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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. III, Number 83, May 31, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.


"=When found, make a note of.="--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.


VOL. III.--NO. 83--SATURDAY, MAI 31. 1851.

Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4_d._



CONTENTS.


                                                                    Page

      On the Proposed Record of Existing Monuments                   417

      NOTES:--

      Illustrations of Chaucer, No. VII.: The star Min Al Auwâ       421

      Traditions from remote Periods through few Links, by Rev.
      Thos. Corser                                                   426

      Dr. Young's Narcissa                                           427

      Minor Notes:--Curious Epitaph--The Curse of Scotland--The
      Female Captive--Pictorial Antiquities                          428

      QUERIES:--

      English Poems by Constantine Huyghens, by S. W. Singer         430

      The Rev. Mr. Gay, by Edward Tagart                             431

      Minor Queries:--Carved Ceiling in Dorsetshire--Publicans'
      Signs--To a T.--Skeletons at Egyptian Banquet--Gloves--Knapp
      Family in Norfolk and Suffolk--To learn by "Heart"--Knights--
      Supposed Inscription in St. Peter's at Rome--Rag Sunday in
      Sussex--Northege Family--A Kemble Pipe of Tobacco--Durham
      Sword that killed the Dragon                                   432

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--"At Sixes and Sevens"--Swobbers--
      Handel's Occasional Oratorio--Archbishop Waldeby's
      Epitaph--Verstegan--Royal Library                              434

      REPLIES:--

      Hugh Holland and his Works, by Bolton Corney                   437

      The Milesians                                                  439

      The Tanthony                                                   440

      Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury                                   442

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Shakespeare's Use of
      "Captious"--Inscription of a Clock--Authors of the Anti-Jacobin
      Poetry--"Felix, quem faciunt," &c.--Church Bells--Chiming,
      Tolling, and Pealing--Extraordinary North Briton--Fitzpatrick's
      Lines of Fox--Ejusdem Farinæ--The Sempecta--"Nulli fraus
      tuta latebris"--Voltaire, where situated--By the Bye--Bigod de
      Loges--Knebsend--Mrs. Catherine Barton--Peter Sterry--Wife of
      James Torre--Ramasse--Four Want Way--Dr. Owen's Works--Bactrian
      Coins--Baldrocks--Tu Autem--Commoner marrying a Peeress--Ancient
      Wood Engraving--Vegetating Insects--Prayer at the Healing--M.

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                         459

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                   460

      Notices to Correspondents                                      461

      Advertisements                                                 461



ON THE PROPOSED RECORD OF EXISTING MONUMENTS.


  Although disappointed in the hope we had entertained of being, by this
  time, in a position to announce that some decided steps had been taken
  to carry out, in a practical manner, the great scheme of preserving a
  record of our existing Monuments, we are gratified at being enabled to
  bring under the notice of our readers several communications which
  show the still increasing interest which is felt upon the subject.

  The first, by Sir Thomas Phillipps, besides some valuable information
  upon the matter immediately under consideration, contains several very
  useful suggestions upon other, though kindred points.

In approving of the design mentioned in your "NOTES" by MR. DUNKIN, it
has surprised me that in no one of the communications which you have
there printed is any allusion to the multitude of inscriptions already
collected, and now preserved in the British Museum and other libraries.
A list of what are already copied should _first_ be made, which would
considerably abridge the labour of collecting. For instance, the whole
of Gloucestershire has been preserved by Bigland, and nearly two-thirds
of these have been printed. I should recommend his plan to be adopted,
being _multum in parvo_, as to the headstones in the churchyards, and
the clearest for reference by its alphabetical order of parishes. He
copies them about 1780; so that now seventy years remain to be obtained.
His collection would make two, or at most three, volumes folio, by which
we can form an approximate idea as to the extent for the kingdom, which
I estimate at one hundred volumes for the forty counties, because some
of these are very small, and many monuments have been destroyed by the
barbarous Gothlike conduct of church renovators and builders. (_A
propos_ of which conduct, I believe they are liable to an _action at
law_ from the next of kin: at all events, it is sacrilege.) In many
county histories, _all_ the monuments inside the churches, up to nearly
the date of the publication, have been printed, as in Nichols's
_Leicestershire_. I have myself printed the greater part of those for
Wiltshire; but some are incorrectly printed, not having been collated;
for I merely printed a few as handbooks to accompany me in my personal
correcting survey of each church at another time. I have also printed as
far as letter "E" of Antony à Wood's and Hinton's _Oxfordshire
Monuments_, of which, I believe, MR. DUNKIN has a MS. copy. Now, it
would be useless to reprint those which have been printed; consequently
I should imagine twenty-five or thirty volumes, on Bigland's plan, would
comprise all the villages; and I should imagine five or ten volumes at
most would comprise all the capital towns. Allow me here to suggest the
absolute necessity of taking "Notes" of the residence, parentage, and
kindred of _every one_ of the families of that vast tide of emigration
now quitting our shores; and I call Lord Ashley's and Mr. Sidney
Herbert's attention to it. These poor people will, many of them, become
rich in half a century; will then probably die without a kindred soul in
America to possess their wealth; and their next of kin must be sought
for in the mother land, where, unless some _registered memorial_ of
their departure and connexions is kept, all traces of their origin may
be lost for ever. It was the neglect of an act like this which has
involved the beginning of nations in such profound obscurity. It was the
neglect of such a register as I here propose, that makes it so difficult
now for the American to discover the link which actually connected him
with England. There is a corporate body, long established in this
country, whose sole occupation is to make such registers; but at present
they confine themselves to those called gentlemen. Why not make them
useful as registers of the poor, at a small remuneration for entering
each family. These poor, or their descendants, will some day become
gentlemen, and perhaps not ashamed of their ancestry, although they may
derive it through poverty. How gratified they may feel to be able, by
means of this proposed registry, clearly to trace themselves to Great
Britain (once the mistress of half the world), when their now adopted
country has risen up in her place, and the mother has become subject to
the daughter.

And then, too, how valuable will Americans and Canadians, Australians
and New Zealanders, find the proposed _Monumentarium_ of MR. DUNKIN.

                                                THOS. PHILLIPPS.
      Middle Hill, April, 1851.

  The next is from a frequent contributor to our pages, and we have
  selected it for publication from among many which we have received
  promising assistance in the carrying out of the great scheme, because
  it shows very strikingly how many of the memorials, which it is the
  especial object of that scheme to preserve, have disappeared within
  the last few years.

Your valuable remarks on this head have induced me to send you a few
observations in the same direction. You have justly said that the means
by which the object can be accomplished fall into the three distinct
operations of Collection, Preservation, and Publication. The first will
require the help of all antiquaries throughout the kingdom who will
volunteer their services, and of the clergymen resident in country
parishes. Where possible, it would be well to find a co-operator in
every county town, who would undertake the collection of all ancient
memorials in his own district, either by personal inspection, or by the
aid of the clergy. For this county we have, fortunately, a record of all
or most of the monuments existing in the time of James I., published in
Burton's History. Besides the monuments, there are also mentioned the
coats of arms preserved in the churches. In the useful and voluminous
world of Nichols, the record is brought down nearly to the commencement
of the present century. But in late years, many ancient memorials have
been removed altogether, or displaced. A day or two ago, I found only
one monument in a village church, where Burton says there were two in
his time. The chancel of St. Martin's Church, Leicester, a few years
ago, contained a large number, of which many have been placed elsewhere,
in order to "improve" the appearance of this part of the edifice. I
believe a list of the monuments is preserved somewhere. This kind of
proceeding has been carried on very generally throughout the country
since the desire for "church restoration" has prevailed, and has led to
great alterations in the interiors of our old parish churches. I should
be happy to lend a helping hand in the collections for Leicester and the
neighbourhood.

                                                         JAYTEE.

  From our next communication, it will be seen that the Scottish
  Antiquaries, whose zeal and intelligence in the preservation and
  illustration of objects of national interest, are beyond all praise,
  are working in the same direction; and although we have not seen the
  _Origines Parochiales_, we can readily believe in the great value of a
  work of such a character when undertaken by the Bannatyne Club.

It may interest some of your "Monumental" and "Ecclesiological"
correspondents to be informed that in 1834 there was collected and
published by D. Macvean, bookseller, Glasgow, a volume of _Epitaphs and
Monumental Inscriptions in Scotland_. Also, that there has just been
published by Lizars, Edinburgh, for the Bannatyne Club, the first volume
of the _Origines Parochiales Scotiæ_.

The former of these books (_Epitaphs_, &c.) is perhaps of no great
value, being badly selected and worse arranged; but the latter
(_Origines_, &c.) seems to be exactly such a work as W. J. D. R. (Vol.
iii., p. 314.) has in his mind's eye for England.

                                                              Y.

  A correspondent, MERCURII, has also directed our attention to a small
  volume, published in 1848, by one of the most valued contributors to
  our own columns, MR. DAWSON TURNER, under the title of _Sepulchral
  Reminiscences of a Market Town, as afforded by a List of the
  Interments within the Walls of the Parish Church of St. Nicholas,
  Great Yarmouth, collected chiefly from Monuments and Gravestones still
  remaining, June, 1845_. This little volume may be regarded as a public
  testimony on the part of MR. DAWSON TURNER to the value of the plan
  under consideration, and there are few antiquaries whose opinions are
  entitled to greater respect upon this or any other point to which he
  has devoted his talents and attention. Can we doubt, then, the success
  of a plan which has met with such general approbation, and is
  undertaken with so praiseworthy an object,--an object which may well
  be described in the words which Weever used when stating the motive
  which led him to undertake the publication of his _Funeral Monuments_,
  viz., "To check the unsufferable injury, offered as well to the living
  as to the dead, by breaking down and almost utterly ruinating
  monuments with their epitaphs, and by erasing, tearing away, and
  pilfering brazen inscriptions, by which inhumane deformidable act, the
  honorable memory of many virtuous and noble persons deceased is
  extinguished, and the true understanding of divers families is so
  darkened, that the course of their inheritance is thereby partly
  interrupted."



Notes.


ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHAUCER, NO. VIII.

_The Star Min Al Auwâ._

  "Adam Scrivener, if ever it thee befall Boece, or Troilus, for to
  write newe, Under thy long locks thou mayst have the scull But, after
  my making, thou write more trew; So oft a day I mote thy worke renew,
  It to correct, and eke to rubbe and scrape, And all thorow thy
  negligence and rape."

  _Chaucer to his own Scrivener._

If, during his own lifetime, and under his own eye, poor Chaucer was so
sinned against as to provoke this humorous malediction upon the head of
the delinquent, it cannot be a matter of surprise that, in the various
hands his text has since passed through, many expressions should have
been perverted, and certain passages wholly misunderstood. And when we
find men, of excellent judgment in other respects, proposing, as
Tyrwhitt did, to alter Chaucer's words to suit their own imperfect
comprehension of his meaning, it is only reasonable to suspect that
similar mistakes may have induced early transcribers to alter the text,
wherever, to their wisdom, it may have seemed expedient.

Now I know of no passage more likely to have been tampered with in this
way, than those lines of the prologue to the _Persone's Tale_, alluded
to at the close of my last communication. Because, supposing (which I
shall afterwards endeavour to prove) that Chaucer really meant to write
something to this effect: "Thereupon, as we were entering a town, the
moon's rising, with Min al auwâ in Libra, began to ascend (or to become
visible),"--and supposing that his mode of expressing this had been,

      "Therewith the mone's exaltacioun,
      In libra men alawai gan ascende,
      As we were entrying at a towne's end:"

--in such a case, what can be more probable than that some ignorant
transcriber, never perhaps dreaming of such a thing as the Arabic name
of a star, would endeavour _to make sense_ of these, to him, obscure
words, by converting them into English. The process of transition would
be easy; "min" or "men" requires little violence to become "mene" (the
modern "mean" with its many significations), and "al auwâ" (or "alwai,"
as Chaucer would probably write it) is equally identical with "alway."
The misplacement of "Libra" might then follow as a seeming necessity;
and thus the line would assume its present form, leaving the reader to
understand it, either with Urry, as,

      "I mene Libra, that is, I _refer to_ Libra;"

or with Tyrwhitt:

      "In mene Libra, that is, In _the middle of_ Libra."

Now, to Urry's reading, it may be objected that it makes _the thing
ascending_ to be Libra, and does not of necessity imply the moon's
appearance above the horizon. But since the rising of the moon is a
_visible_ phenomenon, while that of Libra is theoretical, it must have
been _to the former_ Chaucer was alluding, as to something witnessed by
the whole party as they

      "Were entrying at a towne's end;"

or otherwise this latter observation would have no meaning.

The objection to Tyrwhitt's reading is of a more technical nature--the
moon, if in _the middle_ of Libra, _could not_ be above the horizon, in
the neighbourhood of Canterbury, at four o'clock P. M., in the month of
April. Tyrwhitt, it is true, would probably smooth away the difficulty
by charging it as another inconsistency against his author; but I--and I
hope by this time such readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" as are interested
in the subject--have seen too many proofs of Chaucer's competency in
matters of science, and of his commentator's incompetency, to feel
disposed to concede to the latter such a convenient method of
interpretation.

But there is a third objection common to both readings--that they do not
satisfactorily account for the word "alway;" for although Tyrwhitt
endeavours to explain it by _continually_, "was _continually_
ascending," such a phrase is by no means intelligible when applied to a
single observation.

For myself, I can say that this word "alway" was, from the first, the
great difficulty with me--and the more I became convinced of the studied
meaning with which Chaucer chose his other expressions, the less
satisfied I was with this; and the more convinced I felt that the whole
line had been corrupted.

In advocating the restoration of the reading which I have already
suggested as the original meaning of Chaucer, I shall begin by
establishing the _probability_ of his having intended to mark the moon's
place by associating her rising with that of a known fixed star--a
method of noting phenomena frequently resorted to in ancient astronomy.
For that purpose I shall point out another instance wherein Chaucer
evidently intended an application of the same method for the purpose of
indicating a particular position of the heavens; but first it must
noted, that in alluding to the Zodiac, he always refers _to the signs_,
never to the constellations--in fact, he does not appear to recognise
the latter at all! Thus, in that palpable allusion to the precession of
the equinoxes, in the Frankeleine's Tale--

      "He knew ful wel how fer Alnath was shove
      From the hed of thilke fixe Aries above:"

--by _the hed of Aries_, Chaucer did not mean the os frontis of the Ram,
whereon Alnath still shines conspicuously, but the equinoctial point,
from which Alnath _was shove_ by the extent of a whole sign.

This being premised, I return to the indication of a point in the
ecliptic by the coincident rising of a star; and I contend that such was
plainly Chaucer's intention in those lines of the Squire's Tale wherein
King Cambuscan is described as rising from the feast:--

      "Phebus hath left the angle meridional,
      And yet ascending was the beste real,
      The gentle Leon, _with his Aldryan_."

Which means that _the sign_ Leo was then in the horizon--the precise
degree being marked by the coincident rising of the star Aldryan.

Speght's explanation of "Aldryan," in which he has been copied by Urry
and Tyrwhitt, is--"a star in the neck of the Lion." What particular star
he may have meant by this, does not appear; nor am I at present within
reach of probable sources wherein his authority, if he had any, might be
searched for and examined; but I have learned to feel such confidence in
Chaucer's significance of description, that I have no hesitation in
assuming, until authority for a contrary inference shall be produced,
that by the star "Aldryan" he meant REGULUS, not the neck, but the
heart, of the Lion--

1st. Because it is the most remarkable star in the sign Leo.

2nd. Because it was, in Chaucer's time, as it now is, nearly upon the
line of the ecliptic.

3rd. Because its situation in longitude, about two-thirds in the sign
Leo, just tallies with Chaucer's expression "_yet_ ascending,"--that is,
one-third of the sign was still below the horizon.

Let us examine how this interpretation consists with the other
circumstances of the description. The feste-day of this Cambuscan was
"The last idus of March"--that is, the 15th of March--"after the
yere"--that is, after the _equinoctial year_, which had ended three or
four days previously. Hence the sun was in three degrees of
Aries--confirmed in Canace's expedition on the following morning, when
he was "in the Ram foure degrees yronne," and his corresponding right
ascension was twelve minutes. Now by "the angle meridional" was meant
the two hours _inequall_ immediately succeeding noon (or while the "1st
House" of the sun was passing the meridian), and these two hours may, so
near the equinox, be taken as ordinary hours. Therefore, when "Phebus
hath left the angle meridional," it was two o'clock P.M., or eight hours
after sunrise, which, added to twelve minutes, produces eight hours
twelve minutes as the ascending point of the equinoctial. The ascending
point of _the ecliptic_ would consequently be twenty degrees in Leo, or
within less than a degree of the actual place of the star Regulus, which
in point of fact did rise on the 15th of March, in Chaucer's time,
almost exactly at two in the afternoon.

Such coincidences as these could not result from mere accident; and,
whatever may have been Speght's authority for the location of Aldryan, I
shall never believe that Chaucer would refer to an inferior star when
the great "Stella Regia" itself was in so remarkable a position for his
purpose--assuming always, as a matter of course, that he referred his
phenomena, not to the country or age wherein he laid the action of his
tale, but to his own.

This, then, is the precedent by which I support the similar, and rather
startling, interpretation I propose of these obscure words "In mena
Libra alway."

There are two twin stars, of the same magnitude, and not far apart, each
of which bears the Arabic title of Min al auwâ; one (β Virginis)
in the sign Virgo--the other (δ Virginis) in that
of Libra.

The latter, in the south of England, in Chaucer's time, would rise a few
minutes before the autumnal equinoctial point, and might be called
_Libra_ Min al auwâ either from that circumstance, or to distinguish it
from its namesake in Virgo.

Now on the 18th of April this Libra Min al auwâ would rise in the
neighbourhood of Canterbury at about half-past three in the afternoon,
so that by four o'clock it would attain an altitude of about five
degrees--not more than sufficient to render the moon, supposing it to
have risen with the star, visible (by daylight) to the pilgrims
"entrying at a towne's end."

It is very remarkable that the only year, perhaps in the whole of
Chaucer's lifetime, in which the moon could have arisen with this star
on the 18th of April, should be the identical year to which Tyrwhitt,
_reasoning from historical evidence alone_, would fain attribute the
writing of the _Canterbury Tales_. (Vide Introductory Discourse, note
3.)

On the 18th of April, 1388, Libra Min al auwâ, and the moon, rose
together about half-past three P. M. in the neighbourhood of Canterbury;
and Tyrwhitt, alluding to the writing of the _Canterbury Tales_, "_could
hardly suppose it was much advanced before 1389!_"

Such a coincidence is more than remarkable--it is convincing: especially
when we add to it that 1388 "is the very date that, by a slight and
probable injury to the last figure, might become the _traditional_ one
of 1383!"

Should my view, therefore, of the true reading of this passage in
Chaucer be correct, it becomes of infinitely greater interest and
importance than a mere literal emendation, because it supplies that
which has always been supposed wanting to the _Canterbury Tales_, viz.,
some means of identifying the year to which their action ought to be
attributed. Hitherto, so unlikely has it appeared that Chaucer, who so
amply furnishes materials for the minor branches of the date, should
leave the year unnoted, that it has been accounted for in the
supposition that he reserved it for the unfinished portion of his
performance. But if we consider the ingenious though somewhat tortuous
methods resorted to by him to convey some of the other data, it is by no
means improbable that he might really have devised this circumstance of
the moon's rising as a means of at least _corroborating_ a date that he
might intend to record afterwards in more direct terms.

                                                        A. E. B.

P.S.--Since writing the foregoing I have obtained, through the kindness
of Mr. Thoms, the several readings of the lines commented upon in six
different MSS. in the British Museum. And I have great satisfaction in
finding that five out of the six confirm my hypothesis, at least with
respect to the uncertain spelling of "alway." The readings in respect of
the two words are these:

      I meene   alweye.
      In mena   alway.
      I mene    allweye.
      In mene   allwey.
      I mene    alweie.
      I mene    alwaye.

I acknowledge that, from the first, if I could have discovered a
probable interpretation of "mene" as an independent word, I should have
preferred it rather than that of making it a part of the Arabic name,
because I think that the star is sufficiently identified by the latter
portion of its name "Al auwâ," and because the preservation of "mene" in
its proper place in the line would afford a reading much less forced
than that I was obliged to have recourse to. Now it very singularly
happens that in "NOTES AND QUERIES" of this day (page 388.) I find, upon
the authority of A. C. M., that there is an Armorican word "menex" or
"mene," signifying a summit or boundary. Here is an accidental, though
most probable, original of the Chaucerian "mene," because the moon's
place in longitude at the time specified was precisely on the verge or
boundary of Libra: or even in the sense "summit" the word would be by no
means inappropriate to the point of a sign in the ecliptic which first
emerges from the horizon; with such a reading the lines would stand
thus, which is a very slight change from _their present form_:

      "Then, with the mone's exaltacioun
      In menez Libra, ALWAI gan ascende,
      As we were entrying at a towne's end."

Perhaps A. C. M. would be good enough to cite his authorities for the
word "mene," "menez"--in the signification of "summit" or "margin"--with
examples, if possible, of its use in these or kindred senses.

And perhaps some Arabic scholar will explain the name "Min al auwâ," and
show in what way the absence of the prefix "Min" would affect it?

                                                        A. E. B.


TRADITIONS FROM REMOTE PERIODS THROUGH FEW LINKS.

In some of your former numbers (Vol. iii., pp. 206. 237. 289.) allusions
have been made by your correspondents, showing that traditions may come
down from remote periods through very few links. Having myself seen a
man whose father lived in the time of Oliver Cromwell, I trust I shall
be excused for stating some particulars of this fact, which I think will
be considered by your readers as one of the most remarkable on record.
In the year 1844 died James Horrocks, a small farmer, who lived at
Harwood, a short distance from Bolton, in Lancashire, having completed
his hundredth year. This circumstance, however, was not so remarkable as
that of his own birth, his father, William Horrocks, having been born in
1657, one year before the death of Cromwell, and having married in 1741,
at the advanced age of eight-four, a second wife, a young and buxom
woman of twenty-six, by whom he had one child, the above James Horrocks,
born March 14, 1744, and baptized at Bradshaw Chapel, near Bolton.

It is believed that the first wife of William Horrocks had been employed
in the well-known family of the Chethams, at Castleton Hall, near
Rochdale (a branch of that of Humphrey Chetham), by whom they were both
much respected; and soon after the second marriage, he and his youthful
wife were sent for to Castleton Hall by the Chethams, by whom they were
treated with much kindness; and the remarkable disparity of years in
their marriage having no doubt created great interest, a painter was
employed to take their portraits, which are still in existence, with the
ages of the parties at the time, and the dates, when taken, painted upon
them.

I paid the son, James Horrocks, more than one visit, and on the last
occasion, in company with James Crossley, Esq., of Manchester, the
Reverend Canon Parkinson, Principal of St. Bees' College, and one or two
other gentlemen, I took my son with me. It happened to be the very day
on which he completed his hundredth year, and we found him full of
cheerfulness and content, expecting several of his descendants to spend
the day with him. I possess a portrait in crayons of this venerable
patriarch, taken on that day by a very clever artist, who accompanied us
on our visit, and which is an extremely faithful likeness of the
original. Should it please Providence to spare my son to attain to his
seventieth year, he also will be enabled, in the year 1900, to say that
he has seen a man whose father lived in the time of Oliver Cromwell;
thus connecting events, with the intervention of _one_ life only,
comprehending a period of very nearly two centuries and a half.

P.S. A very interesting narrative of all the facts of this case was
published in the _Manchester Guardian_ a few years ago, comprising many
curious particulars not noticed by myself, a copy of which I shall be
glad to send you, if you think it worthy of insertion in "NOTES AND
QUERIES."

                                                  THOMAS CORSER.
      Stand Rectory.

  [We accept with thanks the offer of our valued correspondent.]


DR. YOUNG'S NARCISSA.

A pamphlet was recently published at Lyons and Paris, by a Monsieur de
Terrebasse, intending to prove that the daughter-in-law of Dr. Young, so
pathetically lamented by him in the _Night Thoughts_ under the poetical
name of "Narcissa," was not clandestinely buried at Montpellier; that
Dr. Young did not steal a grave for her from the Roman Catholics of that
city; and that consequently the celebrated and touching episode in Night
III. is purely imaginary. This opinion of M. de Terrebasse, first given
to the world by him in 1832, and now repeated, has been controverted by
the writer of an article in the _Gazette Médicale_ of Montpellier. The
tomb, it is said, of Elisabeth Lee, Dr. Young's daughter-in-law, was
discovered a few years since at Lyons; and M. de Terrebasse endeavours
to prove, from that circumstance, and from a comparison of facts and
dates, that this Elisabeth Lee was the "Narcissa" of the poet. Not
having seen M. de Terrebasse's pamphlet, and being indebted to the
_Journal des Savants_ for this brief account of it, it seems difficult
to discover from it how M. de Terrebasse can pretend so summarily to
invalidate the solemn and touching assertions of the poet, which
assuredly are anything but flights of fancy.

      "Deny'd the charity of dust to spread
      O'er dust! a clarity their dogs enjoy,
      What could I do? what succour? what resource?
      With pious sacrilege a grave I stole;
      With impious piety that grave I wrong'd;
      Short in my duty, coward in my grief!
      More like her murderer than friend, I crept
      With soft suspended step, and muffled deep
      In midnight darkness, whisper'd my last sigh."

      _Night Thoughts; Narcissa._

In the notes to an edition of the _Night Thoughts_, printed in 1798, by
C. Whittingham, for T. Heptinstall--

  "It appears," it is stated, "by the extract of a letter just printed,
  that in order to obtain a grave, the Doctor bribed the under gardener,
  who dug the grave, and let him in by a private door, bearing his
  beloved daughter, wrapped up in a sheet, upon his shoulder. When he
  had laid her in this hole he sat down, and, as the man expressed it,
  'rained tears.' It appears also, that some time previous to this
  event, expecting the catastrophe, he had been seen walking solitarily
  backward in this garden, as if to find the most solitary spot for his
  purpose."--See _Evang. Mag._, Nov. 1797.

I do not know what authority this letter quoted from the _Evang. Mag._
may possess.

                                                           J. M.
      Oxford, May 20.


Minor Notes.

_Curious Epitaph._--The following lines are on a stone in Killyleagh
churchyard. I have a faint recollection of seeing a similarly
constructed epitaph in Harris's _History of the County of Down_, which
was perhaps composed by the same person. Is any of your readers
acquainted with any English inscription in the same style?

      "Mysta, fidelis, amans, colui, docui, relevavi,
        Numen, oves, inopes, pectore, voce, manu.
      Laude orbem, splendore polum, cineresque beatos,
        Fama illustravit, mens colit, urna tenet."

It will easily be seen that the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth words
are to be read in connexion, as are those that follow these, and those
next in succession.

The person on whose tomb the lines occur was the Rev. William
Richardson, who died in 1670, having been minister of Killyleagh for
twenty-one years. By the way, is not _mysta_ a strange designation for a
Presbyterian minister? I should think it would be now considered as
objectionable as _sacerdos_.

                                                     E. H. D. D.
      Killyleagh, co. Down.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Curse of Scotland_ (Vol. i., pp. 61. 90.; Vol. iii., p. 22.).--

  "The queen of clubs is called in Northamptonshire Queen Bess, perhaps,
  because that queen, history says, was of a swarthy complexion; the
  four of spades, Ned Stokes, but why I know not; the nine of diamonds,
  the curse of Scotland, because every ninth monarch of that nation was
  a bad king to his subjects. I have been told by old people, that this
  card was so called long before the Rebellion in 1745, and therefore it
  could not arise from the circumstance of the Duke of Cumberland's
  sending orders, accidentally written upon the card, the night before
  the battle of Culloden, for General Campbell to give no quarter."

The above extract from a communication to the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
1791, p. 141., is quoted in Mr. Singer's _Researches into the History of
Playing Cards_, p. 271.; but the reason assigned by the writer does not
explain why the nine of _diamonds_ should have acquired the name in
question. The nine of any _other_ suit would be equally applicable.

                                                              L.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Female Captive: a Narrative of Facts which happened in Barbary in
the Year 1756. Written by Herself_, 2 vols. 12mo. Lond., 1769.--Sir
William Musgrave has written this note in the copy which is now in the
library at the British Museum:

  "This is a true story. The lady's maiden name was Marsh. She married
  Mr. Crisp, as related in the narrative. But he having failed in
  business went to India, where she remained with her father, then agent
  Victualler at Chatham, during which she wrote and published these
  little volumes. On her husband's success in India, she went thither to
  him.

  "The book having, as it is said, been bought up by the lady's friends,
  is become very scarce."

                                                           Y. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Pictorial Antiquities._--The following memorandum, in the _autograph_
of Edward, Earl of Oxford (the Harleian collector), seems worth
preserving:

  "A picture of Edward IV. on board at Kensington.

  "A whole length of him at St. James's, in a night-gown and black cap.

  "A portrait of his queen in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.

  "Jane Shore at Eaton (_sic_).

  "Richard III. at Kensington.

  "Picture of Henry V. and his family at Mr. West's.

  "A picture of Mabuse at St. James's, called Albert Durer.

  "Matthew Paris with miniatures, in the British Museum.

  "William of Wickham's Crozier at Oxford.

  "Greek enamellers in the reign of the two Edwards.

  "An old altar-table at Chiswick; Lord Clifford and his lady kneeling;
  Consecration of Thomas à Becket at Devonshire House, both by Van
  Eyck."

  "Froissart illuminated, wherein is a miniature of Richard II., in the
  Museum."

One might have thought that these notes were made for the use of Horace
Walpole's _History of Painting_; but their writer, the second Lord
Oxford, died in June, 1741, long before Walpole could have thought of
such matters. They perhaps may afford clues to other antiquaries.

                                                              C.



Queries.


ENGLISH POEMS BY CONSTANTINE HUYGHENS.

It is probable that some of your friendly correspondents in Holland may
have it in their power to indicate where the English verses of
Constantine Huyghens are to be found which he refers to in his _Koren
Bloemen_, 2de Deel, p. 528. ed. 1672, where he was given Dutch
translations with the following superscriptions: "Aen Joffw Utricia
Ogle, uyt mijn Engelsh;" and "Aen Me-Vrouwe Stanhope, met mijn Heilige
dagen, uyt mijn Engelsh."

Huyghens appears to have had a thorough knowledge of our language, and
his very interesting volume contains translations of twenty of Dr.
Donne's poems, very ably rendered, considering the difficulty of the
task. He refers to this in his address to the reader, and says that an
illustrious Martyr [Charles I.] many years since had declared that he
could not have believed that any one could have successfully
accomplished it. Huyghens confesses that the Latinisms with which our
language abounds, had given him much to wrestle with; and that it was
difficult to express in pure Dutch such words as _ecstasy_, _atomy_,
_influence_, _legacy_, _alloy,_ &c. The first stanza of the song, "Go
and catch a falling Star," may perhaps be acceptable to some of your
readers, who may not readily have access to the book:

          "Gaet en vatt een Sterr in 't vallen,
          Maeckt een' Wortel-mensch[1] met kind,
      Seght waer men al den tijd die nu verby is vindt,
      En wie des Duyvels voet geklooft heeft in twee ballen:
          Leert my Meereminnen hooren,
          Leert my hoe ick 't boose booren,
          Van den Nijd ontkommen moet,
      En wat Wind voor-wind is voor een oprecht gemoed."

  [Footnote 1: Mandrake.]

One more example of his translation, from the epigram on Sir Albertus
Morton, may be allowed, as it is short:

      "She first deceased; he for a little tried
      To live without her; liked it not, and died."

      "Sy stierf voor uyt: hy pooghd' haer een' wijl tijds te derven,
      Maer had geen' sin daer in, en ging oock liggen sterven."

Considering the affinity of the languages, and the frequent and constant
intercourse with Holland, it is singular that we should have to
reproach ourselves with such almost total ignorance respecting the
literature of that country. With the exception of the slight sketch
given by Dr. Bowring of its poetical literature, an Englishman has no
work to which he can turn in his own language for information; and Dutch
books may be sought for in vain in London. The late Mr. Heber when in
Holland did not neglect its literature, and at the dispersion of his
library I procured a few valuable Dutch books; among others, the very
handsome volume which has given rise to this note. It contains much
interesting matter, and affords a most amiable picture of the mind of
its distinguished author, who lived to the very advanced age of
ninety-one. There is a speaking and living portrait of him prefixed,
from the beautiful graver of Blotelingk, and a view of his chateau of
Hofwyck, with detailed plans of his garden, &c. He was secretary to
three successive princes of Nassau, accountant to the Prince of Orange,
and Lord of Zuylichem; and lived in habits of friendly intercourse with
almost all the distinguished men who flourished during his long and
prosperous life. His son is well known to the world of science as the
inventor of the pendulum.

Translations of three or four of Constantine Huyghens' poems are given
by Dr. Bowring in his _Batavian Anthology_. And the great Vondel
pronounces his volume to be--

      "A garden mild of savours sweet,
      Where Art and Skill and Wisdom meet;
      Rich in its vast variety
      Of forms and hues of ev'ry dye."

                                                   S. W. SINGER.


THE REV. MR. GAY.

The very interesting notices which you have often given us of the truly
great and inestimable Locke, induce me to trouble you with an inquiry
relative to a philosophical writer, who followed in his school, I mean
the Rev. Mr. Gay, the author of the Dissertation prefixed to Bishop
Law's translation of King's _Origin of Evil_. It is sufficient evidence
of the importance of that Dissertation, that it put Hartley upon
considering and developing the principle of association, into which
principle he conceived, and endeavoured to prove, that all the phenomena
of reasoning and affection might be resolved, and of which Laplace
observes, that it constitutes the whole of what has yet been done in the
philosophy of the human mind; "la partie réelle de la métaphysique"
(_Essai Philosophique sur les Probabilités_, p. 224. ed. 1825).

Of this Mr. Gay, I have not yet been able to learn more than that he was
a clergyman in the West of England; but of what place, of what family,
where educated, of what manner of life, or what habits of study,
biographical or topographical reading has hitherto furnished me with
any information. I should feel greatly indebted to any of your readers
who would give the clue to what is known or can be known about him. It
is probably within easy reach, though I have missed it. The ordinary
biographical dictionaries make no mention of him.

                                                  EDWARD TAGART.
      North End, Hampstead, May 19. 1851.


Minor Queries.

_Carved Ceiling in Dorsetshire._--In the south of Dorsetshire there is a
house (its name I do not remember) which has a beautifully carved
ceiling in the hall. This is said to have been sent from Spain by a King
of Castile, who, being wrecked on this coast, and hospitably entertained
by the owners of the mansion, took this method of showing his gratitude.
Can any of your readers inform me what king this was, or refer me to any
work in which I may find it?

                                                          JERNE.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Publicans' Signs._--Will any of your readers inform me whether the
_signs of publicans_ were allowed to be retained by the same edict which
condemned those of all other trades?

                                                         ROVERT.

       *       *       *       *       *

_To a T._--What is the origin of the phrase; and of that "To fit to a
T.?" (Query, a "T square" = ad amussim.)

                                                        A. A. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Skeletons at Egyptian Banquet._--Where did Jer. Taylor find this
interpretation of the object of placing a skeleton at the banqueting
table:--

     "The Egyptians used to serve up a skeleton to their feasts, that
     the vapours of wine might be restrained with that bunch of myrrh,
     and the vanities of their eyes chastened by that sad object."

Certainly not in Herodotus, 2. 78.; which savours rather of the
_Sardanapalian_ spirit: "Eat, drink, and love--the rest's not worth a
fillip!" Comp. Is. xxii. 13., 1 Cor. xv. 32.

                                                        A. A. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Gloves_ (Vol. i., pp. 72. 405.; Vol. ii., p. 4.; Vol. iii., p.
220.).--Blount, in his _Law Dictionary_, fo. 1670, under the title
"Capias Utlagatum," observes:

  "At present, in the King's Bench, the _outlawry_ cannot be reversed,
  unless the defendant appear in person, and, by a present of gloves to
  the judges, implore and obtains their favour to reverse it."

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to state when the
practice of presenting gloves to the judges on moving to reverse an
outlawry in the King's Bench was discontinued. The statute 4 & 5 Will.
and Mar. c. 18., rendered unnecessary a _personal_ appearance in that
court to reverse an outlawry (except for treason or felony, or where
special bail was ordered).

                                                   C. H. COOPER.
      Cambridge, March 24. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Knapp Family in Norfolk and Suffolk._--I should be much obliged to any
Norfolk or Suffolk antiquary who would give me information as to the
family of Knapp formerly settled in those counties, especially at
Ipswich, Tuddenham, and Needham Market in the latter county. My
inquiries have not discovered any person of the name at present residing
in any of these places; and my wish is to learn how the name was lost in
the locality; whether by migration--and if so, when, and to what other
part of the county; or if in the female line, into what family the last
heiress of Knapp married; and, as nearly as may be, when either of these
events occurred?

                                                        G. E. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

_To learn by "Heart."_--Can you give any account of the origin of a very
common expression both in French and English, _i. e._ "Apprendre _par
coeur_, to learn _by heart?_" To learn _by memory_ would be
intelligible.

                                   A SUBSCRIBER TO YOUR JOURNAL.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Knights._--At some periods of our history the reigning monarch bestowed
the honour of knighthood, 1306, Edward I.; at other times, those in
possession of a certain amount of property were compelled to assume the
order, 1254. Query, Was there any difference in rank between the two
sorts of knights?

                                                       B. DE. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Supposed Inscription in St. Peter's Church, Rome._--When at school in
France, some twenty years ago, I was informed that the following
inscription was to be found in some part of St. Peter's Church in Rome:

  "Nunquam amplius super hanc cathedram cantabit Gallus."

It appears that the active part taken by the French in fomenting the
great schism of the Church during the fourteenth century, when they set
up and maintained at Avignon a Pope of their own choosing, had generated
an abhorrence of French interference in the Italian mind; and that, when
the dissensions were abated by the suspension of the rival Popes, the
_ultramontane_ cardinals had posted up this inscription to testify their
desire for the exclusion of French ecclesiastics from the Papal chair.
In one respect the prediction remains in force to this day; for I
believe I am correct in saying that no Frenchman has worn the triple
crown for the last 450 years. But that portion of it which is implied in
the second meaning of "Gallus," has been woefully belied in our time by
the forcible occupation of Rome by a French army, on which occasion the
Gallic cock had all the "crowing" to himself.

I have never had an opportunity of ascertaining the existence of this
inscription, and shall be obliged to any correspondent of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" who will afford information on the subject.

                                                 HENRY H. BREEN.
      St. Lucia, April, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Rag Sunday in Sussex._--Allow me to ask the explanation of "Rag Sunday"
in Sussex. I lately saw some young gentlemen going to school at
Brighton, who had been provided with some fine white handkerchiefs, when
one observed they would not stand much chance of escape on "Rag Sunday."
He then told me that each boy, on the Sunday but one preceding the
holidays, always tore a piece of his shirt or handkerchief off and wore
it in the button-hole of his jacket as his "rag." When a boy, I remember
being compelled to do the same when at school at Hailsham in Sussex, and
all boys objecting had their hats knocked off and trod on.

                                                        H. W. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Northege Family._--Can any one tell me the county and parish in which
the family of Northege were located in the sixteenth century?

                                                        E. H. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

_A Kemble Pipe of Tobacco._--In the county of Herefordshire, the people
call the last or concluding pipe that any one means to smoke at a
sitting, a _Kemble pipe._ This is said to have originated in a man of
the name of Kemble, who in the cruel persecution under Queen Mary, being
condemned for heresy, in his walk of some miles from the prison to the
stake, amidst a crowd of weeping friends and neighbours, with the
tranquillity and fortitude of a primitive martyr, _smoked a pipe of
tobacco_! Is anything known of this Kemble? and where can I find any
corroboration of the story here told?

                                             EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Durham Sword that killed the Dragon._--In the Harleian MS. No. 3783.,
letter 107., Cosin, in describing to Sancroft some of the ceremonies of
his reception at Durham, mentions "_the sword that killed the dragon_,"
as a relic of antiquity introduced on the occasion. I should feel
obliged, if you, or any of your antiquarian readers, could kindly refer
me to some tolerably full account of the ceremony alluded to, or throw
any light upon the meaning of the custom in question, the origin and
history of the sword, and the tradition connected with it.

                                                      J. SANSOM.


Minor Queries Answered.

"_At Sixes and Sevens_" (Vol. iii., p. 118.).--May not this expression
bear reference to the _points_ in the card-game of piquet?

                                                        G. F. G.

May not this expression have arisen from the passage in Eliphaz's
discourse to Job?

  "He shall deliver thee is _six_ troubles; yea, in _seven_ there shall
  no evil touch thee."--Job. v. 19.

                                                           A. M.

Mr. Halliwell, in his _Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words_, vol.
ii. p. 724., thus explains this phrase:

  "The Deity is mentioned in the _Towneley Mysteries_, pp. 97. 118., as
  He that 'sett alle on seven,' _i. e._, set or appointed everything in
  seven days. A similar phrase at p. 85. is not so evident. It is
  explained in the Glossary, 'to set things in, to put them in order;'
  but it evidently implies, in some cases, an exactly opposite meaning,
  to set in confusion, to rush to battle, as in the following examples.
  '_To set the steven_, to agree upon the time and place of meeting
  previous to some expedition,'--_West and Cumb. Dial._ p. 390. These
  phrases may be connected with each other. Be this as it may, hence is
  certainly derived the phrase _to be at sixes and sevens_, to be in
  great confusion. Herod, in his anger at the wise men, says:

      "'Bot be they past me by, by Mahowne in heven,
      I shalle, and that in hy, _set alle on sex and seven_;
      Trow ye a kyng as I wyll suffre thaym to neven
      Any to have mastry bot myself fulle even.'

      _Towneley Mysteries_, p. 143.

      "'Thus he _settez on sevene_ with his sekyre knyghttez.'

      _Morte Arthure_, MS. Lincoln, f. 76.

      "'The duk swore by gret God of hevene,
      Wold my hors so evene,
      Zet wold I _set all one seven_
          Ffor Myldor the swet!'

      _Degrevant_, 1279.

      "'Old Odcombs odnesse makes not thee uneven,
      Nor carelesly set all _at six and seven_.'

      Taylor's _Workes_, 1630, ii. 71."

                                                     J. K. R. W.

  [Six and seven make the proverbially unlucky number _thirteen_, and we
  are inclined to believe that the allusion in this popular phrase is to
  this combination.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Swobbers._--There is a known story of a clergyman who was recommended
for a preferment by some great men at court to an archbishop. His Grace
said, "He had heard that the clergyman used to play at whist and
_swobbers_; that as to playing now and then a sober game at whist for
pastime, it might be pardoned; but he could not digest those wicked
swobbers;" and it was with some pains that my Lord Somers could
undeceive him. So says Swift, in his _Essay on the Fates of Clergymen_;
and a note in Sir W. Scott's edition (1824, vol. viii. p 231.) informs
us that the primate was "Tenison, who, by all contemporary accounts, was
a very dull man." At the risk of being thought as dull as the
archbishop, I venture to ask for an explanation of the joke.

                                                        J. C. R.

  [Johnson, under "Swobber" or "Swabber," gives, "1. A sweeper of the
  deck;" and "2. Four privileged cards that are only incidentally used
  in betting at the game of whist." He then quotes this passage from
  Swift, with the difference that he says "clergymen." Were not the
  cards so called because they "swept the deck" by a sort of
  "sweep-stakes?"]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Handel's Occasional Oratorio._--Will DR. RIMBAULT, or some other
musical correspondent of your journal, enlighten us as to the true
meaning of the name _Occasional Oratorio_, prefixed to one of Handel's
compositions, of which no one that I have ever met with has heard more
than the overture? This composition has become almost universally known
from the foolish practice which used to prevail of performing it as an
introduction to _Israel in Egypt_, or any other work to which its
composer had purposely denied the preliminary of an overture; a practice
now happily exploded, which seems to have had its origin in a
misinterpretation of the name; as though Handel had written the overture
to suit any _occasion_ when one might be needed, instead of, as I am
rather disposed to believe, having some particular occasion in view for
which the oratorio was composed.

                                                           E. V.

  [Surely, if there is no _Occasional_ Oratorio to be found, the
  _Overture_ must mean that it was to be used on _occasion_. Our
  correspondent does not seem to know the word as it is used by writers
  of a century ago, for "Occasional Sermons" or services, &c. The
  question is simply one of fact. _Is_ there an Oratorio? Everybody
  knows the overture. The writer of this note remembers being horrified,
  when a freshman, at hearing the fugue break forth in the College
  Chapel, was pondering in his mind whether it was Drops of Brandy, or
  the Rondo in the Turnpike-Gate, both then popular tunes.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Archbishop Waldeby's Epitaph._--W. W. KING would be obliged by a
perfect copy of the inscription on the monumental brass of Archbishop
Waldeby in Westminster Abbey.

  [The brass is engraved in Harding's _Antiquities of Westminster
  Abbey_; but it appears that one half of the following inscription,
  which was formerly round the verge of the brass, has now been torn
  away:--

      "Hic fuit expertus in quovis jure Robertus,
      De Waldeby dictus nunc est sub marmore strictus;
      Sacre Scripture Doctor fuit, et geniture
      Ingenuus Medicus et plebis semper amicus
      Presul Adurensis posthoc Archas Dublinensis
      Hinc Cicestrensis, tandem Primas Eborensis
      Quarto kalend. Junii migravit cursibus anni
      Sepultus milleni ter C. septem Nonies quoque deni.
      Vos precor, Orate quod sint sibi dona beate
      Cum sanctis vite requiescat et hic sine lite."

  Weever, in his _Funeral Monuments_, quotes the following description
  of him from a MS. account of the Archbishops of York, in the Cottonian
  Collection:--

      "Tunc Robertus ordinis fratris Augustini
      Ascendit in cathedram primatis Paulini,
      Lingua scientificus sermonis latini
      Anno primo proximat vite sue fini,
      De carnis ergastulo presul evocatur
      Gleba sui corporis Westminstre humatur."]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Verstegan._--Will any of the contributors to your valuable miscellany
be kind enough to inform me if there are any engraved portraits of the
quaint old antiquary Richard Verstegan, the author of a curious work,
entitled _A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence_? The portraits may be
common, but living in the country, and at distance from town, I have no
friend from whom I can glean the required information. Can my informant
at the same time acquaint me with the best edition of his work? There
was one printed at Antwerp in 1605.

                                        J. S. P. (a Subscriber.)

  [Our correspondent will find a notice of Verstegan's work in page 85.
  of this volume. The first edition was printed at Antwerp in 1605, and
  was reprinted at London in 4to. in 1634, and in 8vo. in 1655 and 1673.
  The first edition is deservedly reckoned the best, as well on account
  of containing one or more engravings, afterwards omitted, as also for
  the superiority of the plates, those in the subsequent editions being
  very indifferent copies. No portrait of the author is noticed either
  by Granger or Bromley.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Royal Library._--In the new edition of Boswell's _Life of Johnson_
(published by the proprietors of the _Illustrated London News_), in the
_National Illustrated Library_, the editor, in reference to the library
of King George III. (which is generally understood to have been
presented to the nation by George IV., and which is recorded to have
been given, in an inscription placed in that magnificent hall), has
appended the following note:--

  "It has recently transpired that the government of the day bought the
  library of George IV., just as he was on the eve of concluding a sale
  of it to the Emperor of Russia."

Can any of your readers inform me if this is correct, and whether the
nation have really paid for what has always been considered a most
worthy and munificent present from a monarch to his subjects? I trust to
hear that the editor has been misinformed.

                                                        J. S. L.

  [The nation certainly never paid one farthing for this munificent
  present. The Russian Government offered, we believe, to purchase the
  library; and this is probably the origin of the statement in the note
  quoted by our correspondent.]



Replies.


HUGH HOLLAND AND HIS WORKS.

An accidental circumstance having led me to re-peruse the article
entitled _Hugh Holland and his works_ (Vol. ii., p. 265.), I feel myself
called on, as a lover of facts, to notice some of the statements which
it contains.

1. "He was born at Denbigh in 1558." He was born at Denbigh, but not in
1558. In 1625 he thus expressed himself:

      "Why was the fatall spinster so vnthrifty?
      To draw my third four yeares to tell and fifty!"

2. "In 1582 he matriculated at Baliol College, Oxford." He did not quit
Westminster School till 1589. If he ever pursued his studies at Baliol
College, it was some ten years afterwards.

3. "About 1590 he succeeded to a fellowship at Trinity College,
Cambridge." In 1589 he was elected from Westminster to a _scholarship_
in Trinity College, Cambridge--not to a _fellowship_. At a later period
of life, he may have succeeded to a fellowship.

4. "Holland published two works: 1. _Monumenta sepulchralia Sancti
Pauli_, London, 1613, 4to. 2. _A cypress garland_ etc., London, 1625,
4to." Hugh Holland was not the compiler of the first-named work: the
initials H. H admit of another interpretation. This, however, is a very
pardonable oversight. I could give about twenty authorities for
ascribing the work to Hugh Holland.

5. The dates assigned to the _Monumenta Sancti Pauli_ are "1613, 1616,
1618, and 1633." Here are three errors in as many lines. The _first_
edition is dated in 1614. The edition of 1633, which is entitled
_Ecclesia Sancti Pavli illvstrata_, is the _second_. No other editions
exist.

6. "Holland also printed a copy of Latin verses before Alexander's
_Roxana_, 1632." No such work exists. He may have printed verses before
the _Roxana_ of W. Alabaster, who was his brother-collegian.

The authorities which I have consulted are Fuller, Anthony à Wood, Henry
Holland, son of the celebrated Philemon Holland, Hugh Holland, and
Joseph Welch; and in submitting the result of my researches to critical
examination, I must commend the writer of the article in question for
his continued efforts to produce new facts, and to explode current
errors.

Insensible as modern critics may be to the poetical merits of Hugh
Holland, we find him described by Camden as one of the _most pregnant
wits_ of those times; and he certainly gave a notable proof of his
wit--for fame is that which _all hunt after_--in contributing some lines
to _Mr. William Shakespeares comedies, histories, and tragedies_.

On that account, if on no other, the particulars of his life should be
inquired into and recorded. His _Cypress garland_, a copy of which I
possess, is rich in autobiographical anecdote; and I have collected some
of his fugitive verses, a specimen of which may amuse. As one of the
shortest, I transcribe the lines which he addressed to Giles Farnaby, a
musical composer of some eminence, on the publication of his _Canzonets
to fowre voyces_, A. D. 1598.

      "_M. Hu. Holland to the author._

      I would both sing thy praise, and praise thy singing,
      That in the winter nowe are both a-springing;
          But my muse must be stronger,
          And the daies must be longer.
      When the sunne's in his hight with ye bright Barnaby,
      Then should we sing thy praises, gentle Farnaby."

                                                  BOLTON CORNEY.


THE MILESIANS.

(Vol. iii., p. 353.)

In reply to W. R. M., who asks for information respecting the round
towers of Ireland, I beg to refer him to Dr. Petrie's essay on the
_Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland_, in which he will find a full
discussion of the origin, uses, and history of the round towers.

In reference to the Milesians and other early colonists of Ireland, he
will find the most authentic ancient traditions in the Irish version of
the _Historia Britonum of Nennius_, lately published by the Irish
Archæological Society of Dublin, with a translation and notes, by the
Rev. J. H. Todd, D.D. The same volume contains also some very curious
and valuable notes by the Hon. A. Herbert.

What W. R. M. says about the pronunciation of certain names of towns in
Ireland, as confirming the tradition of a Milesian colony from Spain, is
a complete mistake. The pronunciation of _gh_ to which he alludes,
exists only amongst the English (or Anglicised natives) who are unable
to pronounce the guttural _ch_ or _gh_ of the Celtic Irish, and have
substituted for it the sound of _h_, or the sound of the Spanish _j_, to
which W. R. M. refers. Besides this, every philologist knows that the
present language of Spain had no existence at the period to which the
Milesian invasion of Ireland must be referred. It is true that on the
west coast of Ireland some families among the peasantry retain many of
the characteristic features of modern Spaniards; but this circumstance
is due to an intercourse with Spain of a much more recent date than the
Milesian invasion, and is therefore no evidence of that event. It is
well known that considerable trade with Spain was carried on at Galway
and other ports of western Connaught, two centuries ago, and that many
Spanish families settled in Ireland, or intermarried with the natives
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

To remove W. R. M.'s mistaken impression that Drogheda, Aghada, &c., are
names of Spanish origin, it may be well to inform him, first, that the
_gh_ in such names is not sounded like the Spanish _j_, except, as I
have said, by--(I was on the point of writing _foreigners_), but I mean
by those who are unable to pronounce our Celtic guttural aspirates.
Secondly, that Drogheda, Aghada, &c., are names significant in the Irish
language and perfectly well understood, and that as now written they are
not seen in their correct orthography, but in an Anglicised spelling
intended to represent to English ears the native pronunciation. In the
last century Drogheda was usually written _Tredagh_ in English; but the
word in its proper spelling is _Droichet-atha_, the bridge of the ford,
_trajectum vadi_. There are many places in Ireland named from this word
_Droichet_, which is no doubt the Latin _trajectum_, the same which
forms a part of the name of _Utrecht_ (Ultrajectum), and other towns on
the continent.

The word _Agha_, properly _Achadh_, signifies a _field_, and enters into
the composition of hundreds of topographical names in Ireland. But in
every case the _gh_ (or _ch_, as it properly is) is pronounced
gutturally by the peasantry; the _h_ or Spanish _j_ sound is a modern
Anglicised corruption.

On the subject of Irish proper names of places and persons a vast body
of curious and valuable information will be found in the publications of
the Irish Archæological Society, and also in O'Donovan's splendid
edition of the _Annals of the Four Masters_.

                                                     HIBERNICUS.

We _mere Irish_ assume to be descended from a Phoenician colony; the
word _Milesian_ is not Irish, the families so designated being known in
the Irish language only as "Clonna Gäel" (I spare the English reader the
_mute_ consonants, which _would rather bother him_ to get his tongue
round).

Our tradition is, that the leader of the said colony saw Ireland from a
tower, still said to exist near Corunna; he bore the style of _Mileadle
Spaniogle_, for which no better translation is offered than "the soldier
of Spain." His brothers and sons, the chief himself having deceased, are
said to have conducted the expedition to Ireland; and if your
correspondent wishes for a full account of their adventures, he should
consult Keating's _History of Ireland_, which will, at all events,
afford him some amusement.

As to the round towers, Mr. Petrie's book on _The Ecclesiastical
Antiquities or Architecture of Ireland_ has set that question at rest.
He has shown that they are undoubtedly Christian buildings intended as
_Bell-houses_, which their name in Irish signifies; and further,
probably, for the safe keeping of the sacred vessels, &c., in time of
war or tumult. It is unfortunately too certain that agitation was always
rife in Ireland. On all points connected with Irish antiquities, the
safest and best reference is to the Secretary of the Royal Irish
Academy, Dublin. If this answer attract any of your correspondents to
visit the museum of that establishment, I venture to prophecy that they
will account themselves well repaid for their trouble, even though they
should miss visiting the Great Exhibition thereby.

                                                     KERRIENSIS.


THE TANTHONY.

(Vol. iii., pp. 105. 229. 308.)

I remember hearing a worthy citizen of Norwich remark, that it was very
odd there should be three churches in the city called after saints whose
names began with the letter T. Having been myself resident in that city
many years, without being aware of this fact, I took the liberty of
inquiring to which three he alluded; when I was unhesitatingly told,
"Why, Sain Tandrew's, Sain Taustin's, and Sain Tedmund's, to be sure!"
Let me then be allowed to repeat ARUN'S question, and to ask, "Why not
Tanthony for Saint Anthony?"

The same worthy citizen was once sheriff of Norwich, and, as is, or
haply was, the custom,--for I know not how these matters are managed
now-a-days,--went forth in civic state to meet the judges of assize.
When their lordships were seated in the sheriff's carriage, one of them
charitably observed, "Yours, I believe, is a very ancient city, Mr.
Sheriff!" to which the latter, a little flurried, no doubt, at being
thus so pointedly addressed, but in decided accents, replied, "It _was_
ONCE, my Lord!" And without stopping to consider what was passing in his
mind when he gave utterance to these somewhat ambiguous words, may we
not take them up, and ask whether it be not even so, not only as regards
Norwich, but most of her venerable sister towns as well? Where are their
quondam glories--their arts and rare inventions--their "thoughts in
antique words conveyed"--their "boast of heraldry"--their pageantries
and shows? Where their high-peaked gables--their curiously wrought eaves
and overhanging galleries--their quaint doorways, so elaborately carved,
and all their other cunning devices?--"Modern Taste," with finger
pointed to the newest creation of her plaster genius, triumphantly
echoes the monosyllable, and answers, "Where?" Well, we are perforce
content; only with this proviso:--if, fatigued with the tinselled
superficialities and glossy refinements of the present, we are fain to
"cast one longing lingering look behind," and chance to light upon some
worthy illustrative memorial of the literature, the manners, or domestic
life of the past,--that the spirit of Captain Cuttle's sage advice be
made our own, and that we forthwith transfer our prize for the critical
examination of "diving antiquaries" to the conservative pages of "NOTES
AND QUERIES."

                                                        COWGILL.

_The Tanthony._--Will your correspondent ARUN permit one to refer him to
an authority for the use of the word "Tanton" for St. Anthony? An
hospital in York, dedicated to St. Anthony, after the dissolution came
into the possession of a gild or fraternity of a master and eight
keepers, who were commonly called "Tanton Pigs." Vide Drake's
_Eboracum_, p. 315.

                                                     Δ.

_Tanthony Bell at Kimbolton._--"Tanthony" is from St. Anthony. In
Hampshire the small pig of the litter (in Essex called "the cad") is, or
once was, called "the Tanthony pig." Pigs were especially under this
saint's care. The ensign of the order of St. Anthony of Hainault was a
collar of gold made like a hermit's girdle; at the centre thereof hung
a crutch and a small bell of gold. St. Anthony is styled, among his
numerous titles, "Membrorum restitutor," and "Dæmonis fugator:" hence
the bell.

  "The Egyptians have none but wooden bells, except one brought by the
  Franks into the monastery of St. Anthony."--Rees' _Cyclopædia_, art.
  Bell.

I hope ARUN will be satisfied with this connexion of St. Anthony with
the pig, the crutch, and the bell.

"The staff" in the figure of the saint at Merthyr is, I should think, a
crutch.

  "The custom of making particular saints tutelars and protectors of one
  or another species of cattle is still kept up in Spain and other
  places. They pray to the tutelar when the beast is sick. Thus St.
  Anthony is for hogs, and we call a poor starved creature a _Tantony_
  pig."--Salmon's _History of Hertfordshire_, 1728.

                                                  A. HOLT WHITE.

May I venture to observe, in confirmation of ARUN'S suggestion as to the
origin of this term, that the bell appears to have been a constant
attribute of St. Anthony, although I have tried in vain to discover any
allusion to it in his legend?

Frederick von Schlegel, in describing a famous picture by Bramante
d'Urbino (_Æsthetic and Miscellaneous Works_, p. 78.), mentions St.
Anthony as "carrying the hermit's little bell;" and Lord Lindsay, in the
Introduction to his _Letters on Christian Art_ (vol. i. p. 192.), says
that St. Anthony is known by "the bell and staff, denoting mendicancy."
If this be the case, the bell at Kimbolton was doubtless intended
originally to announce the presence of some wayfarer or mendicant.
Tanthony is a common contraction for St. Anthony, as in the term "a
Tanthony pig;" and a similar system of contraction was in use amongst
the troubadours, who put _Na_ for _Donna_; as _Nalombarda_ for _Donna
Lombarda_.

The bell carried by St. Anthony is sometimes thought to have reference
to his Temptations; bells being, in the words of Durandus, "the trumpets
of the eternal king," on hearing which the devils "flee away, as through
fear." I think, however, that these words apply rather to church bells.

                                                        E. J. M.


PILGRIMS' ROAD TO CANTERBURY.

(Vol. ii., pp. 199. 237. 269. 316.)

I think those of your readers who are interested in this Query will feel
that the replies it has received are not quite satisfactory, and I
therefore trust you will find some room for the following remarks.

I would beg to ask, can there be any doubt that from Southwark to
Dartford, and from Rochester to their destination, Chaucer and his
fellow pilgrims journeyed along the old Roman way, then for many
centuries the great thoroughfare from London to the south-eastern
coast, and which for these portions of the route is nearly identical
with the present turnpike-road? The _Tales_ themselves make it certain
that the pilgrims started on this ancient way; for when the Host
interrupts the sermonising of the Reeve, he mentions Deptford and
Greenwich as being in their route:

      "Say forth thy tale, and tarry not the time,
      Lo Depeford, and it is half way prime;
      Lo Greenewich, there many a shrew is in,
      It were all time thy tale to begin."

Shortly after leaving Dartford the turnpike-road bends to the left,
reaching Rochester by Gravesend and Gadshill; whilst the Roman way,
parts of which are still used, was carried to that city by Southfleet,
and through Cobham Park; and it seems to me that the only question we
have to solve is, whether Chaucer followed the Roman way throughout, or
whether between Dartford and Rochester he took the course of what is now
the turnpike-road. For I cannot but think it very unlikely that, with a
celebrated road leading almost straight as a line to Canterbury, the
pilgrims should either go many miles out of their way to seek another,
as they must have done, or run the risk of losing themselves in a
"horse-track."

In attempting to determine this point, your readers will remember the
injunction of Poins:

  "But, my lads, my lads, to-morrow morning by four o'clock early at
  Gadshill; there are pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings,
  and traders riding to London with fat purses."--_Henry IV._, Pt. I.
  Act I. Sc. 2.

And Gadshill the robber tells his fellows:

  "There's money of the king's coming down the hill; 'tis going to the
  king's exchequer."--Act II. Sc. 2.

Here we learn, not only that in Shakspeare's time the road between
London and Canterbury was by Gadshill, but also that the tradition was
that the pilgrims had been accustomed to travel that road. We cannot, I
think, be far out of the way in concluding this to have been the road
that Chaucer selected, and thus have the satisfaction of connecting with
it in an immediate and especial manner the two greatest names in our
literature; for, if he meant the only other road that seems at all
likely, he would, near Cobham, pass within two miles of this famed hill.
Nor can there be much doubt that so loyal a company, following a pious
custom, would tarry at Rochester, to make their offerings on the shrine
of St. William; if so, among the many thousands who have trodden the
steps, now well-nigh worn away, leading to its site, is there one
individual whose presence here we can recall with more pleasure than
that of the father of English poetry?

It is evident that the road mentioned by S. H. (Vol. ii., p. 237.) is
not Chaucer's road; but I can well understand why it should be called
the "Pilgrims' Road;"  nor should I be surprised to learn that other
roads in Kent are known by the same name, for Chaucer tells us in the
"Prologue" to the _Tales_ that

                        "From every shire's end
      Of Engle-land to Canterbury they wend:"

and I need scarcely say that these widely scattered pilgrims would not
all traverse the country by one and the same road, but that they would
select various routes, according to the different localities from which
they came. Hence, several roads might be called "Pilgrims' Roads."

From a paper which appeared in the _Athenæum_ in 1842, and has since
been reprinted in a separate form, the writer of which I take to be
identical with the reviewer of Buckler's work referred to by MR.
JACKSON, I think we may gather that what he speaks of as the "Old
Pilgrims' Road" is the Otford Road noticed by S. H. and M. (2.) Messrs.
Buckler's tract mentions no wayside chapels in Kent.

It may not be uninteresting to add, that the author of _Cabinet Pictures
of English Life--Chaucer_ has expressed his firm belief, the grounds for
which must be sought in his work, that the "Pilgrims' Room" of the
Tabard, now the Talbot, in Southwark, whence these memorable pilgrims
set forth, must be at least as old as Chaucer, and that the very gallery
exists along which Chaucer and the pilgrims walked.

                                                           ARUN.


Replies To Minor Queries.

_Shakspeare's Use of "Captious"_ (Vol. ii., p. 354.; Vol. iii., p.
229.).--As W. F. S. does me the favour to ask my opinion of his notion
respecting the passage in _All's Well that Ends Well_, I beg to say that
I am very glad to find he agrees with me in regard to the
_signification_ of the word "captious;" but that I cannot suppose, with
him, that Shakspeare wrote _capatious_ in a passage in which the metre
is regular; for what sort of verse would be--

      "Yet in this _capatious_ and intenible sieve?"

Surely W. F. S. has too good an ear to allow him to fix such a line in
Shakspeare's text.

                                                        J. S. W.
      Stockwell, April 3. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Inscription on a Clock_ (Vol. iii., p. 329.).--The words written under
the curious clock in Exeter Cathedral, about which your correspondent M.
J. W. HEWETT inquires, and which are, or were, also to be found under
the clock over the Terrace in the Inner Temple, London, are, in truth, a
quotation from Martial; and it is singular that a sentiment so truly
Christian should have escaped from the pen of a Pagan writer:

  "They" (that is, the moments as they pass) "slip by us unheeded, but
  are noted in the account against us."

What could Chrysostom or Augustine have said stronger or better? The
whole epigram is so good that I venture to transcribe it.

      "AD MARTIALEM DE AGENDA VITA BEATA.

      "Si tecum mihi, care Martialis,
      Securis liceat frui diebus,
      Si disponere tempus otiosum,
      Et veræ pariter vacare vitæ,
      Nec nos atria, nec domos potentum,
      Nec lites tetricas, forumque triste
      Nôssemus, nec imagines superbas:
      Sed gestatio, fabulæ, libelli,
      Campus, porticus, umbra, virgo, thermæ;
      Hæc essent loca semper, hi labores.
      Nunc vivit sibi neuter, heu! bonosque
      Soles effugere atque abire sentit;
      Qui nobis PEREUNT, ET IMPUTANTUR.
      Quisquam vivere cum sciat, moratur?"

      Lib. v. ep. 20.

                                                           W.[2]

  [Footnote 2: We are indebted to several other correspondents for
  similar replies to this Query; and one, A. C. W., remarks that the
  epigram from which these lines are quoted, is thus translated by
  Cowley:

      "Now to himself, alas! does neither live,
      But sees good suns, of which we are to give
      A strict account, set and march thick away:
      Knows a man how to live, and does he stay?"]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Authors of the Anti-Jacobin Poetry_ (Vol. iii., p. 348.).--I knew _all_
the writers, some of them intimately; and I have no doubt of the general
accuracy of MR. HAWKIN'S communication. The items marked B are the least
to be relied on. I do not think Mr. Hammond, then Canning's colleague as
Under-Secretary of State, wrote a line, certainly not of verse, though
he no doubt assisted his friend in compiling, and perhaps correcting;
good offices, which obtained him an honourable _niche_ in the
counter-satire issued from Brooke's, and preserved from oblivion by
having been reprinted in the _Anti-Jacobin_ to give more poignancy to
Canning's reply, "Bard of the borrowed lyre," &c.

The Latin verses "Ipsa mali Hortatrix" were the _sole_ production of
Lord Wellesley, and he reprinted them a year or two before his death;
Mr. Frere had no share in them: but, on the other hand, Mr. Frere may
have been, and I think was, the author of the _translation_, "Parent of
countless crimes." Lord Wellesley certainly was not; for it was made
after he had sailed for India.

With regard to Mr. Wright's appropriation of particular passages of the
longer poems to different authors, it is obviously impossible that it
should be more than a vague conjecture. I _know_ that both Canning and
Gifford professed _not_ to be able to make any such distribution; but
both left on my mind the impression that Canning's share of the "New
Morality" was so very much the largest as to entitle him to be
considered its author. Ought not Canning's verses to be collected?

                                                              C.

       *       *       *       *       *

"_Felix, quem faciunt," &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 373.).--Though I cannot
refer EFFIGIES to the original author of this passage, the following
parallels may not be unacceptable to him:

      "Felix, quem faciunt aliorum cornua cautum,
      Sæpe suo, coelebs dixit Acerra, patri."

      Joannis Audoeni, _Epigr_. 147. Lib. i. (nat. circa 1600.)

Again:

      "Felix, quicunque dolore
      Alterius disces posse carere tuo."

      Tibul. lib. iii. 6. 43.

It is remarkable that the annotator on this passage in the Delphin ed.,
Paris, 1685, p. 327., quotes the line in question thus: "Consonat illud:
Felix quem faciunt," &c., _without giving the authority_.

Again:

  "Periculum ex aliis facere, tibi quod ex usu siet."--Ter. _Heaut._ i.
  2. 36. (Not 25., as in the Delphin _Index_.)

Again:

      "Feliciter is sapit, qui periculo alieno sapit."

This passage is assigned to Plautus in the _Sylloge_ of Petrus
Lagnerius, Francf. 1610, p. 312., but I cannot find it in this author.

                                                        C. H. P.
      Brighton, May 12. 1851.

Perhaps it is hardly an answer to EFFIGIES to tell him that the earliest
occurrence of this line, with which I am acquainted, is in a rebus
beneath the device of the Parisian printer, Felix Balligault, about the
year 1496. Thus:

      "Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum.
      Felici monumenta die felicia felix
      Pressit: et hæc vicii dant retinentve nihil."

The device is a fruit-tree, from which a shield is suspended inscribed
_felix_. Two apes are seated at the foot of the tree. The thought is,
however, common to the wise and the witty of every age. Menander has it
thus:--

      "Βλέπων
	 πεπαίδευμ᾽
     εἰς τὰ τῶν ἄλλων
	 κακά."

And Plautus:

      "Feliciter sapit qui alieno periculum sapit."

Compare Terence, _Heaut._ i. 2. 36.:

      "Periculum et aliis facere, tibi quod ex usu siet."

And Diodorus Siculus, i. ab init.:

     "Καλὸν γὰρ τὸ
     δύνασθαι τοῖς τῶν
     ἄλλων ἀγνοήμασι
     πρὸς διόρθωσιν
	 χρῆσθαι παραδείγμασι."

And Tibullus, lib. iii. eleg. vi.:

                "Felix, quicunque dolore
      Alterius disces posse carere tuo."

These indications may perhaps put your correspondent in the way of a
more satisfactory answer to his question.

                                                    S.W. SINGER.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Church Bells_ (Vol. iii., p. 339.).--Should the following extract from
Mr. Fletcher's _Notes on Nineveh_ have escaped the notice of MR. GATTY,
it may probably interest him:--

  "During the following (12th) century Dionysius Bar Salibi occupied the
  (Jacobite) patriarchal throne, a man noted for piety and learning. He
  composed several works on theological subjects, among which we find a
  curious disquisition on bells, the invention of which he ascribes to
  Noah. He mentions that several histories record a command given to
  that patriarch to strike on the bell with a piece of wood three times
  a day, in order to summon the workmen to their labour while he was
  building the ark. And this he seems to consider the origin of church
  bells, an opinion which, indeed, is common to other Oriental
  writers."--Vol. ii. p. 212.

                                                        E. H. A.

_Chiming, Tolling, and Pealing_ (Vol. iii., p. 339).--Though the
following has not, I fear, _canonical_ authority, nor is it of _remote_
antiquity, still, as they are not lines of yesterday, they may serve as
one Reply to Mr. GATTY'S late Query on _Chiming, tolling, and
pealing_:--

      "To call the folk to church in time
                                   We _chime_,
      When joy and mirth are on the wing
                                   We _ring_,
      When we mourn a departed soul
                                   We _toll_."

I think it probable (though I have no direct proof of it) that the great
bell, or tenor, was always RUNG when a sermon was to be _preached_,
which was not the case when there was to be only prayers. I believe it
is so at this day at St. Mary's, Oxford; it is very certain that the
great bell, being so rung, is in some places called the _Sermon_ Bell,
though I remember two legends on tenor bells, which seem to imply that
they were intended to call to prayers, viz.:--

      "Come when I call,
      To serve God all."

      "For Christ, his flock, I aloud do call,
      To confess their sins, and be pardoned all."

The difference between ringing the tenor (or any bell for prayers), and
ringing it as a knell, is, that in the latter case the bell is set at
every pull or stroke, which causes a solemnity in the sound very
different from that produced by the very reverse mode of ringing it. Oh!
what language there is in bells. In _ringing_, the bell is swung round;
in _tolling_, it is swung merely sufficiently for the clapper to strike
the side. _Chiming_ is when more bells than one are _tolled_ in harmony;
if this be correct, to _toll_ can be applied only when _one_ bell is
sounded, and Horne Tooke's definition of the word, from _tollere_, to
_raise up_, must be wrong (humiliter loquor).

With regard to the present use of the old Sanctus Bell, which is called
at Ecclesfield _Tom Tinkler_, the same is often called the _Ting Tang_.

                                                H. T. ELLACOMBE.
      Clyd St. George.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Extraordinary North Briton_ (Vol. iii., p. 409.).--In answer to the
inquiries of the reviewer in the _Athenæum_ of May 17, and your
correspondent, the writer of the _Extraordinary North Briton_ appears to
have been an individual of the name of William Moore, not, as apparently
supposed, the poet William Mason. I have, amongst a complete series of
the London newspapers of the day, a set of the _Extraordinary North
Briton_, beginning Tuesday (May 10, 1768) and terminating with the 91st
No. (Saturday, January 27, 1770). Whether it was continued further I do
not know. The early numbers are published by Staples Steare, 93. Fleet
Street, and the subsequent ones by T. Peat, 22. Fleet Street, and by
William Moore, 55., opposite Hatton Garden, Holborn. The second and
subsequent numbers are entitled, _The Extraordinary North Briton_, by
W---- M----. In the last three numbers the W---- M---- is altered to
William Moore, and at the end of each is "London, printed and sold by
the author, W. Moore, No. 22., near St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street."
In the 90th number is the following advertisement:

  "Mr. Moore thinks it highly incumbent on him to acquaint the public,
  that Thomas Brayne (who was his shopman all last winter) is now
  publishing a spurious paper under the same title in Holborn; that they
  may not be deceived, Mr. Moore's name will be in front of every paper
  he writes. He begs leave further to add, that Brayne sold several
  papers last week in his name, and told those who purchased them, that
  they were wrote by Mr. Moore, and that he published for him. In order
  that the public may not be deceived by such low artifice, an affidavit
  of Brayne's proceedings in this respect, will appear in the public
  papers some time next week."

I have also the papers published by Brayne, which are advertised at the
end to be "Printed and Published by T. Brayne, No. 55., opposite Hatton
Garden, Holborn."

I have referred to No. 4, for Friday, June 3, 1768, addressed to Lord
Mansfield, noticed in the _Athenæum_; but, with all due respect to the
opinion of the reviewer, I cannot see the slightest similitude to the
style of Junius. It appears to me to be a very feeble performance, and
by a very inferior person. Indeed, the entire series of the
_Extraordinary North Briton_ seems poor and flat when compared with its
predecessor, the original and famous _North Briton_.

The attempt to show Mason to be Junius is amusing and ingenious; but the
reviewer has evidently failed in persuading himself, and therefore,
amidst the many startling improbabilities by which such an attempt is
encompassed, is scarcely likely to gain many converts to such a theory.

                                                 JAMES CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Fitzpatrick's Lines on Fox._--MR. MARKLAND, in your 78th Number (p.
334.), asks the true reading of the third line.--The word should be
"mind," not "course."

The lines are under the engraved bust of Fox, prefixed to the edition,
in elephant folio, of his _History of the early Part of the Reign of
James II._, and the word there given is "course." In my copy of that
work is inserted a letter from Miller, the publisher, to a deceased
friend of mine, who was an original subscriber at "Five Guineas,
boards!"

That letter, so far as is material, is as follows:--

  "The error in the engraving of the writing was certainly a very bad
  one, and not to be remedied, but it is a satisfaction to me that it
  was Lord Holland's mistake and not mine. I have his lordship's
  original writing of the four lines to clear myself. W. Miller,
  Albemarle Street, June 6, 1808."

                                                           Q. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Ejusdem Farinæ_ (Vol. iii., p. 278.).--This phrase was used in a
disparaging sense long before the time of the "scholastic doctors and
casuists of the middle ages," as may appear from Persius, v. 115-117.,
where he is showing that an elevation in rank does not necessarily
produce a more elevated tone of mind; and says to an imaginary upstart:

      "Sin tu, cum fueris _nostræ_ paulò antè _farinæ_,
      Pelliculam veterem retines, et fronte politus
      Astutam vapido servas sub pectore vulpem," &c.

It is needless to add that the metaphor is taken from loaves made from
the "_same batch_" of flour, where, if one be bad, all the others must
be equally so.

                                                    J. EASTWOOD.
      Ecclesfield Hall.

Stephens, in his _Thesaurus_, under the head of "Farinæ," states--

  "Proverbiales locutiones sunt, Ejusdem Farinæ, Nostræ farinæ,"

but makes no allusion to its being a term expressive of baseness and
disparagement. Nor does it seem to be so used by Persius in v. 115. of
his 5th Satire:

     "Si tu, cum fueris nostræ paulò antè farinæ."

We employ a somewhat similar expression, when we say, "both of the same
kidney."

                                                        C. I. R.

This expression may be traced beyond "the scholastic doctors and
casuists of the middle ages." Erasmus, in his _Adagia_, says,--

  "Ejusdem farinæ dicuntur, inter quos est indiscreta similitudo. Quod
  enim aqua ad aquam collata, idem ad farinam farinæ. Persius in 5
  Satyr.

            "'Nostræ paulò antè farinæ,
      Pelliculam veterem retines.'"

And again, on the proverb "Omnia idem pulvis," he says,--

  "Quin nobis omnia idem, quod aiunt, pulvis: alludens ad defunctorum
  cineres, inter quos nibil apparet discriminis. Confine illi quod alio
  demonstravimus proverbio, ejusdem farinæ. Siquidem antiqui farinam
  pollinem vocabant."

Is. Casaubon, in a note on the above passage of Persius, says,--

  "Proverbium Latinum ad notandum similitudinem, 'est ejusdem farinæ,'
  proprie locum habet in panibus."

Though the expression is generally, if not always, used disparagingly,
as the corresponding expressions "birds of a feather" and "of the same
kidney," yet I should doubt whether the term "farinæ" is itself
expressive of baseness, any more than "feather" or "kidney." By the way,
what is the origin of the latter of the above expressions?

                                                     E. S. T. T.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Sempecta_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 357.).--I have to return many thanks
to DR. MAITLAND for his kindness in so promptly answering my Query. The
reference to Martene has enabled me to find the poem in question. It is
in Martene and Durand's _Thesaurus novus Anecdotorum_, Paris, 1717; and
will be found in vol. iii. col. 1333. The poem forms caput iii. of the
second book of the _Historia Monasterii Villariensis in Brabantiâ,
ordinis Cisterciensis_ (a title which shows the monastery to which the
old soldier-monk belonged instead of Croyland), and is headed "Incipit
vita beati Franconis." I think there are few of your readers who will
not thank me for calling their attention to it, if they will take the
trouble to refer to Martene's work.

                                                    H. R. LUARD.
      Trin. Coll. May 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

"_Nulli fraus tuta latebris_" (Vol. iii., p. 323.) will be found in
_Camerar. Emblem._, cent. ii. 40.

                                                           Q. Q.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Voltaire--where situated_ (Vol. iii., p. 329.).--If the Querist will
look to the _Critical Essays of an Octogenarian_, by J. R. (the learned,
venerable, and respected James Roche, Esq., of Cork), he will find, at
p. 11. vol. i., that there is no such place, the word "Voltaire" being
merely a transposition of the name of the party assuming it as a
designation. Thus, he was called _Arouet Le Jeune_. Transpose the
letters of _Arouet L. J._, and allowing _j_, _u_ and _i_, _v_ to be used
for each other, you have _Voltaire_.

                                                              K.

       *       *       *       *       *

_By the Bye_ (Vol. ii., p. 424.; Vol. iii., p. 109.).--In further
illustration of this phrase, I would advert to the practice of declaring
by the bye, which prevailed in the superior courts of common law, before
the Uniformity of Process Act (2 Will. IV., c. 39.). The following
extract from Burton's _Exchequer Practice_, 1791, vol. i. p. 149., will
sufficiently explain this happily obsolete matter:--

  "By the old rules it is ordered, 'That upon every defendant's
  appearance, the plaintiff may put in as many declarations as he will
  against every such defendant, provided they all be put in at one and
  the same time.' If there be more than one declaration delivered at the
  same time against the same defendant, every additional declaration so
  delivered is called delivering the declaration by the bye."

In the King's Bench, in certain cases, any other plaintiff could declare
by the bye against the defendant, and that even before the original
plaintiffs had declared. See Crompton's _Practice Common-placed_, 2nd
ed., 1783, vol. i. p. 100.

_The Doctor_ (in chap. cx.) says--

  "By the bye, which is the same thing, in common parlance, as by the
  way, though critically there may seem to be a difference; for by the
  bye might seem to denote a collateral remark, and by the way a direct
  one."

By the bye, what a pity it is there is no Index to _The Doctor_.

                                                   C. H. COOPER.
      Cambridge, March 24, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Bigod de Loges_ (Vol. iii., p. 306.).--There is an error, perhaps a
clerical one, in M. J. T.'s statement, that "Bigod, whose name was
attached to the charter of foundation of St. Werburgh's Abbey, is
elsewhere, according to Ormerod, called Robert."

The remark is by Leycester, not Ormerod, and the purport is exactly the
converse. To the words "Signum Roberti de Loges" is added, "alii Bigot
de Loges hic legunt." Vide _Monasticon_, pars I., pp. 200. 202.

This passage will be found in Leycester's _Antiquities_, p. 111.,
reprinted in _Hist. Chesh._, vol. i. p. 13. But Leycester's
_Prolegomena_ is the heading, and the initials "P. L." are appended to
the note.

                                                 LANCASTRIENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Knebsend or Nebsend, co. York_ (Vol. iii., p. 263.).--A part of
Sheffield is called Neepsend, which is probably the place inquired after
by J. N. C., especially as the ordinary pronunciation of it is
_Nep_send.

                                                    J. EASTWOOD.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Mrs. Catherine Barton_ (Vol. iii., p. 328.).--Your correspondent will
find all that is known in Sir David Brewster's _Life of Newton_, and
will see (p. 323.) that her maiden name must have been either Smith,
Pilkington, or Barton itself.

                                                              M.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Peter Sterry_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--In the title-page to his sermon,
preached before the Parliament, Nov. 1, 1649 (Lond. 1650, 4to.), Sterry
is called "sometime Fellow of Emanuel College, Cambridge; now a Preacher
of the Gospel in London." Some account of him may be seen in Burnet's
_History of his own Time_; and in the _Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow_. Wood
says that Peter Sterry was notorious "for keeping on that side which had
proved trump" (_Athenæ_, iii. 197., edit. Bliss).

                                             EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Wife of James Torre_ (Vol. iii., p. 329.).--In reply to MR. PEACOCK'S
Query I beg to inform him that the lady's name was Elizabeth, youngest
of the four daughters and co-heiresses of William Lincolne, D.D., of
Bottesford, and by her Mr. Torre had several children, all of whom died
young except Jane, who married, in 1701, the Rev. Thomas Hassel. This is
taken from Burke's _Dictionary of Landed Gentry_, vol. ii, M to Z,
published by Colburn, London, 1847, where the Torre pedigree can be
seen, but no other mention of the _Lincolne_ family is there made. There
are seven different coats of arms and crests under the name _Lincolne_
in Burke's _Armory of England, Scotland, and Ireland_, published by
Churton in 1843. This is all I can find at present.

                                                        J. N. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Ramasse_ (Vol. iii., p. 347.).--One word to complete MR. WAY'S
explanation. This style of sliding down the slopes of the Alps is called
a _ramasse_, because the guides are ready below to _ramasser_, that is,
to _pick up_, the travellers who are thus sent down.

                                                              C.

This word is by no means obsolete in France, in the acceptation of "a
sledge." In addition to the instances given from Barré and Roquefort by
MR. ALBERT WAY, in his instructive note on the "Pilgrymage of Syr R.
Guylforde, Knyght," I find in Napoléon Landais' _Dictionnaire général et
grammatical des Dictionnaires Français_," the following explanation:--

  "RAMASSE, chaise à porteurs, traîneau pour descendre des montagnes où
  il y a de la neige: _descendre une montagne dans une ramasse_."

He also says, in defining the meaning of the verb "ramasser:"

  "Traîner dans une _ramasse: on le ramassa pendant deux heures; quand
  il fut sur la montagne, il se fit ramasser_."

The late Mr. Tarver, in his _Dictionnaire Phraséologique Royal_, has
also the following:

      "RAMASSE, s. f. (t. de voyageur), sledge.
      "_On le ramassa_, they conveyed him in a sledge.
      "RAMASSEUR, a man who drives a sledge."

                                                           D. C.
      St. John's Wood, May 4. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Four Want Way_ (Vol. iii., p. 168.).--Halliwell describes the word
"want" as meaning in Essex a cross-road. It is still used here as
denoting a place where four roads meet, and called "a four want way." I
always fancied it meant a wont way, _via solita_; but I have no
authority for the etymology.

                                                     BRAYBROOKE.
      Audley End.

  ["Went" is used in Chaucer in the sense of "way," "passage,"
  "turning," or road: thus, in _Troilus and Creseide_, iii. 788., he
  speaks of a "a privie went," and v. 605., "And up and doun there made
  he many a went;" and in the _House of Fame_:

      "And in a forrest as they went,
      At the tourning of a went."]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Dr. Owen's Works_ (Vol. i., p. 276.).--The editor of the _Works of John
Owen_ is informed, that in the valuable library of George Offor, Esq.,
of Hackney, will be found a thick volume in manuscript of unpublished
_Sermons on the Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah_, in the Doctor's own
hand-writing, and apparently prepared for publication. The same library
also contains two scarce pieces by Dr. Owen, which it is thought have
never been reprinted: 1. _The Stedfastness of Promises, and the
Sinfulness of Staggering_, opened in a sermon preached at Margaret's, in
Westminster, before the Parliament, Feb. 28, 1649, being a Day set apart
for Solemn Humiliation throughout the Nation. By John Owen, Minister of
the Gospel. London, 1650. 4to. pp. 54.--2. _God's Work in Founding Zion,
and his People's Duty thereupon._ A Sermon preached in the Abbey Church
at Westminster, at the opening of the Parliament, Sept. 17, 1656. By
John Owen, a Servant of Jesus Christ in the Work of the Gospel. Oxford,
1656. 4to. pp. 48.

                                                           J. Y.
      Hoxton.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Bactrian Coins_ (Vol. iii., p. 353.).--Has your correspondent read the
book by Masson _On the Coins, &c. of Afghanistan_, published by
Professor H. H. Wilson? There are also references to authorities in
Humphreys _On Ancient Coins and Medals_.

                                                           C. B.

_Bactria._--BLOWEN will find some trustworthy information respecting
Bactria in Professor Lassen's _Indische Alterthumskunde_, Zweiter Band,
pp. 277. et seq. Bonn, 1849; and a list of authorities on the
Græco-Bactrian coins in the same work, pp. 282. 283. (notes).

      C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Baldrocks_ (Vol. iii., p. 328.).--On looking over a vestry book
belonging to South Lynn in this town, commencing at 1605, and ending in
1677, I find some Churchwardens' Accounts, and amongst them the two
following entries, which may, I trust, assist "A CHURCHWARDEN," and lead
to an elucidation of this word:--

      "1610.
      "Janua. 17. ffor a _balledrick_ to ye great Bell, xxi_d._

      "1618.
      "Novemb. 22. Item. for mendine of ye _baldericke_ for ye foore
          bell, vj_d._"

From these entries it seems that the "baldrock" was something attached
to the great bell.

In most of the recent English Dictionaries the word is applied to
furniture, and to a belt or girdle. But in a Latin Dictionary published
at Cambridge in 1693, I find in the Anglo-Latin part the following:--

      English. A bawdrick of a bell clapper.
      Latin. Ropali corrigia.

And the English of "Ropali Corrigia" seems (notwithstanding the English
version given with it) to be "_pieces of leather_," or "_thongs of
leather_" to the bell clapper, but for what purpose used I do not know.

      JOHN NURSE CHADWICK.

P.S. The word "corrigia" is taken from the word "corium," a skin of
leather.

  [Were not these leather coverings?--that for the rope, to prevent its
  cutting the ringer's hands (as we constantly see), and also to prevent
  his hand slipping; and that for the clapper, to muffle it--straps of
  leather girded round them.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Tu Autem_ (Vol. iii., pp. 265. 308.).--The "Tu Autem," still remembered
at Oxford and Cambridge, and yet lingering at the public dinners of the
canons of Durham, is the last fragment of what was once a daily, or at
least an almost daily, religious form or service at those ancient
places; and it is rather strange that such a fragment should have
remained so long in the collegiate and cathedral refectory without
having preserved any remembrance of its real origin and meaning. If
Bishop Hendren or Father Holdfast would forego their favourite pursuits
for a few minutes, and look into your interesting and improving
miscellany, they might inform you that in the Romish Breviary--which, no
doubt, has preserved many ancient religious services--there is a form
entitled _Benedictio mensæ_. As the generality of your readers may not
have the Breviary at hand, I send you so much of the service as may
suffice for the present purpose.

  "BENEDICTIO MENSÆ.

  "_Ante prandium Sacerdos benedicturus mensam, incipit_, Benedicite,
  _et alii repetunt_, Benedicite. _Deinde dicit_ Oculi omnium, _et alii
  prosequuntur_. In te sperant, Domine, et tu das escam illorum in
  tempore opportuno" &c. &c. Then "Gloria Patri" &c., and "Pater noster"
  &c. &c.

  "_Posteà Sacerdos dicit_:

  "Oremus.

  "Benedic Domine nos, et hæc tua dona, quæ de tua largitate sumus
  sumpturi. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.

  "_Deinde Lector._ Jube Domine benedicere. _Benedictio._ Mensæ
  coelestis participes faciat nos Rex æternæ gloriæ. Amen.

  "_Post prandium aguntur gratiæ hoc modo. Dicto à Lectore_, Tu autem
  Domine miserere nobis. Deo gratias, _omnes surgunt_.

  "_Sacerdos incipit._ Confiteantur tibi Domine omnia opera tua. Et
  Sancti tui benedicant tibi. Gloria Patri, &c.

  "_Posteà Sacerdos absolutè dicat_: _A_gimus tibi gratias, omnipotens
  Deus, pro universis beneficiis tuis, &c.

  "_Deinde alternatim dicitur Psalmus._ Miserere mei Deus.

  "_Vel Psalmus 116._" (in our version, 117.), &c. &c. &c.

The service then proceeds with very much repetition. The performance of
the whole would probably occupy twenty minutes.

I must note that there are variations in the service depending upon the
season, &c. &c.

I have indicated the _rubric_ of the Breviary by _Italics_.

                                                        J. YALC.
      Preston, Lanc.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Commoner marrying a Peeress_ (Vol. ii., p. 230.).--Your correspondent
L. R. N. inquires whether there is any decision subsequent to that in
the reign of Henry VIII. on the claim to the Taylboys barony, respecting
the right of a Commoner marrying a peeress to assume her title and
dignity, he having issue male by her. In reply I beg to inform him that
there appears to have been one on the claim of Richard Bertie, in 1580,
to the Barony of Willoughby, in right of his wife Catherine Duchess of
Suffolk, as tenant by the curtesy, which was rejected, and Peregrine
Bertie her son was admitted in the lifetime of his father. It seems,
however, from the want of modern instances, as also by the elevation of
ladies to the rank of peeresses, with remainders to their children, thus
enabling the issue to sit in the lifetime of the father, that the
prevailing notion is against curtesy in titles of honour. This subject
will be found treated at some length in Cruise's _Digest_, vol. iii. pp.
187, 188. 198. ed. 1818.

                                                           O. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Ancient Wood Engraving_ (Vol. iii., p. 277.).--The subject of THE
HERMIT OF HOLYPORT'S question is an engraving of the "Pinax" of Cebes, a
Theban philosopher who wrote circa A. M. 3600, and who, in his
allegorical work of that name, described human life under the guise of a
picture.

This information is for the HERMIT'S especial benefit, as I suppose it
will be old news to most of your correspondents.

I have an old Dutch edition of the "Pinax" (Gerard de Jager, 1683),
bound in vellum, with the _Enchiridion_ and other works of Epictetus;
the frontispiece of which is the fellow to the Hermit's engraving.

                                                           F. I.
      Bradford.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Vegetating Insects_ (Vol. iii., p. 166.).--As the Query of MR. MANLEY
in No. 70. has not been answered, I beg to say that Vegetating Insects
are not uncommon both in New South Wales and New Zealand. The insect is
the caterpillar of a large brown moth, and in New South Wales is
sometimes found six inches long, buried in the ground, and the plant
above ground about the same length: the top, expanded like a flower, has
a brown velvety texture. In New Zealand the _plant_ is different, being
a single stem from six to ten inches high: its apex, when in a state of
fructification, resembles the club-headed bulrush in miniature. When
newly dug up, and divided longitudinally, the intestinal canal is
distinctly visible, and frequently the hairs, legs, and mandibles.
Vegetation invariably proceeds from the nape of the neck; from which it
may be inferred, that the insect, in crawling to the place where it
inhumes itself, prior to its metamorphosis, while burrowing in the light
vegetable soil, gets some of the minute seeds of the fungus between the
scales of its neck, from which in its sickening state it is unable to
free itself, and which consequently, being nourished by the warmth and
moisture of the insect's body then lying motionless, vegetates, and not
only impedes the process of change in the chrysalis, but likewise
occasions the death of the insect. The New South Wales specimen is
called "Sphæria Innominata," that of New Zealand "Sphæria Robertsii;"
both named, I believe, by Sir W. J. Hooker. In some specimens of the New
Zealand kind now before me, the _bodies_ of the insects are in their
normal state, but the legs, &c., are gone.

Both specimens are figured and described in the _Tasmanian Journal_,
vol. i. No. 4.

                                                         VIATOR.

      Chatham.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Prayer at the Healing_ (Vol. iii., p. 352.).--N. E. R. inquires whether
this prayer found a place in the prayer-books printed at Oxford or
Cambridge.

I have it before me in the folio Book of Common Prayer, "Oxford, printed
by John Baskett, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, and to
the University, MDCCXV." It is placed between the form of prayer for
Aug. 1. (the King's Accession) and the King's Declaration preceding the
Articles.

This form differs from that given by Sparrow, in his _Collection_, edit.
1684, p. 165., as follows:--

Sparrow gives _two_ Gospels: Mark, xvi. 14., St. John, i. 1., the
imposition of the King's hands taking place at the words "_they shall
lay_," &c. in the reading of the first, and the gold being placed at
reading the words "_that light_" in the second.

In Baskett's form, the _first_ Gospel only is used, with the collect
"_Prevent us, O Lord_," before it.

In Baskett's form, the supplicatory versicles and Lord's Prayer, which
agree in their own order with the earlier form, _follow_ this first
Gospel, and _precede the imposition and the suspension of the gold_,
during which (it is directed) the chaplain that officiates, _turning
himself to his Majesty_, shall say these words following:

  "God give a blessing to this work, and grant that these sick persons,
  on whom the king lays his hands, may recover through Jesus Christ our
  Lord."

This does _not_ appear in Sparrow's form of 1684, _neither_ does the
following address, at the close, by the "chaplain, _standing with his
face towards them that come to be healed_."

  "The Almighty God, who is a most strong tower to all them that put
  their trust in Him, to whom all things in heaven, in earth, and under
  the earth do bow and obey, be now and evermore your defence, and make
  you know and feel that there is none other Name under heaven given to
  man, in whom, and through whom, you may receive health and salvation,
  but only the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen."

Objectionable as the ceremony was, there can be no doubt that a much
more Protestant character was given to it by these alterations.

                                                 LANCASTRIENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

_M. or N._ (Vol. i., p. 415.; Vol. ii., p. 61.; Vol. iii., p.
323.).--With reference to the initials or letters M. and N. found in the
Catechism and the Marriage Service of our Common Prayer Book, it has
struck me that a fancy of mine may satisfy some of those who wish to
find more than a mere caprice in the selection of them.

It is remarkable that in the Catechism we read N. or M., while in the
service for Matrimony M. is for the man, N. for the woman.

I have imagined long ago that "N. or M." may mean "_n_omen viri; aut
_m_ulieris:" that M. may stand for "maritus" in the other place, and N.
for "nupta."

                                              TYRO ETYMOLOGICUS.

N. stands (as it constantly did in MS.) for "nomen" or name; M. for N.
N., "nomina" or names. You will observe that in black letter the forms
of N and M are so very similar that by an easy contraction double N
would pass into M, and thus the contracted form N. N. for "nomina" might
have come into M. Corroborating this is the fact that the answer to What
is your name? stands thus: Answer N. or M., and not M. or N.

                                                        J. F. T.

P.S. Throughout the Matrimonial Service I observe M. attached to the
man's name, but N. to the woman's.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Dancing Trenchmore_ (Vol. iii., p. 89.).--Your correspondent S. G. asks
the meaning of this phrase? _Trenchmore_ was a very popular dance in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The earliest mention I find of it
occurs in 1564, and the latest in 1728. The figure and the musical notes
may be seen in the fifth and later editions of _The Dancing Master_. See
also Chappell's _National English Airs_, vol. ii. p. 181., where some
amusing quotations concerning its popularity are given. _Trenchmore_
(the meaning of which we have to seek) was, however, more particularly
the name of the _dance_ than the tune. The _dance_, in fact, was
performed to _various_ tunes. In proof of this I give the following
quotation from Taylor the water-poet's _Navy of Land Ships_, 1627:

  "Nimble-heel'd mariners (like so many dancers) capring in the pompes
  and vanities of this sinful world, sometimes a Morisco, or
  _Trenchmore_ of forty miles long, to the tune of _Dusty my deare_,
  _Dirty come thou to me_, _Dun out of the mire_, or _I waile in woe and
  plunge in paine_: all these dances have no other musicke."

                                             EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Demosthenes and New Testament_ (Vol. iii., p. 350.).--If your
correspondent C. H. P. had referred to the _Critici Sacri_, he would
have found his questions answered. With regard to the quotation from
Acts xvii. 21., I beg to inform him that Drusius makes the same
reference, but generally only, as Pricæus; while Grotius gives the
passages with particular references, in the same manner as Lagnerius. As
to the passage from St. Matthew xiii. 14., he would have found, had he
consulted the _Critici Sacri_, that Grotius quotes the same passage from
Demosthenes as Pricæus; but, as far as I can see, they are the only
commentators in that work who observed the parallel passages. However,
the fact of its being "employed as an established proverb by Demosthenes
having been generally overlooked," as C. H. P. supposes, is not quite
correct, as it is mentioned in the brief notes in Dr. Burton's _Greek
Testament_, Oxon., 1831.

                                                        H. C. K.
      ---- Rectory, Hereford, May 3. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Roman Catholic Church_ (Vol. iii., pp. 168. 409.).--E. H. A. will find
the information which he requires in the _Notizie per l'anno_ 1851. It
is a very small annual published at Rome _by authority_. Its price
cannot exceed 4_s._ or 5_s._

                                                              F.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Yankee, Derivation of_ (Vol. iii., p. 260.).--In Webster's _American
Dictionary_, and in the _Imperial Dictionary, English, Technological,
and Scientific_, J. M. will see the etymology of Yankee, which M.
Philarète Charles supposes not to be given in any work American or
English.

                                                       NORTHMAN.

       *       *       *       *       *

_English French_ (Vol. iii., p. 346.).--I take the liberty to inform C.
W. B., for the justification of my countrymen, as well as of his own,
that the _Guide to Amsterdam_ was probably written by a British subject
born between the tropics, and will point out, not by way of reprisals,
but as a curiosity of the same sort, an example of French-English to be
found in a book just published by Whittaker and Co., entitled _What's
What in 1851_? Let any one who understands French try to read the
article, p. 69., headed "Qu'êst que, qu'êst que la veritable luxure en
se promenant," and if he can guess at the meaning of the writer, no
foreign-English I ever met with will ever give him trouble.

                                                   G. L. KEPPER.
      Amsterdam, May 10. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Deans, when styled Very Reverend_ (Vol. iii., p. 352.).--I cannot
answer this question, but I can supply a trace, if not a clue. I find in
a long series of old almanacks that the list of deans is invariably
given as _the Reverend_ the dean down to 1803 inclusive. I unluckily
have not those for the three next years, but in that for 1807 I find
"_the very Reverend_ the dean."

                                                              C.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Duchess of Buckingham_ (Vol. iii., p. 281.).--There is one circumstance
omitted by P. C. S. S., in his remarks upon the Duchess of Buckingham,
which explains why _a Phipps_, on being called to the peerage, chose the
titles of Mulgrave and Normanby.

By her second husband--the Duke of Buckingham and Normanby--she had one
son, who succeeded to the title and estates; but, dying unmarried during
his mother's lifetime, _bequeathed to her all the Mulgrave and Normanby
property_. Her daughter (by her first marriage with James Annesley,
third Earl of Anglesey) was then the wife of Mr. W. Phipps, son of Sir
Constantine Phipps, Lord Chancellor of Ireland: to their issue,
Constantine Phipps, first Lord Mulgrave, the Duchess _left by will these
estates_; thus founding her grandson's fortune, although she did not
live to see him created the first Baron Mulgrave.

The Sheffield Buckingham family, although extinct in the male line, is
represented in the female branch by the Sheffield Dicksons; Mrs.
Dickson, the widow of Major Dickson, of the Life-Guards, being in direct
descent from the Lady Catherine Darnley's husband, by another wife.

                                                           A. B.
      Redland, April 13.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Swearing by the Peacock_ (Vol. iii., p. 70.).--Swearing in the presence
of a peacock, referred to by T. J., from Dr. Lingard's _History of
England_, time of Edward I., is, with the ceremony observed at the Feast
of the Peacock, in the thirteenth century, related at full by Mr. Knight
in his _Old England_, pp. 311. and 312.; and the representation of the
Feast from the Bran of Robert Braunche, in the choir of St. Margaret's
Church at Lynn (a mayor of Lynn), who died October 15, 1364, is given
fig. 1088.

                                                         BLOWEN.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Howe Family_ (Vol. iii., p. 353.).--Your correspondent who asks what
was the connexion of the Howes with the royal family, will find in
Walpole's _Reminiscences_ (ch. ii.) that Charlotte Viscountess Howe, the
mother of Captain Howe, afterwards the celebrated admiral, and of
General Sir William Howe, was the daughter of George I. by Madame
Kelmansegge, Countess of Platen, created in England Countess of
Darlington.

                                                              C.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

Dr. Gregory, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh, and
the translator of Reichenbach's _Researches on Magnetism_, has just
published a volume destined, we believe, to excite considerable
attention, both from the nature of its subject and the position of the
writer. It is entitled _Letters to a Candid Inquirer on Animal
Magnetism_, and in the first Part, after describing the phenomena, and
their application to medical purposes, and to the explanation of much
that is obscure in what is called Magic or Witchcraft, "a great part of
which appears to have rested on a knowledge of these phenomena possessed
by a few in an ignorant age," Dr Gregory suggests, not as a fully
developed theory, but simply as a conceivable idea, an explanation of
the _modus operandi_ in magnetic phenomena, especially in clairvoyance.
The basis of this explanation is the existence of that universally
diffused power or influence, the existence of which, in Dr. Gregory's
opinion, Reichenbach has demonstrated. The second Part consists of a
large and startling collection of mostly unpublished cases; and Dr.
Gregory expresses his conviction that if the evidence is fairly studied,
it will be impossible to believe that the alleged facts are the result
of imposture or of delusion; or to resist the conviction, which
investigation will confirm, that the essential facts, however apparently
marvellous, are yet true, and have been faithfully reported. These cases
are indeed most extraordinary, and would, at first sight, seem more
fitted to fill our Folk Lore columns than to become the subject of
scientific enquiry; and most readers, we believe, will rise from their
perusal with an inclination to admit that there are more things true
than are dreamt of in their philosophy--some with an anxious doubt
whether these "arts" are not as "forbidden" as they are "curious."

The Society of Arts have opened a reading-room for the gratuitous use of
foreign visitors to London during the Great Exhibition. Our readers will
be doing a kindness to their friends from the Continent by making them
acquainted with this act of liberality and good feeling on the part of
the Society of Arts.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell on Wednesday and
Thursday next a curious and valuable Library, rich more especially in
the department of voyages and travels, and including a collection of
very rare works relating to America.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--B. Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester
Square) Cheap Book Circular No. 29. of Books in all Languages.--C.
Hamilton's (22. Anderson's Buildings, City Road) Interesting Catalogue
No. 43. of Cheap Tracts, Law and Miscellaneous Manuscripts, &c.--J.
Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 23. of Books Old and New.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

  DIANA (ANTONINUS) COMPENDIUM RESOLUTIONEM MORALIUM. Antwerp.-Colon.
  1634-57.

  PASSIONAEL EFTE DAT LEVENT DER HEILIGEN. Folio. Basil, 1522.

  CARTARI--LA ROSA D'ORO PONTIFICIA. 4to. Rome, 1681.

  BROEMEL, M. C. H., FEST-TANZEN DER ERSTEN CHRISTEN. Jena, 1705.

  THE COMPLAYNT OF SCOTLAND, edited by Leyden. 8vo. Edin. 1801.

  THOMS' LAYS AND LEGENDS OF VARIOUS NATIONS. Parts I. to VII. 12mo.
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  L'ABBÉ DE SAINT PIERRE, PROJET DE PAIX PERPETUELLE. 3 Vols. 12mo.
  Utrecht, 1713.

  CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité
  de l'Origine, des Droits des Bornes et des différentes Formes de la
  Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de Télémaque. 2 Vols.
  12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in 1719.

  The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur le
  Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo. Londres,
  1721.

  PULLEN'S ETYMOLOGICAL COMPENDIUM, 8vo.

  COOPER'S (C. P.) ACCOUNT OF PUBLIC RECORDS, 8vo. 1822. Vol I.

  LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Sm. 8vo. 1837. Vols. X. XI. XII. XIII.

  MILLER'S (JOHN, OF WORCESTER COLL.) SERMONS. Oxford, 1831 (or about
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  WHARTON'S ANGLIA SACRA. Vol. II.

  PHEBUS (Gaston, Conte de Foix), Livre du deduyt de la Chasse.

  TURNER'S SACRED HISTORY. 3 vols. demy 8vo.

  KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. IV. Commencing from
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  LORD DOVER'S LIFE OF FREDERICK THE GREAT. 8vo. 1832. Vol. II.

  LADIES' DIARY FOR 1825 AND 1826.

  CHRISTIAN'S COUNSELS, &C., WITH THE SEPARATISTS' SCHISM, by Richard
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  Any early Copies of Tyndale the Reformer's WORKS.

  LIFE OF DR. RICHARD FIELD, 2 Vols. 8vo. London. 1716-17.

  FAIRFAX'S TASSO, Singer's Edit. Large paper, uncut.

  CRESPET, PERE. Deux Livres de la Haine de Satan et des Malins Esprits
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  JACQUIER, N. FLAGELLUM DÆMONUM V. HÆRETICORUM FASCINARIORUM, &c. 8vo.
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW. of No. 8. New Fleet Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186 Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 31. 1851.



[Transcriber's Note: _Italic_ fonts have been indicated by
_underscores_. =Bold= text has been represented by =equal signs=.
The page numbers in the Table of Contents were adjusted.]





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allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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