow. It is not a _local_ institution at all.

While these objections cannot but occur, Durkheim does provide a valid
reason for the existence of exogamy. When once the groups (however they
got them) had totems, with the usual taboos on any sort of use of the
totem by his human kinsfolk, the women of the kin would be tabooed to
the men of the same kin. In marrying a maiden of his own totem, a man
inevitably violates the sanctity of the blood of the totem (_L'Année
sociologique_, i. pp. 47-57. Cf. Reinach, _Cultes, mythes et religions_,
vol. i. pp. 162-166).

Here at last we have a theory which accounts for the "religious horror"
that attaches to the violation of the rule of totemic exogamy: a
mysterious entity, the totem, is hereby offended. But how did totems,
animals, plants and so on, come to be mystically _solidaires_ with their
human namesakes and kinsmen? We do not observe that Dr Durkheim ever
explains _why_ two divisions of one horde chose each a different animal
god, or why the supposed colonies thrown off by these primary clans
deserted their animal gods for others, or why, and on what principle,
they all chose new "gods,"--fresh animals, plants and other objects. His
hereditary totem is, in practice, the last thing that a savage changes.
The only case of change on record is a recent attempt to increase the
range of legal marriages in a waning Australian tribe, on whose lands
certain species of animals are perishing.


  Howitt's solution.

Theories based on a supposed primal state of promiscuity certainly
encounter, when explaining the social oganization of Australian savages,
difficulties which they do not surmount. But Howitt has provided
(apparently without fully realizing the merit of his own suggestions) a
way out of the perplexities caused by the conception of early mankind
dwelling promiscuously in "undivided communes." The way out is
practically to say that, in everyday life, they lived in nothing of the
sort. Howitt writes (_Native Tribes of South-East Australia_, p. 173):
"A study of the evidence ... has led me to the conclusion that the state
of society among the early Australians was that of an 'Undivided
Commune.'... It is, however, well to guard this expression. I do not
desire to imply necessarily the existence of complete and continuous
communism between the sexes. The character of the country, the necessity
of moving from one point to another in search of game and vegetable
food, would cause any Undivided Commune, when it assumed dimensions
greater than the immediate locality could provide with food, to break up
into two or more Communes of the same character. In addition to this it
is clear ... that in the past as now, individual likes and dislikes must
have existed, so that, admitting the existence of common rights between
the members of the Commune, these rights would remain in abeyance, so
far as the separated parts of the Commune were concerned. But at certain
gatherings ... or on great ceremonial occasions, all the segments of the
original Commune would reunite," and would behave in the fashion now
common in great licentious festive meetings.


  Primitive promiscuity improbable.

In the early ages contemplated, how can we postulate "great ceremonial
occasions" or even peaceful assemblies at fruit-bearing spots? How can
we postulate a surviving sense of solidarity among the scattered
segments of the Commune, obviously very small, owing to lack of
supplies, and perpetually disintegrated? But, taking the original groups
as very small, and as ruled by likes and dislikes, by affection and
jealousy, we are no longer concerned with a promiscuous horde, but with
a little knot of human beings, in whom love, parental affection and the
jealousy of sires, would promptly make discriminations between this
person and that person, as regards sexual privileges. Thus we have edged
away from the hypothesis of the promiscuous indiscriminating horde to
the opinion of Darwin. "We may conclude," he says, "from what we know of
the jealousy of all male quadrupeds, armed as many of them are with
special weapons for battling with their rivals, that promiscuous
intercourse in a state of Nature is extremely improbable.... The most
probable view is that Man originally lived in small communities, each
(man) with a single wife, or, if powerful, with-several, whom he
jealously guarded against all other men." But, in a community of this
early type, to guard women jealously would mean constant battle, at
least when Man became an animal who makes love all the year round. So
Darwin adds: "Or man may not have been a social animal, and yet have
lived with several wives, like the Gorilla,--for all the natives agree
that but one adult male is seen in a band; when the young male grows up
a contest takes place for the mastery, and the strongest, by killing or
driving out the others, establishes himself as head of the Community.
Younger males, being thus expelled and wandering about, would, when at
last successful in finding a partner, prevent too close interbreeding
within the limits of the same _family_" (_Descent of Man_, ii. pp. 361,
363 (1871)).

Here, then, we have practical Exogamy, as regards unions of brothers and
sisters, among man still brutish, while the Sire is husband of the whole
harem of females, probably unchecked as regards his daughters.


  Atkinson's theory.

On this Darwinian text J.J. Atkinson builds his theory of the evolution
of exogamy and of savage society in his _Primal Law_ (_Social Origins
and Primal Law_, by Lang and Atkinson, 1903). Paternal jealousy "gave
birth to Primal Law, prohibitory of marriage between certain members of
a family or local group, and thus, in natural sequence, led to _forced_
connubial selection _beyond_ its circle, that is, led to Exogamy ... as
a _habit_, not as an expressed law...." The "expressed law" was
necessarily a later development; conditioned by the circumstances which
produced totemism, and sanctioned, as on Durkheim's scheme, by the
totemic taboo. Atkinson worked out his theory by a minute study of
customs of avoidance between near kin by blood or affinity; by
observations on the customs of animals, and by hypotheses as to the very
gradual evolution of human restrictions through many modifications. He
also gave a theory of the "classificatory" system of names for
relationships opposed to that of Morgan. The names are based merely "on
reference to relativity of age of a class in relation to the group." The
exogamous moieties of a tribe (phratries) are not the result of a
reformatory legislative bisection of the tribe, but of the existence of
"two intermarrying totem clan groups." The whole treatise, allowing for
defects caused by the author's death before the book was printed, is
highly original and ingenious. The author, however, did not touch on the
evolution of totemism.


  Lang's system.

9. The following system, as a means of making intelligible the evolution
of Australian totemic society, is proposed by the present writer. We may
suggest that men originally lived in the state of "the Cyclopean family"
of Atkinson; that is, in Darwin's "family group," containing but one
adult male, with the females, the adolescent males being driven out, to
find each a female mate, or mates, elsewhere if they can. With increase
of skill, improvements in implements and mitigation of ferocity, such
groups may become larger, in a given area, but men may retain the habit
of seeking mates outside the limits of the group of contiguity; the
"avoidance" of brothers and sisters may already have arisen. Among the
advanced Arunta, now, a man may speak freely to his elder sisters; to
younger sisters, or "tribal sisters," he may not speak, "or only at such
a distance that the features are indistinguishable." This archaic rule
of avoidance would be a step facilitating the permission to adult males
to dwell in their paternal group, avoiding their sisters. Such groups,
whether habitually exogamous or not, will require names for each other,
and various reasons would yield a preference to names derived from
animals. These are easily signalled in gesture language; are easily
presented in pictographs and tattooing; are even now, among savages and
boys, the most usual sort of _personal_ nicknames; and are widely
employed as _group_ names of villagers in European folk-lore. Among
European rustics such group sobriquets are usual, but are resented. The
savage, with his ideas of the equality or superiority of animals to
himself, sees nothing to resent in an animal sobriquet, and the names,
originally group sobriquets, would not find more difficulty in being
accepted than "Whig," "Tory," "Huguenot," "Cavalier," "Christian,"
"Cameronian,"--all of them originally nicknames given from without.
Again, "Wry Nose" and "Crooked Mouth" are _derisive_ nicknames, but they
are the translations of the ancient Celtic clan names Cameron and
Campbell. The nicknames "Naked Dogs," "Liars," "Buffalo Dung," "Men who
do not laugh," "Big Topknots," have been thoroughly accepted by the
"gentes" of the Blackfoot Indians, now passing out of Totemism
(Grinnell, _Blackfoot Lodge Tales_, pp. 208-225).

As Howitt writes, "the assumption of the names of objects by men must in
fact have been the origin of totemism." Howitt does not admit the theory
that the totem names came to arise in this way, but this way is a _vera
causa_. Names must be given either from within or from without. A group,
in savagery, has no need of a name for itself; "we" are "we," or are
"The Men"; for all other adjacent groups names are needed. The name of
one totem, _Thaballa_, "The Laughing Boy" totem, among the Warramunga
and another tribe, is quite transparently a nickname, as is _Karti_,
"The Grown-up Men" (Spencer and Gillen, _Northern Tribes of Central
Australia_, p. 207).

There is nothing, prima facie, which renders this origin of animal,
plant and other such names for early savage groups at all improbable.
They would not even be resented, as now are the animal names for
villagers in the Orkneys, the Channel Islands, France, Cornwall and in
ancient Israel (for examples see _Social Origins_, pp. 295-301). The
names once accepted, and their origin forgotten, would be inevitably
regarded as implying a mystic _rapport_ between the bestial and the
human namesakes, Crow, Eagle Hawk, Grub, Bandicoot, Opossum, Emu,
Kangaroo and so on (see NAME). On this subject it is enough to cite J.G.
Frazer, in _The Golden Bough_ (2nd ed., vol. i. pp. 404-446). Here will
be found a rich and satisfactory collection of proof that community of
name implies mystic _rapport_. Professor Rhys is quoted for the
statement that probably "the whole Aryan race believed at one time not
only that the name was a part of the man, but that it was that part of
him which is termed the soul." In such a mental stage the men "Crows"
identify themselves with the actual Crow species: the birds are now "of
their flesh," are fabled to be their ancestors, or the men have been
evolved out of the birds. The Crow is sacro-sanct, a friend and
protector, and a centre of taboos, one of which is the prohibition
preventing a Crow man from intercourse with a Crow woman, "however far
apart their hunting grounds may have been." All men and women Crows are
recognized as brothers and sisters in the Crow, and are not
intermarriageable.

On these lines the prohibition to infringe the totem taboo by marriage
within the totem name is intelligible, but the system of phratries has
yet to be accounted for. It is obvious that the names could only have
been given originally to _local_ groups: the people who held this or
that local habitation received the name. Suppose that the rule of each
such group, or heart circle, had been "no marriage within the local
group or camp," as in Atkinson's scheme. When the groups accept their
new names, the rule becomes, "no marriage within local group Eagle Hawk,
group Crow," and so on. So far the animal giving the group name may not
yet have become a revered totem. The result of the rule would inevitably
be, in three or four generations, that in groups Crow or Eagle Hawk,
there were no Crows or Eagle Hawks _by descent_, if the children took
the names of descent from their mothers; for the sake of
differentiation: the Ant woman's children in local group Crow being
Ants, the Grub woman's children being Grubs, the Eagle Hawk woman's
children being Eagle Hawks,--all in local group Crow, and inheriting the
names of the local groups whence their mothers were brought into local
group Crow.

By this means (indicated first by McLennan) each member of a local group
would have a _local_ group name, say Eagle Hawk, and a name by _female
descent_, say Kangaroo, in addition, as now, to his or her personal
name. In this way, all members of each local group would find, in any
other local group, people of his name of descent, and, as the totem
belief grew to maturity, kinsmen of his in the totem. When this fact was
realized, it would inevitably make for peace among all contiguous
groups. In place of taking women by force, at the risk of shedding
kindred blood, peaceful betrothals between men and women of different
local group names and of different names by descent could be arranged.
Say that local groups Eagle Hawk and Crow took the lead in this
arrangement of alliance and _connubium_, and that (as they would
naturally flourish in the strength conferred by union) the other local
groups came into it, ranging themselves under Eagle Hawk and Crow, we
should have the existing primitive type of organization: Local Groups
Eagle Hawk (_Mukwara_) and Crow (_Kilpara_) would have become the widely
diffused phratries, _Mukwara_ and _Kilpara_, with all the totem kins
within them.

But, on these lines, some members of any totem kin, say Cat, would be in
phratry Eagle Hawk, some would be in phratry _Kilpara_ as now (for the
different reason already indicated) among the Arunta. Such persons were
in a quandary. By _phratry_ law, as being in opposite phratries, a Cat
in Eagle Hawk' phratry could marry a Cat in Crow phratry. But, by totem
law, this was impossible. To avoid the clash of law, all Cats had to go
into one phratry or the other, either into Eagle Hawk or into Crow.

Two whole totem kins were in the same unhappy position. The persons who
were Eagle Hawks by _descent_ could not be in Eagle Hawk local group,
now phratry, as we have already shown. They were in Crow phratry, they
could not, by phratry law, marry in their own phratry, and to marry in
Eagle Hawk was to break the old law, "no marriage within the _local_
group name." Their only chance was to return to Eagle Hawk phratry,
while Crow totem kin went into Crow phratry, and thus we often find, in
fact, that in Australian phratries _Mukwara_ (Eagle Hawk) there is a
totem kin Eagle Hawk, and in _Kilpara_ phratry (Crow) there is a totem
kin Crow. This arrangement--the totem kin within the phratry of its own
name--has long been known to exist in America. The Thlinkets have Raven
phratry, with totem kins Raven, Frog, Goose, &c., and Wolf phratry, with
totem kins Wolf, Bear, Eagle, &c. (Frazer, _Totemism_, pp. 61, 62
(1887)). In Australia the fact has hitherto escaped observation, because
so many phratry names are not translated, while, though _Mukwara_ and
_Kilpara_ are translated, the Eagle Hawk and Crow totem kins within them
bear other names for the same birds, more recent names, or tribal native
names, such as _Biliari_ and _Waa_, while _Mukwara_ and _Kilpara_ may
have been names borrowed, within the institution of phratries, from some
alien tribe now perhaps extinct.

We have now sketched a scheme explanatory of the most primitive type of
social organization in Australia. The tendency is for phratries first to
lose the meanings of their names, and, next, for their names to lapse
into oblivion, as among the Arunta; the work of regulating marriage
being done by the opposed Matrimonial Classes.

These classes are obviously an artificial arrangement, intended to
restrict marriage to persons on the same level as generations. The
meanings of the class names are only known with certainty in two cases,
and then are names of animals, while there is reason to suspect that
animal names occur in four or five of the eight class-names which, in
different dialect forms, prevail in central and northern Australia.
Conceivably the new class regulations made use of the old totemic
machinery of nomenclature. But until Australian philologists can trace
the original meanings of Class names, further speculation is premature.


  Breaking up of totemism.

10. Much might be said about the way out of totemism. When once descent
and inheritance are traced through males, the social side of totemism
begins to break up. One way out is the Arunta way, where totems no
longer designate kinships. In parts of America totems are simply fading
into heraldry, or into magical societies, while the "gentes," once
totemic, have acquired new names, often local, as among the Sioux, or
mere sobriquets, as among the Blackfeet. In Melanesia the phratries,
whether named or nameless, have survived, while the totems have left but
a few traces which some consider disputable (_Social Origins_, pp.
176-184). Among the Bantu of South Africa the _tribes_ have sacred
animals (_Siboko_), which may be survivals of the totems of the chief
local totem group, with male descent in the tribe, the whole of which
now bears the name of the sacred animal. Even in Australia, among tribes
where there is reckoning of descent in the male line, and where there
are no matrimonial classes, the tendency is for totems to dwindle, while
exogamy becomes _local_, the rule being to marry out of the _district_,
not out of the _kin_ (Howitt, _Native Tribes of South-East Australia_,
pp. 270-272; cf. pp. 135-137).

The problem as to why, among savages all on the same low level of
material culture, one tribe derives descent through women, while its
nearest neighbouring tribe, with ceremonies, rites, beliefs and myths
like its own, and occupying lands of similar character in a similar
climate, traces descent through men, seems totally insoluble. Again, we
find that the civilized Lycians, as described by Herodotus (book i. ch.
173), reckoned lineage in the female line, while the naked savages of
north and central Australia reckon in the male line. Our knowledge does
not enable us to explain the change from female to male tracing of
lineage. Yet the change was essential for the formation of the family
system of civilized life. The change may be observed taking place in the
region of North-West America peopled by the Thlinket, Haida and Salish
tribes; the first are pure totemists, the last have arrived,
practically, in the south, at the modern family, while a curious
intermediate stage pervades the interjacent region.

The best authority on the Family developed in different shapes in
North-West America is Charles Hill-Tout (cf. "Origin of the Totemism of
the Aborigines of British Columbia," _Transactions of the Royal Society
of Canada_, vol. vii. sect. 11, 1901). He, like many American and some
English and continental students, applies the term "totem" not only to
the hereditary totem of the exogamous kin, but to the animal familiars
of individual men or women, called _manitus_, _naguals_, _nyarongs_ and
_yunbeai_, among North American Indians, in South America, in Borneo
and in the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales. These animal familiars
are chosen by individuals, obeying the monition of dreams, or are
assigned to them at birth, or at puberty, by the tribal magicians. It
has often been suggested that totemism arose when the familiar of an
individual became hereditary among his descendants. This could not occur
under a system of reckoning descent and inheriting the kin name through
women, but as a Tsimshian myth says that a man's sister adopted his
animal familiar, the bear, and transmitted it to _her_ offspring,
Hill-Tout supposes that this may have been the origin of totemism in
tribes with reckoning of descent in the female line. Instances, however,
are not known to exist in practice, and myths are mere baseless savage
hypotheses.

Exogamy, in his opinion, is the result of treaties of political alliance
with exclusive _interconnubium_ between two sets of kinsfolk by blood,
totemism being a mere accidental concomitant. This theory evades the
difficulties raised by the hypothesis of deliberate reformatory
legislation introducing the bisection of the tribe into exogamous
societies.

  AUTHORITIES.--The study of the History of the Family has been subject
  to great fluctuation of opinion, as unexpected evidence has kept
  pouring in from many quarters. The theory of primal promiscuity, which
  in 1870 succeeded to Sir Henry Maine's _patriarchal theory_, has
  endured many attacks, and there is a tendency to return, not precisely
  to the "patriarchal theory," but to the view that the jealousy of the
  Sire of the "Cyclopean family," or "Gorilla family" indicated by
  Darwin, has had much to do with laying the bases of "primal law." The
  whole subject has been especially studied by English-speaking writers,
  as the English and Americans are brought most into contact with the
  most archaic savage societies. Among foreigners, in addition to
  Starcke, Westermarck and Durkheim, already cited, may be mentioned
  Professor J. Kohler, _Zur Urgeschichte der Ehe_ (Stuttgart, 1897).
  Professor Kohler is in favour of a remote past of "collective
  marriage," indicated, as in Morgan's hypothesis, by the existing
  savage names of relationships, which are expressive of relations of
  consanguinity. E.S. Hartland (_Primitive Paternity_, 1910) discusses
  myths of supernatural birth in relation to the history of the Family.

  A careful and well-reasoned work by Herr Cunow (_Die Verwandtschafts
  Organisationen der Australneger_, Stuttgart, 1894) deals with the
  Matrimonial Classes of Australian tribes. Cunow supposes that descent
  was originally reckoned in the male line, and that tribes with this
  organization (such as the Narrinyeri) are the more primitive. In this
  opinion he has few allies: and on the origin of Exogamy he seems to
  possess no definite ideas. Pikler's _Ursprung des Totemismus_ (Berlin,
  1900) explains Totemism as arising from the need of names for early
  groups of men: names which could be expressed in pictographs and
  tattooing, to which we may add "gesture language." This is much akin
  to the theory which we have already suggested, though Pikler seems to
  think that the pictograph (say of a Crow or an Eagle Hawk) was prior
  to the group name. But, he remarks, like Howitt, "the germ of Totemism
  is the naming"; and the community of name between the animal species
  and the human group led to the belief that there was an important
  connexion between the men and their name-giving animal.

  Other useful sources of information are the annual Reports of the
  Bureau of Ethnology (Washington), the _Journal of the Institute of the
  Anthropological Society, Folk Lore_ (the organ of the Folk Lore
  Society), and Durkheim's _L'Année sociologique_. _Tabou et totémisme à
  Madagascar_, by M.A. van Gennep (Leroux, Paris, 1904) is a valuable
  contribution to knowledge.

  For India, where vestiges of totemism linger in the hill tribes, see
  Risley and Crooke, _Tribes and Castes_, vols. i., ii., iii., iv.; and
  Crooke, _Popular Religion_; also Crooke in _J.A.I._ (N.S.), vol. i.
  pp. 232-244.     (A. L.)



FAMINE (Lat. _fames_, hunger), extreme and general scarcity of food,
causing distress and deaths from starvation among the population of a
district or country. Famines have caused widespread suffering in all
countries and ages. A list of the chief famines recorded by history is
given farther on. The causes of famine are partly natural and partly
artificial. Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of
crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological
phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin. Among the artificial
causes may be classed war and economic errors in the production,
transport and sale of food-stuffs.

The natural causes of famine are still mainly outside our control,
though science enables agriculturists to combat them more successfully,
and the improvement in means of transport allows a rich harvest in one
land to supplement the defective crops in another. In tropical
countries drought is the commonest cause of a failure in the harvest,
and where great droughts are not uncommon--as in parts of India and
Australia--the hydraulic engineer comes to the rescue by devising
systems of water-storage and irrigation. It is less easy to provide
against the evils of excessive rainfall and of frost, hail and the like.
The experience of the French in Algiers shows that it is possible to
stamp out a plague of locusts, such as is the greatest danger to the
farmer in many parts of Argentina. But the ease with which food can
nowadays be transported from one part of the world to another minimizes
the danger of famine from natural causes, as we can hardly conceive that
the whole food-producing area of the world should be thus affected at
once.

The artificial causes of famine have mostly ceased to be operative on
any large scale. Chief among them is war, which may cause a shortage of
food-supplies, either by its direct ravages or by depleting the supply
of agricultural labour. But only local famines are likely to arise from
this cause. Legislative interference with agricultural operations or
with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and
failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are
unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern
speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the
evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and
regrators.

Such local famines as may occur in the 20th century will probably be
attributable to natural causes. It is impossible to regulate the
rainfall of any district, or wholly to supply its failure by any system
of water-storage. Irrigation is better able to bring fertility to a
naturally arid district than to avert the failure of crops in one which
is naturally fertile. The true palliative of famine is to be found in
the improvement of methods of transport, which make it possible rapidly
to convey food from one district to another. But the efficiency of this
preventive stops short at the point of saving human life. It cannot
prevent a rise in prices, with the consequent suffering among the poor.
Still, every year makes it less likely that the world will see a renewal
of the great famines of the past, and it is only the countries where
civilization is still backward that are in much danger of even a local
famine.

  _Great Famines._--Amongst the great famines of history may be named
  the following:--

  B.C. 436 Famine at Rome, when thousands of starving people threw
  themselves into the Tiber.

  A.D. 42 Great famine in Egypt.

  650 Famine throughout India.

  879 Universal famine.

  941, 1022 Great famines in India, in which entire provinces and 1033
  were depopulated and man was driven to cannibalism.

  1005 Famine in England.

  1016 Famine throughout Europe.

  1064-1072 Seven years' famine in Egypt.

  1148-1159 Eleven years' famine in India.

  1162 Universal famine.

  1344-1345 Great famine in India, when the Mogul emperor was unable to
  obtain the necessaries for his household. The famine continued for
  years and thousands upon thousands of people perished of want.

  1396-1407 The Durga Devi famine in India, lasting twelve years.

  1586 Famine in England which gave rise to the Poor Law system.

  1661 Famine in India, when not a drop of rain fell for two years.

  1769-1770 Great famine in Bengal, when a third of the population
  (10,000,000 persons) perished.

  1783 The Chalisa famine in India, which extended from the eastern edge
  of the Benares province to Lahore and Jammu.

  1790-1792 The Doji Bara, or skull famine, in India, so-called because
  the people died in such numbers that they could not be buried.
  According to tradition this was one of the severest famines ever
  known. It extended over the whole of Bombay into Hyderabad and
  affected the northern districts of Madras. Relief works were first
  opened during this famine in Madras.

  1838 Intense famine in North-West Provinces (United Provinces) of
  India; 800,000 perished.

  1846-1847 Famine in Ireland, due to the failure of the potato-crop.
  Grants were made by parliament amounting to £10,000,000.

  1861 Famine in North-West India.

  1866 Famine in Bengal and Orissa; one million perished.

  1869 Intense famine in Rajputana; one million and a half perished. The
  government initiated the policy of saving life.

  1874 Famine in Behar, India. Government relief in excess of the needs
  of the people.

  1876-1878 Famine in Bombay, Madras and Mysore; five millions perish.
  Relief insufficient.

  1877-1878 Severe famine in north China. Nine and a half millions said
  to have perished.

  1887-1889 Famine in China.

  1891-1892 Famine in Russia.

  1897 Famine in India. Government policy of saving life successful.
  Mansion House fund £550,000.

  1899-1901 Famine in India. One million people perished. Estimated loss
  to India £50,000,000. The government spent £10,000,000 on relief, and
  at one time there were 4,500,000 people on the relief works.

  1905 Famine in Russia.

_Famines in India._--Owing to its tropical situation and its almost
entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is more liable than any
other country in the world to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen
into famine. Every year sufficient rain falls in India to secure an
abundant harvest if it were evenly distributed over the whole country;
but as a matter of fact the distribution is so uneven and so uncertain
that every year some district suffers from insufficient rainfall. In
fact, famine is, to all intents and purposes, endemic in India, and is a
problem to reckon with every year in some portion of that vast area. The
people depend so entirely upon agriculture, and the harvest is so
entirely destroyed by a single monsoon failure, that wherever a total
failure occurs the landless labourer is immediately thrown out of work
and remains out of work for the whole year. The question is thus one of
lack of employment, rather than lack of food. The food is there, perhaps
at a slightly enhanced price, but the unemployed labourer has no money
to buy it. The problem is very much the same as that met by the British
Poor Law system. Every year in England a poor rate of some £22,000,000
is expended for a population of 40 millions; while it is only in an
exceptional year in India that £10,000,000 are spent on a population of
300 millions.

Famines seem to recur in India at periodical intervals, which have been
held to be in some way dependent on the sun-spot period. Every five or
ten years the annual scarcity widens its area and becomes a recognized
famine; every fifty or a hundred years whole provinces are involved,
loss of life becomes widespread, and a great famine is recorded. In the
140 years since Warren Hastings initiated British rule in India, there
have been nineteen famines and five severe scarcities. For the period
preceding British rule the records have not been so well preserved, but
there is ample evidence to show that famine was just as frequent in its
incidence and infinitely more deadly in its effects under the native
rulers of India. In the great Bengal famine of 1769-1770, which occurred
shortly after the foundation of British rule, but while the native
officials were still in power, a third of the population, or ten
millions out of thirty millions, perished. From this it may be guessed
what occurred in the centuries under Mogul rule, when for years there
was no rain, when famine lasted for three, four or twelve years, and
entire cities were left without an inhabitant. In the famine of 1901,
the worst of recent years, the loss of life in British districts was 3%
of the population affected, as against 33% in the Bengal famine of 1770.

The native rulers of India seem to have made no effort to relieve the
sufferings of their subjects in times of famine; and even down to 1866
the British government had no settled famine policy. In that year the
Orissa famine awakened the public conscience, and the commission
presided over by Sir George Campbell laid down the lines upon which
subsequent famine-relief was organized. In the Rajputana famine of 1869
the humane principle of saving every possible life was first
enunciated. In the Behar famine of 1874 this principle was even carried
to an extreme, the cost was enormous, and the people were in danger of
being pauperized. The resulting reaction caused a regrettable loss of
life in the Madras and Bombay famine of 1876-1878; and the Famine
Commission of 1880, followed by those of 1898 and 1901, laid down the
principle that every possible life must be saved, but that the wages on
relief works must be so regulated in relation to the market rate of
wages as not to undermine the independence of the people. The experience
gained in the great famines of 1898 and 1901 has been garnered by these
commissions, and stored up in the "famine codes" of each separate
province, where rules are provided for the treatment of famine directly
a crop failure is seen to be probable. The first step is to open test
works; and directly they show the necessity, regular relief works are
established, in which the people may earn enough to keep them from
starvation, until the time comes to sow the next crop.

As a result of the severe famine of 1878-1879, Lord Lytton's government
instituted a form of insurance against famine known as the Famine
Insurance Grant. A sum of Rs. 1,500,000 was to be yearly set aside for
purposes of famine relief. This scheme has been widely misunderstood; it
has been assumed that an entirely separate fund was created, and that in
years when the specified sum was not paid into this fund, the purpose of
the government was not carried out. But Sir John Strachey, the author of
the scheme, explains in his book on India that the original intention
was nothing more than the annual application of surplus revenue, of the
indicated amount, to purposes of famine relief; and that when the
country was free from famine, this sum should be regularly devoted to
the discharge of debt, or to the prevention of debt which would
otherwise have been incurred for the construction of railways and
canals. The sum of 1½ crores is regularly set aside for this purpose,
and is devoted as a rule to the construction of protective irrigation
works, and for investigating and preparing new projects falling under
the head of protective works.

The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to
reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of
railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of
waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the
introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of
industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of
the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the
railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function
of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown. There is always
enough grain within the boundaries of India for the needs of the people;
the only difficulty is to transport it to the tract where it is required
at a particular moment. Owing to the extension of railways, in the
famines of 1898 and 1901 there was never any dearth of food in any
famine-stricken tract; and the only difficulty was to find enough
rolling-stock to cope with the demand. Irrigation protects large tracts
against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the
Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 6½
million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is
being carried out at an annual cost of 1½ millions sterling for twenty
years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a
lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted. Local
conditions do not make irrigation everywhere possible.

As five-sixths of the whole population of India are dependent upon the
land, any failure, of agriculture becomes a national calamity. If there
were more industries and manufactures in India, the dependence on the
land would not be so great and the liability to lack of occupation would
not be so uniform in any particular district. The remedy for this is the
extension of factories and home industries; but European capital is
difficult to obtain in India, and the native capitalist prefers to hoard
his rupees. The extension of industries, therefore, is a work of time.

It is sometimes alleged by native Indian politicians that famines are
growing worse under British rule, because India is becoming exhausted
by an excessive land revenue, a civil service too expensive for her
needs, military expenditure on imperial objects, and the annual drain of
some £15,000,000 for "home charges." The reply to this indictment is
that the British land revenue is £16,000,000 annually, whereas
Aurangzeb's over a smaller area, allowing for the difference in the
value of the rupee, was £110,000,000; though the Indian Civil Service is
expensive, its cost is more than covered by the fact that India, under
British guarantee, obtains her loans at 3½% as against 10% or more paid
by native rulers; though India has a heavy military burden, she pays no
contribution to the British navy, which protects her seaboard from
invasion; the drain of the home charges cannot be very great, as India
annually absorbs 6 millions sterling of the precious metals; in
1899-1900, a year of famine, the net imports of gold and silver were 130
millions. Finally, it is estimated by the census commissioners that in
the famine of 1901 three million people died in the native states and
only one million in British territory.

  See Cornelius Walford, "On the Famines of the World, Past and Present"
  (_Journal of the Statistical Society_, 1878-1879); Romesh C. Dutt,
  _Famines in India_ (1900); Robert Wallace, _Famine in India_ (1900);
  George Campbell, _Famines in India_ (1769-1788); _Chronological List
  of Famines for all India_ (Madras Administration Report, 1885); J.C.
  Geddes, _Administrative Experience in Former Famines_ (1874);
  _Statistical Atlas of India_ (1895); F.H.S. Merewether, _Through the
  Famine Districts of India_ (1898); G.W. Forrest, _The Famine in India_
  (1898); E.A.B. Hodgetts, _In the Track of the Russian Famine_ (1892);
  W.B. Steveni, _Through Famine-stricken Russia_ (1892); Vaughan Nash,
  _The Great Famine_ (1900); Lady Hope, _Sir Arthur Cotton_ (1900);
  _Lord Curzon in India_ (1905); T.W. Holderness, _Narrative of the
  Famine of 1896-1897_ (c. 8812 of 1898); the Indian Famine Commission
  reports of 1880, 1898 and 1900; report of the Indian Irrigation
  Commission (1901-1903); C.W. McMinn, _Famine Truths, Half-Truths,
  Untruths_ (1902); Theodore Morison, _Indian Industrial Organization_
  (1906).



FAN (Lat. _vannus_; Fr. _éventail_), in its usually restricted meaning,
a light implement used for giving motion to the air in order to produce
coolness to the face; the word is, however, also applied to the
winnowing fan, for separating chaff from grain, and to various
engineering appliances for ventilation, &c. _Ventilabrum_ and
_flabellum_ are names under which ecclesiastical fans are mentioned in
old inventories. Fans for cooling the face have been in use in hot
climates from remote ages. A bas-relief in the British Museum represents
Sennacherib with female figures carrying feather fans. They were
attributes of royalty along with horse-hair fly-flappers and umbrellas.
Examples may be seen in plates of the Egyptian sculptures at Thebes and
other places, and also in the ruins of Persepolis. In the museum of
Boulak, near Cairo, a wooden fan handle showing holes for feathers is
still preserved. It is from the tomb of Amenhotep, of the 18th dynasty,
17th century B.C. In India fans were also attributes of men in
authority, and sometimes sacred emblems. A heart-shaped fan, with an
ivory handle, of unknown age, and held in great veneration by the
Hindus, was given to King Edward VII. when prince of Wales. Large
punkahs or screens, moved by a servant who does nothing else, are in
common use in hot countries, and particularly India.

Fans were used in the early middle ages to keep flies from the sacred
elements during the celebrations of the Christian mysteries. Sometimes
they were round, with bells attached--of silver or silver gilt. Notices
of such fans in the ancient records of St Paul's, London, Salisbury
cathedral and many other churches exist still. For these purposes they
are no longer used in the Western church, though they are retained in
some Oriental rites. The large feather fans, however, are still carried
in the state processions of the supreme pontiff in Rome, though not used
during the celebration of the mass. The fan of Queen Theodolinda (7th
century) is still preserved in the treasury of the cathedral of Monza.
Fans made part of the bridal outfit, or _mundus muliebris_, of Roman
ladies.

Folding fans had their origin in Japan, and were imported thence to
China. They were in the shape still used--a segment of a circle of paper
pasted on a light radiating framework of bamboo, and variously
decorated, some in colours, others of white paper on which verses or
sentences are written. It is a compliment in China to invite a friend
or distinguished guest to write some sentiment on your fan as a memento
of any special occasion, and this practice has continued. A fan that has
some celebrity in France was presented by the Chinese ambassador to the
comtesse de Clauzel at the coronation of Napoleon I. in 1804. When a
site was given in 1635, on an artificial island, for the settlement of
Portuguese merchants in Nippo in Japan, the space was laid out in the
form of a fan as emblematic of an object agreeable for general use. Men
and women of every rank both in China and Japan carry fans, even
artisans using them with one hand while working with the other. In China
they are often made of carved ivory, the sticks being plates very thin
and sometimes carved on both sides, the intervals between the carved
parts pierced with astonishing delicacy, and the plates held together by
a ribbon. The Japanese make the two outer guards of the stick, which
cover the others, occasionally of beaten iron, extremely thin and light,
damascened with gold and other metals.

Fans were used by Portuguese ladies in the 14th century, and were well
known in England before the close of the reign of Richard II. In France
the inventory of Charles V. at the end of the 14th century mentions a
folding ivory fan. They were brought into general use in that country by
Catherine de'Medici, probably from Italy, then in advance of other
countries in all matters of personal luxury. The court ladies of Henry
VIII.'s reign in England were used to handling fans. A lady in the
"Dance of Death" by Holbein holds a fan. Queen Elizabeth is painted with
a round feather fan in her portrait at Gorhambury; and as many as
twenty-seven are enumerated in her inventory (1606). Coryat, the English
traveller, in 1608 describes them as common in Italy. They also became
of general use from that time in Spain. In Italy, France and Spain fans
had special conventional uses, and various actions in handling them grew
into a code of signals, by which ladies were supposed to convey hints or
signals to admirers or to rivals in society. A paper in the _Spectator_
humorously proposes to establish a regular drill for these purposes.

The chief seat of the European manufacture of fans during the 17th
century was Paris, where the sticks or frames, whether of wood or ivory,
were made, and the decorations painted on mounts of very carefully
prepared vellum (incorrectly called _chicken skin_)--a material stronger
and tougher than paper, which breaks at the folds. Paris makers exported
fans unpainted to Madrid and other Spanish cities, where they were
decorated by native artists. Many were exported complete; of old fans
called Spanish a great number were in fact made in France. Louis XIV.
issued edicts at various times to regulate the manufacture. Besides fans
mounted with parchment, Dutch fans of ivory were imported into Paris,
and decorated by the heraldic painters in the process called "Vernis
Martin," after a famous carriage painter and inventor of colourless lac
varnish. Fans of this kind belonging to Queen Victoria and the baroness
de Rothschild were exhibited in 1870 at Kensington. A fan of the date of
1660, representing sacred subjects, is attributed to Philippe de
Champagne, another to Peter Oliver in England in the 17th century. Cano
de Arevalo, a Spanish painter of the 17th century, devoted himself to
fan painting. Some harsh expressions of Queen Christina to the young
ladies of the French court are said to have caused an increased
ostentation in the splendour of their fans, which were set with jewels
and mounted in gold. Rosalba Carriera was the name of a fan painter of
celebrity in the 17th century. Le Brun and Romanelli were much employed
during the same period. Klingstet, a Dutch artist, enjoyed a
considerable reputation in the latter part of the 17th and the first
thirty years of the 18th century.

The revocation of the edict of Nantes drove many fan-makers out of
France to Holland and England. The trade in England was well established
under the Stuart sovereigns. Petitions were addressed by the fan-makers
to Charles II. against the importation of fans from India, and a duty
was levied upon such fans in consequence. This importation of Indian
fans, according to Savary, extended also to France. During the reign of
Louis XV. carved Indian and China fans displaced to some extent those
formerly imported from Italy, which had been painted on swanskin
parchment prepared with various perfumes.

During the 18th century all the luxurious ornamentation of the day was
bestowed on fans as far as they could display it. The sticks were made
of mother-of-pearl or ivory, carved with extraordinary skill in France,
Italy, England and other countries. They were painted from designs of
Boucher, Watteau, Lancret and other "genre" painters; Hébert, Rau,
Chevalier, Jean Boquet, Mme. Vérité, are known as fan-painters. These
fashions were followed in most countries of Europe, with certain
national differences. Taffeta and silk, as well as fine parchment, were
used for the mounts. Little circles of glass were let into the stick to
be looked through, and small telescopic glasses were sometimes contrived
at the pivot of the stick. They were occasionally mounted with the
finest point lace. An interesting fan (belonging to Madame de Thiac in
France), the work of Le Flamand, was presented by the municipality of
Dieppe to Marie Antoinette on the birth of her son the dauphin. From the
time of the Revolution the old luxury expended on fans died out. Fine
examples ceased to be exported to England and other countries. The
painting on them represented scenes or personages connected with
political events. At a later period fan mounts were often prints
coloured by hand. The events of the day mark the date of many examples
found in modern collections. Among the fan-makers of modern days the
names of Alexandre, Duvelleroy, Fayet, Vanier became well known in
Paris; and the designs of Charles Conder (1868-1909) have brought his
name to the front in this art. Painters of distinction often design and
paint the mounts, the best designs being figure subjects. A great
impulse was given to the manufacture and painting of fans in England
after the exhibition which took place at South Kensington in 1870.
Modern collections of fans take their date from the emigration of many
noble families from France at the time of the Revolution. Such objects
were given as souvenirs, and occasionally sold by families in straitened
circumstances. A large number of fans of all sorts, principally those of
the 18th century, French, English, German, Italian, Spanish, &c., have
been bequeathed to the South Kensington (Victoria and Albert) Museum.

The sticks of folding fans are called in French _brins_, the two outer
guards _panaches_, and the mount _feuille_.

  See also Blondel, _Histoire des éventails_ (1875); Octave Uzanne,
  _L'éventail_ (1882); and especially G. Wooliscroft Rhead, _History of
  the Fan_ (1909).     (J. H. P.*)



FANCY (a shortened form, dating from the 15th century, of "fantasy,"
which is derived through the O. Fr. _fantasie_, modern _fantaisie_. from
the Latinized form of the Gr. [Greek: phantasia, phantasein, phainein],
to show), display, showing forth, as a philosophical term, the
presentative power of the mind. The word "fancy" and the older form
"fantasy," which is now chiefly used poetically, was in its early
application synonymous with imagination, the mental faculty of creating
representations or images of things not present to the senses; it is
more usually, in this sense, applied to the lighter forms of the
imagination. "Fancy" also commonly means inclination, whim, caprice. The
more learned form "phantasy," as also such words as "phantom" and
"phantasm," is chiefly confined to visionary imaginings.



FANG (FAN, FANWE, PANWE, PAHOUIN, PAOUEN, MPANGWE), a powerful African
people occupying the Gabun district north of the Ogowé river in French
Congo. Their name means "men." They call themselves Pa^{n}we, Fa^{n}we
and Fa^{n} with highly nasalized n. They are a finely-made race of
chocolate colour; some few are very dark, but these are of slave origin.
They have bright expressive oval faces with prominent cheek-bones. Many
of them file their teeth to points. Their hair, which is woolly, is worn
by the women long, reaching below the nape of the neck. The men wear it
in a variety of shapes, often building it up over a wooden base. The
growth of the hair appears abundant, but that on the face is usually
removed. Little clothing is worn; the men wear a bark waist-cloth, the
women a plantain girdle, sometimes with a bustle of dried grass. A chief
wears a leopard's skin round the shoulders. Both sexes tattoo and paint
the body, and delight in ornaments of every kind. The men, whose sole
occupations are fighting and hunting, all carry arms--muskets, spears
for throwing and stabbing, and curious throwing-knives with blades
broader than they are long. Instead of bows and arrows they use
crossbows made of ebony, with which they hunt apes and birds. In battle
the Fang used to carry elephant hide shields; these have apparently been
discarded.

When first met by T.E. Bowdich (1815) the Paamways, as he calls the
Fang, were an inland people inhabiting the hilly plateaus north of the
Ogowé affluents. Now they have become the neighbours of the Mpongwe
(q.v.) of Glass and Libreville on the Komo river, while south of the
Gabun they have reached the sea at several points. Their original home
is probably to be placed somewhere near the Congo. Their language,
according to Sir R. Burton, is soft and sweet and a contrast to their
harsh voices, and the vocabularies collected prove it to be of the
Bantu-Negroid linguistic family. W. Winwood Reade (_Sketch Book_, i. p.
108) states that "it is like Mpongwe (a pure Bantu idiom) cut in half;
for instance, _njina_ (gorilla) in Mpongwe is _nji_ in Fan." The plural
of the tribal name is formed in the usual Bantu way, Ba-Fang.

Morally the Fang are superior to the negro. Mary Kingsley writes: "The
Fan is full of fire, temper, intelligence and go, very teachable, rather
difficult to manage, quick to take offence, and utterly indifferent to
human life." This latter characteristic has made the Fang dreaded by all
their neighbours. They are noted cannibals, and ferocious in nature.
Prisoners are badly treated and are often allowed to starve. The Fang
are always fighting, but the battles are not bloody. After the fall of
two or three warriors the bodies are dragged off to be devoured, and
their friends disperse. Burton says that their cannibalism is limited to
the consumption of slain enemies; that the sick are not devoured; and
that the dead are decently buried, except slaves, whose bodies are
thrown into the forest. Mary Kingsley, on the other hand, believed their
cannibalism was not limited. She writes: "The Fan is not a cannibal for
sacrificial motives, like the negro. He will eat his next door
neighbour's relation and sell his own deceased to his next door
neighbour in return, but he does not buy slaves and fatten them up for
his table as some of the middle Congo tribes do. He has no slaves, no
prisoners of war, no cemeteries, so you must draw your own conclusions."
Among certain tribes the aged alone are permitted to eat human flesh,
which is _taboo_ for all others. There is no doubt that the cannibalism
of the Fang is diminishing before the advance of civilization. Apart
from their ferocity, the Fang are an agreeable and industrious people.
They are skilful workers in iron and have a curious coinage called
_bikei_, little iron imitation axeheads tied up in bundles called
_ntet_, ten to a bundle; these are used chiefly in the purchase of
wives. They are energetic traders and are skilled in pottery and in
gardening. Their religion appears to be a combination of primitive
animism and ancestor worship, with a belief in sympathetic magic.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Paul du Chaillu, _Explorations in Equatorial Africa_
  (1861); Sir R. Burton, "A Day with the Fans," _Transactions of
  Ethnological Society_, new series, vols. 3-4; Mary Kingsley, _Travels
  in West Africa_ (1897); Oscar Lenz, _Skizzen aus West Africa_ (1878);
  R.E. Dennett, _Notes on the Folklore of the Fjort_ (1898); William
  Winwood Reade, _The African Sketch Book_ (1873); and (chiefly) A.L.
  Bennett, "Ethnographical Notes on the Fang," _Journ. Anthr. Inst._
  N.S., ii. p. 66, and L. Martron in _Anthropos_, t. i. (1906), fasc. 4.



FANO (anc. _Fanum Fortunae_, q.v.), a town and episcopal see of the
Marches, Italy, in the province of Pesaro and Urbino, 8 m. S.E. of the
former by rail, and 46 ft. above sea-level, on the N.E. coast of Italy.
Pop. (1901), town 10,535, commune 24,730. The cathedral has a 13th
century portal, but the interior is unimportant. The vestibule of S.
Francesco contains the tombs of some members of the Malatesta family. S.
Croce and S. Maria Nuova contain works by Giovanni Santi, the father of
Raphael; the latter has also two works by Perugino, the predella of one
of which is attributed to Raphael. S. Agostino contains a painting of S.
Angelo Custode ("the Guardian Angel"), which is the subject of a poem by
Robert Browning. The fine Gothic Palazzo della Ragione (1299) has been
converted into a theatre. The palace of the Malatesta, with fine
porticos and Gothic windows, was much damaged by an earthquake in 1874.
S. Michele, built against the arch of Augustus, is an early Renaissance
building (1475-1490), probably by Matteo Nuzio of Fano, with an ornate
portal. The façade has an interesting relief showing the colonnade added
by Constantine as an upper storey to the arch of Augustus and removed in
1463.

Fano in the middle ages passed through various political vicissitudes,
and in the 14th century became subject to the Malatesta. In 1458 Pius
II. added it to the states of the Church. Julius II. established here in
1514 the first printing press with movable Arabic type. The harbour was
restored by Paul V. but is now unimportant.



FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD, Bart. (1608-1666), English poet and ambassador,
son of Sir Henry Fanshawe, remembrancer of the exchequer, of Ware Park,
Hertfordshire, and of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Smith or Smythe, was
born early in June 1608, and was educated in Cripplegate by the famous
schoolmaster, Thomas Farnaby. In November 1623 he was admitted
fellow-commoner of Jesus College, Cambridge, and in January 1626 he
entered the Inner Temple; but the study of the law being distasteful to
him he travelled in France and Spain. On his return, an accomplished
linguist, in 1635, he was appointed secretary to the English embassy at
Madrid under Lord Aston. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the
king, and while at Oxford in 1644 married Anne, daughter of Sir John
Harrison of Balls, Hertfordshire. About the same time he was appointed
secretary at war to the prince of Wales, with whom he set out in 1645
for the western counties, Scilly, and afterwards Jersey. He compounded
in 1646 with the parliamentary authorities, and was allowed to live in
London till October 1647, visiting Charles I. at Hampton Court. In 1647
he published his translation of the _Pastor Fido_ of Guarini, which he
reissued in 1648 with the addition of several other poems, original and
translated. In 1648 he was appointed treasurer to the navy under Prince
Rupert. In November of this year he was in Ireland, where he actively
engaged in the royalist cause till the spring of 1650, when he was
despatched by Charles II. on a mission to obtain help from Spain. This
was refused, and he joined Charles in Scotland as secretary. On the 2nd
of September 1650 he had been created a baronet. He accompanied Charles
in the expedition into England, and was taken prisoner at the battle of
Worcester on the 3rd of September 1651. After a confinement of some
weeks at Whitehall, he was allowed, with restrictions, and under the
supervision of the authorities, to choose his own place of residence. He
published in 1652 his _Selected Parts of Horace_, a translation
remarkable for its fidelity, felicity and elegance. In 1654 he completed
translations of two of the comedies of the Spanish poet Antonio de
Mendoza, which were published after his death, _Querer per solo querer:
To Love only for Love's Sake_, in 1670, and _Fiestas de Aranjuez_ in
1671. But the great labour of his retirement was the translation of the
_Lusiad_, by Camoens published in 1655. It is in ottava rima, with the
translation prefixed to it of the Latin poem _Furor Petroniensis_. In
1658 he published a Latin version of the _Faithful Shepherdess_ of
Fletcher.

In April 1659 Fanshawe left England for Paris, re-entered Charles's
service and accompanied him to England at the Restoration, but was not
offered any place in the administration. In 1661 he was returned to
parliament for the university of Cambridge, and the same year was sent
to Portugal to negotiate the marriage between Charles II. and the
infanta. In January 1662 he was made a privy councillor of Ireland, and
was appointed ambassador again to Portugal in August, where he remained
till August 1663. He was sworn a privy councillor of England on the 1st
of October. In January 1664 he was sent as ambassador to Spain, and
arrived at Cadiz in February of that year. He signed the first draft of
a treaty on the 17th of December, which offered advantageous concessions
to English trade, but of which one condition was that it should be
confirmed by his government before a certain date. In January 1666
Fanshawe went to Lisbon to procure the adherence of Portugal to this
agreement. He returned to Madrid, having failed in his mission, and was
almost immediately recalled by Clarendon on the plea that he had
exceeded his instructions. He died very shortly afterwards before
leaving Madrid, on the 26th of June 1666. He had a family of fourteen
children, of whom five only survived him, Richard, the youngest,
succeeding as second baronet and dying unmarried in 1694.

As a translator, whether from the Italian, Latin, Portuguese or Spanish,
Fanshawe has a considerable reputation. His _Pastor Fido_ and his
_Lusiad_ have not been superseded by later scholars, and his rendering
of the latter is praised by Southey and Sir Richard Burton. As an
original poet also the few verses he has left are sufficient evidence of
exceptional literary talent.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe_, written in 1676 and
  published 1829 (from an inaccurate transcript); these were reprinted
  from the original manuscript and edited by H.C. Fanshawe (London,
  1907); article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_ and authorities there
  quoted; _Biographia Brit._ (Kippis); _Original Letters of Sir R.F._ (2
  vols., 1724), the earlier edition of 1702 with portrait being only
  vol. i. of this edition; _Notes Genealogical and Historical of the
  Fanshawe Family_ (1868-1872); funeral sermon by H. Bagshaw; _Nicholas
  Papers_ (Camden Society); _Quarterly Review_, xxvii. 1; _Macmillan's
  Mag._ lvii. 279; _Camoen's Life and Lusiads_, by Sir F. Burton, i.
  135; Clarendon's _State Papers, Calendars of State Papers,
  Autobiography and Hist. of the Rebellion_; _Athenaeum_ (1883), i. 121;
  _Add. MSS. British Museum_, 15,228 (poems); _Harl. MSS. Brit. Mus._
  7010 (letters).     (P. C. Y.)



FANTAN, a form of gambling highly popular among the Chinese. The game is
simple. A square is marked in the centre of an ordinary table, or a
square piece of metal is laid on it, the sides being marked 1, 2, 3 and
4. The banker puts on the table a double handful of small coins--in
China "cash"--or similar articles, which he covers with a metal bowl.
The players bet on the numbers, setting their stakes on the side of the
square which bears the number selected. When all have staked, the bowl
is removed, and the banker or croupier with a small stick removes coins
from the heap, four at a time, till the final batch is reached. If it
contains four coins, the backer of No. 4 wins; if three, the backer of
No. 3 wins, and so on. Twenty-five per cent is deducted from the stake
by the banker, and the winner receives five times the amount of his
stake thus reduced. In Macao, the Monte Carlo of China, play goes on day
and night, every day of the week, and bets can be made from 5 cents to
500 dollars, which are the limits.

Fantan is also the name of a card game, played with an ordinary pack, by
any number of players up to eight. The deal decided, the cards are dealt
singly, any that are left over forming a stock, and being placed face
downwards on the table. Each player contributes a fixed stake or "ante."
The first player can enter if he has an ace; if he has not he pays an
"ante" and takes a card from the stock; the second player is then called
upon and acts similarly till an ace is played. This (and the other aces
when played) is put face upwards on the table, and the piles are built
up from the ace to the king. The pool goes to the player who first gets
rid of all his cards. If a player fails to play, having a playable card,
he is fined the amount of the ante for every card in the other players'
hands.



FANTASIA (Italian for "fantasy," a causing to be seen, from Greek,
[Greek: phainein], to show), a name in music sometimes loosely used for
a composition which has little structural form, and appears to be an
improvization; and also for a combination or medley of familiar airs
connected together with original passages of more or less brilliance.
The word, however, was originally applied to more formal compositions,
based on the madrigal, for several instruments. Fantasias appear as
distinct compositions in Bach's works, and also joined to a fugue, as in
the "Great Fantasia and Fugue" in A minor, and the "Fantasia cromatica"
in D minor. Brahms used the name for his shorter piano pieces. It is
also applied to orchestral compositions "not long enough to be called
symphonic poems and not formal enough to be called overtures" (Sir C.
Hubert Parry, in Grove's _Dictionary of Music_, ed. 1906). The Italian
word is still used in Tunis, Algeria and Morocco, with the meaning of
"showing off," for an acrobatic exhibition of horsemanship by the
Arabs. The riders fire their guns, throw them and their lances into the
air, and catch them again, standing or kneeling in the saddle, all at a
full gallop.



FANTI, MANFREDO (1806-1865), Italian general, was born at Carpi and
educated at the military college of Modena. In 1831 he was implicated in
the revolutionary movement organized by Ciro Menotti (see FRANCIS IV.,
of Modena), and was condemned to death and hanged in effigy, but escaped
to France, where he was given an appointment in the French corps of
engineers. In 1833 he took part in Mazzini's abortive attempt to invade
Savoy, and in 1835 he went to Spain to serve in Queen Christina's army
against the Carlists. There he remained for thirteen years,
distinguishing himself in battle and rising to a high staff appointment.
But on the outbreak of the war between Piedmont and Austria in 1848 he
hurried back to Italy, and although at first his services were rejected
both by the Piedmontese government and the Lombard provisional
government, he was afterwards given the command of a Lombard brigade. In
the general confusion following on Charles Albert's defeat on the Mincio
and his retreat to Milan, where the people rose against the unhappy
king, Fanti's courage and tact saved the situation. He was elected
member of the Piedmontese chamber in 1849, and on the renewal of the
campaign he again commanded a Lombard brigade under General Ramorino.
After the Piedmontese defeat at Novara (23rd of March) peace was made,
but a rising broke out at Genoa, and Fanti with great difficulty
restrained his Lombards from taking part in it. But he was suspected as
a Mazzinian and a soldier of fortune by the higher Piedmontese officers,
and they insisted on his being court-martialled for his operations under
Ramorino (who had been tried and shot). Although honourably acquitted,
he was not employed again until the Crimean expedition of 1855. In the
second Austrian war in 1859 Fanti commanded the 2nd division, and
contributed to the victories of Palestro, Magenta and San Martino. After
the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central
Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany,
Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a
well-drilled body of 45,000 men, whose function was to be ready to
intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution. He showed
statesmanlike qualities in steering a clear course between the
exaggerated prudence of Baron Ricasoli, who wished to recall the troops
from the frontier, and the impetuosity of Garibaldi, his
second-in-command, who was anxious to invade Romagna prematurely, even
at the risk of Austrian intervention. Fanti's firmness led to
Garibaldi's resignation. In January 1860 Fanti became minister of war
and marine under Cavour, and incorporated the League's army in that of
Piedmont. In the meanwhile Garibaldi had invaded Sicily with his
Thousand, and King Victor Emmanuel decided at last that he too must
intervene; Fanti was given the chief command of a strong Italian force
which invaded the papal states, seized Ancona and other fortresses, and
defeated the papal army at Castelfidardo, where the enemy's commander,
General Lamoricière, was captured. In three weeks Fanti had conquered
the Marche and Umbria and taken 28,000 prisoners. When the army entered
Neapolitan territory the king took the chief command, with Fanti as
chief of the staff. After defeating a large Neapolitan force at Mola and
organizing the siege operations round Gaeta, Fanti returned to the war
office at Turin to carry out important army reforms. His attitude in
opposing the admission of Garibaldi's 7000 officers into the regular
army with their own grades made him the object of great unpopularity for
a time, and led to a severe reprimand from Cavour. On the death of the
latter (7th of June 1861) he resigned office and took command of the
VII. army corps. But his health had now broken down, and after four
years' suffering he died in Florence on the 5th of April 1865. His lose
was greatly felt in the war of 1866.

  See Carandini, _Vita di M. Fanti_ (Verona, 1872); A. Di Giorgio, _Il
  Generale M. Fanti_ (Florence, 1906).     (L. V.*)



FANTI, a nation of Negroes, inhabiting part of the seaboard of the Gold
Coast colony, British West Africa, and about 20,000 sq. m. of the
interior. They number about a million. They have many traditions of
early migrations. It seems probable that the Fanti and Ashanti were
originally one race, driven from the north-east towards the sea by more
powerful races, possibly the ancestors of Fula and Hausa. There are many
words in Fanti for plants and animals not now existing in the country,
but which abound in the Gurunsi and Moshi countries farther north. These
regions have been always haunted by slave-raiders, and possibly these
latter may have influenced the exodus. At any rate, the Fanti were early
driven into the forests from the open plains and slopes of the hills.
The name Fanti, an English version of _Mfantsi_, is supposed to be
derived from _fan_, a wild cabbage, and _ti_, _di_ or _dz_, to eat; the
story being that upon the exile of the tribe the only available food was
some such plant. They are divided into seven tribes, obviously totemic,
and with rules as to exogamy still in force. (1) _Kwonna_, buffalo; (2)
_Etchwi_, leopard; (3) _Eso_, bush-cat; (4) _Nitchwa_, dog; (5) _Nnuna_,
parrot; (6) _Ebradzi_, lion; and (7) _Abrutu_, corn-stalk; these names
are obsolete, though the meanings are known. The tribal marks are three
gashes in front of the ear on each side in a line parallel to the
jaw-bone. The Fanti language has been associated by A.B. Ellis with the
Ashanti speech as the principal descendant of an original language,
possibly the Tshi (pronounced Tchwi), which is generally considered as
the parent of Ashanti, Fanti, Akim, Akwapim and modern Tshi.

The average Fanti is of a dull brown colour, of medium height, with
negroid features. Some of the women, when young, are quite pretty. The
women use various perfumes, one of the most usual being prepared from
the excrement of snakes. There are no special initiatory rites for the
youthful Fanti, only a short seclusion for girls when they reach the
marriageable age. Marriage is a mere matter of sale, and the maidens are
tricked out in all the family finery and walk round the village to
indicate that they are ready for husbands. The marriages frequently end
in divorce. Polygamy is universally practised. The care of the children
is left exclusively to the mothers, who are regarded by the Fanti with
deep veneration, while little attention is paid to the fathers. Wives
never eat with their husbands, but always with the children. The
rightful heir in native law is the eldest nephew, i.e. the eldest
sister's eldest son, who invariably inherits wives, children and all
property. As to tenure of land, the source of ownership of land is
derived from the possession of the chief's "stool," which is, like the
throne of a king, the symbol of authority, and not even the chief can
alienate the land from the stool. Females may succeed to property, but
generally only when the acquisition of such property is the result of
their succeeding to the stool of a chief. The Fanti are not permanent
cultivators of the soil. Three or at most five years will cover the
period during which land is continuously cultivated. The commonest
native dishes are palm-oil chop, a bowl of palm oil, produced by boiling
freshly ground palm nuts, in which a fowl or fish is then cooked; and
_fufu_, "white," a boiled mash of yams or plantains. The Fanti have a
taste for shark-flesh, called locally "stink-fish." It is sliced up and
partly sun-dried, and is eaten in a putrid state. The Fanti are skilful
sailors and fishermen, build excellent canoes, and are expert weavers.
Pottery and goldsmithery are trades also followed. Their religion is
fetishism, every Fanti having his own "fetish" or familiar spirit, but
there is a belief in a beneficent Creative Being. Food is offered the
dead, and a ceremony of purification is said to be indulged in at
funerals, the bearers and mourners plunging into the sea or river after
the interment.

  See _Journal of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain_, vol. 26,
  pp. 128 et seq.; A.B. Ellis, _The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold
  Coast_ (London, 1887).



FANTIN-LATOUR, IGNACE HENRI JEAN THÉODORE (1836-1904), French artist,
was born at Grenoble on the 14th of January 1836. He studied first with
his father, a pastel painter, and then at the drawing school of Lecoq de
Boisbaudran, and later under Couture. He was the friend of Ingres,
Dalacroix, Corot, Courbet and others. He exhibited in the Salon of 1861,
and many of his more important canvases appeared on its walls in later
years, though 1863 found him with Harpignies, Monet, Legros and Whistler
in the Salon des Refusés. Whistler introduced him to English artistic
circles, and he lived for some time in England, many of his portraits
and flower pieces being in English galleries. He died on the 28th of
August 1904. His portrait groups, arranged somewhat after the manner of
the Dutch masters, are as interesting from their subjects as they are
from the artistic point of view. "_Hommage à Delacroix_" showed
portraits of Whistler and Legros, Baudelaire, Champfleury and himself;
"_Un Atelier à Batignolles_" gave portraits of Monet, Manet, Zola and
Renoir, and is now in the Luxembourg; "_Un Coin de table_" presented
Verlaine, Rimbaud, Camille Peladan and others; and "_Autour du Piano_"
contained portraits of Chabrier, D'Indy and other musicians. His
paintings of flowers are perfect examples of the art, and form perhaps
the most famous section of his work in England. In his later years he
devoted much attention to lithography, which had occupied him as early
as 1862, but his examples were then considered so revolutionary, with
their strong lights and black shadows, that the printer refused to
execute them. After "_L'Anniversaire_" in honour of Berlioz in the Salon
of 1876, he regularly exhibited lithographs, some of which were
excellent examples of delicate portraiture, others being elusive and
imaginative drawings illustrative of the music of Wagner (whose cause he
championed in Paris as early as 1864), Berlioz, Brahms and other
composers. He illustrated Adolphe Jullien's _Wagner_ (1886) and
_Berlioz_ (1888). There are excellent collections of his lithographic
work at Dresden, in the British Museum, and a practically complete set
given by his widow to the Louvre. Some were also exhibited at South
Kensington in 1898-1899, and at the Dutch gallery in 1904.

  A catalogue of the lithographs of Fantin-Latour was drawn up by
  Germain Hédiard in _Les Maîtres de la lithographie_ (1898-1899). A
  volume of reproductions, in a limited edition, was published (Paris,
  1907) as _L'Oeuvre lithographique de Fantin-Latour_. See A. Jullien,
  _Fantin-Latour, sa vie et ses amitiés_ (Paris, 1909).



FANUM FORTUNAE (mod. _Fano_), an ancient town of Umbria, Italy, at the
point where the Via Flaminia reaches the N.E. coast of Italy. Its name
shows that it was of Roman origin, but of its foundation we know
nothing. It is first mentioned, with Pisaurum and Ancona, as held by
Julius Caesar in 49 B.C. Augustus planted a colony there, and round it
constructed a wall (of which some remains exist), as is recorded in the
inscription on the triple arch erected in his honour at the entrance to
the town (A.D. 9-10), which is still standing. Vitruvius tells us that
there was, during Augustus's lifetime, a temple in his honour and a
temple of Jupiter, and describes a basilica of which he himself was the
architect. The arch of Augustus bears a subsequent inscription in honour
of Constantine, added after his death by L. Turcius Secundus, _corrector
Flaminiae et Piceni_, who also constructed a colonnade above the arch.
Several Roman statues and heads, attributable to members of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty, were found in the convent of S. Filippo in 1899.
These and other objects are now in the municipal museum (E. Brizio in
_Notizie degli scavi_, 1899, 249 seq.). Of the temple of Fortune from
which the town took its name no traces have been discovered. (T. As.)



FAN VAULT, in architecture, a method of vaulting used in the
Perpendicular style, of which the earliest example is found in the
cloisters of Gloucester cathedral, built towards the close of the 14th
century. The ribs are all of one curve and equidistant, and their
divergency, resembling that of an open fan, has suggested the name. One
of the finest examples, though of later date (1640), is the vault over
the staircase of Christ Church, Oxford. For the origin of its
development see Vault.



FARABI [Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ul-Farabi] (ca. 870-950), Arabian
philosopher, was born of Turkish stock at Farab in Turkestan, where also
he spent his youth. Thence he journeyed to Bagdad, where he learned
Arabic and gave himself to the study of mathematics, medicine and
philosophy, especially the works of Aristotle. Later he went to the
court of the Hamdanid Saif addaula, from whom he received a warm welcome
and a small pension. Here he lived a quiet if not an ascetic life. He
died in Damascus, whither he had gone with his patron. His works are
very clear in style, though aphoristic rather than systematic in the
treatment of subjects. Unfortunately the success of Avicenna seems to
have led to the neglect of much of his work. In Europe his compendium of
Aristotle's _Rhetoric_ was published at Venice, 1484. Two of his smaller
works appear in _Alpharabii opera omnia_ (Paris, 1638), and two are
translated in F.A. Schmölders' _Documcnta philosophiae Arabum_ (Bonn,
1836). More recently Fr. Dieterici has published at Leiden: _Alfarabi's
philosophische Abhandlungen_ (1890; German trans. 1892); _Alfarabi's
Abhandlung des Musterstaats_ (1895; German trans. with an essay "Über
den Zusammenhang der arabischen und griechischen Philosophie," 1900);
_Die Staatsleitung von Alfarabi_ in German, with an essay on "Das Wesen
der arabischen Philosophie" (1904).

  For Farabi's life see McG. de Slane's translation of Ibn Khallikan
  (vol. 3, pp. 307 ff.); and for further information as to his works M.
  Steinschneider's article in the _Mémoires de l'Académie_ (St
  Petersburg, série 7, tom. 13, No. 4, 1869); and C. Brockelmann's
  _Gesch. der arab. Litteratur_, vol. i. (Weimar, 1898), pp. 210-213.
       (G. W. T.)



FARADAY, MICHAEL (1791-1867), English chemist and physicist, was born at
Newington, Surrey, on the 22nd of September 1791. His parents had
migrated from Yorkshire to London, where his father worked as a
blacksmith. Faraday himself became apprenticed to a bookbinder. The
letters written to his friend Benjamin Abbott at this time give a lucid
account of his aims in life, and of his methods of self-culture, when
his mind was beginning to turn to the experimental study of nature. In
1812 Mr Dance, a customer of his master, took him to hear four lectures
by Sir Humphry Davy. Faraday took notes of these lectures, and
afterwards wrote them out in a fuller form. Under the encouragement of
Mr Dance, he wrote to Sir H. Davy, enclosing these notes. "The reply was
immediate, kind and favourable." He continued to work as a journeyman
bookbinder till the 1st of March 1813, when he was appointed assistant
in the laboratory of the Royal Institution of Great Britain on the
recommendation of Davy, whom he accompanied on a tour through France,
Italy and Switzerland from October 1813 to April 1815. He was appointed
director of the laboratory in 1825; and in 1833 he was appointed
Fullerian professor of chemistry in the institution for life, without
the obligation to deliver lectures. He thus remained in the institution
for fifty-four years. He died at Hampton Court on the 25th of August
1867.

Faraday's earliest chemical work was in the paths opened by Davy, to
whom he acted as assistant. He made a special study of chlorine, and
discovered two new chlorides of carbon. He also made the first rough
experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed out by
John Dalton, the physical importance of which was more fully brought to
light by Thomas Graham and Joseph Loschmidt. He succeeded in liquefying
several gases; he investigated the alloys of steel, and produced several
new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of
these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the
substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of
polarization of light when the glass was placed in the magnetic field,
and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the
magnet. He also endeavoured with some success to make the general
methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of
special study and of popular exposition. See his work on _Chemical
Manipulation_.

But Faraday's chemical work, however important in itself, was soon
completely overshadowed by his electrical discoveries. The first
experiment which he has recorded was the construction of a voltaic pile
with seven halfpence, seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper
moistened with salt water. With this pile he decomposed sulphate of
magnesia (first letter to Abbott, July 12, 1812). Henceforward, whatever
other subjects might from time to time claim his attention, it was from
among electrical phenomena that he selected those problems to which he
applied the full force of his mind, and which he kept persistently in
view, even when year after year his attempts to solve them had been
baffled.

His first notable discovery was the production of the continuous
rotation of magnets and of wires conducting the electric current round
each other. The consequences deducible from the great discovery of H.C.
Oersted (21st July 1820) were still in 1821 apprehended in a somewhat
confused manner even by the foremost men of science. Dr W.H. Wollaston
indeed had formed the expectation that he could make the conducting wire
rotate on its own axis, and in April 1821 he came with Sir H. Davy to
the laboratory of the Royal Institution to make an experiment. Faraday
was not there at the time, but coming in afterwards he heard the
conversation on the expected rotation of the wire.

In July, August and September of that year Faraday, at the request of R.
Phillips, the editor of the _Annals of Philosophy_, wrote for that
journal an historical sketch of electromagnetism, and he repeated almost
all the experiments he described. This led him in the beginning of
September to discover the method of producing the continuous rotation of
the wire round the magnet, and of the magnet round the wire. He did not
succeed in making the wire or the magnet revolve on its own axis. This
first success of Faraday in electro-magnetic research became the
occasion of the most painful, though unfounded, imputations against his
honour. Into these we shall not enter, referring the reader to the _Life
of Faraday_, by Dr Bence Jones.

We may remark, however, that although the fact of the tangential force
between an electric current and a magnetic pole was clearly stated by
Oersted, and clearly apprehended by A.M. Ampère, Wollaston and others,
the realization of the continuous rotation of the wire and the magnet
round each other was a scientific puzzle requiring no mean ingenuity for
its original solution. For on the one hand the electric current always
forms a closed circuit, and on the other the two poles of the magnet
have equal but opposite properties, and are inseparably connected, so
that whatever tendency there is for one pole to circulate round the
current in one direction is opposed by the equal tendency of the other
pole to go round the other way, and thus the one pole can neither drag
the other round and round the wire nor yet leave it behind. The thing
cannot be done unless we adopt in some form Faraday's ingenious
solution, by causing the current, in some part of its course, to divide
into two channels, one on each side of the magnet, in such a way that
during the revolution of the magnet the current is transferred from the
channel in front of the magnet to the channel behind it, so that the
middle of the magnet can pass across the current without stopping it,
just as Cyrus caused his army to pass dryshod over the Gyndes by
diverting the river into a channel cut for it in his rear.

We must now go on to the crowning discovery of the induction of electric
currents.

In December 1824 he had attempted to obtain an electric current by means
of a magnet, and on three occasions he had made elaborate but
unsuccessful attempts to produce a current in one wire by means of a
current in another wire or by a magnet. He still persevered, and on the
29th of August 1831 he obtained the first evidence that an electric
current can induce another in a different circuit. On the 23rd of
September he writes to his friend R. Phillips: "I am busy just now again
on electromagnetism, and think I have got hold of a good thing, but
can't say. It may be a weed instead of a fish that, after all my labour,
I may at last pull up." This was his first successful experiment. In
nine more days of experimenting he had arrived at the results described
in his first series of "Experimental Researches" read to the Royal
Society on the 24th of November 1841. By the intense application of his
mind he had thus brought the new idea, in less than three months from
its first development, to a state of perfect maturity.

During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric
currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification
produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action
of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that
every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner
to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to
produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one
kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind. He also
discovered the difference of the capacities of different substances for
taking part in electric induction. Henry Cavendish had before 1773
discovered that glass, wax, rosin and shellac have higher specific
inductive capacities than air, and had actually determined the numerical
ratios of these capacities, but this was unknown both to Faraday and to
all other electricians of his time, since Cavendish's _Electrical
Researches_ remained unpublished till 1879.

The first period of Faraday's electrical discoveries lasted ten years.
In 1841 he found that he required rest, and it was not till 1845 that he
entered on his second great period of research, in which he discovered
the effect of magnetism on polarized light, and the phenomena of
diamagnetism.

Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray
of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of
transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces. Dr
Bence Jones (_Life of Faraday_, vol. i. p. 362) gives the following note
from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822:--

  "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to
  ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water
  placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one
  Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak
  solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them
  had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the
  voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could
  be ascertained in this way."

Eleven years afterwards we find another entry in his notebook on the 2nd
of May 1833 (_Life_, by Dr Bence Jones, vol. ii. p. 29). He then tried
not only the effect of a steady current, but the effect on making and
breaking contact.

  "I do not think, therefore, that decomposing solutions or substances
  will be found to have (as a consequence of decomposition or
  arrangement for the time) any effect on the polarized ray. Should now
  try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax,
  glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which
  by decomposition is destroyed, i.e. whether, when they cannot
  decompose, any state of electrical tension is present. My borate of
  glass good, and common electricity better than voltaic."

On the 6th of May he makes further experiments, and concludes: "Hence I
see no reason to expect that any kind of structure or tension can be
rendered evident, either in decomposing or non-decomposing bodies, in
insulating or conducting states."

At last, in 1845, Faraday attacked the old problem, but this time with
complete success. Before we describe this result we may mention that in
1862 he made the relation between magnetism and light the subject of his
very last experimental work. He endeavoured, but in vain, to detect any
change in the lines of the spectrum of a flame when the flame was acted
on by a powerful magnet.

This long series of researches is an instance of his persistence. His
energy is shown in the way in which he followed up his discovery in the
single instance in which he was successful. The first evidence which he
obtained of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light under the
action of magnetism was on the 13th of September 1845, the transparent
substance being his own heavy glass. He began to work on the 30th of
August 1845 on polarized light passing through electrolytes. After three
days he worked with common electricity, trying glass, heavy optical
glass, quartz, Iceland spar, all without effect, as on former trials. On
the 13th of September he worked with lines of magnetic force. Air,
flint, glass, rock-crystal, calcareous spar were examined, but without
effect.

  "Heavy glass was experimented with. It gave no effects when the _same
  magnetic poles_ or the _contrary_ poles were on opposite sides (as
  respects the course of the polarized ray), nor when the same poles
  were on the same side either with the constant or intermitting
  current. But when contrary magnetic poles were on the same side there
  was an effect produced on the polarized ray, and thus magnetic force
  and light were proved to have relations to each other. This fact will
  most likely prove exceedingly fertile, and of great value in the
  investigation of the conditions of natural force."

He immediately goes on to examine other substances, but with "no
effect," and he ends by saying, "Have got enough for to-day." On the
18th of September he "does an excellent day's work." During September he
had four days of work, and in October six, and on the 6th of November he
sent in to the Royal Society the nineteenth series of his "Experimental
Researches," in which the whole conditions of the phenomena are fully
specified. The negative rotation in ferro-magnetic media is the only
fact of importance which remained to be discovered afterwards (by M.E.
Verdet in 1856).

But his work for the year was not yet over. On the 3rd of November a new
horseshoe magnet came home, and Faraday immediately began to experiment
on the action in the polarized ray through gases, but with no effect.
The following day he repeated an experiment which had given no result on
the 6th of October. A bar of heavy glass was suspended by silk between
the poles of the new magnet. "When it was arranged, and had come to
rest, I found I _could_ affect it by the magnetic forces and give it
position." By the 6th of December he had sent in to the Royal Society
the twentieth, and on the 24th of December the twenty-first, series of
his "Researches," in which the properties of diamagnetic bodies are
fully described. Thus these two great discoveries were elaborated, like
his earlier one, in about three months.

The discovery of the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarized light,
though it did not lead to such important practical applications as some
of Faraday's earlier discoveries, has been of the highest value to
science, as furnishing complete dynamical evidence that wherever
magnetic force exists there is matter, small portions of which are
rotating about axes parallel to the direction of that force.

We have given a few examples of the concentration of his efforts in
seeking to identify the apparently different forces of nature, of his
far-sightedness in selecting subjects for investigation, of his
persistence in the pursuit of what he set before him, of his energy in
working out the results of his discoveries, and of the accuracy and
completeness with which he made his final statement of the laws of the
phenomenon.

These characteristics of his scientific spirit lie on the surface of his
work, and are manifest to all who read his writings. But there was
another side of his character, to the cultivation of which he paid at
least as much attention, and which was reserved for his friends, his
family and his church. His letters and his conversation were always full
of whatever could awaken a healthy interest, and free from anything that
might rouse ill-feeling. When, on rare occasions, he was forced out of
the region of science into that of controversy, he stated the facts and
let them make their own way. He was entirely free from pride and undue
self-assertion. During the growth of his powers he always thankfully
accepted a correction, and made use of every expedient, however humble,
which would make his work more effective in every detail. When at length
he found his memory failing and his mental powers declining, he gave up,
without ostentation or complaint, whatever parts of his work he could no
longer carry on according to his own standard of efficiency. When he was
no longer able to apply his mind to science, he remained content and
happy in the exercise of those kindly feelings and warm affections which
he had cultivated no less carefully than his scientific powers.

The parents of Faraday belonged to the very small and isolated Christian
sect which is commonly called after Robert Sandeman. Faraday himself
attended the meetings from childhood; at the age of thirty he made
public profession of his faith, and during two different periods he
discharged the office of elder. His opinion with respect to the relation
between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental
education delivered in 1854, and printed at the end of his _Researches
in Chemistry and Physics_.

  "Before entering upon the subject, I must make one distinction which,
  however it may appear to others, is to me of the utmost importance.
  High as man is placed above the creatures around him, there is a
  higher and far more exalted position within his view; and the ways are
  infinite in which he occupies his thoughts about the fears, or hopes,
  or expectations of a future life. I believe that the truth of that
  future cannot be brought to his knowledge by any exertion of his
  mental powers, however exalted they may be; that it is made known to
  him by other teaching than his own, and is received through simple
  belief of the testimony given. Let no one suppose for an instant that
  the self-education I am about to commend, in respect of the things of
  this life, extends to any considerations of the hope set before us, as
  if man by reasoning could find out God. It would be improper here to
  enter upon this subject further than to claim an absolute distinction
  between religious and ordinary belief. I shall be reproached with the
  weakness of refusing to apply those mental operations which I think
  good in respect of high things to the very highest. I am content to
  bear the reproach. Yet even in earthly matters I believe that 'the
  invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly
  seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal
  power and Godhead'; and I have never seen anything incompatible
  between those things of man which can be known by the spirit of man
  which is within him and those higher things concerning his future,
  which he cannot know by that spirit."

Faraday gives the following note as to this lecture:--

  "These observations were delivered as a lecture before His Royal
  Highness the Prince Consort and the members of the Royal Institution
  on the 6th of May 1854. They are so immediately connected in their
  nature and origin with my own experimental life, considered either as
  cause or consequence, that I have thought the close of this volume not
  an unfit place for their reproduction."

As Dr Bence Jones concludes--

  "His standard of duty was supernatural. It was not founded on any
  intuitive ideas of right and wrong, nor was it fashioned upon any
  outward experiences of time and place, but it was formed entirely on
  what he held to be the revelation of the will of God in the written
  word, and throughout all his life his faith led him to act up to the
  very letter of it."

  _Published Works._--_Chemical Manipulation, being Instructions to
  Students in Chemistry_ (1 vol., John Murray, 1st ed. 1827, 2nd 1830,
  3rd 1842); _Experimental Researches in Electricity_, vols. i. and ii.,
  Richard and John Edward Taylor, vols. i. and ii. (1844 and 1847); vol.
  iii. (1844); vol. iii. Richard Taylor and William Francis (1855);
  _Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics_, Taylor and Francis
  (1859); _Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle_ (edited by W.
  Crookes) (Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1861); _On the Various Forces in
  Nature_ (edited by W. Crookes) (Chatto & Windus, no date).

  BIOGRAPHIES.--_Faraday as a Discoverer_, by John Tyndall (Longmans,
  1st ed. 1868, 2nd ed. 1870); _The Life and Letters of Faraday_, by Dr
  Bence Jones, secretary of the Royal Institution, in 2 vols. (Longmans,
  1870); _Michael Faraday_, by J.H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. (Macmillan,
  1872); _Michael Faraday; his Life and Work_, by S.P. Thompson (1898).
       (J. C. M.)



FARAH, a river of Afghanistan. It rises in the southern slopes of
Siah-Koh, which forms the southern wall of the valley of Herat, and
after a south-westerly course of about 200 m. falls into the Seistan
Hamun. At the town of Farah it has a width of 150 yds. in the dry season
with 2 ft. of water and a clear swift stream. It is liable to floods,
when it becomes impassable for weeks. The lower valley of the Farah Rud
is fertile and well cultivated.



FARAH, a town of Afghanistan. It is situated on the river that bears its
name on the main road between Herat and Kandahar, 160 m. S. of Herat and
225 m. W. of Kandahar. It is a place of some strategical importance, as
it commands the approaches to India and Seistan from Herat. The town
(2460 ft. above sea-level) is a square walled enclosure standing in the
middle of the plain, surrounded with a walled rampart. Owing to its
unhealthiness it is now almost deserted, being only occupied by the
Afghan regiment quartered there. It is a place of great antiquity, being
probably the Phra mentioned by Isidore of Charax in the 1st century A.D.
It was sacked by the armies of Jenghiz Khan, and the survivors
transported to a position farther north, where there are still great
ruins. The population returned to the original site after the
destruction of the medieval city by Shah Abbas, and the city prospered
again until its bloody siege by Nadir Shah. Subsequently under constant
attacks it declined, and in 1837 the population amounting to 6000 was
carried off to Kandahar. The sole industry of the town at present is the
manufacture of gunpowder. In the districts east of Farah are to be found
the most fanatical of the Durani Afghan tribes.



FARAZDAQ [Hammam ibn Ghalib ibn Sa'sa', known as al-Farazdaq] (ca.
641-ca. 728), Arabian poet, was born at Basra. He was of the Darim, one
of the most respected divisions of the bani Tamim, and his mother was of
the tribe of Dabba. His grandfather Sa'sa' was a Bedouin of great
repute, his father Ghalib followed the same manner of life until Basra
was founded, and was famous for his generosity and hospitality. At the
age of fifteen Farazdaq was known as a poet, and though checked for a
short time by the advice of the caliph Ali to devote his attention to
the study of the Koran, he soon returned to making verse. In the true
Bedouin spirit he devoted his talent largely to satire and attacked the
bani Nahshal and the bani Fuqaim. When Ziyad, a member of the latter
tribe, became governor of Basra, the poet was compelled to flee, first
to Kufa, and then, as he was still too near Ziyad, to Medina, where he
was well received by Sa'id ibn ul-Asi. Here he remained about ten years,
writing satires on Bedouin tribes, but avoiding city politics. But he
lived a prodigal life, and his amorous verses led to his expulsion by
the caliph Merwan I. Just at that time he learned of the death of Ziyad
and returned to Basra, where he secured the favour of Ziyad's successor
'Obaidallah ibn Ziyad. Much of his poetry was now devoted to his
matrimonial affairs. He had taken advantage of his position as guardian
and married his cousin Nawar against her will. She sought help in vain
from the court of Basra and from various tribes. All feared the poet's
satires. At last she fled to Mecca and appealed to the pretender
'Abdallah ibn Zobair, who, however, succeeded in inducing her to consent
to a confirmation of the marriage. Quarrels soon arose again. Farazdaq
took a second wife, and after her death a third, to annoy Nawar. Finally
he consented to a divorce pronounced by Hasan al-Basri. Another subject
occasioned a long series of verses, namely his feud with his rival Jarir
(q.v.) and his tribe the bani Kulaib. These poems are published as the
_Naka'id of Jarir and al-Farazdaq_ (ed. A.A. Bevan, Leiden, 1906 ff.).
In political life Farazdaq was prevented by fear from taking a large
part. He seems, however, to have been attached to the house of Ali.
During the reign of Moawiya I. he avoided politics, but later gave his
allegiance to 'Abdallah ibn Zobair.

  The fullest account of his life is contained in J. Hell's _Das Leben
  Farazdaq nach seinen Gedichten_ (Leipzig, 1903); Arabian stories of
  him in the _Kitab ul-Aghani_ and in Ibn Khallikan. A portion of his
  poems was edited with French translation by R. Boucher (Paris, 1870);
  the remainder have been published by J. Hell (Munich, 1900).
       (G. W. T.)



FARCE, a form of the comic in dramatic art, the object of which is to
excite laughter by ridiculous situations and incidents rather than by
imitation with intent to ridicule, which is the province of burlesque,
or by the delineation of the play of character upon character, which is
that of comedy. The history of the word is interesting. Its ultimate
origin is the Latin _farcire_, to stuff, and with the meaning of
"stuffing" or forcemeat it appears in old cookery books in English. In
medieval Latin _farsa_ and _farsia_ were applied to the expansion of the
_Kyrie eleison_ in litanies, &c., by interpolating words and phrases
between those two words; later, to words, phrases and rhymed verses,
sometimes in the vernacular, also interpolated in various parts of the
service. The French _farce_, the form to which we owe our word, was
originally the "gag" that the actors in the medieval drama inserted into
their parts, generally to meet the popular demand for a lightening of
humour or buffoonery. It has thus been used for the lighter form of
comic drama (see DRAMA), and also figuratively for a piece of idle
buffoonery, sham, or mockery.



FAREHAM, a market town in the Fareham parliamentary division of
Hampshire, England, 76 m. S.W. from London by the London & South Western
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 8246. It lies at the head of a
creek opening into the north-western corner of Portsmouth harbour. The
principal industries are the manufacture of sackings, ropes, bricks,
coarse earthenware, terra-cotta, tobacco-pipes and leather. Fareham has
a considerable trade in corn, timber and coal; the creek being
accessible to vessels of 300 tons. Three miles E. of Fareham, on
Portsmouth harbour, are the interesting ruins of Porchester Castle, an
extensive walled enclosure retaining its Norman keep, and exhibiting in
its outer walls considerable evidence of Roman workmanship; Professor
Haverfield, however, denies that it occupies the site of the Roman
_Portus Magnus_. The church of St Mary has some fine Norman portions. It
belonged to an Augustinian priory founded by Henry I. At Titchfield, 3
m. W. of Fareham, are ruins of the beautiful Tudor mansion, Place House,
built on the site of a Premonstratensian abbey of the 13th century, of
which there are also fragments.

The fact that Fareham (Fernham, Ferham) formed part of the original
endowment of the see of Winchester fixes its existence certainly as
early as the 9th century. It is mentioned in the Domesday Survey as
subject to a reduced assessment on account of its exposed position and
liability to Danish attacks. There is evidence to show that Fareham had
become a borough before 1264, but no charter can be found. It was a
mesne borough held of the bishop of Winchester, but it is probable that
during the 18th century the privileges of the burgesses were allowed to
lapse, as by 1835 it had ceased to be a borough. Fareham returned two
members to the parliament of 1306, but two years later it petitioned
against representation on the ground of expense. A fair on the 31st of
October and the two following days was held under grant of Henry III.
The day appears to have been afterwards changed to the 29th of June, and
in the 18th century was mainly important for the sale of toys. It was
abolished in 1871. Fareham owed its importance in medieval times to its
facilities for commerce. It was a free port and had a considerable trade
in wool and wine. Later its shipping declined and in the 16th century it
was little more than a fishing village. Its commercial prosperity in
modern times is due to its nearness to Portsmouth.



FAREL, GUILLAUME (1489-1565), French reformer, was born of a noble
family near Gap in Dauphiné in 1489. His parents meant him for the
military profession, but his bent being for study he was allowed to
enter the university of Paris. Here he came under the influence of
Jacobus Faber (Stapulensis), on whose recommendation he was appointed
professor in the college of Cardinal Lemoine. In 1521, on the invitation
of Bishop Briçonnet, he repaired to Meaux, and took part in efforts of
reform within the Roman communion. The persecuting measures of 1523,
from which Faber found a refuge at Meaux, determined Farel to leave
France. Oecolampadius welcomed him to Basel, where in 1524 he put forth
thirteen theses sharply antagonizing Roman doctrine. These he defended
with great ability, but with so much heat that Erasmus joined in
demanding his expulsion from the city. He thought of going to
Wittenberg, but his first halt was at Strassburg, where Bucer and Capito
received him kindly. At the call of Duke Ulrich of Württemberg he went
as preacher to Montbéliard. Displaying the same qualities which had
driven him from Basel, he was forced to leave Montbéliard in the spring
of 1525.

He retraced his steps to Strassburg and Basel; and, at the end of 1526,
obtained a preacher's post at Aigle, then a dependency of Bern. Deeming
it wise to suppress his name, he adopted the pseudonym Ursinus, with
reference to his protection by Bern. Despite strenuous opposition by the
monastic orders, he obtained in 1528 a licence from the authorities to
preach anywhere within the canton of Bern. He extended his labours to
the cantons of Neuchâtel and Vaud. His vehement missionary addresses
were met by mob violence, but he persevered with undaunted zeal. In
October 1530 he broke into the church of Neuchâtel with an iconoclastic
mob, thus planting the Reformation in that city. In 1532 he visited the
Waldenses. On the return journey he halted at Geneva, then at a crisis
of political and religious strife. On the 30th of June 1532 the council
of two hundred had ordained that in every church and cloister of the
city "the pure Gospel" should be preached; against this order the
bishop's vicar led the opposition. Reaching Geneva in October 1532,
Farel (described in a contemporary monastic chronicle as "un chétif
malheureux prédicant, nommé maistre Guillaume") at once began to preach
in a room of his lodging, and soon attracted "un grand nombre de gens
qui estoient advertis de sa venue et déjà infects de son hérésie."
Summoned before the bishop's vicar, his trial was a scene of insult and
clamour, ending in his being violently thrust from the court and bidden
to leave the city within three hours. He escaped with difficulty to Orbe
by boat. Through the intervention of the government of Bern, liberty of
worship was granted on the 28th of March 1533 to the Reformation party
in Geneva. Farel, returning, achieved in a couple of years a complete
supremacy for his followers. On New Year's Day 1534 the bishop
interdicted all preaching unauthorized by himself, and ordered the
burning of all Protestant Bibles. This was the signal for public
disputations in which Farel took the leading part on the Reformation
side, with the result that by decree of the 27th of August 1535 the mass
was suppressed and the reformed religion established. Calvin, on his way
to Basel for a life of study, touched at Geneva, and by the importunity
of Farel was there detained to become the leader of the Genevan
Reformation. The severity of the disciplinary measures which followed
procured a reaction under which Farel and Calvin were banished the city
in 1538. Farel was called to Neuchâtel in July 1538, but his position
there was made untenable, though he remained at his post during a
visitation of the plague. When (1541) Calvin was recalled to Geneva,
Farel also returned; but in 1542 he went to Metz to support the
Reformation there. It is said that when he preached in the Dominican
church of Metz, the bells were rung to drown his voice, but his voice
outdid the bells, and on the next occasion he had three thousand
hearers. His work was checked by the active hostility of the duke of
Lorraine, and in 1544 he returned to Neuchâtel. No one was more
frequently and confidentially consulted by Calvin. When the trial of
Servetus was in progress (1553), Calvin was anxious for Farel's
presence, but he did not arrive till sentence had been passed. He
accompanied Servetus to the stake, vainly urging him to a recantation at
the last moment. A coolness with Calvin was created by Farel's marriage,
at the age of sixty-nine, with a refugee widow from Rouen, of unsuitable
age. By her, six years later, he had one son, who died in infancy. The
vigour and fervency of his preaching were unabated by length of years.
Calvin's death, in 1564, affected him deeply. Yet in his last year he
revisited Metz, preaching amid great enthusiasm, with all his wonted
fire. The effort was too much for him; he left the church exhausted,
took to his bed, and died at Metz on the 13th of September 1565.

Farel wrote much, but usually in haste, and for an immediate purpose. He
takes no rank as a scientific theologian, being a man of activity rather
than of speculation or of much insight. His _Sommaire_ was re-edited
from the edition of 1534 by J.G. Baum in 1867. Others of his works (all
in French) were his treatise on purgatory (1534), on the Lord's Prayer
(1543), on the Supper (1555). He "was remarkable for boldness and energy
both in preaching and prayer" (M. Young, _Life of Paleario_). As an
orator, he was denunciatory rather than suasive; thus while on the one
hand he powerfully impressed, on the other hand he stimulated
opposition. A monument to him was unveiled at Neuchâtel on the 4th of
May 1876.

  Lives of Farel are numerous; it may suffice to mention C. Ancillon,
  _Vie de G. Farel_ (1691); the article in Bayle.; M. Kirchhofer, _Das
  Leben W. Farels_ (1831-1833); Ch. Schmidt, _Études sur Farel_ (1834);
  F. Bevan, _W. Farel_ (1893); J.J. Herzog, in Herzog-Hauck's
  _Realencyklopädie_ (1898).     (A. Go.*)



FAREY, JOHN (1766-1826), English geologist, was born at Woburn in
Bedfordshire in 1766. He was educated at Halifax in Yorkshire, and
showed such aptitude in mathematics, drawing and surveying, that he was
brought under the notice of John Smeaton (1724-1792). In 1792 he was
appointed agent to the duke of Bedford for his Woburn estates. After the
decease of the duke, Farey in 1802 removed to London, and settled there
as a consulting surveyor and geologist. That he was enabled to take this
step was due largely to his acquaintance with William Smith (q.v.), who
in 1801 had been employed by the duke of Bedford in works of draining
and irrigation. The duke, appreciating Smith's knowledge of the strata,
commissioned him in 1802 to explore the margin of the chalk-hills south
of Woburn in order to determine the true succession of the strata; and
he instructed Farey to accompany him. Farey has remarked that Smith was
his "Master and Instructor in Mineral Surveying," and his subsequent
publications show how well he had profited by the teachings he received.
Farey prepared the _General View of the Agriculture and Minerals of
Derbyshire_ in two vols. (1811-1813) for the Board of Agriculture. In
the first of these volumes (1811) he gave an able account of the upper
part of the British series of strata, and a masterly exposition of the
Carboniferous and other strata of Derbyshire. In this classic work, and
in a paper published in the _Phil. Mag._ vol. li. 1818, p. 173, on "Mr
Smith's Geological Claims stated," he zealously called attention to the
importance of the discoveries of William Smith. Farey died in London on
the 6th of January 1826.

  See Biographical Notice, by W.S. Mitchell, in _Geol. Mag._ 1873, P.
  25.



FARGO, WILLIAM GEORGE (1818-1881), pioneer American expressman, was born
in Pompey, New York, on the 20th of May 1818. From the age of thirteen
he had to support himself, obtaining little schooling, and for several
years he was a clerk in grocery stores in Syracuse. He became a freight
agent for the Auburn & Syracuse railway company at Auburn in 1841, an
express messenger between Albany and Buffalo a year later, and in 1843 a
resident agent in Buffalo. In 1844 he organized, with Henry Wells
(1805-1878) and Daniel Dunning, the first express company (Wells & Co.;
after 1845 Livingston & Fargo) to engage in the carrying business west
of Buffalo. The lines of this company (which first operated only to
Detroit, via Cleveland) were rapidly extended to Chicago, St Louis, and
other western points. In March 1850, when through a consolidation of
competing lines the American Express Company was organized, Wells became
president and Fargo secretary. In 1851, with Wells and others, he
organized the firm of Wells, Fargo & Company to conduct an express
business between New York and San Francisco by way of the Isthmus of
Panama and on the Pacific coast, where it long had a virtual monopoly.
In 1861 Wells, Fargo & Co. bought and reorganized the Overland Mail Co.,
which had been formed in 1857 to carry the United States mails, and of
which Fargo had been one of the original promoters. From 1862 to 1866 he
was mayor of Buffalo, and from 1868 to his death, in Buffalo, on the 3rd
of August 1881, he was president of the American Express Company, with
which in 1868 the Merchants Union Express Co. was consolidated. He was a
director of the New York Central and of the Northern Pacific railways.



FARGO, a city and the county-seat of Cass county, North Dakota, U.S.A.,
about 254 m. W. of Duluth, Minnesota. Pop. (1890) 5664; (1900) 9589, of
whom 2564 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 14,331. It is served by the
Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St
Paul railways. The city is situated on the W. bank of the Red river of
the North, which in 1909 had a navigable depth of only about 2 ft. from
Fargo to Grank Forks, and the navigation of which was obstructed at
various places by fixed bridges. In the city are Island and Oakgrove
parks, the former of which contains a statue (erected by Norwegians in
1908) of Henrik Arnold Wergeland, the Norwegian poet. Fargo is the seat
of the North Dakota agricultural college (coeducational), founded in
1890 under the provisions of the Federal "Morrill Act" of 1862; it
receives both Federal and state support (the former under the Morrill
Act of 1890), and in connexion with it a United States Agricultural
Experiment Station is maintained. In 1907-1908 the college had 988
students in the regular courses (including the students in the Academy),
117 in the summer course in steam engineering, and 68 in correspondence
courses. At Fargo, also, are Fargo College (non-sectarian, 1887; founded
by Congregationalists), which has a college department, a preparatory
department, and a conservatory of music, and in 1908 had 310 students,
of whom 211 were in the conservatory of music; the Oak Grove Lutheran
ladies' seminary (1906) and the Sacred Heart Academy (Roman Catholic).
The city is the see of both a Roman Catholic bishop and a Protestant
Episcopal bishop; and it is the centre of masonic interests in the
state, having a fine masonic temple. There are a public library and a
large Y.M.C.A. building. St John's hospital is controlled by Roman
Catholic sisters, and St Luke's hospital by the Lutheran Church. Fargo
is in a rich agricultural (especially wheat) region, is a busy
grain-trading and jobbing centre, is one of the most important wholesale
distributing centres for agricultural implements and machinery in the
United States, and has a number of manufactures, notably flour. The
total value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $1,160,832.
Fargo, named in honour of W.G. Fargo of the Wells Fargo Express Company,
was first settled as a tent city in 1871, when the Red river was crossed
by the Northern Pacific, but was not permanently settled until after the
extinction in 1873 of the Indian title to the reservation on which it
was situated. It was chartered as a city in 1875. The Milwaukee railway
was completed to Fargo in 1884. In June 1893 a large part of the city
was destroyed by fire, the loss being more than $3,000,000.



FARIA Y SOUSA, MANUEL DE (1590-1649), Spanish and Portuguese historian
and poet, was born of an ancient Portuguese family, probably at
Pombeiro, on the 18th of March 1590, attended the university of Braga
for some years, and when about fourteen entered the service of the
bishop of Oporto. With the exception of about four years from 1631 to
1634, during which he was a member of the Portuguese embassy in Rome,
the greater part of his later life was spent at Madrid, and there he
died, after much suffering, on the 3rd of June 1649. He was a laborious,
peaceful man; and a happy marriage with Catharina Machado, the Albania
of his poems, enabled him to lead a studious domestic life, dividing his
cares and affections between his children and his books. His first
important work, an _Epitome de las historias Portuguezas_ (Madrid,
1628), was favourably received; but some passages in his enormous
commentary upon _Os Lusiadas_, the poem of Luis de Camoens, excited the
suspicion of the inquisitors, caused his temporary incarceration, and
led to the permanent loss of his official salary. In spite of the
enthusiasm which is said to have prescribed to him the daily task of
twelve folio pages, death overtook him before he had completed his
greatest enterprise, a history of the Portuguese in all parts of the
world. Several portions of the work appeared at Lisbon after his death,
under the editorship of Captain Faria y Sousa:--_Europa Portugueza_
(1667, 3 vols.); _Asia Portugueza_ (1666-1675, 3 vols.); _Africa
Portugueza_ (1681). As a poet Faria y Sousa was nearly as prolific; but
his poems are vitiated by the prevailing Gongorism of his time. They
were for the most part collected in the _Noches claras_ (Madrid,
1624-1626), and the _Fuente de Aganipe_, of which four volumes were
published at Madrid in 1644-1646. He also wrote, from information
supplied by P.A. Semmedo, _Imperio de China i cultura evangelica en él_
(Madrid, 1642); and translated and completed the _Nobiliario_ of the
count of Barcellos.

  There are English translations by J. Stevens of the _History of
  Portugal_ (London, 1698), and of _Portuguese Asia_ (London, 1695).



FARIBAULT, a city and the county-seat of Rice county, Minnesota, U.S.A.,
on the Cannon river, at the mouth of the Straight river, about 45 m. S.
of St Paul. (Pop. 1890) 6520; (1900) 7868, of whom 1586 were
foreign-born; (1905) 8279; (1910) 9001. Faribault is served by the
Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways. The city is attractively
situated near a lake region widely known for its summer resorts.
Faribault is the seat of the Minnesota institute for defectives,
embracing the state school for the deaf (1863), the state school for the
blind (1874), and the state school for the feeble-minded (1879); of
three institutions under control of the Protestant Episcopal Church--the
Seabury divinity school (incorporated 1860), the Shattuck school (1867;
incorporated in 1905), a military school for boys, and St Mary's hall
(1866), a school for girls, founded by Bishop Whipple; and of the Roman
Catholic (Dominican) Bethlehem Academy for girls. In the city are the
cathedral of our Merciful Saviour (1868-1869), the first Protestant
Episcopal church in the United States built and used as a cathedral from
its opening; and the hospital and nurses' training school of the
Minnesota District of the Evangelical Synod. The city has a public
library, and owns and operates its own water-supply system. There is a
good water power, and among the city's manufactures are flour, beer,
shoes, furniture, rattan-ware, warehouse trucks, canned goods, cane
syrup, waggons and carriages, gasolene engines, wind-mills, pianos and
woollen goods. Faribault, named in honour of Jean Baptiste Faribault, a
French fur-trader and pioneer who made his headquarters in the region in
the latter part of the 18th century, was permanently settled about 1848,
and was chartered as a city in 1872. A French millwright, N. La Croix,
introduced here, about 1860, a new process of making flour, which
revolutionized the industry in the United States, but his mill was soon
destroyed by flood and he removed to Minneapolis, where the process was
first successful on a large scale. Faribault was for many years the home
of Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple (1822-1901), the pioneer bishop
(1850-1901) of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Minnesota, famous for
his missionary work among the Indians.



FARIDKOT, a native state of India in the Punjab. It ranks as one of the
Cis-Sutlej states, which came under British influence in 1809. Its area
is 642 sq. m., and its population in 1901 was 124,912. It is bounded on
the W. and N.E. by the British district of Ferozepore, and on the S. by
Nabha state. During the Sikh wars in 1845 the chief, Raja Pahar Singh,
exerted himself in the British cause, and was rewarded with an increase
of territory. In the Mutiny of 1857, too, his son and successor, Wazir
Singh, did good service by guarding the Sutlej ferries, and in attacking
a notorious rebel, whose stronghold he destroyed. The estimated gross
revenue is £28,300; there is no tribute. The territory is traversed by
the Rewari-Ferozepore railway, and also crossed by the Fazilka line,
which starts from Kotkapura, the old capital. It is irrigated by a
branch of the Sirhind canal. The town of Faridkot has a railway station,
84 m. from Lahore.



FARIDPUR, or FURREEDPORE, a town and district of British India, in the
Dacca division of eastern Bengal and Assam. The town, which has a
railway station, stands on an old channel of the Ganges. Pop. (1901)
11,649. There are a Baptist mission and a government high school. The
district comprises an area of 2281 sq. m. The general aspect is flat,
tame and uninteresting, although in the northern tract the land is
comparatively high, with a light sandy soil, covered with water during
the rainy season, but dry during the cold and hot weather. From the town
of Faridpur the ground slopes, until in the south, on the confines of
Backergunje, it becomes one immense swamp, never entirely dry. During
the height of the inundations the whole district may be said to be under
water. The villages are built on artificially raised sites, or the high
banks of the deltaic streams. Along many of the larger rivers the line
of hamlets is unbroken for miles together, so that it is difficult to
say where one ends and another begins. The huts, however, except in
markets and bazaars, are seldom close together, but are scattered amidst
small garden plots, and groves of mango, date and betel-nut trees. The
plains between the villages are almost invariably more or less depressed
towards the centre, where usually a marsh, or lake, or deep lagoon is
found. These marshes, however, are gradually filling up by the silt
deposited from the rivers; in the north of the district there now only
remain two or three large swamps, and in them the process may be seen
going on. The climate of Faridpur is damp, like that of the other
districts of eastern Bengal; the average annual rainfall is 66 in. and
the average mean temperature 76.9° F.

The principal rivers of Faridpur are the Ganges, the Arial Khan and the
Haringhata. The Ganges, or Padma as it is locally called, touches the
extreme north-west corner of the district, flows along its northern
boundary as far as Goalanda, where it receives the waters o£ the Jamuna
or main stream of the Brahmaputra, and whence the united stream turns
southwards and forms the eastern boundary of the district. The river is
navigable by large cargo boats throughout the year, and has an average
breadth during the rainy season of 1600 yds. Rice is the great crop of
the district. In 1901 the population was 1,937,646, showing an increase
of 6% in the decade. The north of the district is crossed by the line of
the Eastern Bengal railway to Goalanda, the port of the Brahmaputra
steamers, and a branch runs to Faridpur town. But most of the trade is
conducted by river.



FARID UD-DIN 'ATTAR, or FERID EDDIN-ATHAR (1119-1229), Persian poet and
mystic, was born at Nishapur, 513 A.H. (1119 A.D.), and was put to death
627 A.H. (1229 A.D.), thus having reached the age of 110 years. The date
of his death is, however, variously given between the years 1193 and
1235, although the majority of authorities support 1229; it is also
probable that he was born later than 1119, but before 1150. His real
name was Abu Talib (or Abu Hamid) Mahommed ben Ibrahim, and Farid ud-din
was simply an honourable title equivalent to Pearl of Religion. He
followed for a time his father's profession of druggist or perfumer, and
hence the name 'Attar (one who sold 'itr, otto of roses; hence, simply,
dealer in drugs), which he afterwards employed as his poetical
designation. According to the account of Dawlatshah, his interest in the
great mystery of the higher life of man was awakened in the following
way. One day a wandering fakir gazed sadly into his shop, and, when
ordered to be gone, replied: "It is nothing for me to go; but I grieve
for thee, O druggist, for how wilt thou be able to think of death, and
leave all these goods of thine behind thee?" The word was in season; and
Mahommed ben Ibrahim the druggist soon gave up his shop and began to
study the mystic theosophy of the Sufis under Sheik Rukneddin. So
thoroughly did he enter into the spirit of that religion that he was
before long recognized as one of its principal representatives. He
travelled extensively, visited Mecca, Egypt, Damascus and India, and on
his return was invested with the Sufi mantle by Sheik Majd-ud-din of
Bagdad. The greater portion of his life was spent in the town of
Shadyakh, but he is not unfrequently named Nishapuri, after the city of
his boyhood and youth. The story of his death is a strange one. Captured
by a soldier of Jenghiz Khan, he was about to be sold for a thousand
dirhems, when he advised his captor to keep him, as doubtless a larger
offer would yet be made; but when the second bidder said he would give a
bag of horse fodder for the old man, he asserted that he was worth no
more, and had better be sold. The soldier, irritated at the loss of the
first offer, immediately slew him. A noble tomb was erected over his
grave, and the spot acquired a reputation for sanctity. Farid was a
voluminous writer, and left no fewer than 120,000 couplets of poetry,
though in his later years he carried his asceticism so far as to deny
himself the pleasures of poetical composition. His most famous work is
the _Mantik uttair_, or language of birds, an allegorical poem
containing a complete survey of the life and doctrine of the Sufis. It
is extremely popular among Mahommedans both of the Sunnite and Shiite
sects, and the manuscript copies are consequently very numerous. The
birds, according to the poet, were tired of a republican constitution,
and longed for a king. As the lapwing, having guided Solomon through the
desert, best knew what a king should be, he was asked whom they should
choose. The Simorg in the Caucasus, was his reply. But the way to the
Caucasus was long and dangerous, and most of the birds excused
themselves from the enterprise. A few, however, set out; but by the time
they reached the great king's court, their number was reduced to thirty.
The thirty birds (_si morg_), wing-weary and hunger-stricken, at length
gained access to their chosen monarch the Simorg; but only to find that
they strangely lost their identity in his presence--that they are he,
and he is they. In such strange fashion does the poet image forth the
search of the human soul after absorption into the divine.

  The text of the _Mantik uttair_ was published by Garcin de Tassy in
  1857, a summary of its contents having already appeared as _La Poésie
  philosophique et religieuse chez les Persans_ in 1856; this was
  succeeded by a complete translation in 1863. Among Farid ud-din's
  other works may be mentioned his _Pandnama_ (Book of Counsel), of
  which a translation by Silvestre de Sacy appeared in 1819; _Bulbul
  Nama_ (Book of the Nightingale); _Wasalet Nama_ (Book of
  Conjunctions); _Khusru va Gul_ (The King and the Rose); and
  _Tadhkiratu 'l Awliya_ (Memoirs of the Saints) (ed. R.A. Nicholson in
  _l'ersian Historical Texts_). See Sir Gore Ouseley, _Biographical
  Notices of Persian Poets_ (1846), p. 236; Von Hammer Purgstall,
  _Geschichte der schönen Redekünste Persiens_ (Vienna, 1818), p. 140;
  the Oriental Collections, ii. (London, 1798), pp. 84, 124, containing
  translations of part of the _Pandnama_; E.H. Palmer, _Oriental
  Mysticism_ (1867); E.G. Browne, _Literary History of Persia_ (1906).



FARINA, SALVATORE (1846- ), Italian novelist, was born in Sardinia, and
after studying law at Turin and Pavia devoted himself to a literary life
at Milan. Farina has often been compared as a sentimental humorist with
Dickens, and his style of writing has given him a special place in
modern Italian fiction. His masterpiece is _Il Signor Io_ (1880), a
delightful portrait of an egoist; _Don Chisciottino_, _Amore bendato_,
_Capelli biondi_, _Oro nascosto_, _Il Tesoro di Donnina_, _Amore a cent'
occhi_, _Mio figlio_, _Il numero 13_, are some of his other volumes.



FARINATO, PAOLO (1522-1606), Italian painter and architect, was a native
of Verona. He is sometimes named Farinato degli Uberti, as he came from
the ancient Florentine stock to which the Ghibelline leader Farinata
degli Uberti, celebrated in Dante's _Commedia_, belonged. He flourished
at the same time that the art of Verona obtained its greatest lustre in
the works of Paolo Cagliari (Paul Veronese), succeeded by other members
of the Cagliari family, of whom most or all were outlived by Farinato.
He was instructed by Niccolò Giolfino, and probably by Antonio Badile
and Domenico del Riccio (Brusasorci). Proceeding to Venice, he formed
his style partly on Titian and Giorgione, though he was never
conspicuous as a colourist, and in form he learned more from the works
of Giulio Romano. His nude figures show knowledge of the antique; he
affected a bronzed tone in the complexions, harmonizing with the general
gravity of his colour, which is more laudable in fresco than in
oil-painting. Vasari praised his thronged compositions and merit of
draughtsmanship. His works are to be found not only in Venice and
principally in Verona, but also in Mantua, Padua and other towns
belonging or adjacent to the Venetian territory. He was a prosperous and
light-hearted man, and continually progressed in his art, passing from a
comparatively dry manner into a larger and bolder one, with much
attraction of drapery and of landscape. The "Miracle of the Loaves and
Fishes," painted in the church of S. Giorgio in Verona, is accounted his
masterpiece; it was executed at the advanced age of seventy-nine, and is
of course replete with figures, comprising those of the painter's own
family. A saloon was painted by him in S. Maria in Organo, in the same
city, with the subjects of "Michael expelling Lucifer" and the "Massacre
of the Innocents"; in Piacenza is a "St Sixtus"; in Berlin a
"Presentation in the Temple"; and in the communal gallery of Verona one
of his prime works, the "Marriage of St Catherine." Farinato executed
some sculptures, and various etchings of sacred and mythologic subjects;
his works of all kinds were much in request, including the wax models
which he wrought as studies for his painted figures. He is said to have
died at the same hour as his wife. His son Orazio was also a painter of
merit.



FARINELLI (1705-1782), whose real name was CARLO BROSCHI, one of the
most extraordinary singers that ever lived, was born on the 24th of
January 1705, at Naples. He was the nephew of Cristiano Farinelli, the
composer and violinist, whose name he took. Having been prepared for the
career of a soprano, he soon acquired, under the instruction of N.A.
Porpora, a voice of marvellous beauty, and became famous throughout
southern Italy as _il ragazzo_ (the boy). In 1722 he made his first
appearance at Rome in his master's _Eumene_, creating the greatest
enthusiasm by surpassing a popular German trumpet-player, for whom
Porpora had written an obligato to one of the boy's songs, in holding
and swelling a note of prodigious length, purity and power, and in the
variations, roulades and trills which he introduced into the air. In
1724 he appeared at Vienna, and at Venice in the following year,
returning to Naples shortly afterwards. He sang at Milan in 1726, and at
Bologna in 1727, where he first met and acknowledged himself vanquished
by the singer Antonio Bernacchi (b. 1700), to whose instruction he was
much indebted. With ever-increasing success and fame Farinelli appeared
in nearly all the great cities of Italy; and returned a third time to
Vienna in 1731. He now modified his style, it is said on the advice of
Charles VI., from mere _bravura_ of the Porpora school to one of pathos
and simplicity. He visited London in 1734, arriving in time to lend his
powerful support to the faction which in opposition to Handel had set up
a rival opera with Porpora as composer and Senesino as principal singer.
But not even his aid could make the undertaking successful. His first
appearance at the Lincoln's Inn Fields theatre was in _Artaserse_, much
of the music of which was by his brother, Riccardo Broschi. His success
was instantaneous, and the prince of Wales and the court loaded him with
favours and presents. Having spent three years in England, Farinelli set
out for Spain, staying a few months on the way in France, where he sang
before Louis XV. In Spain, where he had only meant to stay a few months,
he ended by passing nearly twenty-five years. His voice, employed by the
queen to cure Philip V. of his melancholy madness, acquired for him an
influence with that prince which gave him eventually the power, if not
the name, of prime minister. This power he was wise and modest enough to
use discreetly. For ten years, night after night, he had to sing to the
king the same six songs, and never anything else. Under Ferdinand VI. he
held a similar position, and was decorated (1750) with the cross of
Calatrava. He utilized his ascendancy over this king by persuading him
to establish an Italian opera. After the accession of Charles III.
Farinelli retired with the fortune he had amassed to Bologna, and spent
the remainder of his days there in melancholy splendour, dying on the
15th of July 1782. His voice was of large compass, possessing seven or
eight notes more than those of ordinary singers, and was sonorous, equal
and clear; he also possessed a great knowledge of music.



FARINGDON, properly GREAT FARINGDON, a market town in the Abingdon
parliamentary division of Berkshire, England, 17 m. W.S.W. of Oxford by
road. Pop. (1901) 2900. It lies on the slope of a low range of hills
which borders the valley of the Thames on the south. It is the terminus
of a branch of the Great Western railway from Uffington. The church of
All Saints is a large cruciform building with low central tower. Its
period is mainly Transitional Norman and Early English, and though
considerably altered by restoration it contains some good details, with
many monuments and brasses. Faringdon House, close to the church, was
built by Henry James Pye (1745-1813), poet laureate from 1790 to 1813,
who also caused to be planted the conspicuous group of fir-trees on the
hill east of the town called Faringdon Clump, or locally (like other
similar groups) the Folly. The trade of Faringdon is agricultural.



FARINI, LUIGI CARLO (1812-1866), Italian statesman and historian, was
born at Russi, near Ravenna, on the 22nd of October 1812. After
completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he
interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831 (see CARBONARI), he
practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna. He acquired a
considerable reputation, but in 1843 his political opinions brought him
under the suspicion of the police and caused his expulsion from the
papal states. He resided successively in Florence and Paris, and
travelled about Europe as private physician to Prince Jerome Bonaparte,
but when Pius IX. was elected to the Holy See and began his reign with
apparently Liberal and nationalist tendencies, Farini returned to Italy
and was appointed secretary-general to G. Recchi, the minister of the
interior (March 1848). But he held office for little more than a month,
since like all the other Italian Liberals he disapproved of the pope's
change of front in refusing to allow his troops to fight against
Austria, and resigned with the rest of the ministry on the 29th of
April. Pius, wishing to counteract the effect of this policy, sent
Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of
the papal contingent to him. Elected member of parliament for Faenza, he
was again appointed secretary to the ministry of the interior in the
Mamiani cabinet, and later director-general of the public health
department. He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after
the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when
Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a
reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and
took up his residence at Turin. There he became convinced that it was
only through the House of Savoy that Italy could be liberated, and he
expounded his views in Cavour's paper _Il Risorgimento_, in La Frusta
and _Il Piemonte_, of which latter he was at one time editor. He also
wrote his chief historical work, _Lo Stato Romano dal 1815 al 1850_, in
four volumes (Turin, 1850). In 1851 he was appointed minister of public
instruction in the D'Azeglio cabinet, an office which he held till May
1852. As a member of the Sardinian parliament and as a journalist Farini
was one of the staunchest supporters of Cavour (q.v.), and strongly
favoured the proposal that Piedmont should participate in the Crimean
War, if indeed he was not actually the first to suggest that policy (see
G.B. Ercolani's letter in E. Parri's memoir of Farini). In 1856 and 1857
he published two letters to Mr Gladstone on Italian affairs, which
created a sensation, while he continued to propagate his views in the
Italian press. When on the outbreak of the war of 1859 Francis V., duke
of Modena, was expelled and a provisional government set up, Farini was
sent as Piedmontese commissioner to that city; but although recalled
after the peace of Villafranca he was determined on the annexation of
central Italy to Piedmont and remained behind, becoming a Modenese
citizen and dictator of the state. He negotiated an alliance with Parma,
Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been
established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this
central Italian league to General Fanti (q.v.). Annexation to Piedmont
having been voted by _plébiscite_ and the opposition of Napoleon III.
having been overcome, Farini returned to Turin, when the king conferred
on him the order of the Annunziata and Cavour appointed him minister of
the interior (June 1860), and subsequently viceroy of Naples; but he
soon resigned on the score of ill-health. Cavour died in 1861, and the
following year Farini succeeded Rattazzi as premier, in which office he
endeavoured to carry out Cavour's policy. Over-exertion, however,
brought on softening of the brain, which compelled him to resign office
on the 24th of March 1863, and ultimately resulted in his death on the
1st of August 1866. He was buried at Turin, but in 1878 his remains were
removed to his native village of Russi.

His son Domenico Farini had a distinguished political career and was at
one time president of the chamber.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Several letters from Farini to Mr Gladstone and Lord
  John Russell were reprinted in a _Mémoire sur les affaires d'Italie_
  (1859), and a collection of his political Correspondence was published
  under the title of _Lettres sur les affaires d'Italie_ (Paris, 1860).
  His historical work was translated into English in part by Mr
  Gladstone and in part under his superintendence. See E. Parri, _Luigi
  Carlo Farini_ (Rome, 1878); L. Carpi in _Il Risorgimento Italiano_,
  vol. iv. (Milan, 1888); and G. Finali's article, "Il 27 Aprile 1859,"
  in the _Nuova Antologia_ for the 16th of May 1903.     (L. V.*)



FARM, in the most generally used sense, a portion of land leased or held
for the purpose of agriculture; hence "farming" is equivalent to the
pursuit of agriculture, and "farmer" to an agriculturist. This meaning
is comparatively modern. The origin of the word has perhaps been
complicated by an Anglo-Saxon _feorm_, meaning provisions or food
supply, and more particularly a payment of provisions for the sustenance
of the king, the _cyninges feorm_. In Domesday this appears as a food
rent: _firma unius noctis_ or _diei_. According to the _New English
Dictionary_ there is no satisfactory Teutonic origin for the word. It
has, however, been sometimes connected with a word which appears in the
older forms of some Teutonic languages, meaning "life." The present form
"farm" certainly comes, through the French _ferme_, from the medieval
Lat. _firma_ (_firmus_, fixed), a fixed or certain payment in money or
kind. The Anglo-Saxon _feorm_ may be not an original Teutonic word but
an early adaptation of the Latin. The _feorm_, originally a tax, seems,
as the king "booked" his land, to have become a rent (see F.W. Maitland,
_Domesday Book and After_, 1897, p. 236 ff., and J.H. Round, _Feudal
England_, 1895, p. 109 ff.). The word _firma_ is thus used of the
composition paid by the sheriff in respect of the dues to be collected
from the shire. From the use of the word for the fixed sum paid as rent
for a portion of land leased for cultivation, "farm" was applied to the
land itself, whether held on lease or otherwise, and always with the
meaning of agricultural land. The aspect of the fixity of the sum paid
leads to a secondary meaning, that of a certain sum paid by a taxable
person, community, state, &c., in respect of the taxes or dues that will
be imposed, or to such a sum paid as a rent by a contractor for the
right of collecting such taxes. This method of indirect collection of
the revenue by contractors instead of directly by the officials of the
state is that known as "farming the taxes." The system is best known
through the _publicani_ of Rome, who formed companies or syndicates to
farm not only the indirect taxation of the state, but also other sources
of the state revenues, such as mines, fisheries, &c. (see PUBLICANI).

In monarchical Europe, which grew out of the ruins of the Roman empire,
the revenue was almost universally farmed, but the system was gradually
narrowed down until only indirect taxes became the subject of farming.
France from the 16th to the 18th centuries is the most interesting
modern example. Owing to the hopeless condition of its revenues, the
French government was continually in a state of anticipating its
resources, and was thus entirely in the hands of financiers. In 1681 the
indirect taxes were farmed collectively to a single company of forty
capitalists (_ferme générale_), increased to sixty in 1755, and reduced
to the original number in 1780. These farmers-general were appointed by
the king for six years, and paid an annual fixed sum every year in
advance. The taxes which they collected were the customs (_douanes_ or
_traites_), the _gabelle_ or salt tax, local taxes or octrois
(_entrées_, &c.), and various smaller taxes. They were under the
management of a controller-general, who had a central office in Paris.
The office of farmer-general was the object of keen competition,
notwithstanding that the successful candidates had to share a
considerable part of the profits of the post with ministers, courtiers,
favourites, and even the sovereign, in the shape of gifts (_croupes_)
and pensions. The rapacity of the farmers-general was proverbial, and
the loss to the revenue by the system was great, while very considerable
hardships were inflicted on the poorer contributors by the unscrupulous
methods of collection practised by the underlings of the farmers. In
addition, the unpopular nature of the taxes caused deep discontent, and
the detestation in which the farmers-general were held culminated in the
execution of thirty-two of them during the French Revolution and the
sweeping away of the system.

  See also AGRICULTURE, DAIRY AND DAIRY-FARMING, FRUIT AND FLOWER
  FARMING, &c.



FARM BUILDINGS. The best laying out of a farm, and the construction of
its buildings, are matters which, from the variety of needs and
circumstances, involve practical considerations and expert knowledge,
too detailed in their nature for more than a brief reference in this
work. It may be said generally that the best aspect for farm buildings
is S. or S.S.E., and with a view to easy disposal of drainage they
should be built on a slight slope. The supply of water, whether it be
provided from wells by engine or windmill power, by hydraulic rams or
other means, is a prime consideration, and it should if possible be laid
on at different suitable points or at any rate the central source of
supply should be in the most accessible and convenient place as regards
stables and cow-sheds. The buildings should be constructed on or within
easy distance of the public road, in order to save the upkeep of private
roads, and should be as near as possible to the centre of the farm. On
mixed farms of ordinary size (200 to 500 acres) the building may be
advantageously planned in one rectangular block, the stock-yards being
placed in the centre separated by the cow-sheds, and surrounded by the
cart-sheds, stables, stores and barn, cattle-boxes, piggeries and minor
buildings. On farms of larger size and on dairy farms special needs must
be taken into account, while in all cases the local methods of farming
must influence the grouping and arrangement of the steading.

  For a more detailed treatment of the subject reference may be made to
  the following works;--S. Taylor, _Modern Homesteads_, _a Treatise on
  the Designing of Farm Buildings_ (London, 1905); A.D. Clarke, _Modern
  Farm Buildings_ (London, 1899); P. Roberts, _The Farmstead_, in the
  "Rural Science Series" (New York, 1900), and articles in the _Standard
  Cyclopaedia of Agriculture_, vol. 3, and in the _Cyclopaedia of
  American Agriculture_, vol. 1.



FARMER, RICHARD (1735-1797), Shakespearian commentator, the son of a
rich maltster, was born at Leicester on the 28th of August 1735. He was
educated at the free grammar school of his native town, and at Emmanuel
College, Cambridge. He graduated in 1757 a senior optime; three years
later he proceeded M.A. and became classical tutor, and in 1775 master
of his college, in succession to William Richardson, the biographer of
the English bishops. In the latter year also he was appointed
vice-chancellor, and three years afterwards chief librarian of the
university. In 1780 he was appointed to a prebendal stall in Lichfield,
and two years later to one at Canterbury; but the second office he
exchanged in 1788 for that of a canon residentiary of St Paul's.
Cambridge, where he usually resided, was indebted to him for
improvements in lighting, paving and watching; but perhaps London and
the nation have less reason to be grateful for his zealous advocacy of
the custom of erecting monuments to departed worthies in St Paul's. In
1765 he issued a prospectus for a history of the town of Leicester; but
this work, based on materials collected by Thomas Staveley, he never
even began; it was carried out by the learned printer John Nichols. In
1766 he published his famous _Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare_, in
which he proved that the poet's acquaintance with ancient and modern
Continental literature was exclusively derived from translations, of
which he copied even the blunders. "Shakespeare," he said, "wanted not
the stilts of language to raise him above all other men." "He came out
of nature's hand, like Pallas out of Jove's head, at full growth and
mature." "One might," he said--by way of ridiculing the Shakespearian
criticism of the day--"with equal wisdom, study the Talmud for an
exposition of _Tristram Shandy_." The essay fully justifies the author's
description of himself in the preface to the second edition: "I may
consider myself as the pioneer of the commentators; I have removed a
deal of learned rubbish, and pointed out to them Shakespeare's track in
the very pleasant paths of nature." Farmer died at Cambridge on the 8th
of September 1797. He was, it appears, twice offered a bishopric by
Pitt, but declined the preferment. Farmer was immensely popular in his
own college, and loved, it was said, above all other things, old port,
old clothes and old books.



FARMERS' MOVEMENT, in American political history, the general name for a
movement between 1867 and 1896 remarkable for a radical socio-economic
propaganda that came from what was considered the most conservative
class of American society. In this movement there were three periods,
popularly known as Granger, Alliance and Populist.

The GRANGE, or Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (the latter the
official name of the national organization, while the former was the
name of local chapters, including a supervisory National Grange at
Washington), was a secret order founded in 1867 to advance the social
needs and combat the economic backwardness of farm life. It grew
remarkably in 1873-1874, and in the latter year attained a membership of
perhaps 800,000. In the causes of its growth--much broader than those
that issued in the financial crisis of 1873--a high tariff, railway
freight-rates and other grievances were mingled with agricultural
troubles like the fall of wheat prices and the increase of mortgages.
The condition of the farmer seemed desperate. The original objects of
the Grange were primarily educational, but these were soon overborne by
an anti-middleman, co-operative movement. Grange agents bought
everything from farm machinery to women's dresses; hundreds of grain
elevators and cotton and tobacco warehouses were bought, and even
steamboat lines; mutual insurance companies were formed and joint-stock
stores. Nor was co-operation limited to distributive processes;
crop-reports were circulated, co-operative dairies multiplied,
flour-mills were operated, and patents were purchased, that the Grange
might manufacture farm machinery. The outcome in some states was ruin,
and the name Grange became a reproach. Nevertheless these efforts in
co-operation were exceedingly important both for the results obtained
and for their wider significance. Nor could politics be excluded, though
officially tabooed; for economics must be considered by social
idealists, and economics everywhere ran into politics. Thus it was with
the railway question. Railways had been extended into frontier states;
there were heavy crops in sparsely settled regions where freight-rates
were high, so that--given the existing distributive system--there were
"over production" and waste; there was notorious stock manipulation and
discrimination in rates; and the farmers regarded "absentee ownership"
of railways by New York capitalists much as absentee ownership of land
has been regarded in Ireland. The Grange officially disclaimed enmity to
railways; but though the organization did not attack them, the
Grangers--through political "farmers' clubs" and the like--did. About
1867 began the efforts to establish regulation of the railways, as
common-carriers, by the states. Such laws were known as "Granger laws,"
and their general principles, soon endorsed (1876) by the Supreme Court
of the United States, have become an important chapter in the laws of
the land. In a declaration of principles in 1874 Grangers were declared
to be "not enemies of railroads," and their cause to stand for "no
communism, no agrarianism." To conservatives, however, co-operation
seemed communism, and "Grange laws" agrarianism; and thus in 1873-1874
the growth of the movement aroused extraordinary interest and much
uneasiness. In 1874 the order was reorganized, membership being limited
to persons directly interested in the farmers' cause (there had been a
millionaire manufacturers' Grange on Broadway), and after this there
were constant quarrels in the order; moreover, in 1875 the National
Grange largely lost control of the state Granges, which discredited the
organization by their disastrous co-operation ventures. Thus by 1876 it
had already ceased to be of national political importance. About 1880 a
renascence began, particularly in the Middle States and New England;
this revival was marked by a recurrence to the original social and
educational objects. The national Grange and state Granges (in all, or
nearly all, of the states) were still active in 1909, especially in the
old cultural movement and in such economic movements--notably the
improvement of highways--as most directly concern the farmers. The
initiative and referendum, and other proposals of reform politics in the
direction of a democratic advance, also enter in a measure into their
propaganda.

The ALLIANCE carried the movement farther into economics. The "National
Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union," formed in 1889, embraced
several originally independent organizations formed from 1873 onwards;
it was largely confined to the South and was secret. The "National
Farmers' Alliance," formed in 1880, went back similarly to 1877, was
much smaller, Northern and non-secret. The "Colored Farmers' National
Alliance and Co-operative Union" (formed 1888, merged in the above
"Southern" Alliance in 1890) was the second greatest organization. With
these three were associated many others, state and national, including
an annual, non-partisan, deliberative and advisory Farmers' National
Congress. The Alliance movement reached its greatest power about 1890,
in which year twelve national farmers' organizations were represented in
conventions in St Louis, and the six leading ones alone probably had a
membership of 5,000,000.[1]

As with the Grange, so in the ends and declarations of the whole later
movement, concrete remedial legislation for agricultural or economic
ills was mingled with principles of vague radical tendency and with
lofty idealism.[2] Among the principles advocated about 1890,
practically all the great organizations demanded the abolition of
national banks, the free coinage of silver, a "sufficient" issue of
government paper money, tariff revision, and a secret ballot (the last
was soon realized); only less commonly demanded were an income tax,
taxation of evidence of debt, and government loans on lands. All of
these were principles of the two great Alliances (the Northern and the
Southern), as were also pure food legislation, abolition of landholding
by aliens, reclamation of unused or unearned land grants (to railways,
e.g.), and either rigid federal regulation of railways and other means
of communication or government ownership thereof. The "Southern"
Alliance put in the forefront a "sub-treasury" scheme according to which
cheap loans should be made by government from local sub-treasuries on
non-perishable farm products (such as grain and cotton) stored in
government warehouses; while the "Northern" Alliance demanded
restriction of the liquor traffic and (for a short time) woman suffrage.
Still other issues were a modification of the patent laws (e.g. to
prevent the purchase of patents to stifle competition), postal currency
exchange, the eight-hour day, inequitable taxation, the single-tax on
land, "trusts," educational qualification for suffrage, direct popular
election of federal judges, of senators, and of the president,
special-interest lobbying, &c.

In 1889-1890 the political (non-partisan) movement developed astonishing
strength; it captured the Republican stronghold of Kansas, brought the
Democratic Party to vassalage in South Carolina, revolutionized
legislatures even in conservative states like Massachusetts, and seemed
likely completely to dominate the South and West. All its work in the
South was accomplished within the old-party organizations, but in 1890
the demand became strong for an independent third party, for which
various consolidations since 1887 had prepared the way, and by 1892 a
large part of the strength of the farmers' organizations, with that of
various industrial and radical orders, was united in the People's Party
(perhaps more generally known as the Populist Party), which had its
beginnings in Kansas in 1890, and received national organization in
1892. This party emphasized free silver, the income tax, eight-hour day,
reclamation of land grants, government ownership of railways, telephones
and telegraphs, popular election of federal senators, and the initiative
and referendum. In the presidential election of 1892 it cast 1,041,021
votes (in a total of 12,036,089), and elected 22 presidential electors,
the first chosen by any third party since 1856. In 1896 the People's
Party "fused" with the Democratic Party (q.v.) in the presidential
campaign, and again in 1900; during this period, indeed, the greatest
part of the People's Party was reabsorbed into the two great parties
from which its membership had originally been drawn;--in some northern
states apparently largely into the Republican ranks, but mainly into the
Democratic Party, to which it gave a powerful radical impulse.

The Farmers' movement was much misunderstood, abused and ridiculed. It
accomplished a vast amount of good. The movement--and especially the
Grange, for on most important points the later movements only followed
where it had led--contributed the initial impulse and prepared the way
for the establishment of travelling and local rural libraries, reading
courses, lyceums, farmers' institutes (a steadily increasing influence)
and rural free mail delivery (inaugurated experimentally in 1896 and
adopted as part of the permanent postal system of the country in 1902);
for agricultural exhibits and an improved agricultural press; for
encouragement to and increased profit from the work of agricultural
colleges, the establishment (1885) and great services of the United
States Department of Agriculture,--in short, for an extraordinary
lessening of rural isolation and betterment of the farmers'
opportunities; for the irrigation of the semi-arid West, adopted as a
national policy in 1902, the pure-food laws of 1906, the
interstate-commerce law of 1887, the railway-rate laws of 1903 and 1906,
even the great Bureau of Commerce-and-Labor law of 1903, and the
Anti-trust laws of 1903 and later. The Alliance and Populist movements
were bottomed on the idea of "ethical gains through legislation." In its
local manifestations the whole movement was often marked by eccentric
ideas, narrow prejudices and weaknesses in economic reasoning. It is not
to be forgotten that owing to the movement of the frontier the United
States has always been "at once a developed country and a primitive one.
The same political questions have been put to a society advanced in some
regions and undeveloped in others.... On specific political questions
each economic area has reflected its peculiar interests" (Prof. F.J.
Turner). That this idea must not, however, be over-emphasized, is
admirably enforced by observing the great mass of farmer radicalism that
has, since about 1896, become an accepted Democratic and Republican
principle over the whole country. The Farmers' movement was the
beginning of widespread, effective protest against "the menace of
privilege" in the United States.

  American periodicals, especially in 1890-1892, are particularly
  informing on the growth of the movement; see F.M. Drew in _Political
  Science Quarterly_ (1891), vi. p. 282; C.W. Pierson in _Popular
  Science Monthly_ (1888), xxxii. pp. 199, 368; C.S. Walker and F.J.
  Foster in _Annals of American Academy_ (1894); iv. p. 790; Senator
  W.A. Peffer in _Cosmopolitan_ (1890), x. p. 694; and on agricultural
  discontent, _Political Science Quarterly_, iv. (1889), p. 433, by W.F.
  Mappin; v. (1890), p. 65, by J.P. Dunn; xi. (1896), pp. 433, 601, xii.
  (1897), p. 93, and xiv. (1899), p. 444, by C.F. Emerick; Prof. E.W.
  Bemis in _Journal of Political Economy_ (1893), i. p. 193; A.H. Peters
  in _Quarterly Journal of Economics_ (1890), iv. p. 18; C.W. Davis in
  _Forum_ (1890), ix. pp. 231, 291, 348.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Membership usually included males or females above 16 years of
    age.

  [2] Thus, the "Southern" Alliance in 1890 (the chief platforms were
    the one at Ocala, Florida, and that of 1889 at St Louis, in
    conjunction with the Knights of Labor) declared its principles to be:
    "(1) To labour for the education of the agricultural classes in the
    science of economical government in a strictly non-partisan way, and
    to bring about a more perfect union of such classes. (2) To demand
    equal rights to all, and special privileges to none. (3) To endorse
    the motto: 'In things essential, unity; in all things, charity.' (4)
    To develop a better state, mentally, morally, socially and
    financially.... (6) To suppress personal, local, sectional and
    national prejudices." For the Southern farmer a chief concrete evil
    was the pre-crop mortgages by which cotton farmers remained in debt
    to country merchants; in the North the farmer attacked a wide range
    of "capitalistic" legislation that hurt him, he believed, for the
    benefit of other classes--notably legislation sought by railways.



FARNABY (or FARNABIE), THOMAS (c. 1575-1647), English grammarian, was
the son of a London carpenter; his grandfather, it is said, had been
mayor of Truro, his great-grandfather an Italian musician. Between 1590
and 1595 he appears successively as a student of Merton College, Oxford,
a pupil in a Jesuit college in Spain, and a follower of Drake and
Hawkins. After some military service in the Low Countries "he made
shift," says Wood, "to be set on shore in the western part of England;
where, after some wandering to and fro under the name of Tho. Bainrafe,
the anagram of his sirname, he settled at Martock, in Somersetshire, and
taught the grammar school there for some time with success. After he had
gotten some feathers at Martock, he took his flight to London," and
opened a school in Goldsmiths' Rents, Cripplegate. From this school,
which had as many as 300 pupils, there issued, says Wood, "more
churchmen and statesmen than from any school taught by one man in
England." In the course of his London career "he was made master of arts
of Cambridge, and soon after incorporated at Oxon." Such was his success
that he was enabled to buy an estate at Otford near Sevenoaks, Kent, to
which he retired from London in 1636, still, however, carrying on his
profession of schoolmaster. In course of time he added to his Otford
estate and bought another near Horsham in Sussex. In politics he was a
royalist; and, suspected of participation in the rising near Tunbridge,
1643, he was imprisoned in Ely House, Holborn. He died at Sevenoaks on
the 12th of June 1647.

  The details of his life were derived by Anthony à Wood from Francis,
  Farnaby's son by a second marriage (see Wood's _Athenae Oxonienses_,
  ed. Bliss, iii. 213). His works chiefly consisted of annotated
  editions of Latin authors--Juvenal, Persius, Seneca, Martial, Lucan,
  Virgil, Ovid and Terence, which enjoyed extraordinary popularity. His
  _Systema grammaticum_ was published in London in 1641. On the 6th of
  April 1632, Farnaby was presented with a royal patent granting him,
  for the space of twenty-one years, the sole right of printing and
  publishing certain of his works.



FARNBOROUGH, THOMAS ERSKINE MAY, BARON (1815-1886), English
Constitutional historian, was born in London on the 8th of February 1815
and educated at Bedford grammar school. In 1831 he was nominated by
Manners Sutton, speaker of the House of Commons, to the post of
assistant librarian, so that his long connexion with parliament began in
his youth. He studied for the bar, and was called at the Middle Temple
in 1838. In 1844 he published the first edition of his _Treatise on the
Law, Privilege, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament_. This work, which
has passed through many editions, is not only an invaluable mine of
information for the historical student, but it is known as the text-book
of the law by which parliament governs its proceedings. In 1846 Erskine
May was appointed examiner of petitions for private bills, and the
following year taxing-master of the House of Commons. He published his
_Remarks to Facilitate Public Business in Parliament_ in 1849; a work
_On the Consolidation of Election Laws_ in 1850; and his _Rules, Orders
and Forms of the House of Commons_ was printed by command of the House
in 1854. In 1856 he was appointed clerk assistant at the table of the
House of Commons. He received the companionship of the Bath in 1860 for
his parliamentary services, and became a knight commander in 1866. His
important work, _The Constitutional History of England since the
Accession of George III._ (1760-1860), was published in 1861-1863, and
it received frequent additions in subsequent editions. In 1871 Sir
Erskine May was appointed clerk of the House of Commons. His _Democracy
in Europe: a History_ appeared in 1877, but it failed to take the same
rank in critical esteem as his _Constitutional History_. He retired from
the post of clerk to the House of Commons in April 1886, having for
fifteen years discharged the onerous duties of the office with as much
knowledge and energy as unfailing tact and courtesy. Shortly after his
retirement from office he was raised to the peerage under the title of
Baron Farnborough of Farnborough, in the county of Southampton, but he
only survived to enjoy the dignity for a few days. He died in London on
the 17th of May 1886, and as he left no issue the title became extinct.



FARNBOROUGH, an urban district in the Basingstoke parliamentary division
of Hampshire, England, 33 m. S.W. by W. from London, on the London &
South Western and the South Eastern & Chatham railways. Pop. (1901)
11,500 (including 5070 military). The church of St Peter ranges from
Early English to Perpendicular in style. St Michael's Catholic memorial
church, erected in 1887 by the ex-empress Eugénie, contains the remains
of Napoleon III. and the prince imperial. An adjoining abbey is occupied
by Benedictine fathers of the French congregation; the convent is a
ladies' boarding-school. Aldershot North Camp is within the parish.



FARNE ISLANDS [also FEARNE, FERN, or THE STAPLES], a group of rocky
islands and reefs off the coast of Northumberland, England, included in
that county. In 1901 they had only eleven inhabitants. They extend in a
line of some 6 m. in a northeasterly direction from the coast, on which
the nearest villages are Bamborough and North Sunderland. The Fairway,
1½ m. across, separates the largest island, Farne, or House, from the
mainland. Farne is 16 acres in area, and has precipitous cliffs up to 80
ft. in height on the east, but the shore is otherwise low. The other
principal islets are Staple, Brownsman, North and South Wamses,
Longstone and Big Harcar. On Farne is a small ancient chapel, with a
square tower near it built for purposes of defence in the 15th century.
The chapel is believed to occupy the site of St Cuthbert's hermitage,
whither he retired from the priory on the neighbouring Holy Island or
Lindisfarne. He was with difficulty persuaded to leave it on his
elevation to the bishopric of Lindisfarne, and returned to it to die
(687). Longstone rock, with its lighthouse, is famous as the scene of
the bravery of Grace Darling in rescuing some of the survivors of the
wreck of the "Forfarshire" (1838). The rocks abound in sea-birds,
including eider duck.



FARNESE, the name of one of the most illustrious and powerful Italian
families, which besides including eminent prelates, statesmen and
warriors among its members, ruled the duchy of Parma for two centuries.
The early history of the family is involved in obscurity, but they are
first heard of as lords of Farneto or Farnese, a castle near the lake of
Bolsena, and they played an important part as consuls and signori of
Orvieto. They seem to have always been Guelphs, and in the civil broils
of Orvieto they sided with the Monaldeschi faction against the
Ghibelline Filippeschi. One Pietro Farnese commanded the papal armies
under Paschal II. (1099-1118); another Pietro led the Florentines to
victory against the Pisans in 1363. Ranuccio Farnese served Eugene IV.
so well that the pope endowed him with large fiefs, and is reported to
have said, "The Church is ours because Farnese has given it back to us."

The family derived further advantages at the time of Pope Alexander VI.,
who was the lover of the beautiful Giulia Farnese, known as Giulia
Bella, and created her brother Alessandro a cardinal (1493). The latter
was elected pope as Paul III. in 1534, and it is from that moment that
the great importance of the family dates. An unblushing nepotist, he
alienated immense fiefs belonging to the Holy See in favour of his
natural children. Of these the most famous was Pierluigi Farnese
(1503-1547), who served in the papal army in various campaigns, but also
took part in the sack of Rome in 1527. On his father's elevation to the
papacy he was made captain-general of the Church, and received the duchy
of Castro in the Maremma, besides Frascati, Nepi, Montalto and other
fiefs. A shameless rake and a man of uncontrollable temper, his massacre
of the people of Perugia after a rebellion in 1540 and the unspeakable
outrage he committed on the bishop of Fano are typical of his character.
In 1545 his father conferred on him the duchy of Parma and Piacenza,
which likewise belonged to the Holy See, and his rule proved cruel and
tyrannical. He deprived the nobles of their privileges, and forced them
to dwell in the towns, but to some extent he improved the conditions of
the lower classes. Pierluigi being an uncompromising opponent of the
emperor Charles V., Don Ferrante Gonzaga, the imperial governor of
Milan, was ever on the watch for a pretext to deprive him of Piacenza,
which the emperor greatly coveted. When the duke proceeded to build a
castle in that town in order to overawe its inhabitants, the nobles were
furiously indignant, and a plot to murder him was organized by the
marquis Anguissola and others with the support both of Gonzaga and of
Andrea Doria (q.v.), Charles's admiral, who wished to be revenged on
Pierluigi for the part he had played in the Fiesco conspiracy (see
FIESCO). The deed was done while the duke was superintending the
building of the above-mentioned citadel, and his corpse was flung into
the street (December 10th, 1547). Piacenza was thereupon occupied by the
imperialists.

Pierluigi had several children, for all of whom Paul made generous
provision. One of them, Alessandro (1520-1589), was created cardinal at
the age of fourteen; he was a man of learning and artistic tastes, and
lived with great splendour surrounded by scholars and artists, among
whom were Annibal Caro, Paolo Giovio, Mons. Della Casa, Bembo, Vasari,
&c. It was he who completed the magnificent Farnese palace in Rome. He
displayed diplomatic ability on various missions to foreign courts, but
failed to get elected to the papacy.

Orazio, Pierluigi's third son, was made duke of Castro when his father
became duke of Parma, and married Diane, a natural daughter of Henry II.
of France. Ottavio, the second son (1521-1586), married Margaret, the
natural daughter of Charles V. and widow of Alessandro de' Medici, at
the age of fifteen, she being a year older; at first she disliked her
youthful bridegroom, but when he returned wounded from the expedition to
Algiers in 1541 her aversion was turned to affection (see MARGARET OF
AUSTRIA). Ottavio had been made lord of Camerino in 1540, but he gave up
that fief when his father became duke of Parma. When, on the murder of
the latter in 1547, Piacenza was occupied by the imperialists, Paul
determined to make an effort to regain the city; he set aside Ottavio's
claims to the succession of Parma, where he appointed a papal legate,
giving him back Camerino in exchange, and then claimed Piacenza of the
emperor, not for the Farnesi, but for the Church. But Ottavio would not
be put off; he attempted to seize Parma by force, and having failed,
entered into negotiations with Gonzaga. This unnatural rebellion on the
part of one grandson, combined with the fact that it was supported by
the other grandson, Cardinal Alessandro, hastened the pope's death,
which occurred on the 10th of November 1549. During the interregnum that
followed Ottavio again tried to induce the governor of Parma to give up
the city to him, but met with no better success; however, on the
election of Giovan Maria Ciocchi (Julius III.) the duchy was conferred
on him (1551). This did not end his quarrel with the emperor, for
Gonzaga refused to give up Piacenza and even threatened to occupy Parma,
so that Ottavio was driven into the arms of France. Julius, who was
anxious to be on good terms with Charles on account of the council of
Trent which was then sitting, ordered Farnese to hand Parma over to the
papal authorities once more, and on his refusal hurled censures and
admonitions at his head, and deprived him of his Roman fiefs, while
Charles did the same with regard to those in Lombardy. A French army
came to protect Parma, war broke out, and Gonzaga at once laid siege to
the city. But the duke came to an arrangement with his father-in-law, by
which he regained Piacenza and his other fiefs. The rest of his life was
spent quietly at home, where the moderation and wisdom of his rule won
for him the affection of his people. At his death in 1586 he was
succeeded by his son Alessandro Farnese (1545-1592), the famous general
of Philip II. of Spain, who spent the whole of his reign in the Flemish
wars.

The first years of the reign of his son and successor Ranuccio I.
(1569-1622), who had shown much spirit in a controversy with Pope Sixtus
V., were uneventful, but in 1611 a conspiracy was formed against him by
a group of discontented nobles supported by the dukes of Modena and
Mantua. The plot was discovered and the conspirators were barbarously
punished, many being tortured and put to death, and their estates
confiscated. Ranuccio was a reserved and gloomy bigot; he instituted
savage persecutions against supposed witches and heretics, and lived in
perpetual terror of plots. His eldest son Alessandro being deaf and
dumb, the succession devolved on his second son Odoardo (1612-1646), who
fought on the French side in the war against Spain. His failure to pay
the interest of the money borrowed in Rome, and the desire of Urban
VIII. to obtain Castro for his relatives the Barberini (q.v.), resulted
in a war between that pope and Odoardo. His son and successor Ranuccio
II. (1630-1694) also had a war with the Holy See about Castro, which was
eventually razed to the ground. His son Francesco Maria (1678-1727)
suffered from the wars between Spain and Austria, the latter's troops
devastating his territory; but although this obliged him to levy some
burdensome taxes, he was a good ruler and practised economy in his
administration. Having no children, the succession devolved at his death
on his brother Antonio (1679-1731), who was also childless. The powers
had agreed that at the death of the latter the duchy should pass to Don
Carlos of Bourbon, son of King Philip V. of Spain by Elisabetta Farnese
(1692-1766), granddaughter of Ranuccio II. Antonio died in 1731, and
with him the line of Farnese came to an end.

The Palazzo Farnese in Rome, one of the finest specimens of Roman
Renaissance architecture, was begun under Paul III., while he was
cardinal, by Antonio da San Gallo, and completed by his nephew Cardinal
Alessandro under the direction of Michelangelo (1526). It was inherited
by Don Carlos, afterwards king of Naples and Spain, and most of the
pictures were removed to Naples. It now contains the French embassy to
the Italian court, as well as the French school of Rome.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--F. Odorici gives a detailed history of the family in P.
  Litta's _Famiglie celebri italiane_, vol. x. (Milan, 1868), to which
  an elaborate bibliography is appended, including manuscript sources; a
  more recent bibliography is S. Lottici and G. Sitti, _Bibliografia
  generale per la storia parmense_ (Parma, 1904); much information will
  be found in A. von Reumont's _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_, vol. iii.
  (Berlin, 1868), and in F. Gregorovius's _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_
  (Stuttgart, 1872).     (L. V.*)



FARNESE, ALEXANDER (1545-1592), duke of Parma, general, statesman and
diplomatist, governor-general of the Netherlands under Philip II. of
Spain, was born at Rome on the 27th of August 1545, and died at the
abbey of St Waast, near Arras, on the 3rd of December 1592. He was the
son of Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma, and Margaret of Austria, natural
daughter of Charles V. He accompanied his mother to Brussels when she
was appointed governor of the Netherlands, and in 1565 his marriage
with the princess Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with
great splendour. Alexander Farnese had been brought up in Spain with his
cousin, the ill-fated Don Carlos, and his uncle Don John of Austria,
both of whom were about the same age as himself, and after his marriage
he took up his residence at once at the court of Madrid. He fought with
much personal distinction under the command of Don John in 1571 at the
battle of Lepanto. It was seven years, however, before he had again an
opportunity for the display of his great military talents. In the
meantime the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against the
arbitrary and oppressive Spanish rule, and Don John of Austria, who had
been sent as governor-general to restore order, had found himself
helpless in face of the superior talent and personal influence of the
prince of Orange, who had succeeded in uniting all the provinces in
common resistance to the civil and religious tyranny of Philip. In the
autumn of 1577 Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of
reinforcements, and it was mainly his prompt decision at a critical
moment that won the battle of Gemblours (1578). Shortly afterwards Don
John, whose health had broken down through disappointment and
ill-health, died, and Farnese was appointed to take his place.

It is scarcely possible to exaggerate the difficulties with which he
found himself confronted, but he proved himself more than equal to the
task. In military ability the prince of Parma was inferior to none of
his contemporaries, as a skilful diplomatist he was the match even of
his great antagonist William the Silent, and, like most of the leading
statesmen of his day, was unscrupulous as to the means he employed so
long as he achieved his ends. Perceiving that there were divisions and
jealousies in the ranks of his opponents between Catholic and
Protestant, Fleming and Walloon, he set to work by persuasion, address
and bribery, to foment the growing discord, and bring back the Walloon
provinces to the allegiance of the king. He was successful, and by the
treaty of Arras, January 1579, he was able to secure the support of the
"Malcontents," as the Catholic nobles of the south were styled, to the
royal cause. The reply to the treaty of Arras was the Union of Utrecht,
concluded a few weeks later between the seven northern provinces, who
abjured the sovereignty of King Philip and bound themselves to use all
their resources to maintain their independence of Spanish rule.

Farnese, as soon as he had obtained a secure basis of operations in
Hainaut and Artois, set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering
Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell into his
power. Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges and Ghent opened their gates,
and finally he laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was
open to the sea, was strongly fortified, and was defended with resolute
determination and courage by the citizens. They were led by the famous
Philip de Marnix, lord of St Aldegonde, and had the assistance of an
ingenious Italian engineer, by name Gianibelli. The siege began in 1584
and called forth all the resources of Farnese's military genius. He cut
off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats
across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, in spite of the desperate
efforts of the besieged to prevent its completion. At last, on the 15th
of August 1585, Antwerp was compelled by famine to capitulate.
Favourable conditions were granted, but all Protestants were required to
leave the town within two years. With the fall of Antwerp, for Malines
and Brussels were already in the hands of Farnese, the whole of the
southern Netherlands was brought once more to recognize the authority of
Philip. But Holland and Zeeland, whose geographical position made them
unassailable except by water, were by the courage and skill of their
hardy seafaring population, with the help of English auxiliaries sent by
Queen Elizabeth, able to defy his further advance.

In 1586 Alexander Farnese became duke of Parma by the death of his
father. He applied for leave to visit his paternal territory, but Philip
would not permit him. He could not replace him in the Netherlands; but
while retaining him in his command at the head of a formidable army, the
king would not give his sanction to his great general's desire to use it
for the reconquest of the Northern Provinces. Never was there a better
opportunity than the end of 1586 for an invading army to march through
the country almost without opposition. The misgovernment and lack of
high statesmanship of the earl of Leicester had caused faction to be
rampant in the United Provinces; and on his return to England he left
the country without organized forces or experienced generals to oppose
an advance of a veteran army under the greatest commander of his time.
But Philip's whole thoughts and energies were already directed to the
preparation of an Invincible Armada for the conquest of England, and
Parma was ordered to collect an enormous flotilla of transports and to
keep his army concentrated and trained for the projected invasion of the
island realm of Queen Elizabeth. Thus the critical period passed by
unused, and when the tempests had finally dispersed the defeated
remnants of the Great Armada the Dutch had found a general, in the
youthful Maurice of Nassau, worthy to be the rival in military genius
even of Alexander of Parma. Moreover, the accession to the throne of
France of Henry of Navarre had altogether altered the situation of
affairs, and relieved the pressure upon the Dutch by creating a
diversion, and placing Parma and his army between hostile forces. The
ruinous expenditure upon the Great Armada had also depleted the Spanish
treasury and Philip found himself virtually bankrupt. In 1590 the
condition of the Spanish troops had become intolerable. Farnese could
get no regular supplies of money from the king for the payment of the
soldiery, and he had to pledge his own jewels to meet the demand. A
mutiny broke out, but was suppressed. In the midst of these difficulties
Parma received orders to abandon the task on which he had spent himself
for so many years, and to raise the siege of Paris, which was blockaded
by Henry IV. He left the Netherlands on the 3rd of August 1590 at the
head of 15,000 troops. By brilliant generalship he outwitted Henry and
succeeded in relieving Paris; but owing to lack of money and supplies he
was compelled immediately to retreat to the Netherlands, abandoning on
the march many stragglers and wounded, who were killed by the peasantry,
and leaving all the positions he had taken to be recaptured by Henry.

Again in 1591, in the very midst of a campaign against Maurice of
Nassau, sorely against his will, the duke of Parma was obliged to give
up the engrossing struggle and march to relieve Rouen. He was again
successful in his object, but was wounded in the arm before Caudebec,
and was finally compelled to withdraw his army with considerable losses
through the privations the troops had to undergo. He himself was
shattered in health by so many years of continuous campaigning and
exposure, and by the cares and disappointments which had befallen him.
He died at Arras on the 3rd of December 1592, in the forty-seventh year
of his age. The feeling that his immense services had not won for him
either the gratitude or confidence of his sovereign hastened his end. He
was honoured by a splendid funeral at Brussels, but his body was
interred at his own capital city of Parma. He left two sons, Ranuce, who
succeeded him, and Edward, who was created a cardinal in 1591 by Pope
Gregory XIV. His daughter Margaret married Vincent, duke of Mantua.

  See L.P. Gachard, _Correspondance d'Alexandre Farnese, Prince de
  Parme, gouverneur général des Pays-Bas, avec Philippe II, 1578-1579_
  (Brussels, 1850); Fra Pietro, _Alessandro Farnese, duca di Parma_
  (Rome, 1836).



FARNESE, ELIZABETH (1692-1766), queen of Spain, born on the 25th of
October 1692, was the only daughter of Odoardo II., prince of Parma. Her
mother educated her in strict seclusion, but seclusion altogether failed
to tame her imperious and ambitious temper. At the age of twenty-one
(1714) she was married by proxy at Parma to Philip V. of Spain. The
marriage was arranged by Cardinal Alberoni (q.v.), with the concurrence
of the Princess des Ursins, the _Camerara Mayor_. On arriving at the
borders of Spain, Elizabeth was met by the Princess des Ursins, but
received her sternly, and, perhaps in accordance with a plan previously
concerted with the king, at once ordered her to be removed from her
presence and from Spain. Over the weak king Elizabeth quickly obtained
complete influence. This influence was exerted altogether in support of
the policy of Alberoni, one chief aim of which was to recover the
ancient Italian possessions of Spain, and which actually resulted in the
seizure of Sardinia and Sicily. So vigorously did she enter into this
policy that, when the French forces advanced to the Pyrenees, she placed
herself at the head of one division of the Spanish army. But Elizabeth's
ambition was grievously disappointed. The Triple Alliance thwarted her
plans, and at length in 1720 the allies made the banishment of Alberoni
a condition of peace. Sicily also had to be evacuated. And finally, all
her entreaties failed to prevent the abdication of Philip, who in 1724
gave up the throne to his heir, and retired to the palace of La Granja.
Seven months later, however, the death of the young king recalled him to
the throne. During his later years, when he was nearly imbecile, she
directed the whole policy of Spain so as to secure thrones in Italy for
her sons. In 1736 she had the satisfaction of seeing her favourite
scheme realized in the accession of her son Don Carlos (afterwards
Charles III. of Spain) to the throne of the Two Sicilies and his
recognition by the powers in the treaty of Vienna. Her second son,
Philip, became duke of Parma. Elizabeth survived her husband twenty
years, dying in 1766.

  See _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire d'Espagne sous le règne de
  Philippe V_, by the Marquis de St Philippe, translated by Maudave
  (Paris, 1756); _Memoirs of Elizabeth Farnese_ (London, 1746); and E.
  Armstrong, _Elizabeth Farnese, the Termagant of Spain_ (1892).



FARNHAM, a market town in the Guildford parliamentary division of
Surrey, England, 37½ m. S.W. by W. from London by the London & South
Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 6124. It lies on the left
bank of the river Wey, on the southern slope of a hill rising about 700
ft. above the sea-level. The church of St Andrew is a spacious
transitional Norman and Early English building, with later additions,
and was formerly a chapel of ease to Waverley Abbey, of which a crypt
and fragmentary remains, of Early English date, stand in the park
attached to a modern residence of the same name. This was the earliest
Cistercian house in England, founded in 1128 by William Gifford, bishop
of Winchester. The _Annales Waverlienses_, published by Gale in his
_Scriptores_ and afterwards in the Record series of _Chronicles_, are
believed to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott the name of his first
novel. Farnham Castle, on a hill north of the town, the seat of the
bishops of Winchester, was first built by Henry de Blois, bishop of
Winchester, and brother of King Stephen; but it was razed by Henry III.
It was rebuilt and garrisoned for Charles I. by Denham, from whom it was
taken in 1642 by Sir W. Waller; and having been dismantled, it was
restored by George Morley, bishop of Winchester (1662-1684). Farnham has
a town hall and exchange in Italian style (1866), a grammar school of
early foundation, and a school of science and art. It was formerly noted
for its cloth manufacture. Hops of fine quality are grown in the
vicinity. William Cobbett was born in the parish (1766), and is buried
in the churchyard of St Andrew's. The neighbouring mansion of Moor Park
was the residence of Sir William Temple (d. 1699), and Swift worked here
as his secretary. Hester Johnson, Swift's "Stella," was the daughter of
Temple's steward, whose cottage still stands. The town has grown in
favour as a residential centre from the proximity of Aldershot Camp (3
m. N.E.).

Though there is evidence of an early settlement in the neighbourhood,
the town of Farnham (Ferneham) seems to have grown up round the castle
of the bishops of Winchester, who possessed the manor at the Domesday
Survey. Its position at the junction of the Pilgrim's Way and the road
from Southampton to London was important. In 1205 Farnham had bailiffs,
and in 1207 it was definitely a mesne borough under the bishops of
Winchester. In 1247 the bishop granted the first charter, giving, among
other privileges, a fair on All Saints' Day. The burgesses surrendered
the proceeds of the borough court and other rights in 1365 in return for
respite of the fee farm rent; these were recovered in 1405 and rent
again paid. Bishop Waynflete is said to have confirmed the original
charter in 1452, and in 1566 Bishop Horne granted a new charter by
which the burgesses elected 2 bailiffs and 12 burgesses annually and did
service at their own courts every three weeks, the court leet being held
twice a year. In resisting an attack made by the bishop in 1660 on their
right of toll, the burgesses could only claim Farnham as a borough by
prescription as their charters had been mislaid, but the charters were
subsequently found, and after some litigation their rights were
established. In the 18th century the corporation, a close body,
declined, its duties being performed by the vestry, and in 1789 the one
survivor resigned and handed over the town papers to the bishop. Farnham
sent representatives to parliament in 1311 and 1460, on both occasions
being practically the bishop's pocket borough. In accordance with the
grant of 1247 a fair was held on All Saints' day and also on Holy
Thursday; the former was afterwards held on All Souls' Day. Farnham was
early a market of importance, and in 1216 a royal grant changed the
market day from Sunday to Thursday in each week. It was famous in the
early 17th century for wheat and oats; hop-growing began in 1597.



FARNWORTH, an urban district in the Radcliffe-cum-Farnworth
parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the Irwell, 3 m. S.E.
of Bolton by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901) 25,925.
Cotton mills, iron foundries, brick and tile works, and collieries
employ the large industrial population.



FARO, the capital of a district bearing the same name, in southern
Portugal; at the terminus of the Lisbon-Faro railway, and on the
Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1900) 11,789. Faro is an episcopal see, with a
Renaissance cathedral of great size, an ecclesiastical seminary, and a
ruined castle surrounded by Moorish fortifications. Its broad but
shallow harbour is protected on the south by the long island of Cães,
and a number of sandy islets, which, being constantly enlarged by silt
from the small river Fermoso, render the entrance of large vessels
impossible. Fishing is an important industry, and fish, with wine,
fruit, cork, baskets and sumach, are the principal articles of export.
Little has been done to develop the mineral resources of the district,
which include tin, lead, antimony and auriferous quartz. Faro was taken
from the Moors by Alphonso III. of Portugal (1248-1279). It was sacked
by the English in 1596, and nearly destroyed by an earthquake in 1755.

The administrative district of Faro coincides with the ancient kingdom
and province of Algarve (q.v.); pop. (1900) 255,191; area, 1937 sq. m.



FARO (from _Pharaoh_, a picture of the Egyptian king appearing on a card
of the old French pack), a game of cards, played with a full pack.
Originally the pack was held in the dealer's left hand, but nowadays
very elaborate and expensive implements are used. The dealer places the
pack, after shuffling and cutting, in a dealing-box face upwards, and
the cards are taken from the top of the box in couples through a slit in
the side. The exposed card on top is called _soda_, and the last card
left in the box is _in hoc_. The implements include counters of various
colours and values, a dealing-box, a case or frame manipulated by a
"case-keeper," upon which the cards already played are arranged in
sight, a shuffling-board, and score-sheets for the players. Upon the
table is the "lay-out," a complete suit of spades, enamelled on green
cloth, upon or near which to place the stakes. The dealer takes two
cards from the box, placing the first one near it and the second close
beside it. Each deal of two cards is called a _turn_, and there are
twenty-five such, _soda_ and _hoc_ not counting. The players stake upon
any card they please, or in such manner as to take in several cards,
reducing the amount, but increasing the chances, of winning, as at
roulette. The dealer, having waved the hand, after which no more bets
may be made, deals the turn, and then proceeds to gather in the stakes
won by him, and to pay those he has lost. The chances as between dealer
and punters, or players, are equal, except that the banker wins half the
money staked on the cards of a turn should they chance to be alike. Faro
is played considerably in parts of the United States, whither it is said
to have been taken from France, where it had a great vogue during the
reign of Louis XIV. Owing to the dishonest methods of many gambling
"clubs" the game is in disrepute.



FARQUHAR, GEORGE (1677-1707), British dramatist, son of William
Farquhar, a clergyman, was born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1677. When
he was seventeen he was entered as a sizar at Trinity College, Dublin,
under the patronage of Dr Wiseman, bishop of Dromore. He did not long
continue his studies, being, according to one account, expelled for a
profane joke. Thomas Wilkes, however, states that the abrupt termination
of his studies was due to the death of his patron. He became an actor on
the Dublin stage, but in a fencing scene in Dryden's _Indian Emperor_ he
forgot to exchange his sword for a foil, with results which narrowly
escaped being fatal to a fellow-actor. After this accident he never
appeared on the boards. He had met Robert Wilks, the famous comedian, in
Dublin. Though he did not, as generally stated, go to London with Wilks,
it was at his suggestion that he wrote his first play, _Love and a
Bottle_, which was performed at Drury Lane, perhaps through Wilks's
interest, in 1698. He received from the earl of Orrery a lieutenancy in
his regiment, then in Ireland, but in two letters of his dated from
Holland in 1700 he says nothing of military service. His second comedy,
_The Constant Couple: or a Trip to the Jubilee_ (1699), ridiculing the
preparations for the pilgrimage to Rome in the Jubilee year, met with an
enthusiastic reception. Wilks as Sir Harry Wildair contributed
substantially to its success. In 1701 Farquhar wrote a sequel, _Sir
Harry Wildair_. Leigh Hunt says that Mrs Oldfield, like Wilks, played
admirably well in it, but the original Lady Lurewell was Mrs Verbruggen.
Mrs Oldfield is said to have been the "Penelope" of Farquhar's letters.
In 1702 Farquhar published a slight volume of miscellanies--_Love and
Business; in a Collection of Occasionary Verse and Epistolary
Prose_--containing, among other things, "A Discourse on Comedy in
reference to the English Stage," in which he defends the English neglect
of the dramatic unities. "The rules of English comedy," he says, "don't
lie in the compass of Aristotle or his followers, but in the pit, box
and galleries." In 1702 he borrowed from Fletcher's _Wild Goose Chase_,
_The Inconstant, or the Way to win Him_, in which he followed his
original fairly closely except in the last act. In 1703 he married, in
the expectation of a fortune, but found too late that he was deceived.
It is said that he never reproached his wife, although the marriage
increased his liabilities and the rest of his life was a constant
struggle against poverty. His other plays are: _The Stage Coach_ (1704),
a one-act farce adapted from the French of Jean de la Chapelle in
conjunction with Peter Motteux; _The Twin Rivals_ (Drury Lane, 1702);
_The Recruiting Officer_ (Drury Lane, 1706); and _The Beaux' Stratagem_
(Haymarket, 1707). _The Recruiting Officer_ was suggested to him by a
recruiting expedition (1705) in Shropshire, and is dedicated to his
"friends round the Wrekin." _The Beaux' Stratagem_, is the best o£ all
his plays, and long kept the stage. Genest notes nineteen revivals up to
1828. Two embarrassed gentlemen travel in the country disguised as
master and servant in the hope of mending their fortune. The play gives
vivid pictures of the Lichfield inn with its rascally landlord, and of
the domestic affairs of the Sullens. Archer, the supposed valet, whose
adventurous spirit secures full play, was one of Garrick's best parts.

Meanwhile one of his patrons, said to have been the duke of Ormond, had
advised Farquhar to sell out of his regiment, and had promised to give
him a captaincy in his own. Farquhar sold his commission, but the duke's
promise remained unfulfilled. Before he had finished the second act of
_The Beaux' Stratagem_ he knew that he was stricken with a mortal
illness, but it was necessary to persevere and to be "consumedly lively
to the end." He had received in advance £30 for the copyright from
Lintot the bookseller. The play was staged on the 8th of March, and
Farquhar lived to have his third night, and there was an extra benefit
on the 29th of April, the day of his death. He left his two children to
the care of his friend Wilks. Wilks obtained a benefit at the theatre
for the dramatist's widow, but he seems to have done little for the
daughters. They were apprenticed to a mantua-maker, and one of them was,
as late as 1764, in receipt of a pension of £20 solicited for her by
Edmund Chaloner, a patron of Farquhar. She was then described as a
maidservant and possessed of sentiments "fitted to her humble
situation."

The plots of Farquhar's comedies are ingenious in conception and
skilfully conducted. He has no pretensions to the brilliance of
Congreve, but his amusing dialogue arises naturally out of the
situation, and its wit is never strained. Sergeant Kite in the
_Recruiting Officer_, Scrub, Archer and Boniface in _The Beaux'
Stratagem_ are distinct, original characters which had a great success
on the boards, and the unexpected incidents and adventures in which they
are mixed up are represented in an irresistibly comic manner by a man
who thoroughly understood the resources of the stage. The spontaneity
and verve with which his adventurous heroes are drawn have suggested
that in his favourite type he was describing himself. His own
disposition seems to have been most lovable, and he was apparently a
much gayer person than the reader might be led to suppose from the
"Portrait of Himself" quoted by Leigh Hunt. The code of morals followed
by these characters is open to criticism, but they are human and genial
in their roguery, and compare far from unfavourably with the cynical
creations of contemporary drama. The advance which he made on his
immediate predecessors in dramatic construction and in general moral
tone is more striking when it is remembered that he died before he was
thirty.

  Farquhar's dramatic works were published in 1728, 1742 and 1772, and
  by Thomas Wilkes with a biography in 1775. They were included in the
  _Dramatic Works of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar_ (1849),
  with biographical and critical notices, by Leigh Hunt. See also _The
  Dramatic Works of George Farquhar, with Life and Notes_, by A.C. Ewald
  (2 vols., 1892); _The Best Plays of George Farquhar_ (Mermaid series,
  1906), with biographical and critical introductions, by William
  Archer; _The Beaux' Stratagem_, edited (1898) by H. Macaulay
  Fitzgibbon for "The Temple Dramatists"; and D. Schmid, "George
  Farquhar, sein Leben und seine Original-Dramen" (1904) in _Wiener
  Beiträge zur engl. Philol._



FARR, WILLIAM (1807-1883), English statistician, was born at Kenley, in
Shropshire, on the 30th of November 1807. When nineteen he became the
pupil of a doctor in Shrewsbury, also acting as dresser in the infirmary
there. He then went to Paris to study medicine, but after two years
returned to London, where, in 1832, he qualified as L.S.A. Next year he
began to practise, but without very brilliant results, for five years
later he definitely abandoned the exercise of his profession on
accepting the post of compiler of abstracts in the registrar-general's
office. The commissioners for the 1841 census consulted him on several
points, but did not in every case follow his advice. For the next two
decennial censuses he acted as assistant-commissioner; for that of 1871
he was a commissioner, and he wrote the greater part of the reports of
all. He had an ambition to become registrar-general; and when that post
became vacant in 1879, he was so disappointed at the selection of Sir
Brydges Henniker instead of himself, that he refused to stay any longer
in the registrar's office. He died of paralysis of the brain a year or
two later, on the 14th of April 1883. A great part of Farr's literary
production is to be found in the papers which, from 1839 to 1880, he
wrote for each annual report of the registrar-general on the cause of
the year's deaths in England. He was also the author of many papers on
general statistics and on life-tables for insurance, some read before
the Royal Statistical Society, of which he was president in 1871 and
1872, some contributed to the _Lancet_ and other periodicals. A
selection from his statistical writings was published in 1885 under the
editorship of Mr Noël Humphreys.



FARRAGUT, DAVID GLASGOW (1801-1870), first admiral of the United States
navy, was the son of Major George Farragut, a Catalan by descent, a
Minorquin by birth, who had emigrated to America in 1776, and, after the
peace, had married a lady of Scottish family and settled near Knoxville,
in Tennessee; there Farragut was born on the 5th of July 1801. At the
early age of nine he entered the navy, under the protection of his
name-father, Captain David Porter, with whom he served in the "Essex"
during her cruise in the Atlantic in 1812, and afterwards in the
Pacific, until her capture by the "Phoebe," in Valparaiso Bay, on the
28th of March 1814. He afterwards served on board the "Washington" (74)
carrying the broad pennant of Commodore Chauncey in the Mediterranean,
and pursued his professional and other studies under the instruction of
the chaplain, Charles Folsom, with whom he contracted a lifelong
friendship. Folsom was appointed from the "Washington" as U.S. consul at
Tunis, and obtained leave for his pupil to pay him a lengthened visit,
during which he studied not only mathematics, but also French and
Italian, and acquired a familiar knowledge of Arabic and Turkish. He is
said to have had a great natural aptitude for languages and in after
years to have spoken several fluently.

After more than four years in the Mediterranean, Farragut returned to
the States in November 1820. He then passed his examination, and in 1822
was appointed for service in what was called the "mosquito" fleet,
against the pirates, who then infested the Caribbean Sea. The service
was one of great exposure and privation; for two years and a half,
Farragut wrote, he never owned a bed, but lay down to rest wherever he
found the most comfortable berth. By the end of that time the joint
action of the British and American navies had driven the pirates off the
sea, and when they took to marauding on shore the Spanish governors did
the rest. In 1825 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, whilst
serving in the navy yard at Norfolk, where, with some breaks in
sea-going ships, he continued till 1832; he then served for a commission
on the coast of Brazil, and was again appointed to the yard at Norfolk.

It is needless to trace the ordinary routine of his service step by
step. The officers of the U.S. navy have one great advantage which
British officers are without; when on shore they are not necessarily
parted from the service, but are employed in their several ranks in the
different dockyards, escaping thus not only the private grievance and
pecuniary difficulties of a very narrow half-pay, but also, what from a
public point of view is much more important, the loss of professional
aptitude, and of that skill which comes from unceasing practice. On the
8th of September 1841 Farragut was promoted to the rank of commander,
and on the 14th of September 1855 to that of captain. At this time he
was in charge of the navy yard, Mare Island, California, from which post
he was recalled in 1858, and appointed to the "Brooklyn" frigate, the
command of which he held for the next two years. When the war of
secession broke out in 1861, he was "waiting orders" at Norfolk. By
birth and marriage he was a Southerner, and the citizens of Norfolk
counted on his throwing in his lot with them; but professional pride,
and affection for the flag under which he had served for more than fifty
years, held him true to his allegiance; he passionately rejected the
proposals of his fellow-townsmen, and as it was more than hinted to him
that his longer stay in Norfolk might be dangerous, he hastily quitted
that place, and offered his services to the government at Washington.
These were at once accepted; he was requested to sit on the Naval
Retiring Board--a board then specially constituted for clearing the navy
of unfit or disloyal officers--and a few months later was appointed to
the command of the "Western Gulf Blockading Squadron," with the rank of
flag-officer, and ordered to proceed forthwith, in the "Hartford," to
the Gulf of Mexico, to collect such vessels as could be spared from the
blockade, to proceed up the Mississippi, to reduce the defences which
guarded the approaches to New Orleans, and to take and hold the city.
All this Farragut executed to the letter, with a skill and caution that
won for him the love of his followers, and with a dash and boldness that
gained him the admiration of the public and the popular name of "Old
Salamander." The passage of the Mississippi was forced on the 24th of
April 1862, and New Orleans surrendered on the 26th; this was
immediately followed by the operations against Vicksburg, from which,
however, Farragut was compelled to withdraw, having relearnt the old
lesson that against heavy earthworks, crowning hills of sufficient
height, a purely naval attack is unavailing; it was not till the
following summer, and after a long siege, that Vicksburg surrendered to
a land force under General Grant. During this time the service on the
Mississippi continued both difficult and irksome; nor until the river
was cleared could Farragut seriously plan operations against Mobile, a
port to which the fall of New Orleans had given increased importance.
Even then he was long delayed by the want of monitors with which to
oppose the ironclad vessels of the enemy. It was the end of July 1864
before he was joined by these monitors; and on the 5th of August,
undismayed by the loss of his leading ship, the monitor "Tecumseh," sunk
by a torpedo, he forced the passage into the bay, destroyed or captured
the enemy's ships, including the ram "Tennessee" bearing Admiral
Buchanan's flag, and took possession of the forts. The town was not
occupied till the following April, but with the loss of its harbour it
ceased to have any political or strategical importance.

With this Farragut's active service came to an end; for though in
September 1864 he was offered the command of the force intended for the
reduction of Wilmington, the state of his health, after the labours and
anxieties of the past three years, in a trying climate, compelled him to
decline it and to ask to be recalled. He accordingly returned to New
York in December, and was received with the wildest display of popular
enthusiasm. It was then that the Government instituted the rank of
vice-admiral, previously unknown in the American service. Farragut was
promoted to it, and in July 1866 was further promoted to the rank of
admiral. In 1867, with his flag flying in the "Franklin," he visited
Europe. The appointment was an honourable distinction without political
or naval import: the "Franklin" was, to all intents, for the time being,
a yacht at Farragut's disposal; and her arrival in the different ports
was the signal for international courtesies, entertainments and social
gaiety. She returned to America in 1868, and Farragut retired into
private life. Two years later, on the 14th of August 1870, he died at
Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

  Farragut was twice married, and left, by his second wife, a son,
  Loyall Farragut, who, in 1878, published a _Life_ of his father
  "embodying his Journal and Letters." Another _Life_ (1892), by Captain
  A.T. Mahan, though shorter, has a greater value from the professional
  point of view, by reason of the critical appreciation of Farragut's
  services.     (J. K. L.)



FARRANT, RICHARD, composer of English church music, flourished during
the 16th century. Very little is known about him. Fétis gives 1530 as
the date of his birth, but on what authority does not appear. He became
a gentleman of the Chapel Royal in the reign of Edward VI., but resigned
his post in 1564 on being appointed master of the children of St
George's chapel, Windsor. In this capacity he presented a play before
the queen at Shrovetide 1568, and again at Christmas of the same year,
receiving on each occasion the sum of £6: 13: 4d. In November 1569 he
was reinstated as gentleman of the Chapel Royal. It is stated by Hawkins
(_History of Music_, vol. iii. 279) that Farrant was also one of the
clerks and organists of St George's chapel, Windsor, and that he
retained these posts till his death. Many of his compositions are
printed in the collections of Barnard and Boyce. Among the most admired
of them are a service in G minor, and the anthems "Call to remembrance"
and "Hide not thou thy face." It is doubtful whether Farrant is entitled
to the credit of the authorship of the beautiful anthem "Lord, for thy
tender mercies' sake." No copy of the music under his name appeared in
print till 1800, although it had been earlier attributed to him. Some
writers have named John Hilton, and others Thomas Tallis, as the
composer. From entries in the _Old Check Book of the Chapel Royal_
(edited for the Camden Society by Dr Rimbault) it appears that Farrant
died, not in 1585, as Hawkins states, but on the 30th of November 1580
or 1581.



FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1831-1903), English divine, was born on the
7th of August 1831, in the Fort of Bombay, where his father, afterwards
vicar of Sidcup, Kent, was then a missionary. His early education was
received in King William's College, Castletown, Isle of Man, a school
whose external surroundings are reproduced in his popular schoolboy
tale, _Eric; or, Little by Little_. In 1847 he entered King's College,
London. Through the influence of F.D. Maurice he was led to the study of
Coleridge, whose writings had a profound influence upon his faith and
opinions. He proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1851,
and in the following year took the degree of B.A. at the university of
London. In 1854 he took his degree as fourth junior optime, and fourth
in the first class of the classical tripos. In addition to other college
prizes he gained the chancellor's medal for the English prize poem on
the search for Sir John Franklin in 1852, the Le Bas prize and the
Norrisian prize. He was elected fellow of Trinity College in 1856.

On leaving the university Farrar became an assistant-master under G.E.L.
Cotton at Marlborough College. In November 1855 he was appointed an
assistant-master at Harrow, where he remained for fifteen years. He was
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1864, university preacher in
1868, honorary chaplain to the queen in 1869 and Hulsean lecturer in
1870. In 1871 he was appointed headmaster of Marlborough College, and in
the following year he became chaplain-in-ordinary to the queen. In 1876
he was appointed canon of Westminster and rector of St Margaret's,
Westminster. He took his D.D. degree in 1874, the first under the new
regulations at Cambridge. Farrar began his literary labours with the
publication of his schoolboy story Eric in 1858, succeeded in the
following year by _Julian Home_ and _Lyrics of Life_, and in 1862 by _St
Winifred's; or the World of School_. He had already published a work on
_The Origin of Language_, and followed it up by a series of works on
grammar and scholastic philology, including _Chapters on Language_
(1865); _Greek Grammar Rules_ (1865); _Greek Syntax_ (1866); and
_Families of Speech_ (1869). He edited _Essays on a Liberal Education in
1868_; and published _Seekers after God_ in the Sunday Library (1869).
It was by his theological works, however, that Farrar attained his
greatest popularity. His Hulsean lectures were published in 1870 under
the title of _The Witness of History to Christ_. _The Life of Christ_,
which was published in 1874, speedily passed through a great number of
editions, and is still in much demand. It reveals considerable powers of
imagination and eloquence, and was partly inspired by a personal
knowledge of the sacred localities depicted. In 1877 appeared _In the
Days of My Youth_, sermons preached in the chapel of Marlborough
College; and during the same year his volume of sermons on _Eternal
Hope_--in which he called in question the dogma of everlasting
punishment--caused much controversy in religious circles and did much to
mollify the harsh theology of an earlier age. There is little doubt that
his boldness and liberality of thought barred his elevation to the
episcopate. In 1879 appeared _The Life and Works of St Paul_, and this
was succeeded in 1882 by _The Early Days of Christianity_. Then came in
order of publication the following works: _Everyday Christian Life; or,
Sermons by the Way_ (1887); _Lives of the Fathers_ (1888); _Sketches of
Church History_ (1889); _Darkness and Dawn_, a story of the Neronic
persecution (1891); _The Voice from Sinai_ (1892); _The Life of Christ
as Represented in Art_ (1894); a work on Daniel (1895); _Gathering
Clouds_, a tale of the days of Chrysostom (1896); and _The Bible, its
Meaning and Supremacy_ (1896). Farrar was a copious contributor of
articles to various magazines, encyclopaedias and theological
commentaries. In 1883 he was made archdeacon of Westminster and rural
dean; in 1885 he was appointed Bampton lecturer at Oxford, and took for
his subject "The History of Interpretation." He was appointed dean of
Canterbury in 1895. From 1890 to 1895 he was chaplain to the speaker of
the House of Commons, and in 1894 he was appointed deputy-clerk of the
closet to Queen Victoria. He died at Canterbury on the 22nd of March
1903.

As a theologian Farrar occupied a position midway between the
Evangelical party and the Broad Church; while as a somewhat rhetorical
preacher and writer he exerted a commanding influence over wide circles
of readers. He was an ardent temperance and social reformer, and was one
of the founders of the institution known as the Anglican Brotherhood, a
religious band with modern aims and objects.

  See his _Life_, by his son R. Farrar (1904).



FARREN, ELIZABETH (c. 1759-1829), English actress, was the daughter of
George Farren, an actor. Her first London appearance was in 1777 as Miss
Hardcastle in _She Stoops to Conquer_. Subsequent successes established
her reputation and she became the natural successor to Mrs Abington
when the latter left Drury Lane in 1782. The parts of Hermione, Olivia,
Portia and Juliet were in her repertory, but her Lady Betty Modish, Lady
Townly, Lady Fanciful, Lady Teazle and similar parts were her
favourites. In 1797 she married Edward, 12th earl of Derby (1752-1834).



FARREN, WILLIAM (1786-1861), English actor, was born on the 13th of May
1786, the son of an actor (b. 1725) of the same name, who played leading
rôles from 1784 to 1795 at Covent Garden. His first appearance on the
stage was at Plymouth at the Theatre Royal, then under the management of
his brother, in _Love à la mode_. His first London appearance was in
1818 at Covent Garden as Sir Peter Teazle, a part with which his name is
always associated. He played at Covent Garden every winter until 1828,
and began in 1824 a series of summer engagements at the Haymarket which
also lasted some years. At these two theatres he played an immense
variety of comedy characters. From 1828 until 1837 he was at Drury Lane,
where he essayed a wider range, including Polonius and Caesar. He was
again at Covent Garden for a few years, and next joined Benjamin Webster
at the Haymarket, as stage-manager as well as actor. In 1843 at the
close of his performance of the title-part in Mark Lemon's _Old Parr_,
he was stricken with paralysis on the stage. He was, however, able to
reappear the following year, and he remained at the Haymarket ten years
more, though his acting never again reached its former level. For a time
he managed the Strand, and, 1850-1853, was lessee of the Olympic. During
his later years he confined himself to old men parts, in which he was
unrivalled. In 1855 he made his final appearance at the Haymarket, as
Lord Ogleby in a scene from the _Clandestine Marriage_. He died in
London on the 24th of September 1861. In 1825 he had married the actress
Mrs Faucit, mother of Miss Helena Saville Faucit (Lady Martin), and he
left two sons, Henry (1826-1860) and William (1825-1908), both actors.
The former was the father of Ellen [Nellie] Farren (1848-1904), long
famous for boy's parts in Gaiety musical burlesques, in the days of
Edward Terry and Fred Leslie. As Jack Sheppard, and in similar rôles,
she had a unique position at the Gaiety, and was an unrivalled public
favourite. From 1892 her health failed, and her retirement, coupled with
Fred Leslie's death, brought to an end the type of Gaiety burlesque
associated with them.



FARRER, THOMAS HENRY FARRER, 1ST BARON (1819-1899), English civil
servant and statistician, was the son of Thomas Farrer, a solicitor in
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Born in London on the 24th of June 1819, he was
educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated in
1840. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1844, but retired
from practice in the course of a few years. He entered the public
service in 1850 as secretary to the naval (renamed in 1853 the marine)
department of the Board of Trade. In 1865 he was promoted to be one of
the joint secretaries of the Board of Trade, and in 1867 became
permanent secretary. His tenure of this office, which he held for
upwards of twenty years, was marked by many reforms and an energetic
administration. Not only was he an advanced Liberal in politics, but an
uncompromising Free-trader of the strictest school. He was created a
baronet for his services at the Board of Trade in 1883, and in 1886 he
retired from office. During the same year he published a work entitled
_Free Trade versus Fair Trade_, in which he dealt with an economic
controversy then greatly agitating the public mind. He had already, in
1883, written a volume on _The State in its Relation to Trade_. In 1889
he was co-opted by the Progressives an alderman of the London County
Council, of which he became vice-chairman in 1890. His efficiency and
ability in this capacity were warmly recognized; but in the course of
time divergencies arose between his personal views and those of many of
his colleagues. The tendency towards socialistic legislation which
became apparent was quite at variance with his principles of individual
enterprise and responsibility. He consequently resigned his position. In
1893 he was raised to the peerage. From this time forward he devoted
much of his energy and leisure to advocating his views at the Cobden
Club, the Political Economy Club, on the platform, and in the public
press. Especially were his efforts directed against the opinions of the
Fair Trade League, and upon this and other controversies on economic
questions he wrote able, clear, and uncompromising letters, which left
no doubt that he still adhered to the doctrines of free trade as
advocated by its earliest exponents. In 1898 he published his _Studies
in Currency_. He died at Abinger Hall, Dorking, on the 11th of October
1899. He was succeeded in the title by his eldest son Thomas Cecil (b.
1859).



FARRIER, and FARRIERY (from Lat. _ferrarius_, a blacksmith, _ferrum_,
iron). Farrier is the name given generally either to the professional
shoer of horses or in a more extended sense to a practitioner of the
veterinary art; and farriery is the term for his business. Primarily the
art of farriery is identical with that of the blacksmith, in so far as
he makes and fixes shoes on horses (see HORSE-SHOES); he is liable in
law for negligence, as one who holds himself out as skilled; and he has
a lien on the animal for his expenses. William the Conqueror is supposed
to have introduced horse-shoeing into England, and the art had an
important place through the middle ages, the days of chivalry, and the
later developments of equitation. In modern times it has been closely
allied with the general progress in veterinary science, and in the
knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the horse's foot and hoof.

  See Fisher, _The Farrier_ (1893); Lungwitz, _Text-Book of
  Horse-shoeing_ (Eng. trans., 1898).



FARS (the name _Farsistan_ is not used), one of the five _mamlikats_
(great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the
Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by
Isfahan and on the east by Kerman. It lies between 49° 30' and 56° 10'
E. and 26° 20' and 31° 45' N. and has an area of nearly 60,000 sq. m.
Fars is the same word as the Greek _Persis_, and, originally the name of
only a part of the Persian empire (Iran), has become the name which
Europeans have applied to the whole (see PERSIS). The province is
popularly, but not for administrative purposes, divided according to
climate into _germsir_ and _sardsir_, or the warm and cold regions. The
former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains
all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter
rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft. and the _sardsir_
comprises the remaining and northern districts of the province.

In Arrian's relation of the voyage of Nearchus (_Indica_, 40), these two
regions are well described. "The first part of Persis which lies along
the Persian Gulf is hot, sandy and barren and only the date palm thrives
there. The other part comprehends inner Persis lying northwards; it
enjoys a pleasant climate and has fertile and well-watered plains,
gardens with trees of all kinds, rich pasturages and forests abounding
with game; with the exception of the olive all fruits are produced in
profusion, particularly the vine. Horses and other draught animals are
reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by
water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance
the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes."

The mountains of Fars may be considered as a continuation of the Zagros
and run parallel to the shores of the Persian Gulf. They comprise
several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to
cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport
very difficult. The highest of the mountains of Fars (14,000 ft.) is the
Kuh Dina in the north-western part of the province. Of the rivers of
Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's
Sitakos), Karaaghach in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river
(Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis). Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros,
Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into
inland depressions or lakes.

The capital of the province is Shiraz, and the subdivision in districts,
the chief places of the districts and their estimated population, and
the number of inhabited villages in each as they appear in lists dated
1884 and 1905 are shown on the following page.

  +---+-----------------------+-------------------------+-----------+
  |   |                       | Chief Place or Seat of  | Number of |
  |   |                       |       Government.       | inhabited |
  |   |   Name of District.   +---------------+---------+  Villages |
  |   |                       |     Name.     | Popula- |    in     |
  |   |                       |               |  tion.  | District. |
  +---+-----------------------+---------------+---------+-----------+
  | 1 | Abadeh Iklid          | Abadeh        |  4,000  |    33     |
  | 2 | Abadeh-Tashk          | Tashk         |    600  |     8     |
  | 3 | Abarj                 | Dashtek       |  2,000  |     6     |
  | 4 | Abbasi                |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Bander Abbasi[1] |               |         |           |
  |   |       and villages    | Bander Abbasi | 10,000  |    14     |
  |   |  (2) Issin and Tazian | Issin         |         |     6     |
  |   |  (3) Shamil           | Shamil        |  1,000  |    18     |
  |   |  (4) Moghistan        | Ziarat        |         |    10     |
  |   |  (5) Minab            | Minab         |  4,000  |    23     |
  | 5 | Afzar                 | Ni-mdeh       |         |    12     |
  | 6 | 'Alemrud              | Sabzpushan    |  1,000  |    16     |
  | 7 | Arb'ah (the four)     |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Deh Rud          |               |         |           |
  |   |  (2) Deh Ram          | Deh Ram       |  1,500  |    19     |
  |   |  (3) Hengam           |               |         |           |
  |   |  (4) Rudbal           |               |         |           |
  | 8 | Ardakan               | Ardakan       |  5,000  |    10     |
  | 9 | Arsinjan              | Arsinjan      |  5,000  |    25     |
  |10 | Asir                  | Asir          |    500  |    10     |
  |11 | Baiza                 | Baiza         |  2,000  |    55     |
  |12 | Bi-dshahr and Juvi-m  | Bidshahr      |  3,000  |    23     |
  |13 | Bovanat               | Surian        |    500  |    23     |
  |14 | Darab                 | Darab         |  5,000  |    62     |
  |15 | Dashti                |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Bardistan        | Bander Dair   |  1,000  |    28     |
  |   |  (2) Buluk            | Bushgan       |         |    18     |
  |   |  (3) Mandistan        | Kaki          |  1,500  |    40     |
  |   |  (4) Tassuj           | Tang Bagh     |    500  |    11     |
  |   |  (5) Shumbeh          | Shumbeh       |         |    15     |
  |16 | Dashtistan            |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Angali           | Haftjush      |         |    10     |
  |   |  (2) Ahrom            | Ahrom         |  1,500  |     5     |
  |   |  (3) Borazjan         | Borazjan      |  4,000  |    19     |
  |   |  (4) Bushire[1]       | Bushire       | 25,000  |    20     |
  |   |  (5) Daliki           | Daliki        |  1,500  |     7     |
  |   |  (6) Gonavah          | Gonavah       |  1,000  |    12     |
  |   |  (7) Hayat Daud       | Bander Rig    |  1,000  |     6     |
  |   |  (8) Khurmuj          | Khurmuj       |  1,000  |     5     |
  |   |  (9) Rud Hillah       | Kelat Sukhteh |         |    10     |
  |   |  (10) Shaban Kareh    | Deh Kohneh    |         |    27     |
  |   |  (11) Tangistan       | Tangistan     |  1,000  |    31     |
  |   |  (12) Zengeneh        | Samal         |    750  |     4     |
  |   |  (13) Zirah           | Zirah         |         |     6     |
  |17 | Dizkurd               | Cherkes       |    500  |     6     |
  |18 | Famur                 | Pagah         |    300  |     3     |
  |19 | Ferrashband           | Ferrashband   |  1,000  |    14     |
  |20 | Fessa                 | Fessa         |  5,000  |    40     |
  |21 | Firuzabad             | Firuzabad     |  4,000  |    20     |
  |22 | Gillehdar             | Gillehdar     |  1,000  |    43     |
  |23 | Humeh of Shiraz       | Zerkan        |  1,000  |    89     |
  |24 | Istahbanat            | Istahbanat    | 10,000  |    12     |
  |25 | Jahrum                | Jahrum        | 10,000  |    33     |
  |26 | Jireh                 | Ishfayikan    |         |    23     |
  |27 | Kamfiruz              | Palangeri     |         |    34     |
  |28 | Kamin                 | Kalilek       |         |    11     |
  |29 | Kazerun               | Kazerun       |  8,000  |    46     |
  |30 | Kavar                 | Kavar         |         |    26     |
  |31 | Kir and Karzin        | Kir           |  1,000  |    23     |
  |32 | Khafr                 | Khafr         |  1,000  |    41     |
  |33 | Khajeh                | Zanjiran      |    500  |    15     |
  |34 | Khisht                | Khisht        |  2,500  |    25     |
  |35 | Khunj                 | Khunj         |  1,500  |    27     |
  |36 | Kongan                | Bander Kongan |         |    12     |
  |37 | Kuh Gilu and Behbahan | Behbahan      | 10,000  |   182     |
  |38 | Kurbal                | Gavkan        |    600  |    67     |
  |39 | Kuh i Marreh Shikeft  | Shikeft       |         |    41     |
  |40 | Kunkuri               | Kazian        |         |    29     |
  |41 | Laristan              |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Lar              | Lar           |  8,000  |    34     |
  |   |  (2) Bikhah Ihsham    | Bairam        |         |    11     |
  |   |  (3) Bikhah Fal       | Ishkenan      |         |    10     |
  |   |  (4) Jehangiriyeh     | Bastak        |  4,000  |    30     |
  |   |  (5) Shib Kuh         | Bander Charak |         |    36     |
  |   |  (6) Fumistan or      |               |         |           |
  |   |        Gavbandi       | Gavbandi      |         |    13     |
  |   |  (7) Kauristan        | Kauristan     |         |     4     |
  |   |  (8) Lingah[1]        | Bander Lingah | 10,000  |    11     |
  |   |  (9) Mazayijan        | Mazayijan     |         |     6     |
  |42 | Mahur Milati          | Jemalgird     |         |     5     |
  |43 | Maimand               | Maimand       |  5,000  |    14     |
  |44 | Maliki                | Bander Assalu |  1,000  |    25     |
  |45 | Mamasenni (Shulistan) |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Bekesh         \ |               |         |     8     |
  |   |  (2) Javidi or Javi | |               |         |     6     |
  |   |  (3) Dushmanziaris  | |               |         |    16     |
  |   |  (4) Rustami         >| Kal'ah Safid  |         |    26     |
  |   |  (5) Fahlian        | |               |         |     7     |
  |   |  (6) Kakan          / |               |         |     5     |
  |46 | Mayin                 | Mayin         |         |     8     |
  |47 | Mervast and Herat     | Mervast       |         |    14     |
  |48 | Mervdasht             |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Upper Khafrek  \ |               |         |    14     |
  |   |  (2) Lower Khafrek   >| Fathabad      |  1,250  |    16     |
  |   |  (3) Mervdasht      / |               |         |    22     |
  |49 | Meshhed Mader Suliman | Murghab       |    800  |     6     |
  |50 | Niriz                 | Niriz         |  9,000  |    24     |
  |51 | Ramjird               | Jashian       |         |    36     |
  |52 | Rudan and Ahmedi      | Dehbariz      |         |    21     |
  |53 | Sab'ah (the seven)    |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Bivunj (Bi-vanej)| Durz          |         |    14     |
  |   |  (2) Hasanabad        | Hasanabad     |         |     7     |
  |   |  (3) Tarom            | Tarun         |  2,000  |    15     |
  |   |  (4) Faraghan         | Faraghan      |  1,500  |    13     |
  |   |  (5) Forg             | Forg          |  3,000  |    18     |
  |   |  (6) Fin and Guhrah   | Fin           |         |    13     |
  |   |  (7) Gileh Gah (aban- |               |         |           |
  |   |     doned) Ziaret     | Ziaret        |  1,000  |    11     |
  |54 | Sarchahan             |               |         |           |
  |55 | Sarhad Chahar Dungeh  | \             |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Dasht Ujan       | |             |         |           |
  |   |  (2) Dasht Khosro va  | |             |         |           |
  |   |       Shirin          |  > Kushk Zard |         |    31     |
  |   |  (3) Dasht Khungasht  | |             |         |           |
  |   |  (4) Dasht Kushk Zard | /             |         |           |
  |56 | Sarhad Shesh Nahiyeh  |               |         |           |
  |   |  (1) Padina (foot of  |               |         |           |
  |   |       Mount Dina      | Khur       \  |         |           |
  |   |  (2) Henna            | Henna      |  |         |           |
  |   |  (3) Samiram          | Samiram    |  |         |           |
  |   |  (4) Felard           | Felard      > |         |    24     |
  |   |  (5) Vardasht         | Germabad   |  |         |           |
  |   |  (6) Vank             | Vank       /  |         |           |
  |57 | Sarvistan             | Sarvistan     |  4,500  |    23     |
  |58 | Shiraz (town) in 1884 |               |53,607[2]|           |
  |59 | Siyakh                | Darinjan      |         |    13     |
  |60 | Simkan                | Duzeh         |         |    28     |
  +---+-----------------------+---------------+---------+-----------+

The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen sub-provinces under
governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of
Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their
immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the
"Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor
appointed from Teheran. The population of the province has been
estimated at 750,000 and the yearly revenue it pays to the state amounts
to about £150,000. Many districts are fertile, but some, particularly
those in the south-eastern part of the province, do not produce
sufficient grain for the requirements of the sparse population. In
consequence of droughts, ravages of locusts and misgovernment by local
governors the province has been much impoverished and hundreds of
villages are in ruins and deserted. About a third of the population is
composed of turbulent and lawless nomads who, when on the march between
their winter and summer camping grounds, frequently render the roads
insecure and occasionally plunder whole districts, leaving the
inhabitants without means of subsistence.

The province produces much wheat, barley, rice, millet, cotton, but the
authorities every now and then prohibiting the export of cereals, the
people generally sow just as much as they think will suffice for their
own wants. Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for
consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and
Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to
China, is produced. Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant. There are also
some oil wells at Daliki, near Bushire, but several attempts to tap the
oil have been unsuccessful. There are no valuable oyster-banks in
Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks
on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein.     (A. H.-S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Are forming separate administrative division of "Persian Gulf
    Ports."

  [2] Persian census in 1884; 25,284 males, 28,323 females.



FARTHING (A.S. _feórtha_, fourth, +_ing_, diminutive), the smallest
English coin, equal to the fourth of a penny. It became a regular part
of the coinage from the reign of Edward I., and was, up to the reign of
Mary, a silver coin. No farthing was struck in the reign of Elizabeth,
but a silver three-farthing piece was issued in that reign, with a
profile bust of the queen crowned, with a rose behind her head, and
inscribed "E.D.G. Rosa sine spina." The copper farthing was first
introduced in the reign of James I., a patent being given to Lord
Harington of Exton in 1613 for the issue of copper tokens of this
denomination. It was nominally of six grains' weight, but was usually
heavier. Properly, however, the copper farthing dates from the reign of
Charles II., in whose reign also was issued a tin farthing, with a small
copper plug in the centre, and an inscription on the edge, "Nummorum
famulus 1684." No farthings were actually issued in the reign of Queen
Anne, though a number of patterns were prepared (see NUMISMATICS:
_MEDIEVAL SECTION, ENGLAND_). In 1860 the copper farthing was superseded
by one struck in bronze. In 1842 a proclamation was issued giving
currency to half-farthings, and there were several issues, but they were
demonetized in 1869. In 1897 the practice was adopted of darkening
farthings before issue, to prevent their being mistaken for
half-sovereigns.



FARTHINGALE (from the O. Fr. _verdagalle_, or _vertugalle_, a corruption
of the Spanish name of the article, _verdagado_, from _verdago_, a rod
or stick), a case or hoop, originally of bent rods, but afterwards made
of whalebone, upon which were hung the voluminous skirts of a woman's
dress. The fashion was introduced into England from Spain in the 16th
century. In its most exaggerated shape, at the beginning of the 17th
century, the top of the farthingale formed a flat circular surface
projecting at right angles to the bodice (see COSTUME).



FARUKHABAD, FARRAKHABAD, or FURRUCKABAD, a city and district of
British India in the Agra division of the United Provinces. The city is
near the right bank of the Ganges, 87 m. by rail from Cawnpore. It forms
a joint municipality with Fatehgarh, the civil headquarters of the
district with a military cantonment. Pop. (1901) 67,338. At Fatehgarh is
the government gun-carriage factory; and other industries include
cotton-printing and the manufacture of gold lace, metal vessels and
tents.

The DISTRICT OF FARUKHABAD has an area of 1685 sq. m. It is a flat
alluvial plain in the middle Doab. The principal rivers are: the Ganges,
which has a course of 87 m. either bordering on or passing through the
district, but is not at all times navigable by large boats throughout
its entire course; the Kali-nadi (84 m.) and the Isan-nadi (42 m.), both
tributaries of the Ganges; and the Arind-nadi, which, after a course of
20 m. in the south of the district, passes into Cawnpore. The principal
products are rice, wheat, barley, millets, pulses, cotton, sugar-cane,
potatoes, &c. The grain crops, however, are insufficient for local
wants, and grain is largely imported from Oudh and Rohilkhand. The
district is, therefore, liable to famine, and it was severely visited by
this calamity six times during the 19th century--in 1803-1804,
1815-1816, 1825-1826, 1837-1838, 1868-1869 and 1899-1900. Farukhabad is
one of the healthiest districts in the Doab, but fevers are prevalent
during August and September. The average annual mean temperature is
almost 80° F.; the average annual rainfall, 29.4 in.

In the early part of the 18th century, when the Mogul empire was
breaking up, Mahommed Khan, a Bangash Afghan from a village near
Kaimganj, governor of Allahabad and later of Malwa, established a
considerable state of which the present district of Farukhabad was the
nucleus, founding the city of Farukhabad in 1714. After his death in
1743, his son and successor Kaim Khan was embroiled by Safdar Jang, the
nawab wazir of Oudh, with the Rohillas, in battle with whom he lost his
life in 1749. In 1750 his brother, Ahmad Khan, recovered the Farukhabad
territories; but Safdar Jang called in the Mahrattas, and a struggle for
the possession of the country began, which ended in 1771, on the death
of Ahmad Khan, by its becoming tributary to Oudh. In 1801 the nawab
wazir ceded to the British his lands in this district, with the tribute
due from the nawab of Farukhabad, who gave up his sovereign rights in
1802. In 1804 the Mahrattas, under Holkar, ravaged this tract, but were
utterly routed by Lord Lake at the town of Farukhabad. During the mutiny
Farukhabad shared the fate of other districts, and passed entirely out
of British hands for a time. The native troops, who had for some time
previously evinced a seditious spirit, finally broke into rebellion on
the 18th of June 1857, and placed the titular nawab of Farukhabad on the
throne. The English military residents took shelter in the fort, which
they held until the 4th of July, when, the fort being undermined, they
endeavoured to escape by the river. One boat succeeded in reaching
Cawnpore, but only to fall into the hands of Nana. Its occupants were
made prisoners, and perished in the massacre of the 10th of July. The
other boat was stopped on its progress down the river, and all those in
it were captured or killed, except four who escaped. The prisoners were
conveyed back to Fatehgarh, and murdered there by the nawab on the 19th
of July. The rebels were defeated in several engagements, and on the 3rd
of January 1858 the English troops recaptured Fatehgarh fort; but it was
not till May that order was thoroughly re-established. In 1901 the
population was 925,812, showing an increase of 8% in one decade. Part of
the district is watered by distributaries of the Ganges canal; it is
traversed throughout its length by the Agra-Cawnpore line of the
Rajputana railway, and is also served by a branch of the East Indian
system. Tobacco, opium, potatoes and fruit, cotton-prints, scent and
saltpetre are among the principal exports.



FASCES, in Roman antiquities, bundles of elm or birch rods from which
the head of an axe projected, fastened together by a red strap. Nothing
is known of their origin, the tradition that represents them as borrowed
by one of the kings from Etruria resting on insufficient grounds. As the
emblem of official authority, they were carried by the lictors, in the
left hand and on the left shoulder, before the higher Roman magistrates;
at the funeral of a deceased magistrate they were carried behind the
bier. The lictors and the fasces were so inseparably connected that they
came to be used as synonymous terms. The fasces originally represented
the power over life and limb possessed by the kings, and after the
abolition of the monarchy, the consuls, like the kings, were preceded by
twelve fasces. Within the precincts of the city the axe was removed, in
recognition of the right of appeal (_provocat-io_) to the people in a
matter of life and death; outside Rome, however, each consul retained
the axe, and was preceded by his own lictors, not merely by a single
_accensus_ (supernumerary), as was originally the case within the city
when he was not officiating. Later, the lictors preceded the officiating
consul, and walked behind the other. Valerius Publicola, the champion of
popular rights, further established the custom that the fasces should be
lowered before the people, as the real representatives of sovereignty
(Livy ii. 7; Florus i. 9; Plutarch, _Publicola_, 10); lowering the
fasces was also the manner in which an inferior saluted a superior
magistrate. A dictator, as taking the place of the two consuls, had 24
fasces (including the axe even within the city); most of the other
magistrates had fasces varying in number, with the exception of the
censors, who, as possessing no executive authority, had none. Fasces
were given to the Flamen Dialis and (after 42 B.C.) even to the Vestals.
During the times of the republic, a victorious general, who had been
saluted by the title of imperator by his soldiers, had his fasces
crowned with laurel (Cicero, _Pro Ligario_, 3). Later, under the empire,
when the emperor received the title for life on his accession, it became
restricted to him, and the laurel was regarded as distinctive of the
imperial fasces (see Mommsen, _Römisches Staatsrecht_, i., 1887, p.
373).



FASCIA (Latin for a bandage or fillet), a term used for many objects
which resemble a band in shape; thus in anatomy it is applied to the
layers of fibrous connective tissue which sheathe the muscles or cover
various parts or organs in the body, and in zoology, and particularly in
ornithology, to bands or stripes of colour. In architecture the word is
used of the bands into which the architrave of the Ionic and Corinthian
orders is subdivided; their origin would seem to have been derived from
the superimposing of two or more beams of timber to span the opening
between columns and to support a superincumbent weight; the upper beam
projected slightly in front of the lower, and similar projections were
continued in the stone or marble beam though in one block. In the Roman
Corinthian order the fasciae, still projecting one in front of the
other, were subdivided by small mouldings sometimes carved. The several
bands are known as the first or upper fascia, the second or middle
fascia and the third or lower fascia. The term is sometimes applied to
flat projecting bands in Renaissance architecture when employed as
string courses. It is also used, though more commonly in the form
"facia," of the band or plate over a shop-front, on which the name and
occupation of the tradesman is written.



FASCINATION (from Lat. _fascinare_, to bewitch, probably connected with
the Gr. [Greek: baskainein], to speak ill of, to bewitch), the art of
enchanting or bewitching, especially through the influence of the "evil
eye," and so properly of the exercise of an evil influence over the
reason or will. The word is thus used of the supposed paralysing
attraction exercised by some reptiles on their victims. It is also
applied to a particular hypnotic condition, marked by muscular
contraction, but with consciousness and power of remembrance left. In a
quite general sense, fascination means the exercise of any charm or
strong attraction.



FASCINE (from the Lat. _fascina_, _fascis_, a bundle of sticks), a large
faggot of brushwood used in the revetments of earthworks and for other
purposes of military engineering. The British service pattern of fascine
is 18 ft. long; it is tied as tightly as possible at short intervals,
and the usual diameter is 9 in. Similar bundles of wood formed part of
the foundations of the early lake-dwellings, and in modern engineering
fascines are used in making rough roads over marshy ground and in
building river and sea walls and breakwaters.



FASHION (adapted from Fr. _façon_, Lat. _factio_, making, _facere_, to
do or make), the action of making, hence the shape or form which
anything takes in the process of making. It is thus used in the sense of
the pattern, kind, sort, manner or mode in which a thing is done. It is
particularly used of the common or customary way in which a thing is
done, and so is applied to the manner or custom prevalent at or
characteristic of a particular period, especially of the manner of
dress, &c., current at a particular period in any rank of society, for
which the French term is _modes_ (see COSTUME).



FASHODA (renamed, 1904, KODOK), a post on the west bank of the Upper
Nile, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in 9° 53' N., 32° 8' E., 459 m. S., by
river, of Khartum. It is the headquarters of the mudiria (province) of
the Upper Nile. The station is built on a flat peninsula connected by a
narrow strip of land with a ridge which runs parallel with the river.
The surrounding country is mostly deep swamp and the station is most
unhealthy; mosquitoes are present in millions. The climate is always
damp and the temperature rarely below 98° in the shade. The government
offices are well-built brick structures. In front of the station is a
long low island, and when the Nile is at its lowest this channel becomes
dry. Several roads from Kordofan converge on the Nile at this point, and
near the station is the residence of the _mek_, or king, of the Shilluk
tribe, whose designation of the post was adopted when it was decided to
abandon the use of Fashoda. At Lul, 18 m. farther up stream, is an
Austrian Roman Catholic mission station.

An Egyptian military post was established at Fashoda in 1865. It was
then a trading station of some importance, slaves being the chief
commodity dealt in. In 1883-1884 the place fell into the hands of the
Mahdists. On the 10th of July 1898 it was occupied by a French force
from the Congo under Commandant J.B. Marchand, a circumstance which gave
rise to a state of great tension between Great Britain and France. On
the 11th of December following the French force withdrew, returning
home via Abyssinia (see AFRICA, § 5, and EGYPT: _History_, and
_Military Operations_).



FAST AND LOOSE, a cheating game played at fairs by sharpers. A strap,
usually in the form of a belt, is rolled or doubled up with a loop in
the centre, and laid edgewise on a table. The swindler then bets that
the loop cannot be caught with a stick or skewer as he unrolls the belt.
As this looks to be easy to do the bet is often taken, but the sharper
unrolls the belt in such a manner as to make the catching of the loop
practically impossible. Centuries ago it was much practised by gipsies,
a circumstance alluded to by Shakespeare in _Anthony and Cleopatra_ (iv.
12):

  "Like a right gipsy, hath, at fast and loose,
   Beguiled me to the very heart of loss."

From this game is taken the colloquial expression "to play fast and
loose." At the present day it is called "prick the garter" or "prick the
loop."



FASTI, in Roman antiquities, plural of the Latin adjective _fastus_, but
more commonly used as a substantive, derived from _fas_, meaning what is
binding, or allowable, by divine law, as opposed to _jus_, or human law.
_Fasti dies_ thus came to mean the days on which law business might be
transacted without impiety, corresponding to our own "lawful days"; the
opposite of the _dies fasti_ were the _dies nefasti_, on which, on
various religious grounds, the courts could not sit. The word _fasti_
itself then came to be used to denote lists or registers of various
kinds, which may be divided into two great classes.

1. _Fasti Diurni_, divided into _urbani_ and _rustici_, a kind of
official year-book, with dates and directions for religious ceremonies,
court-days, market-days, divisions of the month, and the like. Until 304
B.C. the lore of the _calendaria_ remained the exclusive and lucrative
monopoly of the priesthood; but in that year Gnaeus Flavius, a
pontifical secretary, introduced the custom of publishing in the forum
tables containing the requisite information, besides brief references to
victories, triumphs, prodigies, &c. This list was the origin of the
public Roman calendar, in which the days were divided into weeks of
eight days each, and indicated by the letters A-H. Each day was marked
by a certain letter to show its nature; thus the letters F., N., N.P.,
F.P., Q. Rex C.F., C., EN., stood for _fastus_, _nefastus_, _nefastus_
in some unexplained sense, _fastus priore_, _quando rex_ (_sacrorum_)
_comitiavit fastus_, _comitialis_ and _intercisus_. The _dies intercisi_
were partly _fasti_ and partly _nefasti_. Ovid's _Fasti_ is a poetical
description of the Roman festivals of the first six months, written to
illustrate the Fasti published by Julius Caesar after he remodelled the
Roman year. Upon the cultivators fewer feasts, sacrifices, ceremonies
and holidays were enjoined than on the inhabitants of cities; and the
rustic fasti contained little more than the ceremonies of the calends,
nones and ides, the fairs, signs of zodiac, increase and decrease of the
days, the tutelary gods of each month, and certain directions for rustic
labours to be performed each month.

2. _Fasti Magistrales_, _Annales_ or _Historici_, were concerned with
the several feasts, and everything relating to the gods, religion and
the magistrates; to the emperors, their birthdays, offices, days
consecrated to them, with feasts and ceremonies established in their
honour or for their prosperity. They came to be denominated _magni_, by
way of distinction from the bare calendar, or _fasti diurni_. Of this
class, the _fasti consulares_, for example, were a chronicle or register
of time, in which the several years were denoted by the respective
consuls, with the principal events which happened during their
consulates. The _fasti triumphales_ and _sacerdotales_ contained a list
in chronological order of persons who had obtained a triumph, together
with the name of the conquered people, and of the priests. The word
_fasti_ thus came to be used in the general sense of "annals" or
"historical records." A famous specimen of the same class are the _fasti
Capitolini_, so called because they were deposited in the Capitol by
Alexander Farnese, after their excavation from the Roman forum in 1547.
They are chiefly a nominal list of statesmen, victories, triumphs, &c.,
from the expulsion of the kings to the death of Augustus. A considerable
number of fasti of the first class have also been discovered; but none
of them appear to be older than the time of Augustus. The Praenestine
calendar, discovered in 1770, arranged by the famous grammarian Verrius
Flaccus, contains the months of January, March, April and December, and
a portion of February. The tablets give an account of festivals, as also
of the triumphs of Augustus and Tiberius. There are still two complete
calendars in existence, an official list by Furius Dionysius Philocalus
(A.D. 354), and a Christian version of the official calendar, made by
Polemius Silvius (A.D. 448). But some kinds of fasti included under the
second general head were, from the very beginning, written for
publication. The _Annales Pontificum_--different from the _calendaria_
properly so called--were "annually exhibited in public on a white table,
on which the memorable events of the year, with special mention of the
prodigies, were set down in the briefest possible manner." Any one was
allowed to copy them. Like the pontifices, the augurs also had their
books, _libri augurales_. In fact, all the state offices had their fasti
corresponding in character to the consular fasti named above.

  For the best text and account of the fragments of the Fasti see
  _Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum_, i. (2nd ed.); on the subject
  generally, Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Literature_, §§ 74, 75,
  and article by Bouché-Leclercq in Daremberg and Saglio, _Dictionnaire
  des antiquités_.



FASTING (from "fast," derived from old Teutonic _fastêjan_; synonyms
being the Gr. [Greek: nêsteuein], late Lat. _jejunare_), an act which is
most accurately defined as an abstention from meat, drink and all
natural food for a determined period. So it is defined by the Church of
England, in the 16th homily, on the authority of the Council of
Chalcedon[1] and of the primitive church generally. In a looser sense
the word is employed to denote abstinence from certain kinds of food
merely; and this meaning, which in ordinary usage is probably the more
prevalent, seems also to be at least tolerated by the Church of England
when it speaks of "fast or abstinence days," as if fasting and
abstinence were synonymous.[2] More vaguely still, the word is
occasionally used as an equivalent for moral self-restraint generally.
This secondary and metaphorical sense ([Greek: nêsteuein kakotêtos])
occurs in one of the fragments of Empedocles. For the physiology of
fasting, see DIETETICS; NUTRITION; also CORPULENCE.

Starvation itself (see also HUNGER and THIRST) is of the nature of a
disease which may be prevented by diet; nevertheless there are connected
with it a few peculiarities of scientific and practical interest.
"Inedia," as it is called in the nomenclature of diseases by the London
College of Physicians, is of two kinds, arising from _want of food_ and
from _want of water_. When entirely deprived of nutriment the human body
is ordinarily capable of supporting life under ordinary circumstances
for little more than a week. In the spring of 1869 this was tried on the
person of a "fasting girl" in South Wales. The parents made a show of
their child, decking her out like a bride on a bed, and asserting that
she had eaten no food for two years. Some reckless enthusiasts for truth
set four trustworthy hospital nurses to watch her; the Celtic obstinacy
of the parents was roused, and in defence of their imposture they
allowed death to take place in eight days. Their trial and conviction
for manslaughter may be found in the daily periodicals of the date; but,
strange to say, the experimental physiologists and nurses escaped
scot-free. There is no doubt that in this instance the unnatural
quietude, the grave-like silence, and the dim religious light in which
the victim was kept contributed to deter death.

One thing which remarkably prolongs life is a supply of water. Dogs
furnished with as much as they wished to drink were found by M. Chossat
(_Sur l'inanition_, Paris, 1843) to live three times as long as those
who were deprived of solids and liquids at the same time. Even wetting
the skin with sea-water has been found useful by shipwrecked sailors.
Four men and a boy of fourteen who got shut in the Tynewydd mine near
Porth, in South Wales, in the winter of 1876-1877 for ten days without
food, were not only alive when released, but several of them were able
to walk, and all subsequently recovered. The thorough saturation of the
narrow space with aqueous vapour, and the presence of drain water in the
cutting, were probably their chief preservatives--assisted by the high
even temperature always found in the deeper headings of coal mines, and
by the enormous compression of the confined air. This doubtless
prevented evaporation, and retarded vital processes dependent upon
oxidation. The accumulation of carbonic acid in the breathed air would
also have a similar arrestive power over destructive assimilation. These
prisoners do not seem to have felt any of the severer pangs of hunger,
for they were not tempted to eat their candles. With the instinctive
feeling that darkness adds a horror to death, they preferred to use them
for light. At the wreck of the "Medusa" frigate in 1816, fifteen people
survived on a raft for thirteen days without food.

It is a paradoxical fact, that the supply of the stomach even from the
substance of the starving individual's body should tend to prolong life.
In April 1874 a case was recorded of exposure in an open boat for 32
days of three men and two boys, with only ten days' provisions,
exclusive of old boots and jelly-fish. They had a fight in their
delirium, and one was severely wounded. As the blood gushed out he
lapped it up; and instead of suffering the fatal weakness which might
have been expected from the haemorrhage, he seems to have done well.
Experiments were performed by a French physiologist, M. Anselmier
(_Archives gén. de médecine_, 1860, vol. i. p. 169), with the object of
trying to preserve the lives of dogs by what he calls "artificial
autophagy." He fed them on the blood taken from their own veins daily,
depriving them of all other food, and he found that the fatal cooling
incident to starvation was thus postponed, and existence prolonged. Life
lasted till the emaciation had proceeded to six-tenths of the animal's
weight, as in Chossat's experiments, extending to the fourteenth day,
instead of ending on the tenth day, as was the case with other dogs
which were not bled.

Various people have tried, generally for exhibition purposes, how long
they could fast from food with the aid merely of water or some medicinal
preparation; but these exhibitions cannot be held to have proved
anything of importance. A man named Jacques in this way fasted at
Edinburgh for thirty days in 1888, and in London for forty-two days in
1890, and for fifty days in 1891; and an Italian named Succi fasted for
forty days in 1890.

_Religious Fasts._--Fasting is of special interest when considered as a
discipline voluntarily submitted to for moral and religious ends. As
such it is very widely diffused. Its modes and motives vary considerably
according to climate, race, civilization and other circumstances; but it
would be difficult to name any religious system of any description in
which it is wholly unrecognized.[3] The origin of the practice is very
obscure.[4] In his _Principles of Sociology_ Herbert Spencer collected,
from the accounts we have of various savage tribes in widely separated
parts of the globe, a considerable body of evidence, from which he
suggested that it may have arisen out of the custom of providing
refreshments for the dead, either by actually feeding the corpse, or by
leaving eatables and drinkables for its use. It is suggested that the
fasting which was at first the natural and inevitable result of such
sacrifice on behalf of the dead may eventually have come to be regarded
as an indispensable concomitant of all sacrifice, and so have survived
as a well-established usage long after the original cause had ceased to
operate.[5] But this theory is repudiated by the best authorities;
indeed its extreme precariousness at once becomes evident when it is
remembered that, now at least, it is usual for religious fasts to
precede rather than to follow sacrificial and funeral feasts, if
observed at all in connexion with these. Spencer himself (p. 284) admits
that "probably the practice arises in more ways than one," and proceeds
to supplement the theory already given by another--that adopted by E.B.
Tylor--to the effect that it originated in the desire of the primitive
man to bring on at will certain abnormal nervous conditions favourable
to the seeing of those visions and the dreaming of those dreams which
are supposed to give the soul direct access to the objective realities
of the spiritual world.[6] Probably, if we leave out of sight the very
numerous and obvious cases in which fasting, originally the natural
reflex result of grief, fear or other strong emotion, has come to be the
usual conventional symbol of these, we shall find that the practice is
generally resorted to, either as a means of somehow exalting the higher
faculties at the expense of the lower, or as an act of homage to some
object of worship. The axiom of the Amazulu, that "the continually
stuffed body cannot see secret things," meets even now with pretty
general acceptance; and if the notion that it is precisely the food
which the worshipper foregoes that makes the deity more vigorous to do
battle for his human friend be confined only to a few scattered tribes
of savages, the general proposition that "fasting is a work of reverence
toward God" may be said to be an article of the Catholic faith.[7]

Although fasting as a religious rite is to be met with almost
everywhere, there are comparatively few religions, and those only of the
more developed kind, which appoint definite public fasts, and make them
binding at fixed seasons upon all the faithful. Brahmanism, for example,
does not appear to enforce any stated fast upon the laity.[8] Among the
ancient Egyptians fasting seems to have been associated with many
religious festivals, notably with that of Isis (Herod. ii. 40), but it
does not appear that, so far as the common people were concerned, the
observance of these festivals (which were purely local) was compulsory.
The [Greek: nêsteia] on the third day of the Thesmophoria at Athens was
observed only by the women attending the festival (who were permitted to
eat cakes made of sesame and honey). It is doubtful whether the fast
mentioned by Livy (xxxvi. 37) was intended to be general or sacerdotal
merely.

_Jewish Fasts._--While remarkable for the cheerful, non-ascetic
character of their worship, the Jews were no less distinguished from all
the nations of antiquity by their annual solemn fast appointed to be
observed on the 10th day of the 7th month (Tisri), the penalty of
disobedience being death. The rules, as laid down in Lev. xvi. 29-34,
xxiii. 27-32 and Numb. xxix. 7-11, include a special injunction of
strict abstinence ("ye shall afflict your souls"[9]) from evening to
evening. This fast was intimately associated with the chief feast of the
year. Before that feast could be entered upon, the sins of the people
had to be confessed and (sacramentally) expiated. The fast was a
suitable concomitant of that contrition which befitted the occasion. The
practice of stated fasting was not in any other case enjoined by the
law; and it is generally understood to have been forbidden on
Sabbath.[10] At the same time, private and occasional fasting, being
regarded as a natural and legitimate instinct, was regulated rather than
repressed. The only other provision about fasting in the Pentateuch is
of a regulative nature, Numb. xxx. 14 (13), to the effect that a vow
made by a woman "to afflict the soul" may in certain circumstances be
cancelled by her husband.

The history of Israel from Moses to Ezra furnishes a large number of
instances in which the fasting instinct was obeyed both publicly and
privately, locally and nationally, under the influence of sorrow, or
fear, or passionate desire. See, for example, Judg. xx. 26; 1 Sam. vii.
6 (where the national fast was conjoined with the ceremony of pouring
out water before the Lord); Jer. xxxvi. 6, 9; and 2 Sam. xii. 16.[11]
Sometimes the observance of such fasts extended over a considerable
period of time, during which, of course, the stricter _jejunium_ was
conjoined with _abstinentia_ (Dan. x. 2). Sometimes they lasted only for
a day. In Jonah iii. 6, 7, we have an illustrative example of the rigour
with which a strict fast might be observed; and such passages as Joel
ii. and Isa. lviii. 5 enable us to picture with some vividness the
outward accompaniments of a Jewish fast day before the exile.

During the exile many occasional fasts were doubtless observed by the
scattered communities, in sorrowful commemoration of the various sad
events which had issued in the downfall of the kingdom of Judah. Of
these, four appear to have passed into general use--the fasts of the
10th, 4th, 5th and 7th months--commemorating the beginning of the siege
of Jerusalem, the capture of the city, the destruction of the temple,
the assassination of Gedaliah. As time rolled on they became invested
with increasing sanctity; and though the prophet Zechariah, when
consulted about them at the close of the exile (Zech. viii. 19), had by
no means encouraged the observance of them, the rebuilding of the temple
does not appear to have been considered an achievement of sufficient
importance to warrant their discontinuance. It is worthy of remark that
Ezekiel's prophetic legislation contains no reference to any fast day;
the book of Esther (ix. 31), on the other hand, records the institution
of a new fast on the 13th of the 12th month.

In the post-exile period private fasting was much practised by the
pious, and encouraged by the religious sentiment of the time (see Judith
viii. 6; Tob. xii. 8, and context; Sirach xxxiv. 26, Luke ii. 37 and
xviii. 12). The last reference contains an allusion to the weekly fasts
which were observed on the 2nd and 5th days of each week, in
commemoration, it was said, of the ascent and descent of Moses at Sinai.
The real origin of these fasts and the date of their introduction are
alike uncertain; it is manifest, however, that the observance of them
was voluntary, and never made a matter of universal obligation. It is
probable that the Sadducees, if not also the Essenes, wholly neglected
them. The second book (_Seder Moed_) of the Mishna contains two
tractates bearing upon the subject of fasting. One (_Yoma_, "the day")
deals exclusively with the rites which were to be observed on the great
day of expiation or atonement the other (_Taanith_, "fast") is devoted
to the other fasts, and deals especially with the manner in which
occasional fasting is to be gone about if no rain shall have fallen on
or before the 17th day of Marcheschwan. It is enacted that in such a
case the rabbis shall begin with a light fast of three days (Monday,
Thursday, Monday), i.e. a fast during which it is lawful to work, and
also to wash and anoint the person. Then, in the event of a continued
drought, fasts of increasing intensity are ordered; and as a last resort
the ark is to be brought into the street and sprinkled with ashes, the
heads of the Nasi and Ab-beth-din being at the same time similarly
sprinkled.[12] In no case was any fast to be allowed to interfere with
new-moon or other fixed festival. Another institution treated with
considerable fulness in the treatise _Taanith_ is that of the [Hebrew:
anshei maamad] (_viri stationis_), who are represented as having been
laymen severally representing the twenty-four classes or families into
which the whole commonwealth of the laity was divided. They used to
attend the temple in rotation, and be present at the sacrifices; and as
this duty fell to each in his turn, the men of the class or family which
he represented were expected in their several cities and places of abode
to engage themselves in religious exercises, and especially in fasting.
The suggestion will readily occur that here may be the origin of the
Christian _stationes_. But neither Tertullian nor any other of the
fathers seems to have been aware of the existence of any such
institution among the Jews; and very probably the story about it may
have been a comparatively late invention. It ought to be borne in mind
that the Aramaic portion of the _Megillath Taanith_ (a document
considerably older than the treatises in the Mishna) gives a catalogue
only of the days on which fasting was forbidden. The Hebrew part
(commented on by Maimonides), in which numerous fasts are recommended,
is of considerably later date. See Reland, _Antiq. Hebr._ p. iv. c. 10;
Derenbourg, _Hist. de Palestine_, p. 439.

_Practice of the Early Christian Church._--Jesus Himself did not
inculcate asceticism in His teaching, and the absence of that
distinctive element from His practice was sometimes a subject of hostile
remark (Matt. xi. 19). We read, indeed, that on one occasion He fasted
forty days and forty nights; but the expression, which is an obscure
one, possibly means nothing more than that He endured the privations
ordinarily involved in a stay in the wilderness. While we have no reason
to doubt that He observed the one great national fast prescribed in the
written law of Moses, we have express notice that neither He nor His
disciples were in the habit of observing the other fasts which custom
and tradition had established. See Mark ii. 18, where the correct
reading appears to be--"The disciples of John, and the Pharisees, were
fasting" (some customary fast). He never formally forbade fasting, but
neither did He ever enjoin it. He assumed that, in certain circumstances
of sorrow and need, the fasting instinct would sometimes be felt by the
community and the individual; what He was chiefly concerned about was to
warn His followers against the mistaken aims which His contemporaries
were so apt to contemplate in their fasting (Matt. vi. 16-18). In one
passage, indeed, He has been understood as practically commanding resort
to the practice in certain circumstances. It ought to be noted, however,
that Matt. xvii. 21 is probably spurious; and that in Mark ix. 29 the
words "and fasting" are omitted by Westcott and Hort as well as by
Tischendorf on the evidence of the Cod. Sinaiticus (first hand) and Cod.
Vaticanus.[13] The reference to "the fast" in Acts xxvii. 9 has
generally been held to indicate that the apostles continued to observe
the yearly Jewish fast. But this inference is by no means a necessary
one. According to Acts xiii. 2, 3, xiv. 23, they conjoined fasting with
prayer at ordinations, and doubtless also on some other solemn
occasions; but at the same time the liberty of the Christian "in respect
of an holiday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath" was strongly
insisted on, by one of them at least, who declared that meat whether
taken or abstained from commendeth not to God (Col. ii. 16-23; 1 Cor.
viii. 8; Rom. xiv. 14-22; 1 Tim. iv. 3-5). The fastings to which the
apostle Paul alludes in 2 Cor. vi. 5, xi. 27, were rather of the nature
of inevitable hardships cheerfully endured in the discharge of his
sacred calling. The words which appear to encourage fasting in 1 Cor.
vii. 5 are absent from all the oldest manuscripts and are now omitted by
all critics;[14] and on the whole the precept and practice of the New
Testament, while recognizing the propriety of occasional and
extraordinary fasts, seem to be decidedly hostile to the imposition of
any of a stated, obligatory and general kind.

The usage of the Christian church during the earlier centuries was in
this, as in so many other matters, influenced by traditional Jewish
feeling, and by the force of old habit, quite as much as by any direct
apostolic authority or supposed divine command. Habitual temperance was
of course in all cases regarded as an absolute duty; and "the
bridegroom" being absent, the present life was regarded as being in a
sense one continual "fast." Fasting in the stricter sense was not
unknown; but it is certain that it did not at first occupy nearly so
prominent a place in Christian ritual as that to which it afterwards
attained. There are early traces of the customary observance of the
Wednesday and Friday fasts--the _dies stationum_ (Clem. Alex. _Strom._
vii. 877), and also of a "quadragesimal" fast before Easter. But the
very passage which proves the early origin of "quadragesima,"
conclusively shows how uncertain it was in its character, and how unlike
the Catholic "Lent." Irenaeus, quoted by Eusebius (v. 24), informs us
with reference to the customary yearly celebration of the mystery of the
resurrection of our Lord, that disputes prevailed not only with respect
to the day, but also with respect to the manner of fasting in connexion
with it. "For some think that they ought to fast only one day, some two,
some more days; some compute their day as consisting of _forty hours_
night and day; and this diversity existing among those that observe it
is not a matter that has just sprung up in our times, but long ago among
those before us." It was not pretended that the apostles had legislated
on the matter, but the general and natural feeling that the
anniversaries of the crucifixion and the resurrection of Christ ought to
be celebrated by Christians took expression in a variety of ways
according to the differing tastes of individuals. No other stated fasts,
besides those already mentioned, can be adduced from the time before
Irenaeus; but there was also a tendency--not unnatural in itself, and
already sanctioned by Jewish practice--to fast by way of preparation for
any season of peculiar privilege. Thus, according to Justin Martyr
(_Apol._ ii. 93), catechumens were accustomed to fast before baptism,
and the church fasted with them. To the same feeling the quadragesimal
fast which (as already stated) preceded the joyful feast of the
resurrection, is to be, in part at least, attributed. As early as the
time of Tertullian it was also usual for communicants to prepare
themselves by fasting for receiving the eucharist. But that Christian
fasts had not yet attained to the exaggerated importance which they
afterwards assumed is strikingly shown in the well-known _Shepherd of
Hermas_ (lib. iii. sim. v.), where it is declared that "with merely
outward fasting nothing is done for true virtue"; the believer is
exhorted chiefly to abstain from evil and seek to cleanse himself from
feelings of covetousness, and impurity, and revenge: "on the day that
thou fastest content thyself with bread, vegetables and water, and thank
God for these. But reckon up on this day what thy meal would otherwise
have cost thee, and give the amount that it comes to to some poor widow
or orphan, or to the poor." The right of bishops to ordain special
fasts, "ex aliqua sollicitudinis ecclesiasticae causa" (Tertullian), was
also recognized.

_Later Practice of the Church._--According to an expression preserved by
Eusebius (_H.E._ v. 18), Montanus was the first to give laws (to the
church) on fasting. Such language, though rhetorical in form, is
substantially correct. The treatise of Tertullian,--_Concerning Fasting:
against the Carnal_,--written as it was under Montanistic influence, is
doubly interesting, first as showing how free the practice of the church
down to that time had been, and then as foreshadowing the burdensome
legislation which was destined to succeed. In that treatise (c. 15) he
approves indeed of the church practice of not fasting on Saturdays and
Sundays (as elsewhere, _De corona_, c. 3, he had expressed his
concurrence in the other practice of observing the entire period between
Easter and Pentecost as a season of joy); but otherwise he evinces great
dissatisfaction with the indifference of the church as to the number,
duration and severity of her fasts.[15] The church thus came to be more
and more involved in discussions as to the number of days to be
observed, especially in "Lent," as fast days, as to the hour at which a
fast ought to terminate (whether at the 3rd or at the 9th hour), as to
the rigour with which each fast ought to be observed (whether by
abstinence from flesh merely, _abstinentia_, or by abstinence from
lacticinia, _xerophagia_, or by literal _jejunium_), and as to the
penalties by which the laws of fasting ought to be enforced. Almost a
century, however, elapsed between the composition of the treatise of
Tertullian (_cir._ 212) and the first recorded instances of
ecclesiastical legislation on the subject. These, while far from
indicating that the church had attained unanimity on the points at
issue, show progress in the direction of the later practice of
catholicism. About the year 306 the synod of Illiberis in its 26th canon
decided in favour of the observance of the Saturday fast.[16] The
council of Ancyra in 314, on the other hand, found it necessary to
legislate in a somewhat different direction,--by its 14th canon
enjoining its priests and clerks at least to taste meat at the love
feasts.[17] The synod of Laodicea framed several rules with regard to
the observance of "Lent," such as that "during Lent the bread shall not
be offered except on Saturday and Sunday" (can. 49), that "the fast
shall not be relaxed on the Thursday of the last week of Lent, thus
dishonouring the whole season; but the fast shall be kept throughout the
whole period" (can. 50), that "during the fast no feasts of the martyrs
shall be celebrated" (can. 51), and that "no wedding or birthday feasts
shall be celebrated during Lent" (can. 52). The synod of Hippo (393
A.D.) enacted that the sacrament of the altar should always be taken
fasting, except on the Thursday before Easter. Protests in favour of
freedom were occasionally raised, not always in a very wise manner, or
on very wise grounds, by various individuals such as Eustathius of
Sebaste (c. 350), Aerius of Pontus (c. 375), and Jovinian, a Roman monk
(c. 388). Of the Eustathians, for example (whose connexion with
Eustathius can hardly be doubted), the complaint was made that "they
fast on Sundays, but eat on the fast-days of the church." They were
condemned by the synod of Gangra in Paphlagonia in the following
canons:--Can. 19, "If any one fast on Sunday, let him be anathema."[18]
Can. 20, "If any one do not keep the fasts universally commanded and
observed by the whole church, let him be anathema." Jovinian was very
moderate. He "did not allow himself to be hurried on by an inconsiderate
zeal to condemn fasting, the life of celibacy, monachism, considered
purely in themselves.... He merely sought to show that men were wrong
in recommending so highly and indiscriminately the life of celibacy and
fasting, though he was ready to admit that both under certain
circumstances might be good and useful" (Neander). He was nevertheless
condemned (390) both by Pope Siricius at a synod in Rome, and by Ambrose
at another in Milan. The views of Aerius, according to the
representations of his bitter opponent Epiphanius (_Haer._ 75, "Adv.
Aerium"), seem on this head at least, though unpopular, to have been
characterized by great wisdom and sobriety. He did not condemn fasting
altogether, but thought that it ought to be resorted to in the spirit of
gospel freedom according as each occasion should arise. He found fault
with the church for having substituted for Christian liberty a yoke of
Jewish bondage.[19]

Towards the beginning of the 5th century we find Socrates (439)
enumerating (_H.E._ v. 22) a long catalogue of the different fasting
practices of the church. The Romans fasted three weeks continuously
before Easter (Saturdays and Sundays excepted). In Illyria, Achaia and
Alexandria the quadragesimal fast lasted six weeks. Others (the
Constantinopolitans) began their fasts seven weeks before Easter, but
fasted only on alternate weeks, five days at a time. Corresponding
differences as to the manner of abstinence occurred. Some abstained from
all living creatures; others ate fish; others fish and fowl. Some
abstained from eggs and fruit; some confined themselves to bread; some
would not take even that. Some fasted till three in the afternoon, and
then took whatever they pleased. "Other nations," adds the historian,
"observe other customs in their fasts, and that for various reasons. And
since no one can show any written rule about this, it is plain the
apostles left this matter free to every one's liberty and choice, that
no one should be compelled to do a good thing out of necessity and
fear." When Leo the Great became pope in 440, a period of more rigid
uniformity began. The imperial authority of Valentinian helped to bring
the whole West at least into submission to the see of Rome; and
ecclesiastical enactments had, more than formerly, the support of the
civil power. Though the introduction of the four Ember seasons was not
entirely due to him, as has sometimes been asserted, it is certain that
their widespread observance was due to his influence, and to that of his
successors, especially of Gregory the Great. The tendency to increased
rigour may be discerned in the 2nd canon of the synod of Orleans (541),
which declares that every Christian is bound to observe the fast of
Lent, and, in case of failure to do so, is to be punished according to
the laws of the church by his spiritual superior; in the 9th canon of
the synod of Toledo (653), which declares the eating of flesh during
Lent to be a mortal sin; in Charlemagne's law for the newly conquered
Saxony, which attaches the penalty of death to wanton disregard of the
holy season.[20] Baronius mentions that in the 11th century those who
ate flesh during Lent were liable to have their teeth knocked out. But
it ought to be remembered that this severity of the law early began to
be tempered by the power to grant dispensations. The so-called Butter
Towers (_Tours de beurre_) of Rouen, 1485-1507, Bourges and other
cities, are said to have been built with money raised by sale of
dispensations to eat _lacticinia_ on fast days.

It is probable that the apparent severity of the medieval Latin Church
on this subject was largely due to the real strictness of the Greek
Church, which, under the patriarch Photius in 864, had taken what was
virtually a new departure in its fasting praxis. The rigour of the fasts
of the modern Greek Church is well known; and it can on the whole be
traced back to that comparatively early date. Of the nine fundamental
laws of that church ([Greek: ennea parangelmata tês ekklêsias]) two are
concerned with fasting. Besides fasts of an occasional and extraordinary
nature, the following are recognized as of stated and universal
obligation:--(1) The Wednesday and Friday fasts throughout the year
(with the exception of the period between Christmas and Epiphany, the
Easter week, the week after Whitsunday, the third week after Epiphany);
(2) The great yearly fasts, viz. that of Lent, lasting 48 days, from the
Monday of Sexagesima to Easter eve; that of Advent, 39 days, from
November 15 to Christmas eve; that of the Theotokos ([Greek: nêsteia tês
Theotokou]), from August 1 to August 15; that of the Holy Apostles,
lasting a variable number of days from the Monday after Trinity; (3) The
minor yearly fasts before Epiphany, before Whitsunday, before the feasts
of the transfiguration, the invention of the cross, the beheading of
John the Baptist. During even the least rigid of these the use of flesh
and lacticinia is strictly forbidden; fish, oil and wine are
occasionally conceded, but not before two o'clock in the afternoon. The
practice of the Coptic church is almost identical with this. A week
before the Great Fast (Lent), a fast of three days is observed in
commemoration of that of the Ninevites, mentioned in the book of Jonah.
Some of the Copts are said to observe it by total abstinence during the
whole period. The Great Fast continues fifty-five days; nothing is eaten
except bread and vegetables, and that only in the afternoon, when church
prayers are over. The Fast of the Nativity lasts for twenty-eight days
before Christmas; that of the Apostles for a variable number of days
from the Feast of the Ascension; and that of the Virgin for fifteen days
before the Assumption. All Wednesdays and Fridays are also fast days
except those that occur in the period between Easter and Whitsunday. The
Armenians are equally strict; but (adds Rycaut) "the times seem so
confused and without rule that they can scarce be recounted, unless by
those who live amongst them, and strictly observe them, it being the
chief care of the priest, whose learning principally consists in knowing
the appointed times of fasting and feasting, the which they never omit
on Sundays to publish unto the people."[21]

At the council of Trent no more than a passing allusion was made to the
subject of fasting. The faithful were simply enjoined to submit
themselves to church authority on the subject; and the clergy were
exhorted to urge their flocks to the observance of frequent jejunia, as
conducive to the mortification of the flesh, and as assuredly securing
the divine favour. R.F.R. Bellarmine (_De jejunio_) distinguishes
_jejunium spirituale_ (_abstinentia a vitiis_), _jejunium morale_
(_parsimonia et temperantia cibi et potus_), _jejunium naturale_
(_abstinentia ab omni prorsus cibo et potu, quacunque ratione sumpto_),
and _jejunium ecclesiasticum_. The last he defines simply as an
abstinence from food in conformity with the rule of the church. It may
be either voluntary or compulsory; and compulsory either because of a
vow or because of a command. But the definition given by Alexander
Halensis, which is much fuller, still retains its authority:--"Jejunium
est abstinentia a cibo et potu secundum formam ecclesiae, intuitu
satisfaciendi pro peccato et acquirendi vitam aeternam." It was to this
last clause that the Reformers most seriously objected. They did not
deny that fasting might be a good thing, nor did they maintain that the
church or the authority might not ordain fasts, though they deprecated
the imposition of needless burdens on the conscience. What they
protested against was the theory of the opus operatum et meritorium as
applied to fasting. As matter of fact, the Reformed churches in no case
gave up the custom of observing fast days, though by some churches the
number of such days was greatly reduced. In many parts of Germany the
seasons of Lent and Advent are still marked by the use of emblems of
mourning in the churches, by the frequency of certain phrases (Kyrie
eleison, Agnus Dei) and the absence of others (Hallelujah, Gloria in
excelsis) in the liturgical services, by abstinence from some of the
usual social festivities, and by the non-celebration of marriages. And
occasional fasts are more or less familiar. The Church of England has
retained a considerable list of fasts; though Hooker (_E.P._ v. 72) had
to contend with some who, while approving of fastings undertaken "of
men's own free and voluntary accord as their particular devotion doth
move them thereunto," yet "yearly or weekly fasts such as ours in the
Church of England they allow no further than as the temporal state of
the land doth require the same for the maintenance of seafaring men and
preservation of cattle; because the decay of the one and the waste of
the other could not well be prevented but by a politic order appointing
some such usual change of diet as ours is."

In the practice of modern Roman Catholicism the following are recognized
as fasting days, that is to say, days on which one meal only, and that
not of flesh, may be taken in the course of twenty-four hours:--The
forty days of Lent (Sundays excepted), all the Ember days, the
Wednesdays and Fridays in Advent, and the vigils of certain feasts,
namely, those of Whitsuntide, of St Peter and St Paul, of the Assumption
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of All Saints and of Christmas day. The
following are simply days of abstinence, that is to say, days on which
flesh at all events must not be eaten:--The Sundays in Lent, the three
Rogation days, the feast of St Mark (unless it falls in Easter week),
and all Fridays which are not days of fasting. In the Anglican Church,
the "days of fasting or abstinence" are the forty days of Lent, the
Ember days, the Rogation days, and all the Fridays in the year, except
Christmas day. The evens or vigils before Christmas, the Purification of
the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary,
Easter day, Ascension day, Pentecost, St Matthias, the Nativity of St
John Baptist, St Peter, St James, St Bartholomew, St Matthew, St Simon
and St Jude, St Andrew, St Thomas, and All Saints are also recognized as
"fast days." By the 64th canon it is enacted that "every parson, vicar
or curate, shall in his several charge declare to the people every
Sunday at the time appointed in the communion-book [which is, after the
Nicene creed has been repeated] whether there be any holy-days or
fast-days the week following." The 72nd canon ordains that "no minister
or ministers shall, without licence and direction of the bishop under
hand and seal, appoint or keep any solemn fasts, either publicly or in
any private houses, other than such as by law are or by public authority
shall be appointed, nor shall be wittingly present at any of them under
pain of suspension for the first fault, of excommunication for the
second, and of deposition from the ministry for the third." While
strongly discouraging the arbitrary multiplication of public or private
fasts, the English Church seems to leave to the discretion of the
individual conscience every question as to the manner in which the fasts
she formally enjoins are to be observed. In this connexion the homily
_Of Fasting_ may be again referred to. By a statute of the reign of
Queen Elizabeth it was enacted that none should eat flesh on "fish days"
(the Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays throughout the year) without a
licence, under a penalty. In the Scottish Presbyterian churches days of
"fasting, humiliation and prayer" are observed by ecclesiastical
appointment in each parish once or twice every year on some day of the
week preceding the Sunday fixed for the administration of the sacrament
of the Lord's Supper. In some of the New England States, it has been
usual for the governor to appoint by proclamation at some time in spring
a day of fasting, when religious services are conducted in the churches.
National fasts have more than once been observed on special occasions
both in this country and in the United States of America.

On the subject of fasting the views of Aerius are to a large extent
shared by modern Protestant moralists. R. Rothe, for example, who on
this point may be regarded as a representative thinker, rejects the idea
that fasting is a thing meritorious in itself, and is very doubtful of
its value even as an aid to devotional feeling. Of course when bodily
health and other circumstances require it, it becomes a duty; and as a
means of self-discipline it may be used with due regard to the claims of
other duties, and to the fitness of things. In this last aspect,
however, habitual temperance will generally be found to be much more
beneficial than occasional fasting. It is extremely questionable, in
particular, whether fasting be so efficient as it is sometimes supposed
to be in protecting against temptation to fleshly sin. The practice has
a well-ascertained tendency to excite the imagination; and in so far as
it disturbs that healthy and well-balanced interaction of body and mind
which is the best or at least the normal condition for the practice of
virtue, it is to be deprecated rather than encouraged (_Theologische
Ethik_, sec. 873-875).

_Mahommedan Fasts._--Among the Mahommedans, the month Ramadan, in which
the first part of the Koran is said to have been received, is by command
of the prophet observed as a fast with extraordinary rigour. No food or
drink of any kind is permitted to be taken from daybreak until the
appearance of the stars at nightfall. Extending as it does over the
whole "month of raging heat," such a fast manifestly involves
considerable self-denial; and it is absolutely binding upon all the
faithful whether at home or abroad. Should its observance at the
appointed time be interfered with by sickness or any other cause, the
fast must be kept as soon afterwards as possible for a like number of
days. It is the only one which Mahommedanism enjoins; but the doctors of
the law recommend a considerable number of voluntary fasts, as for
example on the tenth day of the month Moharram. This day, called the
"Yom Ashoora," is held sacred on many accounts:--"because it is believed
to be the day on which the first meeting of Adam and Eve took place
after they were cast out of paradise; and that on which Noah went out
from the ark; also because several other great events are said to have
happened on this day; and because the ancient Arabs, before the time of
the prophet, observed it by fasting. But what, in the opinion of most
modern Moslems, and especially the Persians, confers the greatest
sanctity on the day of Ashoora is the fact of its being that on which
El-Hoseyn, the prophet's grandson, was slain a martyr at the battle of
the plain of Karbala." It is the practice of many Moslems to fast on
this day, and some do so on the preceding day also. Mahomet himself
called fasting the "gate of religion," and forbade it only on the two
great festivals, namely, on that which immediately follows Ramadan and
on that which succeeds the pilgrimage. (See Lane, _Modern Egyptians_,
chaps, iii., xxiv.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "The Fathers assembled there ... decreed in that council that
    every person, as well in his private as public fast, should continue
    all the day without meat and drink, till after the evening prayer.
    And whosoever did eat or drink before the evening prayer was ended
    should be accounted and reputed not to consider the purity of his
    fast. This canon teacheth so evidently how fasting was used in the
    primitive church as by words it cannot be more plainly expressed"
    (_Of Good Works; and first, of Fasting._)

  [2] As indeed they are, etymologically; but, prior to the
    Reformation, a conventional distinction between _abstinentia_ and
    _jejunium naturale_ had long been recognized. "Exceptio eduliorum
    quorundam portionale jejunium est" (Tertullian).

  [3] Confucianism ought perhaps to be named as one. Zoroastrianism is
    frequently given as another, but hardly correctly. In the Liber
    _Sad-der_, indeed (Porta xxv.), we read, "Cavendum est tibi a
    jejunio; nam a mane ad vesperam nihil comedere non est bonum in
    religione nostra"; but according to the Père de Chinon (Lyons, 1671)
    the Parsee religion enjoins, upon the priesthood at least, no fewer
    than five yearly fasts. See Hyde, _Veterum Persarum religio_, pp.
    449, 548 (ed. 1700).

  [4] During the middle ages the prevalent notion was that it had its
    origin in paradise. The germ at least of this idea is to be found in
    Tertullian, who says: "Acceperat Adam a Deo legem non gustandi de
    arbore agnitionis boni et mali, moriturus si gustasset; verum et ipse
    tunc in psychicum reversus ... facilius ventri quam Deo cessit,
    pabulo potius quam praecepto annuit, salutem gula vendidit,
    manducavit denique et periit, salvus alioquin si uni arbusculae
    jejunare maluisset" (_De jejuniis_, c. 3).

  [5] _Principles of Sociology_, i. pp. 170, 284, 285. Compare the
    passage in the appendix from Hanusch, _Slavischer Mythus_, p. 408.

  [6] Spencer, _Prin. of Sociology_, i. 256, &c.; E.B. Tylor,
    _Primitive Culture_, i. 277, 402; ii. 372, &c.

  [7] Hooker, E.P. v. 72. In the Westminster Assembly's Larger
    Catechism fasting is mentioned among the duties required by the
    second commandment.

  [8] The Brahmans themselves on the eleventh day after the full moon
    and the eleventh day after the new "abstain for sixty hours from
    every kind of sustenance"; and some have a special fast every Monday
    in November. See Picart, _The Religion and Manners of the Brahmins_.

  [9] [Hebrew: nefesh] is here to be taken as substantially equivalent
    to "desire," "appetite."

  [10] See Judith viii. 6. "And yet it may be a question whether they
    (the Jews) did not always fast upon Sabbath," says Hooker (_E.P._ v.
    72, 7), who gives a curious array of evidence pointing in this
    direction. He even makes use of Neh. viii. 9-12, which might be
    thought to tell the other way. Justinian's phrase, "Sabbata Judaeorum
    a Mose in omne aevum jejunio dicata" (l. xxxvi. c. 2; comp.
    Suetonius, _Augustus_, 76) may be accounted for by the fact that the
    day of atonement is called Sabbat Sabbatôn ("a perfect Sabbath").

  [11] There is, as Graf (_Gesch. Bücher des A.T._ p. 41) has pointed
    out, no direct evidence that the fast on the 10th of the 7th month
    was ever observed before the exile. But the inference which he draws
    from this silence of the historical books is manifestly a precarious
    one at best. Bleek calls Lev. xvi. "ein deutliches Beispiel
    Mosaïscher Abfassung" (_Einleitung_, p. 31, ed. 1878).

  [12] The allusion to the ark warns us to be cautious in assuming the
    laws of the Mishna to have been ever in force.

  [13] The idea, however, is found in the _Clementine Homilies_, ix. 9.
    Compare Tertullian _De jejuniis_, c. 8: "Docuit etiam adversus
    diriora daemonia jejuniis praeliandum."

  [14] On the manuscript evidence the words "I was fasting," in Acts x.
    30, must also be regarded as doubtful. They are rejected by Lachmann,
    Tregelles and Tischendorf.

  [15] Quinam isti (adversarii) sint, semel nominabo: exteriores et
    interiores botuli psychicorum.... Arguunt nos quod _jejunia propria_
    custodiamus, quod stationes plerumque in vesperam _producamus_, quod
    etiam _xerophagias_ observemus, siccantes cibum ab omni carne et omni
    jurulentia et uvidioribus quibusque pomis, nec quid vinositatis vel
    edamus vel potemus; lavacri quoque abstinentiam congruentem arido
    victui.

  [16] The language of the canon is ambiguous; but this interpretation
    seems to be preferable, especially in view of canon 23, which enacts
    that _jejunii superpositiones_ are to be observed in all months
    except July and August. See Hefele, _Councils_, i. 148 (Engl. trs.).

  [17] Compare the 52nd [51st] of the Apostolical canons. "If any
    bishop or presbyter or deacon, or indeed any one of the sacerdotal
    catalogue, abstains from flesh and wine, not for his own exercise but
    out of hatred of the things, forgetting that all things were very
    good ... either let him reform, or let him be deprived and be cast
    out of the church. So also a layman." To this particular canon Hefele
    is disposed to assign a very early date.

  [18] Compare canon 64 of the (supposed) fourth synod of Carthage: "He
    who fasts on Sunday is not accounted a Catholic" (Hefele, ii. 415).

  [19] Priscillian, whose widespread heresy evoked from the synod of
    Saragossa (418) the canon, "No one shall fast on Sunday, nor may any
    one absent himself from church during Lent and hold a festival of his
    own," appears, on the question of fasting, not to have differed from
    the Encratites and various other sects of Manichean tendency (c.
    406).

  [20] Cap. iii. pro partib. Saxoniae: "Si quis sanctum quadragesimale
    jejunium pro despectu Christianitatis contempserit et carnem
    comederit, morte moriatur. Sed tamen consideretur a sacerdote ne
    forte causa necessitatis hoc cuilibet proveniat, ut carnem comedat."
    See Augusti, _Christliche Archäologie_, x. p. 374.

  [21] See Fink's article "Fasten" in Ersch and Gruber's
    _Encyclopädie_; Lane, _Modern Egyptians_; and Rycaut, _Present State
    of the Armenian Church_.



FASTOLF, SIR JOHN (d. 1459), English soldier, has enjoyed a more lasting
reputation as in some part the prototype of Shakespeare's Falstaff. He
was son of a Norfolk gentleman, John Fastolf of Caister, is said to have
been squire to Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, before 1398, served with
Thomas of Lancaster in Ireland during 1405 and 1406, and in 1408 made a
fortunate marriage with Millicent, widow of Sir Stephen Scrope of Castle
Combe in Wiltshire. In 1413 he was serving in Gascony, and took part in
all the subsequent campaigns of Henry V. in France. He must have earned
a good repute as a soldier, for in 1423 he was made governor of Maine
and Anjou, and in February 1426 created a knight of the Garter. But
later in this year he was superseded in his command by John Talbot.
After a visit to England in 1428, he returned to the war, and on the
12th of February 1429 when in charge of the convoy for the English army
before Orleans defeated the French and Scots at the "battle of
herrings." On the 18th of June of the same year an English force under
the command of Fastolf and Talbot suffered a serious defeat at Patay.
According to the French historian Waurin, who was present, the disaster
was due to Talbot's rashness, and Fastolf only fled when resistance was
hopeless. Other accounts charge him with cowardice, and it is true that
John of Bedford at first deprived him of the Garter, though after
inquiry he was honourably reinstated. This incident was made
unfavourable use of by Shakespeare in _Henry VI._ (pt. i. act iv. sc.
i.). Fastolf continued to serve with honour in France, and was trusted
both by Bedford and by Richard of York. He only came home finally in
1440, when past sixty years of age. But the scandal against him
continued, and during Cade's rebellion in 1451 he was charged with
having been the cause of the English disasters through minishing the
garrisons of Normandy. It is suggested that he had made much money in
the war by the hire of troops, and in his later days he showed himself a
grasping man of business. A servant wrote of him:--"cruel and vengible
he hath been ever, and for the most part without pity and mercy"
(_Paston Letters_, i. 389). Besides his share in his wife's property he
had large estates in Norfolk and Suffolk, and a house at Southwark,
where he also owned the Boar's Head Inn. He died at Caister on the 5th
of November 1459. There is some reason to suppose that Fastolf favoured
Lollardry, and this circumstance with the tradition of his braggart
cowardice may have suggested the use of his name for the boon companion
of Prince Hal, when Shakespeare found it expedient to drop that of
Oldcastle. In the first two folios the name of the historical character
in the first part of _Henry VI._ is given as "Falstaffe" not Fastolf.
Other points of resemblance between the historic Fastolf and the
Falstaff of the dramatist are to be found in their service under Thomas
Mowbray, and association with a Boar's Head Inn. But Falstaff is in no
true sense a dramatization of the real soldier.

  The facts of Fastolf's early career are to be found chiefly in the
  chronicles of Monstrelet and Waurin. For his later life there is much
  material, including a number of his own letters, in the _Paston
  Letters_. There is a full life by W. Oldys in the _Biographia
  Britannica_ (1st ed., enlarged by Gough in Kippis's edition). See also
  Dawson Turner's _History of Caister Castle_, Scrope's _History of
  Castle Combe_, J. Gairdner's essay _On the Historical Element in
  Shakespeare's Falstaff_, ap. _Studies in English History_, Sidney
  Lee's article in the _Dictionary of National Biography_, and D.W.
  Duthie, _The Case of Sir John Fastolf and other Historical Studies_
  (1907).     (C. L. K.)



FAT (O.E. _fáett_; the word is common to Teutonic languages, cf. Dutch
_vet_, Ger. _Fett_, &c., and may be ultimately related to Greek [Greek:
piôn] and [Greek: piaros], and Sanskrit _pivan_), the name given to
certain animal and vegetable products which are oily solids at ordinary
temperatures, and are chemically distinguished as being the glyceryl
esters of various fatty acids, of which the most important are stearic,
palmitic, and oleic; it is to be noticed that they are non-nitrogenous.
Fat is a normal constituent of animal tissue, being found even before
birth; it occurs especially in the intra-muscular, the abdominal and the
subcutaneous connective tissues. In the vegetable kingdom fats
especially occur in the seeds and fruits, and sometimes in the roots.
Physiological subjects concerned with the part played by fats in living
animals are treated in the articles CONNECTIVE TISSUES; NUTRITION;
CORPULENCE; METABOLIC DISEASES. The fats are chemically similar to the
fixed oils, from which they are roughly distinguished by being solids
and not liquids (see OILS). While all fats have received industrial
applications, foremost importance must be accorded to the fats of the
domestic animals--the sheep, cow, ox and calf. These, which are
extracted from the bones and skins in the first operation in the
manufacture of glue, are the raw materials of the soap, candle and
glycerin industries.



FATALISM (Lat. _fatum_, that which is spoken, decreed), strictly the
doctrine that all things happen according to a prearranged fate,
necessity or inexorable decree. It has frequently been confused with
determinism (q.v.), which, however, differs from it categorically in
assigning a certain function to the will. The essence of the fatalistic
doctrine is that it assigns no place at all to the initiative of the
individual, or to rational sequence of events. Thus an oriental may
believe that he is fated to die on a particular day; he believes that,
whatever he does and in spite of all precautions he may take, nothing
can avert the disaster. The idea of an omnipotent fate overruling all
affairs of men is present in various forms in practically all religious
systems. Thus Homer assumes a single fate ([Greek: Moira]), an
impersonal power which makes all human concerns subject to the gods: it
is not powerful over the gods, however, for Zeus is spoken of as
weighing out the fate of men (_Il._ xxii. 209, viii. 69). Hesiod has
three Fates ([Greek: Moirai]), daughters of Night, Clotho, Lachesis and
Atropos. In Aeschylus fate is powerful even over the gods. The
Epicureans regarded fate as blind chance, while to the Stoics everything
is subject to an absolute rational law.

The doctrine of fate appears also in what are known as the higher
religions, e.g. Christianity and Mahommedanism. In the former the ideas
of personality and infinite power have vanished, all power being
conceived as inherent in God. It is recognized that the moral individual
must have some kind of initiative, and yet since God is omnipotent and
omniscient man must be conceived as in some sense foreordained to a
certain moral, mental and physical development. In the history of the
Christian church emphasis has from time to time been laid specially on
the latter aspect of human life (cf. the doctrines of election,
foreordination, determinism). Even those theologians, however, who have
laid special stress on the limitations of the human will have repudiated
the strictly fatalistic doctrine which is characteristic of Oriental
thought and is the negation of all human initiative (see PREDESTINATION;
AUGUSTINE, SAINT; WILL). In Islam fate is an absolute power, known as
_Kismet_, or _Nasib_, which is conceived as inexorable and transcending
all the physical laws of the universe. The most striking feature of the
Oriental fatalism is its complete indifference to material
circumstances: men accept prosperity and misfortune with calmness as the
decree of fate.



FATE, in Roman mythology, the spoken word (_fatum_) of Jupiter, the
unalterable will of heaven. The plural (_Fata_, the Fates) was used for
the "destinies" of individuals or cities, and then for the three
goddesses who controlled them. Thus, Fata Scribunda were the goddesses
who wrote down a man's destiny at his birth. In this connexion, however,
Fata may be singular, the masculine and feminine _Fatus_, _Fata_, being
the usual forms in popular and ceremonial language. The Fates were also
called Parcae, the attributes of both being the same as those of the
Greek Moerae.



FATEHPUR, FATHIPUR or FUTTEHPOOR, a town and district of British India,
in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces. The town is 73 m. by
rail N.W. of Allahabad. Pop. (1901) 19,281. The district has an area of
1618 sq. m. It is situated in the extreme south-eastern corner of the
Doab or tract of country between the Ganges and the Jumna, which
respectively mark its northern and southern boundaries. The whole
district consists of an alluvial plain formed by the deposits of the two
great rivers. The central part is almost perfectly level, and consists
of highly cultivated land interspersed with jungle and with tracts
impregnated with saltpetre (_usar_). A ridge of higher land, forming the
watershed of the district, runs along it from east to west at an average
distance of about 5 m. from the Ganges. Fatehpur therefore consists of
two inclined planes, the one 5 m. broad, sloping down rapidly to the
Ganges, and the other from 15 to 20 m. broad, falling gradually to the
Jumna. The country near the banks of the two rivers is cut up into
ravines and nullahs running in all directions, and is almost entirely
uncultivable. Besides the Ganges and Jumna the only rivers of importance
are the Pandu, a tributary of the Ganges, and the Arind and Nun, which
both fall into the Jumna. The climate is more humid than in the other
districts of the Doab, and although fevers are common, it is not
considered an unhealthy district. The average annual rainfall is 34 in.

The tract in which this district is comprised was conquered in 1194 by
the Pathans; but subsequently, after a desperate resistance, it was
wrested from them by the Moguls. In the 18th century it formed a part of
the _subah_ of Korah, and was under the government of the wazir of Oudh.
In 1736 it was overrun by the Mahrattas, who retained possession of it
until, in 1750, they were ousted by the Pathans of Fatehpur. In 1753 it
was reconquered by the nawab of Oudh. In 1765, by a treaty between the
East India Company and the nawab, Korah was made over to the Delhi
emperor, who retained it till 1774, when it was again restored to the
nawab wazir's dominions. Finally in 1801, the nawab, by treaty,
reconveyed it to the Company in commutation of the amount which he had
stipulated to pay in return for the defence of his country. In June 1857
the district rose in rebellion, and the usual murders of Europeans took
place. Order was established after the fall of Lucknow, on the return of
Lord Clyde's army to Cawnpore. In 1901 the population was 686,391,
showing a decrease of 2% in the decade. The district is traversed by the
main line of the East Indian railway from Allahabad to Cawnpore. Trade
is mainly agricultural, but the town of Fatehpur is noted for the
manufacture of ornamental whips, and Jafarganj for artistic curtains,
&c.



FATEHPUR SIKRI, a town in the Agra district in the United Provinces of
India, on the road from Agra to Jaipur. Pop. (1901) 7147. It is a ruined
city, and is interesting only from an archaeological point of view. It
was founded by Akbar in 1569 as a thank-offering for the birth of a son,
Selim, afterwards the emperor Jahangir, foretold by Selim Chisti, a
famous Mahommedan saint. The principal building is the great mosque,
which is said by Fergusson to be hardly surpassed by any in India. "It
measures 550 ft. east and west by 470 ft. north and south, over all. The
mosque itself, 250 ft. by 80 ft., is crowned by three domes. In its
courtyard, which measures 350 ft. by 440 ft., stand two tombs. One is
that of Selim Chisti, built of white marble, and the windows with
pierced tracery of the most exquisite geometrical patterns. It possesses
besides a deep cornice of marble, supported by brackets of the most
elaborate design. The other tomb, that of Nawab Islam Khan, is soberer
and in excellent taste, but quite eclipsed by its surroundings. Even
these parts, however, are surpassed in magnificence by the southern
gateway. As it stands on a rising ground, when looked at from below its
appearance is noble beyond that of any portal attached to any mosque in
India, perhaps in the whole world." Among other more noteworthy
buildings the following may be mentioned. The palace of Jodh Bai, the
Rajput wife of Akbar, consists of a courtyard surrounded by a gallery,
above which rise buildings roofed with blue enamel. A rich gateway gives
access to a terrace on which are the "houses of Birbal and Miriam"; and
beyond these is another courtyard, where are Akbar's private apartments
and the exquisite palace of the Turkish sultana. Here are also the Panch
Mahal or five-storeyed building, consisting of five galleries in tiers,
and the audience chamber. The special feature in the architecture of the
city is the softness of the red sandstone, which could be carved almost
as easily as wood, and so lent itself readily to the elaborate Hindu
embellishment. Fatehpur Sikri was a favourite residence of Akbar
throughout his reign, and his establishment here was of great
magnificence. After Akbar's death Fatehpur Sikri was deserted within 50
years of its foundation. The reason for this was that frequent cause in
the East, lack of water. The only water obtainable was so brackish and
corroding as to cause great mortality among the inhabitants. The
buildings are situated within an enclosure, walled on three sides and
about 7 m. in circumference. They are all now more or less in ruins, and
their elaborate painting and other decoration has largely perished, but
some modern restoration has been effected.

  See E.B. Havell, _A Handbook to Agra and the Taj, Sikandra, Fatehpur
  Sikri_, &c. (1904).



FATHER, the begetter of a child, the male parent. The word is common to
Teutonic languages, and, like the other words for close family
relationship, mother, brother, son, sister, daughter, appears in most
Indo-European languages. The O. Eng. form is _fæder_, and it appears in
Ger. _Vater_, Dutch _vader_, Gr. [Greek: patêr], Lat. _pater_, whence
Romanic Fr. _père_, Span. _padre_, &c. The word is used of male
ancestors more remote than the actual male parent, and of ancestors in
general. It is applied to God, as the Father of Jesus Christ, and as the
Creator of the world, and is thus the orthodox term for the First Person
of the Trinity. Of the transferred uses of the word many have religious
reference; thus it is used of the Christian writers, usually confined to
those of the first five centuries, the Fathers of the Church (see
below), of whom those who flourished at the end of, or just after the
age of, the apostles are known as the Apostolic Fathers. One who stands
as a spiritual parent to another is his "father," e.g. godfather, or in
the title of bishops or archbishops, Right or Most Reverend Father in
God. The pope is, in the Roman Church, the Holy Father. In the Roman
Church, father is strictly applied to a "regular," a member of one of
the religious orders, and so always in Europe, in English usage, often
applied to a confessor, whether regular or secular, and to any Roman
priest, and sometimes used of sub-members of a religious society or
fraternity in the English Church. Of transferred uses, other than
religious, may be mentioned the application to the first founders of an
institution, constitution, epoch, &c. Thus the earliest settlers of
North America are the Pilgrim Fathers, and the framers of the United
States constitution are the Fathers of the Constitution. In ancient Rome
the members of the senate are the _Patres conscripti_, the "Conscript
fathers." The senior member or doyen of a society is often called the
father. Thus the member of the English House of Commons, and similarly,
of the House of Representatives in the United States, America, who has
sat for the longest period uninterruptedly, is the Father of the House.



FATHERS OF THE CHURCH. The use of the word "father" as a title of
respect is found in the Old Testament, where it is applied to patriarchs
(Gen. l. 24 (Septuagint); Exod. iii. 13, 15; Deut. i. 8), priests (Judg.
xvii. 10, xviii. 19), prophets (2 Kings ii. 12, vi. 21, xiii. 14), and
distinguished ancestors (_Ecclus_. xliv. 1). In the time of our Lord the
scribes claimed the name with an arrogance which He disapproved (Matt.
xxiii. 9); in the rabbinic literature "the fathers" are the more eminent
of the earlier rabbis whose sayings were handed down for the guidance of
posterity.[1] The Christian Church, warned perhaps by the words of
Christ, appears at first to have avoided a similar use of the term,
while St Paul, St Peter and St John speak of their converts as spiritual
children (1 Cor. iv. 14 f., Gal. iv. 19, 1 Pet. v. 13, 1 John ii. 12);
they did not assume, so far as we know, the official style of "fathers
in God." Nor is this title found in the age which succeeded to that of
the apostles. When Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, was martyred (A.D. 155),
the crowd shouted, "This is the father of the Christians"[2]; but the
words were probably prompted by the Jews, who took a prominent part in
the martyrdom, and who naturally viewed Polycarp in the light of a great
Christian rabbi, and gave him the title which their own teachers bore.
In the next century members of the episcopal order were sometimes
addressed in this manner: thus Cyprian is styled _papas_ or _papa_ by
his Roman correspondents.[3] The bishops who sat in the great councils
of the 4th century were known as "the 318 fathers" of Nicaea, and "the
150 fathers" of Constantinople. Meanwhile the custom was growing up of
appealing to eminent Church writers of a past generation under this
name. Thus Athanasius writes (_ad Afros_ vi.): "We have the testimony of
fathers (the two Dionysii, bishops of Alexandria and Rome, who wrote in
the previous century) for the use of the word [Greek: homoousios]." Such
quotations were multiplied, as theologians learnt to depend increasingly
upon their predecessors, until the testimony of "our holy father"
Athanasius, or Gregory the Divine, or John the Golden-mouthed, came to
be regarded as decisive in reference to controverted points of faith and
practice.

In the narrower sense thus indicated the "fathers" of the Church are the
great bishops and other eminent Christian teachers of the earlier
centuries, who were conspicuous for soundness of judgment and sanctity
of life, and whose writings remained as a court of appeal for their
successors. A list of fathers drawn up on this principle will begin with
the Christian writers of the 1st century whose writings are not included
in the New Testament: where it ought to end is a more difficult point to
determine. Perhaps the balance of opinion is in favour of regarding
Gregory the Great (d. 604) as the last of the Latin fathers, and John of
Damascus (d. c. 760) as the last of the fathers of the Greek Church. A
more liberal estimate might include John Scotus Erigena or even Anselm
or Bernard of Clairvaux in the West and Photius in the East. The abbé
Migne carried his Latin patrology down to the time of Innocent III. (d.
1216), and his Greek patrology to the fall of Constantinople (1453);
but, while this large extension of the field is much to the advantage of
his readers, it undoubtedly stretches the meaning of _patrologia_ far
beyond its natural limits. For ordinary purposes it is best to make the
patristic period conterminous with the life of the ancient Catholic
Church. In the West the Church enters the medieval stage of its history
with the death of Gregory, while in the East even John of Damascus is
rather a compiler of patristic teaching than a true "father."

A further question arises. Are all the Christian writers of a given
period to be included among the "fathers," or those only who wrote on
religious subjects, and of whose orthodoxy there is no doubt? Migne,
following the example of the editors of _bibliothecae pat-rum_ who
preceded him, swept into his great collection all the Christian writings
which fell within his period; but he is careful to state upon his
title-page that his patrologies include the ecclesiastical writers as
well as the fathers and doctors of the Church. For a comprehensive use
of the term "ecclesiastical writers" he has the authority of Jerome, who
enumerates among them[4] such heresiarchs or leaders of schism as
Tatian, Bardaisan, Novatus, Donatus, Photinus and Eunomius. This may not
be logical, but long usage has made it permissible or even necessary. It
is often difficult, if not impracticable, to draw the line between
orthodox writers and heterodox; on which side, it might be asked, is
Origen to be placed? and in the case of a writer like Tertullian who
left the Church in middle life, are we to admit certain of his works
into our patrology and refuse a place to others? It is clear that in the
circumstances the terms "father," "patristic," "patrology" must be used
with much elasticity, since it is now too late to substitute for them
any more comprehensive terms.

By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian
literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or
the beginning of the middle ages. However we may interpret the lower
limit of this period, the literature which it embraces is immense. Some
method of subdivision is necessary, and the simplest and most obvious is
that which breaks the whole into two great parts, the ante-Nicene and
the post-Nicene. This is not an arbitrary cleavage; the Council of
Nicaea (A.D. 325) is the watershed which actually separates two great
tracts of Christian literature. The ante-Nicene age yields priceless
records of the early struggles of Christianity; from it we have received
specimens of the early apologetic and the early polemic of the Church,
the first essays of Christian philosophy, Christian correspondence,
Christian biblical interpretation: we owe to it the works of Justin,
Irenaeus, the Alexandrian Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian. In these
products of the 2nd and 3rd centuries there is much which in its own way
was not surpassed by any of the later patristic writings. Yet the
post-Nicene literature, considered as literature, reaches a far higher
level. Both in East and West, the 4th and 5th centuries form the golden
age of dogmatic theology, of homiletic preaching, of exposition, of
letter-writing, of Church history, of religious poetry. Two causes may
be assigned for this fact. The conversion of the empire gave the members
of the Church leisure and opportunities for the cultivation of literary
taste, and gradually drew the educated classes within the pale of the
Christian society. Moreover, the great Christological controversies of
the age tended to encourage in Christian writers and preachers an
intellectual acuteness and an accuracy of thought and expression of
which the earlier centuries had not felt the need.

The ante-Nicene period of patristic literature opens with the "apostolic
fathers,"[5] i.e. the Church writers who flourished toward the end of
the apostolic age and during the half century that followed it,
including Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp of Smyrna and
the author known as "Barnabas." Their writings, like those of the
apostles, are epistolary; but editions of the apostolic fathers now
usually admit also the early Church order known as the _Didache_, the
allegory entitled the _Shepherd_, and a short anonymous apology
addressed to one Diognetus. A second group, known as the "Greek
Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and
Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers,
Irenaeus and Hippolytus. Next come the great Alexandrians, Clement,
Origen, Dionysius; the Carthaginians, Tertullian and Cyprian; the
Romans, Minucius Felix and Novatian; the last four laid the foundations
of a Latin Christian literature. Even the stormy days of the last
persecution yielded some considerable writers, such as Methodius in the
East and Lactantius in the West. This list is far from complete; the
principal collections of the ante-Nicene fathers include not a few minor
and anonymous writers, and the fragments of many others whose works as a
whole have perished.

In the post-Nicene period the literary output of the Church was greater.
Only the more representative names can be mentioned here. From
Alexandria we get Athanasius, Didymus and Cyril; from Cyrene, Synesius;
from Antioch, Theodore of Mopsuestia, John Chrysostom and Theodoret;
from Palestine, Eusebius of Caesarea and Cyril of Jerusalem; from
Cappadocia, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus. The Latin
West was scarcely less productive; it is enough to mention Hilary of
Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, Leo of Rome, Jerome,
Rufinus, and a father lately restored to his place in patristic
literature, Niceta of Remesiana.[6] Gaul alone has a goodly list of
Christian authors to show: John Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Hilary of
Arles, Prosper of Aquitaine, Salvian of Marseilles, Sidonius Apollinaris
of Auvergne, Caesarius of Arles, Gregory of Tours. The period ends in
the West with two great Italian names, Cassiodorus and Pope Gregory I.,
after Leo the greatest of papal theologians.

The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of
the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection
ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from
Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventy-six with the Latin
fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.[7]

For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred
to the articles which deal with them separately. In this place it is
enough to consider the general influence of the patristic writings upon
Christian doctrine and biblical interpretation. Can any authority be
claimed for their teaching or their exegesis, other than that which
belongs to the best writers of every age. The decree of the council of
Trent[8] (_ut nemo ... contra unanimum consensum patrum ipsam scripturam
sacram interpretari audeat_) is studiously moderate, and yet it seems to
rule that under certain circumstances it is not permitted to the Church
of later times to carry the science of biblical interpretation beyond
the point which it had reached at the end of the patristic period. Roman
Catholic writers,[9] however, have explained the prohibition to apply to
matters of faith only, and in that case the Tridentine decree is little
else than another form of the Vincentian canon which has been widely
accepted in the Anglican communion: _curandum est ut id teneamus quod
ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est_. The fathers of the
first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken
to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during
the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds
and dogmatic decisions of Christendom. The English reformers realized
this fact; and notwithstanding their insistence on the unique authority
of the canon of Scripture, their appeal to the fathers as
representatives of the teaching of the undivided Church was as
wholehearted as that of the Tridentine divines. Thus the English canon
of 1571 directs preachers "to take heed that they do not teach anything
in their sermons as though they would have it completely held and
believed by the people, save what is agreeable to the doctrine of the
Old and New Testaments, and what the Catholic Fathers and ancient
Bishops have gathered from that doctrine." Depreciation of the fathers
was characteristic, not of the Anglican reformation, but of the revolt
against some of its fundamental principles which was led by the Puritan
reaction.[10]

Now that the smoke of these controversies has passed away, it is
possible to form a clearer judgment upon the merits of the patristic
writings. They are no longer used as an armoury from which opposite
sides may draw effective weapons, offensive or defensive; nor on the
other hand are they cast aside as the rubbish of an ignorant and
superstitious age. All patristic students now recognize the great
inequality of these authors, and admit that they are not free from the
faults of their times; it is not denied that much of their exegesis is
untenable, or that their logic is often feeble and their rhetoric
offensive to modern taste. But against these disadvantages may be set
the unique services which the fathers still render to Christian
scholars. Their works comprise the whole literature of our faith during
the decisive centuries which followed the apostolic age. They are
important witnesses to the text of the New Testament, to the history of
the canon, and to the history of interpretation. It is to their pages
that we owe nearly all that we know of the life of ancient Christianity.
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the
minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the
results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language
which leaves little to be desired.[11]

  AUTHORITIES.--The earliest writer on patristics was Jerome, whose book
  _De viris illustribus_ gives a brief account of one hundred and
  thirty-five Church writers, beginning with St Peter and ending with
  himself. Jerome's work was continued successively by Gennadius of
  Marseilles, Isidore of Seville, and Ildefonsus of Toledo; the
  last-named writer brings the list down to the middle of the 7th
  century. Since the revival of learning books on the fathers have been
  numerous; among the more recent and most accessible of these we may
  mention Smith and Wace's _Dictionary of Christian Biography_,
  Hauck-Herzog's _Realencyklopädie_, Bardenhewer's _Patrologie_ and
  _Geschichte der altkirchlichen Litteratur_, Harnack's _Geschichte der
  altchristlichen Litteratur bei Eusebius_ and Ehrard's _Die
  altchristliche Litteratur und ihre Erforschung_. A record of patristic
  collections and editions down to 1839 may be found in Dowling's
  _Notitia Scriptorum SS. Patrum_. The contents of the volumes of
  Migne's patrologies are given in the _Catalogue général des livres de
  l'abbé Migne_, and a useful list in alphabetical order of the writers
  in the Greek _Patrologia_ has been compiled by Dr J.B. Pearson
  (Cambridge, 1882). Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but
  since the completion of his great undertaking two important
  collections have been begun on critical lines--the Vienna edition of
  the Latin Church writers,[12] and the Berlin edition of the Greek
  writers of the ante-Nicene period.[13]

  For English readers there are three series of translations from the
  fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford _Library of the
  Fathers_, the _Ante Nicene Christian Library_ and the _Select Library
  of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers_. Satisfactory lexicons of patristic
  Greek and Latin are still a desideratum: but assistance may be
  obtained in the study of the Greek fathers from Suicer's _Thesaurus_,
  the _Lexicon of Byzantine Greek_ by E.A. Sophocles, and the _Lexicon
  Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum_ of Van Herwerden; whilst the new
  great _Latin Lexicon_, published by the Berlin Academy, is calculated
  to meet the needs of students of Latin patristic literature. For a
  fuller list of books useful to the reader of the Greek and Latin
  fathers see H.B. Swete's _Patristic Study_ (2nd ed., 1902).
       (H. B. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Buxtorf, s.v. _Abh_, and cf. the title of the tract _Pirke
    Aboth_ (ed. Taylor, p. 3).

  [2] _Polyc. Mart_. 8.

  [3] _Studia biblica_, iv. p. 273.

  [4] In his book _De viris illustribus_.

  [5] The term _patres apostolici_ is due to the patristic scholars of
    the 17th century: see Lightfoot, _St Clement of Rome_, i. p. 3.
    "Sub-apostolic" is perhaps a more accurate designation.

  [6] The _editio princeps_ of Niceta's works was published by Dr A.E.
    Burn in 1905.

  [7] The Greek patrology contains, however, besides the text, a Latin
    translation, and in both patrologies there is much editorial matter.

  [8] Sess. iv.

  [9] E.G. Möhler, _Symbolism_ (E. tr.) § 42.

  [10] See J.J. Blunt, _Right Use of the Fathers_, p. 15 ff.

  [11] See Stanton, _Place of Authority in Religion_, p. 165 f.

  [12] _Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum_.

  [13] _Griechischen christlichen Schriftstellern der ersten drei
    Jahrhunderte_.



FATHOM (a word common, in various forms, to Scandinavian and Teutonic
languages; cf. Danish _favn_, Dutch _vaam_ and Ger. _Faden_, and meaning
"the arms extended"; the ultimate origin is a root _pet_, seen in the
Gr. [Greek: petannunai], to spread), a measure of length, being the
distance from the tip of one middle finger to the tip of the other, when
the arms are stretched out to their widest extent. This length has been
standardized to a measure of 6 ft., and as such is used mainly in
soundings as a unit for measuring the depth of the sea. "Fathom" is also
used in the measurement of timber, when it is equivalent to 6 ft. sq.;
similarly, in mining, a fathom is a portion of ground running the whole
thickness of the vein of ore, and is 6 ft. in breadth and thickness. The
verb "to fathom," i.e. to sound or measure with a fathom-line, is used
figuratively, meaning to go into a subject deeply, to penetrate, or to
explore thoroughly.



FATIMITES, or FATIMIDES, the name of a dynasty called after Fatima,
daughter of the prophet Mahomet, from whom and her husband the caliph
Ali, son of Abu Talib, they claimed descent. The dynasty is also called
'Obaidi (Ubaidi) after 'Obaidallah, the first sovereign, and 'Alawi, a
title which it shares with other dynasties claiming the same ancestry.
For a list of sovereigns see EGYPT, section _History_ (Mahommedan
period); three, however, must be prefixed who reigned in north-western
Africa before the annexation of Egypt: al-Mahdi 'Obaidallah 297 (909);
al-Qa'im Mahommed 322 (934); al-Mansur Isma'il 334 (945).

The dynasty owed its rise to the attachment to the family of the prophet
which was widespread in the Moslem world, and the belief that the
sovereignty was the right of one of its members. Owing, however, to the
absence of the principle of primogeniture there was difference of
opinion as to the person whose claim should be enforced, and a number of
sects arose maintaining the rights of different branches of the family.
The Fatimites were supported by those who regarded the sovereignty as
vested in Isma'il, son of Ja'far al-Sadiq, great-great-grandson of Ali,
through his second son Hosain (Husain). Of this Isma'il the first
Fatimite caliph was supposed to be the great-grandson. The line of
ancestors between him and Isma'il is, however, variously given, even his
father's name being quite uncertain, and in some of the pedigrees even
Isma'il does not figure. Apparently when the family first became of
political importance their Alid descent was not disputed at Bagdad, and
the poet al-Sharif al-Radi (d. A.H. 406: A.D. 1015), in whose family the
office of Naqib (registrar of the Alids) was hereditary, appears to have
acknowledged it (_Diwan_, ed. Beirut, p. 972). When their success became
a menace to the caliphs of Bagdad, genealogists were employed to
demonstrate the falsity of the claim, and a considerable literature,
both official and unofficial, rose in consequence. The founder of the
dynasty was made out to be a scion of a family of heretics from whom the
terrible Carmathian sect had originated: later on (perhaps owing to the
rôle played by Jacob, son of Killis, in bringing the Fatimites to
Egypt), the founder was made out to have been a Jew, either as having
been adopted by the heretic supposed to be his father, or as having been
made to personate the real 'Obaidallah, who had been killed in
captivity. While the stories that make him of either Jewish or
Carmathian origin may be neglected, as the product of malice, the
uncertainty of the genealogies offered by their partisans renders any
positive solution of the problem impossible. What seems to be clear is
that secretly within the Abbasid empire propaganda was carried on in
favour of one or other Alid aspirant, and the danger which any such
aspirant incurred by coming forward openly led to his whereabouts being
concealed except from a very few adherents. What is known then is that
towards the end of the 3rd Islamic century the leader of the sect of
Isma'i-lites (Assassins, q.v.) who afterwards mounted a throne, lived at
Salamia, near Emesa (Homs), having agents spread over Arabia, Persia and
Syria, and frequently receiving visits from pious adherents, who had
been on pilgrimage to the grave of Hosain (Husain). Such visitors
received directions and orders such as are usual in secret societies.
One of these agents, Abu Abdallah al-Hosain called al-Shi'i, said to
have filled the office of censor (_muhtasib_) at Basra, received orders
to carry on a mission in Arabia, and at Mecca is said to have made the
acquaintance of some members of the Berber tribe Kutama, south of the
bay of Bougie. These persons persuaded him to travel home with them in
the character of teacher of the Koran, but according to some authorities
the ground had already been prepared there for a political mission. He
arrived in the Kutama country in June 893, and appears very soon to have
been made chief, thereby exciting the suspicion of the Aghlabite ruler
of Kairawan, Ibrahim b. Ahmad, which, however, was soon allayed. His
success provoked a civil war among the Berbers, but he was protected by
a chief named Hasan b. Harun, and displayed sufficient military ability
to win respect. Nine years after his arrival he made use of the unrest
following on the death of the Aghlabite Ibrahim to attack the town of
Mila, which he took by treachery, and turned into his capital; the son
and successor of Ibrahim, Abu'l-'Abbas 'Abdallah, sent his son al-Ahwal
to deal with the new power, and he defeated al-Shi'i in some battles,
but in 903 al-Ahwal was recalled by his brother Ziyadatallah, who had
usurped the throne, and put to death.

At some time after his first successes al-Shi'i sent a messenger
(apparently his brother) to the head of his sect at Salamia, bidding him
come to the Kutama country, and place himself at the head of affairs,
since al-Shi'i's followers had been taught to pay homage to a Mahdi who
would at some time be shown them. It is said that 'Obaidallah, who now
held this post, was known to the court at Bagdad, and that on the news
of his departure orders were sent to the governor of Egypt to arrest
him; but by skilful simulation 'Obaidallah succeeded in escaping this
danger, and with his escort reached Tripoli safely. Instructions had by
this time reached the Aghlabite Ziyadatallah to be on the watch for the
Mahdi, who was finally arrested at Sijilmasa (Tafilalt) in the year A.H.
292 (A.D. 905); his companion, al-Shi'i's brother, had been arrested at
an earlier point, and the Mahdi's journey to the south-west must have
been to elude pursuit.

The invitation to the Mahdi turned out to have been premature; for
Ziyadatallah had sent a powerful army to oppose al-Shi'i, which, making
Constantine its headquarters, had driven al-Shi'i into the mountains:
after six months al-Shi'i secured an opportunity for attacking it, and
won a complete victory. Early in 906 another army was sent to deal with
al-Shi'i, and an earnest appeal came from the caliph Muqtafi (Moktafi),
addressed to all the Moslems of Africa, to aid Ziyadatallah against the
usurper. The operations of the Aghlabite prince were unproductive of any
decided result, and by September 906 al-Shi'i had got possession of the
important fortress Tubna and some others. Further forces were
immediately sent to the front by Ziyadatallah, but these were defeated
by al-Shi'i and his officers, to whom other towns capitulated, till
Ziyadatallah found it prudent to retire from Al-Urbus or Laribus, which
had been his headquarters, and entrench himself in Raqqada, one of the
two capitals of his kingdom, Kairawan being the other. Ziyadatallah is
charged by the chroniclers with dissoluteness and levity, and even
cowardice: after his retreat the fortresses and towns in what now
constitute the department of Constantine and in Tunisia fell fast into
al-Shi'i's hands, and he was soon able to threaten Raqqada itself.

By March 909 Raqqada had become untenable, and Ziyadatallah resolved to
flee from his kingdom; taking with him his chief possessions, he made
for Egypt, and thence to 'Irak: his final fate is uncertain. The cities
Raqqada and Kairawan were immediately occupied by Al-Shi'i, who
proceeded to send governors to the other places of importance in what
had been the Aghlabite kingdom, and to strike new coins, which, however,
bore no sovereign's name. Orders were given that the Shi'ite
peculiarities should be introduced into public worship.

In May 909 al-Shi'i led a tremendous army westwards to the kingdom of
Tahert, where he put an end to the Rustamite dynasty, and appointed a
governor of his own: he thence proceeded to Sijilmasa where 'Obaidallah
lay imprisoned, with the intention of releasing him and placing him on
the throne. After a brief attempt at resistance, the governor fled, and
al-Shi'i entered the city, released 'Obaidallah and presented him to the
army as the long-promised Imam. The day is given as the 26th of August
909. 'Obaidallah had been in prison more than three years. Whether his
identity with the Mahdi for whom al-Shi'i had been fighting was known to
the governor of Sijilmasa is uncertain. If it was, the governor and his
master the Aghlabite sovereign might have been expected to make use of
their knowledge and outwit al-Shi'i by putting his Mahdi to death.
Opponents of the Fatimites assert that this was actually done, and that
the Mahdi presented to the army was not the real 'Obaidallah, but (as
usual) a Jewish captive, who had been suborned to play the rôle.

The chief command was now assumed by 'Obaidallah, who took the title
"al-Mahdi, Commander of the Faithful," thereby claiming the headship of
the whole Moslem world: Raqqada was at the first made the seat of the
court, and the Shi'ite doctrines were enforced on the inhabitants, not
without encountering some opposition. Revolts which arose in different
parts of the Aghlabite kingdom were, however, speedily quelled.

The course followed by 'Obaidallah in governing independently of
al-Shi'i soon led to dissatisfaction on the part of the latter, who,
urged on it is said by his brother, decided to dethrone their Mahdi, and
on the occasion of an expedition to Ténés, which al-Shi'i- commanded,
organized a conspiracy with that end. The conspiracy was betrayed to
'Obaidallah, who took steps to defeat it, and on the last day of July
911 contrived to assassinate both al-Shi'i and his brother. Thus the
procedure which had characterized the accession of the 'Abbasid dynasty
was repeated. It has been conjectured that these assassinations lost the
Fatimites the support of the organization that continued to exist in the
East, whence the Carmathians figure as an independent and even hostile
community, though they appear to have been amenable to the influence of
the African caliph.

'Obaidallah had now to face the dissatisfaction of the tribes whose
allegiance al-Shi'i had won, especially the Kutama, Zenata and Lawata:
the uprising of the first assumed formidable proportions, and they even
elected a Mahdi of their own, one Kadu b. Mu'arik al-Mawati, who
promulgated a new revelation for their guidance. They were finally
defeated by 'Obaidallah's son Abu'l-Qasim Mahommed, who took
Constantine, and succeeded in capturing the new Mahdi, whom he brought
to Raqqada. Other opponents were got rid of by 'Obaidallah by ruthless
executions. By the middle of the year 913 by his own and his son's
efforts he had brought his kingdom into order. After the style of most
founders of dynasties he then selected a site for a new capital, to be
called after his title Mahdia (q.v.), on a peninsula called Hamma (Cape
Africa) S.S.E. of Kairawan. Eight years were spent in fortifying this
place, which in 921 was made the capital of the empire.

After defeating internal enemies 'Obaidallah turned his attention to the
remaining 'Abbasid possessions in Africa, and his general Habasah b.
Yusuf in the year 913 advanced along the northern coast, taking various
places, including the important town of Barca, his progress, it is said,
being marked by great cruelty. He then advanced towards Egypt, and
towards the end of July 914, being reinforced by Abu'l-Qasim, afterwards
al-Qa'im, entered Alexandria. The danger led to measures of unusual
energy being taken by the Bagdad caliph Moqtadir, an army being sent to
Egypt under Mu'nis, and a special post being organized between that
country and Bagdad to convey messages uninterruptedly. The Fatimite
forces were defeated, partly owing to the insubordination of the general
Habasah, in the winter of 914, and returned to Barca and Kairawan with
great loss.

A second expedition was undertaken against Egypt in the year 919, and on
the 10th of July Alexandria was entered by Abu'l-Qasim, who then
advanced southward, seizing the Fayum and Ushmunain (Eshmunain). He was
presently reinforced by a fleet, which, however, was defeated at Rosetta
in March of the year 920 by a fleet despatched from Tarsus by the
'Abbasid caliph Moqtadir, most of the vessels being burned. Through the
energetic measures of the caliph, who sent repeated reinforcements to
Fostat, Abu'l-Qasim was compelled in the spring of 921 to evacuate the
places which he had seized, and return to the west with the remains of
his army, which had suffered much from plague as well as defeat on the
field. On his return he found that the court had migrated from Raqqada
to the new capital Mahdia (q.v.). Meanwhile other expeditions had been
despatched by 'Obaidallah towards the west, and Nekor (Nakur) and Fez
had been forced to acknowledge his sovereignty.

The remaining years of 'Obaidallah's reign were largely spent in dealing
with uprisings in various parts of his dominions, the success of which
at times reduced the territory in which he was recognized to a small
area.

'Obaidallah died on the 4th of March 933, and was succeeded by
Abu'l-Qasim, who took the title al-Qa'im biamr allah. He immediately
after his accession occupied himself with the reconquest of Fez and
Nekor, which had revolted during the last years of the former caliph. He
also despatched a fleet under Ya'qub b. Ishaq, which ravaged the coast
of France, took Genoa, and plundered the coast of Calabria before
returning to Africa. A third attempt made by him to take Egypt resulted
in a disastrous defeat at Dhat al-Human, after which the remains of the
expedition retreated in disorder to Barca.

The later years of the reign of Qa'im were troubled by the uprising of
Abu Yazid Makhlad al-Zenati, a leader who during the former reign had
acquired a following among the tribes inhabiting the Jebel Aures,
including adherents of the 'Ibadi sect. After having fled for a time to
Mecca, this person returned in 937 to Tauzar (Touzer), the original seat
of his operations, and was imprisoned by Qa'im's order. His sons, aided
by the powerful tribe Zenata, succeeded in forcing the prison, and
releasing their father, who continued to organize a conspiracy on a vast
scale, and by the end of 943 was strong enough to take the field against
the Fatimite sovereign, whom he drove out of Kairawan. Abu Yazid
proclaimed himself a champion of Sunni doctrine against the Shi'is, and
ordered the legal system of Malik to be restored in place of that
introduced by the Fatimites. Apparently the doctrines of the latter has
as yet won little popularity, and Abu Yazid won an enormous following,
except among the Kutama, who remained faithful to Qa'im. On the last day
of October 944, an engagement was fought between Kairawan and Mahdia at
a place called al-Akhawan, which resulted in the rout of Qa'im's forces,
and the caliph's being shortly after shut up in his capital, the suburbs
of which he defended by a trench. Abu Yazid's forces were ill-suited to
maintain a protracted siege, and since, owing to the former caliph's
forethought, the capital was in a condition to hold out for a long time,
many of them deserted and the besiegers gained no permanent advantage.
After the siege had lasted some ten months Abu Yazid was compelled to
raise it (September 945); the struggle, however, did not end with that
event, and for a time the caliph and Abu Yazid continued to fight with
varying fortune, while anarchy prevailed over most of the caliph's
dominions. On the 13th of January 946, Abu Yazid shut up Qa'im's forces
in Susa which he began to besiege, and attempted to take by storm.

On the 18th of May 945, while Abu Yazid was besieging Susa, the caliph
al-Qa'im died at Mahdia, and was succeeded by his son Isma'il, who took
the title Mansur. He almost immediately relieved Susa by sending a
fleet, which joining with the garrison inflicted a severe defeat on Abu
Yazid, who had to evacuate Kairawan also; but though the cities were
mainly in the hands of Fatimite prefects, Abu Yazid was able to maintain
the field for more than two years longer, while his followers were
steadily decreasing in numbers, and he was repeatedly driven into
fastnesses of the Sahara. In August 947 his last stronghold was taken,
and he died of wounds received in defending it. His sons carried on some
desultory warfare against Mansur after their father's death. A town
called Man[s.]ura or Sabra was built adjoining Kairawan to celebrate the
decisive victory over Abu Yazid, which, however, did not long preserve
its name. The exhausted condition of north-west Africa due to the
protracted civil war required some years of peace for recuperation, and
further exploits are not recorded for Mansur, who died on the 19th of
March 952.

His son, Abu Tamim Ma'add, was twenty-two years of age at the time, and
succeeded his father with the title Mo'izz lidin allah. His authority
was acknowledged over the greater part of the region now constituting
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, as well as Sicily, and he appears to have
had serious thoughts of endeavouring to annex Spain. At an early period
in his reign he made Jauhar, who had been secretary under the former
caliph, commander of the forces, and the services rendered by this
person to the dynasty made him count as its second founder after
al-Shi'i. In the years 958 and 959 he was sent westwards to reduce Fez
and other places where the authority of the Fatimite caliph had been
repudiated, and after a successful expedition advanced as far as the
Atlantic. As early as 966 the plan of attempting a fresh invasion of
Egypt was conceived, and preparations made for its execution; but it was
delayed, it is said at the request of the caliph's mother, who wished to
make a pilgrimage to Mecca first; and her honourable treatment by Kafur
when she passed through Egypt induced the caliph to postpone the
invasion till that sovereign's death.

In August 972 Mo'izz resolved to follow Jauhar's pressing invitation to
enter his new capital Cairo. With his arrival there the centre of the
Fatimite power was transferred from Mahdia and Kairawan to Egypt, and
their original dominion became a province called al-Maghrib, which
immediately fell into the hands of a hereditary dynasty, the Zeirids,
acknowledging Fatimite suzerainty. The first sovereign was Bulukkin,
also called Abu'l-Futuh Yusuf, appointed by Mo'izz as his viceroy on the
occasion of his departure for Egypt: separate prefects were appointed
for Sicily and Tripoli; and at the first the minister of finance was to
be an official independent of the governor of the Maghrib. On the death
of Bulukkin in 984 he was succeeded by a son who took the royal title
al-Mansur, under whose rule an attempt was made by the Kutama,
instigated by the caliph, to shake off the yoke of the Zeirids, who
originated from the Sanhaja tribe. This attempt was defeated by the
energy of Mansur in 988; and the sovereignty of the Fatimites in the
Maghrib became more and more confined to recognition in public prayer
and on coins, and the payment of tribute and the giving of presents to
the viziers at Cairo. The fourth ruler of the Zeirid dynasty, called
Mo'izz, endeavoured to substitute 'Abbasid suzerainty for Fatimite: his
land was invaded by Arab colonies sent by the Fatimite caliph, with whom
in 1051 Mo'izz fought a decisive engagement, after which the dominion of
the Zeirids was restricted to the territory adjoining Mahdia; a number
of smaller kingdoms rising up around them. The Zeirids were finally
overthrown by Roger II. of Sicily in 1148.

After the death of al-Adid, the last Fatimite caliph in Egypt, some
attempts were made to place on the throne a member of the family, and at
one time there seemed a chance of the Assassins, who formed a branch of
the Fatimite sect, assisting in this project. In 1174 a conspiracy for
the restoration of the dynasty was organized by 'Umarah of Yemen, a
court poet, with the aid of eight officials of the government: it was
discovered and those who were implicated were executed. Two persons
claiming Fatimite descent took the royal titles al-Mo'tasim billah and
al-Hamid lillah in the years 1175 and 1176 respectively; and as late as
1192 we hear of pretenders in Egypt. Some members of the family are
traceable till near the end of the 7th century of Islam.

The doctrines of the Fatimites as a sect, apart from their claim to the
sovereignty in Islam, are little known, and we are not justified in
identifying them with those of the Assassins, the Carmathians or the
Druses, though all these sects are connected with them in origin. A
famous account is given by Maqrizi of a system of education by which the
neophyte had doubts gently instilled into his mind till he was prepared
to have the allegorical meaning of the Koran set before him, and to
substitute some form of natural for revealed religion. In most accounts
of the early days of the community it is stated that the permission of
wine-drinking and licentiousness, and the community of wives and
property formed part of its tenets. There is little in the recorded
practice of the Fatimite state to confirm or justify these assertions;
and they appear to have differed from orthodox Moslems rather in small
details of ritual and law than in deep matters of doctrine.

  AUTHORITIES.--F. Wüstenfeld, _Geschichte der Fatimiden Chalifen_
  (Göttingen, 1881); E. Mercier, _Histoire de l'Afrique Septentrionale_
  (Paris, 1888); M.J. de Goeje, _Mémoire sur les Carmathes de Bahrain et
  les Fatimides_ (2nd ed., Leiden, 1886); P. Casanova, "Mémoire sur les
  derniers Fatimides," _Mém. Miss. archéologique au Caire_, vol. vi.;
  for the lives of 'Obaidallah and Abu Yazi-d, Cherbonneau in the
  _Journal Asiatique_, sér. iv. vol. 20, and sér. v. vol. 5. See also
  EGYPT: _History_, sect. Mahommedan.     (D. S. M.*)



FAUBOURG, the French name for a portion of a town which lies outside the
walls, hence properly a suburb. The name survives in certain parts of
Paris, such as the Faubourg St Antoine, and the Faubourg St Germain,
&c., which have long since ceased to be suburbs and have become portions
of the town itself. The origin of the word is doubtful. The earlier
spelling _faux-bourg_, and the occurrence in medieval Latin of
_falsus-burgus_ (see Ducange, _Glossarium_, s.v. "Falsus-Burgus"), was
taken as showing its obvious origin and meaning, the sham or
quasi-borough. The generally accepted derivation is from _fors_, outside
(Lat. _foris_, outside the gates), and _bourg_. It is suggested that the
word is the French adaptation of the Ger. _Pfahlbürger_, the burghers of
the pale, i.e. outside the walls but within the pale.



FAUCES (a Latin plural word for "throat"; the singular _faux_ is rarely
found), in anatomy, the hinder part of the mouth, which leads into the
pharynx; also an architectural term given by Vitruvius to narrow
passages on either side of the tablinum, through which access could be
obtained from the atrium to the peristylar court in the rear.



FAUCHER, LÉONARD JOSEPH [LÉON] (1803-1854), French politician and
economist, was born at Limoges on the 8th of September 1803. When he was
nine years old the family removed to Toulouse, where the boy was sent to
school. His parents were separated in 1816, and Léon Faucher, who
resisted his father's attempts to put him to a trade, helped to support
himself and his mother during the rest of his school career by designing
embroidery and needlework. As a private tutor in Paris he continued his
studies in the direction of archaeology and history, but with the
revolution of 1830 he was drawn into active political journalism on the
Liberal side. He was on the staff of the _Temps_ from 1830 to 1833, when
he became editor of the _Constitutionnel_ for a short time. A Sunday
journal of his own, _Le Bien public_, proved a disastrous financial
failure; and his political independence having caused his retirement
from the _Constitutionnel_, he joined in 1834 the _Courrier français_,
of which he was editor from 1839 until 1842, when the paper changed
hands. Faucher belonged in policy to the dynastic Left, and consistently
preached moderation to the more ardent Liberals. On resigning his
connexion with the _Courrier français_ he gave his attention chiefly to
economic questions. He advocated a customs union between the Latin
countries to counter-balance the German Zollverein, and in view of the
impracticability of such a measure narrowed his proposal in 1842 to a
customs union between France and Belgium. In 1843 he visited England to
study the English social system, publishing the results of his
investigations in a famous series of _Études sur l'Angleterre_ (2 vols.,
1845), published originally in the _Revue des deux mondes_. He helped to
organize the Bordeaux association for free-trade propaganda, and it was
as an advocate of free trade that he was elected in 1847 to the chamber
of deputies for Reims. After the revolution of 1848 he entered the
Constituent Assembly for the department of Marne, where he opposed many
Republican measures--the limitation of the hours of labour, the creation
of the national relief works in Paris, the abolition of the death
penalty and others. Under the presidency of Louis Napoleon he became
minister of public works, and then minister of the interior, but his
action in seeking to influence the coming elections by a circular letter
addressed to the prefects was censured by the Constituent Assembly, and
he was compelled to resign office on the 14th of May 1849. In 1851 he
was again minister of the interior until Napoleon declared his intention
of resorting to universal suffrage. After the _coup d'état_ of December
he refused a seat in the consultative commission instituted by Napoleon.
He had been elected a member of the Academy of Moral and Political
Science in 1849, and his retirement from politics permitted a return to
his writings on economics. He had been to Italy in search of health in
1854, and was returning to Paris on business when he was seized by
typhoid at Marseilles, where he died on the 14th of December 1854.

  His miscellaneous writings were collected (2 vols., 1856) as _Melanges
  d'économie politique et de finance_, and his speeches in the
  legislature are printed in vol. ii. of _Léon Faucher, biographie et
  correspondance_ (2 vols., 2nd ed., Paris, 1875).



FAUCHET, CLAUDE (1530-1601), French historian and antiquary, was born at
Paris on the 3rd of July 1530. Of his early life few particulars are
known. He applied himself to the study of the early French chroniclers,
and proposed to publish extracts which would throw light on the first
periods of the monarchy. During the civil wars he lost a large part of
his books and manuscripts in a riot, and was compelled to leave Paris.
He then settled at Marseilles. Attaching himself afterwards to Cardinal
de Tournon, he accompanied him in 1554 to Italy, whence he was several
times sent on embassies to the king, with reports on the siege of Siena.
His services at length procured him the post of president of the chambre
des monnaies, and thus enabled him to resume his literary studies.
Having become embarrassed with debt, he found it necessary, at the age
of seventy, to sell his office; but the king, amused with an epigram,
gave him a pension, with the title of historiographer of France. Fauchet
has the reputation of an impartial and scrupulously accurate writer; and
in his works are to be found important facts not easily accessible
elsewhere. He was, however, entirely uncritical, and his style is
singularly inelegant. His principal works (1579, 1599) treat of Gaulish
and French antiquities, of the dignities and magistrates of France, of
the origin of the French language and poetry, of the liberties of the
Gallican church, &c. A collected edition was published in 1610. Fauchet
took part in a translation of the _Annals_ of Tacitus (1582). He died at
Paris about the close of 1601.



FAUCHET, CLAUDE (1744-1793), French revolutionary bishop, was born at
Dornes (Nièvre) on the 22nd of September 1744. He was a curate of the
church of St Roch, Paris, when he was engaged as tutor to the children
of the marquis of Choiseul, brother of Louis XV.'s minister, an
appointment which proved to be the first step to fortune. He was
successively grand vicar to the archbishop of Bourges, preacher to the
king, and abbot of Montfort-Lacarre. The "philosophic" tone of his
sermons caused his dismissal from court in 1788 before he became a
popular speaker in the Parisian sections. He was one of the leaders of
the attack on the Bastille, and on the 5th of August 1789 he delivered
an eloquent discourse by way of funeral sermon for the citizens slain on
the 14th of July, taking as his text the words of St Paul, "Ye have been
called to liberty." He blessed the tricolour flag for the National
Guard, and in September was elected to the Commune, from which he
retired in October 1790. During the next winter he organized within the
Palais Royal the "Social Club of the Society of the Friends of Truth,"
presiding over crowded meetings under the self-assumed title of
_procureur général de la vérité_. Nevertheless, events were marching
faster than his opinions, and the last occasion on which he carried his
public with him was in a sermon preached at Notre Dame on the 14th of
February 1791. In May he became constitutional bishop of Calvados, and
was presently returned by the department to the Legislative Assembly,
and afterwards to the Convention. At the king's trial he voted for the
appeal to the people and for the penalty of imprisonment. He protested
against the execution of Louis XVI. in the _Journal des amis_ (January
26, 1793), and next month was denounced to the Convention for
prohibiting married priests from the exercise of the priesthood in his
diocese. He remained secretary to the Convention until the accusation of
the Girondists in May 1793. In July he was imprisoned on the charge of
supporting the federalist movement at Caen, and of complicity with
Charlotte Corday, whom he had taken to see a sitting of the Convention
on her arrival in Paris. Of the second of these charges he was certainly
innocent. With the Girondist deputies he was brought before the
revolutionary tribunal on the 30th of October, and was guillotined on
the following day.

  See _Mémoires ... ou Lettres de Claude Fauchet_ (5th ed., 1793);
  _Notes sur Claude Fauchet_ (Caen, 1842).



FAUCIT, HELENA SAVILLE (1817-1898), English actress, the daughter of
John Saville Faucit, an actor, was born in London. Her first London
appearance was made on the 5th of January 1836 at Covent Garden as Julia
in _The Hunchback_. Her success in this was so definitely confirmed by
her subsequent acting of Juliet, Lady Teazle, Beatrice, Imogen and
Hermione, that within eighteen months she was engaged by Macready as
leading lady at Covent Garden. There, besides appearing in several
Shakespearian characters, she created the heroine's part in Lytton's
_Duchess de la Vallière_ (1836), _Lady of Lyons_ (1838), _Richelieu_
(1839), _The Sea Captain_ (1839), _Money_ (1840), and Browning's
_Strafford_ (1837). After a visit to Paris and a short season at the
Haymarket, she joined the Drury Lane company under Macready early in
1842. There she played Lady Macbeth, Constance in _King John_, Desdemona
and Imogen, and took part in the first production of Westland Marston's
_Patrician's Daughter_ (1842) and Browning's _Blot on the Scutcheon_
(1843). Among her successful tours was included a visit to Paris in
1844-1845, where she acted with Macready in several Shakespearian plays.
In 1851 she was married to Mr (afterwards Sir) Theodore Martin, but
still acted occasionally for charity. One of her last appearances was as
Beatrice, on the opening of the Shakespeare Memorial at
Stratford-on-Avon on the 23rd of April 1879. In 1881 there appeared in
_Blackwood's Magazine_ the first of her _Letters on some of
Shakespeare's Heroines_, which were published in book form as _On Some
of Shakespeare's Female Characters_ (1885). Lady Martin died at her home
near Llangollen in Wales on the 31st of October 1898. There is a tablet
to her in the Shakespeare Memorial with a portrait figure, and the
marble pulpit in the Shakespeare church--with her portrait as Saint
Helena--was given in her memory by her husband.

  See Sir Theodore Martin's _Helena Faucit_ (1900).



FAUJAS DE SAINT-FOND, BARTHÉLEMY (1741-1819), French geologist and
traveller, was born at Montélimart on the 17th of May 1741. He was
educated at the Jesuits' College at Lyons; afterwards he went to
Grenoble, applied himself to the study of law, and was admitted advocate
to the parliament. He rose to be president of the seneschal's court
(1765), a post which he honourably filled, but the duties of which
became irksome, as he had early developed a love of nature and his
favourite relaxation was found in visits to the Alps. There he began to
study the forms, structure, composition and superposition of rocks. In
1775 he discovered in the Velay a rich deposit of pozzuolana, which in
due course was worked by the government. In 1776 he put himself in
communication with Buffon, who was not slow to perceive the value of his
labours. Invited by Buffon to Paris, he quitted the law, and was
appointed by Louis XVI. assistant naturalist to the museum, to which
office was added some years later (1785, 1788) that of royal
commissioner for mines. One of the most important of his works was the
_Recherches sur les volcans éteints du Vivarais et du Velay_, which
appeared in 1778. In this work, rich in facts and observations, he
developed his theory of the origin of volcanoes. In his capacity of
commissioner for mines Faujas travelled in almost all the countries of
Europe, everywhere devoting attention to the nature and constituents of
the rocks. It was he who first recognized the volcanic nature of the
basaltic columns of the cave of Fingal (Staffa), although the island was
visited in 1772 by Sir Joseph Banks, who remarked that the stone "is a
coarse kind of _Basaltes_, very much resembling the Giants' Causeway in
Ireland" (Pennant's _Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides_).
Faujas's _Voyage en Angleterre, en Écosse et aux Îles Hébrides_ (1797)
is full of interest--containing anecdotes of Sir Joseph Banks and Dr
John Whitehurst, and an amusing account of "The Dinner of an Academic
Club" (the Royal Society), and has been translated into English (2
vols., 1799). Having been nominated in 1793 professor at the Jardin des
Plantes, he held this post till he was nearly eighty years of age,
retiring in 1818 to his estate of Saint-Fond in Dauphiné. Faujas took a
warm interest in the balloon experiments of the brothers Montgolfier,
and published a very complete _Description des expériences de la machine
aérostatique de MM. Montgolfier_, &c. (1783, 1784). He contributed many
scientific memoirs to the _Annales_ and the _Mémoires_ of the museum of
natural history. Among his separate works, in addition to those already
named are--_Histoire naturelle de la province de Dauphiné_ (1781, 1782);
_Minéralogie des volcans_ (1784); and _Essai de géologie_ (1803-1809).
Faujas died on the 18th of July 1819.



FAULT (Mid. Eng. _faute_, through the French, from the popular Latin use
of _fallere_, to fail; the original _l_ of the Latin being replaced in
English in the 15th century), a failing, mistake or defect.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Section of clean-cut fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Section of strata, bent at a line of fault.]

In geology, the term is given to a plane of dislocation in a portion of
the earth's crust; synonyms used in mining are "trouble," "throw" and
"heave"; the German equivalent is _Verwerfung_, and the French _faille_.
Faults on a small scale are sometimes sharply-defined planes,[1] as if
the rocks had been sliced through and fitted together again after being
shifted (fig. 1). In such cases, however, the harder portions of the
dislocated rocks will usually be found "slickensided." More frequently
some disturbance has occurred on one or both sides of the fault.
Sometimes in a series of strata the beds on the side which has been
pushed up are bent down against the fault, while those on the opposite
side are bent up (fig. 2). Most commonly the rocks on both sides are
considerably broken, jumbled and crumpled, so that the line of fracture
is marked by a belt or wall-like mass of fragmentary rock, _fault-rock_,
which may be several yards in breadth. Faults are to be distinguished
from joints and fissures by the fact that there must have been a
movement of the rock on one side of the fault-plane relatively to that
on the other side. The trace of a fault-plane at the surface of the
earth is a line (or belt of fault-rock), which in geological mapping is
often spoken of as a "fault-line" or "line of fault." Fig. 3 represents
the plan of a simple fault; quite frequently, however, the main fault
subdivides at the extremities into a number of minor faults (fig. 4), or
the main fault may be accompanied by lateral subordinate faults (fig.
5), some varieties of which have been termed _flaws_ or _Blatts_.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Plan of simple fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Plan of a fault splitting into minor faults.]

"Fault-planes" are sometimes perpendicular to the horizon, but more
usually they are inclined at a greater or lesser angle. The angle made
by the fault-plane with the vertical is the _hade_ of the fault (if the
angle of inclination were measured from the horizon, as in determining
the "dip" of strata, this would be expressed as the "dip of the fault").
In figs. 1 and 2 the faults are hading towards the right of the reader.
The amount of dislocation as measured along a fault-plane is the
_displacement_ of the fault (for an illustration of these terms see fig.
18, where they are applied to a thrust fault); the vertical displacement
is the _throw_ (Fr. _rejet_); the horizontal displacement, which even
with vertical movement must arise in all cases where the faults are not
perpendicular to the horizon and the strata are not horizontal, is known
as the _heave_. In fig. 6 the displacement is equal to the throw in the
fault A; in the fault B the displacement is more than twice as great as
in A, while the throw is the same in both; the fault A has no heave, in
B it is considerable. The rock on that side of a fault which has dropped
relatively to the rock on the other is said to be upon the downthrow
side of the fault; conversely, the relatively uplifted portion is the
upthrow side. The two fault faces are known as the "hanging-wall" and
the "foot-wall."

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plan of main fault, with branches.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Section of a vertical and inclined fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Reversed fault, Liddesdale.]

The relationship that exists between the hade and the direction of throw
has led to the classification of faults into "normal faults," which hade
under the downthrow side, or in other words, those in which the
hanging-wall has dropped; and "reversed faults," which hade beneath the
upthrow side, that is to say, the foot-wall exhibits a relative sinking.
Normal faults are exemplified in figs. 1, 2, and 6; in the latter the
masses A and B are on the downthrow sides, C is upthrown. Fig. 7
represents a small reversed fault. Normal faults are so called because
they are more generally prevalent than the other type; they are
sometimes designated "drop" or "gravity" faults, but these are
misleading expressions and should be discountenanced. Normal faults are
regarded as the result of stretching of the crust, hence they have been
called "tension" faults as distinguished from reversed faults, which are
assumed to be due to pressure. It is needful, however, to exercise great
caution in accepting this view except in a restricted and localized
sense, for there are many instances in which the two forms are
intimately associated (see fig. 8), and a whole complex system of faults
may be the result of horizontal (tangential) pressure alone or even of
direct vertical uplift. It is often tacitly assumed that most normal
and reversed faults are due to simple vertical movements of the
fractured crust-blocks; but this is by no means the case. What is
actually observed in examining a fault is the _apparent_ direction of
motion; but the present position of the dislocated masses is the result
of _real_ motion or series of motions, which have taken place along the
fault-plane at various angles from horizontal to vertical; frequently it
can be shown that these movements have been extremely complicated. The
striations and "slickensides" on the faces of a fault indicate only the
direction of the last movement.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Diagram of gently undulating strata cut by a
fault, with alternate throw in opposite directions.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Section of strata cut by step faults.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Trough faults.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Plan of a strike fault.]

A broad monoclinal fold is sometimes observed to pass into a fault of
gradually increasing throw; such a fault is occasionally regarded as
pivoted at one end. Again, a faulted mass may be on the downthrow side
towards one end, and on the upthrow side towards the other, the movement
having taken place about an axis approximately normal to the
fault-plane, the "pivot" in this case being near the centre. From an
example of this kind it is evident that the same fault may at the same
time be both "normal" and "reversed" (see fig. 8). When the principal
movement along a highly inclined fault-plane has been approximately
horizontal, the fault has been variously styled a _lateral-shift_,
_transcurrent fault_, _transverse thrust_ or a _heave fault_. The
horizontal component in faulting movements is more common than is often
supposed.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Section across the plan, fig. 11.]

A single normal fault of large throw is sometimes replaced by a series
of close parallel faults, each throwing a small amount in the same
direction; if these subordinate faults occur within a narrow width of
ground they are known as _distribution faults_; if they are more widely
separated they are called _step faults_ (fig. 9). Occasionally two
normal faults hade towards one another and intersect, and the rock mass
between them has been let down; this is described as a _trough fault_
(fig. 10). A fault running parallel to the strike of bedded rocks is a
_strike fault_; one which runs along the direction of the dip is a _dip
fault_; a so-called _diagonal fault_ takes a direction intermediate
between these two directions. Although the effects of these types of
fault upon the outcrops of strata differ, there are no intrinsic
differences between the faults themselves.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Plan of strata cut by a dip fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Plan of strata traversed by a diminishing
strike fault.]

The effect of normal faults upon the outcrop may be thus briefly
summarized:--a strike fault that hades with the direction of the dip may
cause beds to be cut out at the surface on the upthrow side; if it hades
against the dip direction it may repeat some of the beds on the upthrow
side (figs. 11 and 12). With dip faults the crop is carried forward
(down the dip) on the upthrow side. The perpendicular distance between
the crop of the bed (dike or vein) on opposite sides of the fault is the
"offset." The offset decreases with increasing angle of dip and
increases with increase in the throw of the fault (fig. 13). Faults
which run obliquely across the direction of dip, if they hade with the
dip of the strata, will produce offset with "gap" between the outcrops;
if they hade in the opposite direction to the dip, offset with "overlap"
is caused: in the latter case the crop moves forward (down dip) on the
denuded upthrow side, in the former it moves backward. The effect of a
strike fault of diminishing throw is seen in fig. 14. Faults crossing
folded strata cause the outcrops to approach on the upthrow side of a
syncline and tend to separate the outcrops of an anticline (figs. 15,
16, 17).

In the majority of cases the upthrown side of a fault has been so
reduced by denudation as to leave no sharp upstanding ridge; but
examples are known where the upthrown side still exists as a prominent
cliff-like face of rock, a "fault-scarp"; familiar instances occur in
the Basin ranges of Utah, Nevada, &c., and many smaller examples have
been observed in the areas affected by recent earthquakes in Japan, San
Francisco and other places. But although there may be no sharp cliff,
the effect of faulting upon topographic forms is abundantly evident
wherever a harder series of strata has been brought in juxtaposition to
softer rocks. By certain French writers, the upstanding side of a
faulted piece of ground is said to have a _regard_, thus the faults of
the Jura Mountains have a "_regard français_," and in the same region it
has been observed that in curved faults the convexity is directed the
same way as the _regard_. Occasionally one or more parallel faults have
let down an intervening strip of rock, thereby forming "fault valleys"
or _Graben_ (_Grabensenken_); the Great Rift Valley is a striking
example. On the other hand, a large area of rock is sometimes lifted up,
or surrounded by a system of faults, which have let down the encircling
ground; such a fault-block is known also as a _horst_; a considerable
area of Greenland stands up in this manner.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Plan of an anticline (A) and syncline (S),
dislocated by a fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Section along the upcast side of the fault in
fig. 15.]

Faults have often an important influence upon water-supply by bringing
impervious beds up against pervious ones or vice versa, thus forming
underground dams or reservoirs, or allowing water to flow away that
would otherwise be conserved. Springs often rise along the outcrop of a
fault. In coal and metal mining it is evident from what has already been
said that faults must act sometimes beneficially, sometimes the reverse.
It is a common occurrence for fault-fissures and fault-rock to appear as
valuable mineral lodes through the infilling or impregnation of the
spaces and broken ground with mineral ores.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Section along the downcast side of same fault.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Diagram to illustrate the terminology of faults
and thrusts.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Section of a very large thrust in the Durness
Eriboll district, Scotland.]

In certain regions which have been subjected to very great crustal
disturbance a type of fault is found which possesses a very low
hade--sometimes only a few degrees from the horizontal--and, like a
reversed fault, hades beneath the upthrown mass; these are termed
_thrusts, overthrusts_, or _overthrust faults_ (Fr. _recouvrements,
failles de chevauchement, charriages_; Ger. _Überschiebungen,
Übersprünge, Wechsel, Fallenverwerfungen_). Thrusts should not be
confused with reversed faults, which have a strong hade. Thrusts play a
very important part in the N.W. highlands of Scotland, the Scandinavian
highlands, the western Alps, the Appalachians, the Belgian coal region,
&c. By the action of thrusts enormous masses of rock have been pushed
almost horizontally over underlying rocks, in some cases for several
miles. One of the largest of the Scandinavian thrust masses is 1120 m.
long, 80 m. broad, and 5000 ft. thick. In Scotland three grades of
thrusts are recognized, maximum, major, and minor thrusts; the last have
very generally been truncated by those of greater magnitude. Some of
these great thrusts have received distinguishing names, e.g. the Moine
thrust (fig. 19) and the Ben More thrust; similarly in the coal basin of
Mons and Valenciennes we find the _faille de Boussu_ and the _Grande
faille du midi_. Overturned folds are frequently seen passing into
thrusts. Bayley Willis has classified thrusts as (1) Shear thrusts, (2)
Break thrusts, (3) Stretch thrusts, and (4) Erosion thrusts.

Dr J.E. Marr ("Notes on the Geology of the English Lake District,"
_Proc. Geol. Assoc._, 1900) has described a type of fault which may be
regarded as the converse of a thrust fault. If we consider a series of
rock masses A, B, C--of which A is the oldest and undermost--undergoing
thrusting, say from south to north, should the mass C be prevented from
moving forward as rapidly as B, a low-hading fault may form between C
and B and the mass C may lag behind; similarly the mass B may lag behind
A. Such faults Dr Marr calls "lag faults." A mass of rock suffering
thrusting or lagging may yield unequally in its several parts, and those
portions tending to travel more rapidly than the adjoining masses in the
same sheet may be cut off by fractures. Thus the faster-moving blocks
will be separated from the slower ones by faults approximately normal to
the plane of movement: these are described as "tear faults."

Faults may occur in rocks of all ages; small local dislocations are
observable even in glacial deposits, alluvium and loess. A region of
faulting may continue to be so through more than one geological period.
Little is known of the mechanism of faulting or of the causes that
produce it; the majority of the text-book explanations will not bear
scrutiny, and there is room for extended observation and research. The
sudden yielding of the strata along a plane of faulting is a familiar
cause of earthquakes.

  See E. de Margerie and A. Heim, _Les Dislocations de l'écorce
  terrestre_ (Zürich, 1888); A. Rothpletz, _Geotektonische Probleme_
  (Stuttgart, 1894); B. Willis, "The Mechanics of Appalachian
  Structure," _13th Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. Survey_ (1891-1892, pub. 1893).
  A prolonged discussion of the subject is given in _Economic Geology_,
  Lancaster, Pa., U.S.A., vols. i. and ii. (1906, 1907).
       (A. Ge.; J. A. H.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The _fault-plane_ is not a plane surface in the mathematical
    sense; it may curve irregularly in more than one direction.



FAUNA, the name, in Roman mythology, of a country goddess of the fields
and cattle, known sometimes as the sister, sometimes as the wife of the
god Faunus; hence the term is used collectively for all the animals in
any given geographical area or geological period, or for an enumeration
of the same. It thus corresponds to the term "flora" in respect to plant
life.



FAUNTLEROY, HENRY (1785-1824), English banker and forger, was born in
1785. After seven years as a clerk in the London bank of Marsh, Sibbald
& Co., of which his father was one of the founders, he was taken into
partnership, and the whole business of the firm was left in his hands.
In 1824 the bank suspended payment. Fauntleroy was arrested on the
charge of appropriating trust funds by forging the trustees' signatures,
and was committed for trial, it being freely rumoured that he had
appropriated £250,000, which he had squandered in debauchery. He was
tried at the Old Bailey, and, the case against him having been proved,
he admitted his guilt, but pleaded that he had used the misappropriated
funds to pay his firm's debts. He was found guilty and sentenced to be
hanged. Seventeen merchants and bankers gave evidence as to his general
integrity at the trial, and after his conviction powerful influence was
brought to bear on his behalf, and his case was twice argued before
judges on points of law. An Italian named Angelini even offered to take
Fauntleroy's place on the scaffold. The efforts of his many friends
were, however, unavailing, and he was executed on the 30th of November
1824. A wholly unfounded rumour was widely credited for some time
subsequently to the effect that he had escaped strangulation by
inserting a silver tube in his throat, and was living comfortably
abroad.

  See A. Griffith's _Chronicles of Newgate_, ii. 294-300, and Pierce
  Egan's _Account of the Trial of Mr Fauntleroy_.



FAUNUS (i.e. the "kindly," from Lat. _favere_, or the "speaker," from
_fari_), an old Italian rural deity, the bestower of fruitfulness on
fields and cattle. As such he is akin to or identical with Inuus
("fructifier") and Lupercus (see LUPERCALIA). Faunus also revealed the
secrets of the future by strange sounds from the woods, or by visions
communicated to those who slept within his precincts in the skin of
sacrificed lambs; he was then called Fatuus, and with him was associated
his wife or daughter Fatua. Under Greek influence he was identified with
Pan, and just as there was supposed to be a number of Panisci, so the
existence of many Fauni was assumed--misshapen and mischievous goblins
of the forest, with pointed ears, tails and goat's feet, who loved to
torment sleepers with hideous nightmares. In poetical tradition Faunus
is an old king of Latium, the son of Picus (Mars) and father of Latinus,
the teacher of agriculture and cattle-breeding, and the introducer of
the religious system of the country, honoured after death as a tutelary
divinity. Two festivals called Faunalia were celebrated in honour of
Faunus, one on the 13th of February in his temple on the island in the
Tiber, the other in the country on the 5th of December (Ovid, _Fasti_,
ii. 193; Horace, _Odes_, iii. 18. 10). At these goats were sacrificed to
him with libations of wine and milk, and he was implored to be
propitious to fields and flocks. The peasants and slaves at the same
time amused themselves with dancing in the meadows.



FAURE, FRANÇOIS FÉLIX (1841-1899), President of the French Republic, was
born in Paris on the 30th of January 1841, being the son of a small
furniture maker. Having started as a tanner and merchant at Havre, he
acquired considerable wealth, was elected to the National Assembly on
the 21st of August 1881, and took his seat as a member of the Left,
interesting himself chiefly in matters concerning economics, railways
and the navy. In November 1882 he became under-secretary for the
colonies in M. Ferry's ministry, and retained the post till 1885. He
held the same post in M. Tirard's ministry in 1888, and in 1893 was made
vice-president of the chamber. In 1894 he obtained cabinet rank as
minister of marine in the administration of M. Dupuy. In the January
following he was unexpectedly elected president of the Republic upon the
resignation of M. Casimir-Périer. The principal cause of his elevation
was the determination of the various sections of the moderate republican
party to exclude M. Brisson, who had had a majority of votes on the
first ballot, but had failed to obtain an absolute majority. To
accomplish this end it was necessary to unite among themselves, and
union could only be secured by the nomination of some one who offended
nobody. M. Faure answered perfectly to this description. His fine
presence and his tact on ceremonial occasions rendered the state some
service when in 1896 he received the Tsar of Russia at Paris, and in
1897 returned his visit, after which meeting the momentous
Franco-Russian alliance was publicly announced. The latter days of M.
Faure's presidency were embittered by the Dreyfus affair, which he was
determined to regard as _chose jugée_. But at a critical moment in the
proceedings his death occurred suddenly, from apoplexy, on the 16th of
February 1899. With all his faults, and in spite of no slight amount of
personal vanity, President Faure was a shrewd political observer and a
good man of business. After his death, some alleged extracts from his
private journals, dealing with French policy, were published in the
Paris press.

  See E. Maillard, _Le Président F. Faure_ (Paris, 1897); P. Bluysen,
  _Félix Faure intime_ (1898); and F. Martin-Ginouvier, _F. Faure devant
  l'histoire_ (1895).



FAURÉ, GABRIEL (1845-   ), French musical composer, was born at Pamiers
on the 13th of May 1845. He studied at the school of sacred music
directed by Niedermeyer, first under Dietsch, and subsequently under
Saint-Saëns. He became "maître de chapelle" at the church of the
Madeleine in 1877, and organist in 1896. His works include a symphony in
D minor (Op. 40), two quartets for piano and strings (Opp. 15 and 45), a
suite for orchestra (Op. 12), sonata for violin and piano (Op. 13),
concerto for violin (Op. 14), berceuse for violin, élégie for
violoncello, pavane for orchestra, incidental music for Alexandre Dumas'
_Caligula_ and De Haraucourt's _Shylock_, a requiem, a cantata, _The
Birth of Venus_, produced at the Leeds festival in 1898, a quantity of
piano music, and a large number of songs. Fauré occupies a place by
himself among modern French composers. He delights in the _imprévu_, and
loves to wander through labyrinthine harmonies. There can be no denying
the intense fascination and remarkable originality of his music. His
muse is essentially aristocratic, and suggests the surroundings of the
boudoir and the perfume of the hot-house.



FAURIEL, CLAUDE CHARLES (1772-1844), French historian, philologist and
critic, was born at St Étienne on the 21st of October 1772. Though the
son of a poor joiner, he received a good education in the Oratorian
colleges of Tournon and Lyons. He was twice in the army--at Perpignan in
1793, and in 1796-1797 at Briançon, as private secretary to General J.
Servan de Gerbey (1741-1808); but he preferred the civil service and the
companionship of his friends and his books. In 1794 he returned to St
Étienne, where, but only for a short period, he filled a municipal
office; and from 1797 to 1799 he devoted himself to strenuous study,
more especially of the literature and history, both ancient and modern,
of Greece and Italy. Having paid a visit to Paris in 1799, he was
introduced to Fouché, minister of police, who induced him to become his
private secretary. Though he discharged the duties of this office to
Fouché's satisfaction, his strength was overtasked by his continued
application to study, and he found it necessary in 1801 to recruit his
health by a three months' trip in the south. In resigning his office in
the following year he was actuated as much by these considerations as by
the scruples he put forward in serving longer under Napoleon, when the
latter, in violation of strict republican principles, became consul for
life. This is clearly shown by the fragments of Memoirs discovered by
Ludovic Lalanne and published in 1886.

Some articles which Fauriel published in the _Décade philosophique_
(1800) on a work of Madame de Staël's--_De la littérature considerée
dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales_--led to an intimate
friendship with her. About 1802 he contracted with Madame de Condorcet a
liaison which lasted till her death (1822). It was said of him at the
time that he gave up all his energies to love, friendship and learning.
The salon of Mme de Condorcet was throughout the Consulate and the first
Empire a rallying point for the dissentient republicans. Fauriel was
introduced by Madame de Staël to the literary circle of Auteuil, which
gathered round Destutt de Tracy. Those who enjoyed his closest intimacy
were the physiologist Cabanis (Madame de Condorcet's brother-in-law),
the poet Manzoni, the publicist Benjamin Constant, and Guizot. Later
Tracy introduced to him Aug. Thierry (1821) and perhaps Thiers and
Mignet. During his connexion with Auteuil, Fauriel's attention was
naturally turned to philosophy, and for some years he was engaged on a
history of Stoicism, which was never completed, all the papers connected
with it having accidentally perished in 1814. He also studied Arabic,
Sanskrit and the old South French dialects. He published in 1810 a
translation of the _Parthenais_ of the Danish poet Baggesen, with a
preface on the various kinds of poetry; in 1823 translations of two
tragedies of Manzoni, with a preface "_Sur la théorie de l'art
dramatique_"; and in 1824-1825 his translation of the popular songs of
modern Greece, with a "_Discours préliminaire_" on popular poetry.

The Revolution of July, which put his friends in power, opened to him
the career of higher education. In 1830 he became professor of foreign
literature at the Sorbonne. The _Histoire de la Gaule méridionale sous
la domination des conquerants germains_ (4 vols., 1836) was the only
completed section of a general history of southern Gaul which he had
projected. In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academy of
Inscriptions, and in 1837 he published (with an introduction the
conclusions of which would not now all be endorsed) a translation of a
Provençal poem on the Albigensian war. He died on the 15th of July 1844.
After his death his friend Mary Clarke (afterwards Madame J. Möhl)
published his _Histoire de la littérature provençale_ (3 vols.,
1846)--his lectures for 1831-1832. Fauriel was biased in this work by
his preconceived and somewhat fanciful theory that Provence was the
cradle of the _chansons de geste_ and even of the Round Table romances;
but he gave a great stimulus to the scientific study of Old French and
Provençal. _Dante et les origines de la langue et de la littérature
italiennes_ (2 vols.) was published in 1854.

  Fauriel's _Mémoires_, found with Condorcet's papers, are in the
  Institute library. They were written at latest in 1804, and include
  some interesting fragments on the close of the consulate, Moreau, &c.
  Though anonymous, Lalanne, who published them (_Les Derniers Jours du
  Consulat_, 1886), proved them to be in the same handwriting as a
  letter of Fauriel's in 1803. The same library has Fauriel's
  correspondence, catalogued by Ad. Régnier (1900). Benjamin Constant's
  letters (1802-1823) were published by Victor Glachant in 1906. For
  Fauriel's correspondence with Guizot see _Nouvelle Rev._ (Dec. 1,
  1901, by V. Glachant), and for his love-letters to Miss Clarke
  (1822-1844) the _Revue des deux mondes_ (1908-1909) by E. Rod. See
  further Sainte-Beuve, _Portraits contemporains_, ii.; Antoine
  Guillois, _Le Salon de Mme Helvétius_ (1894) and _La Marquise de
  Condorcet_ (1897); O'Meara, _Un Salon à Paris: Mme Möhl_ (undated);
  and J.B. Galley, _Claude Fauriel_ (1909).



FAUST, or FAUSTUS, the name of a magician and charlatan of the 16th
century, famous in legend and in literature. The historical Faust forms
little more than the nucleus round which a great mass of legendary and
imaginative material gradually accumulated. That such a person existed
there is, however, sufficient proof.[1] He is first mentioned in a
letter, dated August 20, 1507, of the learned Benedictine Johann
Tritheim or Trithemius (1462-1516), abbot of Spanheim, to the
mathematician and astrologer Johann Windung, at Hasfurt, who had
apparently written about him. Trithemius, himself reputed a magician,
and the author of a mystical work (published at Darmstadt in 1621 under
the title of _Steganographica_ and burnt by order of the Spanish
Inquisition), speaks contemptuously of Faust, who called himself
Magister Georgius Sabellicus Faustus Junior, as a fool rather than a
philosopher (_fatuum non philosophum_), a vain babbler, vagabond and
mountebank who ought to be whipped, and who had fled from the city
rather than confront him. The insane conceit of the man was proved by
his boast that, were all the works of Aristotle and Plato blotted from
the memory of men, he could restore them with greater elegance, and that
Christ's miracles were nothing to marvel at, since he could do the like
whenever and as often as he pleased; his debased character by the fact
that he had been forced to flee from the school of which he had been
appointed master by the discovery of his unnatural crimes. The same
unflattering estimate is contained in the second extant notice of Faust,
in a letter of the jurist and canon Konrad Mudt (Mutianus Rufus), of the
3rd of October 1513, to Heinrich Urbanus. Mudt, like Trithemius, simply
regards Faust as a charlatan. Similar is the judgment of another
contemporary, Philipp Begardi, who in the fourth chapter of his _Index
sanitatis_ (Worms, 1539) ranks Faust, with Theophrastus Paracelsus,
among the "wicked, cheating, useless and unlearned doctors."

It was Johann Gast (d. 1572), a worthy Protestant pastor of Basel, who
like Mudt claims to have come into personal contact with Faust, who in
his _Sermones convivales_ (Basel, 1543) first credited the magician with
genuine supernatural qualities. Gast, a man of some learning and much
superstition, believed Faust to be in league with the devil, by whom
about 1525 he was ultimately carried off, and declared the performing
horse and dog by which the necromancer was accompanied to be familiar
and evil spirits. Further information was given to the world by Johann
Mannel or Manlius (d. 1560), councillor and historian to the emperor
Maximilian II., in his _Locorum communium collectanea_ (Basel, undated).
Manlius reports a conversation of Melanchthon, which there is no reason
to suspect of being other than genuine, in which the Reformer speaks of
Faust as "a disgraceful beast and sewer of many devils," as having been
born at Kundling (Kundlingen or Knittlingen), a little town near his own
native town (of Bretten), and as having studied magic at Cracow. The
rest of the information given can hardly be regarded as historical,
though Melanchthon, who, like Luther, was no whit less superstitious
than most people of his time, evidently believed it to be so. According
to him, among other marvels, Faust was killed by the devil wringing his
neck. While he lived he had taken about with him a dog, which was really
a devil. A similar opinion would seem to have been held of Faust by
Luther also, who in Widmann's Faust-book is mentioned as having declared
that, by God's help, he had been able to ward off the evils which Faust
with his sorceries had sought to put upon him. The passage, with the
omission of Faust's name, occurs word for word in Luther's Table-talk
(ed. C.E. Förstemann, vol. i. p. 50). It is not improbable, then, that
Widmann, in supplying the name of the necromancer omitted in the
Table-talk, may be giving a fuller account of the conversation.
Bullinger also, in his _Theatrum de beneficiis_ (Frankf., 1569) mentions
Faust as one of those "of whom the Scriptures speak, in various places,
calling them _magi_." Lastly Johann Weiher, Wierus or Piscinarius
(1515-1588)--a pupil of Cornelius Agrippa, body physician to the duke of
Cleves and a man of enlightenment, who opposed the persecution of
witches--in his _De praestigiis daemonum_ (Basel, 1563, &c.), speaks of
Faust as a drunken vagabond who had studied magic at Cracow, and before
1540 had practised "this beautiful art shamelessly up and down Germany,
with unspeakable deceit, many lies and great effect." He goes on to tell
how the magician had revenged himself on an unhappy parish priest, who
had refused to supply him any longer with drink, by giving him a
depilatory which removed not only the beard but the skin, and further,
how he had insulted a poor wretch, for no better reason than that he had
a black beard, by greeting him as his cousin the devil. Of his
superhuman powers Weiher evidently believes nothing, but he tells the
tale of his being found dead with his neck wrung, after the whole house
had been shaken by a terrific din.

The sources above mentioned, which were but the first of numerous works
on Faust, of more or less value, appearing throughout the next two
centuries, give a sufficient picture of the man as he appeared to his
contemporaries: a wandering charlatan who lived by his wits,
cheiromantist, astrologer, diviner, spiritualist medium, alchemist, or,
to the more credulous, a necromancer whose supernatural gifts were the
outcome of a foul pact with the enemy of mankind. Whatever his
character, his efforts to secure a widespread notoriety had, by the time
of his death, certainly succeeded. By the latter part of the 16th
century he had become the necromancer _par excellence_, and all that
legend had to tell about the great wizards of the middle ages, Virgil,
Pope Silvester, Roger Bacon, Michael Scot, or the mythic Klingsor, had
become for ever associated with his name. When in 1587, the oldest
Faust-book was published, the Faust legend was, in all essential
particulars, already complete.

The origin of the main elements of the legend must be sought far back in
the middle ages and beyond. The idea of a compact with the devil, for
the purpose of obtaining superhuman power or knowledge, is of Jewish
origin, dating from the centuries immediately before and after the
Christian era which produced the Talmud, the Kabbalah and such magical
books as that of Enoch. In the mystical rites--in which blood, as the
seat of life, played a great part--that accompanied the incantations
with which the Jewish magicians evoked the Satanim--the lowest grade of
those elemental spirits (shedim) who have their existence beyond the
dimensions of time and space--we have the prototypes and originals of
all the ceremonies which occupy the books of magic down to the various
versions of the _Höllenzwang_ ascribed to Faust. The other principle
underlying the Faust legend, the belief in the essentially evil
character of purely human learning, has existed ever since the triumph
of Christianity set divine revelation above human science. The legend of
Theophilus--a Cilician archdeacon of the 6th century, who sold his soul
to Satan for no better reason than to clear himself of a false charge
brought against him by his bishop--was immensely popular throughout the
middle ages, and in the 8th century formed the theme of a poem in Latin
hexameters by the nun Hroswitha of Gandersheim, who, especially in her
description of the ritual of Satan's court, displays a sufficiently
lively and original imagination. Equally widespread were the legends
which gathered round the great name of Gerbert (Pope Silvester II.).
Gerbert's vast erudition, like Roger Bacon's so far in advance of his
age, naturally cast upon him the suspicion of traffic with the infernal
powers; and in due course the suspicion developed into the tale,
embellished with circumstantial and harrowing details, of a compact with
the arch-fiend, by which the scholar had obtained the summit of earthly
ambition at the cost of his immortal soul. These are but the two most
notable of many similar stories,[2] and, in an age when the belief in
witchcraft and the ubiquitous activity of devils was still universal, it
is natural that they should have been retold in all good faith of a
notorious wizard who was himself at no pains to deny their essential
truth. The Faust legend, however, owes something of its peculiar
significance also to the special conditions of the age which gave it
birth: the age of the Renaissance and the Reformation. The opinion that
the religious reformers were the champions of liberty of thought against
the obscurantism of Rome is the outgrowth of later experience. To
themselves they were the protagonists of "the pure Word of God" against
the corruptions of a church defiled by the world and the devil, and the
sceptical spirit of Italian humanism was as abhorrent to them as to the
Catholic reactionaries by whom it was again trampled under foot. If
then, in Goethe's drama, Faust ultimately develops into the type of the
unsatisfied yearning of the human intellect for "more than earthly meat
and drink," this was because the great German humanist deliberately
infused into the old story a spirit absolutely opposed to that by which
it had originally been inspired. The Faust of the early Faust-books, of
the ballads, the dramas and the puppet-plays innumerable which grew out
of them, is irrevocably damned because he deliberately prefers human to
"divine" knowledge; "he laid the Holy Scriptures behind the door and
under the bench, refused to be called doctor of Theology, but preferred
to be styled doctor of Medicine." The orthodox moral of the earliest
versions is preserved to the last in the puppet-plays. The Voice to the
right cries: "Faust! Faust! desist from this proposal! Go on with the
study of Theology, and you will be the happiest of mortals." The Voice
to the left answers: "Faust! Faust! leave the study of Theology. Betake
you to Necromancy, and you will be the happiest of mortals!" The Faust
legend was, in fact, the creation of orthodox Protestantism; its moral,
the inevitable doom which follows the wilful revolt of the intellect
against divine authority as represented by the Holy Scriptures and its
accredited interpreters. Faust, the contemner of Holy Writ, is set up as
a foil to Luther, the champion of the new orthodoxy, who with
well-directed inkpot worsted the devil when he sought to interrupt the
sacred work of rendering the Bible into the vulgar tongue.

It was doubtless this orthodox and Protestant character of the Faust
story which contributed to its immense and immediate popularity in the
Protestant countries. The first edition of the _Historia von D. Johann
Fausten_, by an unknown compiler, published by Johann Spies at Frankfort
in 1587, sold out at once. Though only placed on the market in the
autumn, before the year was out it had been reprinted in four pirated
editions. In the following year a rhymed version was printed at
Tübingen, a second edition was published by Spies at Frankfort and a
version in low German by J.J. Balhorn at Lübeck. Reprints and amended
versions continued to appear in Germany every year, till they culminated
in the pedantic compilation of Georg Rudolf Widmann, who obscured the
dramatic interest of the story by an excessive display of erudition and
by his well-meant efforts to elaborate the orthodox moral. Widmann's
version of 1599 formed the basis of that of Johann Nicholaus Pfitzer,
published at Nuremberg in 1674, which passed through six editions, the
last appearing in 1726. Like Widmann, Pfitzer was more zealous for
imparting information than for perfecting a work of art, though he had
the good taste to restore the episode of the evocation of Helen, which
Widmann had expunged as unfit for Christian readers. Lastly there
appeared, about 1712, what was to prove the most popular of all the
Faust-books: _The League with the Devil established by the world-famous
Arch-necromancer and Wizard Dr Johann Faust_. By a Christian Believer
(_Christlich Meynenden_). This version, which bore the obviously false
date of 1525, passed through many editions, and was circulated at all
the fairs in Germany. Abroad the success of the story was scarcely less
striking. A Danish version appeared in 1588; in England the _History of
the Damnable Life and Deserved Death of Dr John Faustus_ was published
some time between 1588 and 1594; in France the translation of Victor
Palma Cayet was published at Paris in 1592 and, in the course of the
next two hundred years, went through fifteen editions; the oldest Dutch
and Flemish versions are dated 1592; and in 1612 a Czech translation was
published at Prague.

Besides the popular histories of Faust, all more or less founded on the
original edition of Spies, numerous ballads on the same subject were
also soon in circulation. Of these the most interesting for the English
reader is A _Ballad of the life and death of Dr Faustus the great
congerer_, published in 1588 with the imprimatur of the learned Aylmer,
bishop of London. This ballad is supposed to have preceded the English
version of Spies's Faust-book, mentioned above, on which Marlowe's drama
was founded.

To Christopher Marlowe, it would appear, belongs the honour of first
realizing the great dramatic possibilities of the Faust legend. _The
Tragicall History of D. Faustus as it hath bene acted by the Right
Honourable the Earle of Nottingham his servants_ was first published by
Thomas Bushall at London in 1604. As Marlowe died in 1593, the play must
have been written shortly after the appearance of the English version of
the Faust story on which it was based. The first recorded performance
was on the 30th of September 1594.

As Marlowe's _Faustus_ is the first, so it is imcomparably the finest of
the Faust dramas which preceded Goethe's masterpiece. Like most of
Marlowe's work it is, indeed, very unequal. At certain moments the poet
seems to realize the great possibilities of the story, only to sacrifice
them to the necessity for humouring the prevailing public taste of the
age. Faustus, who in one scene turns disillusioned from the ordinary
fountains of knowledge, or flies in a dragon-drawn chariot through the
Empyrean to search out the mysteries of the heavens, in another is made
to use his superhuman powers to satisfy the taste of the groundlings for
senseless buffoonery, to swindle a horse-dealer, or cheat an ale-wife of
her score; while Protestant orthodoxy is conciliated by irrelevant
insults to the Roman Church and by the final catastrophe, when Faustus
pays for his revolt against the Word of God by the forfeit of his soul.
This conception, which followed that of the popular Faust histories,
underlay all further developments of the Faust drama for nearly two
hundred years. Of the serious stage plays founded on this theme,
Marlowe's _Faustus_ remains the sole authentic example until near the
end of the 18th century; but there is plenty of evidence to prove that
in Germany the _Comedy of Dr Faust_, in one form or another, was and
continued to be a popular item in the repertories of theatrical
companies until far into the 18th century. It is supposed, with good
reason, that the German versions were based on those introduced into the
country by English strolling players early in the 17th century. However
this may be, the dramatic versions of the Faust legend followed much the
same course as the prose histories. Just as these gradually degenerated
into chap-books hawked at fairs, so the dramas were replaced by
puppet-plays, handed down by tradition through generations of showmen,
retaining their original broad characteristics, but subject to infinite
modification in detail. In this way, in the puppet-shows, the
traditional Faust story retained its popularity until far into the 19th
century, long after, in the sphere of literature, Goethe had for ever
raised it to quite another plane.

It was natural that during the literary revival in Germany in the 18th
century, when German writers were eagerly on the look-out for subjects
to form the material of a truly national literature, the Faust legend
should have attracted their attention. Lessing was the first to point
out its great possibilities;[3] and he himself wrote a Faust drama, of
which unfortunately only a fragment remains, the MS. of the completed
work having been lost in the author's lifetime. None the less, to
Lessing, not to Goethe, is due the new point of view from which the
story was approached by most of those who, after about the year 1770,
attempted to tell it. The traditional Faust legend represented the
sternly orthodox attitude of the Protestant reformers. Even the
mitigating elements which the middle ages had permitted had been
banished by the stern logic of the theologians of the New Religion.
Theophilus had been saved in the end by the intervention of the Blessed
Virgin; Pope Silvester, according to one version of the legend, had
likewise been snatched from the jaws of hell at the last moment. Faust
was irrevocably damned, since the attractions of the _studium
theologicum_ proved insufficient to counteract the fascinations of the
classic Helen. But if he was to become, in the 18th century, the type of
the human intellect face to face with the deep problems of human life,
it was intolerable that his struggles should issue in eternal
reprobation. Error and heresy had ceased to be regarded as crimes; and
stereotyped orthodoxy, to the age of the Encyclopaedists, represented
nothing more than the atrophy of the human intellect. _Es irrt der
Mensch so lang er strebt_, which sums up in one pregnant line the spirit
of Goethe's _Faust_, sums up also the spirit of the age which killed
with ridicule the last efforts of persecuting piety, and saw the birth
of modern science. Lessing, in short, proclaimed that the final end of
Faust must be, not his damnation, but his salvation. This revolutionary
conception is the measure of Goethe's debt to Lessing. The essential
change which Goethe himself introduced into the story is in the nature
of the pact between Faust and Mephistopheles, and in the character of
Mephistopheles himself. The Mephistopheles of Marlowe, as of the old
Faust-books, for all his brave buffoonery, is a melancholy devil, with a
soul above the unsavoury hell in which he is forced to pass a hopeless
existence. "Tell me," says Faust, in the puppet-play, to Mephistopheles,
"what would you do if you could attain to everlasting salvation?" And
the devil answers, "Hear and despair! Were I able to attain everlasting
salvation, I would mount to heaven on a ladder, though every rung were a
razor edge!" Goethe's Mephistopheles would have made no such reply.
There is nothing of the fallen angel about him; he is perfectly content
with his past, his present and his future; and he appears before the
throne of God with the same easy insolence as he exhibits in Dame
Martha's back-garden. He is, in fact, according to his own definition,
the Spirit of Denial, the impersonation of that utter scepticism which
can see no distinction between high and low, between good and bad, and
is therefore without aspiration because it knows no "divine discontent."
And the compact which Faust makes with this spirit is from the first
doomed to be void. Faustus had bartered away his soul for a definite
period of pleasure and power. The conception that underlies the compact
of Faust with Mephistopheles is far more subtle. He had sought happiness
vainly in the higher intellectual and spiritual pursuits; he is content
to seek it on a lower plane since Mephistopheles gives him the chance;
but he is confident that nothing that "such a poor devil" can offer him
could give him that moment of supreme satisfaction for which he craves.
He goes through the traditional mummery of signing the bond with
scornful submission; for he knows that his damnation will not be the
outcome of any formal compact, but will follow inevitably, and only
then, when his soul has grown to be satisfied with what Mephistopheles
can purvey him.

  "Canst thou with lying flattery rule me
     Until self-pleased myself I see,
   Canst thou with pleasure mock and fool me,
     Let that hour be the last for me!
   When thus I hail the moment flying:
     'Ah, still delay, thou art so fair!'
   Then bind me in thy chains undying,
     My final ruin then declare!"[4]

It is because Mephistopheles fails to give him this self-satisfaction
or to absorb his being in the pleasures he provides, that the compact
comes to nothing. When, at last, Faust cries to the passing moment to
remain, it is because he has forgotten self in enthusiasm for a great
and beneficent work, in a state of mind the very antithesis of all that
Mephistopheles represents. In the old Faust-books, Faust had been given
plenty of opportunity for repentance, but the inducements had been no
higher than the exhibition of a throne in heaven on the one hand and the
tortures of hell on the other. Goethe's _Faust_, for all its Christian
setting, departs widely from this orthodox standpoint. Faust shows no
signs of "repentance"; he simply emerges by the innate force of his
character from a lower into a higher state. The triumph, foretold by
"the Lord" in the opening scene, was inevitable from the first, since,
though

  "'Man errs so long as he is striving,
   A good man through obscurest aspiration
   Is ever conscious of the one true way.'"

A man, in short, must be judged not by the sins and follies which may be
but accidents of his career, but by the character which is its essential
outcome.

This idea, which inspired also the kindred theme of Browning's
_Paracelsus_, is the main development introduced by Goethe into the
Faust legend. The episode of Gretchen, for all its tragic interest, does
not belong to the legend at all; and it is difficult to deny the
pertinency of Charles Lamb's criticism, "What has Margaret to do with
Faust?" Yet in spite of all that may be said of the irrelevancies, and
of the discussions of themes of merely ephemeral interest, with which
Goethe overloaded especially the second part of the poem, his _Faust_
remains for the modern world the final form of the legend out of which
it grew, the magnificent expression of the broad humanism which, even in
spheres accounted orthodox, has tended to replace the peculiar _studium
theologicum_ which inspired the early Faust-books.

  See Karl Engel, _Zusammenstellung der Faust-Schriften vom 16.
  Jahrhundert bis Mitte 1884_--a second edition of the _Bibliotheca
  Faustiana_ (1874)--(Oldenburg, 1885), a complete bibliography of all
  published matter concerned, even somewhat remotely, with Faust;
  Goethe's _Faust_, with introduction and notes by K.J. Schröer (2nd
  ed., Heilbronn, 1886); Carl Kiesewetter, _Faust in der Geschichte und
  Tradition_ (Leipzig, 1893). The last book, besides being a critical
  study of the material for the historical and legendary story of Faust,
  aims at estimating the relation of the Faust-legend to the whole
  subject of occultism, ancient and modern. It is a mine of information
  on necromancy and its kindred subjects, as well as on eminent
  theurgists, wizards, crystal-gazers and the like of all ages.
       (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The opinion, long maintained by some, that he was identical with
    Johann Fust, the printer, is now universally rejected.

  [2] Many are given in Kiesewetter's _Faust_, p. 112, &c.

  [3] In the _Literaturbrief_ of Feb. 16, 1759.

  [4] Bayard Taylor's trans.



FAUSTINA, ANNIA GALERIA, the younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius, and
wife of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. She is accused by Dio Cassius and
Capitolinus of gross profligacy, and was reputed to have instigated the
revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. She died in 175 or 176
(so Clinton, _Fasti rom._) at Halala, near Mount Taurus, in Cappadocia,
whither she had accompanied Aurelius. Charitable schools for orphan
girls (hence called _Faustinianae_) were founded in her honour, like
those established by her father Antoninus in honour of his wife, the
elder Faustina. Her statue was placed in the temple of Venus, and she
was numbered among the tutelary deities of Rome. From the fact that
Aurelius was always devoted to her and was heartbroken at her death, it
has been inferred that the unfavourable estimate of the historians is
prejudiced or at least mistaken.

  See Capitolinus, _Marcus Aurelius_; Dio Cassius lxxi. 22, lxxiv. 3; E.
  Renan, in _Mélanges d'histoire et des voyages_, 169-195.



FAVARA, a town of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti, 5 m. E. of
Girgenti by road. Pop. (1901) 20,398. It possesses a fine castle of the
Chiaramonte family, erected in 1280. The town has a considerable
agricultural trade, and there are sulphur and other mines in the
neighbourhood.



FAVART, CHARLES SIMON (1710-1792), French dramatist, was born in Paris
on the 13th of November 1710, the son of a pastry-cook. He was educated
at the college of Louis-le-Grand, and after his father's death carried
on the business for a time. His first success in literature was _La
France délivrée par la Pucelle d'Orléans_, a poem which obtained a prize
of the Académie des Jeux Flor ux. After the production of his first
vaudeville, _Les Deux Jumelles_ (1734), circumstances enabled him to
relinquish business and devote himself entirely to the drama. He
provided many pieces anonymously for the lesser theatres, and first put
his name to _La Chercheuse d'esprit_, which was produced in 1741. Among
his most successful works were _Annette et Lubin, Le Coq du village_
(1743), _Ninette à la cour_ (1753), _Les Trois Sultanes_ (1761) and
_L'Anglais à Bordeaux_ (1763). Favart became director of the Opéra
Comique, and in 1745 married MARIE JUSTINE BENOÎTE DURONCERAY
(1727-1772), a beautiful young dancer, singer and actress, who as "Mlle
Chantilly" had made a successful début the year before. By their united
talents and labours the Opéra Comique rose to such a height of success
that it aroused the jealousy of the rival Comédie Italienne and was
suppressed. Favart, left thus without resources, accepted the proposal
of Maurice de Saxe, and undertook the direction of a troupe of comedians
which was to accompany his army into Flanders. It was part of his duty
to compose from time to time impromptu verses on the events of the
campaign, amusing and stimulating the spirits of the men. So popular
were Favart and his troupe that the enemy became desirous of hearing his
company and sharing his services, and permission was given to gratify
them, battles and comedies thus curiously alternating with each other.
But the marshal, who was an admirer of Mme Favart, began to persecute
her with his attentions. To escape him she went to Paris, and the wrath
of Saxe fell upon the husband. A _lettre de cachet_ was issued against
him, but he fled to Strassburg and found concealment in a cellar. Mme
Favart meanwhile had been established by the marshal in a house at
Vaugirard; but as she proved a fickle mistress she was suddenly arrested
and confined in a convent, where she was brought to unconditional
surrender in the beginning of 1750. Before the year was out the marshal
died, and Mme Favart reappeared at the Comédie Italienne, where for
twenty years she was the favourite actress. To her is largely due the
beginnings of the change in this theatre to performances of a lyric type
adapted from Italian models, which developed later into the genuine
French comic opera. She was also a bold reformer in matters of stage
costume, playing the peasant with bare arms, in wooden shoes and linen
dress, and not, as heretofore, in court costume with enormous hoops,
diamonds and long white kid gloves. With her husband, and other authors,
she collaborated in a number of successful pieces, and one--_La Fille
mal gardée_--she produced alone.

Favart survived his wife twenty years. After the marshal's death in 1750
he had returned to Paris, and resumed his pursuits as a dramatist. It
was at this time that the abbé de Voisenon became intimate with him and
took part in his labours, to what extent is uncertain. He had grown
nearly blind in his last days, and died in Paris on the 12th of May
1792. His plays have been several times republished in various editions
and selections (1763-1772, 12 vols.; 1810, 3 vols.; 1813; 1853). His
correspondence (1759-1763) with Count Durazzo, director of theatres at
Vienna, was published in 1808 as _Mémoires et correspondance littéraire,
dramatique et anecdotique de C.S. Favart_. It furnishes valuable
information on the state of the literary and theatrical worlds in the
18th century.

Favart's second son, CHARLES NICOLAS JOSEPH JUSTIN FAVART (1749-1806),
was an actor of moderate talent at the Comédie Française for fifteen
years. He wrote a number of successful plays:--_Le Diable boiteux_
(1782), _Le Mariage singulier_ (1787) and, with his father, _La
Vieillesse d'Annette_ (1791). His son Antoine Pierre Charles Favart
(1780-1867) was in the diplomatic service, and assisted in editing his
grandfather's memoirs; he was a playwright and painter as well.



FAVERSHAM, a market town and river-port, member of the Cinque Port of
Dover, and municipal borough in the Faversham parliamentary division of
Kent, England, on a creek of the Swale, 9 m. W.N.W. of Canterbury on the
South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 11,290. The church of St
Mary of Charity, restored by Sir G.G. Scott in 1874, is of Early English
architecture, and has some remains on one of the columns of frescoes of
the same period, while the 14th-century paintings in the chancel are in
better preservation. Some of the brasses are very fine, and there is one
commemorating King Stephen, as well as a tomb said to be his. He was
buried at the abbey he founded here, of which only a wall and the
foundations below ground remain. At Davington, close to Faversham, there
are remains, incorporated in a residence, of the cloisters and other
parts of a Benedictine priory founded in 1153. Faversham has a free
grammar school founded in 1527 and removed to its present site in 1877.
Faversham Creek is navigable up to the town for vessels of 200 tons. The
shipping trade is considerable, chiefly in coal, timber and agricultural
produce. The oyster fisheries are important, and are managed by a very
ancient gild, the Company of Free Dredgermen of the Hundred and Manor of
Faversham. Brewing, brickmaking and the manufacture of cement are also
carried on, and there are several large powder mills in the vicinity.
The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area,
686 acres.

There was a Romano-British village on the site of Faversham. The town
(Fauresfeld, Faveresham) owed its early importance to its situation as a
port on the Swale, to the fertile country surrounding it, and to the
neighbourhood of Watling Street. In 811 it was called the king's town,
and a witenagemot was held here under Æthelstan. In 1086 it was assessed
as royal demesne, and a market was held here at this date. An abbey was
built by Stephen in 1147, in which he and Matilda were buried. They had
endowed it with the manor and hundred of Faversham; this grant caused
many disputes between the abbot and men of Faversham concerning the
abbot's jurisdiction. Faversham was probably a member of Dover from the
earliest association of the Cinque Ports, certainly as early as Henry
III., who in 1252 granted among other liberties of the Cinque Ports that
the barons of Faversham should plead only in Shepway Court, but ten
years later transferred certain pleas to the abbot's court. In this
reign also the abbot appointed the mayor, but from the reign of Edward
I. he was elected by the freemen and then installed by the abbot. The
corporation was prescriptive, and a hallmote held in 1293 was attended
by a mayor and twelve jurats. All the liberties of the Cinque Ports were
granted to the barons of Faversham by Edward I. in 1302, and confirmed
by Edward III. in 1365, and by later monarchs. The governing charter
till 1835 was that of Henry VIII., granted in 1545 and confirmed by
Edward VI.



FAVORINUS (2nd century A.D.), Greek sophist and philosopher, flourished
during the reign of Hadrian. A Gaul by birth, he was a native of Arelate
(Arles), but at an early age began his lifelong travels through Greece,
Italy and the East. His extensive knowledge, combined with great
oratorical powers, raised him to eminence both in Athens and in Rome.
With Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise [Greek: Peri tou prôtou
psychrou], with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at
Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and
with Hadrian himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom
he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna. It was
Favorinus who, on being silenced by Hadrian in an argument in which the
sophist might easily have refuted his adversary, subsequently explained
that it was foolish to criticize the logic of the master of thirty
legions. When the servile Athenians, feigning to share the emperor's
displeasure with the sophist, pulled down a statue which they had
erected to him, Favorinus remarked that if only Socrates also had had a
statue at Athens, he might have been spared the hemlock. Of the very
numerous works of Favorinus, we possess only a few fragments (unless the
[Greek: Korinthiakos logos] attributed to his tutor Dio Chrysostom is by
him), preserved by Aulus Gellius, Diogenes Laërtius, Philostratus, and
Suïdas, the second of whom borrows from his [Greek: Pantodapê historia]
(miscellaneous history) and his [Greek: Apomnêmoneumata] (memoirs). As a
philosopher, Favorinus belonged to the sceptical school; his most
important work in this connexion appears to have been [Greek:
Purrhôneioi tropoi] (the Pyrrhonean Tropes) in ten books, in which he
endeavours to show that the methods of Pyrrho were useful to those who
intended to practise in the law courts.

  See Philostratus, _Vitae sophistarum_, i. 8; Suïdas, _s.v._; frags. in
  C.W. Müller, _Frag. Hist. Graec._ iii. 4; monographs by L. Legré
  (1900), T. Colardeau (1903).



FAVRAS, THOMAS DE MAHY, MARQUIS DE (1744-1790), French royalist, was
born on the 26th of March 1744, at Blois. He belonged to a poor family
whose nobility dated from the 12th century. At seventeen he was a
captain of dragoons, and saw some service in the closing campaign of the
Seven Years' War. In 1772 he became first lieutenant of the Swiss guards
of the count of Provence (afterwards Louis XVIII.). Unable to meet the
expenses of his rank, which was equivalent to the grade of colonel in
the army, he retired in 1775. He married in 1776 Victoria Hedwig
Caroline, princess of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg, whose mother, deserted
by her husband Prince Carl Ludwig in 1749, had found refuge with her
daughter in the house of Marshal Soubise. After his marriage he went to
Vienna to press the restitution of his wife's rights, and spent some
time in Warsaw. In 1787 he was authorized to raise a patriotic legion to
help the Dutch against the stadtholder William IV. and his Prussian
allies. Returning to Paris at the outbreak of the Revolution, he became
implicated in schemes for the escape of Louis XVI. from Paris and the
dominance of the National Assembly. He was commissioned by the count of
Provence through one of his gentlemen, the comte de la Châtre, to
negotiate a loan of two million francs from the bankers Schaumel and
Sartorius. Favras took into his confidence certain officers by whom he
was betrayed; and, with his wife, he was arrested on Christmas Eve 1789
and imprisoned in the Abbaye. A fortnight later they were separated,
Favras being removed to the Châtelet. It was stated in a leaflet
circulated throughout Paris that Favras had organized a plot of which
the count of Provence was the moving spirit. A force of 30,000 was to be
raised, La Fayette and Bailly, the mayor of Paris, were to be
assassinated, and Paris was to be starved into submission by cutting off
supplies. The count hastened publicly to disavow Favras in a speech
delivered before the commune of Paris and in a letter to the National
Assembly, although there is no reasonable doubt of his complicity in the
plot that did exist. In the course of a trial of nearly two months'
duration the witnesses disagreed, and even the editor of the
_Révolutions de Paris_ (No. 30) admitted that the evidence was
insufficient but an armed attempt of the Royalists on the Châtelet on
the 26th of January, which was defeated by La Fayette, roused the
suspicious temper of the Parisians to fury, and on the 18th of February
1790, in spite of the courageous defence of his counsel, Favras was
condemned to be hanged. He refused to give any information of the
alleged plot, and the sentence was carried out on the Place de Grève the
next day, to the delight of the populace, since it was the first
instance when no distinction in the mode of execution was allowed
between noble and commoner. Favras was generally regarded as a martyr to
his refusal to implicate the count of Provence, and Madame de Favras was
pensioned by Louis XVI. She left France, and her son Charles de Favras
served in the Austrian and the Russian armies. He received an allowance
from Louis XVIII. Her daughter Caroline married Rüdiger, Freiherr von
Stillfried Ratènic, in 1805.

The official _dossier_ of Favras's trial for high treason against the
nation disappeared from the Châtelet, but its substance is preserved in
the papers of a clerk.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For particulars see A. Tuetey, _Répertoire général des
  sources manuscrites de l'histoire de Paris pendant la Révolution
  Française_ (vol. i., 1890, pp. 175-177); M. Tourneux, _Bibl. de
  l'histoire de Paris pendant la Révolution Française_ (vol. i. pp.
  196-198, 1890). His brother, M. Mahy de Cormère, published a _Mémoire
  justificatif_ in 1790 and a _Justification_ in 1791. See also a memoir
  by Eduard, Freiherr v. Stillfried Ratènic (Vienna, 1881), and an
  article by Alexis de Valon in the _Revue des deux mondes_ (15th June
  1851).



FAVRE, JEAN ALPHONSE (1815-1890), Swiss geologist, was born at Geneva on
the 31st of March 1815. He was for many years professor of geology in
the academy at Geneva, and afterwards president of the Federal
Commission with charge of the geological map of Switzerland. One of his
earliest papers was _On the Anthracites of the Alps_ (1841), and later
he gave special attention to the geology of Savoy and of Mont Blanc, and
to the ancient glacial phenomena of those Alpine regions. His
elucidation of the geological structure demonstrated that certain
anomalous occurrences of fossils were due to repeated interfoldings of
the strata and to complicated overthrust faults. In 1867 he published
_Recherches géologiques dans les parties de la Savoie, du Piémont et de
la Suisse voisines du Mont Blanc_. He died at Geneva in June 1890.

His son ERNEST FAVRE (b. 1845) has written on the palaeontology and
geology of Galicia, Savoy and the Fribourg Alps, and of the Caucasus and
Crimea.



FAVRE, JULES CLAUDE GABRIEL (1809-1880), French statesman, was born at
Lyons on the 21st of March 1809, and began his career as an advocate.
From the time of the revolution of 1830 he openly declared himself a
republican, and in political trials he seized the opportunity to express
his opinions. After the revolution of 1848 he was elected deputy for
Lyons to the Constituent Assembly, where he sat among the moderate
republicans, voting against the socialists. When Louis Napoleon was
elected President of France, Favre made himself conspicuous by his
opposition, and on the 2nd of December 1851 he tried with Victor Hugo
and others to organize an armed resistance in the streets of Paris.
After the _coup d'état_ he withdrew from politics, resumed his
profession, and distinguished himself by his defence of Felice Orsini,
the perpetrator of the attack against the life of Napoleon III. In 1858
he was elected deputy for Paris, and was one of the "Five" who gave the
signal for the republican opposition to the Empire. In 1863 he became
the head of his party, and delivered a number of addresses denouncing
the Mexican expedition and the occupation of Rome. These addresses,
eloquent, clear and incisive, won him a seat in the French Academy in
1867. With Thiers he opposed the declaration of war against Prussia in
1870, and at the news of the defeat of Napoleon III. at Sedan he
demanded from the Legislative Assembly the deposition of the emperor. In
the government of National Defence he became vice-president under
General Trochu, and minister of foreign affairs, with the onerous task
of negotiating peace with victorious Germany. He proved to be less
adroit as a diplomat than he had been as an orator, and committed
several irreparable blunders. His famous statement on the 6th of
September 1870 that he "would not yield to Germany an inch of territory
nor a single stone of the fortresses" was a piece of oratory which
Bismarck met on the 19th by his declaration to Favre that the cession of
Alsace and of Lorraine was the indispensable condition of peace. He also
made the mistake of not having an assembly elected which would have more
regular powers than the government of National Defence, and of opposing
the removal of the government from Paris during the siege. In the peace
negotiations he allowed Bismarck to get the better of him, and arranged
for the armistice of the 28th of June 1871 without knowing the situation
of the armies, and without consulting the government at Bordeaux. By a
grave oversight he neglected to inform Gambetta that the army of the
East (80,000 men) was not included in the armistice, and it was thus
obliged to retreat to neutral territory. He gave no proof whatever of
diplomatic skill in the negotiations for the treaty of Frankfort, and it
was Bismarck who imposed all the conditions. He withdrew from the
ministry, discredited, on the 2nd of August 1871, but remained in the
chamber of deputies. Elected senator on the 30th of January 1876, he
continued to support the government of the republic against the
reactionary opposition, until his death on the 20th of January 1880.

His work include many speeches and addresses, notably _La Liberté de la
Presse_ (1849), _Défense de F. Orsini_ (1866), _Discours de réception à
l'Académie française_ (1868), _Discours sur la liberté intérieure_
(1869). In _Le Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale_, 3 vols.,
1871-1875, he explained his rôle in 1870-1871. After his death his
family published his speeches in 8 volumes.

  See G. Hanotaux, _Histoire de la France contemporaine_ (1903, &c.);
  also E. Benoît-Lévy, _Jules Favre_ (1884).



FAVUS (Lat. for honeycomb), a disease of the scalp, but occurring
occasionally on any part of the skin, and even at times on mucous
membranes. The uncomplicated appearance is that of a number of
yellowish, circular, cup-shaped crusts (scutula) grouped in patches like
a piece of honeycomb, each about the size of a split pea, with a hair
projecting in the centre. These increase in size and become crusted
over, so that the characteristic lesion can only be seen round the edge
of the scab. Growth continues to take place for several months, when
scab and scutulum come away, leaving a shining bare patch destitute of
hair. The disease is essentially chronic, lasting from ten to twenty
years. It is caused by the growth of a fungus, and pathologically is the
reaction of the tissues to the growth. It was the first disease in which
a fungus was discovered--by J.L. Schönlein in 1839; the discovery was
published in a brief note of twenty lines in _Müllers Archiv_ for that
year (p. 82), the fungus having been subsequently named by R. Remak
_Achorion Schönleinii_ after its discoverer. The achorion consists of
slender, mycelial threads matted together, bearing oval, nucleated
gonidia either free or jointed. The spores would appear to enter through
the unbroken cutaneous surface, and to germinate mostly in and around
the hair-follicle and sometimes in the shaft of the hair. In 1892 two
other species of the fungus were described by P.G. Unna and Frank, the
_Favus griseus_, giving rise to greyish-yellow scutula, and the _Favus
sulphureus celerior_, causing sulphur-yellow scutula of a rapid growth.
Favus is commonest among the poorer Jews of Russia, Poland, Hungary,
Galicia and the East, and among the same class of Mahommedans in Turkey,
Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Egypt, Algiers, &c. It is not rare in the
southern departments of France, in some parts of Italy, and in Scotland.
It is spread by contagion, usually from cats, often, however, from mice,
fowls or dogs. Lack of personal cleanliness is an almost necessary
factor in its development, but any one in delicate health, especially if
suffering from phthisis, seems especially liable to contract it. Before
treatment can be begun the scabs must be removed by means of carbolized
oil, and the head thoroughly cleansed with soft soap. The cure is then
brought about by the judicious use of parasiticides. If the nails are
affected, avulsion will probably be needed before the disease can be
reached.



FAWCETT, HENRY (1833-1884), English politician and economist, was born
at Salisbury on the 25th of August 1833. His father, William Fawcett, a
native of Kirkby Lonsdale, in Westmorland, started life as a draper's
assistant at Salisbury, opened a draper's shop on his own account in the
market-place there in 1825, married a solicitor's daughter of the city,
became a prominent local man, took a farm, developed his north-country
sporting instincts, and displayed his shrewdness by successful
speculations in Cornish mining. His second son, Henry, inherited a full
measure of his shrewdness, along with his masculine energy, his
straightforwardness, his perseverance and his fondness for fishing. The
father was active in electioneering matters, and his wife was an ardent
reformer. Henry Fawcett was educated locally and at King's College
school, London, and proceeded to Peterhouse, Cambridge, in October 1852,
migrating in 1853 to Trinity Hall. He was seventh wrangler in 1856, and
was elected to a fellowship at his college.

He had already attained some prominence as an orator at the Cambridge
Union. Before he left school he had formed the ambition of entering
parliament, and, being a poor man, he resolved to approach the House of
Commons through a career at the bar. He had already entered Lincoln's
Inn. His prospects, however, were shattered by a calamity which befell
him in September 1858, when two stray pellets from his father's
fowling-piece passed through the glasses he was wearing and blinded him
for life. Within ten minutes after his accident he had made up his mind
"to stick to his old pursuits as much as possible." He kept up all
recreations contributing to the enjoyment of life; he fished, rowed,
skated, took abundant walking and horse exercise, and learnt to play
cards with marked packs. Soon after his accident he established his
headquarters at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, entered cordially into the
social life of the college, and came to be regarded by many as a typical
Cambridge man. He gave up mathematics (for which he had little
aptitude), and specialized in political economy. He paid comparatively
little attention to economic history, but he was in the main a devout
believer in economic theory, as represented by Ricardo and his school.
The later philosophy of the subject he believed to be summed up in one
book, Mill's _Principles of Political Economy_, which he regarded as the
indispensable "vade mecum" of every politician. He was not a great
reader, and Mill probably never had a serious rival in his regard,
though he was much impressed by Buckle's _History of Civilization_ and
Darwin's _Origin of Species_ when they severally appeared. He made a
great impression in 1859 with a paper at the British Association, and he
soon became a familiar figure there and at various lecture halls in the
north as an exponent of orthodox economic theory. Of the sincerity of
his faith he gave the strongest evidence by his desire at all times to
give a practical application to his views and submit them to the test of
experiment. Among Mill's disciples he was, no doubt, far inferior as an
economic thinker to Cairnes, but as a popularizer of the system and a
demonstrator of its principles by concrete examples he had no rival. His
power of exposition was illustrated in his _Manual of Political Economy_
(1863), of which in twenty years as many as 20,000 copies were sold.
Alexander Macmillan had suggested the book, and it appeared just in time
to serve as a credential, when, in the autumn of 1863, Fawcett stood and
was elected for the Chair of Political Economy at Cambridge. The
appointment attached him permanently to Cambridge, gave him an income,
and showed that he was competent to discharge duties from which a blind
man is often considered to be debarred. He was already a member of the
Political Economy Club, and was becoming well known in political circles
as an advanced Radical. In January 1863, after a spirited though
abortive attempt in Southwark, he was only narrowly beaten for the
borough of Cambridge. Early in 1864 he was adopted as one of the Liberal
candidates at Brighton, and at the general election of 1865 he was
elected by a large majority. Shortly after his election he became
engaged to Millicent, daughter of Mr Newson Garrett of Aldeburgh,
Suffolk, and in 1867 he was married. Mrs Fawcett (b. 1847) became well
known for her social and literary work, and especially as an advocate,
in the press and on the platform, of women's suffrage and the higher
education and independent employment of women. And after her husband's
death, as well as during his lifetime, she was a prominent leader in
these movements.

Fawcett entered parliament just in time to see the close of Palmerston's
career and to hail the adoption by Gladstone of a programme of reform to
which most of the _laissez-faire_ economists gave assent. He was soon
known as a forcible speaker, and quickly overcame the imputation that he
was academic and doctrinaire, though it is true that a certain monotony
in delivery often gave a slightly too didactic tone to his discourses.
But it was as the uncompromising critic of the political shifts and
expedients of his leaders that he attracted most attention. He
constantly insisted upon the right of exercising private judgment, and
he especially devoted himself to the defence of causes which, as he
thought, were neglected both by his official leaders and by his Radical
comrades. Re-elected for Brighton to the parliament of 1868-1874, he
greatly hampered the government by his persistence in urging the
abolition of clerical fellowships and the payment of election expenses
out of the rates, and by opposing the "permissive compulsion" clauses of
the Elementary Education Bill, and the exclusion of agricultural
children from the scope of the act. His hatred of weak concessions made
him the terror of parliamentary wirepullers, and in 1871 he was not
undeservedly spoken of in _The Times_ as the most "thorough Radical now
in the House." His liberal ideals were further shocked by the methods by
which Gladstone achieved the abolition of Army Purchase. His disgust at
the supineness of the cabinet in dealing with the problems of Indian
finance and the growing evil of Commons Enclosures were added to the
catalogue of grievances which Fawcett drew up in a powerful article, "On
the Present Position of the Government," in the _Fortnightly Review_ for
November 1871. In 1867 he had opposed the expenses of a ball given to
the sultan at the India office being charged upon the Indian budget. In
1870 he similarly opposed the taxation of the Indian revenue with the
cost of presents distributed by the duke of Edinburgh in India. In 1871
he went alone into the lobby to vote against the dowry granted to the
princess Louise. The soundness of his principles was not impeached, but
his leaders looked askance at him, and from 1871 he was severely shunned
by the government whips. Their suspicion was justified when in 1873
Fawcett took a leading share in opposing Gladstone's scheme for
university education in Ireland as too denominational, and so
contributed largely to a conclusive defeat of the Gladstone ministry.

From 1869 to 1880 Fawcett concentrated his energies upon two important
subjects which had not hitherto been deemed worthy of serious
parliamentary attention. The first of these was the preservation of
commons, especially those near large towns; and the second was the
responsibility of the British government for the amendment of Indian
finance. In both cases the success which he obtained exhibited the
sterling sense and shrewdness which made up such a great part of
Fawcett's character. In the first case Fawcett's great triumph was the
enforcement of the general principle that each annual Enclosure Act must
be scrutinized by parliament and judged in the light of its conformity
to the interests of the community at large. Probably no one did more
than he did to prevent the disafforestation of Epping Forest and of the
New Forest. From 1869 he regularly attended the meetings of the Commons
Preservation Society, and he remained to the end one of its staunchest
supporters. His intervention in the matter of Indian finance, which
gained him the sobriquet of the "member for India," led to no definite
legislative achievements, but it called forth the best energies of his
mind and helped to rouse an apathetic and ignorant public to its duties
and responsibilities. Fawcett was defeated at Brighton in February 1874.
Two months later, however, he was elected for Hackney, and retained the
seat during his life. He was promptly replaced on the Indian Finance
Committee, and continued his searching inquiries with a view to promote
a stricter economy in the Indian budget, and a more effective
responsibility in the management of Indian accounts.

As an opponent of the Disraeli government (1874-1880) Fawcett came more
into line with the Liberal leaders. In foreign politics he gave a
general adhesion to Gladstone's views, but he continued to devote much
attention to Indian matters, and it was during this period that he
produced two of his best publications. His _Free Trade and Protection_
(1878) illustrated his continued loyalty to Cobdenite ideas. At the same
time his admiration for Palmerston and his repugnance to schemes of Home
Rule show that he was not by any means a peace-at-any-price man. He
thought that the Cobdenites had deserved well of their country, but he
always maintained that their foreign politics were biased to excess by
purely commercial considerations. As befitted a writer whose linguistic
gifts were of the slenderest, Fawcett's English was a sound homespun,
clear and unpretentious. In a vigorous employment of the vernacular he
approached Cobbett, whose writing he justly admired. The second
publication was his _Indian Finance_ (1880), three essays reprinted from
the _Nineteenth Century_, with an introduction and appendix. When the
Liberal party returned to power in 1880 Gladstone offered Fawcett a
place in the new government as postmaster-general (without a seat in the
cabinet). On Egyptian and other questions of foreign policy Fawcett was
often far from being in full harmony with his leaders, but his position
in the government naturally enforced reserve. He was, moreover, fully
absorbed by his new administrative functions. He gained the sympathy of
a class which he had hitherto done little to conciliate, that of public
officials, and he showed himself a most capable head of a public
department. To his readiness in adopting suggestions, and his
determination to push business through instead of allowing it to remain
permanently in the stage of preparation and circumlocution, the public
is mainly indebted for five substantial postal reforms:--(1) The parcels
post, (2) postal orders, (3) sixpenny telegrams, (4) the banking of
small savings by means of stamps, (5) increased facilities for life
insurance and annuities. In connexion with these last two improvements
Fawcett, in 1880, with the assistance of Mr James Cardin, took great
pains in drawing up a small pamphlet called _Aids to Thrift_, of which
over a million copies were circulated gratis. A very useful minor
innovation of his provided for the announcement on every pillar-box of
the time of the "next collection." In the post office, as elsewhere, he
was a strong advocate of the employment of women. Proportional
representation and the extension of franchise to women were both
political doctrines which he adopted very early in his career, and never
abandoned. Honours were showered upon him during his later years. He was
made an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, a fellow of the Royal Society, and
was in 1883 elected lord rector of Glasgow University. But the stress of
departmental work soon began to tell upon his health. In the autumn of
1882 he had a sharp attack of diphtheria complicated by typhoid, from
which he never properly recovered. He resumed his activities, but on the
6th of November 1884 he succumbed at Cambridge to an attack of
congestion of the lungs. He was buried in Trumpington churchyard, near
Cambridge, and to his memory were erected a monument in Westminster
Abbey, a statue in Salisbury market-place, and a drinking fountain on
the Thames embankment.

In economic matters Fawcett's position can best be described as
transitional. He believed in co-operation almost as a panacea. In other
matters he clung to the old _laissez-faire_ theorists, and was a strong
anti-socialist, with serious doubts about free education, though he
supported the Factory Acts and wished their extension to agriculture.
Apparent inconsistencies were harmonized to a great extent by his
dominating anxiety to increase the well-being of the poor. One of his
noblest traits was his kindliness and genuine affection for the humble
and oppressed, country labourers and the like, for whom his sympathies
seemed always on the increase. Another was his disposition to interest
himself in and to befriend younger men. In the great affliction of his
youth Fawcett bore himself with a fortitude which it would be difficult
to parallel. The effect of his blindness was, as the event proved, the
reverse of calamitous. It brought the great aim and purpose of his life
to maturity at an earlier date than would otherwise have been possible,
and it had a mellowing influence upon his character of an exceptional
and beneficent kind. As a youth he was rough and canny, with a suspicion
of harshness. The kindness evoked by his misfortune, a strongly
reciprocated family affection, a growing capacity for making and keeping
friends--these and other causes tended to ripen all that was best, and
apparently that only, in a strong but somewhat stern character. His
acerbity passed away, and in later life was reserved exclusively for
official witnesses before parliamentary committees. Frank, helpful,
conscientious to a fault, a shrewd gossip, and a staunch friend, he was
a man whom no one could help liking. Several of his letters to his
father and mother at different periods of his career are preserved in
Leslie Stephen's admirable _Life_ (1885), and show a goodness of heart,
together with a homely simplicity of nature, which is most touching. In
appearance Fawcett was gaunt and tall, over 6 ft. 3 in. in height, large
of bone, and massive in limb.     (T. Se.)



FAWCETT, JOHN (1768-1837), English actor and playwright, was born on the
29th of August 1768, the son of an actor of the same name (d. 1793). At
the age of eighteen he ran away from school and appeared at Margate as
Courtall in _The Belle's Stratagem_; afterwards he joined Tate
Wilkinson's company and turned from tragedy to low comedy parts. In 1791
he appeared at Covent Garden, and in 1794 at the Haymarket. Colman, then
manager of that house, wrote a number of parts designed to suit his
talents, and two of Fawcett's greatest successes were as Dr. Pangloss in
_The Heir at Law_ (1797) and as Dr Ollapod in _The Poor Gentleman_
(1798). He retired from the stage in 1830.



FAWKES, FRANCIS (1720-1777), English poet and divine, was born at
Warmsworth, near Doncaster, Yorkshire, where his father was rector, and
was baptized on the 4th of April 1720. After studying at Jesus College,
Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1745, he took holy orders, and was
successively curate of Bramham, curate of Croydon, vicar of Orpington,
and rector of Hayes, and finally was made one of the chaplains to the
princess of Wales. His first publication is said to have been _Bramham
Park, a Poem_, in 1745; a volume of poems and translations appeared in
1761; and _Partridge Shooting_, an eclogue, in 1764. His translations of
the minor Greek poets--Anacreon, Sappho, Bion and Moschus, Musaeus,
Theocritus and Apollonius--acquired for him considerable fame, but they
are less likely to be remembered than his fine song, "Dear Tom, this
brown jug, that now foams with mild ale." Fawkes died on the 26th of
August 1777.



FAWKES, GUY (1570-1606), English "gunpowder plot" conspirator, son of
Edward Fawkes of York, a member of a good Yorkshire family and advocate
of the archbishop of York's consistory court, was baptized at St Michael
le Belfrey at York on the 16th of April 1570. His parents were
Protestants, and he was educated at the free school at York, where, it
is said, John and Christopher Wright and the Jesuit Tesimond _alias_
Greenway, afterwards implicated in the conspiracy, were his
schoolfellows. On his father's death in 1579 he inherited his property.
Soon afterwards his mother married, as her second husband, Dionis
Baynbrigge of Scotton in Yorkshire, to which place the family removed.
Fawkes's stepfather was connected with many Roman Catholic families, and
was probably a Roman Catholic himself, and Fawkes himself became a
zealous adherent of the old faith. Soon after he had come of age he
disposed of his property, and in 1593 went to Flanders and enlisted in
the Spanish army, assisting at the capture of Calais by the Spanish in
1596 and gaining some military reputation. According to Father Greenway
he was "a man of great piety, of exemplary temperance, of mild and
cheerful demeanour, an enemy of broils and disputes, a faithful friend
and remarkable for his punctual attendance upon religious observances,"
while his society was "sought by all the most distinguished in the
archduke's camp for nobility and virtue." He is described as "tall, with
brown hair and auburn beard."

In 1604 Thomas Winter, at the instance of Catesby, in whose mind the
gunpowder plot had now taken definite shape, introduced himself to
Fawkes in Flanders, and as "a confident gentleman," "best able for this
business," brought him on to England as assistant in the conspiracy.
Shortly afterwards he was initiated into the plot, after taking an oath
of secrecy, meeting Catesby, Thomas Winter, Thomas Percy and John Wright
at a house behind St Clement's (see GUNPOWDER PLOT and CATESBY, ROBERT).
Owing to the fact of his being unknown in London, to his exceptional
courage and coolness, and probably to his experience in the wars and at
sieges, the actual accomplishment of the design was entrusted to Fawkes,
and when the house adjoining the parliament house was hired in Percy's
name, he took charge of it as Percy's servant, under the name of Johnson
He acted as sentinel while the others worked at the mine in December
1604, probably directing their operations, and on the discovery of the
adjoining cellar, situated immediately beneath the House of Lords, he
arranged in it the barrels of gunpowder, which he covered over with
firewood and coals and with iron bars to increase the force of the
explosion. When all was ready in May 1605 Fawkes was despatched to
Flanders to acquaint Sir William Stanley, the betrayer of Deventer, and
the intriguer Owen with the plot. He returned in August and brought
fresh gunpowder into the cellars to replace any which might be spoilt by
damp. A slow match was prepared which would give him a quarter of an
hour in which to escape from the explosion. On Saturday, the 26th of
October, Lord Monteagle (q.v.) received the mysterious letter which
revealed the conspiracy and of which the conspirators received
information the following day. They, nevertheless, after some
hesitation, hoping that the government would despise the warning,
determined to proceed with their plans, and were encouraged in their
resolution by Fawkes, who visited the cellar on the 30th and reported
that nothing had been moved or touched. He returned accordingly to his
lonely and perilous vigil on the 4th of November. On that day the earl
of Suffolk, as lord chamberlain, visited the vault, accompanied by
Monteagle, remarked the quantity of faggots, and asked Fawkes, now
described as "a very tall and desperate fellow," who it was that rented
the cellar. Percy's name, which Fawkes gave, aroused fresh suspicions
and they retired to inform the king. At about ten o' clock Robert Keyes
brought Fawkes from Percy a watch, that he might know how the anxious
hours were passing, and very shortly afterwards he was arrested, and the
gunpowder discovered, by Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate.
Fawkes was brought into the king's bedchamber, where the ministers had
hastily assembled, at one o'clock. He maintained an attitude of defiance
and of "Roman resolution," smiled scornfully at his questioners, making
no secret of his intentions, replied to the king, who asked why he would
kill him, that the pope had excommunicated him, that "dangerous diseases
require a desperate remedy," adding fiercely to the Scottish courtiers
who surrounded him that "one of his objects was to blow back the Scots
into Scotland." His only regret was the failure of the scheme. "He
carrieth himself," writes Salisbury to Sir Charles Cornwallis,
ambassador at Madrid, "without any feare or perturbation ...; under all
this action he is noe more dismayed, nay scarce any more troubled than
if he was taken for a poor robbery upon the highway," declaring "that he
is ready to die, and rather wisheth 10,000 deaths, than willingly to
accuse his master or any other." He refused stubbornly on the following
days to give information concerning his accomplices; on the 8th he gave
a narrative of the plot, but it was not till the 9th, when the fugitive
conspirators had been taken at Holbeche, that torture could wring from
him their names. His imperfect signature to his confession of this date,
consisting only of his Christian name and written in a faint and
trembling hand, is probably a ghastly testimony to the severity of the
torture ("_per gradus ad ima_") which James had ordered to be applied if
he would not otherwise confess and the "gentler tortures" were
unavailing,--a horrible practice unrecognized by the law of England, but
usually employed and justified at this time in cases of treason to
obtain information. He was tried, together with the two Winters, John
Grant, Ambrose Rokewood, Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, before a special
commission in Westminster Hall on the 27th of January 1606. In this case
there could be no defence and he was found guilty. He suffered death in
company with Thomas Winter, Rokewood and Keyes on the 31st, being drawn
on a hurdle from the Tower to the Parliament House, opposite which he
was executed. He made a short speech on the scaffold, expressing his
repentance, and mounted the ladder last and with assistance, being weak
from torture and illness. The usual barbarities practised upon him after
he had been cut down from the gallows were inflicted on a body from
which all life had already fled.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Hist. of England_, by S.R. Gardiner, vol. i.; and the
  same author's _What Gunpowder Plot was_ (1897); _What was the
  Gunpowder Plot?_ by J. Gerard (1897); _The Gunpowder Plot_, by D.
  Jardine (1857); _Calendar of State Pap. Dom. 1603-1610; State Trials_,
  vol. ii.; _Archaeologia_, xii. 200; R. Winwood's _Memorials; Notes and
  Queries_, vi. ser. vii. 233, viii. 136; _The Fawkeses of York in the
  16th Century_, by R. Davies (1850); _Dict. of Nat. Biog._ and
  authorities cited there. The official account (untrustworthy in
  details) is the _True and Perfect Relation of the Whole Proceedings
  against the late most Barbarous Traitors_ (1606), reprinted by Bishop
  Barlow of Lincoln as _The Gunpowder Treason_ (1679). See also
  GUNPOWDER PLOT.

  The lantern said to be Guy Fawkes's is in the Bodleian library at
  Oxford.     (P. C. Y.)



FÁY, ANDRÁS (1786-1864), Hungarian poet and author, was born on the 30th
of May 1786, at Kohány in the county of Zemplin, and was educated for
the law at the Protestant college of Sárospatak. His _Mesék_ (_Fables_),
the first edition of which appeared at Vienna in 1820, evinced his
powers of satire and invention, and won him the well-merited applause of
his countrymen. These fables, which, on account of their originality and
simplicity, caused Fáy to be regarded as the Hungarian Aesop, were
translated into German by Petz (Raab, 1825), and partly into English by
E.D. Butler, _Hungarian Poems and Fables_ (London, 1877). Fáy wrote also
numerous poems, the chief of which are to be found in the collections
_Bokréta_ (_Nosegay_) (Pest, 1807), and _Fris Bokréta_ (_Fresh Nosegay_)
(Pest, 1818). He also composed plays and romances and tales. In 1835 Fáy
was elected to the Hungarian diet, and was for a time the leader of the
opposition party. It is to him that the Pest Savings Bank owes its
origin, and he was one of the chief founders of the Hungarian National
theatre. He died on the 26th of July 1864. His earlier works were
collected at Pest (1843-1844, 8 vols.). The most noteworthy of his later
works is a humorous novel entitled _Jávor orvos és Bakator Ambrus
szolgáia_ (_Jávor the Doctor and his servant Ambrose Bakator_), (Pest
1855, 2 vols.).



FAYAL (_Faial_), a Portuguese island in the Atlantic Ocean, forming part
of the Azores archipelago. Pop. (1900) 22,262; area, 63 sq. m. Fayal,
i.e. "the beech wood," was so called from the former abundance of the
_Myrica faya_, which its discoverers mistook for beech trees. It is one
of the most frequented of the Azores, for it lies directly in the track
of vessels crossing the Atlantic, and has an excellent harbour at Horta
(q.v.), a town of 6574 inhabitants. Cedros (3278) and Féteira (2002) are
the other chief towns. The so-called "Fayal wine," which was largely
exported from the Azores in the 19th century, was really the produce of
Pico, a larger island lying to the east. The women of Fayal manufacture
fine lace from the agave thread. They also execute carvings in
snow-white fig-tree pith, and carry on the finer kinds of basket-making.
A small valley, called Flemengos, perpetuates the name of the Flemish
settlers, who have left their mark on the physical appearance of the
inhabitants. (See AZORES.)



FAYETTEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Washington county, Arkansas,
U.S.A., about 150 m. N.W. of Little Rock. Pop. (1890) 2942; (1900) 4061;
(1910) 4471. It is served by the St Louis & San Francisco railway. The
city lies about 1400 ft. above the sea, in the Ozark Mountain region.
There is much fine scenery in the neighbourhood, there are mineral
springs near by, and the place has become known as a summer resort.
Fayetteville is the seat of the University of Arkansas (incorporated
1871; opened 1872; co-educational), which includes the following
departments: at Fayetteville, a college of liberal arts, science and
engineering, a conservatory of music and art, a preparatory school, and
an agricultural college and agricultural experiment station; at Little
Rock, a medical school and a law school, and at Pine Bluff, the Branch
Normal College for negroes. In 1908 the university had 122 instructors
and a total enrolment of 1725 students. In Fayetteville there are a
National cemetery with 1236 soldiers' graves (782 "unknown") and a
Confederate cemetery with 725 graves and a memorial monument. In the
vicinity of Fayetteville there are deposits of coal; and the city is in
a fine fruit-growing region, apples being the principal crop. Much of
the surrounding country is still covered with timber. Among manufactures
are lumber, spokes, handles, waggons, lime, evaporated fruit and flour.

The first settlement on the site of what is now Fayetteville was made
between 1820 and 1825; when Washington county was created in 1828 the
place became the county-seat, and it was called Washington Court-house
until 1829, when it received its present name. The citizens of
Fayetteville were mainly Confederate sympathizers; Fayetteville was
raided by Federal cavalry on the 14th of July 1862, and was permanently
occupied by Federal troops in the autumn of the same year. Confederate
cavalry under Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell attacked the city
on the 18th of April 1863, but were driven off. The town was burned in
August 1863, and shelled on the 3rd of November 1864, after the battle
of Pea Ridge, by a detachment of General Price's army. Fayetteville was
incorporated as a town in 1841, and in 1859 received a city charter,
which was abolished by act of the Legislature in 1867; under a general
law of 1869 the town was re-incorporated; and in 1906 it became a city
of the first class.



FAYETTEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Cumberland county, North
Carolina, U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Cape Fear river (at the head of
steamboat navigation), about 80 m. N.W. of Wilmington. Pop. (1890) 4222;
(1900) 4670, including 2221 negroes; (1910) 7045. It is served by the
Atlantic Coast Line railway and the short Raleigh & Southport railway,
and by steamboat lines to Wilmington. A scheme was set on foot for the
improvement by canalization of the Cape Fear river above Wilmington
under a Federal project of 1902, which provided for a channel 8 ft. deep
at low water from Wilmington to Fayetteville. Below Wilmington the
improvement of the river channel, 270 ft. wide and 16 ft. deep, was
completed in 1889, and the project of 1889 provided for an increase in
depth to 20 ft. Pine forests surround the town, and oaks and elms of
more than a century's growth shade its streets. Fayetteville has two
hospitals (each with a training school for nurses), and is the seat of a
state coloured normal school and of the Donaldson military school.
Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable
water-power, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton
goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons,
ploughs, edge tools and flour. In the earlier half of the 19th century
Fayetteville was a great inland market for the western part of the
state, for eastern Tennessee and for south-western Virginia. There is a
large vineyard in the vicinity; truck-gardening is an important industry
in the surrounding country; and Fayetteville is a shipping centre for
small fruits and vegetables, especially lettuce, melons and berries. The
municipality owns its water-works and its electric-lighting plant. The
vicinity was settled between 1729 and 1747 by Highlanders, the
settlement called Cross Creek lying within the present limits of
Fayetteville. In 1762, by an act of the assembly, a town was laid out
including Cross Creek, and was named Campbelltown (or "Campbeltown");
but in 1784, when Lafayette visited the town, its name was changed in
his honour to Fayetteville, though the name Cross Creek continued to be
used locally for many years. Flora McDonald, the famous Scottish
heroine, came to Campbelltown in April 1775 with her husband and
children, and here she seems to have lived during the remainder of that
year. The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787,
1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being
rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital);
and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North
Carolina. In 1831 most of the town was burned. At the outbreak of the
Civil War, the state authorities seized the United States Arsenal at
Fayetteville, which contained 37,000 muskets and a complete equipment
for a battery of light artillery. In March 1865 General W.T. Sherman and
his army took possession of the town, destroyed the arsenal, and did
considerable damage to property. Fayetteville was chartered as a city in
1893. A serious flood occurred in August 1908.



FAYRER, SIR JOSEPH, Bart. (1824-1907), English physician, was born at
Plymouth on the 6th of December 1824. After studying medicine at Charing
Cross hospital, London, he was in 1847 appointed medical officer of
H.M.S. "Victory," and soon afterwards accompanied the 3rd Lord
Mount-Edgcumbe on a tour through Europe, in the course of which he saw
fighting at Palmero and Rome. Appointed an assistant surgeon in Bengal
in 1850, he went through the Burmese campaign of 1852 and was political
assistant and Residency surgeon at Lucknow during the Mutiny. From 1859
to 1872 he was professor of surgery at the Medical College of Calcutta,
and when the prince of Wales made his tour in India he was appointed to
accompany him as physician. Returning from India, he acted as president
of the Medical Board of the India office from 1874 to 1895, and in 1896
he was created a baronet. Sir Joseph Fayrer, who became a fellow of the
Royal Society in 1877, wrote much on subjects connected with the
practice of medicine in India, and was especially known for his studies
on the poisonous snakes of that country and on the physiological effects
produced by their virus (_Thanatophidia of India_, 1872). In 1900
appeared his _Recollections of my Life_. He died at Falmouth on the 21st
of May 1907.



FAYUM, a mudiria (province) of Upper Egypt, having an area of 490 sq. m.
and a population (1907) of 441,583. The capital, Medinet-el-Fayum, is 81
m. S.S.W. of Cairo by rail. The Fayum proper is an oasis in the Libyan
Desert, its eastern border being about 15 m. west of the Nile. It is
connected with that river by the Bahr Yusuf, which reaches the oasis
through a gap in the hills separating the province from the Nile Valley.
South-west of the Fayum, and forming part of the mudiria, is the Gharak
depression. Another depression, entirely barren, the Wadi Rayan,
covering 280 sq. m., lies west of the Gharak. The whole region is below
sea-level, and save for the gap mentioned is encircled by the Libyan
hills. The lowest part of the province, the north-west end, is occupied
by the Birket el Kerun, or Lake of the Horns, whose surface level is 140
ft. below that of the sea. The lake covers about 78 sq. m.

Differing from the typical oasis, whose fertility depends on water
obtained from springs, the cultivated land in the Fayum is formed of
Nile mud brought down by the Bahr Yusuf. From this channel, 15 m. in
length from Lahun, at the entrance of the gap in the hills, to Medina,
several canals branch off and by these the province is irrigated, the
drainage water flowing into the Birket el Kerun. Over 400 sq. m. of the
Fayum is cultivated, the chief crops being cereals and cotton. The
completion of the Assuan dam by ensuring a fuller supply of water
enabled 20,000 acres of land, previously unirrigated and untaxed, to be
brought under cultivation in the three years 1903-1905. Three crops are
obtained in twenty months. The province is noted for its figs and
grapes, the figs being of exceptionally good quality. Olives are also
cultivated. Rose trees are very numerous and most of the attar of roses
of Egypt is manufactured in the province. The Fayum also possesses an
excellent breed of sheep. Lake Kerun abounds in fish, notably the
_bulti_ (Nile carp), of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo.

Medinet el-Fayum (or Medina), the capital of the province, is a great
agricultural centre, with a population which increased from 26,000 in
1882 to 37,320 in 1907, and has several large bazaars, mosques, baths
and a much-frequented weekly market. The Bahr Yusuf runs through the
town, its banks lined with houses. There are two bridges over the
stream: one of three arches, which carries the main street and bazaar,
and one of two arches over which is built the Kait Bey mosque. Mounds
north of the town mark the site of Arsinoë, earlier Crocodilopolis,
where was worshipped the sacred crocodile kept in the Lake of Moeris.
Besides Medina there are several other towns in the province, among them
Senuris and Tomia to the north of Medina and Senaru and Abuksa on the
road to the lake, all served by railways. There are also, especially in
the neighbourhood of the lake, many ruins of ancient villages and
cities. The Fayum is the site of the Lake of Moeris (q.v.) of the
ancient Egyptians--a lake of which Birket el Kerun is the shrunken
remnant.

  See _The Fayum and Lake Moeris_, by Major (Sir) R.H. Brown, R.E.
  (London, 1892), a valuable contribution as to the condition of the
  province at that date, its connexion with Lake Moeris and its
  possibilities in the future; _The Assuân Reservoir and Lake Moeris_
  (London, 1904), by Sir William Willcocks--with text in English, French
  and Arabic--a consideration of irrigation possibilities; _The
  Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt_, by H.J.L.
  Beadnell (Cairo, 1905).



FAZOGLI, or FAZOKL, a district of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, cut by 11°
N. and bounded E. and S. by Abyssinia. It forms part of the foot-hills
of the Abyssinian plateau and is traversed by the Blue Nile and its
affluent the Tumat. Immediately south is the auriferous Beni Shangul
country. The chief gold-washings lie (in Abyssinian territory) on the
west slope of the hills draining to the White Nile. Here is the steep
Jebel-Dul, which appears to contain rich gold-bearing reefs, as gold is
found in all the ravines on its flanks. The auriferous region extends
into Sudanese territory, gold dust being found in all the khors coming
from Jebel Faronge on the S.E. frontier. The inhabitants of Fazogli, who
are governed, under the Sudan administration, by their own meks or
kings, are Berta and other Shangalla tribes with an admixture of Funj
blood, the country having been conquered by the Funj rulers of Sennar at
the close of the 15th century. There are also Arab settlements.
Fazogli, the residence of the principal mek, is a straggling town built
some 800 yds. from the left bank of the Blue Nile near the Tumat
confluence, 434 m. by river above Khartum and opposite Famaka, the
headquarters of the Egyptians in this region between 1839 and 1883.
Above Famaka and near the Abyssinian frontier is the prosperous town of
Kiri, while Abu Shaneina on the Nile below Fazogli is the spot where the
trade route from Beni Shangul strikes the river. The chief imports from
Abyssinia are coffee, cattle, transport animals and gold. Durra and
tobacco are the principal crops. The local currency includes rings of
gold, specially made as a circulating medium.



FEA, CARLO (1753-1836), Italian archaeologist, was born at Pigna in
Piedmont on the 2nd of February 1753, and studied law in Rome. He
received the degree of doctor of laws from the university of La
Sapienza, but archaeology gradually absorbed his attention, and with the
view of obtaining better opportunities for his researches in 1798 he
took orders. For political reasons he was obliged to take refuge in
Florence; on his return in 1799 he was imprisoned by the Neapolitans, at
that time in occupation of Rome, as a Jacobin, but shortly afterwards
liberated and appointed Commissario delle Antichità and librarian to
Prince Chigi. He died at Rome on the 18th of March 1836.

  Fea revised, with notes, an Italian translation of J.J. Winckelmann's
  Geschichte der Kunst, and also added notes to some of G.L. Bianconi's
  works. Among his original writings the principal are:--_Miscellanea
  filologica, critica, e antiquaria_; _L'Integrità del Panteone
  rivendicata a M. Agrippa_; _Frammenti di fasti consolari_; _Iscrizioni
  di monumenti pubblichi_; and _Descrizione di Roma_.



FEARNE, CHARLES (1742-1794), English jurist, son of Charles Fearne,
judge-advocate of the admiralty, was born in London in 1742, and was
educated at Westminster school. He adopted the legal profession, but,
though well fitted by his talents to succeed as a barrister, he
neglected his profession and devoted most of his attention and his
patrimony to the prosecution of scientific experiments, with the vain
hope of achieving discoveries which would reward him for his pains and
expense. He died in 1794, leaving his widow and family in necessitous
circumstances. His _Essay on the Learning of Contingent Remainders and
Executory Devises_, the work which has made his reputation as a legal
authority, and which has passed through numerous editions, was called
forth by a decision of Lord Mansfield in the case of _Perrin v. Blake_,
and had the effect of reversing that decision.

  A volume entitled _Fearne's Posthumous Works_ was published by
  subscription in 1797 for the benefit of his widow.



FEASTS AND FESTIVALS. A festival or feast[1] is a day or series of days
specially and publicly set apart for religious observances. Whether its
occurrence be casual or periodic, whether its ritual be grave or gay,
carnal as the orgies of Baal and Astarte, or spiritual as the worship of
a Puritan Sabbath, it is to be regarded as a festival or "holy day" as
long as it is professedly held in the name of religion.

To trace the festivals of the world through all their variations would
be to trace the entire history of human religion and human civilization.
Where no religion is, there can of course be no feasts; and without
civilization any attempt at festival-keeping must necessarily be fitful
and comparatively futile. But as religion develops, festivals develop
with it, and assume their distinctive character; and an advancing
civilization, at least in its earlier stages, will generally be found to
increase their number, enrich their ritual, fix more precisely the time
and order of their recurrence, and widen the area of their observance.

Some uncivilized tribes, such as the Juángs of Bengal, the Fuegians and
the Andamanese, have been described as having no word for God, no idea
of a future state, and consequently no religious ceremonies of any kind
whatever. But such cases, doubtful at the best, are confessedly
exceptional. In the vast majority of instances observed and recorded,
the religiosity of the savage is conspicuous. Even when incapable of
higher manifestations, it can at least take the form of reverence for
the dead; the grave-heap can become an altar on which offerings of food
for the departed may be placed, and where in acts of public and private
worship the gifts of survivors may be accompanied with praises and with
prayers. That the custom of ghost-propitiation by some sort of sacrifice
is even now very widely diffused among the lower races at least, and
that there are also many curious "survivals" of such a habit to be
traced among highly civilized modern nations, has been abundantly shown
of late by numerous collectors of folk-lore and students of sociology;
and indications of the same phenomena can be readily pointed out in the
Rig-Veda, the Zend-Avesta and the Pentateuch, as well as in the known
usages of the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.[2] In many cases the
ceremonial observed is of the simplest; but it ever tends to become more
elaborate; and above all it calls for repetition, and repetition, too,
at regular intervals. Whenever this last demand has made itself felt, a
calendar begins to take shape. The simplest calendar is obviously the
lunar. "The Naga tribes of Assam celebrate their funeral feasts month by
month, laying food and drink on the graves of the departed." But it soon
comes to be combined with the solar. Thus the Karens, "while habitually
making oblations, have also annual feasts for the dead, at which they
ask the spirits to eat and drink." The natives of the Mexican valley in
November lay animals, edibles and flowers on the graves of their dead
relatives and friends. The common people in China have a similar custom
on the arrival of the winter solstice. The ancient Peruvians had the
custom of periodically assembling the embalmed bodies of their dead
emperors in the great square of the capital to be feasted in company
with the people. The Athenians had their annual [Greek: Nekusia] or
[Greek: Nemeseia] and the Romans their _Feralia_ and _Lemuralia_. The
Egyptians observed their three "festivals of the seasons," twelve
"festivals of the month," and twelve "festivals of the half month," in
honour of their dead. The Parsees, too, were required to render their
afringans (blessings which were to be recited over a meal to which an
angel or the spirit of a deceased person was invited) at each of the six
seasons of the year, and also on certain other days.[3]

In the majority of recorded instances, the religious feeling of the
savage has been found to express itself in other forms besides that of
reverence towards the dead. The oldest literatures of the world, at all
events, whether Aryan or Semitic, embody a religion of a much higher
type than ancestor worship. The hymns of the Rig-Veda, for example,
while not without traces of the other, yet indicate chiefly a worship of
the powers of nature, connected with the regular recurrence of the
seasons. Thus in iv. 57 we have a hymn designed for use at the
commencement of the ploughing time;[4] and in the _Aitareya-Brâhmana_,
the earliest treatise on Hindu ceremonial, we already find a complete
series of sattras or sacrificial sessions exactly following the course
of the solar year. They are divided into two distinct sections, each
consisting of six months of thirty days each. The sacrifices are allowed
to commence only at certain lucky constellations and in certain months.
So, for instance, as a rule, no great sacrifice can commence during the
sun's southern progress. The great sacrifices generally take place in
spring, in the months of April and May.[5] In the Parsee Scriptures[6]
the year is divided into six seasons or gahanbârs of two months each,
concluding with February, the season at which "great expiatory
sacrifices were offered for the growth of the whole creation in the last
two months of the year." We have no means of knowing precisely what were
the arrangements of the Phoenician calendar, but it is generally
admitted that the worship was solar, the principal festivals taking
place in spring and in autumn. Among the most characteristic
celebrations of the Egyptians were those which took place at the [Greek:
aphanismos] or disappearance of Osiris in October or November, at the
search for his remains, and their discovery about the winter solstice,
and at the date of his supposed entrance into the moon at the beginning
of spring. The Phrygian festivals were also arranged on the theory that
the deity was asleep during the winter and awake during the summer; in
the autumn they celebrated his retiring to rest, and in spring with
mirth and revelry they roused him from his slumbers.[7] The seasonal
character of the Teutonic Ostern, the Celtic Beltein and the
Scandinavian Yule is obvious. Nor was the habit of observing such
festivals peculiar to the Aryan or the Semitic race. The Mexicans, who
were remarkable for the perfection of their calendar, in addition to
this had an elaborate system of movable and immovable feasts distributed
over the entire year; the principal festivals, however, in honour of
their chief gods, Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, were held in
May, June and December. Still more plainly connected with the
revolutions of the seasons was the public worship of the ancient
Peruvians, who, besides the ordinary feast at each new moon, observed
four solar festivals annually. Of these the most important was the
Yntip-Raymi (Sun-feast), which, preceded by a three days' fast, began
with the summer solstice, and lasted for nine days. Its ceremonies have
been often described. A similar but less important festival was held at
the winter solstice. The Cusqui-Raymi, held after seedtime, as the maize
began to appear, was celebrated with sacrifices and banquets, music and
dancing. A fourth great festival, called Citua, held on the first new
moon after the autumnal equinox, was preceded by a strict fast and
special observances intended for purposes of purification and expiation,
after which the festivities lasted until the moon entered her second
quarter.

_Greek Festivals._--Perhaps the annual Attic festival in honour of
Erechtheus alluded to in the _Iliad_ (ii. 550) ought to be regarded as
an instance of ancestor-worship; but the seasonal character of the
[Greek: heortê] or new-moon feast in _Od._ xx. 156, and of the [Greek:
thalusia] or harvest-festival in _Il._ ix. 533, is generally
acknowledged. The older Homeric poems, however, give no such express
indications of a fully-developed system of festivals as are to be met
with in the so-called "Homeric" hymns, in the _Works and Days_ of
Hesiod, in the pages of Herodotus, and so abundantly in most authors of
the subsequent period; and it is manifest that the calendar of Homer or
even of Herodotus must have been a much simpler matter than that of the
Tarentines, for example, came to be, of whom we are told by Strabo that
their holidays were in excess of their working days. Each demos of
ancient Greece during the historical period had its own local festivals
([Greek: heortai dêmotikai]), often largely attended and splendidly
solemnized, the usages of which, though essentially alike, differed very
considerably in details. These details have in many cases been wholly
lost, and in others have reached us only in a very fragmentary state.
But with regard to the Athenian calendar, the most interesting of all,
our means of information are fortunately very copious. It included some
50 or 60 days on which all business, and especially the administration
of justice, was by order of the magistrates suspended. Among these
[Greek: hieromêniai] were included--in Gamelion (January), the _Lenaea_
or festival of vats in honour of Dionysus; in Anthesterion (February),
the _Anthesteria_, also in honour of Dionysus, lasting three days
(Pithoigia, Choes and Chytri); the _Diasia_ in honour of Zeus, and the
lesser _Eleusinia_; in Elaphebolion (March), the _Pandia_ (? of Zeus),
the _Elaphebolia_ of Artemis, and the greater _Dionysia_; in Munychion,
the _Munychia_ of Artemis as the moon goddess ([Greek: Mounuchia]) and
the _Delphinia_ of Apollo; in Thargelion (May), the _Thargelia_ of
Apollo and the _Plynteria_ and _Callynteria_ of Athena; in Scirophorion
(June), the _Diipolia_ of Zeus and the _Scirophoria_ of Athena; in
Hekatombaion, hecatombs were offered to Apollo the summer-god, and the
_Cronia_ of Cronus and the _Panathenaea_ of Athena were held; in
Metageitnion, the _Metageitnia_ of Apollo; in Boëdromion, the
_Boëdromia_ of Apollo the helper,[8] the _Nekusia_ or _Nemeseia_ (the
festival of the dead), and the greater _Eleusinia_; in Pyanepsion, the
_Pyanepsia_ of Apollo, the _Oschophoria_ of Dionysus (probably), the
_Chalkeia_ or _Athenaea_ of Athena, the _Thesmophoria_ of Demeter, and
the _Apaturia_; in Maimacterion, the _Maimacteria_ of Zeus; and in
Poseideon (December), the lesser _Dionysia_.

Of these some are commemorative of historical events, and one at least
may perhaps be regarded as a relic of ancestor-worship; but the great
majority are nature-festivals, associating themselves in the manner that
has already been indicated with the phenomena of the seasons, the
equinoxes and the solstices.[9] In addition to their numerous public
festivals, the Greeks held various family celebrations, also called
[Greek: heortai], in connexion with weddings, births and similar domestic
occurrences. For the great national [Greek: panêgureis]--Olympian,
Pythian, Nemean and Isthmian--see the article GAMES, CLASSICAL.

_Roman Festivals._--For the purpose of holding _comitia_ and
administering justice, the days of the Roman year were regarded as being
either _dies fasti_ or _dies nefasti_--the _dies fasti_ being the days
on which it was lawful for the praetors to administer justice in the
public courts, while on the _dies nefasti_ neither courts of justice nor
meetings of _comitia_ were allowed to be held. Some days were _fasti_
during one portion and _nefasti_ during another; these were called _dies
intercisi_. For the purposes of religion a different division of the
year was made; the days were treated as _festi_ or as _profesti_,--the
former being consecrated to acts of public worship, such as sacrifices,
banquets and games, while the latter (whether _fasti_ or _nefasti_) were
not specially claimed for religious purposes. The _dies festi_ or
_feriae publicae_[10] were either _stativae_, _conceptivae_ or
_imperativae_. The _stativae_ were such as were observed regularly, each
on a definite day; the _conceptivae_ were observed annually on days
fixed by the authorities for the time being; the _imperativae_ were
publicly appointed as occasion called for them. In the Augustan age the
_feriae stativae_ were very numerous, as may be seen from what we
possess of the _Fasti_ of Ovid. The number was somewhat fluctuating.
Festivals frequently fell into desuetude or were revived, were increased
or diminished, were shortened or prolonged at the will of the emperor,
or under the caprice of the popular taste. Thus Augustus restored the
Compitalia and Lupercalia; while Marcus Antoninus in his turn found it
expedient to diminish the number of holidays.

The following is an enumeration of the stated festivals as given by Ovid
and contemporary writers. The first day of January was observed somewhat
as is the modern New Year's day: clients sent presents to their patrons,
slaves to their masters, friends and relatives to one another. On the
9th the _Agonalia_ were held, apparently in honour of Janus. On the 11th
the _Carmentalia_ were kept as a half-holiday, but principally by women;
so also on the 15th. On the 13th of February were the _Faunalia_, on the
15th the _Lupercalia_, on the 17th the _Quirinalia_, on the 18th the
_Feralia_, on the 23rd (at one time the last day of the Roman year) the
_Terminalia_, on the 24th the _Regifugium_ or _Fugalia_, and on the 27th
the _Equiria_ (of Mars). On the 1st of March were the _Matronalia_, on
the 14th a repetition of the _Equiria_, on the 15th the festival of Anna
Perenna, on the 17th the _Liberalia_ or _Agonalia_, and from the 19th to
the 23rd the _Quinquatria_ (of Minerva). On the 4th of April were the
_Megalesia_ (of Cybele), on the 12th the _Cerealia_, on the 21st the
_Palilia_, on the 23rd the _Vinalia_, on the 25th the _Robigalia_, and
on the 28th the _Floralia_. The 1st of May was the festival of the
_Lares Praestites_; on the 9th, 11th and 13th the _Lemuria_ were
celebrated; on the 12th the _Ludi Martiales_, and on the 15th those of
Mercury. June 5 was sacred to _Semo Sancus_; the _Vestalia_ occurred on
the 9th, the _Matralia_ on the 11th, and the _Quinquatrus Minusculae_
on the 13th. The _Ludi Apollinares_ were on the 5th, and the
_Neptunalia_ on the 23rd of July. On the 13th of August were the
_Nemoralia_, in honour of Diana; on the 18th the _Consualia_, on the
19th the _Vinalia Rustica_, and on the 23rd the _Vulcanalia_. The _Ludi
Magni_, in honour of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, began on September 4.
The _Meditrinalia_ (new wine) were on the 11th of October, the
_Faunalia_ on the 13th, and the _Equiria_ on the 15th. The _Epulum
Jovis_ was on 13th November. The December festivals were--on the 5th
_Faunalia_, and towards the close _Opalia_, _Saturnalia_, _Larentalia_.

The calendar as it stood at the Augustan age was known to contain many
comparatively recent accessions, brought in under the influence of two
"closely allied powers, the foreign priest and the foreign cook"
(Mommsen). The _Megalesia_, for example, had been introduced 204 B.C.
The _Ludi Apollinares_ could not be traced farther back than 208 B.C.
The _Floralia_ and _Cerealia_ had not come in much earlier. Among the
oldest feasts were undoubtedly the _Lupercalia_, in honour of Lupercus,
the god of fertility; the _Equiria_, in honour of Mars; the _Palilia_;
the great September festival; and the _Saturnalia_.

Among the feriae conceptivae were the very ancient _feriae Latinae_,
held in honour of Jupiter on the Alban Mount, and attended by all the
higher magistrates and the whole body of the senate. The time of their
celebration greatly depended on the state of affairs at Rome, as the
consuls were not allowed to take the field until they had held the
_Latinae_, which were regarded as days of a sacred truce. The _feriae
sementivae_ were held in the spring, and the _Ambarvalia_ in autumn,
both in honour of Ceres. The _Paganalia_ of each _pagus_, and the
_Compitalia_ of each _vicus_ were also _conceptivae_. Of _feriae
imperativae_,--that is to say, festivals appointed by the senate, or
magistrates, or higher priests to commemorate some great event or avert
some threatened disaster,--the best known is the _Novendiale_, which
used to be celebrated as often as stones fell from heaven (Livy xxi. 62,
xxv. 7, &c.). In addition to all those already mentioned, there
occasionally occurred _ludi votivi_, which were celebrated in fulfilment
of a vow; _ludi funebres_, sometimes given by private persons; and _ludi
seculares_, to celebrate certain periods marked off in the Etrusco-Roman
religion.

_Feasts of the Jews_.--By Old Testament writers a festival or feast is
generally called either [Hebrew: hag] (compare the Arabic Hadj), from
[Hebrew: hagag] to rejoice, or [Hebrew: moed], from [Hebrew: yaad], to
appoint. The words [Hebrew: shabat] and [Hebrew: mikra kodesh] are also
occasionally used. In the Talmud the three principal feasts are called
[Hebrew: regalim], after Exod. xxiii. 14. Of the Jewish feasts which are
usually traced to a pre-Mosaic origin the most important and
characteristic was the weekly Sabbath, but special importance was also
attached from a very early date to the lunar periods. It is probable
that other festivals also, of a seasonal character, were observed (see
Exod. v. 1). In common with most others, the Mosaic system of annual
feasts groups itself readily around the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.
In Lev. xxiii., where the list is most fully given, they seem to be
arranged with a conscious reference to the sacred number seven (compare
Numb. xxviii.). Those belonging to the vernal equinox are three in
number; a preparatory day, that of the Passover, leads up to the
principal festival, that of unleavened bread, which again is followed by
an after-feast, that of Pentecost (see PASSOVER, PENTECOST). Those of
the autumnal equinox are four; a preparatory day on the new moon of the
seventh month (the Feast of Trumpets) is followed by a great day of
rest, the day of Atonement (which, however, was hardly a _festival_ in
the stricter sense of the word), by the Feast of Tabernacles, and by a
great concluding day (Lev. xxiii. 36; John vii. 37). If the feast of the
Passover be excepted, it will be seen that all these celebrations or
commemorations associate themselves more readily with natural than with
historical events.[11] There was also a considerable number of
post-Mosaic festivals, of which the principal were that of the
Dedication (described in 1 Macc. iv. 52-59; comp. John x. 22) and that
of Purim, the origin of which is given in the book of Esther (ix. 20
seq.). It has probably no connexion with the Persian festival Furdigán
(see ESTHER).[12]

_Earlier Christian Festivals._--While making it abundantly manifest that
Christ and his disciples observed the appointed Jewish feasts, the New
Testament nowhere records the formal institution of any distinctively
Christian festival. But we have unambiguous evidence of the actual
observance, from a very early period, of the first day of the week as a
holy day (John xx. 19, 26; 1 Cor. xvi. 2; Acts xx. 7; Rev. i. 10). Pliny
in his letter to Trajan describes the Christians of Bithynia as meeting
for religious purposes on a set day; that this day was Sunday is put
beyond all reasonable doubt by such a passage as that in the _Apology_
of Justin Martyr, where he says that "on Sunday ([Greek: tê tou hêliou
legomenê hêmera]) all the Christians living either in the city or the
country met together." The Jewish element, in some churches at least,
and especially in the East, was strong enough to secure that, along with
the _dies dominica_, the seventh day should continue to be kept holy.
Thus in the _Apostolic Constitutions_ (ii. 59) we find the Saturday
specially mentioned along with the Sunday as a day for the assembling of
the church; in v. 15 it is ordained that there shall be no fasting on
Saturday, while in viii. 33 it is added that both on Saturday and Sunday
slaves are to have rest from their labours. The 16th canon of the
council of Laodicea almost certainly means that solemn public service
was to be held on Saturday as well as on Sunday. In other quarters,
however, the tendency to regard both days as equally sacred met with
considerable resistance. The 36th canon of the council of Illiberis, for
example, deciding that Saturday should be observed as a fast-day, was
doubtless intended to enforce the distinction between Saturday and
Sunday. At Milan in Ambrose's time Saturday was observed as a festival;
but Pope Innocent is found writing to the bishop of Eugubium to urge
that it should be kept as a fast. Ultimately the Christian church came
to recognize but one weekly festival.

The numerous yearly festivals of the later Christian church, when
historically investigated, can be traced to very small beginnings.
Indeed, while it appears to be tolerably certain that Jewish Christians
for the most part retained all the festivals which had been instituted
under the old dispensation, it is not at all probable that either they
or their Gentile brethren recognized any yearly feasts as of
distinctively Christian origin or obligation. It cannot be doubted,
however, that gradually, in the course of the 2nd century, the universal
church came to observe the anniversaries of the death and resurrection
of Christ--the [Greek: pascha staurôsimon] and the [Greek: pascha
hanastasimon], as they were respectively called (see EASTER and GOOD
FRIDAY). Not long afterwards Whitsunday also came to be fixed in the
usage of Christendom as a great annual festival. Even Origen (in the 8th
book _Against Celsus_) enumerates as Christian festivals the Sunday, the
[Greek: paraskeuê], the Passover with the feast of the Resurrection, and
Pentecost; under which latter term, however, he includes the whole
period between Easter and Whitsuntide. About Cyprian's time we find
individual Christians commemorating their departed friends, and whole
churches commemorating their martyrs; in particular, there are traces of
a local and partial observance of the feast of the Innocents. Christmas
day and Epiphany were among the later introductions, the feast of the
Epiphany being somewhat the earlier of the two. Both are alluded to
indeed by Clemens Alexandrinus (i. 340), but only in a way which
indicates that even in his time the precise date of Christ's birth was
unknown, that its anniversary was not usually observed, and that the day
of his baptism was kept as a festival only by the followers of Basilides
(see EPIPHANY).

When we come down to the 4th century we find that, among the 50 days
between Easter and Pentecost, Ascension Day has come into new
prominence. Augustine, for example, enumerates as anniversaries
celebrated by the whole church those of Christ's passion, resurrection
and ascension, along with that of the outpouring of the Holy Ghost,
while he is silent with regard to Christmas and Epiphany. The general
tendency of this and the following centuries was largely to increase the
festivals of the Church, and by legislation to make them more fixed and
uniform. Many passages, indeed, could be quoted from Chrysostom, Jerome
and Augustine to show that these fathers had not by any means forgotten
that comparative freedom with regard to outward observances was one of
the distinctive excellences of Christianity as contrasted with Judaism
and the various heathen systems (compare Socrates, _H.E._ v. 22). But
there were many special circumstances which seemed to the leaders of the
Church at that time to necessitate the permission and even legislative
sanction of a large number of new feasts. The innovations of heretics
sometimes seemed to call for rectification by the institution of more
orthodox observances; in other instances the propensity of rude and
uneducated converts from paganism to cling to the festal rites of their
forefathers proved to be invincible, so that it was seen to be necessary
to seek to adapt the old usages to the new worship rather than to
abolish them altogether;[13] moreover, although the empire had become
Christian, it was manifestly expedient that the old holidays should be
recognized as much as possible in the new arrangements of the calendar.
Constantine soon after his conversion enacted that on the _dies
dominica_ there should be no suits or trials in law; Theodosius the
Great added a prohibition of all public shows on that day, and
Theodosius the younger extended the prohibition to Epiphany and the
anniversaries of martyrdoms, which at that time included the festivals
of St Stephen, and of St Peter and St Paul, as also that of the
Maccabees. In the 21st canon of the council of Agde (506), besides
Easter, Christmas, Epiphany, Ascension and Pentecost, we find the
Nativity of John the Baptist already mentioned as one of the more
important festivals on which attendance at church was regarded as
obligatory. To these were added, in the centuries immediately following,
the feasts of the Annunciation, the Purification, and the Assumption of
the Virgin; as well as those of the Circumcision, of St Michael and of
All Saints.

Festivals were in practice distinguished from ordinary days in the
following ways: all public and judicial business was suspended,[14] as
well as every kind of game or amusement which might interfere with
devotion; the churches were specially decorated; Christians were
expected to attend public worship, attired in their best dress; love
feasts were celebrated, and the rich were accustomed to show special
kindness to the poor; fasting was strictly forbidden, and public prayers
were said in a standing posture.

_Later Practice._--In the present calendar of the Roman Catholic Church
the number of feast days is very large. Each is celebrated by an
appropriate office, which, according to its character, is either duplex,
semi-duplex or simplex. A duplex again may be either of the first class
or of the second, or a major or a minor. The distinctions of ritual for
each of these are given with great minuteness in the general rubrics of
the breviary; they turn chiefly on the number of Psalms to be sung and
of lessons to be read, on the manner in which the antiphons are to be
given and on similar details. The duplicia of the first class are the
Nativity, the Epiphany, Easter with the three preceding and two
following days, the Ascension, Whitsunday and the two following days,
Corpus Christi, the Nativity of John Baptist, Saints Peter and Paul, the
Assumption of the Virgin, All Saints, and, for each church, the feast
proper to its patron or title and the feast of its dedication. The
duplicia of the second class are the Circumcision, the feast of the Holy
Name of Jesus, of the Holy Trinity, and of the Most Precious Blood of
Christ, the feasts of the Purification, Annunciation, Visitation,
Nativity and Conception of the Virgin, the Natalitia of the Twelve
Apostles, the feasts of the Evangelists, of St Stephen, of the Holy
Innocents, of St Joseph and of the Patrocinium of Joseph, of St
Lawrence, of the Invention of the Cross and of the Dedication of St
Michael. The Dominicae majores of the first class are the first Sunday
in Advent, the first in Lent, Passion Sunday, Palm Sunday, Easter
Sunday, Dominica in Albis, Whitsunday and Trinity Sunday; the Dominicae
majores of the second class are the second, third and fourth in Advent,
Septuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays, and the second,
third and fourth Sundays in Lent.

In the canons and decrees of the council of Trent repeated allusions are
made to the feast days, and their fitness, when properly observed, to
promote piety. Those entrusted with the cure of souls are urged to see
that the feasts of the Church be devoutly and religiously observed, the
faithful are enjoined to attend public worship on Sundays and on the
greater festivals at least, and parish priests are bidden to expound to
the people on such days some of the things which have been read in the
office for the day. Since the council of Trent the practice of the
Church with respect to the prohibition of servile work on holidays has
varied considerably in different Catholic countries, and even in the
same country at different times. Thus in 1577, in the diocese of Lyons,
there were almost forty annual festivals of a compulsory character. By
the concordat of 1802 the number of such festivals was for France
reduced to four, namely, Christmas day, Ascension day, the Assumption of
the Virgin, and All Saints day.

The calendar of the Greek Church is even fuller than that of the Latin,
especially as regards the [Greek: heortai tôn hagiôn]. Thus on the last
Sunday in Advent the feast of All Saints of the Old Covenant is
celebrated; while Adam and Eve, Job, Elijah, Isaiah, &c., have separate
days. The distinctions of ritual are analogous to those in the Western
Church. In the Coptic Church there are seven great festivals, Christmas,
Epiphany, the Annunciation, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension and
Whitsunday, on all of which the Copts "wear new clothes (or the best
they have), feast and give alms" (Lane). They also observe, as minor
festivals, Maundy Thursday, Holy Saturday, the feast of the Apostles
(11th July), and that of the Discovery of the Cross.

In common with most of the churches of the Reformation, the Church of
England retained a certain number of feasts besides all Sundays in the
year. They are, besides Monday and Tuesday both in Easter-week and
Whitsun-week, as follows: the Circumcision, the Epiphany, the Conversion
of St Paul, the Purification of the Blessed Virgin, St Matthias the
Apostle, the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin, St Mark the Evangelist,
St Philip and St James (Apostles), the Ascension, St Barnabas, the
Nativity of St John Baptist, St Peter the Apostle, St James the Apostle,
St Bartholomew, St Matthew, St Michael and all Angels, St Luke the
Evangelist, St Simon and St Jude, All Saints, St Andrew, St Thomas,
Christmas, St Stephen, St John the Evangelist, the Holy Innocents. The
13th canon enjoins that all manner of persons within the Church of
England shall from henceforth celebrate and keep the Lord's day,
commonly called Sunday, and other holy days, according to God's holy
will and pleasure, and the orders of the Church of England prescribed in
that behalf, that is, in hearing the Word of God read and taught, in
private and public prayers, in acknowledging their offences to God and
amendment of the same, in reconciling themselves charitably to their
neighbours where displeasure hath been, in oftentimes receiving the
communion of the body and blood of Christ, in visiting of the poor and
sick, using all godly and sober conversation. (Compare Hooker, _E.P._ v.
70.) In the _Directory for the Public Worship of God_ which was drawn up
by the Westminster Assembly, and accepted by the Church of Scotland in
1645, there is an appendix which declares that there is no day commanded
in Scripture to be kept holy under the gospel but the Lord's day, which
is the Christian Sabbath; festival days, vulgarly called holy-days,
having no warrant in the Word of God, are not to be continued;
nevertheless it is lawful and necessary, upon special emergent
occasions, to separate a day or days for public fasting or thanksgiving,
as the several eminent and extraordinary dispensations of God's
providence shall administer cause and opportunity to his people.

Several attempts have been made at various times in western Europe to
reorganize the festival system on some other scheme than the Christian.
Thus at the time of the French Revolution, during the period of
Robespierre's ascendancy, it was proposed to substitute a tenth day
(Décadi) for the weekly rest, and to introduce the following new
festivals: that of the Supreme Being and of Nature, of the Human Race,
of the French people, of the Benefactors of Mankind, of Freedom and
Equality, of the Martyrs of Freedom, of the Republic, of the Freedom of
the World, of Patriotism, of Hatred of Tyrants and Traitors, of Truth,
of Justice, of Modesty, of Fame and Immortality, of Friendship, of
Temperance, of Heroism, of Fidelity, of Unselfishness, of Stoicism, of
Love, of Conjugal Fidelity, of Filial Affection, of Childhood, of Youth,
of Manhood, of Old Age, of Misfortune, of Agriculture, of Industry, of
our Forefathers, of Posterity and Felicity. The proposal, however, was
never fully carried out, and soon fell into oblivion.

_Mahommedan Festivals._--These are chiefly two--the 'Eed es-Sagheer (or
minor festival) and the 'Eed el-Kebeer (or great festival), sometimes
called 'Eed el-Kurban. The former, which lasts for three days,
immediately follows the month Ramadan, and is generally the more joyful
of the two; the latter begins on the tenth of Zu-l-Heggeh (the last
month of the Mahommedan year), and lasts for three or four days. Besides
these festivals they usually keep holy the first ten days of Moharram
(the first month of the year), especially the tenth day, called Yom
Ashoora; the birthday of the prophet, on the twelfth day of the third
month; the birthday of El-Hoseyn, in the fourth month; the anniversary
of the prophet's miraculous ascension into heaven, in the seventh month;
and one or two other anniversaries. Friday, called the day of El-Gumah
(the assembly), is a day of public worship; but it is not usual to
abstain from public business on that day except during the time of
prayer.

_Hindu and Buddhist Festivals._--In modern India the leading popular
festivals are the Holí, which is held in March or April and lasts for
five days, and the Dasahara, which occurs in October. Although in its
origin Buddhism was a deliberate reaction against all ceremonial, it
does not now refuse to observe festivals. By Buddhists in China, for
example, three days in the year are especially observed in honour of the
Buddha,--the eighth day of the second month, when he left his home; the
eighth day of the fourth month, the anniversary of his birthday; and the
eighth of the twelfth, when he attained to perfection and entered
Nirvana. In Siam the eighth and fifteenth days of every month are
considered holy, and are observed as days for rest and worship. At Trut,
the festival of the close of the year, visiting and play-going are
universal. The new year (January) is celebrated for three days; in
February is another holiday; in April is a sort of Lent, ushering in the
rainy season; on the last day of June presents are made of cakes of the
new rice; in August is the festival of the angel of the river, "whose
forgiveness is then asked for every act by which the waters of the
Meinam have been rendered impure." See Bowring's _Siam_ and Carné's
_Travels in Indo-China and the Chinese Empire_. Copious details of the
elaborate festival-system of the Chinese may be found in Doolittle's
_Social Life of the Chinese_.

  LITERATURE.--For Christian feasts see K.A. H. Kellner, _Heortologie_
  (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1906); Hippolyte Delehaye, _Les Légendes
  hagiographiques_ (Brussels, 1905); J. Rendel Harris, _The Cult of the
  Heavenly Twins_ (Cambridge, 1906); de Rossi-Duchesne, _Martyrologium
  Hieronymianum_.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "To feast" is simply to keep a festum or festival. The etymology
    of the word is uncertain; but probably it has no connexion with the
    Gr. [Greek: hestian].

  [2] See Spencer, _Principles of Sociology_, i. 170, 280, 306.

  [3] Haug, _Parsis_, 224, 225.

  [4] "May the heavens, the waters, the firmament, be kind to us; may
    the lord of the field be gracious to us.... May the oxen (draw)
    happily, the men labour happily; may the traces bind happily, wield
    the goad happily" (Wilson's translation, iii. 224).

  [5] See Haug's _Aitareya-brâhmanam of the Rig-Veda_; Max Müller's
    _Chips from a German Workshop_, i. 115.

  [6] Visperad. See Haug, _Parsis_, 192; Richardson's _Dissertation on
    the Language, &c., of Eastern Nations_, p. 184; Morier's _Journey
    through Persia_.

  [7] Plutarch, _De Iside et Osiride_; Macrobius, _Saturnalia_, i. 21.

  [8] In this month the anniversaries of the battle of Marathon, and of
    the downfall of the thirty tyrants, were also publicly celebrated.

  [9] See Schoemann, _Griechische Altertümer_, ii. 439 seq.; Mommsen
    _Heortologie_.

  [10] _Feriae privatae_, such as anniversaries of births, deaths, and
    the like, were observed by separate clans, families or individuals.

  [11] In the "parallel" passages, there is considerable variety in the
    designation and arrangement of these feasts. While Ex. xii.
    approximates most closely to Lev. xxiii. and Num. xxviii., Ex. xxiii.
    has stronger affinities with Deut. xvi. The relations of these
    passages are largely discussed by Graf, _Die geschichtlichen Bücher
    des A. T._, pp. 34-41, and by other recent critics.

  [12] On the whole subject of Jewish festivals see Reland, _Antiq.
    Hebr._; Knobel, _Leviticus_ (c. 23); George, _Die jüdischen Feste_;
    Edersheim, _The Temple; its Ministry and Services_; Ewald,
    _Altertümer des Volkes Israël_; articles in Bible dictionaries.

  [13] As, at a later period (601), Gregory the Great instructed his
    Anglo-Saxon missionaries so to Christianize the temples, festivals,
    &c., of the heathen "ut durae mentes gradibus vel passibus, non autem
    saltibus, eleventur."

  [14] Manumission, however, was lawful on any day.



FEATHER (O. Eng. _fether_, Ger. _Feder_, from an Indo-European root seen
also in Gr. [Greek: pteron], and [Greek: petesthai], to fly), a horny
outgrowth of the skin of birds homologous with the scale of the reptile.
The body-covering of birds is, without exception, comprised of feathers,
and by this character alone birds may be distinguished from all other
animals.

The most perfect form of feather is made up of a long, tapering rod,
fringed on either side, for the greater part of its length, by a
secondary series of slender and tapering rods forming a more or less
acute angle with the central axis. This fringe is known as the
_vexillum_ or "vane" (fig. 1 a). The central axis is divisible into two
distinct parts,--a hollow, cylindrical, transparent _calamus_, or
"quill," the base of which is inserted into the skin, and a solid,
quadrangular _rhachis_ or "shaft" which supports the vane. At the lower
end of the quill is a small hole--the lower _umbilicus_--through which
the nutritive pulp passes during the growth of the feather: while at the
upper end, where it passes into the shaft, a similar hole will be
found,--the upper _umbilicus_--and from this the last remains of the
capsules which contained the nutritive pulp may sometimes be seen
protruding. If the quill is cut open a series of these capsules will be
found fitting one into the other throughout the whole length of the
tubular chamber.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Diagrams of Feather-Barbs.

  a, Outline of a feather showing the relation of the barbs and barbules
    to the central axis or shaft.

  b, Section across two of the barbs shown in a, highly magnified.

  c, Two barbules of the posterior series--seen only in cross-section in
    b.

  d, A barbule of the anterior series.

  e, Section across the base of three anterior barbules showing
    attachment to barb.

  f, A portion of the hooklet of the anterior series showing the method
    of interlocking with the barbules of the posterior series.]

The rods comprising the lateral fringe, or vane, are known as the _rami_
or the "barbs," and will be found, on microscopic examination, to be
lath-shaped and to taper to a point. Further, each barb supports a
double series of smaller outgrowths known as the _radii_, or "barbules";
so that each barb may be likened to a feather in miniature. These
"barbules," however, differ markedly in structure on the two sides of
the barb, those pointing towards the tip of the feather--the "anterior
barbules"--being ribbon-shaped from the base outwards for about half
their length, when they become cut up to form a series of long and very
delicate hooklets (fig. 1 d). On the opposite side of the barb the
barbules are also ribbon-shaped for about half their length, but the
ribbon is curved trough-fashion, so that the whole series of posterior
barbules forms a number of deep valleys, and into these the hooklets are
thrust so as to catch hold of the upper edges of the troughs, which are
set so that the upper edge is towards the upper, and the lower edge
towards the under surface of the feather. The manner in which this
beautiful mechanism works may be seen in fig. 1 b.

In one of the primary or "quill" feathers of the wing of a crane, each
barb of the inner side of the vane was found to bear about 600 pairs of
barbules, which would make about 800,000 barbules for the inner web of
the vane alone, or more than a million for the whole feather (H.F.
Gadow). It is to the agency of these hooklets alone that the
closely-knit, elastic vanes of the flight feathers and the body feathers
are due. Where these hooklets are wanting the barbs do not adhere
together, resulting in a loose "discontinuous" vane such as, for
example, is found in the plumes of the ostrich.

Many feathers, in addition to the main axis, bear a second, generally
much shorter axis, supporting a loose discontinuous vane; this shorter
branch is known as the "aftershaft" and arises from the under surface of
the feather. Only in the cassowary and emu among adult birds is the
aftershaft as large as the main shaft.

There are several different kinds of feathers--contour feathers,
semiplumes, down-feathers, filoplumes and powder-down. Contour feathers,
as their name implies, are those which form the contour or outline of
the body, and are all that can generally be seen. Those which form the
"flight feathers" of the wing, and the tail feathers, are the most
perfectly developed. Semiplumes are degenerate contour feathers. The
down-feathers are generally completely hidden by the contour feathers:
they form in many birds, such as gulls and ducks, a thick underclothing
comparable to the under-fur of mammals such as the seals. In all cases
they are of a loose, soft, "fluffy" structure, the barbs being of great
length and slenderness, while the barbules are often long and provided
with knob-like thickenings answering to the hooklets of the more
perfectly developed contour feathers; these thickenings help to "felt"
the separate down-feathers together, the barbs of one down-feather
interlocking with those of its neighbour. Down-feathers differ from
semiplumes both in their relation to contour feathers and in that they
do not possess a main axis, all the barbs arising from a common centre.

Filoplumes are degenerate structures having a superficial resemblance to
hairs, but they always bear a minute vane at the tip. They occur in all
birds, in clusters of varying number, about the bases of contour
feathers. In some birds they attain a great length, and may project
beyond the contour feathers, sometimes forming conspicuous white
patches, as for example in the necks of cormorants. In their early
stages of development they often possess a large aftershaft made up of a
number of barbs, but these quickly disappear, leaving only the
degenerate main shaft. The eyelashes and bristles round the mouth found
in many birds appear to be akin to filoplumes.

Powder-down feathers are degenerate down-feathers which appear to
secrete a dry, waxy kind of powder. This powder rapidly disintegrates
and becomes distributed over the plumage, adding thereto a quite
peculiar bloom. In birds of the heron tribe powder-down feathers have
reached a high degree of development, forming large patches in the
breast and thighs, while in some hawks, and in the parrots, these
mysterious feathers are scattered singly over the greater part of the
body.


  Nestling down.

The nature of the covering of nestling birds is of a more complex
character than has hitherto been suspected. The majority of young birds,
as is well known, either emerge from the egg clothed in down-feathers,
or they develop these within a day or two afterwards. But this covering,
though superficially similar in all, may, as a matter of fact, differ
widely in its constitution, even in closely related forms, while only in
a very few species can the complete history of these feathers be made
out.

The brown or tawny owl (_Syrnium aluco_) is one of these. At hatching,
the young of this species is thickly clad in white, woolly
down-feathers, of the character known as umbelliform--that is to say,
the central axis or main shaft is wanting, so that the barbs all start
from a common centre. These feathers occupy the position of the
ultimate contour feathers. They are shortly replaced by a second
down-like covering, superficially resembling, and generally regarded as,
true down. But they differ in that their barbs spring from a central
axis as in typical contour feathers. Feathers of this last description
indeed have now made their appearance in the shape of the "flight" or
quill feathers (_remiges_) and of the tail feathers. This plumage is
worn until the autumn, when the downy feathers give place to the
characteristic adult plumage. The down feathers which appear at
hatching-time are known as _pre-pennae_, or _pre-plumulae_, as the case
may be; the first generation of pre-pennae, in the case of the tawny owl
for example, is made up of _protoptyles_, while the succeeding plumage
is made up of _mesoptyles_, and these in turn give place to the
_teleoptyles_ or adult feathers. The two forms of nestling
plumage--pre-pennae and pre-plumulae--may be collectively called
"neossoptyles," a term coined by H.F. Gadow to distinguish the plumage
of the nestling from that of the adult--the "teleoptyle" plumage.

As a rule the nestling develops but one of these generations of
neossoptyles, and this generally answers to the mesoptyle plumage,
though this is of a degenerate type. In some birds, as in the Megapodes,
the "protoptyle" or first of these two generations of pre-pennae is
developed and shed while the chick is yet in the shell, so that at
hatching the mesoptyle plumage is well developed. But in the majority of
birds, probably, the mesoptyle plumage only is developed, while the
earlier, and apparently more degenerate, dress is suppressed. In the
penguins both of these nestling plumages are developed, but the
mesoptyle dress has degenerated so that umbelliform feathers now take
the place of feathers having a central axis.

The Anatidae show traces of the earlier, first generation of feathers in
one or two species only, e.g. _Cloëphaga rubidiceps_. In all the
remaining species mesoptyles only occur. And this is true also of the
game-birds. In both the Tinamous, the duck-tribe and the game-birds this
mesoptyle plumage shows, in different species, every gradation between
feathers having a well-developed main shaft and aftershaft, and those
which are mere umbelliform tufts.

As development proceeds and the contour feathers make their appearance
they thrust the mesoptyle feathers out of their follicles--the pockets
in the skin in which they were rooted--and these will often be found
adhering to the tips of the contour feathers for many weeks after the
bird has left the nest. This occurs because the development of the
contour feather begins before that of the mesoptyles has completed.

The plumage in nestling birds is still further complicated by the fact
that it may be almost, or entirely, composed of pre-plumulae; that is to
say, of down-feathers which are later succeeded by adult
_down-feathers_. This is the case among the accipitrine birds for
example, and thereby it differs entirely from that of the owls, which
develop neither pre-plumulae nor adult down. The cormorants are, so far
as is known, the only birds which have a nestling plumage composed
entirely of pre-plumulae.


  The colours of feathers.

In variety and brilliancy the colours of birds are not surpassed by
those of any other group of animals. Yet the pigments to which these
colours are due are but few in number, while a large number of the most
resplendent hues are produced by structural peculiarities of the
colourless horny surface of the feathers, and hence are known as
subjective or optical colours.

The principal colour pigments are (a) _melanin pigments_, derived
possibly from the haemoglobin of the blood, but more probably from the
blood plasma, and (b) _lipochrome_ or "fat" pigments, which are regarded
as reserve products; though in the case of birds it is exceedingly
doubtful whether they have this significance.

The melanin pigments (_zoomelanin_) occur in the form of granules and
give rise to the black, brown and grey tones; or they may combine with
those of the lipochrome series.

The lipochrome pigments (_zoonerythrin_ and _zooxanthin_) tend to be
diffused throughout the substance of the feather, and give rise
respectively to the red and yellow colours.

In addition to these must be reckoned _turacin_, a reddish-purple
pigment consisting of the same elements as zoomelanin, but remarkable
for the fact that it contains from 5 to 8% of copper, which can be
extracted by a weak alkaline solution, such as ammonia, and with the
addition of acetic acid it can be filtered off as a metallic red or blue
powder. The presence of metallic copper is indicated by the green flame
of these red feathers when burnt. Turacin was discovered by Sir A.H.
Church in the quill-feathers of the wings of Touracoes or "plantain
eaters." These feathers, he showed, lose their colour after they have
become wet, but regain it on drying. But turacin is not, as was
supposed, confined to the feathers of the plantain eaters, since it has
been obtained from a cuckoo, _Dasylophus superciliosus_.

What effect food may have on colour in birds in a wild state we have no
means of knowing, but it is significant that flamingoes and linnets in
confinement never regain their bright hues after their first moult in
captivity. If cayenne pepper be mixed with the food of certain strains
of canaries, from the time the birds are hatched onwards, the yellow
colour of the feathers becomes intensified, till it takes on a deep
orange hue. Bullfinches, if fed on hemp-seed, turn black. According to
Darwin, the natives of the Amazonian region feed the common green parrot
on the fat of large Siluroid fishes, and as a result the feathers become
beautifully variegated with red and yellow. Similarly, in the Malay
Archipelago, the natives of Gilolo change the colours of another parrot.

With but rare exceptions bright colours are confined to the exposed
portions of the plumage, but in some of the Bustards the down is of a
bright pink colour.


  Structural colours.

Structural colours include all metallic or prismatic colours, blue,
green, white, some yellows, and, in part, glossy black. In metallic
feathers the radii (barbules) are modified in various ways, frequently
to form flattened, overlapping plates or tiles, while the surfaces of
the plates are either smooth, finely striated or pitted. But, save only
in the case of white feathers, beneath this colourless, glazed outer
coat there is always a layer of pigment.

The only green pigment known to occur in feathers is _turacoverdin_,
found in the feathers of the plantain eaters; it contains a relatively
large amount of iron, but no copper. In all other cases the green colour
of feathers is due to yellow, orange or greyish-brown pigment occurring
with a special superstructure consisting of narrow ridges, as in some
parrots and pittas (ant-thrushes), or the surface of the barbs and
barbules is smooth and transparent, while between it and the pigment
there exists a layer of small polygonal, colourless bodies having highly
refractory, and often striated, surfaces.

Blue is unknown as a pigment in feathers. Blue feathers contain only
orange or brownish pigment (Gadow), the blue colour being caused by the
combination of pigment corpuscles and colourless striated polygonal
bodies, as in green feathers.

While in many birds the coloration takes the form either of a uniform
hue or of bands and patches of colour more or less brilliant, in others
the coloration is sombre, and made up of dark longitudinal stripes or
transverse bars on a lighter ground. The latter is the more primitive,
and there seems good reason to believe that longitudinal stripes
preceded transverse bars. This is indicated by the fact that the
nestlings of the more primitive groups are longitudinally striped, and
that young hawks in their first plumage are so striped, while the adults
are barred.

There is also evidence to show that the evolution of brilliant plumage
began with the males, and has, in many cases, been more or less
perfectly acquired by the females, and also by the young, as for example
in the kingfishers, where parents and offspring wear the same livery.
Often, where the parents are alike in plumage, the young wear a
different and duller livery, as in the case of the common starling
(_Sturnus vulgaris_). But where the female differs from the male in
coloration the young resemble the female parent.

The physiological explanation of complete disappearance of pigment in
adult life, e.g. gannet, is not yet apparent.


  Moulting.

At least once annually birds renew their feathers completely by a
process known as a moult. Until the new feathers have attained at least
half their full length they are invested in a soft sheath, and, as
development proceeds, the sheath breaks up from the tip of the feather
downwards, so that for a time the new feathers have almost a brush-like
appearance. Generally this replacement takes place gradually, new and
old feathers occurring side by side, and on this account it is not
always possible to see whether a moult is proceeding without raising the
old feathers.

The "quill" feathers of the wing and tail are renewed in pairs, so that
flight is little, if at all, impaired, the change taking place in the
wing from the region of the wrist inwards, as to the primaries, and from
the body outwards, towards the tip of the wing, as to the secondaries.
In certain birds, however, as in the duck tribe and the rails, for
example, all the quill-feathers of the wing are shed at once, so that
for some time flight is impossible.

In the penguins this simultaneous method of moulting is carried still
further. That is to say, the old feathers covering the body are not
replaced gradually, but _en masse_. This method of ecdysis is, however,
still further remarkable in that the old feathers do not drop out, to be
succeeded by spine-like stumps which, later, split at the tip,
liberating the barbs of the new feathers. They are, on the contrary,
thrust out upon the tips of the new feathers, the barbs of which are
never enclosed within an envelope such as that just described. When
their growth has practically completed, and not till then, the old
feathers are removed in large patches by the aid of the bird's beak;
exposing thereby a perfectly developed plumage. In the cassowary, and
emeu, the old feathers similarly adhere for a time to the tips of the
new; but in these birds the feathers are moulted singly as in other
birds.

Some birds moult twice within the year, the additional moult taking
place in the spring, as in the case of the "warblers" (Sylviidae) and
Limicolae, for example. But when this is the case the spring moult is
only partial, since the quill feathers of the wings and the tail
feathers are not renewed.

At this spring moult a special "nuptial" plumage is often assumed, as
for example in many of the Limicolae, e.g. god-wits, knots, dunlin,
ruff.

The sequel to this habit of assuming a nuptial dress is an interesting
one. Briefly, this plumage, at first assumed at the mating period by the
males only, and doffed soon after the young appear, has become retained
for longer and longer periods, so that the succeeding plumage, often
conspicuously dull compared with the nuptial dress, is worn only for a
few weeks, instead of many months, as in the case of many of the ducks,
for example; wherein the males, as soon as the young are hatched, assume
what C. Waterton has aptly called an "eclipse" dress. This, instead of
being worn till the following spring, as in the waders, is shed again in
the autumn and replaced by what answers to the waders' "nuptial" dress.
In the game-birds but a trace of this "eclipse" plumage remains; and
this, apparently, only in jungle-fowl, the common grey partridge
(_Perdix cinerea_) and the blackcock (_Lyrurus_), in whose case the head
and neck for a short period following the breeding season are clothed
only by dull feathers. Further, this more highly developed plumage
becomes transferred, first to the female, then to the young, so that, in
many groups, the dull phase of plumage is entirely eliminated.

But the assumption at the breeding season of a conspicuously brilliant
plumage is not always due to a moult. In many birds, notably many
Passerines, this change is brought about by shedding the tips of the
feathers, which are of a duller hue than the rest of the feather. In
this way the bright rose pink of the linnet's breast, the blue and black
head of the chaffinch, and the black throat and chestnut-and-black
markings of the back of the sparrow, are assumed--to mention but a few
instances. These birds moult but once a year, in the autumn, when the
new feathers have broad brown fringes; as the spring advances these drop
off, and with them the barbicels from the barbules of the upper surface
of the feather, thus revealing the hidden tints.

According to some authorities, however, some birds acquire a change of
colour without a moult by the ascent of pigment from the base of the
feather. The black head assumed by many gulls in the spring is, for
example, said to be gained in this way. There is, however, not only no
good evidence in support of the contention, but the whole structure of
the feather is against the probability of any such change taking place.


    The development of feathers.

  Feathers correspond with the scales of reptiles rather than with the
  hairs of mammals, as is shown by their development. They make their
  first appearance in the developing chick at about the sixth day of
  incubation, in the shape of small papillae. In section each papilla is
  found to be made up of a cluster of dermal cells--that is to say, of
  cells of the deeper layer of the skin--capped by cells of the
  epidermis. These last form a single superficial layer of flattened
  cells--the _epitrichium_--overlaying the cells of the Malpighian
  layer, which are cylindrical in shape and rapidly increase to form
  several layers. As development proceeds the papillae assume a
  cone-shape with its apex directed backwards, while the base of this
  cone sinks down into the skin, or rather is carried down by the growth
  of the Malpighian cells, so that the cone is now sunk in a deep pit.
  Thereby these Malpighian cells become divided into two portions: (1)
  those taking part in the formation of the walls of the pit or "feather
  follicle," and (2) those enclosed within the cone. These last surround
  the central mass or core formed by the dermis. This mass constitutes
  the nutritive pulp for the development of the growing feather, and is
  highly vascular. The cells of the Malpighian layer within the cone now
  become differentiated into three layers. (1) An inner, extremely thin,
  forming a delicate sheath for the pulp, and found in the fully
  developed feather in the form of a series of hollow, transparent caps
  enclosed within the calamus; (2) a thick layer which forms the feather
  itself; and (3) a thin layer which forms the investing sheath of the
  feather. It is this sheath which gives the curious spine-covered
  character to many nestling birds and birds in moult. As growth
  proceeds the cells of this middle layer arrange themselves in
  longitudinal rows to form the barbs, while the barbules are formed by
  a secondary splitting. At their bases these rudimentary barbs meet to
  form the calamus. Finally the tips of the barbs break through the
  investing sheath and the fully formed down-feather emerges.

  A part of the pulp and Malpighian cells remains over after the
  complete growth of the down-feather, and from this succeeding
  generations of feathers are developed. The process of this development
  differs from that just outlined chiefly in this: that of the
  longitudinal rows which in the down-feather form the barbs, two on the
  dorsal and two on the ventral aspect of the interior of the cylinder
  become stronger than the rest, combining to form the main-and
  after-shaft respectively. The remainder of the rods form the barbs and
  barbules as in the down-feather.

  The reproductive power of the feather follicle appears to be almost
  inexhaustible, since it is not diminished appreciably by age, nor
  restricted to definite moulting periods, as is shown by the cruel and
  now obsolete custom of plucking geese alive, no less than three times
  annually, for the sake of their feathers. The growth of the feathers
  is, however, certainly affected by the general health of the bird,
  mal-nutrition causing the appearance of peculiar transverse V-shaped
  grooves, at more or less regular intervals, along the whole length of
  the feather. These are known as "hunger-marks," a name given by
  falconers, to whom this defect was well known.

  It would seem that while the feather germ may be artificially
  stimulated to produce three successive generations of feathers within
  a year, it may, on the other hand, be induced artificially to maintain
  a continuous activity extending over long periods. That is to say, the
  normal quiescent period, and periodic moult, may be suspended, so that
  the feather maintains a steady and continuous growth till it attains a
  length of several feet. The only known instance of this kind is that
  furnished by a domesticated breed of jungle-fowl known as the
  "Japanese long-tailed fowls" or as "Yokohamas." In this breed the
  upper tail coverts are in some way, as yet unknown to Europeans,
  induced to go on growing until they have attained a length of from 12
  to 18 or even 20 ft.! In this abnormal growth the "hackles" of the
  lower part of the back also share, though they do not attain a similar
  length.

  The feathers of birds are not uniformly distributed over the body, but
  grow only along certain definite tracts known as _pterylae_, leaving
  bare spaces or _apteria_. These pterylae differ considerably in their
  conformation in different groups of birds, and hence are of service in
  systematic ornithology.

  The principal pterylae are as follows:--

  (1) The head tract (_pt. capitis_), which embraces the head only.

  (2) The spinal tract (_pt. spinalis_), which extends the whole length
  of the vertical column. It is one of the most variable in its
  modifications, especially in so far as the region from the base of the
  neck to the tail is concerned. In its simplest form it runs down the
  back in the form of a band of almost uniform width, but generally it
  expands considerably in the lumbar region, as in Passeres. Frequently
  it is divided into two portions; an upper, terminating in the region
  of the middle of the back in a fork, and a lower, which commences
  either as a fork, e.g. plover, barbet, or as a median band, e.g.
  swallow. Very commonly the dorsal region of this tract encloses a more
  or less extensive featherless space (_apterion_), e.g. swift, auk.
  While, as a rule, the dorsal region of this tract is relatively
  narrow, it is in some of great breadth, e.g. grebe, pigeon, coly.

  (3) The ventral tract (_pt. ventralis_), which presents almost as many
  variations as the spinal tract.

  [Illustration: Fig. 2.--Pterylosis of the plover.]

  In its simplest form it runs from the throat backwards in the form of
  a median band as far as the base of the neck where it divides, sending
  a branch to each side of the breast. This branch commonly again
  divides into a short, broad outer branch which lodges the "flank"
  feathers, and a long, narrow, inner branch which runs backwards to
  join its fellow of the opposite side in front of the cloacal aperture.
  This branch lodges the abdominal feathers. The median space which
  divides the inner branches of the tract may be continued forwards as
  far as the middle of the neck, or even up to the throat, e.g. plover.
  Only in a few cases is the neck continuously covered by the fusion of
  the dorsal and ventral tracts, e.g. flamingo, Anseres, Ciconidae,
  Pygopodes.

  For convenience sake the cervical portions of the spinal and ventral
  tracts are generally regarded as separate tracts, the _pt. colli
  dorsalis_ and _pt. colli ventralis_ respectively.

  (4) The humeral tract (_pt. humeralis_), which gives rise to the
  "scapular" feathers.

  (5) The femoral tract (_pt. femoralis_), which forms an oblique band
  across the thigh.

  (6) The crural tract (_pt. cruralis_), which clothes the rest of the
  leg.

  (7) The tail tract (_pt. caudalis_), including the tail feathers and
  their coverts; and

  (8) The wing tract (_pt. alaris_). The wing tract presents many
  peculiar features. Each segment--arm, forearm and hand--bears feathers
  essential to flight, and these are divided into _remiges_, or "quill"
  feathers, and _tectrices_, or "coverts."

  The remiges of the arm, more commonly described as "tertiaries," are,
  technically, collectively known as the _parapteron_ and _hypopteron_,
  and are composed respectively of long, quill-like feathers forming a
  double series, the former arranged along the upper, and the latter
  along the lower aspect of the humerus. They serve to fill up the gap
  which, in long-winged birds, would otherwise occur during flight
  between the quill-feathers of the forearm and the body, a gap which
  would make flight impossible. In short-winged birds these two series
  are extremely reduced.

  The remiges range in number from 16, as in humming-birds, to 48 as in
  the albatross, according, in short, to the length of the wing. But
  these numerical differences depend, in flying birds, rather upon the
  length of the forearm, since the quills of the hand never exceed 12
  and never fall below 10, though the tenth may be reduced to a mere
  vestige.

  The quills of the forearm are known as "secondaries," those of the
  hand as "primaries." The former are attached by their bases at
  relatively wide distances apart to the ulna, while the primaries are
  crowded close together and attached to the skeleton of the hand. The
  six or seven which rest upon the fused metacarpals II.-III. are known
  as "metacarpals." The next succeeding feather is borne by the phalanx
  of digit III. and hence is known as the addigital. Phalanx i. of digit
  II. always supports two quills, the "middigitals," while the remaining
  feathers--one or two--are borne by the last phalanx of digit II. and
  are known as pre-digitals, while the whole series of primaries are
  known as the metacarpo-digitals.

  In their relation one to another the remiges, it must be noted, are
  always so placed that they overlap one another, the free edge of each,
  when the wing is seen from its upper surface, being turned towards the
  tip of the wing. Thus, in flight, the air passes through the wing as
  it is raised, while in the downstroke the feathers are forced together
  to form a homogeneous surface.

  Birds which fly much have the outer primaries of great length, giving
  the wing a pointed shape, as in swifts, while in species which fly but
  little, or frequent thickets, the outer primaries are very short,
  giving the wing a rounded appearance. This adaptation to environment
  is commonly lost sight of by taxonomers, who not infrequently use the
  form of the wing as a factor in classification.

  The tectrices, or covert feathers of the wing, are arranged in several
  series, decreasing in size from behind forwards. The number of rows on
  the dorsal aspect and the method of their overlap, afford characters
  of general importance in classification.

  The first row of the series is formed by the _major coverts_; these,
  like the primaries, have their free-edges directed towards the tip of
  the wing, and hence are said to have a distal overlap. The next row is
  formed by the _median coverts_. These, on the forearm, commonly
  overlap as to the outer half of the row distally, and as to the inner
  half proximally. On the hand this series is incomplete. Beyond the
  median are four or five rows of coverts known as the _minor coverts_.
  These may have either a proximal or a distal overlap. The remaining
  rows of small feathers are known as the _marginal coverts_, and they
  always have a distal overlap.

  The three or four large quill-like feathers borne by the thumb form
  what is known as the "bastard-wing," _ala spuria_.

  The coverts of the under follow an arrangement similar to that of the
  upper surface, but the minor coverts are commonly but feebly
  developed, leaving a more or less bare space which is covered by the
  great elongation of the marginal series.

  One noteworthy fact about the coverts of the under side of the wing is
  that all save the major and median coverts have what answers to the
  dorsal surfaces of the feather turned towards the body, and what
  answers to the ventral surface of the feather turned towards the under
  surface of the wing. In the major and median coverts, however, the
  ventral surfaces of these feathers are turned ventralwards, that is to
  say, in the extended wing they, like the remiges, have the ventral
  surfaces turned downwards or towards the body in the closed wing.

  But the most remarkable fact in connexion with the pterylosis of the
  wing is the fact that in all, save the Passerine and Galliform types,
  and some few other isolated exceptions, the secondary series of
  remiges appears always to lack the fifth remex, counting from the
  wrist inwards, inasmuch as, when such wings are examined, there is
  always found, in the place of the fifth remex, a pair of major coverts
  only, while throughout the rest of the series each such pair of
  coverts embraces a quill.

  This extraordinary fact was first discovered by the French naturalist
  Z. Gerbe, and was later rediscovered by R.S. Wray. Neither of these,
  however, was able to offer any explanation thereof. This, however, has
  since been attempted, simultaneously, by P.C. Mitchell and W.P.
  Pycraft. The former has aptly coined the word _diastataxic_ to denote
  the gap in the series, and _eutaxic_ to denote such wings as have an
  uninterrupted series of quills. While both authors agree that there is
  no evidence of any loss in the number of the quills in diastataxic
  wings, they differ in the interpretation as to which of the two
  conditions is the more primitive and the means by which the gap has
  been brought about.

  According to Mitchell the diastataxic is the more primitive condition,
  and he has conclusively shown a way in which diastataxic wings may
  become eutaxic. Pycraft on the other hand contends that the
  diastataxic wing has been derived from the eutaxic type, and has
  produced evidence showing, on the one hand, the method by which this
  transition is effected, and on the other that by which the diastataxic
  wing may again recover the eutaxic condition, though in this last
  particular the evidence adduced by Mitchell is much more complete. The
  matter is, however, one of considerable difficulty, but is well worth
  further investigation.

  The wings of struthious birds differ from those of the Carinatae, just
  described, in many ways. All are degenerate and quite useless as
  organs of flight. In some cases indeed they have become reduced to
  mere vestiges.

  Those of the ostrich and Rhea are the least degraded.

  In the ostrich ankylosis has prevented the flexion of the hand at the
  wrist joint so that the quills--primaries and secondaries--form an
  unbroken series of about forty in number. Of these sixteen belong to
  the primary or metacarpo-digital series, a number exceeding that of
  any other bird. What the significance of this may be with regard to
  the primitive wing it is impossible to say at present. The coverts, in
  their disposition, bear a general resemblance to those of Carinate
  wings; but they differ on account of the great length of the feathers
  and the absence of any definite overlap.

  The wing of the South American Rhea more nearly resembles that of
  flying birds since the hand can be flexed at the wrist joint, and the
  primaries are twelve in number, as in grebes, and some storks, for
  example.

  The coverts, as in the African ostrich, are remarkable for their great
  length, those representing the major series being as long as the
  remiges, a fact probably due to the shortening of the latter. They are
  not, however, arranged in quincunx, as is the rule among the
  Carinatae, but in parallel, transverse rows, in which respect they
  resemble the owls.

  In both ostrich and Rhea, as well as in all the other struthious
  birds, the under surface of the wing is entirely bare.

  The wing of the cassowary, emeu and apteryx has undergone complete
  degeneration; so much so that only a vestige of the hand remains.

  Remiges in the cassowary are represented by a few spine-like
  shafts--three primaries and two secondaries. These are really
  hypertrophied calami. This is shown by the fact that in the nestling
  these remiges have a normal calamus, rhachis and vane; but as
  development proceeds the rhachis with its vane sloughs off, while the
  calamus becomes enormously lengthened and solid.

  In the emeu the wing is less atrophied than in the cassowary, but is
  not yet completely degenerate. Altogether seventeen remiges are
  represented, of which seven correspond to primaries. Since, however,
  these feathers have each an aftershaft as long as the main shaft--like
  the rest of the body feathers--it may be that they answer not to
  remiges, but to major coverts.

  The wing of apteryx, like that of the cassowary, has become extremely
  reduced. The remiges are thirteen in number, four of which answer to
  primaries. These feathers are specially interesting, inasmuch as they
  retain throughout life a stage corresponding to that seen in the very
  young cassowary, the calamus being greatly swollen, and supporting a
  very degenerate rhachis and vane.

  The penguins afford another object-lesson in degeneration of this
  kind. Here the wing has become transformed into a paddle, clothed on
  both sides with a covering of small, close-set feathers. A pollex is
  wanting, as in the cassowary, emeu and apteryx, while it is impossible
  to say whether remiges are represented or not.

  AUTHORITIES.--The following authors should be consulted for further
  details on this subject:--

  _For General Reference as to Structure, Colour, Development and
  Pterylosis._--H. Gadow, in Newton's _Dictionary of Birds_ (1896); W.P.
  Pycraft, "The Interlocking of the Barbs of Feathers," _Natural
  Science_ (1893).

  _On the Colours of Feathers._--J.L. Bonhote, "On Moult and Colour
  Change in Birds," _Ibis_ (1900); A.H. Church, "Researches on Turacin,
  an Animal Pigment containing Copper," _Phil. Trans._ clix. (1870), pt.
  ii.; H. Gadow, "The Coloration of Feathers as affected by Structure,"
  _Proc. Zool. Soc._ (1882); Newbegin, _Colour in Nature_ (1898); R.M.
  Strong, "The Development of Color in the Definitive Feather," _Bull.
  Mus. Zool. Harvard College_, vol. xl.

  _On Moulting._--J. Dwight, "The Sequences of Plumage and Moults of the
  Passerine Birds of New York," _Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci._, vol. xiii.
  (1900); W.E. De Winton, "On the Moulting of the King Penguin," _Proc.
  Zool. Soc._ (1898-1899); W.P. Pycraft, "On some Points in the Anatomy
  of the Emperor and Adélie Penguins," _Report National Antarctic
  Expedition_, vol. ii. (1907).

  _On Development of Embryonic, Nestling and Adult Feathers._--T.H.
  Studer, "Die Entwicklung der Federn," _Inaug.-Diss._ (Bern, 1873);
  "Beiträge zur Entwickl. der Feder," _Zeitsch. f. wiss. Zool._, Bd.
  xxx.; J.T. Cunningham, "Observations and Experiments on Japanese
  Long-tailed Fowls," _Proc. Zool. Soc._ (1903); H.R. Davies, "Beitrag
  zur Entwicklung der Feder," _Morph. Jahrb._ xiv. (1888), xv. (1889);
  W.P. Pycraft, "A Contribution towards our Knowledge of the Morphology
  of the Owls," _Trans. Linn. Soc._ (1898); W.P. Pycraft, "A
  Contribution towards our Knowledge of the Pterytography of the
  Megapodii," _Report Willey's Zoological Results_, pt. iv. (1900); W.P.
  Pycraft, "Nestling Birds and some of the Problems they Present,"
  _British Birds_ (1907).

  _On Pterylosis._--H. Gadow, "Remarks on the Numbers and on the
  Phylogenetic Development of the Remiges of Birds," _Proc. Zool. Soc._
  (1888); Z. Gerbe, "Sur les plumes du vol et leur mue," _Bull. Soc.
  Zool. France_, vol. ii. (1877); J.G. Goodchild, "The Cubital Coverts
  of the Euornithae in relation to Taxonomy," _Proc. Roy. Phys. Edinb._
  vol. x. (1890-1891); Meijere, "Über die Federn der Vögel," _Morphol.
  Jahrb._ xxiii. (1895); P.C. Mitchell, "On so-called 'Quintocubitalism'
  in the Wing of Birds," _Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool._ vol. xxvii. (1899);
  "On the Anatomy of the Kingfishers, with special reference to the
  Conditions known as Eutaxy and Diastataxy," _Ibis_ (1901); C.L.
  Nitzsch, "Pterytography," _Ray Soc._ (1867); W.P. Pycraft, "Some Facts
  concerning the so-called 'Aquintocubitalism' of the Bird's Wing,"
  _Journ. Linn. Soc._ vol. xxvii.; C.J. Sundevall, "On the Wings of
  Birds," _Ibis_ (1886); R.S. Wray, "On some Points in the Morphology of
  the Wings of Birds," _Proc. Zool. Soc._ (1887).     (W. P. P.)

_Commercial Applications of Feathers._--The chief purposes for which
feathers become commercially valuable may be comprehended under four
divisions:--(1) bed and upholstery feathers; (2) quills for writing; (3)
ornamental feathers; and (4) miscellaneous uses of feathers.

_Bed and Upholstery Feathers._--The qualities which render feathers
available for stuffing beds, cushions, &c., are lightness elasticity,
freedom from matting and softness. These are combined in the most
satisfactory degree in the feathers of the goose and of several other
allied aquatic birds, whose bodies are protected with a warm downy
covering. Goose feathers and down, when plucked in spring from the
living bird, are most esteemed, being at once more elastic, cleaner and
less liable to taint than those obtained from the bodies of killed
geese. The down of the eider duck, _Anas mollissima_, is valued above
all other substances for lightness, softness and elasticity; but it has
some tendency to mat, and is consequently more used for quilts and in
articles of clothing than unmixed for stuffing beds. The feathers of
swans, ducks and of the common domestic fowl are also largely employed
for beds; but in the case of the latter bird, which is of course
non-aquatic, the feathers are harsher and less downy than are those of
the natatorial birds generally. Feathers which possess strong or stiff
shafts cannot without some preliminary preparation be used for stuffing
purposes, as the stiff points they present would not only be highly
uncomfortable, but would also pierce and cause the escape of the
feathers from any covering in which they might be enclosed. The barbs
are therefore stripped or cut from these feathers, and when so prepared
they, in common with soft feathers and downs, undergo a careful process
of drying and cleaning, without which they would acquire an offensive
smell, readily attract damp, and harbour vermin. The drying is generally
done in highly heated apartments or stoves, and subsequently the
feathers are smartly beaten with a stick, and shaken in a sieve to
separate all dust and small debris.

_Quills for Writing._--The earliest period at which the use of quill
feathers for writing purposes is recorded is the 6th century; and from
that time till the introduction of steel pens in the early part of the
19th century they formed the principal writing implements of civilized
communities. It has always been from the goose that quills have been
chiefly obtained, although the swan, crow, eagle, owl, hawk and turkey
all have more or less been laid under contribution. Swan quills, indeed
are better and more costly than are those from the goose, and for fine
lines crow quills have been much employed. Only the five outer wing
feathers of the goose are useful for writing, and of these the second
and third are the best, while left-wing quills are also generally more
esteemed than those of the right wing, from the fact that they curve
outward and away from the writer using them. Quills obtained in spring,
by plucking or otherwise, from living birds are by far the best, those
taken from dead geese, more especially if fattened, being comparatively
worthless. To take away the natural greasiness to remove the superficial
and internal pellicles of skin, and to give the necessary qualities of
hardness and elasticity, quills require to undergo some processes of
preparation. The essential operation consists in heating them, generally
in a fine sand-bath, to from 130° to 180° F. according to circumstances,
and scraping them under pressure while still soft from heat, whereby the
outer skin is removed and the inner shrivelled up. If the heating has
been properly effected, the quills are found on cooling to have become
hard, elastic and somewhat brittle. While the quills are soft and hot,
lozenge-shaped patterns, ornamental designs, and names are easily and
permanently impressed on them by pressure with suitable instruments or
designs in metal stamps.

_Ornamental Feathers._--Feathers do not appear to have been much used,
in Europe at least, for ornamental purposes till the close of the 13th
century. They are found in the conical caps worn in England during the
reigns of Edward III. and Richard II.; but not till the period of Henry
V. did they take their place as a part of military costume. Towards the
close of the 15th century the fashion of wearing feathers in both civil
and military life was carried to an almost ludicrous excess. In the time
of Henry VIII. they first appeared in the bonnets of ladies; and during
Elizabeth's reign feathers began to occupy an important place as
head-dress ornaments of women. From that time down to the present,
feathers of endless variety have continued to be leading articles of
ornamentation in female head-attire; but, except for military plumes,
they have long ceased to be worn in ordinary male costume. At the
present day, the feathers of numerous birds are, in one way or another,
turned to account by ladies for the purpose of personal ornament.
Ostrich feathers, however, hold, as they have always held, a pre-eminent
position among ornamental feathers; and the ostrich is the only bird
which may be said to be reared exclusively for the sake of its feathers.
Ostrich farming is one of the established industries of South Africa,
and is also practised in Kordofan and other semi-desert regions of North
Africa, in Argentina, and in Arizona and California in North America.
The feathers are generally plucked from the living animal--a process
which does not appear to cause any great inconvenience. In the male
bird, the long feathers of the rump and wings are white, and the short
feathers of the body are jet black; while the rump and wing feathers of
the female are white tinged with a dusky grey, the general body colour
being the latter hue. The feathers of the male are consequently much
more valuable than those of the female, and they are separately
classified in commerce. The art of the plumassier embraces the cleaning,
bleaching, dyeing, curling and making up of ostrich and other plumes and
feathers. White feathers are simply washed in bundles in hot soapy
water, run through pure warm water, exposed to sulphurous fumes for
bleaching, thereafter blued with indigo solution, rinsed in pure cold
water, and hung up to dry. When dry the shafts are pared or scraped down
to give the feathers greater flexibility, and the barbs are curled by
drawing them singly over the face of a blunt knife or by the cautious
application of a heated iron. Dull-coloured feathers are usually dyed
black. Feathers which are dyed light colours are first bleached by
exposure in the open air. Much ingenuity is displayed in the making up
of plumes, with the general result of producing the appearance of full,
rich, and long feathers from inferior varieties and from scraps and
fragments of ostrich feathers; and so dexterously can factitious plumes
be prepared that only an experienced person is able to detect the
fabrication.

In addition to those of the ostrich, the feathers of certain other birds
form articles of steady commercial demand. Among these are the feathers
of the South American ostrich, _Rhea americana_, the marabout feathers
of India obtained from _Leptoptilos argala_ and _L. javanica_, the
aigrettes of the heron, the feathers of the various species of birds of
paradise, and of numerous species of humming-birds. Swan-down and the
skins of various penguins and grebes and of the albatross are used, like
fur, for muffs and collarettes.

The Chinese excel in the preparation of artificial flowers and other
ornaments from bright natural-coloured or dyed feathers; and the French
also skilfully work fragments of feathers into bouquets of artificial
flowers, imitation butterflies, &c.

_Miscellaneous Applications of Feathers._--Quills of various sizes are
extensively employed as holders for the sable and camel hair brushes
used by artists, &c. Feather brushes and dusters are made from the
wing-feathers of the domestic fowl and other birds; those of a superior
quality, under the name of vulture dusters, being really made of
American ostrich feathers. A minor application of feathers is found in
the dressing of artificial fly-hooks for fishing. As steel pens came
into general use it became an object of considerable importance to find
applications for the supplanted goose-quills, and a large field of
employment for them was found in the preparation of toothpicks.
     (J. Pa; W. P. P.)



FEATHERSTONE, an urban district in the Osgoldcross parliamentary
division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 6 m. E. of Wakefield
on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901) 12,093. The
industrial population is employed in large collieries in the vicinity;
and here, on the 7th of September 1893, serious riots during a strike
resulted in the destruction of some of the colliery works belonging to
Lord Masham, and were not quelled without military intervention and some
bloodshed.



FEATLEY (or FAIRCLOUGH) DANIEL (1582-1645), English divine, was born at
Charlton, Oxfordshire, on the 15th of March 1582. He was a scholar of
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and probationer fellow in 1602, after
which he went to France as chaplain to the English ambassador. For some
years he was domestic chaplain to George Abbot, archbishop of
Canterbury, and held also the rectories of Lambeth (1619), Allhallows,
Bread Street (c. 1622), and Acton (1627), this last after leaving the
archbishop's service in 1625. His varied activities included a
"scholastick duel" with James I. in 1625, and the publication of (1) the
report of a conference with some Jesuits in 1624, (2) a devotional
manual entitled _Ancilla Pietatis_ (1626), (3) _Mystica Clavis, a Key
opening divers Difficult Texts of Scripture in 70 Sermons_ (1636). He
was appointed provost of Chelsea College in 1630, and in 1641 was one of
the sub-committee "to settle religion." In the course of this work he
had a disputation with four Baptists at Southwark which he commemorated
in his book [Greek: Katabaptistai kataptystoi], _The Dippers dipt or
the Anabaptists duckt and plunged over head and ears_ (1645). He sat in
the Westminster Assembly 1643, and was the last of the Episcopal members
to remain. For revealing its proceedings he was expelled and imprisoned.
He died at Chelsea on the 17th of April 1645.



FEBRONIANISM, the name given to a powerful movement within the Roman
Catholic Church in Germany, in the latter part of the 18th century,
directed towards the "nationalizing" of Catholicism, the restriction of
the monarchical power usurped by the papacy at the expense of the
episcopate, and the reunion of the dissident churches with Catholic
Christendom. It was thus, in its main tendencies, the equivalent of what
in France is known as Gallicanism (q.v.). The name is derived from the
pseudonym of "Justinus Febronius" adopted by Johann Nikolaus von
Hontheim (q.v.), coadjutor bishop of Treves (Trier), in publishing his
work _De statu ecclesiae et legitima potestate Romani pontificis_. This
book, which roused a vast amount of excitement and controversy at the
time, exercised an immense influence on opinion within the Roman
Catholic Church, and the principles it proclaimed were put into practice
by the rulers of that Church in various countries during the latter part
of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century.

The main propositions defended by "Febronius" were as follows. The
constitution of the Church is not, by Christ's institution, monarchical,
and the pope, though entitled to a certain primacy, is subordinate to
the universal Church. Though as the "centre of unity" he may be regarded
as the guardian and champion of the ecclesiastical law, and though he
may _propose_ laws, and send legates on the affairs of his primacy, his
sovereignty (_principatus_) over the Church is not one of jurisdiction,
but of order and collaboration (_ordinis et consociationis_). The Roman
(ultramontane) doctrine of papal infallibility is not accepted "by the
other Catholic Churches" and, moreover, "has no practical utility." The
Church is based on the one episcopacy common to all bishops, the pope
being only _primus inter pares_. It follows that the pope is subject to
general councils, in which the bishops are his colleagues
(_conjudices_), not merely his consultors; nor has he the exclusive
right to summon such councils. The decrees of general councils need not
be confirmed by the pope nor can they be altered by him; on the other
hand, appeal may be made from papal decisions to a general council. As
for the rights of the popes in such matters as appeals, reservations,
the confirmation, translation and deposition of bishops, these belong
properly to the bishops in provincial synods, and were usurped by the
papacy gradually as the result of a variety of causes, notably of the
False Decretals. For the health of the Church it is therefore necessary
to restore matters to their condition before the False Decretals, and to
give to the episcopate its due authority. The main obstacle to this is
not the pope himself, but the Curia, and this must be fought by all
possible means, especially by thorough popular education (_primum
adversus abusum ecclesiasticae potestatis remedium_), and by the
assembling of national and provincial synods, the neglect of which is
the main cause of the Church's woes. If the pope will not move in the
matter, the princes, and notably the emperor, must act in co-operation
with the bishops, summon national councils even against the pope's will,
defy his excommunication, and in the last resort refuse obedience in
those matters over which the papacy has usurped jurisdiction.

It will be seen that the views of Febronius had but little originality.
In the main they were those that predominated in the great general
councils of Constance and Basel in the 15th century; but they were
backed by him with such a wealth of learning, and they fitted so well
into the intellectual and political conditions of the time, that they
found a widespread acceptance. The book, indeed, was at once condemned
at Rome (February 1764), and by a brief of the 21st of May the pope
commanded all the bishops of Germany to suppress it. The papal
condemnation met with a very mixed reception; in some dioceses the order
to prohibit the book was ignored, in others action upon it was postponed
pending an independent examination, in yet others (nine in all) it was
at once obeyed "for political reasons," though even in these the
forbidden book became the "breviary of the governments." The Febronian
doctrine, in fact, exactly fitted the views of the German bishops, which
were by no means disinterested. It must be remembered that the bishops
were at this time great secular princes rather than Catholic prelates;
with rare exceptions, they made no pretence of carrying out their
spiritual duties; they shared to the full in the somewhat shallow
"enlightenment" of the age. As princes of the Empire they had asserted
their practical independence of the emperor; they were irked by what
they considered the unjustifiable interference of the Curia with their
sovereign prerogatives, and wished to establish their independence of
the pope also. In the ranks of the hierarchy, then, selfish motives
combined with others more respectable to secure the acceptance of the
Febronian position. Among secular rulers the welcome given to it was
even less equivocal. Even so devout a sovereign as Maria Theresa refused
to allow "Febronius" to be forbidden in the Habsburg dominions; her son,
the emperor Joseph II., applied the Febronian principles with
remorseless thoroughness. In Venice, in Tuscany, in Naples, in Portugal,
they inspired the vigorous efforts of "enlightened despots" to reform
the Church from above; and they gave a fresh impetus to the movement
against the Jesuits, which, under pressure of the secular governments,
culminated in the suppression of the Society by Pope Clement XIV. in
1773. "Febronius," too, inspired the proceedings of two notable
ecclesiastical assemblies, both held in the year 1786. The reforming
synod which met at Pistoia under the presidency of the bishop, Scipione
de' Ricci, is dealt with elsewhere (see PISTOIA). The other was the
so-called congress of Ems, a meeting of the delegates of the four German
archbishops, which resulted, on the 25th of August, in the celebrated
"Punctation of Ems," subsequently ratified and issued by the
archbishops. This document was the outcome of several years of
controversy between the archbishops and the papal nuncios, aroused by
what was considered the unjustifiable interference of the latter in the
affairs of the German dioceses. In 1769 the three archbishop-electors of
Mainz, Cologne and Treves (Trier) had drawn up in thirty articles their
complaints against the Curia, and after submitting them to the emperor
Joseph II., had forwarded them to the new pope, Clement XIV. These
articles, though "Febronius" was prohibited in the archdioceses, were
wholly Febronian in tone; and, indeed, Bishop von Hontheim himself took
an active part in the diplomatic negotiations which were their outcome.
In drawing up the "Punctation" he took no active part, but it was wholly
inspired by his principles. It consisted of XXIII. articles, which may
be summarized as follows. Bishops have, in virtue of their God-given
powers, full authority within their dioceses in all matters of
dispensation, patronage and the like; papal bulls, briefs, &c., and the
decrees of the Roman Congregations are only of binding force in each
diocese when sanctioned by the bishop; nunciatures, as hitherto
conceived, are to cease; the oath of allegiance to the pope demanded of
bishops since Gregory VII.'s time is to be altered so as to bring it
into conformity with episcopal rights; annates and the fees payable for
the pallium and confirmation are to be lowered and, in the event of the
pallium or confirmation being refused, German archbishops and bishops
are to be free to exercise their office under the protection of the
emperor; with the Church tribunals of first and second instance
(episcopal and metropolitan) the nuncios are not to interfere, and,
though appeal to Rome is allowed under certain "national" safe-guards,
the opinion is expressed that it would be better to set up in each
archdiocese a final court of appeal representing the provincial synod;
finally the emperor is prayed to use his influence with the pope to
secure the assembly of a national council in order to remove the
grievances left unredressed by the council of Trent.

Whether this manifesto would have led to a reconstitution of the Roman
Catholic Church on permanently Febronian lines must for ever remain
doubtful. The French Revolution intervened; the German Church went down
in the storm: and in 1803 the secularizations carried out by order of
the First Consul put an end to the temporal ambitions of its prelates.
Febronianism indeed, survived. Karl Theodor von Dalberg, prince primate
of the Confederation of the Rhine, upheld its principles throughout the
Napoleonic epoch and hoped to establish them in the new Germany to be
created by the congress of Vienna. He sent to this assembly, as
representative of the German Church, Bishop von Wessenberg, who in his
diocese of Constance had not hesitated to apply Febronian principles in
reforming, on his own authority, the services and discipline of the
Church. But the times were not favourable for such experiments. The tide
of reaction after the Revolutionary turmoil was setting strongly in the
direction of traditional authority, in religion as in politics; and that
ultramontane movement which, before the century was ended, was to
dominate the Church, was already showing signs of vigorous life.
Moreover, the great national German Church of which Dalberg had a
vision--with himself as primate--did not appeal to the German princes,
tenacious of their newly acquired status as European powers. One by one
these entered into concordats with Rome, and Febronianism from an
aggressive policy subsided into a speculative opinion. As such it
survived strongly, especially in the universities (Bonn especially had
been, from its foundation in 1774, very Febronian), and it reasserted
itself vigorously in the attitude of many of the most learned German
prelates and professors towards the question of the definition of the
dogma of papal infallibility in 1870. It was, in fact, against the
Febronian position that the decrees of the Vatican Council were
deliberately directed, and their promulgation marked the triumph of the
ultramontane view (see VATICAN COUNCIL, ULTRAMONTANISM, PAPACY). In
Germany, indeed, the struggle against the papal monarchy was carried on
for a while by the governments on the so-called _Kulturkampf_, the Old
Catholics representing militant Febronianism. The latter, however, since
Bismarck "went to Canossa," have sunk into a respectable but
comparatively obscure sect, and Febronianism, though it still has some
hold on opinion within the Church in the chapters and universities of
the Rhine provinces, is practically extinct in Germany. Its revival
under the guise of so-called Modernism drew from Pope Pius X. in 1908
the scathing condemnation embodied in the encyclical _Pascendi gregis_.

  AUTHORITIES.--See Justinus Febronius, _De statu ecclesiae et legitima
  potestae Romani pontificis_ (Bullioni, 1765), second and enlarged
  edition, with new prefaces addressed to Pope Clement XIII., to
  Christian kings and princes, to the bishops of the Catholic Church,
  and to doctors of theology and canon law; three additional volumes,
  published in 1770, 1772 and 1774 at Frankfort, are devoted to
  vindications of the original work against the critics. In the _Revue
  des deux mondes_ for July 1903 (tome xvi. p. 266) is an interesting
  article under the title of "L'Allemagne Catholique," from the papal
  point of view, by Georges Goyau. For the congress of Ems see
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (Leipzig, 1898), s.v. "Emser
  Kongress." Further references are given in the article on Hontheim
  (q.v.).     (W. A. P.)



FEBRUARY, the second month of the modern calendar. In ordinary years it
contains 28 days; but in bissextile or leap year, by the addition of the
intercalary day, it consists of 29 days. This month was not in the
Romulian calendar. In the reign of Numa two months were added to the
year, namely, January at the beginning, and February at the end; and
this arrangement was continued until 452 B.C., when the decemvirs placed
February after January. The ancient name of _Februarius_ was derived
from _februare_, to purify, or from _Februa_, the Roman festival of
general expiation and lustration, which was celebrated during the latter
part of this month. In February also the Lupercalia were held, and women
were purified by the priests of Pan Lyceus at that festival. The
Anglo-Saxons called this month Sprout-Kale from the sprouting of the
cabbage at this season. Later it was known as _Solmonath_, because of
the return of the sun from the low latitudes. The most generally noted
days of February are the following:--the 2nd, Candlemas day, one of the
fixed quarter days used in Scotland; the 14th, St Valentine's day; and
the 24th, St Matthias. The church festival of St Matthias was formerly
observed on the 25th of February in bissextile years, but it is now
invariably celebrated on the 24th.



FEBVRE, ALEXANDRE FRÉDÉRIC (1835- ), French actor, was born in Paris,
and after the usual apprenticeship in the provinces and in several
Parisian theatres in small parts, was called to the Comédie Française in
1866, where he made his début as Philip II. in _Don Juan d'Autriche_. He
soon became the most popular leading man in Paris, not only in the
classical répertoire, but in contemporary novelties. In 1894 he toured
the principal cities of Europe, and, in 1895, of America. He was also a
composer of light music for the piano, and published several books of
varying merit. He married Mdlle Harville, daughter of one of his
predecessors at the Comédie Française, herself a well-known actress.



FÉCAMP, a seaport and bathing resort of northern France, in the
department of Seine-Inférieure, 28 m. N.N.E. of Havre on the Western
railway. Pop. (1906) 15,872. The town, which is situated on the English
Channel at the mouth of the small river Fécamp, consists almost entirely
of one street upwards of 2 m. in length. It occupies the bottom and
sides of a narrow valley opening out towards the sea between high
cliffs. The most important building is the abbey church of La Trinité,
dating for the most part from 1175 to 1225. The central tower and the
south portal (13th century) are the chief features of its simple
exterior; in the interior, the decorative work, notably the
chapel-screens and some fine stained glass, is remarkable. The
hotel-de-ville with a municipal museum and library occupy the remains of
the abbey buildings (18th century). The church of St Étienne (16th
century) and the Benedictine liqueur distillery,[1] a modern building
which also contains a museum, are of some interest. A tribunal and
chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators and a nautical school,
are among the public institutions. The port consists of an entrance
channel nearly 400 yds. long leading to a tidal harbour and docks
capable of receiving ships drawing 26 ft. at spring-tide, 19 ft. at
neap-tide. Fishing for herring and mackerel is carried on and the town
equips a large fleet for the codbanks of Newfoundland and Iceland. The
chief exports are oil-cake, flint, cod and Benedictine liqueur. Imports
include coal, timber, tar and hemp. Steam sawing, metal-founding,
fish-salting, shipbuilding and repairing, and the manufacture of
ship's-biscuits and fishing-nets are among the industries.

The town of Fécamp grew up round the nunnery founded in 658 to guard the
relic of the True Blood which, according to the legend, was found in the
trunk of a fig-tree drifted from Palestine to this spot, and which still
remains the most precious treasure of the church. The original convent
was destroyed by the Northmen, but was re-established by Duke William
Longsword as a house of canons regular, which shortly afterwards was
converted into a Benedictine monastery. King Richard I. greatly enlarged
this, and rebuilt the church. The town achieved some prosperity under
the dukes of Normandy, who improved its harbour, but after the
annexation of Normandy to France it was overshadowed by the rising port
of Havre.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The liqueur is said to have been manufactured by the Benedictine
    monks of the abbey as far back as 1510; since the Revolution it has
    been produced commercially by a secular company. The familiar legend
    D.O.M. (_Deo Optimo Maximo_) on the bottles preserves the memory of
    its original makers.



FECHNER, GUSTAV THEODOR (1801-1887), German experimental psychologist,
was born on the 19th of April 1801 at Gross-Särchen, near Muskau, in
Lower Lusatia, where his father was pastor. He was educated at Sorau and
Dresden and at the university of Leipzig, in which city he spent the
rest of his life. In 1834 he was appointed professor of physics, but in
1839 contracted an affection of the eyes while studying the phenomena of
colour and vision, and, after much suffering, resigned. Subsequently
recovering, he turned to the study of mind and the relations between
body and mind, giving public lectures on the subjects of which his books
treat. He died at Leipzig on the 18th of November 1887. Among his works
may be mentioned: _Das Büchlein vom Leben nach dem Tode_ (1836, 5th ed.,
1903), which has been translated into English; _Nanna, oder über das
Seelenleben der Pflanzen_ (1848, 3rd ed., 1903); _Zendavesta, oder_
_über die Dinge des Himmels und des Jenseits_ (1851, 2nd ed. by
Lasswitz, 1901); _Über die physikalische und philosophische Atomenlehre_
(1853, 2nd ed., 1864); _Elemente der Psychophysik_ (1860, 2nd ed.,
1889); _Vorschule der Ästhetik_ (1876, 2nd ed., 1898); _Die Tagesansicht
gegenüber der Nachtansicht_ (1879). He also published chemical and
physical papers, and translated chemical works by J.B. Biot and L.J.
Thénard from the French. A different but essential side of his character
is seen in his poems and humorous pieces, such as the _Vergleichende
Anatomie der Engel_ (1825), written under the pseudonym of "Dr Mises."
Fechner's epoch-making work was his _Elemente der Psychophysik_ (1860).
He starts from the Spinozistic thought that bodily facts and conscious
facts, though not reducible one to the other, are different sides of one
reality. His originality lies in trying to discover an exact
mathematical relation between them. The most famous outcome of his
inquiries is the law known as Weber's or Fechner's law which may be
expressed as follows:--"In order that the intensity of a sensation may
increase in arithmetical progression, the stimulus must increase in
geometrical progression." Though holding good within certain limits
only, the law has been found immensely useful. Unfortunately, from the
tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite
additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of
sensation, so that any sensation S might be regarded as composed of n
units. Sensations, he argued, thus being representable by numbers,
psychology may become an "exact" science, susceptible of mathematical
treatment. His general formula for getting at the number of units in any
sensation is S = C log R, where S stands for the sensation, R for the
stimulus numerically estimated, and C for a constant that must be
separately determined by experiment in each particular order of
sensibility. This reasoning of Fechner's has given rise to a great mass
of controversy, but the fundamental mistake in it is simple. Though
stimuli are composite, sensations are not. "Every sensation," says
Professor James, "presents itself as an indivisible unit; and it is
quite impossible to read any clear meaning into the notion that they are
masses of units combined." Still, the idea of the exact measurement of
sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on
Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories
which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific
apparatus. Though he has had a vast influence in this special
department, the disciples of his general philosophy are few. His
world-conception is highly animistic. He feels the thrill of life
everywhere, in plants, earth, stars, the total universe. Man stands
midway between the souls of plants and the souls of stars, who are
angels. God, the soul of the universe, must be conceived as having an
existence analogous to men. Natural laws are just the modes of the
unfolding of God's perfection. In his last work Fechner, aged but full
of hope, contrasts this joyous "daylight view" of the world with the
dead, dreary "night view" of materialism. Fechner's work in aesthetics
is also important. He conducted experiments to show that certain
abstract forms and proportions are naturally pleasing to our senses, and
gave some new illustrations of the working of aesthetic association.
Fechner's position in reference to predecessors and contemporaries is
not very sharply defined. He was remotely a disciple of Schelling,
learnt much from Herbart and Weisse, and decidedly rejected Hegel and
the monadism of Lotze.

  See W. Wundt, _G. Th. Fechner_ (Leipzig, 1901); A. Elsas, "Zum
  Andenken G. Th. Fechners," in _Grenzbote_, 1888; J.E. Kuntze, _G. Th.
  Fechner_ (Leipzig, 1892); Karl Lasswitz, _G. Th. Fechner_ (Stuttgart,
  1896 and 1902); E.B. Titchener, _Experimental Psychology_ (New York,
  1905); G.F. Stout, _Manual of Psychology_ (1898), bk. ii. ch. vii.; R.
  Falckenberg, _Hist. of Mod. Phil._ (Eng. trans., 1895), pp. 601 foll.;
  H. Höffding, _Hist. of Mod. Phil._ (Eng. trans., 1900), vol. ii. pp.
  524 foll.; Liebe, _Fechners Metaphysik, im Umriss dargestellt_ (1903).
      (H. St.)



FECHTER, CHARLES ALBERT (1824-1879), Anglo-French actor, was born,
probably in London, on the 23rd of October 1824, of French parents,
although his mother was of Piedmontese and his father of German
extraction. The boy would probably have devoted himself to a sculptor's
life but for the accident of a striking success made in some private
theatricals. The result was an engagement in 1841 to play in a
travelling company that was going to Italy. The tour was a failure, and
the company broke up; whereupon Fechter returned home and worked
assiduously at sculpture. At the same time he attended classes at the
Conservatoire with the view of gaining admission to the Comédie
Française. Late in 1844 he won the grand medal of the Académie des
Beaux-Arts with a piece of sculpture, and was admitted to make his debut
at the Comédie Française as Seide in Voltaire's _Mahomet_ and Valère in
Molière's _Tartuffe_. He acquitted himself with credit; but, tired of
the small parts he found himself condemned to play, returned again to
his sculptor's studio in 1846. In that year he accepted an engagement to
play with a French company in Berlin, where he made his first decisive
success as an actor. On his return to Paris in the following year he
married the actress Eléonore Rabut (d. 1895). Previously he had appeared
for some months in London, in a season of French classical plays given
at the St James's theatre. In Paris for the next ten years he fulfilled
a series of successful engagements at various theatres, his chief
triumph being his creation at the Vaudeville on the 2nd of February 1852
of the part of Armand Duval in _La Dame aux camélias_. For nearly two
years (1857-1858) Fechter was manager of the Odéon, where he produced
_Tartuffe_ and other classical plays. Having received tempting offers to
act in English at the Princess's theatre, London, he made a diligent
study of the language, and appeared there on the 27th of October 1860 in
an English version of Victor Hugo's Ruy Blas. This was followed by _The
Corsican Brothers_ and _Don César de Bazan_; and on the 20th of March
1861 he first attempted _Hamlet_. The result was an extraordinary
triumph, the play running for 115 nights. This was followed by
_Othello_, in which he played alternately the Moor and Iago. In 1863 he
became lessee of the Lyceum theatre, which he opened with _The Duke's
Motto_; this was followed by _The King's Butterfly_, _The Mountebank_
(in which his son Paul, a boy of seven, appeared), _The Roadside Inn_,
_The Master of Ravenswood_, _The Corsican Brothers_ (in the original
French version, in which he had created the parts of Louis and Fabian
dei Franchi) and _The Lady of Lyons_. After this he appeared at the
Adelphi (1868) as Obenreizer in _No Thoroughfare_, by Charles Dickens
and Wilkie Collins, as Edmond Dantes in _Monte Cristo_, and as Count de
Leyrac in _Black and White_, a play in which the actor himself
collaborated with Wilkie Collins. In 1870 he visited the United States,
where (with the exception of a visit to London in 1872) he remained till
his death. His first appearance in New York was at Niblo's Garden in the
title rôle of _Ruy Blas_. He played in the United States between 1870
and 1876 in most of the parts in which he had won his chief triumphs in
England, making at various times attempts at management, rarely
successful, owing to his ungovernable temper. The last three years of
his life were spent in seclusion on a farm which he had bought at
Rockland Centre, near Quakertown, Pennsylvania, where he died on the 5th
of August 1879. A bust of the actor by himself is in the Garrick Club,
London.



FECKENHAM, JOHN (c. 1515-1584), English ecclesiastic, last abbot of
Westminster, was born at Feckenham, Worcestershire, of ancestors who, by
their wills, seem to have been substantial yeomen. The family name was
Howman, but, according to the English custom, Feckenham, on monastic
profession, changed it for the territorial name by which he is always
known. Learning his letters first from the parish priest, he was sent at
an early age to the claustral school at Evesham and thence, in his
eighteenth year, to Gloucester Hall, Oxford, as a Benedictine student.
After taking his degree in arts, he returned to the abbey, where he was
professed; but he was at the university again in 1537 and took his B.D.
on the 11th of June 1539. Returning to Evesham he was there when the
abbey was surrendered to the king (27th of January 1540); and then, with
a pension of £10 a year, he once more went back to Oxford, but soon
after became chaplain to Bishop Bell of Worcester and then served Bonner
in that same capacity from 1543 to 1549. In 1544 Bonner gave him the
living of Solihull; and Feckenham established a reputation as a preacher
and a disputant of keen intellect but unvarying charity. About 1549
Cranmer sent him to the Tower of London, and while there "he was
borrowed out of prison" to take part in seven public disputations
against Hooper, Jewel and others. Released by Queen Mary (5th of
September 1553), he returned to Bonner and became prebendary of St
Paul's, rector of Finchley, then of Greenford Magna, chaplain and
confessor to the queen, and dean of St Paul's (10th of March 1554). He
took part, with much charity and mildness, in the Oxford disputes
against Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley; but he had no liking for the fierce
bigotry and bloody measures then in force against Protestants. Feckenham
used all his influence with Mary "to procure pardon of the faults or
mitigation of the punishment for poor Protestants" (Fuller), and he was
sent by the queen to prepare Lady Jane Grey for death. When Elizabeth
was sent to the Tower (18th of March 1554), Feckenham interceded for her
life and liberty, even at the cost of displeasing the queen.

The royal abbey of Westminster having been restored to its primitive
use, Feckenham was appointed abbot, and the old life began again within
its hallowed walls on the 21st of November 1556. The abbey school was
reopened and the shrine of St Edward restored. On the accession of
Elizabeth Feckenham consistently opposed all the legislation for changes
in religion, and, when the hour of trial came, he refused the oath of
supremacy, rejecting also Elizabeth's offer to remain with his monks at
Westminster if he would conform to the new laws. The abbey was dissolved
(12th of July 1559), and within a year Feckenham was sent by Archbishop
Parker to the Tower (20th of May 1560), according to Jewel, "for having
obstinately refused attendance on public worship and everywhere
declaiming and railing against that religion which we now profess"
(Parker Society, first series, p. 79). Henceforth, except for some brief
periods when he was a prisoner at large, Feckenham spent the rest of his
life in confinement either in some recognized prison, or in the more
distasteful and equally rigorous keeping of the bishops of Winchester
and Ely. After fourteen years' confinement, he was released on bail and
lived in Holborn, where his benevolence was shown by all manner of works
of charity. "He relieved the poor wheresoever he came, so that flies
flock not thicker to spilt honey than beggars constantly crowd about
him" (Fuller). He set up a public aqueduct in Holborn, and a hospice for
the poor at Bath; he distributed every day to the sick the milk of
twelve cows, took care of orphans, and encouraged manly sports on
Sundays among the youth of London by giving prizes. In 1577 he was
committed to the care of Cox of Ely with strict rules for his treatment;
and the bishop (1578) could find no fault with him except that "he was a
gentle person but in the popish religion too, too obstinate." In 1580 he
was removed to Wisbeach Castle, and there exercised such an influence of
charity and peace among his fellow-prisoners that was remembered when,
in after years, the notorious Wisbeach Stirs broke out under the Jesuit
Weston. Even here Feckenham found a means of doing public good; at his
own cost he repaired the road and set up a market cross in the town.
After twenty-four years of suffering for his conscience he died in
prison and was buried in an unknown grave in the parish church at
Wisbeach on the 16th of October 1584.

  The fullest account of Feckenham is to be found in E. Taunton's
  _English Black Monks of St Benedict_ (London, 1897), vol. i. pp.
  160-222.     (E. Tn.)



FEDCHENKO, ALEXIS PAVLOVICH (1844-1873), Russian naturalist and
traveller, well known for his explorations in central Asia, was born at
Irkutsk, in Siberia, on the 7th of February 1844; and, after attending
the gymnasium of his native town, proceeded to the university of Moscow,
for the study more especially of zoology and geology. In 1868 he
travelled through Turkestan, the district of the lower Syr-Darya and
Samarkand; and shortly after his return he set out for Khokand, where he
visited a large portion of territory till then unknown. Soon after his
return to Europe he perished on Mont Blanc while engaged in an
exploring tour in Switzerland, on the 15th of September 1873.

  Accounts of the explorations and discoveries of Fedchenko have been
  published by the Russian government,--his _Journeys in Turkestan_ in
  1874, _In the Khanat of Khokand_ in 1875, and _Botanical Discoveries_
  in 1876. See Petermann's _Mittheilungen_ (1872-1874).



FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (Lat. _foedus_, a league), a form of government of
which the essential principle is that there is a union of two or more
states under one central body for certain permanent common objects. In
the most perfect form of federation the states agree to delegate to a
supreme federal government certain powers or functions inherent in
themselves in their sovereign or separate capacity, and the federal
government, in turn, in the exercise of those specific powers acts
directly, not only on the communities making up the federation, but on
each individual citizen. So far as concerns the residue of powers
unallotted to the central or federal authority, the separate states
retain unimpaired their individual sovereignty, and the citizens of a
federation consequently owe a double allegiance, one to the state, and
the other to the federal government. They live under two sets of laws,
the laws of the state and the laws of the federal government (J. Bryce,
_Studies in History and Jurisprudence_, ii. 490). The word
"confederation," as distinct from "federation" has been sometimes,
though not universally, used to distinguish from such a federal state
(_Bundesstaat_) a mere union of states (_Staatenbund_) for mutual aid,
and the promotion of interests common to all (see CONFEDERATION).

The history of federal government practically begins with Greece. This,
however, is due to the fact that the Greek federations are the only ones
of which we have any detailed information. The obvious importance,
especially to scattered villages or tribes, of systematic joint action
in the face of a common danger makes it reasonable to infer that
federation in its elementary forms was a widespread device. This view is
strengthened by what we can gather of the conditions obtaining in such
districts as Aetolia, Acarnania and Samnium, as in modern times among
primitive peoples and tribes. The relatively detailed information which
we possess concerning the federal governments of Greece makes it
necessary to pay special attention to them.

In ancient Greece the most striking tendency of political development
was the maintenance of separate city states, each striving for absolute
autonomy, though all spoke practically the same language and shared to
some extent in the same traditions, interests and dangers. This
centrifugal tendency is most marked in the cases of the more important
states, Athens, Sparta, Argos, Corinth, but Greek history is full of
examples of small states deliberately sacrificing what must have been
obvious commercial advantage for the sake of a precarious autonomy. Such
examples as existed of even semi-federal union were very loose in
structure, and the selfishness of the component units was the
predominant feature. Thus the Spartan hegemony in the Peloponnese was
not really a federation except in the broadest sense. The states did, it
is true, meet occasionally for discussion, but their relation, which had
no real existence save in cases of immediate common danger, was really
that between a paramount leader and unwilling and suspicious allies. The
Athenian empire again was a thinly disguised autocracy. The synod (see
DELIAN LEAGUE) of the "allies" soon degenerated into a mere form; of
comprehensive united policy there was none, at all events after the
League had achieved its original purpose of expelling the Persians from
Europe.

None the less it is possible, even in the early days of political
development in Greece, to find some traces of a tendency towards united
action. Thus the unions of individual villages, known as synoecisms,
such as took place in Attica and Elis in early times were partly of a
federal character: they resulted in the establishment of a common
administration, and no doubt in some degree of commercial and military
unity. On the other hand, it is likely that these unions lacked the
characteristic of federation in that the units could hardly be described
as having any sovereign power: at the most they had some municipal
autonomy as in the case of the Cleisthenic demes. The union was rather
national than federal. Again the Amphictyonic unions had one of the
characteristic elements of federation, namely that they were free
sovereign states combining for a particular purpose with an elaborate
system of representation (see AMPHICTYONY). But these unions, at all
events in historic times, were mainly concerned with religion, and the
authority of the councils did not seriously affect the autonomy of the
individual states.

Thus among the city-states as well as among scattered villages the
principle of cohesion was not unknown. On the other hand the golden mean
between an easily dissoluble relationship, more like an alliance than a
federation, and a national system resulting from synoecism was
practically never attained in early Greek history. There are, however,
examples in Greece proper, and one, Lycia in Asia Minor, of real federal
unions. The chief Greek federations were those of Thessaly, Boeotia,
Acarnania, Olynthus, Arcadia, Aetolia, Achaea, the most important as
well as the most complete in respect of organization being the Aetolian
League and the Achaean League.

1. The Thessalian League originated in the deliberate choice by village
aristocracies of a single monarch who belonged from time to time to
several of the so-called Heracleid families. Soon after the Persian War
this monarchy (dynasty of the Aleuadae, Herod, v. 63 and vii. 6)
disappeared, and in 424 we find Athens in alliance with a sort of
democratic federal council representing [Greek: to koinon thettalôn]
(cf. Thuc. i. 102, ii. 22, iv. 78), and probably composed of delegates
from the towns. The local feudal nobles, however, seem to have put an
end to this government by council, and a dictator (_tagus_) was
appointed, with authority over the whole military force of the
federation. Three such officers, Lycophron, Jason and Alexander, all of
Pherae, endeavoured vainly to administer the collective affairs of the
federation, the last by means of a revived republican council. The final
failure of this scheme coincided with the disappearance of Thessaly as a
sovereign state (see THESSALY).

2. The form and the history of the Boeotian federation are treated fully
under Boeotia (q.v.). It may probably have originated in religious
associations, but the guiding power throughout was the imperial policy
of Thebes, especially during its short-lived supremacy after 379 B.C.

3. The federation of Acarnania is of peculiar interest as being formed
by scattered villages or tribes, without settled, still less fortified,
habitation. In the early part of the 4th century a [Greek: koinon tôn
Akarnanôn] met at Stratus (Xen. _Hell._ iv. 6. 4). Late in the same
century towns began to form, without, however, disturbing the
federation, which existed as late as the 2nd century B.C., governed by a
representative council ([Greek: boula]), and a common assembly ([Greek:
koinon]) at which any citizen might be present.

4. The foundation of the Olynthian federation was due to the need of
protection against the northern invaders (see OLYNTHUS). It was in many
respects based on liberal principles, but Olynthus did not hesitate to
exercise force against recalcitrants such as Acanthus.

5. The 4th century Arcadian league, which was no doubt a revival of an
older federation, was the result of the struggle for supremacy between
Thebes and Sparta. The defeat of Sparta at Leuctra removed the pressure
which had kept separate the Arcadian tribes, and [Greek: to koinon tôn
Arkadôn] was established in the new city, Megalopolis (q.v., also
Arcadia).

6 and 7. The Aetolian and Achaean leagues (see AETOLIA, and ACHAEAN
LEAGUE) were in all respects more important than the preceding and
constitute a new epoch in European politics. Both belong to a period in
Greek history when the great city states had exhausted themselves in the
futile struggle against Macedon and Rome, and both represent a conscious
popular determination in the direction of systematic government. This
characteristic is curious in the Aetolian tribes which were famous in
all time for habitual brigandage; there was, however, among them the
strong link of a racial feeling. The governing council ([Greek: to
koinon tôn Aitôlôn]) was the permanent representative body; there was
also a popular assembly ([Greek: panaitôlikon]), partly of a primary,
partly of a representative kind, any one being free to attend, but each
state having only one official representative and one vote. Of all the
federal governments of Greece, this league was the most certainly
democratic in constitution. There was a complete system of federal
officers, at the head of whom was a Strategus entrusted with powers both
military and civil. This officer was annually elected, and, though the
chief executive authority, was strictly limited in the federal
deliberations to presidential functions (cf. Livy xxxv. 25, "ne praetor,
quum de bello consuluisset, ipse sententiam diceret"). The Achaean
League was likewise highly organized; joint action was strictly limited,
and the individual cities had sovereign power over internal affairs.
There were federal officers, all the military forces of the cities were
controlled by the league, and federal finance was quite separate from
city finance.

8. Of the Lycian federation, its origin and duration, practically
nothing is known. We know of it in 188-168 B.C. as dependent on Rhodes,
and, from 168 till the time when the emperor Claudius absorbed it in the
provincial system, as an independent state under Roman protection. The
federation was a remarkable example of a typical Hellenic development
among a non-Hellenic people. Strabo (p. 665) informs us that the
federation, composed of twenty-three cities, was governed by a council
([Greek: koinon synedrion]) which assembled from time to time at that
city which was most convenient for the purpose in hand. The cities were
represented according to size by one, two or three delegates, and bore
proportionate shares in financial responsibility. The Lycian league was,
therefore, in this respect rather national than federal.

Of ancient federal government outside Greece we know very little. The
history of Italy supplies a few examples, of which the chief is perhaps
the league of the cities of Latium (q.v.; see also ETRURIA).

  See E.A. Freeman, _Federal Government in Greece and Rome_ (2nd ed.,
  1893, J.B. Bury), and works quoted in the special articles.

Among the later European confederations the Swiss republic is one of the
most interesting. As now constituted it consists of twenty-two sovereign
states or cantons. The government is vested in two legislative chambers,
a senate or council of state (_Ständerat_), and a national council
(_Nationalrat_), constituting unitedly the federal assembly. The
executive council (_Bundesrat_) of seven members elects the president
and vice-president for a term of three years (see SWITZERLAND:
_GOVERNMENT_). Before the French Revolution the German empire was a
complex confederation, with the states divided into electoral colleges,
consisting--(1) of the ecclesiastical electors and of the secular
electors, including the king of Bohemia; (2) of the spiritual and
temporal princes of the empire next in rank to the electors; and (3) of
the free imperial cities. The emperor was elected by the first college
alone. This imposing confederation came to an end by the conquests of
Napoleon; and the Confederation of the Rhine was established in 1806
with the French emperor as protector. But in 1815 the Germanic
confederation (_Deutscher Bund_) was established by the congress of
Vienna, which in its turn has been displaced by the present German
empire. This, in its new organization, conferred on Germany the
long-coveted unity and coherence the lack of which had been a source of
weakness. The constitution dates, in its latest form, from the treaties
entered into at Versailles in 1871. A federation was then organized with
the king of Prussia as president, under the hereditary title of German
emperor. Delegates of the various federated governments form the
Bundesrath; the Reichstag, or popular assembly, is directly chosen by
the people by universal suffrage; and the two assemblies constitute the
federal parliament. This body has power to legislate for the whole
empire in reference to all matters connected with the army, navy, postal
service, customs, coinage, &c., all political laws affecting citizens,
and all general questions of commerce, navigation, passports, &c. The
emperor represents the federation in all international relations, with
the chancellor as first minister of the empire, and has power, with
consent of the Bundesrath, to declare war in name of the empire.

The United States of America more nearly resembles the Swiss
confederacy, though retaining marks of its English origin. The original
thirteen states were colonies wholly independent of each other. By the
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union adopted by the Continental
Congress in 1777, and in effect in 1781-1789, the states bound
themselves in a league of common defence. By the written Constitution,
drafted in 1787 and in operation since 1789, a stronger and more
centralized union was established--in theory a federal republic formed
by the voluntary combination of sovereign states. A common citizenship
was recognized for the whole union; but the federal government was to
exercise only such powers as were expressly delegated to it (Amendment
of 1791). The powers of the central government are entrusted to three
distinct authorities--executive, legislative and judicial. The
president, elected for a term of four years by electors chosen for that
purpose by each state, is the executive head of the republic. The
vice-president, _ex officio_ president of the Senate, assumes the
presidency in case of resignation or death. Legislative power is vested
in a Congress, consisting of two Houses: a Senate, composed of two
members elected by each state for a term of six years; and a House of
Representatives, consisting of representatives in numbers proportionate
to the population of each state, holding their seats for two years. The
supreme judicial authority is vested in a Supreme Court, which consists
of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all appointed for life
by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.

The extension of responsible constitutional government by Great Britain
to her chief colonies, under a governor or viceregal representative of
the crown, has been followed in British North America by the union of
the Canadian, maritime and Pacific provinces under a federal
government--with a senate, the members of which are nominated by the
crown, and a house of commons elected by the different provinces
according to their relative population. The governor-general is
appointed by the crown for a term of five years, and represents the
sovereign in all matters of federal government. The lieutenant-governors
of the provinces are nominated by him; and all local legislation is
carried on by the provincial parliaments. The remarkable federation of
the Dominion of Canada which was thus originated presented the unique
feature of a federal union of provinces practically exercising sovereign
rights in relation to all local self-government, and sustaining a
constitutional autonomy, while cherishing the colonial relationship to
Great Britain.

The Commonwealth of Australia (q.v.), proclaimed in 1901, is another
interesting example of self-governing states federating into a united
whole. There is, however, a striking difference to be observed in the
powers of the federal governments of Canada and Australia. The federal
parliament of Canada has jurisdiction over all matters not specially
assigned to the local legislatures, while the federal parliament of
Australia has only such jurisdiction as is expressly vested in it or is
not expressly withdrawn from the local legislatures. This jurisdiction
is undoubtedly extensive, comprising among others, power to legislate
concerning trade and industry, criminal law, taxation, quarantine,
marriage and divorce, weights and measures, legal tender, copyrights and
patents, and naturalization and aliens. There was also an early attempt
to federate the South African colonies, and an act was passed for that
purpose (South African Act 1877), but it expired on the 18th of August
1882, without having been brought into effect by the sovereign in
council; in 1908, however, the Closer Union movement (see SOUTH AFRICA)
ripened, and in 1909 a federating Act was successfully passed.

  See also Bluntschli, _The Theory of the State_; W. Wilson, _The
  State_; Wheaton, _International Law_.



FEDERALIST PARTY, in American politics, the party that organized the
national government of the United States under the constitution of 1787.
It may be regarded as, in various important respects, the lineal
predecessor of the American Whig and Republican parties. The name
_Federalists_ (see ANTI-FEDERALISTS) was first given to those who
championed the adoption of the Constitution. They brought to the support
of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the
influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army
officers, creditors and property-holders generally,--in short, of
interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the
Confederation,--and also of some few true nationalists (few, because
there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political
principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and
self-interest. Most of the Federalists of 1787-1788 became members of
the later Federalist Party.

The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized
practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander
Hamilton (q.v.) and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central
government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the
powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict
construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were
the basic principles of Hamilton's policy. The friends of individual
liberty and local government naturally found in the assumption by the
central government of even the minimum of its granted powers constant
stimulus to their fears (see DEMOCRATIC PARTY); while the financial
measures of Hamilton--whose wish for extreme centralization was nowise
satisfied by the government actually created in 1787--were calculated to
force an immediate and firm assumption by that government, to the limit,
of every power it could be held to possess. To the Republicans
(Democratic Republicans) they seemed intended to cause a usurpation of
powers ungranted. Hence these measures became the issues on which the
first American parties were formed. Their effect was supplemented by the
division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving
the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the
Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy. The
Federalists controlled the government until 1801. They, having the great
opportunity of initiative, organized it in all its branches, giving it
an administrative machinery that in the main endures to-day; established
the doctrine of national neutrality toward European conflicts (although
the variance of Federalist and Republican opinion on this point was
largely factitious); and fixed the practice of a liberal construction of
the Constitution,[1]--not only by Congress, but above all by the United
States Supreme Court, which, under the lead of John Marshall (who had
been appointed chief-justice by Pres. John Adams), impressed enduringly
on the national system large portions of the Federalist doctrine. These
are the great claims of the party to memory. After 1801 it never
regained power. In attempts to do so, alike in national and in state
politics, it impaired its morale by internal dissension, by intrigues,
and by inconsistent factious opposition to Democratic measures on
grounds of ultra-strict construction. It took up, too, the Democratic
weapon of states' rights, and in New England carried sectionalism
dangerously near secession in 1808, and in 1812-1814, during the
movement, in opposition to the war of 1812, which culminated in the
Hartford Convention (see HARTFORD). It lost, more and more, its
influence and usefulness, and by 1817 was practically dead as a national
party, although in Massachusetts it lingered in power until 1823. It is
sometimes said that Federalism died because the Republicans took over
its principles of nationality. Rather it fell because its great leaders,
John Adams and Alexander Hamilton, became bitter enemies; because
neither was even distantly comparable to Jefferson as a party leader;
because the party could not hold the support of its original commercial,
manufacturing and general business elements; because the party opposed
sectionalism to a growing nationalism on the issues that ended in the
war of 1812; and, above all, because the principles of the party's
leaders (e.g. of Hamilton) were out of harmony, in various respects,
with American ideals. Their conservatism became increasingly a
reactionary fear of democracy; indeed, it is not a strained construction
of the times to regard the entire Federalist period from the American
point of view as reactionary--a reaction against the doctrines of
natural rights, individualism, and states' rights, and the financial
looseness of the period of the War of Independence and the succeeding
years of the Confederation. The Federalists were charged by the
Republicans with being aristocrats and monarchists, and it is certain
that their leaders (who were really a very remarkable body of men)
distrusted democratic government; that their Sedition Law was outrageous
in itself, and (as well as the Alien Law) bad as a party measure; that
in disputes with Great Britain they were true English Tories when
contrasted with the friendly attitude toward America held by many
English Liberals; and that they persisted in New England as a
pro-British, aristocratic social-cult long after they lost effective
political influence. In short, the country was already thoroughly
democratic in spirit, while Federalism stood for obsolescent social
ideas and was infected with political "Toryism" fatally against the
times.

  Besides the standard general histories see O.G. Libby, _Geographical
  Distribution of the Vote of the Thirteen States on the Federal
  Constitution_, 1787-1788 (Madison, Wis., 1894); the _Memoirs_ of
  Oliver Wolcott (ed. by Gibbs); C.D. Hazen, _Contemporary American
  Opinion of the French Revolution_ ("J.H.U. Studies," Baltimore, 1897);
  Henry Adams, _Documents relating to New England Federalism_, 1800-1815
  (Boston, 1878); A.E. Morse, _The Federalist Party in Massachusetts_
  (Princeton, N.J., 1909); and the biographies and writings of George
  Cabot, Fisher Ames, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay, Rufus King, Timothy
  Pickering, Theodore Sedgwick, C.C. Pinckney and J.A. Bayard.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Even the Democratic party has generally been liberal; although
    less so in theory (hardly less so in practice) than its opponents.



FEDERICI, CAMILLO (1749-1802), Italian dramatist and actor, was born at
Garessio, a small town in Piedmont, on the 9th of April 1749. His real
name was Giovanni Battista Viassolo, and that by which he is now known
and which he transmitted to his children was taken from the title of one
of his first pieces, _Camillo e Federico_. He was educated at Turin, and
showed at an early age a great fondness for literature and especially
for the theatre. The praises bestowed on his early attempts determined
his choice of a career, and he obtained engagements with several
companies both as writer and actor. He made a happy marriage in 1777,
and soon after left the stage and devoted himself entirely to
composition. He settled at Padua, and the reputation of his numerous
comedies rapidly spread in Italy, and for a time seemed to eclipse that
of his predecessors. Most of his pieces were of the melodramatic class,
and he too often resorted to the same means of exciting interest and
curiosity. He caught, however, something of the new spirit which was
manifesting itself in German dramatic literature in the works of
Schiller, Iffland and Kotzebue, and the moral tone of his plays is
generally healthy. Fortune did not smile upon him; but he found a
helpful friend in a wealthy merchant of Padua, Francis Barisan, for
whose private theatre he wrote many pieces. He was attacked in 1791 with
a dangerous malady which disabled him for several years; and he had the
misfortune to see his works, in the absence of any copyright law,
published by others without his permission. At length, in 1802, he
undertook to prepare a collected edition; but of this four volumes only
were completed when he was again attacked with illness, and died at
Padua (December 23).

  The publication of his works was completed in 14 volumes in 1816.
  Another edition in 26 volumes was published at Florence in 1826-1827.
  A biographical memoir of Federici by Neymar appeared at Venice in
  1838.



FEE, an estate in land held of a superior lord on condition of the
performance of homage or service (see FEUDALISM). In English law "fee"
signifies an estate of inheritance (i.e. an estate descendable to the
heirs of the grantee so long as there are any in existence) as opposed
to an estate for life. It is divisible into three species: (1) fee
simple; (2) conditional fee; (3) fee tail. (See ESTATE.) A fee farm rent
is the rent reserved on granting a fee farm, i.e. land in fee simple, to
be held by the tenant and his heirs at a yearly rent. It is generally at
least one-fourth of the value of the land at the time of its
reservation. (See RENT.)

The word "fee" has also the sense of remuneration for services,
especially the _honorarium_ paid to a doctor, lawyer or member of any
other profession. It is also used of a fixed sum paid for the right to
enter for an examination, or on admission to membership of a university
or other society. This sense of the word is taken by the _New English
Dictionary_ to be due to a use of "fee" in its feudal sense, and to
represent a sum paid to the holder of an office "in fee."

The etymology of the Med. Lat. _feudum_, _feodum_ or _feum_, of its
French equivalent _fief_, and English "fee," in Scots law "feu" (q.v.),
is extremely obscure. (See the _New English Dictionary_, s.v. "Fee.")
There is a common Teutonic word represented in Old English as _feoh_ or
_féo_, in Old High German as _fehu_, meaning property in the shape of
cattle (cf. modern Ger. _Vieh_, Dutch _vee_). The old Aryan _péku_ gives
Sanskrit _paçu_, Lat. _pecus_, cattle, whence _pecunia_, money. The O.
Eng. _feoh_, in the sense of money, possibly survives in "fee,"
honorarium, though this is not the view of the _New English Dictionary_.
The common explanation of the Med. Lat. _feudum_ or _feodum_, of which
Ducange (_Glossarium_, s.v.) gives an example from a constitution of the
emperor Charles the Fat of the year 884, is that it is formed from the
Teutonic _fehu_, property, and _ôd_, wealth (cf. ALLODIUM and UDAL).
This would apparently restrict the original meaning to movable property,
while the early applications of _feudum_ are to the enjoyment of
something granted in return for service (_beneficium_). Another theory
takes the origin to be _fehu_ alone, in a particular sense of wages,
payment for services. This leaves the _d-_ of _feudum_ unexplained. Some
have taken the origin to be a verbal form _feudare_ = _feum dare_.
Another theory finds the source in the O. High Ger. _fehôn_, to eat,
feed upon, "take for one's enjoyment."



FEHLING, HERMANN VON (1812-1885), German chemist, was born at Lübeck on
the 9th of June 1812. With the intention of taking up pharmacy he
entered Heidelberg University about 1835, and after graduating went to
Giessen as _préparateur_ to Liebig, with whom he elucidated the
composition of paraldehyde and metaldehyde. In 1839 on Liebig's
recommendation he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the
polytechnic at Stuttgart, and held it till within three years of his
death, which happened at Stuttgart on the 1st of July 1885. His earlier
work included an investigation of succinic acid, and the preparation of
phenyl cyanide (benzonitrile), the simplest nitrile of the aromatic
series; but later his time was mainly occupied with questions of
technology and public health rather than with pure chemistry. Among the
analytical methods worked up by him the best known is that for the
estimation of sugars by "Fehling's solution," which consists of a
solution of cupric sulphate mixed with alkali and potassium-sodium
tartrate (Rochelle salt). He was a contributor to the _Handwörterbuch_
of Liebig, Wöhler and Poggendorff, and to the Graham-Otto _Textbook of
Chemistry_, and for many years was a member of the committee of revision
of the _Pharmacopoeia Germanica_.



FEHMARN, an island of Germany, belonging to the Prussian province of
Schleswig-Holstein, in the Baltic, separated from the north-east corner
of Holstein by a strait known as the Fehmarn-Sund, less than a quarter
of a mile in breadth. It is a gently undulating tract of country, about
120 sq. m. in area, bare of forest but containing excellent
pasture-land, and rears cattle in considerable numbers. Pop. 10,000.



FEHMIC COURTS (Ger. _Femgerichte_, or _Vehmgerichte_, of disputed
origin, but probably, according to J. Grimm, from O. High Ger. _feme_ or
_feime_, a court of justice), certain tribunals which, during the middle
ages, exercised a powerful and sometimes sinister jurisdiction in
Germany, and more especially in Westphalia. Their origin is uncertain,
but is traceable to the time of Charlemagne and in all probability to
the old Teutonic free courts. They were, indeed, also known as free
courts (_Freigerichte_), a name due to the fact that all free-born men
were eligible for membership and also to the fact that they claimed
certain exceptional liberties. Their jurisdiction they owed to the
emperor, from whom they received the power of life and death
(_Blutbann_) which they exercised in his name. The sessions were often
held in secret, whence the names of secret court (_heimliches Gericht_,
_Stillgericht_, &c.); and these the uninitiated were forbidden to
attend, on pain of death, which led to the designation forbidden courts
(_verbotene Gerichte_). Legend and romance have combined to exaggerate
the sinister reputation of the Fehmic courts; but modern historical
research has largely discounted this, proving that they never employed
torture, that their sittings were only sometimes secret, and that their
meeting-places were always well known. They were, in fact, a survival of
an ancient and venerable German institution; and if, during a certain
period, they exercised something like a reign of terror over a great
part of Germany, the cause of this lay in the sickness of the times,
which called for some powerful organization to combat the growing feudal
anarchy. Such an organization the Westphalian free courts, with their
discipline of terror and elaborate system of secret service, were well
calculated to supply. Everywhere else the power of life and death,
originally reserved to the emperor alone, had been usurped by the
territorial nobles; only in Westphalia, called "the Red Earth" because
here the imperial blood-ban was still valid, were capital sentences
passed and executed by the Fehmic courts in the emperor's name alone.

The system, though ancient, began to become of importance only after the
division of the duchy of Saxony on the fall of Henry the Lion, when the
archbishop of Cologne, duke of Westphalia from 1180 onwards, placed
himself as representative of the emperor at the head of the Fehme. The
organization now rapidly spread. Every free man, born in lawful wedlock,
and neither excommunicate nor outlaw, was eligible for membership.
Princes and nobles were initiated; and in 1429 even the emperor
Sigismund himself became "a true and proper _Freischöffe_ of the Holy
Roman Empire." By the middle of the 14th century these _Freischöffen_
(Latin _scabini_), sworn associates of the Fehme, were scattered in
thousands throughout the length and breadth of Germany, known to each
other by secret signs and pass-words, and all of them pledged to serve
the summons of the secret courts and to execute their judgment.

The organization of the Fehme was elaborate. The head of each centre of
jurisdiction (_Freistuhl_), often a secular or spiritual prince,
sometimes a civic community, was known as the _Stuhlherr_, the
archbishop of Cologne being, as stated above, supreme over all
(_Oberststuhlherr_). The actual president of the court was the
_Freigraf_ (free count) chosen for life by the _Stuhlherr_ from among
the _Freischöffen_, who formed the great body of the initiated. Of these
the lowest rank were the _Fronboten_ or _Freifronen_, charged with the
maintenance of order in the courts and the duty of carrying out the
commands of the _Freigraf_. The immense development of the Fehme is
explained by the privileges of the _Freischöffen_; for they were subject
to no jurisdiction but those of the Westphalian courts, whether as
accused or accuser they had access to the secret sessions, and they
shared in the discussions of the general chapter as to the policy of the
society. At their initiation these swore to support the Fehme with all
their powers, to guard its secrets, and to bring before its tribunal
anything within its competence that they might discover. They were then
initiated into the secret signs by which members recognized each other,
and were presented with a rope and with a knife on which were engraved
the mystic letters S.S.G.G., supposed to mean _Strick_, _Stein_, _Gras_,
_Grün_ (rope, stone, grass, green).

The procedure of the Fehmic courts was practically that of the ancient
German courts generally. The place of session, known as the _Freistuhl_
(free seat), was usually a hillock, or some other well-known and
accessible spot. The _Freigraf_ and _Schöffen_ occupied the bench,
before which a table, with a sword and rope upon it, was placed. The
court was held by day and, unless the session was declared secret, all
freemen, whether initiated or not, were admitted. The accusation was in
the old German form; but only a _Freischöffe_ could act as accuser. If
the offence came under the competence of the court, i.e. was punishable
by death, a summons to the accused was issued under the seal of the
_Freigraf_. This was not usually served on him personally, but was
nailed to his door, or to some convenient place where he was certain to
pass. Six weeks and three days' grace were allowed, according to the old
Saxon law, and the summons was thrice repeated. If the accused appeared,
the accuser stated the case, and the investigation proceeded by the
examination of witnesses as in an ordinary court of law. The judgment
was put into execution on the spot if that was possible. The secret
court, from whose procedure the whole institution has acquired its evil
reputation, was closed to all but the initiated, although these were so
numerous as to secure quasi-publicity; any one not a member on being
discovered was instantly put to death, and the members present were
bound under the same penalty not to disclose what took place. Crimes of
a serious nature, and especially those that were deemed unfit for
ordinary judicial investigation--such as heresy and witchcraft--fell
within its jurisdiction, as also did appeals by persons condemned in the
open courts, and likewise the cases before those tribunals in which the
accused had not appeared. The accused if a member could clear himself by
his own oath, unless he had revealed the secrets of the Fehme. If he
were one of the uninitiated it was necessary for him to bring forward
witnesses to his innocence from among the initiated, whose number varied
according to the number on the side of the accuser, but twenty-one in
favour of innocence necessarily secured an acquittal. The only
punishment which the secret court could inflict was death. If the
accused appeared, the sentence was carried into execution at once; if he
did not appear, it was quickly made known to the whole body, and the
_Freischöffe_ who was the first to meet the condemned was bound to put
him to death. This was usually done by hanging, the nearest tree serving
for gallows. A knife with the cabalistic letters was left beside the
corpse to show that the deed was not a murder.

That an organization of this character should have outlived its
usefulness and issued in intolerable abuses was inevitable. With the
growing power of the territorial sovereigns and the gradual improvement
of the ordinary process of justice, the functions of the Fehmic courts
were superseded. By the action of the emperor Maximilian and of other
German princes they were, in the 16th century, once more restricted to
Westphalia, and here, too, they were brought under the jurisdiction of
the ordinary courts, and finally confined to mere police duties. With
these functions, however, but with the old forms long since robbed of
their impressiveness, they survived into the 19th century. They were
finally abolished by order of Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, in
1811. The last _Freigraf_ died in 1835.

  AUTHORITIES.--P. Wigand, _Das Femgericht Westfalens_ (Hamm, 1825, 2nd
  ed., Halle, 1893); L. Tross, _Sammlung merkwürdiger Urkunden für die
  Geschichte der Femgerichte_ (Hanover, 1826); F.P. Usener, _Die frei-
  und heimlichen Gerichte Westfalens_ (Frankfort, 1832); K.G. von
  Wächter, _Beiträge zur deutschen Gesch., insbesondere ... des
  deutschen Strafrechts_ (Tübingen, 1845); O. Wächter, F_emgerichte und
  Hexenprozesse in Deutschland_ (Stuttgart, 1882); T. Lindner, _Die
  Feme_ (Münster and Paderborn, 1888); F. Thudichum, _Femgericht und
  Inquisition_ (Giessen, 1889) whose theory concerning the origin of the
  _Fehme_ is combated in T. Lindner's _Der angebliche Ursprung der
  Femgerichte aus der Inquisition_ (Paderborn, 1890). For works on
  individual aspects see further Dahlmann-Waitz, _Quellenkunde_ (ed.
  Leipzig, 1906), p. 401; also _ib._ supplementary vol. (1907), p. 78.



FEHRBELLIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Rhine,
40 m. N.W. from Berlin on the railway to Neu-Ruppin. Pop. (1905) 1602.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church and some small
industries, among them that of wooden shoes. Fehrbellin is memorable in
history as the scene of the famous victory gained, on the 18th of June
1675, by the great elector, Frederick William of Prussia, over the
Swedes under Field-Marshal Wrangel. A monument was erected in 1879 on
the field of battle, near the village of Hakenberg, to commemorate this
great feat of arms.

  See A. von Witzleben and P. Hassel, _Zum 200-jährigen Gedenktag von
  Fehrbellin_ (Berlin, 1875); G. Sello, "Fehrbellin," in _Deutsche
  Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften_, vii.; M. Jähns, "Der Grosse
  Kurfürst bei Fehrbellin, &c.," in _Hohenzollern Jahrbuch_, i.



FEIJÓO Y MONTENEGRO, BENITO JERÓNIMO (1676-1764), Spanish monk and
scholar was born at Santa María de Melias, near Orense, on the 8th of
October 1676. At the age of twelve he entered the Benedictine order,
devoted himself to study, and waged war against the superstition and
ignorance of his countrymen in the _Teatro crí-tico_ (1726-1739) and the
_Cartas eruditas_ (1742-1760). These exposures of a retrograde system
called forth embittered protests from narrow-minded patriots like
Salvador José Maner, and others; but the opposition was futile, and
Feijóo's services to the cause of knowledge were universally recognized
long before his death, which took place at Oviedo on the 26th of
September 1764. He was not a great genius, nor a writer of transcendent
merit; his name is connected with no important discovery, and his style
is undistinguished. But he uprooted many popular errors, awakened an
interest in scientific methods, and is justly regarded as the initiator
of educational reform in Spain.



FEITH, RHIJNVIS (1753-1824), Dutch poet, was born of an aristocratic
family at Zwolle, the capital of the province Overijssel, on the 7th of
February 1753. He was educated at Harderwijk and at the university of
Leiden, where he took his degree in 1770. In 1772 he settled at his
birthplace, and married. In 1780, in his twenty-seventh year, he became
burgomaster of Zwolle. He built a luxurious villa, which he named
Boschwijk, in the outskirts of the town, and there he lived in the
greatest comfort. His first important production was _Julia_, in 1783, a
novel written in emulation of _Werther_, and steeped in _Weltschmerz_
and despair. This was followed by the tragedy of _Thirsa_ (1784);
_Ferdinand and Constantia_ (1785), another _Werther_ novel; and _The
Patriots_ (1784), a tragedy. Bilderdijk and other writers attacked his
morbid melancholy, and Johannes Kinker (1764-1845) parodied his novels,
but his vogue continued. In 1791 he published a tragedy of _Lady Jane
Grey_; in 1792 a didactic poem, _The Grave_, in four cantos; in 1793
_Inez de Castro_; in 1796 to 1814 five volumes of _Odes and
Miscellaneous Poems_; and in 1802 _Old Age_, in six cantos. He died at
Zwolle on the 8th of February 1824.

  His works were collected (Rotterdam, 11 vols.) in 1824, with a
  biographical notice by N.G. van Kampen.



FEJÉR, GYORGY (1766-1851), Hungarian author, was born on the 23rd of
April 1766, at Keszthely, in the county of Zala. He studied philosophy
at Pest, and theology at Pressburg; eventually, in 1808, he obtained a
theological professorship at Pest University. Ten years later (1818) he
became chief director of the educational circle of Raab, and in 1824 was
appointed librarian to the university of Pest. Fejér's works, which are
nearly all written either in Latin or Hungarian, exceed one hundred and
eighty in number. His most important work, _Codex diplomaticus Hungariae
ecclesiasticus ac civilis_, published from 1829 to 1844, in eleven
so-called tomes, really exceeds forty volumes. It consists of old
documents and charters from A.D. 104 to the end of 1439, and forms an
extraordinary monument of patient industry. This work and many others
relating to Hungarian national history have placed Fejér in the foremost
rank of Hungarian historians. He died on the 2nd of July 1851. His
latest works were _A Kunok eredete_ (_The Origin of the Huns_), and _A
politikai forradalmak okai_ (_The Causes of Political Revolutions_),
both published in 1850. The latter production, on account of its liberal
tendencies, was suppressed by the Austrian government.

  See _Magyar Irók: Életrajz-gyüjtemény_ (Pest, 1856), and _A Magyar
  nemzeti irodalomtörténet vázlata_ (Pest, 1861).



FELANITX, or FELANICHE, a town of Spain, in the south-east of the island
of Majorca, Balearic Islands; about 5 m. inland from its harbour, Puerto
Colon. Pop. (1900) 11,294. A range of low hills intervenes between
Felanitx and the Mediterranean; upon one summit, the Puig de San
Sebastian, stands a Moorish castle with a remarkable series of
subterranean vaults. From the 3rd century B.C., and possibly for a
longer period, earthenware water-coolers and other pottery have been
manufactured in the town, and many of the vessels produced are
noteworthy for their beauty of form and antiquity of design. There is a
thriving trade in wine, fruit, wheat, cattle, brandy, chalk and soap.



FELDKIRCH, a small town in the Austrian province of the Vorarlberg, some
20 m. S. of the S. end of the Lake of Constance. It is situated in a
green hollow, on the Ill river, between the two narrow rocky gorges
through which it flows out into the broad valley of the Rhine. Hence,
though containing only about 4000 inhabitants (German-speaking and
Romanist), the town is of great military importance, since it commands
the entrance into Tirol from the west, over the Arlberg Pass (5912 ft.),
and has been the scene of many conflicts, the last in 1799, when the
French, under Oudinot and Masséna, were driven back by the Austrians
under Hotze and Jellachich. It is a picturesque little town,
overshadowed by the old castle of Schattenburg (now a poor-house), built
about 1200 by the count of Montfort, whose descendant in 1375 sold it to
the Habsburgs. The town contains many administrative offices, and is the
residence of a suffragan bishop, who acts as vicar-general of the
diocesan, the bishop of Brixen. Among the principal buildings are the
parish church, dating from 1487, and possessing a "Descent from the
Cross" (1521), which has been attributed to Holbein, the great Jesuit
educational establishment called "Stella Matutina," and a Capuchin
convent and church. There is a considerable amount of transit trade at
Feldkirch, which by rail is 11 m. from Buchs (Switzerland), through the
principality of Liechtenstein, 24 m. from Bregenz, and 99½ m. from
Innsbruck by tunnel beneath the Arlberg Pass. The town also possesses
numerous industrial establishments, such as factories for
cotton-spinning, weaving, bell-founding, dyeing, &c.     (W. A. B. C.)



FÉLIBIEN, ANDRÉ (1610-1695), sieur des Avaux et de Javercy, French
architect and historiographer, was born at Chartres in May 1619. At the
age of fourteen he went to Paris to continue his studies; and in 1647 he
was sent to Rome in the capacity of secretary of embassy to the Marquis
de Marueil. His residence at Rome he turned to good account by diligent
study of its ancient monuments, by examination of the literary treasures
of its libraries, and by cultivating the acquaintance of men eminent in
literature and in art, with whom he was brought into contact through his
translation of Cardinal Barberini's _Life of Pius V_. Among his friends
was Nicholas Poussin, whose counsels were of great value to him. On his
return to France he married, and was ultimately induced, in the hope of
employment and honours, to settle in Paris. Both Fouquet and Colbert in
their turn recognized his abilities; and he was one of the first members
(1663) of the Academy of Inscriptions. Three years later Colbert procured
him the appointment of historiographer to the king. In 1671 he was named
secretary to the newly-founded Academy of Architecture, and in 1673
keeper of the cabinet of antiques in the palace of Brion. To these
offices was afterwards added by Louvois that of deputy controller-general
of roads and bridges. Félibien found time in the midst of his official
duties for study and research, and produced many literary works. Among
these the best and the most generally known is the _Entretiens sur les
vies et sur les ouvrages des plus excellents peintres anciens et
modernes_, which appeared in successive livraisons, the first in 1666,
and the fifth in 1688. It was republished with several additions at
Amsterdam in 1706, and again at Trévoux in 1725. Félibien wrote also
_Origine de la peinture_ (1660), _Principes de l'architecture, de la
sculpture, de la peinture_, &c. (1676-1690), and descriptions of
Versailles, of La Trappe, and of the pictures and statues of the royal
residences. Among other literary works, he edited the _Conférences_ of
the Academy of Painting, and translated the _Castle of the Soul_ from the
Spanish of St Theresa. His personal character commanded the highest
esteem, agreeing with the motto which he adopted--_Bene facere et vera
dicere_. He died in Paris on the 11th of June 1695.

His son, Jean François Félibien (c. 1658-1733), was also an architect
who left a number of works on his subject; and a younger son, Michel
Félibien (c. 1666-1719), was a Benedictine of Saint Germain-des-Prés
whose fame rests on his _Histoire de l'abbaye royale de S. Denys en
France_, and also his _L'Histoire de la ville de Paris_ in 5 vols., a
work indispensable to the student of Paris.



FELIX, the name of five popes.

FELIX I., pope from January 269 until his death in January 274. He has
been claimed as a martyr, and as such his name is given in the Roman
calendar and elsewhere, but his title to this honour is by no means
proved, and he has been probably confused with another bishop of the
same name. He appears in connexion with the dispute in the church of
Antioch between Paul of Samosata, who had been deprived of his bishopric
by a council of bishops for heresy, and his successor Domnus. Paul
refused to give way, and in 272 the emperor Aurelian was asked to decide
between the rivals. He ordered the church building to be given to the
bishop who was "recognized by the bishops of Italy and of the city of
Rome" (Felix). See Eusebius, _Hist. Ecc._ vii. 30.

FELIX II., antipope, was in 356 raised from the archdeaconate of Rome to
the papal chair, when Liberius was banished by the emperor Constantius
for refusing to subscribe the sentence of condemnation against
Athanasius. His election was contrary to the wishes both of the clergy
and of the people, and the consecration ceremony was performed by
certain prelates belonging to the court. In 357 Constantius, at the
urgent request of an influential deputation of Roman ladies, agreed to
the release of Liberius on condition that he signed the semi-Arian
creed. Constantius also issued an edict to the effect that the two
bishops should rule conjointly, but Liberius, on his entrance into Rome
in the following year, was received by all classes with so much
enthusiasm that Felix found it necessary to retire at once from Rome.
Regarding the remainder of his life little is known, and the accounts
handed down are contradictory, but he appears to have spent the most of
it in retirement at his estate near Porto. He died in 365.

FELIX III., pope, was descended from one of the most influential
families of Rome, and was a direct ancestor of Gregory the Great. He
succeeded Simplicius in the papal chair on the 2nd of March 483. His
first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, a deed of union, originating,
it is supposed, with Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and published
by the emperor Zeno with the view of allaying the strife between the
Monophysites and their opponents in the Eastern church. He also
addressed a letter of remonstrance to Acacius; but the latter proved
refractory, and sentence of deposition was passed against him. As
Acacius, however, had the support of the emperor, a schism arose between
the Eastern and Western churches, which lasted for 34 years. Felix died
in 492.

FELIX IV., pope, a native of Beneventum, was, on the death of John in
526, raised to the papal chair by the emperor Theodoric in opposition to
the wishes of the clergy and people. His election was followed by
serious riots. To prevent a recrudescence of these, Felix, on his
death-bed, thought it advisable to nominate his own successor. His
choice fell upon the archdeacon Boniface (pope as Boniface II.). But
this proceeding was contrary to all tradition and roused very serious
opposition. Out of two old buildings adapted by him to Christian
worship, Felix made the church of SS. Cosimo and Damiano, near the Via
Sacra. He died in September 530.

FELIX V., the name taken by Amadeus (1383-1451), duke of Savoy, when he
was elected pope in opposition to Eugenius IV. in 1439. Amadeus was born
at Chambéry on the 4th of December 1383, and succeeded his father,
Amadeus VII., as count of Savoy in 1391. Having added largely to his
patrimonial possessions he became very powerful, and in 1416 the German
king Sigismund erected Savoy into a duchy; after this elevation Amadeus
added Piedmont to his dominions. Then suddenly, in 1434, the duke
retired to a hermitage at Ripaille, near Thonon, resigning his duchy to
his son Louis (d. 1465), although he seems to have taken some part in
its subsequent administration. It is said, but some historians doubt the
story, that, instead of leading a life of asceticism, he spent his
revenues in furthering his own luxury and enjoyment. In 1439, when Pope
Eugenius IV. was deposed by the council of Basel, Amadeus, although not
in orders, was chosen as his successor, and was crowned in the following
year as Felix V. In the stormy conflict between the rival popes which
followed, the German king, Frederick IV., after some hesitation sided
with Eugenius, and having steadily lost ground Felix renounced his claim
to the pontificate in 1449 in favour of Nicholas V., who had been
elected on the death of Eugenius. He induced Nicholas, however, to
appoint him as apostolic vicar-general in Savoy, Piedmont and other
parts of his own dominions, and to make him a cardinal. Amadeus died at
Geneva on the 7th of January 1451.



FELIX, a missionary bishop from Burgundy, sent into East Anglia by
Honorius of Canterbury (630-631). Under King Sigebert his mission was
successful, and he became first bishop of East Anglia, with a see at
Dunwich, where he died and was buried, 647-648. It is noteworthy that
the Irish monk Furseus preached in East Anglia at the same time, and
Bede notices the admiration of Felix for Aidan.

  See Bede, _Hist. Eccl._ (Plummer), ii. 15, iii. 18, 20, 25; _Saxon
  Chronicle_ (Earle and Plummer), s.a. 636.



FELIX, of Urgella (fl. 8th century), Spanish bishop, the friend of
Elipandus and the propagator of his views in the great Adoptian
Controversy (see ADOPTIANISM).



FELIX, of Valois (1127-1212), one of the founders of the monastic order
of Trinitarians or Redemptionists, was born in the district of Valois,
France, on the 19th of April 1127. In early manhood he became a hermit
in the forest of Galeresse, where he remained till his sixty-first year,
when his disciple Jean de Matha (1160-1213) suggested to him the idea of
establishing an order of monks who should devote their lives to the
redemption of Christian captives from the Saracens. They journeyed to
Rome about the end of 1197, obtained the sanction of the pope, and on
their return to France founded the monastery of Cerfroi in Picardy.
Felix remained to govern and propagate the order, while Jean de Matha
superintended the foreign journeys. A subordinate establishment was also
founded by Felix in Paris near a chapel dedicated to St Mathurin, on
which account his monks were also called St Mathurins. He died at
Cerfroi on the 4th of November 1212, and was canonized.



FELIX, ANTONIUS, Roman procurator of Judaea (A.D. 52-60), in succession
to Ventidius Cumanus. He was a freedman either of the emperor
Claudius--according to which theory Josephus (_Antiq._ xx. 7) calls him
Claudius Felix--or more probably of the empress Antonia. On entering his
province he induced Drusilla, wife of Azizus of Homs (Emesa), to leave
her husband and live with him as his wife. His cruelty and
licentiousness, coupled with his accessibility to bribes, led to a great
increase of crime in Judaea. To put down the Zealots he favoured an even
more violent sect, the Sicarii ("Dagger-men"), by whose aid he contrived
the murder of the high-priest Jonathan. The period of his rule was
marked by internal feuds and disturbances, which he put down with
severity. The apostle Paul, after being apprehended in Jerusalem, was
sent to be judged before Felix at Caesarea, and kept in custody for two
years (Acts xxiv.). On returning to Rome, Felix was accused of having
taken advantage of a dispute between the Jews and Syrians of Caesarea to
slay and plunder the inhabitants, but through the intercession of his
brother, the freedman Pallas, who had great influence with the emperor
Nero, he escaped unpunished.

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, xx. 54, _Hist._ v. 9; Suetonius, _Claudius_,
  28; E. Schürer, _History of the Jewish People_ (1890-1891); article in
  Hastings' _Dict. of the Bible_ (A. Robertson); commentaries on the
  Acts of the Apostles; Sir W.M. Ramsay, _St Paul the Traveller_; Carl
  v. Weizsäcker, _Apostolic Age_ (Eng. trans., 1894); art. JEWS.



FÉLIX, LIA (1830-   ), French actress, was the third sister and the
pupil of the great Rachel. She had hardly been given any trial when, by
chance, she was called on to create the leading woman's part in
Lamartine's _Toussaint Louverture_ at the Porte St Martin on the 6th of
April 1850. The play did not make a hit, but the young actress was
favourably noticed, and several important parts were immediately
entrusted to her. She soon came to be recognized as one of the best
comediennes in Paris. Rachel took Lia to America with her to play second
parts, and on returning to Paris she played at several of the principal
theatres, although her health compelled her to retire for several years.
When she reappeared at the Gaiété in the title-rôle of Jules Barbier's
_Jeanne d'Arc_ she had an enormous success.



FELIXSTOWE, a seaside resort of Suffolk, England; fronting both to the
North Sea and to the estuary of the Orwell, where there are piers. Pop.
of urban district of Felixstowe and Walton (1901), 5815. It is 85 m.
N.E. by E. from London by a branch line from Ipswich of the Great
Eastern railway; and is in the Woodbridge parliamentary division of the
county. It has good golf links, and is much frequented by visitors for
its bracing climate and sea-bathing. There is a small dock, and
phosphate of lime is extensively dug in the neighbourhood and exported
for use as manure. The neighbouring village of Walton, a short distance
inland, receives many visitors. The vicinity has yielded numerous Roman
remains, and there was a Roman fort in the neighbourhood (now destroyed
by the sea), forming part of the coast defence of the Litus Saxonicum in
the 4th century.



FELL, JOHN (1625-1686), English divine, son of Samuel Fell, dean of
Christ Church, Oxford, was born at Longworth in Berkshire and received
his first education at the free school at Thame in Oxfordshire. In 1636
he obtained a studentship at Christ Church, and in 1640 he was specially
allowed by Archbishop Laud on account of his "known desert," when
wanting one term's residence, to proceed to his degree of B.A. He
obtained his M.A. in 1643 and took holy orders (deacon 1647, priest
1649). During the Civil War he bore arms for the king and held a
commission as ensign. In 1648 he was deprived of his studentship by the
parliamentary visitors, and during the next few years he resided chiefly
at Oxford with his brother-in-law, Dr T. Willis, at whose house opposite
Merton College he and his friends Allestree and Dolben kept up the
service of the Church of England through the Commonwealth.

At the Restoration Fell was made prebendary of Chichester, canon of
Christ Church (July 27, 1660), dean (Nov. 30), master of St Oswald's
hospital, Worcester, chaplain to the king, and D.D. He filled the office
of vice-chancellor from 1666 to 1669, and was consecrated bishop of
Oxford, in 1676, retaining his deanery _in commendam_. Some years later
he declined the primacy of Ireland. Fell showed himself a most capable
and vigorous administrator in his various high employments, and a worthy
disciple of Archbishop Laud. He restored in the university the good
order instituted by the archbishop, which in the Commonwealth had given
place to anarchy and a general disregard of authority. He ejected the
intruders from his college or else "fixed them in loyal principles." "He
was the most zealous man of his time for the Church of England," says
Wood, "and none that I yet know of did go beyond him in the performance
of the rules belonging thereunto." He attended chapel four times a day,
restored to the services, not without some opposition, the organ and
surplice, and insisted on the proper academical dress which had fallen
into disuse. He was active in recovering church property, and by his
directions a children's catechism was drawn up by Thomas Marshall for
use in his diocese. "As he was among the first of our clergy," says
Burnet, "that apprehended the design of bringing in popery, so he was
one of the most zealous against it." He was forward in making converts
from the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. On the other hand, it is
recorded to his honour that he opposed successfully the incorporation of
Titus Oates as D.D. in the university in October 1679; and according to
the testimony of William Nichols, his secretary, he disapproved of the
Exclusion Bill. He excluded the undergraduates, whose presence had been
irregularly permitted, from convocation. He obliged the students to
attend lectures, instituted reforms in the performances of the public
exercises in the schools, kept the examiners up to their duties, and
himself attended the examinations. He encouraged the students to act
plays. He entirely suppressed "_coursing_," i.e. disputations in which
the rival parties "ran down opponents in arguments," and which commonly
ended in blows and disturbances. He was an excellent disciplinarian and
possessed a special talent for the education of young men, many of whom
he received into his own family and watched over their progress with
paternal care. Tom Browne, author of the _Dialogues of the Dead_, about
to be expelled from Oxford for some offence, was pardoned by Fell on the
condition of his translating extempore the 33rd epigram from Martial:--

  "Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare;
   Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te."

To which he immediately replied with the well-known lines:--

  "I do not love you, Dr Fell,
   But why, I cannot tell,
   But this I know full well,
   I do not love you, Dr Fell."[1]

Delinquents, however, were not always treated thus mildly by Fell, and
Acton Cremer, for the crime of courting a wife while only a bachelor of
arts, was set as an imposition the translation into English of the whole
of Scheffer's history of Lapland. As vice-chancellor, Fell himself
visited the drinking taverns and ordered out the students. In the
university elections he showed great energy in suppressing corruption.

Fell's building operations almost rivalled the plans of the great
ecclesiastical architects of the middle ages. In his own college he
completed in 1665 the north side of Wolsey's great quadrangle, already
begun by his father but abandoned during the Commonwealth; he rebuilt in
1672 the east side of the Chaplain's quadrangle "with a straight passage
under it leading from the cloister into the field," occupied now by the
new Meadow Buildings; the lodgings of the canon of the 3rd stall in the
passage uniting the Tom and Peckwater quadrangles (c. 1674); a long
building joining the Chaplain's quadrangle on the east side in
1677-1678; and lastly the great tower gate, begun in June 1681 on the
foundation laid by Wolsey and finished in November 1682, to which the
bell "great Tom," after being recast, was transferred from the cathedral
in 1683. In 1670 he planted and laid out the Broad Walk. He spent large
sums of his own on these works, gave £500 for the restoration of Banbury
church, erected a church at St Oswald's, Worcester, and the parsonage
house at Woodstock at his own expense, and rebuilt Cuddesdon palace.
Fell disapproved of the use of St Mary's church for secular purposes,
and promoted the building of the Sheldonian theatre by Archbishop
Sheldon. He was treasurer during its construction, presided at the
formal opening on the 9th of July 1669, and was nominated with Wren
curator in July 1670. In the theatre was placed the University Press,
the establishment of which had been a favourite project of Laud, which
now engaged a large share of Fell's energy and attention, and which as
curator he practically controlled. "Were it not you ken Mr Dean
extraordinarily well," writes Sir L. Jenkins to J. Williamson in 1672,
"it were impossible to imagine how assiduous and drudging he is about
his press."[2] He sent for type and printers from Holland, declaring
that "the foundation of all success must be laid in doing things well,
which I am sure will not be done with English letters." Many works,
including a Bible, editions of the classics and of the early fathers,
were produced under his direction and editing, and his press became
noted not only in England but abroad. He published annually one work,
generally a classical author annotated by himself, which he distributed
to all the students of his college on New Year's day. On one occasion he
surprised the Press in printing surreptitiously Aretino's _Postures_,
when he seized and destroyed the plates and impressions. Ever "an eager
defender and maintainer of the university and its privileges," he was
hostile to the Royal Society, which he regarded as a possible rival, and
in 1686 he gave an absolute refusal to Obadiah Walker, afterwards the
Roman Catholic master of University College, though licensed by James
II., to print books, declaring he would as soon "part with his bed from
under him" as his press. He conducted it on strict business principles,
and to the criticism that more great works were not produced replied
that they would not sell. He was, however, not free from fads, and his
new spelling (of which one feature was the substitution of _i_ for _y_
in such words as _eies_, _daies_, _maiest_) met with great disapproval.

Fell also did much to encourage learning in the university. While still
a young man at Christ Church he had shown both his zeal and his charity
by reading gratuitously with the poor and neglected students of the
college. He bore himself a high reputation as a Grecian, a Latinist and
a philologist, and he found time, in spite of his great public
employments, to bring out with the collaboration of others his great
edition of St Cyprian in 1682, an English translation of _The Unity of
the Church_ in 1681, editions of _Nemesius of Emesa_ (1671), of _Aratus
and of Eratosthenes_ (1672), _Theocritus_ (1676), _Alcinous on Plato_
(1677), _St Clement's Epistles to the Corinthians_ (1677), _Athenagoras_
(1682), _Clemens Alexandrinus_ (1683), _St Theophilus of Antioch_
(1684), _Grammatica rationis sive institutiones logicae_ (1673 and
1685), and a critical edition of the New Testament in 1675. The first
volumes of _Rerum Anglicarum scriptores_ and of _Historiae Britannicae_,
&c. were compiled under his patronage in 1684. He had the MSS. of St.
Augustine in the Bodleian and other libraries at Oxford generously
collated for the use of the Benedictines at Paris, then preparing a new
edition of the father.

Fell spent such large sums in his building, in his noble patronage of
learning, and in charities, that sometimes there was little left for his
private use. Occasionally in his schemes he showed greater zeal than
prudence. He was the originator of a mission to India which was warmly
taken up by the East India Company. He undertook himself to train as
missionaries four scholars at Oxford, procured a set of Arabic types,
and issued from these the Gospels and Acts in the Malay language in
1677. But this was scarcely the best method of communicating the gospel
to the natives of India, and the mission collapsed. He affected to
despise public opinion, and was masterful and despotic in his dealings
with others, especially with those upon whom he was conferring favours.
Having generously undertaken at his own charge to publish a Latin
version of Wood's _History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford_,
with the object of presenting the history of the university in a manner
worthy of the great subject to European readers, and of extending its
fame abroad, he arrogated to himself the right of editing the work. "He
would correct, alter, dash out what he pleased.... He was a great man
and carried all things at his pleasure." In particular he struck out all
the passages which Wood had inserted in praise of Hobbes, and
substituted some disparaging epithets. He called the philosopher's
_Leviathan_ "monstrosissimus" and "publico damno notissimus." To the
printed remonstrance of Hobbes, Fell inserted an insulting reply in the
_History_ to "irritabile illud et vanissimum Malmesburiense animal," and
to the complaint of Wood at this usage answered only that Hobbes "was an
old man, had one foot in the grave; that he should mind his latter end,
and not trouble the world any more with his papers." In small things as
in great he loved to rule and direct. "Let not Fell," writes R. South to
R. Bathurst, "have the fingering and altering of them (i.e. his Latin
verses), for I think that, bating the want of _siquidems_ and
_quinetiams_, they are as good as his Worship can make." Wood styles him
"a valde vult person." He was not content with ruling his own college,
but desired to govern the whole university. He prevented Gilbert
Ironside, who "was not pliable to his humour," from holding the office
of vice-chancellor. He "endeavoured to carry all things by a high hand;
scorn'd in the least to court the Masters when he had to have anything
pass'd the convocation. Severe to other colleges, blind as to his own,
very partiall and with good words, and flatterers and tell-tales could
get anything out of him." According to Bishop Burnet, who praises his
character and his administration, Fell was "a little too much heated in
the matter of our disputes with the dissenters." "He had much zeal for
reforming abuses, and managed it perhaps with too much heat and in too
peremptory a way." "But," he adds, "we have so little of that among us
that no wonder if such men are censured by those who love not such
patterns nor such severe task-masters." And Wood, whose adverse
criticism must be discounted a little on account of the personal
dispute,--after declaring that Fell "was exceeding partial in his
government even to corruption; went thro' thick and thin; grasped at all
yet did nothing perfect or effectually; cared not what people said of
him, was in many things very rude and in most pedantic and
pedagogical,"--concludes with the acknowledgment, "yet still aimed at
the public good." Roger North, who paid Fell a visit at Oxford, speaks
of him in terms of enthusiasm:--"The great Dr Fell, who was truly great
in all his circumstances, capacities, undertakings and learning, and
above all for his superabundant public spirit and goodwill.... O the
felicity of that age and place when his authority swayed!"

In November 1684, at the command of the king, Fell deprived Locke, who
had incurred the royal displeasure by his friendship with Shaftesbury,
and was suspected as the author of certain seditious pamphlets, of his
studentship at Christ Church, summarily and without hearing his defence.
Fell had in former years cultivated Locke's friendship, had kept up a
correspondence with him, and in 1663 had written a testimonial in his
favour; and the ready compliance of one who could on occasion offer a
stout resistance to any invasion of the privileges of the university has
been severely criticised. It must, however, be remembered in extenuation
that the legal status of a person on the foundation of a collegiate body
had not then been decided in the law-courts. With regard to the justice
of the proceeding Fell had evidently some doubts, and he afterwards
expressed his regret for the step which he was now compelled to take.
But such scruples, however strong, would, with a man of Fell's political
and religious opinions, yield immediately to an order from the
sovereign, who possessed special authority in this case as a visitor to
the college; and such subservience, however strange to modern notions,
would probably only be considered natural and proper at that period.

Fell, who had never married, died on the 10th of July 1686, worn out,
according to Wood, by his overwhelming public duties. He was buried in
the divinity chapel in the cathedral, below the seat which he had so
often occupied when living, where a monument and an epitaph, now moved
elsewhere, were placed to his memory. "His death," writes John Evelyn,
"was an extraordinary losse to the poore church at this time"; but for
himself Fell was fortunate in the time of his departure; for a few
months more of life would have necessitated a choice, most painful to a
man of his character and creed, between fidelity to his sovereign and to
his church. With all his faults, which were the defects which often
attend eminent qualities such as his, Fell was a great man, "the
greatest governor," according to Speaker Onslow, "that has ever been
since his time in either of the universities," and of his own college,
to which he left several exhibitions for the maintenance of poor
scholars, he was a second founder. He was a worthy upholder of the
Laudian tradition at Oxford, an enlightened and untiring patron of
learning, and a man of exemplary morals and great piety which remained
unsullied in the midst of a busy life and much contact with the world. A
sum of money was left by John Cross to perpetuate Fell's memory by an
annual speech in his praise, but the _Felii laudes_ have been
discontinued since 1866. There are two interesting pictures of Fell at
Christ Church, one where he is represented with his two friends
Allestree and Dolben, and another by Vandyck. The statue placed on the
N.E. angle of the Great Quadrangle bears no likeness to the bishop, who
is described by Hearne as a "thin grave man."

Besides the learned works already mentioned Fell wrote the lives of his
friends Dr Henry Hammond (1661), Richard Allestree, prefixed to his
edition of the latter's sermons (1684), and Dr Thomas Willis, in Latin.
His _Seasonable advice to Protestants showing the necessity of
maintaining the Established Religion in opposition to Popery_ was
published in 1688. Some of his sermons, which Evelyn found dull, were
printed, including _Character of the Last Daies_, preached before the
king, 1675, and a _Sermon preached before the House of Peers Dec. 22,
1680_. _The Interest of England stated_ (1659), advocating the
restoration of the king,[3] and _The Vanity of Scoffing_ (1674), are
also attributed to him. Fell probably had some share in the composition
of _The Whole Duty of Man_, and in the subsequent works published under
the name of the author of _The Whole Duty_, which included _Reasons of
the Decay of Christian Piety_, _The Ladies Calling_, _The Gentleman's
Calling_, _The Government of the Tongue_, _The Art of Contentment_, and
_The Lively Oracles given us_, all of which were published in one volume
with notes and a preface by Fell in 1684.

  AUTHORITIES.--Wood's _Athenae Oxonienses_ and _Fasti_ (ed. Bliss);
  Wood's _Life and Times_, ed. by A. Clark; Burnet's _Hist. of His Own
  Time_, ed. 1833; J. Welch, _Alumni Westmonasterienses_; Thomas Hearne,
  _Collections_, ed. by C.E. Doble and others; _History of the Univ. of
  Oxford_ (1814); _Christ Church_, by Rev. H.L. Thompson; _Fortnightly
  Review_, lix. 689 (May 1896); _Macmillan's Magazine_ (Aug. 1875); _A
  Specimen of the several sorts of Letter given to the University by
  Dr J. F(ell)_ (1695); _Notes and Queries_, ser. vi. 2, and ser. vii.
  166; _Calendars of State Papers, Dom. Series_ (1660-1675). Fell's
  books and papers were bequeathed by his nephew Henry Jones to the
  Bodleian library. A few of his letters are to be found in _Add. MSS._
  Brit. Mus. 11046, and some are printed in _Life of James II._, by Ch.
  J. Fox, _Appendix_; _Gent. Mag._ 77, p. 633; _Academy_, 8, p. 141;
  _Athenaeum_ for 1887 (2), p. 311; J. Gutch, _Collectanea Curiosa_, i.
  269; and in _Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Series_.     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] J.T. Browne, _Works_ (9th ed. by J. Drake), iv. 99-100; T. Forde,
    _Virtus rediviva_ (1661), 106.

  [2] _Cal. of State Pap. Dom._, 1672, p. 478, and 1670, p. 26.

  [3] F. Maseres, _Tracts of the Civil War_, ii. 673.



FELL. (1) (Through the O. Fr. _fel_, from Low Lat. _fello_, felon),
savage, ruthless, deadly; only used now in poetry. (2) (Of Scandinavian
origin, cf. Danish _fjeld_, probably connected with a Teutonic root
appearing in German _fels_, rock), a hill, as in the names of mountains
in the Lake District in England, e.g. Scawfell; also a lofty moorland
down. (3) (A word common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. _fell_, and
Dutch _vel_, cognate with Lat. _pellis_, skin), the pelt or hide of an
animal, with the hair or wool and skin; also used of any thick shaggy
covering, like a matted fleece. (4) To cause to "fall," a word common to
Teutonic languages and akin to the root of the Lat. _fallere_ and Gr.
[Greek: sphallein], to cause to stumble, to deceive. As a substantive
"fell" is used of a flat seam laid level with the surface of the fabric;
also, in weaving, of the end of the web.



FELLAH (pl. Fellahin), Arabic for "ploughman" or "tiller," the word used
in Arabic-speaking countries to designate peasantry. It is employed
especially of the peasantry of Egypt, "Fellahin" in modern English usage
being almost equivalent to "Egyptians." In Egypt the name is applied to
the peasantry as opposed to the Arabs of the desert (and even those who
have settled on the land), the Turks and the townsfolk. Fellah is used
by the Arabs as a term of reproach, somewhat like the English "boor,"
but rather implying a slavish disposition; the fellahin, however, are
not ashamed of the name and may pride themselves on being of good fellah
descent, as a "fellah of a fellah." They may be classified as
Hamito-Semites, and preserve to some extent the blood of the ancient
Egyptians. They form the bulk of the population of Egypt and are mainly
Mahommedan, though some villages in Upper Egypt are almost exclusively
Copt (Christian). Their hybridism is well shown by their great
divergence of colour, fellahin in the Delta being sometimes lighter than
Arabs, while in Upper Egypt the prevailing complexion is dark brown. The
average fellah is somewhat above medium height, big-boned, of clumsy but
powerful build, with head and face of fine oval shape, cheek-bones high,
forehead broad, short flattish nose with wide nostrils, and black but
not woolly hair. The eyebrows are always straight and smooth, never
bushy. The mouth is thick-lipped and large but well formed. The eyes are
large and black, and are remarkable for the closeness of the eyelashes.
The women and girls are particularly noted for their graceful and
slender figures and their fine carriage, due to the custom of carrying
burdens, especially water-jars, on their heads. The men's heads are
usually shaved. The women are not as a rule closely veiled: they
generally paint the lips a deep blue, and tattoo a floral device on the
chin, sometimes on the forehead and other parts of the body. All but the
poorest wear necklaces of cheap pearls, coins or gilt disks. The men
wear a blue or brown cotton shirt, linen drawers and a plain skull-cap,
or on occasion the tarbush or fez, round which sometimes a turban is
wound; the women wear a single cotton smock. The common fellah's home is
a mere mud hut, roofed with durra straw. Inside are a few mats, a
sheepskin, baskets and some earthenware and wooden vessels. He lives
almost entirely on vegetables, millet bread, beans, lentils, dates and
onions. But some of the sheikhs are wealthy, and have large houses built
of crude brick and whitewashed with lime, with courtyard, many
apartments and good furniture. The fellah is laborious in the fields,
and abominates absence from his occupations, which generally means loss
of money to him. Military service on the old oriental plan was both
ruinous and distasteful to him; hence voluntary mutilations to avoid
conscription were formerly common and the ingrained prejudice against
military service remains. Trained by British officers the fellahin make,
however, excellent soldiers, as was proved in the Sudan campaigns of
1896-98. The fellah is intelligent, cheerful and sober, and as
hospitable as his poverty allows. (See COPTS and EGYPT.)



FELLENBERG, PHILIPP EMANUEL VON (1771-1844), Swiss educationist, was
born on the 27th of June 1771 at Bern, in Switzerland. His father was of
patrician family, and a man of importance in his canton, and his mother
was a grand-daughter of the Dutch admiral Van Tromp. From his mother and
from Pfeffel, the blind poet of Colmar, he received a better education
than falls to the lot of most boys, while the intimacy of his father
with Pestalozzi gave to his mind that bent which it afterwards followed.
In 1790 he entered the university of Tübingen, where he distinguished
himself by his rapid progress in legal studies. On account of his health
he afterwards undertook a walking tour in Switzerland and the adjoining
portions of France, Swabia and Tirol, visiting the hamlets and
farmhouses, mingling in the labours and occupations of the peasants and
mechanics, and partaking of their rude fare and lodging. After the
downfall of Robespierre, he went to Paris and remained there long enough
to be assured of the storm impending over his native country. This he
did his best to avert, but his warnings were disregarded, and
Switzerland was lost before any efficient means could be taken for its
safety. Fellenberg, who had hastily raised a levy _en masse_, was
proscribed; a price was set upon his head, and he was compelled to fly
into Germany. Shortly afterwards, however, he was recalled by his
countrymen, and sent on a mission to Paris to remonstrate against the
rapacity and cruelty of the agents of the French republic. But in this
and other diplomatic offices which he held for a short time, he was
witness to so much corruption and intrigue that his mind revolted from
the idea of a political life, and he returned home with the intention of
devoting himself wholly to the education of the young. With this
resolution he purchased in 1799 the estate of Hofwyl, near Bern,
intending to make agriculture the basis of a new system which he had
projected, for elevating the lower and rightly training the higher
orders of the state, and welding them together in a closer union than
had hitherto been deemed attainable. For some time he carried on his
labours in conjunction with Pestalozzi, but incompatibility of
disposition soon induced them to separate. The scheme of Fellenberg at
first excited a large amount of ridicule, but gradually it began to
attract the notice of foreign countries; and pupils, some of them of the
highest rank, began to flock to him from every country in Europe, both
for the purpose of studying agriculture and to profit by the high moral
training which he associated with his educational system. For forty-five
years Fellenberg, assisted by his wife, continued his educational
labours, and finally raised his institution to the highest point of
prosperity and usefulness. He died on the 21st of November 1844.

  See Hamm, _Fellenberg's Leben und Wirken_ (Bern, 1845); and Schoni,
  _Der Stifter von Hofwyl, Leben und Wirken Fellenberg's_.



FELLER, FRANÇOIS XAVIER DE (1735-1802), Belgian author, was born at
Brussels on the 18th of August 1735. In 1752 he entered a school of the
Jesuits at Reims, where he manifested a great aptitude for mathematics
and physical science. He commenced his novitiate two years afterwards,
and in testimony of his admiration for the apostle of India added Xavier
to his surname. On the expiry of his novitiate he became professor at
Luxembourg, and afterwards at Liége. In 1764 he was appointed to the
professorship of theology at Tyrnau in Hungary, but in 1771 he returned
to Belgium and continued to discharge his professorial duties at Liége
till the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773. The remainder of his life
he devoted to study, travel and literature. On the invasion of Belgium
by the French in 1794 he went to Paderborn, and remained there two
years, after which he took up his residence at Ratisbon, where he died
on the 23rd of May 1802.

  Feller's works exceed 120 volumes. In 1773 he published, under the
  assumed name Flexier de Reval (an anagram of Xavier de Feller), his
  _Catéchisme philosophique_; and his principal work _Dictionnaire
  historique et littéraire_ (published in 1781 at Liége in 8 volumes,
  and afterwards several times reprinted and continued down to 1848),
  appeared under the same name. Among his other works the most important
  are _Cours de morale chrétienne et de littérature religieuse_ and his
  _Coup d'oeil sur congrès d'Ems_. The _Journal historique et
  littéraire_, published at Luxembourg and Liége from 1774 to 1794 in 70
  volumes, was edited and in great part written by him.



FELLING, an urban district in the Jarrow parliamentary division of
Durham, England, forming an eastern suburb of Gateshead. Pop. (1901)
22,467. Its large industrial population is employed in the neighbouring
collieries and the various attendant manufactures.



FELLOE, the outer rim of a wheel, to which the spokes are attached. The
word is sometimes spelled and usually pronounced "felly." It is a
Teutonic word, in O. Eng. _felg_, cognate with Dutch _velge_, Ger.
_Felge_; the original Teutonic root from which these are derived
probably meant "to fit together."



FELLOW, properly and by origin a partner or associate, hence a
companion, comrade or mate, as in "fellow-man," "fellow-countryman," &c.
The word from the 15th century has also been applied, generally and
colloquially, to any male person, often in a contemptuous or pitying
sense. The Old English _féolage_ meant a partner in a business, i.e. one
who lays (_lag_) money or property (_féoh_, fee) together for a common
purpose. The word was, therefore, the natural equivalent for _socius_, a
member of the foundation of an incorporated college, as Eton, or a
college at a university. In the earlier history of universities both the
senior and junior members of a college were known as "scholars," but
later, as now, "scholar" was restricted to those members of the
foundation still in _statu pupillari_, and "fellow" to those senior
graduate members who have been elected to the foundation by the
corporate body, sharing in the government and receiving a fixed
emolument out of the revenues of the college. It is in this sense that
"fellow" is used at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and
Trinity, Dublin. At these universities the college teaching is performed
by those fellows who are also "tutors." At other universities the term
is applied to the members of the governing body or to the holders of
certain sums of money for a fixed number of years to be devoted to
special study or research. By analogy the word is also used of the
members of various learned societies and institutions.



FELLOWS, SIR CHARLES (1799-1860), British archaeologist, was born in
August 1799 at Nottingham, where his family had an estate. When fourteen
he drew sketches to illustrate a trip to the ruins of Newstead Abbey,
which afterwards appeared on the title-page of Moore's _Life of Lord
Byron_. In 1820 he settled in London, where he became an active member
of the British Association. In 1827 he discovered the modern ascent of
Mont Blanc. After the death of his mother in 1832 he passed the greater
portion of his time in Italy, Greece and the Levant. The numerous
sketches he executed were largely used in illustrating C_hilde Harold_.
In 1838 he went to Asia Minor, making Smyrna his headquarters. His
explorations in the interior and the south led him to districts
practically unknown to Europeans, and he thus discovered ruins of a
number of ancient cities. He entered Lycia and explored the Xanthus from
the mouth at Patara upwards. Nine miles from Patara he discovered the
ruins of Xanthus, the ancient capital of Lycia, finely situated on
hills, and abounding in magnificent remains. About 15 m. farther up he
came upon the ruins of Tlos. After taking sketches of the most
interesting objects and copying a number of inscriptions, he returned to
Smyrna through Caria and Lydia. The publication of _A Journal written
during an Excursion in Asia Minor_ (London, 1839) roused such interest
that Lord Palmerston, at the request of the British Museum authorities,
asked the British consul at Constantinople to get leave from the sultan
to ship a number of the Lycian works of art. Late in 1839 Fellows, under
the auspices of the British Museum, again set out for Lycia, accompanied
by George Scharf, who assisted him in sketching. This second visit
resulted in the discovery of thirteen ancient cities, and in 1841
appeared _An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept
during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor_. A third visit was made late in
1841, after Fellows had obtained a _firman_ by personal application at
Constantinople. He shipped a number of works of art for England, and in
the fourth and most famous expedition (1844) twenty-seven cases of
marbles were despatched to the British Museum. His chief discoveries
were at Xanthus, Pinara, Patara, Tlos, Myra and Olympus. In 1844 he
presented to the British Museum his portfolios, accounts of his
expeditions, and specimens of natural history illustrative of Lycia. In
1845 he was knighted "as an acknowledgment of his services in the
removal of the Xanthian antiquities to this country." He paid his own
expenses in all his journeys and received no public reward. Fellows was
twice married. He died in London on the 8th of November 1860.

  In addition to the works above mentioned, Fellows published the
  following: _The Xanthian Marbles; their Acquisition and Transmission
  to England_ (1843), a refutation of false statements that had been
  published; _An Account of the Ionic Trophy Monument excavated at
  Xanthus_ (1848); a cheap edition of his two _Journals_, entitled
  _Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, particularly in the Province of
  Lycia_ (1852); and _Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of
  Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments
  in the British Museum_ (1855). See C. Brown's _Lives of
  Nottinghamshire Worthies_ (1882), pp. 352-353, and _Journ. of Roy.
  Geog. Soc._, 1861.



FELO DE SE (M.L. a felon, i.e. murderer, of himself), one who commits
murder upon himself. The technical conditions of murder apply to this
crime; e.g., "if one commits any unlawful malicious act, the consequence
of which is his own death, as if attempting to kill another he runs upon
his antagonist's sword, or shooting at another the gun bursts and kills
himself," he is a _felo de se_. The horror inspired by this crime led to
the revolting punishment of an "ignominious burial on the highway, with
a stake driven through the body." This was abolished by an act of 1823,
which ordered the burial of the body of a person found to be _felo de
se_ within 24 hours after the coroner's inquest, between the hours of 9
and 12 at night, and without Christian rites of sepulture. This act was
again superseded in 1882 by the Interments (_Felo de se_) Act, which
permits the interment of any _felo de se_ in the churchyard or other
burial ground of the parish or place in which by the law or custom of
England he might have been interred but for the verdict. The interment
is carried out in accordance with the Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880
(see BURIAL and BURIAL ACTS). The act does not authorize the performance
of any of the rites of Christian burial, but a special form of service
may be used. Formerly the goods and chattels, but not the land, of a
_felo de se_ were forfeited to the crown, but such forfeitures were
abolished by the Forfeiture Act 1870. (See also SUICIDE.)



FELONY (O. Fr. _felonie_, from _felon_, a word meaning "wicked," common
to Romanic languages, cf. Italian _fello_, _fellone_, the ultimate
origin of which is obscure, but is possibly connected either with Lat.
_fel_, gall, or _fallere_, to deceive. The English "fell" cruel or
fierce, is also connected; and the Greek [Greek: phêlus], an impostor,
has also been suggested). Legal writers have sought to throw light on
the nature of felony by examining the supposed etymology of the word.
Coke says it is _crimen animo felleo perpetratum_ [a crime committed
with malicious or evil intent (_fee lohn_)]. Spelman connects it with
the word _fee_, signifying fief or feud; and felony in this way would be
equivalent to _pretium feudi_, an act for which a man lost or gave up
his fee (see Stephen's _Commentaries_, vol. iv. p. 7). And acts
involving forfeiture were styled felonies in feudal law, although they
had nothing of a criminal character about them. A breach of duty on the
part of the vassal, neglect of service, delay in seeking investiture,
and the like were felonies: so were injuries by the lord against the
vassal. Modern writers are now disposed to accept Coke's definition. In
English law, crimes are usually classified as treason, felony,
misdemeanour and summary offence. Some writers--and with some
justice--treat treason merely as a grave form of felony and it is so
dealt with in the Juries Detention Act 1897. But owing to legislation in
and since the time of William and Mary, the procedure for the trial of
most forms of treason differs from that of felony. The expression
summary offence is ambiguous. Many offences which are at common law or
by statute felonies, or misdemeanours indictable at common law or by
statute, may under certain conditions be tried by a court of summary
jurisdiction (q.v.), and many merely statutory offences which would
ordinarily be punishable summarily may at the election of the accused be
tried by a jury on indictment (Summary Jurisdiction Act 1879, s. 17).

The question whether a particular offence is felony or misdemeanour can
be answered only by reference to the history of the offence and not by
any logical test. For instance, killing a horse in an unlicensed place
is still felony under a statute of 1786. But most crimes described as
felonies are or have been capital offences at common law or by statute,
and have also entailed on the offender attaint and forfeiture of goods.
A few felonies were not punishable by death, e.g. petty larceny and
mayhem. Where an offence is declared a felony by statute, the common law
punishments and incidents of trial attach, unless other statutory
provision is made (Blackstone, _Commentaries_, iv. 94).

The chief common law _felonies_ are: homicide, rape, larceny (i.e. in
ordinary language, theft), robbery (i.e. theft with violence), burglary
and kindred offences. Counterfeiting the coin has been made a felony
instead of being treason; and forgery of most documents has been made a
felony instead of being, as it was at common law, a misdemeanour. At the
beginning of the 19th century felony was almost equivalent to capital
crime; but during that century capital punishment was abolished as to
all felonies, except wilful murder, piracy with violence (7 W. IV. & 1
Vict. c. 88, s. 2) and offences against the Dockyards, &c., Protection
Act 1772; and by the Forfeiture Act 1870, a felon no longer forfeits
land or goods on conviction, though forfeiture on outlawry is not
abolished. The usual punishment for felony under the present law is
penal servitude or imprisonment with or without hard labour. "Every
person convicted of any felony for which no punishment is specially
provided by the law in force for the time being is liable upon
conviction thereof to be sentenced to penal servitude for any period not
exceeding seven years, or to be imprisoned with or without hard labour
for any term not exceeding two years" (Stephen, _Dig. Cr. Law_ (6th
ed.), art 18, Penal Servitude Act 1891). A felon may not be fined or
whipped on conviction nor put under recognizance to keep the peace or be
of good behaviour except under statutory provision. (See Offences
against the Person Act 1861, ss. 5. 71.)

The result of legislative changes is that at the present time the only
practical distinctions between felony and misdemeanour are:--

1. That a private person may arrest a felon without judicial authority
and that bail on arrest is granted as a matter of discretion and not as
of right. Any one who has obtained a drove of oxen or a flock of sheep
by false pretences may go quietly on his way and no one, not even a
peace officer, can apprehend him without a warrant, but if a man offers
to sell another a bit of dead fence supposed to have been stolen, he not
only may but is required to be apprehended by that person (Greaves,
_Criminal Law Consolidation Acts_). (See ARREST, BAIL.)

2. That on an indictment for felony counts may not be joined for
different felonies unless they form part of the same transaction. (See
INDICTMENT.)

3. That on a trial for felony the accused has a right peremptorily to
challenge, or object to, the jurors called to try him, up to the number
of twenty. (See JURY.)

4. That a felon cannot be tried _in absentia_, and that the jury who try
him may not separate during the trial without leave of the court, which
may not be given in cases of murder.

5. That a special jury cannot be empanelled to try a felony.

6. That peers charged with felony are tried in a special manner. (See
PEERAGE.)

7. That the costs of prosecuting all felonies (except treason felony)
are paid out of public funds: and that a felon may be condemned to pay
the costs of his prosecution and to compensate up to £100 for any loss
of property suffered by any person through or by means of the felony. In
the Criminal Code Bills of 1878-1880 it was proposed to abolish the term
felony altogether: and in the Queensland Criminal Code 1899 the term
"crime" is substituted, and within its connotation are included not only
treason and piracy but also perjury.

8. That a sentence of a felon to death, or to penal servitude or
imprisonment with hard labour or for over twelve months, involves loss
of and disqualification for certain offices until the sentence has been
served or a free pardon obtained. (Forfeiture Act 1870.)

It is a misdemeanour (i.) to compound a felony or to agree for valuable
consideration not to prosecute or to show favour in such prosecution;
(ii.) to omit to inform the authorities of a felony known to have been
committed (see MISPRISION), and, (iii.) not to assist in the arrest of a
felon at the call of an officer of the law. (See CRIMINAL LAW;
MISDEMEANOUR; MISPRISION.)



FELSITE, in petrology, a term which has long been generally used by
geologists, especially in England, to designate fine-grained igneous
rocks of acid (or subacid) composition. As a rule their ingredients are
not determinable by the unaided eye, but they are principally felspar
and quartz as very minute particles. The rocks are pale-coloured
(yellowish or reddish as a rule), hard, splintery, much jointed and
occasionally nodular. Many felsites contain porphyritic crystals of
clear quartz in rounded blebs, more or less idiomorphic felspar, and
occasionally biotite. Others are entirely fine-grained and micro- or
crypto-crystalline. Occasionally they show a fluxional banding; they may
also be spherulitic or vesicular. Those which carry porphyritic quartz
are known as quartz-felsites; the term soda-felsites has been applied to
similar fine-grained rocks rich in soda-felspar.

Although there are few objections to the employment of felsite as a field
designation for rocks having the above characters, it lacks definiteness,
and has been discarded by many petrologists as unsuited for the exact
description of rocks, especially when their microscopic characters are
taken into consideration. The felsites accordingly are broken up into
"granite-porphyries," "orthophyres" and "orthoclase-porphyries,"
"felsitic-rhyolites," "keratophyres," "granophyres," "micro-granites,"
&c. But felsite or microfelsite is still the generally accepted
designation for that very fine-grained, almost crypto-crystalline
substance which forms the ground-mass of so many rhyolites, dacites and
porphyries.

In the hand specimen it is a dull, lustreless, stony-looking aggregate.
Under the microscope even with high powers and the very thinnest modern
sections, it often cannot be resolved into its components. In places it
may contain determinable minute crystals of quartz; less commonly it may
show grains which can be proved to be felspar, but usually it consists
of an ultra-microscopic aggregate of fibres, threads and grains, which
react to polarized light in a feeble and indefinite manner. Spherulitic,
spotted, streaky and fluidal structures may appear in it, and many
different varieties have been established on such characters as these
but without much validity.

Its association with the acid rocks, its hardness, method of weathering
and chemical composition, indicate that it is an intermixture of quartz
and acid felspar, and the occasional presence of these two minerals in
well-defined grains confirms this. Moreover, in many dikes, while the
ground-mass is microcrystalline and consists of quartz and felspar near
the centre of the mass, towards the margins, where it has been rapidly
chilled by contact with the cold surrounding rocks, it is felsitic. The
very great viscosity of acid magmas prevents their molecules, especially
when cooling takes place suddenly, from arranging themselves to form
discrete crystals, and is the principal cause of the production of
felsitic ground-masses. In extreme cases these conditions hinder
crystallization altogether, and glassy rocks result. Some rocks are
felsitic in parts but elsewhere glassy; and it is not always clear
whether the felsite is an original substance or has arisen by the
devitrification of primary glass. The presence of perlitic structure in
some of these felsites points to the latter conclusion, and the results
of an examination of ancient glasses and of artificial glass which has
been slowly cooled are in accordance with this view. It has been argued
that felsite is a eutectic mixture of quartz and felspar, such that when
solidification takes place and the excess of felspar (or quartz) has
crystallized out it remains liquid till the temperature has fallen to
its freezing point, and then consolidates simultaneously. This may be
so, but analyses show that it has not always the same composition and
consequently that the conditions which determine its formation are not
quite simple. Felsitic rocks are sometimes silicified and have their
matrix replaced by granular aggregates of cloudy quartz. (J. S. F.)



FELSPAR, or FELDSPAR, a name applied to a group of mineral silicates of
much importance as rock-constituents. The name, taken from the Ger.
_Feldspath_, was originally written with a "d" but in 1794 it was
written "felspar" by R. Kirwan, on the assumption that it denoted a
mineral of the "fels" rather than of the "field," and this corrupted
form is now in common use in England. By some of the earlier
mineralogists it was written "feltspar," from the Swedish form
_fältspat_.

The felspar-group is divided into two subgroups according to the
symmetry of the crystals. Although the crystals of all felspars present
a general resemblance in habit, they are usually regarded as belonging
to two systems, some felspars being monoclinic and others anorthic.
Figures of the crystals are given in the articles on the different
species. Two cleavages are generally well marked. In the monoclinic or
monosymmetric felspars these, being parallel to the basal pinacoid and
clinopinacoid, necessarily make an angle of 90°, whence the name
orthoclase applied to these minerals; whilst in the anorthic or
asymmetric felspars the corresponding angle is never exactly 90°, and
from this obliquity of the principal cleavages they are termed
plagioclase (see ORTHOCLASE and PLAGIOCLASE). There are consequently two
series of felspars, one termed orthoclastic or orthotomous, and the
other plagioclastic or clinotomous. F.E. Mallard suggested that all
felspars are really asymmetric, and that orthoclase presents only a
pseudo-monosymmetric habit, due to twinning. Twin-crystals are very
common in all the felspars, as explained under their respective
headings.

The two divisions of the felspar-group founded on differences of
crystalline symmetry are subdivided according to chemical composition.
All the felspars are silicates containing aluminium with some other
metallic base or bases, generally potassium, sodium or calcium, rarely
barium, but never magnesium or iron. The monoclinic series includes
common potash-felspar or orthoclase (KAlSi3O8) and hyalophane, a rare
felspar containing barium (K2BaAl4Si8O24). The anorthic series includes
at one end the soda-felspar albite (NaAlSi3O8) and at the other
extremity the lime-felspar anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8). It was suggested by
G. Tschermak in 1864 that the other plagioclastic felspars are
isomorphous mixtures in various proportion of albite (Ab) and anorthite
(An). These intermediate members are the lime-soda felspars known as
oligoclase, andesine, labradorite and bytownite. There are also placed
in the anorthic class a potash-felspar called microcline, and a rare
soda-potash-felspar known as anorthoclase.

The specific gravity of the felspars has been shown by G. Tschermak and
V. Goldschmidt to vary according to their chemical composition, rising
steadily from 2.57 in orthoclase to 2.75 in anorthite. All the felspars
have a hardness of 6 to 6.5, being therefore rather less hard than
quartz. Pure felspar is colourless, but the mineral is usually white,
yellow, red or green. Certain felspars are used as ornamental stones on
account of their colour (see AMAZON STONE). Other felspars are prized
for their pearly opalescence (see MOONSTONE), or for their play of
iridescent colours (see LABRADORITE), or for their spangled appearance,
like aventurine (see SUN-STONE).

Felspar is much used in the manufacture of porcelain by reason of its
fusibility. In England the material employed is mostly orthoclase from
Scandinavia, often known as "Swedish spar." The high translucency of
"ivory porcelain" depends on the large proportion of felspar in the
body. The mineral is also an important constituent of most ceramic
glazes. The melting points of felspars have been investigated by Prof.
J. Joly, Prof. C. A. Doelter y Cisterich and especially by A.L. Day and
E.T. Allen in the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute at
Washington.

Among the applications of felspar is that of pure orthoclase in the
manufacture of artificial teeth.

Felspar readily suffers chemical alteration, yielding kaolin (q.v.). The
turbidity of orthoclase is usually due to partial kaolinization.
Secondary mica is also a common result of alteration, and among other
products are pinite, epidote, saussurite, chlorite, wollastonite and
various zeolites.

  See ALBITE, AMAZON STONE, ANDESINE, ANORTHITE, BYTOWNITE, LABRADORITE,
  MICROCLINE, MOONSTONE, OLIGOCLASE, ORTHOCLASE, PLAGIOCLASE, SUN-STONE.



FELSTED, or FELSTEAD, a village of Essex, England, between Dunmow and
Braintree, and 10 m. from Chelmsford; with a station on the Great
Eastern railway. Felsted is only noteworthy by reason of its important
public school, dating back to its foundation as a grammar school in 1564
by Richard 1st Baron Rich, who as lord chancellor and chancellor of the
court of augmentations had enriched himself with the spoil of the
adjoining abbey and priory of Little Leez at the dissolution of the
monasteries. It became a notable educational centre for Puritan families
in the 17th century, numbering a hundred or more pupils, under Martin
Holbeach (1600-1670), headmaster from 1627-1649, and his successors C.
Glasscock (from 1650 to 1690), and Simon Lydiatt (1690 to 1702). John
Wallis and Isaac Barrow were educated here, and also four sons of Oliver
Cromwell, Robert, Oliver, Richard (the Protector), and Henry. Another
era of prosperity set in under the headmastership of William Trivett
(1745-1830) between 1778 and 1794; but under his successors W.J. Carless
(from 1794 to 1813) and E. Squire (from 1813 to 1829) the numbers
dwindled. As the result of the discovery by T. Surridge (headmaster
1835-1850), from research among the records, that a larger income was
really due to the foundation, a reorganization took place by act of
parliament, and in 1851, under the headmastership of Rev. A.H.
Wratislaw, the school was put under a new governing body (a revised
scheme coming into operation in 1876). The result under Rev. W.S.
Grignon (1823-1907), the headmaster from 1856 to 1875, who may be
considered almost the second founder, was the rapid development of
Felsted into one of the regular public schools of the modern English
type. New buildings on an elaborate scale arose, the numbers increased
to more than 200, and a complete transformation took place, which was
carried on under his successors D.S. Ingram (from 1875 to 1890), H.A.
Dalton (to 1906), and F. Stephenson, under whom large extensions to the
buildings and playing-fields were made.

  See John Sargeaunt, _History of Felsted School_ (1889); and _Alumni
  Felstedienses_, by R.J. Beevor, E.T. Roberts and others (1903).



FELT (cognate with Ger. _Filz_, Du. _vilt_, Swed. and Dan. _filt_; the
root is unknown; the word has given Med. Lat. _filtrum_, "filter"), a
fabric produced by the "matting" or "felting" together of fibrous
materials such as wools, hairs, furs, &c. Most textile fibres (see
FIBRES) possess the quality of matting to some extent, but wools, furs
and some few hairs are the only fibres which can be felted
satisfactorily. It is probable that the quality of felting must be
attributed to the scale structure and waviness of the wools, furs and
hairs referred to. When it is desired to incorporate non-felting fibres
in felt cloths, wool must be employed to "carry" them.

There are two distinct classes of felts, viz. woven or
"thread-structure" felts, and "fibre" or true felts. In the manufacture
of thread-structure felts, wools possessing the quality of felting in a
high degree are naturally selected, carefully scoured so that the
felting quality is not seriously damaged, spun into woollen yarn
possessing the necessary fibre arrangement and twist, woven into cloth
of such a character that subsequently satisfactory shrinking or felting
may be effected, and finally scoured, milled in the stocks of machine of
both, dyed and finished on the lines of an ordinary woven fabric. The
lighter styles of woven felts may be composed of a single cloth only,
but for the heavier styles two or more cloths are woven, one on top of
the other, at one and the same time, arrangements being made to stitch
the cloths together during the weaving operation.

Fibre felts are exceedingly interesting from the historical point of
view. It is now generally admitted that the art of weaving preceded
that of spinning, and it must further be conceded that the art of
felting preceded that of weaving, so that the felt fabric is probably
one of the oldest of the various styles of recognized fabrics. The
inhabitants of the middle and northern regions of Asia seem to have
employed felt from time immemorial, as clothing and also as a covering
for their habitations. Most of the classical writers refer to it and
some of them actually describe its manufacture. Felt was also largely
employed by the ancients for their hats, outer garments, and sometimes
as a species of armour.

Fibre felts may be divided into three classes, viz. ordinary felts; hat
felts; and impregnated felts. As all felts are based upon the ordinary
felt, the process of manufacture of this will first be described. Of the
wools employed the principal are:--East Indian, German or mid-European,
New Zealand cross-breds, and Australian, Cape and